Science.gov

Sample records for key research findings

  1. Research on Self-Determination in Physical Education: Key Findings and Proposals for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Berghe, Lynn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Cardon, Greet; Kirk, David; Haerens, Leen

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the last 30 years, several theories of motivation have generated insights into the motives underlying learners' behavior in physical education. Self-determination theory (SDT), a general theory on social development and motivation, has enjoyed increasing popularity in physical education research during the past decade. SDT…

  2. Key Events and Lessons for Managers in a Diverse Workforce: A Report on Research and Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Christina A.

    The research documented in this report builds on earlier work in the 1980s in the area of on-the-job experiences in developing effective leaders. The current study was designed to answer the following: (1) What are the significant events from which African American managers learn and develop? (2) Are the key events and lessons learned different…

  3. Myalgic encephalomyelitis: a review with emphasis on key findings in biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, M

    2007-01-01

    This review examines research findings in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis in light of the current debate about this chronic multiple‐symptom, multiorgan, multisystem illness and the conflicting views in medicine. These issues cannot be separated from the political opinions and assertions that conflict with science and medicine, and will be part of this review as they have enormous consequences for scientific and medical research, patients, clinicians, carers and policy makers. PMID:16935967

  4. Student Engagement and Student Outcomes: Key Findings from "CCSSE" Validation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClenney, Kay; Marti, C. Nathan; Adkins, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    The findings from 20 years of research on undergraduate education have been unequivocal: The more actively engaged students are--with college faculty and staff, with other students, and with the subject matter they study--the more likely they are to learn, to stick with their studies, and to attain their academic goals. The existing literature,…

  5. Research in Online and Blended Learning in the Business Disciplines: Key Findings and Possible Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbaugh, J. B.; Godfrey, Michael R.; Johnson, Marianne; Pollack, Birgit Leisen; Niendorf, Bruce; Wresch, William

    2009-01-01

    In this literature review, we examine and assess the state of research of online and blended learning in the business disciplines with the intent of assessing the state of the field and identifying opportunities for meaningful future research. We review research from business disciplines such as Accounting, Economics, Finance, Information Systems…

  6. Key Findings and Recommendations from the Coös Youth Study: Research from the First Half of the Study. Regional Issue Brief Number 41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staunton, Michael S.; Jaffee, Eleanor M.

    2014-01-01

    In this brief, authors Michael Staunton and Eleanor Jaffee review the key findings and recommendations from research conducted in the first half of the Coös Youth Study, which began in 2008 and is planned to continue through 2018. The study explores young people's decisions about their educational and job opportunities in rural northern New…

  7. Knowledge, ignorance and priorities for research in key areas of cancer survivorship: findings from a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, A; Addington-Hall, J; Amir, Z; Foster, C; Stark, D; Armes, J; Brearley, S G; Hodges, L; Hook, J; Jarrett, N; Stamataki, Z; Scott, I; Walker, J; Ziegler, L; Sharpe, M

    2011-01-01

    research funding environment, we suggest areas in which strategic investment might give findings that have the potential to make a major impact on patient well-being in a 5-year time scale. PMID:22048036

  8. The Relationship of Family Support to Family Outcomes: A Synthesis of Key Findings from Research on Severe Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Turnbull, Ann P.; Summers, Jean Ann; Gomez, Viviana Aya

    2012-01-01

    There has been a gradual shift from a deficit to a support model for understanding disability over the last two decades. Although more attention is focused on supports at the individual level, policy has provided for the provision of family support. Despite this policy, families' needs for support are on the rise; and research suggests that…

  9. Nanofluids Research: Key Issues

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Nanofluids are a new class of fluids engineered by dispersing nanometer-size structures (particles, fibers, tubes, droplets) in base fluids. The very essence of nanofluids research and development is to enhance fluid macroscopic and megascale properties such as thermal conductivity through manipulating microscopic physics (structures, properties and activities). Therefore, the success of nanofluid technology depends very much on how well we can address issues like effective means of microscale manipulation, interplays among physics at different scales and optimization of microscale physics for the optimal megascale properties. In this work, we take heat-conduction nanofluids as examples to review methodologies available to effectively tackle these key but difficult problems and identify the future research needs as well. The reviewed techniques include nanofluids synthesis through liquid-phase chemical reactions in continuous-flow microfluidic microreactors, scaling-up by the volume averaging and constructal design with the constructal theory. The identified areas of future research contain microfluidic nanofluids, thermal waves and constructal nanofluids. PMID:20676214

  10. Key findings of the national weatherization evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.

    1994-10-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program, the nation`s largest residential energy conservation program. The primary goal of the evaluation was to establish whether the Program meets the objectives of its enabling legislation and fulfills its mission statement, to reduce the heating and cooling costs for low-income families-particularly the elderly, persons with disabilities, and children by improving the energy-efficiency of their homes and ensuring their health and safety. Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed a five-part study which produced a series of documents evaluating the Program. The objective of this document is to summarize the findings of the five-part National Weatherization Evaluation. The five studies were as follows: (1) Network Study-this study characterized the weatherization network`s leveraging, capabilities, procedures, staff, technologies, and innovations; (2) Resources and Population Study-this study profiled low-income weatherization resources, the weatherized population, and the population remaining to be served; (3) Multifamily Study-this study described the nature and extent of weatherization activities in larger multifamily buildings; (4) Single-family Study-this study estimated the national savings and cost- effectiveness of weatherizing single-family and small multifamily dwellings that use natural gas or electricity for space heating; (5) Fuel-Oil Study-this study estimated the savings and cost-effectiveness of weatherizing single-family homes, located in nine northeastern states, that use fuel oil for space heating. This paper provides a brief overview of each study`s purposes, research methods and most important findings.

  11. Powering Down: Green IT in Higher Education. Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Mark C.

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from "Powering Down: Green IT in Higher Education," the 2010 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of green IT. The study examines the stance institutions and their central IT organizations are taking on environmental sustainability (ES), the progress they are making on a variety of key…

  12. Institutional Data Management in Higher Education. ECAR Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanosky, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from the 2009 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of institutional data management, which examines the policies and practices by which higher education institutions effectively collect, protect, and use digital information assets to meet academic and business needs. Importantly, it also…

  13. Perceptual Tests of an Algorithm for Musical Key-Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmuckler, Mark A.; Tomovski, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Perceiving the tonality of a musical passage is a fundamental aspect of the experience of hearing music. Models for determining tonality have thus occupied a central place in music cognition research. Three experiments investigated 1 well-known model of tonal determination: the Krumhansl-Schmuckler key-finding algorithm. In Experiment 1,…

  14. Developing International Research Collaborations among Postdoctoral Fellows: Key Findings from the Evaluation of NSF's International Research Fellowship Program. GS-10F-0086K

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Alina; Epstein, Carter; Parsad, Amanda; Whittaker, Karla

    2012-01-01

    Over a decade ago, the National Science Board (NSB) highlighted the importance of international collaboration in its call for increased government commitment to promoting international science and engineering (S&E) research and education. The NSB also identified the National Science Foundation (NSF) as having an important leadership role in…

  15. Knowledge translation of research findings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by

  16. Human Health Effects of Dichloromethane: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    PubMed Central

    Schlosser, Paul M.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Gibbons, Catherine F.; Wilkins, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Background: The U.S. EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) completed an updated toxicological review of dichloromethane in November 2011. Objectives: In this commentary we summarize key results and issues of this review, including exposure sources, identification of potential health effects, and updated physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Methods: We performed a comprehensive review of primary research studies and evaluation of PBPK models. Discussion: Hepatotoxicity was observed in oral and inhalation exposure studies in several studies in animals; neurological effects were also identified as a potential area of concern. Dichloromethane was classified as likely to be carcinogenic in humans based primarily on evidence of carcinogenicity at two sites (liver and lung) in male and female B6C3F1 mice (inhalation exposure) and at one site (liver) in male B6C3F1 mice (drinking-water exposure). Recent epidemiologic studies of dichloromethane (seven studies of hematopoietic cancers published since 2000) provide additional data raising concerns about associations with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Although there are gaps in the database for dichloromethane genotoxicity (i.e., DNA adduct formation and gene mutations in target tissues in vivo), the positive DNA damage assays correlated with tissue and/or species availability of functional glutathione S-transferase (GST) metabolic activity, the key activation pathway for dichloromethane-induced cancer. Innovations in the IRIS assessment include estimation of cancer risk specifically for a presumed sensitive genotype (GST-theta-1+/+), and PBPK modeling accounting for human physiological distributions based on the expected distribution for all individuals 6 months to 80 years of age. Conclusion: The 2011 IRIS assessment of dichloromethane provides insights into the toxicity of a commonly used solvent. Citation: Schlosser PM, Bale AS, Gibbons CF, Wilkins A, Cooper GS. 2015. Human health

  17. Teacher Retirement Systems: Research Findings. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janet S.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Costrell, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This policy brief summarizes findings presented at a February 2009 research conference on teacher retirement systems hosted by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) at Vanderbilt University's Peabody College. The 2009 conference was the second in a series of NCPI events focusing on findings from recent research on issues related to…

  18. Public key infrastructure for DOE security research

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, R.; Foster, I.; Johnston, W.E.

    1997-06-01

    This document summarizes the Department of Energy`s Second Joint Energy Research/Defence Programs Security Research Workshop. The workshop, built on the results of the first Joint Workshop which reviewed security requirements represented in a range of mission-critical ER and DP applications, discussed commonalties and differences in ER/DP requirements and approaches, and identified an integrated common set of security research priorities. One significant conclusion of the first workshop was that progress in a broad spectrum of DOE-relevant security problems and applications could best be addressed through public-key cryptography based systems, and therefore depended upon the existence of a robust, broadly deployed public-key infrastructure. Hence, public-key infrastructure ({open_quotes}PKI{close_quotes}) was adopted as a primary focus for the second workshop. The Second Joint Workshop covered a range of DOE security research and deployment efforts, as well as summaries of the state of the art in various areas relating to public-key technologies. Key findings were that a broad range of DOE applications can benefit from security architectures and technologies built on a robust, flexible, widely deployed public-key infrastructure; that there exists a collection of specific requirements for missing or undeveloped PKI functionality, together with a preliminary assessment of how these requirements can be met; that, while commercial developments can be expected to provide many relevant security technologies, there are important capabilities that commercial developments will not address, due to the unique scale, performance, diversity, distributed nature, and sensitivity of DOE applications; that DOE should encourage and support research activities intended to increase understanding of security technology requirements, and to develop critical components not forthcoming from other sources in a timely manner.

  19. Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings

    PubMed Central

    Macey, Paul M.; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Harper, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and demonstrate how disturbed systems can interact to produce aberrant regulation during autonomic challenges. Understanding autonomic dysfunction in various illnesses reveals mechanisms that potentially lead to interventions in the impairments. The objectives here are to: (1) describe the fMRI neuroimaging methodology for assessment of autonomic neural control, (2) outline the widespread, lateralized distribution of function in autonomic sites in the normal brain which includes structures from the neocortex through the medulla and cerebellum, (3) illustrate the importance of the time course of neural changes when coordinating responses, and how those patterns are impacted in conditions of sleep-disordered breathing, and (4) highlight opportunities for future research studies with emerging methodologies. Methodological considerations specific to autonomic testing include timing of challenges relative to the underlying fMRI signal, spatial resolution sufficient to identify autonomic brainstem nuclei, blood pressure, and blood oxygenation influences on the fMRI signal, and the sustained timing, often measured in minutes of challenge periods and recovery. Key findings include the lateralized nature of autonomic organization, which is reminiscent of asymmetric motor, sensory, and language pathways. Testing brain function during autonomic challenges demonstrate closely-integrated timing of responses in connected brain areas during autonomic challenges, and the involvement with brain

  20. Human Health Effects of Tetrachloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Karen A.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Cooper, Glinda S.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Kopylev, Leonid; Barone, Stanley; Makris, Susan L.; Glenn, Barbara; Subramaniam, Ravi P.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) in February 2012 in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Objectives: We reviewed key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of PCE described in the U.S. EPA’s Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene). Methods: The updated assessment of PCE synthesized and characterized a substantial database of epidemiological, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies. Key scientific issues were addressed through modeling of PCE toxicokinetics, synthesis of evidence from neurological studies, and analyses of toxicokinetic, mechanistic, and other factors (tumor latency, severity, and background rate) in interpreting experimental animal cancer findings. Considerations in evaluating epidemiological studies included the quality (e.g., specificity) of the exposure assessment methods and other essential design features, and the potential for alternative explanations for observed associations (e.g., bias or confounding). Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites that contribute to PCE toxicity. The exposure assessment approach—a key evaluation factor for epidemiological studies of bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma—provided suggestive evidence of carcinogenicity. Bioassay data provided conclusive evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Neurotoxicity was identified as a sensitive noncancer health effect, occurring at low exposures: a conclusion supported by multiple studies. Evidence was integrated from human, experimental animal, and mechanistic data sets in assessing adverse health effects of PCE. Conclusions: PCE is likely to be carcinogenic to humans. Neurotoxicity is a sensitive adverse health effect of PCE. Citation: Guyton KZ, Hogan KA, Scott CS, Cooper GS, Bale AS

  1. Research Findings on Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Phani B.; Patra, Sayani

    2015-01-01

    Several physiopathologic conditions lead to the manifestation of overactive bladder (OAB). These conditions include ageing, diabetes mellitus, bladder outlet obstruction, spinal cord injury, stroke and brain injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, interstitial cystitis, stress and depression. This review has discussed research findings in human and animal studies conducted on the above conditions. Several structural and functional changes under these conditions have not only been observed in the lower urinary tract, but also in the brain and spinal cord. Significant changes were observed in the following areas: neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, nerve growth factor, Rho-kinase, interstitial cells of Cajal, and ion and transient receptor potential channels. Interestingly, alterations in these areas showed great variation in each of the conditions of the OAB, suggesting that the pathophysiology of the OAB might be different in each condition of the disease. It is anticipated that this review will be helpful for further research on new and specific drug development against OAB. PMID:26195957

  2. Human Health Effects of Biphenyl: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Hogan, Karen A.; Cai, Christine; Rieth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the human health hazards of biphenyl exposure. Objectives: We review key findings and scientific issues regarding expected human health effects of biphenyl. Methods: Scientific literature from 1926 through September 2012 was critically evaluated to identify potential human health hazards associated with biphenyl exposure. Key issues related to the carcinogenicity and noncancer health hazards of biphenyl were examined based on evidence from experimental animal bioassays and mechanistic studies. Discussion: Systematic consideration of experimental animal studies of oral biphenyl exposure took into account the variety of study designs (e.g., study sizes, exposure levels, and exposure durations) to reconcile differing reported results. The available mechanistic and toxicokinetic evidence supports the hypothesis that male rat urinary bladder tumors arise through urinary bladder calculi formation but is insufficient to hypothesize a mode of action for liver tumors in female mice. Biphenyl and its metabolites may induce genetic damage, but a role for genotoxicity in biphenyl-induced carcinogenicity has not been established. Conclusions: The available health effects data for biphenyl provides suggestive evidence for carcinogenicity in humans, based on increased incidences of male rat urinary bladder tumors at high exposure levels and on female mouse liver tumors. Kidney toxicity is also a potential human health hazard of biphenyl exposure. Citation: Li Z, Hogan KA, Cai C, Rieth S. 2016. Human health effects of biphenyl: key findings and scientific issues. Environ Health Perspect 124:703–712; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509730 PMID:26529796

  3. Food irradiation: Key research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Morehouse, K.M. )

    1993-01-01

    Treatment of foods with ionizing radiation reduces microbial infection and insect infestations, inhibits sprouting, and delays maturation, thereby extending the shelf life of foods. The treatment of different types of foods with ionizing radiation for specific purposes is accepted in several countries, although it is prohibited in others. The US Food and Drug Administration has established regulations to allow the treatment of several different foods with ionizing radiation and has received petitions for the approval of radiation treatment of additional foods. When carried out according to established good manufacturing practices, food irradiation yields safe, wholesome foods. The irradiated product may be often chemically or microbiologically [open quotes]safer[close quotes] than the nonirradiated product. This paper presents several areas of scientific research in which more information would facilitate the expansion of this technology and points out major areas of concern. The question of the public acceptance of foods that have been treated with ionizing radiation is discussed only briefly in order to make the presentation complete.

  4. AN INTEGRATED SYNTHESIS OF KEY AND POLICY RELEVANT FINDINGS FROM EPA'S SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an overview and initial insights into the findings based on results from EPA's PM Supersites Program and related studies. Many key atmospheric sciences findings have been identified through the research conducted during the last five years as part of t...

  5. "State of the Nation": A Discussion of Some of the Project's Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earley, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers several of the key findings of the State of the Nation research. Specific reference is made to three areas--impact evaluation, strategic leadership of professional development, and barriers and constraints to effective CPD practice--which are considered with reference to findings from the other TDA-funded projects conducted at…

  6. Human Health Effects of Trichloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    PubMed Central

    Jinot, Jennifer; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Makris, Susan L.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Evans, Marina V.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Lipscomb, John C.; Barone, Stanley; Fox, John F.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Schaum, John; Caldwell, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of trichloroethylene (TCE) in September 2011, which was the result of an effort spanning > 20 years. Objectives: We summarized the key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of TCE in the U.S. EPA’s toxicological review. Methods: In this assessment we synthesized and characterized thousands of epidemiologic, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies, and addressed several key scientific issues through modeling of TCE toxicokinetics, meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies, and analyses of mechanistic data. Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the toxicological role of the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites of TCE. Meta-analyses of the epidemiologic data strongly supported the conclusions that TCE causes kidney cancer in humans and that TCE may also cause liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mechanistic analyses support a key role for mutagenicity in TCE-induced kidney carcinogenicity. Recent evidence from studies in both humans and experimental animals point to the involvement of TCE exposure in autoimmune disease and hypersensitivity. Recent avian and in vitro mechanistic studies provided biological plausibility that TCE plays a role in developmental cardiac toxicity, the subject of substantial debate due to mixed results from epidemiologic and rodent studies. Conclusions: TCE is carcinogenic to humans by all routes of exposure and poses a potential human health hazard for noncancer toxicity to the central nervous system, kidney, liver, immune system, male reproductive system, and the developing embryo/fetus. PMID:23249866

  7. Key Actions of Successful Summer Research Mentors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, D. Raj; Geisinger, Brandi N.; Kemis, Mari R.; de la Mora, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    Summer research opportunities for undergraduates, such as those supported by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program, can be critical experiences that help persuade students to pursue research through graduate studies. Studies analyzing the key actions of successful mentors are scarce. The goal of…

  8. Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia

    MedlinePlus

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia Scientists uncovered a mechanism behind genetic variations previously linked to schizophrenia. The findings may lead to new clinical approaches. ...

  9. The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2010. Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Shannon D.; Caruso, Judith Borreson

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from "The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2010". Since 2004, the annual ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of undergraduate students and information technology has sought to shed light on how information technology affects the college experience. We ask…

  10. Alternative IT Sourcing Strategies: From the Campus to the Cloud. ECAR Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from the 2009 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study, "Alternative IT Sourcing Strategies: From the Campus to the Cloud," by Philip J. Goldstein. The study explores a multitude of strategies used by colleges and university information technology organizations to deliver the breadth of technologies…

  11. Responding to Recession: IT Funding and Cost Management in Higher Education. Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from "Responding to Recession: IT Funding and Cost Management in Higher Education", the 2010 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of how the economic recession is impacting information technology (IT) organizations and operations in higher education. The study was designed to address the…

  12. Finding Translation in Stress Research

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Ahmad R.; Holmes, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In our ongoing efforts to advance understanding of human diseases, translational research across rodents and humans on stress-related mental disorders stands out as a field that is briskly producing discoveries that illuminate novel mechanisms of risk and pathophysiology. Here we offer a perspective on how a productive translational research dialogue between preclinical models and clinical studies of these disorders is being powered by an ever developing appreciation of the shared neural circuits and genetic architecture that moderate the response to stress across species. Working from these deep foundations, we discuss the approaches, both traditional and innovative, which have the potential to deliver a new generation of risk-biomarkers and therapeutic strategies for stress-related disorders. PMID:26404709

  13. A Mid-DESD Review: Key Findings and Ways Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wals, Arjen E. J.

    2009-01-01

    This article lists the key outcomes and recommendations of Phase I of the monitoring and evaluation of the DESD. Phase I focused on a review of the structures, provisions and conditions countries and regions have put in place in order to facilitate the development and implementation of ESD. The author also touches upon the constraints and…

  14. Finding the key - cell biology and science education.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kenneth R

    2010-12-01

    No international research community, cell biology included, can exist without an educational community to renew and replenish it. Unfortunately, cell biology researchers frequently regard their work as independent of the process of education and see little reason to reach out to science teachers. For cell biology to continue to prosper, I argue that researchers must support education in at least three ways. First, we must view education and research as part of a single scientific community. Second, we should take advantage of new technologies to connect the research laboratory to the classroom. Finally, we must take the initiative in defending the integrity of science teaching, particularly when education is under attack for political or religious reasons.

  15. Editorial Decisions May Perpetuate Belief in Invalid Research Findings

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Simpson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Social psychology and related disciplines are seeing a resurgence of interest in replication, as well as actual replication efforts. But prior work suggests that even a clear demonstration that a finding is invalid often fails to shake acceptance of the finding. This threatens the full impact of these replication efforts. Here we show that the actions of two key players – journal editors and the authors of original (invalidated) research findings – are critical to the broader public’s continued belief in an invalidated research conclusion. Across three experiments, we show that belief in an invalidated finding falls sharply when a critical failed replication is published in the same – versus different – journal as the original finding, and when the authors of the original finding acknowledge that the new findings invalidate their conclusions. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our key findings. PMID:24023863

  16. 78 FR 5454 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has..., Department of Neurological Surgery, UW, engaged in research misconduct by falsifying results in...

  17. 76 FR 23600 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has... Office of Research Integrity (ORI) in its oversight review, the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS)...

  18. Reading Research: Notable Findings and Urgent Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nila Banton

    This paper discusses some of the findings and needs of reading research. The areas of research study mentioned include word boundaries, letter names, preschool reading, teacher questioning, critical reading and Negro dialects. Researchers cited include Dolores Durkin, Frank Guszak, Jay Samuels, Guy Bond, A. Sterl Artley, Edward Fry, and Robert…

  19. Presenting research to clinicians: strategies for writing about research findings.

    PubMed

    Oermann, Marilyn H; Galvin, Elizabeth A; Floyd, Judith A; Roop, Janna C

    2006-01-01

    Research is of little value to clinical practice if the findings are not appropriately integrated into that practice. While publishing the results of research is essential for translating findings into practice, Marilyn Oermann and colleagues suggest that work is not done until the findings are disseminated for use by clinicians and others who need the research results to guide their practice

  20. 77 FR 5254 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has... obtained from Creighton University (CU) and additional evidence gathered by the Office of...

  1. 77 FR 69627 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI)...

  2. 77 FR 22320 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... obtained from Rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells (ECS) into a strain of rats (RCS) that develops retinal... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI)...

  3. 78 FR 8148 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... fellow, Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), engaged in research...

  4. 78 FR 47699 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), engaged in research misconduct in...

  5. Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Project: The 1991 Nevada State telephone survey: Key findings

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.H.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.

    1991-05-01

    The 1991 Nevada State Telephone Survey was implemented by Decision Research on behalf of the State of Nevada, Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) as part of an ongoing socioeconomic impact assessment study. The scope of this survey was considerably smaller than a previous survey conducted in 1989 and focused more upon public evaluations of the Yucca Mountain repository program and the trust Nevadans currently addressing the siting issues. In order to provide place in key public officials who are Longitudinal data on the repository program, the 1991 questionnaire consisted of questions that were used in the 1989 NWPO survey which was conducted by Mountain West Research. As a result, the findings from this survey are compared with analogous items from the 1989 survey, and with the results from a survey commissioned by the Las Vegas Review-Journal and reported in their issue of October 21, 1990. The Review-Journal survey was conducted by Bruce Merri11 of the Arizona State University Media Research Center. A more complete comparison of the 1989 and 1991 surveys sponsored by NWPO is possible since the researchers at Decision Research had access to both these databases. The only source of information for the Review-Journal findings was the articles published in the Fall, 1990. The findings of the 1991 survey show that Nevadans oppose the federal government attempts to locate a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. They support a policy of opposition on the part of Nevada officials. They believe that Nevadans should have the final say in whether to accept the repository or not, and they reject the proposition that benefits from the repository program will outweigh the harms. These findings are very similar to survey results from 1989 and 1990 and once again demonstrate very widespread public opposition by Nevadans to the current federal repository program.

  6. Audio Key Finding: Considerations in System Design and Case Studies on Chopin's 24 Preludes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuan, Ching-Hua; Chew, Elaine

    2006-12-01

    We systematically analyze audio key finding to determine factors important to system design, and the selection and evaluation of solutions. First, we present a basic system, fuzzy analysis spiral array center of effect generator algorithm, with three key determination policies: nearest-neighbor (NN), relative distance (RD), and average distance (AD). AD achieved a 79% accuracy rate in an evaluation on 410 classical pieces, more than 8% higher RD and NN. We show why audio key finding sometimes outperforms symbolic key finding. We next propose three extensions to the basic key finding system—the modified spiral array (mSA), fundamental frequency identification (F0), and post-weight balancing (PWB)—to improve performance, with evaluations using Chopin's Preludes (Romantic repertoire was the most challenging). F0 provided the greatest improvement in the first 8 seconds, while mSA gave the best performance after 8 seconds. Case studies examine when all systems were correct, or all incorrect.

  7. U of M Civil Service Wellness Survey: Finding Out Employees' Health and Wellness Needs. A Report of Key Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matross, Ron; Roesler, Jon

    Key findings from a wellness survey conducted with University of Minnesota civil service employees are discussed. The survey was designed to provide information to guide future campus health and wellness programming. Four topics were covered: physical fitness/exercise, nutrition, self-improvement/psychological health, and general health/preventive…

  8. 76 FR 47589 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary.... Specifically, ORI found that Respondent: Fabricated RT-PCR and ChIP experiments represented in Figures 1b, 2b, 3a,b, 4b,c, 6a,b, 7c in Mol. Endocrinol. 23(12):2075- 85, 2009; RT-PCR and/or ChIP experiments...

  9. Making Professional Decisions in Research: Measurement and Key Predictors.

    PubMed

    Antes, Alison L; Chibnall, John T; Baldwin, Kari A; Tait, Raymond C; Vander Wal, Jillon S; DuBois, James M

    2016-01-01

    The professional decision-making in research (PDR) measure was administered to 400 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded and industry-funded investigators, along with measures of cynicism, moral disengagement, compliance disengagement, impulsivity, work stressors, knowledge of responsible conduct of research (RCR), and socially desirable response tendencies. Negative associations were found for the PDR and measures of cynicism, moral disengagement, and compliance disengagement, while positive associations were found for the PDR and RCR knowledge and positive urgency, an impulsivity subscale. PDR scores were not related to socially desirable responding, or to measures of work stressors and the remaining impulsivity subscales. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, lower moral disengagement scores, higher RCR knowledge, and identifying the United States as one's nation of origin emerged as key predictors of stronger performance on the PDR. The implications of these findings for understanding the measurement of decision-making in research and future directions for research and RCR education are discussed.

  10. Basic Research: The Key to Economic Competitiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Erich

    Sustained investment in science and engineering research and education in universities in the United States is advocated as a means of progressing economically. Information related to economic advancement is provided through summaries of recent trends in research, education, and economics. Ideas and data are reviewed in reference to: (1) the need…

  11. Researcher as Instrument: Understanding "Shifting" Findings in Constructivist Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Dafina Lazarus

    2010-01-01

    Two studies investigating the meaning and articulation of multiple identities among Black college students revealed shifts in the findings from the 2001 study to the 2005 study. This theoretical review explores the role of the researcher as instrument within the constructivist research paradigm as a possible explanation for some of these apparent…

  12. Research on Key Technologies of Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shufen; Yan, Hongcan; Chen, Xuebin

    With the development of multi-core processors, virtualization, distributed storage, broadband Internet and automatic management, a new type of computing mode named cloud computing is produced. It distributes computation task on the resource pool which consists of massive computers, so the application systems can obtain the computing power, the storage space and software service according to its demand. It can concentrate all the computing resources and manage them automatically by the software without intervene. This makes application offers not to annoy for tedious details and more absorbed in his business. It will be advantageous to innovation and reduce cost. It's the ultimate goal of cloud computing to provide calculation, services and applications as a public facility for the public, So that people can use the computer resources just like using water, electricity, gas and telephone. Currently, the understanding of cloud computing is developing and changing constantly, cloud computing still has no unanimous definition. This paper describes three main service forms of cloud computing: SAAS, PAAS, IAAS, compared the definition of cloud computing which is given by Google, Amazon, IBM and other companies, summarized the basic characteristics of cloud computing, and emphasized on the key technologies such as data storage, data management, virtualization and programming model.

  13. Putting Research Findings into Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Deepa; Al-Lawatia, Zainab; Al-Abri, Rashid; Bhargava, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A perception exists that clinicians in Oman are reluctant to adopt evidence-based practice (EBP). This pilot study was undertaken to study the feasibility of using EBP pathways at the point of care in otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery. The ultimate aim was to facilitate EBP with the probability of developing a new system for implementing research findings/translational research at the clinical point of care. Methods: A cross-sectional prospective questionnaire pilot survey of clinicians at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman, a tertiary care medical centre, was undertaken. Respondents included 135 physicians and surgeons with between 3 months and 25 years of clinical experience and included personnel ranging from interns to senior consultants, in areas ranging from primary care to specialist care. Results: Of those polled, 90% (95% confidence interval (CI) 85–95%) either strongly agreed or agreed that evidence-based practice protocols (EBPP) could help in decision making. A total of 87.4% of participants (95% CI 81.8–93%) either strongly agreed or agreed that EBPPs can improve clinical outcomes; 91.8% of participants (95% CI 87.2–96.4%) would use and apply EBPP in day-to-day care if they were available at the point of care and embedded in the hospital information system. Conclusions: The perception that clinicians at SQUH are reluctant to adopt EBP is incorrect. The introduction of EBP pathways is very feasible at the primary care level. Institutional support for embedding EBP in hospital information systems is needed as well as further outcome research to assess the improvement in quality of care. PMID:22548137

  14. Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past ... the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use human volunteers to help medical ...

  15. Nest predation research: Recent findings and future perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Ibanez-Alamo, J. D.; Magrath, R. D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Thomson, R. L.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Haff, T. M.; Martin, T.E.

    2016-01-01

    Nest predation is a key source of selection for birds that has attracted increasing attention from ornithologists. The inclusion of new concepts applicable to nest predation that stem from social information, eavesdropping or physiology has expanded our knowledge considerably. Recent methodological advancements now allow focus on all three players within nest predation interactions: adults, offspring and predators. Indeed, the study of nest predation now forms a vital part of avian research in several fields, including animal behaviour, population ecology, evolution and conservation biology. However, within nest predation research there are important aspects that require further development, such as the comparison between ecological and evolutionary antipredator responses, and the role of anthropogenic change. We hope this review of recent findings and the presentation of new research avenues will encourage researchers to study this important and interesting selective pressure, and ultimately will help us to better understand the biology of birds.

  16. 75 FR 53303 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... research supported by National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of... research misconduct by fabricating ] and falsifying data in Figure 3 of a paper published in...

  17. Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

  18. Teaching Teachers for the Future (TTF) Project TPACK Survey: Summary of the Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Glenn; Jamieson-Proctor, Romina; Cavanagh, Rob; Albion, Peter; Grimbeek, Peter; Bond, Trevor; Fitzgerald, Robert; Romeo, Geoff; Lloyd, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the key findings of the TTF TPACK Survey developed and administered for the Teaching the Teachers for the Future (TTF) Project implemented in 2011. The TTF Project, funded by an Australian Government ICT Innovation Fund grant, involved all 39 Australian Higher Education Institutions which provide initial teacher…

  19. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Inst. for Social Research.

    This report presents an overview of the key findings from the Monitoring the Future 2002 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. A particular emphasis is placed on recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs. Trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug--which this study has…

  20. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This report presents an overview of the key findings from the Monitoring the Future 2001 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. A particular emphasis is placed on recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs. Trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug--which this study has…

  1. Russian research capabilities: Findings of site visits

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, D.W.

    1994-02-01

    In June 1993, a proposal was presented to the International Environmental Institute (IEI) in Kennewick, Washington, to establish cooperation and coordination to further pursue the interests of the United States of America and the Republic of Russia in the application and promotion of environmental technology; characterization, treatment, handling, isolation, and disposal of hazardous and radioactive materials; conversion of defense sites to other purposes; and technology transfer, cooperative programs, joint technology development and contractual research. In response to this proposal, IEI and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) jointly provided funding to send Dr. Dennis W. Wester on a fact-finding mission to Novosibirsk, Moscow, and St. Petersburg, Russia. The trip covered a period of eight weeks, six of which were spent in Novosibirsk and adjoining or related cities and one of which was spent in each of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The general objectives of the trip were to establish a basis for cooperation between IEI and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) for future coordination of mutual interests and objectives such as technology acquisition, development, demonstration, application, and commercialization; use of capabilities and assets developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the RAS; and expediting of cooperative agreements, personnel exchanges, joint ventures and other contractual relationships. The particular objectives of this trip were to evaluate the capabilities of the RAS to satisfy the technology needs associated with the cleanup of the Hanford Site and similar sites in the U.S. and to evaluate the expediency of establishing an IEI presence in Russia.

  2. 76 FR 80371 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ...) Goffard, N. and Weiller, G., Nucleic Acids Research, 2007, 35L:W176-W181, and (3) Chuang, L.-Y., Yang, C.... and Weiller, G., Nucleic Acids Research, 2007, 35L:W176-W181. Retracted: Retracted administratively by... text was plagiarized from Goffard, N. and Weiller, G., Nucleic Acids Research, 2007,...

  3. 78 FR 21125 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... sequencing was also reported in CA89135-03. 2. Falsely reported a two-fold increase in apoptosis of human..., by falsely labeling lanes to support the hypothesis that accelerated apoptosis in mutant NE transfect... key hypothesis showing accelerated apoptosis in SCN and CN patients. The methodology claimed that...

  4. Drugs and sport. Research findings and limitations.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, P M; Thompson, H S

    1997-12-01

    Many types of drugs are used by athletes to improve performance. This paper reviews the literature on 3 categories of drugs: those that enhance performance as stimulants (amphetamines, ephedrine, and cocaine), those that are used to reduce tremor and heart rate (beta-blockers) and those involved in bodyweight gain or loss (anabolic-androgenic steroids, growth hormone, beta 2-agonists, and diuretics). Limitations of research on these drugs as they relate to performance enhancement are also discussed. The numerous studies that have assessed the effects of amphetamines on performance report equivocal results. This may be due to the large interindividual variability in the response to the drug and the small sample sizes used. Most studies, however, show that some individuals do improve exercise performance when taking amphetamines, which may be attributed to their role in masking fatigue. As a stimulant, ephedrine has not been found to improve performance in the few studies available. More recently, ephedrine has been purported to be effective as a fat burner and used by athletes to maintain or improve muscle mass. Although research on individuals with obesity supports the use of ephedrine for fat loss, no studies have been done on athletes. The few studies of cocaine and exercise suggest that little to no performance gains are incurred from cocaine use. Moreover, the sense of euphoria may provide the illusion of better performance when, in actuality, performance was not improved or was impaired. beta-Blockers have been found to reduce heart rate and tremor and to improve performance in sports that are not physiologically challenging but require accuracy (e.g. pistol shooting). However, there is evidence that some individuals may be high responders to beta-blockers to the extent that their heart rate response is so blunted as to impair performance. Although equivocal, several studies have reported that anabolic-androgenic steroids increase muscle size and strength

  5. 76 FR 63621 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), grants R37... must be designed to ensure the scientific integrity of Respondent's research contribution;...

  6. 75 FR 18837 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... senior scientist, Discovery Research, Women's Health, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, engaged in research... Respondent engaged in misconduct in science, 42 CFR 50.102, in NIDDK, NIH, grant application 1 R01 DK072026... importance to women's health. Dr. Cheskis' team identified an adapter protein, MNAR, that...

  7. 77 FR 125 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ..., International Association of Engineers, August 2008 35(3), (2) Goffard, N. and Weiller, G., Nucleic Acids.... Approximately 15%of the text was plagiarized from Goffard, N. and Weiller, G., Nucleic Acids Research, 2007, 35L...., Nucleic Acids Research, 2007, 35L:W176- W18l. Adagarla, B., Lushington, G., Visvanathan, M.,...

  8. 75 FR 77641 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    .../ PhD student in the Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences at NYUSOM, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), National... UV spectrophometic data presented by discarding certain experimental data and thus presented...

  9. Dissemination and Implementation of Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Charlie M., Ed.

    Fifty-five vocational educators participated in the 18th Annual Southern Research Conference in Agricultural Education at Louisiana State University. Presentations included in the document are: (1) "The Research Problem in Agricultural Education" by L. L. Pesson, (2) views on organizing a vocational agricultural education department for effective…

  10. Qualitative research methods: key features and insights gained from use in infection prevention research.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jane; Creswell, John W; Damschroder, Laura; Kowalski, Christine P; Krein, Sarah L

    2008-12-01

    Infection control professionals and hospital epidemiologists are accustomed to using quantitative research. Although quantitative studies are extremely important in the field of infection control and prevention, often they cannot help us explain why certain factors affect the use of infection control practices and identify the underlying mechanisms through which they do so. Qualitative research methods, which use open-ended techniques, such as interviews, to collect data and nonstatistical techniques to analyze it, provide detailed, diverse insights of individuals, useful quotes that bring a realism to applied research, and information about how different health care settings operate. Qualitative research can illuminate the processes underlying statistical correlations, inform the development of interventions, and show how interventions work to produce observed outcomes. This article describes the key features of qualitative research and the advantages that such features add to existing quantitative research approaches in the study of infection control. We address the goal of qualitative research, the nature of the research process, sampling, data collection and analysis, validity, generalizability of findings, and presentation of findings. Health services researchers are increasingly using qualitative methods to address practical problems by uncovering interacting influences in complex health care environments. Qualitative research methods, applied with expertise and rigor, can contribute important insights to infection prevention efforts.

  11. 77 FR 76491 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Medicine: Based on the report of an investigation conducted by the Harvard School of Medicine (HSM) and Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM), the admission of the Respondent, and additional analysis..., Department of Oral Medicine, Infection, and Immunity, HSDM, engaged in research misconduct in...

  12. Educational Research: Biologists Finding Their Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsmond, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Since the publication of the Dearing report (1997) there has been an increasing emphasis on the quality of teaching and learning provision within higher education institutions (HEIs). This focus on provision has in turn generated much educational research into "approaches" to both teaching practice and student learning within higher education…

  13. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

  14. 77 FR 76491 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... HPLC data that he had plagiarized, originally generated prior to the Respondent's arrival in the laboratory by a former postdoctoral researcher; in Figure 2(c), the Respondent claimed that the HPLC... plasma, and similarly in Figure 3(c), the Respondent claimed that the HPLC chromatogram was of a...

  15. Improving Adolescent Mathematics: Findings from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Julia McClintock

    2005-01-01

    This publication focuses mainly on research designed to improve adolescents learning of mathematics. Sometimes it provides insights into interventions to help all students learn more mathematics and sometimes special interventions that focus on the particular needs of nonproficient mathematics students. However, no intervention should diminish the…

  16. 77 FR 11538 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), grants R01 AA07568... presentation at the 2009 Research Society on Alcoholism. Falsified the figure legends and/or text in a... that gestational alcohol exposure had an effect on brain development by affecting the way...

  17. 76 FR 64947 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... National Organic Symposium, and in a manuscript, ``Total Synthesis of 9-desmethylpleurotin,'' prepared for... found that the Respondent engaged in research misconduct by falsifying and fabricating the synthesis and... and fabricated the synthesis and characterization, largely in the form of manipulated 1H- and...

  18. Human lead exposure: Some recent research findings

    SciTech Connect

    Saryan, L.A.

