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Sample records for key inflammatory markers

  1. Inflamm-aging does not simply reflect increases in pro-inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Morrisette-Thomas, Vincent; Cohen, Alan A; Fülöp, Tamàs; Riesco, Éléonor; Legault, Véronique; Li, Qing; Milot, Emmanuel; Dusseault-Bélanger, Françis; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    Many biodemographic studies use biomarkers of inflammation to understand or predict chronic disease and aging. Inflamm-aging, i.e. chronic low-grade inflammation during aging, is commonly characterized by pro-inflammatory biomarkers. However, most studies use just one marker at a time, sometimes leading to conflicting results due to complex interactions among the markers. A multidimensional approach allows a more robust interpretation of the various relationships between the markers. We applied principal component analysis (PCA) to 19 inflammatory biomarkers from the InCHIANTI study. We identified a clear, stable structure among the markers, with the first axis explaining inflammatory activation (both pro- and anti-inflammatory markers loaded strongly and positively) and the second axis innate immune response. The first but not the second axis was strongly correlated with age (r=0.56, p<0.0001, r=0.08 p=0.053), and both were strongly predictive of mortality (hazard ratios per PCA unit (95% CI): 1.33 (1.16-1.53) and 0.87 (0.76-0.98) respectively) and multiple chronic diseases, but in opposite directions. Both axes were more predictive than any individual markers for baseline chronic diseases and mortality. These results show that PCA can uncover a novel biological structure in the relationships among inflammatory markers, and that key axes of this structure play important roles in chronic disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inflammatory Markers and Plasma Lipids in HIV Patients: A Correlation Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Muswe, Rudo; Oktedalen, Olav; Zhou, Danai T.; Zinyando, Enita; Shawarira-Bote, Sandra; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Siziba, Atipa; Gomo, Zvenyika A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that HIV infection, even with treatment, increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and that both chronic inflammation and traditional risk factors play key roles in HIV-associated CHD. Subjects and Methods: Patients (N=152), attending Harare HIV clinic, 26% of them male and 82% of them on antiretroviral therapy (ART), were studied. Inflammatory markers comprising of cytokines such as pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α, (TNF-α), anti-inflammatory interleukin 10, (IL-10) and highly sensitive C reactive protein (hsCRP) together with lipids were assayed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immuno-turbidimetric and enzymatic assays, respectively. Correlation analysis of inflammatory markers versus lipid profiles was carried out using bivariate regression analysis. Results: Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and inflammatory hsCRP levels were elevated when measured in all the HIV positive patients, while TNF-α and lipid levels were within normal ranges. Pro-inflammatory TNF-α was significantly higher in ART-naive patients than ART-experienced patients, whereas the reverse was observed for anti-inflammatory IL-10 and anti-atherogenic HDL-C. Correlation analysis indicated a significant positive linear association between IL-10 and total cholesterol (TC) levels but no other correlations were found. Conclusion: High cytokine ratio (TNF-α/IL-10) indicates higher CHD risk in ART-naive patients compared to the ART-exposed. The CHD risk could be further strengthened by interplay between inflammatory markers and high prevalence of low HDL-C. Lack of correlation between pro-inflammatory markers (hsCRP and TNF-α) with lipid fractions and correlation between anti-inflammatory IL-10 with artherogenic TC were unexpected findings, necessitating further studies in future. PMID:29387269

  3. Inflammatory Markers and Preeclampsia: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Black, Kathleen Darrah; Horowitz, June Andrews

    Preeclampsia (PE), a serious and variable pregnancy complication affecting 5%-10% of the obstetric population, has an undetermined etiology, yet inflammation is concomitant with its development, particularly in relation to endothelial dysfunction. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the published evidence concerning an association between PE and inflammatory markers for their usefulness in the prediction or early identification of women with PE in antepartum clinical settings. In this systematic review, we used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health and MEDLINE/OVID were the electronic databases used for identifying published articles. We placed no time limit on the publication year. The search generated 798 articles. After removing duplicates, screening abstracts, and conducting full-text reviews, we retained 73 articles and examined 57 unique markers. This review shows that C-reactive protein and the cytokines, specifically the proinflammatory markers IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, garner the most support as potential inflammatory markers for clinical surveillance of PE, particularly during the second and third trimesters. Based on this review, we cannot recommend any single inflammatory marker for routine clinical use to predict/identify PE onset or progression. Research is recommended to examine a combination panel of these four inflammatory markers both with and without clinical risk factors toward the goal of translation to practice.

  4. Childhood maltreatment and inflammatory markers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Coelho, R; Viola, T W; Walss-Bass, C; Brietzke, E; Grassi-Oliveira, R

    2014-03-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with several diseases in adult life, including diabetes, obesity and mental disorders. Inflammatory conditions have been postulated as possible mediators of this relationship. The aim was to conduct a systematic review regarding the association between CM and inflammatory markers in adulthood. A literature search of the PubMed, ISI, EMBASE and PsychINFO databases was conducted. The key terms used were as follows: 'Child Maltreatment', 'Childhood Trauma', 'Early Life Stress', 'Psychological Stress', 'Emotional Stress', 'Child Abuse' and 'Child Neglect'. They were cross-referenced separately with the terms: 'C-reactive Protein (CRP)', 'Tumor Necrosis Factor', 'Cytokine', 'Interleukin', 'Inflammatory' and 'Inflammation'. Twenty articles remained in the review after exclusion criteria were applied. Studies showed that a history of CM was associated with increased levels of CRP, fibrinogen and proinflammatory cytokines. Increased levels of circulating CRP in individuals with a history of CM were the most robust finding among the studies. Data about anti-inflammatory mediators are still few and inconsistent. Childhood maltreatment is associated with a chronic inflammatory state independent of clinical comorbidities. However, studies are heterogeneous regarding CM assessment and definition. Important methodological improvements are needed to better understand the potential impact of CM on inflammatory response. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Emerging Role of Endothelial and Inflammatory Markers in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Swellam, Menha; Samy, Nervana; Abdl Wahab, Susan; Ibrahim, Mohamed Saeed

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Endothelial disturbance and excess inflammatory response are pathogenic mechanisms in pre-eclampsia (PE). Authors determine the clinical diagnostic role for thrombomodulin (TM), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) as endothelial markers and C-reactive protein (CRP), and interlukin-6 (IL-6) as inflammatory markers when tested independently or in combinations. Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective study in a cohort of 185 women grouped as 80 women with PE, 55 normotensive pregnant and 50 healthy non-pregnant. Plasma levels of TM, PAI-1, CRP and IL-6 were examined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Results: Median levels and the positivity rates for the investigated markers were higher in PE as compared to the other groups (P < 0.0001). Using linear regression analysis, the investigated markers were significantly correlated regarding healthy nonpregnant vs PE or normotensive pregnant vs PE. The sensitivity of PAI-1 was the highest (98%) among the tested biomarkers. Combination between the investigated markers revealed absolute sensitivity (100%) and reliable specificity especially when PAI-1 was combined with CRP at 83% specificity. Conclusions: Investigated endothelial and inflammatory markers revealed sensitive diagnostic test for PE. However, coupled combination between PAI-1 with CRP showed superior both sensitivity and specificity which represent a promising new approach for detection of PE. PMID:19597295

  6. The associations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and downstream inflammatory markers with risk of cardiovascular disease: the Caerphilly Study.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Christopher C; Smith, Anne E; Yarnell, John W G; Rumley, Ann; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Lowe, Gordon D O

    2010-04-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine which mediates expression of several 'downstream' inflammatory markers and may play a role in atherothrombosis. However, it is not yet known whether IL-6 plays a role in mediating the associations of each marker with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) or ischaemic stroke (IS). We examined the role of IL-6 and several "downstream" markers of inflammation (leucocyte counts, plasma and serum viscosity, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, alpha1-antitrypsin and alpha2-macroglobulin) with risk of subsequent CHD, IS, and a combined endpoint (CHD/IS) in a population of British men. 2208 men aged 45-64 years were followed for a median of 13.4 years and 486 men had experienced a cardiovascular event. In age-adjusted analyses, most inflammatory markers were significantly associated with risk of CHD or CHD/IS, but for IS associations were weaker. On multivariable analyses, including conventional risk factors, associations of serum viscosity, alpha2-macroglobulin and leucocyte count became non-significant for CHD and CHD/IS, while no inflammatory marker retained a significant association with risk of IS. In contrast, IL-6 retained a significant association with CHD and CHD/IS and, after adjustment for IL-6, hazard ratios for downstream inflammatory markers were attenuated to non-significance. These findings suggest that IL-6 may play a role in mediating the associations of circulating inflammatory markers with risk of CHD in men. Further studies are required to assess whether this is also the case for risk of IS, and for CHD/IS in women. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sleep and inflammatory markers in different psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Krysta, Krzysztof; Krzystanek, Marek; Bratek, Agnieszka; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena

    2017-02-01

    Many psychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia, affective disorders, addictions and different forms of dementia are associated with sleep disturbances. In the etiology and course of those diseases inflammatory processes are regarded to be an increasingly important factor. They are also a frequently discussed element of the pathology of sleep. In this literature review reports on correlations between poor sleep and inflammatory responses in various psychiatric conditions are discussed. The link between schizophrenia, affective disorders and inflammatory cytokines is a complex phenomenon, which has been already confirmed in a number of studies. However, the presence of sleep deficits in those conditions, being a common symptom of depression and psychoses, can be an additional factor having a considerable impact on the immunological processes in mental illnesses. In the analyzed data, a number of studies are presented describing the role of inflammatory markers in sleep disturbances and psychopathological symptoms of affective, psychotic, neurogenerative and other disorders. Also attention is drawn to possible implications for their treatment. Efforts to use, e.g., anti-inflammatory agents in psychiatry in the context of their impact on sleep are reported. The aspect of inflammatory markers in the role of sleep deprivation as the treatment method in major depressive disorder is also discussed. A general conclusion is drawn that the improvement of sleep quality plays a crucial role in the care for psychiatric patients.

  8. Peripheral inflammatory markers in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Karim, Salman; Hopkins, Steve; Purandare, Nitin; Crowther, Jackie; Morris, Julie; Tyrrell, Pippa; Burns, Alistair

    2014-03-01

    To prospectively monitor plasma inflammatory marker concentrations in peripheral blood, over 12 months, in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and to determine the relationship between peripheral inflammatory markers and cognitive decline. Seventy patients with amnestic MCI were recruited from two sites providing specialist memory assessment services in Manchester. The baseline assessment included physical examination, neuro-psychological testing and venous blood samples for C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentrations. Sixty two participants were followed up after 12 months and the assessments were repeated. Data analysis revealed a significant rise in CRP, but not IL-6 concentrations over 12 months, which was not confounded by demographic variables. The neuro-psychological test scores had no association with CRP or IL-6 concentrations at baseline or 12 months follow-up. This study adopted the unique approach of prospectively investigating peripheral inflammatory markers in a cohort with amnestic MCI. A significant rise in CRP concentrations over 12 months, but lack of significant association with cognition, provide no evidence for a relationship between systemic inflammation and cognitive decline in amnestic MCI. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Source-specific social support and circulating inflammatory markers among white-collar employees.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Akinori; Irie, Masahiro; Takahashi, Masaya

    2014-06-01

    Despite known beneficial effects of social support on cardiovascular health, the pathway through which sources of support (supervisor, coworkers, family/friends) influence inflammatory markers is not completely understood. We investigated the independent and moderating associations between social support and inflammatory markers. A total of 137 male white-collar employees underwent a blood draw for measurement of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), monocyte and leukocyte counts, and completed a questionnaire on social support. Multivariable linear regression analyses controlling for covariates revealed that supervisor support was inversely associated with IL-6 (β = -0.24, p < 0.01) while coworker support was marginally associated with TNF-α (β = -0.16, p < 0.10). Support from family/friends was not associated with inflammatory markers. Social support from the immediate supervisor may be a potential mechanism through which social support exerts beneficial effects on inflammatory markers in working men.

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory markers in patients with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Matejčíková, Z; Mareš, J; Přikrylová Vranová, H; Klosová, J; Sládková, V; Doláková, J; Zapletalová, J; Kaňovský, P

    2015-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Autoimmune inflammation is common in the early stages of MS. This stage is followed by the neurodegenerative process. The result of these changes is axon and myelin breakdown. Although MS is according to McDonald's revised diagnostic criteria primarily a clinical diagnosis, paraclinical investigation methods are an important part in the diagnosis of MS. In common practice, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord, examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and examination of visual evoked potentials are used. There are an increasing number of studies dealing with biomarkers in CSF and their role in the diagnosis and treatment of MS. We hypothesized that the levels of some markers could be changed in MS in comparison with controls. We studied five inflammatory markers [interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8, interleukin-10 (IL-10), beta-2-microglobulin, orosomucoid]. CSF and serum levels of inflammatory markers were assessed in 38 patients with newly diagnosed MS meeting McDonald's revised diagnostic criteria and in 28 subjects as a control group (CG). Levels of beta-2-microglobulin and interleukin-8 in CSF were found to be significantly higher in MS patients in comparison to CG (p < 0.001 resp. p = 0.007). No differences in other CSF markers (IL-6, IL-10 and orosomucoid) and serum levels of all markers between both groups were found. The levels of two studied inflammatory markers were found to be increased at the time of first clinical symptoms of MS. Research on the role of inflammatory and neurodegenerative markers in MS should continue.

  11. Inflammatory Markers and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    cancer [26, 27] or cytologic atypia [28], while another observed elevated IL-6 levels among breast cancer cases with insulin resistance [29]. Five...1 AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-06-1-0533 TITLE: Inflammatory markers and breast ...and breast cancer risk 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0533 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Brenda

  12. Inflammatory markers in relation to body composition, physical activity and assessment of nutritional status of the adolescents.

    PubMed

    Neves Miranda, Valter Paulo; Gouveia Peluzio, Maria do Carmo; Rodrigues de Faria, Eliana; Castro Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo; Eloiza Priore, Silvia

    2015-05-01

    The evaluation of inflammatory markers during adolescence can monitor different stages and manifestation of chronic diseases in adulthood. The control of the subclinical inflammation process through changes in lifestyle, especially in the practice of physical activity and dietary education can mitigate the effects of risk factors that trigger the process of atherosclerosis. To do a critical review regarding inflammatory markers as a risk factor of cardiovascular disease in relation to body composition, physical activity and assessment of nutritional status of adolescents. A literature review was performed in the following electronic databases: PUBMED, SCIELO and CONCHRANE COLLECTION. The following associated terms were used "inflammation AND cardiovascular diseases AND nutritional status OR body composition OR physical activity". There were topics created for the discussion of subjects: obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease during adolescence; expression of inflammatory markers in adolescence; development of cardiovascular disease with inflammatory markers, and finally, inflammatory markers, physical activity and nutritional evaluation. It was observed that the inflammatory markers may manifest in adolescence and be related to risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Physical activity and nutritional evaluation featured as non-pharmacological measures to control the incidence of inflammatory markers and cardiovascular risk factor. Intervention studies may clarify how the adoption of a more proper lifestyle can influence the inflammatory process. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Bidirectional Prospective Associations Between Cardiac Autonomic Activity and Inflammatory Markers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mandy Xian; Lamers, Femke; Neijts, Melanie; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J C; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2018-06-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance has been cross-sectionally associated with inflammatory processes. Longitudinal studies are needed to shed light on the nature of this relationship. We examined cross-sectional and bidirectional prospective associations between cardiac autonomic measures and inflammatory markers. Analyses were conducted with baseline (n = 2823), 2-year (n = 2099), and 6-year (n = 1774) data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. To compare the pattern of results, prospective analyses with ANS (during sleep, leisure time, and work) and inflammation were conducted in two data sets from the Netherlands Twin Register measured for 4.9 years (n = 356) and 5.4 years (n = 472). Autonomic nervous system measures were heart rate (HR) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Inflammatory markers were C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6. The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety results showed that higher HR and lower RSA were cross-sectionally significantly associated with higher inflammatory levels. Higher HR predicted higher levels of CRP (B = .065, p < .001) and IL-6 (B = .036, p = .014) at follow-up. Higher CRP levels predicted lower RSA (B = -.024, p = .048) at follow-up. The Netherlands Twin Register results confirmed that higher HR was associated with higher CRP and IL-6 levels 4.9 years later. Higher IL-6 levels predicted higher HR and lower RSA at follow-up. Autonomic imbalance is associated with higher levels of inflammation. Independent data from two studies converge in evidence that higher HR predicts subsequent higher levels of CRP and IL-6. Inflammatory markers may also predict future ANS activity, but evidence for this was less consistent.

  14. Inflammatory markers in SIRS, sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Herzum, I; Renz, H

    2008-01-01

    Despite great advancement in the understanding of the pathophysiology and in the development of novel therapeutic approaches, mortality of sepsis still remains unacceptably high. Adequate laboratory diagnostics represents a major requirement for the improvement of this situation. For a better understanding of the immunological dysregulation in this disease, several markers are now available for routine diagnostics in the clinical laboratory. They include the cytokines interleukin (IL) -6, IL-8, procalcitonin and the LPS-binding protein (LBP). These novel markers will be compared to the conventional procedure of diagnosing inflammatory and infectious disease, such as measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a major acute phase protein and differential blood counting. Important questions addressed in this review are the usefulness of these markers for early diagnosis, their role as prognostic markers and in the risk assessment of patients. Furthermore, we will discuss whether these parameters are to differentiate between systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis at its different degrees. In the case of an infectious nature of the disease, it is important to differentiate between viral or bacterial origin and to monitor the responsiveness of antibiotic therapies. The literature was analysed with focus on the evidence for diagnostic and analytical performance. For this purpose international definition and staging criteria were used in context of criteria for assay performance including sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, ROC analysis and other analytical criteria.

  15. EMMPRIN and its ligand cyclophilin A as novel diagnostic markers in inflammatory cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Seizer, Peter; Geisler, Tobias; Bigalke, Boris; Schneider, Martin; Klingel, Karin; Kandolf, Reinhard; Stellos, Konstantinos; Schreieck, Jürgen; Gawaz, Meinrad; May, Andreas E

    2013-03-10

    During inflammatory cardiomyopathy matrix metalloproteinases are crucially involved in cardiac remodeling. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the "extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer" EMMPRIN (CD147) and its ligand Cyclophilin A (CyPA) are upregulated in inflammatory cardiomyopathy and may serve as diagnostic markers. Therefore, a series of 102 human endomyocardial biopsies were analyzed for the expression of EMMPRIN and CyPA and correlated with histological and immunohistological findings. Endomyocardial biopsies were stained for EMMPRIN and CyPA in addition to standard histology (HE, Trichrom) and immunohistological stainings (MHC-II, CD68, CD3). 39 (38.2%) biopsies met the immunohistological criteria of an inflammatory cardiomyopathy. EMMPRIN, which was predominantly expressed on cardiomyocytes, was slightly (but significantly) upregulated in non inflammatory cardiomyopathies compared to normal histopathological findings and highly upregulated in inflammatory cardiomyopathy compared to both non inflammatory cardiomyopathy and normal histopathology. In contrast, CyPA reveals no enhanced expression in non inflammatory cardiomyopathies and a highly enhanced expression in inflammatory cardiomyopathy, where it is closely associated with leucocytes infiltrates. We found a strong correlation between both EMMPRIN and CyPA with the expression of MHC-II molecules (correlation coefficient 0.475 and 0.527, p<0.05). Moreover, we found a correlation for both EMMPRIN and CyPA with CD68 (correlation coefficient 0.393 and 0.387, p<0.05) and CD3 (correlation coefficient 0.360 and 0.235, p<0.05). EMMPRIN is enhanced in both inflammatory and non inflammatory cardiomyopathies and can serve as a marker of myocardial remodeling. CyPA may represent a novel and specific marker for cardiac inflammation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cocoa Polyphenols and Inflammatory Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nasiruddin; Khymenets, Olha; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Monagas, María; Mora-Cubillos, Ximena; Llorach, Rafael; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of cardiovascular-protective properties, and can play a meaningful role through modulating different inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence on related anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols is summarized in the present review. PMID:24566441

  17. Inflammatory markers following acute fuel oil exposure or bacterial lipopolysaccharide in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Lee, Kelly A; Tell, Lisa A; Mohr, F Charles

    2012-12-01

    Adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were orally dosed with bunker C fuel oil for 5 days, and five different inflammatory markers (haptoglobin, mannan-binding lectin, ceruloplasmin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and plasma iron) were measured in blood plasma prior to and 8, 24, 48, and 72 hr following exposure. In order to contrast the response to fuel oil with that of a systemic inflammatory response, an additional five ducks were injected intramuscularly with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Oil-treated birds had an inflammatory marker profile that was significantly different from control and LPS-treated birds, showing decreases in mannan-binding lectin-dependent hemolysis and unsaturated iron-binding capacity, but no changes in any of the other inflammatory markers. Birds treated with oil also exhibited increased liver weights, decreased body and splenic weights, and decreased packed cell volume.

  18. Serum Levels of Inflammatory Markers in Depressed Elderly Patients with Diabetes and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gorska-Ciebiada, Malgorzata; Saryusz-Wolska, Malgorzata; Borkowska, Anna; Ciebiada, Maciej; Loba, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to determine the serum levels of CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α in elderly diabetic patients with depressive syndrome alone or with coexisting mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods 276 diabetics elders were screened for depressive symptoms (using Geriatric Depression Scale: GDS-30) and MCI (using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment: MoCA score). Data of HbA1c, blood lipids and inflammatory markers levels were collected. Results In all groups of patients levels of CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly higher as compared to controls. The highest level of inflammatory markers was detected in group with depressive mood and coexisting MCI, however IL-6 level didn’t significantly differ as compared to MCI group. We founded correlations between all inflammatory markers in group of patients with depressive mood and in group of subjects with depressive symptoms and coexisting MCI. GDS-30 score was correlated with levels of inflammatory markers in group with depressive mood, and with levels of CRP and TNF-α in group with depressive mood and coexisting MCI. In the group with depressive mood and coexisting MCI we founded that MoCA score was negatively correlated with CRP and TNF-α levels; and HbA1c level was positively correlated with all inflammatory markers. The univariate logistic regression models revealed that variables which increased the likelihood of having been diagnosed with MCI in depressed patients were: higher levels of HbA1c, CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α, previous CVD or stroke, increased number of co-morbidities and microvascular complications, older age, less years of formal education. The multivariable model showed that previous CVD, higher HbA1c and IL-6 levels are significant factors. Conclusions We demonstrated that the presence of depressive syndrome is associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers in elderly patients with diabetes. The presence of MCI in these depressed subjects has additive effect on levels of inflammatory

  19. Association of constitutional type of Ayurveda with cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory markers and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Mahalle, Namita P.; Kulkarni, Mohan V.; Pendse, Narendra M.; Naik, Sadanand S.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ayurveda propounds that diseases manifest from imbalance of doshas. There, have been attempts to indicate biochemical basis of constitutional types described in Ayurveda. Aims: The study was intended to assess the association of constitutional types (Prakriti) with cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory markers and insulin resistance in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD). Settings and Design: Hospital based cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: Three hundred patients with CAD >25 years were studied. Assessment of Prakriti was done by using Ayusoft software. Biochemical parameters, inflammatory markers (hsCRP, TNF-alpha and IL-6) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured. Statistical Analysis: Was done using EPI INFO, version 3.5.3. Results: Mean age of patients was 60.97±12.5 years. Triglyceride, VLDL and LDL was significantly higher (P<0.0001, P<0.0001 and 0.0355, respectively) and HDL cholesterol (P<0.0001) significantly lower in vatta kapha (VK) Prakriti when compared with other constitution type. VK Prakriti was correlated with diabetes mellitus (r=0.169, P=0.003), hypertension (r=0.211, P≤0.0001) and dyslipidemia (r=0.541, P≤0.0001). Inflammatory markers; IL6, TNF alpha, hsCRP and HOMA IR was highest in VK Prakriti. Inflammatory markers were correlated positively with both VK and Kapha group. Conclusions: There is strong relation of risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia), insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers with Vata Kapha and Kapha Prakriti. PMID:23125512

  20. EFFECTS OF TRANSDERMAL TESTOSTERONE TREATMENT ON INFLAMMATORY MARKERS IN ELDERLY MEN

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Marcello; Snyder, Peter J.; De Vita, Francesca; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Milaneschi, Yuri; Lauretani, Fulvio; Luci, Michele; Cattabiani, Chiara; Peachey, Helen; Valenti, Giorgio; Cappola, Anne R; Longo, Dan L.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Objective During the aging process in men testosterone (T) levels progressively fall and inflammatory biomarkers increase. Although a relationship between these two phenomena has been tested in previous clinical trials, there is inconclusive evidence about the potential anti-inflammatory action of T. Methods A total of 108 healthy men >65 years with serum T concentration <475 ng/dL were recruited by direct mailings to alumni of the University of Pennsylvania and Temple University, and randomized to 60-cm2 T or placebo patch for 36-months. Ninety-six subjects completed the trial. Information and stored serum specimens from this trial were used to test the hypothesis of T inhibitory effect on inflammation. 70 men (42 in the T group) who had banked specimens available for assays of T, C-reactive protein (CRP), Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, soluble TNF-alpha receptor-1 (TNFR1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble IL-6 receptors (sIL6r and sgp130) at multiple time points, were evaluated. Results The mean age ± SD at baseline was 71.8 ± 4.9 years. Testosterone replacement therapy for 36 months did not induce a significant decrease in inflammatory markers. A trend toward a significant increase was observed in the placebo group for TNF-alpha (p=0.03) and sgp130 (p=0.01). Significant differences, in estimated means of TNFR1 (but not of other inflammatory markers), with lower levels in T group, were observed at 36 month-time point. In T-treated subjects we found an almost significant treatment-time interaction term TNFR1 (p=0.02) independent of total body fat content assessed by DXA. No serious adverse effect was observed. Conclusions Transdermal T treatment of older men for 36 months is not associated with significant changes in inflammatory markers. PMID:25100359

  1. Effects of transdermal testosterone treatment on inflammatory markers in elderly males.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Marcello; Snyder, Peter J; De Vita, Francesca; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Milaneschi, Yuri; Lauretani, Fulvio; Luci, Michele; Cattabiani, Chiara; Peachey, Helen; Valenti, Giorgio; Cappola, Anne R; Longo, Dan L; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-11-01

    During the male aging process, testosterone (T) levels progressively fall and inflammatory biomarkers increase. Although a relationship between these 2 phenomena has been tested in previous clinical trials, there is inconclusive evidence about the potential anti-inflammatory action of T. A total of 108 healthy males >65 years with serum T concentration <475 ng/dL were recruited by direct mailings to alumni of the University of Pennsylvania and Temple University and randomized to 60-cm2 T or a placebo patch for 36 months. Ninety-six subjects completed the trial. Information and stored serum specimens from this trial were used to test the hypothesis of the inhibitory effect of T on inflammation. We evaluated 70 males (42 in the T group) who had banked specimens from multiple time points available for assays of T, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, soluble TNF-α receptor-1 (TNFR1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble IL-6 receptors (sIL6r and sgp130). The mean age ± SD at baseline was 71.8 ± 4.9 years. Testosterone replacement therapy for 36 months did not induce significant decreases in inflammatory markers. A trend toward a significant increase was observed in the placebo group for TNF-α (P = .03) and sgp130 (P = .01). Significant differences in estimated means of TNFR1 (but not other inflammatory markers), with lower levels in the T group, were observed at the 36-month time point. In T-treated subjects we found an almost significant treatment x time interaction term TNFR1 (P = .02) independent of total body fat content as assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). No serious adverse effect was observed. Transdermal T treatment of older males for 36 months is not associated with significant changes in inflammatory markers.

  2. Wound healing potentials of Thevetia peruviana: Antioxidants and inflammatory markers criteria.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nazneen; Rahman, Haseebur; Haris, Mir; Mahmood, Riaz

    2017-10-01

    Thevetia peruviana is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of external wounds, infected area, ring worms, tumours etc. in traditional system of medicine. The aim of the study was to evaluate the wound healing potentials of T. peruviana leaves hexane (LH) and fruit rind (FW) water extracts and to prove the folkloric claims. The antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials could be important strategies in defining potent wound healing drug. Based on these approaches the current study was designed using incision, excision and dead space wound models with the biochemical, antioxidant enzymes and inflammatory marker analysis. The fruit rind water extract showed highest WBS of 1133 ± 111.4 g. The extracts in excision model retrieved the excised wound i.e. complete healing of wound at day 14. The hydroxyproline content of FW and LH treated dry granuloma tissue was increased to 65.73 ± 3.2 mg/g and 53.66 ± 0.38 mg/g, accompanied by elevations of hexosamine and hexauronic acid with upregulation of GSH, catalase, SOD, peroxidase and the down regulation of the inflammatory marker (NO) and oxidative stress marker (LPO) in wet granulation tissue was documented. Conclusively, both the extracts showed enhanced WBS, rate of wound contraction, skin collagen tissue development, and early epithelisation. Therapeutic wound healing effect was further proven by reduced free radicals and inflammatory makers associated with enhanced antioxidants and connective tissue with histological evidence of more collagen formation. The present research could establish T. peruviana as potential source of effective wound healing drugs.

  3. Gender differences in inflammatory markers in children.

    PubMed

    Casimir, Georges J A; Mulier, Sandra; Hanssens, Laurence; Zylberberg, Kathya; Duchateau, Jean

    2010-03-01

    No clear explanation exists to understand how sex hormones and/or chromosomes affect the immune system. In vitro studies of human lymphoid cells also show sex differences in immune function. To evaluate these differences in frequent pediatric emergencies, we analyze the expression of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and neutrophil count) underlying inflammatory processes in children: 482 children (241 girls and 241 boys) hospitalized for pneumonia (n = 384), pyelonephritis (n = 39), or bronchiolitis (n = 59) matched for age and sex. All patients were younger than 10 years. A control population of 97 children (50 girls and 47 boys) admitted for day surgery (tonsillectomy, circumcision, or strabismus) was included. We observed highly significant differences between girls and boys: median C-reactive protein concentration of 5.45 mg/dL (range, 0.2-36.0 mg/dL) for girls and 2.6 mg/dL (range, 0.3-37.3 mg/dL) for boys (P < 0.0001), and median erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 39.5 mm/h (range, 2-104 mm/h) for girls and 24 mm/h (range, 4-140 mm/h) for boys (P < 0.005). Neutrophil counts were also significantly different: a median of 8,796 cells/microL (range, 328-27,645 cells/microL) for girls and 6,774 cells/microL (range, 600-38,668 cells/microL) for boys (P < 0.02). The duration of fever after initiating antibiotic therapy was longer in girls than in boys, but there was no difference (Fisher exact test, P < 0.06). The present study documents a relationship between sex and both the production of inflammatory markers and neutrophil recruitment. Sex difference also showed more direct clinical relevance with associations seen between sex and both duration of fever and duration of disease (bronchiolitis P < 0.0007).

  4. [Association of age, inflammatory markers and subclinical atherosclerosis in subjects free from cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Páramo, José A; Orbe, Josune; Beloqui, Oscar; Colina, Inmaculada; Benito, Alberto; Rodríguez, José A; Díez, Javier

    2008-09-27

    We assessed whether an independent association between inflammatory markers and age-related subclinical atherosclerosis could be found in subjects free from cardiovascular disease. Metabolic parameters, inflammatory and endothelial markers, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor, as well as the carotid intima-media thickness were assessed in 890 asymptomatic subjects (mean age: 55 years; range: 20-80 years; 80% men) with cardiovascular risk factors. Subjects in the upper quartile (age 61-80 years) showed a significant increase of traditional risk factors, particularly arterial pressure and glucose levels (p < 0.01) as compared with lower quartiles. We also found a significant increase in the levels on inflammatory and endothelial markers (p < 0.001) and intima-media thickness (p < 0.001) in older adults. In the multivarate analysis, after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, intima-media thickness was independently associated with inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in older adults (p < 0.01). Besides age, systemic inflammation and vascular damage are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic subjects. The age-related inflammatory profile may predispose to cardiovascular complications.

  5. The diagnostic value of preoperative inflammatory markers in craniopharyngioma: a multicenter cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Zheng, Shi-Hao; Yang, Min; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Li, Shi-Ting

    2018-05-01

    To compare the different levels of preoperative inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples between craniopharyngioma (CP) and other sellar region tumors so as to explore their differential diagnostic value. The level of white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, platelet, albumin, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR), monocyte lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) were compared between the CP and other sellar region tumors. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic significance of the peripheral blood inflammatory markers and their paired combinations for CP including its pathological types. Patients with CP had higher levels of pre-operative WBC, lymphocyte and PNI. The papillary craniopharyngioma (PCP) group had higher neutrophil count and NLR than the adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) and healthy control groups whereas the ACP group had higher platelet count and PNI than the PCP and healthy control groups. There were not any significant differences in preoperative inflammatory markers between the primary and recurrent CP groups. The AUC values of WBC, neutrophil, NLR + PLR and dNLR + PLR in PCP were all higher than 0.7. Inflammation seems to be closely correlated with CP's development. The preoperative inflammatory markers including WBC, neutrophil, NLR + PLR and dNLR + PLR may differentially diagnose PCP, pituitary tumor (PT) and Rathke cleft cyst (RCC). In addition, some statistical results in this study indirectly proved previous experimental conclusions and strictly matched CP's biological features.

  6. Overexpression of hypoxia/inflammatory markers in atherosclerotic carotid plaques.

    PubMed

    Luque, Ana; Turu, Marta; Juan-Babot, Oriol; Cardona, Pere; Font, Angels; Carvajal, Ana; Slevin, Mark; Iborra, Elena; Rubio, Francisco; Badimon, Lina; Krupinski, Jerzy

    2008-05-01

    Hypoxia, angiogenesis and inflammation leads to plaque progression and remodelling and may significantly contribute towards plaque rupture and subsequent cerebrovascular events. Our aim was to study, markers of hypoxia and inflammation previously identified by microarray analysis, in atherosclerotic carotid arteries with low to moderate stenosis. We hoped to describe different cellular populations expressing the studied markers. The location of selected inflammatory molecules obtained as vascular transplants from organ donors were analysed by immunohistochemistry with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Paraffin-embedded sections were cut and probed with antibodies recognizing active B and T-lymphocytes (CD30), hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, endoglin (CD105), Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. We observed a notable overexpression of HIF-1alpha in inflammatory and hypoxic areas of carotid arteries in all types of lesions from type II-V taken from the patients with carotid stenosis less than 50%. This suggests that HIF-1alpha may have a putative role in atherosclerosis progression and angiogenesis. Dynamic changes in the non-occluding plaques may explain some of the clinical events in patients with low to moderate carotid stenosis.

  7. Soy Food Intake and Circulating Levels of Inflammatory Markers in Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sheng Hui; Shu, Xiao Ou; Chow, Wong-Ho; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zhang, Xianglan; Li, Hong-Lan; Cai, Qiuyin; Ji, Bu-Tian; Cai, Hui; Rothman, Nathaniel; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Gong

    2013-01-01

    Background Soy and some of its constituents, such as isoflavones, have been shown to affect the inflammatory process in animal studies. The association between soy food intake and inflammatory markers has not been evaluated adequately in humans. Objective Our aim was to evaluate whether higher intake of soy foods was inversely associated with inflammatory markers in 1,005 middle-aged Chinese women. Design In this cross-sectional study, dietary intake of soy foods was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire and by a 24-hour recall when biospecimens were procured. A general linear model was used to estimate the geometric means of selected inflammatory markers, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), soluble IL-6 receptor, soluble GP130, soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2, and C-reactive protein, across categories of soy food intake after adjusting for age, lifestyle and dietary factors, and history of infectious or inflammation-related diseases. Results We found that multivariable-adjusted geometric mean concentrations of IL-6 and TNFα were inversely associated with quintiles of soy food intake, with a difference between the highest and lowest quintiles of 25.5% for IL-6 (P for trend = 0.008) and 14% for TNFα (P for trend = 0.04). Similar inverse associations were found for TNFα (P for trend = 0.003), soluble TNF receptor 1 (P for trend=0.01), soluble TNF receptor 2 (P for trend=0.02), IL-1β (P for trend=0.05), and IL-6 (P for trend=0.04) when soy food consumption was assessed by the frequency of consumption in the preceding 24 hours. No significant associations were found for other markers studied. Conclusions This study suggests that soy food consumption is related to lower circulating levels of IL-6, TNFα, and soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2 in Chinese women. PMID:22889631

  8. Serological markers in inflammatory bowel disease: the pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Aaron; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2002-02-01

    Accurate serological assays are desirable for the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. Among several serological markers anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies are highly disease specific for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, respectively. Combining the two improves their specificity. Sensitivity, however, is still low. Due to lack of standardization and vast interobserver variability, they cannot be used as the only diagnostic criteria but can assist clinicians in diagnosing and categorizing patients with inflammatory bowel disease as well as in helping them to take therapeutic decisions.

  9. Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Nahid; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Beelen, Rob; Modig, Lars; Palli, Domenico; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios Α; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-08-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to chronic health effects such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Systemic inflammation has been hypothesized as a putative biological mechanism contributing to these adverse health effects. We evaluated the effect of long-term exposure to air pollution on blood markers of systemic inflammation. We measured a panel of 28 inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples from 587 individuals that were biobanked as part of a prospective study. Participants were from Varese and Turin (Italy) and Umea (Sweden). Long-term air pollution estimates of nitrogen oxides (NOx) were available from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Linear mixed models adjusted for potential confounders were applied to assess the association between NOx and the markers of inflammation. Long-term exposure to NOx was associated with decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α in Italy, but not in Sweden. NOx exposure levels were considerably lower in Sweden than in Italy (Sweden: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 6.65 μg/m(3) (4.8, 19.7); Italy: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 94.2 μg/m(3) (7.8, 124.5)). Combining data from Italy and Sweden we only observed a significant association between long-term exposure to NOx and decreased levels of circulating IL-8. We observed some indication for perturbations in the inflammatory markers due to long-term exposure to NOx. Effects were stronger in Italy than in Sweden, potentially reflecting the difference in air pollution levels between the two cohorts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gender differences in fat distribution and inflammatory markers among Arabs.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Abdulaziz; Knez, Wade L; Knez, Kelly; Al-Noaimi, Asma; Grantham, Justin; Mohamed-Ali, Vidya

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies from the Gulf region suggest that compared to men, women have a greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MeS). To investigate gender differences in body composition, adipokines, inflammatory markers, and aerobic fitness in a cohort of healthy Qatari adults. Participants. Healthy Qatari (n = 58) were matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Body composition and regional fat distribution were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computerized tomography. Laboratory assessments included serum levels of fasting glucose, insulin, lipid profile analysis, adipokines, and inflammatory markers. Subjects were also evaluated for aerobic fitness. Women had more adipose tissue in the total abdominal (P = 0.04) and abdominal subcutaneous (P = 0.07) regions compared to men. Waist circumference and indices of insulin sensitivity were similar; however, women had a more favourable lipid profile than men. Serum adiponectin and leptin levels were significantly higher in women, whereas inflammatory profiles were not different between men and women. Aerobic fitness was lower in women and was associated with abdominal fat accumulation. In premenopausal women, higher levels of adiponectin may support maintenance of insulin sensitivity and normolipidemia despite greater adiposity. However, poor aerobic fitness combined with abdominal fat accumulation may explain their greater future risk of MeS compared with men.

  11. Gender Differences in Fat Distribution and Inflammatory Markers among Arabs

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Abdulaziz; Knez, Wade L.; Knez, Kelly; Al-Noaimi, Asma; Grantham, Justin; Mohamed-Ali, Vidya

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies from the Gulf region suggest that compared to men, women have a greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MeS). Objective. To investigate gender differences in body composition, adipokines, inflammatory markers, and aerobic fitness in a cohort of healthy Qatari adults. Participants. Healthy Qatari (n = 58) were matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Methods. Body composition and regional fat distribution were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computerized tomography. Laboratory assessments included serum levels of fasting glucose, insulin, lipid profile analysis, adipokines, and inflammatory markers. Subjects were also evaluated for aerobic fitness. Results. Women had more adipose tissue in the total abdominal (P = 0.04) and abdominal subcutaneous (P = 0.07) regions compared to men. Waist circumference and indices of insulin sensitivity were similar; however, women had a more favourable lipid profile than men. Serum adiponectin and leptin levels were significantly higher in women, whereas inflammatory profiles were not different between men and women. Aerobic fitness was lower in women and was associated with abdominal fat accumulation. Conclusion. In premenopausal women, higher levels of adiponectin may support maintenance of insulin sensitivity and normolipidemia despite greater adiposity. However, poor aerobic fitness combined with abdominal fat accumulation may explain their greater future risk of MeS compared with men. PMID:24227909

  12. A population-based study of atopic disorders and inflammatory markers in childhood before psychotic experiences in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Khandaker, Golam M; Zammit, Stanley; Lewis, Glyn; Jones, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with atopy and increased inflammatory markers. We report a population-based longitudinal study of the associations between childhood atopic disorders, subsequent serum inflammatory markers, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), and the risk of psychotic experiences (PEs). PEs were assessed at age 13 years (n=6785). Presence of clinician-diagnosed atopic disorders (asthma and eczema) was determined from parent-completed questionnaires at age 10 years (n=7814). Serum IL-6 and CRP were measured at age 9 years (n=5076). Logistic regression examined the association between (1) atopy and PEs, (2) inflammatory markers and PEs, and (3) mediating effects of inflammatory markers on the atopy-PEs association. Linear regression examined the association between atopy and inflammatory markers. Age, gender, social class, ethnicity and body mass index were included as potential confounders. At age 10 years, about 14% of the sample was reported to have asthma, 12% eczema, and 7% both asthma and eczema. Compared with children with no atopy, risk of PEs at age 13 years was increased for all of these groups; adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) were, respectively, 1.39 (1.10-1.77), 1.33 (1.04-1.69), and 1.44 (1.06-1.94). Atopy was associated with increased serum IL-6 and CRP; however, this did not mediate association between atopy and PEs. Inflammatory markers were not associated with later PEs. Childhood atopic disorders increase the risk of psychotic experiences in adolescence. Follow-up of these individuals will be useful to determine the effect of atopy and inflammation on different trajectories of early-life PEs. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Inflammatory Markers in the Staging of Bipolar Disorder: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Castaño-Ramírez, Oscar Mauricio; Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C; Duica, Kelly; Díaz Zuluaga, Ana M; Vargas, Cristian; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Previous studies suggest that inflammatory molecules play an important role in the pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorder (BD). The evidence suggests that BD may present a progressive course. Therefore there are theories that postulate the relationship between progression and stages of the disease with distinct peripheral biomarkers. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review of the literature of studies about the association between peripheral inflammatory markers and clinical variables related with staging in BD patients. We conducted a systematic review using electronic databases: PubMed, SciELO, LiLACS and PsycINFO. Keywords were divided into inflammatory markers and, BD and staging. Studies involving euthymic BD patients, studies evaluating peripheral biomarkers and studies correlating these with clinical variables related to neuroprogression or stage of BD were included. We present and discuss the methods and findings of ten articles. The inflammatory markers were measured with different techniques and show some contradictories results. The TNF superfamily and inflammatory cytokines may have a relationship with the neuroprogression of the disease. This study suggests that TNF and ILs could play a role in neuroprogression. However, longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the relationship between factors associated with neuroprogression. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute and Chronic Effects of Endurance Running on Inflammatory Markers: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Edilberto S.; Nascimento, Dahan C.; Prestes, Jonato; Nóbrega, Otávio T.; Córdova, Claúdio; Sousa, Fernando; Boullosa, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand the effect of endurance running on inflammation, it is necessary to quantify the extent to which acute and chronic running affects inflammatory mediators. The aim of this study was to summarize the literature on the effects of endurance running on inflammation mediators. Electronic searches were conducted on PubMED and Science Direct with no limits of date and language of publication. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs) investigating the acute and chronic effects of running on inflammation markers in runners were reviewed by two researchers for eligibility. The modified Downs and Black checklist for the assesssments of the methodological quality of studies was subsequently used. Fifty-one studies were finally included. There were no studies with elite athletes. Only two studies were chronic interventions. Results revealed that acute and chronic endurance running may affect anti- and pro-inflammatory markers but methodological differences between studies do not allow comparisons or generalization of the results. The information provided in this systematic review would help practitioners for better designing further studies while providing reference values for a better understanding of inflammatory responses after different running events. Further longitudinal studies are needed to identify the influence of training load parameters on inflammatory markers in runners of different levels and training background. PMID:29089897

  15. Social networks and inflammatory markers in the Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Eric B; Sullivan, Lisa M; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Larson, Martin G; Berkman, Lisa F; Benjamin, Emelia J

    2006-11-01

    Lack of social integration predicts coronary heart disease mortality in prospective studies; however, the biological pathways that may be responsible are poorly understood. The specific aims of this study were to examine whether social networks are associated with serum concentrations of the inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Participants in the Framingham Study attending examinations from 1998 to 2001 (n=3267) were eligible for inclusion in the study. Social networks were assessed using the Berkman-Syme Social Network Index (SNI). Concentrations of IL-6, CRP, sICAM-1 and MCP-1 were measured in fasting serum samples. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess the association of social networks with inflammatory markers adjusting for potential confounders including age, smoking, blood pressure, total:HDL cholesterol ratio, body mass index, lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medication, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, depression and socioeconomic status. Results found that the SNI was significantly inversely associated with IL-6 in men (p=0.03) after adjusting for potential confounders. In age-adjusted analyses, social networks also were significantly inversely associated with IL-6 for women (p=0.03) and were marginally to modestly associated with CRP and sICAM-1 for men (p=0.08 and 0.02, respectively), but these associations were not significant in the multivariate analyses. In conclusion, social networks were found to be inversely associated with interleukin-6 levels in men. The possibility that inflammatory markers may be potential mediators between social integration and coronary heart disease merits further investigation.

  16. A population-based study of atopic disorders and inflammatory markers in childhood before psychotic experiences in adolescence☆

    PubMed Central

    Khandaker, Golam M.; Zammit, Stanley; Lewis, Glyn; Jones, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Schizophrenia is associated with atopy and increased inflammatory markers. We report a population-based longitudinal study of the associations between childhood atopic disorders, subsequent serum inflammatory markers, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), and the risk of psychotic experiences (PEs). Method PEs were assessed at age 13 years (n = 6785). Presence of clinician-diagnosed atopic disorders (asthma and eczema) was determined from parent-completed questionnaires at age 10 years (n = 7814). Serum IL-6 and CRP were measured at age 9 years (n = 5076). Logistic regression examined the association between (1) atopy and PEs, (2) inflammatory markers and PEs, and (3) mediating effects of inflammatory markers on the atopy–PEs association. Linear regression examined the association between atopy and inflammatory markers. Age, gender, social class, ethnicity and body mass index were included as potential confounders. Results At age 10 years, about 14% of the sample was reported to have asthma, 12% eczema, and 7% both asthma and eczema. Compared with children with no atopy, risk of PEs at age 13 years was increased for all of these groups; adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) were, respectively, 1.39 (1.10–1.77), 1.33 (1.04–1.69), and 1.44 (1.06–1.94). Atopy was associated with increased serum IL-6 and CRP; however, this did not mediate association between atopy and PEs. Inflammatory markers were not associated with later PEs. Conclusion Childhood atopic disorders increase the risk of psychotic experiences in adolescence. Follow-up of these individuals will be useful to determine the effect of atopy and inflammation on different trajectories of early-life PEs. PMID:24268471

  17. Relationship between vitamin D and inflammatory markers in older individuals.

    PubMed

    De Vita, Francesca; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bauer, Juergen; Bautmans, Ivan; Shardell, Michelle; Cherubini, Antonio; Bondi, Giuliana; Zuliani, Giovanni; Bandinelli, Stefania; Pedrazzoni, Mario; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Maggio, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    In older persons, vitamin D insufficiency and a subclinical chronic inflammatory status frequently coexist. Vitamin D has immune-modulatory and in vitro anti-inflammatory properties. However, there is inconclusive evidence about the anti-inflammatory role of vitamin D in older subjects. Thus, we investigated the hypothesis of an inverse relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and inflammatory markers in a population-based study of older individuals. After excluding participants with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) ≥ 10 mg/dl and those who were on chronic anti-inflammatory treatment, we evaluated 867 older adults ≥65 years from the InCHIANTI Study. Participants had complete data on serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, hsCRP, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, soluble TNF-α receptors 1 and 2, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-10, IL-18, IL-6, and soluble IL-6 receptors (sIL6r and sgp130). Two general linear models were fit (model 1-adjusted for age, sex, and parathyroid hormone (PTH); model 2-including covariates of model 1 plus dietary and smoking habits, physical activity, ADL disability, season, osteoporosis, depressive status, and comorbidities). The mean age was 75.1 ± 17.1 years ± SD. In model 1, log(25OH-D) was significantly and inversely associated with log(IL-6) (β ± SE = -0.11 ± 0.03, p = <0.0001) and log (hsCRP) (β ± SE = -0.04 ± 0.02, p = 0.04) and positively associated with log(sIL6r) (β ± SE = 0.11 ± 0.04, p = 0.003) but not with other inflammatory markers. In model 2, log (25OH-D) remained negatively associated with log (IL-6) (β ± SE = -0.10 ± 0.03, p = 0.0001) and positively associated with log(sIL6r) (β ± SE = 0.11 ± 0.03, p = 0.004) but not with log(hsCRP) (β ± SE = -0.01 ± 0.03, p = 0.07). 25(OH)D is independently and inversely associated with IL-6 and positively with sIL6r, suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory role for vitamin D in older individuals.

  18. Social relationships and inflammatory markers: an analysis of Taiwan and the U.S.

    PubMed

    Glei, Dana A; Goldman, Noreen; Ryff, Carol D; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Weinstein, Maxine

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated the association between two aspects of social relationships and six inflammatory markers in Taiwan and the U.S. These two countries share similar levels of current life expectancy, but exhibit important differences in social structure. The data comprised population based samples from Taiwan (aged 53+; n=962) and the U.S. (aged 35-86; n=990) collected between 2003 and 2009. Circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule 1, E-selectin, and IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) were measured in fasting blood samples. A social integration score was based on marital status, contact with family and friends, church attendance, and other social participation. A perceived social support index was based on questions regarding the availability of care and support from family and friends. Linear regression models tested the association between these two measures and each inflammatory marker controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, obesity, medication use, and baseline health status. After adjusting for potential confounders, social integration had a significant but weak inverse association with CRP in Taiwan. Perceived social support was significant in two of 12 models, and the coefficient was positive (i.e., higher support was associated with higher CRP and sIL-6R in the U.S.). We found no evidence that the coefficients for social relationship measures varied by sex or age. Our results yielded limited evidence of a weak association between two dimensions of social relationships and six inflammatory markers in Taiwan and the U.S. Given that the literature suggests a strong link between social relationships and mortality, and that inflammation plays an important role in the leading causes of death, we had expected to find consistent and moderately strong associations between social relationships and inflammatory markers. The small effect sizes and lack of robustness across markers

  19. Social Relationships and Inflammatory Markers: An Analysis of Taiwan and the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Glei, Dana A.; Goldman, Noreen; Ryff, Carol D.; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Weinstein, Maxine

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between two aspects of social relationships and six inflammatory markers in Taiwan and the U.S. These two countries share similar levels of current life expectancy, but exhibit important differences in social structure. The data comprised population based samples from Taiwan (aged 53+; n = 962) and the U.S. (aged 35-86; n = 990) collected between 2003 and 2009. Circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule 1, E-selectin, and IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) were measured in fasting blood samples. A social integration score was based on marital status, contact with family and friends, church attendance, and other social participation. A perceived social support index was based on questions regarding the availability of care and support from family and friends. Linear regression models tested the association between these two measures and each inflammatory marker controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, obesity, medication use, and baseline health status. After adjusting for potential confounders, social integration had a significant but weak inverse association with CRP in Taiwan. Perceived social support was significant in two of 12 models, and the coefficient was positive (i.e., higher support was associated with higher CRP and sIL-6R in the U.S.). We found no evidence that the coefficients for social relationship measures varied by sex or age. Our results yielded limited evidence of a weak association between two dimensions of social relationships and six inflammatory markers in Taiwan and the U.S. Given that the literature suggests a strong link between social relationships and mortality, and that inflammation plays an important role in the leading causes of death, we had expected to find consistent and moderately strong associations between social relationships and inflammatory markers. The small effect sizes and lack of robustness across markers

  20. The Effect of Pressure-Controlled Ventilation and Volume-Controlled Ventilation in Prone Position on Pulmonary Mechanics and Inflammatory Markers.

    PubMed

    Şenay, Hasan; Sıvacı, Remziye; Kokulu, Serdar; Koca, Buğra; Bakı, Elif Doğan; Ela, Yüksel

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this present study is to compare the effect of pressure-controlled ventilation and volume-controlled ventilation on pulmonary mechanics and inflammatory markers in prone position. The study included 41 patients undergoing to vertebrae surgery. The patients were randomized into two groups: Group 1 received volume-controlled ventilation, while group 2 received pressure-controlled ventilation. The demographic data, pulmonary mechanics, the inflammatory marker levels just after the induction of anesthetics, at the 6th and 12th hours, and gas analysis from arterial blood samples taken at the beginning and the 30th minute were recorded. The inflammatory marker levels increased in both groups, without any significant difference among groups. Peak inspiratory pressure level was higher in the volume-controlled ventilation group. This study revealed that there is no difference regarding inflammatory marker levels between volume- and pressure-controlled ventilation.

  1. Association between a Healthy Lifestyle Score and Inflammatory Markers among Puerto Rican adults

    PubMed Central

    Sotos-Prieto, M; Bhupathiraju, SN; Falcon, LM; Gao, X; Tucker, KL; Mattei, J

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The relationship between multiple lifestyle components analyzed in combination and inflammation remains understudied. We aimed to assess the association between a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) that includes adherence to five behavioral components (diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, smoking, social support and network, and sleep) and inflammatory markers, as well as the role of the HLS in inflammation among individuals with cardiometabolic conditions, in Puerto Rican adults. Methods and Results In a cross-sectional study of 842 Puerto Ricans adults (aged 45–75 y) living in Boston, MA, the HLS (range=0–190; maximum indicative of healthiest adherence) was analyzed for association with three inflammatory markers: interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP). In multivariable-adjusted models, the HLS was inversely associated with IL-6 (β±SE =−0.55 ± 0.13; P<0.001) and TNF-α (−0.39 ± 0.13; P=0.004). The dietary and smoking components were associated with both inflammatory markers independently of the other HLS components. Significant inverse associations were observed for each 20-unit increase in HLS and IL-6 and TNF-α for participants with hypertension (n=600; β±SE = −0.58 ± 0.16; −0.46 ± 0.16, respectively) and with overweight/obesity (n=743; β±SE = −0.59 ± 0.13; −0.50 ± 0.14, respectively), but not for those with diabetes (n=187) or heart disease (n=192). The HLS was not associated with CRP, after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusion Higher adherence to multiple lifestyle behaviors was associated with lower concentrations of inflammatory markers. Because low-grade inflammation may precede chronic diseases, following an overall healthy lifestyle may help lower risk of these diseases. PMID:26838054

  2. Buprenorphine Alters Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Molecular Markers in Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hitchon, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Buprenorphine is recommended for use as an analgesic in animal models including in murine models of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). However, the effect of buprenorphine on the expression of disease-associated biomarkers is not well defined. We examined the effect of buprenorphine administration on disease progression and the expression of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, in a murine model of CIA. Buprenorphine administration altered the expression of cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-6, and MMP-3, and oxidative markers, for example, iNOS, superoxide dismutase (SOD1), and catalase (CAT), in the CIA mice. As buprenorphine is an analgesic, we further monitored the association of expression of these biomarkers with pain scores in a human cohort of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Serum MMP-3 levels and blood mRNA expression of antioxidants sod1 and cat correlated with pain scores in the RA cohort. We have demonstrated that administration of buprenorphine alters the expression of inflammatory and oxidative stress-related molecular markers in a murine model of CIA. This caveat needs to be considered in animal experiments using buprenorphine as an analgesic, as it can be a confounding factor in murine studies used for prediction of response to therapy. Furthermore, the antioxidant enzymes that showed an association with pain scores in the human cohort may be explored as biomarkers for pain in future studies. PMID:28572711

  3. Grape Consumption Increases Anti-Inflammatory Markers and Upregulates Peripheral Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Absence of Dyslipidemias in Men with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Barona, Jacqueline; Blesso, Christopher N.; Andersen, Catherine J.; Park, Youngki; Lee, Jiyoung; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of grape consumption on inflammation and oxidation in the presence or absence of dyslipidemias in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Men with MetS (n = 24), 11 with high triglycerides and low HDL and 13 with no dyslipidemia were recruited and randomly allocated to consume daily either 46 g of lyophilized grape powder (GRAPE), equivalent to 252 g fresh grapes, or placebo with an identical macronutrient composition and caloric value as GRAPE for four weeks. After a three-week washout, participants followed the alternate treatment. We measured changes between placebo and GRAPE periods in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers both in circulation and in gene expression. Changes in plasma adiponectin (p < 0.05), interleukin (IL)-10 (p < 0.005) and in mRNA expression of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (p < 0.25) were increased in the GRAPE compared to the placebo period only in those individuals without dyslipidemia. Additionally, plasma IL-10 was negatively correlated with NOX2 expression, a marker of oxidative stress (r = −0.55, p < 0.01), while iNOS expression was positively correlated with the expression of superoxide dismutase 2 (r = 0.642, p < 0.01), a key anti-oxidative enzyme. Grape consumption displayed anti-oxidative and increased anti-inflammatory markers in the absence of the inflammatory milieu associated with dyslipidemias. PMID:23222963

  4. Inflammatory and neurodegeneration markers during asymptomatic HSV-1 reactivation.

    PubMed

    Martin, Carolina; Aguila, Blanca; Araya, Paulina; Vio, Karin; Valdivia, Sharin; Zambrano, Angara; Concha, Margarita I; Otth, Carola

    2014-01-01

    Currently, it is unclear whether asymptomatic recurrent reactivations of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) occur in the central nervous systems of infected people, and if these events could lead to a progressive deterioration of neuronal function. In this context, HSV-1 constitutes an important candidate to be included among the risk factors for the development of neuropathies associated with chronic neuroinflammation. The aim of this study was to assess in vivo inflammatory and neurodegenerative markers in the brain during productive and latent HSV-1 infection using a mouse model of herpes simplex encephalitis. Neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration markers were evaluated in mice trigeminal ganglia and cerebral cortex during HSV-1 infection, by immunohistochemistry, western blot, and RT-PCR. Neuronal ICP4 viral antigen expression indicative of a reactivation episode during asymptomatic latency of HSV-1 infection in mice was accompanied by upregulation of neuroinflammatory (toll-like receptor-4, interferon α/β, and p-IRF3) and early neurodegenerative markers (phospho-tau and TauC3). HSV-1 reactivation from latency induced neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative markers in the brain of asymptomatic mice suggesting that recurrent reactivations could be associated with cumulative neuronal dysfunctions.

  5. INFLAMMATORY MARKERS ASSOCIATED WITH TRAUMA AND INFECTION IN RED-TAILED HAWKS (BUTEO JAMAICENSIS) IN THE USA.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kelly A; Goetting, Valerie S; Tell, Lisa A

    2015-10-01

    Changes in inflammatory marker concentrations or activity can be used to monitor health and disease condition of domestic animals but have not been applied with the same frequency to wildlife. We measured concentrations or activity of six inflammatory markers (ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, mannan-binding lectin-dependent complement [MBL/complement], unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC) and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), and plasma iron) in apparently healthy and sick or injured Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). Haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin activities were consistently elevated in sick or injured hawks (2.1 and 2.5 times higher, respectively), and plasma iron concentrations decreased (0.46 times lower), relative to those of healthy birds. There were no differences between healthy and unhealthy hawks in TIBC and UIBC concentrations or MBL/complement activity. Therefore, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, and plasma iron would be useful inclusions in a panel of inflammatory markers for monitoring health in raptors.

  6. Hemostatic, inflammatory, and oxidative markers in pesticide user farmers.

    PubMed

    Madani, Fatima Zohra; Hafida, Merzouk; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Loukidi, Bouchra; Taouli, Katia; Narce, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate inflammatory, oxidative, and thrombotic parameters as biomarkers in farmers exposed to pesticides. Fifty farmers using chemical pesticides and 60 unexposed control men participated in this study. The Mediterranean diet compliance, the duration of pesticide use, and personal protection for pesticides handling were recorded using self-administered questionnaires. Serum biochemical parameters, oxidant/antioxidant, inflammatory, and thrombosis markers were determined. Our findings showed oxidative stress reflected by an increase in malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins and superoxide anion levels and a decrease in vitamins C and E, glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities in farmers. Serum C-reactive protein, prothrombin, and fibrinogen levels were enhanced in these farmers. In conclusion, inflammation, oxidative stress, and metabolic perturbations reflected the possibility of the effects of pesticides to farmers.

  7. Inflammatory markers in a randomised soya intervention among men.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Oum, Robert; Chaptman, Ann K; Ognjanovic, Simona

    2009-06-01

    The present analysis investigated the effect of soya foods on serum levels of six inflammatory markers, leptin, adiponectin, monocyte attractant protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1b (MIP-1b), IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP), and their relationship with BMI and lifetime soya intake. We randomised twenty-four men to a high- (two daily servings with 30-35 mg isoflavones per serving) or a low-soya diet for 3 months. After a 1-month washout period, the men crossed over to the other treatment. We used a multiplex bead immunoassay to measure leptin, adiponectin, MCP-1 and MIP-1b and ELISA assays for IL-6 and CRP. The statistical analysis applied mixed models that incorporated the four repeated measurements. The men had a mean age of 58.7 (sd 7.2) years and a mean BMI of 28.4 (sd 4.9) kg/m2. We observed no significant intervention effect of the soya treatment on any of the six markers. After adjustment for age and ethnicity, highly significant associations of BMI and body weight with leptin and MCP-1 emerged. Men with high soya intake early in life also had higher levels of leptin and MCP-1, whereas no association was seen for soya intake during adulthood. MIP-1b, adiponectin, IL-6 and CRP were not related to BMI, body weight or soya intake at any time in life. No intervention effect of soya foods on markers of inflammation was observed in this small study, but adiposity and early-life soya intake were related to higher leptin and MCP-1 levels.

  8. Serum leveis of inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetes patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    LONGO, Priscila Larcher; ARTESE, Hilana Paula Carillo; RABELO, Marianade Sousa; KAWAMOTO, Dione; FOZ, Adriana Moura; ROMITO, Giuseppe Alexandre; DIB, Sérgio Atala; MAYER, Marcia Pinto Alves

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes has been associated with periodontitis, but the mechanisms through which periodontal diseases affect the metabolic control remain unclear. Objective This study aimed to evaluate serum leveis of inflammatory markers, IL-8, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), in type 2 diabetic patients in the presence of chronic periodontitis. Material and Methods Forty two individuals were enrolled in this study and assigned to one of five groups: diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control and periodontitis (DMI+P, n = 10), diabetes mellitus with adequate glycemic control and periodontitis (DMA+P, n = 10), diabetes mellitus without periodontitis (DM, n = 10), periodontitis without diabetes (P, n=6), and neither diabetes nor periodontitis (H, n = 6). Periodontal clinical examination included visible plaque index (PL), gingival bleeding index (GB), probing depth (PD), attachment level (AL) and bleeding on probing (BP). Glycemic control was evaluated by serum concentration of glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc). Inflammatory serum markers IL-8, IL-6 and (MCP-1) were measured by ELISA. Results DMI+P and DMA+P groups presented higher PD (p=0.025) and AL (p=0.003) values when compared to the P group. There were no significant differences among groups for IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 serum levels. Conclusions Although periodontitis was more severe in diabetic patients, the serum levels of the investigated inflammatory markers did not differ among the groups. PMID:24676580

  9. Association between a Healthy Lifestyle Score and inflammatory markers among Puerto Rican adults.

    PubMed

    Sotos-Prieto, M; Bhupathiraju, S N; Falcon, L M; Gao, X; Tucker, K L; Mattei, J

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between multiple lifestyle components analyzed in combination and inflammation remains understudied. We aimed to assess the association between a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) that includes adherence to five behavioral components (diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, smoking, social support and network, and sleep) and inflammatory markers, as well as the role of the HLS in inflammation among individuals with cardiometabolic conditions, in Puerto Rican adults. In a cross-sectional study of 842 Puerto Ricans adults (aged 45-75 y) living in Boston, MA, the HLS (range = 0-190; maximum indicative of healthiest adherence) was analyzed for association with three inflammatory markers: interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP). In multivariable-adjusted models, the HLS was inversely associated with IL-6 (β ± SE = -0.55 ± 0.13; P < 0.001) and TNF-α (-0.39 ± 0.13; P = 0.004). The dietary and smoking components were associated with both inflammatory markers independently of the other HLS components. Significant inverse associations were observed for each 20-unit increase in HLS and IL-6 and TNF-α for participants with hypertension (n = 600; β ± SE = -0.58 ± 0.16; -0.46 ± 0.16, respectively) and with overweight/obesity (n = 743; β ± SE = -0.59 ± 0.13; -0.50 ± 0.14, respectively), but not for those with diabetes (n = 187) or heart disease (n = 192). The HLS was not associated with CRP, after adjustment for potential confounders. Higher adherence to multiple lifestyle behaviors was associated with lower concentrations of inflammatory markers. Because low-grade inflammation may precede chronic diseases, following an overall healthy lifestyle may help lower risk of these diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II

  10. The association between the chronic use of non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs and oxidative and inflammatory markers in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Ely, Luisa Scheer; Valle Gottlieb, Maria Gabriela; Engroff, Paula; Gomes, Irenio; Moresco, Rafael Noal; Tatsch, Etiane; Bochi, Guilherme Vargas; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio

    2014-01-01

    Investigate the association between the chronic or occasional use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and plasma levels of oxidative and inflammatory markers in elderly at the Family Health Strategy in Brazil. It was a cross-sectional study of data collected from random elderly volunteers. A questionnaire including sociodemographic, health and medicine use data was administered. The blood levels of FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma), AOPP (plasma advanced oxidation protein products), MDA (malondialdehyde) and insulin were measured. The study sample comprised 758 elderly patients, of which 121 (15.96%) used NSAIDs. The mean age was 68.53 years and 68.41 for individuals who used NSAIDs occasionally and chronically, respectively. Gastric problems may be associated with the chronic or occasional use of NSAIDs (P = 0.042). Which indicates mean plasma levels of Insulin and HOMA-IR (Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance) are increased in chronic use of NSAIDs and describes a statistical trend (P = 0.065) for the association of chronic NSAIDs use with the BMI (body mass index) of the subjects studied. This study suggests that there is no association between the chronic or occasional use of NSAIDs and oxidative and inflammatory markers. It is known that NSAIDs have innumerable adverse effects, but they can have some benefits. So, additional studies are needed to clarify whether NSAIDs are associated with these markers and whether they are related with their real consequences.

  11. Effects of oral supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids on nutritional state and inflammatory markers in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Gharekhani, Afshin; Khatami, Mohammad-Reza; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin; Razeghi, Effat; Abdollahi, Alireza; Hashemi-Nazari, Seyed-Saeed; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali

    2014-05-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of omega-3 supplementation on nutritional state and inflammatory markers of hemodialysis patients. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Adult patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis were included. Patients with malignancy, pregnancy, concurrent inflammatory or infectious diseases, or concomitant use of any medication affecting inflammation status were excluded. The omega-3 group received 6 soft-gel capsules of fish oil (180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 120 mg docosahexaenoic acid in each) daily for 4 months, and the placebo group received corresponding paraffin oil capsules.Nutrition indices including body mass index; mid-arm muscle circumference; serum concentrations of albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin; and serum levels of inflammatory/anti-inflammatory markers including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein, ferritin, parathyroid hormone, and ratios of IL-10 to TNF-α and IL-10 to IL-6 were measured before and after 4 months of intervention. Twenty patients in the placebo and 25 patients in the omega-3 group completed the study. There were no significant changes in nutritional markers between the omega-3 and placebo groups after 4 months of intervention. Regression analysis adjusting post-treatment values of nutrition markers for baseline values, omega-3 treatment, and patients' baseline demographic and clinical data revealed that omega-3 treatment was a significant independent predictor of increased serum prealbumin level (182.53; 95% confidence interval 21.14, 511.18; P = .11). Although slight reduction of inflammatory state was observed in the omega-3 group, no significant differences were evident in the mean changes of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers between the 2 groups with the exception of serum ferritin level and the IL-10 to IL-6 ratio, which significantly changed in favor of omega-3 supplementation (P < .001 and P = .003

  12. Contribution of Serum Inflammatory Markers to Changes in Bone Mineral Content and Density in Postmenopausal Women: A 1-Year Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Gertz, ER; Silverman, NE; Wise, KS; Hanson, KB; Alekel, DL; Stewart, JW; Perry, CD; Bhupathiraju, SN; Kohut, ML; Van Loan, MD

    2010-01-01

    Bone formation and resorption are influenced by inflammatory processes. We examined the relationships among inflammatory markers and bone mineral content and density (BMC, BMD) and determined the contribution of inflammatory markers to 1-year changes in BMC and BMD in healthy postmenopausal women. This analysis included 242 women at baseline from our parent Soy Isoflavones for Reducing Bone Loss (SIRBL) project who were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: placebo, 80 mg/d soy isoflavones, or 120 mg/d soy isoflavones. BMD and BMC from the lumbar spine (LS), total proximal femur (hip), and whole body were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the 4% distal tibia (DT) by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Serum inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and white blood cell count (WBC)) were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Due to attrition or missing values, data analysis at 12 months includes only 235 women. Significant associations among Il-6, TNF-α, and WBC were observed with percent change in LS, hip, and whole body BMC and BMD. Multiple regression analysis indicated that in combination inflammatory markers accounted for 1.1% to 6.1% of the variance to the observed 12 month changes in BMC and BMD. Our results suggest that modifying inflammatory markers, even in healthy postmenopausal women, may possibly reduce bone loss. PMID:20605499

  13. Relationships of inflammatory and haemostatic markers with social class: results from a population-based study of older men.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Sheena; Lowe, Gordon D O; Whincup, Peter H; Rumley, Ann; Morris, Richard W; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2008-04-01

    Haemostatic and inflammatory markers have been hypothesised to mediate the relationship of social class and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated whether a range of inflammatory/haemostatic markers are associated with social class independent of chronic diseases and behavioural risk factors in a population-based sample of 2682 British men aged 60-79 without a physician diagnosis of CVD, diabetes or musculoskeletal disease requiring anti-inflammatory medications. Men in lower social classes had higher mean levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, white blood cell count, von Willebrand factor (vWF), factor VIII, activated protein C (APC) resistance, plasma viscosity, fibrin D-dimer and platelet count, compared to higher social class groups; but not of tissue plasminogen activator antigen, haematocrit or activated partial prothrombin time. After adjustment for behavioural risk factors (smoking, alcohol, physical activity and body mass), the associations of social class with vWF, factor VIII, APC resistance, plasma viscosity, and platelet count though weakened, remained statistically significant, while those of other markers were considerably attenuated. In this study of older men without CVD, the social gradient in inflammatory and haemostatic markers was substantially explained by behavioural risk factors. The effect of socio-economic gradient on the factor VIII-vWF complex, APC resistance, plasma viscosity and platelet count merits further study.

