Science.gov

Sample records for khuri representation

  1. Role of the a0(980), f0(980) resonances in η → 3π from the Khuri-Treiman formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussallam, B.; Albaladejo, M.

    2016-11-01

    The chiral expansion of the η → 3π decay amplitude at NLO fails to reproduce the recent high accuracy measurements of the Dalitz plot parameters. We reconsider the idea of employing the chiral expansion in an unphysical region surrounding the Adler zero and then deducing the amplitude in the physical region using the Khuri-Treiman dispersive formalism. We further present an extension of this formalism which takes into account KK¯ inelastic rescattering effects and thus provides a realistic description of the double a0(980), f0(980) resonance effect. We evaluate how the influence of these resonances propagates down to the low-energy decay region and show that it is significant, in particular for the η → 3π0 decay, and improve the agreement of the predicted Dalitz plot parameters with experiment.

  2. Extended chiral Khuri-Treiman formalism for η → 3π and the role of the a_0(980), f_0(980) resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albaladejo, M.; Moussallam, B.

    2017-08-01

    Recent experiments on η → 3π decays have provided an extremely precise knowledge of the amplitudes across the Dalitz region which represent stringent constraints on theoretical descriptions. We reconsider an approach in which the low-energy chiral expansion is assumed to be optimally convergent in an unphysical region surrounding the Adler zero, and the amplitude in the physical region is uniquely deduced by an analyticity-based extrapolation using the Khuri-Treiman dispersive formalism. We present an extension of the usual formalism which implements the leading inelastic effects from the K\\bar{K} channel in the final-state π π interaction as well as in the initial-state η π interaction. The constructed amplitude has an enlarged region of validity and accounts in a realistic way for the influence of the two light scalar resonances f_0(980) and a_0(980) in the dispersive integrals. It is shown that the effect of these resonances in the low-energy region of the η → 3π decay is not negligible, in particular for the 3π ^0 mode, and improves the description of the energy variation across the Dalitz plot. Some remarks are made on the scale dependence and the value of the double quark mass ratio Q.

  3. Why Representations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, James E.; Waters, Michael S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses representations in the context of solving a system of linear equations. Views representations (concrete, tables, graphs, algebraic, matrices) from perspectives of understanding, technology, generalization, exact versus approximate solution, and learning style. (KHR)

  4. Representing Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Aaron M.

    2010-01-01

    What can be known and how to render what we know are perpetual quandaries met by qualitative research, complicated further by the understanding that the everyday discourses influencing our representations are often tacit, unspoken or heard so often that they seem to warrant little reflection. In this article, I offer analytic memos as a means for…

  5. Representation in Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumelhart, David E.; Norman, Donald A.

    This paper reviews work on the representation of knowledge from within psychology and artificial intelligence. The work covers the nature of representation, the distinction between the represented world and the representing world, and significant issues concerned with propositional, analogical, and superpositional representations. Specific topics…

  6. Understanding Representation in Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodker, Susanne

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the design of computer applications, focusing on understanding design representations--what makes design representations work, and how, in different contexts. Examines the place of various types of representation (e.g., formal notations, models, prototypes, scenarios, and mock-ups) in design and the role of formalisms and representations…

  7. XML-BASED REPRESENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. KELSEY

    2001-02-01

    For focused applications with limited user and use application communities, XML can be the right choice for representation. It is easy to use, maintain, and extend and enjoys wide support in commercial and research sectors. When the knowledge and information to be represented is object-based and use of that knowledge and information is a high priority, then XML-based representation should be considered. This paper discusses some of the issues involved in using XML-based representation and presents an example application that successfully uses an XML-based representation.

  8. Embedded Data Representations.

    PubMed

    Willett, Wesley; Jansen, Yvonne; Dragicevic, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles are making it increasingly easier to display data in-context. While researchers and artists have already begun to create embedded data representations, the benefits, trade-offs, and even the language necessary to describe and compare these approaches remain unexplored. In this paper, we formalize the notion of physical data referents - the real-world entities and spaces to which data corresponds - and examine the relationship between referents and the visual and physical representations of their data. We differentiate situated representations, which display data in proximity to data referents, and embedded representations, which display data so that it spatially coincides with data referents. Drawing on examples from visualization, ubiquitous computing, and art, we explore the role of spatial indirection, scale, and interaction for embedded representations. We also examine the tradeoffs between non-situated, situated, and embedded data displays, including both visualizations and physicalizations. Based on our observations, we identify a variety of design challenges for embedded data representation, and suggest opportunities for future research and applications.

  9. Reading Visual Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Rheta N.; Thompson, Denisse R.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics is rich in visual representations. Such visual representations are the means by which mathematical patterns "are recorded and analyzed." With respect to "vocabulary" and "symbols," numerous educators have focused on issues inherent in the language of mathematics that influence students' success with mathematics communication.…

  10. Inscriptions Becoming Representations in Representational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Richard; Suthers, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the interaction of 3 students working on mathematics problems over several days in a virtual math team. Our analysis traces out how successful collaboration in a later session is contingent upon the work of prior sessions and shows how the development of representational practices is an important aspect of these participants' problem…

  11. Inscriptions Becoming Representations in Representational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Richard; Suthers, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the interaction of 3 students working on mathematics problems over several days in a virtual math team. Our analysis traces out how successful collaboration in a later session is contingent upon the work of prior sessions and shows how the development of representational practices is an important aspect of these participants' problem…

  12. Function, anticipation, representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickhard, Mark. H.

    2001-06-01

    Function emerges in certain kinds of far-from-equilibrium systems. One important kind of function is that of interactive anticipation, an adaptedness to temporal complexity. Interactive anticipation is the locus of the emergence of normative representational content, and, thus, of representation in general: interactive anticipation is the naturalistic core of the evolution of cognition. Higher forms of such anticipation are involved in the subsequent macro-evolutionary sequence of learning, emotions, and reflexive consciousness.

  13. Contacts de langues et representations (Language Contacts and Representations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthey, Marinette, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Essays on language contact and the image of language, entirely in French, include: "Representations 'du' contexte et representations 'en' contexte? Eleves et enseignants face a l'apprentissage de la langue" ("Representations 'of' Context or Representations 'in' Context? Students and Teachers Facing Language Learning" (Laurent…

  14. Representation Elements of Spatial Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiantika, F. R.

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to add a reference in revealing spatial thinking. There several definitions of spatial thinking but it is not easy to defining it. We can start to discuss the concept, its basic a forming representation. Initially, the five sense catch the natural phenomenon and forward it to memory for processing. Abstraction plays a role in processing information into a concept. There are two types of representation, namely internal representation and external representation. The internal representation is also known as mental representation; this representation is in the human mind. The external representation may include images, auditory and kinesthetic which can be used to describe, explain and communicate the structure, operation, the function of the object as well as relationships. There are two main elements, representations properties and object relationships. These elements play a role in forming a representation.

  15. Grassmannian sparse representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azary, Sherif; Savakis, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    We present Grassmannian sparse representations (GSR), a sparse representation Grassmann learning framework for efficient classification. Sparse representation classification offers a powerful approach for recognition in a variety of contexts. However, a major drawback of sparse representation methods is their computational performance and memory utilization for high-dimensional data. A Grassmann manifold is a space that promotes smooth surfaces where points represent subspaces and the relationship between points is defined by the mapping of an orthogonal matrix. Grassmann manifolds are well suited for computer vision problems because they promote high between-class discrimination and within-class clustering, while offering computational advantages by mapping each subspace onto a single point. The GSR framework combines Grassmannian kernels and sparse representations, including regularized least squares and least angle regression, to improve high accuracy recognition while overcoming the drawbacks of performance and dependencies on high dimensional data distributions. The effectiveness of GSR is demonstrated on computationally intensive multiview action sequences, three-dimensional action sequences, and face recognition datasets.

  16. Learning network representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyano, Luis G.

    2017-02-01

    In this review I present several representation learning methods, and discuss the latest advancements with emphasis in applications to network science. Representation learning is a set of techniques that has the goal of efficiently mapping data structures into convenient latent spaces. Either for dimensionality reduction or for gaining semantic content, this type of feature embeddings has demonstrated to be useful, for example, for node classification or link prediction tasks, among many other relevant applications to networks. I provide a description of the state-of-the-art of network representation learning as well as a detailed account of the connections with other fields of study such as continuous word embeddings and deep learning architectures. Finally, I provide a broad view of several applications of these techniques to networks in various domains.

  17. Spacecraft Attitude Representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1999-01-01

    The direction cosine matrix or attitude matrix is the most fundamental representation of the attitude, but it is very inefficient: It has six redundant parameters, it is difficult to enforce the six (orthogonality) constraints. the four-component quaternion representation is very convenient: it has only one redundant parameter, it is easy to enforce the normalization constraint, the attitude matrix is a homogeneous quadratic function of q, quaternion kinematics are bilinear in q and m. Euler angles are extensively used: they often have a physical interpretation, they provide a natural description of some spacecraft motions (COBE, MAP), but kinematics and attitude matrix involve trigonometric functions, "gimbal lock" for certain values of the angles. Other minimum (three-parameter) representations: Gibbs vector is infinite for 180 deg rotations, but useful for analysis, Modified Rodrigues Parameters are nonsingular, no trig functions, Rotation vector phi is nonsingular, but requires trig functions.

  18. Favor referential representations.

    PubMed

    Frazier, L; McNamara, P

    1995-06-01

    Avrutin and Hickok (1993) argue that agrammatic patients have the ability to represent nonreferential or "government" chains ("who ... e") but not referential or "binding" chains ("which girl ... e"). By contrast, we propose the "referential representation hypothesis," which suggests that agrammatics attempt to cope with their well-known capacity limitations by favoring referential or content-based representations. This predicts that agrammatic patients' performance should degrade noticeably as task demands increase, and referential demands should take priority over computational ones. In a semantic task, referential phrases should lead to better or more accurate performances. In syntactic tasks, the availability of a referential or content-based representation will interfere with the development of a syntactic representation, resulting in worse syntactic performance on the referential phrases than on nonreferential ones. This predicts that agrammatic patients should incorrectly accept (resumptive) pronoun sentences with a referential wh-phrase because the pronouns will find the semantic or discourse referent of the referential wh-phrase and take it as an antecedent for the pronoun. However, they should reject a (resumptive) pronoun in a sentence with the nonreferential question constituent "who" or "what." "Who" and "what" will remain in syntactic form, since they have only grammatical content and therefore will have only a "nonreferential" syntactic representation. Consequently, they cannot serve as the antecedent of the pronoun. These predictions were largely confirmed by the results of a grammaticality judgement study. Agrammatics performed well on questions with pragmatic biases but failed to distinguish reliably between grammatical and ungrammatical questions where pragmatic biases were neutralized. They assigned especially low ratings to object gap sentences with referential wh-constituents, as predicted. They assigned relatively high ratings to

  19. Early representations of ownership.

    PubMed

    Blake, Peter R; Harris, Paul L

    2011-01-01

    To navigate a world filled with private property, children must be able to assign ownership information to objects and update that information when appropriate. In this chapter, the authors propose that children include ownership as an attribute of their object representations. Children can learn about ownership attributes either by witnessing owners acting on their property, a visual source, or by receiving information from the testimony of others, a verbal source. The authors consider the differences between these two forms of information and how they might conflict at the representational level, leading to difficulties in learning about ownership. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  20. Implicit and explicit representations.

    PubMed

    Rougier, Nicolas P

    2009-03-01

    During the past decades, the symbol grounding problem, as has been identified by Harnard [Harnard, S. (1990). The symbol grounding problem. Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, 42, 335-346], became a prominent problem in the cognitive science society. The idea that a symbol is much more than a mere meaningless token that can be processed through some algorithm, sheds new light on higher brain functions such as language and cognition. We present in this article a computational framework that may help in our understanding of the nature of grounded representations. Two models are briefly introduced that aim at emphasizing the difference we make between implicit and explicit representations.

  1. Umbra's system representation.

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Michael James

    2005-07-01

    This document describes the Umbra System representation. Umbra System representation, initially developed in the spring of 2003, is implemented in Incr/Tcl using concepts borrowed from Carnegie Mellon University's Architecture Description Language (ADL) called Acme. In the spring of 2004 through January 2005, System was converted to Umbra 4, extended slightly, and adopted as the underlying software system for a variety of Umbra applications that support Complex Systems Engineering (CSE) and Complex Adaptive Systems Engineering (CASE). System is now a standard part Of Umbra 4. While Umbra 4 also includes an XML parser for System, the XML parser and Schema are not described in this document.

  2. The Problem of Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tervo, Juuso

    2012-01-01

    In "Postphysical Vision: Art Education's Challenge in an Age of Globalized Aesthetics (AMondofesto)" (2008) and "Beyond Aesthetics: Returning Force and Truth to Art and Its Education" (2009), jan jagodzinski argued for politics that go "beyond" representation--a project that radically questions visual culture…

  3. Compact Information Representations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-02

    detections (e.g., DDoS attacks), machine learning, databases, and search. Fundamentally, compact data representations are highly beneficial because they...Blessing of Dimensionality: Recovering Mixture Data via Dictionary Pursuit, to appear in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence... Machine Learning (ICML), 2016 11. Ping Li, One Scan 1-Bit Compressed Sensing, in International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics

  4. Knowledge Representation in PARKA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    the color of Poodle could be restricted to being just black or white, while the color of Irish-Setter could be set to red. Note that this would allow a...sub- field of knowledge representation with considerable subtlety and a history of interesting, difficult problems (see, e.g. [10]). Winston et. al

  5. Reading Students' Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; McCosker, Natalie T.

    2011-01-01

    Representations play a key role in mathematical thinking: They offer "a medium" to express mathematical knowledge or organize mathematical information and to discern mathematical relationships (e.g., relative household expenditures on a pie chart) using text, symbols, or graphics. They also furnish "tools" for mathematical processes (e.g., use of…

  6. Women and political representation.

    PubMed

    Rathod, P B

    1999-01-01

    A remarkable progress in women's participation in politics throughout the world was witnessed in the final decade of the 20th century. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union report, there were only eight countries with no women in their legislatures in 1998. The number of women ministers at the cabinet level worldwide doubled in a decade, and the number of countries without any women ministers dropped from 93 to 48 during 1987-96. However, this progress is far from satisfactory. Political representation of women, minorities, and other social groups is still inadequate. This may be due to a complex combination of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional factors. The view that women's political participation increases with social and economic development is supported by data from the Nordic countries, where there are higher proportions of women legislators than in less developed countries. While better levels of socioeconomic development, having a women-friendly political culture, and higher literacy are considered favorable factors for women's increased political representation, adopting one of the proportional representation systems (such as a party-list system, a single transferable vote system, or a mixed proportional system with multi-member constituencies) is the single factor most responsible for the higher representation of women.

  7. Reading Students' Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; McCosker, Natalie T.

    2011-01-01

    Representations play a key role in mathematical thinking: They offer "a medium" to express mathematical knowledge or organize mathematical information and to discern mathematical relationships (e.g., relative household expenditures on a pie chart) using text, symbols, or graphics. They also furnish "tools" for mathematical processes (e.g., use of…

  8. The Problem of Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tervo, Juuso

    2012-01-01

    In "Postphysical Vision: Art Education's Challenge in an Age of Globalized Aesthetics (AMondofesto)" (2008) and "Beyond Aesthetics: Returning Force and Truth to Art and Its Education" (2009), jan jagodzinski argued for politics that go "beyond" representation--a project that radically questions visual culture…

  9. Representation in Memory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-07

    appear to contain visual, auditory, kinesthetic , and emotive components, in addition to the more abstract com- ponents necessary for the kinds of causal...it gets interpreted. . . . . . . . . o,. Rumelhart and Norman Representation in Memory June 7, 1983 81 being learned. The learner is expected to

  10. Identifying Representational Competence with Multi-Representational Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieff, Mike; Hegarty, Mary; Deslongchamps, Ghislain

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, multi-representational educational technologies are being deployed in science classrooms to support science learning and the development of representational competence. Several studies have indicated that students experience significant challenges working with these multi-representational displays and prefer to use only one…

  11. Identifying Representational Competence with Multi-Representational Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieff, Mike; Hegarty, Mary; Deslongchamps, Ghislain

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, multi-representational educational technologies are being deployed in science classrooms to support science learning and the development of representational competence. Several studies have indicated that students experience significant challenges working with these multi-representational displays and prefer to use only one…

  12. Standard model of knowledge representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  13. Naturalising Representational Content

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out a view about the explanatory role of representational content and advocates one approach to naturalising content – to giving a naturalistic account of what makes an entity a representation and in virtue of what it has the content it does. It argues for pluralism about the metaphysics of content and suggests that a good strategy is to ask the content question with respect to a variety of predictively successful information processing models in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience; and hence that data from psychology and cognitive neuroscience should play a greater role in theorising about the nature of content. Finally, the contours of the view are illustrated by drawing out and defending a surprising consequence: that individuation of vehicles of content is partly externalist. PMID:24563661

  14. Representation in incremental learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Work focused on two areas in machine learning: representation for inductive learning and how to apply concept learning techniques to learning state preferences, which can represent search control knowledge for problem solving. Specifically, in the first area the issues of the effect of representation on learning, on how learning formalisms are biased, and how concept learning can benefit from the use of a hybrid formalism are addressed. In the second area, the issues of developing an agent to learn search control knowledge from the relative values of states, of the source of that qualitative information, and of the ability to use both quantitative and qualitative information in order to develop an effective problem-solving policy are examined.

  15. Multiple Forms of Dynamic Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; VanLabeke, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    The terms dynamic representation and animation are often used as if they are synonymous, but in this paper we argue that there are multiple ways to represent phenomena that change over time. Time-persistent representations show a range of values over time. Time-implicit representations also show a range of values but not the specific times when…

  16. Representations in Mental Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    five, ojposed of c jmputer scientists, experimental psychologists, linguit philosophe and connectionists met to share views on representations and their... difficulty in developing an integrated, focussed discipline typical of the older Natural Sciences or of the more recently formed Neurosciences. The Problem for...into a useful, integrated framework. (See Peters and Kaplan.) The Nature of Cognitive Science The difficulty the group had in sharing a common

  17. Multiple Sparse Representations Classification

    PubMed Central

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan S.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Sparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small patch surrounding it. Using these patches, a dictionary is trained for each class in a supervised fashion. Commonly, redundant/overcomplete dictionaries are trained and image patches are sparsely represented by a linear combination of only a few of the dictionary elements. Given a set of trained dictionaries, a new patch is sparse coded using each of them, and subsequently assigned to the class whose dictionary yields the minimum residual energy. We propose a generalization of this scheme. The method, which we call multiple sparse representations classification (mSRC), is based on the observation that an overcomplete, class specific dictionary is capable of generating multiple accurate and independent estimates of a patch belonging to the class. So instead of finding a single sparse representation of a patch for each dictionary, we find multiple, and the corresponding residual energies provides an enhanced statistic which is used to improve classification. We demonstrate the efficacy of mSRC for three example applications: pixelwise classification of texture images, lumen segmentation in carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bifurcation point detection in carotid artery MRI. We compare our method with conventional SRC, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine classifiers. The results show that mSRC outperforms SRC and the other reference methods. In addition, we present an extensive evaluation of the effect of the main mSRC parameters: patch size, dictionary size, and

  18. The field representation language.

    PubMed

    Tsafnat, Guy

    2008-02-01

    The complexity of quantitative biomedical models, and the rate at which they are published, is increasing to a point where managing the information has become all but impossible without automation. International efforts are underway to standardise representation languages for a number of mathematical entities that represent a wide variety of physiological systems. This paper presents the Field Representation Language (FRL), a portable representation of values that change over space and/or time. FRL is an extensible mark-up language (XML) derivative with support for large numeric data sets in Hierarchical Data Format version 5 (HDF5). Components of FRL can be reused through unified resource identifiers (URI) that point to external resources such as custom basis functions, boundary geometries and numerical data. To demonstrate the use of FRL as an interchange we present three models that study hyperthermia cancer treatment: a fractal model of liver tumour microvasculature; a probabilistic model simulating the deposition of magnetic microspheres throughout it; and a finite element model of hyperthermic treatment. The microsphere distribution field was used to compute the heat generation rate field around the tumour. We used FRL to convey results from the microsphere simulation to the treatment model. FRL facilitated the conversion of the coordinate systems and approximated the integral over regions of the microsphere deposition field.

  19. Translation between representation languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  20. [Time perceptions and representations].

    PubMed

    Tordjman, S

    2015-09-01

    Representations of time and time measurements depend on subjective constructs that vary according to changes in our concepts, beliefs, societal needs and technical advances. Similarly, the past, the future and the present are subjective representations that depend on each individual's psychic time and biological time. Therefore, there is no single, one-size-fits-all time for everyone, but rather a different, subjective time for each individual. We need to acknowledge the existence of different inter-individual times but also intra-individual times, to which different functions and different rhythms are attached, depending on the system of reference. However, the construction of these time perceptions and representations is influenced by objective factors (physiological, physical and cognitive) related to neuroscience which will be presented and discussed in this article. Thus, studying representation and perception of time lies at the crossroads between neuroscience, human sciences and philosophy. Furthermore, it is possible to identify several constants among the many and various representations of time and their corresponding measures, regardless of the system of time reference. These include the notion of movements repeated in a stable rhythmic pattern involving the recurrence of the same interval of time, which enables us to define units of time of equal and invariable duration. This rhythmicity is also found at a physiological level and contributes through circadian rhythms, in particular the melatonin rhythm, to the existence of a biological time. Alterations of temporality in mental disorders will be also discussed in this article illustrated by certain developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders. In particular, the hypothesis will be developed that children with autism would need to create discontinuity out of continuity through stereotyped behaviors and/or interests. This discontinuity repeated at regular intervals could have been

  1. Representation of categories.

    PubMed

    Boot, Inge; Pecher, Diane

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether the mental representation of the concept categories is represented by the container image schema (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). In two experiments participants decided whether two pictures were from the same category (animal or vehicle). Pictures were presented inside or outside a frame that should activate the container schema. We found that performance to pictures was influenced by the frame in congruence with the metaphorical mapping (same category—inside bounded region; different category—not in same bounded region). These results show that the concept categories is metaphorically represented by containers.

  2. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1990-02-19

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a surface defined on a surface''. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is geometry processing''. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.

  3. Spinfoams in the holomorphic representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Eugenio; Magliaro, Elena; Perini, Claudio

    2010-12-01

    We study a holomorphic representation for spinfoams. The representation is obtained via the Ashtekar-Lewandowski-Marolf-Mourão-Thiemann coherent state transform. We derive the expression of the 4d spinfoam vertex for Euclidean and for Lorentzian gravity in the holomorphic representation. The advantage of this representation rests on the fact that the variables used have a clear interpretation in terms of a classical intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of space. We show how the peakedness on the extrinsic geometry selects a single exponential of the Regge action in the semiclassical large-scale asymptotics of the spinfoam vertex.

  4. Improving Evolvability through Generative Representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    One of the main limitations of computer automated design systems is the representation used for encoding designs. Using computer programs as an analogy, representations can be thought of as having the properties of combination, control-flow and abstraction. Generative representations are those which have the ability to reuse elements in an encoding through either iteration, a form of control-flow, or abstraction. Here we argue that generative representations improve the evolvability of designs by capturing design dependencies in a way that makes them easier to change, and we support this with examples from two design substrates.

  5. Resource representation in COMPASS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Barry R.

    1991-01-01

    A set of viewgraphs on resource representation in COMPASS is given. COMPASS is an incremental, interactive, non-chronological scheduler written in Ada with an X-windows user interface. Beginning with an empty schedule, activities are added to the schedule one at a time, taking into consideration the placement of the activities already on the timeline and the resources that have been reserved for them. The order that the activities are added to the timeline and their location on the timeline are controlled by selection and placement commands invoked by the user. The order that activities are added to the timeline and their location are independent. The COMPASS code library is a cost effective platform for the development of new scheduling applications. It can be effectively used off the shelf for compatible scheduling applications or it can be used as a parts library for the development of custom scheduling systems.

  6. Intentionality, Representation, and Anticipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Preester, Helena

    2002-09-01

    Both Brentano and Merleau-Ponty have developed an account of intentionality, which nevertheless differ profoundly in the following respect. According to Brentano, intentionality mainly is a matter of mental presentations. This marks the beginning of phenomenology's difficult relation with the nature of the intentional reference. Merleau-Ponty, on the other hand, has situated intentionality on the level of the body, a turn which has important implications for the nature of intentionality. Intentionality no longer is primarily based on having (re)presentations, but is rooted in the dynamics of the living body. To contrast those approaches enables us to make clear in what way intentionality is studied nowadays. On the one hand, intentionality is conceived of as a matter of formal-syntactical causality in cognitive science, and in particular in classical-computational theory. On the other hand, a interactivist approach offers a more Merleau-Ponty-like point of view, in which autonomy, embodiment and interaction are stressed.

  7. Age Differences in Symbolic Representation: Fluidity in Representational Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifel, Stuart

    This paper reports a cross-sectional, developmental study of the fluidity of children's mental functioning (representational skills) in contexts involving the representational use of blocks. Data were collected from a sample of 40 children from a laboratory school: 20 four-year-olds and 20 seven-year-olds, with an equal number of boys and girls in…

  8. Preschool Children's Participation in Representational and Non-Representational Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Gregory S.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined representational and non-representational activities in which children in a Head Start classroom participated. This was an investigation from the perspective of cultural-historical activity theory of how components (e.g. artifacts and division of labour) of classroom activities vary across and within types of activities.…

  9. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1991-04-02

    Modern computing resources permit the generation of large amounts of numerical data. These large data sets, if left in numerical form, can be overwhelming. Such large data sets are usually discrete points from some underlying physical phenomenon. Because we need to evaluate the phenomenon at places where we don't have data, a continuous representation (a surface'') is required. A simple example is a weather map obtained from a discrete set of weather stations. (For more examples including multi-dimensional ones, see the article by Dr. Rosemary Chang in the enclosed IRIS Universe). In order to create a scientific structure encompassing the data, we construct an interpolating mathematical surface which can evaluate at arbitrary locations. We can also display and analyze the results via interactive computer graphics. In our research we construct a very wide variety of surfaces for applied geometry problems that have sound theoretical foundations. However, our surfaces have the distinguishing feature that they are constructed to solve short or long term practical problems. This DOE-funded project has developed the premiere research team in the subject of constructing surfaces (3D and higher dimensional) that provide smooth representations of real scientific and engineering information, including state of the art computer graphics visualizations. However, our main contribution is in the development of fundamental constructive mathematical methods and visualization techniques which can be incorporated into a wide variety of applications. This project combines constructive mathematics, algorithms, and computer graphics, all applied to real problems. The project is a unique resource, considered by our peers to be a de facto national center for this type of research.

  10. Representation of Fuzzy Symmetric Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-19

    Std Z39-18 REPRESENTATION OF FUZZY SYMMETRIC RELATIONS L. Valverde Dept. de Matematiques i Estadistica Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya Avda...REPRESENTATION OF FUZZY SYMMETRIC RELATIONS L. "Valverde* Dept. de Matematiques i Estadistica Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya Avda. Diagonal, 649

  11. Scientific Representation and Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matta, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine three examples of philosophical theories of scientific representation with the aim of assessing which of these is a good candidate for a philosophical theory of scientific representation in science learning. The three candidate theories are Giere's intentional approach, Suárez's inferential approach and Lynch and…

  12. Symbolic representation of probabilistic worlds.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jacob

    2012-04-01

    Symbolic representation of environmental variables is a ubiquitous and often debated component of cognitive science. Yet notwithstanding centuries of philosophical discussion, the efficacy, scope, and validity of such representation has rarely been given direct consideration from a mathematical point of view. This paper introduces a quantitative measure of the effectiveness of symbolic representation, and develops formal constraints under which such representation is in fact warranted. The effectiveness of symbolic representation hinges on the probabilistic structure of the environment that is to be represented. For arbitrary probability distributions (i.e., environments), symbolic representation is generally not warranted. But in modal environments, defined here as those that consist of mixtures of component distributions that are narrow ("spiky") relative to their spreads, symbolic representation can be shown to represent the environment with a relatively negligible loss of information. Modal environments support propositional forms, logical relations, and other familiar features of symbolic representation. Hence the assumption that our environment is, in fact, modal is a key tacit assumption underlying the use of symbols in cognitive science.

  13. Symbolic Representation of Probabilistic Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic representation of environmental variables is a ubiquitous and often debated component of cognitive science. Yet notwithstanding centuries of philosophical discussion, the efficacy, scope, and validity of such representation has rarely been given direct consideration from a mathematical point of view. This paper introduces a quantitative…

  14. Learning with Interactive Graphical Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saljo, Roger, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The seven articles of this theme issue deal with the use of computer-based interactive graphical representations. Studying their use will bring answers to users of static graphics in traditional paper-based media and those who plan instruction using graphical representations that allow semantically direct manipulation. (SLD)

  15. Revealing Children's Implicit Spelling Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Critten, Sarah; Pine, Karen J.; Messer, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned…

  16. Scientific Representation and Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matta, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine three examples of philosophical theories of scientific representation with the aim of assessing which of these is a good candidate for a philosophical theory of scientific representation in science learning. The three candidate theories are Giere's intentional approach, Suárez's inferential approach and Lynch and…

  17. Revealing Children's Implicit Spelling Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Critten, Sarah; Pine, Karen J.; Messer, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned…

  18. The Representational Value of Hats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.; Fitzallen, Noleine E.; Wilson, Karen G.; Creed, Julie F.

    2008-01-01

    The literature that is available on the topic of representations in mathematics is vast. One commonly discussed item is graphical representations. From the history of mathematics to modern uses of technology, a variety of graphical forms are available for middle school students to use to represent mathematical ideas. The ideas range from algebraic…

  19. The Representational Value of Hats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.; Fitzallen, Noleine E.; Wilson, Karen G.; Creed, Julie F.

    2008-01-01

    The literature that is available on the topic of representations in mathematics is vast. One commonly discussed item is graphical representations. From the history of mathematics to modern uses of technology, a variety of graphical forms are available for middle school students to use to represent mathematical ideas. The ideas range from algebraic…

  20. A generalized wavelet extrema representation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jian; Lades, M.

    1995-10-01

    The wavelet extrema representation originated by Stephane Mallat is a unique framework for low-level and intermediate-level (feature) processing. In this paper, we present a new form of wavelet extrema representation generalizing Mallat`s original work. The generalized wavelet extrema representation is a feature-based multiscale representation. For a particular choice of wavelet, our scheme can be interpreted as representing a signal or image by its edges, and peaks and valleys at multiple scales. Such a representation is shown to be stable -- the original signal or image can be reconstructed with very good quality. It is further shown that a signal or image can be modeled as piecewise monotonic, with all turning points between monotonic segments given by the wavelet extrema. A new projection operator is introduced to enforce piecewise inonotonicity of a signal in its reconstruction. This leads to an enhancement to previously developed algorithms in preventing artifacts in reconstructed signal.

  1. Revealing children's implicit spelling representations.

    PubMed

    Critten, Sarah; Pine, Karen J; Messer, David J

    2013-06-01

    Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned by increasingly explicit levels of spelling representation. However, their proposal that implicit representations may underlie early 'visually based' spelling remains unresolved. Children (N = 101, aged 4-6 years) were given a recognition task (Critten et al., 2007) and a novel production task, both involving verbal justifications of why spellings are correct/incorrect, strategy use and word pattern similarity. Results for both tasks supported an implicit level of spelling characterized by the ability to correctly recognize/produce words but the inability to explain operational strategies or generalize knowledge. Explicit levels and multiple representations were also in evidence across the two tasks. Implications for cognitive mechanisms underlying spelling development are discussed.