    1999-09-01

    One of the practical problems facing industrial hygienists and safety managers in the lead industry is finding new ways to limit or reduce lead intake in order to protect workers from the deleterious effects of this metal. Exposure to lead generally takes place by inhalation of airborne particles and by ingestion. Airborne exposure is comparatively well understood and methods for the control of airborne lead have been developed and put into place in industrial facilities. Both for the general public and for workers, however, it is thought that a significant fraction of the total lead intake occurs by ingestion as opposed to inhalation. Furthermore, factors such as personal hygiene, hand washing, diet, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, use of medications, bone injury, existing disease, and others may also have positive or negative effects on lead absorption and blood lead levels. How these variables actually operate in practice for lead-exposed workers is unfortunately not very well understood. As scientific and medical knowledge increases, progress has been made in the understanding of some of the factors affecting blood lead levels. In this article, the author summarizes the findings of a few interesting recent reports that point the way toward future progress in this area.

  19. Participatory Action Research with Older Adults: Key Principles in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Thomas; Minkler, Meredith

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Although participatory action research (PAR) is increasingly viewed as an important complement to traditional investigator-driven research, relatively little PAR has taken place in which older adults have been prominent partners. This article provides a review of the literature on PAR in gerontology, highlighting key studies and their…

  20. Monitoring HIV Prevention Programme Outcomes among Key Populations in Kenya: Findings from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Musyoki, Helgar; Anthony, John; Kioko, Japheth; Kaosa, Shem; Ogwang, Bernard E.; Githuka, George; Sirengo, Martin; Birir, Sarah; Blanchard, James F.; Muraguri, Nicholas; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the implementation of the Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework 2014/15-2018/19, the Kenya National AIDS and STI Control Programme facilitated a national polling booth survey as part of a baseline assessment of HIV-related risk behaviours among FSWs, MSM, and PWID, and their utilization of existing preventive interventions, as well as structural factors that may influence KPs’ vulnerability to HIV. The survey was conducted among “key populations” (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs) to understand current HIV risk and prevention behaviours, utilization of existing programmes and services, and experiences of violence. In total, 3,448 female sex workers, 1,308 men who have sex with men, and 690 people who inject drugs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth survey sessions from seven priority sites. Survey responses were aggregated and descriptive statistics derived. In general, reported condom use among all key populations was quite high with paying clients, and lower with regular, non-paying partners. Many participants reported unavailability of condoms or clean injecting equipment within the past month. Exposure to, and utilization of, existing HIV prevention services varied significantly among the groups, and was reported least commonly by female sex workers. Encouragingly, approximately three-quarters of all key population members reported receiving an HIV test in the past three months. All key population groups reported experiencing high levels of physical and sexual violence from partners/clients, and/or arrest and violence by law enforcement officials. Although some of the findings are encouraging, there is room for improvement in HIV prevention programmes and services for key populations across Kenya. PMID:26313642

  1. Translational findings from cardiovascular stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Mazhari, Ramesh; Hare, Joshua M

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of using stem cells to regenerate damaged myocardium has been actively investigated since the late 1990s. Consistent with the traditional view that the heart is a "postmitotic" organ that possesses minimal capacity for self-repair, much of the preclinical and clinical work has focused exclusively on introducing stem cells into the heart, with the hope of differentiation of these cells into functioning cardiomyocytes. This approach is ongoing and retains promise but to date has yielded inconsistent successes. More recently, it has become widely appreciated that the heart possesses endogenous repair mechanisms that, if adequately stimulated, might regenerate damaged cardiac tissue from in situ cardiac stem cells. Accordingly, much recent work has focused on engaging and enhancing endogenous cardiac repair mechanisms. This article reviews the literature on stem cell-based myocardial regeneration, placing emphasis on the mutually enriching interaction between basic and clinical research.

  2. Translational Findings from Cardiovascular Stem Cell Research

    PubMed Central

    Mazhari, Ramesh; Hare, Joshua M

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of using stem cells to regenerate damaged myocardium has been actively investigated since the late 1990s. Consistent with the traditional view that the heart is a “post-mitotic” organ that possesses minimal capacity for self-repair, much of the preclinical and clinical work has focused exclusively on introducing stem cells into the heart, with the hope of differentiation of these cells into functioning cardiomyocytes. This approach is ongoing and retains promise but to date has yielded inconsistent successes. More recently, it has become widely appreciated that the heart possesses endogenous repair mechanisms that, if adequately stimulated, might regenerate damaged cardiac tissue from in situ cardiac stem cells. Accordingly, much recent work has focused on engaging and enhancing endogenous cardiac repair mechanisms. This article reviews the literature on stem-cell based myocardial regeneration, placing emphasis on the mutually enriching interaction between basic and clinical research. PMID:22940024

  3. Institutional Research: The Key to Successful Enrollment Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    Enrollment management includes the processes and activities that influence the size, shape, and characteristics of a student body by directing institutional efforts in marketing, recruitment, admissions, pricing, and financial aid. Institutional research plays an essential, if not the key, role in enrollment management. This report discusses the…

  4. Television Advertising and Children: Issues, Research and Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esserman, June F., Ed.

    This volume consists of 10 papers dealing with issues, research and research findings regarding the effects of television advertising on children. The first paper critically examines recent research literature which bears on policy questions related to the effects of television advertising on children. Findings from a study designed to examine…

  5. How the World's Best Schools Stay on Top: Study's Key Findings Pinpoint Practices That Align with Learning Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen

    2016-01-01

    Key findings from a new study highlight how Learning Forward's long-standing position on professional learning correlates with practices in high-performing systems in Singapore, Shanghai, Hong Kong, and British Columbia. The purpose of this article is to share key findings from the study so that educators might apply them to strengthening…

  6. 'Project launch': from research finding to therapeutic product.

    PubMed

    Cevc, Gregor

    2014-01-23

    Only 0.1-0.5% of new therapy candidates gains marketing approval; just 10-20% of the approved ones ultimately recoup the ~0.6-0.9$USbn invested into their R&D until marketing authorisation. One reason is the high inherent risk of new therapeutic products development. Further reasons are suboptimal decisions during R&D and, too often, lack of adequate experience. To bridge the latter gap, this article succinctly reviews identification of new product opportunities and their patent protection, the resulting commercial opportunity and portfolio valuation, planning and conduct of the ensuing preclinical and clinical tests, as well as therapeutic product registration and price reimbursement, covering risk management as an aside. The article also clarifies the key terms, identifies the main pit falls, highlights the essential requirements for and the goals of different product development steps, to facilitate communication between researchers and developers. By combining public information with personal experience and recommendations the article aims at informing more broadly those who are familiar mainly with some of the (strictly regulated) activities involved in design, development and launch of new therapeutic products, be it that they are medicinal products or medical devices. Taken together, this should support initiation and evolution of new therapeutic products and assist researchers in finding-and better and more smoothly co-operating with-consultants or partners in development and marketing.

  7. Current Research Findings on End-of-Life Decision Making among Racially or Ethnically Diverse Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed the research literature on racial or ethnic diversity and end-of-life decision making in order to identify key findings and provide recommendations for future research. Design and Methods: We identified 33 empirical studies in which race or ethnicity was investigated as either a variable predicting treatment preferences or…

  8. Training: Who Needs It? Research Report 1995. Key Issues for Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotel and Catering Training Co., London (England).

    Aimed at all those involved in the supply of training and vocational education for the hospitality industry, this report summarizes findings of the research report, "Training Who Needs It?" It draws out and explores in more detail key issues relating to the provision of training, support, and related initiatives for the industry. Section 1…

  9. Research Results Ultra-fast Energy Transfer from Monomer to Dimer within a Trimeric Molecule New Progress in Heterogeneous Catalysis Research Key Progress in Research on Terrestrial Carbon Cycle in China A New Progress in Research on the Mechanism of Bio-Invasion New Findings in Anti-viral infection and Control of Inflammation Major Headway in Avian Origin Research New Progress in Gold-Nanoparticle-Based Biochips Topological Insulator Research Made Important Progress Major Progress in Biodiversity Achieved New Developments of Direct Methods in Protein Crystallography Major Progress in China-UK Collaboration on the Causal Relationship between Volcanic Activity and Biological Distinction News in Brief: NSFC set up "Research Fund for Young Foreign Scholars" How Often Does Human DNA Mutate? Research Progress on Colossal Anisotropic Magneto Resistive Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-fast Energy Transfer from Monomer to Dimer within a Trimeric Molecule New Progress in Heterogeneous Catalysis Research Key Progress in Research on Terrestrial Carbon Cycle in China A New Progress in Research on the Mechanism of Bio-Invasion New Findings in Anti-viral infection and Control of Inflammation Major Headway in Avian Origin Research New Progress in Gold-Nanoparticle-Based Biochips Topological Insulator Research Made Important Progress Major Progress in Biodiversity Achieved New Developments of Direct Methods in Protein Crystallography Major Progress in China-UK Collaboration on the Causal Relationship between Volcanic Activity and Biological Distinction News in Brief: NSFC set up "Research Fund for Young Foreign Scholars" How Often Does Human DNA Mutate? Research Progress on Colossal Anisotropic Magneto Resistive Effect

  10. Applications of Classroom Management Research Findings. Research Series No. 154.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Joyce; Barnes, Henrietta

    This study examined the long-term effects of providing a research-based approach to classroom management through a two-phase staff development process. The process was designed to promote teachers' ability to establish and maintain effective classroom groups. Teachers' uses of group-development principles, cooperative-learning strategies, and…

  11. Structuring Professional Learning to Develop a Culture of Data Use: Aligning Knowledge from the Field and Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerzon, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background: This research review provides an analysis of current research related to school and district data use, with a particular focus on identifying key characteristics of schools and districts with effective "data using cultures." The research review identifies and analyzes findings in five key areas of practice: communicating…

  12. Science Teachers' Awareness of Findings from Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Nilza; Marques, Luís; Kempa, Richard

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a small-scale study designed to estimate science teachers' awareness of findings derived from research in science education and other branches of educational research. The study was conducted among experienced science teachers in Portugal who were following advanced professional training programmes, usually leading to Masters' degrees in science education. The results indicate that science teachers' knowledge of education research findings is generally very limited. What teachers regard as sound pedagogical knowledge is usually derived from personal experience and `common sense' and does tend not to be questioned by them as to its compatibility with the results of research. The outcome of the study provides evidence of the existence of a serious gap between research and the practice of science education. In the light of these findings, the authors propose that to narrow this gap should be a major task to be addressed by researchers and practitioners.

  13. IPCC Climate Change 2013: Mitigation of Climate Change - Key Findings and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokona, Youba

    2014-05-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Mitigation of Climate Change, examines the results of scientific research about mitigation, with special attention on how knowledge has evolved since the Fourth Assessment Report published in 2007. Throughout, the focus is on the implications of its findings for policy, without being prescriptive about the particular policies that governments and other important participants in the policy process should adopt. The report begins with a framing of important concepts and methods that help to contextualize the findings presented throughout the assessment. The valuation of risks and uncertainties, ethical concepts and the context of sustainable development and equity are among the guiding principles for the assessment of mitigation strategies. The report highlights past trends in stocks and flows of greenhouse gases and the factors that drive emissions at global, regional, and sectoral scales including economic growth, technology or population changes. It provides analyses of the technological, economic and institutional requirements of long-term mitigation scenarios and details on mitigation measures and policies that are applied in different economic sectors and human settlements. It then discusses interactions of mitigation policies and different policy instrument types at national, regional and global governance levels and between economic sectors, The Working Group III report comprises 16 chapters and in assembling this assessment authors were guided by the principles of the IPCC mandate: to be explicit about mitigation options, to be explicit about their costs and about their risks and opportunities vis-à-vis other development priorities, and to be explicit about the underlying criteria, concepts, and methods for evaluating alternative policies.

  14. Researchers Find Another Way Zika Can Harm Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160694.html Researchers Find Another Way Zika Can Harm Babies Close to 6 percent who ... yet another example of the damage that maternal Zika infection can inflict on a fetus during the ...

  15. Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease Each year, millions of Americans take statins, ... people these benefits come at a cost: widespread muscle pain that persists as long as the drugs ...

  16. Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

  17. Secure Accommodation for Very Difficult Adolescents: Some Recent Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Roger; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviews research which has clarified the needs and problems of adolescents in secure units and has highlighted the relationship between provision offered in child care, penal, and health services. Discusses new research findings, particularly those arising out of studies of young people (n=104) in two youth treatment centers. (Author/ABL)

  18. Environmentally Mediated Risks for Psychopathology: Research Strategies and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To consider the research design requirements needed to provide a rigorous test of environmental mediation hypotheses and to summarize the main findings from research using such designs. Method: Selective review of empirical evidence dealing with psychopathology. Results: There is robust evidence of environmentally mediated risks for…

  19. Finding Fault? Exploring Legal Duties to Return Incidental Findings in Genomic Research.

    PubMed

    Pike, Elizabeth R; Rothenberg, Karen H; Berkman, Benjamin E

    2014-01-01

    The use of whole-genome sequencing in biomedical research is expected to produce dramatic advances in human health. The increasing use of this powerful, data-rich new technology in research, however, will inevitably give rise to incidental findings (IFs)-findings with individual health or reproductive significance that are beyond the aims of the particular research-and the related questions of whether and to what extent researchers have an ethical obligation to return IFs. Many have concluded that researchers have an ethical obligation to return some findings in some circumstances but have provided vague or context-dependent approaches to determining which IFs must be returned and when. As a result, researchers have started returning IFs inconsistently, giving rise to concerns about legal liability in circumstances in which notification could have potentially prevented injury. Although it is clear that ethical guidance should not be automatically codified as law and that crafting ethical obligations around legal duties can be inappropriate, the ethical debate should not proceed unaware of the potential legal ramifications of advancing and implementing an ethical obligation to return IFs. This Article assesses the legal claims that could be brought for a researcher's failure to return IFs. The potential for researchers to be held liable in tort is still uncertain and turns largely on a number of factors-including customary practice and guidance documents-that are still in flux. Unlike medical care, which has a well-defined duty into which evolving scientific knowledge about genetics and genomics can readily be incorporated, a researcher's duty to return IFs is less well defined, making it difficult to determine at the outset whether and when legal liability will attach. This Article advocates for a clearer, ethically sound standard of requiring that researchers disclose in the informed consent document which approach to offering IFs will be taken. This approach

  20. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D., O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2007-01-01

    This report provides a summary of drug use trends from a survey of nearly 50,000 eighth-, tenth-, and twelfth- grade students nationwide. It also includes perceived risk, personal disapproval, and perceived availability of each drug by this group. A synopsis of the methods used in the study and an overview of the key results from the 2006 survey…

  1. Recruiting Underserved Mothers to Medical Research: Findings from North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Spears, Chaya R.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; O’Neill, Jenna L.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Feldman, Steven R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Representative samples are required for ethical, valid, and useful health research. Yet, recruiting participants, especially from historically underserved communities, can be challenging. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 40 mothers about factors that might influence their willingness to participate or allow their children to participate in medical research. Saliency analysis organizes the findings. Frequent and important salient themes about research participation included concerns that it might cause participants harm, hope that participants might gain a health benefit, and recognition that time and transportation resources could limit participation. Ultimately, we propose that a theoretical model, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), will facilitate more systematic evaluation of effective methods for recruitment and retention of participants in medical research. Future research should explore the utility of such a model for development of effective recruitment and retention strategies. PMID:24185171

  2. The Effective Elementary School Principal: Theoretical Bases, Research Findings and Practical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, I. Emett, Jr.; Pankake, Anita M.

    Although much of the current school reform movement relies on the basic assumption of effective elementary school administration, insufficient effort has been made to synthesize key concepts found in organizational theory and management studies with relevant effective schools research findings. This paper attempts such a synthesis to help develop…

  3. Genetically Informative Research on Adolescent Substance Use: Methods, Findings, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the genetic epidemiology of substance use and misuse in adolescents. Method: A selective review of genetically informative research strategies, their limitations, and key findings examining issues related to the heritability of substance use and substance use disorders in children and adolescents is presented.…

  4. Finding Fault? Exploring Legal Duties to Return Incidental Findings in Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Elizabeth R.; Rothenberg, Karen H.; Berkman, Benjamin E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of whole-genome sequencing in biomedical research is expected to produce dramatic advances in human health. The increasing use of this powerful, data-rich new technology in research, however, will inevitably give rise to incidental findings (IFs)—findings with individual health or reproductive significance that are beyond the aims of the particular research—and the related questions of whether and to what extent researchers have an ethical obligation to return IFs. Many have concluded that researchers have an ethical obligation to return some findings in some circumstances but have provided vague or context-dependent approaches to determining which IFs must be returned and when. As a result, researchers have started returning IFs inconsistently, giving rise to concerns about legal liability in circumstances in which notification could have potentially prevented injury. Although it is clear that ethical guidance should not be automatically codified as law and that crafting ethical obligations around legal duties can be inappropriate, the ethical debate should not proceed unaware of the potential legal ramifications of advancing and implementing an ethical obligation to return IFs. This Article assesses the legal claims that could be brought for a researcher’s failure to return IFs. The potential for researchers to be held liable in tort is still uncertain and turns largely on a number of factors—including customary practice and guidance documents—that are still in flux. Unlike medical care, which has a well-defined duty into which evolving scientific knowledge about genetics and genomics can readily be incorporated, a researcher’s duty to return IFs is less well defined, making it difficult to determine at the outset whether and when legal liability will attach. This Article advocates for a clearer, ethically sound standard of requiring that researchers disclose in the informed consent document which approach to offering IFs will be taken. This

  5. Finding solid ground: law enforcement, key populations and their health and rights in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Scheibe, Andrew; Howell, Simon; Müller, Alexandra; Katumba, Munyaradzi; Langen, Bram; Artz, Lillian; Marks, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sex workers, people who use drugs, men who have sex with men, women who have sex with women and transgender people in South Africa frequently experience high levels of stigma, abuse and discrimination. Evidence suggests that such abuse is sometimes committed by police officers, meaning that those charged with protection are perpetrators. This reinforces cycles of violence, increases the risk of HIV infection, undermines HIV prevention and treatment interventions and violates the constitutional prescriptions that the police are mandated to protect. This paper explores how relationship building can create positive outcomes while taking into account the challenges associated with reforming police strategies in relation to key populations, and vice versa. Discussion We argue that relationships between law enforcement agencies and key populations need to be re-examined and reconstituted to enable appropriate responses and services. The antagonistic positioning, “othering” and blame assignment frequently seen in interactions between law enforcement officials and key populations can negatively influence both, albeit for different reasons. In addressing these concerns, we argue that mediation based on consensual dialogue is required, and can be harnessed through a process that highlights points of familiarity that are often shared, but not understood, by both parties. Rather than laying blame, we argue that substantive changes need to be owned and executed by all role-players, informed by a common language that is cognisant of differing perspectives. Conclusions Relational approaches can be used to identify programmes that align goals that are part of law enforcement, human rights and public health despite not always being seen as such. Law enforcement champions and representatives of key populations need to be identified and supported to promote interventions that are mutually reinforcing, and address perceived differences by highlighting commonality

  6. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975 and is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

  7. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975 and is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

  8. Needles and Haystacks: Finding Funding for Medical Education Research.

    PubMed

    Gruppen, Larry D; Durning, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    Medical education research suffers from a significant and persistent lack of funding. Although adequate funding has been shown to improve the quality of research, there are a number of factors that continue to limit it. The competitive environment for medical education research funding makes it essential to understand strategies for improving the search for funding sources and the preparation of proposals. This article offers a number of resources, strategies, and suggestions for finding funding. Investigators must be able to frame their research in the context of significant issues and principles in education. They must set their proposed work in the context of prior work and demonstrate its potential for significant new contributions. Because there are few funding sources earmarked for medical education research, researchers much also be creative, flexible, and adaptive as they seek to present their ideas in ways that are appealing and relevant to the goals of funders. Above all, the search for funding requires persistence and perseverance.

  9. Needles and Haystacks: Finding Funding for Medical Education Research.

    PubMed

    Gruppen, Larry D; Durning, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    Medical education research suffers from a significant and persistent lack of funding. Although adequate funding has been shown to improve the quality of research, there are a number of factors that continue to limit it. The competitive environment for medical education research funding makes it essential to understand strategies for improving the search for funding sources and the preparation of proposals. This article offers a number of resources, strategies, and suggestions for finding funding. Investigators must be able to frame their research in the context of significant issues and principles in education. They must set their proposed work in the context of prior work and demonstrate its potential for significant new contributions. Because there are few funding sources earmarked for medical education research, researchers much also be creative, flexible, and adaptive as they seek to present their ideas in ways that are appealing and relevant to the goals of funders. Above all, the search for funding requires persistence and perseverance. PMID:26556292

  10. A Survey of American Voter Attitudes Concerning Child Care Services: Highlights and Key Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marttila & Kiley, Inc., Boston, MA.

    A national telephone survey of a representative sample of 901 voters was conducted to measure voter attitudes toward child care and, in particular, the Act for Better Child Care Services (ABC). The survey also explored attitudes toward parental leave. Findings indicated that: (1) a majority of Americans think of child care as an urgent need and…

  11. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This booklet presents an overview of the findings pertaining to eighth, tenth, and twelfth grade students from the 1999 Monitoring the Future Study. This overview focuses on recent trends in the use of various licit and illicit drugs. It also examines trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug, which…

  12. Teaching Economics: Research Findings from a Microcomputer/Videodisc Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Allen D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes field test findings of a project funded by the Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium and the Rockefeller Family Fund to demonstrate that microcomputers and home videodisc players can deliver instruction to students. Basic research questions and field testing procedures for a high school economics course are provided. (MBR)

  13. Research Findings Concerned with Fathers' Impact on Their Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Charlotte M.; Pelow, Randall A.

    This paper discusses research findings concerned with the reemergent recognition of the role of the father in early childrearing, the attitudes these fathers have towards their parenting role, and the identifiable impact they have on their progeny. Following a brief review of the literature on (1) how the American culture prepares boys for…

  14. The Effects of Content and Language Integrated Learning in European Education: Key Findings from the Andalusian Bilingual Sections Evaluation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, Francisco; Casal, Sonia; Moore, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) represents an increasingly popular pedagogic approach that has evolved in response to the recognised need for plurilingual competence in Europe. In this article, we present key findings from one of the first large-scale, multidimensional CLIL evaluation projects. We begin by outlining the emergence…

  15. Reflections of Girls in the Media: A Two-Part Study on Gender and Media. Summary of Key Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This pamphlet summarizes the key findings of a two-part study that investigated the messages that young women (age 10 to 17) get from the media. A content analysis examined messages to girls across a range of media most heavily used by adolescent girls: television, movies, magazines, music videos, television commercials, and magazine…

  16. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.2831 Section 63.2831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  17. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.2831 Section 63.2831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  18. Key components of anaphylaxis management plans: consensus findings from a national electronic Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Worth, Allison; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Sheikh, Aziz

    2010-01-01

    Objectives There is no international consensus on the components of anaphylaxis management plans and responsibility for their design and delivery is contested. We set out to establish consensus among relevant specialist and generalist clinicians on this issue to inform future randomized controlled trials. Design A two-round electronic Delphi study completed by a 25-person, multidisciplinary expert panel. Participants scored the importance of a range of statements on anaphylaxis management, identified from a systematic review of the literature, on a five-point scale ranging from ‘very important’ to ‘irrelevant’. Consensus was defined a priori as being achieved if 80% or more of panel members rated a statement as ‘important’ or ‘very important’ after Round 2. Setting Primary and secondary care and academic settings in the UK and Ireland. Participants Twenty-five medical, nursing and allied health professionals. Main outcome measures Consensus on the key components of anaphylaxis management plans. Results The response rate was 84% (n = 21) for Round 1 and 96% (n = 24) for Round 2. The key components of emergency care on which consensus was achieved included: awareness of trigger factors (100%); recognition and emergency management of reactions of different severity (100%); and clear information on adrenaline (epinephrine) use (100%). Consensus on longer-term management issues included: clear written guidelines on anaphylaxis management (96%); annual review of plans (87%); and plans that were tailored to individual needs (82%). Conclusions This national consensus-building exercise generated widespread agreement that emergency plans need to be simple, clear and generic, making them easy to implement in a crisis. In contrast, long-term plans need to be negotiated between patient/carers and professionals, and tailored to individual needs. The effectiveness of this expert-agreed long-term plan now needs to be evaluated rigorously. PMID:21103134

  19. Investigating Ideomotor Cognition with Motorvisual Priming Paradigms: Key Findings, Methodological Challenges, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Thomaschke, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Ideomotor theory claims that perceptual representations of action-effects are functionally involved in the planning of actions. Strong evidence for this claim comes from a phenomenon called motorvisual priming. Motorvisual priming refers to the finding that action planning directly affects perception, and that the effects are selective for stimuli that share features with the planned action. Motorvisual priming studies have provided detailed insights into the processing of perceptual representations in action planning. One important finding is that such representations in action planning have a categorical format, whereas metric representations are not anticipated in planning. Further essential findings regard the processing mechanisms and the time course of ideomotor cognition. Perceptual representations of action-effects are first activated by action planning and then bound into a compound representation of the action plan. This compound representation is stabilized throughout the course of the action by the shielding of all involved representations from other cognitive processes. Despite a rapid growth in the number of motorvisual priming studies in the current literature, there are still many aspects of ideomotor cognition which have not yet been investigated. These aspects include the scope of ideomotor processing with regard to action types and stimulus types, as well as the exact nature of the binding and shielding mechanisms involved. PMID:23189067

  20. Supporting Primary and Secondary Beginning Teachers Online: Key Findings of the Education Alumni Support Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, T. W.; Harrington, I.; Smith, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    During 2005, the Education Alumni Support Project (EdASP) (Maxwell, Smith, Baxter, Boyd, Harrington, Jenkins, Sargeant & Tamatea 2006) provided online support for University of New England (UNE) graduand, and later, graduate, teachers as they commenced their careers. The project was based on research which reported that many beginning teachers did…

  1. Becoming a Scientist: Research Findings on STEM Students' Gains from Conducting Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, A.; Laursen, S.; Thiry, H.; Seymour, E.

    2006-12-01

    Undergraduate research is widely believed to enhance STEM students' education and increase their persistence to graduate education and careers in the sciences. Yet until very recently, little evidence from research and evaluation studies was available to substantiate such claims and document what students gain from doing undergraduate research or how these gains come about. We have conducted a three-year qualitative research study of STEM students participating in UR at four liberal arts colleges with a strong tradition of faculty-led summer research apprenticeships. Benefits to students reported by both students and their faculty advisors are categorized into six main categories of gains in skills, knowledge, "thinking like a scientist," career preparation, career development, and personal and professional growth. Student and faculty observations are strongly corroborative, but also differ in interesting ways that reflect the distinct perspectives of each group: students are still in the midst of discovering their own career paths while faculty advisors have observed the later career development of their past research students. While not all students find UR to heighten their interest in graduate school, they do find it a powerful growth experience that clarifies their career ambitions by providing a "real world" experience of science. For students whose interest in science is reinforced, UR has a significant role in their professional socialization into the culture and norms of science, which we call "becoming a scientist," through interactions that draw them into the scientific community and experiences that deepen their understanding of the nature of research. Cumulatively, the qualitative data set of nearly 350 interviews offers a rich portrayal of the UR enterprise from a variety of perspectives. Longitudinal data enable us to track the influence of UR on students' career and education trajectories in the years after college, and comparative data from a group

  2. Key findings of the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation's clinical practice benchmarking project.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Michael P; Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Quinton, Hebe B; Marshall, Bruce C; Schechter, Michael S

    2014-04-01

    Benchmarking is the process of using outcome data to identify high-performing centres and determine practices associated with their outstanding performance. The US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) Patient Registry contains centre-specific outcomes data for all CFF-certified paediatric and adult cystic fibrosis (CF) care programmes in the USA. The CFF benchmarking project analysed these registry data, adjusting for differences in patient case mix known to influence outcomes, and identified the top-performing US paediatric and adult CF care programmes for pulmonary and nutritional outcomes. Separate multidisciplinary paediatric and adult benchmarking teams each visited 10 CF care programmes, five in the top quintile for pulmonary outcomes and five in the top quintile for nutritional outcomes. Key practice patterns and approaches present in both paediatric and adult programmes with outstanding clinical outcomes were identified and could be summarised as systems, attitudes, practices, patient/family empowerment and projects. These included: (1) the presence of strong leadership and a well-functioning care team working with a systematic approach to providing consistent care; (2) high expectations for outcomes among providers and families; (3) early and aggressive management of clinical declines, avoiding reliance on 'rescues'; and (4) patients/families that were engaged, empowered and well informed on disease management and its rationale. In summary, assessment of practice patterns at CF care centres with top-quintile pulmonary and nutritional outcomes provides insight into characteristic practices that may aid in optimising patient outcomes.

  3. Dignity-conserving care: application of research findings to practice.

    PubMed

    McClement, Susan E; Chochinov, Harvey M; Hack, Thomas F; Kristjanson, Linda J; Harlos, Mike

    2004-04-01

    A central tenet of palliative care is to help people die with "dignity". The widespread use of this term presupposes that this construct is well understood from the perspective of the terminally ill, and that the factors that bolster or erode dignity are known. However, the paucity of research related to these issues suggests otherwise. Over the past 5 years, this research team, headed by Dr Chochinov, has undertaken a programme of research aimed at explicating what dignity means to those who are terminally ill, and identifying those factors that support and undermine dignity in this patient population. This article will provide a synopsis of that work, with an emphasis on the application of research findings for practice.

  4. Finding your voice: key elements to consider when writing for publication.

    PubMed

    Wollin, Judy Ann; Fairweather, Carrie Therese

    The dissemination of nursing knowledge rests on optimizing the accessibility of such knowledge among nurses and all other healthcare professionals. Nursing publications of all types, including research, case studies, reports, literature reviews, clinical audits, reflections on practice and letters to the editor, are important mechanisms for sharing knowledge and experience. Nurses need to publish their knowledge and experiences to inform and reflect on nursing practice. Barriers to writing for publication include inexperience and lack of know how. This article provides guidance for the novice writer.

  5. Recreation ecology research findings: Implications for wilderness and park managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Kirchner, Hannah

    1998-01-01

    Recreationists unintentionally trample vegetation, erode soil, and disturb wildlife. Such human-related impacts present a dilemma for managers charged with the dual objectives of providing recreational opportunities and preserving natural environments. This paper presents some of the principal findings and management implications from research on visitor impacts to protected areas, termed recreation ecology research. This field of study seeks to identify the type and extent of resource impacts and to evaluate relationships between use-related, environmental, and managerial factors. The capabilities and managerial utility of recreation impact monitoring are also described.

  6. Research Infusion Collaboration: Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.; Morgan, Scott; Do, Tuan; Mikulski, Carmen; Berg Strain, Martha; Rockwell, Steve; Wilkinson, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    The 'Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code' Research Infusion Collaboration was performed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech under Contract 104-07-02.679 102 197 08.14.4. This final report describes the collaboration and documents the findings, including lessons learned.The research infusion collaboration characterized, using Orthogonal Defect Classification, defect reports for code that will be reused in mission-critical software on Deep Space Network Antenna controllers. Code reuse is estimated to be 90%, so it is important to identify systemic defects, or patterns, prior to reuse of this code. The work also identified ways to avoid certain types of defects and to test more efficiently.The primary objectives of the project were:to analyze defect patterns of the code to be reused based on the defects'Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC)and to achieve a successful infusion of ODC to a project.

  7. Specific Shrinkage of Carotid Forks in Moyamoya Disease: A Novel Key Finding for Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    KURODA, Satoshi; KASHIWAZAKI, Daina; AKIOKA, Naoki; KOH, Masaki; HORI, Emiko; NISHIKATA, Manabu; UMEMURA, Kimiko; HORIE, Yukio; NOGUCHI, Kyo; KUWAYAMA, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to analyze the outer diameter of the involved arteries in moyamoya disease, using three-dimensional (3D) constructive interference in steady state (CISS) and direct surgical inspection. Radiological evaluation was performed in 64 patients with moyamoya disease. As the controls, six patients with severe middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis and 17 healthy subjects were also recruited. On 3D-CISS, the outer diameter was quantified in the supraclinoid portion of internal carotid artery (C1), the horizontal portions of MCA (M1) and anterior cerebral artery (A1), and basilar artery. The involved carotid fork was directly observed during surgery in another series of three adult patients with moyamoya disease. In 53 adult patients with moyamoya disease, the outer diameters of C1, M1, and A1 segments were 2.3 ± 0.7 mm, 1.3 ± 0.5 mm, and 1.0 ± 0.4 mm in the involved side (n = 91), being significantly smaller than the control (n = 17), severe M1 stenosis (n = 6), and non-involved side in moyamoya disease (n = 15, P < 0.01). There were significant correlations between Suzuki’s angiographical stage and the outer diameters of C1, M1, and A1 (P < 0.001). The laterality ratio of C1 and M1 was significantly smaller in unilateral moyamoya disease (n = 20) than the controls and severe MCA stenosis (P < 0.01). Direct observations revealed a marked decrease in the outer diameter of the carotid fork (n = 3). These findings strongly suggest specific shrinkage of the involved arteries in moyamoya disease, which may provide essential information to distinguish moyamoya disease from other intracranial arterial stenosis and shed light on the etiology and novel diagnosis cue of moyamoya disease. PMID:26369872

  8. Tectonic history of Sweetgrass Arch, Montana and Alberta-key to finding new hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, W. Shepard, B.

    1985-05-01

    The Sweetgrass arch of northwestern Montana and southern Alberta is a major ancient structural feature. Initial anticlinal emplacement occurred during the early Paleozoic and was parallel with the cratonic margin. Strong uplift followed by peneplanation occurred during the Late Jurassic and basal Cretaceous during the westward drifting of the North American plate following the breakup of Pangea. During Cretaceous and early Tertiary times, the Sweetgrass arch was quiescent, but was rejuvenated in mid to late Tertiary, upwarped by a basement flexure to its present structural configuration: a 200 mi (322 km) long, north-plunging anticline showing 10,000 ft (350 m) of structural relief. Midway down its plunge, the anticline is offset 30 mi (48 km) by a right-lateral transcurrent fault. During Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary, plutonic uplifts were emplaced on the east flank, forming traps for oil then migrating updip from the Williston and Alberta basins. Oil and gas accumulated in Mississippian, Jurassic, and basal Cretaceous reservoirs in structural and stratigraphic traps around these plutonic uplifts. Subsequent late Tertiary doming of the Sweetgrass arch tilted the earlier structural traps and drained them, resulting in remigration of much of the oil and gas to the crest of the arch. The tilting failed to destroy many of the stratigraphic traps. As a result, down the flanks of the Sweetgrass arch are many frozen stratigraphic traps including Cut Bank field, the largest single-pay stratigraphic trap in the north Rockies. On the crest are large structure accumulations of remigrated oil at Kevin Sunburst and Pondera. Evidence of remigration is recorded by live oil show tracks in the reservoirs and remnant gas caps throughout the area of earlier accumulations. A potential exists for finding new frozen traps on the flanks and remigrated oil accumulations on or near the crest of the Sweetgrass arch.

  9. Teacher Evaluation in Chicago: Key Findings from Consortium Research. Research Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Chicago Consortium on School Research, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Teacher evaluation systems have been a pillar of recent efforts to improve instruction and ensure that all students have access to effective educators. Chicago Public Schools (CPS) began revising its approach to teacher evaluation in 2006. An initial pilot, the Excellence in Teaching Project (EITP), launched in 2008. The current system, called…

  10. Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.

    PubMed

    Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed.

  11. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  12. Cardiomyopathy in Friedreich ataxia: clinical findings and research.

    PubMed

    Payne, R Mark; Wagner, Gregory R

    2012-09-01

    Friedreich ataxia is the most common human ataxia and results from inadequate production of the frataxin protein, most often the result of a triplet expansion in the nuclear FXN gene. The gene cannot be transcribed to generate the messenger ribonucleic acid for frataxin. Frataxin is an iron-binding protein targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. In its absence, multiple iron-sulfur-dependent proteins in mitochondria and the cytosol lack proper assembly, destroying mitochondrial and nuclear function. Mitochondrial oxidant stress may also participate in ongoing cellular injury. Although progressive and debilitative ataxia is the most prominent clinical finding, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with heart failure is the most common cause of early death in this disease. There is no cure. In this review the authors cover recent basic and clinical findings regarding the heart in Friedreich ataxia, offer recommendations for clinical management of the cardiomyopathy in this disease, and point out new research directions to advance the field.

  13. Dissemination as Dialogue: Building Trust and Sharing Research Findings Through Community Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Laura M.; Mutchler, Matt G.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Green, Harold D.; Lawrence, Sean Jamar; Mutepfa, Kieta D.; Nogg, Kelsey A.

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental feature of community-based participatory research (CBPR) is sharing findings with community members and engaging community partners in the dissemination process. To be truly collaborative, dissemination should involve community members in a two-way dialogue about new research findings. Yet little literature describes how to engage communities in dialogue about research findings, especially with historically marginalized communities where mistrust of researchers may exist because of past or present social injustices. Through a series of interactive community presentations on findings from a longitudinal study, we developed a process for community dissemination that involved several overlapping phases: planning, outreach, content development, interactive presentations, and follow-up. Through this process, we built on existing and new community relationships. Following each interactive presentation, the research team debriefed and reviewed notes to identify lessons learned from the process. Key themes included the importance of creating a flexible dissemination plan, tailoring presentations to each community group, establishing a point person to serve as a community liaison, and continuing dialogue with community members after the presentations. Core strategies for developing trust during dissemination included engaging community members at every step, reserving ample time for discussion during presentations, building rapport by sharing personal experiences, being receptive to and learning from criticism, and implementing input from community members. This process led to a deeper understanding of research findings and ensured that results reached community members who were invested in them. PMID:26986541

  14. Dissemination as Dialogue: Building Trust and Sharing Research Findings Through Community Engagement.

    PubMed

    McDavitt, Bryce; Bogart, Laura M; Mutchler, Matt G; Wagner, Glenn J; Green, Harold D; Lawrence, Sean Jamar; Mutepfa, Kieta D; Nogg, Kelsey A

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental feature of community-based participatory research (CBPR) is sharing findings with community members and engaging community partners in the dissemination process. To be truly collaborative, dissemination should involve community members in a two-way dialogue about new research findings. Yet little literature describes how to engage communities in dialogue about research findings, especially with historically marginalized communities where mistrust of researchers may exist because of past or present social injustices. Through a series of interactive community presentations on findings from a longitudinal study, we developed a process for community dissemination that involved several overlapping phases: planning, outreach, content development, interactive presentations, and follow-up. Through this process, we built on existing and new community relationships. Following each interactive presentation, the research team debriefed and reviewed notes to identify lessons learned from the process. Key themes included the importance of creating a flexible dissemination plan, tailoring presentations to each community group, establishing a point person to serve as a community liaison, and continuing dialogue with community members after the presentations. Core strategies for developing trust during dissemination included engaging community members at every step, reserving ample time for discussion during presentations, building rapport by sharing personal experiences, being receptive to and learning from criticism, and implementing input from community members. This process led to a deeper understanding of research findings and ensured that results reached community members who were invested in them.

  15. Educating to Tolerance: Effects of Communicating Social Psychology Research Findings.

    PubMed

    La Barbera, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants' motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants' actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual's level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed.

  16. Educating to Tolerance: Effects of Communicating Social Psychology Research Findings

    PubMed Central

    La Barbera, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants’ motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants’ actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual’s level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed. PMID:27247671

  17. Key Lessons about Induction for Policy Makers and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to digest the core chapters of this volume, which draws together some of the most sophisticated thinking on new teacher induction from the last decade. This chapter attends to five key understandings about induction programs, including their context, design, implementation, and outcomes. These understandings emerge…

  18. Alcohol Consumption among Youth: Current Trends and Research Findings. Prevention Research Update. No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory; Roizen, Ron

    This update offers current knowledge about the scope and nature of adolescent drinking. Its goal is to bridge the communications gap between the researcher, the practitioner, and the general population by disseminating research findings in an accessible manner and by providing an introductory review of the significance of these findings. Abstracts…

  19. Research on Key Technology and Applications for Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xian-Yi; Jin, Zhi-Gang

    The Internet of Things (IOT) has been paid more and more attention by the academe, industry, and government all over the world. The concept of IOT and the architecture of IOT are discussed. The key technologies of IOT, including Radio Frequency Identification technology, Electronic Product Code technology, and ZigBee technology are analyzed. The framework of digital agriculture application based on IOT is proposed.