  14. Inflammatory markers and obstructive sleep apnea in obese children: the NANOS study.

    PubMed

    Gileles-Hillel, Alex; Alonso-Álvarez, María Luz; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Peris, Eduard; Cordero-Guevara, José Aurelio; Terán-Santos, Joaquin; Martinez, Mónica Gonzalez; Jurado-Luque, María José; Corral-Peñafiel, Jaime; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Gozal, David

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) are common coexisting conditions associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state underlying some of the cognitive, metabolic, and cardiovascular morbidities. To examine the levels of inflammatory markers in obese community-dwelling children with OSA, as compared to no-OSA, and their association with clinical and polysomnographic (PSG) variables. Methods. In this cross-sectional, prospective multicenter study, healthy obese Spanish children (ages 4-15 years) were randomly selected and underwent nocturnal PSG followed by a morning fasting blood draw. Plasma samples were assayed for multiple inflammatory markers. 204 children were enrolled in the study; 75 had OSA, defined by an obstructive respiratory disturbance index (RDI) of 3 events/hour total sleep time (TST). BMI, gender, and age were similar in OSA and no-OSA children. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were significantly higher in OSA children, with interleukin-6 concentrations being higher in moderate-severe OSA (i.e., AHI > 5/hrTST; P < 0.01), while MCP-1 levels were associated with more prolonged nocturnal hypercapnia (P < 0.001). IL-6, MCP-1, and PAI-1 are altered in the context of OSA among community-based obese children further reinforcing the proinflammatory effects of sleep disorders such as OSA. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01322763.

  15. Sex differences in the effects of adolescent stress on adult brain inflammatory markers in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pyter, Leah M.; Kelly, Sean D.; Harrell, Constance S.; Neigh, Gretchen N.

    2013-01-01

    Both basic and clinical research indicates that females are more susceptible to stress-related affective disorders than males. One of the mechanisms by which stress induces depression is via inflammatory signaling in the brain. Stress during adolescence, in particular, can also disrupt the activation and continued development of both the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) and –gonadal (HPG) axes, both of which modulate inflammatory pathways and brain regions involved in affective behavior. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that adolescent stress differentially alters brain inflammatory mechanisms associated with affective-like behavior into adulthood based on sex. Male and female Wistar rats underwent mixed-modality stress during adolescence (PND 37–48) and were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 250 μg/kg, i.p.) or saline 4.5 weeks later (in adulthood). Hippocampal inflammatory marker gene expression and circulating HPA and HPG axes hormone concentrations were then determined. Despite previous studies indicating that adolescent stress induces affective-like behaviors in female rats only, this study demonstrated that adolescent stress increased hippocampal inflammatory responses to LPS in males only, suggesting that differences in neuroinflammatory signaling do not drive the divergent affective-like behaviors. The sex differences in inflammatory markers were not associated with differences in corticosterone. In females that experienced adolescent stress, LPS increased circulating estradiol. Estradiol positively correlated with hippocampal microglial gene expression in control female rats, whereas adolescent stress negated this relationship. Thus, estradiol in females may potentially protect against stress-induced increases in neuroinflammation. PMID:23348027

  16. Maternal diet, gestational weight gain, and inflammatory markers during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hrolfsdottir, Laufey; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Maslova, Ekaterina; Granström, Charlotta; Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2016-10-01

    To examine the associations of gestational weight gain (GWG) and diet with low-grade inflammation in pregnancy. A cross-sectional analysis of 671 pregnant women was performed, and diet was assessed in gestational week 30. GWG was recorded in weeks 30 and ∼37 (difference between the weight recorded at these time points and pre-pregnancy weight). Markers of inflammation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α were quantified in serum from week 30. After adjusting for age, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, smoking status, and education, each 1 kg increase in GWG was associated with 3% (95% CI: 1-5) higher hsCRP and 3% (95% CI: 1-4) higher SAA concentrations, which corresponded to ∼18% to 25% increase in these biomarkers among those with excessive weight gain. GWG was inversely associated with IL-8 while no associations were found for the other inflammatory markers. With respect to diet, women in the highest compared with lowest quintile of protein intake had 26% (95% CI: 3-54) higher hsCRP concentrations. This increase appeared to be driven by intake of animal protein. A similar pattern was observed for SAA. Excessive GWG, as well as high intake of animal protein, was associated with higher concentrations of inflammatory factors. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  17. Evaluation of blood neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet distribution width as inflammatory markers in patients with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Aktürk, Semra; Büyükavcı, Raikan

    2017-08-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is characterized by chronic widespread pain and systemic symptoms. The aetiology and pathogenesis of fibromyalgia are not yet fully understood. Blood neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker of systemic inflammatory response. Platelet distribution width (PDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are the determinants of platelet activation and studied as markers in inflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate levels of NLR,PDW and MPV in patients with fibromyalgia. A total of 197 FMS patients and 53 healthy controls are included in the study. Demographic characteristics, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, platelet distribution width and mean platelet volume levels were recorded. In the patient group, the blood NLR and MPV were significantly higher and the PDW was significantly lower compared to the control group. In the roc curve analysis, blood PDW ≥had 90.4% sensitivity and 90% specificity in predicting fibromyalgia. The results of this study suggest NLR and PDW as promising inflammatory markers indicating fibromyalgia and may be beneficial in facilitating the diagnosis of FMS patients.

  18. Changes in Inflammatory and Bone Turnover Markers After Periodontal Disease Treatment in Patients With Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Izuora, Kenneth E; Ezeanolue, Echezona E; Neubauer, Michael F; Gewelber, Civon L; Allenback, Gayle L; Shan, Guogen; Umpierrez, Guillermo E

    2016-06-01

    The underlying mechanisms for increased osteopenia and fracture rates in patients with diabetes are not well understood, but may relate to chronic systemic inflammation. We assessed the effect of treating periodontal disease (POD), a cause of chronic inflammation, on inflammatory and bone turnover markers in patients with diabetes. Using an investigator-administered questionnaire, we screened a cross-section of patients presenting for routine outpatient diabetes care. We recruited 22 subjects with POD. Inflammatory and bone turnover markers were measured at baseline and 3 months following POD treatment (scaling, root planing and subantimicrobial dose doxycycline). There were nonsignificant reductions in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (6.34-5.52mg/L, P = 0.626) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (10.37-10.01pg/mL, P = 0.617). There were nonsignificant increases in urinary C-terminal telopeptide (85.50-90.23pg/mL, P = 0.684) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (7.45-8.79pg/mL, P = 0.074). Patients with >90% adherence with doxycycline were 6.4 times more likely to experience reduction in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P = 0.021) and 2.8 times more likely to experience reductions in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = 0.133). Treatment of POD in patients with diabetes resulted in nonsignificant lowering of inflammatory markers and nonsignificant increase in bone turnover markers. However, adherence to doxycycline therapy resulted in better treatment effects. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. CXCL16 is a surrogate marker of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Lehrke, Michael; Konrad, Astrid; Schachinger, Veronika; Tillack, Cornelia; Seibold, Frank; Stark, Renee; Parhofer, Iklaus G; Broedl, Uli C

    2008-03-01

    Impaired barrier function of the gut and inadequate immunological response to intestinal pathogens are the cornerstones in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CXCL16 is a protein which shares pattern recognition receptor functions, relevant for adhesion and phagocytosis of bacterial products, with the properties of an adhesion molecule and inflammatory chemokine. The relevance of CXCL16 in IBD has so far been elusive. This objective of this study was to determine the association between CXCL16 and IBD. Soluble CXCL16 (sol-CXCL16) serum levels in a cohort of 239 patients with Crohn's disease were measured, 114 patients with ulcerative colitis and 144 controls. In a univariate analysis, sol-CXCL16 was found to be markedly increased in patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis compared with that in controls (p < 0.001). This was significantly associated with an increase of the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) (p < 0.01). In the multivariate analysis (adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), white blood cell (WBC) count, resistin and CRP) sol-CXCL16 was associated with Crohn's disease above versus below the median (OR 10.53 (3.97-27.78) p < 0.001) and ulcerative colitis (OR 3.46 (1.40-8.55) p < 0.01). Our findings suggest that CXCL16 may play a pro-inflammatory role in IBD, particularly Crohn's disease.

  20. Lipid profiles, inflammatory markers, and insulin therapy in youth with type 2 diabetes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Data regarding atherogenic dyslipidemia and the inflammation profile in youth with type 2 diabetes is limited and the effect of insulin therapy on these variables has not previously been studied in youth. We determined the impact of insulin therapy on lipid and inflammatory markers in youth with poo...

  1. The performance of serum inflammatory markers for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Michail, Marios; Jude, Edward; Liaskos, Christos; Karamagiolis, Spyridon; Makrilakis, Konstantinos; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Michail, Othon; Tentolouris, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    Serum inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), white blood cells (WBC), and procalcitonin (PCT), have been used for the diagnosis of foot infections in patients with diabetes. However, little is known about their changes during treatment of patients with foot infections. The aim of this prospective study was to examine the performance of serum inflammatory markers for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with osteomyelitis. A total of 61 patients (age 63.1 ± 7.0 years, 45 men and 16 women, 7 with type 1 and 54 with type 2 diabetes) with untreated foot infection (34 with soft-tissue infection and 27 with osteomyelitis) were recruited. Diagnosis of osteomyelitis was based on clinical examination and was confirmed by imaging studies (X-ray, scintigraphy, magnetic resonance imaging). Determination of the inflammatory markers was performed at baseline, after 1 week, after 3 weeks, and after 3 months of treatment. At baseline, the values of CRP, ESR, WBC, and PCT were significantly higher in patients with osteomyelitis than in those with soft-tissue infections. The sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of osteomyelitis of CRP (cutoff value >14 mg/L) were 0.85 and 0.83, of ESR (cutoff value >67 mm/h) 0.84 and 0.75, of WBC (cutoff value >14 × 10(9)/L) 0.75 and 0.79, and of PCT (cutoff value >0.30 ng/mL) 0.81 and 0.71, respectively. All values declined after initiation of treatment with antibiotics; the WBC, CRP, and PCT values returned to near-normal levels at day 7, whereas the values of ESR remained high until month 3 only in patients with bone infection. From the inflammatory markers, ESR is recommended to be used for the follow-up of patients with osteomyelitis.

  2. Comparative usefulness of inflammatory markers to indicate bacterial infection-analyzed according to blood culture results and related clinical factors.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Hirokazu; Shirano, Michinori; Kasamatsu, Yu; Morimura, Ayumi; Iida, Ko; Kishi, Tomomi; Goto, Tetsushi; Okamoto, Saki; Ehara, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    To assess relationships of inflammatory markers and 2 related clinical factors with blood culture results, we retrospectively investigated inpatients' blood culture and blood chemistry findings that were recorded from January to December 2014 using electronic medical records and analyzed the data of 852 subjects (426 culture-positive and 426 culture-negative). Results suggested that the risk of positive blood culture statistically increased as inflammatory marker levels and the number of related factors increased. Concerning the effectiveness of inflammatory markers, when the outcome definition was also changed for C-reactive protein (CRP), the odds ratio had a similar value, whereas when the outcome definition of blood culture positivity was used for procalcitonin (PCT), the greatest effectiveness of that was detected. Therefore, the current results suggest that PCT is more useful than CRP as an auxiliary indication of bacterial infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti-oxidative assays as markers for anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Chanput, Wasaporn; Krueyos, Narumol; Ritthiruangdej, Pitiporn

    2016-11-01

    The complexity of in vitro anti-inflammatory assays, the cost and time consumed, and the necessary skills can be a hurdle to apply to promising compounds in a high throughput setting. In this study, several antioxidative assays i.e. DPPH, ABTS, ORAC and xanthine oxidase (XO) were used to examine the antioxidative activity of three sub groups of flavonoids: (i) flavonol: quercetin, myricetin, (ii) flavanone: eriodictyol, naringenin (iii) flavone: luteolin, apigenin. A range of flavonoid concentrations was tested for their antioxidative activities and were found to be dose-dependent. However, the flavonoid concentrations over 50ppm were found to be toxic to the THP-1 monocytes. Therefore, 10, 20 and 50ppm of flavonoid concentrations were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 monocytes. Expression of inflammatory genes, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α was found to be sequentially decreased when flavonoid concentration increased. Principle component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate the relationship between the data sets of antioxidative assays and the expression of inflammatory genes. The results showed that DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays have an opposite correlation with the reduction of inflammatory genes. Pearson correlation exhibited a relationship between the ABTS assay and the expression of three out of five analyzed genes; IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Our findings indicate that ABTS assay can potentially be an assay marker for anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Common Genetic Contributions to Depressive Symptoms and Inflammatory Markers in Middle-Aged Men: The Twins Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shaoyong; Miller, Andrew H.; Snieder, Harold; Bremner, J. Douglas; Ritchie, James; Maisano, Carisa; Jones, Linda; Murrah, Nancy V.; Goldberg, Jack; Vaccarino, Viola

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the extent to which a common genetic pathway is also involved in the relationship between depressive symptoms, in the absence of major depressive disorder (MDD), and inflammation. Recent data suggested that MDD and inflammation share common genes. Methods We recruited 188 male twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry who were free of symptomatic coronary artery disease and MDD, with mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of 55 ± 2.75 years, including 54 monozygotic and 40 dizygotic twin pairs. These pairs were assessed for two inflammatory markers, interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP). Current depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the phenotypic association between depression and inflammatory markers. Biometrical genetic modeling was performed to estimate the genetic and environmental contributions to this association. Results An association was observed between severity of current depressive symptoms and increased levels of inflammatory markers (p < .001 for IL-6 and p = .005 for CRP). After adjustment for other factors, the association was slightly attenuated but remained statistically significant for IL-6 (p = .002). The heritability of IL-6, CRP, and depressive symptoms were estimated as 0.37, 0.65, and 0.48, respectively. Genetic modeling found a significant genetic correlation between IL-6 and depressive symptoms (rG = 0.22, p = .046), indicating that about 66% of the covariance between them can be explained by shared genetic influences. Conclusions Current depressive symptoms are significantly correlated with inflammatory markers. This covariation is due, in large part, to genes that are common to depressive symptoms and inflammation. PMID:19073752

  5. Diagnostic Value of Combining Tumor and Inflammatory Markers in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ho Il; Kwon, Oh-Ran; Kang, Kyung Nam; Shin, Yong Sung; Shin, Ho Sang; Yeon, Eun Hee; Kwon, Keon Young; Hwang, Ilseon; Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Yongdai; Kim, Chul Woo

    2016-09-01

    Despite major advances in lung cancer treatment, early detection remains the most promising way of improving outcomes. To detect lung cancer in earlier stages, many serum biomarkers have been tested. Unfortunately, no single biomarker can reliably detect lung cancer. We combined a set of 2 tumor markers and 4 inflammatory or metabolic markers and tried to validate the diagnostic performance in lung cancer. We collected serum samples from 355 lung cancer patients and 590 control subjects and divided them into training and validation datasets. After measuring serum levels of 6 biomarkers (human epididymis secretory protein 4 [HE4], carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA], regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES], apolipoprotein A2 [ApoA2], transthyretin [TTR], and secretory vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [sVCAM-1]), we tested various sets of biomarkers for their diagnostic performance in lung cancer. In a training dataset, the area under the curve (AUC) values were 0.821 for HE4, 0.753 for CEA, 0.858 for RANTES, 0.867 for ApoA2, 0.830 for TTR, and 0.552 for sVCAM-1. A model using all 6 biomarkers and age yielded an AUC value of 0.986 and sensitivity of 93.2% (cutoff at specificity 94%). Applying this model to the validation dataset showed similar results. The AUC value of the model was 0.988, with sensitivity of 93.33% and specificity of 92.00% at the same cutoff point used in the validation dataset. Analyses by stages and histologic subtypes all yielded similar results. Combining multiple tumor and systemic inflammatory markers proved to be a valid strategy in the diagnosis of lung cancer.

  6. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF FINE PARTICLES IN THE U.S. AND ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN INFLAMMATORY MARKER IL -8

    EPA Science Inventory

    Associations are well established between particulate matter (PM) and increased human mortality and morbidity. The association between PM sources and inflammatory marker IL-8 was evaluated in this study.

  7. Vitamin D and inflammatory markers: cross-sectional analyses using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Cesar; Biddulph, Jane P; Hirani, Vasant; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that low vitamin D concentrations are associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers. However, there are limited studies investigating associations between vitamin D levels and inflammatory markers in the general population and much of this evidence in older adults is inconclusive. Therefore, this study investigates the cross-sectional association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels with inflammatory markers in 5870 older English adults from wave 6 (2012-2013) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). ELSA is a large prospective observational study of community-dwelling people aged 50 years and over in England. Serum 25(OH)D levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, plasma fibrinogen levels, white blood cell count (WBC), age, season of blood collection, waist circumference, total non-pension household wealth, measures of health and health behaviours that included depression, number of cardiovascular, non-cardiovascular conditions and difficulties in activities of daily living, smoking, and physical activity were measured. There was a significant negative association between low 25(OH)D levels (≤30 nmol/l) and CRP (OR 1·23, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·51) and WBC (OR 1·35, 95 % CI 1·13, 1·60) that remained after adjustment for a wide range of covariates of clinical significance. However, for fibrinogen, the association did not remain significant when waist circumference was entered in the final model. Our findings showed that 25(OH)D levels were associated with two out the three inflammatory markers investigated. The independent and inverse association between serum 25(OH)D levels and inflammation suggests a potential anti-inflammatory role for vitamin D in older English individuals from the general population.

  8. The Impact of Physical Activity on Serum Inflammatory Markers in Overweight Pubertal Boys: 24-Month Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Remmel, Liina; Tillmann, Vallo; Mengel, Eva; Kool, Pille; Purge, Priit; Lätt, Evelin; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the differences in the pattern of changes in serum inflammatory cytokines measured annually over a 24-month period, between less active and more active overweight boys. In total, 25 pubertal overweight boys were divided by their moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels into 2 groups: less active group (LAG; n = 10; MVPA < 60 min/d) and more active group (MAG; n = 15; MVPA > 60 min/d). Physical activity was measured by 7-day accelerometry. Serum concentration of 13 inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1α, IL-1β, vascular endothelial growth factor, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, epidermal growth factor, and C-reactive protein] was measured at baseline (T0), after 12 months (T1), and after 24 months (T2) from fasting blood samples. Serum IL-6 level was significantly higher [LAG: 1.27 (0.86, 1.98) pg/mL; MAG: 0.80 (0.52, 0.84) pg/mL] at T0 and IL-8 level [LAG: 10.26 (8.80, 11.64) pg/mL; MAG: 7.42 (6.10, 9.54) pg/mL] at T2 in LAG compared with MAG. The changes over the study period varied between different inflammatory markers. None of the slopes of any measured markers were statistically different between the LAG and MAG, although the slopes of interferon-γ and IL-10 tended to be different between the groups. The pattern of changes over the study period varied between different inflammatory markers, but these changes were not different between the MVPA groups. More longitudinal studies are needed to investigate whether IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and interferon-γ would be the choice of inflammatory markers to study the associations between obesity and physical activity in future.

  9. Reversal of high fat diet-induced obesity through modulating lipid metabolic enzymes and inflammatory markers expressions in rats.

    PubMed

    A, Kalaivani; Uddandrao, V V Sathibabu; Parim, Brahmanaidu; Ganapathy, Saravanan; P R, Nivedha; Kancharla, Sushma Chandulee; P, Rameshreddy; K, Swapna; Sasikumar, Vadivukkarasi

    2018-03-19

    In this study, we evaluated the ameliorative potential of Cucurbita maxima seeds oil (CSO (100 mg/kg body weight)) supplementation to high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats for 30 days on the changes in body weight, markers of lipid metabolism such as LDL, HDL, triglycerides, total cholesterol, adiponectin, leptin, amylase, and lipase. We also investigated the effects of CSO on the changes of lipid metabolic enzymes such as fatty-acid synthase, acetyl CoA carboxylase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, HMG CoA reductase, and inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-6). Administration of CSO revealed significant diminution in body weight gain, altered the activity, expressions of lipid marker enzymes and inflammatory markers. It demonstrated that CSO had considerably altered these parameters when evaluated with HFD control rats. In conclusion, this study suggested that CSO might ameliorate the HFD-induced obesity by altering the enzymes and mRNA expressions important to lipid metabolism.

  10. Weight loss and vascular inflammatory markers in overweight women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lisa J; Noakes, Manny; Wittert, Gary A; Clifton, Peter M; Norman, Robert J

    2012-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. The effect of weight loss on the vascular inflammatory markers plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) is unknown. Overweight women with (n=14) and without (n=13) PCOS of comparable age and body mass index undertook an 8-week weight-loss programme. Women with PCOS had elevated PAI-1, sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 before and after weight loss compared with the controls. For all women, sVCAM-1 (P=0.026) and sICAM-1 (P=0.04) decreased with weight loss. Women with PCOS have elevated inflammatory markers, which are partially reduced by weight loss. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ameliorative potential of gingerol: Promising modulation of inflammatory factors and lipid marker enzymes expressions in HFD induced obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Brahma Naidu, Parim; Uddandrao, V V Sathibabu; Ravindar Naik, Ramavat; Suresh, Pothani; Meriga, Balaji; Begum, Mustapha Shabana; Pandiyan, Rajesh; Saravanan, Ganapathy

    2016-01-05

    Obesity, generally linked to hyperlipidemia, has been occurring of late with distressing alarm and has now become a global phenomenon casting a huge economic burden on the health care system of countries around the world. The present study investigated the effects of gingerol over 30 days on the changes in HFD-induced obese rats in marker enzymes of lipid metabolism such as fatty-acid synthase (FAS), Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC), Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase-1(CPT-1), HMG co-A Reductase (HMGR), Lecithin Choline Acyl Transferase (LCAT) and Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) and inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-6). The rats were treated orally with gingerol (75 mg kg(-1)) once daily for 30 days with a lorcaserin-treated group (10 mg kg(-1)) included for comparison. Changes in body weight, glucose, insulin resistance and expressions of lipid marker enzymes and inflammatory markers in tissues were observed in experimental rats. The administration of gingerol resulted in a significant reduction in body weight gain, glucose and insulin levels, and insulin resistance, which altered the activity, expressions of lipid marker enzymes and inflammatory markers. It showed that gingerol had significantly altered these parameters when compared with HFD control rats. This study confirms that gingerol prevents HFD-induced hyperlipidemia by modulating the expression of enzymes important to cholesterol metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental Gingivitis Induces Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Young Healthy Individuals: A Single-Subject Interventional Study

    PubMed Central

    Luchtefeld, Maren; Heuer, Wieland; Schuett, Harald; Divchev, Dimitar; Scherer, Ralph; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Langfeldt, Daniela; Stumpp, Nico; Staufenbiel, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. Background Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. Methods 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. Results The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, P<0.0001). This local inflammation was associated with a systemic increase in hsCRP (0.24 mg/L, P = 0.038), IL-6 (12.52 ng/L, P = 0.0002) and MCP-1 (9.10 ng/l, P = 0.124) in peripheral blood samples between baseline and day 21, which decreased at day 42. Monocytes showed an enhanced adherence to endothelial cells and increased foam cell formation after oxLDL uptake (P<0.050) at day 21 of gingivitis. Conclusions Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL: http

  13. Diagnostic Value of Combining Tumor and Inflammatory Markers in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ho Il; Kwon, Oh-Ran; Kang, Kyung Nam; Shin, Yong Sung; Shin, Ho Sang; Yeon, Eun Hee; Kwon, Keon Young; Hwang, Ilseon; Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Yongdai; Kim, Chul Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite major advances in lung cancer treatment, early detection remains the most promising way of improving outcomes. To detect lung cancer in earlier stages, many serum biomarkers have been tested. Unfortunately, no single biomarker can reliably detect lung cancer. We combined a set of 2 tumor markers and 4 inflammatory or metabolic markers and tried to validate the diagnostic performance in lung cancer. Methods We collected serum samples from 355 lung cancer patients and 590 control subjects and divided them into training and validation datasets. After measuring serum levels of 6 biomarkers (human epididymis secretory protein 4 [HE4], carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA], regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES], apolipoprotein A2 [ApoA2], transthyretin [TTR], and secretory vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [sVCAM-1]), we tested various sets of biomarkers for their diagnostic performance in lung cancer. Results In a training dataset, the area under the curve (AUC) values were 0.821 for HE4, 0.753 for CEA, 0.858 for RANTES, 0.867 for ApoA2, 0.830 for TTR, and 0.552 for sVCAM-1. A model using all 6 biomarkers and age yielded an AUC value of 0.986 and sensitivity of 93.2% (cutoff at specificity 94%). Applying this model to the validation dataset showed similar results. The AUC value of the model was 0.988, with sensitivity of 93.33% and specificity of 92.00% at the same cutoff point used in the validation dataset. Analyses by stages and histologic subtypes all yielded similar results. Conclusions Combining multiple tumor and systemic inflammatory markers proved to be a valid strategy in the diagnosis of lung cancer. PMID:27722145

  14. SHBG, sex hormones, and inflammatory markers in older women.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Marcello; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria; Giallauria, Francesco; Guralnik, Jack M; Zuliani, Giovanni; Cattabiani, Chiara; Parrino, Stefano; Ablondi, Fabrizio; Dall'aglio, Elisabetta; Ceresini, Graziano; Basaria, Shehzad; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-04-01

    In premenopausal and older women, high testosterone and estradiol (E2) and low SHBG levels are associated with insulin resistance and diabetes, conditions characterized by low-grade inflammation. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between SHBG, total testosterone, total E2, and inflammatory markers in older women. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of 433 women at least 65 yr old from the InCHIANTI Study, Italy, who were not on hormone replacement therapy or recently hospitalized and who had complete data on SHBG, testosterone, E2, C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6r), and TNF-α. Relationships between sex hormones and inflammatory markers were examined by multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, insulin, physical activity, and chronic disease. In fully adjusted analyses, SHBG was negatively associated with CRP (P = 0.007), IL-6 (P = 0.008), and sIL-6r (P = 0.02). In addition, testosterone was positively associated with CRP (P = 0.006), IL-6 (P = 0.001), and TNF-α (P = 0.0002). The negative relationship between testosterone and sIL-6r in an age-adjusted model (P = 0.02) was no longer significant in a fully adjusted model (P = 0.12). E2 was positively associated with CRP (P = 0.002) but not with IL-6 in fully adjusted models. In a final model including E2, testosterone, and SHBG, and all the confounders previously considered, SHBG (0.23 ± 0.08; P = 0.006) and E2 (0.21 ± 0.08; P = 0.007), but not testosterone (P = 0.21), were still significantly associated with CRP. In late postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy, SHBG and E2 are, respectively, negative and positive, independent and significant correlates of a proinflammatory state.

  15. Mucosal integrity and inflammatory markers in the female lower genital tract as potential screening tools for vaginal microbicides.

    PubMed

    Su, H Irene; Schreiber, Courtney A; Fay, Courtney; Parry, Sam; Elovitz, Michal A; Zhang, Jian; Shaunik, Alka; Barnhart, Kurt

    2011-11-01

    In the female genital tract, vaginal colposcopy, endometrial mucosal integrity and inflammatory mediators are potential in vivo biomarkers of microbicide and contraceptive safety. A randomized, blinded crossover trial of 18 subjects comparing effects of nonoxynol-9 vaginal gel (Gynol II; putative inflammatory gel), hydroxyethyl cellulose gel (HEC; putative inert gel) and no gel exposure on endometrial and vaginal epithelial integrity and endometrial and vaginal inflammatory markers [interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES, tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1RA, IL-10, SLPI). Gynol II was associated with more vaginal lesions. No endometrial disruptions were observed across conditions. In the vagina, RANTES (p=.055) and IL-6 (p=.04) were higher after HEC exposure than at baseline. In the endometrium, IL-1β (p=.003) and IL-8 (p=.025) were lower after Gynol II cycles than after no gel. Gynol II and HEC may modulate inflammatory markers in the vagina and endometrium. How these changes relate to infection susceptibility warrants further study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tryptophan, kynurenine, and kynurenine metabolites: Relationship to lifetime aggression and inflammatory markers in human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Coccaro, Emil F.; Lee, Royce; Fanning, Jennifer R.; Fuchs, Dietmar; Goiny, Michel; Erhardt, Sophie; Christensen, Kyle; Brundin, Lena; Coussons-Read, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory proteins are thought to be causally involved in the generation of aggression, possibly due to direct effects of cytokines in the central nervous system and/or by generation of inflammatory metabolites along the tryptophan-kynurenine (TRP/KYN) pathway, including KYN and its active metabolites kynurenic acid (KA), quinolinic acid (QA), and picolinic acid (PA). We examined plasma levels of TRP, KYN, KA, QA, and PA in 172 medication-free, medically healthy, human subjects to determine if plasma levels of these substances are altered as a function of trait aggression, and if they correlate with current plasma levels of inflammatory markers. Plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble interleukin-1 receptor-II (sIL-1RII) protein were also available in these subjects. We found normal levels of TRP but reduced plasma levels of KYN (by 48%), QA (by 6%), and a QA/KA (by 5%) ratio in subjects with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) compared to healthy controls and psychiatric controls. Moreover, the metabolites were not associated with any of the inflammatory markers studied. These data do not support the hypothesis that elevated levels of KYN metabolites would be present in plasma of subjects with IED, and associated with plasma inflammation. However, our data do point to a dysregulation of the KYN pathway metabolites in these subjects. Further work will be necessary to replicate these findings and to understand their role in inflammation and aggression in these subjects. PMID:27318828

  17. Extra virgin olive oil: a key functional food for prevention of immune-inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Aparicio-Soto, Marina; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Rosillo, Ma Ángeles; Castejón, Ma Luisa; Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, Catalina

    2016-11-09

    Nowadays, it is clear that an unhealthy diet is one of the prime factors that contributes to the rise of inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity in the populations of both developed and developing countries. The Mediterranean diet has been associated with a reduced incidence of certain pathologies related to chronic inflammation and the immune system. Olive oil, the principal source of dietary lipids of the Mediterranean diet, possesses a high nutritional quality and a particular composition, which is especially relevant in the case of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO). EVOO is obtained from olives solely by mechanical or other physical preparation methods, under conditions that do not alter the natural composition. EVOO is described as a key bioactive food with multiple beneficial properties and it may be effective in the management of some immune-inflammatory diseases. In this review, the key research is summarised which provides evidence of the beneficial effects of EVOO and its minor components focusing on their mechanisms on immune-inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel disease and sclerosis.

  18. Correlation between testosterone and the inflammatory marker soluble interleukin-6 receptor in older men.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Marcello; Basaria, Shehzad; Ble, Alessandro; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Valenti, Giorgio; Ling, Shari M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    An age-associated decline in testosterone (T) levels and an increase in proinflammatory cytokines contribute to chronic diseases in older men. Whether and how these changes are related is unclear. We hypothesized that T and inflammatory markers are negatively correlated in older men. This was a cross-sectional study. A population-based sample of older men was studied. After excluding participants taking glucocorticoids or antibiotics or those with recent hospitalization, 467 men, aged 65 yr or older, had complete determinations of total T, bioavailable T, SHBG, albumin, IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6r), TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and C-reactive protein. After adjusting for potential confounders, sIL-6r was significantly and inversely correlated with total T (r = -0.20; P < 0.001) and bioavailable T (r = -0.12; P < 0.05). T was not correlated with any other inflammatory marker. These preliminary findings suggest an inverse relationship between T and sIL-6r. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish the causality of this association.

  19. Associated among endocrine, inflammatory, and bone markers, body composition and weight loss induced bone loss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weight loss reduces co-¬morbidities of obesity but decreases bone mass. Our aims were to determine whether adequate dairy intake could prevent weight loss related bone loss and to evaluate the contribution of energy-related hormones and inflammatory markers to bone metabolism. Overweight and obese w...

  20. Relationships between Causes of Fever of Unknown Origin and Inflammatory Markers: A Multicenter Collaborative Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Naito, Toshio; Torikai, Keito; Mizooka, Masafumi; Mitsumoto, Fujiko; Kanazawa, Kenji; Ohno, Shiro; Morita, Hiroyuki; Ukimura, Akira; Mishima, Nobuhiko; Otsuka, Fumio; Ohyama, Yoshio; Nara, Noriko; Murakami, Kazunari; Mashiba, Kouichi; Akazawa, Kenichiro; Yamamoto, Koji; Tanei, Mika; Yamanouchi, Masashi; Senda, Shoichi; Tazuma, Susumu; Hayashi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Although inflammatory markers, such as the white blood cell (WBC) count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin, are widely used to differentiate causes of fever of unknown origin (FUO), little is known about the usefulness of this approach. We evaluated relationships between the causes of classical FUO and the levels of inflammatory markers. A nationwide retrospective study including 17 hospitals affiliated with the Japanese Society of Hospital General Medicine was conducted. This study included 121 patients ≥18 years old diagnosed with "classical FUO" (axillary temperature ≥38.0°C at least twice over a ≥3-week period without elucidation of the cause on three outpatient visits or during three days of hospitalization) between January and December 2011. The causative disease was infectious diseases in 28 patients (23.1%), non-infectious inflammatory disease (NIID) in 37 patients (30.6%), malignancy in 13 patients (10.7%), other in 15 patients (12.4%) and unknown in 28 patients (23.1%). The rate of malignancy was significantly higher for a WBC count of <4,000/μL than for a WBC count of 4,000-8,000/μL (p=0.015). Among the patients with a higher WBC count, the rate of FUO due to NIID tended to be higher and the number of unknown cases tended to be lower. All FUO patients with malignancy showed an ESR of >40 mm/h. A normal ESR appeared to constitute powerful evidence for excluding a diagnosis of malignancy. In contrast, the concentrations of both serum CRP and procalcitonin appeared to be unrelated to the causative disease. The present study identified inflammatory markers that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of classical FUO, providing useful information for future diagnosis.

  1. Effect of Psyllium Fiber Supplementation on C-Reactive Protein: The Trial to Reduce Inflammatory Markers (TRIM)

    PubMed Central

    King, Dana E.; Mainous, Arch G.; Egan, Brent M.; Woolson, Robert F.; Geesey, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE Recent evidence supports a significant association between the intake of dietary fiber and levels of inflammatory markers. The objective of this study was to determine whether daily fiber supplementation would reduce levels of inflammatory markers. METHODS This study was a prospective randomized controlled trial at a single university medical center. Participants were overweight or obese adults with no history of heart disease. The intervention was psyllium supplementation at either 7 or 14 g/d for 3 months compared with no supplements in a control group. The main outcome measure was change in level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration; secondary outcomes included changes in interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, fibrinogen levels, and white blood cell (WBC) count. Protocol completers attended at least 2 visits and took more than 75% of the prescribed fiber dose. RESULTS In this intent-to-treat analysis (n = 158), there were no significant differences between either of the 2 treatment groups and the control group in the amount of change in CRP, fibrinogen, or IL-6 levels or in WBC count (P>.05). In the analysis of protocol completers (n = 132), there also were no significant differences between the groups except for a small decrease in fibrinogen level in the high-fiber group (−6 mg/dL [−0.18 μmol/L] compared with 13 mg/dL [0.38 μmol/L] in the control group, P<.05). CONCLUSION Psyllium fiber supplementation did not significantly reduce CRP levels in overweight or obese individuals in this trial, and changes in other markers were not consistent. Further research is needed to determine whether other fibers or nutrients can reduce inflammatory markers. PMID:18332401

  2. Acute phase protein haptoglobin as inflammatory marker in serum and synovial fluid in an equine model of arthritis.

    PubMed

    Barrachina, Laura; Remacha, Ana Rosa; Soler, Lourdes; García, Natalia; Romero, Antonio; Vázquez, Francisco José; Vitoria, Arantza; Álava, María Ángeles; Lamprave, Fermín; Rodellar, Clementina

    2016-12-01

    Acute phase proteins are useful inflammatory markers in horses. Haptoglobin (Hp) serum level is increased in horses undergoing different inflammatory processes, including arthritis. However, Hp concentration has not been assessed in inflammatory synovial fluid (SF). The aim of the present study was to investigate the Hp response in serum and SF in horses undergoing experimentally induced arthritis. For this purpose, serum and SF samples were collected from 12 animals before amphotericin B-induced arthritis was created (T0, healthy) and 15days after the lesion induction (T1, joint inflammation) and Hp was determined by single radial immunodiffusion. The Hp increase between T0 and T1 was significant in both serum and SF, and serum Hp concentration at T0 was significantly higher than in SF, but significant differences were not found at T1, indicating a higher Hp increase in SF. A significant positive correlation for Hp concentration between serum and SF samples was found. These results highlight the potential usefulness of Hp as inflammatory marker in horses, showing for the first time the increase of Hp in SF from joint inflammation in the horse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Endocannabinoids as endometrial inflammatory markers in lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Bonsale, R; Seyed Sharifi, R; Dirandeh, E; Hedayat, N; Mojtahedin, A; Ghorbanalinia, M; Abolghasemi, A

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to consider endocannabinoid system as inflammatory markers in bovine endometrium to better understand the role of this system in regulating many of the functions that are related to inflammatory condition. At day 26 post-partum, fourteen cows were divided into two groups depending on the inflammatory condition: 1- subclinical endometritis (n = 7, with purulent or mucopurulent uterine discharge detectable in the vagina) and 2- healthy (n = 7, No (muco)) purulent discharge. Blood samples were collected at 26 and 30 days relative to calving to determine plasma tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) concentrations; moreover, uterine biopsy was carried out on day 26 post-partum to measure mRNA abundance of TNF, interleukin-1B (IL1B), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8), endocannabinoid receptor (CNR2), N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPEPLD), fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA) and monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) by real-time PCR. Results showed mean plasma concentrations of TNF and LBP were lower in healthy cows compared to subclinical endometritis cows (p < .05). Relative mRNA expression for NAAA and FAAH was decreased (p < .05), and relative mRNA expression for CNR2 and NAPEPLD increased in cows with subclinical endometritis compared to healthy cows. In conclusion, relative mRNA expression of TNF, IL1B and CXCL8 and plasma concentration of LBP increased during inflammatory condition along with decreased endocannabinoids hydrolyzing enzyme (NAAA and FAAH), increased enzymes that synthesize endocannabinoids (NAPEPLD) and relative gene expression of the endocannabinoid receptor; together, these contribute to increased endocannabinoids levels during inflammation. Overall, we provide evidence that endocannabinoid system is altered in endometrium tissue during inflammation through increased mRNA expression of CNR2 and

  4. SHBG, Sex Hormones, and Inflammatory Markers in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Ceda, Gian Paolo; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria; Giallauria, Francesco; Guralnik, Jack M.; Zuliani, Giovanni; Cattabiani, Chiara; Parrino, Stefano; Ablondi, Fabrizio; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Ceresini, Graziano; Basaria, Shehzad; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Context: In premenopausal and older women, high testosterone and estradiol (E2) and low SHBG levels are associated with insulin resistance and diabetes, conditions characterized by low-grade inflammation. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between SHBG, total testosterone, total E2, and inflammatory markers in older women. Design and Patients: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of 433 women at least 65 yr old from the InCHIANTI Study, Italy, who were not on hormone replacement therapy or recently hospitalized and who had complete data on SHBG, testosterone, E2, C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6r), and TNF-α. Relationships between sex hormones and inflammatory markers were examined by multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, insulin, physical activity, and chronic disease. Results: In fully adjusted analyses, SHBG was negatively associated with CRP (P = 0.007), IL-6 (P = 0.008), and sIL-6r (P = 0.02). In addition, testosterone was positively associated with CRP (P = 0.006), IL-6 (P = 0.001), and TNF-α (P = 0.0002). The negative relationship between testosterone and sIL-6r in an age-adjusted model (P = 0.02) was no longer significant in a fully adjusted model (P = 0.12). E2 was positively associated with CRP (P = 0.002) but not with IL-6 in fully adjusted models. In a final model including E2, testosterone, and SHBG, and all the confounders previously considered, SHBG (0.23 ± 0.08; P = 0.006) and E2 (0.21 ± 0.08; P = 0.007), but not testosterone (P = 0.21), were still significantly associated with CRP. Conclusion: In late postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy, SHBG and E2 are, respectively, negative and positive, independent and significant correlates of a proinflammatory state. PMID:21239514

  5. Blood lipids, infection, and inflammatory markers in the Tsimane of Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Crimmins, Eileen M; Kim, Jung Ki; Winking, Jeff; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Finch, Caleb E

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about blood cholesterol (blood-C) levels under conditions of infection and limited diet. This study examines blood-C and markers of infection and inflammation in the Tsimane of the Bolivian Amazon, indigenous forager farmers living in conditions that model preindustrial European populations by their short life expectancy, high load of infections and inflammation, and limited diets. We use multivariate models to determine the relationships between lipid levels and markers of infection and inflammation. Adult Tsimane (N = 418, age 20-84) were characterized for blood lipids, cells, and inflammatory markers in relation to individual loads of parasites and village region. Most of the Tsimane (60%) carried at least one parasite species, averaging 1.3 species per person. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (total-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were below the U.S. norms and varied inversely with markers of infection and inflammation: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), immunoglobulin (Ig) E and eosinophil count. Although no relationship of parasite load to blood-C was found, there was an association between anemia and parasite prevalence. We conclude that the highly infected environment of the Tsimane is related to low levels of blood total-C, HDL-C, and LDL-C. This may suggest a potential reason why arterial disease is largely absent in the Tsimane. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Predicting the severity of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)-associated coagulopathy with hemostatic molecular markers and vascular endothelial injury markers.

    PubMed

    Iba, Toshiaki; Gando, Satoshi; Murata, Atsuo; Kushimoto, Shigeki; Saitoh, Daizoh; Eguchi, Yutaka; Ohtomo, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Kohji; Koseki, Kazuhide; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Ikeda, Toshiaki; Ishhikura, Hiroyasu; Ueyama, Masashi; Ogura, Yuji; Endo, Shigeatsu; Shimazaki, Shuji

    2007-11-01

    The changes in biomarkers of coagulation or fibrinolysis, anticoagulation, inflammation, and endothelial damage occur in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). The purpose of this study is to assess the prognostic value of these markers in patients with SIRS-associated hypercoagulopathy. Sixty-six SIRS patients with a platelet count less than 15.0 x 10(4)/mm3 in three university hospital intensive care units were enrolled in this prospective, comparative study. Blood samples were obtained on day 0 and day 2. Twelve hemostatic, inflammatory, and vascular endothelial indices were measured and the data were compared between the severe group (patients with a total maximum Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score of 10 or more and nonsurvivors; n = 25) and the less-severe group (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score <10; n = 41). Significant changes between the groups were observed in platelet count, fibrin or fibrinogen degradation products, interleukin-6, soluble thrombomodulin, antithrombin (AT) activity, and protein C activity, both on day 0 and on day 2. In contrast, the d-dimer, soluble fibrin, plasmin-[alpha]2-antiplasmin complex, and E-selectin levels were higher in the severe group only on day 2. No significant difference was seen regarding the thrombin-AT complex and total plasminogen activator inhibitor on both days. A comparison of the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve revealed the AT activity to be the best predictor of a progression of organ dysfunction. The changes in some hemostatic molecular markers and vascular endothelial markers were conspicuous in patients with organ dysfunction. The AT activity is considered to be the most useful predictor of organ dysfunction.

  7. Inflammatory Markers in Blood and Exhaled Air after Short-Term Exposure to Cooking Fumes

    PubMed Central

    Svedahl, Sindre Rabben

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Cooking fumes contain aldehydes, alkanoic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heterocyclic compounds. The inhalation of cooking fumes entails a risk of deleterious health effects. The aim of this study was to see if the inhalation of cooking fumes alters the expression of inflammatory reactions in the bronchial mucosa and its subsequent systemic inflammatory response in blood biomarkers. Methods: Twenty-four healthy volunteers stayed in a model kitchen on two different occasions for 2 or 4h. On the first occasion, there was only exposure to normal air, and on the second, there was exposure to controlled levels of cooking fumes. On each occasion, samples of blood, exhaled air, and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) were taken three times in 24h and inflammatory markers were measured from all samples. Results: There was an increase in the concentration of the d-dimer in blood from 0.27 to 0.28mg ml–1 on the morning after exposure to cooking fumes compared with the levels the morning before (P-value = 0.004). There was also a trend of an increase in interleukin (IL)-6 in blood, ethane in exhaled air, and IL-1β in EBC after exposure to cooking fumes. In a sub-analysis of 12 subjects, there was also an increase in the levels of ethane—from 2.83 parts per billion (ppb) on the morning before exposure to cooking fumes to 3.53 ppb on the morning after exposure (P = 0.013)—and IL-1β—from 1.04 on the morning before exposure to cooking fumes to 1.39 pg ml–1 immediately after (P = 0.024). Conclusion: In our experimental setting, we were able to unveil only small changes in the levels of inflammatory markers in exhaled air and in blood after short-term exposure to moderate concentrations of cooking fumes. PMID:23179989

  8. Association between serum vitamin D concentrations and inflammatory markers in the general adult population.

    PubMed

    Mellenthin, Liesa; Wallaschofski, Henri; Grotevendt, Anne; Völzke, Henry; Nauck, Matthias; Hannemann, Anke

    2014-08-01

    In recent years links among vitamin D deficiency, inflammation and cardio-metabolic disease were proposed. As information regarding the associations between vitamin D and inflammatory markers in the general population is sparse, we investigated the associations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen and white blood cell count (WBC). The study population comprised 2723 men and women aged 25-88 years from the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regressions were performed to assess the associations between 25(OH)D and the three inflammatory markers. The models were adjusted for age, sex, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, anti-inflammatory medication and month of blood sampling. The association between 25(OH)D and WBC was assessed separately in smokers (n = 718) and non-smokers (n = 2005) as effect modification was observed. We detected a U-shaped association between 25(OH)D and hs-CRP with a nadir of 21-25 ng/ml in fully-adjusted linear regression models with restricted cubic splines (p < 0.01; p' < 0.01). We further detected an inverse association between 25(OH)D and fibrinogen (p < 0.01). In addition, there was an inverse association between 25(OH)D and WBC in smokers (p = 0.02) but no association in non-smokers (p = 0.73). Our study confirms a potential role of 25(OH)D in chronic inflammation. Yet, different inflammatory biomarkers are differently associated with 25(OH)D. Beneficial effects of increasing 25(OH)D were observed for fibrinogen and WBC (in smokers only). In contrast, the U-shaped association between 25(OH)D and hs-CRP indicates that ever-increasing 25(OH)D concentrations may also be related to proinflammatory states. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diabetic foot syndrome: Immune-inflammatory features as possible cardiovascular markers in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Maida, Carlo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcerations have been extensively reported as vascular complications of diabetes mellitus associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS), as defined by the World Health Organization, is an “ulceration of the foot (distally from the ankle and including the ankle) associated with neuropathy and different grades of ischemia and infection”. Pathogenic events able to cause diabetic foot ulcers are multifactorial. Among the commonest causes of this pathogenic pathway it’s possible to consider peripheral neuropathy, foot deformity, abnormal foot pressures, abnormal joint mobility, trauma, peripheral artery disease. Several studies reported how diabetic patients show a higher mortality rate compared to patients without diabetes and in particular these studies under filled how cardiovascular mortality and morbidity is 2-4 times higher among patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus. This higher degree of cardiovascular morbidity has been explained as due to the observed higher prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factor, of asymptomatic findings of cardiovascular diseases, and of prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in diabetic patients with foot complications. In diabetes a fundamental pathogenic pathway of most of vascular complications has been reported as linked to a complex interplay of inflammatory, metabolic and procoagulant variables. These pathogenetic aspects have a direct interplay with an insulin resistance, subsequent obesity, diabetes, hypertension, prothrombotic state and blood lipid disorder. Involvement of inflammatory markers such as IL-6 plasma levels and resistin in diabetic subjects as reported by Tuttolomondo et al confirmed the pathogenetic issue of the a “adipo-vascular” axis that may contribute to cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. This “adipo-vascular axis” in patients with type 2 diabetes has been reported as characterized

  10. Differences in Inflammatory Markers between Nulliparous Women Admitted to Hospitals in Pre-Active versus Active Labor

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Jeremy L.; Lamp, Jane M.; Lowe, Nancy K.; Gillespie, Shannon L.; Sinnott, Loraine T.; Mccarthy, Donna O.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if labor-associated inflammatory markers differ between low-risk, nulliparous women in pre-active vs. active labor at hospital admission and over time. Study Design Prospective comparative study of low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset at term (N=118) sampled from two large Midwestern hospitals. Circulating concentrations of inflammatory markers were measured at admission and again 2 and 4 hours later: namely, neutrophil and monocyte counts; and serum inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-10) and chemokines (IL-8). Biomarker concentrations and their patterns of change over time were compared between pre-active (n=63) and active (n=55) labor admission groups using Mann-Whitney U tests. Results Concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10 in the active labor admission group were significantly higher than concentrations in the pre-active labor admission group at all three time points. Neutrophil levels were significantly higher in the active group at 2 and 4 hours after admission. The rate of increase in neutrophils and IL-10 between admission and 2 hours later was faster in the active group (p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively). Conclusions Circulating concentrations of several inflammatory biomarkers are higher and their rate of change over time since admission is faster among low-risk, nulliparous women admitted to hospitals in active labor, as compared to those admitted in pre-active labor. More research is needed to determine if progressive changes in inflammatory biomarkers might be a useful adjunct to improving the assessment of labor progression and determining the optimal timing of labor admission. PMID:25086275

  11. New serological markers in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Márta; Müller, Katalin Eszter; Papp, Mária; Lakatos, Péter László; Csöndes, Mihály; Veres, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum of serological markers associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rapidly growing. Due to frequently delayed or missed diagnoses, the application of non-invasive diagnostic tests for IBD, as well as differentiation between ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), would be useful in the pediatric population. In addition, the combination of pancreatic autoantibodies and antibodies against Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies/perinuclear cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA) improved the sensitivity of serological markers in pediatric patients with CD and UC. Some studies suggested that age-associated differences in the patterns of antibodies may be present, particularly in the youngest children. In CD, most patients develop stricturing or perforating complications, and a significant number of patients undergo surgery during the disease course. Based on recent knowledge, serum antibodies are qualitatively and quantitatively associated with complicated CD behavior and CD-related surgery. Pediatric UC is characterized by extensive colitis and a high rate of colectomy. In patients with UC, high levels of anti-CBir1 and pANCA are associated with the development of pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Thus, serologic markers for IBD can be applied to stratify IBD patients into more homogeneous subgroups with respect to disease progression. In conclusion, identification of patients at an increased risk of rapid disease progression is of great interest, as the application of early and more aggressive pharmaceutical intervention could have the potential to alter the natural history of IBD, and reduce complications and hospitalizations. PMID:24803798

  12. Associations among endocrine, inflammatory, and bone markers, body composition and weight loss induced bone loss.

    PubMed

    Labouesse, Marie A; Gertz, Erik R; Piccolo, Brian D; Souza, Elaine C; Schuster, Gertrud U; Witbracht, Megan G; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Adams, Sean H; Keim, Nancy L; Van Loan, Marta D

    2014-07-01

    Weight loss reduces co-morbidities of obesity, but decreases bone mass. Our aims were to (1) determine if adequate dairy intake attenuates weight loss-induced bone loss; (2) evaluate the associations of endocrine, inflammatory and bone markers, anthropometric and other parameters to bone mineral density and content (BMD, BMC) pre- and post-weight loss; and (3) model the contribution of these variables to post weight-loss BMD and BMC. Overweight/obese women (BMI: 28-37 kg/m2) were enrolled in an energy reduced (-500 kcal/d; -2092 kJ/d) diet with adequate dairy (AD: 3-4 servings/d; n=25, 32.2±8.8 years) or low dairy (LD: ≤1 serving/d; n=26, 31.7±8.4 years). BMD, BMC and body composition were measured by DXA. Bone markers (CTX, PYD, BAP, OC), endocrine (PTH, vitamin D, leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, amylin, insulin, GLP-1, PAI-1, HOMA) and inflammatory markers (CRP, IL1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, cortisol) were measured in serum or plasma. PA was assessed by accelerometry. Following weight loss, AD intake resulted in significantly greater (p=0.004) lumbar spine BMD and serum osteocalcin (p=0.004) concentration compared to LD. Pre- and post-body fat was negatively associated with hip and lumbar spine BMC (r=-0.28, p=0.04 to -0.45, p=0.001). Of note were the significant negative associations among bone markers and IL-1β, TNFα and CRP ranging from r = -0.29 (p=0.04) to r = -0.34 (p=0.01); magnitude of associations did not change with weight loss. Adiponectin was negatively related to change in osteocalcin. Factor analysis resulted in 8 pre- and post-weight loss factors. Pre-weight loss factors accounted for 13.7% of the total variance in pre-weight loss hip BMD; post-weight loss factors explained 19.6% of the total variance in post-weight loss hip BMD. None of the factors contributed to the variance in lumbar spine BMD. AD during weight loss resulted in higher lumbar spine BMD and osteocalcin compared to LD. Significant negative associations were observed between bone

  13. Zingerone Suppresses Liver Inflammation Induced by Antibiotic Mediated Endotoxemia through Down Regulating Hepatic mRNA Expression of Inflammatory Markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Peritonitis Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Lokender; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-induced endotoxin release is associated with high mortality rate even when appropriate antibiotics are used for the treatment of severe infections in intensive care units. Since liver is involved in systemic clearance and detoxification of endotoxin hence it becomes a primary target organ for endotoxin mediated inflammation. Currently available anti-inflammatory drugs give rise to serious side effects. Hence, there is an urgent need for safe and effective anti-inflammatory therapy. It is likely that anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and neutraceutical agents may have the potential to reduce the endotoxin mediated inflammation and complications associated with endotoxin release. Keeping this in mind, the present study was planned to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of zingerone (active compound of zingiber officinale) against liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia. The selected antibiotics capable of releasing high content of endotoxin were employed for their in vivo efficacy in P.aeruginosa peritonitis model. Released endotoxin induced inflammation and zingerone as co-anti-inflammatory therapy significantly reduced inflammatory response. Improved liver histology and reduced inflammatory markers MDA, RNI, MPO, tissue damage markers (AST, ALT, ALP) and inflammatory cytokines (MIP-2, IL-6 and TNF-α) were indicative of therapeutic potential of zingerone. The mechanism of action of zingerone may be related to significant inhibition of the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers (TLR4, RelA, NF-kB2, TNF- α, iNOS, COX-2) indicating that zingerone interferes with cell signalling pathway and suppresses hyper expression of cell signaling molecules of inflammatory pathway. Zingerone therapy significantly protected liver from endotoxin induced inflammatory damage by down regulating biochemical as well as molecular markers of inflammation. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that zingerone is a potent anti-inflammatory

  14. Zingerone suppresses liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia through down regulating hepatic mRNA expression of inflammatory markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa peritonitis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lokender; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-induced endotoxin release is associated with high mortality rate even when appropriate antibiotics are used for the treatment of severe infections in intensive care units. Since liver is involved in systemic clearance and detoxification of endotoxin hence it becomes a primary target organ for endotoxin mediated inflammation. Currently available anti-inflammatory drugs give rise to serious side effects. Hence, there is an urgent need for safe and effective anti-inflammatory therapy. It is likely that anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and neutraceutical agents may have the potential to reduce the endotoxin mediated inflammation and complications associated with endotoxin release. Keeping this in mind, the present study was planned to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of zingerone (active compound of zingiber officinale) against liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia. The selected antibiotics capable of releasing high content of endotoxin were employed for their in vivo efficacy in P.aeruginosa peritonitis model. Released endotoxin induced inflammation and zingerone as co-anti-inflammatory therapy significantly reduced inflammatory response. Improved liver histology and reduced inflammatory markers MDA, RNI, MPO, tissue damage markers (AST, ALT, ALP) and inflammatory cytokines (MIP-2, IL-6 and TNF-α) were indicative of therapeutic potential of zingerone. The mechanism of action of zingerone may be related to significant inhibition of the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers (TLR4, RelA, NF-kB2, TNF- α, iNOS, COX-2) indicating that zingerone interferes with cell signalling pathway and suppresses hyper expression of cell signaling molecules of inflammatory pathway. Zingerone therapy significantly protected liver from endotoxin induced inflammatory damage by down regulating biochemical as well as molecular markers of inflammation. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that zingerone is a potent anti-inflammatory

  15. Intakes and sources of dietary sugars and their association with metabolic and inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Laura; Imamura, Fumiaki; Brage, Soren; Griffin, Simon J; Wareham, Nicholas J; Forouhi, Nita G

    2018-08-01

    Associations of dietary sugars with metabolic and inflammatory markers may vary according to the source of the sugars. The aim of this study was to examine the association of dietary sugars from different sources [beverages (liquids), foods (solids), extrinsic (free) or intrinsic (non-free)] with metabolic and inflammatory markers. Population-based cross-sectional study of adults in the East of England (n = 9678). Sugar intakes were estimated using food frequency questionnaires. Fasting glycated haemoglobin, glucose, insulin, and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) were measured and indices of metabolic risk were derived (homeostatic model of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR and metabolic risk z-score). In multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders including BMI and TEI, sugars from liquids were positively associated with ln-CRP [b-coefficient (95%CI), 0.14 (0.05,0.22) per 10%TEI] and metabolic risk z-score [0.13 (0.07,0.18)]. Free sugars were positively associated with ln-HOMA-IR [0.05 (0.03,0.08)] and metabolic risk z-score [0.09 (0.06,0.12)]. Sugars from solids were not associated with any outcome. Among major dietary contributors to intakes (g/d), sugars in fruit, vegetables, dairy products/egg dishes, cakes/biscuits/confectionary and squash/juice drinks were not associated, but sugar added to tea, coffee, cereal was significantly positively associated with all outcomes. Sugars in 100% juice [0.16 (0.06,0.25) per 10%TEI] and other non-alcoholic beverages [0.13 (0.03,0.23)] were positively associated with metabolic risk z-score. Higher intakes of sugars from non-alcoholic beverages and sugar added to tea, coffee, cereal were associated with glycaemia and inflammatory markers. Sugars from solids were not associated, irrespective of whether they were intrinsic or extrinsic. Positive associations of free sugars were largely explained by contribution of beverages to intake. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  16. Newly developed PPAR-alpha agonist (R)-K-13675 inhibits the secretion of inflammatory markers without affecting cell proliferation or tube formation.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Ken; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Mastuo, Yoshino; Uehara, Yoshinari; Saku, Keijiro

    2009-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) is a key regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism and has been implicated in inflammation. The vascular effects of activator for PPARs, particularly PPAR-alpha, on vascular cells remain to be fully elucidated. Therefore, we analyzed the hypothesis that newly developed (R)-K-13675 decreases the secretion of inflammatory markers without affecting cell proliferation or tube formation. Human coronary endothelial cells (HCECs) were maintained in different doses of (R)-K-13675 under serum starvation. After 20h, the levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted (RANTES), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) secreted in the medium and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) in cell lysate were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Upon treatment with (R)-K-13675 at 0, 10, 20, 50 and 100nM, with the inflammatory markers at 0nM as 100 (arbitrary units), MCP-1 levels were significantly suppressed (94+/-9, 88+/-2, 80+/-5 and 74+/-11, respectively). RANTES, IL-6 and INF-gamma levels were also significantly suppressed (RANTES: 92+/-2, 74+/-9, 64+/-7 and 60+/-2, respectively, IL-6: 97+/-2, 89+/-10, 82+/-1 and 66+/-7, respectively, INF-gamma: 98+/-7, 94+/-3, 76+/-8 and 64+/-8, respectively). NFkappaB levels were also decreased to 91+/-5, 90+/-5, 84+/-7 and 82+/-8, respectively. In addition, (R)-K-13675 did not affect HCEC proliferation or tube formation at up to 100nM. Thus, (R)-K-13675 was associated with the inhibition of inflammatory responses without affecting cell proliferation or angiogenesis, and subsequently may induce an anti-atherosclerotic effect.

  17. Inflammatory markers and exposure to airborne particles among workers in a Swedish pulp and paper mill.

    PubMed

    Westberg, Håkan; Elihn, Karine; Andersson, Eva; Persson, Bodil; Andersson, Lennart; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Karlsson, Cathe; Sjögren, Bengt

    2016-07-01

    To study the relationship between exposure to airborne particles in a pulp and paper mill and markers of inflammation and coagulation in blood. Personal sampling of inhalable dust was performed for 72 subjects working in a Swedish pulp and paper mill. Stationary measurements were used to study concentrations of total dust, respirable dust, PM10 and PM2.5, the particle surface area and the particle number concentrations. Markers of inflammation, interleukins (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and fibrinogen and markers of coagulation factor VIII, von Willebrand, plasminogen activator inhibitor, and D-dimer were measured in plasma or serum. Sampling was performed on the last day of the work free period of 5 days, before and after the shift the first day of work and after the shifts the second and third day. In a mixed model analysis, the relationship between particulate exposures and inflammatory markers was determined. Sex, age, smoking, and BMI were included as covariates. The average 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) air concentration levels of inhalable dust were 0.30 mg/m(3), range 0.005-3.3 mg/m(3). The proxies for average 8-h TWAs of respirable dust were 0.045 mg/m(3). Significant and consistent positive relations were found between several exposure metrics (PM 10, total and inhalable dust) and CRP, SAA and fibrinogen taken post-shift, suggesting a dose-effect relationship. This study supports a relationship between occupational particle exposure and established inflammatory markers, which may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  18. Identification of Apolipoprotein C-I as a Potential Wilms’ Tumor Marker after Excluding Inflammatory Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junjie; Guo, Fei; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Da; Yang, Heying; Yu, Jiekai; Niu, Lili; Yang, Fuquan; Zheng, Shu; Wang, Jiaxiang

    2014-01-01

    Wilms’ tumor is one of the most common malignant tumors observed in children, and its early diagnosis is important for late-stage treatment and prognosis. We previously screened and identified protein markers for Wilms’ tumor; however, these markers lacked specificity, and some were associated with inflammation. In the current study, serum samples from children with Wilms’ tumors were compared with those of healthy controls and patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). After exclusion of factors associated with inflammation, specific protein markers for Wilms’ tumors were identified. After comparing the protein peak values obtained from all three groups, a protein with a m/z of 6438 Da was specified. Purification and identification of the target protein using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-linearion trap mass spectrometry(2D-LC-LTQ-MS) mass spectrometry, respectively, revealed that it was apolipoprotein C-I (APO C-I). Thus, APO C-I is a specific protein marker for Wilms’ tumor. PMID:25222555

  19. Monocyte Phenotype and Polyfunctionality Are Associated With Elevated Soluble Inflammatory Markers, Cytomegalovirus Infection, and Functional and Cognitive Decline in Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    de Pablo-Bernal, Rebeca Sara; Cañizares, Julio; Rosado, Isaac; Galvá, María Isabel; Alvarez-Ríos, Ana Isabel; Carrillo-Vico, Antonio; Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; Muñoz-Fernández, María Ángeles; Rafii-El-Idrissi Benhnia, Mohammed; Pacheco, Yolanda María; Ramos, Raquel; Leal, Manuel; Ruiz-Mateos, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    Monocytes are mediators of the inflammatory response and include three subsets: classical, intermediate, and nonclassical. Little is known about the phenotypical and functional age-related changes in monocytes and their association with soluble inflammatory biomarkers, cytomegalovirus infection, and functional and mental decline. We assayed the activation ex vivo and the responsiveness to TLR2 and TLR4 agonists in vitro in the three subsets and assessed the intracellular production of IL1-alpha (α), IL1-beta (β), IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-10 of elderly adults (median 83 [67–90] years old; n = 20) compared with young controls (median 35 [27–40] years old; n = 20). Ex vivo, the elderly adults showed a higher percentage of classical monocytes that expressed intracellular IL1-α (p = .001), IL1-β (p = .001), IL-6 (p = .002), and IL-8 (p = .007). Similar results were obtained both for the intermediate and nonclassical subsets and in vitro. Polyfunctionality was higher in the elderly adults. The functionality ex vivo was strongly associated with soluble inflammatory markers. The activation phenotype was independently associated with the anti-cytomegalovirus IgG levels and with functional and cognitive decline. These data demonstrate that monocytes are key cell candidates for the source of the high soluble inflammatory levels. Our findings suggest that cytomegalovirus infection might be a driving force in the activation of monocytes and is associated with the functional and cognitive decline. PMID:26286603

  20. Dietary choline and folate relationships with serum hepatic inflammatory injury markers in Taiwanese adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Pao; Chen, Chien-Hung; Kuo, Chang-Sheng; Kuo, Hsing-Tao; Huang, Kuang-Ta; Shen, Yu-Li; Chang, Chin-Hao; Huang, Rwei Fen S

    The relationships of dietary choline and folate intake with hepatic function have yet to be established in the Taiwanese population. We investigated the associations of choline and folate intake with hepatic inflammatory injury in Taiwanese adults. Blood samples and data on dietary choline components and folate intake from 548 Taiwanese adults without pathological liver disease were collected. Dietary intake was derived using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Serum liver injury markers of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and hepatitis viral infection were measured. Elevated serum hepatic injury markers (>40 U/L) were associated with low folate and free choline intake (p<0.05). Folate intake was the most significant dietary determinant of serum aspartate transaminase concentration (beta=-0.05, p=0.04), followed by free choline intake (beta=-0.249, p=0.055). Folate intake exceeding the median level (268 μg/d) was correlated with a reduced rate of hepatitis viral infection (p=0.032) and with normalized serum aspartate transaminase (odds ratio [OR]=0.998, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.996-1, p=0.042) and alanine transaminase (OR=0.998, 95% CI=0.007-1, p=0.019). Total choline intake exceeding the median level (233 mg/d) was associated with normalized serum aspartate transaminase (OR=0.518, 95% CI=0.360-0.745, p=0.018). The newly established relationships of dietary intake of total choline and folate with normalized hepatic inflammatory markers can guide the development of dietary choline and folate intake recommendations for Taiwanese adults.

  1. Effect of the menopausal transition and physical activity energy expenditure on inflammatory markers: a MONET group study.

    PubMed

    Razmjou, Sahar; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Doucet, Eric; Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi; Fellahi, Soraya; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis

    2016-12-01

    Menopausal transition is usually associated with changes in body composition and a decrease in physical activity energy expenditure. Adipose tissue, especially visceral fat, is an important source of inflammatory markers, which contributes to the development of a proinflammatory state. Conversely, high levels of physical activity and exercise have an anti-inflammatory effect. This study aimed to investigate the impact of menopausal transition and physical activity on inflammatory makers. One hundred two healthy premenopausal women participated in a 5-year longitudinal study. The present secondary analyses were performed on 58 participants with a full set of data (age: 49.6 ± 1.7 y; body mass index: 23.3 ± 2.4 kg/m). Measures included body composition, waist circumference, fasting glucose and insulin levels, insulin sensitivity, plasma lipid levels, cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity energy expenditure, and inflammatory markers. Repeated measure analyses revealed, after the 5-year follow-up, significant increases in ferritin, interleukin-8 (IL-8), and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 1 and 2 (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) (P < 0.001), and a significant decrease in serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (P < 0.05). Positive correlations were observed between change (year 5 to baseline) in waist circumference and changes in high-sensitive C-reactive protein, orosomucoid (ORM), haptoglobin, and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) levels (0.26 ≤ r ≤ 0.34; P < 0.05), and between change in peripheral fat and changes in ORM, ApoB, sTNFR2 (0.28 ≤ r ≤ 0.39; P < 0.05). On the contrary, negative correlations were found between change in physical activity energy expenditure and changes in ORM as well as ApoB (r = -0.35 and r = -0.36, respectively; P < 0.05). No significant correlations were found between change in cardiorespiratory fitness, glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity and changes in inflammatory markers. Multiple

  2. Inflammatory mediators of cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Isabelle E.; Pascoe, Michaela C.; Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Bianca; Kapczinski, Flavio; Soares, Jair C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recent studies have pointed to neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and neurotrophic factors as key mediators in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Little is however known about the cascade of biological episodes underlying the cognitive deficits observed during the acute and euthymic phases of bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of this review is to assess the potential association between cognitive impairment and biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and neurotrophic activity in BD. Methods Scopus (all databases), Pubmed and Ovid Medline were systematically searched with no language or year restrictions, up to November 2013, for human studies that collected both inflammatory markers and cognitive data in BD. Selected search terms were bipolar disorder, depression, mania, psychosis, inflammatory, cognitive and neurotrophic. Results Ten human studies satisfied the criteria for consideration. The findings showed that high levels of peripheral inflammatory-cytokine, oxidative stress and reduced brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were associated with poor cognitive performance. The BDNF val66met polymorphism is a potential vulnerability factor for cognitive impairment in BD. Conclusions Current data provide preliminary evidence of a link between the cognitive decline observed in BD and mechanisms of neuroinflammation and neuroprotection. The identification of BD specific inflammatory markers and polymorphisms in inflammatory response genes may be of assistance for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24862657

  3. A life course approach to explore the biological embedding of socioeconomic position and social mobility through circulating inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Castagné, Raphaële; Delpierre, Cyrille; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Campanella, Gianluca; Guida, Florence; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios; Hosnijeh, Fatemeh Saberi; Lang, Thierry; Vermeulen, Roel; Vineis, Paolo; Stringhini, Silvia; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc

    2016-04-27

    Lower socioeconomic position (SEP) has consistently been associated with poorer health. To explore potential biological embedding and the consequences of SEP experiences from early life to adulthood, we investigate how SEP indicators at different points across the life course may be related to a combination of 28 inflammation markers. Using blood-derived inflammation profiles measured by a multiplex array in 268 participants from the Italian component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, we evaluate the association between early life, young adulthood and later adulthood SEP with each inflammatory markers separately, or by combining them into an inflammatory score. We identified an increased inflammatory burden in participants whose father had a manual occupation, through increased plasma levels of CSF3 (G-CSF; β = 0.29; P = 0.002), and an increased inflammatory score (β = 1.96; P = 0.029). Social mobility was subsequently modelled by the interaction between father's occupation and the highest household occupation, revealing a significant difference between "stable Non-manual" profiles over the life course versus "Manual to Non-manual" profiles (β = 2.38, P = 0.023). Low SEP in childhood is associated with modest increase in adult inflammatory burden; however, the analysis of social mobility suggests a stronger effect of an upward social mobility over the life course.