  2. Archival Representation in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the representation systems of three digitized archival collections using the traditional archival representation framework of provenance, order, and content. The results of the study reveal a prominent role of provenance representation, a compromised role of order representation, and an active role of content representation in…

  3. Multiple Representations of Buoyancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliviera, Jessica; Weglarz, Meredith; Vesenka, James

    2009-10-01

    For many students the concept of buoyancy falls under a category that can be loosely described as ``knowing it when they see it.'' Unfortunately some of the misconceptions this generates are that ``objects float because they are light'' and ``objects float because they are full of air'' [1]. Those these can some times be true, these descriptions are vague at best, and frequently can be wrong. Part of these misconceptions may stem from incomplete immersion of the object in the fluid and the vector nature of forces. We describe a demonstration/lab activity to help students make sense about relationship between the tension on and weight of an object immersed in water. The activity is in rich in multiple representations, graphical, diagrammatical as well as mathematical. A simple four question multiple choice pre/post test survey has been developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the lab activity.[4pt] [1] Bruce Harlan ``Diving Science'', www.stmatthewsschool.com/deep/pdfs/Diving%20Science.pdf

  4. Representation of research hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypotheses are now being automatically produced on an industrial scale by computers in biology, e.g. the annotation of a genome is essentially a large set of hypotheses generated by sequence similarity programs; and robot scientists enable the full automation of a scientific investigation, including generation and testing of research hypotheses. Results This paper proposes a logically defined way for recording automatically generated hypotheses in machine amenable way. The proposed formalism allows the description of complete hypotheses sets as specified input and output for scientific investigations. The formalism supports the decomposition of research hypotheses into more specialised hypotheses if that is required by an application. Hypotheses are represented in an operational way – it is possible to design an experiment to test them. The explicit formal description of research hypotheses promotes the explicit formal description of the results and conclusions of an investigation. The paper also proposes a framework for automated hypotheses generation. We demonstrate how the key components of the proposed framework are implemented in the Robot Scientist “Adam”. Conclusions A formal representation of automatically generated research hypotheses can help to improve the way humans produce, record, and validate research hypotheses. Availability http://www.aber.ac.uk/en/cs/research/cb/projects/robotscientist/results/ PMID:21624164

  5. Representations of filtered solvable Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Panov, Alexander N

    2012-01-31

    The representation theory of filtered solvable Lie algebras is constructed. In this framework a classification of irreducible representations is obtained and spectra of some reducible representations are found. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  6. Representations of mechanical assembly sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homem De Mello, Luiz S.; Sanderson, Arthur C.

    1991-01-01

    Five types of representations for assembly sequences are reviewed: the directed graph of feasible assembly sequences, the AND/OR graph of feasible assembly sequences, the set of establishment conditions, and two types of sets of precedence relationships. (precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection between parts and the establishment of another connection, and precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection and states of the assembly process). The mappings of one representation into the others are established. The correctness and completeness of these representations are established. The results presented are needed in the proof of correctness and completeness of algorithms for the generation of mechanical assembly sequences.

  7. Attitude Representations for Kalman Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The four-component quaternion has the lowest dimensionality possible for a globally nonsingular attitude representation, it represents the attitude matrix as a homogeneous quadratic function, and its dynamic propagation equation is bilinear in the quaternion and the angular velocity. The quaternion is required to obey a unit norm constraint, though, so Kalman filters often employ a quaternion for the global attitude estimate and a three-component representation for small errors about the estimate. We consider these mixed attitude representations for both a first-order Extended Kalman filter and a second-order filter, as well for quaternion-norm-preserving attitude propagation.

  8. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  9. Computer representation of molecular surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.L.

    1981-07-06

    This review article surveys recent work on computer representation of molecular surfaces. Several different algorithms are discussed for producing vector or raster drawings of space-filling models formed as the union of spheres. Other smoother surfaces are also considered.

  10. Graphical Representation of Complex Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renka, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes methods and software for graphing representation of a complex function of a complex variable. Includes an application of a graphical interpretation of the complex zeros of the cubic and their properties. (PK)

  11. Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter

    Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.

  12. Progress in knowledge representation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry

    1985-01-01

    Brief descriptions are given of research being carried out in the field of knowledge representation. Dynamic simulation and modelling of planning systems with real-time sensor inputs; development of domain-independent knowledge representation tools which can be used in the development of application-specific expert and planning systems; and development of a space-borne very high speed integrated circuit processor are among the projects discussed.

  13. Data Representations for Geographic Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Clifford A.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys the field and literature of geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial data representation as it relates to GIS. Highlights include GIS terms, data types, and operations; vector representations and raster, or grid, representations; spatial indexing; elevation data representations; large spatial databases; and problem areas and future…

  14. Culture as shared cognitive representations.

    PubMed Central

    Romney, A K; Boyd, J P; Moore, C C; Batchelder, W H; Brazill, T J

    1996-01-01

    Culture consists of shared cognitive representations in the minds of individuals. This paper investigates the extent to which English speakers share the "same" semantic structure of English kinship terms. The semantic structure is defined as the arrangement of the terms relative to each other as represented in a metric space in which items judged more similar are placed closer to each other than items judged as less similar. The cognitive representation of the semantic structure, residing in the mind of an individual, is measured by judged similarity tasks involving comparisons among terms. Using six independent measurements, from each of 122 individuals, correspondence analysis represents the data in a common multidimensional spatial representation. Judged by a variety of statistical procedures, the individuals in our sample share virtually identical cognitive representations of the semantic structure of kinship terms. This model of culture accounts for 70-90% of the total variability in these data. We argue that our findings on kinship should generalize to all semantic domains--e.g., animals, emotions, etc. The investigation of semantic domains is important because they may reside in localized functional units in the brain, because they relate to a variety of cognitive processes, and because they have the potential to provide methods for diagnosing individual breakdowns in the structure of cognitive representations typical of such ailments as Alzheimer disease. PMID:11607678

  15. Executive control influences linguistic representations.

    PubMed

    Lev-Ari, Shiri; Keysar, Boaz

    2014-02-01

    Although it is known that words acquire their meanings partly from the contexts in which they are used, we proposed that the way in which words are processed can also influence their representation. We further propose that individual differences in the way that words are processed can consequently lead to individual differences in the way that they are represented. Specifically, we showed that executive control influences linguistic representations by influencing the coactivation of competing and reinforcing terms. Consequently, people with poorer executive control perceive the meanings of homonymous terms as being more similar to one another, and those of polysemous terms as being less similar to one another, than do people with better executive control. We also showed that bilinguals with poorer executive control experience greater cross-linguistic interference than do bilinguals with better executive control. These results have implications for theories of linguistic representation and language organization.

  16. Psychosexuality and the representational world.

    PubMed

    Stolorow, R D

    1979-01-01

    The sensual experiences, fantasies and enactments that occur in the course of normal development are seen as psychic organizers which contribute vitally to the structuralization of the representational world. In the sexual perversions which occur in structurally deficient, developmentally arrested individuals, this function of early psychosexual experiences has been retained and is regressively relied upon in order to restore or sustain the cohesion and stability of crumbling, fragmenting or disintegrating self and object representations. Analytic exploration of the details of perverse fantasies and acts, their origins and functions, reveals the particular ways in which they compensate for specific structural weaknesses in patients' representational worlds. Some clinical illustrations and therapeutic implications of these formulations are briefly presented.

  17. Representation of Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Roscoe B. White

    2013-01-15

    One of the most fundamental properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is the condition that plasma motion cannot change magnetic topology. The conventional representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes by perturbing a toroidal equilibrium field through δ Β = ∇ X (xi X B) ensures that δ B • ∇ ψ = 0 at a resonance, with ψ labelling an equilibrium flux surface. Also useful for the analysis of guiding center orbits in a perturbed field is the representation δ Β = ∇ X αB. These two representations are equivalent, but the vanishing of δ B • ∇ψ at a resonance is necessary but not sufficient for the preservation of field line topology, and a indiscriminate use of either perturbation in fact destroys the original equilibrium flux topology. It is necessary to find the perturbed field to all orders in xi to conserve the original topology. The effect of using linearized perturbations on stability and growth rate calculations is discussed

  18. Representational issues in machine learning

    SciTech Connect

    Liepins, G.E.; Hilliard, M.R.

    1986-10-25

    Classifier systems are numeric machine learning systems. They are machine counterparts to the natural genetic process and learn by reproduction, crossover, and mutation. Much publicity has been attended to their ability to demonstrate significant learning from a random start and without human intervention. Less well publicized is the considerable care that must be given to the choices of parameter settings and representation. Without the proper ''nurturing environment'' genetic algorithms are apt to learn very little. This infusion of human intelligence is often discounted, but the choice of appropriate representation forms the core of much of the current genetic algorithm research. This paper will address some of the representational issues from the perspective of two current experiments, one with scheduling and the other with a simulated robot. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Assessing value representation in animals.

    PubMed

    San-Galli, Aurore; Bouret, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Among all factors modulating our motivation to perform a given action, the ability to represent its outcome is clearly the most determining. Representation of outcomes, rewards in particular, and how they guide behavior, have sparked much research. Both practically and theoretically, understanding the relationship between the representation of outcome value and the organization of goal directed behavior implies that these two processes can be assessed independently. Most of animal studies essentially used instrumental actions as a proxy for the expected goal-value. The purpose of this article is to consider alternative measures of expected outcome value in animals, which are critical to understand the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms relating the representation of the expected outcome to the organization of the behavior oriented towards its obtention. This would be critical in the field of decision making or social interactions, where the value of multiple items must often be compared and/or shared among individuals to determine the course of actions.

  20. The Statistics of Visual Representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Woodell, Glenn A.

    2002-01-01

    The experience of retinex image processing has prompted us to reconsider fundamental aspects of imaging and image processing. Foremost is the idea that a good visual representation requires a non-linear transformation of the recorded (approximately linear) image data. Further, this transformation appears to converge on a specific distribution. Here we investigate the connection between numerical and visual phenomena. Specifically the questions explored are: (1) Is there a well-defined consistent statistical character associated with good visual representations? (2) Does there exist an ideal visual image? And (3) what are its statistical properties?

  1. Medieval theories of mental representation.

    PubMed

    Kemp, S

    1998-11-01

    Throughout most of the Middle ages, it was generally held that stored mental representations of perceived objects or events preserved the forms or species of such objects. This belief was consistent with a metaphor used by Plato. It was also consistent with the medieval belief that a number of cognitive processes took place in the ventricles of the brain and with the phenomenology of afterimages and imagination itself. In the 14th century, William of Ockham challenged this belief by claiming that mental representations are not stored but instead constructed in the basis of past learned experiences.

  2. Cross-modal influences on representational momentum and representational gravity.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L; Courtney, Jon R

    2010-01-01

    Effects of cross-modal information on representational momentum and on representational gravity (ie on displacement of remembered location in the direction of target motion or in the direction of gravitational attraction, respectively) were examined. In experiment 1, ascending or descending visual motion (in the picture plane) was paired with ascending or descending auditory motion (in frequency space); motion was congruent (both ascending, both descending) or incongruent (one ascending, one descending). Memory for visual location or auditory pitch was probed. Congruence resulted in larger forward displacement for auditory pitch, but did not influence forward displacement for visual location. In experiment 2, horizontal visual motion was paired with ascending, descending, or no auditory motion. Memory for visual location was displaced downward with descending or no auditory motion, and downward displacement was larger for visual motion paired with descending auditory motion than for visual motion paired with ascending auditory motion. Effects of cross-modal information on displacement suggest representational momentum and representational gravity reflect high-level processing.

  3. Rotation-independent representations for haptic movements.

    PubMed

    Shioiri, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Takanori; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The existence of a common mechanism for visual and haptic representations has been reported in object perception. In contrast, representations of movements might be more specific to modalities. Referring to the vertical axis is natural for visual representations whereas a fixed reference axis might be inappropriate for haptic movements and thus also inappropriate for its representations in the brain. The present study found that visual and haptic movement representations are processed independently. A psychophysical experiment examining mental rotation revealed the well-known effect of rotation angle for visual representations whereas no such effect was found for haptic representations. We also found no interference between processes for visual and haptic movements in an experiment where different stimuli were presented simultaneously through visual and haptic modalities. These results strongly suggest that (1) there are separate representations of visual and haptic movements, and (2) the haptic process has a rotation-independent representation.

  4. Biome representational in silico karyotyping

    PubMed Central

    Muthappan, Valliammai; Lee, Aaron Y.; Lamprecht, Tamara L.; Akileswaran, Lakshmi; Dintzis, Suzanne M.; Lee, Choli; Magrini, Vincent; Mardis, Elaine R.; Shendure, Jay; Van Gelder, Russell N.

    2011-01-01

    Metagenomic characterization of complex biomes remains challenging. Here we describe a modification of digital karyotyping—biome representational in silico karyotyping (BRISK)—as a general technique for analyzing a defined representation of all DNA present in a sample. BRISK utilizes a Type IIB DNA restriction enzyme to create a defined representation of 27-mer DNAs in a sample. Massively parallel sequencing of this representation allows for construction of high-resolution karyotypes and identification of multiple species within a biome. Application to normal human tissue demonstrated linear recovery of tags by chromosome. We apply this technique to the biome of the oral mucosa and find that greater than 25% of recovered DNA is nonhuman. DNA from 41 microbial species could be identified from oral mucosa of two subjects. Of recovered nonhuman sequences, fewer than 30% are currently annotated. We characterized seven prevalent unknown sequences by chromosome walking and find these represent novel microbial sequences including two likely derived from novel phage genomes. Application of BRISK to archival tissue from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma resulted in identification of Epstein-Barr virus infection. These results suggest that BRISK is a powerful technique for the analysis of complex microbiomes and potentially for pathogen discovery. PMID:21324882

  5. Biome representational in silico karyotyping.

    PubMed

    Muthappan, Valliammai; Lee, Aaron Y; Lamprecht, Tamara L; Akileswaran, Lakshmi; Dintzis, Suzanne M; Lee, Choli; Magrini, Vincent; Mardis, Elaine R; Shendure, Jay; Van Gelder, Russell N

    2011-04-01

    Metagenomic characterization of complex biomes remains challenging. Here we describe a modification of digital karyotyping-biome representational in silico karyotyping (BRISK)-as a general technique for analyzing a defined representation of all DNA present in a sample. BRISK utilizes a Type IIB DNA restriction enzyme to create a defined representation of 27-mer DNAs in a sample. Massively parallel sequencing of this representation allows for construction of high-resolution karyotypes and identification of multiple species within a biome. Application to normal human tissue demonstrated linear recovery of tags by chromosome. We apply this technique to the biome of the oral mucosa and find that greater than 25% of recovered DNA is nonhuman. DNA from 41 microbial species could be identified from oral mucosa of two subjects. Of recovered nonhuman sequences, fewer than 30% are currently annotated. We characterized seven prevalent unknown sequences by chromosome walking and find these represent novel microbial sequences including two likely derived from novel phage genomes. Application of BRISK to archival tissue from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma resulted in identification of Epstein-Barr virus infection. These results suggest that BRISK is a powerful technique for the analysis of complex microbiomes and potentially for pathogen discovery.

  6. Mental Representations of Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Bordeaux, Andrew R.; Ambady, Nalni

    2004-01-01

    How do people think about social status? We investigated the nature of social status and number representations using a semantic distance latency test. In Study 1, 21 college students compared words connoting different social status as well as numbers, which served as a control task. Participants were faster at comparing occupations and numbers…

  7. Grobner Basis Representations of Sudoku

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taalman, Laura; Arnold, Elizabeth; Lucas, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses Grobner bases to explore the inherent structure of Sudoku puzzles and boards. In particular, we develop three different ways of representing the constraints of Sudoku puzzles with a system of polynomial equations. In one case, we explicitly show how a Grobner basis can be used to obtain a more meaningful representation of the…

  8. A qualia representation of cyberspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Timothy H.; Mills, Robert F.; Raines, Richard A.; Oxley, Mark E.; Bauer, Kenneth W.; Rogers, Steven K.

    2008-04-01

    E.C Adam defined Situational Awareness (SA) as "the mental representation and understanding of objects, events, people, system states, interactions, environmental conditions, and other situation-specific factors affecting human performance in complex and dynamic tasks. Stated in lay terms, SA is simply knowing what is going on so you can figure out what to do." We propose a novel idea to assist the human in gaining SA. Our hypothesis is that nature uses qualia as a compression scheme to represent the many concepts encountered in everyday life. Qualia enable humans to quickly come up with SA based on many complex measurements from their sensors, (eyes, ears, taste, touch, memory, etc.), expectations, and experiences. Our ultimate objective is to develop a computer that uses qualia concepts to transform sensor data to assist the human in gaining and maintaining improved SA. However, before any computer can use qualia, we must first define a representation for qualia that can be implemented computationally. This paper will present our representation for qualia. The representation is not simply a hierarchical aggregation of input data. Instead, it is a prediction of what will happen next, derived from computations resulting from sensory inputs and the computational engine of a qualia generator and qualia processor.

  9. Correct Representation of Conformational Equilibria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulop, F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In representing conformational equilibria of compounds having only one chiral center, erroneous formulas showing different antipodes on the two sides of the equilibrium are rare. In contrast, with compounds having two or more chiral centers especially with saturated heterocycles, this erroneous representation occurs frequently in the chemical…

  10. Lie antialgebras: cohomology and representations

    SciTech Connect

    Ovsienko, V.

    2008-11-18

    We describe the main algebraic and geometric properties of the class of algebras introduced in [1]. We discuss their origins in symplectic geometry and associative algebra, and the notions of cohomology and representations. We formulate classification theorems and give a number of examples.

  11. Representational Momentum in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Andrea S.; Jakobson, Lorna S.

    2011-01-01

    Humans have a tendency to perceive motion even in static images that simply "imply" movement. This tendency is so strong that our memory for actions depicted in static images is distorted in the direction of implied motion--a phenomenon known as representational momentum (RM). In the present study, we created an RM display depicting a pattern of…

  12. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  13. Representational learning for sonar ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacs, Jason C.

    2014-06-01

    Learned representations have been shown to give hopeful results for solving a multitude of novel learning tasks, even though these tasks may be unknown when the model is being trained. A few notable examples include the techniques of topic models, deep belief networks, deep Boltzmann machines, and local discriminative Gaussians, all inspired by human learning. This self-learning of new concepts via rich generative models has emerged as a promising area of research in machine learning. Although there has been recent progress, existing computational models are still far from being able to represent, identify and learn the wide variety of possible patterns and struc- ture in real-world data. An important issue for further consideration is the use of unsupervised representations for novel underwater target recognition applications. This work will discuss and demonstrate the use of latent Dirichlet allocation and autoencoders for learning unsupervised representations of objects in sonar imagery. The objective is to make these representations more abstract and invariant to noise in the training distribution and improve performance.

  14. Asymptotic and Fredholm representations of discrete groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuilov, V. M.; Mishchenko, A. S.

    1998-10-01

    A C^*-algebra servicing the theory of asymptotic representations and its embedding into the Calkin algebra that induces an isomorphism of K_1-groups is constructed. As a consequence, it is shown that all vector bundles over the classifying space B\\pi that can be obtained by means of asymptotic representations of a discrete group \\pi can also be obtained by means of representations of the group \\pi \\times {\\mathbb Z} into the Calkin algebra. A generalization of the concept of Fredholm representation is also suggested, and it is shown that an asymptotic representation can be regarded as an asymptotic Fredholm representation.

  15. Knowledge representation in fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, Lotfi A.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a summary of the basic concepts and techniques underlying the application of fuzzy logic to knowledge representation. He then describes a number of examples relating to its use as a computational system for dealing with uncertainty and imprecision in the context of knowledge, meaning, and inference. It is noted that one of the basic aims of fuzzy logic is to provide a computational framework for knowledge representation and inference in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. In such environments, fuzzy logic is effective when the solutions need not be precise and/or it is acceptable for a conclusion to have a dispositional rather than categorical validity. The importance of fuzzy logic derives from the fact that there are many real-world applications which fit these conditions, especially in the realm of knowledge-based systems for decision-making and control.

  16. Berry phase in Heisenberg representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, V. A.; Klimov, Andrei B.; Lerner, Peter B.

    1994-01-01

    We define the Berry phase for the Heisenberg operators. This definition is motivated by the calculation of the phase shifts by different techniques. These techniques are: the solution of the Heisenberg equations of motion, the solution of the Schrodinger equation in coherent-state representation, and the direct computation of the evolution operator. Our definition of the Berry phase in the Heisenberg representation is consistent with the underlying supersymmetry of the model in the following sense. The structural blocks of the Hamiltonians of supersymmetrical quantum mechanics ('superpairs') are connected by transformations which conserve the similarity in structure of the energy levels of superpairs. These transformations include transformation of phase of the creation-annihilation operators, which are generated by adiabatic cyclic evolution of the parameters of the system.

  17. Mental representations of social status.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Joan Y; Bordeaux, Andrew R; Ambady, Nalini

    2004-09-01

    How do people think about social status? We investigated the nature of social status and number representations using a semantic distance latency test. In Study 1, 21 college students compared words connoting different social status as well as numbers, which served as a control task. Participants were faster at comparing occupations and numbers that were semantically farther apart relative to those more closely related. In Study 2, we examined the semantic distance effect for a social status category, for which participants have as much knowledge of, as with numbers. We asked 15 US Navy Midshipmen to compare the social status associated with different ranks in the Navy as well as compare number magnitudes. Participants were fastest when comparing ranks far in status relative to ranks close in status. These findings reveal that humans have mental representations of social status that share properties with that of number.

  18. Time representations in social science

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Yvan

    2012-01-01

    Time has long been a major topic of study in social science, as in other sciences or in philosophy. Social scientists have tended to focus on collective representations of time, and on the ways in which these representations shape our everyday experiences. This contribution addresses work from such disciplines as anthropology, sociology and history. It focuses on several of the main theories that have preoccupied specialists in social science, such as the alleged “acceleration” of life and overgrowth of the present in contemporary Western societies, or the distinction between so-called linear and circular conceptions of time. The presentation of these theories is accompanied by some of the critiques they have provoked, in order to enable the reader to form her or his own opinion of them. PMID:23393420

  19. Time representations in social science.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Yvan

    2012-12-01

    Time has long been a major topic of study in social science, as in other sciences or in philosophy. Social scientists have tended to focus on collective representations of time, and on the ways in which these representations shape our everyday experiences. This contribution addresses work from such disciplines as anthropology, sociology and history. It focuses on several of the main theories that have preoccupied specialists in social science, such as the alleged "acceleration" of life and overgrowth of the present in contemporary Western societies, or the distinction between so-called linear and circular conceptions of time. The presentation of these theories is accompanied by some of the critiques they have provoked, in order to enable the reader to form her or his own opinion of them.

  20. Knowledge representation in fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, Lotfi A.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a summary of the basic concepts and techniques underlying the application of fuzzy logic to knowledge representation. He then describes a number of examples relating to its use as a computational system for dealing with uncertainty and imprecision in the context of knowledge, meaning, and inference. It is noted that one of the basic aims of fuzzy logic is to provide a computational framework for knowledge representation and inference in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. In such environments, fuzzy logic is effective when the solutions need not be precise and/or it is acceptable for a conclusion to have a dispositional rather than categorical validity. The importance of fuzzy logic derives from the fact that there are many real-world applications which fit these conditions, especially in the realm of knowledge-based systems for decision-making and control.

  1. Representations of mad cow disease.

    PubMed

    Washer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the reporting of the story of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and its human derivative variant Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease (vCJD) in the British newspapers. Three 'snapshots' of newspaper coverage are sampled and analysed between the period 1986 and 1996 focusing on how representations of the disease evolved over the 10-year period. Social representations theory is used to elucidate how this new disease threat was conceptualised in the newspaper reporting and how it was explained to the UK public. This paper examines who or what was said to be at risk from the new disease, and whether some individuals or groups held to blame for the diseases' putative origins, the appearance of vCJD in human beings, and its spread.

  2. Free boundary ballooning mode representation

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L. J.

    2012-10-15

    A new type of ballooning mode invariance is found in this paper. Application of this invariance is shown to be able to reduce the two-dimensional problem of free boundary high n modes, such as the peeling-ballooning modes, to a one-dimensional problem. Here, n is toroidal mode number. In contrast to the conventional ballooning representation, which requires the translational invariance of the Fourier components of the perturbations, the new invariance reflects that the independent solutions of the high n mode equations are translationally invariant from one radial interval surrounding a single singular surface to the other intervals. The conventional ballooning mode invariance breaks down at the vicinity of plasma edge, since the Fourier components with rational surfaces in vacuum region are completely different from those with rational surfaces in plasma region. But, the new type of invariance remains valid. This overcomes the limitation of the conventional ballooning mode representation for studying free boundary modes.

  3. 48 CFR 1480.803 - Representation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... enterprise to an IA CO in the IEE representation at 1452.280-4 in response to a specific solicitation under the Buy Indian Act. (c) The CO may ask the appropriate Regional Solicitor to review the enterprise's representation. (d) The IEE representation does not relieve the CO of the obligation for determining...

  4. Promoting Decimal Number Sense and Representational Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Jennifer M.; Johnston, Chris; Jamieson, Spencer; Mills, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The abstract nature of mathematics requires the communication of mathematical ideas through multiple representations, such as words, symbols, pictures, objects, or actions. Building representational fluency involves using mathematical representations flexibly and being able to interpret and translate among these different models and mathematical…

  5. Promoting Decimal Number Sense and Representational Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Jennifer M.; Johnston, Chris; Jamieson, Spencer; Mills, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The abstract nature of mathematics requires the communication of mathematical ideas through multiple representations, such as words, symbols, pictures, objects, or actions. Building representational fluency involves using mathematical representations flexibly and being able to interpret and translate among these different models and mathematical…

  6. STORM: A STatistical Object Representation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Rafanelli, M. ); Shoshani, A. )

    1989-11-01

    In this paper we explore the structure and semantic properties of the entities stored in statistical databases. We call such entities statistical objects'' (SOs) and propose a new statistical object representation model,'' based on a graph representation. We identify a number of SO representational problems in current models and propose a methodology for their solution. 11 refs.

  7. Imitation and the Dialectic of Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelazo, Philip David; Lourenco, Stella Felix

    2003-01-01

    Describes a theory of the understanding and use of representations, drawing heavily on Paul Ricoeur's and James Mark Baldwin's theories. Presents this theory as construing representation as intrinsically mimetic, characterizing the development of representational understanding as internalization, and emphasizing the importance of self-reflection…

  8. Methods and Strategies: The Science Representation Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joanne K.

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that people more easily understand abstractions when they are preceded by concrete representations (Lawson 2002). This article describes how educators can use science representations to help students form lasting understandings of abstract concepts. A spectrum illustrating some commonly used representation types and their level…

  9. 27 CFR 71.30 - Personal representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Personal representation. 71.30 Section 71.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... General Representation at Hearings § 71.30 Personal representation. Any individual or member of a...

  10. Facilitating Mathematical Practices through Visual Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murata, Aki; Stewart, Chana

    2017-01-01

    Effective use of mathematical representation is key to supporting student learning. In "Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All" (NCTM 2014), "use and connect mathematical representations" is one of the effective Mathematics Teaching Practices. By using different representations, students examine concepts…

  11. 33 CFR 20.301 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation. 20.301 Section 20... Motions § 20.301 Representation. (a) A party may appear— (1) Without counsel; (2) With an attorney; or (3... United States. A personal representation of membership is sufficient proof, unless the ALJ orders more...

  12. 29 CFR 18.34 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Representation. 18.34 Section 18.34 Labor Office of the... ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.34 Representation. (a) Appearances. Any party shall have the right to... own representation that he or she is in good standing before any of such courts shall be sufficient...

  13. 24 CFR 180.305 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Representation. 180.305 Section 180... Representation. (a) HUD is represented by the General Counsel. (b) Any party may appear on his/her/its own behalf... State. The attorney's representation that he/she is in good standing before any of these courts is...

  14. 27 CFR 71.30 - Personal representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal representation. 71.30 Section 71.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... General Representation at Hearings § 71.30 Personal representation. Any individual or member of a...

  15. 76 FR 37291 - Representation Case Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... BOARD 29 CFR Parts 101, 102, 103 RIN 3142-AAO8 Representation Case Procedures AGENCY: National Labor... amendments to the Board's rules governing representation case procedures, published at 76 FR 15307 (June 22, 2011) and make other proposals for improving representation case procedures. DATES: The meeting will be...

  16. 4 CFR 28.25 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representation. 28.25 Section 28.25 Accounts GOVERNMENT... Parties, Practitioners and Witnesses § 28.25 Representation. (a) All parties to a petition may be..., in the petition or responsive pleading. Any subsequent changes in representation shall also be in...

  17. 75 FR 32273 - Representation Election Procedure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... 29 CFR Parts 1202 and 1206 RIN 3140-ZA00 Representation Election Procedure AGENCY: National Mediation... delaying the effective date of its rule regarding representation election procedures from June 10, 2010 to... Representation Election Procedure Rule have been made. The NMB will notify participants if there are any further...

  18. 46 CFR 401.615 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Representation. 401.615 Section 401.615 Shipping COAST... Representation. (a) The U.S. Registered Pilot, designated “respondent” in a suspension or revocation hearing or... a representation that under the provisions of this subpart and applicable law he is authorized and...

  19. 45 CFR 1613.4 - Authorized representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized representation. 1613.4 Section 1613.4... ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE WITH RESPECT TO CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS § 1613.4 Authorized representation. Legal... professional responsibility requires representation in a criminal proceeding arising out of a transaction with...

  20. 12 CFR 704.14 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representation. 704.14 Section 704.14 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.14 Representation. (a) Board representation. The board will be determined as stipulated in its...

  1. 17 CFR 31.19 - Unlawful representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlawful representations. 31... TRANSACTIONS § 31.19 Unlawful representations. It shall be unlawful for any person: (a) Required to be... without also stating in writing in connection with that representation that the Commission, by registering...

  2. 28 CFR 4.9 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation. 4.9 Section 4.9 Judicial... OF 1974 § 4.9 Representation. The applicant may be represented before the Commission by any person... constitute a representation to the Commission that under the provisions of this part and applicable law he is...

  3. 37 CFR 350.2 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation. 350.2 Section... ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS § 350.2 Representation. Individual... representation that the attorney is a member of the bar, in one or more states, in good standing. ...

  4. 29 CFR 4003.6 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation. 4003.6 Section 4003.6 Labor Regulations... OF AGENCY DECISIONS General Provisions § 4003.6 Representation. A person may file any document or... of attorney, signed by the person making the designation, which authorizes the representation and...

  5. Religious Representations for Christian Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joung, Eun Sim

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to explore the key concept of religious representations that reflect an individual's relational world and indicates the individual's religious maturity. While the term "representations" is originally used in psychodynamic studies, the article discusses the idea that religious representations provide important indications of an…

  6. Imitation and the Dialectic of Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelazo, Philip David; Lourenco, Stella Felix

    2003-01-01

    Describes a theory of the understanding and use of representations, drawing heavily on Paul Ricoeur's and James Mark Baldwin's theories. Presents this theory as construing representation as intrinsically mimetic, characterizing the development of representational understanding as internalization, and emphasizing the importance of self-reflection…

  7. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  8. Computing Visible-Surface Representations,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    Terzopoulos N00014-75-C-0643 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AMC ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA A...Massachusetts Institute of lechnolog,. Support lbr the laboratory’s Artificial Intelligence research is provided in part by the Advanced Rtccarcl Proj...dynamically maintaining visible surface representations. Whether the intention is to model human vision or to design competent artificial vision systems

  9. Computational representation of biological systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, Zach; McDermott, Jason E.; Guerquin, Michal; Samudrala, Ram

    2009-04-20

    Integration of large and diverse biological data sets is a daunting problem facing systems biology researchers. Exploring the complex issues of data validation, integration, and representation, we present a systematic approach for the management and analysis of large biological data sets based on data warehouses. Our system has been implemented in the Bioverse, a framework combining diverse protein information from a variety of knowledge areas such as molecular interactions, pathway localization, protein structure, and protein function.

  10. Receptive fields and visual representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1989-01-01

    Efficient representation of images for human use requires an understanding of how the brain processes and represents visual information. Spatial imagery is represented in the brain in the receptive fields of visual neurons. Models of these neurons lead to models of image fidelity, and to digital implementations of these neural codes. This approach will be illustrated by two example codes. The advantages and difficulties of this approach will be discussed.