  20. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia. PMID:22770267

  1. Hurricane Sandy: An Educational Bibliography of Key Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    There, undoubtedly, will be a flurry of research activity in the "Superstorm" Sandy impact area on a myriad of disaster-related topics, across academic disciplines. The purpose of this study was to review the disaster research related specifically to hurricanes in the educational and social sciences that would best serve as a compendium…

  2. Incidental Findings in Imaging Research: Evaluating Incidence, Benefit and Burden

    PubMed Central

    Orme, Nicholas M.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Siddiki, Hassan A.; Harmsen, W. Scott; O’Byrne, Megan M.; Port, John D.; Tremaine, William J.; Pitot, Henry C.; McFarland, Beth; Robinson, Marguerite E.; Koenig, Barabara A.; King, Bernard F.; Wolf, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Context Little information exists concerning the frequency of clinically significant incidental findings (IFs) identified in the course of imaging research across a broad spectrum of imaging modalities and body regions. Objective To estimate the frequency with which research imaging IFs generate further clinical action, and the medical benefit/burden of identifying these IFs. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective review of subjects undergoing a research imaging exam that was interpreted by a radiologist for IFs in the first quarter of 2004, with 3-year clinical follow-up. An expert panel reviewed IFs generating clinical action to determine medical benefit/burden based on predefined criteria. Main Outcome Measures Frequency of (1) IFs that generated further clinical action by modality, body part, age, gender, and (2) IFs resulting in clear medical benefit or burden. Results 1376 patients underwent 1426 research imaging studies. 40% (567/1426) of exams had at least one IF (1055 total). Risk of an IF increased significantly by age (OR=1.5; [1.4–1.7=95% C.I.] per decade increase). Abdominopelvic CT generated more IFs than other exams (OR=18.9 compared with ultrasound; 9.2% with subsequent clinical action), with CT Thorax and MR brain next (OR=11.9 and 5.9; 2.8% and 2.2% with action, respectively). Overall 6.2% of exams (35/567) with an IF generated clinical action, resulting in clear medical benefit in 1.1% (6/567) and clear medical burden in 0.5% (3/567). In most instances, medical benefit/burden was unclear (4.6%; 26/567). Conclusions The frequency of IFs in imaging research exams varies significantly by imaging modality, body region and age. Research imaging studies at high risk for generating IFs can be identified. Routine evaluation of research images by radiologists may result in identification of IFs in a substantial number of cases and subsequent clinical action to address them in much smaller number. Such clinical action can result in medical

  3. Authentic Research Immersion Experiences: the Key to Enduring Understandings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    Do authentic research experiences have a role in today's classrooms? Where do they fit into the constrained curriculum units and high-stakes testing regimen that define a teacher's world? It is possible, even in today's somewhat narrow teaching environment, to integrate authentic research into the classroom and evolve away from the worksheets and lessons that simply "teach to the test"? Authentic research immersion experiences must be carefully packaged the for classroom use with clear alignment to standards and a learning curve that is not too daunting. By helping teachers to see the value in replacing curricular units with authentic research experiences and designing the research program to fit within a teacher's needs, the rate of successful adoption of the research program becomes much higher. As a result, not only do their students reap the educational rewards of becoming active research participants in the process of science and learn it from the inside out, but the opportunity for the teachers to grow professionally in content and science process knowledge is also an additional benefit. NASA has had and continues to have a significant role in providing these data and mission- related immersion experiences for elementary classrooms through graduate school students.

  4. Writing implementation research grant proposals: ten key ingredients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background All investigators seeking funding to conduct implementation research face the challenges of preparing a high-quality proposal and demonstrating their capacity to conduct the proposed study. Applicants need to demonstrate the progressive nature of their research agenda and their ability to build cumulatively upon the literature and their own preliminary studies. Because implementation science is an emerging field involving complex and multilevel processes, many investigators may not feel equipped to write competitive proposals, and this concern is pronounced among early stage implementation researchers. Discussion This article addresses the challenges of preparing grant applications that succeed in the emerging field of dissemination and implementation. We summarize ten ingredients that are important in implementation research grants. For each, we provide examples of how preliminary data, background literature, and narrative detail in the application can strengthen the application. Summary Every investigator struggles with the challenge of fitting into a page-limited application the research background, methodological detail, and information that can convey the project’s feasibility and likelihood of success. While no application can include a high level of detail about every ingredient, addressing the ten ingredients summarized in this article can help assure reviewers of the significance, feasibility, and impact of the proposed research. PMID:23062065

  5. Key challenges in future Li-battery research.

    PubMed

    Tarascon, J-M

    2010-07-28

    Batteries are a major technological challenge in this new century as they are a key method to make more efficient use of energy. Although today's Li-ion technology has conquered the portable electronic markets and is still improving, it falls short of meeting the demands dictated by the powering of both hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles or by the storage of renewable energies (wind, solar). There is room for optimism as long as we pursue paradigm shifts while keeping in mind the concept of materials sustainability. Some of these concepts, relying on new ways to prepare electrode materials via eco-efficient processes, on the use of organic rather than inorganic materials or new chemistries will be discussed. Achieving these concepts will require the inputs of multiple disciplines.

  6. Student as Communication Skills Trainer: From Research to "Concept Keys"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodie, Graham D.

    2008-01-01

    Although textbooks are filled with practical communication advice, many students overlook the importance of basing practical advice about communication on quality research. This oversight is important for two reasons. First, given the explosion of self-help remedies focused on communication, students should learn to distinguish between…

  7. Involuntary Memories and Dissociative Amnesia: Assessing Key Assumptions in PTSD Research.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C

    2014-03-01

    Autobiographical memories of trauma victims are often described as disturbed in two ways. First, the trauma is frequently re-experienced in the form of involuntary, intrusive recollections. Second, the trauma is difficult to recall voluntarily (strategically); important parts may be totally or partially inaccessible-a feature known as dissociative amnesia. These characteristics are often mentioned by PTSD researchers and are included as PTSD symptoms in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). In contrast, we show that both involuntary and voluntary recall are enhanced by emotional stress during encoding. We also show that the PTSD symptom in the diagnosis addressing dissociative amnesia, trouble remembering important aspects of the trauma is less well correlated with the remaining PTSD symptoms than the conceptual reversal of having trouble forgetting important aspects of the trauma. Our findings contradict key assumptions that have shaped PTSD research over the last 40 years.

  8. Involuntary Memories and Dissociative Amnesia: Assessing Key Assumptions in PTSD Research

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographical memories of trauma victims are often described as disturbed in two ways. First, the trauma is frequently re-experienced in the form of involuntary, intrusive recollections. Second, the trauma is difficult to recall voluntarily (strategically); important parts may be totally or partially inaccessible—a feature known as dissociative amnesia. These characteristics are often mentioned by PTSD researchers and are included as PTSD symptoms in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). In contrast, we show that both involuntary and voluntary recall are enhanced by emotional stress during encoding. We also show that the PTSD symptom in the diagnosis addressing dissociative amnesia, trouble remembering important aspects of the trauma is less well correlated with the remaining PTSD symptoms than the conceptual reversal of having trouble forgetting important aspects of the trauma. Our findings contradict key assumptions that have shaped PTSD research over the last 40 years. PMID:25309832

  9. Putting Research Findings to Work. ANPA News Research Report No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauro, John B.; Bonney, Christopher F.

    Twenty-six American Newspaper Publishers Association research reports published since 1978 are reviewed in this paper. The paper analyzes each of the reports in order to provide an overview of what their findings really say and what newspapers can do in their own market areas to use the findings to improve their product. Among the topics covered…

  10. Research on key technologies of LADAR echo signal simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rui; Shi, Rui; Ye, Jiansen; Wang, Xin; Li, Zhuo

    2015-10-01

    LADAR echo signal simulator is one of the most significant components of hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation systems for LADAR, which is designed to simulate the LADAR return signal in laboratory conditions. The device can provide the laser echo signal of target and background for imaging LADAR systems to test whether it is of good performance. Some key technologies are investigated in this paper. Firstly, the 3D model of typical target is built, and transformed to the data of the target echo signal based on ranging equation and targets reflection characteristics. Then, system model and time series model of LADAR echo signal simulator are established. Some influential factors which could induce fixed delay error and random delay error on the simulated return signals are analyzed. In the simulation system, the signal propagating delay of circuits and the response time of pulsed lasers are belong to fixed delay error. The counting error of digital delay generator, the jitter of system clock and the desynchronized between trigger signal and clock signal are a part of random delay error. Furthermore, these system insertion delays are analyzed quantitatively, and the noisy data are obtained. The target echo signals are got by superimposing of the noisy data and the pure target echo signal. In order to overcome these disadvantageous factors, a method of adjusting the timing diagram of the simulation system is proposed. Finally, the simulated echo signals are processed by using a detection algorithm to complete the 3D model reconstruction of object. The simulation results reveal that the range resolution can be better than 8 cm.

  11. Challenges and key research questions for yaws eradication.

    PubMed

    Marks, Michael; Mitjà, Oriol; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Pillay, Allan; Knauf, Sascha; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Bassat, Quique; Martin, Diana L; Fegan, David; Taleo, Fasihah; Kool, Jacob; Lukehart, Sheila; Emerson, Paul M; Solomon, Anthony W; Ye, Tun; Ballard, Ronald C; Mabey, David C W; Asiedu, Kingsley B

    2015-10-01

    Yaws is endemic in west Africa, southeast Asia, and the Pacific region. To eradicate yaws by 2020, WHO has launched a campaign of mass treatment with azithromycin. Progress has been made towards achievement of this ambitious goal, including the validation of point-of-care and molecular diagnostic tests and piloting of the strategy in several countries, including Ghana, Vanuatu, and Papua New Guinea. Gaps in knowledge need to be addressed to allow refinement of the eradication strategy. Studies exploring determinants of the spatial distribution of yaws are needed to help with the completion of baseline mapping. The finding that Haemophilus ducreyi causes lesions similar to yaws is particularly important and further work is needed to assess the effect of azithromycin on these lesions. The integration of diagnostic tests into different stages of the eradication campaign needs investigation. Finally, studies must be done to inform the optimum mass-treatment strategy for sustainable interruption of transmission.

  12. Association of Researcher Characteristics with Views on Return of Incidental Findings from Genomic Research.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Julia; Martinez, Josue; Duong, Jimmy; Zhang, Yuan; Phelan, Jo; Fyer, Abby; Klitzman, Robert; Appelbaum, Paul S; Chung, Wendy K

    2015-10-01

    Whole exome/ genome sequencing (WES/WGS) is now commonly used in research and is increasingly used in clinical care to identify the genetic basis of rare and unknown diseases. The management of incidental findings (IFs) generated through these analyses is debated within the research community. To examine how views regarding genomic research IFs are associated with researcher characteristics and experiences, we surveyed genetic professionals and assessed the effect of professional background and experience on their opinions. Researchers who did not have clinical training, provide clinical care to research participants, or have prior experience returning research results were in general more inclined to offer return of IFs than their colleagues with these characteristics. Understanding this will be important to fully appreciate the impact that policies on return of genetic IFs could have on participants, researchers, and genomic research.

  13. Association of researcher characteristics with views on return of incidental findings from genomic research

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Julia; Martinez, Josue; Duong, Jimmy; Zhang, Yuan; Phelan, Jo; Fyer, Abby; Klitzman, Robert; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Chung, Wendy K.

    2015-01-01

    Whole exome/genome sequencing (WES/WGS) is now commonly used in research and is increasingly used in clinical care to identify the genetic basis of rare and unknown diseases. The management of incidental findings (IFs) generated through these analyses is debated within the research community. To examine how views regarding genomic research IFs are associated with researcher characteristics and experiences, we surveyed genetic professionals and assessed the effect of professional background and experience on their opinions. Researchers who did not have clinical training, provide clinical care to research participants, or have prior experience returning research results were in general more inclined to offer return of IFs than their colleagues with these characteristics. Understanding this will be important to fully appreciate the impact that policies on return of genetic IFs could have on participants, researchers, and genomic research. PMID:25592144

  14. Continuing to conduct research in nursing homes despite controversial findings: reflections by a research scientist.

    PubMed

    Kayser-Jones, Jeanie

    2003-01-01

    To illustrate the potential controversial nature of the research findings, the author first presents data from an ongoing study on the care of terminally ill nursing home residents, then responds to the question: "How can you go into nursing homes, find out all that you do, publish your findings, and continue to gain access to nursing homes?" Strategies used over the past 20 years to gain this access and to develop and maintain harmonious relationships during and after the data collection process are presented. The author emphasizes the importance of conducting research in settings that may generate controversial findings. Furthermore, she states that these findings should be presented to advocates and policy makers who are in a position to bring about changes that will improve the quality of care.

  15. Key Competencies and Characteristics for Innovative Teaching among Secondary School Teachers: A Mixed-Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Chang; Wang, Di

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to understand the key competencies and characteristics for innovative teaching as perceived by Chinese secondary teachers. A mixed-methods research was used to investigate secondary teachers' views. First, a qualitative study was conducted with interviews of teachers to understand the perceived key competencies and…

  16. Evaluating Teaching and Research Activities--Finding the Right Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Javier; Mora, Jose-Gines

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes on a national, regional, and institutional level the evaluation systems used to assess teaching and research activities at Spanish universities. Also examines ways in which evaluation systems orient to promote research activities to the detriment of teaching activities. (SWM)

  17. School-Based Performance Awards: Research Findings and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Carolyn; Heneman, Herbert, III; Milanowski, Anthony

    This paper synthesizes research on how motivation influenced teachers at two school-based performance award (SBPA) programs in Kentucky and in North Carolina. The research was conducted between 1995 and 1998 by the Consortium for Policy Research in Education. SBPA programs provide teachers and other school staff with pay bonuses for the…

  18. Speaking up about Advocacy: Findings from a Partnership Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Melanie; Bannister, Susan; Davies, Julie; Fleming, Simon; Graham, Claire; Mcmaster, Andrea; Seddon, Angela; Wheldon, Anita; Whittell, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a partnership research project carried out by a research team consisting of people with learning disabilities and people without learning disabilities. The research explored people's understandings of advocacy and identified gaps in advocacy provision for people with learning disabilities and their families. Four focus…

  19. Neurobiology Research Findings: How the Brain Works during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kweldju, Siusana

    2015-01-01

    In the past, neurobiology for reading was identical with neuropathology. Today, however, the advancement of modern neuroimaging techniques has contributed to the understanding of the reading processes of normal individuals. Neurobiology findings today have uncovered and illuminated the fundamental neural mechanism of reading. The findings have…

  20. Psychological Therapies for Auditory Hallucinations (Voices): Current Status and Key Directions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Neil; Hayward, Mark; Peters, Emmanuelle; van der Gaag, Mark; Bentall, Richard P.; Jenner, Jack; Strauss, Clara; Sommer, Iris E.; Johns, Louise C.; Varese, Filippo; García-Montes, José Manuel; Waters, Flavie; Dodgson, Guy; McCarthy-Jones, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions, through formulation-driven interventions using methods from cognitive therapy, to a number of contemporary developments. Recent developments include the application of acceptance- and mindfulness-based approaches, and consolidation of methods for working with connections between voices and views of self, others, relationships and personal history. In this article, we discuss the development of therapies for voices and review the empirical findings. This review shows that psychological therapies are broadly effective for people with positive symptoms, but that more research is required to understand the specific application of therapies to voices. Six key research directions are identified: (1) moving beyond the focus on overall efficacy to understand specific therapeutic processes targeting voices, (2) better targeting psychological processes associated with voices such as trauma, cognitive mechanisms, and personal recovery, (3) more focused measurement of the intended outcomes of therapy, (4) understanding individual differences among voice hearers, (5) extending beyond a focus on voices and schizophrenia into other populations and sensory modalities, and (6) shaping interventions for service implementation. PMID:24936081

  1. Finding Qualitative Research Evidence for Health Technology Assessment.

    PubMed

    DeJean, Deirdre; Giacomini, Mita; Simeonov, Dorina; Smith, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies increasingly use reviews of qualitative research as evidence for evaluating social, experiential, and ethical aspects of health technologies. We systematically searched three bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Social Science Citation Index [SSCI]) using published search filters or "hedges" and our hybrid filter to identify qualitative research studies pertaining to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and early breast cancer. The search filters were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Our screening by title and abstract revealed that qualitative research constituted only slightly more than 1% of all published research on each health topic. The performance of the published search filters varied greatly across topics and databases. Compared with existing search filters, our hybrid filter demonstrated a consistently high sensitivity across databases and topics, and minimized the resource-intensive process of sifting through false positives. We identify opportunities for qualitative health researchers to improve the uptake of qualitative research into evidence-informed policy making.

  2. Applying Ad Hoc Institutional Research Findings to College Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental scanning, enrollment forecasting, budget analyses, and institutional effectiveness assessment are examples of the explicit contributions institutional research offices make to campus strategic planning.

  3. Factors Affecting the Implementation of Curriculum Reform in Hong Kong: Key Findings from a Large-Scale Survey Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Wong, Ping Man

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper was to examine key hindering and facilitating factors in schools during the first stage of the curriculum reform (2001-2006) in Hong Kong and to identify key strategies to address these challenges. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 150 primary and 120 secondary schools with 7,869 key stakeholders…

  4. "Response to Comments": Finding the Narrative in Narrative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Cathy A.

    2009-01-01

    The author responds to comments by Barone (2009), Clandinin and Murphy (2009), and M. W. Smith (2009) on "The Construction Zone: Literary Elements in Narrative Research" (Coulter & M. L. Smith, 2009). She clarifies issues regarding point of view, authorial surplus, narrative coherence, and the relational qualities of narrative research. She…

  5. Rutgers University Research Experience for Teachers in Engineering: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffey, Evelyn H.; Cook-Chennault, Kimberly; Hirsch, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    In addressing the nation's need for a more technologically-literate society, the Rutgers University Research Experience for Teachers in Engineering (RU RET-E) is designed to: (1) engage middle and high school math and science teachers in innovative "green" engineering research during the summer, and (2) support teachers in integrating…

  6. Finding Nexus: Connecting Youth Work and Research Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormally, Sinéad; Coburn, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Participation in educational and social research helps to develop understanding of how young people learn and to consider wider aspects of their lives to enable their voices to be heard and acted upon. Research also facilitates the articulation and sharing of methodologies across a range of professional practices. We assert that theory and…

  7. Seeking Renewal, Finding Community: Participatory Action Research in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Roni Jo; Adair, Marta; Broomhead, Paul; Gray, Sharon; Grierson, Sirpa; Hendrickson, Scott; Jensen, Amy P.; Nokes, Jeffery D.; Shumway, Steven; Siebert, Daniel; Wright, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This narrative study describes the experiences of a group of teacher educators as they worked together in a collaborative research activity investigating theories of literacy and the preparation of secondary teachers. The collaboration was organized around the precepts associated with participatory action research (PAR). After four years of…

  8. Key findings from HSC's 2010 site visits: health care markets weather economic downturn, brace for health reform.

    PubMed

    Felland, Laurie E; Grossman, Joy M; Tu, Ha T

    2011-05-01

    Lingering fallout--loss of jobs and employer coverage--from the great recession slowed demand for health care services but did little to slow aggressive competition by dominant hospital systems for well-insured patients, according to key findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) 2010 site visits to 12 nationally representative metropolitan communities. Hospitals with significant market clout continued to command high payment rate increases from private insurers, and tighter hospital-physician alignment heightened concerns about growing provider market power. High and rising premiums led to increasing employer adoption of consumer-driven health plans and continued increases in patient cost sharing, but the broader movement to educate and engage consumers in care decisions did not keep pace. State and local budget deficits led to some funding cuts for safety net providers, but an influx of federal stimulus funds increased support to community health centers and shored up Medicaid programs, allowing many people who lost private insurance because of job losses to remain covered. Hospitals, physicians and insurers generally viewed health reform coverage expansions favorably, but all worried about protecting revenues as reform requirements phase in. PMID:21614861

  9. Taking aims seriously: repository research and limits on the duty to return individual research findings

    PubMed Central

    Ossorio, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Most discussions of researchers’ duties to return incidental findings or research results to research participants or repository contributors fail to provide an adequate theoretical grounding for such duties. Returning findings is a positive duty, a duty to help somebody. Typically, such duties are specified narrowly such that helping is only a duty when it poses little or no risk or burden to the helper and does not interfere with her legitimate aims. Under current budgetary and personnel constraints, and with currently available information technology, routine return of individual findings from research using repository materials would constitute a substantial burden on the scientific enterprise and would seriously frustrate the aims of both scientists and specimen/data contributors. In most cases, researchers’ limited duties to help repository contributors probably can be fulfilled by some action less demanding than returning individual findings. Furthermore, the duty-to-return issue should be analyzed as a conflict between (possibly) helping some contributors now and (possibly) helping a greater number of people who would benefit in the future from the knowledge produced by research. PMID:22402758

  10. Researchers Find Order, Beauty in Chaotic Chemical Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stu

    1991-01-01

    Deterministic chaos which involves orderly motion is discussed. Presented is the history of chaos and two tests for chaos. Practical applications and predictions of the long-term significance of chaos research are discussed. (KR)

  11. Osteoarthritis: Research Findings | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements Education to help people better manage their osteoarthritis Exercise and weight loss to improve mobility and decrease pain Researchers are learning about sex differences that explain why ... to osteoarthritis. These include structural differences of the knee joint ...

  12. The Key Role of Educational Research in the Development and Evaluation of the National Numeracy Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Margaret; Askew, Mike; Millett, Alison; Rhodes, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    The authors contest a politician's claim that the National Numeracy Strategy (NNS) in English primary schools has been an undisputed success with no contribution from educational researchers. First, the key role of researchers and research in the development of the NNS is outlined. Then there is a description of the Leverhulme Numeracy Research…

  13. Reading Journal Articles for Comprehension Using Key Sentences: An Exercise for the Novice Research Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Nicole S.; Taubman, Brett F.

    2013-01-01

    We have incorporated an active-learning assignment, Reading Papers Using Key Sentences, in an upper-level Introduction to Chemical Research course. Although key sentences are typically used to help authors write with clarity and organization, we have found that this assignment helps students improve upon and practice reading journal articles for…

  14. Incorporating Research Findings into Standards and Requirements for Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, J. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Vision for Exploration has been the catalyst for NASA to refocus its life sciences research. In the future, life sciences research funded by NASA will be focused on answering questions that directly impact setting physiological standards and developing effective countermeasures to the undesirable physiological and psychological effects of spaceflight for maintaining the health of the human system. This, in turn, will contribute to the success of exploration class missions. We will show how research will impact setting physiologic standards, such as exposure limits, outcome limits, and accepted performance ranges. We will give examples of how a physiologic standard can eventually be translated into an operational requirement, then a functional requirement, and eventually spaceflight hardware or procedures. This knowledge will be important to the space medicine community as well as to vehicle contractors who, for the first time, must now consider the human system in developing and constructing a vehicle that can achieve the goal of success.

  15. Finding Collaborators: Toward Interactive Discovery Tools for Research Network Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schleyer, Titus K; Becich, Michael J; Hochheiser, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Background Research networking systems hold great promise for helping biomedical scientists identify collaborators with the expertise needed to build interdisciplinary teams. Although efforts to date have focused primarily on collecting and aggregating information, less attention has been paid to the design of end-user tools for using these collections to identify collaborators. To be effective, collaborator search tools must provide researchers with easy access to information relevant to their collaboration needs. Objective The aim was to study user requirements and preferences for research networking system collaborator search tools and to design and evaluate a functional prototype. Methods Paper prototypes exploring possible interface designs were presented to 18 participants in semistructured interviews aimed at eliciting collaborator search needs. Interview data were coded and analyzed to identify recurrent themes and related software requirements. Analysis results and elements from paper prototypes were used to design a Web-based prototype using the D3 JavaScript library and VIVO data. Preliminary usability studies asked 20 participants to use the tool and to provide feedback through semistructured interviews and completion of the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Initial interviews identified consensus regarding several novel requirements for collaborator search tools, including chronological display of publication and research funding information, the need for conjunctive keyword searches, and tools for tracking candidate collaborators. Participant responses were positive (SUS score: mean 76.4%, SD 13.9). Opportunities for improving the interface design were identified. Conclusions Interactive, timeline-based displays that support comparison of researcher productivity in funding and publication have the potential to effectively support searching for collaborators. Further refinement and longitudinal studies may be needed to better understand the

  16. Research and clinical findings--a wholistic view.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Marvin L

    2012-11-01

    Valuable information is available to clinicians both from research articles, and reports from clinicians. Both sources have limitations. Research, with the exception of longitudinal studies, tends to isolate a variable or two from the whole, limiting its usefulness. Clinical techniques reported are sometimes biased, and perform well for certain therapists in certain settings, and not so well for others. Interrelationships are important among variables such as dentition, anatomy, physiology, oral muscle functions, oral rest postures, eating, and speech. Each affects the others. Equally important are interrelationships among all the specialists who treat patients with orofacial myofunctional disorders. A wholistic approach to the evaluation and treatment of orofacial disorders is advocated.

  17. Key Findings of the AMAP 2015 Assessment on Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone as Arctic Climate Forcers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, P.

    2015-12-01

    emission from each sector and region) were also calculated. Key findings from the 2015 assessment will be presented.

  18. Women Who Experienced Childhood Incest: Research Findings and Therapeutic Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtois, Christine A.; Watts, Deborah

    Recognition of the gravity of the social problem of incest in the United States, coupled with increasing demands for psychological treatment and assistance from social service agencies by incest victims and their families, has demonstrated the need for controlled research in this area. Knowledge of the effects of incest is critical to the…

  19. Urban Delinquency and Substance Abuse. Initial Findings. Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Thornberry, Terence P.

    In collaborative efforts three research teams have investigated the problems of urban delinquency and substance abuse in longitudinal studies that have gone on since 1986. The Denver Youth Study is a longitudinal survey that involves annual interviews with probability samples of five different birth cohorts and their parents from areas of Denver…

  20. Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent 2 highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, and research in this area has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. We conceptualize the…

  1. Finding a place for genomics in health disparities research.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, S M; Knerr, S; Burke, W

    2012-01-01

    The existence of pronounced differences in health outcomes between US populations is a problem of moral significance and public health urgency. Pursuing research on genetic contributors to such disparities, despite striking data on the fundamental role of social factors, has been controversial. Still, advances in genomic science are providing an understanding of disease biology at a level of precision not previously possible. The potential for genomic strategies to help in addressing population-level disparities therefore needs to be carefully evaluated. Using 3 examples from current research, we argue that the best way to maximize the benefits of population-based genomic investigations, and mitigate potential harms, is to direct research away from the identification of genetic causes of disparities and instead focus on applying genomic methodologies to the development of clinical and public health tools with the potential to ameliorate healthcare inequities, direct population-level health interventions or inform public policy. Such a transformation will require close collaboration between transdisciplinary teams and community members as well as a reorientation of current research objectives to better align genomic discovery efforts with public health priorities and well-recognized barriers to fair health care delivery.

  2. Finding the Public in Consumer Research: A Reply to Ward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, William; Charren, Peggy

    1984-01-01

    Discusses Ward's analysis of letters sent to the Federal Trade Commission about children's advertising. Advocates that public opinion research concerning consumer protection issues should include information on the degree to which consumers are informed of their fundamental rights with respect to the consumer issues being studied. (CB)

  3. Researchers Find Essential Brain Circuit in Visual Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this circuit could be controlled in the human brain — for example, with a drug or with implants ... the nation’s leading funder of research on the brain and nervous system. The ... of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting ...

  4. Most Colleges Chase Prestige on a Treadmill, Researchers Find

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The pursuit of institutional prestige has done little to improve the reputations of most colleges, and it may be causing many of them to become less distinguishable from their competitors, new research shows. In one study presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Kyle V. Sweitzer, a data-resource…

  5. Management Communication Ethics Research: Finding the Bull's-Eye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinsch, N. Lamar, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that scholars who wish to produce substantive research in management communication ethics would be helped by a clear vision of what the term designates. States that management communication ethics should designate concerns that lie at the intersection of management, communication, and ethics. Concludes that this approach could help to…

  6. Environmental Horticulture. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachler, Mike; Sappe', Hoyt

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of environmental horticulture, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to address the needs of the horticulture field. Section 1 contains general information:…

  7. Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs To Reduce Teen Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Douglas

    This report summarizes three bodies of research on teenage pregnancy and programs to reduce the risk of teenage pregnancy. Studies included in this report were completed in 1980 or later, conducted in the United States or Canada, targeted adolescents, employed an experimental or quasi-experimental design, had a sample size of at least 100 in the…

  8. FINDING THE BALANCE - QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS VS. RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for
    sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data.
    Researchers must...

  9. FINDING THE BALANCE - QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS VS. RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data. Researchers must use Q...

  10. On Getting Lost, Finding One's Direction, and Teacher Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harste, Jerome C.; Leland, Christine

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present reasons why it is easy to get lost when it comes to teaching literacy. Instead of a "best practices" approach in which educators are advised to implement programs because they worked for others, the authors advocate a teacher-researcher paradigm that provides a set of social practices for outgrowing our current…

  11. Instrumentation Technology. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappe', Hoyt; Squires, Sheila S.

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of instrumentation technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train instrumentation technicians. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of…

  12. An Introduction to Key Event Mapping: A Primer for Nurse Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Carter-Harris, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    To fully understand the events leading to a diagnosis, retrospective recall can help nurse researchers reconstruct important health behavior-related events. However, retrospective recall can be a challenge. Key event mapping offers nurse researchers a method beyond retrospective chart review to elicit date data to explore the pre-diagnosis time frame of an illness. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the key event mapping method to nurse researchers in search of a method of eliciting date data from participants when designing research studies that include a retrospective recall component. PMID:25908543

  13. Treatment of methamphetamine abuse: research findings and clinical directions.

    PubMed

    Cretzmeyer, Margaret; Sarrazin, Mary Vaughan; Huber, Diane L; Block, Robert I; Hall, James A

    2003-04-01

    Over the past few years, methamphetamine has appeared in mass quantities, in part, because of the ease and cost efficiency of manufacturing. With this increase in availability, the use of methamphetamine has increased significantly. The purpose of this article is to describe the existing treatment options for methamphetamine abuse and provide recommendations for practitioners and researchers. Methamphetamine abuse adversely impacts physical functioning, brain functioning and cognition, social support and social networks, and behavioral functioning. Negative consequences have also been documented to the environment and communities. In the studies reviewed on effective treatments, interventions consisted of aversion therapy, medication, psychosocial treatment, and case management. Each specific treatment is described as connected with an overall drug treatment program. If methamphetamine abuse continues to increase and the consequences continue to be so devastating, researchers and clinicians could advance the field by particular focus on the treatment of this type of drug use.

  14. Mental health epidemiological research in South America: recent findings

    PubMed Central

    Silva de Lima, Maurício; Garcia de Oliveira Soares, Bernardo; de Jesus Mari, Jair

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to review the recent mental health epidemiological research conducted in South America. The Latin American and the Caribbean (LILACS) database was searched from 1999 to 2003 using a specific strategy for identification of cohort, case-control and cross-sectional population-based studies in South America. The authors screened references and identified relevant studies. Further studies were obtained contacting local experts in epidemiology. 140 references were identified, and 12 studies were selected. Most selected studies explored the prevalence and risk factors for common mental disorders, and several of them used sophisticated methods of sample selection and analysis. There is a need for improving the quality of psychiatric journals in Latin America, and for increasing the distribution and access to research data. Regionally relevant problems such as violence and substance abuse should be considered in designing future investigations in this area. PMID:16633474

  15. Translational research challenges: finding the right animal models.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Sharma

    2012-12-01

    Translation of scientific discoveries into meaningful human applications, particularly novel therapies of human diseases, requires development of suitable animal models. Experimental approaches to test new drugs in preclinical phases often necessitated animal models that not only replicate human disease in etiopathogenesis and pathobiology but also biomarkers development and toxicity prediction. Whereas the transgenic and knockout techniques have revolutionized manipulation of rodents and other species to get greater insights into human disease pathogenesis, we are far from generating ideal animal models of most human disease states. The challenges in using the currently available animal models for translational research, particularly for developing potentially new drugs for human disease, coupled with the difficulties in toxicity prediction have led some researchers to develop a scoring system for translatability. These aspects and the challenges in selecting an animal model among those that are available to study human disease pathobiology and drug development are the topics covered in this detailed review.

  16. Research Findings on Radiation Hormesis and Radon Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Sadao

    1999-06-06

    Radiation hormesis research in Japan to determine the validity of Luckey's claims has revealed information on the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific data of animal tests we obtained and successful results actually brought by radon therapy on human patients show us a clearer understanding of the health effects of low-level radiation. We obtained many animal test results and epidemiological survey data through our research activities cooperating with more than ten universities in Japan, categorized as follows: 1. suppression of cancer by enhancement of the immune system based on gene activation; 2. rejuvenation and suppression of aging by increasing cell membrane permeability and enzyme syntheses; 3. adaptive response by activation of gene expression on DNA repair and cell apoptosis; 4. pain relief and stress moderation by hormone formation in the brain and central nervous system; 5. avoidance and therapy of obstinate diseases by enhancing damage control systems and form one formation.

  17. Journals Find Many Images in Research Are Faked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Kristin Roovers was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Pennsylvania with a bright career ahead of her--a trusted member of a research laboratory at the medical school studying the role of cell growth in diabetes. When an editor of "The Journal of Clinical Investigation" did a spot-check on one of her images for an article in 2005, Roovers'…

  18. Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent two highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Although interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, research on the topic of pain, nicotine, and tobacco smoking has increased dramatically over the past five years. We conceptualize the interaction of pain and smoking as a prototypical example of the biopsychosocial model. Accordingly, the current review extrapolated from behavioral, cognitive, affective, biomedical, and social perspectives to propose causal mechanisms that may contribute to the observed comorbidity between these two conditions. Research in the broad area of pain and smoking was first dichotomized into investigations of either "effects of smoking on pain" or "effects of pain on smoking." We then integrated the extant literature to present a reciprocal model of pain and smoking that is hypothesized to interact in the manner of a positive feedback loop, resulting in greater pain, increased smoking, and the maintenance of tobacco addiction. Finally, we proposed directions for future research, and discussed clinical implications for smokers with comorbid pain disorders. We observed modest evidence to support the notions that smoking may be a risk factor in the multifactorial etiology of some chronically painful conditions, and that the experience of pain may come to serve as a potent motivator of smoking. We also found that whereas animal studies yielded consistent support for direct pain-inhibitory effects of nicotine and tobacco smoke, results from human studies were much less consistent. Future research in the emerging area of pain and smoking has the potential to inform theoretical and clinical applications with respect to tobacco smoking, chronic pain, and their comorbid presentation. PMID:21967450

  19. Trends in Chicago's Schools across Three Eras of Reform: Summary of Key Findings. Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppescu, Stuart; Allensworth, Elaine M.; Moore, Paul; de la Torre, Marisa; Murphy, James

    2011-01-01

    In 1988, U.S. Secretary of Education William Bennett proclaimed Chicago's public schools to be the worst in the nation. Since that time, Chicago has been at the forefront of urban school reform. Beginning with a dramatic move in 1990 to shift power away from the central office, through CEO Paul Vallas's use of standardized testing to hold schools…

  20. Gate valve and motor-operator research findings

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Russell, M.J.; Bramwell, D.

    1995-09-01

    This report provides an update on the valve research being sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The research addresses the need to provide assurance that motor-operated valves can perform their intended safety function, usually to open or close against specified (design basis) flow and pressure loads. This report describes several important developments: Two methods for estimating or bounding the design basis stem factor (in rising-stem valves), using data from tests less severe than design basis tests; a new correlation for evaluating the opening responses of gate valves and for predicting opening requirements; an extrapolation method that uses the results of a best effort flow test to estimate the design basis closing requirements of a gate valve that exhibits atypical responses (peak force occurs before flow isolation); and the extension of the original INEL closing correlation to include low- flow and low-pressure loads. The report also includes a general approach, presented in step-by-step format, for determining operating margins for rising-stem valves (gate valves and globe valves) as well as quarter-turn valves (ball valves and butterfly valves).

  1. 42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions General Information § 93.501 Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions. (a) Opportunity to contest. A respondent may contest ORI findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions, including...

  2. 42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions General Information § 93.501 Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions. (a) Opportunity to contest. A respondent may contest ORI findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions, including...

  3. Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Findings Determine Research Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Qian; Appels, Lise; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-01-01

    “Second generation” bioethanol, with lignocellulose material as feedstock, is a promising alternative for first generation bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the current status and reveals the bottlenecks that hamper its implementation. The current literature specifies a conversion of biomass to bioethanol of 30 to ~50% only. Novel processes increase the conversion yield to about 92% of the theoretical yield. New combined processes reduce both the number of operational steps and the production of inhibitors. Recent advances in genetically engineered microorganisms are promising for higher alcohol tolerance and conversion efficiency. By combining advanced systems and by intensive additional research to eliminate current bottlenecks, second generation bioethanol could surpass the traditional first generation processes. PMID:25614881

  4. Discovery research: the scientific challenge of finding new antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Livermore, David M

    2011-09-01

    The dwindling supply of new antibiotics largely reflects regulatory and commercial challenges, but also a failure of discovery. In the 1990s the pharmaceutical industry abandoned its classical ways of seeking antibiotics and instead adopted a strategy that combined genomics with high-throughput screening of existing compound libraries. Too much emphasis was placed on identifying targets and molecules that bound to them, and too little emphasis was placed on the ability of these molecules to permeate bacteria, evade efflux and avoid mutational resistance; moreover, the compound libraries were systematically biased against antibiotics. The sorry result is that no antibiotic found by this strategy has yet entered clinical use and many major pharmaceutical companies have abandoned antibiotic discovery. Although a raft of start-up companies-variously financed by venture capital, charity or public money--are now finding new antibiotic compounds (some of them very promising in vitro or in early trials), their development through Phase III depends on financial commitments from large pharmaceutical companies, where the discouraging regulatory environment and the poor likely return on investment remain paramount issues.

  5. Exploiting multimedia in reproductive science education: research findings.

    PubMed

    Senger, P L; Oki, A C; Trevisan, M S; McLean, D J

    2012-08-01

    Education in reproductive science is operating from an outdated paradigm of teaching and learning. Traditionally, reproductive education follows the pattern where students read a textbook, listen to instructor presentations, re-read the textbook and class notes and then complete a test. This paradigm is inefficient, costly and has not incorporated the potential that technology can offer with respect to increases in student learning. Further, teachers of reproductive science (and all of science for that matter) have little training in the use of documented methods of instructional design and cognitive psychology. Thus, most of us have learned to teach by repeating the approaches our mentors used (both good and bad). The technology now exists to explain complex topics using multimedia presentations in which digital animation and three-dimensional anatomical reconstructions greatly reduce time required for delivery while at the same time improving student understanding. With funding from the Small Business Innovation Research program through the U.S. Department of Education, we have developed and tested a multimedia approach to teaching complex concepts in reproductive physiology. The results of five separate experiments involving 1058 university students and 122 patients in an OB/GYN clinic indicate that students and patients learned as much or more in less time when viewing the multimedia presentations when compared to traditional teaching methodologies.

  6. 76 FR 33763 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct AGENCY... final notice of debarment based on the misconduct in science and research misconduct findings of the... misconduct in science and research misconduct in research funded by National Institute of General...