  4. A life course approach to explore the biological embedding of socioeconomic position and social mobility through circulating inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    Castagné, Raphaële; Delpierre, Cyrille; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Campanella, Gianluca; Guida, Florence; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios; Hosnijeh, Fatemeh Saberi; Lang, Thierry; Vermeulen, Roel; Vineis, Paolo; Stringhini, Silvia; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Lower socioeconomic position (SEP) has consistently been associated with poorer health. To explore potential biological embedding and the consequences of SEP experiences from early life to adulthood, we investigate how SEP indicators at different points across the life course may be related to a combination of 28 inflammation markers. Using blood-derived inflammation profiles measured by a multiplex array in 268 participants from the Italian component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, we evaluate the association between early life, young adulthood and later adulthood SEP with each inflammatory markers separately, or by combining them into an inflammatory score. We identified an increased inflammatory burden in participants whose father had a manual occupation, through increased plasma levels of CSF3 (G-CSF; β = 0.29; P = 0.002), and an increased inflammatory score (β = 1.96; P = 0.029). Social mobility was subsequently modelled by the interaction between father’s occupation and the highest household occupation, revealing a significant difference between “stable Non-manual” profiles over the life course versus “Manual to Non-manual” profiles (β = 2.38, P = 0.023). Low SEP in childhood is associated with modest increase in adult inflammatory burden; however, the analysis of social mobility suggests a stronger effect of an upward social mobility over the life course. PMID:27117519

  5. [Association between inflammatory markers and microbial translocation in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection taking antiretroviral treatment].

    PubMed

    Reus Bañuls, Sergio; Portilla Sogorb, Joaquín; Sanchez-Paya, José; Boix Martínez, Vicente; Giner Oncina, Livia; Frances, Rubén; Such, José; Merino Lucas, Esperanza; Gimeno Gascón, Adelina

    2014-01-21

    Inflammatory biomarkers are increased in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Antiretroviral treatment (ART) improves some parameters but do not normalize them. The aim of this study is to determine those factors (including microbial translocation) associated with higher inflammation in HIV treated patients. Transversal observational study. HIV patients receiving ART with an HIV viral load (VL)<400 copies/mL. Selection of patients: consecutively between November 2011 and January 2012. Main variable: plasma levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Main explanatory variable: microbial translocation markers (16S ribosomal DNA and sCD14). Patients with IL-6 or TNF-α levels above percentile 75 (group 1) were compared with the rest of patients (group 2). Odds ratio (OR) were determined. Eighty-one patients were included (73% male, median age 45 years, 48% stage C). Twenty-six percent had chronic hepatitis C. Median CD4 cell was 493/mm(3) and 30% had detectable HIV VL. 16S ribosomal DNA was detected in 21% of patients. Factors associated with the higher levels of inflammatory markers were 16S ribosomal DNA (OR 77, P<.0001), sCD14 levels (P<.0001) and history of cardiovascular disease (OR 15, P<.01). In multivariate analysis, associations remained for 16S ribosomal DNA (OR 62, P<.0001) and previous cardiovascular disease (OR 25, P<.01). In patients with HIV infection receiving treatment, the higher levels of inflammatory markers are associated with microbial translocation and past cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Formula milk feeding does not increase the release of the inflammatory marker calprotectin, compared to human milk.

    PubMed

    Rosti, L; Braga, M; Fulcieri, C; Sammarco, G; Manenti, B; Costa, E

    2011-01-01

    Calprotectin is a protein released into stools, used as a marker of inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases. We tested the hypothesis that cow's milk protein in formula milk may increase the intestinal release of calprotectin, as a consequence of a subclinical inflammatory reaction. At 12 weeks of age, we measured fecal calprotectin by an immunoenzyme assay (Calprest, Eurospital, Trieste, Italy), in 38 exclusively breastfed and in 32 exclusively formula-fed infants. Fecal calprotectin levels were not different in the two groups (p = 0.09), although a trend to higher values in infants with colic, or with family history of allergies was noted. This suggest that, in general, formula milk does not promote activation of an intestinal inflammatory reaction, compared to human milk, although a subclinical activation of the inflammatory response in infants at risk for allergic diseases may be present.

  7. EFFECT OF THREE DIFFERENT SIZED FRACTIONS OF OUTDOOR PM ON INFLAMMATORY AND OXIDATIVE MARKERS IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECT OF THREE DIFFERENT SIZED FRACTIONS OF OUTDOOR PM ON INFLAMMATORY MARKERS IN VIVO
    C A J Dick', P Singh2, P. Evansky3, S Becker3 and M I Gilmour3.
    'Center For Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 2NCSU, Raleigh, NC 'Experimental Toxicolog...

  8. Evaluation of Chitotriosidase as a Marker of Inflammatory Status in Critical Limb Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ciocan, Răzvan A; Drugan, Cristina; Gherman, Claudia D; Cătană, Cristina-Sorina; Ciocan, Andra; Drugan, Tudor C; Bolboacă, Sorana D

    2017-11-01

    Chitotriosidase is an enzyme secreted by activated macrophages. This study aims to investigate the usefulness of circulating chitotriosidase activity as a marker of inflammatory status in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). An observational gender-matched case-control study was conducted on patients hospitalized with the primary diagnosis of CLI, as well as a control group. The control group consisted of healthy volunteers. Forty-three patients were included in each group. Similar demographic characteristics (median age of 60-62 years and overweight) were observed in both groups. Chitotriosidase activity ranged from 110 nmol/ml/hr to 1530 nmol/ml/hr in the CLI group and from 30 nmol/ml/hr to 440 nmol/ml/hr in the control group; demonstrating significantly elevated values in the CLI group ( p <0.001). Median plasma chitotriosidase activity was significantly elevated in smokers compared with non-smokers in both groups ( p <0.05). However, this activity had higher values in CLI than in control subjects. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was then performed in order to verify the diagnostic accuracy of chitotriosidase as an inflammatory biomarker in CLI. Circulating chitotriosidase is a test which can potentially be used for the monitoring of CLI patients without other inflammatory conditions. However, the interpretation of elevated values must take into account the inflammatory response induced by tobacco exposure. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  9. Social mobility and inflammatory and metabolic markers at older ages: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Na-Ek, Nat; Demakakos, Panayotes

    2017-03-01

    Since our knowledge of the associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) over the life course and inflammatory and metabolic markers, which are excellent predictors of cardiovascular disease, remains limited, we examined the association between social mobility over the life course and these markers at older ages. Our study used cross-sectionally collected data from 6142 participants aged 50 years and older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We estimated linear and logistic models of the associations between social mobility, using information on childhood and adult SEP, C reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Our models were gradually adjusted for age, sex, chronic diseases, obesity, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking status and depressive symptoms. Participants who experienced upward social mobility had higher CRP, fibrinogen and HbA1c levels compared with those who had stable high SEP over the life course, but lower compared with those who experienced downward social mobility or had stable low SEP. They also had lower HDL levels compared with those who had stable high SEP or downwardly mobile. Adjustment for covariates partially explained the associations between social mobility and CRP and HDL, and fully explained those between social mobility and fibrinogen and HbA1c. Social mobility is associated with inflammatory and metabolic markers at older ages with some of the observed associations persisting after accounting for covariates. Upward social mobility appears to partially reverse the damaging effect of childhood social disadvantage on inflammatory profiles in older ages. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Self-rated health among pregnant women: associations with objective health indicators, psychological functioning, and serum inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Christian, Lisa M; Iams, Jay; Porter, Kyle; Leblebicioglu, Binnaz

    2013-12-01

    Biobehavioral correlates of self-rated health in pregnancy are largely unknown. The goals of this study were to examine, in pregnant women, associations of self-rated health with (1) demographics, objective health status, health behaviors, and psychological factors, and (2) serum inflammatory markers. In the second trimester of pregnancy, 101 women provided a blood sample, completed measures of psychosocial stress, health status, and health behaviors, and received a comprehensive periodontal examination. The following independently predicted poorer self-rated health: (1) greater psychological stress, (2) greater objective health diagnoses, (3) higher body mass index, and (4) past smoking (versus never smoking). Poorer self-rated health was associated with higher serum interleukin-1β (p = 0.02) and marginally higher macrophage migration inhibitory factor (p = 0.06). These relationships were not fully accounted for by behavioral/psychological factors. This study provides novel data regarding factors influencing subjective ratings of health and the association of self-rated health with serum inflammatory markers in pregnant women.

  11. Clinical and atopic parameters and airway inflammatory markers in childhood asthma: a factor analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leung, T; Wong, G; Ko, F; Lam, C; Fok, T

    2005-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have repeatedly shown weak correlations among lung function parameters, atopy, exhaled nitric oxide level (FeNO), and airway inflammatory markers, suggesting that they are non-overlapping characteristics of asthma in adults. A study was undertaken to determine, using factor analysis, whether the above features represent separate dimensions of childhood asthma. Methods: Clinically stable asthmatic patients aged 7–18 years underwent spirometric testing, methacholine bronchial challenge, blood sampling for atopy markers and chemokine levels (macrophage derived chemokine (MDC), thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC), and eotaxin), FeNO, and chemokines (MDC and eotaxin) and leukotriene B4 measurements in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Results: The mean (SD) forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FeNO of 92 patients were 92.1 (15.9)% predicted and 87.3 (65.7) ppb, respectively. 59% of patients received inhaled corticosteroids. Factor analysis selected four different factors, explaining 55.5% of total variance. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was 0.587. Plasma total and specific IgE levels, peripheral blood eosinophil percentage, and FeNO loaded on factor 1; plasma TARC and MDC concentrations on factor 2; MDC, eotaxin and leukotriene B4 concentrations in EBC on factor 3; and plasma eotaxin concentration together with clinical indices including body mass index and disease severity score loaded on factor 4. Post hoc factor analyses revealed similar results when outliers were excluded. Conclusions: The results suggest that atopy related indices and airway inflammation are separate dimensions in the assessment of childhood asthma, and inflammatory markers in peripheral blood and EBC are non-overlapping factors of asthma. PMID:16055623

  12. Association of socioeconomic status with inflammatory markers: a two cohort comparison.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Sílvia; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Guessous, Idris; Paccaud, Fred; Barros, Henrique; Stringhini, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    To assess the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and inflammatory markers using two different European population samples. We used data from the CoLaus (N=6412, Lausanne, Switzerland) and EPIPorto (N=1205, Porto, Portugal) studies. Education and occupational position were used as indicators of socioeconomic status (SES). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was available for both cohorts. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were available in CoLaus; leukocyte count and fibrinogen in EPIPorto. We showed that low SES was significantly associated with high inflammation in both studies. We also showed that behavioural factors contributed the most to SES differences in inflammation. In both studies the larger difference between the lowest and the highest SES was observed for hs-CRP. In the Swiss sample, a linear association between education and hs-CRP persisted after adjustment for all mediating factors and confounders considered (p for linear trend <0.001). Large social differences exist in inflammatory activity, in part independently from demographic and behavioural factors, chronic conditions and medication use. SES differences in inflammation are also similar in countries with different underlying socioeconomic conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamics of inflammatory markers in post-acute stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Manolescu, Bogdan Nicolae; Berteanu, Mihai; Dumitru, Luminița; Dinu, Horațiu; Iliescu, Alina; Fărcășanu, Ileana Cornelia; Oprea, Eliza; Vlădoiu, Suzana; Popa, Oana; Ianăș, Olga

    2011-12-01

    Stroke is a pathological condition associated with an enhanced inflammatory response that has a multifactorial etiology. We evaluated the dynamic of plasma concentrations of IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, soluble form of intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] during the rehabilitation of post-acute stroke patients (n = 20), in parallel with control subjects (n = 24). Stroke patients had significantly increased concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, and Lp(a) when compared to healthy controls. It was found that the changes in the IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α concentrations associated with the pathological condition were statistically significant (χ2 = 4.81, p = 0.028, χ2 = 10.40, p = 0.005 and χ2 = 6.73, p = 0.034, respectively). The decrease of Lp(a) during the rehabilitation had statistical significance (p = 0.043), while the decrease of IL-1α had marginal significance (p = 0.071). IL-1α, TNF-α, and Lp(a) concentrations were significantly negatively correlated with the Barthel index values, suggesting that the decrease of these inflammatory markers was beneficial for patients' recovery.

  14. The screening research of anti-inflammatory bioactive markers from different flowering phases of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Min; Han, Yan-qi; Zhou, Meng-ge; Zhao, Hong-zhi; Xiao, Xue; Hou, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Jie; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guo-an

    2014-01-01

    Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ) is an important cash crop in eastern Asia, and it is an anti-inflammatory Traditional Chinese Medicine. There are large variations in the quality of the marketed FLJ products. To find marker ingredients useful for quality control, a tandem technology integrating ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF), principal component analysis (PCA), heat map analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis coupled with a NF-κB luciferase reporter gene assay were used to identify the different ingredients from the green bud, white bud, flowering stage and leaf stages, as well as to screen the anti-inflammatory activity of FLJ compositions. As flowering progressed, the anti-inflammatory effects of FLJ gradually decreased; however, chlorogenic acid, swertiamarin and sweroside should be used to evaluate the quality of FLJ products.

  15. The Screening Research of Anti-Inflammatory Bioactive Markers from Different Flowering Phases of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Min; Han, Yan-qi; Zhou, Meng-ge; Zhao, Hong-zhi; Xiao, Xue; Hou, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Jie; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guo-an

    2014-01-01

    Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ) is an important cash crop in eastern Asia, and it is an anti-inflammatory Traditional Chinese Medicine. There are large variations in the quality of the marketed FLJ products. To find marker ingredients useful for quality control, a tandem technology integrating ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF), principal component analysis (PCA), heat map analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis coupled with a NF-κB luciferase reporter gene assay were used to identify the different ingredients from the green bud, white bud, flowering stage and leaf stages, as well as to screen the anti-inflammatory activity of FLJ compositions. As flowering progressed, the anti-inflammatory effects of FLJ gradually decreased; however, chlorogenic acid, swertiamarin and sweroside should be used to evaluate the quality of FLJ products. PMID:24809338

  16. Inhibition of COX-2 reduces the age-dependent increase of hippocampal inflammatory markers, corticosterone secretion, and behavioral impairments in the rat.

    PubMed

    Casolini, Paola; Catalani, Assia; Zuena, Anna R; Angelucci, Luciano

    2002-05-01

    Brain aging as well as brain degenerative processes with accompanying cognitive impairments are generally associated with hyperactivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, the end product of which, the glucocorticoid hormone, has been warranted the role of cell damage primum movens ("cascade hypothesis"). However, chronic inflammatory activity occurs in the hippocampus of aged rats as well as in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. The concomitant increase in the secretion of the glucocorticoid hormone, the endogenous anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory markers, has prompted us to investigate the two phenomena in the aging rat, and to work out its meaning. This study shows that: (I) interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) increase with age in the rats hippocampus, and (II) chronic oral treatment with celecoxib, a selective cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, is able to contrast the age-dependent increase in hippocampal levels of pro-inflammatory markers and circulating anti-inflammatory corticosterone, provided that it is started at an early stage of aging. Under these conditions, age-related impairments in cognitive ability may be ameliorated. Taken together, these results indicate that there is a natural tendency to offset the age-dependent increase in brain inflammatory processes via the homeostatic increase of the circulating glucocorticoid hormone. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Estradiol and Inflammatory Markers in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Marcello; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Artoni, Andrea; Gatti, Elisa; Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Guralnik, Jack M.; Valenti, Giorgio; Ling, Shari M.; Basaria, Shehzad; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Background: Aging is characterized by a mild proinflammatory state. In older men, low testosterone levels have been associated with increasing levels of proinflammatory cytokines. It is still unclear whether estradiol (E2), which generally has biological activities complementary to testosterone, affects inflammation. Methods: We analyzed data obtained from 399 men aged 65–95 yr enrolled in the Invecchiare in Chianti study with complete data on body mass index (BMI), serum E2, testosterone, IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor, TNF-α, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and C-reactive protein. The relationship between E2 and inflammatory markers was examined using multivariate linear models adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, physical activity, chronic disease, and total testosterone. Results: In age-adjusted analysis, log (E2) was positively associated with log (IL-6) (r = 0.19; P = 0.047), and the relationship was statistically significant (P = 0.032) after adjustments for age, BMI, smoking, physical activity, chronic disease, and serum testosterone levels. Log (E2) was not significantly associated with log (C-reactive protein), log (soluble IL-6 receptor), or log (TNF-α) in both age-adjusted and fully adjusted analyses. Conclusions: In older men, E2 is weakly positively associated with IL-6, independent of testosterone and other confounders including BMI. PMID:19050054

  18. Estradiol and inflammatory markers in older men.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Marcello; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Metter, E Jeffrey; Artoni, Andrea; Gatti, Elisa; Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Guralnik, Jack M; Valenti, Giorgio; Ling, Shari M; Basaria, Shehzad; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-02-01

    Aging is characterized by a mild proinflammatory state. In older men, low testosterone levels have been associated with increasing levels of proinflammatory cytokines. It is still unclear whether estradiol (E2), which generally has biological activities complementary to testosterone, affects inflammation. We analyzed data obtained from 399 men aged 65-95 yr enrolled in the Invecchiare in Chianti study with complete data on body mass index (BMI), serum E2, testosterone, IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor, TNF-alpha, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and C-reactive protein. The relationship between E2 and inflammatory markers was examined using multivariate linear models adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, physical activity, chronic disease, and total testosterone. In age-adjusted analysis, log (E2) was positively associated with log (IL-6) (r = 0.19; P = 0.047), and the relationship was statistically significant (P = 0.032) after adjustments for age, BMI, smoking, physical activity, chronic disease, and serum testosterone levels. Log (E2) was not significantly associated with log (C-reactive protein), log (soluble IL-6 receptor), or log (TNF-alpha) in both age-adjusted and fully adjusted analyses. In older men, E2 is weakly positively associated with IL-6, independent of testosterone and other confounders including BMI.

  19. Genome sequencing elucidates Sardinian genetic architecture and augments association analyses for lipid and blood inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Mulas, Antonella; Pistis, Giorgio; Steri, Maristella; Danjou, Fabrice; Kwong, Alan; Ortega del Vecchyo, Vicente Diego; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer; Pitzalis, Maristella; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Tarrier, Brendan; Brennan, Christine; Uzzau, Sergio; Fuchsberger, Christian; Atzeni, Rossano; Reinier, Frederic; Berutti, Riccardo; Huang, Jie; Timpson, Nicholas J; Toniolo, Daniela; Gasparini, Paolo; Malerba, Giovanni; Dedoussis, George; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Soranzo, Nicole; Jones, Chris; Lyons, Robert; Angius, Andrea; Kang, Hyun M.; Novembre, John; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Cucca, Francesco; Abecasis, Gonçalo R

    2015-01-01

    We report ~17.6M genetic variants from whole-genome sequencing of 2,120 Sardinians; 22% are absent from prior sequencing-based compilations and enriched for predicted functional consequence. Furthermore, ~76K variants common in our sample (frequency >5%) are rare elsewhere (<0.5% in the 1000 Genomes Project). We assessed the impact of these variants on circulating lipid levels and five inflammatory biomarkers. Fourteen signals, including two major new loci, were observed for lipid levels, and 19, including two novel loci, for inflammatory markers. New associations would be missed in analyses based on 1000 Genomes data, underlining the advantages of large-scale sequencing in this founder population. PMID:26366554

  20. Uroprotective mechanism of quercetin against cyclophosphamide-induced urotoxicity: Effect on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Sherif, Iman O

    2018-05-18

    The urotoxicity is a common complication associated with patients receiving cyclophosphamide (CYP). This study was designed to investigate the uroprotective mechanism of quercetin (Quer) flavonoid against CYP induced urotoxicity via determination of oxidative stress markers as well as inflammatory mediators in bladder tissue. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups; Normal group: received saline for 10 days. Quer control group: received quercetin 50 mg/kg/day for 10 days. CYP group: received saline for 10 days and injected with a single dose of 150 mg/kg CYP intraperitoneal (i.p) at day 8. The Quer + CYP group: received Quer 50 mg/kg/day for 10 days plus CYP 150 mg/kg i.p. injection at day 8. The CYP injection produced a significant elevation in bladder contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO), and bladder protein levels and expressions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in addition to the upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) bladder gene expression. Also, CYP injection showed a marked reduction in bladder levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and IL-10 when compared with normal group. Moreover, histopathological examination of the bladder showed degenerative alterations, severe edema, and inflammation following CYP injection. Quer attenuated the biochemical markers and histopathological changes induced by CYP. The uroprotective effect of Quer was exerted by restoring the balance between oxidative/antioxidative status and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effects of taurine on markers of muscle damage, inflammatory response and physical performance in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Martinez Galan, Bryan S; Giolo de Carvalho, Flavia; Carvalho Santos, Priscila; Bucken Gobbi, Ronaldo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos; Papoti, Marcelo; Sanchez Silva, Adelino; Freitas, Ellen C

    2017-07-25

    The practice of prolonged exercise with high intensity, as seen in triathlon training, can cause physiological imbalances that might result in muscle fatigue, muscle damage and changes in systemic inflammatory response, thus reduce the athletes physical performance, therefore, both adequate total caloric and macronutrient intake also the use of a specific ergogenic aid, as taurine supplementation would be an alternative to prevent inflammation and muscle damage. In order to verify the effects of 8 weeks of taurine and chocolate milk supplementation, markers of muscle damage, inflammation, and aerobic capacity were quantified in triathletes. A double-blind, crossover, randomized study was conducted with 9 male long distance triathletes, aged 25-35 years. Supplementation of 3 g of taurine (TAU) or placebo (PLA) associated with 400 ml low fat chocolate milk was performed during an 8-week period. In order to verify the effects of the supplementation protocol markers of muscle damage as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK), and inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were quantified, also triathletes performance was evaluated by exhaust test on a treadmill. It was observed a significant increase in taurine and CK plasma levels after TAU supplementation (p=0.02 and p=0.01, respectively). However, LDH concentrations did not differ significantly after the supplementations performed, and there were no changes in physical performance parameters; anaerobic threshold, perceived exertion, heart rate, and the concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α. Taurine supplementation did not provide benefits on performance and muscle damage in triathletes.

  2. Dermal microdialysis of inflammatory markers induced by aliphatic hydrocarbons in rats

    PubMed Central

    Patlolla, Ram R.; Mallampati, Ramya; Fulzele, Suniket V.; Babu, R. Jayachandra; Singh, Mandip

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we made an attempt to understand the skin irritation cascade of selected aliphatic hydrocarbons using microdialysis technique. Microdialysis probes were inserted into dermis in the dorsal skin of hairless rats. After 2 h of probes insertion, occlusive dermal exposure (2 h) was carried out with 230 μl of nonane, dodecane and tetradecane, using Hill top chambers®. Inflammatory biomarkers such as substance P (SP), α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were analyzed in the dialysis samples by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). SP, α-MSH and IL6 were released in significant amounts following the dermal exposure of nonane and dodecane, whereas tetradecane did not induce any of these markers in significant amounts compared to control. Nonane increased the PGE2 levels in significant amounts within 2 h of chemical exposure compared to dodecane and tetradecane. IL-6 response was found to be slow and 2–3-fold increase in IL-6 levels was observed after 5 h following nonane and dodecane application. The magnitude of skin irritation exerted by all three chemicals was in the order of nonane ≥ dodecane ≥ tetradecane. The results demonstrate that microdialysis can be used to measure the inflammatory biomarkers in the skin irritation studies and irritation response of chemicals was quantifiable by this method. In conclusion, microdialysis was found to be an excellent tool to measure several inflammatory biomarkers as a function of time after dermal exposures with irritant chemicals. PMID:19152832

  3. Use of Readily Accessible Inflammatory Markers to Predict Diabetic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Winter, Lauren; Wong, Lydia A; Jerums, George; Seah, Jas-Mine; Clarke, Michele; Tan, Sih Min; Coughlan, Melinda T; MacIsaac, Richard J; Ekinci, Elif I

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease is a common complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and is the primary cause of end-stage renal disease in developed countries. Early detection of diabetic kidney disease will facilitate early intervention aimed at reducing the rate of progression to end-stage renal disease. Diabetic kidney disease has been traditionally classified based on the presence of albuminuria. More recently estimated glomerular filtration rate has also been incorporated into the staging of diabetic kidney disease. While albuminuric diabetic kidney disease is well described, the phenotype of non-albuminuric diabetic kidney disease is now widely accepted. An association between markers of inflammation and diabetic kidney disease has previously been demonstrated. Effector molecules of the innate immune system including C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α are increased in patients with diabetic kidney disease. Furthermore, renal infiltration of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes are observed in renal biopsies of patients with diabetic kidney disease. Similarly high serum neutrophil and low serum lymphocyte counts have been shown to be associated with diabetic kidney disease. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio is considered a robust measure of systemic inflammation and is associated with the presence of inflammatory conditions including the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated a link between high levels of the above inflammatory biomarkers and diabetic kidney disease. Further longitudinal studies will be required to determine if these readily available inflammatory biomarkers can accurately predict the presence and prognosis of diabetic kidney disease, above and beyond albuminuria, and estimated glomerular filtration rate.

  4. Potential effects of omega-3 fatty acids on anemia and inflammatory markers in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Gharekhani, Afshin; Khatami, Mohammad-Reza; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin; Razeghi, Effat; Abdollahi, Alireza; Hashemi-Nazari, Seyed-Saeed; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali

    2014-01-07

    Anemia is a common complication among hemodialysis (HD) patients. Although intravenous iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents revolutionized anemia treatment, about 10% of HD patients show suboptimal response to these agents. Systemic inflammation and increased serum hepcidin level may contribute to this hyporesponsiveness. Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids, this study aimed to evaluate potential role of these fatty acids in improving anemia and inflammation of chronic HD patients. In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 54 adult patients with HD duration of at least 3 months were randomized to ingest 1800 mg of either omega-3 fatty acids or matching placebo per day for 4 months. Anemia parameters including blood hemoglobin, serum iron, transferrin saturation (TSAT), erythropoietin resistance index, and required dose of intravenous iron and erythropoietin, and serum concentrations of inflammatory/anti-inflammatory markers including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-10, C-reactive protein (CRP), hepcidin, ferritin, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and ratios of IL-10 to IL-6 and IL-10 to TNF-α were measured at baseline and after 4 months of the intervention. 45 subjects (25 in the omega-3 and 20 in the placebo group) completed the study. No significant changes were observed in blood hemoglobin, serum iron, TSAT, and required dose of intravenous iron in either within or between group comparisons. Additionally, erythropoietin resistance index as well as required dose of intravenous erythropoietin showed no significant change in the omega-3 group compared to the placebo group. Although a relative alleviation in inflammatory state appeared in the omega-3 group, the mean differences of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers between the two groups did not reach statistically significant level except for IL-10-to-IL-6 ratio and serum ferritin level which showed significant changes in favor of omega-3

  5. Effect of obesity and metabolic syndrome on severity, quality of life, sleep quality and inflammatory markers in patients of asthma in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mandeep; Gupta, Nitesh; Kumar, Raj

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the effect of obesity with and without metabolic syndrome on asthma severity, quality of life, sleep quality, sleep disordered breathing and inflammatory markers as compared to non-obese asthma patients. 60 asthma patients recruited for the study were divided equally into non-obese (NOA), obese without metabolic syndrome (OANMS) and obese with metabolic syndrome (OAMS) groups. Study cohorts were assessed for severity of asthma, quality of life and quality of sleep using questionnaires and inflammatory markers (FENO, hs-CRP, IL-5, IL-6 and leptin). Institutional ethical committee approved the study. The results suggests OAMS patients may be a subtype of asthmatics having significantly severe asthma (p < 0.05), poor quality of life (p < 0.05), high risk of OSA (p< 0.05), decreased lung volumes (FRC) (p< 0.05), higher levels of inflammatory markers (leptin and IL-6) (p < 0.05), and high incidence of sleep disordered breathing (p < 0.05) in comparison to NOA and OANMS patients. The present study has shown that obese asthmatics especially with metabolic syndrome represent a subtype of asthmatic population. Hence, the treatment of metabolic syndrome may be necessary in addition to asthma to achieve optimal control.

  6. Association between carbohydrate quality and inflammatory markers: systematic review of observational and interventional studies.

    PubMed

    Buyken, Anette E; Goletzke, Janina; Joslowski, Gesa; Felbick, Anna; Cheng, Guo; Herder, Christian; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2014-04-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation is a likely intermediary between quality of carbohydrate and chronic disease risk. We conducted a systematic literature search to evaluate the relevance of carbohydrate quality on inflammatory markers in observational and intervention studies. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies on associations between glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), dietary fiber or fiber supplements or whole grain intake, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) or interleukin 6 (IL-6). Included studies had to be conducted on adults (healthy, overweight, with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome features, but without inflammatory disease) with ≥20 participants and a 3-wk duration. In total, 22 of the 60 studies that met our inclusion criteria examined GI/GL: 5 of 9 observational studies reported lower concentrations of hsCRP or IL-6 among persons with a lower dietary GI/GL; 3 of 13 intervention studies showed significant antiinflammatory effects of a low-GI/GL diet, and 4 further studies suggested beneficial effects (trends or effects in a subgroup). For fiber intake, 13 of 16 observational studies reported an inverse relation with hsCRP or IL-6, but only 1 of 11 intervention studies showed a significant antiinflammatory effect of fiber intake, and a further trial reported a beneficial trend. For whole-grain intake, 6 of 7 observational studies observed an inverse association with inflammatory markers, but only 1 of 7 intervention studies reported significant antiinflammatory effects, 1 further study was suggestive (in a subgroup) of such, and another study found an adverse effect (trend only). Evidence from intervention studies for antiinflammatory benefits is less consistent for higher-fiber or whole-grain diets than for low-GI/GL diets. Benefits of higher fiber and whole-grain intakes suggested by observational studies may reflect confounding.

  7. Orthodontic treatment effects on inflammatory marker profiles in saliva before and after 2 archwire changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Zulham; Jaafar, Ikmal Mohamad; Rohaya, M. A. W.; Abidin, Intan Zarina Zainol; Senafi, Sahidan; Ariffin, Zaidah Zainal; Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham Zainal

    2013-11-01

    Periodontal tissue changes exerted by external forces in orthodontic treatment allow tooth movement. The changes in periodontal tissues i.e. inflammation can be monitored using gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). GCF is a component of saliva. Saliva could be used to monitor periodontal disease progression. The use of saliva to monitor periodontal tissues changes during orthodontic treatment is still unknown. Therefore, we observed the profiles of inflammatory markers namely creatine kinase ('CK), nitric oxide (NO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in saliva of orthodontic patients to evaluate their importance in orthodontic treatment. A total of 21 subjects (13 female and 8 male) participated in this study. Samples were collected from gingival crevicular fluid at three period of archwire changes: baseline (M0), 2 weeks after 0.014" NiTi archwire (M1), and 2 weeks after 0.018" NiTi archwire (M2). All enzyme activities i.e. CK, LDH and AST were measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm. Griess assay was used to measure nitric oxide level. CK activity, NO level, LDH activity and AST activity in saliva samples did not show significant differences among period of archwire changes. The use of inflammatory marker profiles in saliva may not represent the changes in periodontal tissues during orthodontic treatment.

  8. Self-rated Health among Pregnant Women: Associations with Objective Health Indicators, Psychological Functioning, and Serum Inflammatory Markers

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Lisa M.; Iams, Jay; Porter, Kyle; Leblebicioglu, Binnaz

    2013-01-01

    Background Biobehavioral correlates of self-rated health in pregnancy are largely unknown. Purpose The goals of this study were to examine, in pregnant women, associations of self-rated health with 1) demographics, objective health status, health behaviors and psychological factors and 2) serum inflammatory markers. Methods In the 2nd trimester of pregnancy, 101 women provided a blood sample, completed measures of psychosocial stress, health status, and health behaviors, and received a comprehensive periodontal examination. Results The following independently predicted poorer self-rated health: 1) greater psychological stress, 2) greater objective health diagnoses, 3) higher body mass index, and 4) past smoking (versus never smoking). Poorer self-rated health was associated with higher serum interleukin-1β (p = .02) and marginally higher macrophage migration inhibitory factor (p = .06). These relationships were not fully accounted for by behavioral/psychological factors. Conclusions This study provides novel data regarding factors influencing subjective ratings of health and the association of self-rated health with serum inflammatory markers in pregnant women. PMID:23765366

  9. Effects of pomegranate juice consumption on inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Golbon; Nasrollahzadeh, Javad; Zand, Hamid; Amiri, Zohreh; Tohidi, Maryam; Kimiagar, Masoud

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes causes the increased concentration of circulatory cytokines as a result of inflammation. Considering that pomegranate juice (PJ) is known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of PJ consumption on markers of inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial study, 50 patients with T2D (40-65 years old) were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Participants in each group received either 250 mL/day PJ or a control beverage for 12 weeks. Biochemical markers including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin and inflammatory markers were assayed on the baseline and follow-up blood samples. In all, 44 patients in two groups were included in the analysis: PJ (n = 22) and placebo (n = 22). After 12 weeks of intervention, in the PJ group, there were 32% and 30% significant decreases in plasma C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and Interlukin-6, respectively (P < 0.05). The mean ± SD plasma interlukin-6 (7.1 ± 5.6 vs. 11.9 ± 14.4 mg/L) and hs-CRP (1791 ± 1657 and 1953 ± 1561 ng/mL) concentrations in the PJ group were significantly lower than the placebo group after intervention (P < 0.05). PJ consumption by patients with T2D does not affect FPG or the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), whereas it does reduce Interlukin-6 and hs-CRP concentrations in plasma. Therefore, PJ consumption may have an anti-inflammatory effect in patients with T2D.

  10. Oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in relation to circulating levels of adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Stefan; Lind, Lars; Söderberg, Stefan; Zilmer, Mihkel; Hulthe, Johannes; Ingelsson, Erik

    2013-07-01

    Previous epidemiological studies together with animal studies have suggested an association between adiponectin and oxidative stress and inflammation, but community-based studies are lacking. Our objective was to investigate the relative importance of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers, representing different pathways in relation to adiponectin. In a cross-sectional sample of 929 70-year-old individuals (50% women) of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors study, relations between serum adiponectin and oxidative stress [conjugated dienes (CD), homocysteine, total antioxidant capacity, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL), OxLDL antibodies, baseline CD of LDL, glutathione (GSH), total glutathione (TGSH), glutathione disulfide], circulation interleukins (IL-6, IL-8), other cytokines [tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor], cell adhesion molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, P-selectin, L-selectin), and systemic inflammatory markers [C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocyte count] in separate models were investigated. In age- and sex-adjusted, as well as multivariable-adjusted models, adiponectin was significantly and positively associated with GSH, log TGSH, whereas an inverse association was observed for CD and log EGF. An inverse association between adiponectin and MCP-1, log E-selectin, and log CRP was significant in age- and sex-adjusted models, but not in multivariable-adjusted models. Our results imply that higher levels of adiponectin are associated with a more beneficial oxidative stress profile, with higher levels of principal anti-oxidative GSH and total GSH together with lower levels of lipid peroxidation, possibly through shared pathways. Further studies are needed to investigate whether changes in the oxidative stress profile may be a mechanism linking adiponectin with type

  11. Burnt sugarcane harvesting is associated with rhinitis symptoms and inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Iara Buriola; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ferreira, Aline Duarte; Silva, Bruna Spolador de Alencar; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; Brigida, Gabriel Faustino Santa; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Ramos, Dionei

    2018-04-05

    Burnt sugarcane harvesting requires intense physical exertion in an environment with high temperatures and exposure to particulate matter. To evaluate the effects of burnt sugarcane harvesting on rhinitis symptoms and inflammatory markers in sugarcane workers. 32 male sugarcane workers were evaluated with questionnaire for rhinitis symptoms, and for inflammatory markers on peripheral blood and nasal lavage, in the non-harvesting, and 3 and 6 months into the sugarcane harvesting period. Weather data and particulate matter fine concentrations were measured in the same day. The particulate matter concentrations in sugarcane harvesting were 27 (23-33μg/m 3 ), 112 (96-122μg/m 3 ), and 63 (17-263μg/m 3 ); 24h temperatures were 32.6 (25.4-37.4°C), 32.3 (26.7-36.7°C) and 29.7 (24.1-34.0°C) and relative humidities were 45.4 (35.0-59.7%), 47.9 (39.1-63.0%), and 59.9 (34.7-63.2%) in the non-harvesting period, three and 6 months of the harvesting period. The age was 37.4±10.9 years. The prevalence of rhinitis symptoms was significantly higher at 3 months of the harvesting period (53.4%), compared to non-harvesting period (26.7%; p=0.039) and at 6 months into the harvesting period (20%; p=0.006). Concentrations of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in nasal lavage increased after 3 months of the harvesting period compared to the non-harvesting period (p=0.012). The presence of rhinitis symptoms, after 3 months of the harvesting period, was directly associated with blood eosinophils and inversely associated with neutrophils. After 3 months of work in burnt sugarcane harvesting the prevalence of rhinitis symptoms and IL-6 in nasal lavage increased. Furthermore, eosinophil counts were directly associated with the rhinitis symptoms in the period of higher concentration of particulate matter. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  12. Association between social isolation and inflammatory markers in depressed and non-depressed individuals: results from the MONICA/KORA study.

    PubMed

    Häfner, S; Emeny, R T; Lacruz, M E; Baumert, J; Herder, C; Koenig, W; Thorand, B; Ladwig, K H

    2011-11-01

    Depressed individuals not only suffer from chronic low grade inflammation, but also exhibit an inflammatory hyper-responsiveness to acute stress. We investigate whether chronic stress also induces an exaggerated inflammatory response in individuals with increased depression features. As model for chronic stress, social isolation was chosen. Interleukin (IL)-6 and hs-CRP levels were assessed in 1547 subjects (847 men and 700 women), derived from the population-based MONICA/KORA study. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess depressed mood (depression and exhaustion subscale) and social isolation (social network index). The relationship between the two inflammatory markers, social isolation and depressed mood was examined taking into account interactions social isolation × depressed mood using multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, alcohol, and physical activity. Analyses were performed in men and women separately. We observed a significant interaction between depressed mood and social isolation regarding IL-6 and hs-CRP, respectively in men (p-value=0.02 for IL-6 and <0.01 for hs-CRP), evidencing a substantial synergistic effect of social isolation, and depressed mood on inflammatory responses. Furthermore, depressed and socially isolated men had highly significantly elevated IL-6 levels (geometric mean: 3.76 vs. 1.92 pg/ml, p-value <0.01) and heightened hs-CRP levels (geometric mean: 2.01 vs. 1.39 mg/l, p=0.08) in comparison with non-depressed and socially integrated men. In women, no significant associations were seen. The interaction of depressed mood and social isolation elicits a substantial synergistic impact on inflammatory markers in men, but not in depressed women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and alterations in immune/inflammatory markers: a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study in China.

    PubMed

    Bassig, Bryan A; Dai, Yufei; Vermeulen, Roel; Ren, Dianzhi; Hu, Wei; Duan, Huawei; Niu, Yong; Xu, Jun; Shiels, Meredith S; Kemp, Troy J; Pinto, Ligia A; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Zhou, Baosen; Yang, Jufang; Ye, Meng; Jia, Xiaowei; Meng, Tao; Wong, Jason Y Y; Bin, Ping; Hosgood, H Dean; Hildesheim, Allan; Silverman, Debra T; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zheng, Yuxin; Lan, Qing

    2017-10-26

    The relationship between diesel engine exhaust (DEE), a known lung carcinogen, and immune/inflammatory markers that have been prospectively associated with lung cancer risk is not well understood. To provide insight into these associations, we conducted a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of 54 males highly occupationally exposed to DEE and 55 unexposed male controls from representative workplaces in China. We measured plasma levels of 64 immune/inflammatory markers in all subjects using Luminex bead-based assays, and compared our findings to those from a nested case-control study of these markers and lung cancer risk, which had been conducted among never-smoking women in Shanghai using the same multiplex panels. Levels of nine markers that were associated with lung cancer risk in the Shanghai study were altered in DEE-exposed workers in the same direction as the lung cancer associations. Among these, associations with the levels of CRP (β= -0.53; P = 0.01) and CCL15/MIP-1D (β = 0.20; P = 0.02) were observed in workers exposed to DEE and with increasing elemental carbon exposure levels (Ptrends <0.05) in multivariable linear regression models. Levels of a third marker positively associated with an increased lung cancer risk, CCL2/MCP-1, were higher among DEE-exposed workers compared with controls in never and former smokers, but not in current smokers (Pinteraction = 0.01). The immunological differences in these markers in DEE-exposed workers are consistent with associations observed for lung cancer risk in a prospective study of Chinese women and may provide some insight into the mechanistic processes by which DEE causes lung cancer. Published by Oxford University Press 2017.

  14. Effects of glutamine, taurine and their association on inflammatory pathway markers in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Talita; Galvão Dos Santos, Guilherme; Nogueira-Pedro, Amanda; Makiyama, Edson; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Borelli, Primavera; Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio

    2018-06-01

    The immune system is essential for the control and elimination of infections, and macrophages are cells that act as important players in orchestrating the various parts of the inflammatory/immune response. Amino acids play important role in mediating functionality of the inflammatory response, especially mediating macrophages functions and cytokines production. We investigated the influence of glutamine, taurine and their association on the modulation of inflammatory pathway markers in macrophages. The RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line was cultivated in the presence of glutamine and taurine and proliferation rates, cell viability, cell cycle phases, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α as well as H 2 O 2 production and the expression of the transcription factor, NFκB, and its inhibitor, IκBα, were evaluated. Our results showed an increase in viable cells and increased proliferation rates of cells treated with glutamine concentrations over 2 mM, as well as cells treated with both glutamine and taurine. The cell cycle showed a higher percentage of cells in the phases S, G2 and M when they were treated with 2 or 10 mM glutamine, or with glutamine and taurine in cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The pNFκB/NFκB showed reduced ratio expression when cells were treated with 10 mM of glutamine or with glutamine in association with taurine. These conditions also resulted in reduced TNF-α, IL-1α and H 2 O 2 production, and higher production of IL-10. These findings demonstrate that glutamine and taurine are able to modulate macrophages inflammatory pathways, and that taurine can potentiate the effects of glutamine, illustrating their immunomodulatory properties.

  15. Effects of pomegranate juice consumption on inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sohrab, Golbon; Nasrollahzadeh, Javad; Zand, Hamid; Amiri, Zohreh; Tohidi, Maryam; Kimiagar, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes causes the increased concentration of circulatory cytokines as a result of inflammation. Considering that pomegranate juice (PJ) is known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of PJ consumption on markers of inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Materials and Methods: In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial study, 50 patients with T2D (40-65 years old) were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Participants in each group received either 250 mL/day PJ or a control beverage for 12 weeks. Biochemical markers including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin and inflammatory markers were assayed on the baseline and follow-up blood samples. Results: In all, 44 patients in two groups were included in the analysis: PJ (n = 22) and placebo (n = 22). After 12 weeks of intervention, in the PJ group, there were 32% and 30% significant decreases in plasma C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and Interlukin-6, respectively (P < 0.05). The mean ± SD plasma interlukin-6 (7.1 ± 5.6 vs. 11.9 ± 14.4 mg/L) and hs-CRP (1791 ± 1657 and 1953 ± 1561 ng/mL) concentrations in the PJ group were significantly lower than the placebo group after intervention (P < 0.05). Conclusion: PJ consumption by patients with T2D does not affect FPG or the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), whereas it does reduce Interlukin-6 and hs-CRP concentrations in plasma. Therefore, PJ consumption may have an anti-inflammatory effect in patients with T2D. PMID:24949028

  16. Herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus is not associated with inflammatory or metabolic markers in antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV.

    PubMed

    Tan, Darrell H S; Raboud, Janet M; Szadkowski, Leah; Yi, Tae Joon; Shannon, Brett; Kaul, Rupert; Liles, W Conrad; Walmsley, Sharon L

    2015-03-01

    Systemic inflammation and immune activation may persist in HIV-infected persons on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and contribute to adverse health outcomes. We compared markers of immune activation, inflammation, and abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in HIV-infected adults according to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) serostatus in a 6-month observational cohort study in Toronto, Canada. HIV-infected adults on suppressive (viral load <50 copies/ml) cART were categorized as HSV-2 seropositive or seronegative using the HerpeSelect ELISA, and underwent study visits at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The primary outcome was the median percentage of activated (CD38(+)HLADR(+)) CD8 T cells. Secondary outcome measures included additional immune (activated CD4, regulatory T cells) and inflammatory (hsCRP, D-dimer, IL-1b, IL-6, MCP-1, TNF, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, Ang1/Ang2 ratio) markers. Metabolic outcomes included the proportion with impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance/diabetes, insulin sensitivity (calculated using the Matsuda index), insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), and fasting lipids. The impact of HSV-2 on each outcome was estimated using generalized estimating equation regression models. Of 84 participants, 38 (45%) were HSV-2 seropositive. HSV signs and symptoms were uncommon. Aside from D-dimer, which was more often detectable in HSV-2 seropositives (adjusted odds ratio=3.58, 95% CI=1.27, 10.07), HSV-2 serostatus was not associated with differences in any other immune, inflammatory cytokine, acute phase reactant, endothelial activation, or metabolic markers examined in univariable or multivariable models. During the study, CD8 and CD4 T cell activation declined by 0.16% and 0.08% per month, respectively, while regulatory T cells increased by 0.05% per month. HSV-2 serostatus was not consistently associated with immune activation, inflammatory, or lipid and glucose metabolic markers in

  17. Respiratory viruses, symptoms, and inflammatory markers in acute exacerbations and stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Seemungal, T; Harper-Owen, R; Bhowmik, A; Moric, I; Sanderson, G; Message, S; Maccallum, P; Meade, T W; Jeffries, D J; Johnston, S L; Wedzicha, J A

    2001-11-01

    The effects of respiratory viral infection on the time course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation were examined by monitoring changes in systemic inflammatory markers in stable COPD and at exacerbation. Eighty-three patients with COPD (mean [SD] age, 66.6 [7.1] yr, FEV(1), 1.06 [0.61] L) recorded daily peak expiratory flow rate and any increases in respiratory symptoms. Nasal samples and blood were taken for respiratory virus detection by culture, polymerase chain reaction, and serology, and plasma fibrinogen and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined at stable baseline and exacerbation. Sixty-four percent of exacerbations were associated with a cold occurring up to 18 d before exacerbation. Seventy-seven viruses (39 [58.2%] rhinoviruses) were detected in 66 (39.2%) of 168 COPD exacerbations in 53 (64%) patients. Viral exacerbations were associated with frequent exacerbators, colds with increased dyspnea, a higher total symptom count at presentation, a longer median symptom recovery period of 13 d, and a tendency toward higher plasma fibrinogen and serum IL-6 levels. Non-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) respiratory viruses were detected in 11 (16%), and RSV in 16 (23.5%), of 68 stable COPD patients, with RSV detection associated with higher inflammatory marker levels. Respiratory virus infections are associated with more severe and frequent exacerbations, and may cause chronic infection in COPD. Prevention and early treatment of viral infections may lead to a decreased exacerbation frequency and morbidity associated with COPD.

  18. Lipid Profiles, Inflammatory Markers, and Insulin Therapy in Youth with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Levitt Katz, Lorraine E; Bacha, Fida; Gidding, Samuel S; Weinstock, Ruth S; El Ghormli, Laure; Libman, Ingrid; Nadeau, Kristen J; Porter, Kristin; Marcovina, Santica

    2018-05-01

    Data regarding atherogenic dyslipidemia and the inflammation profile in youth with type 2 diabetes is limited and the effect of insulin therapy on these variables has not previously been studied in youth. We determined the impact of insulin therapy on lipid and inflammatory markers in youth with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. In the Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) multicenter trial, 285 participants failed to sustain glycemic control on randomized treatment (primary outcome, glycated hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] at ≥8% for 6 months); 363 maintained glycemic control (never reached primary outcome). Statins were used for a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of ≥130 mg/dL. Upon reaching the primary outcome, insulin was started. Changes in lipids and inflammatory markers (slopes over time) were examined. Progression of dyslipidemia was related to glycemic control. In those with the primary outcome, insulin therapy impacted HbA1c modestly, and dampened the increase in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total apolipoprotein B, although statin use increased from 8.6% to 22% year after the primary outcome. The increase in triglycerides and plasma nonesterified fatty acids stabilized after insulin was started, independent of HbA1c. There was an increase in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein that continued after insulin initiation, related to HbA1c and percent overweight. Worsening dyslipidemia and inflammation over time raise concern regarding premature development of atherosclerosis in youth with type 2 diabetes. Insulin therapy has a limited benefit in the absence of glycemic control. Strategies to achieve better glycemic control are needed. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00081328. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic value of vitamin D level for all-cause mortality, and association with inflammatory markers, in HIV-infected persons.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Leah; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Fellahi, Soraya; Capeau, Jaqueline; Reekie, Joanne; Reiss, Peter; Blaxhult, Anders; Bickel, Markus; Leen, Clifford; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens D; Mocroft, Amanda; Viard, Jean-Paul

    2014-07-15

    Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) has been associated with inflammation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, and death. We aimed to identify the prognostic value of 25(OH)D for AIDS, non-AIDS-defining events and death, and its association with immunological/inflammatory markers. Prospective 1-1 case-control study nested within the EuroSIDA cohort. Matched cases and controls for AIDS (n = 50 matched pairs), non-AIDS-defining (n = 63) events and death (n = 41), with plasma samples during follow-up were selected. Conditional logistic regression models investigated associations between 25(OH)D levels and annual 25(OH)D change and the probability of events. Mixed models investigated relationships between 25(OH)D levels and immunological/inflammatory markers. In sum, 250 patients were included. Median time between first and last sample and last sample and event was 44.6(interquartile range [IQR]: 22.7-72.3) and 3.1(IQR: 1.4-6.4) months. Odds of death decreased by 46.0%(95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-70.0, P = .04) for a 2-fold increase in latest 25(OH)D level. There was no association between 25(OH)D and the occurrence of AIDS or non-AIDS-defining events (P > .05). In patients with current 25(OH)D <10 ng/mL, hsIL-6 concentration increased by 4.7%(95% CI, .2,9.4, P = .04) annually after adjustment for immunological/inflammatory markers, and no change in hsCRP rate was observed (P = .76). Low Vitamin D predicts short term mortality in HIV-positive persons. Effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation on inflammation and patient outcomes should be investigated. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Endocannabinoid receptor blockade increases vascular endothelial growth factor and inflammatory markers in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Javed, Zeeshan; Kilpatrick, Eric S; Coady, Anne-Marie; Atkin, Stephen L

    2017-03-01

    Animal studies suggest that cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB-1) blockade reduces inflammation and neovascularization by decreasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels associated with a reduction in inflammatory markers, thereby potentially reducing cardiovascular risk. To determine the impact of CB1 antagonism by rimonabant on VEGF and inflammatory markers in obese PCOS women. Randomized, open-labelled parallel study. Endocrinology outpatient clinic in a referral centre. Twenty patients with PCOS (PCOS) and biochemical hyperandrogenaemia with a body mass index of ≥30 kg/m 2 were recruited. Patients were randomized to 1·5 g daily of metformin or 20 mg daily of rimonabant. Post hoc review to detect VEGF and pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL6, IL-8, IL-10 and MCP-1 before and after 12 weeks of treatment. After 12 weeks of rimonabant treatment, there was a significant increase in VEGF (99·2 ± 17·6 vs 116·2 ± 15·8 pg/ml, P < 0·01) and IL-8 (7·4 ± 11·0 vs 18·1 ± 13·2 pg/ml, P < 0·05) but not after metformin (VEGF P = 0·7; IL-8 P = 0·9). There was no significant difference in the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL6, IL-8, IL-10 and MCP-1 following either treatment. This study suggests that rimonabant CB-I blockade paradoxically raised VEGF and the cytokine IL-8 in obese women with PCOS that may have offset the potential benefit associated with weight loss. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of Swedish massage therapy on blood pressure, heart rate, and inflammatory markers in hypertensive women.

    PubMed

    Supa'at, Izreen; Zakaria, Zaiton; Maskon, Oteh; Aminuddin, Amilia; Nordin, Nor Anita Megat Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Swedish Massage Therapy (SMT) is known for its therapeutic relaxation effects. Hypertension is associated with stress and elevated endothelial inflammatory markers. This randomized control trial measured the effects of whole body SMT (massage group) or resting (control group) an hour weekly for four weeks on hypertensive women. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before and after each intervention and endothelial inflammatory markers: vascular endothelial adhesion molecules 1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular adhesion molecules 1 (ICAM-1) were measured at baseline and after the last intervention. Massage group (n=8) showed significant systolic BP (SBP) reduction of 12 mmHg (P=0.01) and diastolic BP (DBP) reduction of 5 mmHg (P=0.01) after four sessions with no significant difference between groups. Reductions in HR were also seen in massage group after sessions 1, 3, and 4 with significant difference between groups. VCAM-1 showed significant reduction after four sessions: the massage group showed reduction of 998.05 ng/mL (P=0.03) and the control group of 375.70 ng/mL (P=0.01) with no significant differences between groups. There were no changes in ICAM-1. In conclusion, SMT or resting an hour weekly has effects on reducing BP, HR, and VCAM-1 in hypertensive women.

  2. Do inflammatory markers portend heterotopic ossification and wound failure in combat wounds?

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Jonathan A; Potter, Benjamin K; Polfer, Elizabeth M; Safford, Shawn D; Elster, Eric A

    2014-09-01

    After a decade of war in Iraq and Afghanistan, we have observed an increase in combat-related injury survival and a paradoxical increase in injury severity, mainly because of the effects of blasts. These severe injuries have a devastating effect on each patient's immune system resulting in massive upregulation of the systemic inflammatory response. By examining inflammatory mediators, preliminary data suggest that it may be possible to correlate complications such as wound failure and heterotopic ossification (HO) with distinct systemic and local inflammatory profiles, but this is a relatively new topic. We asked whether systemic or local markers of inflammation could be used as an objective means, independent of demographic and subjective factors, to estimate the likelihood of (1) HO and/or (2) wound failure (defined as wounds requiring surgical débridement after definitive closure, or wounds that were not closed or covered within 21 days of injury) in patients sustaining combat wounds. Two hundred combat wounded active-duty service members who sustained high-energy extremity injuries were prospectively enrolled between 2008 and 2012. Of these 200 patients, 189 had adequate followups to determine the presence or absence of HO, and 191 had adequate followups to determine the presence or absence of wound failure. In addition to injury-specific and demographic data, we quantified 24 cytokines and chemokines during each débridement. Patients were followed clinically for 6 weeks, and radiographs were obtained 3 months after definitive wound closure. Associations were investigated between these markers and wound failure or HO, while controlling for known confounders. The presence of an amputation (p < 0.001; odds ratio [OR], 6.1; 95% CI. 1.63-27.2), Injury Severity Score (p = 0.002; OR, 33.2; 95% CI, 4.2-413), wound surface area (p = 0.001; OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.002-1.009), serum interleukin (IL)-3 (p = 0.002; OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.5-4.5), serum IL-12p70 (p = 0.01; OR, 0

  3. Physical Exercise on Inflammatory Markers in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Luciana Costa; Dativo-Medeiros, Jaime; Menezes-Silva, Carlos Eduardo; de Sousa-Rodrigues, Célio Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Background. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a serious disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Scientific findings showed that physical exercise is an option for treatment of these patients. This study's objective is to investigate the effects of supervised aerobic and/or resistance physical training on inflammatory markers in subjects with T2DM. Methods. A systematic review was conducted on four databases, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, LILACS, and Scopus, and manual search from 21 to 30 November 2016. Randomized clinical trials involving individuals diagnosed with T2DM, who have undergone supervised training protocols, were selected in this study. Results. Eleven studies were included. Studies that evaluated control group versus aerobic exercise reported controversial results about the effectiveness of physical training in modifying C-reactive protein (CRP) and cytokine levels. The only variable analyzed by the six studies in comparison to the control group versus resistance exercise was CRP. This protein showed no significant difference between groups. Between the two modes of exercise (aerobic and resistance), only one study demonstrated that aerobic exercise was more effective in reducing CRP. Conclusion. The evidence was insufficient to prove that aerobic or resistance exercise improves systemic levels of inflammatory markers in patients with T2DM. PMID:28400914

  4. Peripheral Inflammatory Markers Contributing to Comorbidities in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Inga Jácome, Martha Cecilia; Morales Chacòn, Lilia Maria; Vera Cuesta, Hector; Maragoto Rizo, Carlos; Whilby Santiesteban, Mabel; Ramos Hernandez, Lesyanis; Noris García, Elena; González Fraguela, Maria Elena; Fernandez Verdecia, Caridad Ivette; Vegas Hurtado, Yamilé; Siniscalco, Dario; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto; Robinson-Agramonte, Maria de los Angeles

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the contribution of peripheral biomarkers to comorbidities and clinical findings in autism. Seventeen autistic children and age-matched typically developing (AMTD), between three to nine years old were evaluated. The diagnostic followed the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition (DMS-IV) and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) was applied to classify the severity. Cytokine profile was evaluated in plasma using a sandwich type ELISA. Paraclinical events included electroencephalography (EEG) record. Statistical analysis was done to explore significant differences in cytokine profile between autism and AMTD groups and respect clinical and paraclinical parameters. Significant differences were found to IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-12p40, and IL-12p70 cytokines in individuals with autism compared with AMTD (p < 0.05). All autistic patients showed interictalepileptiform activity at EEG, however, only 37.5% suffered epilepsy. There was not a regional focalization of the abnormalities that were detectable with EEG in autistic patients with history of epilepsy. A higher IL-6 level was observed in patients without history of epilepsy with interictalepileptiform activity in the frontal brain region, p < 0.05. In conclusion, peripheral inflammatory markers might be useful as potential biomarkers to predict comorbidities in autism as well as reinforce and aid informed decision-making related to EEG findings in children with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD). PMID:27983615

  5. Associations among Endocrine, Inflammatory, and Bone Markers, Body Composition and Physical Activity to Weight Loss Induced Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Labouesse, Marie A.; Gertz, Erik R.; Piccolo, Brian D.; Souza, Elaine C.; Schuster, Gertrud U.; Witbracht, Megan G.; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Adams, Sean H.; Keim, Nancy L.; Van Loan, Marta D.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Weight loss reduces co-morbidities of obesity, but decreases bone mass. PURPOSE Our aims were to 1) determine if adequate dairy intake attenuates weight loss-induced bone loss; 2) evaluate the associations of endocrine, inflammatory and bone markers, anthropometric and other parameters to bone mineral density and content (BMD, BMC) pre- and post-weight loss; 3) model the contribution of these variables to post weight-loss BMD and BMC METHODS Overweight/obese women (BMI: 28–37 kg/m2) were enrolled in an energy reduced (−500 kcal/d; −2092 kJ/d) diet with adequate dairy (AD: 3–4 servings/d; n=25, 32.2 ± 8.8y) or low dairy (LD: ≤ 1 serving/d; n=26, 31.7 ± 8.4 y). BMD, BMC and body composition were measured by DXA. Bone markers (CTX, PYD, BAP, OC), endocrine (PTH, vitamin D, leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, amylin, insulin, GLP-1, PAI-1, HOMA) and inflammatory markers (CRP, IL1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, cortisol) were measured in serum or plasma. PA was assessed by accelerometry. RESULTS Following weight loss, AD intake resulted in significantly greater (p= 0.004) lumbar spine BMD and serum osteocalcin (p=0.004) concentration compared to LD. Pre- and post- body fat were negatively associated with hip and lumbar spine BMC (r= −0.28, p=0.04 to −0.45, p=0.001). Of note were the significant negative associations among bone markers and IL-1β, TNFα and CRP ranging from r = −0.29 (p=0.04) to r = −0.34 (p=0.01); magnitude of associations did not change with weight loss. Adiponectin was negatively related to change in osteocalcin. Factor analysis resulted in 8 pre- and post-weight loss Factors. Pre-weight loss Factors accounted for 13.7% of the total variance in pre-weight loss hip BMD; post-weight loss Factors explained 19.6% of the total variance in post-weight loss hip BMD. None of the Factors contributed to the variance in lumbar spine BMD. CONCLUSION AD during weight loss resulted in higher lumbar spine BMD and osteocalcin compared to LD

  6. [Procalcitonin as a diagnostic marker in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis].

    PubMed

    Hryckiewicz, Katarzyna; Juszczyk, Jacek; Samet, Alfred; Arłukowicz, Elzbieta; Sledzińska, Anna; Bolewska, Beata

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation the value of procalcitonin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in septic patients and patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). 126 patients were included into the study. The patients were divided into four groups: 1--septic patients with positive blood cultures, 2--septic patients with negative blood cultures, 3--patients with SIRS, 4--patients without sepsis and SIRS. PCT level was measured by imunoluminometric assay (LUMItest) and immunochromatographic assay (PCT-Q). PCT level is higher in patients with sepsis than in patients with SIRS. PCT level is only slightly elevated in patients without sepsis and SIRS. The highest PCT level is found in patients with septic shock. In patients with the clinical improvement the frequency of PCT level increase is approximately twice lower than in patients who died. Measurement of PCT level on the first, second and third day of hospitalization has no prognostic value. There is no significant difference in PCT level in sepsis caused by Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. PCT is a useful marker in diagnosis of sepsis but its role in monitoring the severity of sepsis requires more clinical studies.

  7. Expression of Vascular Notch Ligand Delta-Like 4 and Inflammatory Markers in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jubb, Adrian M.; Soilleux, Elizabeth J.; Turley, Helen; Steers, Graham; Parker, Andrew; Low, Irene; Blades, Jennifer; Li, Ji-Liang; Allen, Paul; Leek, Russell; Noguera-Troise, Irene; Gatter, Kevin C.; Thurston, Gavin; Harris, Adrian L.

    2010-01-01

    Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) is a Notch ligand that is predominantly expressed in the endothelium. Evidence from xenografts suggests that inhibiting Dll4 may overcome resistance to antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy. The aims of this study were to characterize the expression of Dll4 in breast cancer and assess whether it is associated with inflammatory markers and prognosis. We examined 296 breast adenocarcinomas and 38 ductal carcinoma in situ tissues that were represented in tissue microarrays. Additional whole sections representing 10 breast adenocarcinomas, 10 normal breast tissues, and 16 angiosarcomas were included. Immunohistochemistry was then performed by using validated antibodies against Dll4, CD68, CD14, Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Non-integrin (DC-SIGN), CD123, neutrophil elastase, CD31, and carbonic anhydrase 9. Dll4 was selectively expressed by intratumoral endothelial cells in 73% to 100% of breast adenocarcinomas, 18% of in situ ductal carcinomas, and all lactating breast cases, but not normal nonlactating breast. High intensity of endothelial Dll4 expression was a statistically significant adverse prognostic factor in univariate (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01) and multivariate analyses (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04) of overall survival and relapse-free survival, respectively. Among the inflammatory markers, only CD68 and DC-SIGN were significant prognostic factors in univariate (but not multivariate) analyses of overall survival (P = 0.01 and 0.002, respectively). In summary, Dll4 was expressed by endothelium associated with breast cancer cells. In these retrospective subset analyses, endothelial Dll4 expression was a statistically significant multivariate prognostic factor. PMID:20167860

  8. JNK: bridging the insulin signaling and inflammatory pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Rondinone, Cristina M

    2005-10-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are strongly associated with systemic markers of inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) are activated by inflammatory cytokines and have a key role in beta-cell apoptosis and in negative regulation of insulin signaling. JNK1-deficient mice are protected from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, while genetically obese mice with targeted mutations in JNK1 are leaner and have reduced insulin and blood glucose levels. These studies validate JNK as a link between inflammation and metabolic diseases and as a promising drug target. This review highlights recent advances in small-molecule inhibitors of JNK that have also been targeted for other diseases with an inflammatory component such as stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  9. The effect of obesity on inflammatory markers in patients with PCOS: a BMI-matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Keskin Kurt, Raziye; Okyay, Ayşe Güler; Hakverdi, Ali Ulvi; Gungoren, Arif; Dolapcioglu, Kenan Serdar; Karateke, Atilla; Dogan, Mustafa Ozcil

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have shown increased inflammatory activity in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); however, it remains uncertain whether this increased inflammatory activity is a consequence of the disorder itself or of the accompanying obesity. We therefore aimed to test the inflammatory marker levels in obese and lean patients with PCOS by using two separate control groups with matching body mass index (BMI). A total of 120 women in reproductive age with (n = 62) and without (n = 60) PCOS were recruited for the study. Patients with PCOS were divided into two groups as obese (n = 32) and lean (n = 30) PCOS groups according to BMI. Two BMI-matched control groups were created. Furthermore, high sensitive CRP protein (hsCRP), neutrophils, lymphocytes, white blood cell count (WBC) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were evaluated with complete blood count. The hsCRP (5.5 ± 0.8 vs. 3.1 ± 0.7, p < 0.001), neutrophil count (3.8 ± 0.4 vs. 2.9 ± 0.7, p < 0.001), leukocyte count (7.2 ± 1.8 vs. 5.6 ± 1.6, p < 0.001), and NLR (2.6 ± 1.4 vs. 1.5 ± 0.4, p < 0.001) were higher in patients with PCOS compared to the control group while lymphocyte count was lower (1.71 ± 0.65 vs. 1.98 ± 0.39, p = 0.008). Similarly, both obese and lean patients with PCOS had higher levels of hsCRP, neutrophils, leukocytes and NLR ratios compared to BMI-matched controls. The correlation analysis revealed a moderate correlation between NLR and hsCRP (r 0.459, p < 0.001), and between HOMA-IR (r 0.476 p < 0.001) and BMI (r 0.310, p 0.001). Our study results demonstrated that both lean and obese patients with PCOS have increased inflammatory markers compared to BMI-matched control groups indicating that the inflammation seen in PCOS might be related with the presence of the disorder rather than with obesity.

  10. Cross-shift changes in blood inflammatory markers occur in the absence of airway obstruction in workers exposed to grain dust.

    PubMed

    Borm, P J; Schins, R P; Derhaag, T J; Kant, I; Jorna, T H

    1996-04-01

    Grain dust is well known to cause both acute and chronic respiratory disorders, and endotoxins are considered key components in this. Since endotoxins are known to elicit proinflammatory mediators, we investigated cytokine (tumor necrosis factor [TNF], interleukin-6, interleukin-8) release and a number of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory proteins (soluble TNF receptors, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding protein, bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI), C-reactive protein) in plasma of workers exposed to grain dust. In two surveys during 1 week, lung function was measured daily before and after the shift, using flow-volume curves and/or forced oscillation measurements. On Monday and Friday, blood samples (30 mL) were drawn and cytokine release was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in supernatant of isolated monocytes or whole blood culture, either unstimulated or on the ex vivo stimulation with 3 ng/mL or 1,000 ng/mL endotoxin. Individual exposures were determined from stationary dust measurements at every workplace combined with personal task analysis during all shifts. In both surveys, no cross-week change in lung function parameters was observed. In the first survey (average exposure: 20.2 mg/m3), monocyte spontaneous TNF release was increased sevenfold cross week (p<0.001) and was significantly related both to individual dust exposure (r=0.62) of that week and the increase in soluble TNF receptor 75 kD (r=0.85). In the second survey, where average exposure was much lower (3.67 mg/m3), impedance parameters indicated a significant improvement of airway function, and cross-week changes in inflammatory markers were minimal. Therefore, we conclude that inflammatory events can be used to monitor adverse respiratory effects of moderate grain dust exposure.

  11. Canine serum C-reactive protein as a quantitative marker of the inflammatory stimulus of aseptic elective soft tissue surgery.

    PubMed

    Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Strom, Henriette; Mikkelsen, Lars F; Eriksen, Thomas; Jensen, Asger L; Luntang-Jensen, Michael

    2013-09-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an established serum marker for the presence of systemic inflammation in dogs. Results from previous experimental and clinical studies suggest that CRP concentrations also quantitatively reflect the degree and progress of an inflammatory process, suggesting its use for inflammation monitoring. The objective was to investigate whether the canine CRP response in serum correlates with the amount of trauma and the consequent inflammatory response after 3 standard aseptic soft-tissue surgical procedures in 3 groups of dogs. A total of 24 client-owned intact female dogs of various breeds were enrolled in a clinical study with random allocation into 2 surgical groups, for either conventional, open-approach ovariohysterectomy (OVH; n = 14) or laparoscopic assisted OVH (n = 10). In addition, a group of 8 male Beagles from a laboratory animal facility underwent vasectomy, serving as the third and mildest surgical trauma group. Serum CRP was measured pre- and at 4, 8, 12, 23, and 27 hours postsurgery. Cumulative concentration over time and point concentrations of CRP were correlated with the surgical trauma impact level. There was a significant surgery trauma-related difference in cumulative CRP concentrations among the 3 groups, and also in the 12 hours postsurgery concentration. The CRP response varied according to the degree of surgical trauma on 3 standardized levels, thus supporting the use of canine serum concentrations of CRP as an inflammatory activity indicator and monitoring marker. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  12. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE U.S. AND ASSOCIATIONS WITH LUNG INFLAMMATORY MARKERS IL -8, COX -2 AND HO -1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Associations are well established between particulate matter (PM) and increased human mortality and morbidity. The association between fine PM sources and lung inflammatory markers IL-8, COX-2, and HO-1 was evaluated in this study.

  13. Inflammatory Mechanisms Associated with Skeletal Muscle Sequelae after Stroke: Role of Physical Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Coelho Junior, Hélio José; Gambassi, Bruno Bavaresco; Diniz, Tiego Aparecido; Fernandes, Isabela Maia da Cruz; Caperuto, Érico Chagas; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Lira, Fabio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory markers are increased systematically and locally (e.g., skeletal muscle) in stroke patients. Besides being associated with cardiovascular risk factors, proinflammatory cytokines seem to play a key role in muscle atrophy by regulating the pathways involved in this condition. As such, they may cause severe decrease in muscle strength and power, as well as impairment in cardiorespiratory fitness. On the other hand, physical exercise (PE) has been widely suggested as a powerful tool for treating stroke patients, since PE is able to regenerate, even if partially, physical and cognitive functions. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical exercise in poststroke patients remain poorly understood. Thus, in this study we analyze the candidate mechanisms associated with muscle atrophy in stroke patients, as well as the modulatory effect of inflammation in this condition. Later, we suggest the two strongest anti-inflammatory candidate mechanisms, myokines and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, which may be activated by physical exercise and may contribute to a decrease in proinflammatory markers of poststroke patients. PMID:27647951

  14. Physical activity and inflammatory markers over 10 years: follow-up in men and women from the Whitehall II cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Mark; Sabia, Severine; Batty, G David; Shipley, Martin J; Tabák, Adam G; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2012-08-21

    Inflammatory processes are putative mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of physical activity. An inverse association between physical activity and inflammation has been demonstrated, but no long-term prospective data are available. We therefore examined the association between physical activity and inflammatory markers over a 10-year follow-up period. Participants were 4289 men and women (mean age, 49.2 years) from the Whitehall II cohort study. Self-reported physical activity and inflammatory markers (serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) were measured at baseline (1991) and follow-up (2002). Forty-nine percent of the participants adhered to standard physical activity recommendations for cardiovascular health (2.5 h/wk moderate to vigorous physical activity) across all assessments. Physically active participants at baseline had lower C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels, and this difference remained stable over time. Compared with participants who rarely adhered to physical activity guidelines over the 10-year follow-up, the high-adherence group displayed lower log(e) C-reactive protein (β=-0.07; 95% confidence interval, -0.12 to -0.02) and log(e) interleukin-6 (β=-0.07; 95% confidence interval, -0.10 to -0.03) at follow-up after adjustment for a range of covariates. Compared with participants who remained stable, those who reported an increase in physical activity of at least 2.5 h/wk displayed lower log(e) C-reactive protein (β coefficient=-0.05; 95% confidence interval, -0.10 to -0.001) and log(e) interleukin-6 (β coefficient=-0.06; 95% confidence interval, -0.09 to -0.03) at follow-up. Regular physical activity is associated with lower markers of inflammation over 10 years of follow-up and thus may be important in preventing the proinflammatory state seen with aging.