  11. Cooperativity and 3-D Representation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-28

    image, to simplified mechanisms for understandingshadows and shading and to renewed interest in " isophot " models of shading. Visual searchstudies have...reversals of contrast. One such representation is the isophots of the images, the lines of equal luminance. They capture the flow field of the brightness...shading as an oriented field of isophots (or at least short oriented segments) is still at an exploratory stage. We will digitize live scenes in our

  12. Spatial Representations of Taxi Drivers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-28

    some people have suggested that adults, when they learn a new environment, proceed through these same Piagetian Stages in their representations...East Green Street Naval Postgraduate School Pasadena, CA 91101 Monterey, CA 93940 1 Special Asst. for Education and I Dr. Robert Wisher Training (OP-O1E...Research Laborat Pensacola, FL 32508 1 Dr. Gary Poock Operations Research Department Code 55PK Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93940 1 Roger W

  13. SAR Image Complex Pixel Representations

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2015-03-01

    Complex pixel values for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of uniform distributed clutter can be represented as either real/imaginary (also known as I/Q) values, or as Magnitude/Phase values. Generally, these component values are integers with limited number of bits. For clutter energy well below full-scale, Magnitude/Phase offers lower quantization noise than I/Q representation. Further improvement can be had with companding of the Magnitude value.

  14. Neural Representations of Physics Concepts.

    PubMed

    Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2016-06-01

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to assess neural representations of physics concepts (momentum, energy, etc.) in juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in physics or engineering. Our goal was to identify the underlying neural dimensions of these representations. Using factor analysis to reduce the number of dimensions of activation, we obtained four physics-related factors that were mapped to sets of voxels. The four factors were interpretable as causal motion visualization, periodicity, algebraic form, and energy flow. The individual concepts were identifiable from their fMRI signatures with a mean rank accuracy of .75 using a machine-learning (multivoxel) classifier. Furthermore, there was commonality in participants' neural representation of physics; a classifier trained on data from all but one participant identified the concepts in the left-out participant (mean accuracy = .71 across all nine participant samples). The findings indicate that abstract scientific concepts acquired in an educational setting evoke activation patterns that are identifiable and common, indicating that science education builds abstract knowledge using inherent, repurposed brain systems.

  15. Infants hierarchically organize memory representations.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Rebecca D; Feigenson, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into chunks. Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this ability. In particular, it remains unknown whether infants can create more complex memory hierarchies, binding representations of chunks into still larger chunks in recursive fashion. Here we tested the limits of early chunking, first measuring the number of items infants can bind into a single chunk and the number of chunks infants can maintain concurrently, and then, critically, whether infants can embed chunked representations into larger units. We tested 14-month-old infants' memory for hidden objects using a manual search task in which we manipulated memory load (the number of objects infants saw hidden) and the chunking cues provided. We found that infants are limited in the number of items they can chunk and in the number of chunks they can remember. However, we also found that infants can bind representations of chunks into 'superchunks'. These results suggest that hierarchically organizing information strongly affects working memory, starting in infancy. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Symbol Systems and Pictorial Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Joachim; Wright, Susan

    All problem-solvers are subject to the same ultimate constraints -- limitations on space, time, and materials (Minsky, 1985). He introduces two principles: (1) Economics: Every intelligence must develop symbol-systems for representing objects, causes and goals, and (2) Sparseness: Every evolving intelligence will eventually encounter certain very special ideas -- e.g., about arithmetic, causal reasoning, and economics -- because these particular ideas are very much simpler than other ideas with similar uses. An extra-terrestrial intelligence (ETI) would have developed symbol systems to express these ideas and would have the capacity of multi-modal processing. Vakoch (1998) states that ...``ETI may rely significantly on other sensory modalities (than vision). Particularly useful representations would be ones that may be intelligible through more than one sensory modality. For instance, the information used to create a three-dimensional representation of an object might be intelligible to ETI heavily reliant on either visual or tactile sensory processes.'' The cross-modal representations Vakoch (1998) describes and the symbol systems Minsky (1985) proposes are called ``metaphors'' when combined. Metaphors allow for highly efficient communication. Metaphors are compact, condensed ways of expressing an idea: words, sounds, gestures or images are used in novel ways to refer to something they do not literally denote. Due to the importance of Minsky's ``economics'' principle, it is therefore possible that a message heavily relies on metaphors.

  17. Topographic NMF for data representation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yanhui; Zhu, Zhenfeng; Zhao, Yao; Wei, Yunchao; Wei, Shikui; Li, Xuelong

    2014-10-01

    Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) is a useful technique to explore a parts-based representation by decomposing the original data matrix into a few parts-based basis vectors and encodings with nonnegative constraints. It has been widely used in image processing and pattern recognition tasks due to its psychological and physiological interpretation of natural data whose representation may be parts-based in human brain. However, the nonnegative constraint for matrix factorization is generally not sufficient to produce representations that are robust to local transformations. To overcome this problem, in this paper, we proposed a topographic NMF (TNMF), which imposes a topographic constraint on the encoding factor as a regularizer during matrix factorization. In essence, the topographic constraint is a two-layered network, which contains the square nonlinearity in the first layer and the square-root nonlinearity in the second layer. By pooling together the structure-correlated features belonging to the same hidden topic, the TNMF will force the encodings to be organized in a topographical map. Thus, the feature invariance can be promoted. Some experiments carried out on three standard datasets validate the effectiveness of our method in comparison to the state-of-the-art approaches.

  18. Representations of metabolic knowledge: Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, P.D.; Paley, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The automatic generation of drawings of metabolic pathways is a challenging problem that depends intimately on exactly what information has been recorded for each pathway, and on how that information is encoded. The chief contributions of the paper are a minimized representation for biochemical pathways called the predecessor list, and inference procedures for converting the predecessor list into a pathway-graph representation that can serve as input to a pathway-drawing algorithm. The predecessor list has several advantages over the pathway graph, including its compactness and its lack of redundancy. The conversion between the two representations can be formulated as both a constraint-satisfaction problem and a logical inference problem, whose goal is to assign directions to reactions, and to determine which are the main chemical compounds in the reaction. We describe a set of production rules that solves this inference problem. We also present heuristics for inferring whether the exterior compounds that are substrates of reactions at the periphery of a pathway are side or main compounds. These techniques were evaluated on 18 metabolic pathways from the EcoCyc knowledge base.

  19. Representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.

    2013-02-15

    One of the most fundamental properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is the condition that plasma motion cannot change magnetic topology. The conventional representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes by perturbing a toroidal equilibrium field through {delta}B(vector sign)={nabla} Multiplication-Sign ({xi}(vector sign) Multiplication-Sign B(vector sign)) ensures that {delta}B(vector sign){center_dot}{nabla}{psi}=0 at a resonance, with {psi} labelling an equilibrium flux surface. Also useful for the analysis of guiding center orbits in a perturbed field is the representation {delta}B(vector sign)={nabla} Multiplication-Sign {alpha}B(vector sign). These two representations are equivalent, but the vanishing of {delta}B(vector sign){center_dot}{nabla}{psi} at a resonance is necessary but not sufficient for the preservation of field line topology, and a indiscriminate use of either perturbation in fact destroys the original equilibrium flux topology. It is necessary to find the perturbed field to all orders in {xi}(vector sign) to conserve the original topology. The effect of using linearized perturbations on stability and growth rate calculations is discussed.

  20. On Performance Skill Representation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Koichi; Shimizu, Satoshi; Yoshinaga, Saori

    In this paper, we propose a framework for representing performance skill. Firstly, we notice the importance of performance skill representation. We introduce five different representation targets: performance tasks, performance rules, pre-shaping actions, dynamic integrity constraints, and performance states. Performance task description consists of a sequence of performance tasks and expressions. It acts as a goal description in planning. Performance rules describe model performance methods for given tasks including how to shape body parts and how to use various muscles. Pre-shaping action rules are similar to performance rules. Its role is to pre-shape in between consecutive tasks to prepare for the next task. Dynamic integrity constraints specify constraints to be satisfied during performance. They provide such general rules as prohibiting simultaneous strong activations of agonist and antagonist. Performance states are for describing real performance done by players including professionals and amateurs. The aim of the framework is to provide a uniform scheme for representing model performance methods given performance score such as music score. The representation framework will define targets of inducing formal skill rules as well as describing performance states automatically from biomechanical performance data. It also is related to a fundamental research issue of attributes finding/selection in discovering useful rules for skillful performance. We conclude our paper by stating future research direction.

  1. Military Representation: The Theoretical and Practical Implications of Population Representation in the American Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    REPRESENTATION AND SOCIAL EQUITY: PAST AND PRESENT EXPERIENCES.. ............... 103 Equity in the Military Melting Pot Black Representation in the...Vietnam The Vietnam-Era Draft in Retrospect Military Representation and Social Equity under the AVF Measures of Social Equity Implications CHAPTER V...MILITARY REPRESENTATION AND SOCIAL EQUITY: THE POLICY MAZE ........ ..................... ... 183 Benefits vs. Burdens of Military Service

  2. Negotiated Representational Mediators: How Young Children Decide What to Include in Their Science Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danish, Joshua A.; Enyedy, Noel

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we synthesize two bodies of work related to students' representational activities: the notions of meta-representational competence and representation as a form of practice. We report on video analyses of kindergarten and first-grade students as they create representations of pollination in a science classroom, as well as summarize…

  3. Negotiated Representational Mediators: How Young Children Decide What to Include in Their Science Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danish, Joshua A.; Enyedy, Noel

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we synthesize two bodies of work related to students' representational activities: the notions of meta-representational competence and representation as a form of practice. We report on video analyses of kindergarten and first-grade students as they create representations of pollination in a science classroom, as well as summarize…

  4. Representation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    absolutely nothing, for others familiarity or even a sense of kinship while others feel pangs of contemptuousness. The psychologist Carl Jung ...noticed this about people.1 Of the Christian cross, Jung noted that it carried a much different significance (p.81) if found after one’s name in a book...signifying their death as opposed to its placement on a building. Jung researched early Christianity and discovered that the crossbeam of its Latin

  5. Alternative Approach to Nuclear Data Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; Brown, D; Beck, B; McNabb, D P

    2005-07-27

    This paper considers an approach for representing nuclear data that is qualitatively different from the approach currently adopted by the nuclear science community. Specifically, they examine a representation in which complicated data is described through collections of distinct and self contained simple data structures. This structure-based representation is compared with the ENDF and ENDL formats, which can be roughly characterized as dictionary-based representations. A pilot data representation for replacing the format currently used at LLNL is presented. Examples are given as is a discussion of promises and shortcomings associated with moving from traditional dictionary-based formats to a structure-rich or class-like representation.

  6. Irreducibility of the Ashtekar Isham Lewandowski representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlmann, Hanno; Thiemann, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Much of the work in loop quantum gravity and quantum geometry rests on a mathematically rigorous integration theory on spaces of distributional connections. Most notably, a diffeomorphism invariant representation of the algebra of basic observables of the theory, the Ashtekar Isham Lewandowski (AIL) representation, has been constructed. Recently, several uniqueness results for this representation have been worked out. In the present paper, we contribute to these efforts by showing that the AIL representation is irreducible, provided it is viewed as the representation of a certain C*-algebra which is very similar to the Weyl algebra used in the canonical quantization of free quantum field theories.

  7. Representation learning: a review and new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bengio, Yoshua; Courville, Aaron; Vincent, Pascal

    2013-08-01

    The success of machine learning algorithms generally depends on data representation, and we hypothesize that this is because different representations can entangle and hide more or less the different explanatory factors of variation behind the data. Although specific domain knowledge can be used to help design representations, learning with generic priors can also be used, and the quest for AI is motivating the design of more powerful representation-learning algorithms implementing such priors. This paper reviews recent work in the area of unsupervised feature learning and deep learning, covering advances in probabilistic models, autoencoders, manifold learning, and deep networks. This motivates longer term unanswered questions about the appropriate objectives for learning good representations, for computing representations (i.e., inference), and the geometrical connections between representation learning, density estimation, and manifold learning.

  8. Differences between Spatial and Visual Mental Representations

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Jan Frederik; Schultheis, Holger; Barkowsky, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between visual mental representations and spatial mental representations in human visuo-spatial processing. By comparing two common theories of visuo-spatial processing – mental model theory and the theory of mental imagery – we identified two open questions: (1) which representations are modality-specific, and (2) what is the role of the two representations in reasoning. Two experiments examining eye movements and preferences for under-specified problems were conducted to investigate these questions. We found that significant spontaneous eye movements along the processed spatial relations occurred only when a visual mental representation is employed, but not with a spatial mental representation. Furthermore, the preferences for the answers of the under-specified problems differed between the two mental representations. The results challenge assumptions made by mental model theory and the theory of mental imagery. PMID:23761768

  9. Representation and re-presentation in litigation science.

    PubMed

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Federal appellate courts have devised several criteria to help judges distinguish between reliable and unreliable scientific evidence. The best known are the U.S. Supreme Court's criteria offered in 1993 in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. This article focuses on another criterion, offered by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, that instructs judges to assign lower credibility to "litigation science" than to science generated before litigation. In this article I argue that the criterion-based approach to judicial screening of scientific evidence is deeply flawed. That approach buys into the faulty premise that there are external criteria, lying outside the legal process, by which judges can distinguish between good and bad science. It erroneously assumes that judges can ascertain the appropriate criteria and objectively apply them to challenged evidence before litigation unfolds, and before methodological disputes are sorted out during that process. Judicial screening does not take into account the dynamics of litigation itself, including gaming by the parties and framing by judges, as constitutive factors in the production and representation of knowledge. What is admitted through judicial screening, in other words, is not precisely what a jury would see anyway. Courts are sites of repeated re-representations of scientific knowledge. In sum, the screening approach fails to take account of the wealth of existing scholarship on the production and validation of scientific facts. An unreflective application of that approach thus puts courts at risk of relying upon a "junk science" of the nature of scientific knowledge.

  10. Argumentation-Based Collaborative Inquiry in Science Through Representational Work: Impact on Primary Students' Representational Fluency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Kim; Gillies, Robyn; Hedberg, John

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the impact of argumentation-promoting collaborative inquiry and representational work in science on primary students' representational fluency. Two hundred sixty-six year 6 students received instruction on natural disasters with a focus on collaborative inquiry. Students in the Comparison condition received only this instruction. Students in the Explanation condition were also instructed with a focus on explanations using representations. Students in the Argumentation condition received similar instruction to the Comparison and Explanation conditions but were also instructed with a focus on argumentation using representations. Conceptual understanding and representational competencies (interpreting, explaining and constructing representations) were measured prior to and immediately following the instruction. A small group collaborative representational task was video recorded at the end of the instruction and coded for modes of knowledge-building discourse; knowledge-sharing and knowledge-construction. Higher measures of conceptual understanding, representational competencies and knowledge-construction discourse were taken together as representational fluency. Students in all conditions showed significant improvement in conceptual understanding, interpreting representations and explaining representations. Students in the Comparison and Argumentation conditions also showed significantly improved scores in constructing representations. When compared to the other conditions, the Explanation group had the highest scores in conceptual understanding and also interpreting and explaining representations. While the Argumentation group had the highest scores for constructing representations, their scores for conceptual understanding as well as interpreting and explaining representations were also high. There was no difference between the groups in knowledge-sharing discourse; however, the Argumentation group displayed the highest incidence of knowledge

  11. Unitary Representations of Gauge Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerfano, Ruth Stella

    I generalize to the case of gauge groups over non-trivial principal bundles representations that I. M. Gelfand, M. I. Graev and A. M. Versik constructed for current groups. The gauge group of the principal G-bundle P over M, (G a Lie group with an euclidean structure, M a compact, connected and oriented manifold), as the smooth sections of the associated group bundle is presented and studied in chapter I. Chapter II describes the symmetric algebra associated to a Hilbert space, its Hilbert structure, a convenient exponential and a total set that later play a key role in the construction of the representation. Chapter III is concerned with the calculus needed to make the space of Lie algebra valued 1-forms a Gaussian L^2-space. This is accomplished by studying general projective systems of finitely measurable spaces and the corresponding systems of sigma -additive measures, all of these leading to the description of a promeasure, a concept modeled after Bourbaki and classical measure theory. In the case of a locally convex vector space E, the corresponding Fourier transform, family of characters and the existence of a promeasure for every quadratic form on E^' are established, so the Gaussian L^2-space associated to a real Hilbert space is constructed. Chapter III finishes by exhibiting the explicit Hilbert space isomorphism between the Gaussian L ^2-space associated to a real Hilbert space and the complexification of its symmetric algebra. In chapter IV taking as a Hilbert space H the L^2-space of the Lie algebra valued 1-forms on P, the gauge group acts on the motion group of H defining in an straight forward fashion the representation desired.

  12. The conceptual representation of number.

    PubMed

    Patson, Nikole D; George, Gerret; Warren, Tessa

    2014-01-01

    The experiments reported here investigated the format of plural conceptual representations using a picture-matching paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences that ended with a singular noun phrase (NP), a two-quantified plural NP, or a plural definite description [The parents handed the child the (two) crayon/s] and then saw a picture of one or multiple referents for the NP. Judgement times to confirm that there was overlap between the pictured object(s) and a noun in the sentence showed an interaction between the NP's number and NP-picture match. For singular NPs and two-quantified NPs, participants were reliably faster to respond "yes" to a picture that had the exact number of objects specified by the NP, but for plural definite descriptions, the effect of the number of pictured items was not reliable. Experiment 2 extended this finding to conceptual plurals. Participants read sentences biased toward either a collective (Together the men carried a box-box is interpreted as singular) or distributed (Each of the men carried a box-box is likely interpreted as plural) reading. Experiment 2 showed the same interaction between NP conceptual plurality and NP-picture match as that in Experiment 1. These results suggest that: (a) our default conceptual representations for plural definite descriptions are no more similar to images of small sets of multiple items than to images of singular items; and (b) the difference between singular and plural conceptual representations is unlikely to be simply the presence or absence of a plural feature. The results are consistent with theories in which plurality is unmarked, such that some plural NPs can refer to singular referents [e.g., Sauerland, U., Anderssen, J., & Yatsushiro, J. (2005). The plural is semantically unmarked. In S. Kepser & M. Reis (Eds.), Linguistic evidence (pp. 413-434). Berlin: de Gruyter].

  13. Fluidodynamical Representation and Quantum Jumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiatti, Leonardo; Licata, Ignazio

    The sophistication of recent experimental procedures has made it possible to detect experimentally the so-called Quantum Jumps (QJ), i.e. the stop and restart of the wave function as a real phenomenon. In this work, we connect this experimental evidence to a foundational interpretation of QM, based on an a-temporal vacuum. In that picture, the QJ is a localization process, defined as the time-symmetric action of a self-conjugate projection operator. The compatibility of these discontinuous processes with the Theory of Relativity is demonstrated using the Bohm representation of quantum mechanics.

  14. Efficient Type Representation in TAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Certifying compilers generate proofs for low-level code that guarantee safety properties of the code. Type information is an essential part of safety proofs. But the size of type information remains a concern for certifying compilers in practice. This paper demonstrates type representation techniques in a large-scale compiler that achieves both concise type information and efficient type checking. In our 200,000-line certifying compiler, the size of type information is about 36% of the size of pure code and data for our benchmarks, the best result to the best of our knowledge. The type checking time is about 2% of the compilation time.

  15. Visual representation of scientific information.

    PubMed

    Wong, Bang

    2011-02-15

    Great technological advances have enabled researchers to generate an enormous amount of data. Data analysis is replacing data generation as the rate-limiting step in scientific research. With this wealth of information, we have an opportunity to understand the molecular causes of human diseases. However, the unprecedented scale, resolution, and variety of data pose new analytical challenges. Visual representation of data offers insights that can lead to new understanding, whether the purpose is analysis or communication. This presentation shows how art, design, and traditional illustration can enable scientific discovery. Examples will be drawn from the Broad Institute's Data Visualization Initiative, aimed at establishing processes for creating informative visualization models.

  16. Particles, Cutoffs and Inequivalent Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egg, Matthias; Lam, Vincent; Oldofredi, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    We critically review the recent debate between Doreen Fraser and David Wallace on the interpretation of quantum field theory, with the aim of identifying where the core of the disagreement lies. We show that, despite appearances, their conflict does not concern the existence of particles or the occurrence of unitarily inequivalent representations. Instead, the dispute ultimately turns on the very definition of what a quantum field theory is. We further illustrate the fundamental differences between the two approaches by comparing them both to the Bohmian program in quantum field theory.

  17. Representation of orthofermion spin operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, R.; Mishra, A. K.

    2008-04-01

    The algebraic expressions for the total spin operators expressed in terms of orthofermion creation and annihilation operators are combined into a single equation. The terms in this expressions are rearranged to provide representations of local spin operators. This task is essential for modelling a system of orthofermions in the presence of a magnetic field. By factorizing the orthofermion annihilation (creation) operators into charge and spin dependent parts, it is shown that the latter part suffices to represent spin number, raising and lowering operators. Finally a connection is provided between the spin systems and Greenberg’s infinite statistics.

  18. QED in the worldline representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Christian

    2007-06-01

    Simultaneously with inventing the modern relativistic formalism of quantum electrodynamics, Feynman presented also a first-quantized representation of QED in terms of worldline path integrals. Although this alternative formulation has been studied over the years by many authors, only during the last fifteen years it has acquired some popularity as a computational tool. I will shortly review here three very different techniques which have been developed during the last few years for the evaluation of worldline path integrals, namely (i) the "string-inspired formalism", based on the use of worldline Green functions, (ii) the numerical "worldline Monte Carlo formalism", and (iii) the semiclassical "worldline instanton" approach.

  19. Cognitive representation of negative numbers.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Martin H

    2003-05-01

    To understand negative numbers, must we refer to positive number representations (the phylogenetic hypothesis), or do we acquire a negative mental number line (the ontogenetic hypothesis)? In the experiment reported here, participants made lateralized button responses to indicate the larger of two digits from the range -9 to 9. Digit pairs were displayed spatially congruent or incongruent with either a phylogenetic or an ontogenetic mental number line. The pattern of decision latencies suggests that negative numbers become associated with left space, thus supporting the ontogenetic view.

  20. On volume-source representations based on the representation theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Mie; Kusakabe, Tetsuya; Kame, Nobuki; Kumagai, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    We discuss different ways to characterize a moment tensor associated with an actual volume change of ΔV C , which has been represented in terms of either the stress glut or the corresponding stress-free volume change ΔV T . Eshelby's virtual operation provides a conceptual model relating ΔV C to ΔV T and the stress glut, where non-elastic processes such as phase transitions allow ΔV T to be introduced and subsequent elastic deformation of - ΔV T is assumed to produce the stress glut. While it is true that ΔV T correctly represents the moment tensor of an actual volume source with volume change ΔV C , an explanation as to why such an operation relating ΔV C to ΔV T exists has not previously been given. This study presents a comprehensive explanation of the relationship between ΔV C and ΔV T based on the representation theorem. The displacement field is represented using Green's function, which consists of two integrals over the source surface: one for displacement and the other for traction. Both integrals are necessary for representing volumetric sources, whereas the representation of seismic faults includes only the first term, as the second integral over the two adjacent fault surfaces, across which the traction balances, always vanishes. Therefore, in a seismological framework, the contribution from the second term should be included as an additional surface displacement. We show that the seismic moment tensor of a volume source is directly obtained from the actual state of the displacement and stress at the source without considering any virtual non-elastic operations. A purely mathematical procedure based on the representation theorem enables us to specify the additional imaginary displacement necessary for representing a volume source only by the displacement term, which links ΔV C to ΔV T . It also specifies the additional imaginary stress necessary for representing a moment tensor solely by the traction term, which gives the "stress glut." The

  1. The mental representation of bilingualism.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Claudia Maria

    2010-09-01

    This article addresses the question of how different languages are represented in our memory and how bilingual speakers access these languages in language production. The first section discusses diverse approaches to language storage. It introduces a model that considers connections between different levels of language representation, i.e., conceptual and lexical features, morpho-syntactic information, and phonological patterns. The second section is concerned with access to different languages: the focus here is on language production and models of interactive activation. The next section focuses on control mechanisms that are capable of inhibiting one language while the other is spoken. These theoretical assumptions are illustrated by authentic speech production data that provide insights into the cognitive workings of bilingual speakers. Finally, differences in mental representation due to age of acquisition or language proficiency are discussed and explained by dissimilarities in memory types and neural processes of knowledge activation. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  2. Conceptual Representations of Perceptual Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Edward E.; Myers, Nicholas; Sethi, Umrao; Pantazatos, Spiro; Yanagihara, Ted; Hirsch, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Many neuroimaging studies of semantic memory have argued that knowledge of an object’s perceptual properties are represented in a modality-specific manner. These studies often base their argument on finding activation in the left-hemisphere fusiform gyrus - a region assumed to be involved in perceptual processing - when the participant is verifying verbal statements about objects and properties. In this paper we report an extension of one of these influential papers—Kan, Barsalou, Solomon, Minor, and Thompson-Schill (2003)—and present evidence for an amodal component in the representation and processing of perceptual knowledge. Participants were required to verify object-property statements (e.g., “cat- whiskers?”; “bear-wings?”) while they were being scanned by fMRI. We replicated Kan et al’s activation in the left fusiform gyrus, but also found activation in regions of left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and middle-temporal gyrus, areas known to reflect amodal processes or representations. Further, only activations in the left IFG, an amodal area, were correlated with measures of behavioral performance. PMID:22994286

  3. Manual experience shapes object representations.

    PubMed

    Yee, Eiling; Chrysikou, Evangelia G; Hoffman, Esther; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2013-06-01

    How do people represent object meaning? It is now uncontentious that thinking about manipulable objects (e.g., pencils) activates brain regions underlying action. But is this activation part of the meaning of these objects, or is it merely incidental? The research we report here shows that when the hands are engaged in a task involving motions that are incompatible with those used to interact with frequently manipulated objects, it is more difficult to think about those objects--but not harder to think about infrequently manipulated objects (e.g., bookcases). Critically, the amount of manual experience with the object determines the amount of interference. These findings show that brain activity underlying manual action is part of, not peripheral to, the representation of frequently manipulated objects. Further, they suggest that people's ability to think about an object changes dynamically on the basis of the match between their (experience-based) mental representation of its meaning and whatever they are doing at that moment.

  4. Generative Representations for Automated Design of Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homby, Gregory S.; Lipson, Hod; Pollack, Jordan B.

    2007-01-01

    A method of automated design of complex, modular robots involves an evolutionary process in which generative representations of designs are used. The term generative representations as used here signifies, loosely, representations that consist of or include algorithms, computer programs, and the like, wherein encoded designs can reuse elements of their encoding and thereby evolve toward greater complexity. Automated design of robots through synthetic evolutionary processes has already been demonstrated, but it is not clear whether genetically inspired search algorithms can yield designs that are sufficiently complex for practical engineering. The ultimate success of such algorithms as tools for automation of design depends on the scaling properties of representations of designs. A nongenerative representation (one in which each element of the encoded design is used at most once in translating to the design) scales linearly with the number of elements. Search algorithms that use nongenerative representations quickly become intractable (search times vary approximately exponentially with numbers of design elements), and thus are not amenable to scaling to complex designs. Generative representations are compact representations and were devised as means to circumvent the above-mentioned fundamental restriction on scalability. In the present method, a robot is defined by a compact programmatic form (its generative representation) and the evolutionary variation takes place on this form. The evolutionary process is an iterative one, wherein each cycle consists of the following steps: 1. Generative representations are generated in an evolutionary subprocess. 2. Each generative representation is a program that, when compiled, produces an assembly procedure. 3. In a computational simulation, a constructor executes an assembly procedure to generate a robot. 4. A physical-simulation program tests the performance of a simulated constructed robot, evaluating the performance

  5. Representation and Re-Presentation in Litigation Science

    PubMed Central

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Federal appellate courts have devised several criteria to help judges distinguish between reliable and unreliable scientific evidence. The best known are the U.S. Supreme Court’s criteria offered in 1993 in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. This article focuses on another criterion, offered by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, that instructs judges to assign lower credibility to “litigation science” than to science generated before litigation. In this article I argue that the criterion-based approach to judicial screening of scientific evidence is deeply flawed. That approach buys into the faulty premise that there are external criteria, lying outside the legal process, by which judges can distinguish between good and bad science. It erroneously assumes that judges can ascertain the appropriate criteria and objectively apply them to challenged evidence before litigation unfolds, and before methodological disputes are sorted out during that process. Judicial screening does not take into account the dynamics of litigation itself, including gaming by the parties and framing by judges, as constitutive factors in the production and representation of knowledge. What is admitted through judicial screening, in other words, is not precisely what a jury would see anyway. Courts are sites of repeated re-representations of scientific knowledge. In sum, the screening approach fails to take account of the wealth of existing scholarship on the production and validation of scientific facts. An unreflective application of that approach thus puts courts at risk of relying upon a “junk science” of the nature of scientific knowledge. PMID:18197311

  6. Braid group representation on quantum computation

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Ryan Kasyfil; Muchtadi-Alamsyah, Intan

    2015-09-30

    There are many studies about topological representation of quantum computation recently. One of diagram representation of quantum computation is by using ZX-Calculus. In this paper we will make a diagrammatical scheme of Dense Coding. We also proved that ZX-Calculus diagram of maximally entangle state satisfies Yang-Baxter Equation and therefore, we can construct a Braid Group representation of set of maximally entangle state.

  7. The Husimi representation and the Vlasov equation

    SciTech Connect

    LEplattenier, P.; Suraud, E.; Reinhard, P.G.

    1995-12-01

    We investigate the {ital h} expansion of the Time-Dependent Hartree Fock equation in the Wigner and Husimi representations. Both lead formally to the Vlasov equation in lowest order. The Husimi representation delivers a more stable expansion in particular when the self-interaction in the mean field is considered. The test particle solution of the Vlasov equation turns out to be closely related to the Husimi representation. Copyright {copyright} 1995 Academic Press, Inc.

  8. Issues in Interaction Language Specification and Representation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    A16~ REPRESENTATION(J) VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INST AND STATE UNIV BLACKSBURG COMPUTER S. D N JOHNSON ET AL. NOV 83 UNCLASSIFIED CSIE-83-15 NBOB14 81 K...8217, ___ 4 ~ISSUES IN INTERACTION LANGUAGE SPECIFICATION AND REPRESENTATION Deborah H. Johnson H. Rex Hartson .4 This document has been approved...ISSUES IN INTERACTION LANGUAGE SPECIFICATION AND REPRESENTATION Deborah H. Johnson H. Rex Hartson TECHNICAL REPORT Prepared for Engineering Psychology

  9. Survey of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    many formal knowledge representation and reasoning methodologies because it provides languages for symbolic representation, truth conditions for...example applied to knowledge representation, we examine the tableau and resolution proof methods , the two main methods of reasoning in FOL. We conclude the...calculating entailment can be thought of as a knowledge base (KB). Before looking at the resolution and tableau proof methods used to infer

  10. On Lazy Representations and Sturmian Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epifanio, Chiara; Frougny, Christiane; Gabriele, Alessandra; Mignosi, Filippo; Shallit, Jeffrey

    In this paper we establish a strong relationship between the set of lazy representations and the set of paths in a Sturmian graph associated with a real number α. We prove that for any non-negative integer i the unique path weighted i in the Sturmian graph associated with α represents the lazy representation of i in the Ostrowski numeration system associated with α. Moreover, we provide several properties of the representations of the natural integers in this numeration system.

  11. [Social and cultural representations in epilepsy awareness].

    PubMed

    Arborio, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Representations relating to epilepsy have evolved over the centuries, but the manifestations of epilepsy awaken archaic images linked to death, violence and disgust. Indeed, the generalised epileptic seizure symbolises a rupture with the surrounding environment, "informs it", through the loss of social codes which it causes. The social and cultural context, as well as medical knowledge, influences the representations of the disease. As a result, popular knowledge is founded on the social and cultural representations of a given era, in a given society.

  12. Attitude Error Representations for Kalman Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The quaternion has the lowest dimensionality possible for a globally nonsingular attitude representation. The quaternion must obey a unit norm constraint, though, which has led to the development of an extended Kalman filter using a quaternion for the global attitude estimate and a three-component representation for attitude errors. We consider various attitude error representations for this Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter and its second-order extension.

  13. Vertex representations of quantum affine algebras.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, I B; Jing, N

    1988-12-01

    We construct vertex representations of quantum affine algebras of ADE type, which were first introduced in greater generality by Drinfeld and Jimbo. The limiting special case of our construction is the untwisted vertex representation of affine Lie algebras of Frenkel-Kac and Segal. Our representation is given by means of a new type of vertex operator corresponding to the simple roots and satisfying the defining relations. In the case of the quantum affine algebra of type A, we introduce vertex operators corresponding to all the roots and determine their commutation relations. This provides an analogue of a Chevalley basis of the affine Lie algebra [unk](n) in the basic representation.