  7. Quantitative research on the primary process: method and findings.

    PubMed

    Holt, Robert R

    2002-01-01

    Freud always defined the primary process metapsychologically, but he described the ways it shows up in dreams, parapraxes, jokes, and symptoms with enough observational detail to make it possible to create an objective, reliable scoring system to measure its manifestations in Rorschach responses, dreams, TAT stories, free associations, and other verbal texts. That system can identify signs of the thinker's efforts, adaptive or maladaptive, to control or defend against the emergence of primary process. A prerequisite and a consequence of the research that used this system was clarification and elaboration of the psychoanalytic theory of thinking. Results of empirical tests of several propositions derived from psychoanalytic theory are summarized. Predictions concerning the method's most useful index, of adaptive vs. maladaptive regression, have been repeatedly verified: People who score high on this index (who are able to produce well-controlled "primary products" in their Rorschach responses), as compared to those who score at the maladaptive pole (producing primary-process-filled responses with poor reality testing, anxiety, and pathological defensive efforts), are better able to tolerate sensory deprivation, are more able to enter special states of consciousness comfortably (drug-induced, hypnotic, etc.), and have higher achievements in artistic creativity, while schizophrenics tend to score at the extreme of maladaptive regression. Capacity for adaptive regression also predicts success in psychotherapy, and rises with the degree of improvement after both psychotherapy and drug treatment. Some predictive failures have been theoretically interesting: Kris's hypothesis about creativity and the controlled use of primary process holds for males but usually not for females. This body of work is presented as a refutation of charges, brought by such critics as Crews, that psychoanalysis cannot become a science.

  8. Researching the meaning of life: finding new sources of hope.

    PubMed

    Alon, Shirly

    2010-01-01

    -disciplinary staff. Case illustrations for meaning--centered interventions will be discussed in the course of the paper. Cultural and traditional differences within the Israeli society, expressed in themes of work with patients, will lead to the conclusion, that there are many creative ways for researching meaning of life and sources for hope. PMID:20590354

  9. Translating research findings into practice – the implementation of kangaroo mother care in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a safe and effective method of caring for low birth weight infants and is promoted for its potential to improve newborn survival. Many countries find it difficult to take KMC to scale in healthcare facilities providing newborn care. KMC Ghana was an initiative to scale up KMC in four regions in Ghana. Research findings from two outreach trials in South Africa informed the design of the initiative. Two key points of departure were to equip healthcare facilities that conduct deliveries with the necessary skills for KMC practice and to single out KMC for special attention instead of embedding it in other newborn care initiatives. This paper describes the contextualisation and practical application of previous research findings and the results of monitoring the progress of the implementation of KMC in Ghana. Methods A three-phase outreach intervention was adapted from previous research findings to suit the local setting. A more structured system of KMC regional steering committees was introduced to drive the process and take the initiative forward. During Phase I, health workers in regions and districts were oriented in KMC and received basic support for the management of the outreach. Phase II entailed the strengthening of the regional steering committees. Phase III comprised a more formal assessment, utilising a previously validated KMC progress-monitoring instrument. Results Twenty-six out of 38 hospitals (68 %) scored over 10 out of 30 and had reached the level of ‘evidence of practice’ by the end of Phase III. Seven hospitals exceeded expected performance by scoring at the level of ‘evidence of routine and institutionalised practice.’ The collective mean score for all participating hospitals was 12.07. Hospitals that had attained baby-friendly status or had been re-accredited in the five years before the intervention scored significantly better than the rest, with a mean score of 14.64. Conclusion The KMC Ghana

  10. HIV research in Australia: linking basic research findings with clinical and public health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Sharon R; Kaldor, John M; Cooper, David A

    2006-01-01

    Despite a population of only 20 million and sustained low prevalence of HIV infection in Australia, Australian researchers have provided many substantial original findings to the fields of HIV pathogenesis, treatment and prevention. More recently, Australian clinicians and scientists have turned their attention to assisting other countries in developing effective responses, particularly within the Asia-Pacific region. It is therefore fitting that the 4th International AIDS Society (IAS) Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention will be held in Sydney in July 2007. The meeting is expected to attract over 5000 participants and will have a dynamic and innovative programme within the three major themes of HIV basic science, clinical research and biomedical prevention. PMID:17140433

  11. YoungStar in Wisconsin: Analysis of Data as of July 2014. Executive Summary: Key Findings and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Council on Children and Families, 2014

    2014-01-01

    YoungStar is a five-star quality rating system for child care providers based on education, learning environment, business methods, and practices around child health and well-being. Through this rating system, the state is addressing several key issues in Wisconsin's child care system. The rating system will: (1) Improve the overall quality of…

  12. Key Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Motivators for Research Participation among Individuals who are Incarcerated

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Bridget L.; Faulkner, Sherilyn A.; Brems, Christiane; Corey, Staci L.; Eldridge, Gloria D.; Johnson, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding motivations of research participants is crucial for developing ethical research protocols, especially for research with vulnerable populations. Through interviews with 92 IRB members, prison administrators, research ethicists, and researchers, we explored key stakeholders’ perceptions of what motivates incarcerated individuals to participate in research. Primary motivators identified were a desire to contribute to society, gaining knowledge and healthcare, acquiring incentives, and obtaining social support. The potential for undue influence or coercion were also identified as motivators. These results highlight the need for careful analysis of what motivates incarcerated individuals to participate in research as part of developing or reviewing ethically permissible and responsible research protocols. Future research should expand this line of inquiry to directly include perspectives of incarcerated individuals. PMID:26283681

  13. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. When the final HHS action does not result in a settlement or finding of... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding...

  14. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. When the final HHS action does not result in a settlement or finding of... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding...

  15. Findings of the US Research Needs Workshop on the Topic of Fusion Power

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Raffray, A R; Kurtz, R J; Morley, N B; Reiersen, W T; Sharpe, P; Willms, S

    2009-09-16

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: fusion fuel cycle; power extraction; materials science; safety and environment; and reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.

  16. Great lakes research--important human health findings and their impact on ATSDR's Superfund research program.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Heraline E; De Rosa, Christopher T

    2002-03-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) was created by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, commonly known as Superfund. ATSDR is the principal United States federal public health agency involved with issues of public health and applied science concerning the human health impact of living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste site, or emergencies resulting from unplanned releases of hazardous substances into community environments. In pursuing these mandates, ATSDR's mission is to prevent exposure and adverse human health effects and diminished quality of life associated with exposure to hazardous substances from waste sites, unplanned releases, and other sources of pollution present in the environment. There are more than 2,000 toxic substances found at hazardous waste sites in the United States. ATSDR has developed a prioritized list of 275 substances that pose the greatest hazard to human health. In conducting its work ATSDR has identified data gaps in knowledge about the toxicity of various hazardous substances as well as gaps in human exposure characterization. As part of its mandate, ATSDR initiated a Substance-Specific Applied Research Program (SSARP) to address these data gaps. The ATSDR Great Lakes Human Health Effects Research Program (GLHHERP) is a congressionally-mandated research program that characterizes exposure to persistent toxic substances and investigates the potential for adverse health outcome in at-risk populations. The research findings from this program in the areas of exposure, sociodemographic data, and health effects have significant public health implications for ATSDR's Superfund research activities. PMID:12018016

  17. The current structure of key actors involved in research on land and soil degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escadafal, Richard; Barbero, Celia; Exbrayat, Williams; Marques, Maria Jose; Ruiz, Manuel; El Haddadi, Anass; Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam

    2013-04-01

    Land and soil conservation topics, the final mandate of the United Convention to Combat desertification in drylands, have been diagnosed as still suffering from a lack of guidance. On the contrary, climate change and biodiversity issues -the other two big subjects of the Rio Conventions- seem to progress and may benefit from the advice of international panels. Arguably the weakness of policy measures and hence the application of scientific knowledge by land users and stakeholders could be the expression of an inadequate research organization and a lack of ability to channel their findings. In order to better understand the size, breadth and depth of the scientific communities involved in providing advice to this convention and to other bodies, this study explores the corpus of international publications dealing with land and/or with soils. A database of several thousands records including a significant part of the literature published so far was performed using the Web of Science and other socio-economic databases such as FRANCIS and CAIRN. We extracted hidden information using bibliometric methods and data mining applied to these scientific publications to map the key actors (laboratories, teams, institutions) involved in research on land and on soils. Several filters were applied to the databases in combination with the word "desertification". The further use of Tetralogie software merges databases, analyses similarities and differences between keywords, disciplines, authors and regions and identifies obvious clusters. Assessing their commonalities and differences, the visualisation of links and gaps between scientists, organisations, policymakers and other stakeholders is possible. The interpretation of the 'clouds' of disciplines, keywords, and techniques will enhance the understanding of interconnections between them; ultimately this will allow diagnosing some of their strengths and weaknesses. This may help explain why land and soil degradation remains a

  18. New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy: Introduction to Special Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan M.; Wittenborn, Andrea K.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the special section "New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy." Emotionally focused couple therapy researchers have a strong tradition of outcome and process research and this special section presents new findings from three recent studies. The first study furthers the goal of determining the kinds of clients…

  19. 48 CFR 335.071 - Special determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... findings affecting research and development contracting. 335.071 Section 335.071 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 335.071 Special determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting....

  20. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. When a final HHS action results in a settlement or research misconduct... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Final HHS action with settlement or finding...

  1. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. When a final HHS action results in a settlement or research misconduct... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final HHS action with settlement or finding...

  2. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... administrative actions. After completing its review, ORI either closes the case without a finding of research... administrative actions based on the record of the research misconduct proceedings and any other information... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and...

  3. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... administrative actions. After completing its review, ORI either closes the case without a finding of research... administrative actions based on the record of the research misconduct proceedings and any other information... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and...

  4. Monitoring the Future. National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2009. NIH Publication Number 10-7583

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975. It is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

  5. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2009. NIH Publication No. 10-7583

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975. It is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

  6. Good Research and Faculty Buy-in: 2 Keys to Effective Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2008-01-01

    Effective marketing requires more than a sleek new logo. This article presents excerpts of an online discussion on the dos and don'ts of college marketing with Mary R. Stagaman, associate vice president for external relations at the University of Cincinnati. In this discussion, she noted that good research and faculty buy-in are the two keys to…

  7. Building and Strengthening Policy Research Capacity: Key Issues in Canadian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Glen A.

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of higher education in social and economic development, governments need to build a strong higher education data and policy research infrastructure to support informed decision-making, provide policy advice, and offer a critical assessment of key trends and issues. The author discusses the decline of higher education policy…

  8. Racial and Ethnic Disparities: Key Findings from the National Survey of America's Families. Series B, No. B-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staveteig, Sarah; Wigton, Alyssa

    This brief outlines findings from the National Survey of America's Families, a survey of 44,461 households, on 7 indicators of well-being by race and ethnicity: poverty, family structure, child support, food hardship, housing hardship, health status, and health insurance coverage. For the purpose of this brief, all persons of Hispanic origin were…

  9. Recent research related to juvenile sex offending: findings and directions for further research.

    PubMed

    Malin, H Martin; Saleh, Fabian M; Grudzinskas, Albert J

    2014-04-01

    Serious scholarly inquiry into juvenile sex offending represents a relatively new field, dating from the mid 1940s. During the next 4 decades, a mere handful of articles exploring aspects of juvenile sex offending were added to the available literature. By the 1980s, however, the literature began to increase rapidly, a trend that continues today. The purpose of this article is a focused review of the juvenile sex offender literature cited in PubMed over the last 5 years (2009-2013). The authors have chosen studies that will bring readers up to date on research they believe impacts our current understanding of best practices in the management of juvenile sex offending. For convenience, our review is organized into topical categories including research into characteristics and typologies of juvenile sex offenders, risk assessment and recidivism, assessment and treatment, the ongoing debate about mandatory registration of sex offenders as it applies to juveniles, and other thought provoking studies that do not fit neatly into the aforementioned categories. The studies included contain findings that both reinforce and challenge currently held notions about best practices concerning treatment and public policy, suggesting that our knowledge of the field continues to evolve in important ways. PMID:24562765

  10. Pupils' Perceptions of Foreign Language Learning in the Primary School--Findings from the Key Stage 2 Language Learning Pathfinder Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This article presents findings on pupil attitudes towards learning foreign languages in Key Stage 2 (ages 7-11) in primary schools in England. As a consequence of the National Languages Strategy, the University of Warwick was commissioned by the then Department for Education and Skills to undertake an evaluation between 2003 and 2005 of 19…

  11. Do Disadvantaged Students Get Less Effective Teaching? Key Findings from Recent Institute of Education Sciences Studies. NCEE Evaluation Brief. Technical Appendix. NCEE 2014-4010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Jeffrey; Glazerman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This document represents the technical appendix intended to accompany "Do Disadvantaged Students Get Less Effective Teaching? Key Findings from Recent Institute of Education Sciences Studies. NCEE Evaluation Brief. NCEE 2014-4010." Contents include: (1) Summary of Related, Non-Peer-Reviewed Studies; (2) Methods for Comparing Findings…

  12. Genetically informative research on adolescent substance use: methods, findings and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of the genetic epidemiology of substance use and misuse in adolescents. Method We present a selective review of genetically informative research strategies, their limitations and key findings examining issues related to the heritability of substance use and substance use disorders in children and adolescents. Results Adoption, twin and extended family designs have established there is a strong heritable component to liability to nicotine, alcohol and illicit drug dependence in adults. However, shared environmental influences are relatively stronger in youth samples and at earlier stages of substance involvement (e.g., use). There is considerable overlap in the genetic influences associated with the abuse/ dependence across drug classes while shared genetic influences also contribute to the commonly observed associations between substance use disorders and both externalizing and, to a lesser extent, internalizing psychopathology. Rapid technological advances have made the identification of specific gene variants that influence risks for substance use disorders feasible and linkage and association (including genomewide association studies) have identified promising candidate genes implicated in the development of substance use disorders. Conclusions Studies using genetically informative research designs, including those that examine aggregate genetic factors and those examining specific gene variants, individually and in interaction with environmental influences, offer promising avenues not only for delineating genetic effects on substance use disorders but also for understanding the unfolding of risk across development and the interaction between environmental and genetic factors in the etiology of these disorders. PMID:21093770

  13. Incidental Computer Tomography Radiologic Findings through Research Participation in the North Texas Healthy Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Anna; Malone, Kendra; Balyakina, Elizabeth; Fulda, Kimberly G.; Cardarelli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Although variation exists in the classification and practice of managing clinical findings in research, emerging views suggest that researchers bear some responsibility in the management of incidental findings. This study contributes to the documentation of the population characteristics and prevalence of medical findings incidental to research participation, specifically findings related to coronary calcium scores and computed tomography (CT) scans that investigated cardiovascular disparities in an asymptomatic population. Methods A total of 571 asymptomatic adult participants were recruited in the North Texas Healthy Heart Study. Participants completed a 16-slice CT scan of the heart and abdomen. Findings of radiology reports and 3 years of follow-up documentation were reviewed. Results A total of 246 clinically apparent findings were identified in 169 asymptomatic participants (32.9% of participants who completed a CT scan). Another 245 participants (48%) had findings of unknown significance, a total of 307 findings. At least 4 cases in this study led to a clinically significant intervention. Conclusion Although CT scans were completed for research purposes, study procedures resulted in the diagnosis and treatment of individuals who were previously asymptomatic. Potential clinical benefits in imaging research are moderated by considerations regarding possible harm and costs resulting from uncertain findings and the use of CT scans for nonclinical purposes. The continued development of protocols for the handling of incidental findings in research and the establishment of guidelines are needed to ensure that research procedures mirror the best interests of participants. PMID:24808109

  14. Comparative Study of Human and Mouse Postsynaptic Proteomes Finds High Compositional Conservation and Abundance Differences for Key Synaptic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bayés, Àlex; Collins, Mark O.; Croning, Mike D. R.; van de Lagemaat, Louie N.; Choudhary, Jyoti S.; Grant, Seth G. N.

    2012-01-01

    Direct comparison of protein components from human and mouse excitatory synapses is important for determining the suitability of mice as models of human brain disease and to understand the evolution of the mammalian brain. The postsynaptic density is a highly complex set of proteins organized into molecular networks that play a central role in behavior and disease. We report the first direct comparison of the proteome of triplicate isolates of mouse and human cortical postsynaptic densities. The mouse postsynaptic density comprised 1556 proteins and the human one 1461. A large compositional overlap was observed; more than 70% of human postsynaptic density proteins were also observed in the mouse postsynaptic density. Quantitative analysis of postsynaptic density components in both species indicates a broadly similar profile of abundance but also shows that there is higher abundance variation between species than within species. Well known components of this synaptic structure are generally more abundant in the mouse postsynaptic density. Significant inter-species abundance differences exist in some families of key postsynaptic density proteins including glutamatergic neurotransmitter receptors and adaptor proteins. Furthermore, we have identified a closely interacting set of molecules enriched in the human postsynaptic density that could be involved in dendrite and spine structural plasticity. Understanding synapse proteome diversity within and between species will be important to further our understanding of brain complexity and disease. PMID:23071613

  15. No Teacher Is an Island: Bridging the Gap between Teachers' Professional Practice and Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Deborah; Daubenmire, Patrick L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of research regarding best practices for the teaching and learning of chemistry, as well as two sets of national reform documents for science education, classroom instruction in high school chemistry classrooms remains largely unchanged. One key reason for this continued gap between research and practice is a reliance on…

  16. Prioritization of future research topics for children's hospice care by its key stakeholders: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, C; Knighting, K; Forbat, L; Kearney, N

    2009-07-01

    The Delphi process, widely used in health research to seek consensus on key issues amongst large stakeholder groups, was adopted to allow families, hospice staff/volunteers and linked professionals to identify and prioritize future research priorities for children's hospice care. In the qualitative Round 1, interviews with families (n = 5), linked professionals (n = 18) and focus groups with hospice staff and volunteers (n = 44) led to the generation of 56 research topics categorised within 14 broad themes. To give a larger number of stakeholders (n = 621) (including families n = 293; hospice staff/volunteers n = 216 and professionals n = 112) the opportunity to rate the importance of each research topic and seek group consensus on the future research priorities for children's hospice care, subsequent Rounds 2 and 3 involved the use of postal questionnaires. Response rates to questionnaires were 44% in Round 2 (274/621) and 83% in Round 3 (204/247). Participants prioritized research topics relating to 1) hospice and respite care needs of young people (aged 16 +), 2) pain and symptom management and 3) bereavement and end-of-life care. There was wide acknowledgement by those took part in the process of the difficulty in rating the topics, and emphasis on the fact that all of the topics raised during the project are of high importance and merit further research. The current salient issues perceived by key stakeholders as being the research priorities for children's hospice care were identified. Addressing these priority topics for research would further contribute to the development of a much needed evidence base in children's hospice and palliative care research and optimise the delivery of children's hospice services that are underpinned by valid and robust research.

  17. Humor Scholarship and TESOL: Applying Findings and Establishing a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    Research in the areas of second language (L2) pragmatics and of conversational humor has increased in recent decades, resulting in a strong base of knowledge from which applied linguists can draw information for teaching purposes and undertake future research. Yet, whereas empirical findings in L2 pragmatics are beginning to find their way into…

  18. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: IV. Key conceptual advances

    PubMed Central

    Rudan, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) started as an initiative of the Global Forum for Health Research in Geneva, Switzerland. Its aim was to develop a method that could assist priority setting in health research investments. The first version of the CHNRI method was published in 2007–2008. The aim of this paper was to summarize the history of the development of the CHNRI method and its key conceptual advances. Methods The guiding principle of the CHNRI method is to expose the potential of many competing health research ideas to reduce disease burden and inequities that exist in the population in a feasible and cost–effective way. Results The CHNRI method introduced three key conceptual advances that led to its increased popularity in comparison to other priority–setting methods and processes. First, it proposed a systematic approach to listing a large number of possible research ideas, using the “4D” framework (description, delivery, development and discovery research) and a well–defined “depth” of proposed research ideas (research instruments, avenues, options and questions). Second, it proposed a systematic approach for discriminating between many proposed research ideas based on a well–defined context and criteria. The five “standard” components of the context are the population of interest, the disease burden of interest, geographic limits, time scale and the preferred style of investing with respect to risk. The five “standard” criteria proposed for prioritization between research ideas are answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, maximum potential for disease burden reduction and the effect on equity. However, both the context and the criteria can be flexibly changed to meet the specific needs of each priority–setting exercise. Third, it facilitated consensus development through measuring collective optimism on each component of each research idea among a larger group of experts using a simple

  19. Key Features of Research Portal for Stimulating Research in Institutions of Higher Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Parul Dharmani; Kiran, Ravi; Verma, Anil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: The current higher learning institutions in developed countries have adapted to their changing role in a knowledge-based society It is time for developing countries like India to focus on Knowledge Management thus, the current study presents research undertaken in understanding the implication of Knowledge Management in the…

  20. Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: key principles and implications for research design, analysis, and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Rippon, Gina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Kaiser, Anelis; Fine, Cordelia

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging (NI) technologies are having increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which humans develop and function. The study of sex/gender is often a focus for NI research, and may be motivated by a desire to better understand general developmental principles, mental health problems that show female-male disparities, and gendered differences in society. In order to ensure the maximum possible contribution of NI research to these goals, we draw attention to four key principles-overlap, mosaicism, contingency and entanglement-that have emerged from sex/gender research and that should inform NI research design, analysis and interpretation. We discuss the implications of these principles in the form of constructive guidelines and suggestions for researchers, editors, reviewers and science communicators.

  1. Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: key principles and implications for research design, analysis, and interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Rippon, Gina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Kaiser, Anelis; Fine, Cordelia

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging (NI) technologies are having increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which humans develop and function. The study of sex/gender is often a focus for NI research, and may be motivated by a desire to better understand general developmental principles, mental health problems that show female-male disparities, and gendered differences in society. In order to ensure the maximum possible contribution of NI research to these goals, we draw attention to four key principles—overlap, mosaicism, contingency and entanglement—that have emerged from sex/gender research and that should inform NI research design, analysis and interpretation. We discuss the implications of these principles in the form of constructive guidelines and suggestions for researchers, editors, reviewers and science communicators. PMID:25221493

  2. Research and rural; EGPRN and EURIPA—finding common ground. October 2013, Malta.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Richard G; Wynn-Jones, John

    2015-03-01

    The European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN) and the European Rural and Isolated Practitioner Association (EURIPA) convened a historic joint meeting in Malta in October 2013. Speakers reviewed the inadequacies of the current system and conduct of clinical science research and the use and misuse of the resulting findings. Rural communities offer extraordinary opportunities to conduct more holistic, integrative, and relevant research using new methods and data sources. Investigators presented exciting research findings on questions important to the health of those in rural areas. Participants discussed several strategies to enhance the capacity and stature of rural health research and practice. EGPRN and EURIPA pledged to work together to develop rural research courses, joint research projects, and a European Rural Research Agenda based on the most urgent priorities and the European definition of general practice research in rural health care.

  3. An informatics research agenda to support precision medicine: seven key areas.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Avillach, Paul; Benham-Hutchins, Marge; Breitenstein, Matthew K; Crowgey, Erin L; Hoffman, Mark A; Jiang, Xia; Madhavan, Subha; Mattison, John E; Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan; Ray, Bisakha; Shin, Dmitriy; Visweswaran, Shyam; Zhao, Zhongming; Freimuth, Robert R

    2016-07-01

    The recent announcement of the Precision Medicine Initiative by President Obama has brought precision medicine (PM) to the forefront for healthcare providers, researchers, regulators, innovators, and funders alike. As technologies continue to evolve and datasets grow in magnitude, a strong computational infrastructure will be essential to realize PM's vision of improved healthcare derived from personal data. In addition, informatics research and innovation affords a tremendous opportunity to drive the science underlying PM. The informatics community must lead the development of technologies and methodologies that will increase the discovery and application of biomedical knowledge through close collaboration between researchers, clinicians, and patients. This perspective highlights seven key areas that are in need of further informatics research and innovation to support the realization of PM. PMID:27107452

  4. Research off Limits and Underground: Street Corner Methods for Finding Invisible Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Lizbet

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates research methods for studies of school drop-outs and push-outs, populations that are very difficult to find since they no longer have an institutional affiliation. The work argues that street corner research, which was in favor among the early urban researchers of the Chicago school, may have a renewed role in these…

  5. Applying Effective Instruction Research Findings in Teacher Education: Six Influencing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Elsie W.

    This preliminary report provides an overview of the Applying Research to Teacher Education (ARTE) Research Utilization in Elementary Teacher Education (RUETE) study which began in 1982 and will continue through 1985. ARTE: RUETE explores specific processes for incorporating recent research findings of effective instruction into preservice…

  6. Early Literacy Research: Findings Primary-Grade Teachers Will Want to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray

    2015-01-01

    This article shares recent research findings in early literacy that every primary grade teacher has had questions about at one time or another ranging from handwriting to phonemic awareness, writing to concepts about print, and more. The article reports research that elaborates upon and extends early literacy research that was reported by the…

  7. Do researchers have an obligation to actively look for genetic incidental findings?

    PubMed

    Gliwa, Catherine; Berkman, Benjamin E

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth of next-generation genetic sequencing has prompted debate about the responsibilities of researchers toward genetic incidental findings. Assuming there is a duty to disclose significant incidental findings, might there be an obligation for researchers to actively look for these findings? We present an ethical framework for analyzing whether there is a positive duty to look for genetic incidental findings. Using the ancillary care framework as a guide, we identify three main criteria that must be present to give rise to an obligation to look: high benefit to participants, lack of alternative access for participants, and reasonable burden on researchers. Our analysis indicates that there is no obligation to look for incidental findings today, but during the ongoing translation of genomic analysis from research to clinical care, this obligation may arise.

  8. Do Researchers Have an Obligation to Actively Look for Genetic Incidental Findings?

    PubMed Central

    Gliwa, Catherine; Berkman, Benjamin E.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of next-generation genetic sequencing has prompted debate about the responsibilities of researchers toward genetic incidental findings. Assuming there is a duty to disclose significant incidental findings, might there be an obligation for researchers to actively look for these findings? We present an ethical framework for analyzing whether there is a positive duty to look for genetic incidental findings. Using the ancillary care framework as a guide, we identify three main criteria that must be present to give rise to an obligation to look: high benefit to participants, lack of alternative access for participants, and reasonable burden on researchers. Our analysis indicates that there is no obligation to look for incidental findings today, but during the ongoing translation of genomic analysis from research to clinical care, this obligation may arise. PMID:23391059

  9. Preliminary Findings of Learning Gains for Adult Learners with Developmental Disabilities. Research Brief No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Virginia; Jacobsen, Jared

    2007-01-01

    Public perception of adults with developmental disabilities realizing learning gains often remains illusive. This paper highlights key findings in achievement in basic skills for adults with mental retardation on a functional assessment in a life skills context for three program years (2003-2006). In this study the time period between the pre- and…

  10. Transforming Public Schools: A Synthesis of Research Findings from UCLA's Center X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quartz, Karen Hunter; Priselac, Jody; Franke, Megan Loef

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how one university-based center, UCLA's Center X, has worked to prepare and sustain urban educators over the past 16 years. Synthesizing findings from more than 20 articles, papers, books, and dissertations that report on Center X's work, we argue that three key activities are necessary to spur change and ensure a…

  11. The emergence and effectiveness of global health networks: findings and future research.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Schmitz, Hans Peter; Berlan, David; Smith, Stephanie L; Quissell, Kathryn; Gneiting, Uwe; Pelletier, David

    2016-04-01

    Global health issues vary in the amount of attention and resources they receive. One reason is that the networks of individuals and organizations that address these issues differ in their effectiveness. This article presents key findings from a research project on the emergence and effectiveness of global health networks addressing tobacco use, alcohol harm, maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, tuberculosis and pneumonia. Although networks are only one of many factors influencing priority, they do matter, particularly for shaping the way the problem and solutions are understood, and convincing governments, international organizations and other global actors to address the issue. Their national-level effects vary by issue and are more difficult to ascertain. Networks are most likely to produce effects when (1) their members construct a compelling framing of the issue, one that includes a shared understanding of the problem, a consensus on solutions and convincing reasons to act and (2) they build a political coalition that includes individuals and organizations beyond their traditional base in the health sector, a task that demands engagement in the politics of the issue, not just its technical aspects. Maintaining a focused frame and sustaining a broad coalition are often in tension: effective networks find ways to balance the two challenges. The emergence and effectiveness of a network are shaped both by its members' decisions and by contextual factors, including historical influences (e.g. prior failed attempts to address the problem), features of the policy environment (e.g. global development goals) and characteristics of the issue the network addresses (e.g. its mortality burden). Their proliferation raises the issue of their legitimacy. Reasons to consider them legitimate include their members' expertise and the attention they bring to neglected issues. Reasons to question their legitimacy include their largely elite composition and the fragmentation they

  12. Sharing the Knowledge: Sharing Aggregate Genomic Findings with Research Participants in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Kerasidou, Angeliki

    2015-12-01

    Returning research results to participants is recognised as an obligation that researchers should always try to fulfil. But can we ascribe the same obligation to researchers who conduct genomics research producing only aggregated findings? And what about genomics research conducted in developing countries? This paper considers Beskow's et al. argument that aggregated findings should also be returned to research participants. This recommendation is examined in the context of genomics research conducted in developing countries. The risks and benefits of attempting such an exercise are identified, and suggestions on ways to avoid some of the challenges are proposed. I argue that disseminating the findings of genomic research to participating communities should be seen as sharing knowledge rather than returning results. Calling the dissemination of aggregate, population level information returning results can be confusing and misleading as participants might expect to receive individual level information. Talking about sharing knowledge is a more appropriate way of expressing and communicating the outcome of population genomic research. Considering the knowledge produced by genomics research a worthwhile output that should be shared with the participants and approaching the exercise as a 'sharing of knowledge', could help mitigate the risks of unrealistic expectations and misunderstanding of findings, whilst promoting trusting and long lasting relationships with the participating communities.

  13. What is big data? A consensual definition and a review of key research topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Mauro, Andrea; Greco, Marco; Grimaldi, Michele

    2015-02-01

    Although Big Data is a trending buzzword in both academia and the industry, its meaning is still shrouded by much conceptual vagueness. The term is used to describe a wide range of concepts: from the technological ability to store, aggregate, and process data, to the cultural shift that is pervasively invading business and society, both drowning in information overload. The lack of a formal definition has led research to evolve into multiple and inconsistent paths. Furthermore, the existing ambiguity among researchers and practitioners undermines an efficient development of the subject. In this paper we have reviewed the existing literature on Big Data and analyzed its previous definitions in order to pursue two results: first, to provide a summary of the key research areas related to the phenomenon, identifying emerging trends and suggesting opportunities for future development; second, to provide a consensual definition for Big Data, by synthesizing common themes of existing works and patterns in previous definitions.

  14. Translating research findings into community based theatre: More than a dead man's wife.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Susan; Hopgood, Alan; Dickins, Marissa

    2013-12-01

    Increasingly, qualitative scholars in health and social sciences are turning to innovative strategies as a way of translating research findings into informative, accessible and enjoyable forms for the community. The aim of this article is to describe how the research findings of a doctoral thesis - a narrative study about 58 older women's experiences of widowhood - were translated into a unique and professionally developed script to form the basis for a successful theatrical production that has travelled extensively within Australia. This article reports on the process of collaboration between a researcher, a highly regarded Australian actor/script writer and an ensemble of well-known and experienced professional actors. Together the collaborating partners translated the research data and findings about growing older and 'widowhood' into a high quality theatre production. In particular, we argue in this paper that research-based theatre is an appropriate medium for communicating research findings about important life issues of concern to older people in a safe, affirming and entertaining manner. By outlining the process of translating research findings into theatre we hope to show that there is a real value in this translation approach for both researcher and audience alike.

  15. Translating research findings into community based theatre: More than a dead man's wife.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Susan; Hopgood, Alan; Dickins, Marissa

    2013-12-01

    Increasingly, qualitative scholars in health and social sciences are turning to innovative strategies as a way of translating research findings into informative, accessible and enjoyable forms for the community. The aim of this article is to describe how the research findings of a doctoral thesis - a narrative study about 58 older women's experiences of widowhood - were translated into a unique and professionally developed script to form the basis for a successful theatrical production that has travelled extensively within Australia. This article reports on the process of collaboration between a researcher, a highly regarded Australian actor/script writer and an ensemble of well-known and experienced professional actors. Together the collaborating partners translated the research data and findings about growing older and 'widowhood' into a high quality theatre production. In particular, we argue in this paper that research-based theatre is an appropriate medium for communicating research findings about important life issues of concern to older people in a safe, affirming and entertaining manner. By outlining the process of translating research findings into theatre we hope to show that there is a real value in this translation approach for both researcher and audience alike. PMID:24300067

  16. Understanding Price Elasticities to Inform Public Health Research and Intervention Studies: Key Issues

    PubMed Central

    Nghiem, Nhung; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Pricing policies such as taxes and subsidies are important tools in preventing and controlling a range of threats to public health. This is particularly so in tobacco and alcohol control efforts and efforts to change dietary patterns and physical activity levels as a means of addressing increases in noncommunicable diseases. To understand the potential impact of pricing policies, it is critical to understand the nature of price elasticities for consumer products. For example, price elasticities are key parameters in models of any food tax or subsidy that aims to quantify health impacts and cost-effectiveness. We detail relevant terms and discuss key issues surrounding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies. PMID:24028228

  17. Understanding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies: key issues.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Nhung; Wilson, Nick; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-11-01

    Pricing policies such as taxes and subsidies are important tools in preventing and controlling a range of threats to public health. This is particularly so in tobacco and alcohol control efforts and efforts to change dietary patterns and physical activity levels as a means of addressing increases in noncommunicable diseases. To understand the potential impact of pricing policies, it is critical to understand the nature of price elasticities for consumer products. For example, price elasticities are key parameters in models of any food tax or subsidy that aims to quantify health impacts and cost-effectiveness. We detail relevant terms and discuss key issues surrounding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies. PMID:24028228

  18. Alcohol Use Disorders, Research Findings | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Alcohol Use Research Findings Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table ... and adolescents years after they were exposed to alcohol in the womb. That is according to a ...

  19. Finding a Place for Systems-Based, Collaborative Research in Emerging Disease Research in Asia.

    PubMed

    Burns, Theresa E; Stephen, Craig

    2015-12-01

    The need to adequately predict, prevent and respond to infectious diseases emerging unexpectedly from human-animal-environmental systems has driven interest in multisectoral, socio-economic, systems-based, collaborative (MSC) research approaches such as EcoHealth and One Health. Our goals were to document how MSC research has been used to address EIDs in Asia, and to explore how MSC approaches align with current priorities for EID research in Asia. We gathered priorities for EID research from the peer-reviewed and grey literature, documented organizational descriptions of MCS research approaches, and analysed a series of EID MSC projects. We found that priority areas for EID research in Asia included (1) understanding host-pathogen-environment interactions; (2) improving tools and technologies; (3) changing people's behaviour; and (4) evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. We found that the unifying characteristics of MSC research were that it was action-oriented and sought to inspire change under real-world conditions at the complex interface of human and natural systems. We suggest that MSC research can be considered a type of 'pragmatic research' and might be most useful in describing change in complex human-animal-environmental systems, accelerating research-to-action, and evaluating effectiveness of interventions in 'real world' settings.

  20. A Visitor's Guide to Effect Sizes--Statistical Significance versus Practical (Clinical) Importance of Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Xu, Gang

    2004-01-01

    Effect Sizes (ES) are an increasingly important index used to quantify the degree of practical significance of study results. This paper gives an introduction to the computation and interpretation of effect sizes from the perspective of the consumer of the research literature. The key points made are: (1) "ES" is a useful indicator of the…

  1. Building a Successful Adult Life: Findings from Youth-Directed Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Laurie E.; Garner, Tracee; Valnes, Betsy; Squire, Peter; Turner, Alison; Couture, Todd; Dertinger, Rocky

    2007-01-01

    Although transition outcomes for youth with disabilities have shown some improvement and transition support practices have been identified, many young people continue to face transition barriers that preclude their full participation in key adult life activities. While research efforts have largely been professionally driven, there is emerging…

  2. Impact of problem finding on the quality of authentic open inquiry science research projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labanca, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully completed and presented the results of their open inquiry research at the 2007 Connecticut Science Fair and the 2007 International Science and Engineering Fair. A multicase qualitative study was framed through the lenses of creativity, inquiry strategies, and situated cognition learning theory. Data were triangulated by methods (interviews, document analysis, surveys) and sources (students, teachers, mentors, fair directors, documents). The data demonstrated that the quality of student projects was directly impacted by the quality of their problem finding. Effective problem finding was a result of students using resources from previous, specialized experiences. They had a positive self-concept and a temperament for both the creative and logical perspectives of science research. Successful problem finding was derived from an idiosyncratic, nonlinear, and flexible use and understanding of inquiry. Finally, problem finding was influenced and assisted by the community of practicing scientists, with whom the students had an exceptional ability to communicate effectively. As a result, there appears to be a juxtaposition of creative and logical/analytical thought for open inquiry that may not be present in other forms of inquiry. Instructional strategies are suggested for teachers of science research students to improve the quality of problem finding for their students and their subsequent research projects.

  3. School Effectiveness Research Findings in the Portuguese Speaking Countries: Brazil and Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrão, Maria Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides findings of research on school effectiveness and discusses implications for evaluation in Brazil and Portugal. Most findings reported over the last decade have been published in Brazilian or Portuguese refereed journals. Thus, a brief literature review of such studies enables that knowledge to reach international scholars and…

  4. A Transdisciplinary Approach to Training: Preliminary Research Findings Based on a Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimpitsos, Christos; Petridou, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the benefits, barriers and challenges of the transdisciplinary approach to training, and to present findings of a case analysis. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on the research findings of an experimental training program for Greek local government managers co-funded by the European…

  5. The Practical Integration of Action Research into Building Climate Literacy and Partnership with Key Influentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, M.

    2015-12-01

    Climate Education Partners (CEP) has been using an action research approach to build climate literacy and partnership with key influential (KI) leaders in the San Diego community. After identifying 6 key sectors that either (a) could reduce green house gas emissions and adapt to impacts, or (b) would be highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, we conducted 89 interviews with KIs from the San Diego region -- including elected officials, academics, laborers, and representatives from local businesses, non-profits, ethnic and cultural communities, faith-based groups, and special interest groups -- to assess their science knowledge and opinions about climate change and the impacts of climate change. Other questions asked were about KIs' personal efficacy, identity, values and engagement in pro-environmental behaviors related to climate change. The results of the interviews contributed to CEP's action research approach in two ways: 1) it provided critical data regarding which leaders wanted further engagement with CEP and what that engagement should entail (e.g., being a connector to other leaders, a spokesperson, or a participant in future educational activities), and 2) it provided key information about the extent to which "knowledge deficit" is related to use of climate change knowledge to inform engagement in mitigation and adaptive behaviors. Practically, the results were used to create a database that is being used to inform the contact and education of KIs. We were able to show, consistent with previous research and identity theory, that liberal leaders were more likely than conservatives to believe in, feel concern for, and be knowledgeable about climate change. However, engagement in mitigation behaviors- specifically making decisions that would reduce electricity, gas, or water use- were similar for both groups. These results are being used to create resources and direct climate education activities going forward.