  15. Inflammatory bowel disease: the role of inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed Central

    Balding, Joanna; Livingstone, Wendy J; Conroy, Judith; Mynett-Johnson, Lesley; Weir, Donald G; Mahmud, Nasir; Smith, Owen P

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have not been fully elucidated, although the main cause of disease pathology is attributed to up-regulated inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate frequencies of polymorphisms in genes encoding pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers in IBD patients and controls. We determined genotypes of patients with IBD (n= 172) and healthy controls (n= 389) for polymorphisms in genes encoding various cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist). Association of these genotypes to disease incidence and pathophysiology was investigated. No strong association was found with occurrence of IBD. Variation was observed between the ulcerative colitis study group and the control population for the TNF-alpha-308 polymorphism (p= 0.0135). There was also variation in the frequency of IL-6-174 and TNF-alpha-308 genotypes in the ulcerative colitis group compared with the Crohn's disease group (p= 0.01). We concluded that polymorphisms in inflammatory genes are associated with variations in IBD phenotype and disease susceptibility. Whether the polymorphisms are directly involved in regulating cytokine production, and consequently pathophysiology of IBD, or serve merely as markers in linkage disequilibrium with susceptibility genes remains unclear. PMID:15223609

  16. The predictive effect of inflammatory markers and lipid accumulation product index on clinical symptoms associated with polycystic ovary syndrome in nonobese adolescents and younger aged women.

    PubMed

    Tola, Esra Nur; Yalcin, Serenat Eris; Dugan, Nadiye

    2017-07-01

    The aim of our study is to analyse the inflammatory markers and lipid accumulation product (LAP) index in nonobese adolescents and younger aged women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with age and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls and to determine whether the investigated parameters are potential markers for the etiopathogenesis of PCOS. We also aim to determine whether these inflammatory markers are predictive for developing some clinical implications, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and insulin resistance (IR), associated with PCOS. A total of 34 adolescents and younger aged females with PCOS, and 33 age and BMI-matched healthy controls were recruited for our study. All participants were nonobese (BMI<25). Neopterin (NEO), C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and complete blood parameters were assessed. LAP index and homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) were calculated; anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters were also recorded. Serum NEO, CRP levels and LAP index were significantly increased in nonobese adolescents and younger aged females with PCOS compared to healthy controls. We could not found any predictive effect of investigated inflammatory markers and LAP index on CVD risk among PCOS patients after adjustment for abdominal obesity. We also found a positive predictive effect of WBC and a negative predictive effect of lymphocytes on IR in PCOS patients after adjustment for abdominal obesity. We did not find any predictor effect of NEO on IR, but it was a positive predictive marker for an elevated HOMA-IR index. Elevated NEO, CRP levels and LAP index could have potential roles in the etiopathogenesis of PCOS in nonobese adolescents and younger aged females,NEO could be a predictive marker for elevated HOMA-IR index, and WBC and lymphocytes could be predictive for the development of IR among nonobese adolescents and younger aged females with PCOS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. FAS ligand expression in inflammatory infiltrate lymphoid cells as a prognostic marker in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Peterle, G T; Santos, M; Mendes, S O; Carvalho-Neto, P B; Maia, L L; Stur, E; Agostini, L P; Silva, C V M; Trivilin, L O; Nunes, F D; Carvalho, M B; Tajara, E H; Louro, I D; Silva-Conforti, A M A

    2015-09-22

    Currently, the most important prognostic factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the presence of regional lymph node metastases, which correlates with a 50% reduction in life expectancy. We have previously observed that expression of hypoxia genes in the tumor inflammatory infiltrate is statistically related to prognosis in OSCC. FAS and FASL expression levels in OSCC have previously been related to patient survival. The present study analyzed the relationship between FASL expression in the inflammatory infiltrate lymphoid cells and clinical variables, tumor histology, and prognosis of OSCC. Strong FASL expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastases (P = 0.035) and disease-specific death (P = 0.014), but multivariate analysis did not confirm FASL expression as an independent death risk factor (OR = 2.78, 95%CI = 0.81-9.55). Disease-free and disease-specific survival were significantly correlated with FASL expression (P = 0.016 and P = 0.005, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that strong FASL expression is an independent marker for earlier disease relapse and disease-specific death, with approximately 2.5-fold increased risk compared with weak expression (HR = 2.24, 95%CI = 1.08-4.65 and HR = 2.49, 95%CI = 1.04-5.99, respectively). Our results suggest a potential role for this expression profile as a tumor prognostic marker in OSCC patients.

  18. Effects of cranberry (Vaccinum macrocarpon) supplementation on iron status and inflammatory markers in rowers.

    PubMed

    Skarpańska-Stejnborn, Anna; Basta, Piotr; Trzeciak, Jerzy; Michalska, Alicja; Kafkas, M Emin; Woitas-Ślubowska, Donata

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of supplementation with cranberry ( Vaccinum macrocarpon ) on the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, hepcidin and selected markers of iron metabolism in rowers subjected to exhaustive exercise. This double-blind study included 16 members of the Polish Rowing Team. The subjects were randomly assigned to the supplemented group ( n  = 9), receiving 1200 mg of cranberry extract for 6 weeks, or to the placebo group ( n  = 7). The participants performed a 2000-m test on a rowing ergometer at the beginning and at the end of the preparatory camp. Blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein prior to each exercise test, one minute after completing the test, and after a 24-h recovery period. The levels of hepcidin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), ferritin, iron, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and myoglobin were determined, along with total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), unbound iron-binding capacity (UIBC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Both prior and after the supplementation, a significant post-exercise increase in the concentration of IL-6 was observed in both groups. At the end of the study period, cranberry-supplemented athletes presented with significantly higher resting, post-exercise and post-recovery levels of TAC than the controls. However, a significant exercise-induced increase in the concentrations of TNF-alpha, myoglobin and hepcidin was observed solely in the control group. Supplementation with cranberry extract contributed to a significant strengthening of antioxidant potential in individuals exposed to strenuous physical exercise. However, supplementation did not exert direct effects on other analyzed parameters: inflammatory markers and indices of iron metabolism (TNF-alpha, hepcidin and myoglobin).

  19. Perineal Injury During Childbirth Increases Risk of Postpartum Depressive Symptoms and Inflammatory Markers

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Alexis B.; Paul, Sudeshna; Ware, Laurel Z.; Corwin, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Perineal lacerations during childbirth affect more than 65% of women in the United States. Little attention has been given to the long-term biologic consequences associated with perineal lacerations or possible associations with postpartum mental health. In this article we describe the results of a study that explored inflammatory pathways in women who reported perineal lacerations during childbirth and the relationship with stress and depressive symptoms during the first six months postpartum. Methods A repeated measures design was used to explore the relationship between varying degrees of perineal lacerations, inflammatory cytokines, postpartum stress, and depressive symptoms in 153 women over six months. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and maternal stress via the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Plasma was analyzed for pro (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines. Levels of cytokines were compared between women with or without varying degrees of injury. Results A relationship was identified between symptoms of depression and a 2nd degree or more severe perineal laceration starting at 1 month postpartum (P=0.04) and continuing through 3 months (P=0.03). Similarly, stress symptoms were higher at 3 months postpartum (P=0.02). Markers of inflammation were significantly higher among this group with IL-6 increased at 2 weeks postpartum (P=0.02), and remaining elevated through 2 months postpartum (P=0.003); there were also significant differences in pro to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios out to 6 months postpartum. Regression analysis indicated that 2nd degree or more severe lacerations accounted for 5.9% of the variance in EPDS score at one month postpartum (P=0.024, F=2.865, t=2.127), increasing substantially when the 1-month stress score was included as well. Discussion This study suggests that perineal lacerations, inflammation, stress, and depressed mood are

  20. Preliminary evidence of a blunted anti-inflammatory response to exhaustive exercise in fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Torgrimson-Ojerio, Britta; Ross, Rebecca L.; Dieckman, Nathaniel F.; Avery, Stephanie; Bennett, Robert M.; Jones, Kim D.; Guarino, Anthony J.; Wood, Lisa J.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise intolerance, as evidenced by a worsening of pain, fatigue, and stiffness after novel exertion, is a key feature of fibromyalgia (FM). In this pilot study, we investigate whether; insufficient muscle repair processes and impaired anti-inflammatory mechanisms result in an exaggerated pro-inflammatory cytokine response to exhaustive exercise, and consequently a worsening of muscle pain, stiffness and fatigue in the days post-exercise. We measured changes in muscle pain and tenderness, fatigue, stiffness, and serum levels of neuroendocrine and inflammatory cytokine markers in 20 women with FM and 16 healthy controls (HCs) before and after exhaustive treadmill exercise. Compared to HCs, FM participants failed to mount the expected anti-inflammatory response to exercise and experienced a worsening of symptoms post-exercise. However, changes in post-exertional symptoms were not mediated by post-exertional changes in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25457842

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids, inflammatory status and biochemical markers of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Curado Borges, Mariane; de Miranda Moura Dos Santos, Fabiana; Weiss Telles, Rosa; Melo de Andrade, Marcus Vinícius; Toulson Davisson Correia, Maria Isabel; Lanna, Cristina Costa Duarte

    Studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids reduce the concentrations of eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines, C-reactive protein (CRP) and other inflammatory mediators. To investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on circulating levels of inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Experimental clinical study (clinical trial: NCT02524795); 49 women with SLE (ACR1982/1997) were randomized: 22 to the omega-3 group (daily intake of 1080mg EPA+200mg DHA, for 12 weeks) and 27 to the control group. The inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers at T0 and T1 in omega-3 group were compared using Wilcoxon test. U-Mann-Whitney test was used to compare variations of measured variables [ΔV=pre-treatment (T0)-post-treatment (T1) concentrations] between groups. p<0.05 was considered significant. The median (interquartile range - IQR) of age was 37 (29-48) years old, of disease duration was 7 (4-13) years, and of SLEDAI-2K was 1 (0-2). The median (IQR) of variation in CRP levels between the two groups showed a decrease in omega-3 group while there was an increase in control group (p=0.008). The serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10, leptin and adiponectin did not change after a 12 week treatment. Supplementation with omega-3 had no impact on serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, leptin and adiponectin in women with SLE and low disease activity. There was a significant decrease of CRP levels as well as evidence that omega-3 may impact total and LDL-cholesterol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  2. The beneficial role of anti-inflammatory dietary ingredients in attenuating markers of chronic low-grade inflammation in aging.

    PubMed

    Panickar, Kiran S; Jewell, Dennis E

    2015-08-01

    Aging in humans is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation (systemic), and this condition is sometimes referred to as "inflammaging". In general, canines also age similarly to humans, and such aging is associated with a decline in mobility, joint problems, weakened muscles and bones, reduced lean body mass, cancer, increased dermatological problems, decline in cognitive ability, reduced energy, decreased immune function, decreased renal function, and urinary incontinence. Each of these conditions is also associated with an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines. An inflammatory state characterized by an increase in pro-inflammatory markers including but not restricted to tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, IL-1β, and C-reactive protein (CRP) is believed to contribute to or worsen a general decline in biological mechanisms responsible for physical function with aging. Nutritional management of inflammation in aging dogs is important in maintaining health. In particular, natural botanicals have bioactive components that appear to have robust anti-inflammatory effects and, when included in the diet, may contribute to a reduction in inflammation. While there are scientific data to support the anti-inflammatory effects and the efficacy of such bioactive molecules from botanicals, the clinical data are limited and more studies are needed to validate the efficacy of these ingredients. This review will summarize the role of dietary ingredients in reducing inflammatory molecules as well as review the evidence available to support the role of diet and nutrition in reducing chronic low-grade systemic inflammation in animal and human studies with a special reference to canines, where possible.

  3. Results of the 4th scientific workshop of the ECCO (Group II): markers of intestinal fibrosis in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Florian; de Bruyn, Jessica R; Pham, Bao Tung; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Annese, Vito; Higgins, Peter D R; Magro, Fernando; Dotan, Iris

    2014-10-01

    The fourth scientific workshop of the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization (ECCO) focused on intestinal fibrosis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The objective was to better understand basic mechanisms and markers of intestinal fibrosis as well as to suggest new therapeutic targets to prevent or treat fibrosis. The results of this workshop are presented in three separate manuscripts. This section describes markers of fibrosis in IBD, identifies unanswered questions in the field and provides a framework for future studies addressing the unmet needs in the field of intestinal fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Obesity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Marker of Less Severe Disease.

    PubMed

    Flores, Avegail; Burstein, Ezra; Cipher, Daisha J; Feagins, Linda A

    2015-08-01

    Both obesity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are highly prevalent in Western societies. IBD, including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), has been historically associated with cachexia and malnutrition. It is uncertain how obesity, a chronic pro-inflammatory state, may impact the course of IBD. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of obesity in patients with IBD in a metropolitan US population and to assess the impact of obesity on disease phenotypes, treatment, and surgical outcomes in IBD patients. We reviewed the medical records of patients identified from the IBD registries of the Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Parkland Health and Hospital Systems who were seen from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2012. Of 581 identified IBD patients, 32.7 % were obese (BMI ≥ 30) and 67.6 % were non-obese (BMI < 30). There were 297 (51.1 %) patients with CD and 284 (48.9 %) patients with UC. The rate of obesity was 30.3 % among CD patients and 35.2 % among UC patients. Overall, obese patients were significantly less likely to receive anti-TNF treatment, undergo surgery, or experience a hospitalization for their IBD than their non-obese counterparts (55.8 vs. 72.1 %, p = .0001). Obesity is highly prevalent in our IBD patients, paralleling the obesity rates in the US population. Clinical outcomes were significantly different in obese versus non-obese patients with IBD. Despite the plausible mechanisms whereby obesity might exacerbate IBD, we have found that obesity (as defined by BMI) is a marker of a less severe disease course in IBD.

  5. Relating Stool Microbial Metabolite Levels, Inflammatory Markers and Dietary Behaviors to Screening Colonoscopy Findings in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Patient Population.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Kristina M; Diaz, Francisco J; Wang, Zhiwen; Ahmed, Ishfaq; Sullivan, Debra K; Umar, Shahid; Buckles, Daniel C; Greiner, K Allen; Hester, Christina M

    2018-02-26

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in the United States, yet it is treatable and preventable. African Americans have higher incidence of CRC than other racial/ethnic groups, however, it is unclear whether this disparity is primarily due to environmental or biological factors. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are metabolites produced by bacteria in the colon and are known to be inversely related to CRC progression. The aim of this study is to investigate how stool SCFA levels, markers of inflammation in stool and dietary intake relate to colonoscopy findings in a diverse patient population. Stool samples from forty-eight participants were analyzed for SCFA levels and inflammatory markers (lysozyme, secretory IgA, lactoferrin). Additionally, participants completed the National Cancer Institute's Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ II) to report dietary intake over the past year. Subsequently, the majority of participants underwent screening colonoscopy. Our results showed that African Americans had higher total levels of SCFAs in stool than other racial/ethnic groups, significantly lower intake of non-starchy vegetables and similar inflammatory marker expression and colonoscopy outcomes, compared to others. This work is an initial exploration into the biological and clinical factors that may ultimately inform personalized screening approaches and clinical decision-making to improve colorectal cancer disparities for African Americans.

  6. Relating Stool Microbial Metabolite Levels, Inflammatory Markers and Dietary Behaviors to Screening Colonoscopy Findings in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Patient Population

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Kristina M.; Diaz, Francisco J.; Wang, Zhiwen; Ahmed, Ishfaq; Sullivan, Debra K.; Umar, Shahid; Buckles, Daniel C.; Greiner, K. Allen; Hester, Christina M.

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in the United States, yet it is treatable and preventable. African Americans have higher incidence of CRC than other racial/ethnic groups, however, it is unclear whether this disparity is primarily due to environmental or biological factors. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are metabolites produced by bacteria in the colon and are known to be inversely related to CRC progression. The aim of this study is to investigate how stool SCFA levels, markers of inflammation in stool and dietary intake relate to colonoscopy findings in a diverse patient population. Stool samples from forty-eight participants were analyzed for SCFA levels and inflammatory markers (lysozyme, secretory IgA, lactoferrin). Additionally, participants completed the National Cancer Institute’s Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ II) to report dietary intake over the past year. Subsequently, the majority of participants underwent screening colonoscopy. Our results showed that African Americans had higher total levels of SCFAs in stool than other racial/ethnic groups, significantly lower intake of non-starchy vegetables and similar inflammatory marker expression and colonoscopy outcomes, compared to others. This work is an initial exploration into the biological and clinical factors that may ultimately inform personalized screening approaches and clinical decision-making to improve colorectal cancer disparities for African Americans. PMID:29495356

  7. Preliminary evidence of a blunted anti-inflammatory response to exhaustive exercise in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Torgrimson-Ojerio, Britta; Ross, Rebecca L; Dieckmann, Nathan F; Avery, Stephanie; Bennett, Robert M; Jones, Kim D; Guarino, Anthony J; Wood, Lisa J

    2014-12-15

    Exercise intolerance, as evidenced by a worsening of pain, fatigue, and stiffness after novel exertion, is a key feature of fibromyalgia (FM). In this pilot study, we investigate whether; insufficient muscle repair processes and impaired anti-inflammatory mechanisms result in an exaggerated pro-inflammatory cytokine response to exhaustive exercise, and consequently a worsening of muscle pain, stiffness and fatigue in the days post-exercise. We measured changes in muscle pain and tenderness, fatigue, stiffness, and serum levels of neuroendocrine and inflammatory cytokine markers in 20 women with FM and 16 healthy controls (HCs) before and after exhaustive treadmill exercise. Compared to HCs, FM participants failed to mount the expected anti-inflammatory response to exercise and experienced a worsening of symptoms post-exercise. However, changes in post-exertional symptoms were not mediated by post-exertional changes in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Systemic Markers of Inflammation in Middle-Aged Male Twins

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold; Miller, Andrew H.; Ritchie, James; Bremner, J. Douglas; Goldberg, Jack; Dai, Jun; Jones, Linda; Murrah, Nancy V.; Zhao, Jinying; Vaccarino, Viola

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to determine the relative influence of genetic and environmental contributions to inflammatory biomarkers, and to what extent correlations among these markers are due to genetic or environmental factors. Methods We performed univariate and multivariate genetic analyses of four inflammatory markers: interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen, in 166 (88 monozygotic and 78 dizygotic) middle-aged male twin pairs. Results The mean age (±SD) of the twins was 54 (±2.93) years. Heritability was substantial for CRP (0.61, 95% CI: 0.47–0.72) and moderate to fair for IL-6 (0.31, 0.13–0.46), sIL-6R (0.49, 0.30–0.76) and fibrinogen (0.52, 0.34–0.65). IL-6, CRP and fibrinogen showed significant correlations, but not with sIL-6R. Multivariate genetic analysis found that these correlations could be best explained by a common pathway model, where the common factor explained 27%, 73% and 25% of the variance of IL-6, CRP and fibrinogen, respectively. About 46% (95% CI: 21–64%) of the correlations among the three inflammatory markers could be explained by the genetic factors. After adjusting for covariates known to influence inflammation levels, heritability estimates were slightly decreased but the overall results remained similar. Conclusions A significant part of the variation in inflammatory marker levels is due to genetic influences. Furthermore, almost 50% of the shared variance among these biomarkers is due to a common genetic factor which likely plays a key role in the regulation of inflammation. PMID:18243214

  9. Pain frequency, severity and QT dispersion in adult patients with sickle cell anemia: correlation with inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    Garadah, Taysir S; Jaradat, Ahmed A; AlAlawi, Mohammed E; Hassan, Adla B; Sequeira, Reginald P

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammatory markers are increased during vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) in adult patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA), but this is not clear in clinical steady state. Aim The present study aims to establish the frequency and intensity of bone pain episodes in adult patients with SCA in clinical steady state and to determine the correlation between different inflammatory markers, other variables including QT dispersion (QTd) and pain frequency and intensity in SCA. Patients and methods Patients were classified into two groups: group 1, those with more than three hospital admissions in the last 6 months, and group 2, those with no hospital admission. Pearson correlation between variables such as body mass index (BMI), level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), hemoglobin (Hb), reticulocyte count, white blood cell count (WBC), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), parathormone (PTH), vitamin D3 (25-OH cholecalciferol) and bone pain frequency with severity was evaluated. Results Forty-six patients were enrolled in this study with a mean age of 18.47±5.78 years, with 23 patients in each group. Vitamin D3 and Hb were lower (17.04±5.77 vs 37.59±4.83 ng/L, P<0.01 and 7.96±0.3 vs 8.44±0.27 g/dL, P<0.01, respectively); the inflammatory markers showed significantly higher level of TNF-α, IL-1 and CRP (56.52±5.43 pg/ml, 44.17±4.54 pg/ml and 3.20±0.72 mg/L, respectively, P<0.05); WBC, LDH and reticulocyte count were also significantly higher and the QTd was higher (45.0±2.22 vs 41.55±0.8 ms, P<0.05) in group 1 when compared with group 2. Pearson correlation coefficient showed significant positive correlation between serum level of TNF-α and bone pain frequency (r=0.414, P<0.005) and serum level of IL-1 (r=0.39, P<0.008). Conclusion There is a strong positive correlation between TNF-α, IL-1 and WBC and bone pain frequency in steady state in adult patients with SCA. CRP and low hemoglobin had weak positive

  10. Single and combined effects of inflammatory markers on 10 year diabetes incidence: The mediating role of adiposity-Results from the ATTICA cohort study.

    PubMed

    Koloverou, Efi; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N; Chrysohoou, Christina; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Pitsavos, Christos

    2018-01-01

    The role of inflammation in diabetes development is not fully elucidated. The aim of this work was to investigate the independent effect of individual inflammatory markers and combinations of them on diabetes incidence and the potential mediating role of obesity. In 2001 to 2002, a random sample of 1514 men (18-87 years old) and 1528 women (18-89 years old) was selected to participate in the ATTICA study, where Athens is a major metropolis. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor-alpha, serum amyloid alpha, fibrinogen, and homocysteine were measured. Covariates included various clinical, demographic, and lifestyle characteristics, assessed with standard procedures. In 2012, the 10 year follow-up was performed. Diabetes diagnosis was defined according to American Diabetes Association criteria among n = 1485 participants. One hundred ninety-one incident cases of diabetes were documented, yielding an incidence of 12.9% (13.4% in men and 12.4% in women). After adjustments, only elevated IL-6 increased by 2.2 times the 10 year diabetes risk (third vs first tertile, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.28). After investigating combinations of inflammatory markers, combined elevated levels of CRP and IL-6 or CRP and fibrinogen (both markers ≥75th percentile vs <75th percentile) increased the risk by 1.93 times (95% CI: 1.20, 3.08) and 2.37 times (95% CI: 1.37, 4.16), respectively. Body mass index was found to significantly mediate the aggravating effect of inflammation. The reported results underline the significant role of individual IL-6 or combinations of CRP-IL-6 and CRP-fibrinogen in diabetes prediction. Adiposity seems to be primarily responsible for an increase in inflammatory markers, leading through this mechanism to insulin resistance and increasing diabetes risk. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Effect of magnesium sulfate and thyroxine on inflammatory markers in a rat model of hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Amr M; Sakr, Hussein F

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation is a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has anti-inflammatory actions. Therefore we investigated the effects of levothyroxine and MgSO4 on inflammatory markers as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in hypothyroid rats. Sixty male rats were divided into 6 groups; normal, normal + MgSO4, hypothyroidism, hypothyroidism + levothyroxine, hypothyroidism + MgSO4, and hypothyroidism + levothyroxine + MgSO4. Thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), CRP, interleukin-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were measured in all rats. Hypothyroidism significantly increased TSH, CRP, interleukin-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 and decreased triiodothronine and thyroxine. Treatment of hypothyroid rats with levothyroxine or MgSO4 significantly decreased CRP, interleukin-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. Combined therapy of hypothyroid rats with levothyroxine and MgSO4 significantly decreased CRP, interleukin-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 compared with hypothyroid rats either untreated or treated with levothyroxine or MgSO4. This study demonstrates that hypothyroid rats have chronic low grade inflammation, which may account for increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Combined levothyroxine and MgSO4 is better than levothyroxine or MgSO4 alone in alleviating the chronic low grade inflammatory status and therefore reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in hypothyroid animals.

  12. Advancements in anti-inflammatory therapy for dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Erin; Narayanan, Srihari

    2009-10-01

    The goal of this literature review is to discuss recent discoveries in the pathophysiology of dry eye and the subsequent evolution of diagnostic and management techniques. The mechanisms of various anti-inflammatory treatments are reviewed, and the efficacy of common pharmacologic agents is assessed. Anti-inflammatory therapy is evaluated in terms of its primary indications, target population, and utility within a clinical setting. The Medline PubMed database and the World Wide Web were searched for current information regarding dry eye prevalence, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. After an analysis of the literature, major concepts were integrated to generate an updated portrayal of the status of dry eye syndrome. Inflammation appears to play a key role in perpetuating and sustaining dry eye. Discoveries of inflammatory markers found within the corneal and conjunctival epithelium of dry eye patients have triggered recent advancements in therapy. Pharmacologic anti-inflammatory therapy for dry eye includes 2 major categories: corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents. Fatty acid and androgen supplementation and oral antibiotics have also shown promise in dry eye therapy because of their anti-inflammatory effects. Anti-inflammatory pharmacologic agents have shown great success in patients with moderate to severe dry eye when compared with alternative treatment modalities. A deeper understanding of the link between inflammation and dry eye validates the utilization of anti-inflammatory therapy in everyday optometric practice.

  13. Serum inflammatory markers in the elderly: are they useful in differentiating sepsis from SIRS?

    PubMed

    Talebi-Taher, Mahshid; Babazadeh, Shahin; Barati, Mitra; Latifnia, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Differentiating sepsis from other noninfectious causes of systemic inflammation is often difficult in the elderly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of C-reactive protein (CRP), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), procalcitonin (PCT), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) to identify elderly patients with sepsis. In this single center prospective observational study, we included all consecutive elderly patients admitted with suspected sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in an emergency department. Blood samples for measuring CRP, PCT, IL-6, ESR and white blood cells (WBC) count were taken at first day of admission. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated for each inflammatory markers being studied. A total of 150 elderly patients aged 65 and older, 50 with sepsis and 50 with SIRS, and fifty individuals in a normal health status were included. CRP exhibited the greatest sensitivity (98%) and negative predictive value (98.6%) and performed best in differentiating patients with sepsis from those with SIRS. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, IL-6 performed best in distinguishing between SIRS and the control group (AUC 0.75, 95% CI). On the other hand, both CRP and ESR appeared to be a more accurate diagnostic parameter for differentiating sepsis from SIRS among elderly patients.

  14. Association between systemic inflammatory markers and serum prostate-specific antigen in men without prostatic disease - the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Alicia C; Vira, Manish A; Vidal, Adriana C; Gan, Wenqi; Freedland, Stephen J; Taioli, Emanuela

    2014-05-01

    Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) may be elevated in otherwise healthy men; systemic inflammation has been associated with cancer. The study of systemic inflammatory markers in men without clinical prostate disease, but with elevated PSA may characterize the subgroup of men at higher risk for subsequent prostate cancer. We investigated the associations between systemic inflammatory markers and serum PSA in 3,164 healthy men without prostatic disease, aged >40 years, from the 2001 to 2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Serum total PSA levels and concentrations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma fibrinogen, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, and platelet count were recorded. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) ratio and platelet-lymphocyte (PLR) ratio were calculated. PSA elevation was defined as levels equal or greater than 4 ng/ml. Elevated serum PSA (194 men, 6.1% of the total), was significantly associated with plasma fibrinogen (ORmultiv  = 1.88; 95% CI, 1.09-3.25), and NLR (ORmultiv  = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.26), after adjustment for age, smoking, body mass index, education, race, co-morbidities, and use of medications. Markers of systemic inflammation were associated with elevated PSA in men without known prostatic disease. Future studies are needed to examine these markers' relationship with prostate cancer occurrence and progression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effects of resistance training at different loads on inflammatory markers in young adults.

    PubMed

    Forti, Louis Nuvagah; Van Roie, Evelien; Njemini, Rose; Coudyzer, Walter; Beyer, Ingo; Delecluse, Christophe; Bautmans, Ivan

    2017-03-01

    Suppressing inflammaging at an early stage in life via exercise might prevent chronic diseases later in life. The aim was to investigate the influence of resistance training at different external loads on inflammatory markers in healthy young adults. Serum was collected for basal levels of cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, sTNFR1, IL-1RA, IL-10 and GM-CSF) before and after 9 weeks exercise from 36 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy subjects who were randomized to three times weekly supervised resistance training at either HI max (n = 12, 1 × 10-12 repetitions at 80% 1RM), LO (n = 12, 1 × 10-12 repetitions at 40% 1RM), or LO max (n = 12, 1 × 10-12 repetitions at 40% 1RM preceded by 60 repetitions at 20-25% 1RM) respectively. Overall, IL-8 increased (p < 0.001) and IL-6 decreased (p = 0.001) after training, but no significant time*group interaction was found (respectively, p = 0.283 and p = 0.058 for IL-8 and IL-6). When analyzed separately, IL-8 increased significantly in HI max (p = 0.022) and LO max (p = 0.024); and IL-6 decreased significantly in LO max (p = 0.009) and LO (p = 0.013). No significant overall time effect was observed for sTNFR1 and IL-1RA; however, in HI max sTNFR1 (p = 0.031) and IL-1RA (p = 0.014) increased significantly, but remained unchanged in LO max and LO. IL-1beta, IL-10 and GM-CSF levels remained undetectable in most participants. Nine weeks of resistance training-irrespective of the external load-have beneficial effects on circulating IL-8 and IL-6. In addition, training at high external load increases the anti-inflammatory cytokines sTNFR1 and IL-1RA. The results of this study show that resistance training has anti-inflammatory effects in healthy young persons and that the response of the different inflammatory mediators depends on the magnitude of the external load.

  16. Relationship between heart rate recovery and inflammatory markers in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Giallauria, Francesco; Orio, Francesco; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Vigorito, Carlo; Tafuri, Maria Giovanna; Palomba, Stefano

    2009-02-02

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease closely related to several risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR), an easily-obtained measure derived from exercise stress test and closely related to an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, has been recently described in PCOS women. A subclinical increase of the inflammation markers has been also observed in the PCOS. This study was designed to study the relationships between HRR and inflammatory markers in PCOS women. Two-hundred forty-three young PCOS patients without known risk factors for cardiovascular risk were enrolled. All patients underwent hormonal and metabolic profile, white blood cells (WBCs) count and C-reactive protein (CRP). HRR was calculated as the difference between heart rate at peak exercise and heart rate at first minute of the cool-down period. Abnormal HRR was defined as inflammatory markers are closely associated in PCOS women acting probably in concert to increase the cardiovascular risk profile of these patients.

  17. Glycoxidation and inflammatory markers in patients on treatment with PMMA-based protein-leaking dialyzers.

    PubMed

    Galli, Francesco; Benedetti, Serena; Floridi, Ardesio; Canestrari, Franco; Piroddi, Marta; Buoncristiani, Emanuela; Buoncristiani, Umberto

    2005-02-01

    High-molecular-weight solutes such as glycation and oxidation protein products are putative proinflammatory mediators found in the uremic blood. The elimination of these and other large solutes by protein-leaking dialyzers (PLD) might help to correct the inflammatory status of maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients. Two matched groups of 13 standard 3 times/week HD patients were treated for 6 months with PMMA-based PLD and non-protein-leaking dialyzers (NPLD), respectively. At baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months, we measured the blood levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, the acute-phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP), the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and selectine-E, the chemotaxis factors MCP-1, and the glycation and oxidation protein end products pentosidine, protein carbonyls, and AOPP. In all the patients at baseline, pre-HD levels of glycation and oxidation protein markers, and inflammatory parameters were significantly higher than in healthy control subjects (P < 0.01 or greater). After 6 months, in the group on treatment with PLD, but not in that on NPLD, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 or greater) of pre-HD values of total pentosidine (mainly represented by pentosidine in serum albumin; -43%), protein carbonyls (-42%), AOPP (-38%), and the inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta (-49%), IL-6 (-39%), and TNF-alpha (-20%), while IL-10 and INF-gamma increased by 67% and 37%, respectively. Proinflammatory cytokines, and particularly IL-6, showed a positive correlation with the levels of circulating pentosidine. Protidemia was not significantly modified at the end of the study in both the groups. The results in this pilot study show that the removal of large solutes by PLD can improve some indices of chronic inflammation in HD patients. Further studies are required to determine the relevance of the individual solutes removed with PLD as proinflammatory mediators in the uremic environment.

  18. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is a key mediator of central sensitization in painful inflammatory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pezet, Sophie; Marchand, Fabien; D'Mello, Richard; Grist, John; Clark, Anna K.; Malcangio, Marzia; Dickenson, Anthony H.; Williams, Robert J.; McMahon, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Here we show that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is a key player in the establishment of central sensitization, the spinal cord phenomenon associated with persistent afferent inputs and contributing to chronic pain states. We demonstrated electrophysiologically that PI3K is required for the full expression of spinal neuronal wind-up. In an inflammatory pain model, intrathecal administration of LY294002, a potent PI3K inhibitor, dose-dependently inhibited pain related behavior. This effect was correlated with a reduction of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and CaMKinase II. In addition, we observed a significant decrease in the phosphorylation of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B, decreased translocation to the plasma membrane of the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit in the spinal cord and a reduction of evoked neuronal activity as measured using c-Fos immunohistochemistry. Our study suggests that PI3K is a major factor in the expression of central sensitization after noxious inflammatory stimuli. PMID:18417706

  19. Comparison of plasma adiponectin & certain inflammatory markers in angiographically proven coronary artery disease patients with & without diabetes – A study from India

    PubMed Central

    Kumpatla, Satyavani; Karuppiah, Kirubakaran; Immaneni, Sathyamurthy; Muthukumaran, Parthiban; Krishnan, Jayanthi; Narayanamoorthy, Srinivasan Kanthallu; Viswanathan, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: The association between adiponectin and risk of cardiovascular disease is well known. The aim of the present study was to evaluate adiponectin and certain inflammatory markers and to determine the correlations between them in angiographically proven coronary artery disease (CAD) in subjects with and without diabetes. Methods: A total of 180 subjects who underwent coronary angiography for symptoms suggestive of CAD were categorised into groups based on their diabetes and/or CAD status: group1 (non-diabetic non-CAD); group2 (non-diabetic CAD); group3 (diabetic non-CAD) and group4 (diabetic CAD). Adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and soluble form of E-selectin (sE-selectin) were estimated using quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) by particle enhanced immunoturbidimetric method. Results: Adiponectin levels were significantly lower in subjects with either diabetes or CAD and were much lower in subjects who had both. hsCRP was elevated in CAD and diabetes but did not differ significantly between groups. sE-selectin and TNF-α levels were elevated in CAD. Adiponectin negatively correlated with age, glucose, sE-selectin, total and LDL cholesterol. hsCRP correlated with BMI, sE-selectin and urea. sE-selectin correlated with BMI, triglycerides and VLDL cholesterol, whereas TNF-α correlated with fasting plasma glucose. In the logistic regression analysis, adiponectin had a significant inverse association with CAD. sE-selectin and TNF-α also showed significant independent association with CAD. Interpretation & conclusions: Adiponectin and other inflammatory markers such as sE-selectin and TNF-α showed a significant association with CAD. Hence, early assessment of such markers can help to identify high risk patients, and to reduce the inflammatory component of diabetes and CAD. PMID:25109718

  20. Sleep Variability, Health-Related Practices and Inflammatory Markers in a Community Dwelling Sample of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Okun, Michele L.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Monk, Timothy H; Mazumdar, Sati; Begley, Amy; Hall, Martica

    2011-01-01

    Background Low-grade chronic inflammation is an important risk factor for age-related morbidity. Health behaviors, including average aggregate measures of sleep, have been linked to increased inflammation in older adults. Variability in sleep timing may also be associated with increased inflammation. This study evaluated relationships among several health behaviors and circulating proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α). Method Participants were community dwelling older adults >60 years (N = 222: 39 bereaved, 55 caregivers, 52 with insomnia, and 76 good sleepers). Mean values and intra-individual variability in sleep, as well as caffeine and alcohol use, exercise, and daytime napping were assessed by sleep diaries. Blood draws were obtained in the morning. Results Several interactions were noted between sleep behaviors, inflammatory markers, and participant group. Greater variability in wake time and time in bed was associated with higher IL-6 among good sleepers relative to caregivers and older adults with insomnia. Good sleepers who consumed moderate amounts of alcohol had the lowest concentrations of IL-6 compared to the other three groups who consumed alcohol. Insomnia subjects, but not good sleepers, showed increased concentrations of IL-6 associated with caffeine use. Caregivers showed increased concentrations of TNF-α with alcohol use relative to good sleepers. Greater variability in bedtime, later wake times and longer time in bed was associated with higher TNF-α regardless of group. Conclusions Moderation and regularity in the practice of certain health behaviors, including sleep practices, were associated with lower plasma levels of inflammatory markers in older adults. Life circumstances and specific sleep disorders may modify these associations. PMID:21097658

  1. Omega-3 supplementation on inflammatory markers in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy: a randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paula Simplício da; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Silva, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio da; Brito, Patricia Dias de; Cardoso, Claudia Santos de Aguiar; Almeida, Cristiane Fonseca de; Sangenis, Luiz Henrique Conde; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Hasslocher-Moreno, Alejandro Marcel; Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do; Sousa, Andrea Silvestre de

    2017-06-09

    Several studies have been focusing on the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on modulation of inflammatory markers in several cardiopathies. Although immunoregulatory dysfunction has been associated to the chronic cardiac involvement in Chagas disease, there is no study examining the effects of omega-3 supplementation in these patients. We investigated the effects of omega-3 PUFAs on markers of inflammation and lipid profile in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy patients. The present study was a single-center double-blind clinical trial including patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive omega-3 PUFAs capsules (1.8g EPA and 1.2g DHA) or placebo (corn oil) during an 8-week period. Cytokines, fasting glucose, lipid, and anthropometric profiles were evaluated. Forty-two patients (23 women and 19 men) were included in the study and there were only two losses to follow-up during the 8-week period. Most of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were similar between the groups at baseline, except for the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17α, and IFNγ. The omega-3 PUFAs group demonstrated greater improvements in serum triglycerides (-21.1 vs. -4.1; p = 0.05) and IL-10 levels (-10.6 vs. -35.7; p = 0.01) in comparison to controls after 8 weeks of intervention. No further differences were observed between groups. Omega-3 PUFAs supplementation may favorably affect lipid and inflammatory profile in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy patients, demonstrated by a decrease in triglycerides and improvements on IL-10 concentration. Further studies examining the clinical effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy are necessary. NCT01863576.

  2. Inflammatory and Nutritional Serum Markers as Predictors of Peri-operative Morbidity and Survival in Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amanika; Torres, Michelle L; Cliby, William A; Kalli, Kimberly R; Bogani, Giorgio; Aletti, Giovanni; Nitschmann, Caroline C; Multinu, Francesco; Weaver, Amy L; Block, Matthew S; Mariani, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    To identify preoperative nutritional and inflammatory markers that predict perioperative outcomes in patients with ovarian cancer (OC). Fifty patients who underwent primary debulking for advanced (stage III/IV) OC were selected from a cohort of patients who underwent surgery between 2002 and 2009. We analyzed C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL6) and albumin and their impact on mortality and surgical outcomes. Two patients were excluded since they did not have adequate measurements of CRP and IL6. Among the remaining patients, 25 (52%) were ≥70 years old. Nine (19%), 12 (25%) and 12 (25%) patients had low serum albumin (<3.0 g/dl), elevated CRP (≥70 mg/l) and elevated IL6 (≥24 pg/ml), respectively. Age was a significant predictor of non-home discharge (p=0.01). Low serum albumin (<3.0 g/dl) was a predictor of death within 6 month (p=0.03). Elevated CRP (≥70 mg/l) was a predictor of non-home discharge (p=0.02), death within 6 months (p=0.02), death within 12 months (p=0.04), and longer hospital stay (p=0.01). Elevated IL6 (≥24 pg/ml) was a predictor of non-home discharge (p=0.002) and surgical complications (p=0.02), and also associated with longer hospital stay (p=0.03). Poor nutrition and high inflammatory status negatively influence surgical and oncological outcomes of patients with OC. These preoperative markers can be used for selection of patients for neoadjuvant chemotherapy at high risk of short survival, non-home discharge and long hospital stay. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  3. Salivary inflammatory cytokines may be novel markers of carotid atherosclerosis in a Japanese general population: the Suita study.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Takayuki; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Ono, Takahiro; Sekine, Shinichi; Kida, Momoyo; Kikui, Miki; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Watanabe, Makoto; Amano, Atsuo; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2014-11-01

    Salivary biomarkers have been recently useful of periodontal disease, which is also risk factor of atherosclerosis. However, there are few studies of the association between salivary inflammatory cytokines and carotid atherosclerosis. We aimed to clarify the association between salivary inflammatory cytokines and periodontal disease and carotid atherosclerosis in a general urban population. We studied 608 Japanese men and women (mean age: 65.4 years) in the Suita study. Carotid atherosclerosis was evaluated by high-resolution ultrasonography with atherosclerotic indexes of intima-media thickness (IMT). Periodontal status was evaluated by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Salivary levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The risks of carotid atherosclerosis (≥75th percentiles of mean- [0.88 mm] and Max-IMT [1.50 mm]) according to the quartiles of salivary inflammatory cytokines were compared using of adjusted-logistic regression models. All salivary inflammatory cytokines were positively associated with CPI. The adjusted odds ratios for carotid atherosclerosis of mean-IMT in the highest quartile of interleukin-6 and TNF-α were higher than those in the lowest quartiles (OR = 2.32 and 2.88; 95% confidence intervals = 1.19-4.51 and 1.51-5.49, respectively). The adjusted odds ratio for carotid atherosclerosis of mean-IMT in the highest quartile of PGE2 was greater than those in the lowest quartile in women (OR = 2.78; 95% confidence intervals = 1.11-6.95). In conclusion, higher levels of salivary inflammatory cytokines were associated with both periodontal disease and carotid atherosclerosis. Selected salivary inflammatory cytokines may be useful screening markers for periodontal disease and carotid atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. VIP modulates the pro-inflammatory maternal response, inducing tolerance to trophoblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Fraccaroli, Laura; Alfieri, Julio; Larocca, Luciana; Calafat, Mario; Roca, Valeria; Lombardi, Eduardo; Ramhorst, Rosanna; Leirós, Claudia Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Successful embryo implantation is followed by a local pro-inflammatory and Th1 response, subsequently controlled by a Th2 response. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has anti-inflammatory effects and promotes tolerogenic/Th2 responses while favouring embryonic development. We investigated the potential regulatory role of VIP on human trophoblast cells, maternal pro-inflammatory responses and trophoblast-maternal leukocyte interactions. Experimental approach We tested VIP effects directly on a trophoblast cell line (Swan 71 cells) and after co-culture with maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as models of the feto-maternal dialogue. We also co-cultured maternal and paternal PBMCs to test effects of endogenous VIP on maternal alloresponses. Key results Swan 71 cells express VPAC1 receptors and VIP induced their proliferation and the expression of leukaemia inhibitor factor, a pro-implantatory marker. After interaction with trophoblast cells, VIP increased Foxp3, the proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells within maternal PBMCs and transforming growth factor β expression. Also, during the trophoblast-maternal PBMCs interaction, VIP reduced pro-inflammatory mediators [interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, nitric oxide], while increasing IL-10. Trophoblast cells produced VIP which dose-dependently suppressed allomaternal responses, accompanied by reduced expression of the T cell transcription factor, T-bet. Conclusions and implications Vasoactive intestinal peptide induced pro-implantatory markers and trophoblast cell proliferation, while controlling the initial pro-inflammatory response, by increasing maternal regulatory T cells and anti-inflammatory cytokines. As an autocrine regulatory peptide VIP might contribute to fetal survival through two mechanisms; a direct trophic effect on trophoblast cells and an immunomodulatory effect that favours tolerance to fetal antigens. PMID:19133995

  5. Chemical castration in cattle with intratesticular injection of sodium chloride: Effects on stress and inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fernando C; Ferreira, Carlos E R; Haas, Cristina S; Oliveira, Leonardo G; Mondadori, Rafael G; Schneider, Augusto; Rovani, Monique T; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Vieira, Arnaldo D; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Lucia, Thomaz

    2017-03-01

    Intratesticular injection (ITI) of sodium chloride (NaCl) is efficient for chemical castration of young calves, but its effects on calves welfare are unknown. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of ITI of 20% NaCl on stress and inflammatory markers in calves less than 20 days old and to assess the efficiency of ITI of 30% NaCl in 5 months old calves. In Experiment 1, control calves were only restrained and compared to calves submitted to castration through surgery (SC) and ITI with 20% NaCl (n = 9/group). No differences were observed for the eye corner temperature measured by thermography from 60 s before to 60 s after the procedures (P > 0.05). In the SC group, acute serum cortisol levels increased at 30 and 60 min after the procedure, but increased levels in the ITI group occurred only at 30 min (P < 0.05). Chronic discomfort markers were measured at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after the procedures (D0, D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively). The serum levels of the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) enzyme and cortisol did not differ among groups (P > 0.05). Scrotal temperature was higher at D1 in the SC group than for the other groups, but lowest at D4 compared to the control (both P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, histological sections of testes were compared after ITI with either 30% NaCl or 30% calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ), to intact calves (control). After 60 days, intact seminiferous tubules and mediastinum were observed after ITI with 30% NaCl, whereas coagulative necrosis, inflammatory infiltration and calcification occurred after ITI with 30% CaCl 2 . Efficient chemical castration through ITI of 20% NaCl in young calves was followed by slight stress and inflammatory responses compared to surgical castration. However, ITI of 30% NaCl was ineffective for chemical castration of 5 months old calves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Early Atherosclerosis Markers in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Üstün, Yusuf; Kilincalp, Serta; Çoban, Şahin; Coşkun, Yusuf; Yüksel, İlhami; Ongun, Aydan; Soykan, İrfan; Bektaş, Mehmet; Törüner, Murat; Çetinkaya, Hülya; Örmeci, Necati

    2016-10-24

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between early atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) using laboratory, functional, and morphological markers of atherosclerosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the present prospective single-center study, 96 patients with IBD (58 patients with ulcerative colitis and 36 patients with Crohn's disease) and 65 healthy control subjects were included. The demographic data of each patient and control subject were recorded. The patients with IBD and healthy controls were compared in terms of the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), the values of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and nitroglycerine-mediated dilatation (NMD), and the levels of von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF-Ag), D-dimer, and lipoprotein (a). RESULTS There were no significant differences between the IBD patients and controls in terms of age, sex, BMI, systolic and diastolic BPs, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, or triglycerides. IBD patients had significantly higher levels of VWF-Ag (156.6±58.9 vs. 104.2±43.3, P<0.001) and D-dimer (337.2±710.8 vs. 175.9±110.9, P<0.001) as compared to the controls. No significant differences were determined between the 2 groups in terms of FMD and NMD values. Although statistically not significant, the CIMT values were higher in the IBD patients than in the controls (0.517±0.141 mm vs. 0.467±0.099 mm, P=0.073). In the correlation analysis, the CIMT was found to be correlated negatively with FMD and positively with high sensitive C-reactive protein, VWF-Ag, and D-dimer. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that VWF-Ag and D-dimer can be beneficial early atherosclerosis markers in IBD patients.

  7. Body fat distribution, metabolic and inflammatory markers and retinal microvasculature in school-age children. The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Gishti, O; Jaddoe, V W V; Hofman, A; Wong, T Y; Ikram, M K; Gaillard, R

    2015-10-01

    To examine the associations of body fatness, metabolic and inflammatory markers with retinal vessel calibers among children. We performed a population-based cohort study among 4145 school-age children. At the median age of 6.0 years (95% range 5.8, 8.0 years), we measured body mass index, total and abdominal fat mass, metabolic and inflammatory markers (blood levels of lipids, insulin and C-peptide and C-reactive protein) and retinal vascular calibers from retinal photographs. We observed that compared with normal weight children, obese children had narrower retinal arteriolar caliber (difference -0.21 s.d. score (SDS; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.35, -0.06)), but not venular caliber. Continuous analyses showed that higher body mass index and total body fat mass, but not android/gynoid fat mass ratio and pre-peritoneal fat mass, were associated with narrower retinal arteriolar caliber (P<0.05 for body mass index and total body fat mass), but not with retinal venular caliber. Lipid and insulin levels were not associated with retinal vessel calibers. Higher C-reactive protein was associated with only wider retinal venular caliber (difference 0.10 SDS (95% CI 0.06, 0.14) per SDS increase in C-reactive protein). This latter association was not influenced by body mass index. Higher body fatness is associated with narrower retinal arteriolar caliber, whereas increased C-reactive protein levels are associated with wider retinal venular caliber. Increased fat mass and inflammation correlate with microvascular development from school-age onwards.

  8. Efficacy of different doses of aspirin in decreasing blood levels of inflammatory markers in patients with cardiovascular metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiu-Ren; Adhikari, Chandar M; Peng, Long-Yun; Guo, Xiao-Gang; Zhai, Yuan-Sheng; He, Xu-Yu; Zhang, Li-Yuan; Lin, Jun; Zuo, Zhi-Yi

    2009-11-01

    Inflammation and platelet aggregation and activation are key processes in the initiation of a cardiovascular event. Patients with metabolic syndrome have a high risk of cardiovascular events. This study determined whether small and medium doses of aspirin have anti-inflammation and antiplatelet aggregation effects in patients with metabolic syndrome. One hundred and twenty-one consecutive patients with metabolic syndrome were randomized into three groups, receiving 100 mg/day of aspirin, 300 mg/day of aspirin or a placebo, respectively, for 2 weeks. The blood levels of thromboxane B2 (TXB2), a stable product of the platelet aggregation mediator TXA2, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1-alpha (6-keto-PGF1-alpha), a stable product of the endogenous cyclooxygenase metabolite prostaglandin I2, and inflammatory mediators including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were determined by ELISA and radioimmunoassay. The blood levels of hs-CRP, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and TXB2 were significantly decreased after 2 weeks of treatment with 300 mg/day of aspirin. Patients who received 100 mg/day of aspirin had decreased blood levels of hs-CRP and TXB2. The blood level of IL-6 in the 300 mg/day aspirin group was significantly lower than that in the other two groups after 2 weeks of therapy. Aspirin at either dose did not affect the blood level of 6-keto-PGF1-alpha. Aspirin at all doses suppresses the blood levels of inflammatory markers and the platelet aggregation mediator TXA2 in Chinese patients with metabolic syndrome. Since the suppression induced by 300 mg/day of aspirin was greater than that induced by 100 mg/day of aspirin, these data suggest that 300 mg/day of aspirin may be beneficial in decreasing the risk of cardiovascular events in Chinese patients with metabolic syndrome.

  9. Salivary inflammatory markers and microbiome in normoglycemic lean and obese children compared to obese children with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Janem, Waleed F; Scannapieco, Frank A; Sabharwal, Amarpeet; Tsompana, Maria; Berman, Harvey A; Haase, Elaine M; Miecznikowski, Jeffrey C; Mastrandrea, Lucy D

    2017-01-01

    There is emerging evidence linking diabetes with periodontal disease. Diabetes is a well-recognized risk factor for periodontal disease. Conversely, pro-inflammatory molecules released by periodontally-diseased tissues may enter the circulation to induce insulin resistance. While this association has been demonstrated in adults, there is little information regarding periodontal status in obese children with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that children with T2D have higher rates of gingivitis, elevated salivary inflammatory markers, and an altered salivary microbiome compared to children without T2D. Three pediatric cohorts ages 10-19 years were studied: lean (normal weight-C), obese (Ob), and obese with T2D (T2D). Each subject completed an oral health survey, received a clinical oral examination, and provided unstimulated saliva for measurement of inflammatory markers and microbiome analysis. The diabetes group was less likely to have had a dental visit within the last six months. Body mass index (BMI) Z-scores and waist circumference/height ratios were similar between Ob and T2D cohorts. The number of carious lesions and fillings were similar for all three groups. The gingival index was greater in the T2D group compared to the Ob and C groups. Although salivary microbial diversity was minimal between groups, a few differences in bacterial genus composition were noted. Obese children with T2D show a trend toward poorer oral health compared to normal weight and obese children without T2D. This study characterizes the salivary microbiome of children with and without obesity and T2D. This study supports a modest link between T2D and periodontal inflammation in the pediatric population.

  10. Analysis of inflammatory markers and metals in nasal lavage fluid of welders.

    PubMed

    Raulf, Monika; Weiss, Tobias; Lotz, Anne; Lehnert, Martin; Hoffmeyer, Frank; Liebers, Verena; Van Gelder, Rainer; Udo Käfferlein, Heiko; Hartwig, Andrea; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Welding fumes may produce adverse health effects in the respiratory tract. To assess the relationship between exposure to welding fumes and inflammation in the upper airways, 190 male welders were examined from the WELDOX study (median age 40 yr, 54.7% smokers, and 32.9% atopics). Inhalable welding fumes were collected in the breathing zone of welders during a single shift. Chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe) were measured in the welding-fume samples and in postshift nasal lavage fluid (NALF). In addition, the numbers of particles and inflammatory biomarkers, including total and differential cell counts, interleukin (IL)-8, leukotriene (LT) B 4 , 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF 2α ), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and immunoreactive matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, were determined. Metal concentrations in NALF correlated with airborne concentrations. No significant association was found between airborne metal concentrations and biomarkers of inflammation in NALF, whereas increasing metal concentrations in NALF resulted in increased concentrations of total protein, IL-8, MMP-9, and TIMP-1. LTB 4 and 8-iso PGF 2α were elevated at higher concentrations of Cr or Ni in NALF. The same was true for Fe, although the effects were less pronounced and of borderline significance. In conclusion, our results showed a significant association between the concentrations of metals and soluble inflammatory markers in the NALF of welders. The noninvasive collection of NALF is applicable in field studies, where it may serve as a suitable matrix to simultaneously assess biomarkers of exposure and effect in the upper respiratory tract in workers who are occupationally exposed to airborne hazardous substances.

  11. Defining the neurotoxin derived illness chronic ciguatera using markers of chronic systemic inflammatory disturbances: a case/control study.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Ritchie C; House, Dennis; Ryan, James C

    2010-01-01

    Ciguatoxins are extremely potent neurotoxins, produced by tropical marine dinoflagellates, that persistently enter into our food web. Over 100,000 people annually experience acute ciguatera poisoning from consuming toxic fish. Roughly 5% of these victims will develop chronic ciguatera (CC), a widespread, multisymptom, multisystem, chronic illness that can last tens of years. CC is marked by disproportionate disability and non-specific refractory symptoms such as fatigue, cognitive deficits and pain, and is suggestive of other illnesses. Its unknown pathophysiology makes both diagnosis and treatment difficult. We wanted to compare objective parameters of visual contrast sensitivity testing, measures of innate immune response and genetic markers in cases to controls to assess the potential for the presence of persistent inflammatory parameters that are demonstrated in other biotoxin associated illnesses at a single specialty clinic. Using 59 CC cases and 59 controls we present in retrospective review, in all cases, abnormalities in immune responses paralleling the chronic systemic inflammatory response syndrome seen in several other chronic diseases. This study defines a preliminary case definition using medical history, total symptoms, visual contrast sensitivity, HLA DR genotype analysis, reduction of regulatory neuropeptides VIP and MSH, and multiple measures of inflammatory immune response, especially C4a and TGFβ1, thereby providing a basis for identification and targeted therapy. CC provides a model for chronic human illness associated with initiation of inflammatory responses by biologically produced neurotoxins. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation bymore » multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity.« less

  13. Strain-specific probiotic (microbial cell preparation) and omega-3 fatty acid in modulating quality of life and inflammatory markers in colorectal cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Golkhalkhali, Babak; Rajandram, Retnagowri; Paliany, Audra Shaleena; Ho, Gwo Fuang; Wan Ishak, Wan Zamaniah; Johari, Che Shafini; Chin, Kin Fah

    2018-06-01

    Colorectal cancer patients on chemotherapy usually have elevated levels of inflammatory markers and experience numerous side effects from chemotherapy thereby leading to poor quality of life. Omega-3 fatty acid and microbial cell preparation (MCP) have been known to provide significant benefits in patients on chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supplementation of omega-3 fatty acid and MCP in quality of life, chemotherapy side effects and inflammatory markers in colorectal cancer patients on chemotherapy. A double-blind randomized study was carried out with 140 colorectal cancer patients on chemotherapy. Subjects were separated into two groups to receive either placebo or MCP [30 billion colony-forming unit (CFUs) per sachet] at a dose of two sachets daily for 4 weeks, and omega-3 fatty acid at a dose of 2 g daily for 8 weeks. Outcomes measured were quality of life, side effects of chemotherapy and levels of inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein. The supplementation with MCP and omega-3 fatty acid improved the overall quality of life and alleviated certain side effects of chemotherapy. The supplementation with MCP and omega-3 fatty acid also managed to reduce the level of IL-6 (P = 0.002). There was a significant rise in the placebo group's serum TNF-α (P = 0.048) and IL-6 (P = 0.004). The combined supplementation with MCP and omega-3 fatty acid may improve quality of life, reduce certain inflammatory biomarkers and relieve certain side effects of chemotherapy in colorectal patients on chemotherapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. The association of inflammatory markers and periodontal indexes with the risk of coronary heart disease in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Wei, Bin; Xu, Liang; Wu, Yun

    2018-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the association of four inflammatory markers and five periodontal indexes with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in 131 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). All subjects were inpatients, including 63 T2DM patients with comorbid CHD ("cases") and 68 T2DM patients without CHD ("controls"). The diagnosis of CHD is based on coronary angiography. Peripheral blood concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (11.51 vs. 10.39 mg/L), leptin (24.60 vs. 21.22 ng/L) and visfatin (65.92 vs. 57.62 ng/L) were significantly higher in cases than in controls (P = .033, 0.041 and 0.041, respectively). The levels of three periodontal indexes - probing pocket depth, attachment loss (AL) and sulcus bleeding index, were significantly higher in cases than in controls, especially for periodontal AL (3.60 mm vs. 3.29 mm, P = .002). A Forward logistic regression was performed for selection, and specifically hs-CRP, leptin, visfatin and periodontal AL were found to be associated with the significant risk of CHD (odds ratio: 1.16, 1.07, 1.03 and 2.04; P = .025, .022, .022 and .010, respectively). Importantly, the benefits of inflammatory markers and periodontal indexes over basic risk factors were significant (likelihood ratio test) and obvious (decision curve analysis). A nomogram was delineated based on significant variables, and it had good accuracy (C-index: 0.801, P < .001). Our findings support the significant contribution of inflammatory markers and periodontal indexes to the pathogenesis of CHD in T2DM. Specifically, hs-CRP, leptin, visfatin and periodontal AL were identified as significant contributors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Inflammatory markers in postoperative delirium (POD) and cognitive dysfunction (POCD): A meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuling; Yu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to summarize and discuss the similarities and differences in inflammatory biomarkers in postoperative delirium (POD) and cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Methods A systematic retrieval of literature up to June 2017 in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, and the Wanfang database was conducted. Extracted data were analyzed with STATA (version 14). The standardized mean difference (SMD) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of each indicator were calculated using a random effect model. We also performed tests of heterogeneity, sensitivity analysis, assessments of bias, and meta-regression in this meta-analysis. Results A total of 54 observational studies were included. By meta-analysis we found significantly increased C-reactive protein (CRP) (9 studies, SMD 0.883, 95% CI 0.130 to 1.637, P = 0.022 in POD; 10 studies, SMD -0.133, 95% CI -0.512 to 0.246, P = 0.429 in POCD) and interleukin (IL)-6 (7 studies, SMD 0.386, 95% CI 0.054 to 0.717, P = 0.022 in POD; 16 studies, SMD 0.089, 95% CI -0.133 to 0.311, P = 0.433 in POCD) concentrations in both POD and POCD patients. We also found that the SMDs of CRP and IL-6 from POCD patients were positively correlated with surgery type in the meta-regression (CRP: Coefficient = 1.555365, P = 0.001, 10 studies; IL-6: Coefficient = -0.6455521, P = 0.086, 16 studies). Conclusion Available evidence from medium-to-high quality observational studies suggests that POD and POCD are indeed correlated with the concentration of peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory markers. Some of these markers, such as CRP and IL-6, play roles in both POD and POCD, while others are specific to either one of them. PMID:29641605

  16. Impact of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial and inflammatory markers in adults: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Agbalalah, Tari; Hughes, Stephen F; Freeborn, Ellen J; Mushtaq, Sohail

    2017-10-01

    This systematic review aims to evaluate randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial function and inflammation in adults. An electronic search of published randomised controlled trials, using Cochrane, Pubmed and Medline databases was conducted, with the search terms related to vitamin D and endothelial function. Inclusion criteria were RCTs in adult humans with a measure of vitamin D status using serum/plasma 25(OH)D and studies which administered the intervention through the oral route. Among the 1107 studies retrieved, 29 studies met the full inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Overall, 8 studies reported significant improvements in the endothelial/inflammatory biomarkers/parameters measured. However, in 2 out of the 8 studies, improvements were reported at interim time points, but improvements were absent post-intervention. The remaining 21 trial studies did not show significant improvements in the markers of interest measured. Evidence from the studies included in this systematic review did not demonstrate that vitamin D supplementation in adults, results in an improvement in circulating inflammatory and endothelial function biomarkers/parameters. This systematic review does not therefore support the use of vitamin D supplementation as a therapeutic or preventative measure for CVD in this respect. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of sildenafil citrate on uterine angiogenic status and serum inflammatory markers in an L-NAME rat model of pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Soobryan, Nerolen; Murugesan, Saravanakumar; Phoswa, Wendy; Gathiram, Prem; Moodley, Jagidesa; Mackraj, Irene

    2017-01-15

    Pre-eclampsia (PE), a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is detrimental to both mother and foetus. There is currently no effective treatment, but we have shown that Sildenafil Citrate (SC) improve various foetal outcomes in N ω -nitro-L arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) rat model of PE. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of SC on a uterine angiogenic status and serum inflammatory markers in an L-NAME rat model of PE. One hundred and twenty adult nulliparous pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study. These were divided into five equal groups; the pregnant control, early and late onset PE and respective SC treated animals. Hypertension was manifested by considerably increased systolic blood pressure and placental lipid peroxidative marker (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and also we assessed the activities of plasma nitric oxide level, serum inflammatory marker (TGF-β and IFN-γ) and uterine angiogenic status (VEGF and sFlt-1) at two stages of PE. The administration of SC decreased systolic blood pressure, placental lipid peroxidation product and altered uterine angiogenic status; increased plasma nitric oxide levels in an early and late onset L-NAME model of PE. In addition, histological findings of SC treated preeclamptic rat placenta support the biochemical findings of this study. Our findings revealed that SC enhanced plasma NO levels and uterine angiogenic status in an L-NAME model of PE at two gestational stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cholinesterases as markers of the inflammatory process associated oxidative stress in cattle infected by Babesia bigemina.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Rovaina L; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Oliveira, Camila B; França, Raqueli T; Carvalho, Fabiano B; Abdalla, Fátima H; Costa, Pauline; Klafke, Guilherme M; Martins, João R; Tonin, Alexandre A; Castro, Verônica S P; Santos, Franklin G B; Lopes, Sonia T A; Andrade, Cinthia M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the influence of an asymptomatic experimental infection by Babesia bigemina on cholinesterase's as markers of the inflammatory process and biomarkers of oxidative imbalance. For this purpose, eight naive animals were used, as follows: four as controls or uninfected; and four infected with an attenuated strain of B. bigemina. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7 and 11 post-inoculation (PI). Parasitemia was determined by blood smear evaluation, showing that the infection by B. bigemina resulted in mean 0.725 and 0.025% on day 7 and 11 PI, respectively, as well as mild anemia. The activities of acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and catalase were lower, while levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and superoxide dismutase activity were higher in infected animals, when compared with the control group. This attenuated strain of B. bigemina induced an oxidative stress condition, as well as it reduces the cholinesterasés activity in infected and asymptomatic cattle. Therefore, this decrease of cholinesterase in infection by B. bigemina purpose is to inhibit inflammation, for thereby increasing acetylcholine levels, potent anti-inflammatory molecules. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Against the Role of Inflammatory Markers in Renal Cell Carcinoma Prognosis: The Missing Link Between Evidence of Association and Clinical Applicability.

    PubMed

    Larcher, Alessandro; Dell'Oglio, Paolo; Salonia, Andrea; Capitanio, Umberto

    2016-10-01

    Although an association between inflammatory markers (IMs) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) prognosis has been proven, how to translate such information into treatment strategy has not been determined. The strongest argument against the use of IMs in the management of patients diagnosed with RCC is the missing link between evidence of association and clinical applicability. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of miR-155, miR-146a, and miR-326 in T1D patients from Chile: relationship with autoimmunity and inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    García-Díaz, Diego F; Pizarro, Carolina; Camacho-Guillén, Patricia; Codner, Ethel; Soto, Néstor; Pérez-Bravo, Francisco

    2018-02-01

    Objective The aim of this research was to analyze the expression profile of miR-155, miR-146a, and miR-326 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 47 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and 39 control subjects, as well as the possible association with autoimmune or inflammatory markers. Subjects and methods Expression profile of miRs by means of qPCR using TaqMan probes. Autoantibodies and inflammatory markers by ELISA. Statistical analysis using bivariate correlation. Results The analysis of the results shows an increase in the expression of miR-155 in T1D patients in basal conditions compared to the controls (p < 0.001) and a decreased expression level of miR-326 (p < 0.01) and miR-146a (p < 0.05) compared T1D patients to the controls. miR-155 was the only miRs associated with autoinmmunity (ZnT8) and inflammatory status (vCAM). Conclusion Our data show a possible role of miR-155 related to autoimmunity and inflammation in Chilean patients with T1D.

  1. Interaction of Vitamin D and Smoking on Inflammatory Markers in the Urban Elderly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyemi; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported that vitamin D deficiency is associated with inflammatory disease. Smoking is a well-known risk factor for inflammation. However, few studies have investigated the interactive effect of vitamin D deficiency and smoking on inflammation. This study aims to investigate the interaction of vitamin D and smoking with inflammatory markers in the urban elderly. We used data from the Korean Elderly Environmental Panel Study, which began in August 2008 and ended in August 2010, and included 560 Koreans ≥60 years old living in Seoul. Data was collected via questionnaires that included items about smoking status at the first visit. Vitamin D levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and white blood cell (WBC) counts were repeatedly measured up to three times. The association of vitamin D and hs-CRP was significant after adjusting for known confounders (β=-0.080, p=0.041). After separate analysis by smoking status, the association of vitamin D deficiency and hs-CRP in smokers was stronger than that in nonsmokers (smokers: β=-0.375, p=0.013; non-smokers: β=-0.060, p=0.150). Smoking status was an effect modifier that changed the association between vitamin D deficiency and hs-CRP (interaction estimate: β=-0.254, p=0.032). Vitamin D was not significantly associated with WBC count (β=0.003, p=0.805). Vitamin D deficiency was associated with hs-CRP in the urban elderly. Smoking status was an effect modifier of this association. Vitamin D deficiency was not significantly associated with WBC count.

  2. Inflammatory biomarkers in heart failure revisited: much more than innocent bystanders.

    PubMed

    von Haehling, Stephan; Schefold, Joerg C; Lainscak, Mitja; Doehner, Wolfram; Anker, Stefan D

    2009-10-01

    Chronic heart failure is viewed as a state of chronic inflammation. Many inflammatory markers have been shown to be up-regulated in patients who have this condition, but the markers' roles in clinical decision making have not yet been fully elucidated. A panel of biomarkers is likely to have a strong impact on patient management. Inflammatory biomarkers are interesting candidates that could answer specific clinical questions on their own or complement a multi-marker approach. This article provides a broad overview of several inflammatory biomarkers, including the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, IL-18, and the soluble receptors TNFR-1, TNFR-2, IL-6R, and gp130. In addition to these acute phase reactants, several adhesion molecules, and lipopolysaccharide-signaling pathways are discussed.

  3. Body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, physical activity, and inflammatory markers in premenopausal women after a 10-year follow-up: a MONET study.

    PubMed

    Razmjou, Sahar; Abdulnour, Joseph; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Fellahi, Soraya; Doucet, Éric; Brochu, Martin; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Prud'homme, Denis

    2018-01-01

    Menopausal transition and postmenopause are usually associated with changes in body composition and a decrease in physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). This study investigated body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, PAEE, and inflammatory markers in premenopausal women after a 10-year follow-up. In all, 102 premenopausal women participated in the 5-year observational longitudinal Montreal Ottawa New Emerging Team (MONET) study. This present substudy included 48 participants (age: 60.0 ± 1.7 years; body mass index: 23.2 ± 2.2 kg/m) 6.0 ± 0.3 years after completion of the initial MONET study. Measures included body composition, waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose and insulin levels, insulin sensitivity (QUICKI model), plasma lipid levels, PAEE, and inflammatory markers. Compared with baseline measures of the MONET study, analyses revealed no significant increase in body weight, although there were significant increases in WC, fat mass (FM), % FM, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, haptoglobin, apolipoprotein B, ferritin, adiponectin, and soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (all P < 0.001) after the 10-year follow-up. However, significant decreases were observed for fat-free mass, PAEE, fasting glucose levels, interleukin-8 levels, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFR-1 and sTNFR-2) levels (all P < 0.05). To determine the effect of postmenopausal years, data were restructured based on final menstrual period (FMP), and one-way analyses of variance were performed.Waist circumference, % FM, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, ferritin, adiponectin, and soluble cluster of differentiation 14 were higher in early and late postmenopausal periods in these women. sTNFR-1 and sTNFR-2 levels were higher at the FMP and early postmenopausal years as compared with the late postmenopausal periods. Finally

  4. PRGF exerts more potent proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects than autologous serum on a cell culture inflammatory model.