  14. Representations of the generalized Lie algebra ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrev, V. K.; Sudbery, A.

    1998-08-01

    We construct finite-dimensional irreducible representations of two quantum algebras related to the generalized Lie algebra 0305-4470/31/31/010/img6 introduced by Lyubashenko and Sudbery. We consider separately the cases of q generic and q at roots of unity. Some of the representations have no classical analogue even for generic q. Some of the representations have no analogue to the finite-dimensional representations of the quantized enveloping 0305-4470/31/31/010/img7, while in those that do there are different matrix elements.

  15. Precedence relationship representations of mechanical assembly sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homendemello, L. S.; Sanderson, A. C.

    1989-01-01

    Two types of precedence relationship representations for mechanical assembly sequences are presented: precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection between two parts and the establishment of another connection, and precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection and states of the assembly process. Precedence relationship representations have the advantage of being very compact. The problem with these representations was how to guarantee their correctness and completeness. Two theorems are presented each of which leads to the generation of one type of precedence relationship representation guaranteeing its correctness and completeness for a class of assemblies.

  16. Representational momentum in older adults.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Andrea S; Jakobson, Lorna S

    2011-10-01

    Humans have a tendency to perceive motion even in static images that simply "imply" movement. This tendency is so strong that our memory for actions depicted in static images is distorted in the direction of implied motion - a phenomenon known as representational momentum (RM). In the present study, we created an RM display depicting a pattern of implied (clockwise) rotation of a rectangle. Young adults viewers' memory of the final position of the test rectangle was biased in the direction of continuing rotation, but older adults did not show a similar memory bias. We discuss several possible explanations for this group difference, but argue that the failure of older adults to shown an RM effect most likely reflects age-related changes in areas of the brain involved in processing real and implied motion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Pneumonia and its social representations].

    PubMed

    Hamui-Sutton, Alicia; Nellen-Hummel, Haiko; Fernández-Ortega, Miguel Angel; Halabe-Cherem, José

    2009-01-01

    To correlate the sociostructural variables with the knowledge about pneumonia and to explore the social representations about the etiology, prevention, development and treatment in poor communities. A survey in 848 adults from seven Rural Health Centers affiliated to IMSS-Oportunidades Program in four States, was carried out. One-third of the sample did not understand the term pneumonia; 35 % of the patients with risk factors did not know its etiology; 43 % did not know about associated complications but 85 % considered that it causes death. The use of antibiotics was recognized as a therapeutic measure by 78 % and 20 % did not know how to prevent pneumonia. The findings showed a positive attitude to immunization but inadequate information about respiratory diseases. In neighborhoods with insufficient public services (purified water, electricity and paved roads) the ignorance about pneumonia tended to increase.

  18. The Past Is Present: Representations of Parents, Friends, and Romantic Partners Predict Subsequent Romantic Representations.

    PubMed

    Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene

    2016-12-28

    This study examined how representations of parent-child relationships, friendships, and past romantic relationships are related to subsequent romantic representations. Two-hundred 10th graders (100 female; Mage  = 15.87 years) from diverse neighborhoods in a Western U.S. city were administered questionnaires and were interviewed to assess avoidant and anxious representations of their relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Participants then completed similar questionnaires and interviews about their romantic representations six more times over the next 7.5 years. Growth curve analyses revealed that representations of relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners each uniquely predicted subsequent romantic representations across development. Consistent with attachment and behavioral systems theory, representations of romantic relationships are revised by representations and experiences in other relationships.

  19. Classification of irreducible tempered representations of semisimple Lie groups.

    PubMed

    Knapp, A W; Zuckerman, G

    1976-07-01

    For each connected real semisimple matrix group, one obtains a constructive list of the irreducible tempered unitary representations and their characters. These irreducible representations all turn out to be instances of a more general kind of representation, here called basic. The result completes Langland's classification of all irreducible admissible representations for such groups. Since not all basic representations are irreducible, a study is made of character identities relating different basic representations and of the commuting algebra for each basic representation.

  20. Symmetric Euler orientation representations for orientational averaging.

    PubMed

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G

    2005-09-01

    A new kind of orientation representation called symmetric Euler orientation representation (SEOR) is presented. It is based on a combination of the conventional Euler orientation representations (Euler angles) and Hamilton's quaternions. The properties of the SEORs concerning orientational averaging are explored and compared to those of averaging schemes that are based on conventional Euler orientation representations. To that aim, the reflectance of a hypothetical polycrystalline material with orthorhombic crystal symmetry was calculated. The calculation was carried out according to the average refractive index theory (ARIT [T.G. Mayerhöfer, Appl. Spectrosc. 56 (2002) 1194]). It is shown that the use of averaging schemes based on conventional Euler orientation representations leads to a dependence of the result from the specific Euler orientation representation that was utilized and from the initial position of the crystal. The latter problem can be overcome partly by the introduction of a weighing factor, but only for two-axes-type Euler orientation representations. In case of a numerical evaluation of the average, a residual difference remains also if a two-axes type Euler orientation representation is used despite of the utilization of a weighing factor. In contrast, this problem does not occur if a symmetric Euler orientation representation is used as a matter of principle, while the result of the averaging for both types of orientation representations converges with increasing number of orientations considered in the numerical evaluation. Additionally, the use of a weighing factor and/or non-equally spaced steps in the numerical evaluation of the average is not necessary. The symmetrical Euler orientation representations are therefore ideally suited for the use in orientational averaging procedures.

  1. College Students' Perceptions toward the Multi Modal Representations and Instruction of Representations in Learning Modern Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesildag Hasançebi, Funda; Günel, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: In recent years, researchers on learning have focused on learning with multimodal representation and this research has shown that when learners can interact with an appropriate representation their performance is enhanced. If students have the opportunity to interact consciously with modal representation, learning can be…

  2. Student Teachers' Knowledge about Chemical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Vahide; Bernholt, Sascha; Parchmann, Ilka

    2017-01-01

    Chemical representations serve as a communication tool not only in exchanges between scientists but also in chemistry lessons. The goals of the present study were to measure the extent of student teachers' knowledge about chemical representations, focusing on chemical formulae and structures in particular, and to explore which factors related to…

  3. Several Characteristic Features of Children's Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulama, Maria Eliza; Ilovan, Oana-Ramona; Vanea, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to test the following hypothesis: 6 and 7 years old children's representations were strongly influenced by the environment they lived in. Representations are interiorised models of objects, phenomena and events, independent of present use of our senses and of the presence or absence of objects. We realised our…

  4. 31 CFR 8.61 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation. 8.61 Section 8.61 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PRACTICE BEFORE THE BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.61 Representation. A respondent or proposed...

  5. 10 CFR 72.206 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Representation. 72.206 Section 72.206 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL... Information to State Governments and Indian Tribes § 72.206 Representation. Any person who acts under...

  6. State representations of ARMA-models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomadze, Vakhtang

    2010-10-01

    A state representation of an arbitrary ARMA-model is computed explicitly. It is shown then that every ARMA-model is homotopy equivalent to its state representation, and that two state models are homotopy equivalent if and only if they are similar.

  7. Bridge: Intelligent Tutoring with Intermediate Representations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    Research and Development Center and Psychology Department University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA. 15260 The Artificial Intelligence and Psychology...problem never introduces more than one unfamiliar plan. Inteligent Tutoring With Intermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunniigbam 4 You must have a... Inteligent Tutoring With ntermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunningham 7 The requirements are specified at four differcnt levels, corresponding to

  8. Identities, Social Representations and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Facal, Ramon; Jimenez-Aleixandre, Maria Pilar

    2009-01-01

    This comment on L. Simonneaux and J. Simonneaux paper focuses on the role of "identities" in dealing with socio-scientific issues. We argue that there are two types of identities (social representations) influencing the students' positions: On the one hand their social representations of the bears' and wolves' identities as belonging to…

  9. Representational Issues in Students Learning about Evaporation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tytler, Russell; Prain, Vaughan; Peterson, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    This study draws on recent research on the central role of representation in learning. While there has been considerable research on students' understanding of evaporation, the representational issues entailed in this understanding have not been investigated in depth. The study explored students' engagement with evaporation phenomena through…

  10. Parts, Cavities, and Object Representation in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Angela; Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Kangas, Ashley; Zieber, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Part representation is not only critical to object perception but also plays a key role in a number of basic visual cognition functions, such as figure-ground segregation, allocation of attention, and memory for shapes. Yet, virtually nothing is known about the development of part representation. If parts are fundamental components of object shape…

  11. School Board Election Structure and Democratic Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann; Plank, David N.

    2005-01-01

    Policies governing the organization and timing of school elections affect democratic representation in school decision making. Some argue that school board elections should be consolidated with general municipal elections on the grounds that this will increase participation and representation, but little empirical work addresses the consequences…

  12. Improving Representational Competence with Concrete Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieff, Mike; Scopelitis, Stephanie; Lira, Matthew E.; DeSutter, Dane

    2016-01-01

    Representational competence is a primary contributor to student learning in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines and an optimal target for instruction at all educational levels. We describe the design and implementation of a learning activity that uses concrete models to improve students' representational competence and…

  13. Identities, Social Representations and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Facal, Ramon; Jimenez-Aleixandre, Maria Pilar

    2009-01-01

    This comment on L. Simonneaux and J. Simonneaux paper focuses on the role of "identities" in dealing with socio-scientific issues. We argue that there are two types of identities (social representations) influencing the students' positions: On the one hand their social representations of the bears' and wolves' identities as belonging to…

  14. Sparse representation for the ISAR image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Mengqi; Montalbo, John; Li, Shuxia; Sun, Ligang; Qiao, Zhijun G.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a sparse representation of the data for an inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) system is provided in two dimensions. The proposed sparse representation motivates the use a of a Convex Optimization that recovers the image with far less samples, which is required by Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem to increases the efficiency and decrease the cost of calculation in radar imaging.

  15. How Do Students Misunderstand Number Representations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Geoffrey L.; Zilles, Craig; Loui, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    We used both student interviews and diagnostic testing to reveal students' misconceptions about number representations in computing systems. This article reveals that students who have passed an undergraduate level computer organization course still possess surprising misconceptions about positional notations, two's complement representation, and…

  16. Phonological Representations in Children with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claessen, Mary; Leitao, Suze

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty processing sound-based information, including storing and accessing phonological representations in the lexicon. Tasks are emerging in the literature that provide a measure of the quality of stored phonological representations, without requiring a verbal…

  17. Representational Issues in Students Learning about Evaporation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tytler, Russell; Prain, Vaughan; Peterson, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    This study draws on recent research on the central role of representation in learning. While there has been considerable research on students' understanding of evaporation, the representational issues entailed in this understanding have not been investigated in depth. The study explored students' engagement with evaporation phenomena through…

  18. Characterizing Interaction with Visual Mathematical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedig, Kamran; Sumner, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a characterization of computer-based interactions by which learners can explore and investigate visual mathematical representations (VMRs). VMRs (e.g., geometric structures, graphs, and diagrams) refer to graphical representations that visually encode properties and relationships of mathematical structures and concepts.…

  19. Signs of Life: Acting and Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Tony

    1980-01-01

    Examines some of the different representational practices of acting in the context of a theory of signs. Focuses on the intrinsic characteristics of signs and the representational practices of acting. Discusses the contributions of Stanislavsky and Brecht to this area. (JMF)

  20. Representable states on quasilocal quasi *-algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Bagarello, F.; Trapani, C.; Triolo, S.

    2011-01-15

    Continuing a previous analysis originally motivated by physics, we consider representable states on quasilocal quasi *-algebras, starting with examining the possibility for a compatible family of local states to give rise to a global state. Some properties of local modifications of representable states and some aspects of their asymptotic behavior are also considered.

  1. How Do Students Misunderstand Number Representations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Geoffrey L.; Zilles, Craig; Loui, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    We used both student interviews and diagnostic testing to reveal students' misconceptions about number representations in computing systems. This article reveals that students who have passed an undergraduate level computer organization course still possess surprising misconceptions about positional notations, two's complement representation, and…

  2. 10 CFR 710.34 - Attorney representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attorney representation. 710.34 Section 710.34 Energy... Classified Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.34 Attorney representation. In the event the individual is represented by an attorney or other representatives, the individual shall file...

  3. Identifying Bilingual Semantic Neural Representations across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Mason, Robert A.; Mitchell, Tom M.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was to identify the neural representation of a noun's meaning in one language based on the neural representation of that same noun in another language. Machine learning methods were used to train classifiers to identify which individual noun bilingual participants were thinking about in one language based solely on their…

  4. 32 CFR 724.215 - Military representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military representation. 724.215 Section 724.215 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.215 Military representation....

  5. 32 CFR 724.215 - Military representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Military representation. 724.215 Section 724.215 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.215 Military representation....

  6. 32 CFR 724.215 - Military representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Military representation. 724.215 Section 724.215 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.215 Military representation....

  7. Complex Visual Data Analysis, Uncertainty, and Representation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    elaborate pathways by which complex representations of perceptual information are gradually and carefully constructed (Ungerleider & Mishkin , 1982...representational systems represent information in different ways in order to support different tasks (Previc, 1998; Ungerleider & Mishkin , 1982...M. (1969). Strategies and models of selective attention. Psychological Review, 76(3), 282-299. Ungerleider, L. G., & Mishkin , M. (1982). Two

  8. Semantic Representation and Naming in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Karla K.; Friedman, Rena M.; Reilly, Renee M.; Newman, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments examined children's semantic representations and semantic naming errors. Results suggested that functional and physical properties are core aspects of object representations in the semantic lexicon and that the degree of semantic knowledge makes words more or less vulnerable to retrieval failure. Discussion focuses on the dynamic…

  9. 10 CFR 60.65 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representation. 60.65 Section 60.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Participation by State Governments and Affected Indian Tribes § 60.65 Representation. Any person who acts under...

  10. Representation and Perception of Scenic Layout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanocki, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a cognitive approach to on-line spatial perception within scenes. A theoretical framework is developed, based on the idea that experience with a scene can activate a complex representation of layout that facilitates subsequent processing of spatial relations within the scene. The representations integrate significant, relevant…

  11. Integral representation for geometric optics solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazak, G.; Bernstein, I. B.; Smith, T. M.

    1983-03-01

    An integral representation of the geometric optics solutions for the field of dressed particles in inhomogeneous plasma is derived. The representation is a natural generalization of the Fourier integral used for homogeneous systems. The set of plane waves is replaced by a complete orthogonal set of 'quasi-plane waves' which in practice may be constructed by using the existing ray tracing codes.

  12. School Board Election Structure and Democratic Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann; Plank, David N.

    2005-01-01

    Policies governing the organization and timing of school elections affect democratic representation in school decision making. Some argue that school board elections should be consolidated with general municipal elections on the grounds that this will increase participation and representation, but little empirical work addresses the consequences…

  13. Representing Energy. II. Energy Tracking Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; Close, Eleanor W.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Project at Seattle Pacific University has developed representations that embody the substance metaphor and support learners in conserving and tracking energy as it flows from object to object and changes form. Such representations enable detailed modeling of energy dynamics in complex physical processes. We assess student learning by…

  14. Body-Specific Representations of Spatial Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunye, Tad T.; Gardony, Aaron; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    The body specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) posits that the way in which people interact with the world affects their mental representation of information. For instance, right- versus left-handedness affects the mental representation of affective valence, with right-handers categorically associating good with rightward areas and bad with…

  15. Self-Representation and Brain Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Carmody, Dennis P.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relation between self-representation and brain development in infants and young children. Self-representation was assessed by mirror recognition, personal pronoun use, and pretend play. Structural brain images were obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brain development was assessed by a quantitative measure of…

  16. Self-Representation and Brain Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Carmody, Dennis P.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relation between self-representation and brain development in infants and young children. Self-representation was assessed by mirror recognition, personal pronoun use, and pretend play. Structural brain images were obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brain development was assessed by a quantitative measure of…

  17. Media Representation of Teachers across Five Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhamdan, Bandar; Al-Saadi, Khalid; Baroutsis, Aspa; Du Plessis, Anna; Hamid, Obaidul M.; Honan, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the representation of teachers in newspapers in five countries. An innovative methodology was used to develop a method of inquiry that supports a deeper understanding of media representations of teachers which can also be used by other researchers in comparative education. The paper explores relevant…

  18. Generating Descriptions of Motion from Cognitive Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keil, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents a novel method of sentence generation, drawing on the insight from Cognitive Semantics (Talmy, 2000a,b) that the effect of uttering a sentence is to evoke a Cognitive Representation in the mind of the listener. Under the assumption that this Cognitive Representation is also present in the speaker and defines (part of)…

  19. Representations of the Magnitudes of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Michael; Siegler, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    We tested whether adults can use integrated, analog, magnitude representations to compare the values of fractions. The only previous study on this question concluded that even college students cannot form such representations and instead compare fraction magnitudes by representing numerators and denominators as separate whole numbers. However,…

  20. 10 CFR 710.34 - Attorney representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attorney representation. 710.34 Section 710.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED MATTER OR... Classified Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.34 Attorney representation. In the event...

  1. 10 CFR 710.34 - Attorney representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attorney representation. 710.34 Section 710.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED MATTER OR... Classified Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.34 Attorney representation. In the event...

  2. Body-Specific Representations of Spatial Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunye, Tad T.; Gardony, Aaron; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    The body specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) posits that the way in which people interact with the world affects their mental representation of information. For instance, right- versus left-handedness affects the mental representation of affective valence, with right-handers categorically associating good with rightward areas and bad with…

  3. Media Representation of Teachers across Five Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhamdan, Bandar; Al-Saadi, Khalid; Baroutsis, Aspa; Du Plessis, Anna; Hamid, Obaidul M.; Honan, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the representation of teachers in newspapers in five countries. An innovative methodology was used to develop a method of inquiry that supports a deeper understanding of media representations of teachers which can also be used by other researchers in comparative education. The paper explores relevant…

  4. Improving Representational Competence with Concrete Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieff, Mike; Scopelitis, Stephanie; Lira, Matthew E.; DeSutter, Dane

    2016-01-01

    Representational competence is a primary contributor to student learning in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines and an optimal target for instruction at all educational levels. We describe the design and implementation of a learning activity that uses concrete models to improve students' representational competence and…

  5. Identifying Bilingual Semantic Neural Representations across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Mason, Robert A.; Mitchell, Tom M.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was to identify the neural representation of a noun's meaning in one language based on the neural representation of that same noun in another language. Machine learning methods were used to train classifiers to identify which individual noun bilingual participants were thinking about in one language based solely on their…

  6. Transqueer Representations and How We Educate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebler, Kay

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the representations of transqueers (specifically female to male transsexuals) in popular media and how these representations shape attitudes of transqueers both with those outside the LGBT community and those within the community. The article discusses how these cultural images of FTM transqueers imply that being accepted…

  7. Student Teachers' Knowledge about Chemical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Vahide; Bernholt, Sascha; Parchmann, Ilka

    2017-01-01

    Chemical representations serve as a communication tool not only in exchanges between scientists but also in chemistry lessons. The goals of the present study were to measure the extent of student teachers' knowledge about chemical representations, focusing on chemical formulae and structures in particular, and to explore which factors related to…

  8. Transqueer Representations and How We Educate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebler, Kay

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the representations of transqueers (specifically female to male transsexuals) in popular media and how these representations shape attitudes of transqueers both with those outside the LGBT community and those within the community. The article discusses how these cultural images of FTM transqueers imply that being accepted…

  9. Parts, Cavities, and Object Representation in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Angela; Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Kangas, Ashley; Zieber, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Part representation is not only critical to object perception but also plays a key role in a number of basic visual cognition functions, such as figure-ground segregation, allocation of attention, and memory for shapes. Yet, virtually nothing is known about the development of part representation. If parts are fundamental components of object shape…

  10. Geometric Representations for Discrete Fourier Transforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambell, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    Simple geometric representations show symmetry and periodicity of discrete Fourier transforms (DFT's). Help in visualizing requirements for storing and manipulating transform value in computations. Representations useful in any number of dimensions, but particularly in one-, two-, and three-dimensional cases often encountered in practice.

  11. 29 CFR 1202.3 - Representation disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation disputes. 1202.3 Section 1202.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.3 Representation disputes. If any dispute shall arise among a carrier's employees as to who are the representatives of such...

  12. 17 CFR 4.16 - Prohibited representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited representations. 4.16 Section 4.16 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY... Prohibited representations. It shall be unlawful for any commodity pool operator, commodity trading advisor...

  13. 34 CFR 81.8 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation. 81.8 Section 81.8 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GENERAL EDUCATION PROVISIONS ACT-ENFORCEMENT General Provisions § 81.8 Representation. A party to, or other participant in, a case may be represented by counsel...

  14. 22 CFR 18.13 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Representation. 18.13 Section 18.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL REGULATIONS CONCERNING POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 18.13 Representation. A respondent or proposed respondent may appear in...

  15. 15 CFR 785.5 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representation. 785.5 Section 785.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... Representation. An individual respondent may appear, in person, or be represented by a duly authorized officer or...

  16. 10 CFR 10.37 - Attorney representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attorney representation. 10.37 Section 10.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED... representation. In the event the individual is represented by an attorney or other representative, the individual...

  17. 45 CFR 1225.5 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Representation. 1225.5 Section 1225.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER DISCRIMINATION COMPLAINT PROCEDURE General Provisions § 1225.5 Representation. Any aggrieved party...

  18. 15 CFR 766.4 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representation. 766.4 Section 766.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... PROCEEDINGS § 766.4 Representation. A respondent individual may appear and participate in person, a...

  19. 33 CFR 327.7 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation. 327.7 Section 327.7 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PUBLIC HEARINGS § 327.7 Representation. At the public hearing, any person may appear on his own behalf...

  20. 43 CFR 4.1606 - Department representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Department representation. 4.1606 Section 4.1606 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND...-76 § 4.1606 Department representation. (a) Upon receipt of the docketing notice, the Solicitor shall...

  1. 18 CFR 1308.22 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Representation. 1308.22 Section 1308.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY CONTRACT DISPUTES Board of Contract Appeals § 1308.22 Representation. (a) In any appeal to the Board, a Contractor may be...

  2. 28 CFR 51.58 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation. 51.58 Section 51.58 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF... Representation. (a) Introduction. This section and the sections that follow set forth factors—in addition to...

  3. 20 CFR 901.42 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Representation. 901.42 Section 901.42 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PERFORMANCE OF... Enrollment § 901.42 Representation. A respondent or proposed respondent may appear at conference or hearing...

  4. 31 CFR 15.737-18 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation. 15.737-18 Section 15.737-18 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-18 Representation. A respondent or proposed...

  5. 10 CFR 72.206 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representation. 72.206 Section 72.206 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL... Information to State Governments and Indian Tribes § 72.206 Representation. Any person who acts under this...

  6. 32 CFR 724.215 - Military representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military representation. 724.215 Section 724.215 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.215 Military representation. Military...

  7. 32 CFR 724.215 - Military representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military representation. 724.215 Section 724.215 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.215 Military representation. Military...

  8. Representing Energy. II. Energy Tracking Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; Close, Eleanor W.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Project at Seattle Pacific University has developed representations that embody the substance metaphor and support learners in conserving and tracking energy as it flows from object to object and changes form. Such representations enable detailed modeling of energy dynamics in complex physical processes. We assess student learning by…

  9. The Decimal Representation of Real Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalapodi, A.

    2010-01-01

    The representation of natural numbers in decimal form is an unequivocal procedure while for the representation of real numbers some ambiguities concerning the existence of infinitely many digits equal to 9 still emerge. One of the most frequently confronted misunderstandings is whether 0.999...equals 1 or not, and if not what number does this…

  10. Information entrophy via Glauber's Q-representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitel, C. H.; Wodkiewicz, K.

    1993-01-01

    We present a convenient way to evaluate the information entropy of a quantum mechanical state via the Glauber Q-representation. As an example we discuss the information entropy of a thermally relaxing squeezed state in terms of its Q-representation and show the validity of the corresponding entropic uncertainty- and Araki-Lieb inequalities.

  11. Cognitive Science, Representations and Dynamical Systems Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselager, W. F. G. (Pim); Bongers, Raoul M.; van Rooij, Iris

    In this contribution we point out that the assumption of representation in the explanations and models of cognitive science has several disadvantages. We propose that the dynamical systems theory approach, emphasizing the embodied embedded nature of cognition, might provide an important, non-representational alternative. We stress the importance of the challenge, raised by Andy Clark (Clark & Toribio, 1994; Clark, 1997), to dynamical systems theory to deal with 'representation-hungry' cognitive tasks. We indicate a possible way to answer that challenge in a empirically applicable manner. We suggest that investigations of this kind strengthen a motto that can be used as an antidote to the traditional representational cravings of cognitive science: 'Don't use representations in explanation and modeling unless it is absolutely necessary.'

  12. Representation and Computation in Cognitive Models.

    PubMed

    Forbus, Kenneth D; Liang, Chen; Rabkina, Irina

    2017-07-01

    One of the central issues in cognitive science is the nature of human representations. We argue that symbolic representations are essential for capturing human cognitive capabilities. We start by examining some common misconceptions found in discussions of representations and models. Next we examine evidence that symbolic representations are essential for capturing human cognitive capabilities, drawing on the analogy literature. Then we examine fundamental limitations of feature vectors and other distributed representations that, despite their recent successes on various practical problems, suggest that they are insufficient to capture many aspects of human cognition. After that, we describe the implications for cognitive architecture of our view that analogy is central, and we speculate on roles for hybrid approaches. We close with an analogy that might help bridge the gap. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. [Health education: knowledge, social representation, and illness].

    PubMed

    Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Reis, Dener Carlos dos; Penna, Cláudia Maria de Mattos

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the theory and practice of health and education, beginning with the notion of the hegemony (in health education practice) of strategies linked to the notion that to grasp established knowledge always leads to the acquisition of new behaviors and practices. Five different axioms have oriented education and health practices, either juxtaposed or at different moments: (1) the notion of overcoming the determination of knowledge over practices; (2) the determination of representations over practices; (3) the analysis of representations within the traditional framework of right and wrong; (4) reciprocity between representations and practices; and (5) the importance of considering practices amenable to re-elaboration through representations, thus situating experience in understanding subjects' illness processes, as well as the way subjects culturally construct illness. The article highlights the need for a link between social representations and illness-as-experience in health education practices.

  14. Qualitative inquiries into social representations of health.

    PubMed

    Flick, U

    2000-05-01

    Concepts of health and illness have been a major topic for social representations research. Whereas studies on cognitive representations of health and illness develop a general, decontextualized schema of illness, social representations research focuses on the diversity of lay concepts of health and illness and how health and illness are socially constructed in different contexts. Two qualitative studies about the social representations of health are presented. The episodic interview and theoretical coding were used to study health concepts of nurses and clerks in East and West Germany and among Portuguese and German women. Results in both studies show different forms of awareness of health as the core of the health concepts in the various groups. Social representations theory connects these differences back to the political and cultural backgrounds of the study participants.

  15. Numerical Proportion Representation: A Neurocomputational Account.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Verguts, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Proportion representation is an emerging subdomain in numerical cognition. However, its nature and its correlation with simple number representation remain elusive, especially at the theoretical level. To fill this gap, we propose a gain-field model of proportion representation to shed light on the neural and computational basis of proportion representation. The model is based on two well-supported neuroscientific findings. The first, gain modulation, is a general mechanism for information integration in the brain; the second relevant finding is how simple quantity is neurally represented. Based on these principles, the model accounts for recent relevant proportion representation data at both behavioral and neural levels. The model further addresses two key computational problems for the cognitive processing of proportions: invariance and generalization. Finally, the model provides pointers for future empirical testing.

  16. Object-based representations of spatial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsam, Shawn; Bhagavathy, Sitaram; Kenney, Charles; Manjunath, B. S.; Fonseca, Leila

    2001-03-01

    Object based representations of image data enable new content-related functionalities while facilitating management of large image databases. Developing such representations for multi-date and multi-spectral images is one of the objectives of the second phase of the Alexandria Digital Library (ADL) project at UCSB. Image segmentation and image registration are two of the main issues that are to be addressed in creating localized image representations. We present in this paper some of the recent and current work by the ADL's image processing group on robust image segmentation, registration, and the use of image texture for content representation. Built upon these technologies are techniques for managing large repositories of data. A texture thesaurus assists in creating a semantic classification of image regions. An object-based representation is proposed to facilitate data storage, retrieval, analysis, and navigation.

  17. 77 FR 28536 - Representation Procedures and Rulemaking Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... Representation Manual (Representation Manual) Section 19.601.\\2\\ The Representation Manual further states that.... Representation Manual Section 19.6. The amended RLA, however, now requires at least a fifty percent showing of... with regard to mergers. \\2\\ The Representation Manual is an internal statement of agency policy and not...

  18. Primary Teachers' Representational Practices: From Competency to Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Kim; Stevenson, Michael; Hedberg, John; Gillies, Robyn Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Eighteen primary teachers across three conditions (Representational Fluency, Representational Agency, Comparison) received two days of training around an inquiry unit on plate tectonics replete with representations. The Representational Agency group also received training around the semiotic and material affordances of representations while the…

  19. Primary Teachers' Representational Practices: From Competency to Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Kim; Stevenson, Michael; Hedberg, John; Gillies, Robyn Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Eighteen primary teachers across three conditions (Representational Fluency, Representational Agency, Comparison) received two days of training around an inquiry unit on plate tectonics replete with representations. The Representational Agency group also received training around the semiotic and material affordances of representations while the…

  20. Dispersive approaches for three-particle final state interaction

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Peng; Danilkin, Igor V.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2015-10-30

    In this work, we presented different representations of Khuri-Treiman equation, the advantage and disadvantage of each representations are discussed. With a scattering amplitude toy model, we also studied the sensitivity of solution of KT equation to left-hand cut of toy model and to the different approximate methods. At last, we give a brief discussion of Watson's theorem when three particles in final states are involved.

  1. Dispersive approaches for three-particle final state interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Peng; Danilkin, Igor V.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2015-10-30

    In this work, we presented different representations of Khuri-Treiman equation, the advantage and disadvantage of each representations are discussed. With a scattering amplitude toy model, we also studied the sensitivity of solution of KT equation to left-hand cut of toy model and to the different approximate methods. At last, we give a brief discussion of Watson's theorem when three particles in final states are involved.

  2. Efficient image representations and features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorr, Michael; Vig, Eleonora; Barth, Erhardt

    2013-03-01

    Interdisciplinary research in human vision and electronic imaging has greatly contributed to the current state of the art in imaging technologies. Image compression and image quality are prominent examples and the progress made in these areas relies on a better understanding of what natural images are and how they are perceived by the human visual system. A key research question has been: given the (statistical) properties of natural images, what are the most efficient and perceptually relevant image representations, what are the most prominent and descriptive features of images and videos? We give an overview of how these topics have evolved over the 25 years of HVEI conferences and how they have influenced the current state of the art. There are a number of striking parallels between human vision and electronic imaging. The retina does lateral inhibition, one of the early coders was using a Laplacian pyramid; primary visual cortical areas have orientation- and frequency-selective neurons, the current JPEG standard defines similar wavelet transforms; the brain uses a sparse code, engineers are currently excited about sparse coding and compressed sensing. Some of this has indeed happened at the HVEI conferences and we would like to distill that.

  3. Continuum representations of cellular solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilsen, M. K.

    1993-09-01

    Cellular materials consist of interconnected struts or plates which form cells. The struts or plates are constructed from a variety of metals, polymers, ceramics, and wood products. Cellular materials are often used in impact limiters for shipping containers to protect the contents from accidental impact events. These materials exhibit a variety of complex behavior when subjected to crushing loads. This research focuses on the development of continuum representations of cellular solids that can be used in the finite element analysis of shipping container accidents. A significant portion of this work is the development of a new methodology to relate localized deformations to appropriate constitutive descriptions. This methodology provides the insight needed to select constitutive descriptions for cellular solids that capture the localized deformations that are observed experimentally. Constitutive relations are developed for two different cellular materials, aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. These constitutive relations are based on plasticity and continuum damage theories. Plasticity is used to describe the permanent deformation exhibited by both aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. Continuum damage is needed to capture the change in elastic parameters due to cracking of the polyurethane cell wall materials. The new constitutive description of polyurethane foam is implemented in both static and dynamic finite element codes, and analytical and numerical predictions are compared with available experimental data.