  6. A Clinical Service to Support the Return of Secondary Genomic Findings in Human Research.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Andrew J; Austin, Howard; Bluemke, David A; Cannon, Richard O; Fischbeck, Kenneth; Gahl, William; Goldman, David; Grady, Christine; Greene, Mark H; Holland, Steven M; Hull, Sara Chandros; Porter, Forbes D; Resnik, David; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Biesecker, Leslie G

    2016-03-01

    Human genome and exome sequencing are powerful research tools that can generate secondary findings beyond the scope of the research. Most secondary genomic findings are of low importance, but some (for a current estimate of 1%-3% of individuals) confer high risk of a serious disease that could be mitigated by timely medical intervention. The impact and scope of secondary findings in genome and exome sequencing will only increase in the future. There is considerable agreement that high-impact findings should be returned to participants, but many researchers performing genomic research studies do not have the background, skills, or resources to identify, verify, interpret, and return such variants. Here, we introduce a proposal for the formation of a secondary-genomic-findings service (SGFS) that would support researchers by enabling the return of clinically actionable sequencing results to research participants in a standardized manner. We describe a proposed structure for such a centralized service and evaluate the advantages and challenges of the approach. We suggest that such a service would be of greater benefit to all parties involved than present practice, which is highly variable. We encourage research centers to consider the adoption of a centralized SGFS. PMID:26942283

  7. A Clinical Service to Support the Return of Secondary Genomic Findings in Human Research

    PubMed Central

    Darnell, Andrew J.; Austin, Howard; Bluemke, David A.; Cannon, Richard O.; Fischbeck, Kenneth; Gahl, William; Goldman, David; Grady, Christine; Greene, Mark H.; Holland, Steven M.; Hull, Sara Chandros; Porter, Forbes D.; Resnik, David; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2016-01-01

    Human genome and exome sequencing are powerful research tools that can generate secondary findings beyond the scope of the research. Most secondary genomic findings are of low importance, but some (for a current estimate of 1%–3% of individuals) confer high risk of a serious disease that could be mitigated by timely medical intervention. The impact and scope of secondary findings in genome and exome sequencing will only increase in the future. There is considerable agreement that high-impact findings should be returned to participants, but many researchers performing genomic research studies do not have the background, skills, or resources to identify, verify, interpret, and return such variants. Here, we introduce a proposal for the formation of a secondary-genomic-findings service (SGFS) that would support researchers by enabling the return of clinically actionable sequencing results to research participants in a standardized manner. We describe a proposed structure for such a centralized service and evaluate the advantages and challenges of the approach. We suggest that such a service would be of greater benefit to all parties involved than present practice, which is highly variable. We encourage research centers to consider the adoption of a centralized SGFS. PMID:26942283

  8. Researcher Tales and Research Ethics: The Spaces in Which We Find Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Julie; Fitzgerald, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    The tales we tell here focus on the ethical issues arising from our research practice with vulnerable young participants and those for whom research has been inextricably linked with European imperialism and colonialism. The importance of relational obligations, temporality and potential for a continuing narrative approach to ethical research…

  9. Looking Back To Find a Vision: Exploring the Emancipatory Potential of Teacher Research. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Cornett, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the limitations of experimental studies of learning and the emergence of alternative paradigms such as constructivism. Examines the growth of teacher research and its historical influences, including Montessori, Dewey's Progressive Movement, and Lucy Sprague Mitchell. Discusses current trends in teacher research, asserting that it is…

  10. Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science

    PubMed Central

    Damschroder, Laura J; Aron, David C; Keith, Rosalind E; Kirsh, Susan R; Alexander, Jeffery A; Lowery, Julie C

    2009-01-01

    Background Many interventions found to be effective in health services research studies fail to translate into meaningful patient care outcomes across multiple contexts. Health services researchers recognize the need to evaluate not only summative outcomes but also formative outcomes to assess the extent to which implementation is effective in a specific setting, prolongs sustainability, and promotes dissemination into other settings. Many implementation theories have been published to help promote effective implementation. However, they overlap considerably in the constructs included in individual theories, and a comparison of theories reveals that each is missing important constructs included in other theories. In addition, terminology and definitions are not consistent across theories. We describe the Consolidated Framework For Implementation Research (CFIR) that offers an overarching typology to promote implementation theory development and verification about what works where and why across multiple contexts. Methods We used a snowball sampling approach to identify published theories that were evaluated to identify constructs based on strength of conceptual or empirical support for influence on implementation, consistency in definitions, alignment with our own findings, and potential for measurement. We combined constructs across published theories that had different labels but were redundant or overlapping in definition, and we parsed apart constructs that conflated underlying concepts. Results The CFIR is composed of five major domains: intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of the individuals involved, and the process of implementation. Eight constructs were identified related to the intervention (e.g., evidence strength and quality), four constructs were identified related to outer setting (e.g., patient needs and resources), 12 constructs were identified related to inner setting (e.g., culture, leadership engagement

  11. THE INVESTIGATION OF A METHOD FOR THE DISSEMINATION OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH FINDINGS TO PRACTITIONERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DONLEY, DONALD T.; AND OTHERS

    THE RESOURCES AND ACTIVITIES OF A STUDY COUNCIL ON THE PROBLEM OF MORE EFFECTIVE DISSEMINATION OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH FINDINGS WERE REPORTED. THE CAPITAL AREA SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION IN ALBANY, NEW YORK, SURVEYED SCHOOL SYSTEMS TO DETERMINE THEIR MAJOR PROBLEMS AND INTERESTS FOR STUDY AND RESEARCH. MEETINGS WERE HELD TO PLAN PROCEDURES FOR…

  12. Young, Drunk, Dangerous and Driving: Underage Drinking and Driving Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Robert; Clontz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes major, recent research findings concerning illegal alcohol use and intoxicated driving among American youth. Examines what research revealed about the nature of underage drinking and driving; what health, social, and legal ramifications are associated with drinking and driving; and what characteristics and behavioral patterns are found…

  13. Technology to Support Writing by Students with Learning and Academic Disabilities: Recent Research Trends and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson-Karlan, George R.

    2011-01-01

    The trends and findings from a descriptive analysis of 25 years of research studies examining the effectiveness of technology to support the compositional writing of students with learning and academic disabilities are presented. A corpus of 85 applied research studies of writing technology effectiveness was identified from among 249 items in the…

  14. Oral Reading Fluency Growth: A Sample of Methodology and Findings. Research Brief 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindal, Gerald; Nese, Joseph F. T.

    2013-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the growth of students' oral reading fluency has been investigated by a number of researchers using curriculum-based measurement. These researchers have used varied methods (student samples, measurement procedures, and analytical techniques) and yet have converged on a relatively consistent finding: General education…

  15. Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity

  16. Feedback of research findings for vaccine trials: experiences from two malaria vaccine trials involving healthy children on the Kenyan Coast.

    PubMed

    Gikonyo, Caroline; Kamuya, Dorcas; Mbete, Bibi; Njuguna, Patricia; Olotu, Ally; Bejon, Philip; Marsh, Vicki; Molyneux, Sassy

    2013-04-01

    Internationally, calls for feedback of findings to be made an 'ethical imperative' or mandatory have been met with both strong support and opposition. Challenges include differences in issues by type of study and context, disentangling between aggregate and individual study results, and inadequate empirical evidence on which to draw. In this paper we present data from observations and interviews with key stakeholders involved in feeding back aggregate study findings for two Phase II malaria vaccine trials among children under the age of 5 years old on the Kenyan Coast. In our setting, feeding back of aggregate findings was an appreciated set of activities. The inclusion of individual results was important from the point of view of both participants and researchers, to reassure participants of trial safety, and to ensure that positive results were not over-interpreted and that individual level issues around blinding and control were clarified. Feedback sessions also offered an opportunity to re-evaluate and re-negotiate trial relationships and benefits, with potentially important implications for perceptions of and involvement in follow-up work for the trials and in future research. We found that feedback of findings is a complex but key step in a continuing set of social interactions between community members and research staff (particularly field staff who work at the interface with communities), and among community members themselves; a step which needs careful planning from the outset. We agree with others that individual and aggregate results need to be considered separately, and that for individual results, both the nature and value of the information, and the context, including social relationships, need to be taken into account.

  17. Pressure ulcer prevention and treatment: transforming research findings into consensus based clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Matthew; Pearson, Alan; Ward, Cathy

    2003-04-01

    The translation of research findings into practice guidelines is an important aspect in maintaining the currency of practice and adding value to research. While there has been a large amount of published literature regarding the treatment and prevention of pressure ulcers, very few studies have attempted to provide clear clinical guidelines. The present study proposes a model to transform research into clinical guidelines whilst developing a series of guidelines that can be applied to a variety of clinical settings. PMID:12694478

  18. Do Disadvantaged Students Get Less Effective Teaching? Key Findings from Recent Institute of Education Sciences Studies. NCEE Evaluation Brief. NCEE 2014-4010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Jeffrey; Glazerman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Lack of researcher consensus on how to measure disadvantaged students' access to effective teaching has made it challenging for practitioners to draw lessons from the data. This brief aims to help policymakers understand the emerging evidence by synthesizing findings from three peer-reviewed studies that collectively span 17 states. The studies…

  19. [Research on the method of stress assessment--from the research findings of 2010].

    PubMed

    Natsume, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese Society for Occupational Mental Health has conducted research on assessment of the psychological load (i.e., stress) among workers. Investigations were conducted three times, and those were contract research projects assigned by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In this project, the author was the primary researcher. In the latest research, a survey utilizing the Live Event Method was performed extensively nationwide; the survey covered 10,494 subjects (including 1,977 females) from all types of industry and occupation. The objective of this research was to reevaluate the Psychological Load Assessment Sheet used as an evaluation basis for the "Certification of workers' compensation related to mental disorders from psychological load." Two previous research investigations, conducted in 2002 and 2006, had suggested the need for such reevaluation. The outcomes revealed that, the longer the monthly overtime working hours, the higher the stress scores (in the range of 0 to 10), and the lower the appearance rate of stress. Subjects who performed 140 hours or more of overtime work per month, which fell under the category of "Extremely Excessive Overtime Work," showed 6.3 points, which was markedly high, and ranked fourth in the survey with 63 assessment items. The category, "Extremely Excessive Overtime Work," includes two working hour ranges, 120 hours or more and 160 hours or more; those working hour ranges were defined in the revision based on the latest research. Monthly overtime work of 120 hours or more, but less than 140 hours, was ranked ninth and scored 6.3 points. Monthly overtime work of 80 hours or more, but less than 100 hours, scored 5.3 points with a frequency of 14.2%. Based on the above results, new assessment items were added to the Psychological Load Assessment Sheet. This paper addresses and studies the issues explained above.

  20. Spirituality in children and adolescents: research findings and implications for clinicians and researchers.

    PubMed

    Houskamp, Beth M; Fisher, Lynne A; Stuber, Margaret L

    2004-01-01

    Spirituality is a powerful force in the lives of children. Although spirituality has only recently begun to be a focus for psychiatric research, initial qualitative data suggest that children experience themselves as spiritual beings and that understanding and connecting with them around their spiritual lives can be an important adjunct to treatment. Clinicians should feel free to ask about a child's spiritual life and to work with the family using their spiritual resources if they are perceived to be beneficial in helping the child and family cope with their current situation. Because the work with children's spirituality is in its preliminary stages, qualitative methodology is still the recommended research method for investigating questions in this research area.

  1. Research education: findings of a study of teaching-learning research using multiple analytical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vandermause, Roxanne; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Fritz, Roschelle

    2014-12-01

    This multimethod, qualitative study provides results for educators of nursing doctoral students to consider. Combining the expertise of an empirical analytical researcher (who uses statistical methods) and an interpretive phenomenological researcher (who uses hermeneutic methods), a course was designed that would place doctoral students in the midst of multiparadigmatic discussions while learning fundamental research methods. Field notes and iterative analytical discussions led to patterns and themes that highlight the value of this innovative pedagogical application. Using content analysis and interpretive phenomenological approaches, together with one of the students, data were analyzed from field notes recorded in real time over the period the course was offered. This article describes the course and the study analysis, and offers the pedagogical experience as transformative. A link to a sample syllabus is included in the article. The results encourage nurse educators of doctoral nursing students to focus educational practice on multiple methodological perspectives. PMID:25406843

  2. Research education: findings of a study of teaching-learning research using multiple analytical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vandermause, Roxanne; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Fritz, Roschelle

    2014-12-01

    This multimethod, qualitative study provides results for educators of nursing doctoral students to consider. Combining the expertise of an empirical analytical researcher (who uses statistical methods) and an interpretive phenomenological researcher (who uses hermeneutic methods), a course was designed that would place doctoral students in the midst of multiparadigmatic discussions while learning fundamental research methods. Field notes and iterative analytical discussions led to patterns and themes that highlight the value of this innovative pedagogical application. Using content analysis and interpretive phenomenological approaches, together with one of the students, data were analyzed from field notes recorded in real time over the period the course was offered. This article describes the course and the study analysis, and offers the pedagogical experience as transformative. A link to a sample syllabus is included in the article. The results encourage nurse educators of doctoral nursing students to focus educational practice on multiple methodological perspectives.

  3. Different animal welfare orientations towards some key research areas of current relevance to pastoral dairy farming in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Webster, J R; Schütz, K E; Sutherland, M A; Stewart, M; Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand dairy industry needs to meet public expectations regarding animal welfare in order to retain the freedom to operate and achieve market success. Three key orientations towards animal welfare assessment have been identified, namely biological functioning, affective state and natural living, the last two of which are more recent foci for societal concern. Biological functioning was the first and most-studied aspect of animal welfare and continues to be important, but now the contribution of affective state to animal well-being is emphasised much more. Natural living, or naturalness, has received relatively less attention from animal welfare science. It is proposed that increasing the use of naturalness as a contextual reference point for considering species-specific behavioural expressions of affective state will enhance its inclusion in animal welfare assessment. Nevertheless, all three orientations need to be considered in order to evaluate the significance of welfare research findings. On this basis, five key aspects of the New Zealand dairy industry that have been the subject of recent research, due to the risk of them not meeting public expectations, are highlighted and discussed. The aspects are provision of shade and shelter, meeting targets for body condition, provision of comfortable surfaces for rearing calves, and for adult cows while off pasture, and pain relief for disbudding of calves. Research evidence indicates that the industry guidelines on body condition score, if met, would satisfy public expectations across the three orientations to animal welfare, whereas further work is needed on the other aspects. It is concluded that considering these three orientations to animal welfare when planning research and then evaluating the outcomes will help to promote the market success of the dairy industry in New Zealand.

  4. Evaluating the Impact of Professional Development on Teaching Practice: Research Findings and Future Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Iain

    2011-01-01

    Continuing professional development for teaching is important for institutional renewal, teacher development and student learning improvement. However, our longitudinal research into provision of continuing professional development has shown that the majority of educators who attend professional development workshops do not put what they have…

  5. Nutrition and Growth: Recent Research Findings and Research Priorities. Matrix No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, George G.

    Recent research indicates that low income adults and infants in the United States are more likely to be overweight than undernourished. Very possibly, the assumptions upon which food supplement programs are based are ill-founded. While many of the currently operating broadly conceived supplemental food programs achieve desirable collateral…

  6. The theory research of multi-user quantum access network with Measurement Device Independent quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yi-Ming; Li, Yun-Xia; Shi, Lei; Meng, Wen; Cui, Shu-Min; Xu, Zhen-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Quantum access network can't guarantee the absolute security of multi-user detector and eavesdropper can get access to key information through time-shift attack and other ways. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution is immune from all the detection attacks, and accomplishes the safe sharing of quantum key. In this paper, that Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution is used in the application of multi-user quantum access to the network is on the research. By adopting time-division multiplexing technology to achieve the sharing of multiuser detector, the system structure is simplified and the security of quantum key sharing is acquired.

  7. MicroResearch--Finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Kollmann, Tobias R; Bortolussi, Robert; MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-06-01

    The urgent need in Africa for research capacity building has been recognized by African leaders and governments for many years. However, lack of large research funding opportunities has been seen as a major obstacle to improving research capacity in precisely those countries that need it the most. Microfinance has shown that a small infusion of capital can "prime the pump" to creative local economic productivity. In a similar way, MicroResearch has proven effective in promoting a similar bottom-up strategy to find sustainable solutions to local health challenges through local community focused research. Specifically, MicroResearch through hands-on didactic courses, mentoring and small-scale research funding promotes small research projects that improve research skills across the entire health-care provider spectrum to unleash a culture of inquiry. This in turn stimulates health care providers to identify the locally most relevant obstacles that need to be overcome and implement locally feasible and sustainable solutions. MicroResearch is a bottom-up strategy proven effective at finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges.

  8. A Systematic Review on the Designs of Clinical Technology: Findings and Recommendations for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    PhD, Greg Alexander; Staggers, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Human factors (HF) studies are increasingly important as technology infuses into clinical settings. No nursing research reviews exist in this area. The authors conducted a systematic review on designs of clinical technology, 34 articles with 50 studies met inclusion criteria. Findings were classified into three categories based on HF research goals. The majority of studies evaluated effectiveness of clinical design; efficiency was fewest. Current research ranges across many interface types examined with no apparent pattern or obvious rationale. Future research should expand types, settings, participants; integrate displays; and expand outcome variables. PMID:19707093

  9. Thinking about the nature of research findings: a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective.

    PubMed

    Greatrex-White, Sheila

    2008-12-01

    Written in response to an ongoing process of reflexivity, I deconstruct the findings of a recently completed qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological research study which was designed to answer the question: "How is study abroad manifest in the experience of nursing students?" The purpose is to assist and urge other researchers to locate their research, themselves and their research participants more transparently in the social and cultural worlds within which they move and are a part. Following a sketch of the research study upon which the paper is based, the relationships between structure, agency, researched and researcher are explored within a hermeneutic phenomenological framework. In particular, I relate some of the challenges encountered through reflections on specific aspects of the research process. I conclude that research findings might best be understood as being a dynamic and complex, two-way constructed interpretation of phenomena involving both structure and agency. I proceed from the stance that the discursive and the emotional, the artistic and the scientific, need to be balanced partners. Where this relationship is harmonious, intellectual ability increases leading to better meaning making, better decisions and greater understanding. PMID:18842262

  10. Translating research findings to promote peace: moving from "field to forum" with verbatim theatre.

    PubMed

    Liehr, Patricia; Morris, Kate; Leavitt, Mary Ann; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2013-01-01

    Peace, both personal and global, resides in understanding. Verbatim theatre is introduced as a vehicle for translating research findings to promote understanding and thereby, promote health. By shifting our translation lens from "bench to bedside" to "field to forum," new opportunities arise for moving nursing research-findings to an engaged audience. Stories from Pearl Harbor and Hiroshima survivors were woven into the verbatim performance, With Their Voices Raised. Analysis of audience members' reflections after the performance suggests that verbatim theatre created a connection based in openness, engagement, and trust that informed understanding and raised awareness about peace processes.

  11. Key research issues in the pulsed fast-neutron analysis technique for cargo inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Yule, T.J.

    1994-07-01

    Non-invasive inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons are being studied for the inspection of large cargo containers. A key advantage of fast neutrons is their sensitivity to low-Z elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of explosives and narcotics. The high energy allows penetration of relatively large containers. The pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA) technique is currently the baseline system. A workshop on the PFNA technique involving industrial, government, and university participants was held at Argonne National Lab. in January 1994. The purpose of this workshop was to review the status of research on the key technical issues involved in PFNA, and to develop a list of those areas where additional modeling and/or experimentation were needed. The workshop also focused on development of a near-term experimental assessment program using existing prototypes and on development of a long-term test program at the Tacoma Testbed, where a PFNA prototype will be installed in 1995. A summary of conclusions reached at this workshop is presented. Results from analytic and Monte Carlo modeling of simplified PFNA systems are also presented.

  12. Key research issues in the pulsed fast-neutron analysis technique for cargo inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micklich, Bradley J.; Fink, Charles L.; Yule, Thomas J.

    1994-10-01

    Non-invasive inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons are being studied for the inspection of large cargo containers. A key advantage of fast neutrons is their sensitivity to low-Z elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of explosives and narcotics. The high energy allows penetration of relatively large containers. The pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA) technique is currently the baseline system. A workshop on the PFNA technique involving industrial, government, and university participants was held at Argonne National Laboratory in January 1994. The purpose of this workshop was to review the status of research on the key technical issues involved in PFNA, and to develop a list of those areas where additional modeling and/or experimentation were needed. The workshop also focused on development of a near-term experimental assessment program using existing prototypes and on development of a long-term test program at the Tacoma Testbed, where a PFNA prototype will be installed in 1995. A summary of conclusions reached at this workshop is presented. Results from analytic and Monte Carlo modeling of simplified PFNA systems are also presented.

  13. Research on the key techniques of form and position evaluation based on the genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Changcai; Li, Bing

    2006-11-01

    The Evolutionary Algorithm (EA)-Genetic Algorithm (GA) was improved to evaluate the form and position errors that were summarized as nonlinear optimization problems. The key techniques in the implementation of the GA have been studied in detail. The emphasis was on the fitness functions of the GA concerned with the concrete problem so that they were proposed first. Second the expression of the desired solutions was discussed in the continual space optimization problem. Because different expression was suitable for different problem, here the real numbers were used to express the solutions to find which were called as chromosomes in the GA. Third the improved evolutionary strategies of GA were described respectively on emphasis. They were the selection operation of Odd Number Selection plus Roulette Wheel Selection, the crossover operation of Arithmetic Crossover Between Near Relatives and Far Relatives, and the mutation operation of Adaptive Gaussian mutation. The evolutionary strategies determined the update of the whole population and the terminal solution. After operations from generation to generation, the initial stochastic population on the basis of the least squared solutions would be improved until the best chromosome/individual appeared. Finally some examples were computed to verify the devised method. The experimental results show that the GA-based method can find the desired solutions that are superior to the least squared solutions and almost equal to those given by other optimization techniques except a few examples give a similar result.

  14. Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karla D; Davidson, Peter J; Pollini, Robin A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, whilst conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors' research on HIV risk amongst injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a Needle/Syringe Exchange Program in Los Angeles, CA, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts.

  15. Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Davidson, Peter J.; Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, while conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors’ research on HIV risk among injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a needle/syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative

  16. The key-role of instrumentation for the new generation of research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bignan, G.; Villard, J. F.; Destouches, C.; Baeten, P.; Vermeeren, L.; Michiels, S.

    2011-07-01

    Experimental reactors have been indispensable since the beginning of the use of nuclear energy to support many important fields of industry and research: safety, lifetime management and operation optimisation of nuclear power plants, development of new types of reactors with improved resources and fuel cycle management, medical applications, material development for fusion... Over the last decade, modifications of the operational needs and the ageing of the nuclear facilities have led to several closures and time is coming for new key European Experimental Reactors (EER) within a European and International Framework. Projects like MYRRHA and JHR are underway to define and implement a new consistent EER policy: - Meeting industry and public needs, keeping a high level of scientific expertise; - With a limited number of EER, specified within a rational compromise between specialisation, complementarities and back-up capacities; - To be put into effective operation in this or the next decade. These new projects will give to the scientific community high performances allowing innovative fields of R and D. A new generation of instrumentation to address new phenomena and that allows better on-line investigation of some key physical parameters is necessary to achieve these challenges. One initiative to progress in this direction is the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between CEA and SCK.CEN which has already given significant results and patents. Major scientific challenges to achieve in the field of instrumentation for this new generation of European Research Reactors have to be investigated and are described in this paper as well as a short description of the JHR and MYRRHA reactors that will be serving as flexible irradiation facilities for testing them. (authors)

  17. Research on key technologies for data-interoperability-based metadata, data compression and encryption, and their application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xu; Shao, Quanqin; Zhu, Yunhai; Deng, Yuejin; Yang, Haijun

    2006-10-01

    With the development of informationization and the separation between data management departments and application departments, spatial data sharing becomes one of the most important objectives for the spatial information infrastructure construction, and spatial metadata management system, data transmission security and data compression are the key technologies to realize spatial data sharing. This paper discusses the key technologies for metadata based on data interoperability, deeply researches the data compression algorithms such as adaptive Huffman algorithm, LZ77 and LZ78 algorithm, studies to apply digital signature technique to encrypt spatial data, which can not only identify the transmitter of spatial data, but also find timely whether the spatial data are sophisticated during the course of network transmission, and based on the analysis of symmetric encryption algorithms including 3DES,AES and asymmetric encryption algorithm - RAS, combining with HASH algorithm, presents a improved mix encryption method for spatial data. Digital signature technology and digital watermarking technology are also discussed. Then, a new solution of spatial data network distribution is put forward, which adopts three-layer architecture. Based on the framework, we give a spatial data network distribution system, which is efficient and safe, and also prove the feasibility and validity of the proposed solution.

  18. Ethical Considerations for the Return of Incidental Findings in Ophthalmic Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Mackey, David A.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Savarirayan, Ravi; Otlowski, Margaret; Craig, Jamie E.

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome and whole exome sequencing technologies are being increasingly used in research. However, they have the potential to identify incidental findings (IF), findings not related to the indication of the test, raising questions regarding researchers' responsibilities toward the return of this information to participants. In this study we discuss the ethical considerations related to the return of IF to research participants, emphasizing that the type of the study matters and describing the current practice standards. There are currently no legal obligations for researchers to return IF to participants, but some viewpoints consider that researchers might have an ethical one to return IF of clinical validity and clinical utility and that are actionable. The reality is that most IF are complex to interpret, especially since they were not the indication of the test. The clinical utility often depends on the participants' preferences, which can be challenging to conciliate and relies on participants' understanding. In summary, in the context of a lack of clear guidance, researchers need to have a clear plan for the disclosure or nondisclosure of IF from genomic research, balancing their research goals and resources with the participants' rights and their duty not to harm. PMID:26929883

  19. What clinicians want: findings from a psychotherapy practice research network survey.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Sylvestre, John; Balfour, Louise; Chyurlia, Livia; Evans, Jane; Fortin-Langelier, Benjamin; Francis, Kylie; Gandhi, Jasmine; Huehn, Linda; Hunsley, John; Joyce, Anthony S; Kinley, Jackie; Koszycki, Diana; Leszcz, Molyn; Lybanon-Daigle, Vanessa; Mercer, Deanna; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Presniak, Michelle; Ravitz, Paula; Ritchie, Kerri; Talbot, Jeanne; Wilson, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Practice research networks may be one way of advancing knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) in psychotherapy. In this study, we document this process by first asking clinicians what they want from psychotherapy research. Eighty-two psychotherapists in 10 focus groups identified and discussed psychotherapy research topics relevant to their practices. An analysis of these discussions led to the development of 41 survey items. In an online survey, 1,019 participants, mostly practicing clinicians, rated the importance to their clinical work of these 41 psychotherapy research topics. Ratings were reduced using a principal components analysis in which 9 psychotherapy research themes emerged, accounting for 60.66% of the variance. Two postsurvey focus groups of clinicians (N = 22) aided in interpreting the findings. The ranking of research themes from most to least important were-Therapeutic Relationship/Mechanisms of Change, Therapist Factors, Training and Professional Development, Client Factors, Barriers and Stigma, Technology and Adjunctive Interventions, Progress Monitoring, Matching Clients to Therapist or Therapy, and Treatment Manuals. Few differences were noted in rankings based on participant age or primary therapeutic orientation. Postsurvey focus group participants were not surprised by the top-rated items, as they were considered most proximal and relevant to therapists and their work with clients during therapy sessions. Lower ranked items may be perceived as externally imposed agendas on the therapist and therapy. We discuss practice research networks as a means of creating new collaborations consistent with KTE goals. Findings of this study can help to direct practitioner-researcher collaborations.

  20. Using Interactive Technology to Disseminate Research Findings to a Diverse Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockley, Denise; Beyer, Wanda; Hutchinson, Nancy; DeLugt, Jennifer; Chin, Peter; Versnel, Joan; Munby, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how case stories can be used to disseminate the findings of several case studies on negotiating accommodations in the workplace. It highlights the power of interactive technology and of the partnership between the researchers and the Canadian Council for Rehabilitation and Work (CCRW). The paper describes the process of…

  1. Programme Implementation in Social and Emotional Learning: Basic Issues and Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durlak, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental importance of achieving quality implementation when assessing the impact of social and emotional learning interventions. Recent findings in implementation science are reviewed that include a definition of implementation, its relation to programme outcomes, current research on the factors that affect…

  2. A framework for analyzing the ethics of disclosing genetic research findings.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Lisa; Garrett, Jeremy R; Berkman, Benjamin E

    2014-01-01

    Whether researchers have an obligation to disclose secondary genetic research findings, and, if so, in what circumstances, remains a matter of heated debate. This paper suggests that much of this confusion is definitional or conceptual in nature. That is, there is significant variability in the way that threshold terms and concepts such as "incidental," "analytic validity," "clinical validity," "clinical relevance," "clinical utility," "clinical significance," and "actionability," are used in the literature, which is impeding efforts to clarify the scope of an obligation to return findings. This paper analyzes the definitional muddle underlying the debate about returning genetic research findings, first, to explain the range of definitions being used in this debate. We go on to propose that, underlying all the seeming confusion and disagreement, three central and widely agreed upon concepts are at work in this debate - validity, value, and volition. Refocusing attention on these core concepts, and their appropriate conceptualizations, can produce a more productive debate regarding the return of genetic research findings.

  3. Research-Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorden, Joan F., Ed.; Kuh, Charlotte V., Ed.; Voytuk, James A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment" examines data on the biomedical sciences programs to gather additional insight about the talent, training environment, outcomes, diversity, and international participation in the biomedical sciences workforce. This report supports an earlier…

  4. Public Understanding of Cognitive Neuroscience Research Findings: Trying to Peer beyond Enchanted Glass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotzer, Tina A.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the appeal of cognitive neuroscience research to the general public within the context of the deep puzzles involved in using our minds to understand how our minds work. It offers a few promising examples of findings that illuminate the ways of the mind and reveal these workings to be counter-intuitive with our subjective…

  5. Characteristics of Child Victims of Physical Violence: Research Findings and Clinical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews recent empirical studies that examine the short- and long-term sequelae of physical child maltreatment (PCM). Assesses the current status of research examining PCM's impact on children's development and psychosocial functioning. Major findings are discussed in the context of pertinent qualifications of existing evidence. (over 140…

  6. Plagiarism: Examination of Conceptual Issues and Evaluation of Research Findings on Using Detection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantinidis, Angelos; Theodosiadou, Dimitra; Pappos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze and evaluate the research findings on using Plagiarism Detection Services (PDS) in universities. In order to do that, conceptual issues about plagiarism are examined and the complex nature of plagiarism is discussed. Subsequently, the pragmatic forms of student plagiarism are listed and PDS strategies on…

  7. 42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for findings of research misconduct. 93.104 Section 93.104 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES...

  8. 42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for findings of research misconduct. 93.104 Section 93.104 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES...

  9. 42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for findings of research misconduct. 93.104 Section 93.104 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES...

  10. 42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for findings of research misconduct. 93.104 Section 93.104 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES...

  11. 42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for findings of research misconduct. 93.104 Section 93.104 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES...

  12. Alternative Interpretations of Findings in Cognitive Preference Research in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungwirth, Ehud

    1980-01-01

    Reinterpreted are findings obtained from cognitive preference test (CPT) literature and the author's personal research, in which the author states that data lend themselves to alternative explanations, not necessarily connected with cognitive preferences, and perhaps related more to "familiarity with content." Several suggestions for further CPT…

  13. New Findings and Future Directions for Subjective Well-Being Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings on subjective well-being (SWB) are presented, and I describe the important questions for future research that these raise. Worldwide predictors of SWB such as social support and fulfillment of basic needs have been uncovered, and there are large differences in SWB between societies. A number of culture-specific predictors of SWB…

  14. Introducing the Concept of Salutogenesis to School Leadership Research: Problematizing Empirical Methodologies and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces and explores the concept of "salutogenesis" as a way of interpreting school leadership research and its findings in two significant areas: its effect on student outcomes and the motivation of incumbents. In its original setting, salutogenesis describes an approach that focuses on health, rather than on disease, but…

  15. Methodological Research on Knowledge Use and School Improvement. Volume I. Project Overview and Summary of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, William N.; And Others

    This report summarizes major findings and policy implications of a University of Pittsburgh project titled Methodological Research on Knowledge Use and School Improvement. The major emphasis has been methodological rather than substantive. The primary purpose has been to describe, evaluate, and recommend alternative concepts, methods, and…

  16. A Simple Syllogism-Solving Test: Empirical Findings and Implications for "g" Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shikishima, Chizuru; Yamagata, Shinji; Hiraishi, Kai; Sugimoto, Yutaro; Murayama, Kou; Ando, Juko

    2011-01-01

    It has been reported that the ability to solve syllogisms is highly "g"-loaded. In the present study, using a self-administered shortened version of a syllogism-solving test, the "BAROCO Short," we examined whether robust findings generated by previous research regarding IQ scores were also applicable to "BAROCO Short" scores. Five…

  17. Can Research Findings Help School Systems Obtain the Most Bang from the Construction Bucks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earthman, Glen I.; Lemasters, Linda K.

    Research on educational facilities is important to help industry and school districts make decisions on funding and maintaining good educational environments for their students. This paper presents findings from three syntheses of 232 studies on educational facilities and funding decisions, followed by discussions of practical solutions designed…

  18. 75 FR 62892 - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Correction In notice document 2010-24809 beginning on page 61220 in the issue of...

  19. [Construction of Research-Oriented State Key Clinical Department by Highlighting the Characteris- tics and Advantages of Chinese Medicine].

    PubMed

    Ma, Shi-yu; Guo, Li-heng; Han, Yun; Li, Jian; Zhang, Min-zhou

    2016-04-01

    As the largest research-oriented specialty department in national traditional Chinese medicine hospitals, the Department of Critical Care Medicine in Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine insists on the development mode combined with clinical medicine and scientific research. By taking clinical and basic researches for integrative medicine preventing and treating acute myocardial in-farction and sepsis as a breakthrough, authors explored key problems of Chinese medicine in improving the prognosis related diseases and patients' quality of life. In recent 3 years our department has successively become the principal unit of the national key specialties cooperative group of critical care medicine (awarded by State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine), the key clinical specialties (awarded by National Health and Family Planning Commission), and Guangzhou key laboratory construction unit, and achieved overall lap in clinical medical treatment, personnel training, scientific research, and social service.

  20. [Construction of Research-Oriented State Key Clinical Department by Highlighting the Characteris- tics and Advantages of Chinese Medicine].

    PubMed

    Ma, Shi-yu; Guo, Li-heng; Han, Yun; Li, Jian; Zhang, Min-zhou

    2016-04-01

    As the largest research-oriented specialty department in national traditional Chinese medicine hospitals, the Department of Critical Care Medicine in Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine insists on the development mode combined with clinical medicine and scientific research. By taking clinical and basic researches for integrative medicine preventing and treating acute myocardial in-farction and sepsis as a breakthrough, authors explored key problems of Chinese medicine in improving the prognosis related diseases and patients' quality of life. In recent 3 years our department has successively become the principal unit of the national key specialties cooperative group of critical care medicine (awarded by State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine), the key clinical specialties (awarded by National Health and Family Planning Commission), and Guangzhou key laboratory construction unit, and achieved overall lap in clinical medical treatment, personnel training, scientific research, and social service. PMID:27323605

  1. Building and sustaining community-institutional partnerships for prevention research: findings from a national collaborative.

    PubMed

    Seifer, Sarena D

    2006-11-01

    The Examining Community-Institutional Partnerships for Prevention Research Project began in October 2002 with funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Research Center Program Office through a cooperative agreement between the Association of Schools of Public Health and the CDC. The three-year project aimed to synthesize knowledge about community-institutional partnerships for prevention research and to build community and institutional capacity for participatory research. These ten organizations collaborated on the project because they were all involved in community-institutional partnerships for prevention research, had access to research and evaluation data on these partnerships, and believed that the shared learning and action that would result through a collaborative effort could significantly advance collective knowledge about partnerships and lead to substantive capacity-building responses: the Community Health Scholars Program, Community-Based Public Health Caucus of the American Public Health Association, Community-Campus Partnerships for Health, Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center, Harlem Health Promotion Center, National Community Committee of the CDC Prevention Research Centers Program, New York Urban Research Center, Seattle Partners for Healthy Communities, Yale-Griffin Prevention Research Center and the Wellesley Institute. This paper reports on the project's findings, including common characteristics of successful partnerships and recommendations for strengthening emerging and established partnerships.

  2. [Textual research of Hou ke mi yao (Secret Key of Laryngology)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang-Liang

    2013-05-01

    Hou ke mi yao (Secret Key of Laryngology) was one of the most popular books of throat department in the Qing Dynasty. Because of the inscription "Xiyuan Zheng of ancient She as the author, Xu Zuo-ting of Lequan revised and enlarged", this book was generally regarded as the important work of Xin'an Zheng's family of throat department. However, after the textual research, Hou ke mi yao, in fact, was edited on the basis of Zhang Zong-liang's Hou ke zhi zhang (Guide Book for Laryngology) of the Qing Dynasty: with the second volume, "method of processing" deleted, and Wu's "verse of 24 kinds of symptom of throat diseases" (his whole name unknown) and 12 pills added. Thus, the author of Hou ke mi yao was Zhang and Wu instead of Xiyuan Zheng, and the contents reflected the academic thought of Zhang Zong-liang and Wu. According to the record of General Catalogue of the Ancient Literature of Chinese Medicine in China, there were 14 editions of Hou ke mi yao available, however, only 12 editions are extant after the investigation. In addition, there are mistakes of its author, book title and editions included in the Textual Research on Chinese Medical Literature and General Catalogue of the Ancient Literature of Chinese Medicine in China which, therefore, should be corrected. PMID:24060030

  3. Stem Cells of Dental Origin: Current Research Trends and Key Milestones towards Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    About, Imad

    2016-01-01

    Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), including Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs), Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous teeth (SHED), and Stem Cells From Apical Papilla (SCAP), have been extensively studied using highly sophisticated in vitro and in vivo systems, yielding substantially improved understanding of their intriguing biological properties. Their capacity to reconstitute various dental and nondental tissues and the inherent angiogenic, neurogenic, and immunomodulatory properties of their secretome have been a subject of meticulous and costly research by various groups over the past decade. Key milestone achievements have exemplified their clinical utility in Regenerative Dentistry, as surrogate therapeutic modules for conventional biomaterial-based approaches, offering regeneration of damaged oral tissues instead of simply “filling the gaps.” Thus, the essential next step to validate these immense advances is the implementation of well-designed clinical trials paving the way for exploiting these fascinating research achievements for patient well-being: the ultimate aim of this ground breaking technology. This review paper presents a concise overview of the major biological properties of the human dental MSCs, critical for the translational pathway “from bench to clinic.”

  4. Finding the Middle Ground in Violent Video Game Research: Lessons From Ferguson (2015).

    PubMed

    Markey, Patrick M

    2015-09-01

    Ferguson's comprehensive meta-analysis provides convincing data that violent video games have almost no effect on children's aggression. Although this finding is unlikely to bring unity to a divided field, Ferguson's article (2015, this issue) provides important rules that should aid all researchers. First, we need to be more accepting of results that are inconsistent with our own theories. Second, extraneous variables are often responsible for the relations previous studies have found between violent media and aggression. Third, we should avoid using unstandardized assessments of important variables whenever possible. Finally, caution is warranted when generalizing laboratory research findings to severe acts of violent in the "real world." It is hoped that, by accepting these basic rules, researchers and others will adopt less extreme positions concerning the effects of violent video games.

  5. Finding the Middle Ground in Violent Video Game Research: Lessons From Ferguson (2015).

    PubMed

    Markey, Patrick M

    2015-09-01

    Ferguson's comprehensive meta-analysis provides convincing data that violent video games have almost no effect on children's aggression. Although this finding is unlikely to bring unity to a divided field, Ferguson's article (2015, this issue) provides important rules that should aid all researchers. First, we need to be more accepting of results that are inconsistent with our own theories. Second, extraneous variables are often responsible for the relations previous studies have found between violent media and aggression. Third, we should avoid using unstandardized assessments of important variables whenever possible. Finally, caution is warranted when generalizing laboratory research findings to severe acts of violent in the "real world." It is hoped that, by accepting these basic rules, researchers and others will adopt less extreme positions concerning the effects of violent video games. PMID:26386003

  6. 'Geo'chemical research: a key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Scott

    2008-12-12

    Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland...), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case

  7. [Research progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica and discussion on several key problems].

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Yan; Zheng, Yu-Guang; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2014-05-01

    Standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica is an important way to solve the "Lemons Problem" of traditional Chinese medicine market. Standards of commodity classes are also helpful to rebuild market mechanisms for "high price for good quality". The previous edition of commodity classes standards of Chinese materia medica was made 30 years ago. It is no longer adapted to the market demand. This article researched progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It considered that biological activity is a better choice than chemical constituents for standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It is also considered that the key point to set standards of commodity classes is finding the influencing factors between "good quality" and "bad quality". The article also discussed the range of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, and how to coordinate standards of pharmacopoeia and commodity classes. According to different demands, diversiform standards can be used in commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, but efficacy is considered the most important index of commodity standard. Decoction pieces can be included in standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. The authors also formulated the standards of commodity classes of Notoginseng Radix as an example, and hope this study can make a positive and promotion effect on traditional Chinese medicine market related research.