    PubMed

    Anitua, E; Muruzabal, F; de la Fuente, M; Riestra, A; Merayo-Lloves, J; Orive, G

    2016-10-01

    Ocular graft versus host disease (oGVHD) is part of a systemic inflammatory disease that usually affects ocular surface tissues manifesting as a dry eye syndrome. Current treatments provide unsatisfactory results. Blood-derived products, like plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) emerge as a potential therapy for this disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tissue regeneration and anti-inflammatory capability of PRGF, an autologous platelet enriched plasma eye-drop, compared to autologous serum (AS) obtained from oGVHD patients on ocular surface cells cultured in a pro-inflammatory environment. PRGF and AS were obtained from four GVHD patients. Cell proliferation and inflammation markers, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), were measured in corneal and conjunctival fibroblastic cells cultured under pro-inflammatory conditions and after treatment with PRGF or AS eye drops. Moreover, cell proliferation increased after treatment with PRGF and AS, though this enhancement in the case of keratocytes was significantly higher with PRGF. PRGF eye drops showed a significant reduction of both inflammatory markers with respect to the initial inflammatory situation and to the AS treatment. Our results concluded that PRGF exerts more potent regenerative and anti-inflammatory effects than autologous serum on ocular surface fibroblasts treated with pro-inflammatory IL-1β and TNFα. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Markers of systemic inflammation predict survival in patients with advanced renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Fox, P; Hudson, M; Brown, C; Lord, S; Gebski, V; De Souza, P; Lee, C K

    2013-07-09

    The host inflammatory response has a vital role in carcinogenesis and tumour progression. We examined the prognostic value of inflammatory markers (albumin, white-cell count and its components, and platelets) in pre-treated patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Using data from a randomised trial, multivariable proportional hazards models were generated to examine the impact of inflammatory markers and established prognostic factors (performance status, calcium, and haemoglobin) on overall survival (OS). We evaluated a new prognostic classification incorporating additional information from inflammatory markers. Of the 416 patients, 362 were included in the analysis. Elevated neutrophil counts, elevated platelet counts, and a high neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio were significant independent predictors for shorter OS in a model with established prognostic factors. The addition of inflammatory markers improves the discriminatory value of the prognostic classification as compared with established factors alone (C-statistic 0.673 vs 0.654, P=0.002 for the difference), with 25.8% (P=0.004) of patients more appropriately classified using the new classification. Markers of systemic inflammation contribute significantly to prognostic classification in addition to established factors for pre-treated patients with advanced RCC. Upon validation of these data in independent studies, stratification of patients using these markers in future clinical trials is recommended.

  6. Stress-Related Immune Markers in Depression: Implications for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Martina M.; Connor, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Major depression is a serious psychiatric disorder; however, the precise biological basis of depression still remains elusive. A large body of evidence implicates a dysregulated endocrine and inflammatory response system in the pathogenesis of depression. Despite this, given the heterogeneity of depression, not all depressed patients exhibit dysregulation of the inflammatory and endocrine systems. Evidence suggests that inflammation is associated with depression in certain subgroups of patients and that those who have experienced stressful life events such as childhood trauma or bereavement may be at greater risk of developing depression. Consequently, prolonged exposure to stress is thought to be a key trigger for the onset of a depressive episode. This review assesses the relationship between stress and the immune system, with a particular interest in the mechanisms by which stress impacts immune function, and how altered immune functioning, in turn, may lead to a feed forward cascade of multiple systems dysregulation and the subsequent manifestation of depressive symptomology. The identification of stress-related immune markers and potential avenues for advances in therapeutic intervention is vital. Changes in specific biological markers may be used to characterize or differentiate depressive subtypes or specific symptoms and may predict treatment response, in turn facilitating a more effective, targeted, and fast-acting approach to treatment. PMID:26775294

  7. Cryotherapy Reduces Inflammatory Response Without Altering Muscle Regeneration Process and Extracellular Matrix Remodeling of Rat Muscle.

    PubMed

    Vieira Ramos, Gracielle; Pinheiro, Clara Maria; Messa, Sabrina Peviani; Delfino, Gabriel Borges; Marqueti, Rita de Cássia; Salvini, Tania de Fátima; Durigan, Joao Luiz Quagliotti

    2016-01-04

    The application of cryotherapy is widely used in sports medicine today. Cooling could minimize secondary hypoxic injury through the reduction of cellular metabolism and injury area. Conflicting results have also suggested cryotherapy could delay and impair the regeneration process. There are no definitive findings about the effects of cryotherapy on the process of muscle regeneration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a clinical-like cryotherapy on inflammation, regeneration and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling on the Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of rats 3, 7 and 14 days post-injury. It was observed that the intermittent application of cryotherapy (three 30-minute sessions, every 2 h) in the first 48 h post-injury decreased inflammatory processes (mRNA levels of TNF-α, NF-κB, TGF-β and MMP-9 and macrophage percentage). Cryotherapy did not alter regeneration markers such as injury area, desmin and Myod expression. Despite regulating Collagen I and III and their growth factors, cryotherapy did not alter collagen deposition. In summary, clinical-like cryotherapy reduces the inflammatory process through the decrease of macrophage infiltration and the accumulation of the inflammatory key markers without influencing muscle injury area and ECM remodeling.

  8. miR15a and miR16 in Chilean type 1 diabetes patients: possible association with apoptosis, inflammatory, or autoimmunity markers.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Diaz, D F; Camacho-Guillén, P; Codner, E; Pérez-Bravo, F

    2018-01-31

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the progressive destruction of β cells, mediated by the interaction between T cells and several cytokines. The pathogenesis of T1D has established its possible relationship with miRNAs. In this study, we analyze the expression profile of miR-15a and miR-16 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and their possible association with apoptosis, inflammation, or autoimmunity markers. 38 T1D patients and 41 control subjects were recruited. mRNAs were analyzed by means of qPCR and TaqMan probes. PBMCs were treated with different concentrations of glucose (baseline, 11 and 25 mM) with or without an inflammatory stimulus as TNF-α (10 ng/ml). A decrease in the levels of the miR-15a expression in basal conditions is observed in T1D patients compared to healthy control subjects (relative units 0.5 vs. 1.8, p < 0.05). This change in miR-15a and miR-16 is not affected by the addition of TNF-α. No association is observed with inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α, vCAM) or apoptosis (bcl2 expression). The relationship with immunological markers shows an interaction effect between miR16 and IA-2 (p < 0.03). TNF-α does not affect the expression profile of miR-15a and miR16 in PBMCs. A weak correlation is observed between miR-16 and with the autoimmunity profile (IA-2 autoantibody).

  9. miR15a and miR16 in Chilean type 1 diabetes patients: possible association with apoptosis, inflammatory, or autoimmunity markers.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Diaz, D F; Camacho-Guillén, P; Codner, E; Pérez-Bravo, F

    2018-01-30

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the progressive destruction of β cells, mediated by the interaction between T cells and several cytokines. The pathogenesis of T1D has established its possible relationship with miRNAs. In this study, we analyze the expression profile of miR-15a and miR-16 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and their possible association with apoptosis, inflammation, or autoimmunity markers. 38 T1D patients and 41 control subjects were recruited. mRNAs were analyzed by means of qPCR and TaqMan probes. PBMCs were treated with different concentrations of glucose (baseline, 11 and 25 mM) with or without an inflammatory stimulus as TNF-α (10 ng/ml). A decrease in the levels of the miR-15a expression in basal conditions is observed in T1D patients compared to healthy control subjects (relative units 0.5 vs. 1.8, p < 0.05). This change in miR-15a and miR-16 is not affected by the addition of TNF-α. No association is observed with inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α, vCAM) or apoptosis (bcl2 expression). The relationship with immunological markers shows an interaction effect between miR16 and IA-2 (p < 0.03). TNF-α does not affect the expression profile of miR-15a and miR16 in PBMCs. A weak correlation is observed between miR-16 and with the autoimmunity profile (IA-2 autoantibody).

  10. Role of Systemic Markers in Periodontal Diseases: A Possible Inflammatory Burden and Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Kalburgi, V; Sravya, L; Warad, S; Vijayalaxmi, K; Sejal, P; Hazeil, DJ

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis is a local inflammatory process mediating destruction of periodontium triggered by bacterial insult leading to systemic inflammatory mayhem in the host. Epidemiologically, it has been modestly associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) with elevated acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) and rheological variables such as total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count (TLC and DLC), which are potential predictors of CVD. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the serum CRP level, leukocyte count in chronic periodontitis patients and their relation to the severity of chronic periodontitis. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 30 subjects, of which 20 were diagnosed as chronic periodontitis based on the Gingival index, probing depth and clinical attachment levels and 10 healthy subjects as controls. Following, which peripheral blood samples were drawn and serum CRP, TLC and DLC were quantified using the turbidimetric immunoassay. Data was analyzed using Intercooled Stata 9.2 version, (Stata corporation, LP, USA) ANOVA, Mann Whitney U test and Newman-Keuls post hoc procedures. P values less than) 0.05 were considered as significant Results: The mean serum CRP levels were statistically significant (P < 0.05) in severe and moderate periodontitis subjects when compared with healthy controls. Leukocytes were significantly elevated in severe periodontitis compared with moderate periodontitis and controls; this finding was primarily explained by the increase in number of neutrophils. Conclusion: The increased serum CRP levels and neutrophils in chronic periodontitis subjects suggest an addition to the inflammatory burden of the individual potentially striking toward an increasing risk for cardiovascular events. Further research is needed to determine the specificity of these markers and their role in the inflammatory burden of one's systemic health. PMID:24971214

  11. Time From Smoking Cessation and Inflammatory Markers: New Evidence From a Cross-Sectional Analysis of ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Peres, Flávia Soares; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Camelo, Lidyane V; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Giatti, Luana

    2017-07-01

    The time for inflammatory markers of former smokers to revert to never smoker levels is still controversial, ranging from 5 to 20 years. We aimed to determine the time from smoking cessation for white blood cell (WBC) count and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels to return to those of never-smokers, after adjusting for confounding factors and for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline participants of ELSA-Brasil. We used linear regression analysis and generalized linear models with gamma distribution and logarithmic link function to estimate the association of WBC count and CRP levels with time from smoking cessation. The following confounding factors were considered: sex, age, education, SHS, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activity, BMI, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Results: After all adjustments, time from smoking cessation <10 years remained associated with higher WBC count (eg, time from smoking cessation ≥ 5 and <10 years: β: 167.92; 95%CI: 23.52 312.31), while only time from smoking cessation <1 year remained associated with higher arithmetic mean of CRP (AMR: 1.26, 95%CI: 1.03‒1.54). Levels of inflammatory markers were similar to those of never-smokers 1 year after smoking cessation for CRP and 10 years after for WBC. The results may add to the arsenal health professionals have to encourage their patients to quit smoking, as some harms from smoking appear to revert to never-smokers' level sooner than previously reported. Longitudinal studies should confirm our findings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. TRI Microspheres prevent key signs of dry eye disease in a murine, inflammatory model.

    PubMed

    Ratay, Michelle L; Balmert, Stephen C; Acharya, Abhinav P; Greene, Ashlee C; Meyyappan, Thiagarajan; Little, Steven R

    2017-12-13

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a highly prevalent, ocular disorder characterized by an abnormal tear film and ocular surface. Recent experimental data has suggested that the underlying pathology of DED involves inflammation of the lacrimal functional unit (LFU), comprising the cornea, conjunctiva, lacrimal gland and interconnecting innervation. This inflammation of the LFU ultimately results in tissue deterioration and the symptoms of DED. Moreover, an increase of pathogenic lymphocyte infiltration and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines are involved in the propagation of DED-associated inflammation. Studies have demonstrated that the adoptive transfer of regulatory T cells (Tregs) can mediate the inflammation caused by pathogenic lymphocytes. Thus, as an approach to treating the inflammation associated with DED, we hypothesized that it was possible to enrich the body's own endogenous Tregs by locally delivering a specific combination of Treg inducing factors through degradable polymer microspheres (TRI microspheres; TGF-β1, Rapamycin (Rapa), and IL-2). This local controlled release system is capable of shifting the balance of Treg/T effectors and, in turn, preventing key signs of dry eye disease such as aqueous tear secretion, conjunctival goblet cells, epithelial corneal integrity, and reduce the pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu in the tissue.

  13. The impact of fish oil and wheat germ oil combination on mineral-bone and inflammatory markers in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Hadeer; Mostafa, Tarek M; El-Azab, Gamal A; Abd El Wahab, Ahmed M; Elshahawy, Heba; Sayed-Ahmed, Nagy Ah

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the impact of combined supplementation of fish oil (FO) with antioxidants like wheat germ oil (WGO) on mineral-bone and inflammatory markers in maintenance HD patients. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involved 46 HD patients who were randomly assigned into two groups to receive daily 3000 mg of FO [1053 mg omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs)] plus 300 mg of WGO [0.765 mg vitamin E] or placebo for 4 months. Blood concentrations of hemoglobin (Hgb), white blood cells, mineral-bone parameters including serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus product, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, and osteoprotegerin and serum concentrations of inflammatory markers including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, ferritin, and uric acid were measured before and after the intervention. Eighty-seven percentage of patients in each group completed the study. The mean serum Ca levels increased significantly in the supplemented group at the end of study (p = 0.0016), and this increment was also significant as compared to placebo group (p = 0.0418). No significant alterations were observed in the other measured parameters within each group during the study (as p values were >0.05). FO plus WGO supplementation showed beneficial effect on serum Ca levels of HD patients without any statistically significant effect on other mineral-bone and inflammatory markers. Further investigations are required to confirm it.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Curcumin in regulating anti-inflammatory and epigenetic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Boyanapalli, Sarandeep S S; Huang, Ying; Su, Zhengyuan; Cheng, David; Zhang, Chengyue; Guo, Yue; Rao, Rohit; Androulakis, Ioannis P; Kong, Ah-Ng

    2018-06-05

    Chronic inflammation is a key driver of cancer development. Nitrite levels, which are regulated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), play a critical role in inflammation. While the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin, a natural product present in the roots of Curcuma longa have been widely studied, the acute pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of curcumin in suppressing pro-inflammatory markers and epigenetic modulators remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the PK and PD of curcumin-induced suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in rat lymphocytes. LPS was administered intravenously either alone or with curcumin to female Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma samples were analyzed for curcumin concentration and mRNA expression was quantified in lymphocytes. Relative gene expression of several inflammatory and epigenetic modulators was analyzed. To investigate the relationship between curcumin concentration and iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-6 gene expression, PK/PD modeling using Jusko's indirect response model (IDR) integrating transit compartments (TC) describing the delayed response was conducted. The concentration-time profile of curcumin exhibited a bi-exponential decline, which was well described by a two-compartmental pharmacokinetic model. Importantly our results demonstrate that LPS induced gene expression of pro-inflammatory markers in lymphocytes, with peak expression at approximately 3 h and curcumin suppressed the gene expression in animals administered with LPS. These effects were well captured using the IDR model and an IDR model with the transit compartments. In summary, the PK/PD modeling approach could potentially provide a robust quantitative framework for evaluating the acute anti-inflammatory and epigenetic effects of curcumin in future clinical trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential Anti-Inflammatory Treatment of Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hodzic, Enisa

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is clinical manifestation of chronic inflammatory progressive pathological process of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries. IHD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. The question is whether it is possible to improve and direct the therapeutic treatment of IHD patients in the treatment of the inflammatory process in the atherosclerotic leasions. Material and Methods A prospective, comparative, analytica,clinically applicable, open-type study was performed. The study was conducted on 80 subjects with controlled biohumoral markers: troponin, CK, CK MB, BNP; markers of atherogenesis: LDL and homocystein; inflammatory markers: CRP, amyloid, cytokines IL-2, IL-6,TNF-alpha. The experimental group of 38 respondents had in addition to the conventional IHD treatment with: ampicillin (which included organosulfur compounds), cyancobalamin, vitamin B complex (B1, B2 and B6) and folacin. A control group of 42 respondents did not have this additional treatment. Results Major adverse cardic events (MACE) such as postinfarctic angina pectoris and repeated infarction, need for surgical interventions of myocardial revascularization, signs of cardiac insufficiency and death were observed during the one-year period. There was no correlation between the IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, as well as CK, CKMB and troponin and MACE in one-year follow-up. There was a strong positive correlation between MACE and CRP (p = 0,0002) and amyloid (p = 0,0005) as inflamatory markers; a strong positive correlation between MACE and homocysteine as an atherogenic marker (p = 0,0002, and amoderate positive correlation between MACE and BNP (p = 0.0403) as ischemic marker and marker of cardiac insufficiency. The echocardiographically monitored systolic function showed a moderate difference in the groups with average higher values in the experimantal group (p = 0.0282). Conclusion The applied treatment exhibited a moderate positive effect on the

  16. Association of acylated ghrelin profiles with chronic inflammatory markers in overweight and obese postmenopausal women: a MONET study.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, David H; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Coderre, Lise; Brochu, Martin; Karelis, Antony D; Lavoie, Marie-Eve; Malita, Florin; Fontaine, Jonathan; Mignault, Diane; Cianflone, Katherine; Imbeault, Pascal; Doucet, Eric; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2007-10-01

    Recent reports have suggested that the existence of associations between hormonal dysregulation and chronic upregulation of inflammatory markers, which may cause obesity-related disturbances. Thus, we examined whether acylated ghrelin (AcylG) and total ghrelin (TotG) levels could be associated with the following inflammatory markers: C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1). Cross-sectional study consisting of 50 overweight and obese postmenopausal women. AcylG and TotG levels were assessed at 0, 60, 160, 170, and 180 min of the euglycemic/hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC). We evaluated insulin sensitivity, body composition, and blood lipid profiles as well as fasting concentrations of CRP, TNF-alpha, and sTNF-R1. In fasting conditions, sTNF-R1 was negatively correlated with AcylG (r = -0.48, P < 0.001) levels. In addition, AcylG/TotG was associated negatively with sTNF-R1 (r = -0.44, P = 0.002) and positively with TNF-alpha (r = 0.38, P = 0.009) values. During the EHC, TotG (at all time points) and AcylG (at 60 and 160 min) values were significantly decreased from fasting concentrations. AcylG maximal reduction and area under the curve (AUC) values were correlated to sTNF-R1 (r = -0.35, P = 0.02 and r = -0.34, P = 0.02, respectively). Meanwhile, the AcylG/TotG AUC ratio was associated negatively with sTNF-R1 (r = -0.29, P < 0.05) and positively with TNF-alpha (r = 0.36, P = 0.02). Following adjustments for total adiposity, sTNF-R1 remained correlated with fasting and maximal reduction AcylG values. Similarly, AcylG/TotG ratios remained significantly correlated with sTNF-R1 and TNF-alpha. Importantly, 23% of the variation in sTNF-R1 was independently predicted by fasting AcylG. These results are the first to suggest that both fasting and EHC-induced AcylG profiles are correlated with fasting values of sTNF-R1, a component of the TNF-alpha system. Thus, AcylG may act, at least in part, as one mediator of

  17. Long- and Short-Term Exposure To Air Pollution and Inflammatory/Hemostatic Markers in Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Green, Rochelle; Broadwin, Rachel; Malig, Brian; Basu, Rupa; Gold, Ellen B.; Qi, Lihong; Sternfeld, Barbara; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Greendale, Gail A.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Tomey, Kristin; Matthews, Karen; Derby, Carol; Jackson, Elizabeth A.; Green, Robin; Ostro, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have reported associations between long-term air pollution exposures and cardiovascular mortality. The biological mechanisms connecting them remain uncertain. Methods We examined associations of fine particles (PM2.5) and ozone with serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk in a cohort of midlife women. We obtained information from women enrolled at six sites in the multi-ethnic, longitudinal Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, including repeated measurements of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen, tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen (tPA-ag), plasminogen activator inhibitor Type 1 (PAI-1), and Factor VIIc (Factor VII coagulant activity). We obtained residence-proximate PM2.5 and ozone monitoring data for a maximum five annual visits, calculating prior year, six-month, one-month, and one-day exposures and their relations to serum markers using longitudinal mixed models. Results For the 2,086 women studied from 1999 through 2004, PM2.5 exposures were associated with all blood markers except Factor VIIc after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, site, body mass index, smoking, and recent alcohol use. Adjusted associations were of the strongest for prior year exposures for hs-CRP (21% increase per 10 μg/m3 PM2.5, 95% CI: 6.6, 37), tPA-ag (8.6%, 95% CI: 1.8, 16), and PAI-1 (35%, 95% CI: 19, 53). An association was also observed between year prior ozone exposure and Factor VIIc (5.7% increase per 10 ppb ozone, 95% CI: 2.9, 8.5). Conclusions Our findings suggest that prior year exposures to PM2.5 and ozone are associated with adverse effects on inflammatory and hemostatic pathways for cardiovascular outcomes in midlife women. PMID:26600256

  18. C-reactive protein as a prognostic marker after lacunar stroke: levels of inflammatory markers in the treatment of stroke study.

    PubMed

    Elkind, Mitchell S V; Luna, Jorge M; McClure, Leslie A; Zhang, Yu; Coffey, Christopher S; Roldan, Ana; Del Brutto, Oscar H; Pretell, Edwin Javier; Pettigrew, L Creed; Meyer, Brett C; Tapia, Jorge; White, Carole; Benavente, Oscar R

    2014-03-01

    Inflammatory biomarkers predict incident and recurrent cardiac events, but their relationship to stroke prognosis is uncertain. We hypothesized that high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) predicts recurrent ischemic stroke after recent lacunar stroke. Levels of Inflammatory Markers in the Treatment of Stroke (LIMITS) was an international, multicenter, prospective ancillary biomarker study nested within Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3), a phase III trial in patients with recent lacunar stroke. Patients were assigned in factorial design to aspirin versus aspirin plus clopidogrel, and higher versus lower blood pressure targets. Patients had blood samples collected at enrollment and hsCRP measured using nephelometry at a central laboratory. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for recurrence risks before and after adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and statin use. Among 1244 patients with lacunar stroke (mean age, 63.3±10.8 years), median hsCRP was 2.16 mg/L. There were 83 recurrent ischemic strokes (including 45 lacunes) and 115 major vascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death). Compared with the bottom quartile, those in the top quartile (hsCRP>4.86 mg/L) were at increased risk of recurrent ischemic stroke (unadjusted HR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.30-4.96), even after adjusting for demographics and risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.15-4.68). hsCRP predicted increased risk of major vascular events (top quartile adjusted HR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.14-3.67). There was no interaction with randomized antiplatelet treatment. Among recent lacunar stroke patients, hsCRP levels predict the risk of recurrent strokes and other vascular events. hsCRP did not predict the response to dual antiplatelets. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00059306.

  19. NTPDase and 5'-nucleotidase as inflammatory markers in cattle naturally infected by Eurytrema coelomaticum.

    PubMed

    Fávero, Juscivete F; Schwertz, Claiton I; Doleski, Pedro H; Leal, Daniela B R; Machado, Gustavo; Manzoni, Alessandra G; da Silva, Ester S; Gabriel, Mateus E; Stedille, Fernanda A; Christ, Ricardo; Stefani, Lenita M; Mendes, Ricardo E; da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate seric NTPDase and 5'nucleotidase activities of cattle naturally infected by Eurytrema coelomanticum, as well as to correlate them to histopathological lesions in the pancreas and the degree of parasitism. Blood samples and pancreas of 51 bovines were collected on a slaughterhouse in Southern Brazil: 33 from cattle naturally infected by E. coelomanticum (the Group A), and 18 from uninfected animals (the Group B). Infected animals showed an average of 532 parasites per pancreas. In the pancreatic histology, ducts displayed hyperplasia, stenosis, proliferation of fibrous tissue, and interstitial inflammatory infiltration of lymphocytes. The serum from infected animals showed an increase in NTPDase activity when ATP was used as substrate (P<0.001). For the ADP substrate, there was no difference between groups regarding NTPDase activity (P=0.37), as well as 5'-nucleotidase activity (P=0.27). Correlating NTPDase activity (ATP substrate) with the degree of histopathological lesions (rho=0.66, P<0.001) and the parasitic load on the pancreas (rho=0.65, P<0.001), a positive correlation was observed. Similar results were found between the degree of histopathological lesions and NTPDase activity (ADP substrate; rho=0.29, P=0.03), and 5'nucleotidase activity (rho=0.35, P=0.01). Based on the results of NTPDase and 5'nucleotidase enzymes in cattle naturally infected by E. coleomanticum, it is possible to suggest that these enzymes are involved in the modulation of inflammation, and they can act as markers of inflammatory response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of a dairy fraction rich in milk fat globule membrane in the suppression of postprandial inflammatory markers and bone turnover in obese and overweight adults: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Tara S; Demmer, Elieke; Rivera, Nancy; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Zivkovic, Angela M; Van Loan, Marta D

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with increased bone resorption; the role of inflammation in postprandial bone turnover has not been explored. Consumption of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) reduces inflammation in animal models. This study aimed to measure postprandial changes in bone turnover after intake of high saturated fat test meals, with- and without the anti-inflammatory ingredient MFGM. Subjects ( n  = 36 adults) were obese (BMI 30-39.9 kg/m 2 ) or overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m 2 ) with two traits of Metabolic Syndrome. Subjects consumed a different test meal on four occasions at random; blood draws were taken at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 h postprandial. Test meals included whipping cream (WC), WC + MFGM, palm oil (PO) and PO + MFGM. Biomarkers of bone turnover and inflammation were analyzed from all four time points. Test meal (treatment) by time interactions were significant for bone resorption marker C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX) ( p  < 0.0001) and inflammatory marker interleukin 10 (IL-10) ( p  = 0.012). Significant differences in overall postprandial response among test meals were found for CTX and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM), with the greatest overall postprandial suppression of CTX occurring in meals containing MFGM. However, test meal by MFGM interactions were non- significant for bone and inflammatory markers. Correlations between CTX and inflammatory markers were non-significant. This exploratory analysis advances the study of postprandial suppression of bone turnover by demonstrating differing effects of high SFA meals that contained MFGM; however MFGM alone did not directly moderate the difference in postprandial CTX response among test meals in this analysis. These observations may be useful for identifying foods and ingredients which maximize the suppression of bone resorption, and for generating hypotheses to test in future studies examining the role of inflammation in postprandial bone turnover

  1. Therapeutic Use of Cannabis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Seymour

    2016-01-01

    The marijuana plant Cannabis sativa and its derivatives, cannabinoids, have grown increasingly popular as a potential therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Studies have shown that modulation of the endocannabinoid system, which regulates various functions in the body and has been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of IBD, has a therapeutic effect in mouse colitis. Epidemiologic data and human therapy studies reveal a possible role for cannabinoids in the symptomatic treatment of IBD, although it has yet to be determined in human populations whether cannabinoids have therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects in IBD or are simply masking its many debilitating symptoms. Large, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials using serial inflammatory markers, biopsy findings, and endoscopic disease severity to demonstrate objective improvement in IBD are necessary before cannabis can be empirically accepted and recommended as an IBD treatment option. Questions concerning its safety profile and adverse effects prompt the need for further research, particularly in regard to dosing and route of administration to maximize benefits and limit potential harms. Cannabis use should be reserved for symptomatic control in patients with severe IBD refractory to the currently available standard-of-care and complementary and alternative medicines. PMID:28035196

  2. Nanotechnology-based electrochemical detection strategies for hypertension markers.

    PubMed

    Madhurantakam, Sasya; Babu, K Jayanth; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari

    2018-09-30

    Hypertension results due to dysfunction of different metabolic pathways leading to the increased risk of cerebral ischemia, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and inflammatory disorders. Hypertension has been considered a one of the major contributors to metabolic syndrome and is often referred to as a 'silent killer'. Its incidence is on the rise across the globe owing to the drastic life style changes. The diagnosis of hypertension had been traditionally carried out through measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure but in most cases, this form of diagnosis is too late and the disease has already caused organ damage. Therefore, early detection of hypertension by monitoring subtle changes in specific biochemical markers from body fluids can minimize the risk of organ damage. However, a single marker may be insufficient for accurate diagnosis of hypertension thereby necessitating quantification of multiple markers. Concerted efforts to identify key markers for hypertension and their quantification, especially using chemical and biosensors, are underway in different parts of the world. Constant evolution of the sensing elements and transduction strategies have contributed to significant improvements in the diagnosis field, especially in the context of sensitivity, response time and selectivity and this when applied to the detection of hypertension markers may prove beneficial. This review summarizes advances in the field of sensor technology towards the detection of biologically relevant entities, arrays and the next generation 'lab-on-a-chip' systems for hypertension. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of local angiogenic and inflammatory markers in the menstrual blood of women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cláudia Maria; Vilaça Belo, Andrezza; Passos Andrade, Sílvia; Peixoto Campos, Paula; Cristina França Ferreira, Márcia; Lopes da Silva-Filho, Agnaldo; Mendonça Carneiro, Márcia

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of myeloperoxidase (MPO), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in peripheral and menstrual blood in women with (n=10) and without (n=7) endometriosis. NAG and MPO activities were evaluated by enzymatic methods, whereas TNF-α and VEGF by immunoassay. No significant differences were found for these markers, neither in menstrual nor in peripheral blood between groups. Menstrual blood NAG (P=0.039) and MPO (P=0.0117) activities in the endometriosis group were significantly higher than in peripheral blood. NAG and MPO presented positive linear correlation in peripheral (P=0.07; r=0.641) and menstrual blood (P=0.01; r=0.603). These findings point to the existence of an increased local inflammatory activity in women with endometriosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Inflammatory and bone turnover markers in relation to PTH and vitamin D status among saudi postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Yakout, Sobhy; Al-Shehri, Eman; Al-Fawaz, Hanan A; Aljohani, Naji; Al-Saleh, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the post-menopausal period. The bone loss predominantly involves the trabecular bone and is brought about by an imbalance between the bone remodeling process which can be influenced by factors that could cause or contribute to osteoporosis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-1β, Il-6, IL-8 and TNF-α) have been implicated in the regulation of bone cells and play a critical role in bone remodeling. They act both directly and indirectly to increase bone resorption, and/or inhibit bone formation. The aim of the study is to determine whether pro-inflammatory cytokines correlate with bone turnover markers (BTM) in a cohort of Saudi post-menopausal women with or without osteoporosis and which BTMs will correlate with PTH and Vitamin D for use in osteoporosis diagnosis. The study is composed of 100 post-menopausal patients and 100 controls aged around 50 years. Serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory and BTMs as well as PTH and vitamin D were determined by ELISA, Luminex and electrochemiluminescence. Serum calcium, phosphorus, glucose, and lipid profile were measured by using a chemical analyzer. There was a significant increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, PTH, CTx, and glucose. A significantly lower vitamin D and osteocalcin levels were observed in subjects with osteoporosis than those without. No significant differences were recorded in the circulating lipid profile between groups. The present study proved that the pro-inflammatory cytokines accelerate the bone loss in postmenopausal women. PMID:25419393

  5. Inflammatory and bone turnover markers in relation to PTH and vitamin D status among Saudi postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Yakout, Sobhy; Al-Shehri, Eman; Al-Fawaz, Hanan; Aljohani, Naji; Al-Saleh, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the post-menopausal period. The bone loss predominantly involves the trabecular bone and is brought about by an imbalance between the bone remodeling process which can be influenced by factors that could cause or contribute to osteoporosis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-1β, Il-6, IL-8 and TNF-α) have been implicated in the regulation of bone cells and play a critical role in bone remodeling. They act both directly and indirectly to increase bone resorption, and/or inhibit bone formation. The aim of the study is to determine whether pro-inflammatory cytokines correlate with bone turnover markers (BTM) in a cohort of Saudi post-menopausal women with or without osteoporosis and which BTMs will correlate with PTH and Vitamin D for use in osteoporosis diagnosis. The study is composed of 100 post-menopausal patients and 100 controls aged 50 years and above. Serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory and BTMs as well as PTH and vitamin D were determined by ELISA, Luminex and electrochemiluminescence. Serum calcium, phosphorus, glucose, and lipid profile were measured by using a chemical analyzer. There was a significant increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, PTH, CTx, and glucose. A significantly lower vitamin D and osteocalcin levels were observed in subjects with osteoporosis than those without. No significant differences were recorded in the circulating lipid profile between groups. The present study proved that the pro-inflammatory cytokines accelerate the bone loss in postmenopausal women. PMID:25356143

  6. Systemic inflammatory markers and sources of social support among older adults in the Memory Research Unit cohort.

    PubMed

    McHugh Power, Joanna; Carney, Sile; Hannigan, Caoimhe; Brennan, Sabina; Wolfe, Hannah; Lynch, Marina; Kee, Frank; Lawlor, Brian

    2016-11-01

    Potential associations between systemic inflammation and social support received by a sample of 120 older adults were examined here. Inflammatory markers, cognitive function, social support and psychosocial wellbeing were evaluated. A structural equation modelling approach was used to analyse the data. The model was a good fit [Formula: see text], p < 0.001; comparative fit index = 0.973; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.962; root mean square error of approximation = 0.021; standardised root mean-square residual = 0.074). Chemokine levels were associated with increased age ( β = 0.276), receipt of less social support from friends ( β = -0.256) and body mass index ( β = -0.256). Results are discussed in relation to social signal transduction theory.

  7. Cryotherapy Reduces Inflammatory Response Without Altering Muscle Regeneration Process and Extracellular Matrix Remodeling of Rat Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Vieira Ramos, Gracielle; Pinheiro, Clara Maria; Messa, Sabrina Peviani; Delfino, Gabriel Borges; Marqueti, Rita de Cássia; Salvini, Tania de Fátima; Durigan, Joao Luiz Quagliotti

    2016-01-01

    The application of cryotherapy is widely used in sports medicine today. Cooling could minimize secondary hypoxic injury through the reduction of cellular metabolism and injury area. Conflicting results have also suggested cryotherapy could delay and impair the regeneration process. There are no definitive findings about the effects of cryotherapy on the process of muscle regeneration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a clinical-like cryotherapy on inflammation, regeneration and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling on the Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of rats 3, 7 and 14 days post-injury. It was observed that the intermittent application of cryotherapy (three 30-minute sessions, every 2 h) in the first 48 h post-injury decreased inflammatory processes (mRNA levels of TNF-α, NF-κB, TGF-β and MMP-9 and macrophage percentage). Cryotherapy did not alter regeneration markers such as injury area, desmin and Myod expression. Despite regulating Collagen I and III and their growth factors, cryotherapy did not alter collagen deposition. In summary, clinical-like cryotherapy reduces the inflammatory process through the decrease of macrophage infiltration and the accumulation of the inflammatory key markers without influencing muscle injury area and ECM remodeling. PMID:26725948

  8. Is hepcidin a new cardiovascular risk marker in polycystic ovary syndrome?

    PubMed

    Gözdemir, Elif; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Kafalı, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with reproductive and metabolic abnormalities and carries a number of cardiovascular risk factors. Low-grade chronic inflammation has been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and PCOS patients have an increased rate of subclinical inflammation. In the present study, considering the major role that hepcidin plays in the regulation of iron metabolism and as an inflammatory marker, we investigated hepcidin in PCOS patients and its role in predicting cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. Forty patients with PCOS and 40 age- and body mass index-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Iron metabolites, insulin resistance (IR), inflammatory markers and hepcidin levels were analyzed. IR parameters, inflammatory markers, iron parameters and hepcidin levels were similar between the PCOS and control groups. While the inflammatory markers were significantly high in the overweight and obese PCOS subgroup, the hepcidin levels were also high but this elevation was not statistically significant. Obesity is the principle mechanism of chronic inflammation and IR in PCOS patients. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 should be used to predict and follow the risk of CVD development in PCOS cases. Hepcidin may be used as an additional marker in the follow-up of PCOS patients in the future. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Inflammatory and nutritional statuses of patients submitted to resection of gastrointestinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Fruchtenicht, Ana Valéria Gonçalves; Poziomyck, Aline Kirjner; Reis, Audrey Machado Dos; Galia, Carlos Roberto; Kabke, Georgia Brum; Moreira, Luis Fernando

    2018-01-01

    to evaluate the association between the nutritional and the inflammatory statuses of patients with cancer of the gastrointestinal tract undergoing surgical resection and to identify predictors of mortality in these patients. we conducted a prospective study of 41 patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer submitted to surgery between October 2012 and December 2014. We evaluated the nutritional status by subjective and objective methods. We assessed the inflammatory response and prognosis using the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Onodera Prognostic Nutritional Index (mPNI), Inflammatory-Nutritional Index (INI) and C-Reactive Protein/Albumin ratio (mPINI). half of the patients were malnourished and 27% were at nutritional risk. There was a positive association between the percentage of weight loss (%WL) and the markers NLR (p=0.047), mPINI (p=0.014) and INI (p=0.015). Serum albumin levels (p=0.015), INI (p=0.026) and mPINI (p=0.026) were significantly associated with the PG-SGA categories. On multivariate analysis, albumin was the only inflammatory marker independently related to death (p=0.004). inflammatory markers were significantly associated with malnutrition, demonstrating that the higher the inflammatory response, the worse the PG-SGA (B and C) scores and the higher the %WL in these patients. However, further studies aimed at improving surgical outcomes and determining the role of these markers as predictors of mortality are required.

  10. Occupational Vehicle-related Particulate Exposure and Inflammatory Markers in Trucking Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Garshick, Eric; Hart, Jaime E.; Spiegelman, Donna; Dockery, Douglas W.; Smith, Thomas J.; Laden, Francine

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested an association between particulate air pollution and cardiovascular disease, but the mechanism is still unclear. Objective We examined the association between workplace exposure to vehicle-related particles and cardiovascular disease related systemic inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in 137 trucking terminal workers (non-drivers) in the U.S. trucking industry. Methods We visited two large trucking terminals in 2009 and measured vehicle-related elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5μm (PM2.5), for 5 days consecutively at the main work areas. Each participant provided a blood sample and completed a health questionnaire during the sampling period. Individual workplace exposure level was calculated by 12-hr time weighted moving averages based on work shift. The association between each blood marker and exposure to each pollutant during 0-12, 12-24, 24-36, and 36-48 hours before the blood draw was examined by multivariable regression analyses. Results In general, OC and EC had a positive association with sICAM-1, especially for exposure periods 12-24 (lag12-24) and 24-36 (lag24-36) hrs prior to blood draw [β=54.9 (95%CI: 12.3-97.5) for lag12-24 and β=46.5 (95%CI: 21.2-71.8) for lag12-24; change in sICAM-1 (in ng/mL) corresponding to an IQR increase in OC]. A similar pattern was found for EC and PM2.5. We did not find an association between measured pollutants up to 48 hours before blood draw and hs-CRP or IL-6. Conclusion In this group of healthy workers, short-term exposure to vehicle-related air pollutants may be associated with sICAM-1. Our findings may be dependent on the exposure period studied. PMID:27104805

  11. Inactivated probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30 induces complex immune activating, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative markers in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Gitte S; Cash, Howard A; Farmer, Sean; Keller, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to document the immune activating and anti-inflammatory effects of inactivated probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (Staimune™) cells on human immune cells in vitro. Methods In vitro cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy blood donors were treated with inactivated B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 cells for 24 hours. After incubation, the PBMC were stained with fluorochrome-labeled monoclonal antibodies for CD3, CD56, and CD69 to monitor cellular activation by flow cytometry. The culture supernatants were tested for cytokine profile using a 27-plex Luminex array, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Results Inactivated B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 cells induced the CD69 early activation marker on CD3+ CD56− T lymphocytes, CD3+ CD56+ NKT cells, CD3−CD56+ NK cells, and also some cells within the CD3−CD56− non-T non-NK cell subset. Culture supernatants showed robust increases in the immune-activating cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, and TNF-α. IFN-γ levels were increased, along with three chemokines, MCP-1, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β. The two anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ra and IL-10 showed increases, as well as the G-CSF growth factor involved in repair and stem cell biology. In contrast, GM-CSF levels showed a mild decrease, showing a highly selective growth factor response. Conclusion The inactivated B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 cells activated human immune cells and altered the production of both immune activating and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Of special importance is the novel demonstration of a selective upregulation of the G-CSF growth factor involved in postinjury and postinflammation repair and regeneration. This suggests that important immunogenic cell wall components, such as lipoteichoic acid, are undamaged after the inactivation and retain the complex beneficial biological activities previously demonstrated for the cell walls

  12. Inactivated probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30 induces complex immune activating, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative markers in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Gitte S; Cash, Howard A; Farmer, Sean; Keller, David

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document the immune activating and anti-inflammatory effects of inactivated probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (Staimune™) cells on human immune cells in vitro. In vitro cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy blood donors were treated with inactivated B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 cells for 24 hours. After incubation, the PBMC were stained with fluorochrome-labeled monoclonal antibodies for CD3, CD56, and CD69 to monitor cellular activation by flow cytometry. The culture supernatants were tested for cytokine profile using a 27-plex Luminex array, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Inactivated B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 cells induced the CD69 early activation marker on CD3 + CD56 - T lymphocytes, CD3 + CD56 + NKT cells, CD3 - CD56 + NK cells, and also some cells within the CD3 - CD56 - non-T non-NK cell subset. Culture supernatants showed robust increases in the immune-activating cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, and TNF-α. IFN-γ levels were increased, along with three chemokines, MCP-1, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β. The two anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ra and IL-10 showed increases, as well as the G-CSF growth factor involved in repair and stem cell biology. In contrast, GM-CSF levels showed a mild decrease, showing a highly selective growth factor response. The inactivated B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 cells activated human immune cells and altered the production of both immune activating and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Of special importance is the novel demonstration of a selective upregulation of the G-CSF growth factor involved in postinjury and postinflammation repair and regeneration. This suggests that important immunogenic cell wall components, such as lipoteichoic acid, are undamaged after the inactivation and retain the complex beneficial biological activities previously demonstrated for the cell walls from live B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086

  13. Inflammatory markers as selection criteria of hepatocellular carcinoma in living-donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Na, Gun Hyung; Kim, Dong Goo; Han, Jae hyun; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Soo Ho; Hong, Tae Ho; You, Young Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate that inflammatory markers can predict accurately the prognosis of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC) patients in living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). METHODS: From October 2000 to November 2011, 224 patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation for HCC at our institution were enrolled in this study. We analyzed disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) after LT in patients with HCC and designed a new score model using pretransplant neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). RESULTS: The DFS and OS in patients with an NLR level ≥ 6.0 or CRP level ≥ 1.0 were significantly worse than those of patients with an NLR level < 6.0 or CRP level < 1.0 (P = 0.049, P = 0.003 for NLR and P = 0.010, P < 0.001 for CRP, respectively). Using a new score model using the pretransplant NLR and CRP, we can differentiate HCC patients beyond the Milan criteria with a good prognosis from those with a poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: Combined with the Milan criteria, new score model using NLR and CRP represent new selection criteria for LDLT candidates with HCC, especially beyond the Milan criteria. PMID:24914382

  14. Inflammatory markers as selection criteria of hepatocellular carcinoma in living-donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Na, Gun Hyung; Kim, Dong Goo; Han, Jae Hyun; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Soo Ho; Hong, Tae Ho; You, Young Kyoung

    2014-06-07

    To investigate that inflammatory markers can predict accurately the prognosis of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC) patients in living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). From October 2000 to November 2011, 224 patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation for HCC at our institution were enrolled in this study. We analyzed disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) after LT in patients with HCC and designed a new score model using pretransplant neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The DFS and OS in patients with an NLR level ≥ 6.0 or CRP level ≥ 1.0 were significantly worse than those of patients with an NLR level < 6.0 or CRP level < 1.0 (P = 0.049, P = 0.003 for NLR and P = 0.010, P < 0.001 for CRP, respectively). Using a new score model using the pretransplant NLR and CRP, we can differentiate HCC patients beyond the Milan criteria with a good prognosis from those with a poor prognosis. Combined with the Milan criteria, new score model using NLR and CRP represent new selection criteria for LDLT candidates with HCC, especially beyond the Milan criteria.

  15. Associations of Maternal Weight Status Before, During, and After Pregnancy with Inflammatory Markers in Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara M; Marino, Regina C; Haapala, Jacob L; Foster, Laurie; Smith, Katy D; Teague, April M; Jacobs, David R; Fontaine, Patricia L; McGovern, Patricia M; Schoenfuss, Tonya C; Harnack, Lisa; Fields, David A; Demerath, Ellen W

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the associations of maternal weight status before, during, and after pregnancy with breast milk C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), two bioactive markers of inflammation, measured at 1 and 3 months post partum. Participants were 134 exclusively breastfeeding mother-infant dyads taking part in the Mothers and Infants Linked for Health (MILK) study, who provided breast milk samples. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) were assessed by chart abstraction; postpartum weight loss was measured at the 1- and 3-month study visits. Linear regression was used to examine the associations of maternal weight status with repeated measures of breast milk CRP and IL-6 at 1 and 3 months, after adjustment for potential confounders. Pre-pregnancy BMI and excessive GWG, but not total GWG or postpartum weight loss, were independently associated with breast milk CRP after adjustment (β = 0.49, P < 0.001 and β = 0.51, P = 0.011, respectively). No associations were observed for IL-6. High pre-pregnancy BMI and excessive GWG are associated with elevated levels of breast milk CRP. The consequences of infants receiving varying concentrations of breast milk inflammatory markers are unknown; however, it is speculated that there are implications for the intergenerational transmission of disease risk. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  16. Pre-treatment with α-tocopherol and Terminalia arjuna ameliorates, pro-inflammatory cytokines, cardiac and apoptotic markers in myocardial infracted rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Santosh K; Sharma, Suman B; Singh, Usha R

    2015-03-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of combination of T. arjuna and α-tocopherol in isoproterenol induced myocardial injury. Wistar albino rats were pre-treated with hydroalcoholic extract of T. arjuna (HETA) and α-tocopherol (100 mg/kg b. w) daily for 30 days. Isoproterenol (ISP, 85 mg/kg b.w) was administered on 28th and 29th days at an interval of 24 hr. ISP treated rats showed significant increase in lipid peroxidation (MDA), cardiac markers (CK-MB, SGOT, Trop I and LDH), pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, CRP, TNF-α) levels and apoptotic markers (Bcl-2/Bax) as compared to healthy group. Pre-treatment with HETA 100 mg/kg b. w, reduced the elevated levels of these markers and significant effect (p<0.05) were observed with the combination of HETA and α-tocopherol at a dose of 100 mg/kg b. w, which was further confirmed by histopathological studies. The present study concluded that the combination of α-tocopherol (100 mg/kg b. w) and hydroalcoholic extract of T. arjuna (100 mg/kg b. w) augments endogenous antioxidant compounds of rat heart and also prevents the myocardium from ISP-induced myocardial injury and it may have therapeutic and prophylactic value in the treatment of ischemic heart disease.

  17. Relationship between inflammatory markers of cardiovascular disease and VO2peak in asymptomatic females.

    PubMed

    Omran Simin, F; Narges, Z; Sajad, A; Parisa, Y; Omrani Vahid, F

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between inflammatory markers of cardiovascular disease (IL-6 and acute-phase reactants) and VO2peak in asymptomatic females. Study subjects were females not affected by coronary heart diseases. Forty healthy female subjects (age, 45±4.2 years; height, 161±3.5 cm; weight, 65±3.1 kg; history of regular physical activity, 5.2±0.45 years) participated in this study Analysis of data was carried out by Pearson's correlation. Statistical analysis of data indicated a negative significant relationship between IL-6 and VO2peak (r=-0.48, r2=0.23, P<0.048), CRP and VO2peak (r=-0.40, r2= 0.16, P<0.002), fibrinogen and VO2peak (r=-0.42, r2=0.17, P<0.001), and WBC and VO2peak (r=-0.22, r2=0.04, P<0.044). In conclusion higher circulating levels of IL-6, CRP and fibrinogen are associated with lower VO2peak in females.

  18. Inflammatory Macrophages Promotes Development of Diabetic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beiyun; Miao, Ya; Zhao, Zhe; Zhong, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and Alzheimer's disease are often associated with each other, whereas the relationship between two diseases is ill-defined. Although hyperglycemia during diabetes is a major cause of encephalopathy, diabetes may also cause chronic inflammatory complications including peripheral neuropathy. Hence the role and the characteristics of inflammatory macrophages in the development of diabetic encephalopathy need to be clarified. Diabetes were induced in mice by i.p. injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Two weeks after STZ injection and confirmation of development of diabetes, inflammatory macrophages were eliminated by i.p. injection of 20µg saporin-conjugated antibody against a macrophage surface marker CD11b (saporin-CD11b) twice per week, while a STZ-treated group received injection of rat IgG of same frequency as a control. The effects of macrophage depletion on brain degradation markers, brain malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase, superoxidase anion-positive cells and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. Saporin-CD11b significantly reduced inflammatory macrophages in brain, without affecting mouse blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose responses and beta cell mass. However, reduced brain macrophages significantly inhibited the STZ-induced decreases in brain MDA, catalase and superoxidase anion-positive cells, and the STZ-induced decreases in brain NO. Inflammatory macrophages may promote development of diabetic encephalopathy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Phycocyanobilin promotes PC12 cell survival and modulates immune and inflammatory genes and oxidative stress markers in acute cerebral hypoperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Marín-Prida, Javier; Pavón-Fuentes, Nancy; Llópiz-Arzuaga, Alexey; Fernández-Massó, Julio R; Delgado-Roche, Liván; Mendoza-Marí, Yssel; Santana, Seydi Pedroso; Cruz-Ramírez, Alieski; Valenzuela-Silva, Carmen; Nazábal-Gálvez, Marcelo; Cintado-Benítez, Alberto; Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Polentarutti, Nadia; Riva, Federica; Pentón-Arias, Eduardo; Pentón-Rol, Giselle

    2013-10-01

    Since the inflammatory response and oxidative stress are involved in the stroke cascade, we evaluated here the effects of Phycocyanobilin (PCB, the C-Phycocyanin linked tetrapyrrole) on PC12 cell survival, the gene expression and the oxidative status of hypoperfused rat brain. After the permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAo), the animals were treated with saline or PCB, taking samples 24h post-surgery. Global gene expression was analyzed with GeneChip Rat Gene ST 1.1 from Affymetrix; the expression of particular genes was assessed by the Fast SYBR Green RT-PCR Master Mix and Bioplex methods; and redox markers (MDA, PP, CAT, SOD) were evaluated spectrophotometrically. The PCB treatment prevented the H2O2 and glutamate induced PC12 cell injury assessed by the MTT assay, and modulated 190 genes (93 up- and 97 down-regulated) associated to several immunological and inflammatory processes in BCCAo rats. Furthermore, PCB positively modulated 19 genes mostly related to a detrimental pro-inflammatory environment and counteracted the oxidative imbalance in the treated BCCAo animals. Our results support the view of an effective influence of PCB on major inflammatory mediators in acute cerebral hypoperfusion. These results suggest that PCB has a potential to be a treatment for ischemic stroke for which further studies are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interaction between air pollution exposure and genes in relation to levels of inflammatory markers and risk of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Panasevich, Sviatlana; Leander, Karin; Ljungman, Petter; Bellander, Tom; de Faire, Ulf; Pershagen, Göran; Nyberg, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    . Conclusions Genetic variants in IL6 and TNF may modify effects of long-term and short-term air pollution exposure on inflammatory marker levels and MI risk. PMID:24056475

  1. Lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory priming potentiates painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Yves; Moreau, Nathan; Mauborgne, Annie; Dieb, Wisam

    2018-06-18

    We explored the molecular and behavioral effects of a perineural Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory priming on the development and maintenance of painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PPTTN) following infra-orbital nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI-IoN) in rats. Rats were pretreated with repetitive perineural injections in the vicinity of the IoN of either LPS or vehicle (Vhcl) before being submitted to CCI-IoN. Orofacial pain-like behaviors (response to Von Frey Filament testing and spontaneous isolated face grooming) were measured during the period of LPS injections (three weeks) and following CCI-IoN surgery (two weeks). Local LPS administration induced an early pain-like behavior (i.e. an increase in spontaneous pain [SP] or mechanical static allodynia [MSA]) in both conditions, and following CCI-IoN, MSA and SP developed earlier and more severely in LPS-pretreated rats than in the control group. Ipsilateral increases of key neuropathic pain mRNA markers in the IoN parenchyma, trigeminal ganglia (TG) and spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Sp5C) were observed in CCI-IoN injured animals as compared to controls. Although no significant molecular differences could be observed within the IoN parenchyma between LPS and Vhcl-pretreated animals, a significant increase of key inflammatory cytokine Interleukin 1 beta (IL - 1β) could be found in the TG of LPS-pretreated CCI-injured animals versus controls. Finally, a higher increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in ipsilateral Sp5C of LPS-pretreated animals was observed as compared to Sp5C of Vhcl-pretreated animals. These results suggest a key role of inflammatory priming in the development and maintenance of PPTTN implicating IL-1β/iNOS-dependent central sensitization mechanisms. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Wide-range screening of anti-inflammatory compounds in tomato using LC-MS and elucidating the mechanism of their functions

    PubMed Central

    Mohri, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Haruya; Sakai, Maiko; Takahashi, Shingo; Waki, Naoko; Aizawa, Koichi; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Ara, Takeshi; Matsumura, Yasuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo

    2018-01-01

    Obesity-induced chronic inflammation is a key factor in type 2 diabetes. A vicious cycle involving pro-inflammatory mediators between adipocytes and macrophages is a common cause of chronic inflammation in the adipose tissue. Tomato is one of the most popular vegetables and is associated with a reduced risk of diabetes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of tomato on diabetes is unclear. In this study, we focused on anti-inflammatory compounds in tomato. We found that the extract of tomato reduced plasma glucose and inflammatory markers in mice. We screened anti-inflammatory fractions in tomato using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, and active compounds were estimated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry over a wide range. Surprisingly, a large number of compounds including oxylipin and coumarin derivatives were estimated as anti-inflammatory compounds. Especially, 9-oxo-octadecadienoic acid and daphnetin suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW264.7 macrophages inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and inhibitor of kappa B α protein degradation. These findings suggest that tomato containing diverse anti-inflammatory compounds ameliorates chronic inflammation in obese adipose tissue. PMID:29329333

  3. How to predict clinical relapse in inflammatory bowel disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Liverani, Elisa; Scaioli, Eleonora; Digby, Richard John; Bellanova, Matteo; Belluzzi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases have a natural course characterized by alternating periods of remission and relapse. Disease flares occur in a random way and are currently unpredictable for the most part. Predictors of benign or unfavourable clinical course are required to facilitate treatment decisions and to avoid overtreatment. The present article provides a literature review of the current evidence on the main clinical, genetic, endoscopic, histologic, serologic and fecal markers to predict aggressiveness of inflammatory bowel disease and discuss their prognostic role, both in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. No single marker seems to be reliable alone as a flare predictor, even in light of promising evidence regarding the role of fecal markers, in particular fecal calprotectin, which has reported good results recently. In order to improve our daily clinical practice, validated prognostic scores should be elaborated, integrating clinical and biological markers of prognosis. Finally, we propose an algorithm considering clinical history and biological markers to intercept patients with high risk of clinical relapse. PMID:26811644

  4. Interleukin and interleukin receptor gene polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel diseases susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Magyari, Lili; Kovesdi, Erzsebet; Sarlos, Patricia; Javorhazy, Andras; Sumegi, Katalin; Melegh, Bela

    2014-03-28

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), represents a group of chronic inflammatory disorders caused by dysregulated immune responses in genetically predisposed individuals. Genetic markers are associated with disease phenotype and long-term evolution, but their value in everyday clinical practice is limited at the moment. IBD has a clear immunological background and interleukins play key role in the process. Almost 130 original papers were revised including meta-analysis. It is clear these data are very important for understanding the base of the disease, especially in terms of clinical utility and validity, but text often do not available for the doctors use these in the clinical practice nowadays. We conducted a systematic review of the current literature on interleukin and interleukin receptor gene polymorphisms associated with IBD, performing an electronic search of PubMed Database from publications of the last 10 years, and used the following medical subject heading terms and/or text words: IBD, CD, UC, interleukins and polymorphisms.

  5. C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Hemodialysis patients are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Higher than expected cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this population has been attributed to dislipidemia as well as inflammation. The causes of inflammation in hemodialysis patients are multifactorial. Several markers were used for the detection of inflammatory reaction in patients with chronic renal disease. These markers can be used for the prediction of future cardiovascular events. Among the several parameters of inflammatory markers, serum, CRP is well known and its advantages for the detection of inflammation and its predictor ability has been evaluated in several studies. This review addressed the associated factors and markers of inflammation in hemodialysis patients. In addition, their ability in predicting future atherosclerosis and effect of treatment has been reviewed. However, this context particularly in using CRP as a prediction marker of inflammation and morbidity requires further studies. PMID:24009946

  6. C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Hemodialysis patients are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Higher than expected cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this population has been attributed to dislipidemia as well as inflammation. The causes of inflammation in hemodialysis patients are multifactorial. Several markers were used for the detection of inflammatory reaction in patients with chronic renal disease. These markers can be used for the prediction of future cardiovascular events. Among the several parameters of inflammatory markers, serum, CRP is well known and its advantages for the detection of inflammation and its predictor ability has been evaluated in several studies. This review addressed the associated factors and markers of inflammation in hemodialysis patients. In addition, their ability in predicting future atherosclerosis and effect of treatment has been reviewed. However, this context particularly in using CRP as a prediction marker of inflammation and morbidity requires further studies.

  7. Cross-border ties, nativity, and inflammatory markers in a population-based prospective study of Latino adults.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jacqueline M; Epel, Elissa S; To, Tu My; Lee, Anne; Aiello, Allison E; Haan, Mary N

    2018-05-16

    Even after migration, immigrants and their descendants may continue to have ties to family and friends who remain in places of origin. Recent research suggests that these cross-border social ties have implications for health, although this scholarship has been limited to self-reported outcomes. Using data from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA), we estimate associations between cross-border social ties and inflammatory biomarkers among Latino adults (n = 1786). We find that immigrants who maintained any cross-border connection to family and friends in Latin America had significantly lower levels of baseline interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) compared to their US-born counterparts with no cross-border ties. These results held for values of CRP at five-year follow-up for men only. In contrast, US-born women with cross-border ties to family and friends in Latin America had both significantly higher levels of CRP and significantly lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) at five-year follow-up relative to their US-born counterparts with no cross-border ties. We find descriptively that men who have cross-border ties are also less likely to be socially isolated within local contexts. Considering place-of-origin social connections may contribute critical nuance to studies of immigrant health, including disparities in inflammatory markers that may serve as indicators of underlying chronic disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pyostomatitis vegetans. Clinical marker of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Jornet, P; Gomez-Garcia, F; Camacho-Alonso, F

    2012-03-01

    Pyodermatitis-pyostomatitis vegetans (PV), a rare disorder of the skin and oral mucosa, is considered a highly specific marker for inflammatory bowel disease, especially ulcerative colitis. We have presented the case of a patient with PV. This report emphasizes the relationship of PV to inflammatory bowel disease and the importance of the oral lesions as initial presenting signs of systemic disease or activity.

  9. An exploratory factor analysis of inflammatory and coagulation markers associated with femoral artery atherosclerosis in the San Diego Population Study.

    PubMed

    Egnot, Natalie Suder; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Criqui, Michael H; Allison, Matthew A; Ix, Joachim H; Jenny, Nancy S; Wassel, Christina L

    2018-04-01

    Several biomarkers of inflammation and coagulation have been implicated in lower extremity atherosclerosis. We utilized an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to identify distinct factors derived from circulating inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers then examined the associations of these factors with measures of lower extremity subclinical atherosclerosis, including the ankle-brachial index (ABI), common and superficial femoral intima-media thickness (IMT), and atherosclerotic plaque presence, burden, and characteristics. The San Diego Population Study (SDPS) is a prospective, community-living, multi-ethnic cohort of 1103 men and women averaged age 70. Regression analysis was used to assess cross-sectional associations between the identified groupings of biomarkers (factors) and the ABI and femoral artery atherosclerosis measurements. Two biomarker factors emerged from the factor analysis. Factor 1 consisting of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, and fibrinogen was significantly associated with higher odds (OR = 1.99, p < 0.01) of a borderline ABI value (0.91-0.99), while Factor 2 containing D-dimer and pentraxin (PTX)-3 was significantly associated with higher common femoral artery (CFA) IMT (β = 0.23, p < 0.01) and lower ABI (β = -0.03, p < 0.01). Two groupings of biomarkers were identified via EFA of seven circulating biomarkers of inflammation and coagulation. These distinct groups are differentially associated with markers of lower extremity subclinical atherosclerosis. Our findings suggest that high inflammatory and coagulation burden were better markers of more severe lower-extremity disease as indicated by low ABI rather than early atherosclerotic lesion development in the femoral artery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of hypoxia on the expression of inflammatory markers IL-6 and TNF-a in human normal peritoneal and adhesion fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ambler, Dana R; Fletcher, Nicole M; Diamond, Michael P; Saed, Ghassan M

    2012-12-01

    Inflammation is known to be involved in the postoperative adhesion development. Interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are cytokines that stimulate the acute-phase reaction, which leads to a systemic reaction including inflammation, fever, and activation of the complement and clotting cascades. The goal of this study was to examine the expression of these inflammatory markers, under normal and hypoxic conditions, in normal and adhesion fibroblasts. Primary cultures of fibroblasts were established from normal peritoneum and adhesion tissues from the same patient(s) and cultured under 20% O(2) or hypoxic 2% O(2) conditions for 24 hours. Cells were harvested and total RNA was isolated. Complimentary DNA was generated by reverse transcription and subjected to real-time RT-PCR using specific primers for IL-6 and TNF-α. Both normal peritoneal and adhesion fibroblasts expressed IL-6 and TNF-α. Adhesion fibroblasts exhibited significantly higher levels of IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA as compared to normal peritoneal fibroblasts (p < 0.05). Both IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA levels were upregulated in response to hypoxia in both normal peritoneal and adhesion fibroblasts. The increase in IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA levels of normal fibroblasts reached the levels observed in adhesion fibroblasts. Our results suggest that hypoxia promotes the development of the adhesion phenotype by the induction of inflammatory markers, which may contribute to the development of postoperative adhesions. The inhibition of inflammation may be a potential therapeutic approach in the prevention and/or reduction of postoperative adhesion development.

  11. Elevated Endomyocardial Biopsy Macrophage-Related Markers in Intractable Myocardial Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuka; Hanawa, Haruo; Jiao, Shuang; Hasegawa, Go; Ohno, Yukako; Yoshida, Kaori; Suzuki, Tomoyasu; Kashimura, Takeshi; Obata, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Komei; Watanabe, Tohru; Minamino, Tohru

    2015-12-01

    Tissue macrophages can be activated by endogenous danger signals released from cells that are stressed or injured, leading to infiltration of inflammatory macrophages and neutrophils. We postulated that macrophage-related markers might be closely associated with the existence of endogenous danger signals, reflecting ongoing tissue injury in the absence of foreign substances. This study was designed to assess the ability of macrophage-related markers in endomyocardial biopsies to predict ongoing cardiac injury in non-inflammatory myocardial diseases. We examined levels of macrophage-related markers (CD68, CD163, CD45) in endomyocardial biopsies from patients (n = 86) with various myocardial diseases by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (n = 78) and immunohistochemistry (n = 56). Thirty-three patients without inflammatory cardiac disease such as myocarditis and sarcoidosis were classified as "improved" or "non-improved" defined as a 10% increase in left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiograph and a value greater than 30% at the time of follow-up. All macrophage-related (MacR) markers levels were not higher in non-improved dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients than improved patients. However, patients with cardiac amyloidosis, cardiac Fabry disease, mitochondrial cardiomyopathy, and biventricular arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), which were categorized as "non-improvement diseases," had elevated macrophage-related markers compared to improved patients. Macrophage-related markers levels were increased in endomyocardial biopsy samples of patients with intractable myocardial diseases such as amyloidosis, mitochondrial disease, Fabry disease, and biventricular ARVC.

  12. Discriminated benefits of a Mediterranean dietary pattern within a hypocaloric diet program on plasma RBP4 concentrations and other inflammatory markers in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Zulet, M Ángeles; Abete, Itziar; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2009-12-01

    Personalized nutritional strategies to treat obesity may specifically influence inflammatory markers, in addition to reduce body weight. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of a hypocaloric diet based on a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) on nutritional status as well as on plasma concentrations of retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) and other proinflammatory markers. Fourty-one subjects (24F/17M; age: 37 ± 7 years; BMI: 32.2 ± 3.9 kg/m²) were assigned to follow a MDP within a caloric-restricted diet over an 8-week period. Anthropometrical, clinical, and biochemical variables were measured at baseline and endpoint after the nutritional program. Dietary intervention resulted in a mean weight loss of -4.4 ± 2.5 kg (P < 0.001) and marked reductions (P < 0.05) in plasma concentrations of RBP4, leptin, C-reactive protein, complement C3, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). Individuals with a higher adherence to the MDP during the nutritional intervention presented differentially higher reductions (P < 0.05) in plasma RBP4, IL6, and TNFα. In addition, the increase in the Mediterranean diet score from baseline was a significant and independent predictor factor for the decrease in plasma RBP4 concentration (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings suggest that following a hypocaloric diet accompanying a high adherence to a MDP resulted in specific reductions on proinflammatory markers, in addition to a significant improvement in some metabolic syndrome features induced by weight loss, which could be a good combined strategy to treat obesity as well as related metabolic and inflammatory disorders.

  13. Attenuation of dermal wounds via downregulating oxidative stress and inflammatory markers by protocatechuic acid rich n-butanol fraction of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. in wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ekta; Singh, Deepika; Yadav, Pankajkumar; Verma, Amita

    2017-12-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation contribute as a key factor for retarding the process of dermal wound healing. Trianthema portulcastrum Linn. (TP) leaves reported to possess antioxidant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, which could make TP a promising wound healing agent. The current study was aimed to estimate the antioxidant potential of the fractionated hydroethanolic extract of TP leaves and evaluate wound healing activity by excision and incision wound models along with the assessment of possible underlying mechanism. Ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-butanol fractions of the hydroethanolic extract of TP leaves were examined for in vitro antioxidant ability by DPPH method. Strongest antioxidant activity bearing n-butanol fraction (nBuTP) was further analyzed quantitatively by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD). Wound healing potential of nBUTP using excision and incision wound model was studied. Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups, containing six animals in each group; group I served as control treated with simple ointment base, group II was standard group, treated with povidone-iodine ointment USP (5%), group III treated with nBuTP 5% w/w ointment, and group IV treated with nBuTP 10%w/w ointment. All the groups were topically applied their respective ointments, once daily, till the complete healing achieved. Wound healing was assessed by analyzing % wound closure, hydroxyproline content, epithelialization period, tensile strength, enzymatic antioxidative status and inflammatory markers. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extract was estimated to be 112.32±1.12 and 84.42±0.47mg/g, respectively. HPLC-DAD of nBuTP confirmed the presence of chlorogenic acid (20.74±0.03), protocatechuic acid (34.45±0.02mg/g), caffeic acid (4.31±0.03mg/g) and ferulic acid (1.43±0.01mg/g). 5% and 10%w/w nBuTP ointment significantly accelerated the wound healing process

  14. Candidate Markers Associated with the Probability of Future Pulmonary Exacerbations in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wojewodka, Gabriella; De Sanctis, Juan B.; Bernier, Joanie; Bérubé, Julie; Ahlgren, Heather G.; Gruber, Jim; Landry, Jennifer; Lands, Larry C.; Nguyen, Dao; Rousseau, Simon; Benedetti, Andrea; Matouk, Elias; Radzioch, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary exacerbations (PEs) cause significant morbidity and can severely impact disease progression in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease, especially in patients who suffer from recurrent PEs. The assessments able to predict a future PE or a recurrent PE are limited. We hypothesized that combining clinical, molecular and patient reported data could identify patients who are at risk of PE. Methods We prospectively followed a cohort of 53 adult CF patients for 24 months. Baseline values for spirometry, clinical status using the Matouk Disease Score, quality of life (QOL), inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukins (IL)-1β, -6, -8, -10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)), polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid peroxidation in blood plasma were collected for all patients during periods of stable disease, and patients were monitored for PE requiring PO/IV antibiotic treatment. Additionally, we closely followed 13 patients during PEs collecting longitudinal data on changes in markers from baseline values. We assessed whether any markers were predictors of future PE at baseline and after antibiotic treatment. Results Out of 53 patients, 37 experienced PEs during our study period. At baseline, we found that low lung function, clinical scoring and QOL values were associated with increased risk of PE events. PEs were associated with increased inflammatory markers at Day 1, and these biomarkers improved with treatment. The imbalance in arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid levels improved with treatment which coincided with reductions in lipid peroxidation. High levels of inflammatory markers CRP and IL-8 were associated with an early re-exacerbation. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that worse clinical and QOL assessments during stable disease are potential markers associated with a higher risk of future PEs, while higher levels of inflammatory markers at

  15. Effect of steroids on inflammatory markers and clinical parameters in congenital open heart surgery: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Amanullah, Muhammad M; Hamid, Mohammad; Hanif, Hashim M; Muzaffar, Marium; Siddiqui, Maria T; Adhi, Fatima; Ahmad, Khabir; Khan, Shahjahan; Hasan, Zahra

    2016-03-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with systemic inflammatory response. Steroids suppress this response, although the therapeutic evidence remains controversial. We hypothesised that intravenous steroids in children undergoing open-heart surgery would decrease inflammation leading to better early post-operative outcomes. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the trends in the levels of immunomodulators and their effects on clinical parameters. To assess the effects of intravenous steroids on early post-operative inflammatory markers and clinical parameters in children undergoing open-heart surgery. A randomised controlled trial involving 152 patients, from one month up to 18 years of age, who underwent open-heart surgery for congenital heart disease from April 2010-2012 was carried out. Patients were randomised and administered either three scheduled intravenous pulse doses of dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) or placebo. Blood samples were drawn at four time intervals and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines - Interleukin-6, 8, 10, 18, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha - were measured. Clinical parameters were also assessed. Blood cytokine levels were compared between the dexamethasone (n=65) and placebo (n=64) groups. Interleukin-6 levels were lower at 6 and 24 hours post-operatively (p<0.001), and Interleukin-10 levels were higher 6 hours post-operatively (p<0.001) in the steroid group. Interleukin-8, 18, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels did not differ between the groups at any time intervals. The clinical parameters were similar in both the groups. Dexamethasone caused quantitative suppression of Interleukin-6 and increased Interleukin-10 activation, contributing to reduced immunopathology, but it did not translate into clinical benefit in the short term.

  16. The Association Between Inflammatory Markers and Hypertension. A Call for Anti-Inflammatory Strategies?

    PubMed Central

    García, Néstor H.; Juncos, Luis I.

    2006-01-01

    The most important goal of antihypertensive therapy is to prevent the complications associated with hypertension (stroke, myocardial infarction, end-stage renal disease, etc). For this, secondary targets such as left ventricular hypertrophy, proteinuria, dementia, and other signs of hypertension-induced organ damage help the physician to assess risks and monitor treatment efficacy. New treatment targets may be arising, however. One such target may be endothelial dysfunction. In effect, endothelial dysfunction not only may precede the elevation of blood pressure, but may also pave the way to conditions often associated with hypertension, such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, microalbuminuria, congestive heart failure, and tissue hypertrophy. Because inflammation often accompanies endothelial dysfunction, approaches to counteract inflammation are now being evaluated. For this, antagonists of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, statins, and beta blockers are all being tested. All of these agents seem to prevent or delay the induction of proinflammatory molecules aside from, and in addition to, their specific effects on blood pressure. The focus of this review is to update some of the animal and human research showing that hypertension sets off an inflammatory state and also to consider some of the anti-inflammatory approaches that may prevent the development of endothelial dysfunction, and the subsequent renal and cardiovascular damage.