  4. Continuum representations of cellular solids

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, M.K.

    1993-09-01

    Cellular materials consist of interconnected struts or plates which form cells. The struts or plates are constructed from a variety of metals, polymers, ceramics and wood products. Cellular materials are often used in impact limiters for shipping containers to protect the contents from accidental impact events. These materials exhibit a variety of complex behavior when subjected to crushing loads. This research focuses on the development of continuum representations of cellular solids that can be used in the finite element analysis of shipping container accidents. A significant portion of this work is the development of a new methodology to relate localized deformations to appropriate constitutive descriptions. This methodology provides the insight needed to select constitutive descriptions for cellular solids that capture the localized deformations that are observed experimentally. Constitutive relations are developed for two different cellular materials, aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. These constitutive relations are based on plasticity and continuum damage theories. Plasticity is used to describe the permanent deformation exhibited by both aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. Continuum damage is needed to capture the change in elastic parameters due to cracking of the polyurethane cell wall materials. The new constitutive description of polyurethane foam is implemented in both static and dynamic finite element codes, and analytical and numerical predictions are compared with available experimental data.

  5. Stochastic representations of Feynman integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boos, William

    2007-12-01

    For polynomially bounded potentials V such that H =H0+V is essentially self-adjoint on S(Rd)⊆D(H0)∩D(V ), this essay offers two reconstructions of Feynman's sum over histories as the unitary image of a genuine integral with respect to Wiener measure μ of a functional σtx(ω) defined on the space W of Brownian paths ω into momentum space Rd. The first representation, based on Feynman's original argument, "lifts" σtx(ω) from a "convolutional Trotter product formula" for the Fourier-transformed image φ̂t(p) of the time-evolved wave function φt(x)=exp(-itH)φ(x) in L2(Rd). The second—which varies and extends a construction introduced in a slightly different context by Albeverio and Høegh-Krohn [Mathematical Theory of Feynman Integrals, Springer Lecture Notes in Mathematics Vol. 523 (Springer, New York, 1976)]—lifts the functional σtx(ω) from a "convolutional Dyson expansion" of the time-evolved momentum-space function φ̂t(p).

  6. Structural representation of data structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantoni, Virginio; Gaggia, Alessandro; Gatti, Riccardo; Lombardi, Luca

    2014-06-01

    Study of the morphology of proteins, and their 3D structure, supports investigations of their functions and represents an initial step towards protein-based drug design. The goal of this paper is to define techniques, based on the geometrical and topological structure of protein surfaces, for the detection and analysis of sites of potential protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. Two protein representation modalities based on the Concavity Tree (CT) and the Enriched Complex Extended Gaussian Image (EC-EGI) are considered. In particular, the concavity tree, in which the interface is usually extended and roughly planar, is considered to be better suited to protein-protein interaction studies. Instead, the EGI is more suited to protein-ligand interactions, in which the small ligand molecule usually has to fit into the protein cavity. In fact, the histogram of the orientations is better suited to representing a mainly convex object and its dual matching region (the cavity). Both these data structures are open, and can be easily integrated with biochemical features.

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: Analytic representations in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourdas, A.

    2006-02-01

    Various Euclidean, hyperbolic and elliptic analytic representations are introduced and relations among them are discussed. The Bargmann analytic representation in the complex plane is considered and its relation to other phase-space methods for the harmonic oscillator is reviewed. The general theory that relates the growth of analytic functions with the density of their zeros is applied to Bargmann functions and it leads to theorems on the completeness of sequences of Glauber coherent states. Two hyperbolic analytic representations in the unit disc, based on SU(1, 1) coherent states and also on phase states are introduced. A third analytic representation in the complex plane based on Barut-Girardello states is also considered and transformations which relate it to the other ones are studied. In the case of systems with finite-dimensional Hilbert space, an elliptic analytic representation in the extended complex plane and also another analytic representation based on theta functions are introduced. The Berezin formalism in the Euclidean, hyperbolic and elliptic cases is discussed. Contour analytic representations in these three cases are also presented.

  8. Localization of Unitary Braid Group Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowell, Eric C.; Wang, Zhenghan

    2012-05-01

    Governed by locality, we explore a connection between unitary braid group representations associated to a unitary R-matrix and to a simple object in a unitary braided fusion category. Unitary R-matrices, namely unitary solutions to the Yang-Baxter equation, afford explicitly local unitary representations of braid groups. Inspired by topological quantum computation, we study whether or not it is possible to reassemble the irreducible summands appearing in the unitary braid group representations from a unitary braided fusion category with possibly different positive multiplicities to get representations that are uniformly equivalent to the ones from a unitary R-matrix. Such an equivalence will be called a localization of the unitary braid group representations. We show that the q = e π i/6 specialization of the unitary Jones representation of the braid groups can be localized by a unitary 9 × 9 R-matrix. Actually this Jones representation is the first one in a family of theories ( SO( N), 2) for an odd prime N > 1, which are conjectured to be localizable. We formulate several general conjectures and discuss possible connections to physics and computer science.

  9. General regression and representation model for classification.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jianjun; Yang, Jian; Xu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the regularized coding-based classification methods (e.g. SRC and CRC) show a great potential for pattern classification. However, most existing coding methods assume that the representation residuals are uncorrelated. In real-world applications, this assumption does not hold. In this paper, we take account of the correlations of the representation residuals and develop a general regression and representation model (GRR) for classification. GRR not only has advantages of CRC, but also takes full use of the prior information (e.g. the correlations between representation residuals and representation coefficients) and the specific information (weight matrix of image pixels) to enhance the classification performance. GRR uses the generalized Tikhonov regularization and K Nearest Neighbors to learn the prior information from the training data. Meanwhile, the specific information is obtained by using an iterative algorithm to update the feature (or image pixel) weights of the test sample. With the proposed model as a platform, we design two classifiers: basic general regression and representation classifier (B-GRR) and robust general regression and representation classifier (R-GRR). The experimental results demonstrate the performance advantages of proposed methods over state-of-the-art algorithms.

  10. General Regression and Representation Model for Classification

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jianjun; Yang, Jian; Xu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the regularized coding-based classification methods (e.g. SRC and CRC) show a great potential for pattern classification. However, most existing coding methods assume that the representation residuals are uncorrelated. In real-world applications, this assumption does not hold. In this paper, we take account of the correlations of the representation residuals and develop a general regression and representation model (GRR) for classification. GRR not only has advantages of CRC, but also takes full use of the prior information (e.g. the correlations between representation residuals and representation coefficients) and the specific information (weight matrix of image pixels) to enhance the classification performance. GRR uses the generalized Tikhonov regularization and K Nearest Neighbors to learn the prior information from the training data. Meanwhile, the specific information is obtained by using an iterative algorithm to update the feature (or image pixel) weights of the test sample. With the proposed model as a platform, we design two classifiers: basic general regression and representation classifier (B-GRR) and robust general regression and representation classifier (R-GRR). The experimental results demonstrate the performance advantages of proposed methods over state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:25531882

  11. Phase space representation of quantum dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Polkovnikov, Anatoli

    2010-08-15

    We discuss a phase space representation of quantum dynamics of systems with many degrees of freedom. This representation is based on a perturbative expansion in quantum fluctuations around one of the classical limits. We explicitly analyze expansions around three such limits: (i) corpuscular or Newtonian limit in the coordinate-momentum representation, (ii) wave or Gross-Pitaevskii limit for interacting bosons in the coherent state representation, and (iii) Bloch limit for the spin systems. We discuss both the semiclassical (truncated Wigner) approximation and further quantum corrections appearing in the form of either stochastic quantum jumps along the classical trajectories or the nonlinear response to such jumps. We also discuss how quantum jumps naturally emerge in the analysis of non-equal time correlation functions. This representation of quantum dynamics is closely related to the phase space methods based on the Wigner-Weyl quantization and to the Keldysh technique. We show how such concepts as the Wigner function, Weyl symbol, Moyal product, Bopp operators, and others automatically emerge from the Feynmann's path integral representation of the evolution in the Heisenberg representation. We illustrate the applicability of this expansion with various examples mostly in the context of cold atom systems including sine-Gordon model, one- and two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model, Dicke model and others.

  12. Students' Representational Fluency at University: A Cross-Sectional Measure of How Multiple Representations Are Used by Physics Students Using the Representational Fluency Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Matthew; Sharma, Manjula Devi

    2015-01-01

    To succeed within scientific disciplines, using representations, including those based on words, graphs, equations, and diagrams, is important. Research indicates that the use of discipline specific representations (sometimes referred to as expert generated representations), as well as multi-representational use, is critical for problem solving…

  13. The relationship between visuospatial and representational neglect.

    PubMed

    Bartolomeo, P; D'Erme, P; Gainotti, G

    1994-09-01

    Using a quantitative measure, we analyzed the relationship between visuospatial and representational neglect in right- and left-brain-damaged patients and found signs of representational neglect only in right-brain-damaged patients. Although representational neglect was always associated with visuospatial neglect, suggesting that the two forms share a common underlying mechanism, the most frequent finding in right-brain--damaged patients was that of visuospatial neglect in isolation. A strong influence of the phenomenon of attentional attraction toward space ipsilateral to the lesion in visuospatial, as opposed to imaginal, tasks can account for this finding.

  14. On a categorial aspect of knowledge representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataj, Emanuel; Mulawka, Jan; Nieznański, Edward

    Adequate representation of data is crucial for modeling any type of data. To faithfully present and describe the relevant section of the world it is necessary to select the method that can easily be implemented on a computer system which will help in further description allowing reasoning. The main objective of this contribution is to present methods of knowledge representation using categorial approach. Next to identify the main advantages for computer implementation. Categorical aspect of knowledge representation is considered in semantic networks realisation. Such method borrows already known metaphysics properties for data modeling process. The potential topics of further development of categorical semantic networks implementations are also underlined.

  15. Understanding as Integration of Heterogeneous Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Sergio F.

    2014-03-01

    The search for understanding is a major aim of science. Traditionally, understanding has been undervalued in the philosophy of science because of its psychological underpinnings; nowadays, however, it is widely recognized that epistemology cannot be divorced from psychology as sharp as traditional epistemology required. This eliminates the main obstacle to give scientific understanding due attention in philosophy of science. My aim in this paper is to describe an account of scientific understanding as an emergent feature of our mastering of different (causal) explanatory frameworks that takes place through the mastering of scientific practices. Different practices lead to different kinds of representations. Such representations are often heterogeneous. The integration of such representations constitute understanding.

  16. Minimal representations, geometric quantization, and unitarity.

    PubMed Central

    Brylinski, R; Kostant, B

    1994-01-01

    In the framework of geometric quantization we explicitly construct, in a uniform fashion, a unitary minimal representation pio of every simply-connected real Lie group Go such that the maximal compact subgroup of Go has finite center and Go admits some minimal representation. We obtain algebraic and analytic results about pio. We give several results on the algebraic and symplectic geometry of the minimal nilpotent orbits and then "quantize" these results to obtain the corresponding representations. We assume (Lie Go)C is simple. PMID:11607478

  17. Minimal representations, geometric quantization, and unitarity.

    PubMed

    Brylinski, R; Kostant, B

    1994-06-21

    In the framework of geometric quantization we explicitly construct, in a uniform fashion, a unitary minimal representation pio of every simply-connected real Lie group Go such that the maximal compact subgroup of Go has finite center and Go admits some minimal representation. We obtain algebraic and analytic results about pio. We give several results on the algebraic and symplectic geometry of the minimal nilpotent orbits and then "quantize" these results to obtain the corresponding representations. We assume (Lie Go)C is simple.

  18. Action representation: crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Associative memory - An optimum binary neuron representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Awwal, A. A.; Karim, M. A.; Liu, H. K.

    1989-01-01

    Convergence mechanism of vectors in the Hopfield's neural network is studied in terms of both weights (i.e., inner products) and Hamming distance. It is shown that Hamming distance should not always be used in determining the convergence of vectors. Instead, weights (which in turn depend on the neuron representation) are found to play a more dominant role in the convergence mechanism. Consequently, a new binary neuron representation for associative memory is proposed. With the new neuron representation, the associative memory responds unambiguously to the partial input in retrieving the stored information.

  20. Neuronal representation of object orientation.

    PubMed

    Karnath, H O; Ferber, S; Bülthoff, H H

    2000-01-01

    The dissociation between object identity and object orientation observed in six patients with brain damage, has been taken as evidence for a view-invariant model of object recognition. However, there was also some indication that these patients were not generally agnosic for object orientation but were able to gain access to at least some information about objects' canonical upright. We studied a new case (KB) with spared knowledge of object identity and impaired perception of object orientation using a forced choice paradigm to contrast directly the patient's ability to perceive objects' canonical upright vs non-upright orientations. We presented 2D-pictures of objects with unambiguous canonical upright orientations in four different orientations (0 degrees, -90 degrees, +90 degrees, 180 degrees ). KB showed no impairment in identifying letters, objects, animals, or faces irrespective of their given orientation. Also, her knowledge of upright orientation of stimuli was perfectly preserved. In sharp contrast, KB was not able to judge the orientation when the stimuli were presented in a non-upright orientation. The findings give further support for a distributed view-based representation of objects in which neurons become tuned to the features present in certain views of an object. Since we see more upright than inverted animals and familiar objects, the statistics of these images leads to a larger number of neurons tuned for objects in an upright orientation. We suppose that probably for this reason KB's knowledge of upright orientation was found to be more robust against neuronal damage than knowledge of other orientations.

  1. Artistic Representation with Pulsed Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, S.

    2013-02-01

    This thesis describes artistic representation through pulsed holography. One of the prevalent practical problems in making holograms is object movement. Any movement of the object or film, including movement caused by acoustic vibration, has the same fatal results. One way of reducing the chance of movement is by ensuring that the exposure is very quick; using a pulsed laser can fulfill this objective. The attractiveness of using pulsed laser is based on the variety of materials or objects that can be recorded (e.g., liquid material or instantaneous scene of a moving object). One of the most interesting points about pulsed holograms is that some reconstructed images present us with completely different views of the real world. For example, the holographic image of liquid material does not appear fluid; it looks like a piece of hard glass that would produce a sharp sound upon tapping. In everyday life, we are unfamiliar with such an instantaneous scene. On the other hand, soft-textured materials such as a feather or wool differ from liquids when observed through holography. Using a pulsed hologram, we can sense the soft touch of the object or material with the help of realistic three-dimensional (3-D) images. The images allow us to realize the sense of touch in a way that resembles touching real objects. I had the opportunity to use a pulsed ruby laser soon after I started to work in the field of holography in 1979. Since then, I have made pulsed holograms of activities, including pouring water, breaking eggs, blowing soap bubbles, and scattering feathers and popcorn. I have also created holographic art with materials and objects, such as silk fiber, fabric, balloons, glass, flowers, and even the human body. Whenever I create art, I like to present the spectator with a new experience in perception. Therefore, I would like to introduce my experimental artwork through those pulsed holograms.

  2. Distinguishing Representations as Origin and Representations as Input: Roles for Individual Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jonathan C. W.

    2016-01-01

    It is widely perceived that there is a problem in giving a naturalistic account of mental representation that deals adequately with the issue of meaning, interpretation, or significance (semantic content). It is suggested here that this problem may arise partly from the conflation of two vernacular senses of representation: representation-as-origin and representation-as-input. The flash of a neon sign may in one sense represent a popular drink, but to function as a representation it must provide an input to a ‘consumer’ in the street. The arguments presented draw on two principles – the neuron doctrine and the need for a venue for ‘presentation’ or ‘reception’ of a representation at a specified site, consistent with the locality principle. It is also argued that domains of representation cannot be defined by signal traffic, since they can be expected to include ‘null’ elements based on non-firing cells. In this analysis, mental representations-as-origin are distributed patterns of cell firing. Each firing cell is given semantic value in its own right – some form of atomic propositional significance – since different axonal branches may contribute to integration with different populations of signals at different downstream sites. Representations-as-input are patterns of local co-arrival of signals in the form of synaptic potentials in dendrites. Meaning then draws on the relationships between active and null inputs, forming ‘scenarios’ comprising a molecular combination of ‘premises’ from which a new output with atomic propositional significance is generated. In both types of representation, meaning, interpretation or significance pivots on events in an individual cell. (This analysis only applies to ‘occurrent’ representations based on current neural activity.) The concept of representations-as-input emphasizes the need for an internal ‘consumer’ of a representation and the dependence of meaning on the co-relationships involved

  3. Distinguishing Representations as Origin and Representations as Input: Roles for Individual Neurons.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jonathan C W

    2016-01-01

    It is widely perceived that there is a problem in giving a naturalistic account of mental representation that deals adequately with the issue of meaning, interpretation, or significance (semantic content). It is suggested here that this problem may arise partly from the conflation of two vernacular senses of representation: representation-as-origin and representation-as-input. The flash of a neon sign may in one sense represent a popular drink, but to function as a representation it must provide an input to a 'consumer' in the street. The arguments presented draw on two principles - the neuron doctrine and the need for a venue for 'presentation' or 'reception' of a representation at a specified site, consistent with the locality principle. It is also argued that domains of representation cannot be defined by signal traffic, since they can be expected to include 'null' elements based on non-firing cells. In this analysis, mental representations-as-origin are distributed patterns of cell firing. Each firing cell is given semantic value in its own right - some form of atomic propositional significance - since different axonal branches may contribute to integration with different populations of signals at different downstream sites. Representations-as-input are patterns of local co-arrival of signals in the form of synaptic potentials in dendrites. Meaning then draws on the relationships between active and null inputs, forming 'scenarios' comprising a molecular combination of 'premises' from which a new output with atomic propositional significance is generated. In both types of representation, meaning, interpretation or significance pivots on events in an individual cell. (This analysis only applies to 'occurrent' representations based on current neural activity.) The concept of representations-as-input emphasizes the need for an internal 'consumer' of a representation and the dependence of meaning on the co-relationships involved in an input interaction between

  4. Mental Representations Formed From Educational Website Formats

    SciTech Connect

    Elizabeth T. Cady; Kimberly R. Raddatz; Tuan Q. Tran; Bernardo de la Garza; Peter D. Elgin

    2006-10-01

    The increasing popularity of web-based distance education places high demand on distance educators to format web pages to facilitate learning. However, limited guidelines exist regarding appropriate writing styles for web-based distance education. This study investigated the effect of four different writing styles on reader’s mental representation of hypertext. Participants studied hypertext written in one of four web-writing styles (e.g., concise, scannable, objective, and combined) and were then administered a cued association task intended to measure their mental representations of the hypertext. It is hypothesized that the scannable and combined styles will bias readers to scan rather than elaborately read, which may result in less dense mental representations (as identified through Pathfinder analysis) relative to the objective and concise writing styles. Further, the use of more descriptors in the objective writing style will lead to better integration of ideas and more dense mental representations than the concise writing style.

  5. Identities, social representations and critical thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Facal, Ramón; Jiménez-Aleixandre, María Pilar

    2009-09-01

    This comment on L. Simonneaux and J. Simonneaux paper focuses on the role of identities in dealing with socio-scientific issues. We argue that there are two types of identities (social representations) influencing the students' positions: On the one hand their social representations of the bears' and wolves' identities as belonging to particular countries (Slovenia versus France for bears, France and Italy for wolves), in other words, as having national identities; on the other hand representations of their own identities as belonging to the field of agricultural practitioners, and so sharing this socio-professional identity with shepherds and breeders, as opposed to ecologists. We discuss how these representations of identities influenced students' reasoning and argumentation, blocking in some cases the evaluation of evidence. Implications for developing critical thinking and for dealing with SSI in the classrooms are outlined.

  6. Interactive information retrieval systems with minimalist representation

    SciTech Connect

    Domeshek, E.; Kedar, S.; Gordon, A.

    1996-12-31

    Almost any information you might want is becoming available on-line. The problem is how to find what you need. One strategy to improve access to existing information sources, is intelligent information agents - an approach based on extensive representation and inference. Another alternative is to simply concentrate on better information organization and indexing. Our systems use a form of conceptual indexing sensitive to users` task-specific information needs. We aim for minimalist representation, coding only select aspects of stored items. Rather than supporting reliable automated inference, the primary purpose of our representations is to provide sufficient discrimination and guidance to a user for a given domain and task. This paper argues, using case studies, that minimal representations can make strong contributions to the usefulness and usability of interactive information systems, while minimizing knowledge engineering effort. We demonstrate this approach in several broad spectrum applications including video retrieval and advisory systems.

  7. Applied research in auditory data representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frysinger, Steve P.

    1990-08-01

    A class of data displays, characterized generally as Auditory Data Representation, is described and motivated. This type of data representation takes advantage of the tremendous pattern recognition capability of the human auditory channel. Audible displays offer an alternative means of conveying quantitative data to the analyst to facilitate information extraction, and are successfully used alone and in conjunction with visual displays. The Auditory Data Representation literature is reviewed, along with elements of the allied fields of investigation, Psychoacoustics and Musical Perception. A methodology for applied research in this field, based upon the well-developed discipline of psychophysics, is elaborated using a recent experiment as a case study. This method permits objective estimation of a data representation technique by comparing it to alternative displays for the pattern recognition task at hand. The psychophysical threshold of signal to noise level, for constant pattern recognition performance, is the measure of display effectiveness.

  8. The representational dynamics of remembered projectile locations.

    PubMed

    De Sá Teixeira, Nuno Alexandre; Hecht, Heiko; Oliveira, Armando Mónica

    2013-12-01

    When people are instructed to locate the vanishing location of a moving target, systematic errors forward in the direction of motion (M-displacement) and downward in the direction of gravity (O-displacement) are found. These phenomena came to be linked with the notion that physical invariants are embedded in the dynamic representations generated by the perceptual system. We explore the nature of these invariants that determine the representational mechanics of projectiles. By manipulating the retention intervals between the target's disappearance and the participant's responses, while measuring both M- and O-displacements, we were able to uncover a representational analogue of the trajectory of a projectile. The outcomes of three experiments revealed that the shape of this trajectory is discontinuous. Although the horizontal component of such trajectory can be accounted for by perceptual and oculomotor factors, its vertical component cannot. Taken together, the outcomes support an internalization of gravity in the visual representation of projectiles.

  9. Self-representation and brain development.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael; Carmody, Dennis P

    2008-09-01

    This study examined the relation between self-representation and brain development in infants and young children. Self-representation was assessed by mirror recognition, personal pronoun use, and pretend play. Structural brain images were obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brain development was assessed by a quantitative measure of maturation of the temporo-parietal junction, temporal pole, medial frontal cortex, and occipital cortex. Fifteen children (15 to 30 months of age; 3 girls) without MRI abnormalities were assessed. Only maturation of the left temporo-parietal junction was related to self-representation after controlling for age. These findings provide some evidence that brain maturation is related to the emergence of a representation of self in the human child.

  10. Ethnic Minority Representation in Counselor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed chairpersons of 476 counselor education programs to determine ethnic minority representation among students and faculty. Compared to population statistics, Asian Americans were found to be underrepresented as both students and faculty. (JAC)

  11. 29 CFR 452.127 - Proportionate representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the election provisions of the Act. Congress did not attempt to specify the organizational structure... delegates who have been chosen by secret ballot, the structure of representation of the membership is...

  12. 29 CFR 452.127 - Proportionate representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the election provisions of the Act. Congress did not attempt to specify the organizational structure... delegates who have been chosen by secret ballot, the structure of representation of the membership is...

  13. Friends reunited? Evolutionary robotics and representational explanation.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Robotics as practiced within the artificial life community is no longer the bitter enemy of representational explanation in the way that it sometimes seemed to be in the heady, revolutionary days of the 1990s. This rapprochement is, however, fragile, because the field of evolutionary robotics continues to pose two important challenges to the idea that real-time intelligent action must or should be explained by appeal to inner representations. The first of these challenges, the threat from nontrivial causal spread, occurs when extra-neural factors account for the kind of adaptive richness and flexibility normally associated with representation-based control. The second, the threat from continuous reciprocal causation, occurs when the causal contributions made by the systemic components collectively responsible for behavior generation are massively context-sensitive and variable over time. I argue that while the threat from nontrivial causal spread can be resisted, the threat from continuous reciprocal causation provides a stern test for our representational intuitions.

  14. Normalized Neural Representations of Complex Odors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory system removes correlations in natural odors using a network of inhibitory neurons in the olfactory bulb. It has been proposed that this network integrates the response from all olfactory receptors and inhibits them equally. However, how such global inhibition influences the neural representations of odors is unclear. Here, we study a simple statistical model of the processing in the olfactory bulb, which leads to concentration-invariant, sparse representations of the odor composition. We show that the inhibition strength can be tuned to obtain sparse representations that are still useful to discriminate odors that vary in relative concentration, size, and composition. The model reveals two generic consequences of global inhibition: (i) odors with many molecular species are more difficult to discriminate and (ii) receptor arrays with heterogeneous sensitivities perform badly. Comparing these predictions to experiments will help us to understand the role of global inhibition in shaping normalized odor representations in the olfactory bulb. PMID:27835696

  15. Representations of sound in american deaf literature.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Russell S

    2007-01-01

    Sound plays a prominent role in narrative description of characters and environs in mainstream American literature. A review of American Deaf literature shows that the representations of sound held for deaf writers are in extensional and oppositional terms. American deaf writers, in their descriptions of entities, characters, functions, and settings, have created different representations of sound. In American Deaf literature, the representations of sound are filled with altered-acoustic and extra-acoustic images of sounds. The representations reflect psychophysiological experiences that presume the existence of an acoustic world by American deaf and hard-of-hearing writers, independent of the age when their hearing was lost, and changes in American Deaf culture.

  16. Ethnic Minority Representation in Counselor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed chairpersons of 476 counselor education programs to determine ethnic minority representation among students and faculty. Compared to population statistics, Asian Americans were found to be underrepresented as both students and faculty. (JAC)

  17. Continous Representation Learning via User Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-08

    Representation learning is a deep-learning based technique for extracting features from data for the purpose of machine learning. This requires a large amount of data, on order tens of thousands to millions of samples, to properly teach the deep neural network. This a system for continuous representation learning, where the system may be improved with a small number of additional samples (order 10-100). The unique characteristics of this invention include a human-computer feedback component, where assess the quality of the current representation and then provides a better representation to the system. The system then mixes the new data with old training examples to avoid overfitting and improve overall performance of the system. The model can be exported and shared with other users, and it may be applied to additional images the system hasn't seen before.

  18. through the Use of Aesthetic Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crim, Courtney L.; Kennedy, Kimberley D.; Thornton, Jenifer S.

    2013-01-01

    multiple intelligences, and aesthetic representations. Next, it presents the methodology, reports findings, and discusses themes related to the authors' research questions. Finally, it concludes that tapping into students' multiple intelligence strength(s) is an…

  19. 10 CFR 710.34 - Attorney representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Criteria and Procedures for Determining Eligibility for Access to Classified Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.34 Attorney representation. In the event...

  20. 10 CFR 710.34 - Attorney representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Criteria and Procedures for Determining Eligibility for Access to Classified Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.34 Attorney representation. In the event...

  1. 48 CFR 1480.803 - Representation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accordance with the Buy Indian Act and this part. IA procedure supports responsible IEEs and seeks to prevent... enterprise to an IA CO in the IEE representation at 1452.280-4 in response to a specific solicitation...

  2. Converting Boundary Representation Solid Models to Half-Space Representation Models for Monte Carlo Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Davis JE, Eddy MJ, Sutton TM, Altomari TJ

    2007-03-01

    Solid modeling computer software systems provide for the design of three-dimensional solid models used in the design and analysis of physical components. The current state-of-the-art in solid modeling representation uses a boundary representation format in which geometry and topology are used to form three-dimensional boundaries of the solid. The geometry representation used in these systems is cubic B-spline curves and surfaces--a network of cubic B-spline functions in three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate space. Many Monte Carlo codes, however, use a geometry representation in which geometry units are specified by intersections and unions of half-spaces. This paper describes an algorithm for converting from a boundary representation to a half-space representation.

  3. One dimensional representations in quantum optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janszky, J.; Adam, P.; Foldesi, I.; Vinogradov, An. V.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of representing the quantum states of a harmonic oscillator not on the whole alpha-plane but on its one dimensional manifolds is considered. It is shown that a simple Gaussian distribution along a straight line describes a quadrature squeezed state while a similar Gaussian distribution along a circle leads to the amplitude squeezed state. The connection between the one dimensional representations and the usual Glauber representation is discussed.

  4. Discriminative Sparse Representations in Hyperspectral Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    classification , and unsupervised labeling (clustering) [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]. Recently, a non-parametric (Bayesian) approach to sparse modeling and com...DISCRIMINATIVE SPARSE REPRESENTATIONS IN HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY By Alexey Castrodad, Zhengming Xing John Greer, Edward Bosch Lawrence Carin and...00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Discriminative Sparse Representations in Hyperspectral Imagery 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  5. Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana

    2003-05-01

    We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.

  6. Representation of feedback operators for hyperbolic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, John A.; King, Belinda B.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of obtaining integral representation of feedback operators for damped hyperbolic control systems. We show that for the wave equation with Kelvin-Voigt damping and non-compact input operator, the feedback gain operator is Hilbert-Schmidt. This result is then used to provide an explicit integral representation for the feedback operator in terms of functional gains. Numerical results are given to illustrate the role that damping plays in the smoothness of these gains.

  7. Properties of Artifact Representations for Evolutionary Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    To achieve evolutionary design systems that scale to the levels achieved by man-made artifacts we can look to their characteristics of modularity, hierarchy and regularity to guide us. For this we focus on design representations, since they strongly determine the ability of evolutionary design systems to evolve artifacts with these characteristics. We identify three properties of design representations - combination, control-flow and abstraction - and discuss how they relate to hierarchy, modularity and regularity.

  8. Properties of Artifact Representations for Evolutionary Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    To achieve evolutionary design systems that scale to the levels achieved by man-made artifacts we can look to their characteristics of modularity, hierarchy and regularity to guide us. For this we focus on design representations, since they strongly determine the ability of evolutionary design systems to evolve artifacts with these characteristics. We identify three properties of design representations - combination, control-flow and abstraction - and discuss how they relate to hierarchy, modularity and regularity.

  9. Mental representation and motor imagery training

    PubMed Central

    Schack, Thomas; Essig, Kai; Frank, Cornelia; Koester, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Research in sports, dance and rehabilitation has shown that basic action concepts (BACs) are fundamental building blocks of mental action representations. BACs are based on chunked body postures related to common functions for realizing action goals. In this paper, we outline issues in research methodology and an experimental method, the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation (SDA-M), to assess action-relevant representational structures that reflect the organization of BACs. The SDA-M reveals a strong relationship between cognitive representation and performance if complex actions are performed. We show how the SDA-M can improve motor imagery training and how it contributes to our understanding of coaching processes. The SDA-M capitalizes on the objective measurement of individual mental movement representations before training and the integration of these results into the motor imagery training. Such motor imagery training based on mental representations (MTMR) has been applied successfully in professional sports such as golf, volleyball, gymnastics, windsurfing, and recently in the rehabilitation of patients who have suffered a stroke. PMID:24904368

  10. Representational Distance Learning for Deep Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    McClure, Patrick; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Deep neural networks (DNNs) provide useful models of visual representational transformations. We present a method that enables a DNN (student) to learn from the internal representational spaces of a reference model (teacher), which could be another DNN or, in the future, a biological brain. Representational spaces of the student and the teacher are characterized by representational distance matrices (RDMs). We propose representational distance learning (RDL), a stochastic gradient descent method that drives the RDMs of the student to approximate the RDMs of the teacher. We demonstrate that RDL is competitive with other transfer learning techniques for two publicly available benchmark computer vision datasets (MNIST and CIFAR-100), while allowing for architectural differences between student and teacher. By pulling the student's RDMs toward those of the teacher, RDL significantly improved visual classification performance when compared to baseline networks that did not use transfer learning. In the future, RDL may enable combined supervised training of deep neural networks using task constraints (e.g., images and category labels) and constraints from brain-activity measurements, so as to build models that replicate the internal representational spaces of biological brains.