  8. Meta-analysis of qualitative studies: a tool for reviewing qualitative research findings in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Timulak, Ladislav

    2009-07-01

    This article focuses on the presentation of qualitative meta-analysis as a method for reviewing qualitative studies. Qualitative meta-analysis is an attempt to conduct a rigorous secondary qualitative analysis of primary qualitative findings. Its purpose*to provide a more comprehensive description of a phenomenon and an assessment of the influence of the method of investigation on findings*is discussed. The distinctive features of conducting meta-analysis approaches are presented. Several considerations important for conducting qualitative meta-analysis are also discussed. The author uses examples of the first experiences attempted with qualitative meta-analysis in the field of psychotherapy research.

  9. Funding considerations for the disclosure of genetic incidental findings in biobank research

    PubMed Central

    Black, L; Avard, D; Zawati, MH; Knoppers, BM; Hébert, J; Sauvageau, G

    2013-01-01

    The use of biobanks in biomedical research has grown considerably in recent years. As a result of the increasing analysis of tissue samples stored in biobanks, there has also been an increase in the probability of discovering—in addition to the research target—incidental findings (IF). We identified 23 laws, policies and guidelines from international, regional and national organizations that provide guidance or identify the need for the disclosure of IF to research participants. We analyzed these instruments to determine their contemplation of the funding considerations for the disclosure of IF, examining their guidance for who discloses and the extent of researcher responsibilities. We found that the available normative documents provide little guidance to researchers and biobanks for how they should address cost and funding concerns associated with IF disclosure. It is therefore essential that the research and policy communities think through the financial implications of imposing an ethical responsibility to disclose IF. Concerted efforts should be made by policymakers, ethicists, researchers, clinicians and research institutions to develop detailed funding recommendations, potentially universal in application, to aid in the disclosure of IF, and we provide recommendations on steps that can be taken to ensure full consideration of these issues. PMID:23662709

  10. DIII-D research towards resolving key issues for ITER and steady-state tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D. N.; the DIII-D Team

    2013-10-01

    The DIII-D research program is addressing key ITER research needs and developing the physics basis for future steady-state tokamaks. Pellet pacing edge-localized mode (ELM) control in the ITER configuration reduces ELM energy loss in proportion to 1/fpellet by inducing ELMs at up to 12× the natural ELM rate. Complete suppression of ELMs with resonant magnetic perturbations has been extended to the q95 expected for ITER baseline scenario discharges, and long-duration ELM-free QH-mode discharges have been produced with ITER-relevant co-current neutral-beam injection (NBI) using external n = 3 coils to generate sufficient counter-Ip torque. ITER baseline discharges at βN ˜ 2 and scaled NBI torque have been maintained in stationary conditions for more than four resistive times using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) for tearing mode suppression and disruption avoidance; active tracking with steerable launchers and feedback control catch these modes at small amplitude, reducing the ECCD power required to suppress them. Massive high-Z gas injection into disruption-induced 300-600 kA 20 MeV runaway electron (RE) beams yield dissipation rates ˜10× faster than expected from e-e collisions and demonstrate the possibility of benign dissipation of such REs should they occur in ITER. Other ITER-related experiments show measured intrinsic plasma torque in good agreement with a physics-based model over a wide range of conditions, while first-time main-ion rotation measurements show it to be lower than expected from neoclassical theory. Core turbulence measurements show increased temperature fluctuations correlated with sharply enhanced electron transport when \

  11. What clinicians want: findings from a psychotherapy practice research network survey.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Sylvestre, John; Balfour, Louise; Chyurlia, Livia; Evans, Jane; Fortin-Langelier, Benjamin; Francis, Kylie; Gandhi, Jasmine; Huehn, Linda; Hunsley, John; Joyce, Anthony S; Kinley, Jackie; Koszycki, Diana; Leszcz, Molyn; Lybanon-Daigle, Vanessa; Mercer, Deanna; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Presniak, Michelle; Ravitz, Paula; Ritchie, Kerri; Talbot, Jeanne; Wilson, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Practice research networks may be one way of advancing knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) in psychotherapy. In this study, we document this process by first asking clinicians what they want from psychotherapy research. Eighty-two psychotherapists in 10 focus groups identified and discussed psychotherapy research topics relevant to their practices. An analysis of these discussions led to the development of 41 survey items. In an online survey, 1,019 participants, mostly practicing clinicians, rated the importance to their clinical work of these 41 psychotherapy research topics. Ratings were reduced using a principal components analysis in which 9 psychotherapy research themes emerged, accounting for 60.66% of the variance. Two postsurvey focus groups of clinicians (N = 22) aided in interpreting the findings. The ranking of research themes from most to least important were-Therapeutic Relationship/Mechanisms of Change, Therapist Factors, Training and Professional Development, Client Factors, Barriers and Stigma, Technology and Adjunctive Interventions, Progress Monitoring, Matching Clients to Therapist or Therapy, and Treatment Manuals. Few differences were noted in rankings based on participant age or primary therapeutic orientation. Postsurvey focus group participants were not surprised by the top-rated items, as they were considered most proximal and relevant to therapists and their work with clients during therapy sessions. Lower ranked items may be perceived as externally imposed agendas on the therapist and therapy. We discuss practice research networks as a means of creating new collaborations consistent with KTE goals. Findings of this study can help to direct practitioner-researcher collaborations. PMID:25528356

  12. Pharmacists' participation in research: a case of trying to find the time.

    PubMed

    Cvijovic, Kosta; Boon, Heather; Jaeger, Walter; Vohra, Sunita

    2010-12-01

    Objective  The objective of this case study was to explore how pharmacists involved in the Pharmacy Study Of Natural Health Product Adverse Reactions (SONAR) project perceived the barriers and facilitators to participating in clinical research. Methods  A total of 19 semi-structured interviews were completed with pharmacy staff members who had recently completed data collection in the SONAR study which involved asking patients if they had experienced any unwanted effects while taking natural products. Other data sources included detailed field notes and interviews with SONAR researchers. Basic content analysis with multiple coders was used to analyse the data and triangulation was used to highlight areas of consistency and contrasting view points across the data types. Key findings  None of the participating pharmacies was able to collect as much data as expected by the SONAR team. Lack of time was stated as the main reason why pharmacy staff had trouble with the data collection. However, observational data and detailed probing in interviews confirmed that data collection itself took very little time (seconds per patient). Lack of time was provided as a socially acceptable excuse that masked deeper issues related to fears associated with challenges modifying established work routines and perceived lack of value associated with research participation. Conclusion  To successfully engage pharmacists in practice-based natural health product research it is necessary to establish the direct and indirect benefits of participation because those that believe in the value of the research will make the time for participation.

  13. Key Topics for High-Lift Research: A Joint Wind Tunnel/Flight Test Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.

    1996-01-01

    Future high-lift systems must achieve improved aerodynamic performance with simpler designs that involve fewer elements and reduced maintenance costs. To expeditiously achieve this, reliable CFD design tools are required. The development of useful CFD-based design tools for high lift systems requires increased attention to unresolved flow physics issues. The complex flow field over any multi-element airfoil may be broken down into certain generic component flows which are termed high-lift building block flows. In this report a broad spectrum of key flow field physics issues relevant to the design of improved high lift systems are considered. It is demonstrated that in-flight experiments utilizing the NASA Dryden Flight Test Fixture (which is essentially an instrumented ventral fin) carried on an F-15B support aircraft can provide a novel and cost effective method by which both Reynolds and Mach number effects associated with specific high lift building block flows can be investigated. These in-flight high lift building block flow experiments are most effective when performed in conjunction with coordinated ground based wind tunnel experiments in low speed facilities. For illustrative purposes three specific examples of in-flight high lift building block flow experiments capable of yielding a high payoff are described. The report concludes with a description of a joint wind tunnel/flight test approach to high lift aerodynamics research.

  14. Research progress in the key device and technology for fiber optic sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Deming; Sun, Qizhen; Lu, Ping; Xia, Li; Sima, Chaotan

    2016-03-01

    The recent research progress in the key device and technology of the fiber optic sensor network (FOSN) is introduced in this paper. An architecture of the sensor optical passive network (SPON), by employing hybrid wavelength division multiplexing/time division multiplexing (WDM/TDM) techniques similar to the fiber communication passive optical network (PON), is proposed. The network topology scheme of a hybrid TDM/WDM/FDM (frequency division multiplexing) three-dimension fiber optic sensing system for achieving ultra-large capacity, long distance, and high resolution sensing performance is performed and analyzed. As the most important device of the FOSN, several kinds of light source are developed, including the wideband multi-wavelength fiber laser operating at C band, switchable and tunable 2 μm multi-wavelength fiber lasers, ultra-fast mode-locked fiber laser, as well as the optical wideband chaos source, which have very good application prospects in the FOSN. Meanwhile, intelligent management techniques for the FOSN including wideband spectrum demodulation of the sensing signals and real-time fault monitoring of fiber links are presented. Moreover, several typical applications of the FOSN are also discussed, such as the fiber optic gas sensing network, fiber optic acoustic sensing network, and strain/dynamic strain sensing network.

  15. Obstructive Lung Diseases in HIV: A Clinical Review and Identification of Key Future Research Needs.

    PubMed

    Drummond, M Bradley; Kunisaki, Ken M; Huang, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    HIV infection has shifted from what was once a disease directly impacting short-term mortality to what is now a chronic illness controllable in the era of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this setting, life expectancy for HIV-infected individual is nearly comparable to that of individuals without HIV. Subsequent to this increase in life expectancy, there has been recognition of increased multimorbidity among HIV-infected persons, with prevalence of comorbid chronic illnesses now approaching 65%. Obstructive lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, are prevalent conditions associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States. There is overlap in risk factors for HIV acquisition and chronic lung diseases, including lower socioeconomic status and the use of tobacco and illicit drugs. Objectives of this review are to (1) summarize the current state of knowledge regarding COPD and asthma among HIV-infected persons, (2) highlight implications for clinicians caring for patients with these combined comorbidities, and (3) identify key research initiatives to reduce the burden of obstructive lung diseases among HIV-infected persons. PMID:26974304

  16. Traumatic brain injury in the US military: epidemiology and key clinical and research programs.

    PubMed

    Helmick, Katherine M; Spells, Cynthia A; Malik, Saafan Z; Davies, Cathleen A; Marion, Donald W; Hinds, Sidney R

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), and particularly concussion, is a major concern for the U.S. Military because of the associated short term disability, long term cognitive and pain symptoms suffered by some, and risk of prolonged or permanent neurologic injury if the Service member incurs a second TBI before full recovery from the first. Concussions were seen more often during the recent conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq than in prior conflicts, such as the Vietnam War, because of the use of improvised explosive devices that typically caused non-penetrating closed head injury. Since 2000 more than 300,000 Service members were diagnosed with TBI, of which more than 80 % were concussions. Improved TBI screening tools also have identified a higher than expected incidence of concussions occurring in garrison. In this review we summarize current epidemiologic data for TBI in the Military, and describe contemporary Military procedures and strategies for TBI prevention, identification, evaluation, and acute and chronic care. Key TBI clinical research priorities and programs are described, and innovative organizational plans to address future TBI needs are summarized. PMID:25972118

  17. Repackaging prostate cancer support group research findings: an e-KT case study.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina S; Lohan, Maria; Bottorff, Joan L

    2015-01-01

    In the context of psychosocial oncology research, disseminating study findings to a range of knowledge "end-users" can advance the well-being of diverse patient subgroups and their families. This article details how findings drawn from a study of prostate cancer support groups were repackaged in a knowledge translation website--www.prostatecancerhelpyourself.ubc.ca--using Web 2.0 features. Detailed are five lessons learned from developing the website: the importance of pitching a winning but feasible idea, keeping a focus on interactivity and minimizing text, negotiating with the supplier, building in formal pretests or a pilot test with end-users, and completing formative evaluations based on data collected through Google™ and YouTube™ Analytics. The details are shared to guide the e-knowledge translation efforts of other psychosocial oncology researchers and clinicians.

  18. Models of Consent to Return of Incidental Findings in Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, Paul S.; Parens, Erik; Waldman, Cameron R.; Klitzman, Robert; Fyer, Abby; Martinez, Josue; Price, W. Nicholson; Chung, Wendy K.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic research has the capacity to generate a wide array of findings that go beyond the goals of the study—usually referred to as “incidental findings.” The evolving consensus of researchers, participants, and expert panels is that at least some incidental results should be made available to participants. However, there are a number of challenges to discussing these issues with participants and ascertaining their preferences, including the complexity and magnitude of the relevant information. Believing that usual models of informed consent are not likely to be effective in this context, we identify four approaches that investigators and IRBs might consider: traditional consent, staged consent, mandatory return, and outsourcing. Each has advantages and disadvantages compared with the other options, and which one is selected for a given project will depend on a mix of practical and normative considerations that are described in this paper. PMID:24919982

  19. Research findings from the use of probiotics in tilapia aquaculture: A review.

    PubMed

    Hai, Ngo Van

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to present research findings from the use of probiotics in tilapia aquaculture. In omnivorous species of tilapia aquaculture, intestines and gonads, rearing water and sediments or even commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics. Administration of probiotics varies from direct oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is most commonly used. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. As probiotics have been proven to be either immune enhancers and/or growth promoters in aquatic animals, several modes of actions of probiotics in enhancement of immune responses, and an improvement of growth and survival rates of tilapia are presented, while the effects of others are not yet understood to the same degree as for other fish species. Some points extracted from the research findings are emphasised for further investigation and development.

  20. Global Energy Technology Strategy: Addressing Climate Change Phase 2 Findings from an international Public-Private Sponsored Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, James A.; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.; Smith, Steven J.; Runci, Paul J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Stokes, Gerald M.

    2007-05-01

    This book examines the role of global energy technology in addressing climate change. The book considers the nature of the climate change challenge and the role of energy in the issue. It goes on to consider the implications for the evolution of the global energy system and the potential value of technology availability, development and deployment. Six technology systems are identified for special consideration: CO2 capture and storage, Biotechnology, Hydrogen systems, Nuclear energy, Wind and solar energy, and End-use energy technologies. In addition, consideration is given to the role of non-CO2 gases in climate change as well as the potential of technology development and deployment to reduce non-CO2 emissions. Present trends in energy R&D are examined and potentially fruitful avenues for research. The book concludes with a set of key findings.

  1. Assessing the Key Processes of Youth-Led Participatory Research: Psychometric Analysis and Application of an Observational Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Emily J.; Douglas, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Youth-led Participatory Action Research (YPAR)--in which young people conduct research aimed at improving problems in their schools and communities--is increasing in public health, youth development, and education. We report on the development and psychometric testing of the YPAR Process Template (YPT)--to assess the quality of key YPAR processes…

  2. Twenty-six key research questions in urban stream ecology: an assessment of the state of the science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although urban streams have been the focus of much research activity in recent years, there remain many unanswered questions about the mechanisms driving the “urban stream syndrome.” Identification of these key research questions is an important step toward effective, efficient ...

  3. ANIMAL MODELS OF UROLOGIC CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN SYNDROMES (UCPPS): FINDINGS FROM THE MAPP RESEARCH NETWORK

    PubMed Central

    Lai, H. Henry; Gereau, Robert W.; Luo, Yi; O’Donnell, Michael; Rudick, Charles N.; Pontari, Michel; Mullins, Chris; Klumpp, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the approach taken by MAPP (Multi-Disciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain) Research Network investigators to advance the utility of UCPPS (urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes) animal models. Methods A multidisciplinary team of investigators representing basic science and clinical expertise defined key phenotypic criteria for rodent models of UCPPS. UCPPS symptoms were prioritized based on their clinical significance. Methods for quantifying animal correlates to patient symptoms were developed. The methods were implemented across proposed rodent models for evaluation and comparison of animals for phenotypic characteristics relevant to human symptomatology. Results Pelvic pain and urinary frequency were deemed primary features of human UCPPS and were prioritized for assessment in animals. Nociception was quantified using visceromotor response to bladder distention, and by applying von Frey filaments to the lower abdomen (referred tactile allodynia). Micturition activity was assessed as free voiding using micturition cages or blotting pad assays, and in response to bladder filling by cystometry. Models varied in both depth of characterization and degree of recapitulating pelvic pain and urinary frequency characteristics of UCPPS. Conclusion Rodent models that reflect multiple, key characteristics of human UCPPS may be identified and provide enhanced clinical significance to mechanistic studies. We have developed a strategy for evaluating current and future animal models of UCPPS based on human symptomatology. This approach provides a foundation for improved translation between mechanistic studies in animals and clinical research, and serves as a validation strategy for assessing validity of models for symptom-driven disorders of unknown etiology. PMID:26099889

  4. Research on a New Key-Frame Extraction Algorithm of Printing Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Fucheng; Chen, Yujie

    The scenes and contents of printing video almost describes the operation, usage and running of printing machines. Based on these features of printing video, this paper introduces some approaches of key-frame extraction. In commonly used traditional algorithms, key-frame extraction algorithms based on average histogram and based on shot boundary are described in detail. Moreover, this paper proposes a novel approach of key-frame extraction based on average frame-difference. The experimental results indicate that the new approach is very effective and efficient for extracting key-frames of printing video.

  5. Research and Teaching: An Investigation of the Evolution of High School and Undergraduate Student Researchers' Understanding of Key Science Ethics Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabrouk, Patricia Ann

    2013-01-01

    High school and undergraduate research students were surveyed over the 10-week period of their summer research programs to investigate their understanding of key concepts in science ethics and whether their understanding changed over the course of their summer research experiences. Most of the students appeared to understand the issues relevant to…

  6. Language of instruction in Tanzania: Why are research findings not heeded?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qorro, Martha A. S.

    2013-06-01

    The issue of language of instruction (LOI) and its effects on education in Tanzanian secondary education has been widely researched since the early 1980s. In 2009, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training proposed a new education and training policy that allows English to be used as LOI from nursery school to tertiary education. The proposed policy goes against what researchers in this area have recommended over the years. In the light of the proposed policy, the author of this article felt the need to review studies done on LOI in Tanzania from 1974 to date, aiming to eliminate or greatly reduce the negative effects of the policy on education in Tanzania. Quoting examples, the paper demonstrates students' levels of proficiency in English; suggests reasons why governmental policy has over time ignored research findings; and recommends as well as proposes the way forward.

  7. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    PubMed

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation.

  8. Workforce development: using role delineation research findings for policy-making and professional practice.

    PubMed

    Taub, Alyson; Gilmore, Gary D; Olsen, Larry K

    2011-03-01

    For the health education profession in the United States, role delineation research has been ongoing to identify valid professional competencies as the basis for workforce development. During 1998-2004, a multi-phase national research study, the National Health Educator Competencies Update Project (CUP), was designed to re-verify the role of the entry-level health educator, and further define and verify the role of advanced level health educators. The CUP findings are the evidence that has influenced the professional preparation, credentialing, and professional development of health educators. The lessons learned include the importance of employing role delineation research with a discipline-specific representative sample to appropriately affect workforce development and sustainability through an empirically-based model. PMID:21450972

  9. Translating research findings into large-scale public programs and policy.

    PubMed

    Zervigon-Hakes, A M

    1995-01-01

    The articles in this journal issue review many research studies to illustrate the benefits and limitations of early childhood programs. Translating the findings of those studies into policy and practice is often challenging, in part because policymakers and researchers have very different constituencies, styles, and interests. The author of this article is a researcher by training, but she has worked for many years in partnership with policymakers, trying to improve the lives of young children throughout the state of Florida. In this article, she contrasts policymakers (including elected and appointed officials as well as career bureaucrats) with researchers to explore the ways in which these groups differ and the ways in which the media, private foundations, and advocacy groups can facilitate communication among the two groups and the public. The author then reviews her experience during the years in which Florida's policymakers wrestled with the decision to entitle disabled infants and toddlers to early intervention services through Public Law 99-457, Part H of the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Although this law is not discussed in other articles in this journal issue, the example is a model of how research can be used to shape policy for young children and their families. The article concludes with recommendations to help researchers and policymakers work together.

  10. Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory, Switzerland-Research Program And Key Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaum, C. O.; Bossart, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Argillaceous formations generally act as aquitards because of their low hydraulic conductivities. This property, together with the large retention capacity of clays for cationic contaminants and the potential for self-sealing, has brought clay formations into focus as potential host rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. Excavated in the Opalinus Clay formation, the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory in the Jura Mountains of NW Switzerland is an important international test site for researching clay formations. Research is carried out in the underground facility, which is located adjacent to the security gallery of the Mont Terri motorway tunnel. Fifteen partners from European countries, USA, Canada and Japan participate in the project. The objectives of the research program are to analyze the hydrogeological, geochemical and rock mechanical properties of the Opalinus Clay, to determine the changes induced by the excavation of galleries and by heating of the rock formation, to test sealing and container emplacement techniques and to evaluate and improve suitable investigation techniques. For the safety of deep geological disposal, it is of key importance to understand the processes occurring in the undisturbed argillaceous environment, as well as the processes in a disturbed system, during the operation of the repository. The objectives are related to: 1. Understanding processes and mechanisms in undisturbed clays and 2. Experiments related to repository-induced perturbations. Experiments of the first group are dedicated to: i) Improvement of drilling and excavation technologies and sampling methods; ii) Estimation of hydrogeological, rock mechanical and geochemical parameters of the undisturbed Opalinus Clay. Upscaling of parameters from laboratory to in situ scale; iii) Geochemistry of porewater and natural gases; evolution of porewater over time scales; iv) Assessment of long-term hydraulic transients associated with erosion and thermal

  11. 42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. (a) When the ORI makes a finding of research misconduct or seeks to impose or enforce HHS administrative actions, other than debarment or... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notifying the respondent of findings of...

  12. 42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. (a) When the ORI makes a finding of research misconduct or seeks to impose or enforce HHS administrative actions, other than debarment or... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notifying the respondent of findings of...

  13. The crystalline revolution :ISO's finding opens a new research field, "astro-mineralogy"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    Silicate minerals were known to be a main component of dust in space, but detecting them in a crystallised state has been a surprise. It allows the identification of precise silicates in astronomical objects, which will open "a totally new field in astronomy: astro-mineralogy. This is the crystalline revolution", said the author, Dutch astronomer Rens Waters of Amsterdam university. "It's really fantastic, this possibility of identifying the silicates. Before ISO everybody thought that all silicates in space were amorphous, without a well-ordered internal structure; that means you cannot differentiate among the many different silicates existing. Now we can try to identify them and track their presence in different regions. A whole new research field is starting", said Rens Waters, who brought to the press conference samples of several terrestrial crystalline silicates: olivine and pyroxene, the most common silicates on Earth. Crystals give key clues about the physical conditions and evolutionary history of crystal-bearing objects. The precise mechanisms for crystal-making are now being researched now very actively in the laboratories, although some working-hypotheses are already being used. For instance, crystals can be made by heating the material to temperatures above 1 300 degrees Centigrade and then cooling it down slowly. Those found so far by ISO are at -170 degrees Centigrade, both in stellar envelopes and in protoplanetary discs. In the case of the old stars -red giant stars, where crystals are found to account for as much as 20% of all the surrounding dust, astronomers think that that the high temperatures near the star triggered the crystallisation of the silicates. In the protoplanetary discs some experts postulate that electric shocks - like lightning flashes - heated the dust, which cooled afterwards. "The crystals detected by ISO in these discs have a size of about a thousandth of a millimetre. They collide with each other, forming bigger and bigger

  14. Involving Scientists in Outreach: Incentives, Barriers, and Recommendations from Research Findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, G.; Laursen, S.; Andrews, E.; Weaver, A.; Hanley, D.; Shamatha, J. H.

    2004-12-01

    Public agencies that fund scientific research are increasingly requiring that researchers invest some of their funding in education or outreach activities that have a "broader impact." Yet barriers exist that inhibit scientists' motivation to participate in K-12 outreach. We will share findings from a quantitative and qualitative study that examined the motivations, rewards, and obstacles for scientists who participate in outreach. We found that most researchers became interested in doing outreach out of a desire to contribute and an expectation of having fun and enjoying the experience. They typically gave outreach presentations away from work, acted as a resource for school teachers, or helped with teacher professional development. However, scientists viewed outreach as a form of volunteer work that was auxiliary to their other responsibilities. Thus, time constraints, a lack of information about outreach opportunities, and the lower value placed on outreach by departments constituted significant barriers to their participation. Scientists involved in outreach typically found their efforts to be rewarding, but occasionally factors left a negative impression, such as poor audience response, classroom management difficulties, organizational problems, or demonstrations not going as planned. Based upon our findings, we offer recommendations on how scientists' participation and experiences in K-12 outreach can be improved, including how to successfully recruit scientists, create a positive outreach experience, and increase institutional support for outreach work.

  15. A decade of research with dyslexic college students: A summary of findings.

    PubMed

    Aaron, P G; Phillips, S

    1986-01-01

    The major findings of several research projects that investigated dyslexic college students are summarized in this paper. Consistent findings of these investigations led to the following conclusions. 1) Developmental dyslexia is a syndrome made up of the following four symptoms: slow rate of reading, error-prone oral reading, poor written spelling, and grammatically incorrect writing; 2) all these symptoms could be traced to a poor mastery of the grapheme-phoneme relational rules; 3) developmental dyslexia can be found in subjects who appear to have adequate oral language skills; 4) ex-dyslexics who appear to be "poor spellers but good readers" have subtle reading deficits; and 5) the 20 dyslexic subjects investigated appear to constitute a homogeneous group which raises questions regarding dyslexia subtypes.

  16. Research on the Caretaking of Children of Incarcerated Parents: Findings and Their Service Delivery Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Thomas E.; Carswell, Steven B.; Rose, Marc

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews research findings on caretaking-related problems associated with the absence of parents from the home following incarceration. It focuses on the impact of incarceration on the welfare and adjustment of urban African American children and on the assumption of caretaking responsibilities by other caretakers, principally maternal grandmothers. Noting the complex situational difficulties involved and the potential burdens associated with surrogate parenting in general, and with this population in particular, the service-provider implications of this parenting arrangement are considered in this review. Findings indicate that problems associated with incarceration of parents tend to be intergenerational and vary considerably in complexity and severity. To the extent that they impact the children involved, these issues should be addressed in coordinated service delivery focusing on prevention. PMID:18311320

  17. Organising health research systems as a key to improving health: the World Health Report 2013 and how to make further progress.

    PubMed

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A

    2013-12-17

    The World Health Report 2013 provides a major boost to the health research community and, in particular, to those who believe that health research will make its greatest impact on improving health when it is organised through a systems approach. The World Health Report 2013, Research for Universal Health Coverage, starts with three key messages. Firstly, that universal health coverage, with full access to high-quality services, needs research evidence if it is to be achieved; second, all nations should conduct and use research; and finally, the report states that systems are needed to develop national research agendas, to raise funds, to strengthen research capacity, and to make effective use of research findings. Each of these themes is elaborated in the report and supported by extensive references.In this editorial, we first outline the key messages from the World Health Report 2013 and highlight the contributions made by papers from our journal, Health Research Policy and Systems. In addition, we discuss very recent papers that advance some issues even further. In particular, we consider new evidence both on how to achieve financial protection for those who use health services, and on whether healthcare professionals and organisations who engage in research provide an improved healthcare performance. Finally, we propose additional perspectives that add to the impressive body of evidence and analyses presented in the report. Specifically, we suggest that considering the needs of various stakeholders, as attempted in the UK, in parallel with analysing how to fulfil essential functions, should boost the prospects of successfully building and strengthening health research systems. This is important because research is vital for achieving universal health coverage, and consequently for improving the health of millions of people.

  18. Key Challenges for Tertiary Education Policy and Research--An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goedegebuure, Leo; Schoen, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Australia has had a mixed history in the way in which policy research has related to higher education policy. Recognising a history of policy-related research and to some extent research-informed policy-making, Australia has followed the trend of other New Public Management-driven systems of de-emphasising policy-oriented independent research. In…

  19. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  20. Finding a voice: participatory research with street-involved youth in the youth injection prevention project.

    PubMed

    Coser, Larissa Rodrigues; Tozer, Kira; Van Borek, Natasha; Tzemis, Despina; Taylor, Darlene; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Buxton, Jane A

    2014-09-01

    This article uses a Positive Youth Development framework to explore the experiences of six experiential youth coresearchers (YCs) in the Youth Injection Prevention (YIP) participatory research project, and the parallel track process of empowerment and capacity building that developed. The YIP project was conducted in Metro Vancouver at the BC Centre for Disease Control and community organizations serving street-involved youth. A process evaluation was conducted to explore themes in the YCs experience in the project, as well as process strengths and challenges. Semistructured interviews with the YCs, researcher field notes, and team meeting and debrief session minutes were analyzed. The YIP project appears to have exerted a positive influence on the YCs. Positive self-identities, sense of purpose, reconceptualization of intellectual ability, new knowledge and skills, supportive relationships, finding a voice, and social and self-awareness were among the positive impacts. Process strengths included team-building activities, team check-in and checkout sessions, and professional networking opportunities. Process challenges included the time required to help YCs overcome personal barriers to participation. The YIP project demonstrates that participatory research with street-involved youth is a viable research option that contributes to positive youth development and empowerment.

  1. Key scientific findings and policy- and health-relevant insights from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies: an integration and synthesis of results.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Paul A; Hopke, Philip K; Froines, John; Scheffe, Richard

    2008-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a major air quality program known as the Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program. The Supersites Program was a multiyear, $27 million air quality monitoring program consisting of eight regional air quality projects located throughout the United States, each with differing atmospheric pollution conditions resulting from variations in source emissions and meteorology. The overall goal of the program was to elucidate source-receptor relationships and atmospheric processes leading to PM accumulation on urban and regional scales; thus providing the scientific underpinning for modeling and data analysis efforts to support State Implementation Plans and more effective risk management approaches for PM. The program had three main objectives: (1) conduct methods development and evaluation, (2) characterize ambient PM, and (3) support health effects and exposure research. This paper provides a synthesis of key scientific findings from the Supersites Program and related studies. EPA developed 16 science/policy-relevant questions in conjunction with state and other federal agencies, Regional Planning Organizations, and the private sector. These questions were addressed to the extent possible, even given the vast amount of new information available from the Supersites Program, in a series of papers published as a special issue of the Journal of Air & Waste Management Association (February 2008). This synthesis also includes discussions of: (1) initial Supersites Program support for air quality management efforts in specific locations throughout the United States; (2) selected policy-relevant insights, based on atmospheric sciences findings, useful to air quality managers and decision makers planning emissions management strategies to address current and future PM National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and network planning and implementation; (3) selected health-relevant insights interpreted from

  2. Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Global Environmental Change: Research findings and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Corbera, Esteve; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the special feature of Ecology and Society entitled “Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Global Environmental Change. The special feature addresses two main research themes. The first theme concerns the resilience of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (hereafter TEK) and the conditions that might explain its loss or persistence in the face of global change. The second theme relates to new findings regarding the way in which TEK strengthens community resilience to respond to the multiple stressors of global environmental change. Those themes are analyzed using case studies from Africa, Asia, America and Europe. Theoretical insights and empirical findings from the studies suggest that despite the generalized worldwide trend of TEK erosion, substantial pockets of TEK persist in both developing and developed countries. A common trend on the studies presented here is hybridization, where traditional knowledge, practices, and beliefs are merged with novel forms of knowledge and technologies to create new knowledge systems. The findings also reinforce previous hypotheses pointing at the importance of TEK systems as reservoirs of experiential knowledge that can provide important insights for the design of adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with global environmental change. Based on the results from papers in this feature, we discuss policy directions that might help to promote maintenance and restoration of living TEK systems as sources of social-ecological resilience. PMID:26097492

  3. Human Performance Optimization Metrics: Consensus Findings, Gaps, and Recommendations for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Jaffin, Dianna P; Dretsch, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Wesensten, Nancy J; Kent, Michael L; Grunberg, Neil E; Pierce, Joseph R; Barry, Erin S; Scott, Jonathan M; Young, Andrew J; OʼConnor, Francis G; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Human performance optimization (HPO) is defined as "the process of applying knowledge, skills and emerging technologies to improve and preserve the capabilities of military members, and organizations to execute essential tasks." The lack of consensus for operationally relevant and standardized metrics that meet joint military requirements has been identified as the single most important gap for research and application of HPO. In 2013, the Consortium for Health and Military Performance hosted a meeting to develop a toolkit of standardized HPO metrics for use in military and civilian research, and potentially for field applications by commanders, units, and organizations. Performance was considered from a holistic perspective as being influenced by various behaviors and barriers. To accomplish the goal of developing a standardized toolkit, key metrics were identified and evaluated across a spectrum of domains that contribute to HPO: physical performance, nutritional status, psychological status, cognitive performance, environmental challenges, sleep, and pain. These domains were chosen based on relevant data with regard to performance enhancers and degraders. The specific objectives at this meeting were to (a) identify and evaluate current metrics for assessing human performance within selected domains; (b) prioritize metrics within each domain to establish a human performance assessment toolkit; and (c) identify scientific gaps and the needed research to more effectively assess human performance across domains. This article provides of a summary of 150 total HPO metrics across multiple domains that can be used as a starting point-the beginning of an HPO toolkit: physical fitness (29 metrics), nutrition (24 metrics), psychological status (36 metrics), cognitive performance (35 metrics), environment (12 metrics), sleep (9 metrics), and pain (5 metrics). These metrics can be particularly valuable as the military emphasizes a renewed interest in Human Dimension efforts

  4. Key Elements and challenges of USEPA’s developing ecological services research program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past year, EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) has redirected research within the Ecological Services Research Program (ESRP) to focus on ecosystem services and their associated benefits to human well-being. By 2009, all of EPA/ORD’s Ecological Services Resear...

  5. "Race to Top" Said to Lack Key Science: Scant Evidence for Policies, Researchers Tell Ed. Dept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    In comments on the proposed federal guidelines for stimulus funds, some researchers say there's no evidence for the policies touted. Among education researchers, one complaint about the U.S. Department of Education under former President George W. Bush was that it relentlessly promoted "scientific research in education," while at the same time…

  6. How Can Book Reading Close the Word Gap? Five Key Practices from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Emily K.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Wasik, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary development is critical for children's ability to learn to read and their success at school. Vocabulary has also been identified as a key factor in the achievement gap, with children from low-income families knowing significantly fewer words when they enter school. Although book reading has long been celebrated as an effective way for…

  7. When will I see you again? The fate of research findings from international wound care conferences*.

    PubMed

    Dumville, Jo C; Petherick, Emily S; Cullum, Nicky

    2008-03-01

    Medical conferences provide a forum for the rapid dissemination of research directly to health professionals and academics. However, the published record of poster and oral presentations from these meetings is usually limited to abstracts. We aimed to assess how many wound studies presented as conference abstracts were eventually published in journals and to identify the factors that predicted publication. The study was a retrospective review. We identified abstracts relating to oral and poster presentation from two large wound conferences. Following data extraction from the abstracts, a systematic search was conducted to examine if the research was subsequently published as a journal article. A time-to-event analysis was conducted to assess predictive associations between features of the research reported in the conference abstracts and time to full publication. In total, 492 abstracts from two European wound care conferences were identified (467 after exclusions). Of the abstracts included, 60% (279) were for posters and 40% (188) were for oral presentations. Over half of the abstracts (53%) reported results from case studies or case series design. In total, only 57 (12%) of the abstracts included resulted in a related publication. Analysis suggested that those studies reporting positive findings were significantly more likely to be published (hazard ratio 1.79, P= 0.001, 95% CIs 1.26-2.55). Few studies presented as conference abstracts at these two wounds conferences were subsequently published. This may be because of the low methodological quality of studies accepted for poster or oral presentation.

  8. Identification and Characterization of Key Human Performance Issues and Research in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Paul U.; Sheridan, Tom; Poage, james L.; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Jobe, Kimberly K.

    2010-01-01

    This report identifies key human-performance-related issues associated with Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) research in the NASA NextGen-Airspace Project. Four Research Focus Areas (RFAs) in the NextGen-Airspace Project - namely Separation Assurance (SA), Airspace Super Density Operations (ASDO), Traffic Flow Management (TFM), and Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) - were examined closely. In the course of the research, it was determined that the identified human performance issues needed to be analyzed in the context of NextGen operations rather than through basic human factors research. The main gaps in human factors research in NextGen were found in the need for accurate identification of key human-systems related issues within the context of specific NextGen concepts and better design of the operational requirements for those concepts. By focusing on human-system related issues for individual concepts, key human performance issues for the four RFAs were identified and described in this report. In addition, mixed equipage airspace with components of two RFAs were characterized to illustrate potential human performance issues that arise from the integration of multiple concepts.

  9. Reading and using body language in your medical practice: 25 research findings.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Your patients and your coworkers will make judgments the moment they see you based upon your body language cues. As well, you can tell what they are thinking and feeling if you know how to read their body language behaviors. This article provides 25 research-based findings about workplace body language that medical practice personnel can use immediately to improve their communication and effectiveness. It suggests numerous telltale nonverbal signs of hidden deception, superiority, fear, discomfort, anxiety, subordination, weakness, strength, openness, and disgust. As well, this article explores proxemics, the area of nonverbal communication that explores how we use space to communicate. This article is loaded with practical tips to help every member of the medical practice staff read others better and harness nonverbal savvy to convey effective and appropriate nonverbal messages to patients and to one another. PMID:21815551

  10. Reading and using body language in your medical practice: 25 research findings.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Your patients and your coworkers will make judgments the moment they see you based upon your body language cues. As well, you can tell what they are thinking and feeling if you know how to read their body language behaviors. This article provides 25 research-based findings about workplace body language that medical practice personnel can use immediately to improve their communication and effectiveness. It suggests numerous telltale nonverbal signs of hidden deception, superiority, fear, discomfort, anxiety, subordination, weakness, strength, openness, and disgust. As well, this article explores proxemics, the area of nonverbal communication that explores how we use space to communicate. This article is loaded with practical tips to help every member of the medical practice staff read others better and harness nonverbal savvy to convey effective and appropriate nonverbal messages to patients and to one another.

  11. Does Research on Evaluation Matter? Findings from a Survey of American Evaluation Association Members and Prominent Evaluation Theorists and Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coryn, Chris L. S.; Ozeki, Satoshi; Wilson, Lyssa N.; Greenman, Gregory D., II; Schröter, Daniela C.; Hobson, Kristin A.; Azzam, Tarek; Vo, Anne T.

    2016-01-01

    Research on evaluation theories, methods, and practices has increased considerably in the past decade. Even so, little is known about whether published findings from research on evaluation are read by evaluators and whether such findings influence evaluators' thinking about evaluation or their evaluation practice. To address these questions, and…

  12. Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Susan C.; Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Background The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. Purpose This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. Brief description The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. Results/outcomes NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. Evaluation method High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training, and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favorable response to the programme. PMID:18494648

  13. Digital animation as a method to disseminate research findings to the community using a community-based participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Nicole A; Jacoby, Sara F; Williams, Thalia; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A; Richmond, Therese S

    2013-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy.

  14. Digital animation as a method to disseminate research findings to the community using a community-based participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Nicole A; Jacoby, Sara F; Williams, Thalia; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A; Richmond, Therese S

    2013-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy. PMID:22395365

  15. Key Considerations for Logic Model Development in Research Partnerships: A Canadian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielden, Sarah J.; Rusch, Melanie L.; Masinda, Mambo Tabu; Sands, Jim; Frankish, Jim; Evoy, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Community-academic partnership research is a fairly new genre of community-based participatory research. It has arisen in part, from recognition of the potential role of alliances in the development and translation of applied knowledge and the elimination of health disparities. This paper reports on the learning process of academic and community…

  16. A Nursing Informatics Research Agenda for 2008–18: Contextual Influences and Key Components

    PubMed Central

    Bakken, Suzanne; Stone, Patricia W.; Larson, Elaine L.