  17. Quantitative analysis of blood cells and inflammatory factors in wounds.

    PubMed

    Cerveró-Ferragut, S; López-Riquelme, N; Martín-Tomás, E; Massa-Domínguez, B; Pomares-Vicente, J; Soler-Pérez, M; Sánchez-Hernández, J F

    2017-03-02

    The aim of this study was to quantify blood cells and inflammatory markers, involved in the healing process, in exudates from wounds in different healing phases, to assess these markers in order to identify the inflammatory phase of the wounds. Patients who presented with postsurgical wounds, which closed by first and second intention, and those who presented with pressure ulcers (PUs), which were closed by second intention, were included in the study. We examined wounds from 37 patients and collected samples from 52 wounds in the inflammatory phase, 30 in the proliferative phase and 29 in the maturation phase. The number of neutrophils and platelets in the exudate collected from wounds in the inflammatory phase was significantly higher (p<0.001), while the number of lymphocytes, was significantly lower in exudate from wounds in the inflammatory phase (p<0.001). Wound c-reactive protein (CRP) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were higher in the inflammatory group (p<0.001). We found a significantly positive correlation between CRP levels and the percentage of neutrophils and monocytes (r=0.346, p=0.004; r=0.293, p=0.015), and a significantly negative correlation between CRP levels and the percentage of lymphocytes (r=-0.503, p<0.001). A stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to identify an optimal combination of these biomarkers. The optimal biomarker combinations were neutrophils + monocytes + platelets + IgG + CRP, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.981 [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 0.955-1.000, p<0.001] for the diagnosis of wounds in the inflammatory phase. The optimal cutpoint yielded 96.9 % sensitivity and 94.6 % specificity. The biomarker combination predicted the inflammatory phase and was superior to individual biomarkers. Our findings suggest that the combination of the markers, percentage of neutrophils and monocytes, platelets, CRP and IgG levels could be useful prognostic indicators of the inflammatory phase.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effect of water extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense supplementation in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Ju; Yen, Chi-Hua; Liu, Jen-Tzu; Tseng, Yu-Fen; Lin, Ping-Ting

    2016-03-30

    Many studies have demonstrated that Graptopetalum paraguayense has good antioxidant ability; however, few studies have examined its anti-inflammatory effect. The study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of water extracts of G. paraguayense (WGP, 4 g day(-1)) in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). Intervention was administered for 12 weeks. Levels of inflammatory markers [high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and antioxidant enzymes activities were measured. Forty-two subjects completed the 12 week intervention study (placebo, n = 19; WGP, n = 23). After 12 weeks supplementation, subjects in WGP group had significantly lower levels of inflammatory markers than the baseline (P < 0.05) and the placebo group (CRP, P = 0.07; TNF-α, P = 0.04; IL-6, P = 0.03). The changes in levels of the inflammatory markers were significantly decreased in WGP group (CRP, P = 0.04; TNF-α, P = 0.06; IL-6, P = 0.01) compared to the placebo group. Levels of inflammatory markers were significantly negatively correlated with the antioxidant enzymes activities after supplementation. This study demonstrated a significant reduction in inflammatory status in MS after WGP supplementation. WGP may exert an anti-inflammatory effect on MS in addition to its antioxidant ability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. An in vitro test system for compounds that modulate human inflammatory macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, Hiromi; Feinweber, Carmen; Luckhardt, Sonja; Wallner, Nadja; Geisslinger, Gerd; Weigert, Andreas; Parnham, Michael J

    2018-06-16

    Macrophages undergo activation by pathophysiological stimuli to pro-inflammatory and bactericidal, or wound-healing and anti-inflammatory phenotypes, termed M1 or M2, respectively. Dysregulation of the M1-M2 balance is often associated with inflammatory diseases. Therefore, mechanisms of macrophage polarization may reveal new drug targets. We profiled six compounds with claimed modulatory effects on macrophage polarization using peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. Based on the distinct mRNA or protein expression in macrophages stimulated either with M1 [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) + interferon-γ, IFNγ] or M2 interleukin-4 (IL-4) stimuli, we selected a combination of M1 (IL1β, tumor necrosis factor-α,TNFα, CC chemokine receptor 7, CCR7 and CD80) and M2 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22, CCL22, CD200R and mannose receptor C type 1, MRC1) markers to monitor drug effects on "M1 polarization" or cells "pre-polarized to M1". Azithromycin (25-50μM), tofacitinib (2.5-5μM), hydroxychloroquine (40µg/ml) and pioglitazone (15-60μM) exhibit an anti-inflammatory profile because they downregulated M1 markers and upregulated some M2 markers when given both before and after M1 polarization. Lovastatin given before M1 polarization downregulated M1 marker genes but enhanced the M1 phenotype in macrophages pre-polarized with LPS and IFNγ. Methotrexate (1.25-5μM) did not modulate macrophage polarization. We have, thus, established a test system suitable to identify novel compounds or repurposed drugs that modulate inflammatory macrophage plasticity. Compounds with potential to reduce expression of molecules involved in inflammatory T cell activation (IL-1β, TNFα, CD80), while enhancing production of a major chemokine involved in recruitment of Tregs (CCL22) may be of interest for treating chronic inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. CCS mRNA transcripts and serum CCS protein as copper marker in adults suffering inflammatory processes.

    PubMed

    Araya, Magdalena; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Arredondo, Miguel

    2014-08-01

    The chaperone to Zn-Cu superoxide dismutase (CCS) has been postulated as a candidate copper indicator, changing in a consistent manner in induced and recovered copper deficiency, in experimental cell and animal models. In real life people have various conditions that may modify molecules acting as acute phase proteins, such as serum ceruloplasmin and copper concentration and could alter CCS responses. With the hypothesis that CCS mRNA transcripts and protein would be different in individuals suffering inflammatory processes in comparison to healthy individuals, we assessed adult individuals who, although not ill had conditions known to induce variable degrees of inflammation. Screening of 600 adults resulted in two study groups, formed on the basis of their clinical history and levels of serum C reactive protein (CRP): Group 1 (n = 61, mean (range) CRP = 0.9 (0.3-2.0 mg/dL) and Group 2 (n = 150, mean (range) CRP = 6.1 (4.3-8.7 mg/dL). Results showed that mRNA transcripts relative abundance was not different for CCS, MTIIA, TNF-alpha and Cu-Zn-SOD by group (p > 0.05, one way Anova), nor between sexes (p > 0.05, one way Anova). Distribution of CCS mRNA transcripts and CCS protein in serum did not show any differences or trends. Results disproved our hypothesis that CCS abundance of transcripts and CCS protein would be different in individuals suffering inflammatory processes, adding further support to the idea that CCS may be a copper marker.

  1. The impact of exposure to biomass smoke versus cigarette smoke on inflammatory markers and pulmonary function parameters in patients with chronic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Ocakli, Birsen; Acarturk, Eylem; Aksoy, Emine; Gungor, Sinem; Ciyiltepe, Fulya; Oztas, Selahattin; Ozmen, Ipek; Agca, Meltem Coban; Salturk, Cuneyt; Adiguzel, Nalan; Karakurt, Zuhal

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of exposure to biomass smoke vs cigarette smoke on serum inflammatory markers and pulmonary function parameters in patients with chronic respiratory failure (CRF). A total of 106 patients with CRF divided into age and gender-matched groups of cigarette-smoke exposure (n=55, mean [SD] age: 71.0 [12.0] years, 92.7% were females) and biomass smoke exposure (n=51, mean [SD] age: 73.0 [11.0] years, 94.1% were females) were included in this retrospective study. Data on patient demographics (age and gender), inflammatory markers, including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein, platelet/mean platelet volume ratio, arterial blood gas analysis, and pulmonary function test findings, including forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV 1 /FVC were obtained from medical records. Carbon dioxide partial pressure levels were significantly higher in the biomass smoke exposure than in the cigarette smoke exposure group (mean [SD] 51.0 [8.0] vs 47.0 [8.0] mmHg, p =0.026, respectively). Spirometry revealed similarly low levels for FEV 1 (%) (38.0 [16.0] vs 40.0 [12.0]%) and FVC (%) (45.0 [19.0] vs 39.0 [19.0]%) in cigarette-smoke and biomass smoke exposure groups, whereas biomass smoke exposure was associated with significantly higher FEV 1 /FVC (75.0 [14.0] vs 58.0 [12.0]%, p =0.001), lower FVC (mL) (mean [SD] 744.0 [410.0] vs 1,063.0 [592.0] mL, p =0.035) and lower percentage of patients with FEV 1 /FVC <70% (36.8% vs 82.0%, p <0.001) than cigarette smoke exposure. Our findings indicate similarly increased inflammatory markers and abnormally low pulmonary function test findings in both biomass smoke exposure and cigarette smoke exposure groups, emphasizing the adverse effects of biomass smoke exposure on lungs to be as significant as cigarette smoke exposure. Association of biomass smoke exposure with higher likelihood of FEV 1 /FVC ratio of >70% and more prominent loss of vital

  2. Atorvastatin May Correct Dyslipidemia in Adult Patients at Risk for Alzheimer's Disease Through an Anti-Inflammatory Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liandong; Zhao, Qitao; Zhou, Yong; Zhao, Ying; Wan, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a risk factor for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Although, atorvastatin is a well-accepted lipid-lowering agent, the benefits of atorvastatin treatment through an anti-inflammatory mechanism are still unclear. The present study was designed to examine changes in inflammatory markers following administration of atorvastatin in dyslipidemic patients with a parental history of Alzheimer's disease. Dyslipidemic adults with a parental history of Alzheimer's disease were administered either 40 mg of atorvastatin or placebo for 18 months. Before and after the study, lpid levels, blood pressure, body weight and body mass index, and the inflammatory markers hs-Creactive protein, serum monocyte chemoattractant protien-1, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were tested. Baseline levels of lipids, body mass index, hs-Creactive protein, monocyte chemoattractant protien-1, interleukin- 1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α did not show any difference between the two groups. However, after 18 months of atorvastatin treatment, all inflammatory markers significantly decreased in association with a reduction of lipid profiles, body mass index, bodyweight, and blood pressure, compared with those patients treated with placebo. Administration of atorvastatin corrected dyslipidemia in association with a reduction in inflammatory markers. Our results suggest that the therapeutic benefits of atorvastatin possibly involve an anti-inflammatory pathway.

  3. Associations among body composition, inflammatory profile and disease extent in ulcerative colitis patients.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Ana Paula Signori; Sassaki, Ligia Yukie; Dorna, Mariana de Souza; Presti, Paula Torres; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite; Martini, Ligia Araújo; Ferreira, Ana Lucia Anjos

    2018-02-01

    The aim of our study was to assess body composition status and its association with inflammatory profile and extent of intestinal damage in ulcerative colitis patients during clinical remission. This is a cross-sectional study in which body composition data (phase angle [PhA], fat mass [FM], triceps skin fold thickness [TSFt], mid-arm circumference [MAC], mid-arm muscle circumference [MAMC], adductor pollicis muscle thickness [APMt]), inflammatory profile (C-reactive protein [CRP], a1-acid glycoprotein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]) and disease extent were recorded. The mean age of the 59 patients was 48.1 years; 53.3% were women. Most patients were in clinical remission (94.9%) and 3.4% was malnourished according to body mass index. PhA was inversely correlated with inflammatory markers such as CRP (R=-0.59; p<0.001) and ESR (R=-0.46; p<0.001) and directly correlated with lean mass: MAMC (R=0.31; p=0.01) and APMt (R=0.47; p<0.001). Lean mass was inversely correlated with non-specific inflammation marker (APMt vs. ESR) and directly correlated with hemoglobin values (MAMC vs. hemoglobin). Logistic regression analysis revealed that body cell mass was associated with disease extent (OR 0.92; 95CI 0.87-0.97; p<0.01). PhA was inversely correlated with inflammatory markers and directly correlated with lean mass. Acute inflammatory markers were correlated with disease extent. Body cell mass was associated with disease extent.

  4. Associations of erythrocyte palmitoleic acid with adipokines, inflammatory markers, and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older Chinese123

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Geng; Ye, Xingwang; Sun, Liang; Li, Huaixing; Yu, Zhijie; Hu, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Background: Palmitoleic acid has been shown to regulate adipokine expression and systemic metabolic homeostasis in animal studies. However, its association with human metabolic diseases remains controversial. Objective: We aimed to investigate associations of erythrocyte palmitoleic acid with adipokines, inflammatory markers, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a Chinese population. Design: Erythrocyte fatty acids were measured in a population-based sample of 3107 men and women aged 50–70 y, for whom plasma glucose, insulin, lipid profile, adiponectin, retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured. MetS was defined according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian Americans. Results: The mean (±SD) erythrocyte palmitoleic acid value was 0.41 ± 0.20% of total fatty acids. Palmitoleic acid was positively correlated with RBP-4 (r = 0.14, P < 0.001) and inversely correlated with adiponectin (r = −0.15, P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, palmitoleic acid was strongly associated with MetS and its components. ORs (95% CIs) for comparisons of extreme quartiles of palmitoleic acid were 3.50 (2.66, 4.59) for MetS, 7.88 (5.90, 10.52) for hypertriglyceridemia, 2.13 (1.66, 2.72) for reduced HDL cholesterol, 1.99 (1.60, 2.48) for central obesity, and 1.86 (1.41, 2.44) for elevated blood pressure (all P < 0.001). Further control for adipokines and hsCRP abolished the association of palmitoleic acid with central obesity but not with other MetS components. Conclusion: Erythrocyte palmitoleic acid is associated with an adverse profile of adipokines and inflammatory markers and an increased risk of MetS in this Chinese population. PMID:23015321

  5. Truncated thioredoxin (Trx-80) promotes pro-inflammatory macrophages of the M1 phenotype and enhances atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Dler Faieeq Darweesh; Abderrazak, Amna; Couchie, Dominique; Lunov, Oleg; Diderot, Vimala; Syrovets, Tatiana; Slimane, Mohamed-Naceur; Gosselet, Fabien; Simmet, Thomas; Rouis, Mustapha; El Hadri, Khadija

    2013-07-01

    Vascular cells are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress that is believed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is an oxidative stress-limiting protein with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. In contrast, its truncated form (Trx-80) exerts pro-inflammatory effects. Here we analyzed whether Trx-80 might exert atherogenic effects by promoting macrophage differentiation into the M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype. Trx-80 at 1 µg/ml significantly attenuated the polarization of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages induced by exposure to either IL-4 at 15 ng/ml or IL-4/IL-13 (10 ng/ml each) in vitro, as evidenced by the expression of the characteristic markers, CD206 and IL-10. By contrast, in LPS-challenged macrophages, Trx-80 significantly potentiated the differentiation into inflammatory M1 macrophages as indicated by the expression of the M1 cytokines, TNF-α and MCP-1. When Trx-80 was administered to hyperlipoproteinemic ApoE2.Ki mice at 30 µg/g body weight (b.w.) challenged either with LPS at 30 µg/30 g (b.w.) or IL-4 at 500 ng/30 g (b.w.), it significantly induced the M1 phenotype but inhibited differentiation of M2 macrophages in thymus and liver. When ApoE2.Ki mice were challenged once weekly with LPS for 5 weeks, they showed severe atherosclerotic lesions enriched with macrophages expressing predominantly M1 over M2 markers. Such effect was potentiated when mice received daily, in addition to LPS, the Trx-80. Moreover, the Trx-80 treatment led to a significantly increased aortic lesion area. The ability of Trx-80 to promote differentiation of macrophages into the classical proinflammatory phenotype may explain its atherogenic effects in cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Profile of Arachidonic Acid-Derived Inflammatory Markers and Its Modulation by Nitro-Oleic Acid in an Inherited Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Trostchansky, Andrés; Mastrogiovanni, Mauricio; Miquel, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Bottero, Sebastián; Martínez-Palma, Laura; Cassina, Patricia; Rubbo, Homero

    2018-01-01

    The lack of current treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) highlights the need of a comprehensive understanding of the biological mechanisms of the disease. A consistent neuropathological feature of ALS is the extensive inflammation around motor neurons and axonal degeneration, evidenced by accumulation of reactive astrocytes and activated microglia. Final products of inflammatory processes may be detected as a screening tool to identify treatment response. Herein, we focus on (a) detection of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolization products by lipoxygenase (LOX) and prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase in SOD1G93A mice and (b) evaluate its response to the electrophilic nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA). Regarding LOX-derived products, a significant increase in 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) levels was detected in SOD1G93A mice both in plasma and brain whereas no changes were observed in age-matched non-Tg mice at the onset of motor symptoms (90 days-old). In addition, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) levels were greater in SOD1G93A brains compared to non-Tg. Prostaglandin levels were also increased at day 90 in plasma from SOD1G93A compared to non-Tg being similar in both types of animals at later stages of the disease. Administration of NO2-OA 16 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s/c) three times a week to SOD1G93A female mice, lowered the observed increase in brain 12-HETE levels compared to the non-nitrated fatty acid condition, and modified many others inflammatory markers. In addition, NO2-OA significantly improved grip strength and rotarod performance compared to vehicle or OA treated animals. These beneficial effects were associated with increased hemeoxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in the spinal cord of treated mice co-localized with reactive astrocytes. Furthermore, significant levels of NO2-OA were detected in brain and spinal cord from NO2-OA -treated mice indicating that nitro-fatty acids (NFA) cross brain–blood barrier and reach the central

  7. Phycocyanobilin promotes PC12 cell survival and modulates immune and inflammatory genes and oxidative stress markers in acute cerebral hypoperfusion in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Marín-Prida, Javier; Pavón-Fuentes, Nancy; Llópiz-Arzuaga, Alexey

    2013-10-01

    Since the inflammatory response and oxidative stress are involved in the stroke cascade, we evaluated here the effects of Phycocyanobilin (PCB, the C-Phycocyanin linked tetrapyrrole) on PC12 cell survival, the gene expression and the oxidative status of hypoperfused rat brain. After the permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAo), the animals were treated with saline or PCB, taking samples 24 h post-surgery. Global gene expression was analyzed with GeneChip Rat Gene ST 1.1 from Affymetrix; the expression of particular genes was assessed by the Fast SYBR Green RT-PCR Master Mix and Bioplex methods; and redox markers (MDA, PP, CAT, SOD)more » were evaluated spectrophotometrically. The PCB treatment prevented the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glutamate induced PC12 cell injury assessed by the MTT assay, and modulated 190 genes (93 up- and 97 down-regulated) associated to several immunological and inflammatory processes in BCCAo rats. Furthermore, PCB positively modulated 19 genes mostly related to a detrimental pro-inflammatory environment and counteracted the oxidative imbalance in the treated BCCAo animals. Our results support the view of an effective influence of PCB on major inflammatory mediators in acute cerebral hypoperfusion. These results suggest that PCB has a potential to be a treatment for ischemic stroke for which further studies are needed. - Highlights: • Phycocyanobilin (PCB) prevents H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glutamate induced PC12 cell viability loss. • Anterior cortex and striatum are highly vulnerable to cerebral hypoperfusion (CH). • PCB modulates 190 genes associated to inflammation in acute CH. • PCB regulates 19 genes mostly related to a detrimental pro-inflammatory environment. • PCB restores redox and immune balances showing promise as potential stroke therapy.« less

  8. The impact of fruit maturation on bioactive microconstituents, inhibition of serum oxidation and inflammatory markers in stimulated PBMCs and sensory characteristics of Koroneiki virgin olive oils from Messenia, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kaliora, Andriana C; Artemiou, Anna; Giogios, Ioannis; Kalogeropoulos, Nick

    2013-08-01

    Olive fruits from the Koroneiki cultivar (Olea europaea L.) grown in Messenia, Greece, were hand-picked from the same trees in progressive maturity stages, covering three months, and processed identically with a commercial olive mill and a three-phase decanter. Data on quality parameters, and antioxidant activity of the obtained oils were collected by employing the conventional analytical methods set by European Union Commission Regulation no. 61/2011. Additionally, the potential of oils' polar extract to inhibit total serum lipid oxidation and inflammatory markers in stimulated human mononuclear cells was assayed. The results showed that ripening caused an increase in monounsaturated and decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as an increase in phenolic compounds - mainly hydroxytyrosol - and in squalene. The extracts' ferric reducing power was in line with the increase of phenolic compounds. In later stages of maturation, lipoprotein oxidation was less potent and the decrease of inflammatory markers in stimulated human mononuclear cells was more powerful. Sensory evaluation detected differences in oils' "bitter" attributes, while the analysis of oils' volatiles revealed quantitative differences.

  9. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) modulate metabolic and inflammatory markers in a spontaneous type 2 diabetes mellitus model (Stillman Salgado rats).

    PubMed

    Dain, Alejandro; Repossi, Gaston; Diaz-Gerevini, Gustavo T; Vanamala, Jairam; Das, Undurti N; Eynard, Aldo R

    2016-11-25

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease with alterations in metabolic and inflammatory markers. Stillman Salgado rats (eSS) spontaneously develop type 2 DM by middle age showing progressive impairment of glucose tolerance with hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia. We analyzed the effects of supplementation of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with or without nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) added, an antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitor, on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in eSS rats to evaluate whether they can delay development and/or prevent progression of DM. After weaning, eSS rats received, intraperitoneally, once a month ω-3 (EPA 35% and DHA 40%-6.25 mg/Kg) or ω-6 (90% arachidonic acid- 6. 25 mg/Kg) for twelve months. Two additional groups of rats received 1.9 mg/kg NDGA added to ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids. Blood samples were collected at day 40, and at the end of the 6th month and 12th month of age to determine plasma triglycerides (TGs), total plasma fatty acids (FA), A1C hemoglobin (HbA1C), C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lipo and hydro peroxides, nitrites and IL-6 (in plasma and liver, kidney, and pancreas) and underwent oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as well. Wistar and eSS rats that received saline solution were used as controls. Plasma lipids profile, TG, fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels, and glycosylated HbA1C showed significant improvements in ω-3 and ω-3 + NDGA treated animals compared to eSS control group. ω-3 and ω-3 + NDGA groups showed an inverse correlation with fasting blood glucose and showed lower plasma levels of GGT, TG, and CRP. eSS rats treated with ω-3 LCPUFAs showed reduced level of inflammatory and oxidative indices in plasma and liver, kidney and pancreas tissues in comparison with eSS control (non-treated) and ω-6 treated groups. eSS rats are a useful model to study type 2 DM pathophysiology and related inflammatory

  10. Biological pathways, candidate genes and molecular markers associated with quality-of-life domains: an update

    PubMed Central

    Sprangers, Mirjam A.G.; Thong, Melissa S.Y.; Bartels, Meike; Barsevick, Andrea; Ordoñana, Juan; Shi, Qiuling; Wang, Xin Shelley; Klepstad, Pål; Wierenga, Eddy A.; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sloan, Jeff A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is compelling evidence of a genetic foundation of patient-reported QOL. Given the rapid development of substantial scientific advances in this area of research, the current paper updates and extends reviews published in 2010. Objectives The objective is to provide an updated overview of the biological pathways, candidate genes and molecular markers involved in fatigue, pain, negative (depressed mood) and positive (well-being/happiness) emotional functioning, social functioning, and overall QOL. Methods We followed a purposeful search algorithm of existing literature to capture empirical papers investigating the relationship between biological pathways and molecular markers and the identified QOL domains. Results Multiple major pathways are involved in each QOL domain. The inflammatory pathway has the strongest evidence as a controlling mechanism underlying fatigue. Inflammation and neurotransmission are key processes involved in pain perception and the COMT gene is associated with multiple sorts of pain. The neurotransmitter and neuroplasticity theories have the strongest evidence for their relationship with depression. Oxytocin-related genes and genes involved in the serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways play a role in social functioning. Inflammatory pathways, via cytokines, also play an important role in overall QOL. Conclusions Whereas the current findings need future experiments and replication efforts, they will provide researchers supportive background information when embarking on studies relating candidate genes and/or molecular markers to QOL domains. The ultimate goal of this area of research is to enhance patients’ QOL. PMID:24604075

  11. Biological pathways, candidate genes, and molecular markers associated with quality-of-life domains: an update.

    PubMed

    Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Thong, Melissa S Y; Bartels, Meike; Barsevick, Andrea; Ordoñana, Juan; Shi, Qiuling; Wang, Xin Shelley; Klepstad, Pål; Wierenga, Eddy A; Singh, Jasvinder A; Sloan, Jeff A

    2014-09-01

    There is compelling evidence of a genetic foundation of patient-reported quality of life (QOL). Given the rapid development of substantial scientific advances in this area of research, the current paper updates and extends reviews published in 2010. The objective was to provide an updated overview of the biological pathways, candidate genes, and molecular markers involved in fatigue, pain, negative (depressed mood) and positive (well-being/happiness) emotional functioning, social functioning, and overall QOL. We followed a purposeful search algorithm of existing literature to capture empirical papers investigating the relationship between biological pathways and molecular markers and the identified QOL domains. Multiple major pathways are involved in each QOL domain. The inflammatory pathway has the strongest evidence as a controlling mechanism underlying fatigue. Inflammation and neurotransmission are key processes involved in pain perception, and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with multiple sorts of pain. The neurotransmitter and neuroplasticity theories have the strongest evidence for their relationship with depression. Oxytocin-related genes and genes involved in the serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways play a role in social functioning. Inflammatory pathways, via cytokines, also play an important role in overall QOL. Whereas the current findings need future experiments and replication efforts, they will provide researchers supportive background information when embarking on studies relating candidate genes and/or molecular markers to QOL domains. The ultimate goal of this area of research is to enhance patients' QOL.

  12. Cinnamon Consumption Improves Clinical Symptoms and Inflammatory Markers in Women With Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shishehbor, Farideh; Rezaeyan Safar, Mahnaz; Rajaei, Elham; Haghighizadeh, Mohammad Hosein

    2018-05-03

    This study evaluated the effect of cinnamon on disease activity, serum levels of some inflammatory markers, and cardiovascular risk factors in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this randomized double-blind clinical trial, 36 women with RA were randomly divided to 2 groups, receiving 4 capsules of either 500 mg cinnamon powder or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), lipid profile, liver enzymes, serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), blood pressure, and clinical symptoms were determined at baseline and end of the week 8. At the end of the study, there was a significant decrease of serum levels of CRP (p < 0.001) and TNF-α (p < 0.001) in the cinnamon group as compared to the placebo group. Diastolic blood pressure was also significantly lower in the intervention group compared with the control group (p = 0.017). Compared with placebo, cinnamon intake significantly reduced the Disease Activity Score (DAS-28) (p < 0.001), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) (p < 0.001), and tender (TJC) (p < 0.001) and swollen joints (SJC) (p < 0.001) counts. No significant changes were observed for FBS, lipid profile, liver enzymes, or ESR. Cinnamon supplementation can be a safe and potential adjunct treatment to improve inflammation and clinical symptoms in patients with RA.

  13. Gastroprotective potential of Pentahydroxy flavone isolated from Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel. leaves against acetic acid-induced ulcer in rats: The role of oxido-inflammatory and prostaglandins markers.

    PubMed

    Mohod, Smeeta M; Kandhare, Amit D; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2016-04-22

    Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel. (Sapotaceae) has shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic and hepatoprotective potential. It has been traditionally used as laxative, tonic, anti-burn, anti-earthworm, wound healing and headache. To investigate the efficacy and possible mechanism of Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel. leaves methanolic extract (MI-ALC) and its isolated chloroform fraction (D3) against experimental induced gastric ulcers. D3 was isolated from MI-ALC, well characterized (HPTLC, FT-IR, (1)H-NMR and LC-MS) and evaluated for its gastroprotective activity by using acetic acid induced ulcer in male Wistar rats (150-200g). D3 (2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg, p.o.) were administered for the period of 14 days. At the end of treatment, rats were sacrificed to collect the stomach sample for evaluation of antioxidant (SOD, GSH, and MDA) enzyme, oxido-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1, iNOs) and prostaglandins (COX-II) markers by using RT-PCR. The structure and molecular weight (MW) of the isolated compound (D3) were confirmed by 1D and 2D spectral data and characterized as 3,5,7,3',4'-Pentahydroxy flavone with MW C15H10O7. Administration of 3,5,7,3',4'-Pentahydroxy flavone (5 and 10mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently inhibited (P<0.01 and P<0.001) acetic acid induced an alteration in the antioxidant enzyme. It also significantly and dose-dependently down-regulated gastric oxido-inflammatory and prostaglandins markers. Histopathological aberration induced in the stomach also attenuated by 3,5,7,3',4'-Pentahydroxy flavone treatment. Finding of present investigation suggests that MI-ALC possessed potent antiulcer activity due to the presence of 3,5,7,3',4'-Pentahydroxy flavone via its oxido-inflammatory and prostaglandins modulatory potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diets high in palmitic acid (16:0), lauric and myristic acids (12:0 + 14:0), or oleic acid (18:1) do not alter postprandial or fasting plasma homocysteine and inflammatory markers in healthy Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Voon, Phooi Tee; Ng, Tony Kock Wai; Lee, Verna Kar Mun; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2011-12-01

    Dietary fat type is known to modulate the plasma lipid profile, but its effects on plasma homocysteine and inflammatory markers are unclear. We investigated the effects of high-protein Malaysian diets prepared with palm olein, coconut oil (CO), or virgin olive oil on plasma homocysteine and selected markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in healthy adults. A randomized-crossover intervention with 3 dietary sequences of 5 wk each was conducted in 45 healthy subjects. The 3 test fats, namely palmitic acid (16:0)-rich palm olein (PO), lauric and myristic acid (12:0 + 14:0)-rich CO, and oleic acid (18:1)-rich virgin olive oil (OO), were incorporated at two-thirds of 30% fat calories into high-protein Malaysian diets. No significant differences were observed in the effects of the 3 diets on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and the inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interferon-γ. Diets prepared with PO and OO had comparable nonhypercholesterolemic effects; the postprandial total cholesterol for both diets and all fasting lipid indexes for the OO diet were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than for the CO diet. Unlike the PO and OO diets, the CO diet was shown to decrease postprandial lipoprotein(a). Diets that were rich in saturated fatty acids prepared with either PO or CO, and an OO diet that was high in oleic acid, did not alter postprandial or fasting plasma concentrations of tHcy and selected inflammatory markers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00941837.

  15. Interleukin and interleukin receptor gene polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel diseases susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Magyari, Lili; Kovesdi, Erzsebet; Sarlos, Patricia; Javorhazy, Andras; Sumegi, Katalin; Melegh, Bela

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), represents a group of chronic inflammatory disorders caused by dysregulated immune responses in genetically predisposed individuals. Genetic markers are associated with disease phenotype and long-term evolution, but their value in everyday clinical practice is limited at the moment. IBD has a clear immunological background and interleukins play key role in the process. Almost 130 original papers were revised including meta-analysis. It is clear these data are very important for understanding the base of the disease, especially in terms of clinical utility and validity, but text often do not available for the doctors use these in the clinical practice nowadays. We conducted a systematic review of the current literature on interleukin and interleukin receptor gene polymorphisms associated with IBD, performing an electronic search of PubMed Database from publications of the last 10 years, and used the following medical subject heading terms and/or text words: IBD, CD, UC, interleukins and polymorphisms. PMID:24695754

  16. INFLAMMATORY INDEX AND TREATMENT OF BRAIN ABSCESS

    PubMed Central

    OYAMA, HIROFUMI; KITO, AKIRA; MAKI, HIDEKI; HATTORI, KENICHI; NODA, TOMOYUKI; WADA, KENTARO

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study retrospectively analyzed 12 patients with brain abscesses. Half of the patients were diagnosed inaccurately in the initial stage, and 7.2 days were required to achieve the final diagnosis of brain abscess. The patients presented only with a moderately elevated leukocyte count, serum CRP levels, or body temperatures during the initial stage. These markers changed, first with an increase in the leukocyte count, followed by the CRP and body temperature. The degree of elevation tended to be less prominent, and the time for each inflammatory index to reach its maximum value tended to be longer in the patients without ventriculitis than in those with it. The causative organisms of a brain abscess were detected in 10 cases. The primary causative organisms from dental caries were Streptococcus viridians or milleri, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Nocardia sp. or farcinica were common when the abscess was found in other regions. The primary causative organisms of unrecognized sources of infection were Streptococcus milleri and Prolionibacterium sp. Nocardia is resistant to many antibiotics. However, carbapenem, tetracycline and quinolone were effective for Nocardia as well as many other kinds of bacteria. In summary, the brain abscesses presented with only mildly elevated inflammatory markers of body temperature, leukocyte and CRP. These inflammatory markers were less obvious in the patients without ventriculitis and/or meningitis. The source of infection tended to suggest some specific primary causative organism. It was reasonable to initiate therapy with carbapenem. PMID:23092104

  17. Geraniol attenuates fibrosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects on diet induced atherogenesis by NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jayachandran, Muthukumaran; Chandrasekaran, Balaji; Namasivayam, Nalini

    2015-09-05

    Atherosclerosis is now generally accepted as a chronic inflammatory condition. The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a key regulator of inflammation, immune responses, cell survival and cell proliferation. Tissue remodeling plays a significant role during the phase of inflammation and oxidative stress. In our study we have evaluated the effect of geraniol (GOH), a natural terpenoid on oxidative stress, inflammation and tissue remodeling in experimental animals. Experimental animals (hamsters) were divided into four groups; group 1 were control animals; group 2 were animals fed GOH alone (100mg/kg b.w. p.o); group 3 were animals fed atherogenic diet (standard pellet diet+10% coconut oil+0.25% cholesterol); group 4 animals were fed atherogenic diet as in group 3+GOH (100mg/kg b.w). At the end of the experimental period animals were killed and liver, heart and aorta tissues were analyzed for lipid peroxidation markers, non enzymic antioxidants and collagen distribution using histological studies like Milligan's trichrome and Picrosirius red staining. As inflammation plays a key role in tissue remodeling we also targeted the key inflammatory cytokine, NF-κB. GOH supplementation greatly prevented the remodeling of tissues by enhancing the free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus in conclusion it can be suggested that GOH (100mg/kg b.w) prevents the atherogenic diet induced fibrosis in experimental hamsters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lack of Correlation Between Pulmonary and Systemic Inflammation Markers in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Simultaneous, Two-Compartmental Analysis.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Belen; Sauleda, Jaume; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Noguera, Aina; Monsó, Eduard; Gómez, Federico; Barreiro, Esther; Marín, Alicia; Antó, Josep Maria; Agusti, Alvar

    2016-07-01

    The origin of systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients remains to be defined, but one of the most widely accepted hypothesis is the 'spill over' of inflammatory mediators from the lung to the circulation. To evaluate the relationship between pulmonary and systemic inflammation in COPD quantifying several inflammatory markers in sputum and serum determined simultaneously. Correlations between various inflammatory variables (TNF-α, IL6, IL8) in sputum and serum were evaluated in 133 patients from the PAC-COPD cohort study. A secondary objective was the evaluation of relationships between inflammatory variables and lung function. Inflammatory markers were clearly higher in sputum than in serum. No significant correlation was found (absolute value, r=0.03-0.24) between inflammatory markers in blood and in sputum. There were no significant associations identified between those markers and lung function variables, such as FEV1, DLCO and PaO2 neither. We found no correlation between pulmonary and systemic inflammation in patients with stable COPD, suggesting different pathogenic mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. [Changes of fecal flora and its correlation with inflammatory indicators in patients with inflammatory bowel disease].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Ye; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhou, Youlian; Zhang, Shaoheng; Wang, Pu; Xie, Shan; Jiang, Bo

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the changes in fecal flora and its correlation with the occurrence and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We collected fresh fecal specimens from 167 IBD patients (including 113 with ulcerative colitis and 54 with Crohn's disease) and 54 healthy volunteers. The fecal flora was analyzed by gradient dilution method and the data of inflammatory markers including WBC, PLT, CRP and ESR were collected to assess the association between the fecal flora and the inflammatory markers. The species Enterrococcus (6.60∓0.23, P<0.01), Saccharomyces (2.22∓0.27, P<0.05), Bacteriodes (5.57∓0.28, P<0.001), Bifidobacterium (5.08∓0.30, P<0.01), Peptococcus (6.22∓0.25, P<0.001), Lactobacillus (6.00∓0.26, P<0.001), and Clostridium (3.57∓0.30, P<0.05) all increased significantly, while Eubacterium (1.56∓0.24, P<0.01) reduced markedly in patients with ulcerative colitis compared with those in the control subjects. Enterrococcus (6.93∓0.28, P<0.01), Saccharomyces (2.73∓0.37, P<0.01), Bacteriodes (4.32∓0.52, P<0.05), Bifidobacterium (4.88∓0.42, P<0.05), Peptococcus (6.19∓0.32, P<0.01) and Lactobacillus (4.73∓0.47, P<0.001) all increased significantly and Eubacterium (1.01∓0.29, P<0.01) and Clostridium (0.87∓0.31, P<0.01) decreased in patients with Crohn's disease. The positivity rates of bacterial culture were consistent with the results of quantitative analysis of the fecal flora. The changes in fecal flora did not show a significant correlation with these inflammatory markers. IBD patients have fecal flora imbalance compared with the healthy controls, and this imbalance may contribute to the occurrence and progression of IBD. The decline of Eubacterium contributes to the occurrence and development of IBD.

  20. Key Objectives Bank: Year 9. Key Stage 3: National Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    In each sub-section of the "Framework for Teaching English: Years 7, 8 and 9," certain key objectives are identified in boldface print. These objectives are key because they signify skills or understanding which are crucial to pupils' language development. They are challenging for the age group and are important markers of progress. This…

  1. Residual Associations of Inflammatory Markers with eGFR after Accounting for Measured GFR in a Community-Based Cohort without CKD.

    PubMed

    Schei, Jørgen; Stefansson, Vidar T N; Mathisen, Ulla Dorte; Eriksen, Bjørn O; Solbu, Marit D; Jenssen, Trond G; Melsom, Toralf

    2016-02-05

    eGFR on the basis of creatinine (eGFRcre) associates differently with cardiovascular disease and mortality than eGFR on the basis of cystatin C (eGFRcys). This may be related to risk factors affecting the level of creatinine and cystatin C along non-GFR pathways, which may confound the association between eGFR and outcome. Nontraditional risk factors are usually not measured in epidemiologic studies of eGFR and cannot be adjusted for to reduce confounding. We examined whether the inflammatory markers soluble TNF receptor type 2 (sTNFR2), C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen associated differently with eGFR than with measured GFR (mGFR). GFR was measured by iohexol clearance in 1627 middle-aged participants without kidney disease, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease enrolled in the Renal Iohexol Clearance Survey Study from the Sixth Tromsø Study between 2007 and 2009. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the residual associations between eGFR (eGFRcre, eGFRcys, and eGFR on the basis of creatinine and cystatin C) and the inflammatory markers relative to mGFR. sTNFR2, CRP, and fibrinogen were associated with a higher eGFRcre after accounting for mGFR in multivariable-adjusted models (2.63 ml/min per 1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.1 to 3.2 per SD increase in sTNFR2, 0.93 ml/min per 1.73 m(2); 95% CI, 0.3 to 1.5 per SD increase in log CRP, and 1.19 ml/min per 1.73 m(2); 95% CI, 0.6 to 1.8 per SD increase in fibrinogen). sTNFR2 and CRP were inversely associated with eGFRcys (-1.4 ml/min per 1.73 m(2); 95% CI, -2.1 to -0.6 per SD increase in sTNFR2, and -0.76 ml/min per 1.73 m(2); 95% CI, -1.4 to -0.1 per SD increase in log CRP). eGFRcre and eGFRcys are associated with inflammatory factors after accounting for mGFR but in opposite directions. These non-GFR-related associations may bias risk estimates by eGFR and, in part, explain the different risks predicted by eGFRcre and eGFRcys in longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2016 by the

  2. [Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory modulation of exercise during aging].

    PubMed

    Galle, Fernando Alexis; Martella, Diana; Bresciani, Guilherme

    2018-06-10

    Aging is characterised by a gradual loss of the functional reserve. This, along with the fostering of sedentary habits and the increase in risk factors, causes a deterioration of antioxidant defences and an increase of the circulatory levels of inflammatory and oxidative markers, boosting a low-rate chronic inflammation, defined as inflamm-aging. This phenomenon is present in the aetiopathology of chronic diseases, as well as in cognitive deterioration cases associated with aging. The objective of this review is to describe the modulation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of physical exercise of moderate intensity and volume in the elderly. Evidence of its effectiveness as a non-pharmacological resource is presented, which decreases some deleterious effects of aging. This is mainly due to its neuroprotective action, the increase in circulating anti-inflammatory markers, and the improvement of antioxidant defence derived from its practice. Copyright © 2018 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Relation between systemic inflammatory markers, peripheral muscle mass, and strength in limb muscles in stable COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Renata; Caram, Laura M O; Faganello, Marcia M; Sanchez, Fernanda F; Tanni, Suzana E; Godoy, Irma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between systemic inflammatory mediators and peripheral muscle mass and strength in COPD patients. Fifty-five patients (69% male; age: 64±9 years) with mild/very severe COPD (defined as forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1] =54%±23%) were evaluated. We evaluated serum concentrations of IL-8, CRP, and TNF-α. Peripheral muscle mass was evaluated by computerized tomography (CT); midthigh cross-sectional muscle area (MTCSA) and midarm cross-sectional muscle area (MACSA) were obtained. Quadriceps, triceps, and biceps strength were assessed through the determination of the one-repetition maximum. The multiple regression results, adjusted for age, sex, and FEV1%, showed positive significant association between MTCSA and leg extension (0.35 [0.16, 0.55]; P=0.001), between MACSA and triceps pulley (0.45 [0.31, 0.58]; P=0.001), and between MACSA and biceps curl (0.34 [0.22, 0.47]; P=0.001). Plasma TNF-α was negatively associated with leg extension (-3.09 [-5.99, -0.18]; P=0.04) and triceps pulley (-1.31 [-2.35, -0.28]; P=0.01), while plasma CRP presented negative association with biceps curl (-0.06 [-0.11, -0.01]; P=0.02). Our results showed negative association between peripheral muscle mass (evaluated by CT) and muscle strength and that systemic inflammation has a negative influence in the strength of specific groups of muscles in individuals with stable COPD. This is the first study showing association between systemic inflammatory markers and strength in upper limb muscles.

  4. Exercise Training Plus Sildenafil Treatment: Role on Autonomic and Inflammatory Markers.

    PubMed

    Leoni, Luis Antonio B; Fukushima, Andre R; Rocha, Leandro Y; Feriani, Daniele J; Júnior, Hélio José Coelho; Gambassi, Bruno B; Mostarda, Cristiano T; Maifrino, Laura Beatriz Mesiano; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2018-06-25

    The current study aimed to determine the effects of sildenafil-associated aerobic exercise training (ET) on the physical performance, hemodynamic, autonomic and inflammatory parameters of rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to: sedentary rats placebo-treated (SP); sedentary rats sildenafil-treated (SS); trained rats placebo-treated (TP); and trained rats sildenafil-treated (TS). Sildenafil treatment consisted of 8 weeks of daily oral gavage (1.5 mg/kg), one hour before the session of ET (60-75% of maximal running speed, 5 days/week, for 8 weeks). After ET period, physical capacity, hemodynamic, autonomic and skeletal muscle inflammatory profile were assessed. Chronic sildenafil treatment causes an additional increase of physical capacity in aerobically trained rats. However, these beneficial effects were accompanied by unwanted alterations, as increased of arterial pressure and peripheral sympathetic modulation, as well as exacerbated inflammatory status on skeletal muscle of rats. Taken together, these data suggest the positive and negative effects of sildenafil chronic administration, associated to aerobic ET, at doses used in clinical practice. This report stresses the importance of paying greater attention to the indiscriminate use of this substance in high-performance sports. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Prebiotics and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Heather E; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2017-12-01

    Dietary fiber, specifically prebiotics, is the primary source of energy for the gut microbiota and thus has the potential to beneficially modify microbiota composition. Prebiotics have been used in both in vitro studies and with animal models of colitis with largely positive results. Human studies are few and have been conducted with only a few select prebiotics, primarily fructan-containing fibers. Although disease activity and inflammatory markers have improved, more needs to be learned about the specific prebiotic compounds and how they can be used to best improve the gut microbiota to counter changes induced by inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alleviation of 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in rats by vitamin E via targeting oxidative stress and inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman Khazim; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Al-Asmari, Sarah A; Al-Rawi, Abdulqadir; Al-Omani, Saud

    2016-12-01

    BackgroundIntestinal mucositis is a major concern related with cancer therapy. It is well established that overproduction of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory mediators plays vital role in the pathogenesis of mucositis. The aim of the study was to investigate the modulatory effect of vitamin E (vit. E) on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis by targeting oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in rats. MethodsRats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each. All four-group animals received normal standard diet and water throughout the experimental period which last up to 10 days. Rats were gavaged with vit. E (300 mg/kg b. wt.) daily for 10 days (day 1-10) and were given intraperitoneal injection of 5-FU (150 mg/kg b. wt.) or saline (control) on day 8 to induce mucositis. Results We found that vit. E supplementation ameliorated 5-FU-induced lipid peroxidation, myeloperoxidase activity, activation of nuclear factor κB, expression of cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and mucin depletion. Vit. E administration also attenuated 5-FU-induced histological anomalies such as neutrophil infiltration, loss of cellular integrity, villus and crypt deformities. ConclusionsFindings of the study suggest that vit. E inhibits 5-FU-induced mucositis via modulation of oxidative stress, activation of redox sensitive transcription factor and its downstream targets.

  7. A chronic inflammatory response dominates the skeletal muscle molecular signature in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Porter, John D; Khanna, Sangeeta; Kaminski, Henry J; Rao, J Sunil; Merriam, Anita P; Richmonds, Chelliah R; Leahy, Patrick; Li, Jingjin; Guo, Wei; Andrade, Francisco H

    2002-02-01

    Mutations in dystrophin cause Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), but absent dystrophin does not invariably cause necrosis in all muscles, life stages and species. Using DNA microarray, we established a molecular signature of dystrophinopathy in the mdx mouse, with evidence that secondary mechanisms are key contributors to pathogenesis. We used variability controls, adequate replicates and stringent analytic tools, including significance analysis of microarrays to estimate and manage false positive rates. In leg muscle, we identified 242 differentially expressed genes, >75% of which have not been previously reported as altered in human or animal dystrophies. Data provide evidence for coordinated activity of numerous components of a chronic inflammatory response, including cytokine and chemokine signaling, leukocyte adhesion and diapedesis, invasive cell type-specific markers, and complement system activation. Selective chemokine upregulation was confirmed by RT-PCR and immunoblot, and may be a key determinant of the nature of the inflammatory response in dystrophic muscle. Up-regulation of secreted phosphoprotein 1 (minopontin, osteopontin) mRNA and protein in dystrophic muscle identified a novel linkage between inflammatory cells and repair processes. Extracellular matrix genes were up-regulated in mdx to levels similar to those in DMD. Since, unlike DMD, mdx exhibits little fibrosis, data suggest that collagen regulation at post-transcriptional stages mediates extensive fibrosis in DMD. Taken together, these data identify a relatively neglected aspect of DMD, suggest new treatment avenues, and highlight the value of genome-wide profiling in study of complex disease processes.

  8. Affective and inflammatory responses among orchestra musicians in performance situation.

    PubMed

    Pilger, Alexander; Haslacher, Helmuth; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Perkmann, Thomas; Böhm, Karl; Budinsky, Alexandra; Girard, Angelika; Klien, Katharina; Jordakieva, Galateja; Pezawas, Lukas; Wagner, Oswald; Godnic-Cvar, Jasminka; Winker, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A number of studies have shown that mental challenge under controlled experimental conditions is associated with elevations in inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). However, relatively little work has been done on the effects of 'naturalistic' stressors on acute changes in inflammatory markers. The present study examined whether perceived arousal, valence and dominance in musicians are associated with pro-inflammatory and oxidative responses to a concert situation. Blood and salivary samples obtained from 48 members of a symphony orchestra on the day of rehearsal (i.e., control situation) and on the following day of premiere concert (i.e., test situation) were used to determine changes in salivary cortisol, pro-inflammatory markers (plasma myeloperoxidase, serum CRP, plasma IL-6), oxidative stress markers (paraoxonase1 activity and malondialdehyde), and homocysteine, a risk factor for vascular disease. Results of regression analyses showed a significant trend to increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) response in individuals with low valence score. Both affective states, valence and arousal, were identified as significant predictors of cortisol response during concert. In addition, control levels of plasma malondialdehyde were positively correlated with differences in IL-6 levels between premiere and rehearsal (r=.38, p=.012), pointing to higher oxidative stress in individuals with pronounced IL-6 response. Our results indicate that stress of public performance leads to increased concentrations of plasma MPO (20%), IL-6 (27%) and salivary cortisol (44%) in musicians. The decreasing effect of pleasantness on the MPO response was highly pronounced in non-smokers (r=-.60, p<.001), suggesting a significant role of emotional valence in stress-induced secretion of MPO. Additional studies are needed to assess the generalizability of these findings to other 'naturalistic' stress situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. The Inflammatory Microenvironment in Colorectal Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Mairi H.; Murray, Graeme I.; Stewart, Keith N.; Norrie, Gillian; Mayer, Claus; Hold, Georgina L.; Thomson, John; Fyfe, Nicky; Hope, Mairi; Mowat, N. Ashley G.; Drew, Janice E.; El-Omar, Emad M.

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Inflammatory activity within the stroma of invasive colorectal tumours is known to be a key predictor of disease activity with type, density and location of immune cells impacting on patient prognosis. To date, there has been no report of inflammatory phenotype within pre-malignant human colonic adenomas. Assessing the stromal microenvironment and particularly, inflammatory activity within colorectal neoplastic lesions is central to understanding early colorectal carcinogenesis. Inflammatory cell infiltrate was assessed by immunohistochemistry in paired colonic adenoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa samples, and adenomas exhibiting increasing degrees of epithelial cell dysplasia. Macrophage phenotype was assessed using double stain immunohistochemistry incorporating expression of an intracellular enzyme of function. A targeted array of inflammatory cytokine and receptor genes, validated by RT-PCR, was used to assess inflammatory gene expression. Inflammatory cell infiltrates are a key feature of sporadic adenomatous colonic polyps with increased macrophage, neutrophil and T cell (specifically helper and activated subsets) infiltration in adenomatous colonic polyps, that increases in association with characteristics of high malignant potential, namely, increasing degree of cell dysplasia and adenoma size. Macrophages within adenomas express iNOS, suggestive of a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Several inflammatory cytokine genes (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CCL20, IL8, CCL23, CCL19, CCL21, CCL5) are dysregulated in adenomas. This study has provided evidence of increased inflammation within pre-malignant colonic adenomas. This may allow potential mechanistic pathways in the initiation and promotion of early colorectal carcinogenesis to be identified. PMID:21249124

  10. The inflammatory microenvironment in colorectal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mairi H; Murray, Graeme I; Stewart, Keith N; Norrie, Gillian; Mayer, Claus; Hold, Georgina L; Thomson, John; Fyfe, Nicky; Hope, Mairi; Mowat, N Ashley G; Drew, Janice E; El-Omar, Emad M

    2011-01-07

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Inflammatory activity within the stroma of invasive colorectal tumours is known to be a key predictor of disease activity with type, density and location of immune cells impacting on patient prognosis. To date, there has been no report of inflammatory phenotype within pre-malignant human colonic adenomas. Assessing the stromal microenvironment and particularly, inflammatory activity within colorectal neoplastic lesions is central to understanding early colorectal carcinogenesis. Inflammatory cell infiltrate was assessed by immunohistochemistry in paired colonic adenoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa samples, and adenomas exhibiting increasing degrees of epithelial cell dysplasia. Macrophage phenotype was assessed using double stain immunohistochemistry incorporating expression of an intracellular enzyme of function. A targeted array of inflammatory cytokine and receptor genes, validated by RT-PCR, was used to assess inflammatory gene expression. Inflammatory cell infiltrates are a key feature of sporadic adenomatous colonic polyps with increased macrophage, neutrophil and T cell (specifically helper and activated subsets) infiltration in adenomatous colonic polyps, that increases in association with characteristics of high malignant potential, namely, increasing degree of cell dysplasia and adenoma size. Macrophages within adenomas express iNOS, suggestive of a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Several inflammatory cytokine genes (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CCL20, IL8, CCL23, CCL19, CCL21, CCL5) are dysregulated in adenomas. This study has provided evidence of increased inflammation within pre-malignant colonic adenomas. This may allow potential mechanistic pathways in the initiation and promotion of early colorectal carcinogenesis to be identified.

  11. Systemic inflammatory response following acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lu; Moore, Xiao-Lei; Dart, Anthony M; Wang, Le-Min

    2015-01-01

    Acute cardiomyocyte necrosis in the infarcted heart generates damage-associated molecular patterns, activating complement and toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 signaling, and triggering an intense inflammatory response. Inflammasomes also recognize danger signals and mediate sterile inflammatory response following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Inflammatory response serves to repair the heart, but excessive inflammation leads to adverse left ventricular remodeling and heart failure. In addition to local inflammation, profound systemic inflammation response has been documented in patients with AMI, which includes elevation of circulating inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and cell adhesion molecules, and activation of peripheral leukocytes and platelets. The excessive inflammatory response could be caused by a deregulated immune system. AMI is also associated with bone marrow activation and spleen monocytopoiesis, which sustains a continuous supply of monocytes at the site of inflammation. Accumulating evidence has shown that systemic inflammation aggravates atherosclerosis and markers for systemic inflammation are predictors of adverse clinical outcomes (such as death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and heart failure) in patients with AMI. PMID:26089856

  12. Salivary Markers of Inflammation in Response to Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Slavish, Danica C.; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Engeland, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the ability to detect inflammatory markers in response to stress within naturally occurring social contexts and/or across multiple time points per day within individuals. Salivary collection is a less invasive process than current methods of blood collection and enables intensive naturalistic methodologies, such as those involving extensive repeated measures per day over time. Yet the reliability and validity of saliva-based to blood-based inflammatory biomarkers in response to stress remains unclear. We review and synthesize the published studies that have examined salivary markers of inflammation following exposure to an acute laboratory stressor. Results from each study are reviewed by analyte (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, CRP) and stress type (social-cognitive and exercise-physical), after which methodological issues and limitations are addressed. Although the literature is limited, several inflammatory markers (including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) have been reliably determined from saliva and have increased significantly in response to stress across multiple studies, with effect sizes ranging from very small to very large. Although CRP from saliva has been associated with CRP in circulating blood more consistently than other biomarkers have been associated with their counterparts in blood, evidence demonstrating it reliably responds to acute stress is absent. Although the current literature is presently too limited to allow broad assertion that inflammatory biomarkers determined from saliva are valuable for examining acute stress responses, this review suggests that specific targets may be valid and highlights specific areas of need for future research. PMID:25205395

  13. Tight junctions in inflammatory bowel diseases and inflammatory bowel disease associated colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landy, Jonathan; Ronde, Emma; English, Nick; Clark, Sue K; Hart, Ailsa L; Knight, Stella C; Ciclitira, Paul J; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterised by inflammation that compromises the integrity of the epithelial barrier. The intestinal epithelium is not only a static barrier but has evolved complex mechanisms to control and regulate bacterial interactions with the mucosal surface. Apical tight junction proteins are critical in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function and control of paracellular permeability. The characterisation of alterations in tight junction proteins as key players in epithelial barrier function in inflammatory bowel diseases is rapidly enhancing our understanding of critical mechanisms in disease pathogenesis as well as novel therapeutic opportunities. Here we give an overview of recent literature focusing on the role of tight junction proteins, in particular claudins, in inflammatory bowel diseases and inflammatory bowel disease associated colorectal cancer. PMID:27003989

  14. Comparison of vildagliptin and glimepiride: effects on glycaemic control, fat tolerance and inflammatory markers in people with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Derosa, G; Bonaventura, A; Bianchi, L; Romano, D; Fogari, E; D'Angelo, A; Maffioli, P

    2014-12-01

    To compare the effects of vildagliptin with those of glimepiride on glycaemic control, fat tolerance and inflammatory markers in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving metformin treatment. A total of 167 participants were randomized to vildagliptin 50 mg twice a day or glimepiride 2 mg three times a day, for 6 months. We evaluated the following variables: BMI; glycaemic control; fasting plasma insulin; homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index; fasting plasma proinsulin; glucagon; lipid profile; adiponectin; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; interleukin-6; and tumour necrosis factor-α. A euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp procedure and an oral fat load test were also performed. Despite a similar decrease in HbA1c levels (P = 0.009, and P = 0.008, respectively), body weight increased with glimepiride (P = 0.048 vs baseline) and decreased with vildagliptin (P = 0.041 vs baseline and vs glimepiride). Fasting plasma insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index were significantly lower with vildagliptin compared with glimepiride (P = 0.035 and 0.047). M value, an index of insulin sensitivity, increased with vildagliptin, both compared with baseline and with glimepiride (P = 0.028 and 0.039, respectively). Vildagliptin improved all post-oral fat load peaks of lipid profile compared with glimepiride. Adiponectin levels were higher (P = 0.035) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were lower (P = 0.038) with vildagliptin vs glimepiride. During the oral fat load test, interleukin-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor-α peaks were lower and adiponectin peak was higher in the vildagliptin group than in the glimepiride group. There was a higher dropout rate as a result of hypoglycaemia in the glimepiride group than in the vildagliptin group. Vildagliptin was more effective than glimepiride in reducing post-oral fat load peaks of lipid-trafficking adipocytokines and

  15. Plasma inflammatory and apoptosis markers are associated with dialysis dependence and death among critically ill patients receiving renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Raghavan; Wen, Xiaoyan; Shah, Nilesh; Lee, Minjae; Kong, Lan; Pike, Francis; Keener, Christopher; Unruh, Mark; Finkel, Kevin; Vijayan, Anitha; Palevsky, Paul M.; Paganini, Emil; Carter, Melinda; Elder, Michele; Kellum, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Survivors of critical illness complicated by acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) are at an increased risk of dialysis dependence and death but the mechanisms are unknown. Methods In a multicenter, prospective, cohort study of 817 critically ill patients receiving RRT, we examined association between Day 1 plasma inflammatory [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-18; macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and tumor necrosis factor]; apoptosis [tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-I and TNFR-II and death receptor (DR)-5]; and growth factor (granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor) biomarkers and renal recovery and mortality at Day 60. Renal recovery was defined as alive and RRT independent. Results Of 817 participants, 36.5% were RRT independent and 50.8% died. After adjusting for differences in demographics, comorbid conditions; premorbid creatinine; nephrotoxins; sepsis; oliguria; mechanical ventilation; RRT dosing; and severity of illness, increased concentrations of plasma IL-8 and IL-18 and TNFR-I were independently associated with slower renal recovery [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) range for all markers, 0.70–0.87]. Higher concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-18; MIF; TNFR-I and DR-5 were associated with mortality (AHR range, 1.16–1.47). In an analysis of multiple markers simultaneously, increased IL-8 [AHR, 0.80, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.70–0.91, P < 0.001] and TNFR-I (AHR, 0.63, 95% CI 0.50–0.79, P < 0.001) were associated with slower recovery, and increased IL-8 (AHR, 1.26, 95% CI 1.14–1.39, P < 0.001); MIF (AHR, 1.18, 95% CI 1.08–1.28, P < 0.001) and TNFR-I (AHR, 1.26, 95% CI 1.02–1.56, P < 0.03) were associated with mortality. Conclusions Elevated plasma concentrations of inflammatory and apoptosis biomarkers are associated with RRT dependence and death. Our data suggest that future interventions should investigate broad-spectrum immune-modulation to improve

  16. Reduced antioxidant capacity and increased subclinical inflammation markers in prepubescent obese children and their relationship with nutritional markers and metabolic parameters.

    PubMed

    Vehapoglu, Aysel; Turkmen, Serdar; Goknar, Nilufer; Özer, Ömer Faruk

    2016-11-01

    There are associations between some inflammatory and oxidative markers and obesity in adults, but whether prepubescent children of different weights also have such markers has not been studied. We investigated multiple inflammatory markers and levels of erythrocyte oxidant/antioxidant enzymes in prepubescent children of different weights. Children aged 2-11 years were divided into three groups: 80 were underweight, 90 were obese but otherwise healthy, and 80 were healthy age- and sex-matched children of normal-weight. We analyzed inflammatory markers and the total oxidant status, total antioxidant status (TAS), and total thiol level were also determined, and the oxidative stress index was calculated as an indicator of the degree of oxidative stress. The obese group exhibited higher levels of fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and the homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β), C-reactive protein (CRP), neutrophils, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), as well as lower TAS and total thiol levels than the other two groups (all P < 0.001). Moreover, TAS and total thiols were negatively correlated with age in the obese group (r = -0.212, P = 0.001; r = -0.231, P < 0.001, respectively). CRP levels in plasma were positively correlated with the body mass index (BMI), insulin and glucose levels, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, WBC and neutrophil counts, and the NLR, and were negatively correlated with TAS and total thiol levels in the overall studied population. The coexistence of increased obesity-related subclinical inflammation and decreased antioxidant capacity can be observed even in prepubescence, and may eventually increase the risk of long-term vascular damage.

  17. Marine Bioactives: Pharmacological Properties and Potential Applications against Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    D’Orazio, Nicolantonio; Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; De Girolamo, Massimo; Cusenza, Salvatore; Riccioni, Graziano

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a hot topic in medical research, because it plays a key role in inflammatory diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other forms of arthritis, diabetes, heart diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, allergies, asthma, even cancer and many others. Over the past few decades, it was realized that the process of inflammation is virtually the same in different disorders, and a better understanding of inflammation may lead to better treatments for numerous diseases. Inflammation is the activation of the immune system in response to infection, irritation, or injury, with an influx of white blood cells, redness, heat, swelling, pain, and dysfunction of the organs involved. Although the pathophysiological basis of these conditions is not yet fully understood, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have often been implicated in their pathogenesis. In fact, in inflammatory diseases the antioxidant defense system is compromised, as evidenced by increased markers of oxidative stress, and decreased levels of protective antioxidant enzymes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). An enriched diet containing antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic substances, has been suggested to improve symptoms by reducing disease-related oxidative stress. In this respect, the marine world represents a largely untapped reserve of bioactive ingredients, and considerable potential exists for exploitation of these bioactives as functional food ingredients. Substances such as n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and peptides provide a myriad of health benefits, including reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activities. New marine bioactives are recently gaining attention, since they could be helpful in combating chronic inflammatory degenerative conditions. The aim of this review is to examine the published studies concerning the potential pharmacological properties and

  18. Liver damage, proliferation, and progenitor cell markers in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hiromu; Li, Bo; Lee, Carol; Koike, Yuhki; Chen, Yong; Seo, Shogo; Pierro, Agostino

    2018-05-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease known to cause injury to multiple organs including the liver. Liver regeneration is essential for the recovery after NEC-induced liver injury. Our aim was to investigate hepatic proliferation and progenitor cell marker expression in experimental NEC. Following ethical approval (#32238), NEC was induced in mice by hypoxia, gavage feeding of hyperosmolar formula, and lipopolysaccharide. Breastfed pups were used as control. We analyzed serum ALT level, liver inflammatory cytokines, liver proliferation markers, and progenitor cell marker expression. Comparison was made between NEC and controls. Serum ALT level was higher in NEC (p<0.05). The mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver was also higher in NEC (IL6: p<0.05, TNF-α: p<0.01). Conversely, mRNA expression of proliferation markers in the liver was lower in NEC (Ki67; p<0.01, PCNA: p<0.01). LGR5 expression was also significantly decreased in NEC as demonstrated by mRNA (p<0.05) and protein (p<0.01) levels. Inflammatory injury was present in the liver during experimental NEC. Proliferation and LGR5 expression were impaired in the NEC liver. Modulation of progenitor cell expressing LGR5 may result in stimulation of liver regeneration in NEC-induced liver injury and improved clinical outcome. Level IV. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Interleukin-1β modulates smooth muscle cell phenotype to a distinct inflammatory state relative to PDGF-DD via NF-κB-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Matthew R; Murgai, Meera; Moehle, Christopher W; Owens, Gary K

    2012-04-02

    Smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic modulation in atherosclerosis and in response to PDGF in vitro involves repression of differentiation marker genes and increases in SMC proliferation, migration, and matrix synthesis. However, SMCs within atherosclerotic plaques can also express a number of proinflammatory genes, and in cultured SMCs the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β represses SMC marker gene expression and induces inflammatory gene expression. Studies herein tested the hypothesis that IL-1β modulates SMC phenotype to a distinct inflammatory state relative to PDGF-DD. Genome-wide gene expression analysis of IL-1β- or PDGF-DD-treated SMCs revealed that although both stimuli repressed SMC differentiation marker gene expression, IL-1β distinctly induced expression of proinflammatory genes, while PDGF-DD primarily induced genes involved in cell proliferation. Promoters of inflammatory genes distinctly induced by IL-1β exhibited over-representation of NF-κB binding sites, and NF-κB inhibition in SMCs reduced IL-1β-induced upregulation of proinflammatory genes as well as repression of SMC differentiation marker genes. Interestingly, PDGF-DD-induced SMC marker gene repression was not NF-κB dependent. Finally, immunofluorescent staining of mouse atherosclerotic lesions revealed the presence of cells positive for the marker of an IL-1β-stimulated inflammatory SMC, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20), but not the PDGF-DD-induced gene, regulator of G protein signaling 17 (RGS17). Results demonstrate that IL-1β- but not PDGF-DD-induced phenotypic modulation of SMC is characterized by NF-κB-dependent activation of proinflammatory genes, suggesting the existence of a distinct inflammatory SMC phenotype. In addition, studies provide evidence for the possible utility of CCL20 and RGS17 as markers of inflammatory and proliferative state SMCs within atherosclerotic plaques in vivo.

  20. Decoy receptor 3, a novel inflammatory marker, and mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Hung, Szu-Chun; Hsu, Ta-Wei; Lin, Yao-Ping; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2012-08-01

    Inflammation is closely associated with cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality in patients with CKD. Serum decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a member of the TNF receptor superfamily. CKD patients have higher levels of DcR3 than the general population, but whether DcR3 predicts mortality in CKD patients on hemodialysis has not been explored. DcR3 levels were measured in 316 prevalent hemodialysis patients who were followed up from November 1, 2004, to June 30, 2009, for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. The baseline DcR3 concentration showed a strong positive correlation with inflammatory markers including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). During a follow-up period of 54 months, 90 patients died (34 cardiovascular deaths). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed higher cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with higher DcR3 levels. The hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of the highest versus lowest tertiles of DcR3 were 2.8 (1.1-7.3; P for trend=0.04) for cardiovascular mortality and 2.1 (1.1-3.7; P for trend=0.02) for all-cause mortality, respectively. Based on the minimal increase in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from 0.79 to 0.80, the addition of DcR3 to established risk factors including VCAM-1, albumin, and IL-6 does not improve the prediction of mortality. Higher DcR3 levels strongly correlate with inflammation and independently predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in CKD patients on hemodialysis.

  1. Radiation-induced inflammatory markers of brain injury are modulated by PPARdelta activation in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnegg, Caroline Isabel

    responses in microglia in vitro. To extend our in vitro findings in vivo, we investigated whether administration of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)ä agonist, GW0742, prevented radiation-induced brain injury in C57Bl/6 WT mice. Our data demonstrate that GW0742 prevented the radiation-induced increase in the number of activated microglia (CD68+ cells) in wild-type (WT) mice 1 week following 10 Gy WBI. Furthermore, GW0742 inhibited the WBI-induced increase in IL-1β message levels and ERK phosphorylation observed 3 h post-irradiation. In contrast, GW0742 administration failed to modulate the radiation-induced decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis (NeuN+/BrdU+ cells) determined 2 months after irradiation, or mitigate hippocampal-dependent spatial memory impairment observed 3 months post-irradiation using the Barnes Maze task. We used PPARō knockout (KO) mice to examine if the effects of GW0742 are PPARō-dependent. Unexpectedly, PPARō KO mice exhibited a differential response following WBI compared to WT mice; therefore, we were unable to make mechanistic conclusions about GW0742. KO mice do not exhibit a WBI-induced increase in activated microglia; however, they appeared to display a pronounced astrocytic response. In particular, PPARō KO but not WT mice displayed increased GFAP message levels 2 months after WBI. Additionally, the number of GFAP+ cells was reduced significantly in the WT mice 2 months after WBI, but it was not in the PPARō KO mice. These results demonstrate that: i) GW0742 prevents the radiation-induced increase in microglial activation and inflammatory markers, and ii) WT and PPARō KO mice have a differential response to WBI.