  11. Spinor representations of affine Lie algebras

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, I. B.

    1980-01-01

    Let [unk] be an infinite-dimensional Kac-Moody Lie algebra of one of the types Dl+1(2), Bl(1), or Dl(1). These algebras are characterized by the property that an elimination of any endpoint of their Dynkin diagrams gives diagrams of types Bl or Dl of classical orthogonal Lie algebras. We construct two representations of a Lie algebra [unk], which we call spinor representations, following the analogy with the classical case. We obtain that every spinor representation is either irreducible or has two irreducible components. This provides us with an explicit construction of fundamental representations of [unk], two for the type Dl+1(2), three for Bl(1), and four for Dl(1). We note the profound connection of our construction with quantum field theory—in particular, with fermion fields. Comparing the character formulas of our representations with another construction of the fundamental representations of Kac-Moody Lie algebras of types Al(1), Dl(1), El(1), we obtain classical Jacobi identities and addition formulas for elliptic θ-functions. PMID:16592912

  12. Representational Distance Learning for Deep Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Patrick; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Deep neural networks (DNNs) provide useful models of visual representational transformations. We present a method that enables a DNN (student) to learn from the internal representational spaces of a reference model (teacher), which could be another DNN or, in the future, a biological brain. Representational spaces of the student and the teacher are characterized by representational distance matrices (RDMs). We propose representational distance learning (RDL), a stochastic gradient descent method that drives the RDMs of the student to approximate the RDMs of the teacher. We demonstrate that RDL is competitive with other transfer learning techniques for two publicly available benchmark computer vision datasets (MNIST and CIFAR-100), while allowing for architectural differences between student and teacher. By pulling the student's RDMs toward those of the teacher, RDL significantly improved visual classification performance when compared to baseline networks that did not use transfer learning. In the future, RDL may enable combined supervised training of deep neural networks using task constraints (e.g., images and category labels) and constraints from brain-activity measurements, so as to build models that replicate the internal representational spaces of biological brains. PMID:28082889

  13. Tactile mental body parts representation in obesity.

    PubMed

    Scarpina, Federica; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Molinari, Enrico

    2014-12-30

    Obese people׳s distortions in visually-based mental body-parts representations have been reported in previous studies, but other sensory modalities have largely been neglected. In the present study, we investigated possible differences in tactilely-based body-parts representation between an obese and a healthy-weight group; additionally we explore the possible relationship between the tactile- and the visually-based body representation. Participants were asked to estimate the distance between two tactile stimuli that were simultaneously administered on the arm or on the abdomen, in the absence of visual input. The visually-based body-parts representation was investigated by a visual imagery method in which subjects were instructed to compare the horizontal extension of body part pairs. According to the results, the obese participants overestimated the size of the tactilely-perceived distances more than the healthy-weight group when the arm, and not the abdomen, was stimulated. Moreover, they reported a lower level of accuracy than did the healthy-weight group when estimating horizontal distances relative to their bodies, confirming an inappropriate visually-based mental body representation. Our results imply that body representation disturbance in obese people is not limited to the visual mental domain, but it spreads to the tactilely perceived distances. The inaccuracy was not a generalized tendency but was body-part related. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring the Structure of Spatial Representations

    PubMed Central

    Madl, Tamas; Franklin, Stan; Chen, Ke; Trappl, Robert; Montaldi, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the map-like representations that support human spatial memory are fragmented into sub-maps with local reference frames, rather than being unitary and global. However, the principles underlying the structure of these ‘cognitive maps’ are not well understood. We propose that the structure of the representations of navigation space arises from clustering within individual psychological spaces, i.e. from a process that groups together objects that are close in these spaces. Building on the ideas of representational geometry and similarity-based representations in cognitive science, we formulate methods for learning dissimilarity functions (metrics) characterizing participants’ psychological spaces. We show that these learned metrics, together with a probabilistic model of clustering based on the Bayesian cognition paradigm, allow prediction of participants’ cognitive map structures in advance. Apart from insights into spatial representation learning in human cognition, these methods could facilitate novel computational tools capable of using human-like spatial concepts. We also compare several features influencing spatial memory structure, including spatial distance, visual similarity and functional similarity, and report strong correlations between these dimensions and the grouping probability in participants’ spatial representations, providing further support for clustering in spatial memory. PMID:27347681

  15. Negotiated representational mediators: How young children decide what to include in their science representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danish, Joshua A.; Enyedy, Noel

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we synthesize two bodies of work related to students' representational activities: the notions of meta-representational competence and representation as a form of practice. We report on video analyses of kindergarten and first-grade students as they create representations of pollination in a science classroom, as well as summarize results from interviews regarding the design choices that they made. Analysis of the semistructured pre- and postinterviews reveals that students attend to the content domain, local activity, and their personal preferences when evaluating representations. Analysis of video case studies that followed the students as they created their representations further reveals several key mediators of the students' representational activities, including other students, task constraints, the teacher, and local norms for what constituted a good representation. In addition, the data show that these norms shifted over time as new content was covered in the class, and were appropriated in interaction with other students. Finally, both sets of analyses reveal that students often face competing constraints when creating their representations, and resolve these constraints through a complex set of negotiations.

  16. Inherited Representations are Read in Development

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Recent theoretical work has identified a tightly constrained sense in which genes carry representational content. Representational properties of the genome are founded in the transmission of DNA over phylogenetic time and its role in natural selection. However, genetic representation is not just relevant to questions of selection and evolution. This article goes beyond existing treatments and argues for the heterodox view that information generated by a process of selection over phylogenetic time can be read in ontogenetic time, in the course of individual development. Recent results in evolutionary biology, drawn both from modelling work, and from experimental and observational data, support a role for genetic representation in explaining individual ontogeny: both genetic representations and environmental information are read by the mechanisms of development, in an individual, so as to lead to adaptive phenotypes. Furthermore, in some cases there appears to have been selection between individuals that rely to different degrees on the two sources of information. Thus, the theory of representation in inheritance systems like the genome is much more than just a coherent reconstruction of information talk in biology. Genetic representation is a property with considerable explanatory utility. 1 Introduction2 Inherited Representations3 Reading Genetic Representations   3.1 Do genes carry correlational information?4 Selection Between Genetic and Environmental Information   4.1 Modelling  4.2 Empirical applications  4.3 Maternal effects5 Genetic Representation and the Genome   5.1 Information capacity of organisms' genomes  5.2 Many amino acids, few nucleotides  5.3 A function of sex6 Explaining Further Aspects of Development   6.1 Canalization against environmental variation  6.2 An informational function for the nuclear membrane?7 Conclusion PMID:23526835

  17. A toolbox for representational similarity analysis.

    PubMed

    Nili, Hamed; Wingfield, Cai; Walther, Alexander; Su, Li; Marslen-Wilson, William; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2014-04-01

    Neuronal population codes are increasingly being investigated with multivariate pattern-information analyses. A key challenge is to use measured brain-activity patterns to test computational models of brain information processing. One approach to this problem is representational similarity analysis (RSA), which characterizes a representation in a brain or computational model by the distance matrix of the response patterns elicited by a set of stimuli. The representational distance matrix encapsulates what distinctions between stimuli are emphasized and what distinctions are de-emphasized in the representation. A model is tested by comparing the representational distance matrix it predicts to that of a measured brain region. RSA also enables us to compare representations between stages of processing within a given brain or model, between brain and behavioral data, and between individuals and species. Here, we introduce a Matlab toolbox for RSA. The toolbox supports an analysis approach that is simultaneously data- and hypothesis-driven. It is designed to help integrate a wide range of computational models into the analysis of multichannel brain-activity measurements as provided by modern functional imaging and neuronal recording techniques. Tools for visualization and inference enable the user to relate sets of models to sets of brain regions and to statistically test and compare the models using nonparametric inference methods. The toolbox supports searchlight-based RSA, to continuously map a measured brain volume in search of a neuronal population code with a specific geometry. Finally, we introduce the linear-discriminant t value as a measure of representational discriminability that bridges the gap between linear decoding analyses and RSA. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the toolbox, we apply it to both simulated and real fMRI data. The key functions are equally applicable to other modalities of brain-activity measurement. The toolbox is freely

  18. Space representation in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Shintaro

    2013-04-01

    The representation of space and its function in the prefrontal cortex have been examined using a variety of behavioral tasks. Among them, since the delayed-response task requires the temporary maintenance of spatial information, this task has been used to examine the mechanisms of spatial representation. In addition, the concept of working memory to explain prefrontal functions has helped us to understand the nature and functions of space representation in the prefrontal cortex. The detailed analysis of delay-period activity observed in spatial working memory tasks has provided important information for understanding space representation in the prefrontal cortex. Directional delay-period activity has been shown to be a neural correlate of the mechanism for temporarily maintaining information and represent spatial information for the visual cue and the saccade. In addition, many task-related prefrontal neurons exhibit spatially selective activities. These neurons are also important components of spatial information processing. In fact, information flow from sensory-related neurons to motor-related neurons has been demonstrated, along with a change in spatial representation as the trial progresses. The dynamic functional interactions among neurons exhibiting different task-related activities and representing different aspects of information could play an essential role in information processing. In addition, information provided from other cortical or subcortical areas might also be necessary for the representation of space in the prefrontal cortex. To better understand the representation of space and its function in the prefrontal cortex, we need to understand the nature of functional interactions between the prefrontal cortex and other cortical and subcortical areas.

  19. Learning with Multiple Representations. Advances in Learning and Instruction Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Someren, Maarten W., Ed.; Reimann, Peter, Ed.; Boshuizen, Henny P. A., Ed.; de Jong, Ton, Ed.

    This book addresses questions of multiple representations in human reasoning and learning. Computational approaches to learning with multiple representations are introduced, and the role of multiple representations in teaching is discussed. The following chapters are included in Part I: Multiple Representations in Learning Concepts form Physics…

  20. Learning with Multiple Representations. Advances in Learning and Instruction Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Someren, Maarten W., Ed.; Reimann, Peter, Ed.; Boshuizen, Henny P. A., Ed.; de Jong, Ton, Ed.

    This book addresses questions of multiple representations in human reasoning and learning. Computational approaches to learning with multiple representations are introduced, and the role of multiple representations in teaching is discussed. The following chapters are included in Part I: Multiple Representations in Learning Concepts form Physics…

  1. 40 CFR 96.13 - Account certificate of representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Account certificate of representation... representation. (a) A complete account certificate of representation for a NOX authorized account representative... unit at the source for which the account certificate of representation is submitted. (2) The name...

  2. 4 CFR 28.113 - Contents of representation petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contents of representation petitions. 28.113 Section 28... ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Special Procedures; Representation Proceedings § 28.113 Contents of representation petitions. (a) The contents of representation petitions filed under § 28.112(a)(1) (by a labor organization...

  3. 20 CFR 801.401 - Representation before the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Representation before the Board. 801.401... OF THE BOARD Representation § 801.401 Representation before the Board. On any issues requiring representation of the Secretary, the Director, Office of Workers' Compensation Programs, a deputy commissioner...

  4. Probing Lexical Representations: Simultaneous Modeling of Word and Reader Contributions to Multidimensional Lexical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Kearns, Devin M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study models reader, item, and word contributions to the lexical representations of 39 morphologically complex words for 172 middle school students using a crossed random-effects item response model with multiple outcomes. We report 3 findings. First, results suggest that lexical representations can be characterized by separate but…

  5. Probing Lexical Representations: Simultaneous Modeling of Word and Reader Contributions to Multidimensional Lexical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Kearns, Devin M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study models reader, item, and word contributions to the lexical representations of 39 morphologically complex words for 172 middle school students using a crossed random-effects item response model with multiple outcomes. We report 3 findings. First, results suggest that lexical representations can be characterized by separate but…

  6. Learning through Constructing Representations in Science: A Framework of Representational Construction Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prain, Vaughan; Tytler, Russell

    2012-01-01

    Compared with research on the role of student engagement with expert representations in learning science, investigation of the use and theoretical justification of student-generated representations to learn science is less common. In this paper, we present a framework that aims to integrate three perspectives to explain how and why…

  7. Learning through Constructing Representations in Science: A Framework of Representational Construction Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prain, Vaughan; Tytler, Russell

    2012-01-01

    Compared with research on the role of student engagement with expert representations in learning science, investigation of the use and theoretical justification of student-generated representations to learn science is less common. In this paper, we present a framework that aims to integrate three perspectives to explain how and why…

  8. Representational Classroom Practices that Contribute to Students' Conceptual and Representational Understanding of Chemical Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Annette; Nichols, Kim

    2011-11-01

    Understanding bonding is fundamental to success in chemistry. A number of alternative conceptions related to chemical bonding have been reported in the literature. Research suggests that many alternative conceptions held by chemistry students result from previous teaching; if teachers are explicit in the use of representations and explain their content-specific forms and functions, this might be avoided. The development of an understanding of and ability to use multiple representations is crucial to students' understanding of chemical bonding. This paper draws on data from a larger study involving two Year 11 chemistry classes (n = 27, n = 22). It explores the contribution of explicit instruction about multiple representations to students' understanding and representation of chemical bonding. The instructional strategies were documented using audio-recordings and the teacher-researcher's reflection journal. Pre-test-post-test comparisons showed an improvement in conceptual understanding and representational competence. Analysis of the students' texts provided further evidence of the students' ability to use multiple representations to explain macroscopic phenomena on the molecular level. The findings suggest that explicit instruction about representational form and function contributes to the enhancement of representational competence and conceptual understanding of bonding in chemistry. However, the scaffolding strategies employed by the teacher play an important role in the learning process. This research has implications for professional development enhancing teachers' approaches to these aspects of instruction around chemical bonding.

  9. Development of the Bonding Representations Inventory to Identify Student Misconceptions about Covalent and Ionic Bonding Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2014-01-01

    Teachers use multiple representations to communicate the concepts of bonding, including Lewis structures, formulas, space-filling models, and 3D manipulatives. As students learn to interpret these multiple representations, they may develop misconceptions that can create problems in further learning of chemistry. Interviews were conducted with 28…

  10. Argumentation-Based Collaborative Inquiry in Science through Representational Work: Impact on Primary Students' Representational Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Kim; Gillies, Robyn; Hedberg, John

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the impact of argumentation-promoting collaborative inquiry and representational work in science on primary students' representational fluency. Two hundred sixty-six year 6 students received instruction on natural disasters with a focus on collaborative inquiry. Students in the Comparison condition received only this…

  11. Traitement discursif et conversationnel des representations sociales (Discourse and Conversational Analysis of Social Representations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra, Cecilia

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the interpretive process of social representations of bilingualism by means of discourse and conversational analysis. Representations are to be understood as an interpretive set of assumptions conveyed by discourse, creating recurrent and habitual systems of dispositions and expectations. The article shows how discourse is…

  12. Disponibilite sociale des representations: approche linguistique (Social Availability and Representations: Linguistic Approach).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajo, Laurent

    2000-01-01

    This article uses linguistic tools to analyze the social dimension of representations. The dynamics of social representations are viewed as the result of two processes: preconstruction and co-construction. More precisely, the notions of "social availability" and "reference-O" are developed and applied in a conversational…

  13. Argumentation-Based Collaborative Inquiry in Science through Representational Work: Impact on Primary Students' Representational Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Kim; Gillies, Robyn; Hedberg, John

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the impact of argumentation-promoting collaborative inquiry and representational work in science on primary students' representational fluency. Two hundred sixty-six year 6 students received instruction on natural disasters with a focus on collaborative inquiry. Students in the Comparison condition received only this…

  14. Development of the Bonding Representations Inventory to Identify Student Misconceptions about Covalent and Ionic Bonding Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2014-01-01

    Teachers use multiple representations to communicate the concepts of bonding, including Lewis structures, formulas, space-filling models, and 3D manipulatives. As students learn to interpret these multiple representations, they may develop misconceptions that can create problems in further learning of chemistry. Interviews were conducted with 28…

  15. Asymmetric translation between multiple representations in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yulan I.; Son, Ji Y.; Rudd, James A., II

    2016-03-01

    Experts are more proficient in manipulating and translating between multiple representations (MRs) of a given concept than novices. Studies have shown that instruction using MR can increase student understanding of MR, and one model for MR instruction in chemistry is the chemistry triplet proposed by Johnstone. Concreteness fading theory suggests that presenting concrete representations before abstract representations can increase the effectiveness of MR instruction; however, little work has been conducted on varying the order of different representations during instruction and the role of concreteness in assessment. In this study, we investigated the application of concreteness fading to MR instruction and assessment in teaching chemistry. In two experiments, undergraduate students in either introductory psychology courses or general chemistry courses were given MR instruction on phase changes using different orders of presentation and MR assessment questions based on the representations in the chemistry triplet. Our findings indicate that the order of presentation based on levels of concreteness in MR chemistry instruction is less important than implementation of comprehensive MR assessments. Even after MR instruction, students display an asymmetric understanding of the chemical phenomenon on the MR assessments. Greater emphasis on MR assessments may be an important component in MR instruction that effectively moves novices toward more expert MR understanding.

  16. In defense of abstract conceptual representations.

    PubMed

    Binder, Jeffrey R

    2016-08-01

    An extensive program of research in the past 2 decades has focused on the role of modal sensory, motor, and affective brain systems in storing and retrieving concept knowledge. This focus has led in some circles to an underestimation of the need for more abstract, supramodal conceptual representations in semantic cognition. Evidence for supramodal processing comes from neuroimaging work documenting a large, well-defined cortical network that responds to meaningful stimuli regardless of modal content. The nodes in this network correspond to high-level "convergence zones" that receive broadly crossmodal input and presumably process crossmodal conjunctions. It is proposed that highly conjunctive representations are needed for several critical functions, including capturing conceptual similarity structure, enabling thematic associative relationships independent of conceptual similarity, and providing efficient "chunking" of concept representations for a range of higher order tasks that require concepts to be configured as situations. These hypothesized functions account for a wide range of neuroimaging results showing modulation of the supramodal convergence zone network by associative strength, lexicality, familiarity, imageability, frequency, and semantic compositionality. The evidence supports a hierarchical model of knowledge representation in which modal systems provide a mechanism for concept acquisition and serve to ground individual concepts in external reality, whereas broadly conjunctive, supramodal representations play an equally important role in concept association and situation knowledge.

  17. Usage of semantic representations in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Ryoji; Hirano, Tetsuji; Ukita, Jun

    2017-04-11

    Meanings of words facilitate false acceptance as well as correct rejection of lures in recognition memory tests, depending on the experimental context. This suggests that semantic representations are both directly and indirectly (i.e., mediated by perceptual representations) used in remembering. Studies using memory conjunction errors (MCEs) paradigms, in which the lures consist of component parts of studied words, have reported semantic facilitation of rejection of the lures. However, attending to components of the lures could potentially cause this. Therefore, we investigated whether semantic overlap of lures facilitates MCEs using Japanese Kanji words in which a whole-word image is more concerned in reading. Experiments demonstrated semantic facilitation of MCEs in a delayed recognition test (Experiment 1), and in immediate recognition tests in which participants were prevented from using phonological or orthographic representations (Experiment 2), and the salient effect on individuals with high semantic memory capacities (Experiment 3). Additionally, analysis of the receiver operating characteristic suggested that this effect is attributed to familiarity-based memory judgement and phantom recollection. These findings indicate that semantic representations can be directly used in remembering, even when perceptual representations of studied words are available.

  18. Phonological variant recognition: representations and rules.

    PubMed

    Pinnow, Eleni; Connine, Cynthia M

    2014-03-01

    The current research explores the role of lexical representations and processing in the recognition of phonological variants. Two alternative approaches for variant recognition are considered: a representational approach that posits frequency-graded lexical representations for variant forms and inferential processes that mediate between the spoken variant and the lexical representation. In a lexical decision task (Experiment 1) and in a phoneme identification task (Experiment 2) using real words, low-frequency variants, but not high-frequency variants, show improved recognition rates following additional experience with the variants. This knowledge generalized to novel variant forms. Experiment 3 replicated these results using an artificial lexicon and showed that recognition of low-frequency variants was influenced by similarity to a high-frequency variant form. Similarity to a high-frequency variant alone, however, was insufficient to explain recognition of the infrequent variants (Experiments 4 and 5). The results support a hybrid account of variant recognition that relies on both multiple frequency-graded representations and inference processes.

  19. Biologically Plausible, Human-Scale Knowledge Representation.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Eric; Gingerich, Matthew; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-05-01

    Several approaches to implementing symbol-like representations in neurally plausible models have been proposed. These approaches include binding through synchrony (Shastri & Ajjanagadde, ), "mesh" binding (van der Velde & de Kamps, ), and conjunctive binding (Smolensky, ). Recent theoretical work has suggested that most of these methods will not scale well, that is, that they cannot encode structured representations using any of the tens of thousands of terms in the adult lexicon without making implausible resource assumptions. Here, we empirically demonstrate that the biologically plausible structured representations employed in the Semantic Pointer Architecture (SPA) approach to modeling cognition (Eliasmith, ) do scale appropriately. Specifically, we construct a spiking neural network of about 2.5 million neurons that employs semantic pointers to successfully encode and decode the main lexical relations in WordNet, which has over 100,000 terms. In addition, we show that the same representations can be employed to construct recursively structured sentences consisting of arbitrary WordNet concepts, while preserving the original lexical structure. We argue that these results suggest that semantic pointers are uniquely well-suited to providing a biologically plausible account of the structured representations that underwrite human cognition.

  20. Representational momentum in memory for pitch.

    PubMed

    Freyd, J J; Kelly, M H; DeKay, M L

    1990-11-01

    When a visual pattern is displayed at successively different orientations such that a rotation or translation is implied, an observer's memory for the final position is displaced forward. This phenomenon of representational momentum shares some similarities with physical momentum. For instance, the amount of memory shift is proportional to the implied velocity of the inducing display; representational momentum is specifically proportional to the final, not the average, velocity; representational momentum follows a continuous stopping function for the first 250 ms or so of the retention interval. In a previous paper (Kelly & Freyd, 1987) we demonstrated a forward memory asymmetry using implied changes in pitch, for subjects without formal musical training. In the current paper we replicate our earlier finding and show that the forward memory asymmetry occurs for subjects with formal musical training as well (Experiment 1). We then show the structural similarity between representational momentum in memory for pitch with previous reports of parametric effects using visual stimuli. We report a velocity effect for auditory momentum (Experiment 2), we demonstrate specifically that the velocity effect depends on the implied acceleration (Experiment 3), and we show that the stopping function for auditory momentum is qualitatively the same as that for visual momentum (Experiment 4). We consider the implications of these results for theories of mental representation.

  1. The interaction of representation and reasoning.

    PubMed

    Bundy, Alan

    2013-09-08

    Automated reasoning is an enabling technology for many applications of informatics. These applications include verifying that a computer program meets its specification; enabling a robot to form a plan to achieve a task and answering questions by combining information from diverse sources, e.g. on the Internet, etc. How is automated reasoning possible? Firstly, knowledge of a domain must be stored in a computer, usually in the form of logical formulae. This knowledge might, for instance, have been entered manually, retrieved from the Internet or perceived in the environment via sensors, such as cameras. Secondly, rules of inference are applied to old knowledge to derive new knowledge. Automated reasoning techniques have been adapted from logic, a branch of mathematics that was originally designed to formalize the reasoning of humans, especially mathematicians. My special interest is in the way that representation and reasoning interact. Successful reasoning is dependent on appropriate representation of both knowledge and successful methods of reasoning. Failures of reasoning can suggest changes of representation. This process of representational change can also be automated. We will illustrate the automation of representational change by drawing on recent work in my research group.

  2. Minding time in an amodal representational space

    PubMed Central

    van Wassenhove, Virginie

    2009-01-01

    How long did it take you to read this sentence? Chances are your response is a ball park estimate and its value depends on how fast you have scanned the text, how prepared you have been for this question, perhaps your mood or how much attention you have paid to these words. Time perception is here addressed in three sections. The first section summarizes theoretical difficulties in time perception research, specifically those pertaining to the representation of time and temporal processing. The second section reviews non-exhaustively temporal effects in multisensory perception. Sensory modalities interact in temporal judgement tasks, suggesting that (i) at some level of sensory analysis, the temporal properties across senses can be integrated in building a time percept and (ii) the representational format across senses is compatible for establishing such a percept. In the last section, a two-step analysis of temporal properties is sketched out. In the first step, it is proposed that temporal properties are automatically encoded at early stages of sensory analysis, thus providing the raw material for the building of a time percept; in the second step, time representations become available to perception through attentional gating of the raw temporal representations and via re-encoding into abstract representations. PMID:19487185

  3. Natural geometric representation for electron local observables

    SciTech Connect

    Minogin, V.G.

    2014-03-15

    An existence of the quartic identities for the electron local observables that define orthogonality relations for the 3D quantities quadratic in the electron observables is found. It is shown that the joint solution of the quartic and bilinear identities for the electron observables defines a unique natural representation of the observables. In the natural representation the vector type electron local observables have well-defined fixed positions with respect to a local 3D orthogonal reference frame. It is shown that the natural representation of the electron local observables can be defined in six different forms depending on a choice of the orthogonal unit vectors. The natural representation is used to determine the functional dependence of the electron wave functions on the local observables valid for any shape of the electron wave packet. -- Highlights: •Quartic identities that define the orthogonality relations for the electron local observables are found. •Joint solution of quartic and bilinear identities defines a unique natural representation of the electron local observables. •Functional dependence of the electron wave functions on the electron local observables is determined.

  4. The interaction of representation and reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Bundy, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Automated reasoning is an enabling technology for many applications of informatics. These applications include verifying that a computer program meets its specification; enabling a robot to form a plan to achieve a task and answering questions by combining information from diverse sources, e.g. on the Internet, etc. How is automated reasoning possible? Firstly, knowledge of a domain must be stored in a computer, usually in the form of logical formulae. This knowledge might, for instance, have been entered manually, retrieved from the Internet or perceived in the environment via sensors, such as cameras. Secondly, rules of inference are applied to old knowledge to derive new knowledge. Automated reasoning techniques have been adapted from logic, a branch of mathematics that was originally designed to formalize the reasoning of humans, especially mathematicians. My special interest is in the way that representation and reasoning interact. Successful reasoning is dependent on appropriate representation of both knowledge and successful methods of reasoning. Failures of reasoning can suggest changes of representation. This process of representational change can also be automated. We will illustrate the automation of representational change by drawing on recent work in my research group. PMID:24062623

  5. Action simulation: time course and representational mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Anne; Parkinson, Jim; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The notion of action simulation refers to the ability to re-enact foreign actions (i.e., actions observed in other individuals). Simulating others' actions implies a mirroring of their activities, based on one's own sensorimotor competencies. Here, we discuss theoretical and experimental approaches to action simulation and the study of its representational underpinnings. One focus of our discussion is on the timing of internal simulation and its relation to the timing of external action, and a paradigm that requires participants to predict the future course of actions that are temporarily occluded from view. We address transitions between perceptual mechanisms (referring to action representation before and after occlusion) and simulation mechanisms (referring to action representation during occlusion). Findings suggest that action simulation runs in real-time; acting on newly created action representations rather than relying on continuous visual extrapolations. A further focus of our discussion pertains to the functional characteristics of the mechanisms involved in predicting other people's actions. We propose that two processes are engaged, dynamic updating and static matching, which may draw on both semantic and motor information. In a concluding section, we discuss these findings in the context of broader theoretical issues related to action and event representation, arguing that a detailed functional analysis of action simulation in cognitive, neural, and computational terms may help to further advance our understanding of action cognition and motor control. PMID:23847563

  6. Representational Competence in Chemistry: A Comparison between Students with Different Levels of Understanding of Basic Chemical Concepts and Chemical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Joong Hiong; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini

    2014-01-01

    Representational competence is defined as "skills in interpreting and using representations". This study attempted to compare students' of high, medium, and low levels of understanding of (1) basic chemical concepts, and (2) chemical representations, in their representational competence. A total of 411 Form 4 science students (mean age =…

  7. Representational Competence in Chemistry: A Comparison between Students with Different Levels of Understanding of Basic Chemical Concepts and Chemical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Joong Hiong; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini

    2014-01-01

    Representational competence is defined as "skills in interpreting and using representations". This study attempted to compare students' of high, medium, and low levels of understanding of (1) basic chemical concepts, and (2) chemical representations, in their representational competence. A total of 411 Form 4 science students (mean age =…

  8. A social representation is not a quiet thing: exploring the critical potential of social representations theory.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Caroline

    2006-03-01

    Following Moscovici (1972), this paper addresses the questions: What is the aim of research within a social representations perspective? Is it to support or to criticize the social order? Is it to consolidate or transform it? After a brief overview of social representations theory, I argue that while the theory appears to have the conceptual tools to begin this critical task, there are serious criticisms and points of underdevelopment that need addressing. In order for social representations theory to develop into a rigorously critical theory there are three controversial issues that require clarification. These are (a) the relationship between psychological processes and social practices, (b) the reification and legitimization of different knowledge systems, and (c) agency and resistance in the co-construction of self-identity. After discussing each issue in turn, with illustrations from research on racializing representations, I conclude the paper with a discussion of the role of representations in the ideological construction and contestation of reality.

  9. Weight Representations of Admissible Affine Vertex Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Tomoyuki; Futorny, Vyacheslav; Ramirez, Luis Enrique

    2017-08-01

    For an admissible affine vertex algebra {V_k{(\\mathfrak{g})}} of type A, we describe a new family of relaxed highest weight representations of {V_k{(\\mathfrak{g})}}. They are simple quotients of representations of the affine Kac-Moody algebra {\\widehat{\\mathfrak{g}}} induced from the following {\\mathfrak{g}}-modules: (1) generic Gelfand-Tsetlin modules in the principal nilpotent orbit, in particular all such modules induced from {\\mathfrak{sl}_2}; (2) all Gelfand-Tsetlin modules in the principal nilpotent orbit that are induced from {\\mathfrak{sl}_3}; (3) all simple Gelfand-Tsetlin modules over {\\mathfrak{sl}_3}. This in particular gives the classification of all simple positive energy weight representations of {V_k{(\\mathfrak{g})}} with finite dimensional weight spaces for {\\mathfrak{g}=\\mathfrak{sl}_3}.

  10. Nonnegative local coordinate factorization for image representation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jiemi; Cai, Deng; Liu, Wei; He, Xiaofei

    2013-03-01

    Recently, nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) has become increasingly popular for feature extraction in computer vision and pattern recognition. NMF seeks two nonnegative matrices whose product can best approximate the original matrix. The nonnegativity constraints lead to sparse parts-based representations that can be more robust than nonsparse global features. To obtain more accurate control over the sparseness, in this paper, we propose a novel method called nonnegative local coordinate factorization (NLCF) for feature extraction. NLCF adds a local coordinate constraint into the standard NMF objective function. Specifically, we require that the learned basis vectors be as close to the original data points as possible. In this way, each data point can be represented by a linear combination of only a few nearby basis vectors, which naturally leads to sparse representation. Extensive experimental results suggest that the proposed approach provides a better representation and achieves higher accuracy in image clustering.

  11. Knowledge representation in space flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busse, Carl

    1989-01-01

    In space flight operations rapid understanding of the state of the space vehicle is essential. Representation of knowledge depicting space vehicle status in a dynamic environment presents a difficult challenge. The NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory has pursued areas of technology associated with the advancement of spacecraft operations environment. This has led to the development of several advanced mission systems which incorporate enhanced graphics capabilities. These systems include: (1) Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP); (2) Spacecraft Monitoring Environment (SME); (3) Electrical Power Data Monitor (EPDM); (4) Generic Payload Operations Control Center (GPOCC); and (5) Telemetry System Monitor Prototype (TSM). Knowledge representation in these systems provides a direct representation of the intrinsic images associated with the instrument and satellite telemetry and telecommunications systems. The man-machine interface includes easily interpreted contextual graphic displays. These interactive video displays contain multiple display screens with pop-up windows and intelligent, high resolution graphics linked through context and mouse-sensitive icons and text.