    2008-01-01

    The context for nursing informatics research has changed significantly since the National Institute of Nursing Research-funded Nursing Informatics Research Agenda was published in 1993 and the Delphi study of nursing informatics research priorities reported a decade ago. The authors focus on three specific aspects of context - genomic health care, shifting research paradigms, and social (Web 2.0) technologies - that must be considered in formulating a nursing informatics research agenda. These influences are illustrated using the significant issue of healthcare associated infections (HAI). A nursing informatics research agenda for 2008–18 must expand users of interest to include interdisciplinary researchers; build upon the knowledge gained in nursing concept representation to address genomic and environmental data; guide the reengineering of nursing practice; harness new technologies to empower patients and their caregivers for collaborative knowledge development; develop user-configurable software approaches that support complex data visualization, analysis, and predictive modeling; facilitate the development of middle-range nursing informatics theories; and encourage innovative evaluation methodologies that attend to human-computer interface factors and organizational context. PMID:18922269

  17. Key Challenges and New Trends in Battery Research (2011 EFRC Forum)

    SciTech Connect

    Tarascon, Jean Marie

    2011-05-26

    Jean-Marie Tarascon, Professor at the University de Picardie Jules Verne, France, was the fourth speaker in the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, "Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research." In his presentation, Professor Tarascon recounted European basic research activates in electrical energy storage. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  18. Key Challenges and New Trends in Battery Research (2011 EFRC Forum)

    ScienceCinema

    Tarascon, Jean Marie (University de Picardie Jules Verne, France)

    2016-07-12

    Jean-Marie Tarascon, Professor at the University de Picardie Jules Verne, France, was the fourth speaker in the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, "Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research." In his presentation, Professor Tarascon recounted European basic research activates in electrical energy storage. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  19. Contextualizing CBPR: Key Principles of CBPR meet the Indigenous research context

    PubMed Central

    LaVeaux, Deborah; Christopher, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses two questions regarding the use of Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) approaches with tribal communities. First, how do “gold standard” CBPR principles hold up when applied to Native American communities and what additional contextual information is necessary to understand and work with these principles in this setting? Second, what additional principles or recommendations are helpful for researchers interested in conducting research using a CBPR approach with tribal communities? We studied a variety of literature sources on CBPR and Native health research to answer these questions. We are unaware of any publications that contextualize CBPR principles for working with specific populations. This information has direct application for conducting research with tribal communities, and confirms the importance of using CBPR approaches in this setting. PMID:20150951

  20. Rape Treatment Outcome Research: Empirical Findings and State of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Vickerman, Katrina A.; Margolin, Gayla

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery. PMID:19442425

  1. The Role of Serotonin (5-HT) in Behavioral Control: Findings from Animal Research and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, C L; Biskup, C S; Herpertz, S; Gaber, T J; Kuhn, C M; Hood, S H; Zepf, F D

    2015-05-19

    The neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine both have a critical role in the underlying neurobiology of different behaviors. With focus on the interplay between dopamine and serotonin, it has been proposed that dopamine biases behavior towards habitual responding, and with serotonin offsetting this phenomenon and directing the balance toward more flexible, goal-directed responding. The present focus paper stands in close relationship to the publication by Worbe et al. (2015), which deals with the effects of acute tryptophan depletion, a neurodietary physiological method to decrease central nervous serotonin synthesis in humans for a short period of time, on the balance between hypothetical goal-directed and habitual systems. In that research, acute tryptophan depletion challenge administration and a following short-term reduction in central nervous serotonin synthesis were associated with a shift of behavioral performance towards habitual responding, providing further evidence that central nervous serotonin function modulates the balance between goal-directed and stimulus-response habitual systems of behavioral control. In the present focus paper, we discuss the findings by Worbe and colleagues in light of animal experiments as well as clinical implications and discuss potential future avenues for related research.

  2. The Role of Serotonin (5-HT) in Behavioral Control: Findings from Animal Research and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, CL; Biskup, CS; Herpertz, S; Gaber, TJ; Kuhn, CM; Hood, SH

    2015-01-01

    The neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine both have a critical role in the underlying neurobiology of different behaviors. With focus on the interplay between dopamine and serotonin, it has been proposed that dopamine biases behavior towards habitual responding, and with serotonin offsetting this phenomenon and directing the balance toward more flexible, goal-directed responding. The present focus paper stands in close relationship to the publication by Worbe et al. (2015), which deals with the effects of acute tryptophan depletion, a neurodietary physiological method to decrease central nervous serotonin synthesis in humans for a short period of time, on the balance between hypothetical goal-directed and habitual systems. In that research, acute tryptophan depletion challenge administration and a following short-term reduction in central nervous serotonin synthesis were associated with a shift of behavioral performance towards habitual responding, providing further evidence that central nervous serotonin function modulates the balance between goal-directed and stimulus-response habitual systems of behavioral control. In the present focus paper, we discuss the findings by Worbe and colleagues in light of animal experiments as well as clinical implications and discuss potential future avenues for related research. PMID:25991656

  3. Research on the Key Technology of Large Scale Mapping from Low Altitude Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo-Yi, Wu; Ning, Zhang; Guo-Zhong, Su

    2016-06-01

    Based on the theoretic analysis of the accuracy in large scale photogrammetric mapping, some defects in traditional procedure were discussed. A set of key technologies dedicate to accuracy improvement in low altitude photogrammetry were analyzed in detail, namely the utilization of wide angle camera and low altitude flight, enhancement in image matching, predesigned layout of Ground Control Points (GCPs) in field survey, optimization of adjustment model and improvement in map processing. Besides, a low altitude aerial unmanned airship system was established. Finally, successful implementation in 1:500 topographic mapping project in built-up areas of 30 counties in Shanxi Province proves the practicability and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  4. [Medical practice and clinical research: keys to generate knowledge and improve care].

    PubMed

    Martínez Castuera-Gómez, Carla; Talavera, Juan O

    2013-01-01

    The increased quality in medical care may be immediately accomplished if clinical research is integrated into daily clinical practice. In the generation of medical knowledge are four steps: an unanswered question awakened from clinical practice, the critical analysis of specialized literature, the development of a research protocol, and, finally, the publication of outcomes. Decision making and continuous training are becoming part of an effective strategy of medical attention improvement.

  5. Cognitive distortions in child molesters: a re-examination of key theories and research.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Theresa A; Polaschek, Devon L L

    2006-12-01

    This review examines theory, research, and clinical practice relating to child molesters' cognitive distortions. First we review development of cognitive distortion theory and examine its epistemological usefulness. Then we critically evaluate available research evidence for current conceptualizations of cognitive distortions. This evaluation of the latest research suggests that clinical practice with child molesters has run ahead of scientific knowledge. We conclude that there is confusion about the exact nature of cognitive distortions, about the role that they play in sexual offending, and about what constitutes evidence of their existence. Although it seems likely that distorted cognition plays a role in some child molesters' offenses, our concern is that from a scientific standpoint, the majority of the research conducted cannot be used either to support or refute this view. We suggest that future research in this area should concentrate upon developing new methods and adapting methods established in other domains to enable measurement of child molesters' cognitive distortions in a more sophisticated way. Use of more diverse designs that better operationalize the construct of distorted cognition will ensure that future research (a) appreciably advances our knowledge of the scientific status of cognitive distortions in child molesters, and (b) promotes more effective empirically driven clinical practice with child molesters.

  6. Key Problems in Organizing and Structuring University Research in Vietnam: The Lack of an Effective Research "Behaviour Formalization" System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Lan; Meek, Vincent Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Structure and organization seems to be at the root of many of the questions raised about institutional behaviour; however, with respect to research on university capacity building, few studies have examined research organizational problems, particularly in developing countries. This study investigates academic reactions to the structure and…

  7. Empowerment and Indigenous Australian health: a synthesis of findings from Family Wellbeing formative research.

    PubMed

    Tsey, Komla; Whiteside, Mary; Haswell-Elkins, Melissa; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Wilson, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    This paper employs a thematic qualitative analysis to synthesise seven discrete formative evaluation reports of an Indigenous Australian family empowerment programme across four study settings in Australia's Northern Territory and Queensland between 1998 and 2005. The aim of the study, which involved a total of 148 adult and 70 school children participants, is to develop a deeper understanding of the contribution of community empowerment education programmes to improving Indigenous health, beyond the evidence derived from the original discrete micro evaluative studies. Within a context beset by trans-generational grief and despair resulting from colonisation and other discriminatory government policies, across the study sites, the participants demonstrated enhanced capacity to exert greater control over factors shaping their health and wellbeing. Evident in the participants' narratives was a heightened sense of Indigenous and spiritual identity, respect for self and others, enhanced parenting and capacity to deal with substance abuse and violence. Changes at the personal level influenced other individuals and systems over time, highlighting the ecological or multilevel dimensions of empowerment. The study reveals the role of psychosocial empowerment attributes as important foundational resources in helping people engage and benefit from health and other behaviour modification programmes, and take advantage of any reforms made within macro policy environments. A key limitation or challenge in the use of psychosocial empowerment programmes relates to the time and resources required to achieve change at population level. A long-term partnership approach to empowerment research that creatively integrates micro community empowerment initiatives with macro policies and programmes is vital if health gains are to be maximised.

  8. Subsonic Transonic Applied Refinements By Using Key Strategies - STARBUKS In the NASA Langley Research Center National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paryz, Roman W.

    2014-01-01

    Several upgrade projects have been completed at the NASA Langley Research Center National Transonic Facility over the last 1.5 years in an effort defined as STARBUKS - Subsonic Transonic Applied Refinements By Using Key Strategies. This multi-year effort was undertaken to improve NTF's overall capabilities by addressing Accuracy and Validation, Productivity, and Reliability areas at the NTF. This presentation will give a brief synopsis of each of these efforts.

  9. The role of cellular senescence during vascular calcification: a key paradigm in aging research.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, N C W; MacRae, V E

    2011-07-01

    Vascular calcification has severe clinical consequences and is considered an accurate predictor of future adverse cardiovascular events. Vascular calcification refers to the deposition of calcium phosphate mineral, most often hydroxyapatite, in arteries. Extensive calcification of the vascular system is a key characteristic of aging. In this article, we outline the mechanisms governing vascular calcification and highlight its association with cellular senescence. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms of cellular senescence and its affect on calcification of vascular cells, the relevance of phosphate regulation and the function of FGF23 and Klotho proteins. The association of vascular calcification and cellular senescence with the rare human aging disorder Hutchison-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is highlighted and the mouse models used to try to determine the underlying pathways are discussed. By understanding the pathways involved in these processes novel drug targets may be elucidated in an effort to reduce the effects of cellular aging as a risk factor in cardiovascular disease.

  10. Collaboration is key to strengthening surgical research capacity in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Spence, Richard Trafford; Panieri, Eugenio; Rayne, Sarah L; Harrison, Ewen Munro; Bhangu, Aneel Amir; Fitzgerald, James Edward

    2016-01-11

    The paucity of research in areas of greatest clinical need must be addressed urgently. We propose a model of collaboration in an era of information systems and emerging mobile health technology that has had significant success across the UK and has shown early encouraging results in South Africa (SA). We foresee that recent examples of surgical research collaboratives in SA will continue to promote regional, national and international 'hub-and-spoke' models and ultimately increase the South-South collaboration that is urgently needed to diffuse the skills and knowledge required to address the unmet surgical need in sub-Saharan Africa.

  11. Collaboration is key to strengthening surgical research capacity in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Spence, Richard Trafford; Panieri, Eugenio; Rayne, Sarah L; Harrison, Ewen Munro; Bhangu, Aneel Amir; Fitzgerald, James Edward

    2016-02-01

    The paucity of research in areas of greatest clinical need must be addressed urgently. We propose a model of collaboration in an era of information systems and emerging mobile health technology that has had significant success across the UK and has shown early encouraging results in South Africa (SA). We foresee that recent examples of surgical research collaboratives in SA will continue to promote regional, national and international 'hub-and-spoke' models and ultimately increase the South-South collaboration that is urgently needed to diffuse the skills and knowledge required to address the unmet surgical need in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26821888

  12. Widening participation would be key in enhancing bioinformatics and genomics research in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Karikari, Thomas K.; Quansah, Emmanuel; Mohamed, Wael M.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Bioinformatics and genome science (BGS) are gradually gaining roots in Africa, contributing to studies that are leading to improved understanding of health, disease, agriculture and food security. While a few African countries have established foundations for research and training in these areas, BGS appear to be limited to only a few institutions in specific African countries. However, improving the disciplines in Africa will require pragmatic efforts to expand training and research partnerships to scientists in yet-unreached institutions. Here, we discuss the need to expand BGS programmes in Africa, and propose mechanisms to do so. PMID:26767163

  13. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: key research needs.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-change procedures in video games, the mechanisms that account for changes obtained, and the groups in which these interventions work best. Such research will permit the optimal design of serious video games for diabetes and obesity prevention in the future.

  14. Problems Teachers Face When Doing Action Research and Finding Possible Solutions: Three Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Through case studies, this paper explores problems teachers face when doing action research: for instance, teachers may misunderstand the research, mistrust university researchers, lack the time or adequate library resources to conduct research, lack theoretical guidance or knowledge of research methodology, and feel pressure or frustration during…

  15. Research Implications for Science and Mathematics Teachers. Volume 1. Key Centre Monograph Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Barry J., Ed.

    This document was compiled to help keep science and mathematics teachers in Australia abreast of the results of important research endeavors in education. The monograph is divided into 12 chapters. Chapter one, "Exemplary Science and Mathematics Teachers," (Barry Fraser and Kenneth Tobin) describes a study focusing on examples of outstanding…

  16. Collaboration Is Key: Librarians and Composition Instructors Analyze Student Research and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barratt, Caroline Cason; Nielsen, Kristin; Desmet, Christy; Balthazor, Ron

    2009-01-01

    This study describes a collaborative research project between two composition instructors and two librarians that analyzed citation patterns among students in the First-year Composition Program at the University of Georgia. Built upon earlier bibliometric studies, this study seeks not only to examine a large data set of citations--larger than was…

  17. Key Implementation Considerations for Executing Evidence-Based Programs: Project Overview. ASPE Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In April 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) hosted a Forum, Emphasizing Evidence-Based Programs for Children and Youth, to convene the nation's leading practitioners and researchers with experience using and evaluating an array of evidence-based…

  18. Signature Concepts of Key Researchers in North American Higher Education Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandlbinder, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Universities in the English-speaking world share a common ancestry that extends back to medieval times. From these beginnings universities quickly developed distinctive qualities as they became integrated within different social and cultural systems of their home societies. A number of comparisons of higher education research have shown major…

  19. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  20. Signature Concepts of Key Researchers in Higher Education Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandlbinder, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Early career university teachers often have limited experience of the higher education literature making it difficult for them to identify what ideas have become central to justifying what university teachers ought to be doing in higher education teaching and learning. A review of the research literature in journals focused on teaching and…

  1. Healthy Universities: current activity and future directions--findings and reflections from a national-level qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    Dooris, Mark; Doherty, Sharon

    2010-09-01

    This qualitative study used questionnaires to scope and explore 'healthy universities' activity taking place within English higher education institutions (HEIs). The findings revealed a wealth of health-related activity and confirmed growing interest in the healthy universities approach--reflecting an increasing recognition that investment for health within the sector will contribute not only to health targets but also to mainstream agendas such as staff and student recruitment, experience and retention; and institutional and societal productivity and sustainability. However, they also suggested that, while there is growing understanding of the need for a comprehensive whole system approach to improving health within higher education settings, there are a number of very real challenges--including a lack of rigorous evaluation, the difficulty of integrating health into a 'non-health' sector and the complexity of securing sustainable cultural change. Noting that health and well-being remain largely marginal to the core mission and organization of higher education, the article goes on to reflect on the wider implications for future research and policy at national and international levels. Within England, whereas there are Healthy Schools and Healthy Further Education Programmes, there is as yet no government-endorsed programme for universities. Similarly, at an international level, there has been no systematic investment in higher education mirroring the comprehensive and multifaceted Health Promoting Schools Programme. Key issues highlighted are: securing funding for evaluative research within and across HEIs to enable the development of a more robust evidence base for the approach; advocating for an English National Healthy Higher Education Programme that can help to build consistency across the entire spectrum of education; and exploring with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) the feasibility

  2. Dilemmas in Youth Employment Programming: Findings from the Youth Research and Technical Assistance Project. Volumes I and II. Research and Evaluation Report Series 92-C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This 2-volume set contains 10 papers, 5 in each volume, that review and evaluate findings from the Youth Research and Technical Assistance Project, whose purpose was not only to explore studies and evaluations related to youth training and employment programs but also to provide a broader synthesis of evidence, findings, and research from related…

  3. Moderate use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis during pregnancy: new approaches and update on research findings.

    PubMed

    Huizink, Anja C

    2009-09-01

    Interest in fetal origins of adverse offspring outcomes has grown extensively in the last decade. This has resulted in many published studies focusing on exposure in utero to substances and human offspring outcomes. Exposure to maternal substance use in pregnancy is believed to be a preventable hazard, and is therefore a main issue for public health concern and policy. However, an important question in human studies remains whether prenatal substance use exposure has an aetiological role in pathways to adverse developmental and behavioural outcomes via teratological effects. Recent insights and developments in research methodology will aid the adequate and more refined testing of associations between prenatal substance use and offspring outcomes. In particular, novel approaches could assist in disentangling the exposure to substance effects from correlated risk factors. The purpose of this manuscript is therefore to provide an overview of methodological issues involved in studies that focus on the association between maternal substance use during pregnancy and offspring's outcomes, to describe novel approaches to test these associations, and present some examples of new and well-designed studies and discuss their findings.

  4. Research on the effect of noise at different times of day: Models, methods and findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Social surveys of residents' responses to noise at different times of day are reviewed. Some of the discrepancies in published reports about the importance of noise at different times of day are reduced when the research findings are classified according to the type of time of day reaction model, the type of time of day weight calculated and the method which is used to estimate the weight. When the estimates of nighttime weights from 12 studies are normalized, it is found that they still disagree, but do not support stronger nighttime weights than those used in existing noise indices. Challenges to common assumptions in nighttime response models are evaluated. Two of these challenges receive enough support to warrant further investigation: the impact of changes in numbers of noise events may be less at night than in the day and nighttime annoyance may be affected by noise levels in other periods. All existing social survey results in which averages of nighttime responses were plotted by nighttime noise levels are reproduced.

  5. 78 FR 23255 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... Biochemistry, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, engaged in research misconduct in research funded by... prejudice and to withdraw further proceedings before HHS. Dr. Bois and HHS both agreed to waive or...

  6. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base. PMID:23615061

  7. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base.

  8. Impact of Problem Finding on the Quality of Authentic Open Inquiry Science Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBanca, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully…

  9. [Research on polyhydroxyalkanoate form a key aspect to enhanced biological phosphorus transformation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Xing, Zhi-qiang; Chen, Yin-guang; Zhou, Qi

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the influence of PHB and PHV formed on phosphorus (P) release, uptake and removal during enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), anaerobic/aerobic batch experiments were conducted with biomass acclimated with propionic to acetic acid carbon molar ratios of 0.5 and 2 on two sequencing batch reactors (SBR1 and SBR2). Statistically significant correlations between polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) quantity and form and P release/uptake and removal were observed (R2 >0.90). The regression coefficients showed that for biomass cultured with customizing wastewater P release and uptake were both a function of PHB but not of PHV, but higher P removal was largely because of PHV as the predominant type rather than PHV. For biomass cultured with different ratios of propionic to acetic acid, the SBR2 biomass synthesized and utilized more PHB and less PHV and showed higher net P removal (average increase of 16.69%) than SBR1. Thus acetate/propionate content of influent had a major influenceon PHA type and quantity and determine phosphorus (P) release, uptake and removal. Accordingly, PHB and PHV transformations should be taken into account as key aspect for optimizing EBPR.

  10. Key Technology Research on Open Architecture for The Sharing of Heterogeneous Geographic Analysis Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, S. S.; Wen, Y. N.; Lv, G. N.; Hu, D.

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the increasing development of cloud computing technologies laid critical foundation for efficiently solving complicated geographic issues. However, it is still difficult to realize the cooperative operation of massive heterogeneous geographical models. Traditional cloud architecture is apt to provide centralized solution to end users, while all the required resources are often offered by large enterprises or special agencies. Thus, it's a closed framework from the perspective of resource utilization. Solving comprehensive geographic issues requires integrating multifarious heterogeneous geographical models and data. In this case, an open computing platform is in need, with which the model owners can package and deploy their models into cloud conveniently, while model users can search, access and utilize those models with cloud facility. Based on this concept, the open cloud service strategies for the sharing of heterogeneous geographic analysis models is studied in this article. The key technology: unified cloud interface strategy, sharing platform based on cloud service, and computing platform based on cloud service are discussed in detail, and related experiments are conducted for further verification.

  11. The Research and Implementation of Vehicle Bluetooth Hands-free Devices Key Parameters Downloading Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Zhi-xue; Li, Jian-xin; Ma, Jian-hui; Li, Yang; Li, Yan-qiang

    In order to facilitate Bluetooth function realization and information can be effectively tracked in the process of production, the vehicle Bluetooth hands-free devices need to download such key parameters as Bluetooth address, CVC license and base plate numbers, etc. Therefore, it is the aim to search simple and effective methods to download parameters for each vehicle Bluetooth hands-free device, and to control and record the use of parameters. In this paper, by means of Bluetooth Serial Peripheral Interface programmer device, the parallel port is switched to SPI. The first step is to download parameters is simulating SPI with the parallel port. To perform SPI function, operating the parallel port in accordance with the SPI timing. The next step is to achieve SPI data transceiver functions according to the programming parameters of options. Utilizing the new method, downloading parameters is fast and accurate. It fully meets vehicle Bluetooth hands-free devices production requirements. In the production line, it has played a large role.

  12. Key results for the NRC`s Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.; Krishnaswamy, P.; Brust, F.

    1995-04-01

    The overall objective of the Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds Program is to verify and improve engineering analyses to predict the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe under quasi-static loading with particular attention to crack lengths typically used in LBB or flaw evaluation criteria. The USNCRC program at Battelle was initiated in March 1990 and is scheduled to be completed in December 1994. This paper discusses key results from the overall program with particular emphasis on the efforts since the last WRSIM meeting. The program consists of eight technical tasks as listed below: task 1 short through-wall-cracked (TWC) pipe evaluations; task 2 short surface-cracked (SC) pipe evaluations; task 3 bi-metallic weld crack evaluations; task 4 dynamic strain aging and crack instabilities; task 5 fracture evaluations of anisotropic pipe; task 6 crack-opening-area evaluations; task 7 NRCPIPE code improvements; task 8 additional efforts. Task 8 is a collection of new efforts initiated during the coarse of the program. A list of the full-scale pipe experiments in this program is given in Table 1. All of the experiments have been completed. The most recent accomplishments in each of the tasks listed above are discussed below. The details of all the results in the eight tasks are published in the semiannual reports as well as topical reports from the program.

  13. Low-Temperature Biodiesel Research Reveals Potential Key to Successful Blend Performance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being widely adopted. Some biodiesel blends have exhibited unexplained low-temperature performance problems even at blend levels as low as 2% by volume. The most common low-temperature performance issue is vehicle stalling caused by fuel filter clogging, which prevents fuel from reaching the engine. Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reveals the properties responsible for these problems, clearing a path for the development of solutions and expanded use of energy-conserving and low-emissions alternative fuel. NREL researchers set out to study the unpredictable nature of biodiesel crystallization, the condition that impedes the flow of fuel in cold weather. Their research revealed for the first time that saturated monoglyceride impurities common to the biodiesel manufacturing process create crystals that can cause fuel filter clogging and other problems when cooling at slow rates. Biodiesel low-temperature operational problems are commonly referred to as 'precipitates above the cloud point (CP).' NREL's Advanced Biofuels team spiked distilled soy and animal fat-derived B100, as well as B20, B10, and B5 biodiesel blends with three saturated monoglycerides (SMGs) at concentration levels comparable to those of real-world fuels. Above a threshold or eutectic concentration, the SMGs (monomyristin, monopalmitin, and monostearin) were shown to significantly raise the biodiesel CP, and had an even greater impact on the final melting temperature. Researchers discovered that upon cooling, monoglyceride initially precipitates as a metastable crystal, but it transforms over time or upon slight heating into a more stable crystal with a much lower solubility and

  14. Telethon Network of Genetic Biobanks: a key service for diagnosis and research on rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Filocamo, Mirella; Baldo, Chiara; Goldwurm, Stefano; Renieri, Alessandra; Angelini, Corrado; Moggio, Maurizio; Mora, Marina; Merla, Giuseppe; Politano, Luisa; Garavaglia, Barbara; Casareto, Lorena; Bricarelli, Francesca Dagna

    2013-08-30

    Several examples have always illustrated how access to large numbers of biospecimens and associated data plays a pivotal role in the identification of disease genes and the development of pharmaceuticals. Hence, allowing researchers to access to significant numbers of quality samples and data, genetic biobanks are a powerful tool in basic, translational and clinical research into rare diseases. Recently demand for well-annotated and properly-preserved specimens is growing at a high rate, and is expected to grow for years to come. The best effective solution to this issue is to enhance the potentialities of well-managed biobanks by building a network.Here we report a 5-year experience of the Telethon Network of Genetic Biobanks (TNGB), a non-profit association of Italian repositories created in 2008 to form a virtually unique catalogue of biospecimens and associated data, which presently lists more than 750 rare genetic defects. The process of TNGB harmonisation has been mainly achieved through the adoption of a unique, centrally coordinated, IT infrastructure, which has enabled (i) standardisation of all the TNGB procedures and activities; (ii) creation of an updated TNGB online catalogue, based on minimal data set and controlled terminologies; (iii) sample access policy managed via a shared request control panel at web portal. TNGB has been engaged in disseminating information on its services into both scientific/biomedical - national and international - contexts, as well as associations of patients and families. Indeed, during the last 5-years national and international scientists extensively used the TNGB with different purposes resulting in more than 250 scientific publications. In addition, since its inception the TNGB is an associated member of the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure and recently joined the EuroBioBank network. Moreover, the involvement of patients and families, leading to the formalization of various agreements

  15. Can I be sued for that? Liability risk and the disclosure of clinically significant genetic research findings

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Amy L.; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Zawati, Ma’n H.; Clayton, Ellen Wright

    2014-01-01

    Genomic researchers increasingly are faced with difficult decisions about whether, under what circumstances, and how to return research results and significant incidental findings to study participants. Many have argued that there is an ethical—maybe even a legal—obligation to disclose significant findings under some circumstances. At the international level, over the last decade there has begun to emerge a clear legal obligation to return significant findings discovered during the course of research. However, there is no explicit legal duty to disclose in the United States. This creates legal uncertainty that may lead to unmanaged variation in practice and poor quality care. This article discusses liability risks associated with the disclosure of significant research findings for investigators in the United States. PMID:24676095

  16. The Key Role of Nurse Researchers in the Evaluation of Nurse Practitioner Models of Practice.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, Catherine; Prosser, Brenton; Davey, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The Nurse Practitioner-Aged Care Models of Practice Program involved diverse models of practice comprising multiple stakeholders located in more than 30 locations across Australia, in remote, rural, urban, and metropolitan settings. Funded by the Australian government, the aims of the program included supporting development of effective, economically viable, and sustainable aged care nurse practitioner models of practice; and enabling improvements in access to primary health care for people aged older than 65 years. This article describes the process by which a framework was developed to support the evaluation of this program. A particular challenge for the nurse researchers involved in the evaluation was to ensure the unique values of the nursing profession were upheld alongside economic, biomedical, and empirical imperatives in the diverse processes involved in collecting and interpreting data. The evaluation framework developed provides an important means of enabling research teams who undertake complex evaluations of diverse nursing models of practice to maintain a common goal--to unify the various stakeholders involved, while at the same time upholding what is most important to the profession of nursing. This article highlights how nurses can play an influential role when involved in the multidisciplinary evaluation of new andinnovative approaches to practice.

  17. New research models and novel signal analysis in studies on preterm labor: a key to progress?

    PubMed Central

    Pierzynski, Piotr; Oczeretko, Edward; Laudanski, Piotr; Laudanski, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    Preterm labor affects up to 20% of pregnancies, is considered a main cause of associated neonatal morbidity and mortality and is responsible for neonatal care costs of multimillion euros. In spite of that, the commercial market for this clinical indication is rather limited, which may be also related to high liability. Consequently, with only a few exceptions, preterm labor is not in the orbit of great interest of the pharmaceutical industry. Coordinated effort of research community may bring the change and help required to reduce the influence of this multifactorial syndrome on society. Between the novel techniques that are being explored in a SAFE (The Special Non-Invasive Advances in Fetal and Neonatal Evaluation Network) group, there are new research models of preterm labor as well as novel methodology of analysis of biological signals. In this article, we briefly describe new clinical and nonclinical human models of preterm labor as well as summarize some novel methods of data processing and analysis that may be used in the context of preterm labor. PMID:17570166

  18. Research dedicated to children: SwissPedNet with its international links overcomes key barriers to proper research in paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Pascale; Frey, Urs; Nadal, David

    2014-01-01

    Conducting clinical studies in the paediatric population is complex and difficult. Paediatricians deal with a vulnerable population, which primarily needs protection and where patient numbers are always low. In addition, the pharmaceutical industry often demonstrates lack of interest due to the small and non-rewarding market. Public awareness for the need of paediatric research is likewise limited. This results in lack of funding for academic studies. In Switzerland, there is a new initiative that strives to overcome the given barriers and hurdles. SwissPedNet is still in a start-up phase, but it is now ready for all collaborations of interest and keen to work together with all stakeholders on the medical progress and improvement of paediatric clinical research with the overall goal of implementing evidence-based medicine for our children (www.swisspednet.ch).

  19. Still in the Shadows with Their Future Uncertain. A Report on Family and Individual Needs for Disability Supports (FINDS), 2011. Summary of Key Findings and a Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lynda; Larson, Sheryl A.; Wuorio, Allise; Lakin, K. Charlie

    2011-01-01

    In light of the fiftieth anniversary of President Kennedy's call to action back in 1961, The Arc wanted to know if people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are still living in the shadows. So, they launched a national online survey, Family and Individual Needs for Disability Supports (FINDS), from July 22, 2010 to October 31,…

  20. Paths to Work in Rural Places: Key Findings and Lessons from the Impact Evaluation of the Future Steps Rural Welfare-to-Work Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckstroth, Alicia; Burwick, Andrew; Ponza, Michael; Marsh, Shawn; Novak, Tim; Phillips, Shannon; Diaz-Tena, Nuria; Ng, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Helping low-income families in rural areas find gainful employment and achieve economic self-sufficiency is an ongoing policy concern. The Rural Welfare-to-Work Strategies demonstration is using rigorous experimental designs to build knowledge about how to help low-income families in rural areas strive toward sustained employment and…

  1. WHO Atlas on Global Resources for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities 2007: Key Findings Relevant for Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Celine; Saxena, Shekhar; Lecomte, Jocelin; Cumbrera, Marco Garrido; Harnois, Gaston

    2008-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Atlas-ID project was designed to collect, compile, and disseminate information on intellectual disabilities (ID) services and resources from across the world. This paper aims at selecting findings in the Atlas-ID that can be used as a tool for advocacy, human rights awareness, development planning, and…

  2. Summaries of Conference Papers, Theme 1, Research Findings. International Conference on Evaluation and Research in Educational Television and Radio (Milton Keynes, England, April 9-13, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Open Univ., Walton, Bletchley, Bucks (England).

    Educational television and radio research and evaluation findings are the subject of 25 papers summarized in this document. Seven papers deal with evaluation of research projects in educational television and radio. Four papers on adult education and two on educational technology in teacher training are also summarized. Research in teaching with…

  3. Molecular locks and keys: the role of small molecules in phytohormone research

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Sandra; Rosado, Abel; Vaughan-Hirsch, John; Bishopp, Anthony; Chini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Plant adaptation, growth and development rely on the integration of many environmental and endogenous signals that collectively determine the overall plant phenotypic plasticity. Plant signaling molecules, also known as phytohormones, are fundamental to this process. These molecules act at low concentrations and regulate multiple aspects of plant fitness and development via complex signaling networks. By its nature, phytohormone research lies at the interface between chemistry and biology. Classically, the scientific community has always used synthetic phytohormones and analogs to study hormone functions and responses. However, recent advances in synthetic and combinational chemistry, have allowed a new field, plant chemical biology, to emerge and this has provided a powerful tool with which to study phytohormone function. Plant chemical biology is helping to address some of the most enduring questions in phytohormone research such as: Are there still undiscovered plant hormones? How can we identify novel signaling molecules? How can plants activate specific hormone responses in a tissue-specific manner? How can we modulate hormone responses in one developmental context without inducing detrimental effects on other processes? The chemical genomics approaches rely on the identification of small molecules modulating different biological processes and have recently identified active forms of plant hormones and molecules regulating many aspects of hormone synthesis, transport and response. We envision that the field of chemical genomics will continue to provide novel molecules able to elucidate specific aspects of hormone-mediated mechanisms. In addition, compounds blocking specific responses could uncover how complex biological responses are regulated. As we gain information about such compounds we can design small alterations to the chemical structure to further alter specificity, enhance affinity or modulate the activity of these compounds. PMID:25566283

  4. Molecular locks and keys: the role of small molecules in phytohormone research.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Sandra; Rosado, Abel; Vaughan-Hirsch, John; Bishopp, Anthony; Chini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Plant adaptation, growth and development rely on the integration of many environmental and endogenous signals that collectively determine the overall plant phenotypic plasticity. Plant signaling molecules, also known as phytohormones, are fundamental to this process. These molecules act at low concentrations and regulate multiple aspects of plant fitness and development via complex signaling networks. By its nature, phytohormone research lies at the interface between chemistry and biology. Classically, the scientific community has always used synthetic phytohormones and analogs to study hormone functions and responses. However, recent advances in synthetic and combinational chemistry, have allowed a new field, plant chemical biology, to emerge and this has provided a powerful tool with which to study phytohormone function. Plant chemical biology is helping to address some of the most enduring questions in phytohormone research such as: Are there still undiscovered plant hormones? How can we identify novel signaling molecules? How can plants activate specific hormone responses in a tissue-specific manner? How can we modulate hormone responses in one developmental context without inducing detrimental effects on other processes? The chemical genomics approaches rely on the identification of small molecules modulating different biological processes and have recently identified active forms of plant hormones and molecules regulating many aspects of hormone synthesis, transport and response. We envision that the field of chemical genomics will continue to provide novel molecules able to elucidate specific aspects of hormone-mediated mechanisms. In addition, compounds blocking specific responses could uncover how complex biological responses are regulated. As we gain information about such compounds we can design small alterations to the chemical structure to further alter specificity, enhance affinity or modulate the activity of these compounds.

  5. Finding my ground in public health research: lessons from my Grandmother's kitchen.

    PubMed

    Koolmatrie, Tanya

    2011-11-25

    Research has a 'bad name' in Aboriginal communities. Too often, researchers have come, gathered information and taken it away from Aboriginal people, with no benefit for the communities taking part in the research. This history has implications for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal researchers planning research with Aboriginal communities. An in depth interview study will be conducted in one region of Victoria. Participants will be Aboriginal women who have had a baby within the previous five years. Processes that have been used in preparing to 'step out' into the community to conduct this research are the focus of the paper.

  6. Uncovering Treatment Burden as a Key Concept for Stroke Care: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Gallacher, Katie; Morrison, Deborah; Jani, Bhautesh; Macdonald, Sara; May, Carl R.; Montori, Victor M.; Erwin, Patricia J.; Batty, G. David; Eton, David T.; Langhorne, Peter; Mair, Frances S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic disease may experience complicated management plans requiring significant personal investment. This has been termed ‘treatment burden’ and has been associated with unfavourable outcomes. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the qualitative literature on treatment burden in stroke from the patient perspective. Methods and Findings The search strategy centred on: stroke, treatment burden, patient experience, and qualitative methods. We searched: Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, and PsycINFO. We tracked references, footnotes, and citations. Restrictions included: English language, date of publication January 2000 until February 2013. Two reviewers independently carried out the following: paper screening, data extraction, and data analysis. Data were analysed using framework synthesis, as informed by Normalization Process Theory. Sixty-nine papers were included. Treatment burden includes: (1) making sense of stroke management and planning care, (2) interacting with others, (3) enacting management strategies, and (4) reflecting on management. Health care is fragmented, with poor communication between patient and health care providers. Patients report inadequate information provision. Inpatient care is unsatisfactory, with a perceived lack of empathy from professionals and a shortage of stimulating activities on the ward. Discharge services are poorly coordinated, and accessing health and social care in the community is difficult. The study has potential limitations because it was restricted to studies published in English only and data from low-income countries were scarce. Conclusions Stroke management is extremely demanding for patients, and treatment burden is influenced by micro and macro organisation of health services. Knowledge deficits mean patients are ill equipped to organise their care and develop coping strategies, making adherence less likely. There is a need to transform the approach to care provision so that

  7. English-Language Teachers' Engagement with Research: Findings from Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwaruddin, Sardar M.; Pervin, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report on a small-scale study in which we investigated English-language teachers' engagement with educational research. We conceptualized engagement with research as reading and systematically using research for professional development. Using questionnaires and in-depth interviews, we gathered empirical materials from 40…

  8. 99 Jumpstarts to Research: Topic Guides for Finding Information on Current Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Peggy; Olson, Catherine; Goodwin, Susan Williams

    This book, created by three reference librarians, teaches the beginning researcher good research habits. It provides names of tools students should consult for a well-rounded, well-researched paper on a controversial issue in the news. Books, specialized databases, online resources, and agencies to contact are all included. Each "jumpstart" has…

  9. Teaching, Learning and Assessing HRD: Findings from a BMAF/UFHRD Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambrook, Sally; Stewart, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to analyse and explore the results of a research project, which aimed to identify recent and current research on TLA within HRD programmes. From that base the project also intended to identify areas for future research and a basis for establishing a Special Interest Group. Design/methodology/approach: A comprehensive…

  10. New Findings on Children, Families, and Economic Self-Sufficiency: Summary of a Research Briefing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Deborah, Ed.; Bridgman, Anne, Ed.

    This report is a summary of a December, 1994 research briefing presented by the Board on Children and Families of the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine, and the Family and Child Well-Being Research Network of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. This…

  11. Teachers' Approaches to Finding and Using Research Evidence: An Information Literacy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dorothy; Coles, Louisa

    2007-01-01

    Background: The use of research evidence produced by others is seen as central to the reflective practice of school teachers. There have been many recent UK initiatives aimed at improving access to research evidence, but there are still concerns about the lack of engagement by teachers. Previous research has looked at this issue from different…

  12. Finding Ways to Teach to Students with FASD: A Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Kelly; Crichton, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study examines a unique educational program designed for youth with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder [FASD] in Alberta, Canada. Care was taken to include the participants' voice in this case study resulting in key insights and strategies for working with youth and/or students struggling with FASD. Using observation notes, survey and interview…

  13. Participatory Action Research (PAR) in Middle School: Opportunities, Constraints, and Key Processes

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman, Miranda L.; Wanis, Maggie G.

    2010-01-01

    Late childhood and early adolescence represent a critical transition in the developmental and academic trajectory of youth, a time in which there is an upsurge in academic disengagement and psychopathology. PAR projects that can promote youth’s sense of meaningful engagement in school and a sense of efficacy and mattering can be particularly powerful given the challenges of this developmental stage. In the present study, we draw on data from our own collaborative implementation of PAR projects in secondary schools to consider two central questions: (1) How do features of middle school settings and the developmental characteristics of the youth promote or inhibit the processes, outcomes, and sustainability of the PAR endeavor? and (2) How can the broad principles and concepts of PAR be effectively translated into specific intervention activities in schools, both within and outside of the classroom? In particular, we discuss a participatory research project conducted with 6th and 7th graders at an urban middle school as a means of highlighting the opportunities, constraints, and lessons learned in our efforts to contribute to the high-quality implementation and evaluation of PAR in diverse urban public schools. PMID:20676754

  14. Ten key research issues for integrated and sustainable wastewater reuse in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Shomar, Basem; Dare, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Wastewater management is not limited to the technology used to collect and treat wastewater. It begins with the early planning phase of building a society and includes considerations of how that society will grow. Therefore, history, culture, religion, and socioeconomy are important components to include in any relevant and integrated studies of wastewater management and reuse. Engineering, health, chemistry, biology, food production, cultural heritage, and the needs of people of all ages should be considered together when making management decisions regarding issues so intimately tied with humanity as water and sanitation. Other escalating challenges such as poverty, food, and water scarcity, migration and instability, flooding and catastrophes, diseases and mortality, etc. should also be considered as part of wastewater management and reuse planning. Emerging contaminants could be associated with the urbanization, modernization, and industrialization of several countries. Several arid countries have developed water security strategies where wastewater reuse is a major component. The existing wastewater treatment technologies in these countries are, in most cases, unable to remove such contaminants which may affect irrigation waters, industrial products, groundwater, etc. People would have to accept that the food on their tables could be irrigated with treated wastewater that they generated a few months ago, even if very advanced technologies were used to treat it. The purpose of this review is to highlight multidisciplinary areas of research on wastewater and to propose applicable and affordable mechanisms by which we may consider wastewater as a legitimate resource. PMID:25427896

  15. UQ -- Fast Surrogates Key to New Methodologies in an Operational and Research Volcanic Hazard Forecasting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, C. G.; Stefanescu, R. E. R.; Patra, A. K.; Bursik, M. I.; Madankan, R.; Pouget, S.; Jones, M.; Singla, P.; Singh, T.; Pitman, E. B.; Morton, D.; Webley, P.