  2. From airway inflammation to inflammatory bowel disease: eotaxin-1, a key regulator of intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Adar, Tomer; Shteingart, Shimon; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Bar-Gil Shitrit, Ariella; Goldin, Eran

    2014-07-01

    Eotaxin-1 (CCL-11) is a potent eosinophil chemoattractant that is considered a major contributor to tissue eosinophilia. Elevated eotaxin-1 levels have been described in various pathologic conditions, ranging from airway inflammation, to Hodgkin lymphoma, obesity and coronary artery disease. The main receptor for eotaxin-1 is CCR3; however, recent evidence indicates that eotaxin-1 may also bind to other receptors expressed by various cell types, suggesting a more widespread regulatory role for eotaxin-1 beyond the recruitment of eosinophils. Eotaxin-1 is also strongly associated with various gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Although the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still unknown, eotaxin-1 may play a key role in the development of mucosal inflammation. In this review, we summarize the biological context and effects of eotaxin-1, as well as its potential role as a therapeutic target, with a special focus on gastrointestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Avenanthramide supplementation attenuates eccentric exercise-inflicted blood inflammatory markers in women.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Ryan T; Dickman, Jonathan R; Kang, Choung-Hun; Zhang, Tianou; Chu, Yi-Fang; Ji, Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Rigorous exercise is known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflict inflammatory response. The present study investigated whether dietary supplementation of avenanthramides (AVA) in oats would increase antioxidant protection and reduce inflammation in humans after an acute bout of eccentric exercise. Young women (age 18-30 years, N = 16) were randomly divided into two groups in a double-blinded fashion, receiving two cookies made of oat flour providing 9.2 mg AVA (AVA) or 0.4 mg AVA (Control, C) each day for 8 weeks. Before and after the dietary regimen each group of subjects ran downhill (DR) on a treadmill at -9% grade for 1 h at a speed to elicit 75% of maximal heart rate. Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately and 24 h post-DR. Before dietary supplementation plasma creatine kinase activity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentration were increased immediately after DR (P < 0.05), whereas neutrophil respiratory burst (NRB) was elevated 24 h post-DR (P < 0.05). CK and TNF-α response to DR was abolished during post-supplementation tests in both AVA and C groups, whereas NRB was blunted only in AVA but not in C. Plasma interleukin-6 level and mononuclear cell nuclear factor (NF) κB activity were not affected by DR either before or after dietary supplementation, but were lowered 24 h post-DR in AVA versus C (P < 0.05). Both groups increased plasma total antioxidant activity following 8-week dietary regimen (P < 0.05), whereas only AVA group increased resting plasma glutathione (GSH) concentration (P < 0.05), decreased glutathione disulfide response to DR, and lowered erythrocyte GSH peroxidase activity (P < 0.05). Our data of pre- and post-supplementation difference reflect an interaction between repeated measure effect of eccentric exercise and AVA in diet. Long-term AVA supplementation can attenuate blood inflammation markers, decrease ROS generation and NFkB activation, and increased antioxidant capacity during an eccentric exercise

  4. Principal components derived from CSF inflammatory profiles predict outcome in survivors after severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj G; Rubin, Jonathan E; Berger, Rachel P; Kochanek, Patrick M; Wagner, Amy K

    2016-03-01

    Studies have characterized absolute levels of multiple inflammatory markers as significant risk factors for poor outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, inflammatory marker concentrations are highly inter-related, and production of one may result in the production or regulation of another. Therefore, a more comprehensive characterization of the inflammatory response post-TBI should consider relative levels of markers in the inflammatory pathway. We used principal component analysis (PCA) as a dimension-reduction technique to characterize the sets of markers that contribute independently to variability in cerebrospinal (CSF) inflammatory profiles after TBI. Using PCA results, we defined groups (or clusters) of individuals (n=111) with similar patterns of acute CSF inflammation that were then evaluated in the context of outcome and other relevant CSF and serum biomarkers collected days 0-3 and 4-5 post-injury. We identified four significant principal components (PC1-PC4) for CSF inflammation from days 0-3, and PC1 accounted for the greatest (31%) percentage of variance. PC1 was characterized by relatively higher CSF sICAM-1, sFAS, IL-10, IL-6, sVCAM-1, IL-5, and IL-8 levels. Cluster analysis then defined two distinct clusters, such that individuals in cluster 1 had highly positive PC1 scores and relatively higher levels of CSF cortisol, progesterone, estradiol, testosterone, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and S100b; this group also had higher serum cortisol and lower serum BDNF. Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that individuals in cluster 1 had a 10.9 times increased likelihood of GOS scores of 2/3 vs. 4/5 at 6 months compared to cluster 2, after controlling for covariates. Cluster group did not discriminate between mortality compared to GOS scores of 4/5 after controlling for age and other covariates. Cluster groupings also did not discriminate mortality or 12 month outcomes in multivariate models. PCA and cluster analysis

  5. Inflammatory markers at hospital discharge predict subsequent mortality after pneumonia and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Yende, Sachin; D'Angelo, Gina; Kellum, John A; Weissfeld, Lisa; Fine, Jonathan; Welch, Robert D; Kong, Lan; Carter, Melinda; Angus, Derek C

    2008-06-01

    Survivors of hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are at increased risk of cardiovascular events, repeat infections, and death in the following months but the cause is unknown. To investigate whether persistent inflammation, defined as elevating circulating inflammatory markers at hospital discharge, is associated with subsequent outcomes. Prospective cohort study at 28 sites. We used standard criteria to define CAP and the National Death Index to determine all-cause and cause-specific 1-year mortality. At hospital discharge, 1,799 subjects (77.5%) were alive and vital signs had returned to normal in 1,512 (87%) subjects. The geometric means (+/-SD) for circulating IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations were 6.9 (+/-1) pg/ml and 1.2 (+/-1.1) pg/ml. At 1 year, 307 (17.1%) subjects had died. Higher IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations at hospital discharge were associated with an increased risk of death, which gradually fell over time. Using Gray's survival model, the associations were independent of demographics, comorbidities, and severity of illness (for each log-unit increase, the range of adjusted hazard ratios [HRs] for IL-6 were 1.02-1.46, P < 0.0001, and for IL-10 were 1.17-1.44, P = 0.01). The ranges of HRs for each log-unit increase in IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations among subjects who did and did not develop severe sepsis were 0.95-1.27 and 1.07-1.55, respectively. High IL-6 concentrations were associated with death due to cardiovascular disease, cancer, infections, and renal failure (P = 0.008). Despite clinical recovery, many patients with CAP leave hospital with ongoing subclinical inflammation, which is associated with an increased risk of death.

  6. Inflammatory biomarkers for persistent fatigue in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Collado-Hidalgo, Alicia; Bower, Julienne E; Ganz, Patricia A; Cole, Steve W; Irwin, Michael R

    2006-05-01

    This study seeks to define immunologic and inflammatory variables associated with persistent post-treatment fatigue in breast cancer survivors. Leukocyte subsets, plasma inflammatory markers, and ex vivo proinflammatory cytokine production were assessed in 50 fatigued and nonfatigued breast cancer survivors recruited > or = 2 years after successful primary therapy. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to define a composite immunologic biomarker of fatigue risk. Fatigued breast cancer survivors were distinguished from nonfatigued survivors by increased ex vivo monocyte production of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha following lipopolysaccharide stimulation, elevated plasma IL-1ra and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R/CD126), decreased monocyte cell-surface IL-6R, and decreased frequencies of activated T lymphocytes and myeloid dendritic cells in peripheral blood (all P < 0.05). An inverse correlation between sIL-6R and cell-surface IL-6R was consistent with inflammation-mediated shedding of IL-6R, and in vitro studies confirmed that proinflammatory cytokines induced such shedding. Multivariate linear discriminant function analysis identified two immunologic markers, the ratio of sIL-6R to monocyte-associated IL-6R and decreased circulating CD69+ T lymphocytes, as highly diagnostic of fatigue (P = 0.0005), with cross-validation estimates indicating 87% classification accuracy (sensitivity = 0.83; specificity = 0.83). These results extend links between fatigue and inflammatory markers to show a functional alteration in proinflammatory cytokine response to lipopolysaccharide and define a prognostic biomarker of behavioral fatigue.

  7. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)

    PubMed Central

    Balk, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) to describe the complex pathophysiologic response to an insult such as infection, trauma, burns, pancreatitis, or a variety of other injuries came from a 1991 consensus conference charged with the task of developing an easy-to-apply set of clinical parameters to aid in the early identification of potential candidates to enter into clinical trials to evaluate new treatments for sepsis. There was recognition that a diverse group of injuries produced a common inflammatory response in the host and provided attractive targets for new anti-inflammatory molecules designed to prevent further propagation and/or provide specific treatment. Effective application of these new anti-inflammatory strategies necessitated identification of early clinical markers that could be assessed in real-time and were likely to define a population of patients that would have a beneficial response to the targeted intervention. It was felt that early clinical manifestations might be more readily available to clinicians than more sophisticated and specific assays for inflammatory substances that were systemically released by the network of injurious inflammatory events. Therefore, the early definition of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was built upon a foundation of basic clinical and laboratory abnormalities that were readily available in almost all clinical settings. With further refinement, it was hoped, that this definition would have a high degree of sensitivity, coupled with a reasonable degree of specificity. This manuscript reviews the derivation, application, utilization, potential benefits, and speculation regarding the future of the SIRS definition. PMID:24280933

  8. Stromal cell markers are differentially expressed in the synovial tissue of patients with early arthritis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ivy Y; Karpus, Olga N; Turner, Jason D; Hardie, Debbie; Marshall, Jennifer L; de Hair, Maria J H; Maijer, Karen I; Tak, Paul P; Raza, Karim; Hamann, Jörg; Buckley, Christopher D; Gerlag, Danielle M; Filer, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown increased expression of stromal markers in synovial tissue (ST) of patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, ST expression of stromal markers in early arthritis in relationship to diagnosis and prognostic outcome was studied. ST from 56 patients included in two different early arthritis cohorts and 7 non-inflammatory controls was analysed using immunofluorescence to detect stromal markers CD55, CD248, fibroblast activation protein (FAP) and podoplanin. Diagnostic classification (gout, psoriatic arthritis, unclassified arthritis (UA), parvovirus associated arthritis, reactive arthritis and RA), disease outcome (resolving vs persistent) and clinical variables were determined at baseline and after follow-up, and related to the expression of stromal markers. We observed expression of all stromal markers in ST of early arthritis patients, independent of diagnosis or prognostic outcome. Synovial expression of FAP was significantly higher in patients developing early RA compared to other diagnostic groups and non-inflammatory controls. In RA FAP protein was expressed in both lining and sublining layers. Podoplanin expression was higher in all early inflammatory arthritis patients than controls, but did not differentiate diagnostic outcomes. Stromal marker expression was not associated with prognostic outcomes of disease persistence or resolution. There was no association with clinical or sonographic variables. Stromal cell markers CD55, CD248, FAP and podoplanin are expressed in ST in the earliest stage of arthritis. Baseline expression of FAP is higher in early synovitis patients who fulfil classification criteria for RA over time. These results suggest that significant fibroblast activation occurs in RA in the early window of disease.

  9. Curcumin Modulates the Inflammatory Response and Inhibits Subsequent Fibrosis in a Mouse Model of Viral-induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guangliang; Wang, Ruixue; London, Steven D.; London, Lucille

    2013-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by diffuse alveolar damage usually secondary to an intense host inflammatory response of the lung to a pulmonary or extrapulmonary infectious or non-infectious insult often leading to the development of intra-alveolar and interstitial fibrosis. Curcumin, the principal curcumoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, has been demonstrated as an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in a broad spectrum of diseases. Using our well-established model of reovirus 1/L-induced acute viral pneumonia, which displays many of the characteristics of the human ALI/ARDS, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects of curcumin. Female CBA/J mice were treated with curcumin (50 mg/kg) 5 days prior to intranasal inoculation with 107 pfu reovirus 1/L and daily, thereafter. Mice were evaluated for key features associated with ALI/ARDS. Administration of curcumin significantly modulated inflammation and fibrosis, as revealed by histological and biochemical analysis. The expression of IL-6, IL-10, IFNγ, and MCP-1, key chemokines/cytokines implicated in the development of ALI/ARDS, from both the inflammatory infiltrate and whole lung tissue were modulated by curcumin potentially through a reduction in the phosphorylated form of NFκB p65. While the expression of TGFß1 was not modulated by curcumin, TGFß Receptor II, which is required for TGFß signaling, was significantly reduced. In addition, curcumin also significantly inhibited the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and Tenascin-C, key markers of myofibroblast activation. This data strongly supports a role for curcumin in modulating the pathogenesis of viral-induced ALI/ARDS in a pre-clinical model potentially manifested through the alteration of inflammation and myofibroblast differentiation. PMID:23437361

  10. Curcumin modulates the inflammatory response and inhibits subsequent fibrosis in a mouse model of viral-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Avasarala, Sreedevi; Zhang, Fangfang; Liu, Guangliang; Wang, Ruixue; London, Steven D; London, Lucille

    2013-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by diffuse alveolar damage usually secondary to an intense host inflammatory response of the lung to a pulmonary or extrapulmonary infectious or non-infectious insult often leading to the development of intra-alveolar and interstitial fibrosis. Curcumin, the principal curcumoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, has been demonstrated as an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in a broad spectrum of diseases. Using our well-established model of reovirus 1/L-induced acute viral pneumonia, which displays many of the characteristics of the human ALI/ARDS, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects of curcumin. Female CBA/J mice were treated with curcumin (50 mg/kg) 5 days prior to intranasal inoculation with 10(7)pfu reovirus 1/L and daily, thereafter. Mice were evaluated for key features associated with ALI/ARDS. Administration of curcumin significantly modulated inflammation and fibrosis, as revealed by histological and biochemical analysis. The expression of IL-6, IL-10, IFNγ, and MCP-1, key chemokines/cytokines implicated in the development of ALI/ARDS, from both the inflammatory infiltrate and whole lung tissue were modulated by curcumin potentially through a reduction in the phosphorylated form of NFκB p65. While the expression of TGFß1 was not modulated by curcumin, TGFß Receptor II, which is required for TGFß signaling, was significantly reduced. In addition, curcumin also significantly inhibited the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and Tenascin-C, key markers of myofibroblast activation. This data strongly supports a role for curcumin in modulating the pathogenesis of viral-induced ALI/ARDS in a pre-clinical model potentially manifested through the alteration of inflammation and myofibroblast differentiation.

  11. Urinary leukotriene E4 concentrations as a potential marker of inflammation in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Im Hof, M; Schnyder, M; Hartnack, S; Stanke-Labesque, F; Luckschander, N; Burgener, I A

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and food-responsive diarrhea (FRD) are chronic enteropathies of dogs (CCE) that currently can only be differentiated by their response to treatment after exclusion of other diseases. In humans, increased urinary concentrations of leukotriene E4 (LTE4) have been associated with active IBD. To evaluate urinary LTE4 concentrations in dogs with IBD, FRD, and healthy controls, and to assess correlation of urinary LTE4 concentrations with the canine IBD activity index (CIBDAI) scores. Eighteen dogs with IBD, 19 dogs with FRD, and 23 healthy control dogs. In this prospective study, urine was collected and CIBDAI scores were calculated in client-owned dogs with IBD and those with FRD. Quantification of LTE4 in urine was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and corrected to creatinine. Urinary LTE4 concentrations were highest in dogs with IBD (median 85.2 pg/mg creatinine [10th-90th percentiles 10.9-372.6]) followed by those with FRD (median 31.2 pg/mg creatinine [10th-90th percentiles 6.2-114.5]) and control dogs (median 21.1 pg/mg creatinine [10th-90th percentiles 9.1-86.5]). Urinary LTE4 concentrations were higher in dogs with IBD than in control dogs (P = .011), but no significant difference between IBD and FRD was found. No correlation was found between urinary LTE4 concentrations and CIBDAI. The higher urinary LTE4 concentrations in dogs with IBD suggest that cysteinyl leukotriene pathway activation might be a component of the inflammatory process in canine IBD. Furthermore, urinary LTE4 concentrations are of potential use as a marker of inflammation in dogs with CCE. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Traumatic Brain Injury as a Risk Factor for Alzheimer's Disease: Is Inflammatory Signaling a Key Player?

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Jelena; Sabbir, Mohammad Golam; Albensi, Benedict C

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a significant medical and social concern within the last 30 years. TBI has acute devastating effects, and in many cases, seems to initiate long-term neurodegeneration. With advances in medical technology, many people are now surviving severe brain injuries and their long term consequences. Post trauma effects include communication problems, sensory deficits, emotional and behavioral problems, physical complications and pain, increased suicide risk, dementia, and an increased risk for chronic CNS diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this review, we provide an introduction to TBI and hypothesize how it may lead to neurodegenerative disease in general and AD in particular. In addition, we discuss the evidence that supports the hypothesis that TBI may lead to AD. In particular, we focus on inflammatory responses as key processes in TBI-induced secondary injury, with emphasis on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling.

  13. Diabetic Foot Syndrome as a Possible Cardiovascular Marker in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Maida, Carlo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcerations have been extensively reported as vascular complications of diabetes mellitus associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality; in fact, some authors showed a higher prevalence of major, previous and new-onset, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular events in diabetic patients with foot ulcers than in those without these complications. This is consistent with the fact that in diabetes there is a complex interplay of several variables with inflammatory metabolic disorders and their effect on the cardiovascular system that could explain previous reports of high morbidity and mortality rates in diabetic patients with amputations. Involvement of inflammatory markers such as IL-6 plasma levels and resistin in diabetic subjects confirmed the pathogenetic issue of the “adipovascular” axis that may contribute to cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. In patients with diabetic foot, this “adipovascular axis” expression in lower plasma levels of adiponectin and higher plasma levels of IL-6 could be linked to foot ulcers pathogenesis by microvascular and inflammatory mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to focus on the immune inflammatory features of DFS and its possible role as a marker of cardiovascular risk in diabetes patients. PMID:25883983

  14. NETs are a source of citrullinated autoantigens and stimulate inflammatory responses in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Khandpur, Ritika; Carmona-Rivera, Carmelo; Vivekanandan-Giri, Anuradha; Gizinski, Alison; Yalavarthi, Srilakshmi; Knight, Jason S.; Friday, Sean; Li, Sam; Patel, Rajiv M.; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Thompson, Paul; Chen, Pojen; Fox, David A.; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Kaplan, Mariana J.

    2013-01-01

    The early events leading to the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain unclear but formation of autoantibodies to citrullinated antigens (ACPA) is considered a key pathogenic phenomenon. Neutrophils isolated from patients with various autoimmune diseases display enhanced extracellular trap formation (NETs), a phenomenon that externalizes autoantigens and immunostimulatory molecules. We investigated whether aberrant NETosis occurs in RA, determined its triggers and examined its deleterious inflammatory consequences. Enhanced NETosis was observed in circulating and synovial fluid RA neutrophils, compared to neutrophils from healthy controls and from patients with osteoarthritis. Further, netting neutrophils infiltrated RA synovial tissue, rheumatoid nodules and skin. NETosis correlated with ACPA presence and levels and with systemic inflammatory markers. RA sera and immunoglobulin fractions from RA patients with high levels of ACPA and/or rheumatoid factor significantly enhanced NETosis, and the NETs induced by these autoantibodies displayed distinct protein content. During NETosis, neutrophils externalized citrullinated autoantigens implicated in RA pathogenesis, whereas anti-citrullinated vimentin antibodies potently induced NET formation. The inflammatory cytokines IL-17A and TNF-α induced NETosis in RA neutrophils. In turn, NETs significantly augmented inflammatory responses in RA and OA synovial fibroblasts, including induction of IL-6, IL-8, chemokines and adhesion molecules. These observations implicate accelerated NETosis in RA pathogenesis, through externalization of citrullinated autoantigens and immunostimulatory molecules that may promote aberrant adaptive and innate immune responses in the joint and in the periphery, and perpetuate pathogenic mechanisms in this disease. PMID:23536012

  15. The Interplay Between Fiber and the Intestinal Microbiome in the Inflammatory Response12

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Shiu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Fiber intake is critical for optimal health. This review covers the anti-inflammatory roles of fibers using results from human epidemiological observations, clinical trials, and animal studies. Fiber has body weight–related anti-inflammatory activity. With its lower energy density, a diet high in fiber has been linked to lower body weight, alleviating obesity-induced chronic inflammation evidenced by reduced amounts of inflammatory markers in human and animal studies. Body weight–unrelated anti-inflammatory activity of fiber has also been extensively studied in animal models in which the type and amount of fiber intake can be closely monitored. Fermentable fructose-, glucose-, and galactose-based fibers as well as mixed fibers have shown systemic and local intestinal anti-inflammatory activities when plasma inflammatory markers and tissue inflammation were examined. Similar anti-inflammatory activities have also been demonstrated in some human studies that controlled total fiber intake. The anti-inflammatory activities of synbiotics (probiotics plus fiber) were reviewed as well, but there was no convincing evidence indicating higher efficacy of synbiotics compared with that of fiber alone. Adverse effects have not been observed with the amount of fiber intake or supplementation used in studies, although patients with Crohn’s disease may be more sensitive to inulin intake. Several possible mechanisms that may mediate the body weight–unrelated anti-inflammatory activity of fibers are discussed based on the in vitro and in vivo evidence. Fermentable fibers are known to affect the intestinal microbiome. The immunomodulatory role of the intestinal microbiome and/or microbial metabolites could contribute to the systemic and local anti-inflammatory activities of fibers. PMID:23319119

  16. The Role of Inflammasome in Inflammatory Macrophage in Mycobacterium Avium Complex-lung Disease and Mycobacterium Abscessus-lung Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-27

    To Investigate the Inflammasome Response of Inflammatory and Resting Macrophage; To Compare the Difference of Inflammasome Response of Inflammatory Macrophage; To Study the Diagnostic Aid From Immunological Markers in Inflammasome Response

  17. Markers of activated inflammatory cells correlate with severity of liver damage in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    De Vito, Rita; Alisi, Anna; Masotti, Andrea; Ceccarelli, Sara; Panera, Nadia; Citti, Arianna; Salata, Michele; Valenti, Luca; Feldstein, Ariel E; Nobili, Valerio

    2012-07-01

    Concomitantly to the obesity epidemic, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the leading cause of liver disease in children. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of histological damage ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with possible progression to cirrhosis. There is growing evidence that the immune system plays a pivotal role in the initiation and progression to NASH but the cellular nature of the hepatic inflammation is still unknown. The present study includes 34 children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Liver damage was evaluated by the NAFLD activity score (NAS), and the inflammatory infiltrate was characterized by immunohistochemistry for CD45, CD3 and CD163 which are markers of leukocytes, T cells and activated Kupffer cells/macrophages, respectively. Our results have shown that CD45+ (P<0.0001) and CD163+ (P<0.0001) cells were markedly increased in children with severe histological activity (NAS≥5) compared to children with lower activity (NAS<5), whereas CD3+ cells were significantly lower (P<0.01) in children with severe histological activity. There was a significant association between the numbers of CD45+, CD3+ and CD163+ cells, regarding both the portal tract and liver lobule, and the severity of steatosis, ballooning and fibrosis (P<0.01). These data suggest that the severity and composition of the inflammatory infiltrate correlate with steatosis and the severity of disease in children with NAFLD. Moreover, a decrease in CD3+ cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver damage. Future studies should evaluate whether it can predict the progression of liver disease independently of established histological scores.

  18. Muscle-specific deletion of SOCS3 increases the early inflammatory response but does not affect regeneration after myotoxic injury.

    PubMed

    Swiderski, Kristy; Thakur, Savant S; Naim, Timur; Trieu, Jennifer; Chee, Annabel; Stapleton, David I; Koopman, René; Lynch, Gordon S

    2016-01-01

    Muscles of old animals are injured more easily and regenerate poorly, attributed in part to increased levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling cascade is a key mediator of inflammatory cytokine action, and signaling via this pathway is increased in muscles with aging. As a negative regulator of JAK/STAT signaling, a key mediator of myogenic proliferation and differentiation, altered expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) is likely to have important consequences for muscle regeneration. To model this scenario, we investigated the effect of SOCS3 deletion within mature muscle fibers on injury and repair. We tested the hypothesis that reduced SOCS3 function would alter the inflammatory response and impair muscle regeneration after myotoxic injury. Mice with a specific deletion of SOCS3 within mature skeletal muscle fibers were used to assess the effect of SOCS3 deletion on muscle injury and repair. Twelve-week-old or 24-month-old SOCS3 muscle-specific knockout (SOCS3 MKO) mice and littermate controls were either left uninjured or injured with a single injection of notexin (10 μg/ml) into the right tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. At 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, or 14 days post-injury, the right TA muscle was excised and subjected to histological, western immunoblotting, and gene expression analyses. Force production and fatigue were assessed in uninjured muscles and at 7 days post-notexin injury. In uninjured muscles, SOCS3 deletion decreased force production during fatigue but had no effect on the gross or histological appearance of the TA muscles. After notexin injury, deletion of SOCS3 increased STAT3 phosphorylation at day 1 and increased the mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α , and the inflammatory cell markers F4/80 and CD68 at day 2. Gene expression analysis of the regeneration markers Pax7 , MyoD , and Myogenin indicated SOCS3 deletion had no

  19. Inflammatory Markers Related to Microbial Translocation Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women: A Risk Factor of Preterm Delivery.

    PubMed

    López, Marta; Figueras, Francesc; Coll, Oriol; Goncé, Anna; Hernández, Sandra; Loncá, Montse; Vila, Jordi; Gratacós, Eduard; Palacio, Montse

    2016-02-01

    This study was performed to assess the role of lipopolysaccharide modulators as a marker of microbial translocation among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women during pregnancy and to evaluate their association with preterm delivery. The study had a prospective cohort design and was performed at the Hospital Clínic in Barcelona, Spain. Thirty-six pregnant women with and 36 without HIV infection, matched on the basis of age and parity, were included. Maternal blood samples were obtained during the first trimester, during the third trimester, and at delivery. Levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14), human lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), immunoglobulin M endotoxin core antibodies to lipopolysaccharide (EndoCAb), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were determined. Fetal cord blood levels of sCD14, LBP, and IL-6 were determined. Results were compared between groups. First trimester sCD14 and LBP levels and third trimester sCD14 levels were significantly higher in the HIV-infected group. HIV-infected women with preterm births and spontaneous preterm births had significantly increased levels of sCD14 throughout pregnancy and significantly increased levels of LBP during the first trimester, compared with HIV-infected women with delivery at term or with HIV-negative women. On multivariate analysis, an independent association was observed between first trimester sCD14 levels and preterm delivery among HIV-infected women. This is the first study to assess inflammatory markers related to microbial translocation during pregnancy among HIV-infected women. Higher levels of sCD14 and LBP were observed in HIV-infected pregnant women and were associated with preterm delivery. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Importance of inflammatory markers and IL-6 for diagnosis and follow up of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Malenica, Maja; Šilar, Mira; Dujić, Tanja; Bego, Tamer; Semiz, Sabina; Škrbo, Selma; Prnjavorac, Besim; Čaušević, Adlija

    2017-08-01

    Aim To analyse the long-term impact of altered metabolism on the level of mediators of inflammatory response in female patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods This study included 97 female patients with type 2 diabetes and 107 female, nondiabetic control subjects, who were recruited at the Clinical Centre University of Sarajevo and the General Hospital Tešanj. The effects of glycaemic control on markers of inflammatory response represented by C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, leukocytes, sedimentation rate, and cytokine IL-6 were tested. All subjects were free of evidence of infections, surgery, thyroid disease, polycystic ovarian syndrome, active liver and kidney damage. All biochemical analyses were performed according to standard International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) protocols. Results A significant increase of fibrinogen (p<0.001), CRP (p=0.001), interleukin-6 (p=0.013), leukocytes (p<0.001) and sedimentation rate (p=0.008) in diabetic female population compared to control subjects was found. A significant correlation between CRP and haemoglobin A1c (p=0.035), interleukin-6 and glucose (p=0.032), IL-6 and body mass index (p=0.007) was found. Conclusion Our data suggest that inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes in female diabetic population. A more detailed study on a far larger number of subjects is needed if they were to be used effectively as biomarkers in the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes in this population. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  1. Plasma n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and inflammatory markers in Chinese vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaomei; Huang, Tao; Weng, Xiumei; Shou, Tianxing; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Xiaoqiong; Hu, Qinxin; Li, Duo

    2014-09-29

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake favorably affects chronic inflammatory-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease; however, the relationship between the PUFA and inflammatory factors in the healthy vegetarians were not clear. We aimed to investigate the plasma fatty acids status, and its association with plasma inflammatory factors in Chinese vegetarians and omnivores. A total of 89 male vegetarians and 106 male omnivores were participated the study. Plasma concentrations of inflammatory factors were detected by ELISA, and as standard methods fatty acids were extracted and determined by chromatography. Compared with omnivores, vegetarians have significant higher interleukin-6 (IL-6), plasma n-6 PUFA, n-6/n-3, and 18:3n-3; while they have significant lower leukotriene B4 (LTB4), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, 22:6n-3, and n-3 PUFA. In vegetarians, plasma 20:4n-6 was significant positively related to TNF-α. LTB4 was significantly positively related to plasma 22:6n-3, and negatively associated with n-6 PUFA. Vegetarians have higher plasma n-6 PUFA and IL-6, but lower LTB4, n-3 PUFA, 22:6n-3, COX2 and PGE2 levels. It would seem appropriate for vegetarians to increase their dietary n-3 PUFA, while reduce dietary n-6 PUFA and thus reduce the risk of chronic inflammatory-related diseases.

  2. The Effects of Body Acupuncture on Obesity: Anthropometric Parameters, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory and Immunologic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Hamid; Zhao, Baixiao; Darbandi, Mahsa; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Tavallaie, Shima; Rahsepar, Amir Ali; Parizadeh, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Safariyan, Mohammad; Nemati, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Maryam; Abbasi-Parizad, Parisa; Darbandi, Sara; Akhlaghi, Saeed; Ferns, Gordon A. A.

    2012-01-01

    A randomized controlled clinical trial in 196 obese subjects was performed to examine the effectiveness of body acupuncture on body weight loss, lipid profile and immunogenic and inflammatory markers. Subjects received authentic (cases) or sham (controls) acupuncture for 6 weeks in combination with a low-calorie diet. In the following 6 weeks, they received the low-calorie diet alone. Subjects were assessed at the beginning, 6 and 12 weeks later. Heat shock protein (Hsps)-27, 60, 65, 70 antibody titers and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were also assessed. A significant reduction in measures of adiposity and improvement in lipid profile were observed in both groups, but the levels of anti-Hsp-antibodies decreased in cases only. A reduction in anthropometric and lipid profile in cases were sustained in the second period, however, only changes in lipid profile were observed in the control group. Anti-Hsp-antibodies and hs-CRP levels continued to be reduced in cases but in controls only the reduction in hs-CRP remained. Changes in anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, and anti-Hsp-antibodies were more evident in cases. Body acupuncture in combination with diet restriction was effective in enhancing weight loss and improving dyslipidemia. PMID:22649299

  3. [The degree of chronic renal failure is associated with the rate of pro-inflammatory cytokines, hyperhomocysteinemia and with oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Tbahriti, H F; Messaoudi, A; Kaddous, A; Bouchenak, M; Mekki, K

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate pro-inflammatory cytokines, homocysteinemia and markers of oxidative status in the course of chronic renal failure. One hundred and two patients (male/female: 38/64; age: 45±07 years) with chronic renal failure were divided into 4 groups according to the National Kidney Foundation classification. They included 28 primary stage renal failure patients, 28 moderate stage renal failure, 28 severe stage renal failure and 18 end stage renal failure. The inflammatory status was evaluated by the determination of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6) and total homocysteine. Pro-oxidant status was assessed by assaying thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, and protein carbonyls. Antioxidant defence was performed by analysis of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase. Inflammatory markers were elevated in the end stage renal failure group compared to the other groups (P<0.001). Indeed, an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides and protein carbonyls was noted in the end stage renal failure group in comparison with the other groups (P<0.001), while the levels of antioxidants enzymes activity were decreased in the study population (P<0.001). Impaired renal function is closely associated with the elevation of inflammatory markers leading to both increased markers of oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant defense. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum Inflammatory Mediators as Markers of Human Lyme Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Soloski, Mark J.; Crowder, Lauren A.; Lahey, Lauren J.; Wagner, Catriona A.

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines and cytokines are key signaling molecules that orchestrate the trafficking of immune cells, direct them to sites of tissue injury and inflammation and modulate their states of activation and effector cell function. We have measured, using a multiplex-based approach, the levels of 58 immune mediators and 7 acute phase markers in sera derived from of a cohort of patients diagnosed with acute Lyme disease and matched controls. This analysis identified a cytokine signature associated with the early stages of infection and allowed us to identify two subsets (mediator-high and mediator-low) of acute Lyme patients with distinct cytokine signatures that also differed significantly (p<0.0005) in symptom presentation. In particular, the T cell chemokines CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10) and CCL19 (MIP3B) were coordinately increased in the mediator-high group and levels of these chemokines could be associated with seroconversion status and elevated liver function tests (p = 0.027 and p = 0.021 respectively). There was also upregulation of acute phase proteins including CRP and serum amyloid A. Consistent with the role of CXCL9/CXCL10 in attracting immune cells to the site of infection, CXCR3+ CD4 T cells are reduced in the blood of early acute Lyme disease (p = 0.01) and the decrease correlates with chemokine levels (p = 0.0375). The levels of CXCL9/10 did not relate to the size or number of skin lesions but elevated levels of serum CXCL9/CXCL10 were associated with elevated liver enzymes levels. Collectively these results indicate that the levels of serum chemokines and the levels of expression of their respective chemokine receptors on T cell subsets may prove to be informative biomarkers for Lyme disease and related to specific disease manifestations. PMID:24740099

  5. 43 CFR 15.6 - Markers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Markers. 15.6 Section 15.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.6 Markers. No person shall willfully mark, deface or injure in any way, or displace, remove or tamper with any Preserve signs...

  6. 43 CFR 15.6 - Markers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Markers. 15.6 Section 15.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.6 Markers. No person shall willfully mark, deface or injure in any way, or displace, remove or tamper with any Preserve signs...

  7. 43 CFR 15.6 - Markers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Markers. 15.6 Section 15.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.6 Markers. No person shall willfully mark, deface or injure in any way, or displace, remove or tamper with any Preserve signs...

  8. 43 CFR 15.6 - Markers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Markers. 15.6 Section 15.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.6 Markers. No person shall willfully mark, deface or injure in any way, or displace, remove or tamper with any Preserve signs...

  9. 43 CFR 15.6 - Markers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markers. 15.6 Section 15.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.6 Markers. No person shall willfully mark, deface or injure in any way, or displace, remove or tamper with any Preserve signs...

  10. An in vitro evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effects of platelet-rich plasma, ketorolac, and methylprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Mazzocca, Augustus D; McCarthy, Mary Beth R; Intravia, Jessica; Beitzel, Knut; Apostolakos, John; Cote, Mark P; Bradley, James; Arciero, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the extent of the anti-inflammatory effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in a controlled in vitro environment. Through the stimulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α and interferon γ), cell adhesion molecule expression (E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule, and human leukocyte antigen DR) and PRP's anti-inflammatory effect can be measured. PRP was produced from 3 individuals using a single-spin (PRPLP) process. Treatment groups include negative (unstimulated) controls, positive (stimulated) controls, ketorolac tromethamine, methylprednisolone, PRP, ketorolac-PRP, and methylprednisolone-PRP. A fluorescence assay of the cellular inflammation markers was measured by the BioTek Synergy HT plate reader (BioTek Instruments, Winooski, VT) at 0, 1, 2, and 5 days. At days 2 and 5, methylprednisolone treatment showed a 2.1- to 5.8-fold reduction (P < .05) in inflammation markers over PRP. In addition, PRP and ketorolac showed a 1.4- to 2.5-fold reduction (P < .05) in cellular inflammation markers over the control. There was no statistically significant difference between ketorolac and PRP. Although PRP and ketorolac reduced cellular inflammation markers (E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule, and human leukocyte antigen DR) compared with control, neither caused as great a reduction as methylprednisolone. Although PRP and ketorolac did not produce as significant a reduction in cellular inflammation markers as methylprednisolone, they reduced cellular inflammation compared with the control. These agents may have clinical application as injectable anti-inflammatory medications. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Brazilian nut consumption by healthy volunteers improves inflammatory parameters.

    PubMed

    Colpo, Elisângela; Dalton D A Vilanova, Carlos; Reetz, Luiz Gustavo B; Duarte, Marta M M F; Farias, Iria Luiza G; Meinerz, Daiane F; Mariano, Douglas O C; Vendrusculo, Raquel G; Boligon, Aline A; Dalla Corte, Cristiane L; Wagner, Roger; Athayde, Margareth L; da Rocha, João Batista T

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single dose of Brazil nuts on the inflammatory markers of healthy individuals. A randomized crossover study was conducted with 10 healthy individuals (mean age 24.7 ± 3.4 y). Each individual was tested four times regarding intake of different portions of Brazil nuts: 0, 5, 20 and 50 g. At each testing period, peripheral blood was collected before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 h after intake of nuts, as well as at 5 and 30 d after intake of various Brazil nut portions. Blood samples were tested for high-sensitivity to C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, urea, and creatinine. Consumption of nuts did not affect biochemical parameters for liver and kidney function, indicating absence of hepatic and renal toxicity. A single intake of Brazil nuts (20 or 50 g) caused a significant decrease in serum IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels (P < 0.05), whereas serum levels of IL-10 were significantly increased (P < 0.05). The results indicate a long-term decrease in inflammatory markers after a single intake of large portions of Brazil nuts in healthy volunteers. Therefore, the long-term effect of regular Brazil nut consumption on inflammatory markers should be better investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Green Tea Polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases affect millions of people globally and the incidence rate is on the rise. While inflammation contributes to the tissue healing process, chronic inflammation can lead to life-long debilitation and loss of tissue function and organ failure. Chronic inflammatory diseases include hepatic, gastrointestinal and neurodegenerative complications which can lead to malignancy. Despite the millennial advancements in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, there remains no effective cure for patients who suffer from inflammatory diseases. Therefore, patients seek alternatives and complementary agents as adjunct therapies to relieve symptoms and possibly to prevent consequences of inflammation. It is well known that green tea polyphenols (GrTPs) are potent antioxidants with important roles in regulating vital signaling pathways. These comprise transcription nuclear factor-kappa B mediated I kappa B kinase complex pathways, programmed cell death pathways like caspases and B-cell lymphoma-2 and intervention with the surge of inflammatory markers like cytokines and production ofcyclooxygenase-2. This paper concisely reviews relevant investigations regarding protective effects of GrTPs and some reported adverse effects, as well as possible applications for GrTPs in the treatment of chronic and inflammatory complications. PMID:28587181

  13. Inflammatory Mechanisms Linking Periodontal Diseases to Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schenkein, Harvey A.; Loos, Bruno G.

    2015-01-01

    Aims In this paper, inflammatory mechanisms that link periodontal diseases to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are reviewed. Materials and Methods and Results This paper is a literature review. Studies in the literature implicate a number of possible mechanisms that could be responsible for increased inflammatory responses in atheromatous lesions due to periodontal infections. These include increased systemic levels of inflammatory mediators stimulated by bacteria and their products at sites distant from the oral cavity, elevated thrombotic and hemostatic markers that promote a prothrombotic state and inflammation, cross-reactive systemic antibodies that promote inflammation and interact with the atheroma, promotion of dyslipidemia with consequent increases in proinflammatory lipid classes and subclasses, and common genetic susceptibility factors present in both disease leading to increased inflammatory responses. Conclusions Such mechanisms may be thought to act in concert to increase systemic inflammation in periodontal disease and to promote or exacerbate atherogenesis. However, proof that the increase in systemic inflammation attributable to periodontitis impacts inflammatory responses during atheroma development, thrombotic events, or myocardial infarction or stroke is lacking. PMID:23627334

  14. Systemic inflammatory markers associated with cardiovascular disease and acute and chronic exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) among US NHANES adults with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dabass, Arvind; Talbott, Evelyn O; Rager, Judith R; Marsh, Gary M; Venkat, Arvind; Holguin, Fernando; Sharma, Ravi K

    2018-02-01

    There has been no investigation to date of adults with metabolic syndrome examining the association of short and long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) air pollution with cardiovascular-disease related inflammatory marker (WBC and CRP) levels in a nationally representative sample. The goal of this study is to assess the susceptibility of adults with metabolic syndrome to PM 2.5 exposure as suggested by increased cardiovascular-disease related inflammatory marker levels. A cross sectional analysis of adult National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants (2000-2008) was carried out with linkage of CDC WONDER meteorological data and downscaler modeled USEPA air pollution data for census tracts in the continental United States. Participants were non-pregnant NHANES adults (2000-2008) with complete data for evaluating presence of metabolic syndrome and laboratory data on WBC and CRP. Exposures studied included short (lags 0-3 days and their averages), long-term (30 and 60 day moving and annual averages) PM 2.5 exposure levels at the census tract level in the continental United States. The main outcomes included CRP and WBC levels the day of NHANES study visit analyzed using multiple linear regression, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, smoking status, history of any cardiovascular disease, maximum apparent temperature and ozone level, for participants with and without metabolic syndrome. A total of 7134 NHANES participants (35% with metabolic syndrome) met the inclusion criteria. After adjusting for confounders, we observed a significant effect of PM 2.5 acutely at lag day 0 on CRP level; a 10µg/m 3 rise in lag day 0 PM 2.5 level was associated with a 10.1% increase (95% CI: 2.2-18.6%) in CRP levels for participants with metabolic syndrome. For those without metabolic syndrome, the change in CRP was -1.3% (95% CI -8.8%, 6.8%). There were no significant associations for WBC count. In this first national study of the

  15. Postpartum Circulating Markers of Inflammation and the Systemic Acute-Phase Response After Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Bas B; Bruinse, Hein W; Veerbeek, Jan H; Post Uiterweer, Emiel D; Koenen, Steven V; van der Bom, Johanna G; Rijkers, Ger T; Roest, Mark; Franx, Arie

    2016-02-01

    Preeclampsia is an inflammatory-mediated hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and seems to be an early indicator of increased cardiovascular risk, but mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. In this study, we identified levels of circulating inflammatory markers and dynamic changes in the systemic acute-phase response in 44 women with a history of severe early-onset preeclampsia, compared with 29 controls with only uneventful pregnancies at 1.5 to 3.5 years postpartum. Models used were in vivo seasonal influenza vaccination and in vitro whole-blood culture with T-cell stimulants and the toll-like receptor-4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. Outcome measures were C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-18, fibrinogen, myeloperoxidase, and a panel of 13 cytokines representative of the innate and adaptive inflammatory response, in addition to established cardiovascular markers. The in vivo acute-phase response was higher for women with previous preeclampsia than that for controls without such a history, although only significant for C-reactive protein (P=0.04). Preeclampsia was associated with higher IL-1β (P<0.05) and IL-8 (P<0.01) responses to T-cell activation. Hierarchical clustering revealed 2 distinct inflammatory clusters associated with previous preeclampsia: an adaptive response cluster associated with increased C-reactive protein and IL-6 before and after vaccination, increased weight, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and a toll-like receptor-4 mediated the cluster associated with increased IL-18 before and after vaccination but not associated with other cardiovascular markers. Furthermore, we found interactions between previous preeclampsia, common TLR4 gene variants, and the IL-18 response to vaccination. In conclusion, preeclampsia is associated with alterations in the inflammatory response postpartum mostly independent of other established cardiovascular risk markers. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Effects of glucose ingestion on circulating inflammatory mediators: Influence of sex and weight excess.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F; Martínez-García, M Ángeles; Montes-Nieto, Rafael; Fernández-Durán, Elena; Temprano-Carazo, Sara; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of obesity. However, little is known about the influence of sex and sex hormones on surrogate inflammatory markers and mediators, particularly after glucose ingestion. Observational study. We measured the circulating concentrations of interleukin-6, interleukin-18, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, matrix metallopeptidase-9, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and pentraxin-3, in the fasting state and during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, in 24 women and 25 men. Eleven men and 11 women were lean whereas 14 men and 13 women had weight excess. Anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and interleukin-18) were increased in the fasting state and/or decreased in some women during the oral glucose tolerance test, as opposed to inflammatory mediators such as macrophage migration inhibitory factor and matrix metallopeptidase-9 that increased during the oral glucose tolerance test especially in subjects with weight excess. Body mass index and waist circumference were the main determinants of these changes. Fasting pentraxin-3 levels were especially increased in lean women in parallel to a decrease in free testosterone levels, and decreased during the oral glucose tolerance test as opposed to the increase in insulin concentrations. The circulating concentrations of markers of low-grade chronic inflammation in young healthy adults are not only influenced by obesity but also by abdominal adiposity, fasting and glucose ingestion and, in some cases, by sex and sex hormones. These influences should be considered when these markers are used as surrogate markers of the inflammatory milieu associated with obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Unilateral renal ischaemia in rats induces a rapid secretion of inflammatory markers to renal lymph and increased capillary permeability

    PubMed Central

    Bivol, Liliana Monica; Iversen, Bjarne Magnus; Hultström, Michael; Wallace, Paal William; Reed, Rolf Kåre

    2015-01-01

    Key points Transient reduction in renal blood flow results in inflammation and is a primary cause of acute kidney injury, thereby representing a major clinical problem.It is not known whether the inflammatory reaction is local only or part of a systemic response.We accessed the renal microenvironment through isolation of lymph and were in this way able to investigate whether the inflammatory reaction is local or systemic.Transient ischaemia followed by reperfusion resulted in a rapid production of inflammatory mediators locally in the renal interstitium.We moreover showed that the injury response affected the glomerular as well as the non‐glomerular barrier and resulted in a reduced size and charge selectivity of the glomerular capillaries. Abstract A better understanding of the inflammatory process associated with renal ischaemia–reperfusion (IR) injury may be clinically important. In this study we examined the role of the kidney in production of inflammatory mediators by analysing renal lymph after 30 min unilateral occlusion of renal artery followed by 120 min reperfusion, as well as the effect of IR on size selectivity for proteins in both glomerular and peritubular capillaries. All measured mediators increased dramatically in renal hilar lymph, plasma and renal cortical tissue samples and returned to control levels after 120 min reperfusion. The responses were differentiated; interleukin‐1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein‐1 and leptin were markedly increased in plasma before reperfusion, reflecting an extrarenal response possibly induced by afferent renal nerve activity from the ischaemic kidney. Tumour necrosis factor‐α  was the only mediator showing elevated lymph‐to‐plasma ratio following 30 min reperfusion, indicating that most cytokines were released directly into the bloodstream. The IR‐induced rise in cytokine levels was paralleled by a significant increase in high molecular weight plasma proteins in both lymph and urine. The

  18. The effects of age on inflammatory and coagulation-fibrinolysis response in patients hospitalized for pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Kale, Sachin; Yende, Sachin; Kong, Lan; Perkins, Amy; Kellum, John A; Newman, Anne B; Vallejo, Abbe N; Angus, Derek C

    2010-11-04

    To determine whether inflammatory and hemostasis response in patients hospitalized for pneumonia varies by age and whether these differences explain higher mortality in the elderly. In an observational cohort of subjects with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) recruited from emergency departments (ED) in 28 hospitals, we divided subjects into 5 age groups (<50, 51-64, 65-74, 75-84, and ≥85). We measured circulating levels of inflammatory (TNF, IL-6, and IL-10), hemostasis (D-dimer, Factor IX, thrombin-antithrombin complex, antithrombin and plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1), and cell-surface markers (TLR-2, TLR-4, and HLA-DR) during the first week of hospitalization and at discharge and compared 90-day mortality. We used logistic regression to compare odds ratios (OR) for 90-day mortality between age groups, adjusting for differences in pre-infection factors alone and then additionally adjusting for immune markers. Of 2,183 subjects, 495, 444, 403, 583, and 258 subjects were <50, 51-64, 65-74, 75-84, and ≥85 years of age, respectively. Large age-related differences were observed in 90-day mortality (0.82% vs. 3.2% vs. 6.4% vs. 12.8% vs. 13.6%, p<0.01). No age-related differences in inflammatory and cell surface markers occurred during the first week. Older subjects had higher pro-coagulant markers on ED presentation and over first week (p ≤ 0.03), but these differences were modest (1.0-1.7-fold differences). Odds of death for older adults changed minimally in models incorporating differences in hemostasis and inflammatory markers (for subjects ≥ 85 compared to those <50, OR = 4.36, when adjusted for pre-infection factors and OR = 3.49 when additionally adjusted for hemostasis markers). At discharge, despite clinical recovery as evidenced by normal vital signs in >85% subjects, older subjects had modestly increased hemostasis markers and IL-6 levels (p<0.01). Modest age-related increases in coagulation response occur during hospitalization for CAP; however

  19. Changes in Lipids and Inflammatory Markers after Consuming Diets High in Red Meat or Dairy for Four Weeks.

    PubMed

    Turner, Kirsty M; Keogh, Jennifer B; Meikle, Peter J; Clifton, Peter M

    2017-08-17

    There is a body of evidence linking inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Our previous research found that insulin sensitivity decreased after a four-week diet high in dairy compared to a control diet and to one high in red meat. Our aim was to determine whether a relationship exists between changes in insulin sensitivity and inflammatory biomarkers, or with lipid species. Fasting Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor II (sTNF-RII), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lipids were measured at the end of each diet. TNF-α and the ratio TNF-α/sTNF-RII were not different between diets and TNF-α, sTNF-RII, or the ratio TNF-α/sTNF-RII showed no association with homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). A number of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) species differed between dairy and red meat and dairy and control diets, as did many phosphatidylcholine (PC) species and cholesteryl ester (CE) 14:0, CE15:0, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) 14:0, and LPC15:0. None had a significant relationship ( p = 0.001 or better) with log homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), although LPC14:0 had the strongest relationship ( p = 0.004) and may be the main mediator of the effect of dairy on insulin sensitivity. LPC14:0 and the whole LPC class were correlated with CRP. The correlations between dietary change and the minor plasma phospholipids PI32:1 and PE32:1 are novel and may reflect significant changes in membrane composition. Inflammatory markers were not altered by changes in protein source while the correlation of LPC with CRP confirms a relationship between changes in lipid profile and inflammation.

  20. Changes in Lipids and Inflammatory Markers after Consuming Diets High in Red Meat or Dairy for Four Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Kirsty M.; Keogh, Jennifer B.; Meikle, Peter J.; Clifton, Peter M.

    2017-01-01

    There is a body of evidence linking inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Our previous research found that insulin sensitivity decreased after a four-week diet high in dairy compared to a control diet and to one high in red meat. Our aim was to determine whether a relationship exists between changes in insulin sensitivity and inflammatory biomarkers, or with lipid species. Fasting Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor II (sTNF-RII), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lipids were measured at the end of each diet. TNF-α and the ratio TNF-α/sTNF-RII were not different between diets and TNF-α, sTNF-RII, or the ratio TNF-α/sTNF-RII showed no association with homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). A number of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) species differed between dairy and red meat and dairy and control diets, as did many phosphatidylcholine (PC) species and cholesteryl ester (CE) 14:0, CE15:0, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) 14:0, and LPC15:0. None had a significant relationship (p = 0.001 or better) with log homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), although LPC14:0 had the strongest relationship (p = 0.004) and may be the main mediator of the effect of dairy on insulin sensitivity. LPC14:0 and the whole LPC class were correlated with CRP. The correlations between dietary change and the minor plasma phospholipids PI32:1 and PE32:1 are novel and may reflect significant changes in membrane composition. Inflammatory markers were not altered by changes in protein source while the correlation of LPC with CRP confirms a relationship between changes in lipid profile and inflammation. PMID:28817063

  1. Assessment of relationships between novel inflammatory markers and presence and severity of preeclampsia: Epicardial fat thickness, pentraxin-3, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Dincgez Cakmak, Burcu; Abide Yayla, Cigdem; Inci Coskun, Ebru; Erturk, Mehmet; Keles, Ibrahim

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of three new inflammatory markers with presence and severity of preeclampsia and to compare the predictive values of all markers for presence of this setting. In this study, a total of 100 consecutive pregnants with a diagnosis of preeclampsia and 40 healthy pregnants between October 2014 and April 2015 were included. Epicardial fat tissue was calculated by two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, and pentraxin-3 and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and routine blood count analysis, respectively. Epicardial fat thickness (p < 0.001), pentraxin-3 (p < 0.001), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p < 0.001) were found to be significantly increased in the preeclampsia as compared to the healthy pregnants. Furthermore, epicardial fat thickness (p = 0.002), pentraxin-3 (p < 0.001), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p < 0.001) were significantly elevated in the severe preeclampsia compared to mild preeclampsia. In the multivariate analysis, epicardial fat thickness (p = 0.013), pentraxin-3 (p = 0.04), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p < 0.001) were found as significant independent predictors of presence of preeclampsia after adjusting for other risk factors. Epicardial fat thickness, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and pentraxin-3 are important markers that provide an additional information beyond that provided by conventional methods in predicting presence and severity of preeclampsia.

  2. Increased asthma and adipose tissue inflammatory gene expression with obesity and Inuit migration to a western country.

    PubMed

    Backer, Vibeke; Baines, Katherine J; Powell, Heather; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Gibson, Peter G

    2016-02-01

    An overlap between obesity and asthma exists, and inflammatory cells in adipose tissue could drive the development of asthma. Comparison of adipose tissue gene expression among Inuit living in Greenland to those in Denmark provides an opportunity to assess how changes in adipose tissue inflammation can be modified by migration and diet. To examine mast cell and inflammatory markers in adipose tissue and the association with asthma. Two Inuit populations were recruited, one living in Greenland and another in Denmark. All underwent adipose subcutaneous biopsy, followed by clinical assessment of asthma, and measurement of AHR. Adipose tissue biopsies were homogenised, RNA extracted, and PCR was performed to determine the relative gene expression of mast cell (tryptase, chymase, CPA3) and inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-1β, and CD163). Of the 1059 Greenlandic Inuit participants, 556 were living in Greenland and 6.4% had asthma. Asthma was increased in Denmark (9%) compared to Greenland (3.6%, p < 0.0001) and associated with increased adipose tissue IL-6 gene expression and increased BMI. There was no association between asthma and adipose tissue mast cell gene expression. Pro-inflammatory gene expression (IL-6, IL-1β) was higher in those living in Denmark, and with increasing BMI and dietary changes. The anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophage marker, CD163, was higher in Greenland-dwelling Inuit (p < 0.01). No association was found between gene expression of mast cell markers in adipose tissue and asthma. Among Greenlandic Inuit, adipose tissue inflammation is also increased in those who migrate to Denmark, possibly as a result of dietary changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Taxonomic applicability of inflammatory cytokines in adverse outcome pathway (AOP) development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytokines, low-molecular-weight messenger proteins that act as intercellular immunomodulatory signals, have become a mainstream preclinical marker for assessing the systemic inflammatory response to external stressors. The challenge is to quantitate from healthy subjects cytokine...

  4. HETEROGENEITY OF SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES TO PERIODONTAL THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Behle, Jan H.; Sedaghatfar, Michael H.; Demmer, Ryan T.; Wolf, Dana L.; Celenti, Romanita; Kebschull, Moritz; Belusko, Paul B.; Herrera-Abreu, Miriam; Lalla, Evanthia; Papapanou, Panos N.

    2009-01-01

    Aims We investigated the effect of comprehensive periodontal therapy on the levels of multiple systemic inflammatory biomarkers. Methods Thirty patients with severe periodontitis received comprehensive periodontal therapy within a 6-week period. Blood samples were obtained at: one week pre- therapy (T1), therapy initiation (T2), treatment completion (T3), and 4 weeks thereafter (T4). We assessed plasma concentrations of 19 biomarkers using multiplex assays, and serum IgG antibodies to periodontal bacteria using checkerboard immunoblotting. At T2 and T4, dental plaque samples were analyzed using checkerboard hybridizations. Results At T3, PAI-1, sE-selectin, sVCAM-1, MMP-9, myeloperoxidase, and a composite Summary Inflammatory Score (SIS) were significantly reduced. However, only sE-selectin, sICAM, and serum amyloid P sustained a reduction at T4. Responses were highly variable: analyses of SIS slopes between baseline and T4 showed that approximately 1/3 and 1/4 of the patients experienced marked reduction and pronounced increase in systemic inflammation, respectively, while the remainder were seemingly unchanged. Changes in inflammatory markers correlated poorly with clinical, microbiological and serological markers of periodontitis. Conclusions Periodontal therapy resulted in an overall reduction of systemic inflammation, but the responses were inconsistent across subjects and largely not sustainable. The determinants of this substantial heterogeneity need to be explored further. PMID:19426174

  5. Alarmin S100A8/S100A9 as a biomarker for molecular imaging of local inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Thomas; Eisenblätter, Michel; Völler, Tom; Zenker, Stefanie; Hermann, Sven; van Lent, Peter; Faust, Andreas; Geyer, Christiane; Petersen, Beatrix; Roebrock, Kirsten; Schäfers, Michael; Bremer, Christoph; Roth, Johannes

    2014-08-06

    Inflammation has a key role in the pathogenesis of various human diseases. The early detection, localization and monitoring of inflammation are crucial for tailoring individual therapies. However, reliable biomarkers to detect local inflammatory activities and to predict disease outcome are still missing. Alarmins, which are locally released during cellular stress, are early amplifiers of inflammation. Here, using optical molecular imaging, we demonstrate that the alarmin S100A8/S100A9 serves as a sensitive local and systemic marker for the detection of even sub-clinical disease activity in inflammatory and immunological processes like irritative and allergic contact dermatitis. In a model of collagen-induced arthritis, we use S100A8/S100A9 imaging to predict the development of disease activity. Furthermore, S100A8/S100A9 can act as a very early and sensitive biomarker in experimental leishmaniasis for phagocyte activation linked to an effective Th1-response. In conclusion, the alarmin S100A8/S100A9 is a valuable and sensitive molecular target for novel imaging approaches to monitor clinically relevant inflammatory disorders on a molecular level.

  6. Associations of physical activity energy expenditure with nutritional-inflammatory markers in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Santos, Clarcson P; Silva, Luciana F; Lopes, Marcelo B; Martins, Márcia T S; Kraychete, Angiolina C; Silva, Fernanda A; Martins, Maria T S; Matos, Cácia M; Lopes, Gildete B; Lopes, Antonio A

    2017-11-24

    Sedentariness, high inflammation status and malnutrition are highly prevalent in end-stage kidney disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). This study investigated associations of weekly physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) with clinical and anthropometric markers of nutrition and inflammation. The analysis was performed using baseline cross-sectional data of 640 patients enrolled in the prospective cohort "The Prospective Study of the Prognosis of Patients Treated Chronically by Hemodialysis" (PROHEMO) developed in Salvador, BA, Brazil. The long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to determine a summary measure of PAEE, the metabolic equivalent of task (MET), taking into account physical activities related to occupation, recreation, travel, sports, and housework. PAEE was the predictor variable. To assess associations of PAEE with outcomes, the sex-age-specific median MET was used. The malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) with range of 0 to 30 (higher is worse), conicity index as indicator of abdominal adiposity and C-reactive protein (CRP) were the nutritional-inflammatory outcomes. The mean age of the patients was 48.9 ± 13.8 y, 60.3% were males, 16.7% diabetic, 88.1% nonwhite. In multivariable logistic regression models with adjustments for sociodemographic variables and comorbidities, PAEE ≤median was associated with MIS ≥6 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 2.29), conicity index ≥1.3 (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.03, 2.23) and CRP >1.30 mg/dL (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.08, 2.84). Greater physical activity assessed by PAEE was associated with indicators of better nutritional and inflammation status. These results indicate opportunities for improving outcomes in MHD patients by counseling and treatment intervention.

  7. Nasopharyngeal bacterial burden and antibiotics: Influence on inflammatory markers and disease severity in infants with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Arrabal, M Carmen; Mella, Cesar; Lopez, Santiago M; Brown, Nicole V; Hall, Mark W; Hammond, Sue; Shiels, William; Groner, Judith; Marcon, Mario; Ramilo, Octavio; Mejias, Asuncion

    2015-10-01

    Animal studies suggest that RSV increases nasopharyngeal (NP) bacterial colonization facilitating bacterial infections. We investigated the influence of antibiotic treatment and colonization with potentially pathogenic bacteria on inflammatory markers and disease severity in RSV-infected in infants. Healthy young infants hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis (n = 136) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 23) were enrolled and NP samples cultured for potentially pathogenic bacteria including: Gram-positive bacteria (GPB): Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, β-hemolytic Streptococcus; and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB): Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae. Clinical parameters and plasma IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations were compared according to the bacterial class and antibiotic treatment. Antibiotic treatment decreased by 10-fold NP bacterial recovery. Eighty-one percent of RSV infants who did not receive antibiotics before sample collection were colonized with pathogenic bacteria. Overall, GNB were identified in 21% of patients versus 4% of controls who were mostly colonized with GPB. Additionally, in RSV patients NP white blood cell counts (p = 0.026), and blood neutrophils (p = 0.02) were higher in those colonized with potentially pathogenic bacteria versus respiratory flora. RSV patients colonized with GNB had higher plasma IL-8 (p = 0.01) and IL-6 (p < 0.01) concentrations than controls, and required longer duration of oxygen (p = 0.049). Infants with RSV bronchiolitis colonized with potentially pathogenic bacteria had increased numbers of mucosal and systemic inflammatory cells. Specifically, colonization with GNB was associated with higher concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and a trend towards increased disease severity. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Expansion of inflammatory innate lymphoid cells in patients with common variable immune deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cols, Montserrat; Rahman, Adeeb; Maglione, Paul J; Garcia-Carmona, Yolanda; Simchoni, Noa; Ko, Huai-Bin M; Radigan, Lin; Cerutti, Andrea; Blankenship, Derek; Pascual, Virginia; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an antibody deficiency treated with immunoglobulin; however, patients can have noninfectious inflammatory conditions that lead to heightened morbidity and mortality. Modular analyses of RNA transcripts in whole blood previously identified an upregulation of many interferon-responsive genes. In this study we sought the cell populations leading to this signature. Lymphoid cells were measured in peripheral blood of 55 patients with CVID (31 with and 24 without inflammatory/autoimmune complications) by using mass cytometry and flow cytometry. Surface markers, cytokines, and transcriptional characteristics of sorted innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were defined by using quantitative PCR. Gastrointestinal and lung biopsy specimens of subjects with inflammatory disease were stained to seek ILCs in tissues. The linage-negative, CD127(+), CD161(+) lymphoid population containing T-box transcription factor, retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR) γt, IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-22, all hallmarks of type 3 innate lymphoid cells, were expanded in the blood of patients with CVID with inflammatory conditions (mean, 3.7% of PBMCs). ILCs contained detectable amounts of the transcription factors inhibitor of DNA binding 2, T-box transcription factor, and RORγt and increased mRNA transcripts for IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) and IL-26, demonstrating inflammatory potential. In gastrointestinal and lung biopsy tissues of patients with CVID, numerous IFN-γ(+)RORγt(+)CD3(-) cells were identified, suggesting a role in these mucosal inflammatory states. An expansion of this highly inflammatory ILC population is a characteristic of patients with CVID with inflammatory disease; ILCs and the interferon signature are markers for the uncontrolled inflammatory state in these patients. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.

    PubMed

    Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences.

  10. Amelioration of nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats by taurine: Effects on steroidogenesis, redox and inflammatory cascades, and intrinsic apoptotic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Maha A.E., E-mail: mahapharm@yahoo.com

    The wide abuse of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate by athletes and adolescents for enhancement of sporting performance and physical appearance may be associated with testicular toxicity and infertility. On the other hand, taurine; a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the possible protective effects of taurine on nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats. To achieve this aim, male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups and administered either vehicle, nandrolone decanoatemore » (10 mg/kg/week, I.M.), taurine (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or combination of taurine and nandrolone decanoate, for 8 successive weeks. Results of the present study showed that taurine reversed nandrolone decanoate-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and restored the activities of the key steroidogenic enzymes; 3β-HSD, and 17β-HSD. Moreover, taurine prevented nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular toxicity and DNA damage by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This was evidenced by taurine-induced modulation of testicular LDH-x activity, redox markers (MDA, NO, GSH contents, and SOD activity), inflammatory indices (TNF-α, ICAM-1 levels, and MMP-9 gene expression), intrinsic apoptotic pathway (cytochrome c gene expression and caspase-3 content), and oxidative DNA damage markers (8-OHdG level and comet assay). In conclusion, at the biochemical and histological levels, taurine attenuated nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats. - Highlights: • Nandrolone decanoate (ND) disrupts sperm profile and steroidogenesis in rats. • ND upregulates gene expression of inflammatory and apoptotic markers. • Taurine normalizes sperm profile and serum

  11. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Myocarditis Reveals Persistent Disease Activity Despite Normalization of Cardiac Enzymes and Inflammatory Parameters at 3-Month Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Berg, Jan; Kottwitz, Jan; Baltensperger, Nora; Kissel, Christine K; Lovrinovic, Marina; Mehra, Tarun; Scherff, Frank; Schmied, Christian; Templin, Christian; Lüscher, Thomas F; Heidecker, Bettina; Manka, Robert

    2017-11-01

    There is a major unmet need to identify high-risk patients in myocarditis. Although decreasing cardiac and inflammatory markers are commonly interpreted as resolving myocarditis, this assumption has not been confirmed as of today. We sought to evaluate whether routine laboratory parameters at diagnosis predict dynamic of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) as persistent LGE has been shown to be a risk marker in myocarditis. Myocarditis was diagnosed based on clinical presentation, high-sensitivity troponin T, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, after exclusion of obstructive coronary artery disease by angiography. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was repeated at 3 months. LGE extent was analyzed with the software GT Volume. Change in LGE >20% was considered significant. Investigated cardiac and inflammatory markers included high-sensitivity troponin T, creatine kinase, myoglobin, N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte count. Twenty-four patients were enrolled. Absolute levels of cardiac enzymes and inflammatory markers at baseline did not predict change in LGE at 3 months. Cardiac and inflammatory markers had normalized in 21 patients (88%). LGE significantly improved in 16 patients (67%); however, it persisted to a lesser degree in 17 of them (71%) and increased in a small percentage (21%) despite normalization of cardiac enzymes. This is the first study reporting that cardiac enzymes and inflammatory parameters do not sufficiently reflect LGE in myocarditis. Although a majority of patients with normalizing laboratory markers experienced improved LGE, in a small percentage LGE worsened. These data suggest that cardiac magnetic resonance imaging might add value to currently existing diagnostic tools for risk assessment in myocarditis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Bioactive Extract from Moringa oleifera Inhibits the Pro-inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Fard, Masoumeh Tangestani; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Inflammation is a well-known physiological response to protect the body against infection and restore tissue injury. Nevertheless, the chronic inflammation can trigger various inflammatory associated diseases/disorder. Moringa oleifera is a widely grown plant in most tropical countries and it has been recognized traditionally for several medicinal benefits. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of M. oleifera extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated macrophages. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory effect of M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extracts was evaluated by assessing the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production during Griess reaction and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages. Results: Interestingly, we found that M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract significantly inhibited the secretion of NO production and other inflammatory markers such as prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β. Meanwhile, the bioactive extract has induced the production of IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract effectively suppressed the protein expression of inflammatory markers inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells p65 in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: These findings support the traditional use of M. oleifera plant as an effective treatment for inflammation associated diseases/disorders. SUMMARY Hydroethanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera effectively inhibit the NO production in LPS induced inflammatory model.M. oleifera crude extracts successfully modulate the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated macrophages.M. oleifera extracts suppressed the expression of inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated macrophages. PMID:27013794

  13. Glycoprotein Disease Markers and Single Protein-omics*

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Kevin; Goldman, Radoslav

    2013-01-01

    Glycoproteins are well represented among biomarkers for inflammatory and cancer diseases. Secreted and membrane-associated glycoproteins make excellent targets for noninvasive detection. In this review, we discuss clinically applicable markers of cancer diseases and methods for their analysis. High throughput discovery continues to supply marker candidates with unusual glycan structures, altered glycoprotein abundance, or distribution of site-specific glycoforms. Improved analytical methods are needed to unlock the potential of these discoveries in validated clinical assays. A new generation of targeted quantitative assays is expected to advance the use of glycoproteins in early detection of diseases, molecular disease classification, and monitoring of therapeutic interventions. PMID:23399550

  14. A predictive model of inflammatory markers and patient-reported symptoms for cachexia in newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Fogelman, David R; Morris, J; Xiao, L; Hassan, M; Vadhan, S; Overman, M; Javle, S; Shroff, R; Varadhachary, G; Wolff, R; Vence, L; Maitra, A; Cleeland, C; Wang, X S

    2017-06-01

    Cachexia is a frequent manifestation of pancreatic cancer, can limit a patient's ability to take chemotherapy, and is associated with shortened survival. We developed a model to predict the early onset of cachexia in advanced pancreatic cancer patients. Patients with newly diagnosed, untreated metastatic or locally advanced pancreatic cancer were included. Serum cytokines were drawn prior to therapy. Patient symptoms were recorded using the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI). Our primary endpoint was either 10% weight loss or death within 60 days of the start of therapy. Twenty-seven of 89 patients met the primary endpoint (either having lost 10% of body weight or having died within 60 days of the start of treatment). In a univariate analysis, smoking, history symptoms of pain and difficulty swallowing, high levels of MK, CXCL-16, IL-6, TNF-a, and low IL-1b all correlated with this endpoint. We used recursive partition to fit a regression tree model, selecting four of 26 variables (CXCL-16, IL-1b, pain, swallowing difficulty) as important in predicting cachexia. From these, a model of two cytokines (CXCL-16 > 5.135 ng/ml and IL-1b < 0.08 ng/ml) demonstrated a better sensitivity and specificity for this outcome (0.70 and 0.86, respectively) than any individual cytokine or tumor marker. Cachexia is frequent in pancreatic cancer; one in three patients met our endpoint of 10% weight loss or death within 60 days. Inflammatory cytokines are better than conventional tumor markers at predicting this outcome. Recursive partitioning analysis suggests that a model of CXCL-16 and IL-1B may offer a better ability than individual cytokines to predict this outcome.

  15. Enhanced barrier functions and anti-inflammatory effect of cultured coconut extract on human skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soomin; Jang, Ji Eun; Kim, Jihee; Lee, Young In; Lee, Dong Won; Song, Seung Yong; Lee, Ju Hee

    2017-08-01

    Natural plant oils have been used as a translational alternative to modern medicine. Particularly, virgin coconut oil (VCO) has gained popularity because of its potential benefits in pharmaceutical, nutritional, and cosmetic applications. Cultured coconut extract (CCE) is an alternative end product of VCO, which undergoes a further bacterial fermentation process. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CCE on human skin. We analyzed the expression of skin barrier molecules and collagens after applying CCE on human explanted skin. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of CCE, the expression of inflammatory markers was analyzed after ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. The CCE-treated group showed increased expression of cornified cell envelope components, which contribute to protective barrier functions of the stratum corneum. Further, the expression of inflammatory markers was lower in the CCE-treated group after exposure to UVB radiation. These results suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of CCE against UVB irradiation-induced inflammation. Additionally, the CCE-treated group showed increased collagen and hyaluronan synthase-3 expression. In our study, CCE showed a barrier-enhancing effect and anti-inflammatory properties against ex vivo UVB irradiation-induced inflammation. The promising effect of CCE may be attributed to its high levels of polyphenols and fatty acid components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evidence for simvastatin anti-inflammatory actions based on quantitative analyses of NETosis and other inflammation/oxidation markers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghoul, Walid M.; Kim, Margarita S.; Fazal, Nadeem; Azim, Anser C.; Ali, Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Simvastatin (SMV) has been shown to exhibit promising anti-inflammatory properties alongside its classic cholesterol lowering action. We tested these emerging effects in a major thermal injury mouse model (3rd degree scald, ~20% TBSA) with previously documented, inflammation-mediated intestinal defects. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) inflammation measurement methods were used alongside classic gut mucosa inflammation and leakiness measurements with exogenous melatonin treatment as a positive control. Our hypothesis is that simvastatin has protective therapeutic effects against early postburn gut mucosa inflammation and leakiness. To test this hypothesis, we compared untreated thermal injury (TI) adult male mice with TI littermates treated with simvastatin (0.2 mg/kg i.p., TI + SMV) immediately following burn injury and two hours before being sacrificed the day after; melatonin-treated (Mel) (1.86 mg/kg i.p., TI + Mel) mice were compared as a positive control. Mice were assessed for the following: (1) tissue oxidation and neutrophil infiltration in terminal ileum mucosa using classic carbonyl, Gr-1, and myeloperoxidase immunohistochemical or biochemical assays, (2) NETosis in terminal ileum and colon mucosa homogenates and peritoneal and fluid blood samples utilizing flow cytometric analyses of the surrogate NETosis biomarkers, picogreen and Gr-1, and (3) transepithelial gut leakiness as measured in terminal ileum and colon with FITC-dextran and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Our results reveal that simvastatin and melatonin exhibit consistently comparable therapeutic protective effects against the following: (1) gut mucosa oxidative stress as revealed in the terminal ileum by markers of protein carbonylation as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Gr-1 infiltration, (2) NETosis as revealed in the gut milieu, peritoneal lavage and plasma utilizing picogreen and Gr-1 flow cytometry and microscopy, and (3) transepithelial gut leakiness as

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of isoacteoside from Abeliophyllum distichum.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sun-Young; Kim, Hee-Yun; Yoou, Myoung-Schook; Kim, A Hyun; Park, Byoung Jun; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2015-06-01

    Isoacteoside, a dihydroxypheynylethyl glycoside, is a major bioactive component of Abeliophyllum distichum (White Forsythia) which is a deciduous shrub native to the south and central areas of Korea. The present study is designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities and underlying mechanisms of isoacteoside in human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. We isolated isoacteoside from A. distichum. The anti-inflammatory effect of isoacteoside was investigated in HMC-1 cells by studying the following markers: phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-induced interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion and mRNA expression by ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. In addition, mechanism related to anti-inflammatory was investigated by Western blotting. Isoacteoside significantly suppressed the production and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in PMACI-stimulated HMC-1 cells without cytotoxicity. It was found that anti-inflammatory effects of isoacteoside are mediated by action on caspase-1, mitogen-activated protein kinases (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) and nuclear factor-kappa B pathways. Taken together, the present findings provide new insights that isoacteoside may be a promising anti-inflammatory agent for inflammatory disorders.

  18. Waist-to-height ratio as a marker of low-grade inflammation in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Caminiti, Carolina; Armeno, Marisa; Mazza, Carmen S

    2016-05-01

    The epidemic of childhood obesity is associated with early atherosclerosis. Several reports have related this event to low-grade inflammation described in obesity. CRP and IL6 are markers that correlate with adiposity. The waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) is an anthropometric marker associated with insulin resistance and inflammation. The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between WtHR, metabolic complications and pro-inflammatory factors in obese children and adolescents. Weight, height, waist circumference, glycemia, insulin, CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 were measured in the baseline sample in 280 patients 6-19 years of age with overweight or obesity (OW/OB) and 112 normal-weight controls. Logistic regression was performed using WtHR as an independent variable. p>0.05 STATA11. Mean WtHR was 0.6±0.06 in OW/OB and 0.43±0.02 in controls (p<0.01). WtHR was increased in 93% of the OW/OB vs. 2% of the controls. In the OW/OB inflammatory markers were significantly increased (p<0.01) compared to the controls (CRP 2.2 vs. 0.8; Il-6 2.9 vs. 2.1; and TNF-α 6.2 vs. 5.5). In the WtHR>0.5, insulin resistence and inflammatory markers were significantly increased (p<0.01) compared to the WtHR<0.5 (HOMA 3.4 vs. 1.4; CRP 2.3 vs. 0.6; Il-6 2.9 vs. 2.1; and TNF-α 6.4 vs. 5.55). In logistic regression, a significant independent association was found between WtHR with CRP (OR1.47), IL6 (OR1.60) and TNF-α (OR1.79). Obese children and adolescents have high inflammatory markers that may increase cardiovascular risk. WtHR is associated with low-grade inflammation and may be considered a relevant anthropometric marker in the clinical practice.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids in neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Spagnuolo, Carmela; Moccia, Stefania; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2018-06-10

    Neuroinflammation is one of the main mechanisms involved in the progression of several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson, Alzheimer, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and others. The activation of microglia is the main feature of neuroinflammation, promoting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and resulting in the progressive neuronal cell death. Natural compounds, such as flavonoids, possess neuroprotective potential probably related to their ability to modulate the inflammatory responses involved in neurodegenerative diseases. In fact, pure flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, genistein, hesperetin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate) or enriched-extracts, can reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and COX-2), down-regulate inflammatory markers and prevent neural damage. This anti-inflammatory activity is primarily related to the regulation of microglial cells, mediated by their effects on MAPKs and NF-κB signalling pathways, as demonstrated by in vivo and in vitro data. The present work reviews the role of inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases, highlighting the potential therapeutic effects of flavonoids as a promising approach to develop innovative neuroprotective strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Marathon Race Affects Neutrophil Surface Molecules: Role of Inflammatory Mediators

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The fatigue induced by marathon races was observed in terms of inflammatory and immunological outcomes. Neutrophil survival and activation are essential for inflammation resolution and contributes directly to the pathogenesis of many infectious and inflammatory conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of marathon races on surface molecules related to neutrophil adhesion and extrinsic apoptosis pathway and its association with inflammatory markers. We evaluated 23 trained male runners at the São Paulo International Marathon 2013. The following components were measured: hematological and inflammatory mediators, muscle damage markers, and neutrophil function. The marathon race induced an increased leukocyte and neutrophil counts; creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), CK-MB, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-8 levels. C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α plasma concentrations were significantly higher 24 h and 72 h after the marathon race. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels decreased 72 h after the marathon race. We also observed an increased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and decreasedTNF receptor-1 (TNFR1) expression immediately after and 24 h after the marathon race. We observed an increased DNA fragmentation and L-selectin and Fas receptor expressions in the recovery period, indicating a possible slow rolling phase and delayed neutrophil activation and apoptosis. Marathon racing affects neutrophils adhesion and survival in the course of inflammation, supporting the “open-window” post-exercise hypothesis. PMID:27911915

  1. Adiponectin, Leptin and Inflammatory Markers in HIV-associated Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Espiau, María; Yeste, Diego; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Soler-Palacín, Pere; Fortuny, Clàudia; Ferrer, Roser; Comas, Immaculada; Martín-Nalda, Andrea; Deyà-Martínez, Ángela; Figueras, Concepció; Carrascosa, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is more common in HIV-infected adults and children than in the general population. Adipocytokines and inflammatory markers may contribute to the pathophysiology of this condition and could be useful indices for monitoring MetS. The objective of this study was to provide information on the prevalence of MetS and investigate the role of adipocytokines and other biomarkers in this syndrome in HIV-infected pediatric patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and March 2014 in the outpatient clinics of 2 tertiary pediatric referral hospitals. Fifty-four HIV-infected children and adolescents were included. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation and modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Measurements included anthropometry, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting lipids, glucose and insulin, adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-6, vitamin D and C-reactive protein and clinical lipodystrophy assessment. Among the total, 3.7% of patients met the International Diabetes Federation criteria for MetS and 7.4% met the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. C-reactive protein and leptin levels were significantly higher and adiponectin level significantly lower in patients with MetS, regardless of the criteria used. Insulin resistance was observed in 40.7% of patients; abnormal quantitative insulin sensitivity check index values were found in 88.9%. Eighteen patients (33.3%) had vitamin D deficiency. The prevalence of MetS was similar to that observed in larger cohorts of HIV-infected patients in our setting. Adipocytokine dysregulation seems to be related to MetS in HIV-infected children. A high percentage of patients showed insulin resistance, which should be strictly monitored.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation attenuates inflammatory markers after eccentric exercise in untrained men.

    PubMed

    Tartibian, Bakhtyar; Maleki, Behzad Hajizadeh; Abbasi, Asghar

    2011-03-01

    To examine the effect of ingestion of omega-3 (N-3) fatty acids on the production of interleukin (IL) 6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, prostaglandin (PG) E2, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), and myoglobin (Mb) during an eccentric exercise program. A randomized, double-blinded, repeated measures design was used for this study. The study was performed in the Exercise Physiology Laboratory of the Urmia University. Forty-five men, who had not participated in any training program for 60 days before their participation in this study, were recruited. Plasma levels of PGE2, IL-6, TNF-α, CK, LDH, and Mb were taken before supplementation, pre-exercise, and immediately, 24, and 48 hours after eccentric exercise. Subjects were assigned to one of the experimental (1.8 g/d N-3), placebo, or control groups. Plasma levels of PGE2, IL-6, and TNF-α were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays kits. Plasma level of LDH, Mb, and CK were measured using an autoanalyzer, a c-counter, and an automatic blood analyzer, respectively. The experimental group showed less elevation in TNF-α and PGE2 immediately, 24, and 48 hours after exercise, when compared with the other groups. Significantly less elevation was shown in the concentration of IL-6, CK, and Mb for the experimental group at 24 and 48 hours after exercise. The experimental group also demonstrated a significant trend toward reduction in the plasma concentration of LDH immediately, 24, and 48 hours after the exercise program. Ingestion of N-3 can be effective in ameliorating, eccentric exercise-induced, inflammatory markers.

  3. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from aged rats are more responsive to inflammatory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Barrett, James P; Costello, Derek A; O'Sullivan, Joan; Cowley, Thelma R; Lynch, Marina A

    2015-04-09

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) increase expression of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) that characterizes the M1 activation state of macrophages. Whereas it is accepted that the immune system undergoes changes with age, there is inconsistency in the literature with respect to the impact of age on the response of macrophages to inflammatory stimuli. Here, we investigate the effect of age on the responsiveness of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) to LPS and IFNγ. The context for addressing this question is that macrophages, which infiltrate the brain of aged animals, will encounter the neuroinflammatory environment that has been described with age. Brain tissue, prepared from young and aged rats, was assessed for expression of inflammatory markers by PCR and for evidence of infiltration of macrophages by flow cytometry. BMDMs were prepared from the long bones of young and aged rats, maintained in culture for 8 days and incubated in the presence or absence of LPS (100 ng/ml) or IFNγ (50 ng/ml). Cells were harvested and assessed for mRNA expression of markers of M1 activation including TNFα and NOS2, or for expression of IFNγR1 and TLR4 by western immunoblotting. To assess whether BMDMs induced glial activation, mixed glial cultures were incubated in the presence of conditioned media obtained from unstimulated BMDMs of young and aged rats and evaluated for expression of inflammatory markers. Markers associated with M1 activation were expressed to a greater extent in BMDMs from aged rats in response to LPS and IFNγ, compared with cells from young rats. The increased responsiveness was associated with increases in IFNγ receptor (IFNγR) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). The data show that conditioned media from BMDMs of aged rats increased the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in glial cells. Significantly, there was an age-related increase in macrophage infiltration into the brain, and this was combined with increased expression

  4. Imaging markers for Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Bocchetta, Martina; Chételat, Gael; Rabinovici, Gil D.; de Leon, Mony J.; Kaye, Jeffrey; Reiman, Eric M.; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Black, Sandra E.; Brooks, David J.; Carrillo, Maria C.; Fox, Nick C.; Herholz, Karl; Nordberg, Agneta; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William J.; Johnson, Keith A.; Rowe, Christopher C.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Thies, William; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Weiner, Michael W.; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; DeCarli, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Revised diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer disease (AD) acknowledge a key role of imaging biomarkers for early diagnosis. Diagnostic accuracy depends on which marker (i.e., amyloid imaging, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose [FDG]-PET, SPECT, MRI) as well as how it is measured (“metric”: visual, manual, semiautomated, or automated segmentation/computation). We evaluated diagnostic accuracy of marker vs metric in separating AD from healthy and prognostic accuracy to predict progression in mild cognitive impairment. The outcome measure was positive (negative) likelihood ratio, LR+ (LR−), defined as the ratio between the probability of positive (negative) test outcome in patients and the probability of positive (negative) test outcome in healthy controls. Diagnostic LR+ of markers was between 4.4 and 9.4 and LR− between 0.25 and 0.08, whereas prognostic LR+ and LR− were between 1.7 and 7.5, and 0.50 and 0.11, respectively. Within metrics, LRs varied up to 100-fold: LR+ from approximately 1 to 100; LR− from approximately 1.00 to 0.01. Markers accounted for 11% and 18% of diagnostic and prognostic variance of LR+ and 16% and 24% of LR−. Across all markers, metrics accounted for an equal or larger amount of variance than markers: 13% and 62% of diagnostic and prognostic variance of LR+, and 29% and 18% of LR−. Within markers, the largest proportion of diagnostic LR+ and LR− variability was within 18F-FDG-PET and MRI metrics, respectively. Diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of imaging AD biomarkers is at least as dependent on how the biomarker is measured as on the biomarker itself. Standard operating procedures are key to biomarker use in the clinical routine and drug trials. PMID:23897875

  5. The effect of ginger consumption on glycemic status, lipid profile and some inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Arablou, Tahereh; Aryaeian, Naheed; Valizadeh, Majid; Sharifi, Faranak; Hosseini, AghaFatemeh; Djalali, Mahmoud

    2014-06-01

    To assess the effect of ginger consumption on glycemic status, lipid profile and some inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 70 type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled. They allocated randomly into ginger group and control group. They consumed 1600 mg ginger versus 1600 mg wheat flour placebo daily for 12 weeks. Serum sugar, lipids, CRP, PGE2 and TNFα were measured before and after intervention. Ginger reduced fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, insulin, HOMA, triglyceride, total cholesterol, CRP and PGE₂ significantly compared with placebo group (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in HDL, LDL and TNFα between two groups (p > 0.05). Ginger improved insulin sensitivity and some fractions of lipid profile, and reduced CRP and PGE₂ in type 2 diabetic patients. Therefore ginger can be considered as an effective treatment for prevention of diabetes complications.

  6. Rectal nitric oxide and fecal calprotectin in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Reinders, Claudia A; Jonkers, Daisy; Janson, Emmellie A; Stockbrügger, Reinhold W; Stobberingh, Ellen E; Hellström, Per M; Lundberg, Jon O

    2007-10-01

    The assessment of intestinal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains a difficult challenge. Both rectal nitric oxide (NO) and fecal calprotectin can be measured using non-invasive methods and are emerging as promising inflammatory markers in IBD. In this study the aim was to compare calprotectin and NO levels in IBD patients. Rectal NO was measured tonometrically in 23 healthy volunteers and 32 patients with IBD. In addition, we collected stool samples from all subjects for measurement of fecal calprotectin and nitrate/nitrite (NO metabolites). Patients with IBD had greatly increased NO and calprotectin levels compared to healthy volunteers (p <0.001). In addition, the nitrate levels were slightly increased in IBD patients. A weak correlation was found between rectal NO levels, disease activity and number of loose stools in IBD patients (Spearman's rho 0.37 and 0.51, respectively; p <0.05). Fecal calprotectin correlated only with age (Spearman's rho 0.51; p <0.01). However, no correlation was found between NO and calprotectin. Both rectal NO and fecal calprotectin are greatly increased during bowel inflammation, but they may reflect different parts of the inflammatory process. Future studies will elucidate the clinical usefulness of these two markers.

  7. Can inflammatory markers in induced sputum be used to detect phenotypes and endotypes of pediatric severe therapy-resistant asthma?

    PubMed

    Eller, Miriam C N; Vergani, Karina P; Saraiva-Romanholo, Beatriz M; Antonangelo, Leila; Leone, Claudio; Rodrigues, Joaquim C

    2018-06-05

    The phenotypes and endotypes of severe therapy-resistant asthma (STRA) have not been fully elucidated in children. The aim of the present study was to investigate inflammatory markers in the induced sputum of children with STRA and to compare them with those present in a group of children who achieved control. A prospective cohort of children (6-18 years of age) diagnosed with severe asthma (GINA criteria) who had undergone treatment for at least 6 months was comprehensively followed for 3 months. Inhalation technique, adherence to treatment, ACT score, and main comorbidities were assessed. Induced sputum samples were collected for cytology analysis and quantitative assessment of cytokines; the participants also underwent spirometry, plethysmography, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement. Forty patients were included (average age 12.8 years; 62.5% male); of these, 13 (32.5%) were classified as STRA at the end of follow-up. There were no significant differences between the STRA and control groups in demographic data, functional test results, or FeNO levels. The eosinophilic inflammatory pattern predominated in both groups; however, the STRA group showed a proportionally higher percentage of sputum neutrophils (P < 0.05). The median sputum levels of the cytokines IL-10, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were significantly higher in the STRA group (P < 0.05). GM-CSF and TNF-α levels showed inverse correlations with ACT scores. The presence of neutrophils, the cytokines IL-10, and IFN-γ and, more particularly, TNF-α, and GM-CSF in the sputum may play an important role in the pathophysiological mechanism of STRA in children and adolescents. Specific antagonists for these cytokines may represent a future therapeutic strategy. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mammary stem cell and macrophage markers are enriched in normal tissue adjacent to inflammatory breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Jay P; Atkinson, Rachel L; Larson, Richard; Burks, Jared K; Smith, Daniel; Debeb, Bisrat G; Ruffell, Brian; Creighton, Chad J; Bambhroliya, Arvind; Reuben, James M; Van Laere, Steven J; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Symmans, William F; Brewster, Abenaa M; Woodward, Wendy A

    2018-06-01

    We hypothesized that breast tissue not involved by tumor in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) patients contains intrinsic differences, including increased mammary stem cells and macrophage infiltration, which may promote the IBC phenotype. Normal breast parenchyma ≥ 5 cm away from primary tumors was obtained from mastectomy specimens. This included an initial cohort of 8 IBC patients and 60 non-IBC patients followed by a validation cohort of 19 IBC patients and 25 non-IBC patients. Samples were immunostained for either CD44 + CD49f + CD133/2 + mammary stem cell markers or the CD68 macrophage marker and correlated with IBC status. Quantitation of positive cells was determined using inForm software from PerkinElmer. We also examined the association between IBC status and previously published tumorigenic stem cell and IBC tumor signatures in the validation cohort samples. 8 of 8 IBC samples expressed isolated CD44 + CD49f + CD133/2 + stem cell marked cells in the initial cohort as opposed to 0/60 non-IBC samples (p = 0.001). Similarly, the median number of CD44 + CD49f + CD133/2 + cells was significantly higher in the IBC validation cohort as opposed to the non-IBC validation cohort (25.7 vs. 14.2, p = 0.007). 7 of 8 IBC samples expressed CD68 + histologically confirmed macrophages in initial cohort as opposed to 12/48 non-IBC samples (p = 0.001). In the validation cohort, the median number of CD68 + cells in IBC was 3.7 versus 1.0 in the non-IBC cohort (p = 0.06). IBC normal tissue was positively associated with a tumorigenic stem cell signature (p = 0.02) and with a 79-gene IBC signature (p < 0.001). Normal tissue from IBC patients is enriched for both mammary stem cells and macrophages and has higher association with both a tumorigenic stem cell signature and IBC-specific tumor signature. Collectively, these data suggest that IBC normal tissue differs from non-IBC tissue. Whether these changes occur before the tumor develops or

  9. Expression of pericardial fluid T-cells and related inflammatory cytokines in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Reinard; Liu, Shengchen; Xiang, Fei; Chen, Wen; Li, Liangpeng; Qin, Wei; Huang, Fuhua; Chen, Xin

    2017-05-01

    Pericardial fluid, as a biochemical indicator of heart status, directly indicates pathological alteration to the heart. The accumulation of pericardial fluid can be attributed to an underlying systemic or local inflammatory process. However, the pericardial fluid expression of cellular surface markers, as well as several cytokines in chronic heart failure (CHF), remain unclear. In order to evaluate these issues further the pericardial fluid expression of several cytokines and the surface expression of activity markers between CHF patients and non-heart failure (NHF) patients were analyzed. The pericardial fluid expression of cytokines was measured by immunofluorescence and biomarker of plasma N-terminal propeptide of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), while pericardial fluid levels of soluble glycoprotein 130 (sgp130) were analyzed by ELISA in 50 CHF and 24 NHF patients. In addition, the surface expression of activation markers for T-cells was measured by immunohistochemistry. Patients with CHF demonstrated increased levels of plasma NT-proBNP and pericardial fluid sgp130. Surface expression of cellular activation markers CD25 and Foxp3 in the pericardial fluid was increased in patients with CHF. Moreover, the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 in patients with CHF also demonstrated an increased expression within its pericardial fluid. In addition, there was infiltration of inflammatory cells and enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines in the pericardial fluid of patients with CHF, which may reflect T cell activation, suggesting that systemic inflammation is important in the progression of CHF. This evidence could indicate a possible novel target for future therapeutics and prevention of CHF.

  10. Early High-dosage Atorvastatin Treatment Improved Serum Immune-inflammatory Markers and Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Strokes Classified as Large Artery Atherosclerotic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Maida, Carlo; Arnao, Valentina; Corte, Vittoriano Della; Simonetta, Irene; Corpora, Francesca; Di Bona, Danilo; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Statins have beneficial effects on cerebral circulation and brain parenchyma during ischemic stroke and reperfusion. The primary hypothesis of this randomized parallel trial was that treatment with 80 mg/day of atorvastatin administered early at admission after acute atherosclerotic ischemic stroke could reduce serum levels of markers of immune-inflammatory activation of the acute phase and that this immune-inflammatory modulation could have a possible effect on prognosis of ischemic stroke evaluated by some outcome indicators. We enrolled 42 patients with acute ischemic stroke classified as large arteries atherosclerosis stroke (LAAS) randomly assigned in a randomized parallel trial to the following groups: Group A, 22 patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg (once-daily) from admission day until discharge; Group B, 20 patients not treated with atorvastatin 80 mg until discharge, and after discharge, treatment with atorvastatin has been started. At 72 hours and at 7 days after acute ischemic stroke, subjects of group A showed significantly lower plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, whereas no significant difference with regard to plasma levels of IL-10, E-Selectin, and P-Selectin was observed between the 2 groups. At 72 hours and 7 days after admission, stroke patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg in comparison with stroke subjects not treated with atorvastatin showed a significantly lower mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin scores. Our findings provide the first evidence that atorvastatin acutely administered immediately after an atherosclerotic ischemic stroke exerts a lowering effect on immune-inflammatory activation of the acute phase of stroke and that its early use is associated to a better functional and prognostic profile. PMID:27043681

  11. Airway hyperresponsiveness, peak flow variability and inflammatory markers in non-asthmatic subjects with respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Björnsson, Eythór; Lúdvíksdóttir, Dóra; Hedenström, Hans; Eriksson, Britt-Marie; Högman, Marieann; Venge, Per; Janson, Christer

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise non-asthmatic subjects with asthma-like symptoms during a common cold, particularly in relation to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Subjects with acute respiratory infections and a group of controls (n = 20 + 20), age 20-65 years, underwent bronchial provocations with methacholine, adenosine and cold air. All were non-smokers and had no history of asthma or heart disease. Those with infection had asthma-like symptoms (>2). Measurements of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil peroxidase, myeloperoxidase and human neutrophil lipocalin were made at each provocation. A 17-day symptom and peak flow diary was calculated. No differences between the two groups were found, regarding responsiveness to methacholine, adenosine or cold air challenge, as well as the inflammatory markers measured. In the infected group, the mean (standard deviation) ECP was higher in those with AHR to methacholine or cold air [15.7 (6.5) and 11.4 (4.2) microg/L, respectively; P < 0.05]; furthermore, eNO was higher in the infected group [116 (54) and 88 (52) nL/min, respectively; P = 0.055]. The infected group had, at all times, more symptoms and higher peak flow, with a decrease in the symptoms (P = 0.02) and a tendency to change in peak flow variation (P = 0.06). AHR does not seem to be the main cause of asthma-like symptoms in adults with infectious wheezing. Peak flow variation and symptom prevalence during the post-infection period may imply airway pathology different from AHR.

  12. The inflammatory response after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is not modified by targeted temperature management at 33 °C or 36 °C.

    PubMed

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Wanscher, Michael; Nielsen, Niklas; Friberg, Hans; Bjerre, Mette; Hassager, Christian

    2014-11-01

    Survivors after cardiac arrest (CA) exhibits a systemic inflammatory response as part of post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS). We investigated the association between systemic inflammation and severity of PCAS and whether level of targeted temperature management (TTM) modifies level of the inflammatory response. We studied 169 patients included at a single center in the TTM-trial, randomly assigned to TTM at 33 °C or 36 °C for 24 h. Plasma samples were analyzed for inflammatory markers including interleukin (IL) IL-1β,IL-4,IL-6,IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) at randomization and 24, 48 and 72 h after CA. Severity of PCAS was assessed by Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. Plasma levels of both IL-6 and IL-10 determined at randomization correlated with severity of PCAS at day 2 (r=0.36 and r=0.27, p<0.001) and day 3 (r=0.32 and r=0.22, p<0.001). IL-6 at randomization was an independent predictor of severity of PCAS at day 2 (p=0.003) and day 3 (p<0.0001) and was a significantly stronger predictor of severity of PCAS at day 3 compared to CRP (p=0.04) and PCT (p=0.03). Level of TTM did not modify level of the inflammatory markers IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, CRP and PCT, (p=NS for each inflammatory marker). Level of inflammatory response was associated with severity of PCAS with IL-6 being consistently and more strongly associated with severity of PCAS than the inflammatory markers CRP and PCT. The systemic inflammatory response after CA was not modified by TTM at 33 °C or 36 °C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Flavocoxid, a Nutraceutical Approach to Blunt Inflammatory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Squadrito, Francesco; Mecchio, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids, from Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese skullcap) and Acacia catechu (black catechu), have been shown to exert a variety of therapeutic effects, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and anticancer activities. Flavocoxid is a mixed extract containing baicalin and catechin and it acts as a dual balanced inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 peroxidase enzyme activities with a significant inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme activity in vitro. Flavocoxid downregulates gene or protein expression of several inflammatory markers and exerts also strong antioxidant activity in several experimental models. Controlled clinical trials and a postmarketing study have clearly shown that flavocoxid is as effective as naproxen in managing the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee and it has better upper gastrointestinal, renal, and respiratory safety profile than naproxen. Flavocoxid may therefore provide a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:25242871

  14. Flavocoxid, a nutraceutical approach to blunt inflammatory conditions.

    PubMed

    Bitto, Alessandra; Squadrito, Francesco; Irrera, Natasha; Pizzino, Gabriele; Pallio, Giovanni; Mecchio, Anna; Galfo, Federica; Altavilla, Domenica

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids, from Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese skullcap) and Acacia catechu (black catechu), have been shown to exert a variety of therapeutic effects, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and anticancer activities. Flavocoxid is a mixed extract containing baicalin and catechin and it acts as a dual balanced inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 peroxidase enzyme activities with a significant inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme activity in vitro. Flavocoxid downregulates gene or protein expression of several inflammatory markers and exerts also strong antioxidant activity in several experimental models. Controlled clinical trials and a postmarketing study have clearly shown that flavocoxid is as effective as naproxen in managing the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee and it has better upper gastrointestinal, renal, and respiratory safety profile than naproxen. Flavocoxid may therefore provide a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions.

  15. Release of cystic fibrosis airway inflammatory markers from Pseudomonas aeruginosa-stimulated human neutrophils involves NADPH oxidase-dependent extracellular DNA trap formation.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dae-goon; Winn, Matthew; Pang, Lan; Moskowitz, Samuel M; Malech, Harry L; Leto, Thomas L; Rada, Balázs

    2014-05-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) airways are characterized by bacterial infections, excess mucus production, and robust neutrophil recruitment. The main CF airway pathogen is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Neutrophils are not capable of clearing the infection. Neutrophil primary granule components, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and human neutrophil elastase (HNE), are inflammatory markers in CF airways, and their increased levels are associated with poor lung function. Identifying the mechanism of MPO and HNE release from neutrophils is of high clinical relevance for CF. In this article, we show that human neutrophils release large amounts of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in the presence of P. aeruginosa. Bacteria are entangled in NETs and colocalize with extracellular DNA. MPO, HNE, and citrullinated histone H4 are all associated with DNA in Pseudomonas-triggered NETs. Both laboratory standard strains and CF isolates of P. aeruginosa induce DNA, MPO, and HNE release from human neutrophils. The increase in peroxidase activity of neutrophil supernatants after Pseudomonas exposure indicates that enzymatically active MPO is released. P. aeruginosa induces a robust respiratory burst in neutrophils that is required for extracellular DNA release. Inhibition of the cytoskeleton prevents Pseudomonas-initiated superoxide production and DNA release. NADPH oxidase inhibition suppresses Pseudomonas-induced release of active MPO and HNE. Blocking MEK/ERK signaling results in only minimal inhibition of DNA release induced by Pseudomonas. Our data describe in vitro details of DNA, MPO, and HNE release from neutrophils activated by P. aeruginosa. We propose that Pseudomonas-induced NET formation is an important mechanism contributing to inflammatory conditions characteristic of CF airways.

  16. Effects of a pulmonary rehabilitation program on physical capacity, peripheral muscle function and inflammatory markers in asthmatic children and adolescents: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Reimberg, Mariana Mazzuca; Castro, Rejane Agnelo Silva; Selman, Jessyca Pachi Rodrigues; Meneses, Aline Santos; Politti, Fabiano; Mallozi, Márcia Carvalho; Wandalsen, Gustavo Falbo; Solé, Dirceu; De Angelis, Kátia; Dal Corso, Simone; Lanza, Fernanda Cordoba

    2015-08-13

    Individuals with chronic lung disease are more susceptible to present reduction in exercise tolerance and muscles strength not only due to pulmonary limitations but also due systemic repercussions of the pulmonary disease. The aim of this study is to assess the physical capacity, peripheral muscle function, physical activity in daily life, and the inflammatory markers in children and adolescents with asthma after pulmonary rehabilitation program. This is a study protocol of randomized controlled trial in asthmatic patients between 6 to 18 years old. The assessments will be conducted in three different days and will be performed at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. First visit: quality of life questionnaire, asthma control questionnaire, pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry (400 μcg salbutamol), inflammatory assessment (blood collection), and cardiopulmonary exercise test on a cycle ergometer to determine aerobic capacity. Second visit: assessment of strength and endurance of the quadriceps femoris and biceps brachii muscles with concomitant electromyography to assess peripheral muscle strength. Third visit: incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) and accelerometer to evaluate functional capacity and physical activity in daily life during 7 days. Then, the volunteers will be randomized to receive pulmonary rehabilitation program (intervention group) or chest physiotherapy + stretching exercises (control group). Both groups will have a supervised session, twice a week, each session will have 60 minutes duration, with minimum interval of 24 hours, for a period of 8 weeks. Intervention group: aerobic training (35 minutes) intensity between 60 to 80 % of the maximum workload of cardiopulmonary exercise testing or of ISWT; strength muscle training will be applied to the quadriceps femoris, biceps brachii and deltoid muscles (intensity: 40 to 70 % of maximal repetition, 3 x 8 repetition); finally the oral high-frequency oscillation device (Flutter®) will be

  17. The CD14+CD16+ Inflammatory Monocyte Subset Displays Increased Mitochondrial Activity and Effector Function During Acute Plasmodium vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Lis R. V.; Leoratti, Fabiana M. S.; Costa, Pedro A. C.; Rocha, Bruno C.; Diniz, Suelen Q.; Tada, Mauro S.; Pereira, Dhelio B.; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andrea; Golenbock, Douglas T.; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.

    2014-01-01

    Infection with Plasmodium vivax results in strong activation of monocytes, which are important components of both the systemic inflammatory response and parasite control. The overall goal of this study was to define the role of monocytes during P. vivax malaria. Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax–infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14+CD16− (classical), CD14+CD16+ (inflammatory), and CD14loCD16+ (patrolling) cells. While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16+ cells, in particular the CD14+CD16+ monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which included chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules. Morphologically, CD14+ were distinguished from CD14lo monocytes by displaying larger and more active mitochondria. CD14+CD16+ monocytes were more efficient in phagocytizing P. vivax-infected reticulocytes, which induced them to produce high levels of intracellular TNF-α and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, antibodies specific for ICAM-1, PECAM-1 or LFA-1 efficiently blocked the phagocytosis of infected reticulocytes by monocytes. Hence, our results provide key information on the mechanism by which CD14+CD16+ cells control parasite burden, supporting the hypothesis that they play a role in resistance to P. vivax infection. PMID:25233271

  18. Triticum vulgare extract exerts an anti-inflammatory action in two in vitro models of inflammation in microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanguigno, Luca; Casamassa, Antonella; Funel, Niccola; Minale, Massimiliano; Riccio, Rodolfo; Riccio, Salvatore; Boscia, Francesca; Brancaccio, Paola; Pollina, Luca Emanuele; Anzilotti, Serenella; Di Renzo, Gianfranco

    2018-01-01

    Triticum vulgare has been extensively used in traditional medicine thanks to its properties of accelerating tissue repair. The specific extract of Triticum vulgare manufactured by Farmaceutici Damor (TVE-DAMOR) is already present in some pharmaceutical formulations used in the treatment of decubitus ulcers, skin lesions and burns. It has been recently suggested that this Triticum vulgare extract may possess potential anti-inflammatory properties. In the light of these premises the aim of the present paper was to verify the anti-inflammatory role of TVE, using the LPS-stimulated microglia model of inflammation. In particular the effect of different concentrations of TVE on the release of several mediators of inflammation such as nitric oxide, IL-6, PGE2 and TNF alpha was evaluated. More important, the anti-inflammatory effect of TVE was confirmed also in primary rat microglia cultures. The results of the present study show that TVE exerts anti-inflammatory properties since it reduces the release of all the evaluated markers of inflammation, such as NO, IL6, TNF alpha and PGE2 in LPS-activated BV2 microglial cells. Intriguingly, TVE reduced microglia activation and NO release also in primary microglia. Indeed, to verify the pathway of modulation of the inflammatory markers reported above, we found that TVE restores the cytoplasmic expression of p65 protein, kwown as specific marker associated with activation of inflammatory response. The evidence for an inhibitory activity on inflammation of this specific extract of Triticum vulgare may open the way to the possibility of a therapeutical use of the Triticum vulgare extract as an anti-inflammatory compound in certain pathological states such as burns, decubitus ulcers, folliculitis and inflammation of peripheral nerve. PMID:29902182

  19. Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Serum Inflammatory Cytokines in Children

    PubMed Central

    Merid, Simon Kebede; Gref, Anna; Gajulapuri, Ashwini; Lemonnier, Nathanaël; Ballereau, Stéphane; Gigante, Bruna; Kere, Juha; Auffray, Charles; Melén, Erik; Pershagen, Göran

    2017-01-01

    Background: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to adverse health effects in children; however, underlying biological mechanisms are not fully understood. Objectives: We evaluated the effect of air pollution exposure during different time periods on mRNA expression as well as circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines in children. Methods: We measured a panel of 10 inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples from 670 8-y-old children in the Barn/Child, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology (BAMSE) birth cohort. Outdoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter <10μm (PM10) from road traffic were estimated for residential, daycare, and school addresses using dispersion modeling. Time-weighted average exposures during infancy and at biosampling were linked to serum cytokine levels using linear regression analysis. Furthermore, gene expression data from 16-year-olds in BAMSE (n=238) were used to evaluate links between air pollution exposure and expression of genes coding for the studied inflammatory markers. Results: A 10 μg/m3 increase of NO2 exposure during infancy was associated with a 13.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8; 28.1%) increase in interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, as well as with a 27.8% (95% CI: 4.6, 56.2%) increase in IL-10 levels, the latter limited to children with asthma. However, no clear associations were observed for current exposure. Results were similar using PM10, which showed a high correlation with NO2. The functional analysis identified several differentially expressed genes in response to air pollution exposure during infancy, including IL10, IL13, and TNF. Conclusion: Our results indicate alterations in systemic inflammatory markers in 8-y-old children in relation to early-life exposure to traffic-related air pollution. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP460 PMID:28669936

  20. Cross-talk between oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in acute pancreatitis: a key role for protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Javier; Pereda, Javier; Arduini, Alessandro; Sandoval, Juan; Sabater, Luis; Aparisi, Luis; López-Rodas, Gerardo; Sastre, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory process localized in the pancreatic gland that frequently involves peripancreatic tissues. It is still under investigation why an episode of acute pancreatitis remains mild affecting only the pancreas or progresses to a severe form leading to multiple organ failure and death. Proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress play a pivotal role in the early pathophysiological events of the disease. Cytokines such as interleukin 1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha initiate and propagate almost all consequences of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. On the other hand, depletion of pancreatic glutathione is an early hallmark of acute pancreatitis and reactive oxygen species are also associated with the inflammatory process. Changes in thiol homestasis and redox signaling decisively contribute to amplification of the inflammatory cascade through mitogen activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) pathways. This review focuses on the relationship between oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and MAP kinase/protein phosphatase pathways as major modulators of the inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis. Redox sensitive signal transduction mediated by inactivation of protein phosphatases, particularly protein tyrosin phosphatases, is highlighted.

  1. Diabetes, Obesity, and Hypertension May Enhance Associations between Air Pollution and Markers of Systemic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Dubowsky, Sara D.; Suh, Helen; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A.; Gold, Diane R.

    2006-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) may lead to increased cardiac risk through an inflammatory pathway. Therefore, we investigated associations between ambient PM and markers of systemic inflammation among repeated measures from 44 senior citizens (≥ 60 years of age) and examined susceptibility by conditions linked to chronic inflammation. Mixed models were used to identify associations between concentrations of fine PM [aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5)] averaged over 1–7 days and measures of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and white blood cells (WBCs). Effect modification was investigated for diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and elevated mean inflammatory markers. We found positive associations between longer moving averages of PM2.5 and WBCs across all participants, with a 5.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.10 to 11%] increase per interquartile increase (5.4 μg/m3) of PM2.5 averaged over the previous week. PM2.5 and CRP also exhibited positive associations among all individuals for averages longer than 1 day, with the largest associations for persons with diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. For example, an interquartile increase in the 5-day mean PM2.5 (6.1 μg/m3) was associated with a 14% increase in CRP (95% CI, −5.4 to 37%) for all individuals and an 81% (95% CI, 21 to 172%) increase for persons with diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Persons with diabetes, obesity, and hypertension also exhibited positive associations between PM2.5 and IL-6. Individuals with elevated mean inflammatory markers exhibited enhanced associations with CRP, IL-6, and WBCs. We found modest positive associations between PM2.5 and indicators of systemic inflammation, with larger associations suggested for individuals with diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and elevated mean inflammatory markers. PMID:16835049

  2. Evaluating the buffering vs. direct effects hypotheses of emotional social support on inflammatory markers: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mezuk, Briana; Diez Roux, Ana V; Seeman, Teresa

    2010-11-01

    Social support is associated with cardiovascular disease mortality, however, the physiologic mechanisms underlying this relationship remains unspecified. This study evaluated the association of social support with inflammatory markers associated with cardiovascular risk: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and fibrinogen. We evaluated two competing models of the support-inflammation relationship: first, that low social support is directly associated with inflammation, and second, that high support acts to buffer the effect of stress on inflammation. Using data from the baseline interview of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (N = 6814, 53% female, age 45-84 years) we assessed the independent and interacting associations of social support and stress with inflammation. Social support was measured by the emotional social support index. Stressors in multiple domains (work, family, finances, interpersonal) were assessed. Serum CRP, IL-6, and fibrinogen were analyzed from fasting samples using high-sensitivity assays. Multivariate linear regression, including models stratified by gender and age group (45-64 and 65-84 years), was used to assess the direct and buffering relationships between social support, stress, and inflammation. In bivariate analyses low social support was associated with higher levels of all three markers. In adjusted models, low support was associated with higher lnCRP (B: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.30) among men but not women. High social support buffered the relationship between stress and CRP among middle-aged women only (P for interaction 0.042). Overall, social support was only modestly associated with inflammation in this relatively healthy sample, and these relationships varied by age and gender. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating the buffering vs. direct effects hypotheses of emotional social support on inflammatory markers: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mezuk, Briana; Roux, Ana V. Diez; Seeman, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Social support is associated with cardiovascular disease mortality, however the physiologic mechanisms underlying this relationship remains unspecified. This study evaluated the association of social support with inflammatory markers associated with cardiovascular risk: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and fibrinogen. We evaluated two competing models of the support-inflammation relationship: first, that low social support is directly associated with inflammation, and second, that high support acts to buffer the effect of stress on inflammation. Using data from the baseline interview of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (N = 6,814, 53% female, age 45–84 years) we assessed the independent and interacting associations of social support and stress with inflammation. Social support was measured by the Emotional Social Support Index. Stressors in multiple domains (work, family, finances, interpersonal) were assessed. Serum CRP, IL-6, and fibrinogen were analyzed from fasting samples using high-sensitivity assays. Multivariate linear regression, including models stratified by gender and age group (45 – 64 and 65 – 84 years), was used to assess the direct and buffering relationships between social support, stress, and inflammation. In bivariate analyses low social support was associated with higher levels of all three markers. In adjusted models, low support was associated with higher lnCRP (B: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.30) among men but not women. High social support buffered the relationship between stress and CRP among middle-aged women only (P for interaction 0.042). Overall, social support was only modestly associated with inflammation in this relatively healthy sample, and these relationships varied by age and gender. PMID:20600815

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory markers in major depressive episodes during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jane Pei-Chen; Lin, Chih-Ying; Lin, Pan-Yen; Shih, Yin-Hua; Chiu, Tsan-Hung; Ho, Ming; Yang, Hui-Ting; Huang, Shih-Yi; Gałecki, Piotr; Su, Kuan-Pin

    2018-01-03

    Prenatal depression (PND) is a common psychiatric disorder in pregnant women and leads to psychosocial dysfunction, high suicidal rate, and adverse childcare. Patients with PND have omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega-3 or n-3 PUFAs) deficits, which might link to chronic low-grade inflammatory process and the pathophysiological mechanisms of depression. In this case-control study, we examined the levels of PUFAs and inflammatory cytokines in PND. Blood samples were obtained and analyzed from 16 healthy controls and 17 depressed cases (PND group) diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Independent sample t-test and correlation analysis were performed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) logistics correlation analysis. PND group had significantly lower levels of total n-3 (p=0.026), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (p=0.020) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) (p=0.019) but a higher omega-6 (n-6)/n-3 PUFAs ratio (p=0.007) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (p=0.016) level. Moreover, the duration of current PND episodes were also significantly correlated with DHA, EPA, n-3 PUFAs, n-6/n-3 ratio and TNF-α. In terms of PUFAs and cytokine levels, only DHA was inversely correlated with TNF-α. PND is significantly associated with lower DHA, EPA, and total n-3 PUFAs levels and an increased n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio, while the duration of PND is associated with lower levels of n-3 PUFAs, including DHA and EPA. The correlation of PUFAs levels with depression and TNF-α level grant further investigation into the inflammatory process underlying PND, mediated by PUFAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chronic oral infection with major periodontal bacteria Tannerella forsythia modulates systemic atherosclerosis risk factors and inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Chukkapalli, Sasanka S; Rivera-Kweh, Mercedes F; Velsko, Irina M; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Donghang; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Gangula, Pandu R; Lucas, Alexandra R; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya

    2015-04-01

    Tannerella forsythia is a Gram-negative anaerobic organism that inhabits the subgingival cavity and initiates connective tissue destruction and alveolar bone resorption in periodontal disease (PD). PD is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease and has been linked to several systemic diseases including atherosclerosis. This study evaluated the effects of a chronic oral infection with T. forsythia ATCC 43037 on the induction of PD, inflammatory markers and atherosclerosis risk factors in hyperlipidemic ApoE(null) mice. Mice were orally infected for 12 and 24 weeks prior to euthanasia. Bacterial colonization of the oral cavity and bacteremia was confirmed via isolation of genomic DNA from oral plaque and tissues. Oral infection elicited significantly elevated levels of serum IgG and IgM antibodies and alveolar bone resorption compared to control mice. Tannerella forsythia-infected mice had increased serum amyloid A, and significantly reduced serum nitric oxide when compared to controls. Tannerella forsythia chronic infection also significantly increased serum lipoproteins suggesting altered cholesterol metabolism and potential for aortic inflammation. Despite enhanced acute phase reactants and altered lipid profiles, T. forsythia infection was associated with decreased aortic plaque. This study investigates the potential of a known periodontal bacterial pathogen found in atherosclerotic plaque in humans to accelerate atherosclerosis in hyperlipdemic mice. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Fungal Metabolites in Mouse Intestine as Revealed by In vitro Models

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Dominik; Marx, Lisa; Felix, Silke; Clasohm, Jasmin; Weyland, Maximilian; Schäfer, Maximilian; Klotz, Markus; Lilischkis, Rainer; Erkel, Gerhard; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which include Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic inflammatory disorders that can affect the whole gastrointestinal tract or the colonic mucosal layer. Current therapies aiming to suppress the exaggerated immune response in IBD largely rely on compounds with non-satisfying effects or side-effects. Therefore, new therapeutical options are needed. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the fungal metabolites, galiellalactone, and dehydrocurvularin in both an in vitro intestinal inflammation model, as well as in isolated myenteric plexus and enterocyte cells. Administration of a pro-inflammatory cytokine mix through the mesenteric artery of intestinal segments caused an up-regulation of inflammatory marker genes. Treatment of the murine intestinal segments with galiellalactone or dehydrocurvularin by application through the mesenteric artery significantly prevented the expression of pro-inflammatory marker genes on the mRNA and the protein level. Comparable to the results in the perfused intestine model, treatment of primary enteric nervous system (ENS) cells from the murine intestine with the fungal compounds reduced expression of cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and inflammatory enzymes such as COX-2 and iNOS on mRNA and protein levels. Similar anti-inflammatory effects of the fungal metabolites were observed in the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line DLD-1 after stimulation with IFN-γ (10 ng/ml), TNF-α (10 ng/ml), and IL-1β (5 ng/ml). Our results show that the mesenterially perfused intestine model provides a reliable tool for the screening of new therapeutics with limited amounts of test compounds. Furthermore, we could characterize the anti-inflammatory effects of two novel active compounds, galiellalactone, and dehydrocurvularin which are interesting candidates for studies with chronic animal models of IBD. PMID:28824460

  7. Anticarbohydrate antibodies as markers of inflammatory bowel disease in a Central European cohort.

    PubMed

    Malickova, Karin; Lakatos, Peter L; Bortlik, Martin; Komarek, Viktor; Janatkova, Ivana; Lukas, Milan

    2010-02-01

    The study discusses the role of antichitobioside carbohydrate antibody (ACCA), antilaminaribioside carbohydrate antibodies (ALCA), and antimannobioside carbohydrate antibodies (AMCA) in Central European patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Twohundred and seventy-two serum samples were used - 116 Crohn's disease (CD), 84 ulcerative colitis, and 72 healthy control samples. All samples were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the following four anticarbohydrate assays: ACCA, ALCA, AMCA, and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (gASCA). gASCA antibodies showed the highest sensitivity (67%) for a CD diagnosis, followed by AMCA (31%), ACCA (27%), and ALCA (25%). Positivity of at least one of the four assays increased the overall sensitivity of antibody testing in CD up to 85.5%. Mean serum gASCA levels were significantly higher in CD patients who were younger at diagnosis and had a longer disease duration before blood sampling (P<0.001). In nonstricturing, nonpenetrating CD, serum gASCA levels were lower than in patients with stricturing and/or penetrating behavior (P<0.05). The strongest association of gASCA was found with ileocolonic CD and with upper gastrointestinal disease (P<0.001). No association between anticarbohydrate (AMCA, ACCA, and ALCA) antibodies and CD location, behavior, age at onset, and disease duration was found; however, that sample size of some of our subgroups was probably too small to make firm conclusions on associations with all CD phenotypes. None of the assessed anticarbohydrate assays was predictive of colonic CD in patients in whom the distinction between CD and ulcerative colitis is not obvious using routine diagnostic methods. There was no relationship between the presence or concentration of anticarbohydrate antibodies and the inflammation measured by C-reactive protein levels. The use of a panel of anticarbohydrate antibodies may provide additional help in distinguishing IBD from non-IBD disease patterns

  8. High-intensity interval training improves inflammatory and adipokine profiles in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Steckling, Flávia Mariel; Farinha, Juliano Boufleur; Figueiredo, Felipe da Cunha; Santos, Daniela Lopes Dos; Bresciani, Guilherme; Kretzmann, Nélson Alexandre; Stefanello, Sílvio Terra; Courtes, Aline Alves; Beck, Maristela de Oliveira; Sangoi Cardoso, Manuela; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; Moresco, Rafael Noal; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

    2018-02-12

    This study investigate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic levels of inflammatory and hormonal markers in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MS). Fifteen postmenopausal women with MS completed the training on treadmills. Functional, body composition parameters, maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), and lipid profile were assessed before and after HIIT. Serum or plasma levels of cytokines and hormonal markers were measured along the intervention. The analysis of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of these cytokines was performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). VO 2 max and some anthropometric parameters were improved after HIIT, while decreased levels of proinflammatory markers and increased levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) were also found. Adipokines were also modulated after 12 weeks or training. The mRNA expression of the studied genes was unchanged after HIIT. In conclusion, HIIT benefits inflammatory and hormonal axis on serum or plasma samples, without changes on PBMC of postmenopausal MS patients.

  9. Fingolimod modulates multiple neuroinflammatory markers in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Aytan, Nurgul; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Carreras, Isabel; Brinkmann, Volker; Kowall, Neil W; Jenkins, Bruce G; Dedeoglu, Alpaslan

    2016-04-27

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (SP1) receptors may be attractive targets for modulation of inflammatory processes in neurodegenerative diseases. Recently fingolimod, a functional S1P1 receptor antagonist, was introduced for treatment of multiple sclerosis. We postulated that anti-inflammatory mechanisms of fingolimod might also be protective in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, we treated a mouse model of AD, the 5xFAD model, with two doses of fingolimod (1 and 5 mg/kg/day) and measured the response of numerous markers of Aβ pathology as well as inflammatory markers and neurochemistry using biochemical, immunohistochemistry and high resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In mice at 3 months of age, we found that fingolimod decreased plaque density as well as soluble plus insoluble Aβ measured by ELISA. Fingolimod also decreased GFAP staining and the number of activated microglia. Taurine has been demonstrated to play a role as an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule. Taurine levels, measured using MRS, showed a very strong inverse correlation with GFAP levels and ELISA measurements of Aβ, but not with plaque density or activated microglia levels. MRS also showed an effect of fingolimod on glutamate levels. Fingolimod at 1 mg/kg/day provided better neuroprotection than 5 mg/kg/day. Together, these data suggest a potential therapeutic role for fingolimod in AD.

  10. Effects of insomnia disorder and knee osteoarthritis on resting and pain-evoked inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Quartana, Phillip J; Finan, Patrick H; Page, Gayle G; Smith, Michael T

    2015-07-01

    Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent arthritic condition. Systemic inflammatory cytokines appear to have an important role in the onset and maintenance of the disease. Sleep disturbances are prevalent in osteoarthritis and associated with alterations in systemic inflammatory cytokines, suggesting a common pathophysiology across these conditions. A comparative investigation of the effects of insomnia disorder and osteoarthritis on pain-evoked cytokine responses has yet to be undertaken. We examined the influence of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis and insomnia disorder on resting C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 levels, and pain-evoked IL-6 and IL-10 responses. Participants were N=117 older adults (mean age=59.7years; 61.8% women) rigorously evaluated for knee osteoarthritis and insomnia disorder using established diagnostic guidelines. Results revealed no association of osteoarthritis or insomnia disorder with CRP. Resting IL-6 was greater in osteoarthritis participants versus those without osteoarthritis, although this association was largely attributable to BMI. IL-10 was highest among participants with osteoarthritis or insomnia disorder. Growth curve modeling revealed that participants with insomnia disorder had greater pain-evoked IL-6 responses than participants without insomnia disorder or osteoarthritis. These findings highlight the utility of laboratory pain testing methods for understanding individual differences in inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, our findings provide evidence for amplified pain-evoked pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity among older adults with clinically diagnosed insomnia disorder, even after controlling for individual differences in BMI and age. Additional research will be required determine whether an amplified pain-related cytokine response contributes to OA, and possibly other age-related disease, associated with insomnia disorder. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Maternal inflammatory markers and term labor performance.

    PubMed

    Cierny, Jill T; Unal, E Ramsey; Flood, Pamela; Rhee, Ka Young; Praktish, Allison; Olson, Tara Hudak; Goetzl, Laura

    2014-05-01

    We sought to examine the relationship between maternal markers of inflammation and labor performance. A nested cohort study was performed utilizing an established cohort of term nulliparous patients. Maternal blood was collected at the onset of regular, painful contractions in patients undergoing labor induction or at admission in patients with spontaneous labor. Levels of cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were determined using standard multiplex methodology. Maternal demographic data were collected prospectively. Detailed retrospective chart review was performed to extract data on cervical dilation, effacement, and station during labor. Subjects were excluded if they failed to achieve complete dilation. Mixed effects modeling was used to examine the association between serum cytokine quartiles and labor progress in the latent and active phases. In all, 334 women were included in our analysis. The lowest quartile of IL-6 was associated with slower latent labor (P = .001). In contrast, the highest quartiles of IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α were associated with slower active labor (P = .03 and .0002, respectively). Proinflammatory activation is important in labor initiation. However, once active labor is established, excess inflammation can be detrimental to efficient labor progress. These data may explain, in part, the known associations among clinical chorioamnionitis, cesarean delivery, and postpartum hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemokine Receptor Ccr6 Deficiency Alters Hepatic Inflammatory Cell Recruitment and Promotes Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Blaya, Delia; Morales-Ibanez, Oriol; Coll, Mar; Millán, Cristina; Altamirano, José; Arroyo, Vicente; Caballería, Joan; Bataller, Ramón; Ginès, Pere; Sancho-Bru, Pau

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver diseases are characterized by a sustained inflammatory response in which chemokines and chemokine-receptors orchestrate inflammatory cell recruitment. In this study we investigated the role of the chemokine receptor CCR6 in acute and chronic liver injury. In the absence of liver injury Ccr6 -/- mice presented a higher number of hepatic macrophages and increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and M1 markers Tnf-α, Il6 and Mcp1. Inflammation and cell recruitment were increased after carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in Ccr6 -/- mice. Moreover, chronic liver injury by carbon tetrachloride in Ccr6 -/- mice was associated with enhanced inflammation and fibrosis, altered macrophage recruitment, enhanced CD4+ cells and a reduction in Th17 (CD4+IL17+) and mature dendritic (MHCII+CD11c+) cells recruitment. Clodronate depletion of macrophages in Ccr6 -/- mice resulted in a reduction of hepatic pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic markers in the absence and after liver injury. Finally, increased CCR6 hepatic expression in patients with alcoholic hepatitis was found to correlate with liver expression of CCL20 and severity of liver disease. In conclusion, CCR6 deficiency affects hepatic inflammatory cell recruitment resulting in the promotion of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:26691857

  13. A prospective assessment of cytomegalovirus infection in active inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    de Saussure, P; Lavergne-Slove, A; Mazeron, M-C; Alain, S; Matuchansky, C; Bouhnik, Y

    2004-12-01

    The prevalence and clinical significance of cytomegalovirus infection is reportedly high in patients with refractory inflammatory bowel disease but is unknown in unselected patients with active disease. In patients admitted for active inflammatory bowel disease, we prospectively studied the presence and significance of cytomegalovirus infection using anti-cytomegalovirus antibodies, cytomegalovirus viraemia and antigenaemia and cytomegalovirus inclusions and cytomegalovirus immunochemistry staining in ileocolonic biopsies. A total of 64 patients were included (ulcerative colitis, n = 23; Crohn's disease, n = 41), 18 of whom had been on high-dose oral steroids and 11 on immunosuppressants. Anti-cytomegalovirus IgG and IgM were positive in 42 (66%) and 3 (5%) patients respectively. Blood or urine cytomegalovirus replication markers were found in 4 (6%) patients, all of whom had ulcerative colitis. Three patients had cytomegalovirus viraemia and received anti-viral treatment with ganciclovir. Only one of these patients had cytomegalovirus antigenaemia and also associated biopsy-proven cytomegalovirus colitis, probably as a primary cytomegalovirus infection. This patient is the only one who benefitted from anti-viral therapy. Cytomegalovirus infection is infrequent in in-patients with active inflammatory bowel disease. Systematic search of cytomegalovirus replication markers should not be performed. Isolated viraemia without associated antigenaemia or direct demonstration of cytomegalovirus in ileocolonic biopsies does not warrant anti-viral therapy.

  14. Magnesium supplement promotes sciatic nerve regeneration and down-regulates inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hung-Chuan; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Su, Hong-Lin; Chen, Ying-Ju; Chen, Chun-Jung; Yang, Dar-Yu; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Cheng, Fu-Chou

    2011-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) supplements have been shown to significantly improve functional recovery in various neurological disorders. The essential benefits of Mg supplementation in peripheral nerve disorders have not been elucidated yet. The effect and mechanism of Mg supplementation on a sciatic nerve crush injury model was investigated. Sciatic nerve injury was induced in mice by crushing the left sciatic nerve. Mice were randomly divided into three groups with low-, basal- or high-Mg diets (corresponding to 10, 100 or 200% Mg of the basal diet). Neurobehavioral, electrophysiological and regeneration marker studies were conducted to explore nerve regeneration. First, a high Mg diet significantly increased plasma and nerve tissue Mg concentrations. In addition, Mg supplementation improved neurobehavioral, electrophysiological functions, enhanced regeneration marker, and reduced deposits of inflammatory cells as well as expression of inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, reduced Schwann cell apoptosis was in line with the significant expression of bcl-2, bcl-X(L) and down-regulated expression of active caspase-3 and cytochrome C. In summary, improved neurological function recovery and enhanced nerve regeneration were found in mice with a sciatic nerve injury that were fed a high- Mg diet, and Schwann cells may have been rescued from apoptosis by the suppression of inflammatory responses.

  15. Inflammation associated anemia and ferritin as disease markers in SLE

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In a recent screening to detect biomarkers in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), expression of the iron storage protein, ferritin, was increased. Given that proteins that regulate the storage, transfer and release of iron play an important role in inflammation, this study aims to determine the serum and urine levels of ferritin and of the iron transfer protein, transferrin, in lupus patients and to correlate these levels with disease activity, inflammatory cytokine levels and markers of anemia. Methods A protein array was utilized to measure ferritin expression in the urine and serum of SLE patients and healthy controls. To confirm these results as well as the role of the iron transfer pathway in SLE, ELISAs were performed to measure ferritin and transferrin levels in inactive or active SLE patients and healthy controls. The relationship between ferritin/transferrin levels and inflammatory markers and anemia was next analyzed. Results Protein array results showed elevated ferritin levels in the serum and urine of lupus patients as compared to controls, which were further validated by ELISA. Increased ferritin levels correlated with measures of disease activity and anemia as well as inflammatory cytokine titers. Though active SLE patients had elevated urine transferrin, serum transferrin was reduced. Conclusion Urine ferritin and transferrin levels are elevated significantly in SLE patients and correlate with disease activity, bolstering previous reports. Most importantly, these changes correlated with the inflammatory state of the patients and anemia of chronic disease. Taken together, altered iron handling, inflammation and anemia of chronic disease constitute an ominous triad in SLE. PMID:22871034

  16. The spleen as an extramedullary source of inflammatory cells responding to acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, Mili, E-mail: milimandal@gmail.com

    Macrophages have been shown to play a role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity, contributing to both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. In these studies, we analyzed the role of the spleen as an extramedullary source of hepatic macrophages. APAP administration (300 mg/kg, i.p.) to control mice resulted in an increase in CD11b{sup +} infiltrating Ly6G{sup +} granulocytic and Ly6G{sup −} monocytic cells in the spleen and the liver. The majority of the Ly6G{sup +} cells were also positive for the monocyte/macrophage activation marker, Ly6C, suggesting a myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC) phenotype. By comparison, Ly6G{sup −} cells consisted of 3 subpopulations expressingmore » high, intermediate, and low levels of Ly6C. Splenectomy was associated with increases in mature (F4/80{sup +}) and immature (F4/80{sup −}) pro-inflammatory Ly6C{sup hi} macrophages and mature anti-inflammatory (Ly6C{sup lo}) macrophages in the liver after APAP; increases in MDSCs were also noted in the livers of splenectomized (SPX) mice after APAP. This was associated with increases in APAP-induced expression of chemokine receptors regulating pro-inflammatory (CCR2) and anti-inflammatory (CX3CR1) macrophage trafficking. In contrast, APAP-induced increases in pro-inflammatory galectin-3{sup +} macrophages were blunted in livers of SPX mice relative to control mice, along with hepatic expression of TNF-α, as well as the anti-inflammatory macrophage markers, FIZZ-1 and YM-1. These data demonstrate that multiple subpopulations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cells respond to APAP-induced injury, and that these cells originate from distinct hematopoietic reservoirs. - Highlights: • Multiple inflammatory cell subpopulations accumulate in the spleen and liver following acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. • Splenectomy alters liver inflammatory cell populations responding to APAP. • Inflammatory cells accumulating in the liver in response to APAP originate from the spleen

  17. Tear film inflammatory mediators in patients with keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Sorkhabi, Rana; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Taheri, Nazli; Ahoor, Mohammad Hosein

    2015-08-01

    To determine the concentration of inflammatory mediators in the tear film of patients with keratoconus. Basal tears from patients with keratoconus and from normal controls were collected using a capillary tube. Patients with keratoconus were examined in a routine fashion, and keratometric readings were also taken from corneal topographic maps .The concentration of cytokines including Interleukin 6,10,1b and Interferon-γ was measured by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay. Seventy-two subjects were enrolled in the study including 42 patients with keratoconus and 30 normals. Patients with keratoconus had significantly higher levels of Interlukin 6,1b and Interferon-γ (17.49 ± 1.92 pg/ml), (8.58 ± 1.15 pg/ml), and (33.33 ± 7.57 pg/ml) compared with control subjects (13.81 ± 1.71 pg/ml), (4.98 ± 0.52 pg/ml), and (22.99 ± 4.68 pg/ml), (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0001). But the level of Interlukin-10 in keratoconus patients was significantly lower (6.07 ± 1.35 pg/ml) than controls (8.99 ± 0.70 pg/ml) (P = 0.0001). We realized that the proinflammatory markers (Interlukin-6,1-b and Interferon-γ) are over expressed, whereas the anti-inflammatory marker (Interlukin-10) is under expressed, indicating that the pathogenesis of keratoconus may involve complex chronic inflammatory events. Additional future studies will reveal the exact molecular and biochemical mechanisms that are required to better manage the disease and halt its progression.

  18. In vitro adhesion and anti-inflammatory properties of native Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp.

    PubMed

    Archer, A C; Kurrey, N K; Halami, P M

    2018-03-14

    This study aimed at characterizing the adhesion and immune-stimulatory properties of native probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum (MCC 2759 and MCC 2760) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii MCC 2775. Adhesion of the strains was assessed in Caco-2 and HT-29 cell lines. Expression of adhesion and immune markers were evaluated in Caco-2 cells by real-time qPCR. The cultures displayed >80% of adhesion to both cell lines and also induced the expression of mucin-binding protein (mub) gene in the presence of mucin, bile and pancreatin. Adhesion was mediated by carbohydrate and proteinaceous factors. The cultures stimulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines in Caco-2 cells. However, pro-inflammatory genes were down-regulated upon challenge with lipopolysaccharide and IL-10 was up-regulated by the cultures. Cell wall extract of L. fermentum MCC 2760 induced the expression of IL-6 by 5·47-fold, whereas crude culture filtrate enhanced the expression of IL-10 by 14·87-fold compared to LPS control. The bacterial cultures exhibited strong adhesion and anti-inflammatory properties. This is the first report to reveal the role of adhesion markers of L. fermentum and L. delbrueckii by qPCR. The strain-specific anti-inflammatory property of native cultures may be useful to alleviate inflammatory conditions and develop a target-based probiotic. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Phytochemical Analysis on Quantification and the Inhibitory Effects on Inflammatory Responses from the Fruit of Xanthii fructus

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sae-Rom; Seo, Chang-Seob; Lee, Na-Ri; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jeong, Soo-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Xanthii fructus (Compositae) is a traditional herbal medicine used for treating headache, toothache, pruritus, empyema, and rhinitis. In this study of the quality control of X. fructus, we performed simultaneous analysis of nine marker compounds: Protocatechuic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), caffeic acid (3), 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4), ferulic acid (5), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (6), 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid (7), 1,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (8), and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (9). Materials and Methods: Nine components were separated using reversed-phase SunFire™ C18 analytical column and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. We examined the biological effects of the nine marker compounds by determining their anti-inflammatory activities in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Results: Among the nine marker compounds, eight significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production. 1, 3, 5 had significant inhibitory effects on LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in RAW 264.7 cells. None of the tested marker compounds had a significant effect on interleukin-6 production in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells. Our data demonstrated that each marker compound from X. fructus exerts anti-inflammatory activity by targeting different inflammation-related pathways such as the TNF-α or PGE2 pathway. Conclusion: Further experiments using in vitro and in vivo models are needed to identify the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory properties of each marker compound. SUMMARY Simultaneous analysis of nine phenylpropanoids in the Xanthii fructus was established using HPLC-PDA system.1,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated TNF-a production.Protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid had significant inhibitory effects on LPS-induced PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:27013799

  20. Relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and depressive symptoms during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Simpson, William; Steiner, Meir; Coote, Marg; Frey, Benicio N

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal depressive symptoms often co-occur with other inflammatory morbidities of pregnancy. The goals of our study were 1) to examine whether changes in inflammatory markers from the third trimester of pregnancy to 12 weeks postpartum were associated with changes in depressive symptoms; 2) to examine whether third trimester inflammatory markers alone were predictive of postpartum depressive symptoms; and 3) to examine the relationship between inflammatory markers and depressive symptoms during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 12 weeks postpartum. Thirty-three healthy pregnant women were recruited from the Women's Health Concerns Clinic at St. Joseph's Healthcare in Hamilton, Canada. The impact of depressive symptoms on the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) at the third trimester of pregnancy, at 12 weeks postpartum, and across time was assessed using linear and mixed-model regression. Regression analysis revealed no significant association between depressive symptoms and any of the candidate biomarkers during pregnancy, at 12 weeks postpartum, or over time. Pregnancy depressive symptoms (p > 0.001), IL-6 (p = 0.025), and IL-10 (p = 0.006) were significant predictors of postpartum Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score. Our study supports previous reports from the literature showing no relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and depressive symptoms during late pregnancy, early postpartum, or across time. Our study is the first to observe an association between late pregnancy levels of IL-6 and IL-10 and postpartum depressive symptoms. Further studies with larger samples are required to confirm these findings.

  1. Socioeconomic status, psychological resources, and inflammatory markers: Results from the MIDUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Elliot, Ari J.; Chapman, Benjamin P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate interactions of psychological resources and socioeconomic status in predicting markers of systemic inflammation, as well as potential gender differences and the explanatory role of childhood and adult stress exposures, health behaviors, and negative and positive affect. Method We utilized a sample of adults from the Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS) who provided biomarker data (N=1,152). SES was operationalized as a composite of education, income, and occupational prestige, and psychological resources as a latent factor measured with optimism, perceived control, and self-esteem. Linear regression models examined these two factors and their interaction in predicting interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) measured on average 2 years later, as well as three-way interactions involving gender and the impact of covariate adjustment. Results Psychological resources interacted with SES in men (for IL-6: p<.001; for CRP: p=.04) but not in women. In men, greater psychological resources were associated with lower concentrations of IL-6 at lower levels of SES, but higher concentrations of both markers at higher levels of SES. The inverse association between resources and IL-6 at low SES was moderately attenuated upon adjustment for negative affect. Conclusion Socioeconomic status might modulate the linkage between psychological resources and systemic inflammation in men. At lower levels of SES, resources may be related to lower inflammation in part through lower negative affect. Associations with higher inflammation at higher SES add to growing evidence suggesting that adaptive psychological characteristics may be associated with markers of poorer physiological function under certain conditions. PMID:27280368

  2. Intermittent fasting combined with supplementation with Ayurvedic herbs reduces anxiety in middle aged female rats by anti-inflammatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpal; Kaur, Taranjeet; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2017-08-01

    Intermittent fasting-dietary restriction (IF-DR) is an increasingly popular intervention to promote healthy aging and delay age associated decline in brain functions. Also, the use of herbal interventions is gaining attention due to their non-pharmacological approach to treat several abnormalities and promote general health with least side effects. The present study was aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of IF-DR regimen with herbal supplementation on anxiety-like behavior and neuroinflammation in middle aged female rats. We used dried leaf powder of Withania somnifera and dried stem powder of Tinospora cordifolia for our study. The rats were divided into three groups: (1) Control group fed ad libitum (AL); (2) rats deprived of food for full day and fed ad libitum on every alternate day (IF-DR); and (3) IF-DR and herbal extract (DRH) group in which rats were fed ad libitum with herbal extract supplemented diet, every alternate day. Post regimen, the rats were tested for anxiety-like behavior and further used for study of key inflammatory molecules (NFκB, Iba1, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6) and glial marker (GFAP) in hippocampus and piriform cortex regions of brain. The study was further extended to explore the effect of DRH regimen on stress response protein (HSP70) and calcium dependent regulators of synaptic plasticity (CaMKIIα, Calcineurin). Our data demonstrated that DRH regimen reduced anxiety-like behavior in middle age female rats and associated neuroinflammation by ameliorating key inflammatory cytokines and modulated stress response. The present data may provide scientific validation for anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory potential of herbal intervention combined with short term IF-DR regimen.

  3. Potential Use of Salivary Markers for Longitudinal Monitoring of Inflammatory Immune Responses to Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Garssen, Johan; Sandalova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination, designed to trigger a protective immune response against infection, is a trigger for mild inflammatory responses. Vaccination studies can address the question of inflammation initiation, levels, and resolution as well as its regulation for respective studied pathogens. Such studies largely based on analyzing the blood components including specific antibodies and cytokines were usually constrained by number of participants and volume of collected blood sample. Hence, blood-based studies may not be able to cover the full dynamic range of inflammation responses induced by vaccination. In this review, the potential of using saliva in addition to blood for studying the kinetics of inflammatory response studies was assessed. Saliva sampling is noninvasive and has a great potential to be used for studies aimed at analysing the magnitude, time course, and variance in immune responses, including inflammation after vaccination. Based on a literature survey of inflammatory biomarkers that can be determined in saliva and an analysis of how these biomarkers could help to understand the mechanisms and dynamics of immune reactivity and inflammation, we propose that the saliva-based approach might have potential to add substantial value to clinical studies, particularly in vulnerable populations such as infants, toddlers, and ill individuals. PMID:27022211

  4. Serum cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 associated with the severity of coronary artery disease: indicators of an active inflammatory burden?

    PubMed

    Gotsman, Israel; Stabholz, Ayala; Planer, David; Pugatsch, Thea; Lapidus, Ludmila; Novikov, Yelena; Masrawa, Siham; Soskolne, Aubrey; Lotan, Chaim

    2008-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process resulting in coronary artery disease. To determine the relationship between inflammatory markers and the angiographic severity of CAD. We measured inflammatory markers in consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography. This included C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, serum cytokines (interleukin-1 beta, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha), all measured by high sensitivity enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. There was a significant correlation between TNFalpha and the severity of CAD as assessed by the number of obstructed coronary vessels and the Gensini severity score, which is based on the proximity and severity of the lesions. Patients had more coronary vessel disease (> 70% stenosis) with increasing tertiles of serum TNFalpha; the mean number of vessels affected was 1.15, 1.33, and 2.00 respectively (P< 0.001). IL-6 correlated with the Gensini severity score and coronary vessel disease (> 70% stenosis). A weaker correlation was present with IL-1 receptor antagonist. A significant correlation was not found with the other inflammatory markers. After adjustment for major risk factors, multivariate analyses showed that significant independent predictors of CAD vessel disease were TNFalpha (P< 0.05) and combined levels of TNFalpha and IL-6 (P< 0.05). IL-6 levels were independently predictive of Gensini coronary score (P< 0.05). TNFalpha and IL-6 are signi