  12. Local-time representation of path integrals.

    PubMed

    Jizba, Petr; Zatloukal, Václav

    2015-12-01

    We derive a local-time path-integral representation for a generic one-dimensional time-independent system. In particular, we show how to rephrase the matrix elements of the Bloch density matrix as a path integral over x-dependent local-time profiles. The latter quantify the time that the sample paths x(t) in the Feynman path integral spend in the vicinity of an arbitrary point x. Generalization of the local-time representation that includes arbitrary functionals of the local time is also provided. We argue that the results obtained represent a powerful alternative to the traditional Feynman-Kac formula, particularly in the high- and low-temperature regimes. To illustrate this point, we apply our local-time representation to analyze the asymptotic behavior of the Bloch density matrix at low temperatures. Further salient issues, such as connections with the Sturm-Liouville theory and the Rayleigh-Ritz variational principle, are also discussed.

  13. Choice and representation in health care.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, E J

    1999-01-01

    Choice is often thought to be critical in health care, especially to foster quality improvements and lower costs. However, it is also recognized that in the current system there is significant representation of consumers, members, and patients by physicians, employers, and health plans. Consent, accountability, and protections against conflicts of interest are necessary to ensure legitimate and effective representation. This article discusses the roles and responsibilities of physicians, employers, and other parties with respect to serving as representatives of health care consumers. The author concludes that to make representation more legitimate and effective in health care will require significant changes, which include (1) changing business to a stakeholder theory, (2) involving employees in health care coverage decisions, and (3) involving members of health plans in policy decisions.

  14. Spin-Circuit Representation of Spin Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kuntal

    2017-07-01

    Circuit theory has been tremendously successful in translating physical equations into circuit elements in an organized form for further analysis and proposing creative designs for applications. With the advent of new materials and phenomena in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics, it is imperative to construct the spin-circuit representations for different materials and phenomena. Spin pumping is a phenomenon by which a pure spin current can be injected into the adjacent layers. If the adjacent layer is a material with a high spin-orbit coupling, a considerable amount of charge voltage can be generated via the inverse spin Hall effect allowing spin detection. Here we develop the spin-circuit representation of spin pumping. We then combine it with the spin-circuit representation for the materials having spin Hall effect to show that it reproduces the standard results as in the literature. We further show how complex multilayers can be analyzed by simply writing a netlist.

  15. Configuration space representation in parallel coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorini, Paolo; Inselberg, Alfred

    1989-01-01

    By means of a system of parallel coordinates, a nonprojective mapping from R exp N to R squared is obtained for any positive integer N. In this way multivariate data and relations can be represented in the Euclidean plane (embedded in the projective plane). Basically, R squared with Cartesian coordinates is augmented by N parallel axes, one for each variable. The N joint variables of a robotic device can be represented graphically by using parallel coordinates. It is pointed out that some properties of the relation are better perceived visually from the parallel coordinate representation, and that new algorithms and data structures can be obtained from this representation. The main features of parallel coordinates are described, and an example is presented of their use for configuration space representation of a mechanical arm (where Cartesian coordinates cannot be used).

  16. Representations of the magnitudes of fractions.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Michael; Siegler, Robert S

    2010-10-01

    We tested whether adults can use integrated, analog, magnitude representations to compare the values of fractions. The only previous study on this question concluded that even college students cannot form such representations and instead compare fraction magnitudes by representing numerators and denominators as separate whole numbers. However, atypical characteristics of the presented fractions might have provoked the use of atypical comparison strategies in that study. In our 3 experiments, university and community college students compared more balanced sets of single-digit and multi-digit fractions and consistently exhibited a logarithmic distance effect. Thus, adults used integrated, analog representations, akin to a mental number line, to compare fraction magnitudes. We interpret differences between the past and present findings in terms of different stimuli eliciting different solution strategies.

  17. SU (N ) Heisenberg model with multicolumn representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Tsuyoshi; Harada, Kenji; Lou, Jie; Kawashima, Naoki

    2015-10-01

    The SU (N ) symmetric antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model with multicolumn representations on the two-dimensional square lattice is investigated by quantum Monte Carlo simulations. For the representation of a Young diagram with two columns, we confirm that a valence-bond solid (VBS) order appears as soon as the Néel order disappears at N =10 , indicating no intermediate phase. In the case of the representation with three columns, there is no evidence for either the Néel or the VBS ordering for N ≥15 . This is actually consistent with the large-N theory, which predicts that the VBS state immediately follows the Néel state, because the expected spontaneous order is too weak to be detected.

  18. Active dictionary learning for image representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tong; Sarwate, Anand D.; Bajwa, Waheed U.

    2015-05-01

    Sparse representations of images in overcomplete bases (i.e., redundant dictionaries) have many applications in computer vision and image processing. Recent works have demonstrated improvements in image representations by learning a dictionary from training data instead of using a predefined one. But learning a sparsifying dictionary can be computationally expensive in the case of a massive training set. This paper proposes a new approach, termed active screening, to overcome this challenge. Active screening sequentially selects subsets of training samples using a simple heuristic and adds the selected samples to a "learning pool," which is then used to learn a newer dictionary for improved representation performance. The performance of the proposed active dictionary learning approach is evaluated through numerical experiments on real-world image data; the results of these experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Cognitive and artificial representations in handwriting recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenaghan, Andrew P.; Malyan, Ron

    1996-03-01

    Both cognitive processes and artificial recognition systems may be characterized by the forms of representation they build and manipulate. This paper looks at how handwriting is represented in current recognition systems and the psychological evidence for its representation in the cognitive processes responsible for reading. Empirical psychological work on feature extraction in early visual processing is surveyed to show that a sound psychological basis for feature extraction exists and to describe the features this approach leads to. The first stage of the development of an architecture for a handwriting recognition system which has been strongly influenced by the psychological evidence for the cognitive processes and representations used in early visual processing, is reported. This architecture builds a number of parallel low level feature maps from raw data. These feature maps are thresholded and a region labeling algorithm is used to generate sets of features. Fuzzy logic is used to quantify the uncertainty in the presence of individual features.

  20. Machine condition monitoring using principal component representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingbo; Yan, Ruqiang; Kong, Fanrang; Du, Ruxu

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to find the low-dimensional principal component (PC) representations from the statistical features of the measured signals to characterize and hence, monitor machine conditions. The PC representations can be automatically extracted using the principal component analysis (PCA) technique from the time- and frequency-domains statistical features of the measured signals. First, a mean correlation rule is proposed to evaluate the capability of each of the PCs in characterizing machine conditions and to select the most representative PCs to classify machine fault patterns. Then a procedure that uses the low-dimensional PC representations for machine condition monitoring is proposed. The experimental results from an internal-combustion engine sound analysis and an automobile gearbox vibration analysis show that the proposed method is effective for machine condition monitoring.

  1. Narcissism and relational representations among psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Joyce, Anthony S; Steinberg, Paul I; Piper, William E

    2015-06-01

    Pathological narcissism is associated with maladaptive interpersonal behavior, although less is known regarding the internal relational representations of narcissistic patients. The authors examined the relationship between pathological narcissism and two constructs that reflect internal representations of relational patterns: quality of object relations and attachment style. Patients attending a psychiatric day treatment program (N = 218) completed measures of narcissism, general psychiatric distress, and attachment style in terms of attachment avoidance and anxiety. A semistructured interview was used to assess quality of object relations. Multiple regression analysis was conducted, controlling for general psychiatric distress. Pathological narcissism was associated with anxious attachment, but not with avoidant attachment. Narcissism was also associated with lower levels of quality of object relations. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of internal representations of self-other relations.

  2. Context representation and fusion: advancements and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Asad Masood; Akbar, Noman; Aazam, Mohammad; Ali, Taqdir; Khan, Adil Mehmood; Jeon, Seokhee; Hwang, Myunggwon; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-05-30

    The acceptance and usability of context-aware systems have given them the edge of wide use in various domains and has also attracted the attention of researchers in the area of context-aware computing. Making user context information available to such systems is the center of attention. However, there is very little emphasis given to the process of context representation and context fusion which are integral parts of context-aware systems. Context representation and fusion facilitate in recognizing the dependency/relationship of one data source on another to extract a better understanding of user context. The problem is more critical when data is emerging from heterogeneous sources of diverse nature like sensors, user profiles, and social interactions and also at different timestamps. Both the processes of context representation and fusion are followed in one way or another; however, they are not discussed explicitly for the realization of context-aware systems. In other words most of the context-aware systems underestimate the importance context representation and fusion. This research has explicitly focused on the importance of both the processes of context representation and fusion and has streamlined their existence in the overall architecture of context-aware systems' design and development. Various applications of context representation and fusion in context-aware systems are also highlighted in this research. A detailed review on both the processes is provided in this research with their applications. Future research directions (challenges) are also highlighted which needs proper attention for the purpose of achieving the goal of realizing context-aware systems.

  3. Dissimilarity representations in lung parenchyma classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Lauge; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2009-02-01

    A good problem representation is important for a pattern recognition system to be successful. The traditional approach to statistical pattern recognition is feature representation. More specifically, objects are represented by a number of features in a feature vector space, and classifiers are built in this representation. This is also the general trend in lung parenchyma classification in computed tomography (CT) images, where the features often are measures on feature histograms. Instead, we propose to build normal density based classifiers in dissimilarity representations for lung parenchyma classification. This allows for the classifiers to work on dissimilarities between objects, which might be a more natural way of representing lung parenchyma. In this context, dissimilarity is defined between CT regions of interest (ROI)s. ROIs are represented by their CT attenuation histogram and ROI dissimilarity is defined as a histogram dissimilarity measure between the attenuation histograms. In this setting, the full histograms are utilized according to the chosen histogram dissimilarity measure. We apply this idea to classification of different emphysema patterns as well as normal, healthy tissue. Two dissimilarity representation approaches as well as different histogram dissimilarity measures are considered. The approaches are evaluated on a set of 168 CT ROIs using normal density based classifiers all showing good performance. Compared to using histogram dissimilarity directly as distance in a emph{k} nearest neighbor classifier, which achieves a classification accuracy of 92.9%, the best dissimilarity representation based classifier is significantly better with a classification accuracy of 97.0% (text{emph{p" border="0" class="imgtopleft"> = 0.046).

  4. Context Representation and Fusion: Advancements and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Khattak, Asad Masood; Akbar, Noman; Aazam, Mohammad; Ali, Taqdir; Khan, Adil Mehmood; Jeon, Seokhee; Hwang, Myunggwon; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-01-01

    The acceptance and usability of context-aware systems have given them the edge of wide use in various domains and has also attracted the attention of researchers in the area of context-aware computing. Making user context information available to such systems is the center of attention. However, there is very little emphasis given to the process of context representation and context fusion which are integral parts of context-aware systems. Context representation and fusion facilitate in recognizing the dependency/relationship of one data source on another to extract a better understanding of user context. The problem is more critical when data is emerging from heterogeneous sources of diverse nature like sensors, user profiles, and social interactions and also at different timestamps. Both the processes of context representation and fusion are followed in one way or another; however, they are not discussed explicitly for the realization of context-aware systems. In other words most of the context-aware systems underestimate the importance context representation and fusion. This research has explicitly focused on the importance of both the processes of context representation and fusion and has streamlined their existence in the overall architecture of context-aware systems’ design and development. Various applications of context representation and fusion in context-aware systems are also highlighted in this research. A detailed review on both the processes is provided in this research with their applications. Future research directions (challenges) are also highlighted which needs proper attention for the purpose of achieving the goal of realizing context-aware systems. PMID:24887042

  5. Knowledge representation and natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Weischedel, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    In principle, natural language and knowledge representation are closely related. This paper investigates this by demonstrating how several natural language phenomena, such as definite reference, ambiguity, ellipsis, ill-formed input, figures of speech, and vagueness, require diverse knowledge sources and reasoning. The breadth of kinds of knowledge needed to represent morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics is surveyed. Furthermore, several current issues in knowledge representation, such as logic versus semantic nets, general-purpose versus special-purpose reasoners, adequacy of first-order logic, wait-and-see strategies, and default reasoning, are illustrated in terms of their relation to natural language processing and how natural language impact the issues.

  6. Superstitious perceptions reveal properties of internal representations.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Frédéric; Schyns, Philippe G

    2003-09-01

    Everyone has seen a human face in a cloud, a pebble, or blots on a wall. Evidence of superstitious perceptions has been documented since classical antiquity, but has received little scientific attention. In the study reported here, we used superstitious perceptions in a new principled method to reveal the properties of unobservable object representations in memory. We stimulated the visual system with unstructured white noise. Observers firmly believed that they perceived the letter S in Experiment 1 and a smile on a face in Experiment 2. Using reverse correlation and computational analyses, we rendered the memory representations underlying these superstitious perceptions.

  7. A survey of quantum image representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fei; Iliyasu, Abdullah M.; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum image processing (QIMP) is devoted to utilizing the quantum computing technologies to capture, manipulate, and recover quantum images in different formats and for different purposes. Logically, percolating this requires that representations to encode images based on the quantum mechanical composition of any potential quantum computing hardware be conjured. This paper gathers the current mainstream quantum image representations (QIRs) and discusses the advances made in the area. Some similarities, differences, and likely applications for some of the available QIRs are reviewed. We believe this compendium will provide the readership an overview of progress witnessed in the area of QIMP while also simulating further interest to pursue more advanced research in it.

  8. Spinor representation of Maxwell’s equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyabov, D. S.; Korolkova, A. V.; Sevastianov, L. A.

    2017-01-01

    Spinors are more special objects than tensor. Therefore possess more properties than the more generic objects such as tensors. Thus, the group of Lorentz two-spinors is the covering group of the Lorentz group. Since the Lorentz group is a symmetry group of Maxwell’s equations, it is assumed to reasonable to use when writing the Maxwell equations Lorentz two-spinors and not tensors. We describe in detail the representation of the Maxwell’s equations in the form of Lorentz two-spinors. This representation of Maxwell’s equations can be of considerable theoretical interest.

  9. Issues in Interaction Language Specification and Representation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    JOHNSON ET AL. NOV 83 UNCLASSIFIED CSIE-83-15 N@014-8 1K -143 F/G 5/8 N mEEEomhEEEmhiI EEEEEEEEmhEEEE mEEEEEEEmhEEEE EEEEEEEEohEohEmhE~~hEEEEEE 1.8...IN - INTERACTION LANGUAGE SPECIFICATION CAND REPRESENTATION Deborah H. Johnson H. Rex Hartson N nT1C Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State...oISSUES IN INTERACTION LANGUAGE SPECIFICATION N. AND REPRESENTATION Deborah H. Johnson I. H. Rex Hartson - I TECHNICAL REPORT Prepared for Engineering

  10. Data Representation, Coding, and Communication Standards.

    PubMed

    Amin, Milon; Dhir, Rajiv

    2015-06-01

    The immense volume of cases signed out by surgical pathologists on a daily basis gives little time to think about exactly how data are stored. An understanding of the basics of data representation has implications that affect a pathologist's daily practice. This article covers the basics of data representation and its importance in the design of electronic medical record systems. Coding in surgical pathology is also discussed. Finally, a summary of communication standards in surgical pathology is presented, including suggested resources that establish standards for select aspects of pathology reporting.

  11. Representations for reasoning about digital circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, T. M.; Steinberg, L.; Smith, R. G.; Jacobs, H.; Schooley, P.; Kelly, V.

    1981-07-01

    We are interested in developing programs that reason about digital electronic circuits, in order to design, redesign, and debug them. The first step toward developing such programs is to determine a useful way of representing the design and operation of circuits. A useful representation must make apparent the roles of various circuit components in implementing the overall circuit function, and must allow a program to reason about the operation of the circuit at various levels of abstraction. This paper summarizes our efforts to develop such a representation. This work is closely related to other AI work on representing plans and on representing and reasoning about complex physical processes.

  12. Optical finite representation of the Lorentz group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Lara, B. M.; Guerrero, J.

    2015-12-01

    We present a class of photonic lattices with an underlying symmetry given by a finite-dimensional representation of the 2+1D Lorentz group. In order to construct such a finite-dimensional representation of a non-compact group, we have to design a $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric optical structure. Thus, the array of coupled waveguides may keep or break $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetry, leading to a device that behaves like an oscillator or directional amplifier, respectively. We show that the so-called linear $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric dimer belongs to this class of photonic lattices.

  13. Asymptotic Representations of Quantum Affine Superalgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huafeng

    2017-08-01

    We study representations of the quantum affine superalgebra associated with a general linear Lie superalgebra. In the spirit of Hernandez-Jimbo, we construct inductive systems of Kirillov-Reshetikhin modules based on a cyclicity result that we established previously on tensor products of these modules, and realize their inductive limits as modules over its Borel subalgebra, the so-called q-Yangian. A new generic asymptotic limit of the same inductive systems is proposed, resulting in modules over the full quantum affine superalgebra. We derive generalized Baxter's relations in the sense of Frenkel-Hernandez for representations of the full quantum group.

  14. [The fragmentation of representational space in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Plagnol, A; Oïta, M; Montreuil, M; Granger, B; Lubart, T

    2003-01-01

    Existent neurocognitive models of schizophrenia converge towards a core of impairments involving working memory, context processing, action planning, controlled and intentional processing. However, the emergence of this core remains itself difficult to explain and more specific hypotheses do not explain the heterogeneity of schizophrenia. To overcome these limits, we propose a new paradigm based on representational theory from cognitive science. Some recent developments of this theory enable us to describe a subjective universe as a representational space which is displayed from memory. We outline a conceptual framework to construct such a representational space from analogical -representations that can be activated in working memory and are connected to a network of symbolic structures. These connections are notably made through an analytic process of the analogical fragments, which involves the attentional focus. This framework allows us to define rigorously some defense processes in response to traumatic tensions that are expressed on the representational space. The fragmentation of representational space is a consequence of a defensive denial based on an impairment of the analytic process. The fragmentation forms some parasitic areas in memory which are excluded from the main part of the representational space and disturb information processing. The key clinical concepts of paranoid syndromes can be defined in this conceptual framework: mental automatism, delusional intuition, acute destructuration, psychotic dissociation, and autistic withdrawal. We show that these syndromes imply each other, which in return increases the fragmentation of the representational space. Some new concepts emerge naturally in this framework, such as the concept of "suture" which is defined as a link between a parasitic area and the main representational space. Schizophrenia appears as a borderline case of fragmentation of the representational space. This conceptual framework is

  15. Building Hierarchical Representations for Oracle Character and Sketch Recognition.

    PubMed

    Jun Guo; Changhu Wang; Roman-Rangel, Edgar; Hongyang Chao; Yong Rui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study oracle character recognition and general sketch recognition. First, a data set of oracle characters, which are the oldest hieroglyphs in China yet remain a part of modern Chinese characters, is collected for analysis. Second, typical visual representations in shape- and sketch-related works are evaluated. We analyze the problems suffered when addressing these representations and determine several representation design criteria. Based on the analysis, we propose a novel hierarchical representation that combines a Gabor-related low-level representation and a sparse-encoder-related mid-level representation. Extensive experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed representation in both oracle character recognition and general sketch recognition. The proposed representation is also complementary to convolutional neural network (CNN)-based models. We introduce a solution to combine the proposed representation with CNN-based models, and achieve better performances over both approaches. This solution has beaten humans at recognizing general sketches.

  16. The role of physical digit representation and numerical magnitude representation in children's multiplication fact retrieval.

    PubMed

    De Visscher, Alice; Noël, Marie-Pascale; De Smedt, Bert

    2016-12-01

    Arithmetic facts, in particular multiplication tables, are thought to be stored in long-term memory and to be interference prone. At least two representations underpinning these arithmetic facts have been suggested: a physical representation of the digits and a numerical magnitude representation. We hypothesized that both representations are possible sources of interference that could explain individual differences in multiplication fact performance and/or in strategy use. We investigated the specificity of these interferences on arithmetic fact retrieval and explored the relation between interference and performance on the different arithmetic operations and on general mathematics achievement. Participants were 79 fourth-grade children (Mage=9.6 years) who completed a products comparison and a multiplication production task with verbal strategy reports. Performances on a speeded calculation test including the four operations and on a general mathematics achievement test were also collected. Only the interference coming from physical representations was a significant predictor of the performance across multiplications. However, both the magnitude and physical representations were unique predictors of individual differences in multiplication. The frequency of the retrieval strategy across multiplication problems and across individuals was determined only by the physical representation, which therefore is suggested as being responsible for memory storage issues. Interestingly, this impact of physical representation was not observed when predicting performance on subtraction or on general mathematical achievement. In contrast, the impact of the numerical magnitude representation was more general in that it was observed across all arithmetic operations and in general mathematics achievement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Schroedinger representation and its relation to the holomorphic representation in linear and affine field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Oeckl, Robert

    2012-07-15

    We establish a precise isomorphism between the Schroedinger representation and the holomorphic representation in linear and affine field theory. In the linear case, this isomorphism is induced by a one-to-one correspondence between complex structures and Schroedinger vacua. In the affine case we obtain similar results, with the role of the vacuum now taken by a whole family of coherent states. In order to establish these results we exhibit a rigorous construction of the Schroedinger representation and use a suitable generalization of the Segal-Bargmann transform. Our construction is based on geometric quantization and applies to any real polarization and its pairing with any Kaehler polarization.

  18. Elemental Representations of Stimuli in Associative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Justin A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews evidence and theories concerning the nature of stimulus representations in Pavlovian conditioning. It focuses on the elemental approach developed in stimulus sampling theory (R. C. Atkinson & W. K. Estes, 1963; R. R. Bush & F. Mosteller, 1951b) and extended by I. P. L. McLaren and N. J. Mackintosh (2000, 2002) and contrasts…

  19. Digital Art Making as a Representational Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Erica Rosenfeld

    2013-01-01

    In this article I bring artistic production into the learning sciences conversation by using the production of representations as a bridging concept between art making and the new literacies. Through case studies with 4 youth media arts organizations across the United States I ask how organizations structure the process of producing…

  20. Twentieth-Century Art: Issues of Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Julie

    1990-01-01

    Presents lesson plans designed for secondary students that assess the role of naturalistic representation in twentieth-century art by examining the artwork of four artists: Pablo Picasso, Rene Magritte, David Smith, and Jackson Pollock. Provides background information on each illustration, and outlines discussion and art production activities for…

  1. Representations of stem cell clinics on Twitter.

    PubMed

    Kamenova, Kalina; Reshef, Amir; Caulfield, Timothy

    2014-12-01

    The practice of travelling abroad to receive unproven and unregulated stem cell treatments has become an increasingly problematic global phenomenon known as 'stem cell tourism'. In this paper, we examine representations of nine major clinics and providers of such treatments on the microblogging network Twitter. We collected and conducted a content analysis of Twitter posts (n = 363) by these establishments and by other users mentioning them, focusing specifically on marketing claims about treatment procedures and outcomes, discussions of safety and efficacy of stem cell transplants, and specific representations of patients' experiences. Our analysis has shown that there were explicit claims or suggestions of benefits associated with unproven stem cell treatments in approximately one third of the tweets and that patients' experiences, whenever referenced, were presented as invariably positive and as testimonials about the efficacy of stem cell transplants. Furthermore, the results indicated that the tone of most tweets (60.2 %) was overwhelmingly positive and there were rarely critical discussions about significant health risks associated with unproven stem cell therapies. When placed in the context of past research on the problems associated with the marketing of unproven stem cell therapies, this analysis of representations on Twitter suggests that discussions in social media have also remained largely uncritical of the stem cell tourism phenomenon, with inaccurate representations of risks and benefits for patients.

  2. Process and representation in graphical displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillan, Douglas J.; Lewis, Robert; Rudisill, Marianne

    1990-01-01

    How people comprehend graphics is examined. Graphical comprehension involves the cognitive representation of information from a graphic display and the processing strategies that people apply to answer questions about graphics. Research on representation has examined both the features present in a graphic display and the cognitive representation of the graphic. The key features include the physical components of a graph, the relation between the figure and its axes, and the information in the graph. Tests of people's memory for graphs indicate that both the physical and informational aspect of a graph are important in the cognitive representation of a graph. However, the physical (or perceptual) features overshadow the information to a large degree. Processing strategies also involve a perception-information distinction. In order to answer simple questions (e.g., determining the value of a variable, comparing several variables, and determining the mean of a set of variables), people switch between two information processing strategies: (1) an arithmetic, look-up strategy in which they use a graph much like a table, looking up values and performing arithmetic calculations; and (2) a perceptual strategy in which they use the spatial characteristics of the graph to make comparisons and estimations. The user's choice of strategies depends on the task and the characteristics of the graph. A theory of graphic comprehension is presented.

  3. Representation of Legal Knowledge for Conceptual Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, George R.; deBessonet, Cary G.

    1985-01-01

    Describes traditional legal information retrieval systems--Juris, Lexis, Westlaw--and several new rule-based, knowledge-based, legal knowledge reasoning, and analytical legal information systems--Waterman and Peterson's Legal Decisionmaking System, Hafner's Legal Information Retrieval System, McCarty's TAXMAN, and the deBessonet representation of…

  4. 18 CFR 1308.22 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Representation. 1308.22 Section 1308.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY CONTRACT DISPUTES... represented by an attorney at law duly licensed by any state, commonwealth, territory, or the District...

  5. 18 CFR 1308.22 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Representation. 1308.22 Section 1308.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY CONTRACT DISPUTES... represented by an attorney at law duly licensed by any state, commonwealth, territory, or the District...

  6. 18 CFR 1308.22 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Representation. 1308.22 Section 1308.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY CONTRACT DISPUTES... represented by an attorney at law duly licensed by any state, commonwealth, territory, or the District...

  7. Multisensory body representation in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Finotti, Gianluca; Costantini, Marcello

    2016-02-12

    Body representation has been linked to the processing and integration of multisensory signals. An outstanding example of the pivotal role played by multisensory mechanisms in body representation is the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI). In this paradigm, multisensory stimulation induces a sense of ownership over a fake limb. Previous work has shown high interindividual differences in the susceptibility to the RHI. The origin of this variability remains largely unknown. Given the tight and bidirectional communication between the brain and the immune system, we predicted that the origin of this variability could be traced, in part, to the immune system's functioning, which is altered by several clinical conditions, including Coeliac Disease (CD). Consistent with this prediction, we found that the Rubber Hand Illusion is stronger in CD patients as compared to healthy controls. We propose a biochemical mechanism accounting for the dependency of multisensory body representation upon the Immune system. Our finding has direct implications for a range of neurological, psychiatric and immunological conditions where alterations of multisensory integration, body representation and dysfunction of the immune system co-exist.

  8. Understanding Linear Functions and Their Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Linear functions are an important part of the middle school mathematics curriculum. Students in the middle grades gain fluency by working with linear functions in a variety of representations (NCTM 2001). Presented in this article is an activity that was used with five eighth-grade classes at three different schools. The activity contains 15 cards…

  9. Toward a Theory of Representation Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    understanding. This report describes research done at the Artificial Inteligence Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for this...AD-A210 885 Technical Report 1128 Toward a Theory of Representation Design Jeffrey Van Baale MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory DTIC ELECTE A... Artificial Intelligence Laboratory 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 11. REPORT DATE Advanced Research

  10. 17 CFR 4.16 - Prohibited representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prohibited representations. 4.16 Section 4.16 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions §...

  11. 17 CFR 4.16 - Prohibited representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prohibited representations. 4.16 Section 4.16 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions §...

  12. 17 CFR 4.16 - Prohibited representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prohibited representations. 4.16 Section 4.16 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions §...

  13. 17 CFR 4.16 - Prohibited representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prohibited representations. 4.16 Section 4.16 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions §...

  14. Generative Processes in Representations of Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.

    This project addressed the question: What knowledge and processes enable individuals to construct and modify representations of novel, nonroutine problems? The theoretical goal was to extend the information-processing theory of problem solving to include processes that have been characterized as restructuring of problems and productive thinking by…

  15. Multisensory body representation in autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Finotti, Gianluca; Costantini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Body representation has been linked to the processing and integration of multisensory signals. An outstanding example of the pivotal role played by multisensory mechanisms in body representation is the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI). In this paradigm, multisensory stimulation induces a sense of ownership over a fake limb. Previous work has shown high interindividual differences in the susceptibility to the RHI. The origin of this variability remains largely unknown. Given the tight and bidirectional communication between the brain and the immune system, we predicted that the origin of this variability could be traced, in part, to the immune system’s functioning, which is altered by several clinical conditions, including Coeliac Disease (CD). Consistent with this prediction, we found that the Rubber Hand Illusion is stronger in CD patients as compared to healthy controls. We propose a biochemical mechanism accounting for the dependency of multisensory body representation upon the Immune system. Our finding has direct implications for a range of neurological, psychiatric and immunological conditions where alterations of multisensory integration, body representation and dysfunction of the immune system co-exist. PMID:26867786

  16. Schoolchildren's Social Representations on Bullying Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate schoolchildren's social representations on the causes of bullying. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with 56 schoolchildren recruited from five elementary schools in Sweden. Mixed methods (grounded theory as well as descriptive statistic methods) were used to analyze data. According to…

  17. Phonological Representations and Early Literacy in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Joanna C.; Shum, Kathy Kar-Man; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2015-01-01

    Phonological processing skills predict early reading development, but what underlies developing phonological processing skills? Phonological representations of 140 native Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (age 4-10) were assessed with speech gating, mispronunciation detection, and nonword repetition tasks; their nonverbal IQ, reading, and…

  18. Problem Representation and Academic Performance in Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between problem representation and academic performance in statistics. A specially-designed triad judgment task was administered through SurveyMonkey, an online survey service. Participants were 162 high school graduates who took the AP Statistics Examination in the spring of 2013. Results…

  19. 7 CFR 917.15 - Representation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Representation area. 917.15 Section 917.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  20. 7 CFR 917.15 - Representation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representation area. 917.15 Section 917.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  1. 7 CFR 917.15 - Representation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Representation area. 917.15 Section 917.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  2. 7 CFR 917.15 - Representation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Representation area. 917.15 Section 917.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  3. 7 CFR 917.15 - Representation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Representation area. 917.15 Section 917.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  4. Electromagnetic Concepts in Mathematical Representation of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albe, Virginie; Venturini, Patrice; Lascours, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the use of mathematics when studying the physics of electromagnetism. Focuses on common electromagnetic concepts and their associated mathematical representation and arithmetical tools. Concludes that most students do not understand the significant aspects of physical situations and have difficulty using relationships and models specific…

  5. Students' Understanding of Molecular Structure Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferk, Vesna; Vrtacnik, Margareta; Blejec, Andrej; Gril, Alenka

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine the meanings attached by students to the different kinds of molecular structure representations used in chemistry teaching. The students (n = 124) were from primary (aged 13-14 years) and secondary (aged 17-18 years) schools and a university (aged 21-25 years). A computerised "Chemical…

  6. Asymmetric Translation between Multiple Representations in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yulan I.; Son, Ji Y.; Rudd, James A., II

    2016-01-01

    Experts are more proficient in manipulating and translating between multiple representations (MRs) of a given concept than novices. Studies have shown that instruction using MR can increase student understanding of MR, and one model for MR instruction in chemistry is the chemistry triplet proposed by Johnstone. Concreteness fading theory suggests…

  7. Rethinking the Representation Problem in Curriculum Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The consolidation of reconceptualism as a distinctive tradition in curriculum inquiry is commonly understood to go hand-in-hand with the decline and even eclipse of an explicit political orientation in such work. This paper offers an alternative argument, focusing on a re-assessment of what has been called the representation problem, and exploring…

  8. A theory for the representation of knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Guenthner, F.; Lehmann, H.; Schonfeld, W.

    1986-01-01

    How to represent knowledge is one of the key questions in the construction of expert systems. Its solution depends on a number of factors, the most important of which are how knowledge is to be acquired and how it is to be used. Since the authors are interested in the use of natural language for communication with computers, they require from a formalism suggested for knowledge representation that it be suitable as a target for the systematic translation from natural language expressions. They propose a theory, called Discourse Representation Theory (DRT), which was originally developed by Kamp to analyze natural language discourse, as a means to represent knowledge in an expert system. With Discourse Representation Theory it has been possible to solve certain cases of contextual relations which have puzzled linguists and logicians for a long time. In this paper they give a precise definition of DRT and describe the rules used to translate from natural language to Discourse Representation Structures (DRSs), the central notion of the theory. They show how the notation used in DRT relates to standard predicate logic and define its deductive theory. They also outline ways of implementing DRT and the proof procedures they use.

  9. Spatial Performance, Cognitive Representation, and Cerebral Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    systems underlie natural languages , mathematics, computer programs, and semantic networks. An analog representation does not convey these features...and the theory of dyslexia . Journal of Communication Disorders, 1969, 2, 295-311. Shipley, T. Interhemispherical differences in the evoked cortical

  10. Knowledge representation issues for explaining plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Mary Ellen; Johannes, James D.

    1988-01-01

    Explanations are recognized as an important facet of intelligent behavior. Unfortunately, expert systems are currently limited in their ability to provide useful, intelligent justifications of their results. We are currently investigating the issues involved in providing explanation facilities for expert planning systems. This investigation addresses three issues: knowledge content, knowledge representation, and explanation structure.

  11. 10 CFR 10.37 - Attorney representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attorney representation. 10.37 Section 10.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Miscellaneous § 10.37...

  12. 10 CFR 10.37 - Attorney representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attorney representation. 10.37 Section 10.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Miscellaneous § 10.37...

  13. 10 CFR 10.37 - Attorney representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attorney representation. 10.37 Section 10.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Miscellaneous § 10.37...

  14. 10 CFR 10.37 - Attorney representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attorney representation. 10.37 Section 10.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Miscellaneous § 10.37...

  15. Biologically Plausible, Human-scale Knowledge Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Eric; Gingerich, Matthew; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Several approaches to implementing symbol-like representations in neurally plausible models have been proposed. These approaches include binding through synchrony (Shastri & Ajjanagadde, 1993), "mesh" binding (van der Velde & de Kamps, 2006), and conjunctive binding (Smolensky, 1990). Recent theoretical work has suggested that…

  16. Action co-representation and social exclusion.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Marcello; Ferri, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    Humans are thought to be able to form shared representations, considered a keystone of social cognition. However, whether and to what extent such representations are social in nature is still open for debate. In the present study, we address the question of whether action co-representation can be modulated by social attitudes, such as judgments about one's own social status. Two groups of participants performed an Interactive Simon task after the experimental induction of a feeling of social inclusion or exclusion (ostracism) by means of a virtual ball tossing game. Results showed a compatibility effect in included, but not in excluded participants. This indicates that judgments about one's own social status modulate action co-representation. We suggest that this modulation may occur by way of a redirection of one's attentional focus away from others when one experiences social exclusion. This is a far-reaching issue given the increasing need for integration in modern society. Indeed, if integration fails, modern society fails also.

  17. Domain Knowledge Representation for Instructional Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mark K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents a knowledge representation model that was designed for instructional decision making. Topics discussed include classification models for instructional design; artificial intelligence; semantic networks; natural language; and data models, including network and hierarchical models. An example is given of knowledge analysis for a secondary…

  18. Students' Understanding of Molecular Structure Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferk, Vesna; Vrtacnik, Margareta; Blejec, Andrej; Gril, Alenka

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine the meanings attached by students to the different kinds of molecular structure representations used in chemistry teaching. The students (n = 124) were from primary (aged 13-14 years) and secondary (aged 17-18 years) schools and a university (aged 21-25 years). A computerised "Chemical…

  19. Problem Representation and Academic Performance in Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between problem representation and academic performance in statistics. A specially-designed triad judgment task was administered through SurveyMonkey, an online survey service. Participants were 162 high school graduates who took the AP Statistics Examination in the spring of 2013. Results…

  20. The Impact of Immigration on Congressional Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouvier, Leon

    Explanation of shifts in U.S. Congressional representation among states have often overlooked the effects of international migration on the size and distribution of the U.S. population. Seventy percent of recent U.S. immigrants have settled in California, New York, Texas, Florida, New Jersey, and Illinois. Estimates of the distribution of…

  1. Lexical Representation of Japanese Vowel Devoicing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogasawara, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Vowel devoicing happens in Japanese when the high vowel is between voiceless consonants. The aim of this study is to investigate the lexical representation of vowel devoicing. A long-term repetition-priming experiment was conducted. Participants shadowed words containing either a devoiced or a voiced vowel in three priming paradigms, and their…

  2. Teaching Representation Translations with Magnetic Field Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillotson, Wilson Andrew; McCaskey, Timothy; Nasser, Luis

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory exercise designed to help students translate between different field representations. It starts with students qualitatively mapping field lines for various bar magnet configurations and continues with a Hall probe experiment in which students execute a series of scaffolded tasks, culminating in the prediction and…

  3. Cognition of Space Depicted in Graphic Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiatt, Diana Buell

    Discussion covers underlying assumptions of children's acquisition of a concept of space and explores educational implications of the knowledge of these assumptions for early childhood programs. Initial sections of the paper concern activity as a basis for cognition of space, graphic representation, and mental imagery. Findings of studies that led…

  4. Different Representations and Strategies in Mental Rotation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Binglei; Della Sala, Sergio

    2017-08-31

    It is still debated whether holistic or piecemeal transformation is applied to carry out mental rotation (MR), as an aspect of visual imagery. It has been recently argued that various mental representations could be flexibly generated in order to perform MR tasks. To test the hypothesis that imagery ability and the types of stimuli interact to affect the format of representation and the choice of strategy in performing MR task, participants, grouped as good or poor imagers, were assessed using four MR tasks, comprising two sets of 'Standard' cube figures and two sets of 'non-Standard' ones, designed by withdrawing cubes from the Standard ones. Both good and poor imagers performed similarly under the two Standard conditions. Under non-Standard conditions, good imagers performed much faster in non-Standard objects than Standard ones, whereas poor imagers performed much slower in non-Standard objects than Standard ones. These results suggested that 1) individuals did not differ in processing the integrated Standard object; whereas 2) in processing the non-Standard objects, various visual representations and strategies could be applied in MR by diverse individuals: good imagers were more flexible in generating different visual representations; whereas poor imagers applied different strategies under different task demands.

  5. Lexical Representations and Sentence Processing: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews some history of how lexical representations have acquired an important role in sentence processing research. Discusses relevant issues, including the importance of timecourse information in theorizing; the importance of frequency information in theories of sentence processing; and the question of the grain of frequency information. (42…

  6. 76 FR 80137 - Representation-Case Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... Counsel has prepared a non-binding Casehandling Manual describing representation case procedures in detail. The relevant sections of the Casehandling Manual are Sections 11000 through 11886.\\2\\ \\1\\ See, e.g., NLRB v. Wyman-Gordon Co., 394 U.S. 759, 764, 770, 777, 779 (1969). \\2\\ NLRB Casehandling Manual...

  7. Representations of the Human Circulatory System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Manjon, Asuncion; Angon, Yolanda Postigo

    2009-01-01

    There is no agreement about the robustness of intuitive representations of the circulatory system and their susceptibility to change by instruction. In this paper, we analyse to what extent students with varying degrees of biology instruction and different ages (High School Health Science and Social Science students and first and final year…

  8. Representation of magnetic fields in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    Several methods by which a magnetic field in space can be represented are reviewed with particular attention to problems of the observed geomagnetic field. Time dependence is assumed to be negligible, and five main classes of representation are described by vector potential, scalar potential, orthogonal vectors, Euler potentials, and expanded magnetic field.

  9. Internal Representational Models of Attachment Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crittenden, Patricia M.

    This paper outlines several properties of internal representational models (IRMs) and offers terminology that may help to differentiate the models. Properties of IRMs include focus, memory systems, content, cognitive function, "metastructure," quality of attachment, behavioral strategies, and attitude toward attachment. An IRM focuses on…

  10. Understanding Linear Functions and Their Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Linear functions are an important part of the middle school mathematics curriculum. Students in the middle grades gain fluency by working with linear functions in a variety of representations (NCTM 2001). Presented in this article is an activity that was used with five eighth-grade classes at three different schools. The activity contains 15 cards…

  11. An event model of medical information representation.

    PubMed Central

    Huff, S M; Rocha, R A; Bray, B E; Warner, H R; Haug, P J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Develop a model for structured and encoded representation of medical information that supports human review, decision support applications, ad hoc queries, statistical analysis, and natural-language processing. DESIGN: A medical information representation model was developed from manual and semiautomated analysis of patient data. The key assumption of the model is that medical information can be represented as a series of linked events. The event representation has two main components. The first component is a frame or template definition that specifies the attributes of the event. The second component is a structured vocabulary, the terms of which are taken as the values of the slots in the event template structure. Individual event instances are linked by specific named relationships. RESULTS: The proposed model was used to represent a chest-radiograph report. CONCLUSIONS: The event model of medical information representation provides a mechanism for formal definition of the logical structure of medical data and allows explicit time-oriented and associative relationships between event instances. PMID:7743315

  12. Social representations and normative beliefs of aging.

    PubMed

    Torres, Tatiana de Lucena; Camargo, Brigido Vizeu; Boulsfield, Andréa Barbará; Silva, Antônia Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    This study adopted the theory of social representations as a theoretical framework in order to characterize similarities and differences in social representations and normative beliefs of aging for different age groups. The 638 participants responded to self-administered questionnaire and were equally distributed by sex and age. The results show that aging is characterized by positive stereotypes (knowledge and experience); however, retirement is linked to aging, but in a negative way, particularly for men, involving illness, loneliness and disability. When age was considered, it was verified that the connections with the representational elements became more complex for older groups, showing social representation functionality, largely for the elderly. Adulthood seems to be preferred and old age is disliked. There were divergences related to the perception of the beginning of life phases, especially that of old age. Work was characterized as the opposite of aging, and it revealed the need for actions intended for the elderly and retired workers, with post-retirement projects. In addition, it suggests investment in public policies that encourage intergenerational contact, with efforts to reduce intolerance and discrimination based on age of people.

  13. 7 CFR 981.31 - Membership representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.31 Membership representation. Membership of the Board... who market their almonds through cooperative handlers; and (2) Those growers who market their almonds...

  14. 7 CFR 981.31 - Membership representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.31 Membership representation. Membership of the Board... who market their almonds through cooperative handlers; and (2) Those growers who market their almonds...

  15. 7 CFR 981.31 - Membership representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.31 Membership representation. Membership of the Board... who market their almonds through cooperative handlers; and (2) Those growers who market their almonds...

  16. 7 CFR 981.31 - Membership representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.31 Membership representation. Membership of the Board... who market their almonds through cooperative handlers; and (2) Those growers who market their almonds...

  17. 7 CFR 981.31 - Membership representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.31 Membership representation. Membership of the Board... who market their almonds through cooperative handlers; and (2) Those growers who market their almonds...

  18. 48 CFR 2009.570-4 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Representation. 2009.570-4 Section 2009.570-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION COMPETITION AND... consulting and management support services; (3) Research; and (4) Other contractual situations where special...

  19. 48 CFR 2009.570-4 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Representation. 2009.570-4 Section 2009.570-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION COMPETITION AND... consulting and management support services; (3) Research; and (4) Other contractual situations where special...

  20. Promoting Mathematics Accessibility through Multiple Representations Jigsaws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleaves, Wendy Pelletier

    2008-01-01

    The ability to examine problems using varied approaches is one of the most important characteristics of good problem solvers. Other characteristics include independence, flexibility in thinking, determination, and a willingness to take risks. By using multiple representations, students are being asked to show the same information in varied ways.…

  1. 12 CFR 240.11 - Unlawful representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... forex account, for or on behalf of any person: (1) Guarantee such person or account against loss; (2... established for retail forex customers. (b) No implication of representation of engaging in prohibited acts... that any retail forex transaction or retail forex product has been sponsored, recommended, or approved...

  2. 12 CFR 349.11 - Unlawful representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... forex account, for or on behalf of any person: (1) Guarantee such person or account against loss; (2... established for retail forex customers. (b) No implication of representation of engaging in prohibited acts... represent or imply in any manner whatsoever that any retail forex transaction or retail forex product has...

  3. 12 CFR 349.11 - Unlawful representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... forex account, for or on behalf of any person: (1) Guarantee such person or account against loss; (2... established for retail forex customers. (b) No implication of representation of engaging in prohibited acts... represent or imply in any manner whatsoever that any retail forex transaction or retail forex product has...

  4. 12 CFR 349.11 - Unlawful representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... forex account, for or on behalf of any person: (1) Guarantee such person or account against loss; (2... established for retail forex customers. (b) No implication of representation of engaging in prohibited acts... represent or imply in any manner whatsoever that any retail forex transaction or retail forex product has...

  5. Learning discriminative dictionary for group sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yubao; Liu, Qingshan; Tang, Jinhui; Tao, Dacheng

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, sparse representation has been widely used in object recognition applications. How to learn the dictionary is a key issue to sparse representation. A popular method is to use l1 norm as the sparsity measurement of representation coefficients for dictionary learning. However, the l1 norm treats each atom in the dictionary independently, so the learned dictionary cannot well capture the multisubspaces structural information of the data. In addition, the learned subdictionary for each class usually shares some common atoms, which weakens the discriminative ability of the reconstruction error of each subdictionary. This paper presents a new dictionary learning model to improve sparse representation for image classification, which targets at learning a class-specific subdictionary for each class and a common subdictionary shared by all classes. The model is composed of a discriminative fidelity, a weighted group sparse constraint, and a subdictionary incoherence term. The discriminative fidelity encourages each class-specific subdictionary to sparsely represent the samples in the corresponding class. The weighted group sparse constraint term aims at capturing the structural information of the data. The subdictionary incoherence term is to make all subdictionaries independent as much as possible. Because the common subdictionary represents features shared by all classes, we only use the reconstruction error of each class-specific subdictionary for classification. Extensive experiments are conducted on several public image databases, and the experimental results demonstrate the power of the proposed method, compared with the state-of-the-arts.

  6. Designing and Evaluating Representations to Model Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterman, Elizabeth; Craft, Brock

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the case for a theory-informed approach to designing and evaluating representations for implementation in digital tools to support Learning Design, using the framework of epistemic efficacy as an example. This framework, which is rooted in the literature of cognitive psychology, is operationalised through dimensions of fit…

  7. Tapping Toddlers' Evolving Semantic Representation via Gesture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, Nina C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents evidence that gesture is a means to understanding the semantic representations of toddlers. Method: The data were part of a study of toddlers' word learning conducted by N. C. Capone and K. K. McGregor (2005). The object function probe from that study was administered after 1 exposure and after 3 exposures to objects.…

  8. Cultural Representations of Minorities in Hungarian Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weninger, Csilla; Williams, J. Patrick

    2005-01-01

    This article reports research analyzing cultural representations of minorities in Hungarian elementary school textbooks currently used throughout the country. A convenient sample representing more than 75% of first and fourth grade reading books was collected from three academic and public libraries in Hungary. Using content analysis techniques,…

  9. 76 FR 36811 - Representation-Case Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ...As part of its ongoing efforts to more effectively administer the National Labor Relations Act (the Act or the NLRA) and to further the purposes of the Act, the National Labor Relations Board (the Board) proposes to amend its rules and regulations governing the filing and processing of petitions relating to the representation of employees for purposes of collective bargaining with their......

  10. Schoolchildren's Social Representations on Bullying Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate schoolchildren's social representations on the causes of bullying. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with 56 schoolchildren recruited from five elementary schools in Sweden. Mixed methods (grounded theory as well as descriptive statistic methods) were used to analyze data. According to…

  11. Consciousness and the structure of neuronal representations.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, W

    1998-01-01

    The hypothesis is defended that brains expressing phenomenal awareness are capable of generating metarepresentations of their cognitive processes, these metarepresentations resulting from an iteration of self-similar cortical operations. Search for the neuronal substrate of awareness therefore converges with the search for the nature of neuronal representations. It is proposed that evolved brains use two complementary representational strategies. One consists of the generation of neurons responding selectively to a particular constellation of features and is based on selective recombination of inputs in hierarchically structured feedforward architectures. The other relies on the dynamic association of feature-specific cells into functionally coherent cell assemblies that, as a whole, represent the constellation of features defining a particular perceptual object. Arguments are presented that favour the notion that the metarepresentations supporting awareness are established in accordance with the second strategy. Experimental data are reviewed that are compatible with the hypothesis that evolved brains use assembly codes for the representation of contents and that these assemblies become organized through transient synchronization of the discharges of associated neurons. It is argued that central states favouring the formation of assembly-based representations are similar to those favouring awareness. PMID:9854255

  12. 10 CFR 63.65 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representation. 63.65 Section 63.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Participation by State Government, Affected Units of Local Government, and Affected Indian...

  13. Promoting Mathematics Accessibility through Multiple Representations Jigsaws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleaves, Wendy Pelletier

    2008-01-01

    The ability to examine problems using varied approaches is one of the most important characteristics of good problem solvers. Other characteristics include independence, flexibility in thinking, determination, and a willingness to take risks. By using multiple representations, students are being asked to show the same information in varied ways.…

  14. Graphic Representations as Tools for Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Judith

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the use of graphic representations to enable students to improve their decision making skills in the social studies. Explores three visual aids used in assisting students with decision making: (1) the force field; (2) the decision tree; and (3) the decision making grid. (CMK)

  15. 8 CFR 1003.16 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.16 Representation. (a) The government may be represented in proceedings before an Immigration Judge. (b) The alien may...

  16. 8 CFR 1003.16 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.16 Representation. (a) The government may be represented in proceedings before an Immigration Judge. (b) The alien may...

  17. 8 CFR 1003.16 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.16 Representation. (a) The government may be represented in proceedings before an Immigration Judge. (b) The alien may...

  18. 8 CFR 1003.16 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.16 Representation. (a) The government may be represented in proceedings before an Immigration Judge. (b) The alien may...

  19. 8 CFR 1003.16 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.16 Representation. (a) The government may be represented in proceedings before an Immigration Judge. (b) The alien may...

  20. Genetics Reasoning with Multiple External Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David F.

    2003-01-01

    Explores a case study of a class of 10th grade students whose learning of genetics involved activities using BioLogica, a computer program that features multiple external representations (MERs). Findings indicate that the MERs in BioLogica contributed to students' development of genetics reasoning by engendering their motivation and interest but…

  1. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PERCEIVED PITCH IN SPEECH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COWAN, J.M.

    AN ARTICLE ON GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PERCEIVED PITCH IN SPEECH WAS PRESENTED. THIS ARTICLE, A REPRINT FROM THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF PHONETIC SCIENCES, PROVIDED A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE METHOD AND INSTRUMENTATION OF GRAPHICALLY DESCRIBING SPEECH INTONATIONS, AND PRESENTED A HISTORICAL AND THEORETICAL…

  2. Tasks That Make Connections through Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofalo, Joe; Trinter, Christine P.

    2012-01-01

    By working through well-designed tasks, students can expand their thinking about mathematical ideas and their approaches to solving mathematical problems. They can come to see the value of looking at tasks from different perspectives and of using different representations. This article discusses four tasks that encourage high school students and…

  3. Attachment Representation of Institutionalized Children in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsurada, Emiko

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study represents one of the first attachment investigations of Japanese children who have been institutionalized. Mental representation of attachment was assessed using George and Solomon's (1990, 1996, 2000) Attachment Doll Play Classification System of the Bretherton et al. (1990) doll play story stems. Participants were 32…

  4. Atypical Neural Self-Representation in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardo, Michael V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Bullmore, Edward T.; Sadek, Susan A.; Pasco, Greg; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The "self" is a complex multidimensional construct deeply embedded and in many ways defined by our relations with the social world. Individuals with autism are impaired in both self-referential and other-referential social cognitive processing. Atypical neural representation of the self may be a key to understanding the nature of such impairments.…

  5. Representations of the Human Circulatory System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Manjon, Asuncion; Angon, Yolanda Postigo

    2009-01-01

    There is no agreement about the robustness of intuitive representations of the circulatory system and their susceptibility to change by instruction. In this paper, we analyse to what extent students with varying degrees of biology instruction and different ages (High School Health Science and Social Science students and first and final year…

  6. 10 CFR 72.206 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Representation. 72.206 Section 72.206 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Provision of...

  7. 10 CFR 72.206 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Representation. 72.206 Section 72.206 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Provision of...

  8. 10 CFR 72.206 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Representation. 72.206 Section 72.206 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Provision of...

  9. Abstraction and context in concept representation.

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, James A

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops the notion of abstraction in the context of the psychology of concepts, and discusses its relation to context dependence in knowledge representation. Three general approaches to modelling conceptual knowledge from the domain of cognitive psychology are discussed, which serve to illustrate a theoretical dimension of increasing levels of abstraction. PMID:12903660

  10. Asymmetric Translation between Multiple Representations in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yulan I.; Son, Ji Y.; Rudd, James A., II

    2016-01-01

    Experts are more proficient in manipulating and translating between multiple representations (MRs) of a given concept than novices. Studies have shown that instruction using MR can increase student understanding of MR, and one model for MR instruction in chemistry is the chemistry triplet proposed by Johnstone. Concreteness fading theory suggests…

  11. Bodies adapt orientation-independent face representations

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ellyanna; Walls, Shawn A.; Ghuman, Avniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Faces and bodies share a great number of semantic attributes, such as gender, emotional expressiveness, and identity. Recent studies demonstrate that bodies can activate and modulate face perception. However, the nature of the face representation that is activated by bodies remains unknown. In particular, face and body representations have previously been shown to have a degree of orientation specificity. Here we use body-face adaptation aftereffects to test whether bodies activate face representations in an orientation-dependent manner. Specifically, we used a two-by-two design to examine the magnitude of the body-face aftereffect using upright and inverted body adaptors and upright and inverted face targets. All four conditions showed significant body-face adaptation. We found neither a main effect of body orientation nor an interaction between body and face orientation. There was a main effect of target face orientation, with inverted target faces showing larger aftereffects than upright target faces, consistent with traditional face-face adaptation. Taken together, these results suggest that bodies adapt and activate a relatively orientation-independent representation of faces. PMID:23874311

  12. Atypical Neural Self-Representation in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardo, Michael V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Bullmore, Edward T.; Sadek, Susan A.; Pasco, Greg; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The "self" is a complex multidimensional construct deeply embedded and in many ways defined by our relations with the social world. Individuals with autism are impaired in both self-referential and other-referential social cognitive processing. Atypical neural representation of the self may be a key to understanding the nature of such impairments.…

  13. Teaching Representation Translations with Magnetic Field Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillotson, Wilson Andrew; McCaskey, Timothy; Nasser, Luis

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory exercise designed to help students translate between different field representations. It starts with students qualitatively mapping field lines for various bar magnet configurations and continues with a Hall probe experiment in which students execute a series of scaffolded tasks, culminating in the prediction and…

  14. Representations of Language Education in Canadian Newspapers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vessey, Rachelle

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the salience and content of representations of language education in a corpus of English- and French-Canadian newspapers. Findings suggest that English-Canadian newspapers foreground official-language education issues, in which public schools are represented as the primary means by which Canadians can gain equal access to…

  15. Information Graphic Classification, Decomposition and Alternative Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Jinglun

    2012-01-01

    This thesis work is mainly focused on two problems related to improving accessibility of information graphics for visually impaired users. The first problem is automated analysis of information graphics for information extraction and the second problem is multi-modal representations for accessibility. Information graphics are graphical…

  16. The representation of women in cognition.

    PubMed

    Klatzky, Roberta L; Holt, Lori; Behrmann, Marlene

    2015-08-01

    This discussion expresses concerns raised by the representation of women authors in a recent special issue of Cognition dedicated to future trends. Its broader goal is to increase sensitivity to the contributions of female scientists within major journals across psychological science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tapping Toddlers' Evolving Semantic Representation via Gesture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, Nina C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents evidence that gesture is a means to understanding the semantic representations of toddlers. Method: The data were part of a study of toddlers' word learning conducted by N. C. Capone and K. K. McGregor (2005). The object function probe from that study was administered after 1 exposure and after 3 exposures to objects.…

  18. Equivalent Representations in the Learning of Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyke, Frances; Craine, Timothy V.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how students fail to recognize the underlying equivalence when the same set of points is represented by a graph or an equation or a table. Presents activities in which more than one form of representations of the same information are included. (ASK)

  19. A Hybrid Constraint Representation and Reasoning Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Pang, Wan-Lin

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces JNET, a novel constraint representation and reasoning framework that supports procedural constraints and constraint attachments, providing a flexible way of integrating the constraint reasoner with a run- time software environment. Attachments in JNET are constraints over arbitrary Java objects, which are defined using Java code, at runtime, with no changes to the JNET source code.

  20. 15 CFR 280.205 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representation. 280.205 Section 280.205 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS...

  1. Software GOLUCA: Knowledge Representation in Mental Calculation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas-Garcia, Luis M.; Luengo-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Godinho-Lopes, Vitor

    2011-01-01

    We present a new software, called Goluca (Godinho, Luengo, and Casas, 2007), based on the technique of Pathfinder Associative Networks (Schvaneveldt, 1989), which produces graphical representations of the cognitive structure of individuals in a given field knowledge. In this case, we studied the strategies used by teachers and its relationship…

  2. Shared body representations and the 'Whose' system.

    PubMed

    de Vignemont, Frédérique

    2014-03-01

    Mirroring has been almost exclusively analysed in motor terms with no reference to the body that carries the action. According to the standard view, one activates motor representations upon seeing other people moving. However, one does not only see movements, one also sees another individual's body. The following questions then arise. To what extent does one recruit body representations in social context? And does it imply that body representations are shared between self and others? This latter question is all the more legitimate since recent evidence indicates the existence of shared cortical networks for bodily sensations, including pain (e.g., Singer et al., 2004) and touch (e.g., Keysers et al., 2004; Blakemore, Bristow, Bird, Frith, & Ward, 2005). But if body representations are shared, then it seems that their activation cannot suffice to discriminate between one's body and other people's bodies. Does one then need a 'Whose' system to recognise one's body as one's own, in the same way that Jeannerod argues that one needs a 'Who' system to recognise one's actions as one's own? © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Social Representations as Dynamic Social Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huguet, Pascal; Latane, Bibb

    1996-01-01

    Describes Social Representation Theory (SRT), an important and controversial development in European social constructivism. Argues that, although SRT and Dynamic Social Impact Theory (DSIT) come from different research traditions, they are complementary. Maintains that DSIT goes further in providing a clear mechanism for how dialog creates…

  4. Searching for an integrated self-representation.

    PubMed

    Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Arzy, Shahar

    2009-07-01

    Recent inquiries into the nature of self-representation have put forward a new and interesting conceptualization of the self, as a "center of gravity" of one's private and social behavior. We review recent neuroimaging work that has suggested interactions among brain regions comprising the default state network, including medial and temporo-parietal cortical regions and the mirror neuron system including lateral fronto-parietal regions as two interacting neural systems that work in concert to produce a cohesive self-representation through simulation. Simulation processes-broadly construed here as using existing representations as templates for understanding novel information-are instantiated by these brain systems across a wide range of domains including time, space, physical and social, giving rise to the multifaceted Self that we all are. Accumulating evidence also suggests, that these simulation processes are used in a multitude of cognitions that constitute the self, including autobiographical memory and prospection, perspective taking, understanding other's actions and mental states and embodied self-representation.

  5. Representations of Sound in American Deaf Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Russell S.

    2007-01-01

    Sound plays a prominent role in narrative description of characters and environs in mainstream American literature. A review of American Deaf literature shows that the representations of sound held for deaf writers are in extensional and oppositional terms. American deaf writers, in their descriptions of entities, characters, functions, and…

  6. 16 CFR 322.3 - Prohibited representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MORTGAGE ASSISTANCE RELIEF SERVICES § 322.3 Prohibited representations. It is a violation of this rule for any mortgage assistance relief service provider to engage in the following conduct: (a) Representing, expressly or by implication, in connection with the advertising, marketing, promotion, offering for sale...

  7. 16 CFR 322.3 - Prohibited representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MORTGAGE ASSISTANCE RELIEF SERVICES § 322.3 Prohibited representations. It is a violation of this rule for any mortgage assistance relief service provider to engage in the following conduct: (a) Representing, expressly or by implication, in connection with the advertising, marketing, promotion, offering for sale...

  8. Identification and Representation of Leadership Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsythe, George B.; And Others

    The first step in a long-term research effort to investigate the relationship between knowledge and its use in the practice of leadership is described in this paper. Detailed interviews with a random sample of 37 senior West Point cadets to were conducted investigate the identification and causal representation of human performance problem…

  9. Gender Representation in Geography: Singapore. Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeoh, Brenda S. A.; Huang, Shirlena; Wong, Theresa

    2004-01-01

    In Singapore, geography emerged as a strongly masculinist university discipline during the interwar years under colonial rule. Localizing staff hires in the postcolonial era did not immediately produce gender-balanced staff profiles. Instead, a more equitable gender representation was achieved only in the last decade, following the increasing…

  10. Language Influence on Children's Cognitive Number Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsawaie, Othman N.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effect of language on children's cognitive representation of number. The sample for the study consisted of 90 Arabic speaking children with a mean age of 80 months. Children were interviewed individually and asked to represent written two-digit numbers using base-10 blocks. A new approach for testing the linguistic…

  11. Media and the Representation of Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fursich, Elfriede

    2010-01-01

    This article criticises the role the mass media has played in constructing an idea of the Other, that is, people outside the national mainstream or other nationalities. It explains how the media promote or hinder a positive outlook on cultural diversity. Based on a review of the scholarly debate on media representations of Others, it identifies…

  12. The representation and computation of generalized inverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Xingping; Chen, Guoliang; Gong, Yi

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a novel representation for the generalized inverse . Based on this, we give an algorithm to compute this generalized inverse. As an application, we use Gauss-Jordan elimination to compute the weighted Moore-Penrose inverse and the Drazin inverse Ad.

  13. Maxdenominator Reweighted Sparse Representation for Tumor Classification

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weibiao; Liao, Bo; Zhu, Wen; Chen, Min; Peng, Li; Wei, Xiaohui; Gu, Changlong; Li, Keqin

    2017-01-01

    The classification of tumors is crucial for the proper treatment of cancer. Sparse representation-based classifier (SRC) exhibits good classification performance and has been successfully used to classify tumors using gene expression profile data. In this study, we propose a three-step maxdenominator reweighted sparse representation classification (MRSRC) method to classify tumors. First, we extract a set of metagenes from the training samples. These metagenes can capture the structures inherent to the data and are more effective for classification than the original gene expression data. Second, we use a reweighted regularization method to obtain the sparse representation coefficients. Reweighted regularization can enhance sparsity and obtain better sparse representation coefficients. Third, we classify the data by utilizing a maxdenominator residual error function. Maxdenominator strategy can reduce the residual error and improve the accuracy of the final classification. Extensive experiments using publicly available gene expression profile data sets show that the performance of MRSRC is comparable with or better than many existing representative methods. PMID:28393883

  14. Mind games: the mental representation of conflict.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Nir; Chou, Eileen Y; Murnighan, J Keith

    2012-01-01

    Perception and misperception play a pivotal role in conflict and negotiation. We introduce a framework that explains how people think about their outcome interdependence in conflict and negotiation and how their views shape their behavior. Seven studies show that people's mental representations of conflict are predictably constrained to a small set of possibilities with important behavioral and social consequences. Studies 1 and 2 found that, when prompted to represent a conflict in matrix form, more than 70% of the people created 1 of 4 archetypal mixed-motive games (out of 576 possibilities): Maximizing Difference, Assurance, Chicken, and Prisoner's Dilemma. Study 3 demonstrated that these mental representations relate in predictable ways to negotiators' fixed-pie perceptions. Studies 4-6 showed that these mental representations shape individuals' behavior and interactions with others, including cooperation, perspective taking, and use of deception in negotiation, and through them, conflict's outcomes. Study 7 found that the games that people think they are playing influence how their counterparts see them, as well as their counterparts' negotiation expectations. Overall, the findings document noteworthy regularities in people's mental representations of outcome interdependence in conflict and illustrate that 4 archetypal games can encapsulate fundamental psychological processes that emerge repeatedly in conflict and negotiation.

  15. Electromagnetic Concepts in Mathematical Representation of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albe, Virginie; Venturini, Patrice; Lascours, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the use of mathematics when studying the physics of electromagnetism. Focuses on common electromagnetic concepts and their associated mathematical representation and arithmetical tools. Concludes that most students do not understand the significant aspects of physical situations and have difficulty using relationships and models specific…

  16. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  17. 15 CFR 90.18 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Representation. 90.18 Section 90.18 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.18...

  18. 15 CFR 90.18 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Representation. 90.18 Section 90.18 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.18...

  19. 15 CFR 90.18 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Representation. 90.18 Section 90.18 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.18...

  20. 15 CFR 90.18 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representation. 90.18 Section 90.18 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.18...