    2014-12-01

    As the decision to construct a hazard map is frequently precipitated by the sudden initiation of activity at a volcano that was previously considered dormant, timely completion of the map is imperative. This prohibits the calculation of probabilities through direct sampling of a numerical ash-transport and dispersion model. In developing a probabilistic forecast for ash cloud locations following an explosive volcanic eruption, we construct a number of possible meta-models (a model of the simulator) to act as fast surrogates for the time-expensive model. We will illustrate the new fast surrogates based on both polynomial chaos and multilevel sparse representations that have allowed us to conduct the Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) in a timely fashion. These surrogates allow orders of magnitude improvement in cost associated with UQ, and are likely to have a major impact in many related domains.This work will be part of an operational and research volcanic forecasting system (see the Webley et al companion presentation) moving towards using ensembles of eruption source parameters and Numerical Weather Predictions (NWPs), rather than single deterministic forecasts, to drive the ash cloud forecasting systems. This involves using an Ensemble Prediction System (EPS) as input to an ash transport and dispersion model, such as PUFF, to produce ash cloud predictions, which will be supported by a Decision Support System. Simulation ensembles with different input volcanic source parameters are intelligently chosen to predict the average and higher-order moments of the output correctly.

  16. Challenge: Reframing, communicating, and finding relevance. Solution: Teachers on the research team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholow, S.; Warburton, J.

    2013-12-01

    PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is a program in which K-12 teachers spend 2-6 weeks participating in hands-on field research experiences in the polar regions. The goal of PolarTREC is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together. Program data has illuminated a crucial dynamic that increases the potential for a successful climate change science campaign. We contend that the inclusion of a teacher into the field research campaign can tackle challenges such as reframing climate change science to better address the need for a particular campaign, as well as garnering the science project the necessary support through effective, authentic, and tangible communication efforts to policymakers, funders, students, and the public. The program evaluation queried researchers on a.) the teachers' primary roles in the field b.) the impact teachers on the team's field research, and c.) the teachers' role conducting outreach. Additionally, researchers identified the importance of the facilitator, the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS), as an integral component to the challenge of providing a meaningful broader impact statement to the science proposal. Researchers reported the value of explaining their science, in-situ, allowed them to reframe and rework the objectives of the science project to attain meaningful outcomes. More than half of the researchers specifically noted that one of the strengths of the PolarTREC project is its benefit to the scientific process. The researchers also viewed PolarTREC as an essential outreach activity for their research project. Other researchers said that the outreach provided by their teacher also improved the research project's public image and articulated complex ideas to the public at large. This presentation will speak to the practices within the PolarTREC program and how researchers can meet outreach expectations, impact

  17. Statement of principles on the return of research results and incidental findings in paediatric research: a multi-site consultative process.

    PubMed

    Sénécal, Karine; Rahimzadeh, Vasiliki; Knoppers, Bartha M; Fernandez, Conrad V; Avard, Denise; Sinnett, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes a set of recommendations for the return of research results and incidental findings in paediatrics. The Network of Applied Genetic Medicine of Quebec spearheaded the initiative to develop the Statement of Principles on the Return of Research Results and Incidental Findings, which was the result of a consultation process with clinical and research experts in the field. To formulate the Statement of Principles, the authors (i) reviewed empirical and grey literature on the return of research results and incidental findings in Europe and Canada, (ii) conducted a qualitative study of stakeholder groups, (iii) developed, and (iv) validated the recommendations through consultations with the stakeholder groups. The Statement of Principles provides a useful disclosure tool for deciding when, and under what circumstances to return research results and incidental findings. It addresses the issue of return of results in genetic research generally, and has also specific principles for various research contexts, including paediatric research. It delineates ethical issues unique to paediatric research, and provides a framework to guide research ethics committees as well as the research community in addressing these issues.

  18. Network structure and the role of key players in a translational cancer research network: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Frances C; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Translational research networks are a deliberate strategy to bridge the gulf between biomedical research and clinical practice through interdisciplinary collaboration, supportive funding and infrastructure. The social network approach examines how the structure of the network and players who hold important positions within it constrain or enable function. This information can be used to guide network management and optimise its operations. The aim of this study was to describe the structure of a translational cancer research network (TCRN) in Australia over its first year, identify the key players within the network and explore these players' opportunities and constraints in maximising important network collaborations. Methods and analysis This study deploys a mixed-method longitudinal design using social network analysis augmented by interviews and review of TCRN documents. The study will use network documents and interviews with governing body members to explore the broader context into which the network is embedded as well as the perceptions and expectations of members. Of particular interest are the attitudes and perceptions of clinicians compared with those of researchers. A co-authorship network will be constructed of TCRN members using journal and citation databases to assess the success of past pre-network collaborations. Two whole network social network surveys will be administered 12 months apart and parameters such as density, clustering, centrality and betweenness centrality computed and compared using UCINET and Netdraw. Key players will be identified and interviewed to understand the specific activities, barriers and enablers they face in that role. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approvals were obtained from the University of New South Wales, South Eastern Sydney Northern Sector Local Health Network and Calvary Health Care Sydney. Results will be discussed with members of the TCRN, submitted to relevant journals and presented as oral

  19. Trying to compensate. Latest ranking of CEO compensation finds stock options still key to pay as experts monitor for effects of SEC rule changes.

    PubMed

    Galloro, Vince; Vesely, Rebecca; Zigmond, Jessica

    2007-07-30

    Despite past outcries from critics, stock options continue to play a starring, albeit smaller, role in compensation for CEOs at top companies, based on research by accounting professor Steven Balsam, left. Read about the 30 healthcare executives who brought home the biggest pay packages in our annual ranking of CEOs' compensation. PMID:17824144

  20. “Information is Information”: A public perspective on incidental findings in clinical and research genome-based testing

    PubMed Central

    Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Driessnack, Martha; Hanish, Alyson; Johnson, Vanessa A.; Shah, Lisa L.; Simon, Christian M.; Williams, Janet K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The potential for genomic incidental findings is increasing with the use of genome-based testing. At the same time approaches to clinical decision making are shifting to shared decision-making models involving both the healthcare community and the public. The public’s voice has been nearly absent in discussions on managing incidental findings. Methods We conducted 9 focus groups and 9 interviews (N=63) with a broad cross-section of lay public groups to elucidate public viewpoints on incidental findings that could occur as a result of genome-based testing in clinical and research situations. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Participants wanted incidental findings disclosed to them whether or not these were clinical or research findings. Participants used different terms to define and describe incidental findings; they wanted to know that incidental findings are possible and be given a choice to learn about them. Personal utility was an important reason for disclosure, and participants believed that managing information is a shared responsibility between professionals and themselves. Conclusion Broad public input is needed in order to understand and incorporate the public’s perspective on management of incidental findings as disclosure guidelines and policies are developed in clinical and research settings. PMID:23590238

  1. Major biological actions of CCK--a critical evaluation of research findings.

    PubMed

    Fink, H; Rex, A; Voits, M; Voigt, J P

    1998-11-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is one of the first discovered gastrointestinal hormones and one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the brain. Two types of CCK receptors have been identified: (1) CCK-A receptors are mainly located in the periphery, but are also found in some areas of the CNS; and (2) CCK-B receptors are widely distributed in the brain. Major biological actions of CCK are the reduction of food intake and the induction of anxiety-related behavior. Inhibition of feeding is mainly mediated by the A-type receptors, whereas anxiety-like behavior is induced by stimulating B-type receptors. This paper presents new findings on the effects of the biologically active CCK agonists, CCK-8S, CCK-4, and A71378. The results reviewed suggest that the hypophagic effects of CCK are strongly dependent on the experimental design, sex, and age of the rats. For example, food intake measured during the night or after food deprivation is reduced by CCK-8S in young adult and aged rats, whereas, under fixed feeding conditions, CCK-8S does not inhibit food intake in young adult rats. The sensitivity to the hypophagic CCK effect increases with age in male and female rats; however, female rats are less sensitive to the CCK action. Further, using a nongenetic and non-stressful model of obesity due to unspecific postnatal overfeeding, the satiating effect of moderate CCK-8S doses is weaker in obese than in normal rats. Again, the hypophagic effect is more pronounced in male than in female obese and normal rats. Considering that aversive reactions in rats are markedly influenced by strain and breeding-line variations, research results in this area are critically reviewed. It is shown that anxiety-like symptoms can only be induced by a selectively acting CCK-B agonist, whereas mixed CCK-A and -B agonists and selective CCK-A agonists fail to change behavior in anxiety tests. CCK-4 induces stable and reproducible anxiogenic-like behavior only in certain rat strains. Moreover, CCK-4 effects

  2. Measuring stock and change in the GB countryside for policy--key findings and developments from the Countryside Survey 2007 field survey.

    PubMed

    Norton, L R; Maskell, L C; Smart, S S; Dunbar, M J; Emmett, B A; Carey, P D; Williams, P; Crowe, A; Chandler, K; Scott, W A; Wood, C M

    2012-12-30

    Countryside Survey is a unique large scale long-term monitoring programme investigating stock and change of habitats, landscape features, vegetation, soil and freshwaters of Great Britain. Repeat field surveys combine policy and scientific objectives to provide evidence on how multiple aspects of the environment are changing over time, a key goal of international science in the face of profound human impacts on ecosystems. Countryside Survey 2007 (CS2007), the fifth survey since 1978, retained consistency with previous surveys, whilst evolving in line with technological and conceptual advances in the collection and integration of data to understand landscape change. This paper outlines approaches taken in the 2007 survey and its subsequent analysis and presents some of the headline results of the survey and their relevance for national and international policy objectives. Key changes between 1998 and 2007 included: a) significant shifts in agricultural land cover from arable to grassland, accompanied by increases in the area of broadleaved woodland, b) decreases in the length of managed hedges associated with agricultural land, as a proportion deteriorated to lines of trees and c) increases in the areas and numbers of wet habitats (standing open water, ponds) and species preferring wetter conditions (1998-2007 and 1978-2007). Despite international policy directed at maintaining and enhancing biodiversity, there were widespread decreases in species richness in all linear and area habitats, except on arable land, consistent with an increase in competitive and late successional species between 1998 and 2007 and 1978 and 2007. Late successional and competitive species: Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), Hawthorn (Cratageous monogyna) and Bramble (Rubus fruticosus), in the top ten recorded species recorded in 2007, all increased between 1998 and 2007. The most commonly recorded species in CS (1990, 1998 and 2007) was agricultural Ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Increases in

  3. Finding audiences, changing beliefs: the structure of research use in Canadian health policy.

    PubMed

    Lomas, J

    1990-01-01

    The impact of research information depends on its ability to change beliefs or policy assumptions within the relevant audiences. As a hybrid of American and British systems, Canada's chosen decision-making structure for policy-making and its legislative framework for health insurance make these audiences unclear and not readily accessible. This factor and historical characteristics of the research community which made them only partially responsive to the values of decisionmakers provide an explanation for the limited past use of research information in Canadian health policy. More recently, improved responsiveness by researchers and an emerging definition of the audiences by legislative policymakers are bringing about a gradual increase in the potential impact of research at the levels of administrative and clinical policy. Because of continuing decision-making constraints on legislative policy, however, impact at this level is predicted to remain diffuse, with only cautious acceptance of the changes in beliefs implied by research.

  4. Classroom Teaching Skills. The Research Findings of the Teacher Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wragg, E. C., Ed.

    This book describes some of the research undertaken during the Teacher Education Project, a four and one-half year research and development project undertaken by the Universities of Nottingham, Leicester, and Exeter (Great Britain) and funded by the Department of Education and Science. This project involved observation of over 1,000 lessons and…

  5. The Ethical Maze: Finding an Inclusive Path towards Gaining Children's Agreement to Research Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocks, Alison J.

    2006-01-01

    In the UK, the ethics of engaging in sociological research directly involving children have primarily been shaped by definitions of "competence". While this has been a crucial guideline for researchers in shaping the concept of informed consent, it has also acted, perhaps inadvertently, as a way of excluding particular children from the research…

  6. PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM THE NERL RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently conducting the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study. This study represents a one year investigation of PM and related co-pollutants involving two dist...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A THEORY OF EDUCATION FROM PSYCHOLOGICAL AND OTHER BASIC RESEARCH FINDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAYLOR, CALVIN W.; AND OTHERS

    A BROAD EXPLORATORY AND THEORETICAL STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE IN A FUNDAMENTAL SENSE THE IMPLICATIONS AND IMPACT WHICH NEW RESEARCH IN THE BASIC BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE FIELDS HAD ON EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE AND THEORY. THE TOTAL TASK WAS TO BUILD A NEW EDUCATIONAL THEORY USING SAMPLINGS FROM ALL BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH AND TO INVESTIGATE WAYS TO REDUCE…

  8. Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

  9. What They Take with Them: Findings from the Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Bradley; Gillespie, Paula; Kail, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Through the Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project (PWTARP), the authors have set out to explore and document what peer tutors take with them from their training and experience. The Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project has made it possible for the authors to sample and analyze more systematically the reflections of 126 former tutors from…

  10. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behaviors of Movers and Stayers: Findings from a Controlled Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Paul; Apgar, Dawn Hall; Jordan,Tameeka

    2005-01-01

    Reviews of research on deinstitutionalization show that investigators have focused primarily on adaptive behavior changes of "movers," while paying minimal attention to "stayers." Analysis of their research also revealed some methodological problems. We assessed 150 movers and 150 stayers in 1994, before deinstitutionalization began in 1997. We…

  11. Women finding the way: American Indian women leading intervention research in Native communities.

    PubMed

    Brave Heart, Maria Yellow Horse; Chase, Josephine; Elkins, Jennifer; Martin, Jennifer; Nanez, Jennifer; Mootz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Although there is literature concentrating on cross-cultural approaches to academic and community partnerships with Native communities, few address the process and experiences of American Indian women leading federally funded and culturally grounded behavioral health intervention research in Native communities. This paper summarizes relevant literature on community-engaged research with Native communities, examines traditional roles and modern challenges for American Indian women, describes the culturally grounded collaborative process for the authors' behavioral health intervention development with Native communities, and considers emergent themes from our own research experiences navigating competing demands from mainstream and Native communities. It concludes with recommendations for supporting and enhancing resilience.

  12. The European antibody network's practical guide to finding and validating suitable antibodies for research.

    PubMed

    Roncador, Giovanna; Engel, Pablo; Maestre, Lorena; Anderson, Amanda P; Cordell, Jacqueline L; Cragg, Mark S; Šerbec, Vladka Č; Jones, Margaret; Lisnic, Vanda J; Kremer, Leonor; Li, Demin; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Pascual, Núria; Rodríguez-Barbosa, Jose-Ignacio; Torensma, Ruurd; Turley, Helen; Pulford, Karen; Banham, Alison H

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies are widely exploited as research/diagnostic tools and therapeutics. Despite providing exciting research opportunities, the multitude of available antibodies also offers a bewildering array of choice. Importantly, not all companies comply with the highest standards, and thus many reagents fail basic validation tests. The responsibility for antibodies being fit for purpose rests, surprisingly, with their user. This paper condenses the extensive experience of the European Monoclonal Antibody Network to help researchers identify antibodies specific for their target antigen. A stepwise strategy is provided for prioritising antibodies and making informed decisions regarding further essential validation requirements. Web-based antibody validation guides provide practical approaches for testing antibody activity and specificity. We aim to enable researchers with little or no prior experience of antibody characterization to understand how to determine the suitability of their antibody for its intended purpose, enabling both time and cost effective generation of high quality antibody-based data fit for publication.

  13. The barriers to the application of the research findings from the nurses’ perspective: A case study in a teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Mahaki, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The application of the nursing research findings is one of the most important indicators of development in the nursing profession, which leads to providing efficient and effective patient care and improving the quality of nursing care. According the result of some studies, transferring the evidence-based findings to the nurses’ practice and education in the world has been slow and sometimes unsuccessful. This study aimed to investigate the most important barriers to the application of research findings from the nurses’ perspective. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted on a sample of 210 nurses in a teaching hospital in Tehran in 2013. The data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire consisted of two parts, including items about nurses’ demographic characteristics and 30 items to identify the most important barriers to the application of research findings from the studied nurses’ perspective. Results: “The lack of sufficient time for reading the studies,” “the lack of sufficient time to implement the new ideas,” “the lack of adequate facilities to implement the ideas,” “nurses’ little interest in conducting studies,” and “the lack of authority to change the methods and patterns of care” with, respectively, 85%, 84.6%, 83.8%, 83.4%, and 80.5% agreement with the existence of barriers were the most barriers to application of research findings from the studied nurses’ perspective. Conclusion: The lack of time was the most important barrier to the use of research findings from the perspective of studied nurses. Therefore, some effective strategies should be used by hospital managers and health policy makers to overcome this barrier. Some of these strategies can be employing new personnel and hiring skilled and efficient human resources in order to decrease the workload of nurses, organizing the nurses’ work shifts, providing right balance between patients and nurses in the wards, etc. PMID

  14. Steps to strengthen ethics in organizations: research findings, ethics placebos, and what works.

    PubMed

    Pope, Kenneth S

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that many organizations overlook needs and opportunities to strengthen ethics. Barriers can make it hard to see the need for stronger ethics and even harder to take effective action. These barriers include the organization's misleading use of language, misuse of an ethics code, culture of silence, strategies of justification, institutional betrayal, and ethical fallacies. Ethics placebos tend to take the place of steps to see, solve, and prevent problems. This article reviews relevant research and specific steps that create change.

  15. Evaluation of the Child Development Project: Research Design, Procedures, and Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Daniel; And Others

    Findings of an evaluation of the first 5 years of a longitudinal program designed to enhance children's prosocial development are reported. The program was offered for children in three elmentary schools in a suburban, middle-class district near San Francisco. Three schools in the same district served as a comparison group. Enrollment ranged from…

  16. Communicating Comparative Findings from Meta-Analysis in Educational Research: Some Examples and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Steve; Katsipataki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews some of the strengths and limitations of the comparative use of meta-analysis findings, using examples from the Sutton Trust-Education Endowment Foundation Teaching and Learning "Toolkit" which summarizes a range of educational approaches to improve pupil attainment in schools. This comparative use of quantitative…

  17. Conclusions: Overview of Findings from the ERA Study, Inferences, and Research Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.

    2010-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors have brought the findings of the English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) study up to age 15 years and, in so doing, have focused especially on the question of whether there are deprivation-specific psychological patterns (DSPs) that differ meaningfully from other forms of psychopathology. For this purpose, their main…

  18. Returning incidental findings from genetic research to children: views of parents of children affected by rare diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kleiderman, Erika; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Fernandez, Conrad V; Boycott, Kym M; Ouellette, Gail; Wong-Rieger, Durhane; Adam, Shelin; Richer, Julie; Avard, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore parental perceptions and experiences regarding the return of genomic incidental research findings in children with rare diseases. Methods Parents of children affected by various rare diseases were invited to participate in focus groups or individual telephone interviews in Montreal and Ottawa. Fifteen participants were interviewed and transcriptions were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Four emergent themes underscored parental enthusiasm for receiving incidental findings concerning their child's health: (1) right to information; (2) perceived benefits and risks; (3) communication practicalities: who, when, and how; and (4) service needs to promote the communication of incidental findings. Parents believed they should be made aware of all results pertaining to their child's health status, and that they are responsible for transmitting this information to their child, irrespective of disease severity. Despite potential negative consequences, respondents generally perceived a favourable risk-benefit ratio in receiving all incidental findings. Conclusions Understanding how parents assess the risks and benefits of returning incidental findings is essential to genomic research applications in paediatric medicine. The authors believe the study findings will contribute to establishing future best practices, although further research is needed to evaluate the impact of parental decisions on themselves and their child. PMID:24356209

  19. Florida Keys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West.

    This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic

  20. Spirituality, religion and health outcomes research: findings from the Center on Religion and the Professions.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Brick

    2009-01-01

    The Spirituality and Health Research Project of the MU Center on Religion and the Professions is investigating the relationships that exist among religion, spirituality, and health for persons with heterogeneous medical conditions. Pilot studies indicate that spirituality and congregational support are related to health outcomes, but religious practices are not. Additional research indicates that spiritual experiences are related to diminished right parietal functioning (through meditation/ prayer or brain injury), which is associated with decreased sense of the self. Implications for health professionals are discussed.

  1. Steps to Strengthen Ethics in Organizations: Research Findings, Ethics Placebos, and What Works

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that many organizations overlook needs and opportunities to strengthen ethics. Barriers can make it hard to see the need for stronger ethics and even harder to take effective action. These barriers include the organization’s misleading use of language, misuse of an ethics code, culture of silence, strategies of justification, institutional betrayal, and ethical fallacies. Ethics placebos tend to take the place of steps to see, solve, and prevent problems. This article reviews relevant research and specific steps that create change. PMID:25602131

  2. World Bank: harnessing civil society expertise in undertaking and disseminating research findings.

    PubMed

    Simms, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development was an essential partner to the evaluation leaders in harnessing the contribution and expertise of civil society. This article describes what the partnership entailed, the additional value it brought and how civil society might use the evaluation findings both as a tool for advocacy and a means for improving its own engagement with the individuals directly affected by HIV and with those who care for them. PMID:23745623

  3. Nine key functions for a human subjects protection program for community-engaged research: points to consider.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Loup, Allan; Nelson, Robert M; Botkin, Jeffrey R; Kost, Rhonda; Smith, George R; Gehlert, Sarah

    2010-03-01

    The ethical conduct of Community-Engaged Research (CEnR), of which the Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) model is the partnership model most widely discussed in the CEnR literature and is the primary model we draw upon in this discussion, requires an integrated and comprehensive human subjects protection (HSP) program that addresses the additional concerns salient to CEnR where members of a community are both research partners and participants. As delineated in the federal regulations, the backbone of a HSP program is the fulfillment of nine functions: (1) minimize risks; (2) reasonable benefit-risk ratio; (3) fair subject selection; (4) adequate monitoring; (5) informed consent; (6) privacy and confidentiality; (7) conflicts of interest; (8) address vulnerabilities; and (9) HSP training. The federal regulations, however, do not consider the risks and harms that may occur to groups, and these risks have not traditionally been included in the benefit: risk analysis nor have they been incorporated into an HSP framework. We explore additional HSP issues raised by CEnR within these nine ethical functions. Various entities exist that can provide HSP---the investigator, the Institutional Review Board, the Conflict of Interest Committee, the Research Ethics Consultation program, the Research Subject Advocacy program, the Data and Safety Monitoring Plan, and the Community Advisory Board. Protection is best achieved if these entities are coordinated to ensure that no gaps exist, to minimize unnecessary redundancy, and to provide checks and balances between the different entities of HSP and the nine functions that they must realize. The document is structured to provide a "points-to-consider" roadmap for HSP entities to help them adequately address the nine key functions necessary to provide adequate protection of individuals and communities in CEnR.

  4. Key issues and challenges in developing a pedagogical intervention in the simulation skills center--an action research study.

    PubMed

    Reierson, Inger Åse; Hvidsten, Anne; Wighus, Marianne; Brungot, Solvor; Bjørk, Ida Torunn

    2013-07-01

    Simulation skills centers (SSC) are considered important learning arenas for preparing and qualifying nursing students. Limited clinical placements and claims of diminished learning opportunities raise concerns that newly educated nurses lack proficiency in many psychomotor skills. Accordingly, there is an increased focus on learning in the SSC. However, it has been questioned if the pedagogical underpinning of teaching and learning in the SSC is missing or unclear. At a bachelor nursing education in Norway, there was a desire to change practice and enhance learning in the SSC by systematic use of The Model of Practical Skill Performance (Bjørk and Kirkevold, 2000). A participatory action research design was chosen. A pedagogical intervention was developed and implemented in 2010 in a cohort of eighty-seven first year bachelor nursing students during their basic nursing skill course. The intervention is shortly described. This article reports key issues and challenges that emerged during development of the new intervention. Data to inform the study were collected via thorough meeting minutes and the project leader's logbook, and analyzed using fieldnotes analysis. Six key issues and challenges were identified. These are presented and discussed consecutively in light of their importance for development and implementation of the new intervention. PMID:23642302

  5. A Report on the Industrial Relations Film "Indaba Ye Grievance." Research Finding PERS-392.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godsell, G.; And Others

    Attitudes and reactions are reported regarding the South African film, "Indaba Ye Grievance," (produced by the Human Sciences Research Council) which was designed to show unsophisticated workers the advantages of a grievance procedure and the problem of acceptability. Chapter 1, "Background to the Film 'Indaba Ye Grievance'" (R. S. Hall),…

  6. Social and Emotional Distress among American Indian and Alaska Native Students: Research Findings. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ardy SixKiller

    Many American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are repeatedly exposed to opportunities to participate in self-destructive and illegal behaviors. This digest examines risk factors associated with four contexts: peers, family, school, and community. Recent research has shown that, relative to national averages, AI/AN youth have higher rates of…

  7. Finding the right research question: quality science depends on quality careers.

    PubMed

    Flockhart, D A; Abernethy, D R

    2008-09-01

    When making the transition from trainee to principal investigator, there are few steps more important than selecting the first independent research project. The project must synthesize the excitement and idealism of contributing to the well-being of humankind and the practical realities of an area of inquiry that is likely to lead to a successful career. PMID:18615005

  8. An Attachment Perspective on the Child--Dog Bond: Interdisciplinary and International Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the process of attachment formation in young children has been a focal point in child development research for decades. However, young children's attachments are not only with human beings; they also form bonds with companion animals, particularly dogs ("Canis familiaris"). Given the number of dogs that are kept by families…

  9. Increasing the Uptake of Peer Feedback in Primary School Writing: Findings from an Action Research Enquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Stuart Ian

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on how an action research strategy was used to increase children's uptake of feedback during peer assessment in primary school writing. Several different strategies were used in the study that had been successful in increasing students' uptake of peer feedback in contexts such as higher education. In order to evaluate how…

  10. Building the Future Students' Blended Learning Experiences from Current Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Amanda; Hyde, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Between March 2007 and February 2009, the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) funded a Learners Journeys project at the University of Hertfordshire. This was part of their second phase of investment in research into the Learners' Experiences through their E-Learning Programme and was known as LXP2. STROLL (STudent Reflections On Lifelong…

  11. The Challenge of Finding Faculty Time for Applied Research Activities in Ontario Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkrantz, Otte

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how the role of Ontario college faculty has evolved since the advent of the Post-Secondary Education Choice and Excellence Act of 2000 and the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology Act of 2002 in terms of whether or not the decision to create a research culture at the colleges included making time…

  12. Finding Voice through Teacher-Student Collaboration in a Feminist Research Project: Long-Term Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fey, Marion Harris

    In a feminist classroom an instructor who acts as an "interested party" rather than an authority, fosters an environment of care and connection which can result in life-changing discoveries for the participants. Drawing on David Bleich's conception of a "socially generous research" that removes hierarchical barriers between teacher and student, a…

  13. The Meaning of Work among Chinese University Students: Findings from Prototype Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Sili; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xu

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Chinese university students' conceptualization of the meaning of work. One hundred and ninety students (93 male, 97 female) from Beijing, China, participated in the study. Prototype research methodology (J. Li, 2001) was used to explore the meaning of work and the associations among the identified meanings. Cluster analysis was…

  14. Language of Instruction in Tanzania: Why Are Research Findings Not Heeded?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qorro, Martha A. S.

    2013-01-01

    The issue of language of instruction (LOI) and its effects on education in Tanzanian secondary education has been widely researched since the early 1980s. In 2009, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training proposed a new education and training policy that allows English to be used as LOI from nursery school to tertiary education. The…

  15. Summary of Findings: Study of Institutional Research and Planning Unit Development in California Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Michael S.

    A study was conducted in 1979 to determine the organizational factors that influence the growth or decline of community college Research, Evaluation, and Planning units (REP's) and to assess the impact of Proposition 13 (California tax limitation measure, 1978) on these units. A historical analysis of REP development at a single community college…

  16. Teachers' Commitment To, and Experiences of, the Teaching Profession in Tanzania: Findings of Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…

  17. Census of Institutional Repositories in the United States: MIRACLE Project Research Findings. CLIR Publication No. 140

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, Karen; Rieh, Soo Young; St. Jean, Beth; Kim, Jihyun; Yakel, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    In this report, the authors describe results of a nationwide census of institutional repositories in U.S. academic institutions. The census is one of several activities of the MIRACLE Project, an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)-funded research program based at the University of Michigan. The acronym MIRACLE means "Making…

  18. Can Technologies Make a Difference for Hospitalized Youth: Findings from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maor, D.; Mitchem, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Children and youth who are hospitalized for a short or long term become socially isolated from their family, school and classmates. As their isolation increases, so does their vulnerability as a result of disrupted schooling. Research studies suggest different ways of using technologies to overcome this isolation and support children during this…

  19. Strategies for Improving Rehearsal Technique: Using Research Findings to Promote Better Rehearsals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvey, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Music education researchers and conducting pedagogues have identified numerous behaviors that contribute to increased verbal and nonverbal teaching effectiveness of conductors on the podium. This article is a review of literature concerning several conductor behaviors that may (a) increase the effectiveness of rehearsals, (b) enhance the…

  20. Undocumented Immigrants in the Labor Market: Recent Research Findings. Perspectivas Publicas: Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    Most early research on the impact of undocumented workers on the labor market held that it results in the widespread displacement of native workers. More recent and more sophisticated theory argues that immigrants, both legal and illegal, create jobs by consuming goods and services, and by starting new businesses. This latter idea may not be as…

  1. Can We Find Solutions with People? Participatory Action Research with Small Organic Producers in Andalusia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar-Padilla, Mamen; Calle-Collado, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and…

  2. Maximizing the Learning Value of Tests in Technology Education Classes: A Summary of Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynie, W. J., III

    2008-01-01

    Much of the learning in technology education is hands-on and best assessed via techniques other than traditional tests. Rubrics have become increasingly recognized as the best means of evaluating student efforts and accomplishments in projects, group work, presentations, various types of research papers, videotapes, web pages, and many other…

  3. Domestic Violence Between Same-Gender Partners: Recent Findings and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClennen, Joan C.

    2005-01-01

    Empirical literature about same-gender domestic violence was relatively nonexistent until the past 20 years, and conducting research with this population about a sensitive topic remains a daunting endeavor. Existing studies reveal similarities between opposite- and same-gender domestic violence in prevalence, types of abuse, and various dynamics,…

  4. Abduction Prevention Training: A Review of Findings and Issues for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Olsen, Laurie A.

    1996-01-01

    This study reviewed the research evaluating procedures for teaching abduction prevention skills to children. Examination of types of skills, types of abduction scenarios, training procedures, and assessment strategies indicated that children can learn abduction prevention skills through behavioral skills training procedures, and that individual…

  5. The ABCs of Keeping on Track to Graduation: Research Findings from Baltimore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Messel, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This study of graduation outcomes in Baltimore uses multivariate analysis of longitudinal student cohort data to examine the impact of factors identified in previous research as early warning indicators of a dropout outcome. Student cohort files were constructed from longitudinal administrative data (following all first-time 2004-2005 and…

  6. Do College Students Notice Errors in Evidence When Critically Evaluating Research Findings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Fernando; Ng, Annalyn; Shah, Priti

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined college students' ability to critically evaluate scientific evidence, specifically, whether first- and second-year students noticed when poor interpretations were drawn from research evidence. Fifty students evaluated a set of eight psychological studies, first in an informal context, then again in a critical-thinking context.…

  7. Reporting and Interpreting Quantitative Research Findings: What Gets Reported and Recommendations for the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson-Hall, Jenifer; Plonsky, Luke

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a set of guidelines for reporting on five types of quantitative data issues: (1) Descriptive statistics, (2) Effect sizes and confidence intervals, (3) Instrument reliability, (4) Visual displays of data, and (5) Raw data. Our recommendations are derived mainly from various professional sources related to L2 research but…

  8. Better Together: Research Findings on the Relationship between Racial Justice Organizations and LGBT Communities. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Rinku; Wessler, Seth; Apollon, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    In partnership with the Arcus Foundation, the Applied Research Center (ARC) has undertaken a study of the relationship between racial justice organizations and lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) constituencies and issues, with the understanding that communities of color themselves, including their LGBT members, have a good deal at stake in…

  9. Self-Regulation Advantage for High-IQ Children: Findings from a Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calero, Maria Dolores; Garcia-Martin, Maria Belen; Jimenez, Maria Isabel; Kazen, Miguel; Araque, Arsenio

    2007-01-01

    Current approaches in intelligence research indicate the need for a more extensive determination of characteristics of children with possible giftedness, not only at an intellectual level, but also at the level of self-regulation and motivation. The present study compares self-regulation efficiency between high-IQ and average-ability children aged…

  10. Finding God in Wellworth High School: More Legitimations of Story-Making as Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clough, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A curious piece of ironic, partially-dramatised auto/ethnography, this paper reflects an ongoing attempt to explore the vapid certainties of my own faith, some of the brittle discomforts of contemporary schooling, and the possibilities of a social science research methodology which can artfully assemble on the same stage belief, empirics and…

  11. The Importance of Bonding to School for Healthy Development: Findings from the Social Development Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Richard F.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Fleming, Charles B.; Hawkins, J. David

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes investigations of school connectedness completed by the Social Development Research Group in two longitudinal studies, the Seattle Social Development Project and Raising Healthy Children. The theoretical importance of school connectedness, empirical support for the theoretical propositions of the impact of school…

  12. Finding the right doctoral thesis – an innovative research fair for medical students

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Julius; Grabbert, Markus; Pander, Tanja; Gradel, Maximilian; Köhler, Lisa-Maria; Fischer, Martin R.; von der Borch, Philip; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The importance of research, as promoted by the CanMEDS framework, is widely acknowledged. Many medical students in Germany work on a research project as part of their doctoral thesis whilst still going to medical school. However, a significant amount of projects are abandoned unfinished, which leads to substantial wastage of resources. One reason for this is an information deficit concerning undergraduate research projects. Project description: To counteract this, we introduced an annual event at LMU Munich called DoktaMed with more than 600 visitors each year. It combines medical convention and research fair including keynote lectures, workshops and poster sessions as well as an exhibition of research groups and institutes. DoktaMed is a peer-to-peer event organized by a team of 40 students. Results: A needs analysis before its implementation underlined the information deficit as a possible cause for the high rate of abandoned projects. In the annual evaluation, visitors of DoktaMed rate the event with an average grade of 2.1 on a six-level Likert scale (n=558, SD=1.06, with "1=very good", "6=poor"). They stated to now feel better informed about the topic and regarded visiting DoktaMed as a worthwhile investment of time. Discussion: Students are generally satisfied with the event and feel better informed after visiting DoktaMed. However, many students never visit DoktaMed for various reasons. A possible improvement would be to present a greater number of clinical studies in addition to the laboratory work that DoktaMed focuses on now. Conclusion: Evaluation after six years of DoktaMed is very promising. Visitors seem to be better informed. Nevertheless there is space for improvement in order to get more students and more faculty members involved. More studies are needed to assess long-term effects. PMID:26413167

  13. Finances top challenge charts for association members. Exclusive findings from annual Medical Practice Today: what members have to say research.

    PubMed

    Grimshaw, Heather

    2012-07-01

    Learn which issues--out of a list of 52--are most applicable and intense foryou and your colleagues in this year's "Medical Practice Today: What members have to say" research. To help you find solutions for those issues, we have paired the top 10 challenges (identified by our applicability-weighted index) with MGMA-ACMPE resources on pages 52 and 53.

  14. Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

    The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

  15. An Example of the Use of Research Methods and Findings as an Experiential Learning Exercise in an Accounting Theory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bublitz, Bruce; Philipich, Kirk; Blatz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this teaching note is to describe an experiential learning exercise used in a master's level financial accounting theory course. The experiential exercise illustrates how order effects can affect user's judgments, a long-standing research finding. This experiential exercise was used in an attempt to make students more cognizant of…

  16. The Educational Context and Outcomes for High School Students with Disabilities: Overview of the Study and Findings. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumaker, Jean B.; Deshler, Donald D.; Lenz, B. Keith; Bulgren, Janis A.; Davis, Betsy; Grossen, Bonnie; Marquis, Janet

    This research report discusses findings from descriptive studies that investigated the context and outcomes of educational programs for students with disabilities who were expected to receive standard high-school diplomas. The nine high schools included three in urban areas, three in suburban areas, and three in rural areas. Principals, special…

  17. Bonus Awards for Teachers in Texas' Performance Pay Program: Findings from the First Round of TEEG Schools. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the second-year of a multi-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, a statewide educator incentive program that operated in Texas. As part of this evaluation report, researchers examined how first-year TEEG schools…

  18. Nanotoxicology and nanotechnology: new findings from the NIEHS and Superfund Research Program scientific community.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Danielle J

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials are characterized by their small size (i.e., nanometer scale) and can be engineered from nearly any chemical substance, creating materials that differ in composition, particle size, shape, and surface coatings. These materials are often seen as a "double-edged sword" by having properties that make them potentially beneficial in product development, drug delivery, and remediation of hazardous substances, but these same properties may result in interaction with biological systems and potential effects in the environment. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is interested in both the potential risks associated with exposure to these materials, while harnessing the power of engineered nanomaterials to improve public health. This presentation will consist of discussion of nanoparticle studies by NIEHS researchers and the extramural community and its efforts to develop cross-agency initiatives to solve the many vexing issues associated with nanomaterials. For example, researchers from the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) are evaluating a number of nanomaterial classes in comprehensive toxicology studies. NIEHS also has an extensive extramural research grant portfolio consisting of the Nano Grand Opportunities (Nano GO) Program and NIEHS Centers for Nanotechnology Health Implications Research (NCNHIR) Consortium consisting of U19 and U01 Cooperative Centers. Furthermore, the NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP), which supports a network of university (P42, R01), small business (SBIR/STTR), and training grants (R25), provides funding to grantees evaluating the toxicology of nanomaterials, developing new or improved nanotechnologies to monitor and remediate hazardous substances, and training professionals in the use of these of materials. The NIEHS's Worker Education Branch also offers educational materials for training workers on risks of nanotechnology in laboratories, manufacturing facilities, at hazardous waste cleanup

  19. Toward a sustainable biomedical research enterprise: Finding consensus and implementing recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Christopher L.; Corb, Benjamin W.; Matthews, C. Robert; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Berg, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    The US research enterprise is under significant strain due to stagnant funding, an expanding workforce, and complex regulations that increase costs and slow the pace of research. In response, a number of groups have analyzed the problems and offered recommendations for resolving these issues. However, many of these recommendations lacked follow-up implementation, allowing the damage of stagnant funding and outdated policies to persist. Here, we analyze nine reports published since the beginning of 2012 and consolidate over 250 suggestions into eight consensus recommendations made by the majority of the reports. We then propose how to implement these consensus recommendations, and we identify critical issues, such as improving workforce diversity and stakeholder interactions, on which the community has yet to achieve consensus. PMID:26195768

  20. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort.

    PubMed

    Friman, P C

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort.