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Sample records for kicker magnet system

  1. SNS Extraction Fast Kicker System Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    SNS EXTRACTION FAST KICKER SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT * W. Zhang ξ, J. Sandberg, R. Lambiase, Y.Y. Lee, R. Lockey, J. Mi, T. Nehring, C. Pai, N. Tsoupas...Oak Ridge, TN 37831 * SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for...the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and

  2. The Abort Kicker System for the PEP-II Storage Rings at SLAC.

    SciTech Connect

    Delamare, Jeffrey E

    2003-06-20

    The PEP-II project has two storage rings. The HER (High Energy Ring) has up to 1.48 A of election beam at 9 GeV, and the LER (Low Energy Ring) has up to 2.14 A of positron beam at 3.1 GeV. To protect the HER and LER beam lines in the event of a ring component failure, each ring has an abort kicker system which directs the beam into a dump when a failure is detected. Due to the high current of the beams, the beam kick is tapered from 100% to 80% in 7.33 {micro}S (the beam transit time aroundmore » the ring). This taper distributes the energy evenly across the window which separates the ring from the beam dump such that the window is not damaged. The abort kicker trigger is synchronized with the ion clearing gap of the beam allowing for the kicker field to rise from 0-80% while there is no beam in the kicker magnet. Originally the kicker system was designed for a rise time of 370nS [1], but because the ion clearing gap was reduced in half, so was the rise time requirement for the kicker. This report discusses the design of the system interlocks, diagnostics, and modulator with the modifications necessary to accommodate an ion clearing gap of 185nS.« less

  3. Design of barrier bucket kicker control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Fa-Fu; Wang, Yan-Yu; Yin, Jun; Zhou, De-Tai; Shen, Guo-Dong; Zheng, Yang-De.; Zhang, Jian-Chuan; Yin, Jia; Bai, Xiao; Ma, Xiao-Li

    2018-05-01

    The Heavy-Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) contains two synchrotrons: the main cooler storage ring (CSRm) and the experimental cooler storage ring (CSRe). Beams are extracted from CSRm, and injected into CSRe. To apply the Barrier Bucket (BB) method on the CSRe beam accumulation, a new BB technology based kicker control system was designed and implemented. The controller of the system is implemented using an Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Machine (ARM) chip and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) chip. Within the architecture, ARM is responsible for data presetting and floating number arithmetic processing. The FPGA computes the RF phase point of the two rings and offers more accurate control of the time delay. An online preliminary experiment on HIRFL was also designed to verify the functionalities of the control system. The result shows that the reference trigger point of two different sinusoidal RF signals for an arbitrary phase point was acquired with a matched phase error below 1° (approximately 2.1 ns), and the step delay time better than 2 ns were realized.

  4. Control System for the LLNL Kicker Pulse Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J A; Anaya, R M; Cook, E G

    2002-06-18

    A solid-state high voltage pulse generator with multi-pulse burst capability, very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility, and amplitude modulation capability for use with high speed electron beam kickers has been designed and tested at LLNL. A control system calculates a desired waveform to be applied to the kicker based on measured electron beam displacement then adjusts the pulse generators to provide the desired waveform. This paper presents the design of the control system and measure performance data from operation on the ETA-11 accelerator at LLNL.

  5. In situ baking method for degassing of a kicker magnet in accelerator beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiya, Junichiro, E-mail: kamiya.junichiro@jaea.go.jp; Ogiwara, Norio; Yanagibashi, Toru

    In this study, the authors propose a new in situ degassing method by which only kicker magnets in the accelerator beam line are baked out without raising the temperature of the vacuum chamber to prevent unwanted thermal expansion of the chamber. By simply installing the heater and thermal radiation shield plates between the kicker magnet and the chamber wall, most of the heat flux from the heater directs toward the kicker magnet. The result of the verification test showed that each part of the kicker magnet was heated to above the target temperature with a small rise in the vacuummore » chamber temperature. A graphite heater was selected in this application to bake-out the kicker magnet in the beam line to ensure reliability and easy maintainability of the heater. The vacuum characteristics of graphite were suitable for heater operation in the beam line. A preliminary heat-up test conducted in the accelerator beam line also showed that each part of the kicker magnet was successfully heated and that thermal expansion of the chamber was negligibly small.« less

  6. ADVANCEMENT OF THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.AHRENS,L.MI,J.OERTER,B.SANDBERG,J.WARBURTON,D.

    2003-05-12

    As one of the most critical system for RHIC operation, the beam abort kicker system has to be highly available, reliable, and stable for the entire operating range. Along with the RHIC commission and operation, consistent efforts have been spend to cope with immediate issues as well as inherited design issues. Major design changes have been implemented to achieve the higher operating voltage, longer high voltage hold-off time, fast retriggering and redundant triggering, and improved system protection, etc. Recent system test has demonstrated for the first time that both blue ring and yellow ring beam abort systems have achieved moremore » than 24 hours hold off time at desired operating voltage. In this paper, we report break down, thyratron reverse arcing, and to build a fast re-trigger system to reduce beam spreading in event of premature discharge.« less

  7. Beam-based compensation of extracted-beam displacement caused by field ringing of pulsed kicker magnets in the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Hiroyuki; Saha, Pranab Kumar; Tamura, Fumihiko; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Hotchi, Hideaki; Hayashi, Naoki; Kinsho, Michikazu; Hasegawa, Kazuo

    2017-09-01

    Commissioned in October 2007, the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex was designed for a high-intensity output beam power of 1 MW. The RCS extracts 3 GeV proton beams of two bunches by using eight pulsed kicker magnets and three DC septum magnets with 25 Hz repetition. These beams are delivered to a materials and life science experimental facility (MLF) and a 50 GeV main ring synchrotron (MR). However, the flat-top fields of the kicker magnets experience ringing that displaces the position of the extracted beam. This displacement is a major issue from the viewpoint of target integrity at the MLF and emittance growth at MR injection. To understand the flat-top uniformity of the total field of all the kickers, the uniformity was measured as the displacement of the extracted beams by using a shorter bunched beam and scanning the entire trigger timing of the kickers. The beam displacement of the first bunch exceeded the required range. Therefore, we performed beam-based measurements kicker by kicker to understand each field-ringing effect, and then we understood the characteristics (strength and temporal structure) of each ringing field. We managed to cancel out the ringing by using all the beam-based measurement data and optimizing each trigger timing. As a result, the field-ringing effect of the kickers was successfully compensated by optimizing the trigger timing of each kicker without hardware upgrades or improvements to the kicker system. By developing an automatic monitoring and correction system, we now have a higher stability of extracted beams during routine user operation. In this paper, we report our procedure for ringing compensation and present supporting experimental results.

  8. RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM COMMISSIONING EXPERIENCE AND REMAINING ISSUES.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; AHRENS,L.A.; MI,J.

    2001-06-18

    The RHIC Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply Systems commissioning experience and the remaining issues will be reported in this paper. The RHIC Blue Ring Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply System initial commissioning took place in June 1999. Its identical system in Yellow Ring was brought on line during Spring 2000. Each of the RHIC Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply Systems consists of five high voltage modulators and subsystems. These systems are critical devices for RHIC machine protection and environmental protection. They are required to be effective, reliable and operating with sufficient redundancy to safely abort the beam to its beammore » dump at the end of accumulation or at any time when they are commanded. To deflect 66 GeV ion beam to the beam absorbers, the RHIC Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply Systems were operated at 22 kV level. The RHIC 2000 commissioning run was very successful.« less

  9. New Fast Kicker Results from the Muon g-2 E-989 Experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Schreckenberger, A. P.; Chapelain, A.; Mikhailichenko, A. A.

    We describe the installation, commissioning, and char-acterization of the injection kicker system for the E-989 experiment at Fermilab for a precision measurement of the muon anomalous magnetic moment. Control and monitoring systems have been implemented to acquire and record the waveforms of each kicker pulse, and measurements of various kicker system observables were recorded in the presence of the 1.45 T g-2 storage ring magnetic field. These monitoring systems are necessary to understand the systematic contribution to the measure-ment of the precession frequency. We examine the dependence of muon capture to kicker field predictions.

  10. Impedance measurements of the extraction kicker system for the rapid cycling synchrotron of China Spallation Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liang-Sheng; Wang, Sheng; Liu, Yu-Dong; Li, Yong; Liu, Ren-Hong; Xiao, Ou-Zheng

    2016-04-01

    The fast extraction kicker system is one of the most important accelerator components and the main source of impedance in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron of the China Spallation Neutron Source. It is necessary to understand the kicker impedance before its installation into the tunnel. Conventional and improved wire methods are employed in the impedance measurement. The experimental results for the kicker impedance are explained by comparison with simulation using CST PARTICLE STUDIO. The simulation and measurement results confirm that the window-frame ferrite geometry and the end plate are the important structures causing coupling impedance. It is proved in the measurements that the mismatching from the power form network to the kicker leads to a serious oscillation sideband of the longitudinal and vertical impedance and the oscillation can be reduced by ferrite absorbing material. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175193, 11275221)

  11. RHIC ABORT KICKER WITH REDUCED COUPLING IMPEDANCE.

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.; DAVINO,D.

    2002-06-02

    Kicker magnets typically represent the most important contributors to the transverse impedance budget of accelerators and storage rings. Methods of reducing the impedance value of the SNS extraction kicker presently under construction and, in view of a future performance upgrade, that of the RHIC abort kicker have been thoroughly studied at this laboratory. In this paper, the investigation of a potential improvement from using ferrite different from the BNL standard CMD5005 is reported. Permeability measurements of several ferrite types have been performed. Measurements on two kicker magnets using CMD5005 and C2050 suggest that the impedance of a magnet without externalmore » resistive damping, such as the RHIC abort kicker, would benefit.« less

  12. Design and test of the RHIC CMD10 abort kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Drees, A.

    2015-05-03

    In recent RHIC operational runs, planned and unplanned pre-fire triggered beam aborts have been observed that resulted in quenches of SC main ring magnets, indicating a weakened magnet kick strength due to beam-induced ferrite heating. An improvement program was initiated to reduce the longitudinal coupling impedance with changes to the ferrite material and the eddy-current strip geometry. Results of the impedance measurements and of magnet heating tests with CMD10 ferrite up to 190°C are reported. All 10 abort kickers in the tunnel have been modified and were provided with a cooling system for the RUN 15.

  13. Longitudinal and transverse feedback kickers for the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett, J.N.; Johnson, J.; Lambertson, G.

    We describe the development of electromagnetic kickers for coupled-bunch feedback systems at the ALS. Transverse kickers are of a stripline design with one kicker per plane, operating in the baseband, 10 kHz to 250 MHz. Longitudinal lockers are of a coaxial design with electrodes paired in series operating over the band 1.00 to 1.25 GHz. Operating-band measurements and parasitic impedance measurements are presented. Power levels from beam induced signals are presented. Fabrication techniques are discussed.

  14. Measurement and simulation of the RHIC abort kicker longitudinal impedence

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu,N.P.; Hahn,H.; Choi, E.

    2009-09-01

    In face of the new upgrades for RHIC the longitudinal impedance of the machine plays an important role in setting the threshold for instabilities and the efficacy of some systems. In this paper we describe the measurement of the longitudinal impedance of the abort kicker for RHIC as well as computer simulations of the structure. The impedance measurement was done by the S{sub 21} wire method covering the frequency range from 9 kHz to 2.5 GHz. We observed a sharp resonance peak around 10 MHz and a broader peak around 20 MHz in both, the real and imaginary part, ofmore » the Z/n. These two peaks account for a maximum imaginary longitudinal impedance of j15 {Omega}, a value an order of magnitude larger than the estimated value of j0.2 {Omega}, which indicates that the kicker is one of the main sources of longitudinal impedance in the machine. A computer model was constructed for simulations in the CST MWS program. Results for the magnet input and the also the beam impedance are compared to the measurements. A more detail study of the system properties and possible changes to reduce the coupling impedance are presented.« less

  15. Design of an Inductive Adder for the FCC injection kicker pulse generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woog, D.; Barnes, M. J.; Ducimetière, L.; Holma, J.; Kramer, T.

    2017-07-01

    The injection system for a 100 TeV centre-of-mass collider is an important part of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study. Due to issues with conventional kicker systems, such as self-triggering and long term availability of thyratrons and limitations of HV-cables, innovative design changes are planned for the FCC injection kicker pulse generator. An inductive adder (IA) based on semiconductor (SC) switches is a promising technology for kicker systems. Its modular design, and the possibility of an active ripple suppression are significant advantages. Since the IA is a complex device, with multiple components whose characteristics are important, a detailed design study and construction of a prototype is necessary. This paper summarizes the system requirements and constraints, and describes the main components and design challenges of the prototype IA. It outlines the results from simulations and measurements on different magnetic core materials as well as on SC switches. The paper concludes on the design choices and progress for the prototype to be built at CERN.

  16. AN ENGINEERING SOLUTION TO THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER UPGRADE.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.ROSER,T.SANDBERG,J.TAN,Y.ET AL.

    2004-05-23

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is the world largest superconducting accelerator for nuclear energy research. Particle beams traveling in opposite directions in two accelerator rings, Blue and Yellow, collide at six interaction regions to create phenomena of the early universe. There are more than 1700 superconducting magnets and very sophisticate and delicate large detectors inside the RHIC tunnel. With high beam intensity and ultra high beam energy, an inadvertent loss of beam can result severe damage to the superconducting magnets and detectors. Beam abort kickers are used to remove beam safely from the ring. Themore » large inductive load, high current capability, short beam gap, and high reliability are the challenging issues of this system design. With high intensity and high momentum beam operation, it is desirable to have all high voltage modulators located outside of RHIC tunnel. However, to generate 22 kA output current per modulator with fast rise time, a conventional low impedance PFN and matched transmission cable design can push the operation voltage easily into 100 kV range. The large quantity of high voltage pulse transmission cables required by conventional design is another difficult issue. Therefore, the existing system has all ten high voltage modulators located inside RHIC tunnel. More than a hundred plastic packaged mineral oil filled high voltage capacitors raise serious concerns of fire and smoking threats. Other issues, such as kicker misfire, device availability in the future, and inaccessibility during operation, also demand an engineering solution for the future upgrade. In this paper, we investigate an unconventional approach to meet the technical challenges of RHIC beam abort system. The proposed design has all modulators outside of the RHIC tunnel. It will transmit output pulse through high voltage cables. The modulators will utilize solid-state switches, and operate at a maximum voltage

  17. Automated System Calibration and Verification of the Position Measurements for the Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility and the Switchyard Kicker Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, D.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Martinez, D.; Shurter, R. B.

    2004-11-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory has constructed both an Isotope Production Facility (IPF) and a Switchyard Kicker (XDK) as additions to the H+ and H- accelerator. These additions contain eleven Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) that measure the beam's position throughout the transport. The analog electronics within each processing module determines the beam position using the log-ratio technique. For system reliability, calibrations compensate for various temperature drifts and other imperfections in the processing electronics components. Additionally, verifications are periodically implemented by a PC running a National Instruments LabVIEW virtual instrument (VI) to verify continued system and cable integrity. The VI communicates with the processor cards via a PCI/MXI-3 VXI-crate communication module. Previously, accelerator operators performed BPM system calibrations typically once per day while beam was explicitly turned off. One of this new measurement system's unique achievements is its automated calibration and verification capability. Taking advantage of the pulsed nature of the LANSCE-facility beams, the integrated electronics hardware and VI perform calibration and verification operations between beam pulses without interrupting production beam delivery. The design, construction, and performance results of the automated calibration and verification portion of this position measurement system will be the topic of this paper.

  18. Determination of Kicker Vacuum Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, Martin E.

    This note examines the effect of elevated vacuum pressures in the kicker region of the DARHT 2nd Axis which can lead to changes in the beam tune due to the long pulse length. The kicker uses Rexolite as an insulator supporting the electrodes. Rexolite is hygroscopic resulting is a large outgassing rate and prolonged pump down times after exposure to atmospheric conditions. LAMDA [1] is used to simulate the effect of ionization of the residual gas resulting in partial space charge neutralization and changes to the tune between the beginning and end of the pulse. The effect of the ion-hosemore » instability is also examined. The purpose of this note is to establish/validate the required pressure in the downstream transport.« less

  19. RHIC Abort Kicker Prefire Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.; Perlstein, S.

    2014-07-07

    In an attempt to discover any pattern to prefire events, abort prefire kicker data from 2007 to the present day have been recorded. With the 2014 operations concluding, this comprises 8 years of prefire data. Any activities that the Pulsed Power Group did to decrease prefire occurrences were recorded as well, but some information may be missing. The following information is a compilation of the research to date.

  20. Comparison of the Window-Frame RHIC-abort kicker with C-type Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N.; Hahn, H.; Meng, W.

    2014-08-26

    The high intensity proton bunches (~2.5x10 11 p/bunch ) circulating in RHIC increase the temperature of the ferrite-made RHIC-abort-kickers above the Curie point; as a result, the kickers cannot provide the required field to abort the beam at the beam dump. A team of experts in the CAD department worked on modifying the design of the window-frame RHIC-abort kicker to minimize the hysteresis losses responsible for the increase of the ferrite’s temperature. In this technical note we report some results from the study of two possible modifications of the window-frame RHIC-abort kicker, and we compare these results with those ofmore » a propose C-type RHIC-abort kicker. We also include an Appendix where we describe a method which may further reduce the hysteresis losses of the window-frame kicker.« less

  1. Kicker field simulation and measurement for the muon g-2 experiment at FNAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Seung Pyo; Kim, Young Im; Choi, Jihoon; Semertzidis, Yannis; muon g-2 experiment Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In the Muon g-2 experiment, muon beam is injected to the storage ring in a slightly tilted orbit whose center is 77 mm away from the center of the ring. The kicker is needed to send the muon beam to the central orbit. The magnetic kicker is designed for the experiment and about 0.1 Tm field integral is needed. The peak current pulse is 4200 A to make this field integral. This strong kicker pulse could make unwanted eddy current occur. This eddy current could spoil the main magnetic field of the storage ring. This could be a critical threat to the precision of experiment. The kicker field simulation has done using OPERA to estimate the effects. Also the kicker field should be measured based on Faraday effect. The measurement has tested in the lab before install the experiment area. In this presentation, the simulation and measurement results will be discussed. This work was supported by IBS-R017-D1-2016-a00.

  2. Analysis of beam loss induced abort kicker instability

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang W.; Sandberg, J.; Ahrens, L.

    2012-05-20

    Through more than a decade of operation, we have noticed the phenomena of beam loss induced kicker instability in the RHIC beam abort systems. In this study, we analyze the short term beam loss before abort kicker pre-fire events and operation conditions before capacitor failures. Beam loss has caused capacitor failures and elevated radiation level concentrated at failed end of capacitor has been observed. We are interested in beam loss induced radiation and heat dissipation in large oil filled capacitors and beam triggered thyratron conduction. We hope the analysis result would lead to better protection of the abort systems andmore » improved stability of the RHIC operation.« less

  3. Some Calculations for the RHIC Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Claus, J.

    1996-12-01

    The bunches that arrive from the AGS are put on to RHIC's median plane by a string of four injection kickers in each ring. There are four short kickers rather than one long one in order to keep the kicker filling time acceptable, filling time being defined as the amount of time needed for increasing the deflecting field in the kicker from zero to its nominal value. During the filling time process the energy stored in the deflecting field is moved from outside the kicker to its aperture; since energy can only be displaced with finite velocity the filling timemore » is non-zero for kickers of non-zero length, and tends to increase with increasing length. It is one of the more important parameters of the kicker because it sets a lower limit to the time interval between the last of the already circulating bunches and the newly injected one, and thus an upper limit to the total number of bunches that can be injected. RF gymnastics can be used to pack the bunches tighter than is indicated by this limit, but such gymnastics required radial aperture beyond what would be required otherwise, as well as time, and probably special hardware. Minimization of the kicker's stored energy requires minimization of its aperture, it presents therefore a major aperture restriction. Unless it is placed at a point where the dispersion is negligible its aperture would have to be increased in order to provide the radial space needed for the gymnastics. Both the amount of extra space needed and the rate of longitudinal displacement increase with the maximum deviation in energy of the bunch to be displaced from the nominal value, thus taking more time for the exercise reduces the aperture requirements. This time is measured in terms of synchrotron periods and is not small. It adds directly to the filling time of each ring and decreases therefore the time-average luminosity. Evidently the maximation of the time-average luminosity is a complex issue in which the kicker filling time is a major

  4. The design improvement of horizontal stripline kicker in TPS storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, P. J.; Chan, C. K.; Chang, C. C.; Hsu, K. T.; Hu, K. H.; Kuan, C. K.; Sheng, I. C.

    2017-07-01

    We plan to replace the existing horizontal stripline kicker of the transverse feedback system with an improved design. Large reflected power was observed at the downstream port of stripline kicker driven by the feedback amplifier. A rapid surge of vacuum pressure was observed when we tested the high current operation in TPS storage ring in April 2016. A burned feedthrough of the horizontal stripline kicker was discovered during a maintenance shutdown. The improved design is targeted to reduce the reflection of driving power from feedback system and to reduce beam induced RF heating. This major modification of the design is described. The results of RF simulation performed with the electromagnetic code GdfidL are reported as well.

  5. GAS DISCHARGE SWITCH EVALUATION FOR RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER APPLICATION.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; SHELDRAKE,R.

    2002-06-30

    A gas discharge switch EEV HX3002 is being evaluated at Brookhaven National Laboratory as a possible candidate of RHIC Beam Abort Kicker modulator main switch. At higher beam energy and higher beam intensity, the switch stability becomes very crucial. The hollow anode thyratron used in the existing system is not rated for long reverse current conduction. The reverse voltage arcing caused thyratron hold-off voltage de-rating has been the main limitation of the system operation. To improve the system reliability, a new type of gas discharge switch has been suggested by Marconi Applied Technology for its reverse conducting capability.

  6. BEAM DYNAMICS ANALYSIS FOR THE ULTRA-FAST KICKER IN CIRCULAR COOLER RING OF JLEIC

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.

    An ultra-fast kicker system consisting of four quarter wavelength resonator based deflecting cavities was developed that simultaneously resonates at 10 subharmonic modes of the 476.3MHz bunch repetition frequency. Thus every 10th bunch in the bunch train will experience a transverse kick while all the other bunches are undisturbed. This fast kicker is being developed for the Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) based electron Circular Cooler Ring (CCR) in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, previously MEIC). The electron bunches can be reused 10-30 turns thus the beam current in the ERL can be reduced to 1/10 - 1/30 (150mAmore » - 50mA) of the cooling bunch current (1.5A). In this paper, several methods to synthesize such a kicker waveform and the comparison made by the beam dynamics tracking in Elegant will be discussed.« less

  7. Large gap magnetic suspension system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelsalam, Moustafa K.; Eyssa, Y. M.

    1991-01-01

    The design of a large gap magnetic suspension system is discussed. Some of the topics covered include: the system configuration, permanent magnet material, levitation magnet system, superconducting magnets, resistive magnets, superconducting levitation coils, resistive levitation coils, levitation magnet system, and the nitrogen cooled magnet system.

  8. Investigation of an Ultrafast Harmonic Resonant RF Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yulu

    An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) based multi-turn electron Circulator Cooler Ring (CCR) is envisaged in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC) to cool the ion bunches with high energy (55 MeV), high current (1.5 A), high repetition frequency (476.3 MHz), high quality magnetized electron bunches. A critical component in this scheme is a pair of ultrafast kickers for the exchange of electron bunches between the ERL and the CCR. The ultrafast kicker should operate with the rise and fall time in less than 2.1 ns, at the repetition rate of ~10s MHz, and should be able to runmore » continuously during the whole period of cooling. These -and-fall time being combined together, are well beyond the state-of-art of traditional pulsed power supplies and magnet kickers. To solve this technical challenge, an alternative method is to generate this high repetition rate, fast rise-and-fall time short pulse continuous waveform by summing several finite number of (co)sine waves at harmonic frequencies of the kicking repetition frequency, and these harmonic modes can be generated by the Quarter Wave Resonater (QWR) based multifrequency cavities. Assuming the recirculator factor is 10, 10 harmonic modes (from 47.63 MHz to 476.3 MHz) with proper amplitudes and phases, plus a DC offset are combined together, a continuous short pulse waveform with the rise-and-fall time in less than 2.1 ns, repetition rate of 47.63 MHz waveform can be generated. With the compact and matured technology of QWR cavities, the total cost of both hardware development and operation can be reduced to a modest level. Focuse on the technical scheme, three main topics will be discussed in this thesis: the synthetization of the kicking pulse, the design and optimization of the deflecting QWR multi-integer harmonic frequency resonator and the fabrication and bench measurements of a half scale copper prototype. In the kicking pulse synthetization part, we begin with the Fourier Series expansion of an

  9. Passive magnetic bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  10. Equalizer design techniques for dispersive cables with application to the SPS wideband kicker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, Jason; Hofle, Wolfgang; Pollock, Kristin; Fox, John

    2017-10-01

    A wide-band vertical instability feedback control system in development at CERN requires 1-1.5 GHz of bandwidth for the entire processing chain, from the beam pickups through the feedback signal digital processing to the back-end power amplifiers and kicker structures. Dispersive effects in cables, amplifiers, pickup and kicker elements can result in distortions in the time domain signal as it proceeds through the processing system, and deviations from linear phase response reduce the allowable bandwidth for the closed-loop feedback system. We have developed an equalizer analog circuit that compensates for these dispersive effects. Here we present a design technique for the construction of an analog equalizer that incorporates the effect of parasitic circuit elements in the equalizer to increase the fidelity of the implemented equalizer. Finally, we show results from the measurement of an assembled backend equalizer that corrects for dispersive elements in the cables over a bandwidth of 10-1000 MHz.

  11. Magnetic Coordinate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laundal, K. M.; Richmond, A. D.

    2017-03-01

    Geospace phenomena such as the aurora, plasma motion, ionospheric currents and associated magnetic field disturbances are highly organized by Earth's main magnetic field. This is due to the fact that the charged particles that comprise space plasma can move almost freely along magnetic field lines, but not across them. For this reason it is sensible to present such phenomena relative to Earth's magnetic field. A large variety of magnetic coordinate systems exist, designed for different purposes and regions, ranging from the magnetopause to the ionosphere. In this paper we review the most common magnetic coordinate systems and describe how they are defined, where they are used, and how to convert between them. The definitions are presented based on the spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and, in some of the coordinate systems, the position of the Sun which we show how to calculate from the time and date. The most detailed coordinate systems take the full IGRF into account and define magnetic latitude and longitude such that they are constant along field lines. These coordinate systems, which are useful at ionospheric altitudes, are non-orthogonal. We show how to handle vectors and vector calculus in such coordinates, and discuss how systematic errors may appear if this is not done correctly.

  12. RF kicker cavity to increase control in common transport lines

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R.; Ament, Lucas J. P.

    2017-04-18

    A method of controlling e-beam transport where electron bunches with different characteristics travel through the same beam pipe. An RF kicker cavity is added at the beginning of the common transport pipe or at various locations along the common transport path to achieve independent control of different bunch types. RF energy is applied by the kicker cavity kicks some portion of the electron bunches, separating the bunches in phase space to allow independent control via optics, or separating bunches into different beam pipes. The RF kicker cavity is operated at a specific frequency to enable kicking of different types of bunches in different directions. The phase of the cavity is set such that the selected type of bunch passes through the cavity when the RF field is at a node, leaving that type of bunch unaffected. Beam optics may be added downstream of the kicker cavity to cause a further separation in phase space.

  13. First Performance Results of the PIP2IT MEBT 200 Ohm Kicker Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Saewert, G.; Awida, M. H.; Chase, B. E.

    The PIP-II project is a program to upgrade the Fermilab accelerator complex. The PIP-II linac includes a 2.1 MeV Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) section that incorporates a unique chopping system to perform arbitrary, bunch-by-bunch removal of 162.5 MHz structured beam. The MEBT chopping system will consist of two identical kickers working together and a beam absorber. One design of two having been proposed has been a 200 Ohm characteristic impedance traveling wave dual-helix kicker driven with custom designed high-speed switches. This paper reports on the first performance results of one prototype kicker built, installed and tested with beam at the PIP-II Injector Test (PIP2IT) facility. The helix deflector design details are discussed. The electrical performance of the high-speed switch driver operating at 500 V bias is presented. Tests performed were chopping beam at 81.25 MHz for microseconds as well as with a truly arbitrary pattern for 550more » $$\\mu$$s bursts having a 45 MHz average switching rate and repeating at 20 Hz.« less

  14. Ultrafast harmonic rf kicker design and beam dynamics analysis for an energy recovery linac based electron circulator cooler ring

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.; ...

    2016-08-01

    An ultrafast kicker system is being developed for the energy recovery linac (ERL) based electron circulator cooler ring (CCR) in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, previously named MEIC). In the CCR, the injected electron bunches can be recirculated while performing ion cooling for 10–30 turns before the extraction, thus reducing the recirculation beam current in the ERL to 1/10–1/30 (150mA–50 mA) of the cooling beam current (up to 1.5 A). Assuming a bunch repetition rate of 476.3 MHz and a recirculating factor of 10 in the CCR, the kicker is required to operate at a pulse repetitionmore » rate of 47.63 MHz with pulse width of around 2 ns, so that only every 10th bunch in the CCR will experience a transverse kick while the rest of the bunches will not be disturbed. Such a kicker pulse can be synthesized by ten harmonic modes of the 47.63 MHz kicker pulse repetition frequency, using up to four quarter wavelength resonator (QWR) based deflecting cavities. In this paper, several methods to synthesize such a kicker waveform will be discussed and a comparison of their beam dynamics performance is made using ELEGANT. Four QWR cavities are envisaged with high transverse shunt impedance requiring less than 100 W of total rf power for a Flat-Top kick pulse. Multipole fields due to the asymmetry of this type of cavity are analyzed. The transverse emittance growth due to the sextupole component is simulated in ELEGANT. In conclusion, off-axis injection and extraction issues and beam optics using a multicavity kick-drift scheme will also be discussed.« less

  15. Ultrafast harmonic rf kicker design and beam dynamics analysis for an energy recovery linac based electron circulator cooler ring

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.

    An ultrafast kicker system is being developed for the energy recovery linac (ERL) based electron circulator cooler ring (CCR) in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, previously named MEIC). In the CCR, the injected electron bunches can be recirculated while performing ion cooling for 10–30 turns before the extraction, thus reducing the recirculation beam current in the ERL to 1/10–1/30 (150mA–50 mA) of the cooling beam current (up to 1.5 A). Assuming a bunch repetition rate of 476.3 MHz and a recirculating factor of 10 in the CCR, the kicker is required to operate at a pulse repetitionmore » rate of 47.63 MHz with pulse width of around 2 ns, so that only every 10th bunch in the CCR will experience a transverse kick while the rest of the bunches will not be disturbed. Such a kicker pulse can be synthesized by ten harmonic modes of the 47.63 MHz kicker pulse repetition frequency, using up to four quarter wavelength resonator (QWR) based deflecting cavities. In this paper, several methods to synthesize such a kicker waveform will be discussed and a comparison of their beam dynamics performance is made using ELEGANT. Four QWR cavities are envisaged with high transverse shunt impedance requiring less than 100 W of total rf power for a Flat-Top kick pulse. Multipole fields due to the asymmetry of this type of cavity are analyzed. The transverse emittance growth due to the sextupole component is simulated in ELEGANT. In conclusion, off-axis injection and extraction issues and beam optics using a multicavity kick-drift scheme will also be discussed.« less

  16. Active Tensor Magnetic Gradiometer System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Modify Forward Computer Models .............................................................................................2 Modify TMGS Simulator...active magnetic gradient measurement system are based upon the existing tensor magnetic gradiometer system ( TMGS ) developed under project MM-1328...Magnetic Gradiometer System ( TMGS ) for UXO Detection, Imaging, and Discrimination.” The TMGS developed under MM-1328 was successfully tested at the

  17. Magnetic Membrane System

    DOEpatents

    McElfresh, Michael W.; ; Lucas, Matthew S.

    2004-12-30

    The present invention provides a membrane with magnetic particles. In one embodiment the membrane is created by mixing particles in a non-magnetic base. The membrane may act as an actuator, a sensor, a pump, a valve, or other device. A magnet is operatively connected to the membrane. The magnet acts on and changes the shape of the membrane.

  18. MTL distributed magnet measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Nogiec, J.M.; Craker, P.A.; Garbarini, J.P.

    1993-04-01

    The Magnet Test Laboratory (MTL) at the Superconducting Super collider Laboratory will be required to precisely and reliably measure properties of magnets in a production environment. The extensive testing of the superconducting magnets comprises several types of measurements whose main purpose is to evaluate some basic parameters characterizing magnetic, mechanic and cryogenic properties of magnets. The measurement process will produce a significant amount of data which will be subjected to complex analysis. Such massive measurements require a careful design of both the hardware and software of computer systems, having in mind a reliable, maximally automated system. In order to fulfillmore » this requirement a dedicated Distributed Magnet Measurement System (DMMS) is being developed.« less

  19. Simulation and measurement of the electrostatic beam kicker in the low-energy undulator test line.

    SciTech Connect

    Waldschmidt, G. J.

    1998-10-27

    An electrostatic kicker has been constructed for use in the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The function of the kicker is to limit the amount of beam current to be accelerated by the APS linac. Two electrodes within the kicker create an electric field that adjusts the trajectory of the beam. This paper will explore the static fields that are set up between the offset electrode plates and determine the reaction of the beam to this field. The kicker was numerically simulated using the electromagnetic solver package MAFIA [1].

  20. LHC magnet quench protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coull, L.; Hagedorn, D.; Remondino, V.; Rodriguez-Mateos, F.

    1994-07-01

    The quench protection system for the superconducting magnets of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is described. The system is based on the so called 'cold diode' concept. In a group of series connected magnets if one magnet quenches then the magnetic energy of all the magnets will be dissipated in the quenched magnet so destroying it. This is avoided by by-passing the quenched magnet and then rapidly de-exciting the unquenched magnets. For the LHC machine it is foreseen to use silicon diodes situated inside the cryostat as by-pass elements - so called 'cold diodes'. The diodes are exposed to some 50 kGray of radiation during a 10 year operation life-time. The high energy density of the LHC magnets (500 kJ/m) coupled with the relatively slow propagation speed of a 'natural' quench (10 to 20 m/s) can lead to excessive heating of the zone where the quench started and to high internal voltages. It is therefore necessary to detect quickly the incipient quench and fire strip heaters which spread the quench out more quickly over a large volume of the magnet. After a quench the magnet chain must be de-excited rapidly to avoid spreading the quench to other magnets and over-heating the by-pass diode. This is done by switching high-power energy-dump resistors in series with the magnets. The LHC main ring magnet will be divided into 16 electrically separated units which has important advantages.

  1. Tribology of magnetic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhushan, Bharat

    1992-01-01

    The construction and the materials used in different magnetic storage devices are defined. The theories of friction and adhesion, interface temperatures, wear, and solid-liquid lubrication relevant to magnetic storage systems are presented. Experimental data are presented wherever possible to support the relevant theories advanced.

  2. Topology optimized permanent magnet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørk, R.; Bahl, C. R. H.; Insinga, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    Topology optimization of permanent magnet systems consisting of permanent magnets, high permeability iron and air is presented. An implementation of topology optimization for magnetostatics is discussed and three examples are considered. The Halbach cylinder is topology optimized with iron and an increase of 15% in magnetic efficiency is shown. A topology optimized structure to concentrate a homogeneous field is shown to increase the magnitude of the field by 111%. Finally, a permanent magnet with alternating high and low field regions is topology optimized and a Λcool figure of merit of 0.472 is reached, which is an increase of 100% compared to a previous optimized design.

  3. PRELIMINARY TEST RESULTS OF A PROTOTYPE FAST KICKER FOR APS MBA UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, C.-Y.; Morrison, L.; Sun, X.

    The APS multi-bend achromatic (MBA) upgrade storage ring plans to support two bunch fill patterns: a 48-bunch and a 324-bunch. A “swap out” injection scheme is required. In order to provide the required kick to injected beam, to minimize the beam loss and residual oscillation of injected beam, and to minimize the perturbation to stored beam during injection, the rise, fall, and flat-top parts of the kicker pulse must be within a 16.9-ns interval. Stripline-type kickers are chosen for both injection and extraction. We developed a prototype kicker that supports a ±15kV differential pulse voltage. We performed high voltage discharge,more » TDR measurement, high voltage pulse test and beam test of the kicker. We report the final design of the fast kicker and the test results.« less

  4. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    DOEpatents

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2015-09-22

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  5. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    DOEpatents

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2014-04-01

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  6. Magnetic Launch Assist System Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie demonstrates the Magnetic Launch Assist system, previously referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, for space launch using a 5 foot model of a reusable Bantam Class launch vehicle on a 50 foot track that provided 6-g acceleration and 6-g de-acceleration. Overcoming the grip of Earth's gravity is a supreme challenge for engineers who design rockets that leave the planet. Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the takeoff, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  7. Nanoparticles for magnetic biosensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlyandskaya, G. V.; Novoselova, Iu. P.; Schupletsova, V. V.; Andrade, R.; Dunec, N. A.; Litvinova, L. S.; Safronov, A. P.; Yurova, K. A.; Kulesh, N. A.; Dzyuman, A. N.; Khlusov, I. A.

    2017-06-01

    The further development of magnetic biosensors requires a better understanding of the interaction between living systems and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). We describe our experience of fabrication of stable ferrofluids (FF) using electrostatic or steric stabilization of iron oxide MNPs obtained by laser target evaporation. Controlled amounts of FF were used for in vitro experiments with human mesenchymal stem cells. Their morphofunctional responses in the Fe concentration range 2-1000 maximum tolerated dose revealed no cytotoxicity.

  8. A Solid-State Modulator for High Speed Kickers

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J A; Cook, E G; Chen, Y J

    2001-06-11

    An all solid-state modulator with multi-pulse burst capability, very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility, and amplitude modulation capability for use with high-speed beam kickers has been designed and tested at LLNL. The modulator uses multiple solid-state modules stacked in an inductive-adder configuration. It provides a nominal 18kV pulse with {+-} 10% amplitude modulation on the order of several MHz, rise times on the order of 10nS, and can be configured for either positive or negative polarity. The presentation will include measured performance data.

  9. Designing magnetic systems for reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Heitzenroeder, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    Designing magnetic system is an iterative process in which the requirements are set, a design is developed, materials and manufacturing processes are defined, interrelationships with the various elements of the system are established, engineering analyses are performed, and fault modes and effects are studied. Reliability requires that all elements of the design process, from the seemingly most straightforward such as utilities connection design and implementation, to the most sophisticated such as advanced finite element analyses, receives a balanced and appropriate level of attention. D.B. Montgomery's study of magnet failures has shown that the predominance of magnet failures tend not tomore » be in the most intensively engineered areas, but are associated with insulation, leads, ad unanticipated conditions. TFTR, JET, JT-60, and PBX are all major tokamaks which have suffered loss of reliability due to water leaks. Similarly the majority of causes of loss of magnet reliability at PPPL has not been in the sophisticated areas of the design but are due to difficulties associated with coolant connections, bus connections, and external structural connections. Looking towards the future, the major next-devices such as BPX and ITER are most costly and complex than any of their predecessors and are pressing the bounds of operating levels, materials, and fabrication. Emphasis on reliability is a must as the fusion program enters a phase where there are fewer, but very costly devices with the goal of reaching a reactor prototype stage in the next two or three decades. This paper reviews some of the magnet reliability issues which PPPL has faced over the years the lessons learned from them, and magnet design and fabrication practices which have been found to contribute to magnet reliability.« less

  10. Flightweight Electro-Magnet Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Roy G.; Litchford, Ron; Robertson, Tony; Schmidt, Dianne; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA has a need for lightweight high performance magnets to be used in propulsion systems involving plasmas. We report the design, construction, and testing of a six inch diameter by twelve inch long solenoid using high purity aluminum wire operating at a temperature of 77 Kelvin (K) for the current carrying element. High purity aluminum is the material of choice because of three properties that make it optimal for magnetic construction. At 77 K high purity aluminum has one of the lowest resistivities at 77 K of any metal (p = 0.254 muOMEGA-cm), thus reducing the power requirements for creating magnetic fields. Aluminum is a low-density (2.6989 g/cc) material and the end product magnet will be of low total mass compared to similar designs involving copper or other elements. The magneto-resistance of aluminum saturates at low magnetic fields and does not increase indefinitely as is the case in copper. The magnet consists of four layers of closely wound wire and is approximately 150 mm in diameter by 300 mm long. A cylinder made from G - 10 was machined with a spiral groove to hold the high purity Al wire and the wire wound on it. Following the winding, each layer was potted in STYCAST high thermal conductivity epoxy to provide insulation between the turns of the coil and mechanical strength. The magneto-resistance of the coil has been measured at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), Tallahassee, FL in externally applied fields to 10 tesla. Following these tests it was energized to the full 2 tesla field it can produce using the facilities of the NHMFL at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The results of all of these tests will be presented.

  11. Toroidal magnet system

    DOEpatents

    Ohkawa, Tihiro; Baker, Charles C.

    1981-01-01

    In a plasma device having a toroidal plasma containment vessel, a toroidal field-generating coil system includes fixed linking coils each formed of first and second sections with the first section passing through a central opening through the containment vessel and the second section completing the linking coil to link the containment vessel. A plurality of removable unlinked coils are each formed of first and second C-shaped sections joined to each other at their open ends with their bights spaced apart. The second C-shaped section of each movable coil is removably mounted adjacent the second section of a linking coil, with the containment vessel disposed between the open ends of the first and second C-shaped sections. Electric current is passed through the linking and removable coils in opposite sense in the respective adjacent second sections to produce a net toroidal field.

  12. Magnetic Actuation of Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauback, Stephanie D.

    Central to the advancement of many biomedical and nanotechnology capabilities is the capacity to precisely control the motion of micro and nanostructures. These applications range from single molecule experiments to cell isolation and separation, to drug delivery and nanomachine manipulation. This dissertation focuses on actuation of biological micro- and nano-entities through the use of weak external magnetic fields, superparamagnetic beads, and ferromagnetic thin films. The magnetic platform presents an excellent method for actuation of biological systems due to its ability to directly control the motion of an array of micro and nanostructures in real-time with calibrated picoNewton forces. The energy landscape of two ferromagnetic thin film patterns (disks and zigzag wires) is experimentally explored and compared to corresponding theoretical models to quantify the applied forces and trajectories of superparamagnetic beads due to the magnetic traps. A magnetic method to directly actuate DNA nanomachines in real-time with nanometer resolution and sub-second response times using micromagnetic control was implemented through the use of stiff DNA micro-levers which bridged the large length scale mismatch between the micro-actuator and the nanomachine. Compared to current alternative methods which are limited in the actuation speeds and the number of reconfiguration states of DNA constructs, this magnetic approach enables fast actuation (˜ milliseconds) and reconfigurable conformations achieved through a continuous range of finely tuned steps. The system was initially tested through actuation of the stiff arm tethered to the surface, and two prototype DNA nanomachines (rotor and hinge) were successfully actuated using the stiff mechanical lever. These results open new possibilities in the development of functional robotic systems at the molecular scale. In exploiting the use of DNA stiff levers, a new technique was also developed to investigate the emergence of the

  13. MEASURED TRANSVERSE COUPLING IMPEDANCE OF RHIC INJECTION AND ABORT KICKERS.

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.; DAVINO,D.

    2001-06-18

    Concerns regarding possible transverse instabilities in RHIC and the SNS pointed to the need for measurements of the transverse coupling impedance of ring components. The impedance of the RHIC injection and abort kicker was measured using the conventional method based on the S{sub 21} forward transmission coefficient. A commercial 450 {Omega} twin-wire Lecher line were used and the data was interpreted via the log-formula. All measurements, were performed in test stands fully representing operational conditions including pulsed power supplies and connecting cables. The measured values for the transverse coupling impedance in kick direction and perpendicular to it are comparable inmore » magnitude, but differ from Handbook predictions.« less

  14. Impact of the LHC beam abort kicker prefire on high luminosity insertion and CMS detector performance

    SciTech Connect

    A.I. Drozhdin, N.V. Mokhov and M. Huhtinen

    1999-04-13

    The effect of possible accidental beam loss in LHC on the IP5 insertion elements and CMS detector is studied via realistic Monte Carlo simulations. Such beam loss could be the consequence of an unsynchronized abort or in worst case an accidental prefire of one of the abort kicker modules. Simulations with the STRUCT code show that this beam losses would take place in the IP5 inner and outer triplets. MARS simulations of the hadronic and electro-magnetic cascades induced in such an event indicate severe heating of the inner triplet quadrupoles. In order to protect the IP5 elements, two methods aremore » proposed: a set of shadow collimators in the outer triplet and a prefired module compensation using a special module charged with an opposite voltage (antikicker). The remnants of the accidental beam loss entering the experimental hall have been used as input for FLUKA simulations in the CMS detector. It is shown that it is vital to take measures to reliably protect the expensive CMS tracker components.« less

  15. Thermal liquid propulsion system using magnetic nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, V. H.; Virpura, H. A.; Bhatnagar, S. P.

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, we have demonstrated the thermal liquid propulsion system using the idea of magnetocaloric energy generation system. Thermal sensitive magnetic nanofluid is used for this study. In presence of magnetic field and temperature gradient, the magnetic nanofluid loses its magnetization. Hot fluid replaced by the fluid which is at ambient temperature. Temperature profile of liquid propulsion was measured in a horizontal closed loop of glass assembly.

  16. Study of magnetization switching in coupled magnetic nanostructured systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, Cosmin

    A study of magnetization dynamics experiments in nanostructured materials using the rf susceptibility tunnel diode oscillator (TDO) method is presented along with a extensive theoretical analysis. An original, computer controlled experimental setup that measures the change in susceptibility with the variation in external magnetic field and sample temperature was constructed. The TDO-based experiment design and construction is explained in detail, showing all the elements of originality. This experimental technique has proven reliable for characterizing samples with uncoupled magnetic structure and various magnetic anisotropies like: CrO2, FeCo/IrMn and Co/SiO2 thin films. The TDO was subsequently used to explore the magnetization switching in coupled magnetic systems, like synthetic antiferromagnet (SAF) structures. Magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) is an important example of devices where the use of SAF structure is essential. To support the understanding of the SAF magnetic behavior, its configuration and application are reviewed and more details are provided in an appendix. Current problems in increasing the scalability and decreasing the error rate of MRAM devices are closely connected to the switching properties of the SAF structures. Several theoretical studies that were devoted to the understanding of the concepts of SAF critical curve are reviewed. As one can notice, there was no experimental determination of SAF critical curve, due to the difficulties in characterizing a magnetic coupled structure. Depending of the coupling strength between the two ferromagnetic layers, on the SAF critical curve one distinguishes several new features, inexistent in the case of uncoupled systems. Knowing the configuration of the SAF critical curve is of great importance in order to control its switching characteristics. For the first time a method of experimentally recording the critical curve for SAF is proposed in this work. In order to overcome technological

  17. A real time status monitor for transistor bank driver power limit resistor in boost injection kicker power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, J.; Tan, Y.; Zhang, W.

    2011-03-28

    For years suffering of Booster Injection Kicker transistor bank driver regulator troubleshooting, a new real time monitor system has been developed. A simple and floating circuit has been designed and tested. This circuit monitor system can monitor the driver regulator power limit resistor status in real time and warn machine operator if the power limit resistor changes values. This paper will mainly introduce the power supply and the new designed monitoring system. This real time resistor monitor circuit shows a useful method to monitor some critical parts in the booster pulse power supply. After two years accelerator operation, it showsmore » that this monitor works well. Previously, we spent a lot of time in booster machine trouble shooting. We will reinstall all 4 PCB into Euro Card Standard Chassis when the power supply system will be updated.« less

  18. Field Mapping System for Solenoid Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, K. H.; Jung, Y. K.; Kim, D. E.; Lee, H. G.; Park, S. J.; Chung, C. W.; Kang, B. K.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional Hall probe mapping system for measuring the solenoid magnet of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun has been developed. It can map the solenoid field either in Cartesian or in cylindrical coordinate system with a measurement reproducibility better than 5 × 10-5 T. The system has three axis motors: one for the azimuthal direction and the other two for the x and z direction. This architecture makes the measuring system simple in fabrication. The magnetic center was calculated using the measured axial component of magnetic field Bz in Cartesian coordinate system because the accuracy of magnetic axis measurement could be improved significantly by using Bz, instead of the radial component of magnetic field Br. This paper describes the measurement system and summarizes the measurement results for the solenoid magnetic of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun.

  19. Amplitude Control of Solid-State Modulators for Precision Fast Kicker Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J A; Anaya, R M; Caporaso, G C

    2002-11-15

    A solid-state modulator with very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility, and multi-pulse burst and intra-pulse amplitude adjustment capability for use with high speed electron beam kickers has been designed and tested at LLNL. The modulator uses multiple solid-state modules stacked in an inductive-adder configuration. Amplitude adjustment is provided by controlling individual modules in the adder, and is used to compensate for transverse e-beam motion as well as the dynamic response and beam-induced steering effects associated with the kicker structure. A control algorithm calculates a voltage based on measured e-beam displacement and adjusts the modulator to regulate beammore » centroid position. This paper presents design details of amplitude control along with measured performance data from kicker operation on the ETA-II accelerator at LLNL.« less

  20. Cooling system for superconducting magnet

    DOEpatents

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed

    1998-01-01

    A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir.

  1. Cooling system for superconducting magnet

    DOEpatents

    Gamble, B.B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.

    1998-12-15

    A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir. 3 figs.

  2. Magnetic-field-dosimetry system

    DOEpatents

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1981-01-21

    A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.

  3. Reducing the beam impedance of the kicker at the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobuda, Yoshihiro; Chin, Yong Ho; Hayashi, Naoki; Irie, Yoshiro; Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Togashi, Tomohito; Toyama, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Kazami; Yamamoto, Masanobu

    2018-06-01

    The present four-terminal kicker at the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex has the power-saving benefit that it allows beam extraction by doubling the excitation currents with two shorted ends. In this configuration, two terminals of the kicker are connected to the pulse-forming line while the other two are terminated in a short circuit. On the other hand, beam instabilities are excited in the RCS by the kicker beam impedances, which result from the short-circuit termination of the kicker. In this paper, we describe a scheme to reduce the beam impedance of the kicker using diodes (nonlinear devices), while retaining the benefit of the doubled kicker excitation currents. We employ a simulation technique to determine the beam impedance of the kicker, even when such nonlinear devices and long cables are included. The characteristic of beam impedance measured using the accelerated beams is well explained by that obtained from the simulation.

  4. Attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cope, David B.; Fontana, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic suspension systems can be used in a wide variety of applications. The decision of whether to use an attractive or repulsive suspension system for a particular application is a fundamental one which must be made during the design process. As an aid to the designer, we compare and contrast attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems and indicate whether and under what conditions one or the other system is preferred.

  5. Modular transportable superconducting magnetic energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieurance, Dennis; Kimball, Foster; Rix, Craig

    1995-01-01

    Design and cost studies were performed for the magnet components of mid-size (1-5 MWh), cold supported SMES systems using alternative configurations. The configurations studied included solenoid magnets, which required onsite assembly of the magnet system, and toroid and racetrack configurations which consisted of factory assembled modules. For each configuration, design concepts and cost information were developed for the major features of the magnet system including the conductor, electrical insulation, and structure. These studies showed that for mid-size systems, the costs of solenoid and toroid magnet configurations are comparable and that the specific configuration to be used for a given application should be based upon customer requirements such as limiting stray fields or minimizing risks in development or construction.

  6. Modular transportable superconducting magnetic Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lieurance, D.; Kimball, F.; Rix, C.

    1994-12-31

    Design and cost studies were performed for the magnet components of mid-size (1-5 MWh), cold supported SMES systems using alternative configurations. The configurations studied included solenoid magnets, which required onsite assembly of the magnet system, and toroid and racetrack configurations which consisted of factory assembled modules. For each configuration, design concepts and cost information were developed for the major features of the magnet system including the conductor, electrical insulation, and structure. These studies showed that for mid-size systems, the costs of solenoid and toroid magnet configurations are comparable and that the specific configuration to be used for a given applicationmore » should be based upon customer requirements such as limiting stray fields or minimizing risks in development or construction.« less

  7. Modular transportable superconducting magnetic energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieurance, Dennis; Kimball, Foster; Rix, Craig

    1995-04-01

    Design and cost studies were performed for the magnet components of mid-size (1-5 MWh), cold supported SMES systems using alternative configurations. The configurations studied included solenoid magnets, which required onsite assembly of the magnet system, and toroid and racetrack configurations which consisted of factory assembled modules. For each configuration, design concepts and cost information were developed for the major features of the magnet system including the conductor, electrical insulation, and structure. These studies showed that for mid-size systems, the costs of solenoid and toroid magnet configurations are comparable and that the specific configuration to be used for a given application should be based upon customer requirements such as limiting stray fields or minimizing risks in development or construction.

  8. Magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBSs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.; Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of wind tunnel testing are outlined, with attention given to the problems caused by mechanical support systems, such as support interference, dynamic-testing restrictions, and low productivity. The basic principles of magnetic suspension are highlighted, along with the history of magnetic suspension and balance systems. Roll control, size limitations, high angle of attack, reliability, position sensing, and calibration are discussed among the problems and limitations of the existing magnetic suspension and balance systems. Examples of the existing systems are presented, and design studies for future systems are outlined. Problems specific to large-scale magnetic suspension and balance systems, such as high model loads, requirements for high-power electromagnets, high-capacity power supplies, highly sophisticated control systems and position sensors, and high costs are assessed.

  9. Magnetic Responsive Hydrogel Material Delivery System II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-29

    phase. MNPs have found very useful applications in bioseparation, drug delivery system, hyperthermia for cancer therapy, and magnetic resonance...and the poly(N-isoproplyacrylamide) (poly(NIPAAm) shell in aqueous medium. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were coated with first oleic acid (OA) and...potentially important in target delivery of therapeutic agent in vivo, hyperthermic treatment of tumors, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as contrasting

  10. Microfluidic Biosensing Systems Using Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Giouroudi, Ioanna; Keplinger, Franz

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been rapidly growing interest in developing hand held, sensitive and cost-effective on-chip biosensing systems that directly translate the presence of certain bioanalytes (e.g., biomolecules, cells and viruses) into an electronic signal. The impressive and rapid progress in micro- and nanotechnology as well as in biotechnology enables the integration of a variety of analytical functions in a single chip. All necessary sample handling and analysis steps are then performed within the chip. Microfluidic systems for biomedical analysis usually consist of a set of units, which guarantees the manipulation, detection and recognition of bioanalytes in a reliable and flexible manner. Additionally, the use of magnetic fields for performing the aforementioned tasks has been steadily gaining interest. This is because magnetic fields can be well tuned and applied either externally or from a directly integrated solution in the biosensing system. In combination with these applied magnetic fields, magnetic nanoparticles are utilized. Some of the merits of magnetic nanoparticles are the possibility of manipulating them inside microfluidic channels by utilizing high gradient magnetic fields, their detection by integrated magnetic microsensors, and their flexibility due to functionalization by means of surface modification and specific binding. Their multi-functionality is what makes them ideal candidates as the active component in miniaturized on-chip biosensing systems. In this review, focus will be given to the type of biosening systems that use microfluidics in combination with magnetoresistive sensors and detect the presence of bioanalyte tagged with magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:24022689

  11. Magnetic suspension and balance system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Mcintosh, G. E.; Abdelsalam, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    A compact design for a superconducting magnetic suspension and balance system is developed for a 8 ft. x 8 ft. transonic wind tunnel. The main features of the design are: a compact superconducting solenoid in the suspended airplane model; permanent magnet wings; one common liquid helium dewar for all superconducting coils; efficient new race track coils for roll torques; use of established 11 kA cryostable AC conductor; acceptable AC losses during 10 Hz control even with all steel structure; and a 560 liter/hour helium liquefier. Considerable design simplicity, reduced magnet weights, and reduced heat leak results from using one common dewar which eliminates most heavy steel structure between coils and the suspended model. Operational availability is thought to approach 100% for such magnet systems. The weight and cost of the magnet system is approximately one-third that of previous less compact designs.

  12. A descriptive study of step alignment and foot positioning relative to the tee by professional rugby union goal-kickers.

    PubMed

    Cockcroft, John; Van Den Heever, Dawie

    2016-01-01

    This study describes foot positioning during the final two steps of the approach to the ball amongst professional rugby goal-kickers. A 3D optical motion capture system was used to test 15 goal-kickers performing 10 goal-kicks. The distance and direction of each step, as well as individual foot contact positions relative to the tee, were measured. The intra- and inter-subject variability was calculated as well as the correlation (Pearson) between the measurements and participant anthropometrics. Inter-subject variability for the final foot position was lowest (placed 0.03 ± 0.07 m behind and 0.33 ± 0.03 m lateral to the tee) and highest for the penultimate step distance (0.666 ± 0.149 m), performed at an angle of 36.1 ± 8.5° external to the final step. The final step length was 1.523 ± 0.124 m, executed at an external angle of 35.5 ± 7.4° to the target line. The intra-subject variability was very low; distances and angles for the 10 kicks varied per participant by 1.6-3.1 cm and 0.7-1.6°, respectively. The results show that even though the participants had variability in their run-up to the tee, final foot position next to the tee was very similar and consistent. Furthermore, the inter- and intra-subject variability could not be attributed to differences in anthropometry. These findings may be useful as normative reference data for coaching, although further work is required to understand the role of other factors such as approach speed and body alignment.

  13. Multiparameter magnetic inspection system with magnetic field control and plural magnetic transducers

    DOEpatents

    Jiles, D.C.

    1991-04-16

    A multiparameter magnetic inspection system is disclosed for providing an efficient and economical way to derive a plurality of independent measurements regarding magnetic properties of the magnetic material under investigation. The plurality of transducers for a plurality of different types of measurements operatively connected to the specimen. The transducers are in turn connected to analytical circuits for converting transducer signals to meaningful measurement signals of the magnetic properties of the specimen. The measurement signals are processed and can be simultaneously communicated to a control component. The measurement signals can also be selectively plotted against one another. The control component operates the functioning of the analytical circuits and operates and controls components to impose magnetic fields of desired characteristics upon the specimen. The system therefore allows contemporaneous or simultaneous derivation of the plurality of different independent magnetic properties of the material which can then be processed to derive characteristics of the material. 1 figure.

  14. Multiparameter magnetic inspection system with magnetic field control and plural magnetic transducers

    DOEpatents

    Jiles, David C.

    1991-04-16

    A multiparameter magnetic inspection system for providing an efficient and economical way to derive a plurality of independent measurements regarding magnetic properties of the magnetic material under investigation. The plurality of transducers for a plurality of different types of measurements operatively connected to the specimen. The transducers are in turn connected to analytical circuits for converting transducer signals to meaningful measurement signals of the magnetic properties of the specimen. The measurement signals are processed and can be simultaneously communicated to a control component. The measurement signals can also be selectively plotted against one another. The control component operates the functioning of the analytical circuits and operates and controls components to impose magnetic fields of desired characteristics upon the specimen. The system therefore allows contemporaneous or simultaneous derivation of the plurality of different independent magnetic properties of the material which can then be processed to derive characteristics of the material.

  15. Magnetic suspension and balance system advanced study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Mcintosh, G. E.; Abdelsalam, M. K.

    1985-01-01

    An improved compact design for a superconducting magnetic suspension and balance system for an 8 ft. x 8 ft. transonic wind tunnel is developed. The original design of an MSBS in NASA Cr-3802 utilized 14 external superconductive coils and a superconductive solenoid in the airplane test model suspended in a wind tunnel. The improvements are in the following areas: test model solenoid options, dynamic force limits on the model, magnet cooling options, structure and cryogenic designs, power supply specifications, and cost and performance evaluations. The improvements are: MSBS cost reduction of 28%, weight; reduction of 43%, magnet system ampere-meter reduction of 38%, helium liquifier capacity reduction by 33%, magnet system stored energy reduction by 55%, AC loss to liquid helium reduced by 76%, system power supply reduced by 68%, test coil pole strength increased by 19%, wing magnetization increased by 40%, and control frequency limit increased by 200% from 10 Hz to 30 Hz. The improvements are due to: magnetic holmium coil forms in the test model, better rare earth permanent magnets in the wings, fiberglass-epoxy structure replacing stainless steel, better coil configuration, and new saddle roll coil design.

  16. Magnetic suspension and pointing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. W.; Groom, N. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus is reported for accurate pointing of instruments on a carrier vehicle and for isolation of the instruments from the vehicle's motion disturbances. The apparatus includes two assemblies with connecting interfaces. The first assembly is attached to the carrier vehicle and consists of an azimuth gimbal and an elevation gimbal which provide coarse pointing by allowing two rotations of the instruments relative to the carrier vehicle. The second or vernier pointing assembly is made up of magnetic suspension and fine pointing actuators, roll motor segments, and an instrument mounting plase which provides appropriate magnetic circuits for the actuators and the roll motor segments. The vernier pointing assembly provides attitude fine pointing and roll positioning of the instruments as well as six degree-of-freedom isolation from carrier motion disturbances.

  17. Magnetic Launch Assist System-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This illustration is an artist's concept of a Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, for space launch. Overcoming the grip of Earth's gravity is a supreme challenge for engineers who design rockets that leave the planet. Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist System technologies that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, landing gear and the wing size, as well as the elimination of propellant weight resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  18. Multiphase magnetic systems: Measurement and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yue; Ahmadzadeh, Mostafa; Xu, Ke; Dodrill, Brad; McCloy, John S.

    2018-01-01

    Multiphase magnetic systems are common in nature and are increasingly being recognized in technical applications. One characterization method which has shown great promise for determining separate and collective effects of multiphase magnetic systems is first order reversal curves (FORCs). Several examples are given of FORC patterns which provide distinguishing evidence of multiple phases. In parallel, a visualization method for understanding multiphase magnetic interaction is given, which allocates Preisach magnetic elements as an input "Preisach hysteron distribution pattern" to enable simulation of different "wasp-waisted" magnetic behaviors. These simulated systems allow reproduction of different major hysteresis loops and FORC patterns of real systems and parameterized theoretical systems. The experimental FORC measurements and FORC diagrams of four commercially obtained magnetic materials, particularly those sold as nanopowders, show that these materials are often not phase pure. They exhibit complex hysteresis behaviors that are not predictable based on relative phase fraction obtained by characterization methods such as diffraction. These multiphase materials, consisting of various fractions of BaFe12O19, ɛ-Fe2O3, and γ-Fe2O3, are discussed.

  19. Chiral magnetic effect in condensed matter systems

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Qiang; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.

    2016-12-01

    The chiral magnetic effect is the generation of electrical current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum anomaly in relativistic field theory of chiral fermions. In the quark-gluon plasma, the axial anomaly induces topological charge changing transition that results in the generation of electrical current along the magnetic field. In condensed matter systems, the chiral magnetic effect was first predicted in the gapless semiconductors with tow energy bands having pointlike degeneracies. In addition, thirty years later after this prediction, the chiral magnetic effect was finally observed in the 3Dmore » Dirac/Weyl semimetals.« less

  20. Multiple harmonic frequencies resonant cavity design and half-scale prototype measurements for a fast kicker

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Wang, Shaoheng; ...

    2016-12-09

    Quarter wavelength resonator (QWR) based deflecting cavities with the capability of supporting multiple odd-harmonic modes have been developed for an ultrafast periodic kicker system in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, formerly MEIC). Previous work on the kicking pulse synthesis and the transverse beam dynamics tracking simulations show that a flat-top kicking pulse can be generated with minimal emittance growth during injection and circulation of the cooling electron bunches. This flat-top kicking pulse can be obtained when a DC component and 10 harmonic modes with appropriate amplitude and phase are combined together. To support 10 such harmonic modes,more » four QWR cavities are used with 5, 3, 1, and 1 modes, respectively. In the multiple-mode cavities, several slightly tapered segments of the inner conductor are introduced to tune the higher order deflecting modes to be harmonic, and stub tuners are used to fine tune each frequency to compensate for potential errors. In this paper, we summarize the electromagnetic design of the five-mode cavity, including the geometry optimization to get high transverse shunt impedance, the frequency tuning and sensitivity analysis, and the single loop coupler design for coupling to all of the harmonic modes. In particular we report on the design and fabrication of a half-scale copper prototype of this proof-of-principle five-odd-mode cavity, as well as the rf bench measurements. Lastly, we demonstrate mode superposition in this cavity experimentally, which illustrates the kicking pulse generation concept.« less

  1. Wide gap, permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boden, Karl

    1992-01-01

    The unique features and applications of the presented electrical permanent magnetic bearing system essentially result from three facts: (1) the only bearing rotor components are nonlaminated ferromagnetic steel collars or cylinders; (2) all radial and axial forces are transmitted via radial gaps; and (3) large radial bearing gaps can be provided with minimum electric power consumption. The large gaps allow for effective encapsulation and shielding of the rotors at elevated or low temperatures, corrosive or ultra clean atmosphere or vacuum or high pressure environment. Two significant applications are described: (1) a magnetically suspended x ray rotary anode was operated under high vacuum conditions at 100 KV anode potential, 600 C temperature at the rotor collars and speed 18000 rpm with 13 mm radial bearing gap; and (2) an improved Czochralski type crystal growth apparatus using the hot wall method for pulling GaAs single crystals of low dislocation density. Both crystal and crucible are carried and transported by magnetically suspended shafts inside a hermetically sealed housing at 800 C shaft and wall temperature. The radial magnetic bearing gap measures 24 mm.

  2. Dynamically stable magnetic suspension/bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1996-02-27

    A magnetic bearing system contains magnetic subsystems which act together to support a rotating element in a state of dynamic equilibrium. However, owing to the limitations imposed by Earnshaw`s Theorem, the magnetic bearing systems to be described do not possess a stable equilibrium at zero rotational speed. Therefore, mechanical stabilizers are provided, in each case, to hold the suspended system in equilibrium until its speed has exceeded a low critical speed where dynamic effects take over, permitting the achievement of a stable equilibrium for the rotating object. A state of stable equilibrium is achieved above a critical speed by use of a collection of passive elements using permanent magnets to provide their magnetomotive excitation. The magnetic forces exerted by these elements, when taken together, levitate the rotating object in equilibrium against external forces, such as the force of gravity or forces arising from accelerations. At the same time, this equilibrium is made stable against displacements of the rotating object from its equilibrium position by using combinations of elements that possess force derivatives of such magnitudes and signs that they can satisfy the conditions required for a rotating body to be stably supported by a magnetic bearing system over a finite range of those displacements. 32 figs.

  3. Dynamically stable magnetic suspension/bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    1996-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system contains magnetic subsystems which act together to support a rotating element in a state of dynamic equilibrium. However, owing to the limitations imposed by Earnshaw's Theorem, the magnetic bearing systems to be described do not possess a stable equilibrium at zero rotational speed. Therefore, mechanical stabilizers are provided, in each case, to hold the suspended system in equilibrium until its speed has exceeded a low critical speed where dynamic effects take over, permitting the achievement of a stable equilibrium for the rotating object. A state of stable equilibrium is achieved above a critical speed by use of a collection of passive elements using permanent magnets to provide their magnetomotive excitation. The magnetic forces exerted by these elements, when taken together, levitate the rotating object in equilibrium against external forces, such as the force of gravity or forces arising from accelerations. At the same time, this equilibrium is made stable against displacements of the rotating object from its equilibrium position by using combinations of elements that possess force derivatives of such magnitudes and signs that they can satisfy the conditions required for a rotating body to be stably supported by a magnetic bearing system over a finite range of those displacements.

  4. Permanent-magnet-less synchronous reluctance system

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S

    2012-09-11

    A permanent magnet-less synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic revolving field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor is disposed within the magnetic revolving field and spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. The rotor includes a plurality of rotor pole stacks having an inner periphery biased by single polarity of a north-pole field and a south-pole field, respectively. The outer periphery of each of the rotor pole stacks are biased by an alternating polarity.

  5. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    A measurement acquisition method that alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement systems is presented in this paper. The shortcomings are a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with measurements, electrical arcing, wire degradations due to wear or chemical decay and the logistics needed to add new sensors. The key to this method is the use of sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits that produce magnetic field responses. The response attributes correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. A radio frequency antenna produces a time-varying magnetic field used to power the sensor and receive the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation system for discerning changes in the sensor response is presented herein. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The method eliminates the need for a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. Methods of developing magnetic field response sensors and the influence of key parameters on measurement acquisition are discussed.

  6. Naval applications of SC magnet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubser, D. U.

    The US Navy continues to develop advanced systems that utilize superconducting (SC) magnets. Recent impetus toward the “all” electric ship is accelerating the desire to produce “engineering” prototypes that can be field tested to ascertain the overall impact of these new technologies toward meeting Navy mission requirements. SC magnets for motors, energy storage, mine sweeping, and RF amplifiers are all being built and tested. This article provides a brief description of these projects.

  7. Theoretical validation for changing magnetic fields of systems of permanent magnets of drum separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozovaya, S. Y.; Lozovoy, N. M.; Okunev, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    This article is devoted to the theoretical validation of the change in magnetic fields created by the permanent magnet systems of the drum separators. In the article, using the example of a magnetic separator for enrichment of highly magnetic ores, the method of analytical calculation of the magnetic fields of systems of permanent magnets based on the Biot-Savart-Laplace law, the equivalent solenoid method, and the superposition principle of fields is considered.

  8. Towards a Decentralized Magnetic Indoor Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Kasmi, Zakaria; Norrdine, Abdelmoumen; Blankenbach, Jörg

    2015-12-04

    Decentralized magnetic indoor localization is a sophisticated method for processing sampled magnetic data directly on a mobile station (MS), thereby decreasing or even avoiding the need for communication with the base station. In contrast to central-oriented positioning systems, which transmit raw data to a base station, decentralized indoor localization pushes application-level knowledge into the MS. A decentralized position solution has thus a strong feasibility to increase energy efficiency and to prolong the lifetime of the MS. In this article, we present a complete architecture and an implementation for a decentralized positioning system. Furthermore, we introduce a technique for the synchronization of the observed magnetic field on the MS with the artificially-generated magnetic field from the coils. Based on real-time clocks (RTCs) and a preemptive operating system, this method allows a stand-alone control of the coils and a proper assignment of the measured magnetic fields on the MS. A stand-alone control and synchronization of the coils and the MS have an exceptional potential to implement a positioning system without the need for wired or wireless communication and enable a deployment of applications for rescue scenarios, like localization of miners or firefighters.

  9. Towards a Decentralized Magnetic Indoor Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Kasmi, Zakaria; Norrdine, Abdelmoumen; Blankenbach, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Decentralized magnetic indoor localization is a sophisticated method for processing sampled magnetic data directly on a mobile station (MS), thereby decreasing or even avoiding the need for communication with the base station. In contrast to central-oriented positioning systems, which transmit raw data to a base station, decentralized indoor localization pushes application-level knowledge into the MS. A decentralized position solution has thus a strong feasibility to increase energy efficiency and to prolong the lifetime of the MS. In this article, we present a complete architecture and an implementation for a decentralized positioning system. Furthermore, we introduce a technique for the synchronization of the observed magnetic field on the MS with the artificially-generated magnetic field from the coils. Based on real-time clocks (RTCs) and a preemptive operating system, this method allows a stand-alone control of the coils and a proper assignment of the measured magnetic fields on the MS. A stand-alone control and synchronization of the coils and the MS have an exceptional potential to implement a positioning system without the need for wired or wireless communication and enable a deployment of applications for rescue scenarios, like localization of miners or firefighters. PMID:26690145

  10. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic field response sensors designed as passive inductor- capacit or circuits produce magnetic field responses whose harmonic frequenci es correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power to the sensing element is acquired using Faraday induc tion. A radio frequency antenna produces the time varying magnetic fi eld used for powering the sensor, as well as receiving the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation architecture for disce rning changes in sensor's response frequency, resistance and amplitud e is integral to the method thus enabling a variety of measurements. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method, thus eliminat ing the need to have a data acquisition channel dedicated to each se nsor. The method does not require the sensors to be in proximity to a ny form of acquisition hardware. A vast array of sensors can be used as interchangeable parts in an overall sensing system.

  11. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox, Melanie L. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic field response sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits produce magnetic field responses whose harmonic frequencies correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power to the sensing element is acquired using Faraday induction. A radio frequency antenna produces the time varying magnetic field used for powering the sensor, as well as receiving the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation architecture for discerning changes in sensor s response kequency, resistance and amplitude is integral to the method thus enabling a variety of measurements. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method, thus eliminating the need to have a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. The method does not require the sensors to be in proximity to any form of acquisition hardware. A vast array of sensors can be used as interchangeable parts in an overall sensing system.

  12. Design and Testing of a Fast, 50 kV Solid-State Kicker Pulser

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, E G; Hickman, B C; Lee, B S

    2002-06-24

    The ability to extract particle beam bunches from a ring accelerator in arbitrary order can greatly extend an accelerator's capabilities and applications. A prototype solid-state kicker pulser capable of generating asynchronous bursts of 50 kV pulses has been designed and tested into a 50{Omega} load. The pulser features fast rise and fall times and is capable of generating an arbitrary pattern of pulses with a maximum burst frequency exceeding 5 MHz If required, the pulse-width of each pulse in the burst is independently adjustable. This kicker modulator uses multiple solid-state modules stacked in an inductive-adder configuration where the energy ismore » switched into each section of the adder by a parallel array of MOSFETs. Test data, capabilities, and limitations of the prototype pulser are described.« less

  13. Timing Recovery Strategies in Magnetic Recording Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovintavewat, Piya

    At some point in a digital communications receiver, the received analog signal must be sampled. Good performance requires that these samples be taken at the right times. The process of synchronizing the sampler with the received analog waveform is known as timing recovery. Conventional timing recovery techniques perform well only when operating at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Nonetheless, iterative error-control codes allow reliable communication at very low SNR, where conventional techniques fail. This paper provides a detailed review on the timing recovery strategies based on per-survivor processing (PSP) that are capable of working at low SNR. We also investigate their performance in magnetic recording systems because magnetic recording is a primary method of storage for a variety of applications, including desktop, mobile, and server systems. Results indicate that the timing recovery strategies based on PSP perform better than the conventional ones and are thus worth being employed in magnetic recording systems.

  14. Magnetic Thin Films for Perpendicular Magnetic Recording Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Atsushi; Hachisu, Takuma; Osaka, Tetsuya

    In the advanced information society of today, information storage technology, which helps to store a mass of electronic data and offers high-speed random access to the data, is indispensable. Against this background, hard disk drives (HDD), which are magnetic recording devices, have gained in importance because of their advantages in capacity, speed, reliability, and production cost. These days, the uses of HDD extend not only to personal computers and network servers but also to consumer electronics products such as personal video recorders, portable music players, car navigation systems, video games, video cameras, and personal digital assistances.

  15. Magnetic hysteresis in a lanthanide molecular magnet dimer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, James; Cebulka, Rebecca; Del Barco, Enrique; Roubeau, Olivier; Velasco, Veronica; Barrios, Leo; Aromi, Guillem

    Molecular magnets present a wonderful means for studying the dynamics of spin. Often synthesized as a crystal lattice of identical systems, ensemble measurements enable thorough detailing of the internal degrees of freedom. Here we present the results of characterization performed on a dimer system, CeTm(HL)2(H2L)NO3pyH2O (L = ligand, C45H31O15N3), consisting of two lanthanide spins (Cerium and Thulium) with expected local axial anisotropies tilted with respect to each other. Microwave EPR spectroscopy at low temperature reveals hysteresis in observed absorption features, with angle dependence studies indicating the presence of several ``easy axis'' orientations. We attempt to understand this system through modelling via a spin Hamiltonian, and to determine the strength and nature of the coupling between the lanthanide centers. This research was funded through NSF Grant # 24086159.

  16. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor,Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement acquisition method that alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement systems. The shortcomings are a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with measurements, electrical arcing, wire degradations due to wear or chemical decay and the logistics needed to add new sensors. Wire degradation has resulted in aircraft fatalities and critical space launches being delayed. The key to this method is the use of sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits that produce magnetic field responses. The response attributes correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power is wirelessly provided to the sensing element by using Faraday induction. A radio frequency antenna produces a time-varying magnetic field used to power the sensor and receive the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation system for discerning changes in the sensor response frequency, resistance and amplitude has been developed and is presented herein. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The method eliminates the need for a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. The method does not require the sensors to be near the acquisition hardware. Methods of developing magnetic field response sensors and the influence of key parameters on measurement acquisition are discussed. Examples of magnetic field response sensors and the respective measurement characterizations are presented. Implementation of this method on an aerospace system is discussed.

  17. Evaluation of a knee-kicker bumper design for reducing knee morbidity among carpet layers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wan-Fu; Wu, Chih-Fu

    2012-09-01

    Carpet layers have a high prevalence of occupational knee morbidity. One of the main causes is that they need to frequently 'kick' the bumper on the rear end of the knee kicker with one knee when laying a carpet. Considering the bumper's marked effects on kicking force transmission and safety, this study aims to improve the design of the knee-kicker bumper by reducing the risk factors. An improved pendulum-type impact-testing platform was designed as an evaluative apparatus, with the impulse and the coefficient of restitution serving as evaluative criteria. The newly developed bumper has improved firmness from drilled blind holes and an increase in effective forward force of 15%-138%, which implies lower operational demands and a lighter knee burden (i.e., less kicking energy results in the same work efficiency), and a softer contact surface that enhances operating comfort. The newly designed kicker was positively reviewed by subjects. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chitosan magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Assa, Farnaz; Jafarizadeh-Malmiri, Hoda; Ajamein, Hossein; Vaghari, Hamideh; Anarjan, Navideh; Ahmadi, Omid; Berenjian, Aydin

    2017-06-01

    The potential of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in drug delivery systems (DDSs) is mainly related to its magnetic core and surface coating. These coatings can eliminate or minimize their aggregation under physiological conditions. Also, they can provide functional groups for bioconjugation to anticancer drugs and/or targeted ligands. Chitosan, as a derivative of chitin, is an attractive natural biopolymer from renewable resources with the presence of reactive amino and hydroxyl functional groups in its structure. Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs), due to their huge surface to volume ratio as compared to the chitosan in its bulk form, have outstanding physico-chemical, antimicrobial and biological properties. These unique properties make chitosan NPs a promising biopolymer for the application of DDSs. In this review, the current state and challenges for the application magnetic chitosan NPs in drug delivery systems were investigated. The present review also revisits the limitations and commercial impediments to provide insight for future works.

  19. Magnetic Launch Assist System Demonstration Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been testing Magnetic Launch Assist Systems, formerly known as Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at a very high speed. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, the launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This photograph shows a subscale model of an airplane running on the experimental track at MSFC during the demonstration test. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5- feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  20. Improved thermal isolation for superconducting magnet systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiebe, E. R.

    1974-01-01

    Closed-cycle refrigerating system for superconductive magnet and maser is operated in vacuum environment. Each wire leading from external power source passes through cooling station which blocks heat conduction. In connection with these stations, switch with small incandescent light bulb, which generates heat, is used to stop superconduction.

  1. Magnetic particle clutch controls servo system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fow, P. B.

    1973-01-01

    Magnetic clutches provide alternative means of driving low-power rate or positioning servo systems. They may be used over wide variety of input speed ranges and weigh comparatively little. Power drain is good with overall motor/clutch efficiency greater than 50 percent, and gain of clutch is close to linear, following hysteresis curve of core and rotor material.

  2. Actively Controlled Magnetic Vibration-Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinky, Carlos M.; Logsdon, Kirk A.; Wbomski, Joseph F.; Brown, Gerald V.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype magnetic suspension system with active control isolates object from vibrations in all six degrees of freedom at frequencies as low as 0.01 Hz. Designed specifically to protect instruments aboard spacecraft by suppressing vibrations to microgravity levels; basic control approach used for such terrestrial uses as suppression of shocks and other vibrations in trucks and railroad cars.

  3. System characterization of a magnetically suspended flywheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, James A.; Anand, Dave K.; Plant, David P.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of flywheel energy storage is to provide a means to save energy during times when the satellite is in sunlight, and then return the energy during the time when the satellite is in darkness. Typically, an energy storage device operates cyclically, where for satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) the typical period is 60 minutes of sunlight followed by 30 minutes of darkness. If a lifetime of 17 years is required the energy storage system must be capable of sustaining approximately 100,000 cycles. The recent developments at the University of Maryland and how these progressions apply to a 500 Watt-hour magnetically suspended flywheel stack energy storage system are covered. The work includes hardware testing results from a stack flywheel energy storage system, improvements in the area of non-contacting displacement transducers, and performance enhancements of magnetic bearings. The experimental results show that a stack flywheel energy storage system is a feasible technology.

  4. Propulsion and stabilization system for magnetically levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Coffey, Howard T.

    1993-06-29

    A propulsion and stabilization system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and stabilized by a system which includes propulsion windings mounted above and parallel to vehicle-borne suspension magnets. A linear synchronous motor is part of the vehicle guideway and is mounted above and parallel to superconducting magnets attached to the magnetically levitated vehicle.

  5. Accretion Flows in Magnetic White Dwarf Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, James N.

    2005-01-01

    We received Type A and B funding under the NASA Astrophysics Data Program for the analysis and interpretation of hard x-ray data obtained by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and other NASA sponsored missions for Intermediate Polars (IPS) and Polars. For some targets, optical data was available. We reduced and analyzed the X-ray spectra and the X-ray and optical (obtained at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) timing data using detailed shock models (which we constructed) to place constraints on the properties of the accreting white dwarfs, the high energy emission mechanisms of white dwarfs, and the large-scale accretion flows of Polars and IPS. IPS and Polars are white dwarf mass-transfer binaries, members of the larger class of cata,clysmic variables. They differ from the bulk of the cataclysmic variables in that they contain strongly magnetic white dwarfs; the white dwarfs in Polars have B, = 7 to 230 MG and those in IPS have B, less than 10 MG. The IPS and Polars are both examples of funneled accretion flows in strong magnetic field systems. The IPS are similar to x-ray pulsars in that accretion disks form in the systems which are disrupted by the strong stellar magnetic fields of the white dwarfs near the stellar surface from where the plasma is funneled to the surface of the white dwarf. The localized hot spots formed at the footpoints of the funnels coupled with the rotation of the white dwarf leads to coherent pulsed x-ray emission. The Polars offer an example of a different accretion topology; the magnetic field of the white dwarf controls the accretion flow from near the inner Lagrangian point of the system directly to the stellar surface. Accretion disks do not form. The strong magnetic coupling generally leads to synchronous orbital/rotational motion in the Polars. The physical system in this sense resembles the Io/Jupiter system. In both IPS and Polars, pulsed emission from the infrared to x-rays is produced as the funneled flows merge onto the

  6. The superconducting magnet for the Maglev transport system

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Hiroshi

    1994-07-01

    Magnetically levitated vehicles (Maglev) using superconducting magnets have been under development in Japan for the past 23 years. The superconducting magnets for the Maglev system are used in a special environment compared to other applications. They have to work stably subject to both mechanical and electromagnetic disturbances. The brief history of the Maglev development in Japan, the planning of new test line, the superconducting magnet`s stability and the on board refrigeration system will be presented.

  7. Permanent magnet system to guide superparamagnetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baun, Olga; Blümler, Peter

    2017-10-01

    A new concept of using permanent magnet systems for guiding superparamagnetic nano-particles on arbitrary trajectories over a large volume is proposed. The basic idea is to use one magnet system which provides a strong, homogeneous, dipolar magnetic field to magnetize and orient the particles, and a second constantly graded, quadrupolar field, superimposed on the first, to generate a force on the oriented particles. In this configuration the motion of the particles is driven predominantly by the component of the gradient field which is parallel to the direction of the homogeneous field. As a result, particles are guided with constant force and in a single direction over the entire volume. The direction is simply adjusted by varying the angle between quadrupole and dipole. Since a single gradient is impossible due to Gauß' law, the other gradient component of the quadrupole determines the angular deviation of the force. However, the latter can be neglected if the homogeneous field is stronger than the local contribution of the quadrupole field. A possible realization of this idea is a coaxial arrangement of two Halbach cylinders. A dipole to evenly magnetize and orient the particles, and a quadrupole to generate the force. The local force was calculated analytically for this particular geometry and the directional limits were analyzed and discussed. A simple prototype was constructed to demonstrate the principle in two dimensions on several nano-particles of different size, which were moved along a rough square by manual adjustment of the force angle. The observed velocities of superparamagnetic particles in this prototype were always several orders of magnitude higher than the theoretically expected value. This discrepancy is attributed to the observed formation of long particle chains as a result of their polarization by the homogeneous field. The magnetic moment of such a chain is then the combination of that of its constituents, while its hydrodynamic radius

  8. Integrated semiconductor-magnetic random access memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Blaes, Brent R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present disclosure describes a non-volatile magnetic random access memory (RAM) system having a semiconductor control circuit and a magnetic array element. The integrated magnetic RAM system uses CMOS control circuit to read and write data magnetoresistively. The system provides a fast access, non-volatile, radiation hard, high density RAM for high speed computing.

  9. Anharmonic Oscillations of a Spring-Magnet System inside a Magnetic Coil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladera, Celso L.; Donoso, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    We consider the nonlinear oscillations of a simple spring-magnet system that oscillates in the magnetic field of an inductive coil excited with a dc current. Using the relations for the interaction of a coil and a magnet we obtain the motion equation of the system. The relative strengths of the terms of this equation can be adjusted easily by…

  10. Chiral magnetic effect in condensed matter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.

    2016-12-01

    The chiral magnetic effect (CME) is the generation of electrical current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum chiral anomaly [S. L. Adler. Axial-vector vertex in spinor electrodynamics. Physical Review, 177, 2426 (1969), J. S. Bell and R. Jackiw. A PCAC puzzle: π 0 γγin the σ-model. Il Nuovo Cimento A, 60, 47-61 (1969)] in systems possessing charged chiral fermions. In quark-gluon plasma containing nearly massless quarks, the chirality imbalance is sourced by the topological transitions. In condensed matter systems, the chiral quasiparticles emerge in gapless semiconductors with two energy bands having pointlike degeneracies opening the path to the study of chiral anomaly [H. B. Nielsen and M. Ninomiya. The Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly and Weyl fermions in a crystal. Physics Letters B, 130, 389-396 (1983)]. Recently, these novel materials - so-called Dirac and Weyl semimetals have been discovered experimentally, are suitable for the investigation of the CME in condensed matter experiments. Here we report on the first experimental observation of the CME in a 3D Dirac semimetal ZrTe5 [Q. Li, D. E. Kharzeev, C. Zhang, Y. Huang, I. Pletikosić, A. V. Fedorov, R. D. Zhong, J. A. Schneeloch, G. D. Gu, and T. Valla. Chiral magnetic effect in ZrTe5. Nature Physics (2016) doi:10.1038/nphys3648].

  11. Magnetic Flux Density of Different Types of New Generation Magnetic Attachment Systems.

    PubMed

    Akin, Hakan

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the static magnetic flux density of different types of new generation laser-welded magnetic attachments in the single position and the attractive position and to determine the effect of different corrosive environments on magnetic flux density. Magnetic flux densities of four magnetic attachment systems (Hyper slim, Hicorex slim, Dyna, and Steco) were measured with a gaussmeter. Then magnetic attachment systems were immersed in two different media, namely 1% lactic acid solution (pH 2.3), and 0.9% NaCl solution (pH 7.3). Magnetic flux densities of the attachment systems were measured with a gaussmeter after immersion to compare with measurements before immersion (α = 0.05). The data were statistically evaluated with one-way ANOVA, paired-samples t-test, and post hoc Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons tests (α = 0.05). The highest magnetic flux density was found in Dyna magnets for both single and attractive positions. In addition, after the magnets were in the corrosive environments for 2 weeks, they had a significant decrease in magnetic flux density (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between corrosive environments (p > 0.05). The leakage flux of all the magnetic attachments did not exceed the WHO's guideline of 40 mT. The magnets exhibited a significant decrease in magnetic flux density after aging in corrosive environments including lactic acid and NaCl. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  12. A portable magnetic induction measurement system (PIMS).

    PubMed

    Cordes, Axel; Foussier, Jérôme; Pollig, Daniel; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2012-02-22

    For contactless monitoring of ventilation and heart activity, magnetic induction measurements are applicable. As the technique is harmless for the human body, it is well suited for long-term monitoring solutions, e.g., bedside monitoring, monitoring of home care patients, and the monitoring of persons in critical occupations. For such settings, a two-channel portable magnetic induction system has been developed, which is small and light enough to be fitted in a chair or bed. Because demodulation, control, and filtering are implemented on a front-end digital signal processor, a PC is not required (except for visualization/data storage during research and development). The system can be connected to a local area network (LAN) or wireless network (WiFi), allowing to connect several devices to a large monitoring system, e.g., for a residential home for the elderly or a hospital with low-risk patients not requiring standard ECG monitoring. To visualize data streams, a Qt-based (Qt-framework by Nokia, Espoo, Finland) monitoring application has been developed, which runs on Netbook computers, laptops, or standard PCs. To induce and measure the magnetic fields, external coils and amplifiers are required. This article describes the system and presents results for monitoring respiration and heart activity in a (divan) bed and for respiration monitoring in a chair. Planar configurations and orthogonal coil setups were examined during the measurement procedures. The measurement data were streamed over a LAN to a monitoring PC running Matlab (The MathWorks Inc, Natick, MA, USA).

  13. Magnetic Field Experiment Data Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, D. B.; Zanetti, L. J.; Suther, L. L.; Potemra, T. A.; Anderson, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) Magnetic Field Experiment Data Analysis System (MFEDAS) has been developed to process and analyze satellite magnetic field experiment data from the TRIAD, MAGSAT, AMPTE/CCE, Viking, Polar BEAR, DMSP, HILAT, UARS, and Freja satellites. The MFEDAS provides extensive data management and analysis capabilities. The system is based on standard data structures and a standard user interface. The MFEDAS has two major elements: (1) a set of satellite unique telemetry processing programs for uniform and rapid conversion of the raw data to a standard format and (2) the program Magplot which has file handling, data analysis, and data display sections. This system is an example of software reuse, allowing new data sets and software extensions to be added in a cost effective and timely manner. Future additions to the system will include the addition of standard format file import routines, modification of the display routines to use a commercial graphics package based on X-Window protocols, and a generic utility for telemetry data access and conversion.

  14. Magnetic navigation system for percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Zhiyong; Wu, Bangwei; Luo, Xinping; Zhu, Jun; Shi, Haiming; Jin, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Magnetic navigation system (MNS) allows calculation of the vessel coordinates in real space within the patient's chest for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, its impact on the procedural parameters and clinical outcomes is still a matter of debate. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods and Results: Studies exploring the advantages of MNS were identified in English-language articles by search of Medline, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library Databases (inception to October 2015). A standardized protocol was used to extract details on study design, region origin, demographic data, lesion type, and clinical outcomes. The main outcome measures were contrast consumption, procedural success rate, contrast used for wire crossing, procedure time to cross the lesions, and the fluoroscopy time fluoroscopy time. A total of 12 clinical trials involving 2174 patients were included for analysis (902 patients in the magnetic PCI group and 1272 in the conventional PCI group). Overall, contrast consumption was decreased by 40.45 mL (95% confidence interval [CI] −70.98 to −9.92, P = 0.009) in magnetic PCI group compared with control group. In addition, magnetic PCI was associated with significantly decreasing procedural time by 2.17 minutes (95% CI −3.91 to −0.44, P = 0.01) and the total fluoroscopy time was significantly decreased by 1.43 minutes (95% CI −2.29 to −0.57, P = 0.001) in magnetic PCI group. However, procedural success rate, contrast used for wire crossing, procedure time to cross the lesions, and the fluoroscopy time to cross the lesions demonstrated that no statistically difference was observed between 2 groups. Conclusion: The present meta-analysis indicated an improvement of overall contrast consumption, total procedural time, and fluoroscopy time in magnetic PCI group. However, no significant advantages were observed associated with procedural

  15. Self-adjusting magnetic bearing systems

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    A self-adjusting magnetic bearing automatically adjusts the parameters of an axially unstable magnetic bearing such that its force balance is maintained near the point of metastable equilibrium. Complete stabilization can be obtained with the application of weak restoring forces either from a mechanical bearing (running at near-zero load, thus with reduced wear) or from the action of residual eddy currents in a snubber bearing. In one embodiment, a torque is generated by the approach of a slotted pole to a conducting plate. The torque actuates an assembly which varies the position of a magnetic shunt to change the force exerted by the bearing. Another embodiment achieves axial stabilization by sensing vertical displacements in a suspended bearing element, and using this information in an electrical servo system. In a third embodiment, as a rotating eddy current exciter approaches a stationary bearing, it heats a thermostat which actuates an assembly to weaken the attractive force between the two bearing elements. An improved version of an electromechanical battery utilizing the designs of the various embodiments is described.

  16. Majorana spin in magnetic atomic chain systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Jeon, Sangjun; Xie, Yonglong; Yazdani, Ali; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we establish that Majorana zero modes emerging from a topological band structure of a chain of magnetic atoms embedded in a superconductor can be distinguished from trivial localized zero energy states that may accidentally form in this system using spin-resolved measurements. To demonstrate this key Majorana diagnostics, we study the spin composition of magnetic impurity induced in-gap Shiba states in a superconductor using a hybrid model. By examining the spin and spectral densities in the context of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) particle-hole symmetry, we derive a sum rule that relates the spin densities of localized Shiba states with those in the normal state without superconductivity. Extending our investigations to a ferromagnetic chain of magnetic impurities, we identify key features of the spin properties of the extended Shiba state bands, as well as those associated with a localized Majorana end mode when the effect of spin-orbit interaction is included. We then formulate a phenomenological theory for the measurement of the local spin densities with spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) techniques. By combining the calculated spin densities and the measurement theory, we show that spin-polarized STM measurements can reveal a sharp contrast in spin polarization between an accidental-zero-energy trivial Shiba state and a Majorana zero mode in a topological superconducting phase in atomic chains. We further confirm our results with numerical simulations that address generic parameter settings.

  17. Self-adjusting magnetic bearing systems

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1998-07-21

    A self-adjusting magnetic bearing automatically adjusts the parameters of an axially unstable magnetic bearing such that its force balance is maintained near the point of metastable equilibrium. Complete stabilization can be obtained with the application of weak restoring forces either from a mechanical bearing (running at near-zero load, thus with reduced wear) or from the action of residual eddy currents in a snubber bearing. In one embodiment, a torque is generated by the approach of a slotted pole to a conducting plate. The torque actuates an assembly which varies the position of a magnetic shunt to change the force exerted by the bearing. Another embodiment achieves axial stabilization by sensing vertical displacements in a suspended bearing element, and using this information in an electrical servo system. In a third embodiment, as a rotating eddy current exciter approaches a stationary bearing, it heats a thermostat which actuates an assembly to weaken the attractive force between the two bearing elements. An improved version of an electromechanical battery utilizing the designs of the various embodiments is described. 7 figs.

  18. Electric and Magnetic Manipulation of Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Hunt, T. P.; Liu, Y.; Ham, D.; Westervelt, R. M.

    2005-06-01

    New types of biological cell manipulation systems, a micropost matrix, a microelectromagnet matrix, and a microcoil array, were developed. The micropost matrix consists of post-shaped electrodes embedded in an insulating layer. With a separate ac voltage applied to each electrode, the micropost matrix generates dielectrophoretic force to trap and move individual biological cells. The microelectromagnet matrix consists of two arrays of straight wires aligned perpendicular to each other, that are covered with insulating layers. By independently controlling the current in each wire, the microelectromagnet matrix creates versatile magnetic fields to manipulate individual biological cells attached to magnetic beads. The microcoil array is a set of coils implemented in a foundry using a standard silicon fabrication technology. Current sources to the coils, and control circuits are integrated on a single chip, making the device self-contained. Versatile manipulation of biological cells was demonstrated using these devices by generating optimized electric or magnetic field patterns. A single yeast cell was trapped and positioned with microscopic resolution, and multiple yeast cells were trapped and independently moved along the separate paths for cell-sorting.

  19. Advanced Docking System With Magnetic Initial Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James L.; Carroll, Monty B.; Morales, Ray; Le, Thang

    2004-01-01

    An advanced docking system is undergoing development to enable softer, safer docking than was possible when using prior docking systems. This system is intended for original use in docking of visiting spacecraft and berthing the Crew Return Vehicle at the International Space Station (ISS). The system could also be adapted to a variety of other uses in outer space and on Earth, including mating submersible vehicles, assembling structures, and robotic berthing/handling of payloads and cargo. Heretofore, two large spacecraft have been docked by causing the spacecraft to approach each other at a speed sufficient to activate capture latches - a procedure that results in large docking loads and is made more difficult because of the speed. The basic design and mode of operation of the present advanced docking system would eliminate the need to rely on speed of approach to activate capture latches, thereby making it possible to reduce approach speed and thus docking loads substantially. The system would comprise an active subsystem on one spacecraft and a passive subsystem on another spacecraft with which the active subsystem will be docked. The passive subsystem would include an extensible ring containing magnetic striker plates and guide petals. The active subsystem would include mating guide petals and electromagnets containing limit switches and would be arranged to mate with the magnetic striker plates and guide petals of the passive assembly. The electromagnets would be carried on (but not rigidly attached to) a structural ring that would be instrumented with load sensors. The outputs of the sensors would be sent, along with position information, as feedback to an electronic control subsystem. The system would also include electromechanical actuators that would extend or retract the ring upon command by the control subsystem.

  20. Neural control of magnetic suspension systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W. Steven

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to design, build and test (in cooperation with NASA personnel from the NASA Langley Research Center) neural controllers for two different small air-gap magnetic suspension systems. The general objective of the program is to study neural network architectures for the purpose of control in an experimental setting and to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. The specific objectives of the research program are: (1) to demonstrate through simulation and experimentation the feasibility of using neural controllers to stabilize a nonlinear magnetic suspension system; (2) to investigate through simulation and experimentation the performance of neural controllers designs under various types of parametric and nonparametric uncertainty; (3) to investigate through simulation and experimentation various types of neural architectures for real-time control with respect to performance and complexity; and (4) to benchmark in an experimental setting the performance of neural controllers against other types of existing linear and nonlinear compensator designs. To date, the first one-dimensional, small air-gap magnetic suspension system has been built, tested and delivered to the NASA Langley Research Center. The device is currently being stabilized with a digital linear phase-lead controller. The neural controller hardware is under construction. Two different neural network paradigms are under consideration, one based on hidden layer feedforward networks trained via back propagation and one based on using Gaussian radial basis functions trained by analytical methods related to stability conditions. Some advanced nonlinear control algorithms using feedback linearization and sliding mode control are in simulation studies.

  1. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in systemic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Systemic hypertension is a highly prevalent potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of underlying causes for hypertension, in assessing cardiovascular complications of hypertension, and in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease process. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides accurate and reproducible measures of ventricular volumes, mass, function and haemodynamics as well as uniquely allowing tissue characterization of diffuse and focal fibrosis. In addition, CMR is well suited for exclusion of common secondary causes for hypertension. We review the current and emerging clinical and research applications of CMR in hypertension. PMID:22559053

  2. Effect of zero magnetic field on cardiovascular system and microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurfinkel, Yu. I.; At'kov, O. Yu.; Vasin, A. L.; Breus, T. K.; Sasonko, M. L.; Pishchalnikov, R. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    The effects of zero magnetic field conditions on cardiovascular system of healthy adults have been studied. In order to generate zero magnetic field, the facility for magnetic fields modeling ;ARFA; has been used. Parameters of the capillary blood flow, blood pressure, and the electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring were measured during the study. All subjects were tested twice: in zero magnetic field and, for comparison, in sham condition. The obtained results during 60 minutes of zero magnetic field exposure demonstrate a clear effect on cardiovascular system and microcirculation. The results of our experiments can be used in studies of long-term stay in hypo-magnetic conditions during interplanetary missions.

  3. Design and Fabrication of a Magnetic System to Investigate Magnetized Dusty Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Evan M.; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.

    2013-10-01

    The interest in researching the dynamics and equilibrium of magnetized dusty plasma crystallization has led to the design and fabrication of a novel experimental setup at UMBC. The proposed magnets will be an important subsystem of this setup, and will produce a uniform magnetic field of several tesla for a duration of several seconds. The magnets will be arranged in the Helmholtz configuration and will have a cooling system for temperature compensation of the coils, as well as the ability to adjust the orientation of the magnetic field with respect to gravity. Planned experiments include propagation of magnetized waves in dusty plasma crystals under various boundary conditions.

  4. Magnet hospital recognition in hospital systems over time.

    PubMed

    Lasater, Karen B; Richards, Michael R; Dandapani, Nikila B; Burns, Lawton R; McHugh, Matthew D

    2017-06-13

    Magnet hospitals are recognized for nursing excellence and high-value patient outcomes, yet little is known about which and when hospitals pursue Magnet recognition. Concurrently, hospital systems are becoming a more prominent feature of the U.S. health care landscape. The aim of the study was to examine Magnet adoption among hospital systems over time. Using American Hospital Association surveys (1998-2012), we characterized the proportion of Magnet hospitals belonging to systems. We used hospital level fixed-effects regressions to capture changes in a given system hospital's Magnet status over time in relation to a variety of conditions, including prior Magnet adoption by system affiliates and nonaffiliates in local and geographically distant markets and whether these relationships varied by degree of system centralization. The proportion of Magnet hospitals belonging to a system is increasing. Prior Magnet adoption by a hospital within the local market was associated with an increased likelihood of a given system hospital becoming Magnet, but the effect was larger if there was prior adoption by affiliates (7.4% higher likelihood) versus nonaffiliates (2.7% higher likelihood). Prior adoption by affiliates and nonaffiliates in geographically distant markets had a lesser effect. Hospitals belonging to centralized systems were more reactive to Magnet adoption of nonaffiliate hospitals as compared with those in decentralized systems. Hospital systems take an organizational perspective toward Magnet adoption, whereby more system affiliates achieve Magnet recognition over time. The findings are relevant to health care and nursing administrators and policymakers interested in the diffusion of an empirically supported organizational innovation associated with quality outcomes, particularly in a time of increasing hospital consolidation and system expansion. We identify factors associated with Magnet adoption across system hospitals and demonstrate the importance of

  5. Magnetic field exposure and behavioral monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Thomas, A W; Drost, D J; Prato, F S

    2001-09-01

    To maximize the availability and usefulness of a small magnetic field exposure laboratory, we designed a magnetic field exposure system that has been used to test human subjects, caged or confined animals, and cell cultures. The magnetic field exposure system consists of three orthogonal pairs of coils 2 m square x 1 m separation, 1.751 m x 0.875 m separation, and 1.5 m x 0.75 m separation. Each coil consisted of ten turns of insulated 8 gauge stranded copper conductor. Each of the pairs were driven by a constant-current amplifier via digital to analog (D/A) converter. A 9 pole zero-gain active Bessel low-pass filter (1 kHz corner frequency) before the amplifier input attenuated the expected high frequencies generated by the D/A conversion. The magnetic field was monitored with a 3D fluxgate magnetometer (0-3 kHz, +/- 1 mT) through an analog to digital converter. Behavioral monitoring utilized two monochrome video cameras (viewing the coil center vertically and horizontally), both of which could be video recorded and real-time digitally Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) encoded to CD-ROM. Human postural sway (standing balance) was monitored with a 3D forceplate mounted on the floor, connected to an analog to digital converter. Lighting was provided by 12 offset overhead dimmable fluorescent track lights and monitored using a digitally connected spectroradiometer. The dc resistance, inductance of each coil pair connected in series were 1.5 m coil (0.27 Omega, 1.2 mH), 1.75 m coil (0.32 Omega, 1.4 mH), and 2 m coil (0.38 Omega, 1.6 mH). The frequency response of the 1.5 m coil set was 500 Hz at +/- 463 microT, 1 kHz at +/- 232 microT, 150 micros rise time from -200 microT(pk) to + 200 microT(pk) (square wave) and is limited by the maximum voltage ( +/- 146 V) of the amplifier (Bessel filter bypassed). Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. A permanent magnet system for Kibble balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shisong; Bielsa, Franck; Stock, Michael; Kiss, Adrien; Fang, Hao

    2017-10-01

    The magnet is one of the fundamental elements in Kibble balances. The Kibble balance group at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) proposed a permanent magnet with a radial field, which has been widely employed in other Kibble balance experiments. In this paper, we discuss a different method of operation for the BIPM-type magnet, i.e. only the lower half of the magnetic circuit is closed. The merit of such a magnet is its convenience for opening the air gap and adjusting the coil. A disadvantage is that it can yield a lower and sloped magnetic field profile with less shielding. In the approach described, high permeability yokes are used to flatten the magnetic profile, which has proven to be a novel and convenient approach for removing the nonuniformity of the magnetic profile due to magnet magnetization asymmetries. The performance of the half-closed BIPM magnet is evaluated using experimental measurements. The results show that the half-closed magnetic circuit retains most of the main features of the fully-closed magnet and is a good option for the early stages of Kibble balance operations. In addition, the profile change due to the coil current is predicted and experimentally verified with a bifilar coil. Related systematic effects are discussed for the Planck constant measurement.

  7. A Two-Magnet System to Push Therapeutic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Benjamin; Dormer, Kenneth; Rutel, Isaac B.

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic fields can be used to direct magnetically susceptible nanoparticles to disease locations: to infections, blood clots, or tumors. Any single magnet always attracts (pulls) ferro- or para-magnetic particles towards it. External magnets have been used to pull therapeutics into tumors near the skin in animals and human clinical trials. Implanting magnetic materials into patients (a feasible approach in some cases) has been envisioned as a means of reaching deeper targets. Yet there are a number of clinical needs, ranging from treatments of the inner ear, to antibiotic-resistant skin infections and cardiac arrhythmias, which would benefit from an ability to magnetically "inject", or push in, nanomedicines. We develop, analyze, and experimentally demonstrate a novel, simple, and effective arrangement of just two permanent magnets that can magnetically push particles. Such a system might treat diseases of the inner ear; diseases which intravenously injected or orally administered treatments cannot reach due to the blood-brain barrier.

  8. Magnetization reversal modes in fourfold Co nano-wire systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blachowicz, T.; Ehrmann, A.

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic nano-wire systems are, as well as other patterned magnetic structures, of special interest for novel applications, such as magnetic storage media. In these systems, the coupling between neighbouring magnetic units is most important for the magnetization reversal process of the complete system, leading to a variety of magnetization reversal mechanisms. This article examines the influence of the magnetic material on hysteresis loop shape, coercive field, and magnetization reversal modes. While iron nano-wire systems exhibit flat or one-step hysteresis loops, systems consisting of cobalt nano-wires show hysteresis loops with several longitudinal steps and transverse peaks, correlated to a rich spectrum of magnetization reversal mechanisms. We show that changing the material parameters while the system geometry stays identical can lead to completely different hysteresis loops and reversal modes. Thus, especially for finding magnetic nano-systems which can be used as quaternary or even higher-order storage devices, it is rational to test several materials for the planned systems. Apparently, new materials may lead to novel and unexpected behaviour - and can thus result in novel functionalities.

  9. Quantum magnetism in different AMO systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Ana Maria

    One of the most important goals of modern quantum sciences is to learn how to control and entangle many-body systems and use them to make powerful and improved quantum devices, materials and technologies. However, since performing full state tomography does not scale favorably with the number of particles, as the size of quantum systems grow, it becomes extremely challenging to identify, and quantify the buildup of quantum correlations and coherence. In this talk I will report on a protocol that we have developed and experimentally demonstrated in a trapped ion quantum magnet in a Penning trap, which can perform quantum simulations of Ising spin models. In those experiments strong spin-spin interactions can be engineered through optical dipole forces that excite phonons of the crystals. The number of ions can be varied from tens to hundreds with high fidelity control. The protocol uses time reversal of the many-body dynamics, to measure out-of-time-order correlation functions (OTOCs). By measuring a family of OTOCs as a function of a tunable parameter we obtain fine-grained information about the state of the system encoded in the multiple quantum coherence spectrum, extract the quantum state purity, and demonstrate the build-up of up to 8-body correlations. We also use the protocol and comparisons to a full solution of the master equation to investigate the impact of spin-motion entanglement and decoherence in the quantum dynamics. Future applications of this protocol could enable studies of manybody localization, quantum phase transitions, and tests of the holographic duality between quantum and gravitational systems. Supported by NSF-PHY-1521080, JILA-NSF PFC-1125844, ARO and AFOSR-MURI.

  10. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for asynchronous electrical systems

    DOEpatents

    Boenig, H.J.

    1984-05-16

    It is an object of the present invention to provide superconducting magnetic energy storage for a plurality of asynchronous electrical systems. It is a further object of the present invention to provide load leveling and stability improvement in a plurality of independent ac systems using a single superconducting magnetic energy storage coil.

  11. Development of magnetic separation system of magnetoliposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, R.; Matuo, Y.; Mishima, F.; Taguchi, T.; Maenosono, S.; Nishijima, S.

    2009-10-01

    The magnetic separation technology using sub-microsized ferromagnetic particle is indispensable in many areas of medical biosciences. For example, ferromagnetic particles (200-500 nm) are widely used for cell sorting in stem cell research with the use of cell surface-specific antigens. Nanosized ferromagnetic particles (10-20 nm) have been suggested as more suitable in drug delivery studies given their efficiency of tissue penetration, however, the magnetic separation method for them has not been established. One of the major reasons is that magnetic force acting on the object particles decreases drastically as a particle diameter becomes small. In this study, magnetic force acting on the targets was enhanced by the combination of superconducting magnet and the filter consisting of ferromagnetic particle. By doing so, we confirmed that Fe 3O 4 of 20 nm in diameter was trapped in the magnetic filter under an external magnetic field of 0.5 T. Fe 3O 4 encapsulated with phospholipid liposomes of 200 nm in diameter was also shown to be trapped as external magnetic field of 1.5 T, but not of 0.5 T. We also showed the result of particle trajectory calculation which emulated well the experimental data.

  12. Magnetic levitation system for moving objects

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1998-03-03

    Repelling magnetic forces are produced by the interaction of a flux-concentrated magnetic field (produced by permanent magnets or electromagnets) with an inductively loaded closed electric circuit. When one such element moves with respect to the other, a current is induced in the circuit. This current then interacts back on the field to produce a repelling force. These repelling magnetic forces are applied to magnetically levitate a moving object such as a train car. The power required to levitate a train of such cars is drawn from the motional energy of the train itself, and typically represents only a percent or two of the several megawatts of power required to overcome aerodynamic drag at high speeds. 7 figs.

  13. Magnetic levitation system for moving objects

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    Repelling magnetic forces are produced by the interaction of a flux-concentrated magnetic field (produced by permanent magnets or electromagnets) with an inductively loaded closed electric circuit. When one such element moves with respect to the other, a current is induced in the circuit. This current then interacts back on the field to produce a repelling force. These repelling magnetic forces are applied to magnetically levitate a moving object such as a train car. The power required to levitate a train of such cars is drawn from the motional energy of the train itself, and typically represents only a percent or two of the several megawatts of power required to overcome aerodynamic drag at high speeds.

  14. Optical position measurement for a Large Gap Magnetic Suspension System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Sharon S.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Clemmons, James I.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an optical position measurement system which is being built as part of the NASA Langley Large Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS). The LGMSS is a five degree-of-freedom, large-gap magnetic suspension system which is being built for Langley Research Center as part of the Advanced Controls Test Facility (ACTF). The LGMSS consists of a planar array of electromagnets which levitate and position a cylindrically shaped model containing a permanent magnet core. The optical position measurement system provides information on the location and orientation of the model to the LGMSS control system to stabilize levitation of the model.

  15. Final prototype of magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anand, D. K.; Kirk, J. A.; Zmood, R. B.; Pang, D.; Lashley, C.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype of a 500 Wh magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system was designed, built, and tested. The authors present the work done and include the following: (1) a final design of the magnetic bearing, control system, and motor/generator, (2) construction of a prototype system consisting of the magnetic bearing stack, flywheel, motor, container, and display module, and (3) experimental results for the magnetic bearings, motor, and the entire system. The successful completion of the prototype system has achieved: (1) manufacture of tight tolerance bearings, (2) stability and spin above the first critical frequency, (3) use of inside sensors to eliminate runout problems, and (4) integration of the motor and magnetic bearings.

  16. Final prototype of magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, D. K.; Kirk, J. A.; Zmood, R. B.; Pang, D.; Lashley, C.

    A prototype of a 500 Wh magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system was designed, built, and tested. The authors present the work done and include the following: (1) a final design of the magnetic bearing, control system, and motor/generator, (2) construction of a prototype system consisting of the magnetic bearing stack, flywheel, motor, container, and display module, and (3) experimental results for the magnetic bearings, motor, and the entire system. The successful completion of the prototype system has achieved: (1) manufacture of tight tolerance bearings, (2) stability and spin above the first critical frequency, (3) use of inside sensors to eliminate runout problems, and (4) integration of the motor and magnetic bearings.

  17. Magnetic Diagenesis in the Gas Hydrate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkin, R. J.; Hamilton, T. S.; Esteban, L.

    2009-05-01

    Natural gas hydrate is a methane-bearing form of ice which occurs in permafrost and continental slope settings. Geochemical processes associated with gas hydrate formation lead to the growth of iron sulphides which have a geophysically measurable magnetic signature. Detailed magnetic investigation and complementary petrological observations were undertaken on unconsolidated sediments from three gas hydrate (GH) settings: permafrost in fluvial-deltaic silts and sands in the Western Canadian Arctic (Japex et al. Mallik 5L-38 in 2002); diamictons and hemipelagics in the Cascadia accretionary wedge west of Vancouver Island (IODP Exp.311 in 2006); and marine sands and hemipelagics from the Bay of Bengal (NGHP Exp.01 in 2007). These magnetic measurements provide stratigraphic profiles which reveal fine scale variations in lithology, magnetic grain size, and paleo-pore fluid geochemistry. The highest magnetic susceptibility values are observed in strata which preserve high initial concentrations of detrital magnetite, such as glacial deposits. The lowest values of magnetic susceptibility are observed where iron has been reduced to paramagnetic pyrite, formed in settings with high methane and sulphate flux such as at methane vents. Enhanced values of magnetic susceptibility characterize the introduction of the ferrimagnetic iron sulphide minerals greigite and smythite. These magnetic minerals are mostly found immediately adjacent to the sedimentary horizons which host the gas hydrate and their textures and compositions indicate rapid disequilibrium crystallization. The observed diagenesis result from the unique physical and geochemical properties of the environment where gas hydrates form: methane is available to fuel microbiological activity and the freezing which accompanied GH crystallization quickly removed pure water, froze the sediments into an impermeable solid and expelled more concentrated brines into the adjacent less permeable strata to the point of inducing

  18. Feasibility of low-cost magnetic rail designs by integrating ferrite magnets and NdFeB magnets for HTS Maglev systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, R. X.; Deng, Z. G.; Gou, Y. F.; Li, Y. J.; Zheng, J.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, J. S.

    2015-09-01

    Permanent magnet guideway (PMG) is an indispensable part of high temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev systems. Present PMGs are made of NdFeB magnets with excellent performance and cost much. As another permanent magnet material, the ferrite magnet is weak at magnetic energy product and coercive force, but inexpensive. So, it is a possible way to integrate the ferrite and NdFeB magnets for cutting down the cost of present PMGs. In the paper, the equivalent on magnetic field intensity between ferrite magnets and NdFeB magnets was evaluated by finite element simulation. According to the calculation results, the magnetic field of the PMG integrating ferrite magnets and NdFeB magnets can be increased remarkably comparing with the pure ferrite PMG. It indicates that low-cost PMG designs by integrating the two permanent magnet materials are feasible for the practical HTS Maglev system.

  19. Magnetic suspension and balance system advanced study, 1989 design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, Roger W.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Abdelsalam, Moustafa K.; Mcintosh, Glen E.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives are to experimentally confirm several advanced design concepts on the Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS). The advanced design concepts were identified as potential improvements by Madison Magnetics, Inc. (MMI) during 1984 and 1985 studies of an MSBS utilizing 14 external superconductive coils and a superconductive solenoid in an airplane test model suspended in a wind tunnel. This study confirmed several advanced design concepts on magnetic suspension and balance systems. The 1989 MSBS redesign is based on the results of these experiments. Savings of up to 30 percent in supporting magnet ampere meters and 50 percent in energy stored over the 1985 design were achieved.

  20. NMR system and method having a permanent magnet providing a rotating magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Schlueter, Ross D [Berkeley, CA; Budinger, Thomas F [Berkeley, CA

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed herein are systems and methods for generating a rotating magnetic field. The rotating magnetic field can be used to obtain rotating-field NMR spectra, such as magic angle spinning spectra, without having to physically rotate the sample. This result allows magic angle spinning NMR to be conducted on biological samples such as live animals, including humans.

  1. Three-dimensional magnetic bubble memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A compact memory uses magnetic bubble technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement, in the form of stacks of magnetic bubble layers, is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. Output tracks are used within each layer to allow data to be accessed uniquely and unambiguously. Storage can be achieved using either current access or field access magnetic bubble technology. Optical sensing via the Faraday effect is used to detect data. Optical sensing facilitates the accessing of data from within the three-dimensional package and lends itself to parallel operation for supporting high data rates and vector and parallel processing.

  2. Upward magnetic relaxation in self organizing Fe nanoparticle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Satyendra Prakash; Sharma, Gyaneshwar; Sen, P.

    2018-04-01

    Study of the thermoremanent magnetic relaxation behavior of Fe nanoparticles and its nanocomposite with activated carbon has been systematically performed. Magnetic relaxation data shows the spontaneous collective periodic oscillations of the spins superimposed on the magnetic decay curves. At sufficiently high temperature, due to thermal noise induced ordering of the magnetic moment an inflexion with an increase in the absolute value of the magnetization takes place. Due to insufficient interaction on account of dilution in the case of nanocomposite, the spin - spin interaction which was responsible for magnetic ordering in the case of bare Fe nanoparticles, collective oscillations of the system do not sustain upto longer times in the case of carbon diluted system.

  3. Development of the beam extraction synchronization system at the Fermilab Booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiya, K.; Chaurize, S.; Drennan, C. C.; Pellico, W.; Sullivan, T.; Triplett, A. K.; Waller, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    The new beam extraction synchronization control system called "Magnetic Cogging" was developed at the Fermilab Booster and it replaces a system called "RF Cogging" as part of the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP).[1] The flux throughput goal for the PIP is 2.2×1017 protons per hour, which is double the present flux. The flux increase will be accomplished by doubling the number of beam cycles which, in turn, will double the beam loss in the Booster accelerator if nothing else is done. The Booster accelerates beam from 400 MeV to 8 GeV and extracts it to the Main Injector (MI) or Recycler Ring (RR). Cogging controls the beam extraction gap position which is created early in the Booster cycle and synchronizes the gap to the rising edge of the Booster extraction kicker and the MI/RR injection kicker. The RF Cogging system controls the gap position by changing only the radial position of the beam thus limiting the beam aperture and creating beam loss due to beam scraping. The Magnetic Cogging system controls the gap position with the magnetic field of the dipole correctors while the radial position feedback keeps the beam on a central orbit. Also with Magnetic Cogging the gap creation can occur earlier in the Booster cycle when the removed particles are at a lower energy. Thus Magnetic Cogging reduces the deposited energy of the lost particles (beam energy loss) and results in less beam loss activation. Energy loss was reduced by 40% by moving the gap creation energy from 700 MeV to 400 MeV when the Booster Cogging system was switched from RF Cogging to Magnetic Cogging in March 2015.

  4. Harmonic Kicker RF Cavity for the Jefferson Lab Electron-Ion Collider EM Simulation, Modification, and Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overstreet, Sarah; Wang, Haipeng

    2017-09-01

    An important step in the conceptual design for the future Jefferson Lab Electron-Ion Collider (JLEIC) is the development of supporting technologies for the Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) Electron Cooling Facility. The Harmonic Radiofrequency (RF) kicker cavity is one such device that is responsible for switching electron bunches in and out of the Circulator Cooling Ring (CCR) from and to the ERL, which is a critical part of the ion cooling process. Last year, a half scale prototype of the JLEIC harmonic RF kicker model was designed with resonant frequencies to support the summation of 5 odd harmonics (95.26 MHz, 285.78 MHz, 476.30 MHz, 666.82 MHz, and 857.35 MHz); however, the asymmetry of the kicker cavity gives rise to multipole components of the electric field at the electron-beam axis of the cavity. Previous attempts to symmetrize the electric field of this asymmetrical RF cavity have been unsuccessful. The aim of this study is to modify the existing prototype for a uniform electric field across the beam pathway so that the electron bunches will experience nearly zero beam current loading. In addition to this, we have driven the unmodified cavity with the harmonic sum and used the wire stretching method for an analysis of the multipole electric field components.

  5. Reactions of the nervous system to magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kholodov, Y. A.

    1974-01-01

    This magnetobiological survey considers sensory, nervous, stress and genetic effects of magnetic fields on man and animals. It is shown that the nervous system plays an important role in the reactions of the organism to magnetic fields; the final biological effect is a function of the strength of the magnetic fields, the gradient, direction of the lines of force, duration and location of the action, and the functional status of the organism.

  6. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Trackbed Moisture Sensor System

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-02-01

    In this initial phase, conducted from March 2015 through December 2016, Vista Clara and its subcontractor Zetica Rail successfully developed and tested a man-portable, non-invasive spot-check nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) moisture sensor that dire...

  7. [A study of magnetic shielding design for a magnetic resonance imaging linac system].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheshun; Chen, Wenjing; Qiu, Yang; Zhu, Jianming

    2017-12-01

    One of the main technical challenges when integrating magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems with medical linear accelerator is the strong interference of fringe magnetic fields from the MRI system with the electron beams of linear accelerator, making the linear accelerator not to work properly. In order to minimize the interference of magnetic fields, a magnetic shielding cylinder with an open structure made of high permeability materials is designed. ANSYS Maxwell was used to simulate Helmholtz coil which generate uniform magnetic field instead of the fringe magnetic fields which affect accelerator gun. The parameters of shielding tube, such as permeability, radius, length, side thickness, bottom thickness and fringe magnetic fields strength are simulated, and the data is processed by MATLAB to compare the shielding performance. This article gives out a list of magnetic shielding effectiveness with different side thickness and bottom thickness under the optimal radius and length, which showes that this design can meet the shielding requirement for the MRI-linear accelerator system.

  8. Evaluation of Stress Distribution in Magnetic Materials Using a Magnetic Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C. C. H.; Paulsen, J. A.; Jiles, D. C.

    2004-02-01

    The feasibility of detecting stress distribution in magnetic materials by magnetic hysteresis and Barkhausen effect measurements has been evaluated using a newly developed magnetic imaging system. The system measured hysteresis loops and Barkhausen effect signals with the use of a surface sensor that was scanned over the material. The data were converted into a two-dimensional image showing spatial variations of the magnetic properties from which mechanical conditions of the materials can be inferred. In this study a nickel plate machined into a shear-beam load cell configuration was used. By applying a stress along the neutral axis, various stress patterns such as shear stress and stress concentration could be produced in different regions of the sample. The scanned images of magnetic properties such as coercivity and rms value of Barkhausen effect signal exhibited patterns similar to the stress distribution calculated using finite element model (FEM), in particular in the regions where a high stress level and a high stress gradient existed. For direct comparison, images of magnetic properties were simulated based on the results of FEM stress calculation and experimental calibration of the magnetomechanical effect. The simulated images were found to closely resemble the scanned images, indicating the possibility of measuring stress distribution by mapping magnetic properties using the magnetic imaging system.

  9. Inertial effects in systems with magnetic charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, N. P.

    2018-05-01

    This short article sets out some of the basic considerations that go into detecting the mass of quasiparticles with effective magnetic charge in solids. Effective magnetic charges may be appear as defects in particular magnetic textures. A magnetic monopole is a defect in this texture and as such these are not monopoles in the actual magnetic field B, but instead in the auxiliary field H. They may have particular properties expected for such quasiparticles such as magnetic charge and mass. This effective mass may-in principle-be detected in the same fashion that the mass is detected of other particles classically e.g. through their inertial response to time-dependent electromagnetic fields. I discuss this physics in the context of the "simple" case of the quantum spin ices, but aspects are broadly applicable. Based on extensions to Ryzkhin's model for classical spin ice, a hydrodynamic formulation can be given that takes into account inertial and entropic forces. Ultimately, a form for the susceptibility is obtained that is equivalent to the Rocard equation, which is a classic form used to account for inertial effects in the context of Debye-like relaxation.

  10. Advanced Active-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust-Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imlach, Joseph; Kasarda, Mary; Blumber, Eric

    2008-01-01

    An advanced thrust-measurement system utilizes active magnetic bearings to both (1) levitate a floating frame in all six degrees of freedom and (2) measure the levitation forces between the floating frame and a grounded frame. This system was developed for original use in measuring the thrust exerted by a rocket engine mounted on the floating frame, but can just as well be used in other force-measurement applications. This system offers several advantages over prior thrust-measurement systems based on mechanical support by flexures and/or load cells: The system includes multiple active magnetic bearings for each degree of freedom, so that by selective use of one, some, or all of these bearings, it is possible to test a given article over a wide force range in the same fixture, eliminating the need to transfer the article to different test fixtures to obtain the benefit of full-scale accuracy of different force-measurement devices for different force ranges. Like other active magnetic bearings, the active magnetic bearings of this system include closed-loop control subsystems, through which the stiffness and damping characteristics of the magnetic bearings can be modified electronically. The design of the system minimizes or eliminates cross-axis force-measurement errors. The active magnetic bearings are configured to provide support against movement along all three orthogonal Cartesian axes, and such that the support along a given axis does not produce force along any other axis. Moreover, by eliminating the need for such mechanical connections as flexures used in prior thrust-measurement systems, magnetic levitation of the floating frame eliminates what would otherwise be major sources of cross-axis forces and the associated measurement errors. Overall, relative to prior mechanical-support thrust-measurement systems, this system offers greater versatility for adaptation to a variety of test conditions and requirements. The basic idea of most prior active-magnetic

  11. Mine Sweeping System for Magnetic and Non-Magnetic Mines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-29

    be detected. One example of the latter type of system is a conventional sonar device wherein a directional beam of acoustic energy periodically...Although satisfactory for many uses, sonar devices have several inherent limitations. Nearby objects can cause echoes and these may obscure the echo of...electromagnetic signal and sends it to the preamplifier 601. The preamplifier 601 increases the strength of the received electrical signal before sending it

  12. Permanent magnet electron beam ion source/trap systems with bakeable magnets for improved operation conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, M., E-mail: mike.schmidt@dreebit.com; Zschornack, G.; Kentsch, U.

    The magnetic system of a Dresden electron beam ion source (EBIS) generating the necessary magnetic field with a new type of permanent magnet made of high energy density NdFeB-type material operable at temperatures above 100 °C has been investigated and tested. The employment of such kind of magnets provides simplified operation without the time-consuming installation and de-installation procedures of the magnets for the necessary baking of the ion source after commissioning and maintenance work. Furthermore, with the use of a new magnetization technique the geometrical filling factor of the magnetic Dresden EBIS design could be increased to a filling factor ofmore » 100% leading to an axial magnetic field strength of approximately 0.5 T exceeding the old design by 20%. Simulations using the finite element method software Field Precision and their results compared with measurements are presented as well. It could be shown that several baking cycles at temperatures higher than 100 °C did not change the magnetic properties of the setup.« less

  13. Permanent magnet electron beam ion source/trap systems with bakeable magnets for improved operation conditions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Zschornack, G; Kentsch, U; Ritter, E

    2014-02-01

    The magnetic system of a Dresden electron beam ion source (EBIS) generating the necessary magnetic field with a new type of permanent magnet made of high energy density NdFeB-type material operable at temperatures above 100 °C has been investigated and tested. The employment of such kind of magnets provides simplified operation without the time-consuming installation and de-installation procedures of the magnets for the necessary baking of the ion source after commissioning and maintenance work. Furthermore, with the use of a new magnetization technique the geometrical filling factor of the magnetic Dresden EBIS design could be increased to a filling factor of 100% leading to an axial magnetic field strength of approximately 0.5 T exceeding the old design by 20%. Simulations using the finite element method software Field Precision and their results compared with measurements are presented as well. It could be shown that several baking cycles at temperatures higher than 100 °C did not change the magnetic properties of the setup.

  14. Moessbauer effect: Study of disordered magnetic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Xiao Sha.

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation describes Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of two chemically disordered binary, crystalline alloys having the composition A{sub 1-x}B{sub x}. Both systems are random 3d Heisenberg ferromagnets. In each case both A and B atoms carry a magnetic moment. The first study concerns a Moessbauer absorber experiment on Fe{sub 1-x} V{sub x}, in which the disorder in the critical region is of the annealed random exchange type. To eliminate the effect of concentration inhomogeneity, the measurement of the critical exponent {beta} was done on the alloy with x = 0.125, where dT{sub C}/dx = 0, yielding {beta} = 0.362(8) over themore » reduced temperature range 1.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} < t < 4.88 {times} 10{sup {minus}1}. This result confirms the theoretical prediction that the annealed disorder is irrelevant to critical behavior in this case. As expected the critical exponent {beta} is consistent with the expectation for the 3d Heisenberg model as well as the measured exponent of pure Fe. The second study involves a Moessbauer source experiment on {sup 57} CoPd{sub 0.80}Co{sub 0.20}, in which disorder is of the quenched random exchange type perturbed by a very weak random anisotropy interaction. The critical exponent {beta} deduced over the range 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} < t < 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}1} is 0.385(20), and is consistent with the theoretical prediction for quenched disordered 3d Heisenberg systems: the disorder is irrelevant to the critical behavior. However, because of the restricted range of reduced temperature, the result is insufficiently asymptotic to serve as a conclusive test of the theory. Outside the critical region the distribution of Fe{sup 57} hyperfine field in Pd{sub 0.80}Co{sub 0.20} is observed to have an anomalous temperature dependence characterized by a linear increase in the width of the field distribution for T/T{sub C} {ge} 0.6.« less

  15. The LHC magnet system and its status of development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bona, Maurizio; Perin, Romeo; Vlogaert, Jos

    1995-01-01

    CERN is preparing for the construction of a new high energy accelerator/collider, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This new facility will mainly consist of two superconducting magnetic beam channels, 27 km long, to be installed in the existing LEP tunnel. The magnetic system comprises about 1200 twin-aperture dipoles, 13.145 m long, with an operational field of 8.65 T, about 600 quadrupoles, 3 m long, and a very large number of other superconducting magnetic components. A general description of the system is given together with the main features of the design of the regular lattice magnets. The paper also describes the present state of the magnet R & D program. Results from short model work, as well as from full scale prototypes will be presented, including the recently tested 10 m long full-scale prototype dipole manufactured in industry.

  16. Transverse-displacement stabilizer for passive magnetic bearing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Richard F

    The invention provides a way re-center a rotor's central longitudinal rotational axis with a desired system longitudinal axis. A pair of planar semicircular permanent magnets are pieced together to form a circle. The flux from each magnet is pointed in in opposite directions that are both parallel with the rotational axis. A stationary shorted circular winding the plane of which is perpendicular to the system longitudinal axis and the center of curvature of the circular winding is positioned on the system longitudinal axis. Upon rotation of the rotor, when a transverse displacement of the rotational axis occurs relative to themore » system longitudinal axis, the winding will experience a time-varying magnetic flux such that an alternating current that is proportional to the displacement will flow in the winding. Such time-varying magnetic flux will provide a force that will bring the rotor back to its centered position about the desired axis.« less

  17. Whole-head SQUID system in a superconducting magnetic shield.

    PubMed

    Ohta, H; Matsui, T; Uchikawa, Y

    2004-11-30

    We have constructed a mobile whole-head SQUID system in a superconducting magnetic shield - a cylinder of high Tc superconductor BSCCO of 65 cm in diameter and 160 cm in length. We compared the noise spectra of several SQUID sensors of SNS Josephson junctions in the superconducting magnetic shield with those of the same SQUID sensors in a magnetically shielded room of Permalloy. The SQUID sensors in the superconducting magnetic shield are more than 100 times more sensitive than those in a magnetically shielded room of Permalloy below 1 Hz. We tested the whole-head SQUID system in the superconducting magnetic shield observing somatosensory signals evoked by stimulating the median nerve in the right wrist of patients by current pulses. We present data of 64 and 128 traces versus the common time axis for comparison. Most sensory responses of human brains phase out near 250 ms. However monotonic rhythms still remain even at longer latencies than 250 ms. The nodes of these rhythm are very narrow even at these longer latencies just indicating low noise characteristics of the SQUID system at low-frequencies. The current dipoles at the secondary somatosensory area SII are evoked at longer latencies than 250 ms contributing to a higher-level brain function. The SQUID system in a superconducting magnetic shield will also have advantages when it is used as a DC MEG to study very slow activities and function of the brain.

  18. Drug accumulation by means of noninvasive magnetic drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuzawa, M.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2011-11-01

    The medication is one of the most general treatment methods, but drugs diffuse in the normal tissues other than the target part by the blood circulation. Therefore, side effect in the medication, particularly for a drug with strong effect such as anti-cancer drug, are a serious issue. Drug Delivery System (DDS) which accumulates the drug locally in the human body is one of the techniques to solve the side-effects. Magnetic Drug Delivery System (MDDS) is one of the active DDSs, which uses the magnetic force. The objective of this study is to accumulate the ferromagnetic drugs noninvasively in the deep part of the body by using MDDS. It is necessary to generate high magnetic field and magnetic gradient at the target part to reduce the side-effects to the tissues with no diseases. The biomimetic model was composed, which consists of multiple model organs connected with diverged blood vessel model. The arrangement of magnetic field was examined to accumulate ferromagnetic drug particles in the target model organ by using a superconducting bulk magnet which can generate high magnetic fields. The arrangement of magnet was designed to generate high and stable magnetic field at the target model organ. The accumulation experiment of ferromagnetic particles has been conducted. In this study, rotating HTS bulk magnet around the axis of blood vessels by centering on the target part was suggested, and the model experiment for magnet rotation was conducted. As a result, the accumulation of the ferromagnetic particles to the target model organ in the deep part was confirmed.

  19. System and method for magnetic current density imaging at ultra low magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Espy, Michelle A.; George, John Stevens; Kraus, Robert Henry; Magnelind, Per; Matlashov, Andrei Nikolaevich; Tucker, Don; Turovets, Sergei; Volegov, Petr Lvovich

    2016-02-09

    Preferred systems can include an electrical impedance tomography apparatus electrically connectable to an object; an ultra low field magnetic resonance imaging apparatus including a plurality of field directions and disposable about the object; a controller connected to the ultra low field magnetic resonance imaging apparatus and configured to implement a sequencing of one or more ultra low magnetic fields substantially along one or more of the plurality of field directions; and a display connected to the controller, and wherein the controller is further configured to reconstruct a displayable image of an electrical current density in the object. Preferred methods, apparatuses, and computer program products are also disclosed.

  20. Indoor Positioning System Using Magnetic Field Map Navigation and an Encoder System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Sol; Seo, Woojin; Baek, Kwang-Ryul

    2017-01-01

    In the indoor environment, variation of the magnetic field is caused by building structures, and magnetic field map navigation is based on this feature. In order to estimate position using this navigation, a three-axis magnetic field must be measured at every point to build a magnetic field map. After the magnetic field map is obtained, the position of the mobile robot can be estimated with a likelihood function whereby the measured magnetic field data and the magnetic field map are used. However, if only magnetic field map navigation is used, the estimated position can have large errors. In order to improve performance, we propose a particle filter system that integrates magnetic field map navigation and an encoder system. In this paper, multiple magnetic sensors and three magnetic field maps (a horizontal intensity map, a vertical intensity map, and a direction information map) are used to update the weights of particles. As a result, the proposed system estimates the position and orientation of a mobile robot more accurately than previous systems. Also, when the number of magnetic sensors increases, this paper shows that system performance improves. Finally, experiment results are shown from the proposed system that was implemented and evaluated. PMID:28327513

  1. Indoor Positioning System Using Magnetic Field Map Navigation and an Encoder System.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Sol; Seo, Woojin; Baek, Kwang-Ryul

    2017-03-22

    In the indoor environment, variation of the magnetic field is caused by building structures, and magnetic field map navigation is based on this feature. In order to estimate position using this navigation, a three-axis magnetic field must be measured at every point to build a magnetic field map. After the magnetic field map is obtained, the position of the mobile robot can be estimated with a likelihood function whereby the measured magnetic field data and the magnetic field map are used. However, if only magnetic field map navigation is used, the estimated position can have large errors. In order to improve performance, we propose a particle filter system that integrates magnetic field map navigation and an encoder system. In this paper, multiple magnetic sensors and three magnetic field maps (a horizontal intensity map, a vertical intensity map, and a direction information map) are used to update the weights of particles. As a result, the proposed system estimates the position and orientation of a mobile robot more accurately than previous systems. Also, when the number of magnetic sensors increases, this paper shows that system performance improves. Finally, experiment results are shown from the proposed system that was implemented and evaluated.

  2. Development of closed loop roll control for magnetic balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covert, E. E.; Haldeman, C. W.; Ramohalli, G.; Way, P.

    1982-01-01

    This research was undertaken with the goal of demonstrating closed loop control of the roll degree of freedom on the NASA prototype magnetic suspension and balance system at the MIT Aerophysics Laboratory, thus, showing feasibility for a roll control system for any large magnetic balance system which might be built in the future. During the research under this grant, study was directed toward the several areas of torque generation, position sensing, model construction and control system design. These effects were then integrated to produce successful closed loop operation of the analogue roll control system. This experience indicated the desirability of microprocessor control for the angular degrees of freedom.

  3. Engineering of the Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statham, G.; White, S.; Adams, R. B.; Thio, Y. C. F.; Santarius, J.; Alexander, R.; Chapman, J.; Fincher, S.; Philips, A.; Polsgrove, T.

    2003-01-01

    Engineering details are presented for a magnetized target fusion (MTF) propulsion system designed to support crewed missions to the outer solar system. Basic operation of an MTF propulsion system is introduced. Structural, thermal, radiation-management and electrical design details are presented. The propellant storage and supply system design is also presented. A propulsion system mass estimate and associated performance figures are given. The advantages of helium-3 as a fusion fuel for an advanced MTF system are discussed.

  4. Distributed magnetic field positioning system using code division multiple access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prigge, Eric A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus and methods for a magnetic field positioning system use a fundamentally different, and advantageous, signal structure and multiple access method, known as Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). This signal architecture, when combined with processing methods, leads to advantages over the existing technologies, especially when applied to a system with a large number of magnetic field generators (beacons). Beacons at known positions generate coded magnetic fields, and a magnetic sensor measures a sum field and decomposes it into component fields to determine the sensor position and orientation. The apparatus and methods can have a large `building-sized` coverage area. The system allows for numerous beacons to be distributed throughout an area at a number of different locations. A method to estimate position and attitude, with no prior knowledge, uses dipole fields produced by these beacons in different locations.

  5. Magnetic suspension and balance system advanced study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W.; Abdelsalam, M. K.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Mcintosh, G. E.

    1990-01-01

    The design improvements for the system encompass 14 or 18 external superconductive coils mounted on a 8 x 8 foot wind tunnel, a superconductive model core magnet on a holmium mandrel to fit an F-16 model, model wings of permanent magnet material Nd2Fe14B, and fiber glass epoxy structure. The Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS) advanced design is confirmed by the successful construction and test of a full size superconductive model core solenoid with holmium mandrel. The solenoid is 75 cm long and 12.6 cm in diameter and produces 6.1 tesla for a hold time of 47 minutes. An integrated coil system design of a new compact configuration without specific coils for roll or pitch shows promise of simplicity; magnet reductions of 30 percent compared to the most recent 1985 design are possible.

  6. Neural Network Control of a Magnetically Suspended Rotor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin; Brown, Gerald; Johnson, Dexter

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Magnetic bearings offer significant advantages because of their noncontact operation, which can reduce maintenance. Higher speeds, no friction, no lubrication, weight reduction, precise position control, and active damping make them far superior to conventional contact bearings. However, there are technical barriers that limit the application of this technology in industry. One of them is the need for a nonlinear controller that can overcome the system nonlinearity and uncertainty inherent in magnetic bearings. This paper discusses the use of a neural network as a nonlinear controller that circumvents system nonlinearity. A neural network controller was well trained and successfully demonstrated on a small magnetic bearing rig. This work demonstrated the feasibility of using a neural network to control nonlinear magnetic bearings and systems with unknown dynamics.

  7. Coherent Structures in Magnetic Confinement Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, W.

    2006-04-01

    Coherent structures are long-lived, nonlinear localized solutions of the selfconsistient plasma-electromagnetic field equations. They contain appreciable energy density and control various transport and magnetic reconnection processes in plasmas. These structures are self-binding from the nonlinearity balancing, or overcoming, the wave dispersion of energy in smaller amplitude structures. The structures evolve out of the nonlinear interactions in various instabilities or external driving fields. The theoretical basis for these structures are reviewed giving examples from various plasma instabilities and their reduced descriptions from the appropriate partial differential equations. A classic example from drift waves is the formation of monopole, dipole and tripolar vortex structures which have been created in both laboratory and simulation experiments. For vortices, the long life-time and nonlinear interactions of the structures can be understood with conservation laws of angular momentum given by the vorticity field associated with dynamics. Other morphologies include mushrooms, Kelvin-Helmholtz vorticity roll-up, streamers and blobs. We show simulation movies of various examples drawn from ETG modes in NSTX, H-mode like shear flow layers in LAPD and the vortices measured with soft x-ray tomography in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. Coherent current-sheet structures form in driven magnetic reconnection layers and control the rate of transformation of magnetic energy to flow and thermal energy.

  8. Failure Accommodation Tested in Magnetic Suspension Systems for Rotating Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provenza, Andy J.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field and Texas A&M University are developing techniques for accommodating certain types of failures in magnetic suspension systems used in rotating machinery. In recent years, magnetic bearings have become a viable alternative to rolling element bearings for many applications. For example, industrial machinery such as machine tool spindles and turbomolecular pumps can today be bought off the shelf with magnetically supported rotating components. Nova Gas Transmission Ltd. has large gas compressors in Canada that have been running flawlessly for years on magnetic bearings. To help mature this technology and quiet concerns over the reliability of magnetic bearings, NASA researchers have been investigating ways of making the bearing system tolerant to faults. Since the potential benefits from an oil-free, actively controlled bearing system are so attractive, research that is focused on assuring system reliability and safety is justifiable. With support from the Fast Quiet Engine program, Glenn's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to demonstrate fault-tolerant magnetic suspension systems targeted for aerospace engine applications. The Flywheel Energy Storage Program is also helping to fund this research.

  9. Probing Gravitational Sensitivity in Biological Systems Using Magnetic Body Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guevorkian, Karine; Wurzel, Sam; Mihalusova, Mariana; Valles, Jim

    2003-01-01

    At Brown University, we are developing the use of magnetic body forces as a means to simulate variable gravity body forces on biological systems. This tool promises new means to probe gravi-sensing and the gravi-response of biological systems. It also has the potential as a technique for screening future systems for space flight experiments.

  10. Digital control of wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.; Goodyer, Michael J.; Eskins, Jonathan; Parker, David; Halford, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Digital controllers are being developed for wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems, which in turn permit wind tunnel testing of aircraft models free from support interference. Hardware and software features of two existing digital control systems are reviewed. Some aspects of model position sensing and system calibration are also discussed.

  11. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for asynchronous electrical systems

    DOEpatents

    Boenig, Heinrich J.

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting magnetic energy storage coil connected in parallel between converters of two or more ac power systems provides load leveling and stability improvement to any or all of the ac systems. Control is provided to direct the charging and independently the discharging of the superconducting coil to at least a selected one of the ac power systems.

  12. Engineering of the Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statham, G.; White, S.; Adams, R. B.; Thio, Y. C. F.; Santarius, J.; Alexander, R.; Fincher, S.; Polsgrove, T.; Chapman, J.; Philips, A.

    2002-01-01

    Engineering details are presented for a magnetized target fusion (MTF) propulsion system designed to support crewed missions to the outer solar system. Structural, thermal and radiation-management design details are presented. Propellant storage and supply options are also discussed and a propulsion system mass estimate is given.

  13. Pulsed field probe of real time magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanoparticle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulkes, T.; Syed, M.; Taplin, T.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are extensively used in biotechnology. These applications rely on magnetic properties that are a keen function of MNP size, distribution, and shape. Various magneto-optical techniques, including Faraday Rotation (FR), Cotton-Mouton Effect, etc., have been employed to characterize magnetic properties of MNPs. Generally, these measurements employ AC or DC fields. In this work, we describe the results from a FR setup that uses pulsed magnetic fields and an analysis technique that makes use of the entire pulse shape to investigate size distribution and shape anisotropy. The setup employs a light source, polarizing components, and a detector that are used to measure the rotation of light from a sample that is subjected to a pulsed magnetic field. This magnetic field "snapshot" is recorded alongside the intensity pulse of the sample's response. This side by side comparison yields useful information about the real time magnetization dynamics of the system being probed. The setup is highly flexible with variable control of pulse length and peak magnitude. Examining the raw data for the response of bare Fe3O4 and hybrid Au and Fe3O4 nanorods reveals interesting information about Brownian relaxation and the hydrodynamic size of these nanorods. This analysis exploits the self-referencing nature of this measurement to highlight the impact of an applied field on creating a field induced transparency for a longitudinal measurement. Possible sources for this behavior include shape anisotropy and field assisted aggregate formation.

  14. Force Measurements in Magnetic Suspension and Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzin, Alexander; Shapovalov, George; Prohorov, Nikolay

    1996-01-01

    The description of an infrared telemetry system for measurement of drag forces in Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS) is presented. This system includes a drag force sensor, electronic pack and transmitter placed in the model which is of special construction, and receiver with a microprocessor-based measuring device, placed outside of the test section. Piezosensitive resonators as sensitive elements and non-magnetic steel as the material for the force sensor are used. The main features of the proposed system for load measurements are discussed and the main characteristics are presented.

  15. Present Status of the KSTAR Superconducting Magnet System Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Keeman; H, K. Park; K, R. Park; B, S. Lim; S, I. Lee; M, K. Kim; Y, Chu; W, H. Chung; S, H. Baek; J Y, Choi; H, Yonekawa; A, Chertovskikh; Y, B. Chang; J, S. Kim; C, S. Kim; D, J. Kim; N, H. Song; K, P. Kim; Y, J. Song; I, S. Woo; W, S. Han; D, K. Lee; Y, K. Oh; K, W. Cho; J, S. Park; G, S. Lee; H, J. Lee; T, K. Ko; S, J. Lee

    2004-10-01

    The mission of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) project is to develop an advanced steady-state superconducting tokamak for establishing a scientific and technological basis for an attractive fusion reactor. Because one of the KSTAR mission is to achieve a steady-state operation, the use of superconducting coils is an obvious choice for the magnet system. The KSTAR superconducting magnet system consists of 16 Toroidal Field (TF) coils and 14 Poloidal Field (PF) coils. Internally-cooled Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC) are put into use in both the TF and PF coil systems. The TF coil system provides a field of 3.5 T at the plasma center and the PF coil system is able to provide a flux swing of 17 V-sec. The major achievement in KSTAR magnet-system development includes the development of CICC, the development of a full-size TF model coil, the development of a coil system for background magnetic-field generation, the construction of a large-scale superconducting magnet and CICC test facility. TF and PF coils are in the stage of fabrication to pave the way for the scheduled completion of KSTAR by the end of 2006.

  16. Fundamental study on the magnetic field control method using multiple HTS coils for Magnetic Drug Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, R.; Kim, S. B.; Nakagawa, T.; Tomisaka, Y.; Ueda, H.

    2017-07-01

    The magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) is a key technology to reduce the side effects in the medical applications, and the magnetic force control is very important issue in MDDS. In this application, the strength of magnetic field and gradient required to MDDS devices are 54 mT and 5.5 T/m, respectively. We proposed the new magnetic force control system that consists of the multiple racetrack HTS magnets. We can control the magnetic field gradient along the longitudinal direction by the arrangement of the multiple racetrack HTS magnets and operating current of each magnet. When the racetrack HTS magnets were used, the critical current was reduced by the self-magnetic field. Therefore, the shape design of HTS magnet to reduce the magnet field into the surface of HTS tapes was required. Therefore, the electromagnetic analysis based on finite element method (FEM) was carried out to design and optimize the shape of multiple racetrack HTS magnet. We were able to suppress the reduction of critical current by placing the magnetic substance at upper and lower side of the HTS magnets. It was confirmed that obtained maximum values of magnetic field strength and field gradient were 33 mT and 0.18 T/m, respectively.

  17. Passive magnetic shielding in MRI-Linac systems.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Brendan; Kolling, Stefan; Oborn, Brad M; Keall, Paul

    2018-03-26

    Passive magnetic shielding refers to the use of ferromagnetic materials to redirect magnetic field lines away from vulnerable regions. An application of particular interest to the medical physics community is shielding in MRI systems, especially integrated MRI-linear accelerator (MRI-Linac) systems. In these systems, the goal is not only to minimize the magnetic field in some volume, but also to minimize the impact of the shield on the magnetic fields within the imaging volume of the MRI scanner. In this work, finite element modelling was used to assess the shielding of a side coupled 6 MV linac and resultant heterogeneity induced within the 30 cm diameter of spherical volume (DSV) of a novel 1 Tesla split bore MRI magnet. A number of different shield parameters were investigated; distance between shield and magnet, shield shape, shield thickness, shield length, openings in the shield, number of concentric layers, spacing between each layer, and shield material. Both the in-line and perpendicular MRI-Linac configurations were studied. By modifying the shield shape around the linac from the starting design of an open ended cylinder, the shielding effect was boosted by approximately 70% whilst the impact on the magnet was simultaneously reduced by approximately 10%. Openings in the shield for the RF port and beam exit were substantial sources of field leakage; however it was demonstrated that shielding could be added around these openings to compensate for this leakage. Layering multiple concentric shield shells was highly effective in the perpendicular configuration, but less so for the in-line configuration. Cautious use of high permeability materials such as Mu-metal can greatly increase the shielding performance in some scenarios. In the perpendicular configuration, magnetic shielding was more effective and the impact on the magnet lower compared with the in-line configuration.

  18. Passive magnetic shielding in MRI-Linac systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Brendan; Kolling, Stefan; Oborn, Brad M.; Keall, Paul

    2018-04-01

    Passive magnetic shielding refers to the use of ferromagnetic materials to redirect magnetic field lines away from vulnerable regions. An application of particular interest to the medical physics community is shielding in MRI systems, especially integrated MRI-linear accelerator (MRI-Linac) systems. In these systems, the goal is not only to minimize the magnetic field in some volume, but also to minimize the impact of the shield on the magnetic fields within the imaging volume of the MRI scanner. In this work, finite element modelling was used to assess the shielding of a side coupled 6 MV linac and resultant heterogeneity induced within the 30 cm diameter of spherical volume (DSV) of a novel 1 Tesla split bore MRI magnet. A number of different shield parameters were investigated; distance between shield and magnet, shield shape, shield thickness, shield length, openings in the shield, number of concentric layers, spacing between each layer, and shield material. Both the in-line and perpendicular MRI-Linac configurations were studied. By modifying the shield shape around the linac from the starting design of an open ended cylinder, the shielding effect was boosted by approximately 70% whilst the impact on the magnet was simultaneously reduced by approximately 10%. Openings in the shield for the RF port and beam exit were substantial sources of field leakage; however it was demonstrated that shielding could be added around these openings to compensate for this leakage. Layering multiple concentric shield shells was highly effective in the perpendicular configuration, but less so for the in-line configuration. Cautious use of high permeability materials such as Mu-metal can greatly increase the shielding performance in some scenarios. In the perpendicular configuration, magnetic shielding was more effective and the impact on the magnet lower compared with the in-line configuration.

  19. Design and simulation of permanent magnet synchronous motor control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Liu, Yongqiu

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, with the development of power electronics, microelectronics, new motor control theory and rare earth permanent magnet materials, permanent magnet synchronous motors have been rapidly applied. Permanent magnet synchronous motors have the advantages of small size, low loss and high efficiency. Today, energy conservation and environmental protection are increasingly valued. It is very necessary to study them. Permanent magnet synchronous motor control system has a wide range of application prospects in the fields of electric vehicles, ships and other transportation. Using the simulation function of MATLAB/SIMULINK, a modular design structure was used to simulate the whole system model of speed loop adjustment, current PI modulation, SVPWM (Space Vector Pulse Width Module) wave generation and double closed loop. The results show that this control method has good robustness, and this method can improve the design efficiency and shorten the system design time. In this article, the analysis of the control principle of modern permanent magnet synchronous motor and the various processes of MATLAB simulation application will be analyzed in detail. The basic theory, basic method and application technology of the permanent magnet synchronous motor control system are systematically introduced.

  20. System for Controlling a Magnetically Levitated Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    In a rotor assembly having a rotor supported for rotation by magnetic bearings, a processor controlled by software or firmware controls the generation of force vectors that position the rotor relative to its bearings in a "bounce" mode in which the rotor axis is displaced from the principal axis defined between the bearings and a "tilt" mode in which the rotor axis is tilted or inclined relative to the principal axis. Waveform driven perturbations are introduced to generate force vectors that excite the rotor in either the "bounce" or "tilt" modes.

  1. Force characteristic analysis of a magnetic gravity compensator with annular magnet array for magnetic levitation positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yiheng; Kou, Baoquan; Liu, Peng; Zhang, He; Xing, Feng; Yang, Xiaobao

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic levitation positioning system (MLPS) is considered to be the state of the art in inspection and manufacturing systems in vacuum. In this paper, a magnetic gravity compensator with annular magnet array (AMA-MGC) for MLPS is proposed. Benefiting from the double-layer annular Halbach magnet array on the stator, the proposed AMA-MGC possesses the advantages of symmetrical force, high force density and small force fluctuation. Firstly, the basic structure and operation principle of the AMA-MGC are introduced. Secondly, the basic characteristics of the AMA-MGC such as magnetic field distribution, levitation force, parasitic force and parasitic torque are analyzed by the three-dimensional finite element analysis (3-D FEA). Thirdly, the influence of structural parameters on force density and force fluctuation is investigated, which is conductive to the design and optimization of the AMA-MGC. Finally, a prototype of the AMA-MGC is constructed, and the experiment shows good agreement with the 3-D FEA results.

  2. A motionless actuation system for magnetic shape memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Andrew; Finn, Kevin; Hobza, Anthony; Lindquist, Paul; Rafla, Nader; Müllner, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Ni-Mn-Ga is a Magnetic Shape Memory (MSM) alloy that changes shape in response to a variable magnetic field. We can intentionally manipulate the shape of the material to function as an actuator, and the material can thus replace complicated small electromechanical systems. In previous work, a very simple and precise solid-state micropump was developed, but a mechanical rotation was required to translate the position of the magnetic field. This mechanical rotation defeats the purpose of the motionless solid-state device. Here we present a solid-state electromagnetic driver to linearly progress the position of the applied magnetic field and the associated shrinkage. The generated magnetic field was focused at either of two pole pieces, providing a mechanism for moving the localized shrinkage in the MSM element. We confirmed that our driver has sufficient strength to actuate the MSM element using optical microscopy. We validated the whole design by comparing results obtained with finite element analysis with the experimentally measured flux density. This drive system serves as a possible replacement to the mechanical rotation of the magnetic field by using a multi-pole electromagnet that sweeps the magnetic field across the MSM micropump element, solid-state switching the current to each pole piece in the multi-pole electromagnet.

  3. ATV magnetometer systems for efficient ground magnetic surveying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Athens, Noah D.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Morin, Robert L.; Klemperer, Simon L.

    2011-01-01

    Ground magnetic data contain information, not pre-sent in aeromagnetic data, which may be useful for precisely mapping near-surface faults and contacts, as well as constraining or aiding interpretation of other geophysical methods. However, collecting ground magnetic data on foot is labor-intensive and is therefore limited to small surveys. In this article, we present two newly developed all-terrain vehicle (ATV) magnetometer systems that significantly expand the survey area that is possible in a ground magnetic survey without greatly reducing the quality of data.

  4. A design approach for systems based on magnetic pulse compression.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D Durga Praveen; Mitra, S; Senthil, K; Sharma, D K; Rajan, Rehim N; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K V; Chakravarthy, D P

    2008-04-01

    A design approach giving the optimum number of stages in a magnetic pulse compression circuit and gain per stage is given. The limitation on the maximum gain per stage is discussed. The total system volume minimization is done by considering the energy storage capacitor volume and magnetic core volume at each stage. At the end of this paper, the design of a magnetic pulse compression based linear induction accelerator of 200 kV, 5 kA, and 100 ns with a repetition rate of 100 Hz is discussed with its experimental results.

  5. Active magnetic radiation shielding system analysis and key technologies.

    PubMed

    Washburn, S A; Blattnig, S R; Singleterry, R C; Westover, S C

    2015-01-01

    Many active magnetic shielding designs have been proposed in order to reduce the radiation exposure received by astronauts on long duration, deep space missions. While these designs are promising, they pose significant engineering challenges. This work presents a survey of the major systems required for such unconfined magnetic field design, allowing the identification of key technologies for future development. Basic mass calculations are developed for each system and are used to determine the resulting galactic cosmic radiation exposure for a generic solenoid design, using a range of magnetic field strength and thickness values, allowing some of the basic characteristics of such a design to be observed. This study focuses on a solenoid shaped, active magnetic shield design; however, many of the principles discussed are applicable regardless of the exact design configuration, particularly the key technologies cited. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). All rights reserved.

  6. Magnetic nanoparticle drug delivery systems for targeting tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mody, Vicky V.; Cox, Arthur; Shah, Samit; Singh, Ajay; Bevins, Wesley; Parihar, Harish

    2014-04-01

    Tumor hypoxia, or low oxygen concentration, is a result of disordered vasculature that lead to distinctive hypoxic microenvironments not found in normal tissues. Many traditional anti-cancer agents are not able to penetrate into these hypoxic zones, whereas, conventional cancer therapies that work by blocking cell division are not effective to treat tumors within hypoxic zones. Under these circumstances the use of magnetic nanoparticles as a drug delivering agent system under the influence of external magnetic field has received much attention, based on their simplicity, ease of preparation, and ability to tailor their properties for specific biological applications. Hence in this review article we have reviewed current magnetic drug delivery systems, along with their application and clinical status in the field of magnetic drug delivery.

  7. Realistic finite temperature simulations of magnetic systems using quantum statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergqvist, Lars; Bergman, Anders

    2018-01-01

    We have performed realistic atomistic simulations at finite temperatures using Monte Carlo and atomistic spin dynamics simulations incorporating quantum (Bose-Einstein) statistics. The description is much improved at low temperatures compared to classical (Boltzmann) statistics normally used in these kind of simulations, while at higher temperatures the classical statistics are recovered. This corrected low-temperature description is reflected in both magnetization and the magnetic specific heat, the latter allowing for improved modeling of the magnetic contribution to free energies. A central property in the method is the magnon density of states at finite temperatures, and we have compared several different implementations for obtaining it. The method has no restrictions regarding chemical and magnetic order of the considered materials. This is demonstrated by applying the method to elemental ferromagnetic systems, including Fe and Ni, as well as Fe-Co random alloys and the ferrimagnetic system GdFe3.

  8. Spherical type integrable classical systems in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesiello, A.; Šnobl, L.; Winternitz, P.

    2018-04-01

    We show that four classes of second order spherical type integrable classical systems in a magnetic field exist in the Euclidean space {E}3 , and construct the Hamiltonian and two second order integrals of motion in involution for each of them. For one of the classes the Hamiltonian depends on four arbitrary functions of one variable. This class contains the magnetic monopole as a special case. Two further classes have Hamiltonians depending on one arbitrary function of one variable and four or six constants, respectively. The magnetic field in these cases is radial. The remaining system corresponds to a constant magnetic field and the Hamiltonian depends on two constants. Questions of superintegrability—i.e. the existence of further integrals—are discussed.

  9. Passive magnetic bearing systems stabilizer/bearing utilizing time-averaging of a periodic magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Richard F.

    A high-stiffness stabilizer/bearings for passive magnetic bearing systems is provide where the key to its operation resides in the fact that when the frequency of variation of the repelling forces of the periodic magnet array is large compared to the reciprocal of the growth time of the unstable motion, the rotating system will feel only the time-averaged value of the force. When the time-averaged value of the force is radially repelling by the choice of the geometry of the periodic magnet array, the Earnshaw-related unstable hit motion that would occur at zero rotational speed is suppressed when the system ismore » rotating at operating speeds.« less

  10. Research developing closed loop roll control for magnetic balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covert, E. E.; Haldeman, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Computer inputs were interfaced to the magnetic balance outputs to provide computer position control and data acquisition. The use of parameter identification of a means of determining dynamic characteristics was investigated. The thyraton and motor generator power supplies for the pitch and yaw degrees of freedom were repaired. Topics covered include: choice of a method for handling dynamic system data; applications to the magnetic balance; the computer interface; and wind tunnel tests, results, and error analysis.

  11. Review of magnetic refrigeration system as alternative to conventional refrigeration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezaal, N. A.; Osintsev, K. V.; Zhirgalova, T. B.

    2017-10-01

    The refrigeration system is one of the most important systems in industry. Developers are constantly seeking for how to avoid the damage to the environment. Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging, environment-friendly technology based on a magnetic solid that acts as a refrigerant by magneto-caloric effect (MCE). In the case of ferromagnetic materials, MCE warms as the magnetic moments of the atom are aligned by the application of a magnetic field. There are two types of magnetic phase changes that may occur at the Curie point: first order magnetic transition (FOMT) and second order magnetic transition (SOMT). The reference cycle for magnetic refrigeration is AMR (Active Magnetic Regenerative cycle), where the magnetic material matrix works both as a refrigerating medium and as a heat regenerating medium, while the fluid flowing in the porous matrix works as a heat transfer medium. Regeneration can be accomplished by blowing a heat transfer fluid in a reciprocating fashion through the regenerator made of magnetocaloric material that is alternately magnetized and demagnetized. Many magnetic refrigeration prototypes with different designs and software models have been built in different parts of the world. In this paper, the authors try to shed light on the magnetic refrigeration and show its effectiveness compared with conventional refrigeration methods.

  12. Adiabatic cooling processes in frustrated magnetic systems with pyrochlore structure.

    PubMed

    Jurčišinová, E; Jurčišin, M

    2017-11-01

    We investigate in detail the process of adiabatic cooling in the framework of the exactly solvable antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Ising model in the presence of the external magnetic field on an approximate lattice with pyrochlore structure. The behavior of the entropy of the model is studied and exact values of the residual entropies of all ground states are found. The temperature variation of the system under adiabatic (de)magnetization is investigated and the central role of the macroscopically degenerated ground states in cooling processes is explicitly demonstrated. It is shown that the model parameter space of the studied geometrically frustrated system is divided into five disjunct regions with qualitatively different processes of the adiabatic cooling. The effectiveness of the adiabatic (de)magnetization cooling in the studied model is compared to the corresponding processes in paramagnetic salts. It is shown that the processes of the adiabatic cooling in the antiferromagnetic frustrated systems are much more effective especially in nonzero external magnetic fields. It means that the frustrated magnetic materials with pyrochlore structure can be considered as very promising refrigerants mainly in the situations with nonzero final values of the magnetic field.

  13. Adiabatic cooling processes in frustrated magnetic systems with pyrochlore structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate in detail the process of adiabatic cooling in the framework of the exactly solvable antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Ising model in the presence of the external magnetic field on an approximate lattice with pyrochlore structure. The behavior of the entropy of the model is studied and exact values of the residual entropies of all ground states are found. The temperature variation of the system under adiabatic (de)magnetization is investigated and the central role of the macroscopically degenerated ground states in cooling processes is explicitly demonstrated. It is shown that the model parameter space of the studied geometrically frustrated system is divided into five disjunct regions with qualitatively different processes of the adiabatic cooling. The effectiveness of the adiabatic (de)magnetization cooling in the studied model is compared to the corresponding processes in paramagnetic salts. It is shown that the processes of the adiabatic cooling in the antiferromagnetic frustrated systems are much more effective especially in nonzero external magnetic fields. It means that the frustrated magnetic materials with pyrochlore structure can be considered as very promising refrigerants mainly in the situations with nonzero final values of the magnetic field.

  14. Neural Network Control of a Magnetically Suspended Rotor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin B.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic bearings offer significant advantages because they do not come into contact with other parts during operation, which can reduce maintenance. Higher speeds, no friction, no lubrication, weight reduction, precise position control, and active damping make them far superior to conventional contact bearings. However, there are technical barriers that limit the application of this technology in industry. One of them is the need for a nonlinear controller that can overcome the system nonlinearity and uncertainty inherent in magnetic bearings. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, a neural network was selected as a nonlinear controller because it generates a neural model without any detailed information regarding the internal working of the magnetic bearing system. It can be used even for systems that are too complex for an accurate system model to be derived. A feed-forward architecture with a back-propagation learning algorithm was selected because of its proven performance, accuracy, and relatively easy implementation.

  15. A magnetic induction heating system with multi-cascaded coils and adjustable magnetic circuit for hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Fang; Chao, Hsuan-Yi; Chang, Hsun-Hao; Lin, Xi-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of cancer cells that cannot survive in an environment with temperature over 42 °C, a magnetic induction heating system for cancer treatment is developed in this work. First, the methods and analyses for designing the multi-cascaded coils magnetic induction hyperthermia system are proposed, such as internal impedance measurement of power generator, impedance matching of coils, and analysis of the system. Besides, characteristics of the system are simulated by a full-wave package for engineering optimization. Furthermore, by considering the safety factor of patients, a two-sectional needle is designed for hyperthermia. Finally, this system is employed to test the liver of swine in ex-vivo experiments, and through Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain and NADPH oxidase activity assay, the feasibility of this system is verified.

  16. Nonlinear Control of Large Disturbances in Magnetic Bearing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Yuhong; Zmood, R. B.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear operation of magnetic bearing control methods is reviewed. For large disturbances, the effects of displacement constraints and power amplifier current and di/dt limits on bearing control system performance are analyzed. The operation of magnetic bearings exhibiting self-excited large scale oscillations have been studied both experimentally and by simulation. The simulation of the bearing system has been extended to include the effects of eddy currents in the actuators, so as to improve the accuracy of the simulation results. The results of these experiments and simulations are compared, and some useful conclusions are drawn for improving bearing system robustness.

  17. Oscillation damping means for magnetically levitated systems

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F [Walnut Creek, CA

    2009-01-20

    The present invention presents a novel system and method of damping rolling, pitching, or yawing motions, or longitudinal oscillations superposed on their normal forward or backward velocity of a moving levitated system.

  18. A Review of Dynamic Characteristics of Magnetically Levitated Vehicle Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-11-01

    The dynamic response of magnetically levitated ( maglev ) ground transportation systems has important consequences for safety and ride quality...smoothness and levitation and control systems must be considered if maglev systems are to be economically feasible. The link between the guideway and the...other maglev components is vehicle dynamics. For a commercial maglev system, vehicle dynamics must be analyzed and tested in detail. This report, which

  19. Wide Band Low Noise Love Wave Magnetic Field Sensor System.

    PubMed

    Kittmann, Anne; Durdaut, Phillip; Zabel, Sebastian; Reermann, Jens; Schmalz, Julius; Spetzler, Benjamin; Meyners, Dirk; Sun, Nian X; McCord, Jeffrey; Gerken, Martina; Schmidt, Gerhard; Höft, Michael; Knöchel, Reinhard; Faupel, Franz; Quandt, Eckhard

    2018-01-10

    We present a comprehensive study of a magnetic sensor system that benefits from a new technique to substantially increase the magnetoelastic coupling of surface acoustic waves (SAW). The device uses shear horizontal acoustic surface waves that are guided by a fused silica layer with an amorphous magnetostrictive FeCoSiB thin film on top. The velocity of these so-called Love waves follows the magnetoelastically-induced changes of the shear modulus according to the magnetic field present. The SAW sensor is operated in a delay line configuration at approximately 150 MHz and translates the magnetic field to a time delay and a related phase shift. The fundamentals of this sensor concept are motivated by magnetic and mechanical simulations. They are experimentally verified using customized low-noise readout electronics. With an extremely low magnetic noise level of ≈100 pT/[Formula: see text], a bandwidth of 50 kHz and a dynamic range of 120 dB, this magnetic field sensor system shows outstanding characteristics. A range of additional measures to further increase the sensitivity are investigated with simulations.

  20. Errors and optics study of a permanent magnet quadrupole system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, F.; Maggiore, M.; Rifuggiato, D.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Giove, D.

    2015-05-01

    Laser-based accelerators are gaining interest in recent years as an alternative to conventional machines [1]. Nowadays, energy and angular spread of the laser-driven beams are the main issues in application and different solutions for dedicated beam-transport lines have been proposed [2,3]. In this context a system of permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs) is going to be realized by INFN [2] researchers, in collaboration with SIGMAPHI [3] company in France, to be used as a collection and pre-selection system for laser driven proton beams. The definition of well specified characteristics, both in terms of performances and field quality, of the magnetic lenses is crucial for the system realization, for an accurate study of the beam dynamics and the proper matching with a magnetic selection system already realized [6,7]. Hence, different series of simulations have been used for studying the PMQs harmonic contents and stating the mechanical and magnetic tolerances in order to have reasonable good beam quality downstream the system. In this paper is reported the method used for the analysis of the PMQs errors and its validation. Also a preliminary optics characterization is presented in which are compared the effects of an ideal PMQs system with a perturbed system on a monochromatic proton beams.

  1. Regulation of autonomic nervous system in space and magnetic storms.

    PubMed

    Baevsky, R M; Petrov, V M; Chernikova, A G

    1998-01-01

    Variations in the earth's magnetic field and magnetic storms are known to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disorders. The main "targets" for geomagnetic perturbations are the central nervous system and the neural regulation of vascular tone and heart rate variability. This paper presents the data about effect of geomagnetic fluctuations on human body in space. As a method for research the analysis of heart rate variability was used, which allows evaluating the state of the sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of the autonomic nervous system, vasomotor center and subcortical neural centers activity. Heart rate variability data were analyzed for 30 cosmonauts at the 2nd day of space flight on transport spaceship Soyuz (32nd orbit). There were formed three groups of cosmonauts: without magnetic storm (n=9), on a day with magnetic storm (n=12) and 1-2 days after magnetic storm (n=9). The present study was the first to demonstrate a specific impact of geomagnetic perturbations on the system of autonomic circulatory control in cosmonauts during space flight. The increasing of highest nervous centers activity was shown for group with magnetic storms, which was more significant on 1-2 days after magnetic storm. The use of discriminate analysis allowed to classify indicated three groups with 88% precision. Canonical variables are suggested to be used as criterions for evaluation of specific and non-specific components of cardiovascular reactions to geomagnetic perturbations. The applied aspect of the findings from the present study should be emphasized. They show, in particular, the need to supplement the medical monitoring of cosmonauts with predictions of probable geomagnetic perturbations in view of the prevention of unfavorable states appearances if the adverse reactions to geomagnetic perturbations are added to the tension experienced by regulatory systems during various stresses situations (such as work in the open space).

  2. Vibration measurements and analyses for a magnet superconductor levitated system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zheng; Liu, Yu; Yang, Wenjiang; Qiu, Ming

    2007-12-01

    Magnetic levitation technology, having the characteristics of low cost and high quality, has been considered a preferable option for the next generation of launcher systems. A world-wide research design on the conceptual level has been carried out on the highly reusable space transportation systems by applying magnetic levitation to the launch assistance. Recently, a research plan has been implemented in our laboratory by constructing a scale-model suspension system with high temperature superconductor (HTS henceforth) bulks over a 7 m Nd-Fe-B permanent-magnet (PM henceforth) track for the launch assistance. An experimental platform was built to investigate the dynamic responses of the PM-HTS interaction at different field-cooled positions. The critical frequencies and amplitudes which lead to the instability of levitation drift were investigated. The stiffness and the vibration damping were also discussed at the zero-field-cooled position.

  3. Magnetic-Field-Response Measurement-Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2006-01-01

    A measurement-acquisition system uses magnetic fields to power sensors and to acquire measurements from sensors. The system alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement-acquisition systems, which include a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with wires, use limited to a single type of measurement, wire degradation due to wear or chemical decay, and the logistics needed to add new sensors. Eliminating wiring for acquiring measurements can alleviate potential hazards associated with wires, such as damaged wires becoming ignition sources due to arcing. The sensors are designed as electrically passive inductive-capacitive or passive inductive-capacitive-resistive circuits that produce magnetic-field-responses. One or more electrical parameters (inductance, capacitance, and resistance) of each sensor can be variable and corresponds to a measured physical state of interest. The magnetic-field- response attributes (frequency, amplitude, and bandwidth) of the inductor correspond to the states of physical properties for which each sensor measures. For each sensor, the measurement-acquisition system produces a series of increasing magnetic-field harmonics within a frequency range dedicated to that sensor. For each harmonic, an antenna electrically coupled to an oscillating current (the frequency of which is that of the harmonic) produces an oscillating magnetic field. Faraday induction via the harmonic magnetic fields produces an electromotive force and therefore a current in the sensor. Once electrically active, the sensor produces its own harmonic magnetic field as the inductor stores and releases magnetic energy. The antenna of the measurement- acquisition system is switched from a transmitting to a receiving mode to acquire the magnetic-field response of the sensor. The rectified amplitude of the received response is compared to previous responses to prior transmitted harmonics, to ascertain if the measurement system has detected a

  4. Magnetic Leviation System Design and Implementation for Wind Tunnel Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin E.; Sheu, Yih-Ran; Jou, Hui-Long

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents recent work in magnetic suspension wind tunnel development in National Cheng Kung University. In this phase of research, a control-based study is emphasized to implement a robust control system into the experimental system under study. A ten-coil 10 cm x 10 cm magnetic suspension wind tunnel is built using a set of quadrant detectors for six degree of freedom control. To achieve the attitude control of suspended model with different attitudes, a spacial electromagnetic field simulation using OPERA 3D is studied. A successful test for six degree of freedom control is demonstrated in this paper.

  5. Identification of Curie temperature distributions in magnetic particulate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, J.; Berger, A.; Kramer, D.; Fangohr, H.; Hovorka, O.

    2017-09-01

    This paper develops a methodology for extracting the Curie temperature distribution from magnetisation versus temperature measurements which are realizable by standard laboratory magnetometry. The method is integral in nature, robust against various sources of measurement noise, and can be adopted to a wide range of granular magnetic materials and magnetic particle systems. The validity and practicality of the method is demonstrated using large-scale Monte-Carlo simulations of an Ising-like model as a proof of concept, and general conclusions are drawn about its applicability to different classes of systems and experimental conditions.

  6. Air Conditioning with Magnetic Refrigeration : An Efficient, Green Compact Cooling System Using Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Astronautics is developing an air conditioning system that relies on magnetic fields. Typical air conditioners use vapor compression to cool air. Vapor compression uses a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb the heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. Astronautics’ design uses a novel property of certain materials, called “magnetocaloric materials”, to achieve the same result as liquid refrigerants. These magnetocaloric materials essentially heat up when placed within a magnetic field and cool down when removed, effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. In addition, magnetic refrigeration uses nomore » ozone-depleting gases and is safer to use than conventional air conditioners which are prone to leaks.« less

  7. Magnetic field generated by lightning protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geri, A.; Veca, G. M.

    1988-04-01

    A lightning protection system for today's civil buildings must be electromagnetically compatible with the electronic equipment present in the building. This paper highlights a mathematic model which analyzes the electromagnetic effects in the environment in which the lightning protection system is. This model is developed by means of finite elements of an electrical circuit where each element is represented by a double pole circuit according to the trapezoidal algorithm developed using the finite difference method. It is thus possible to analyze the electromagnetic phenomena associated with the transient effects created by the lightning stroke even for a high-intensity current. Referring to an elementary system comprised of an air terminal, a down conductor, and a ground terminal, numerical results are here laid out.

  8. Theoretical studies to elucidate the influence of magnetic dipolar interactions occurring in the magnetic nanoparticle systems, for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osaci, M.; Cacciola, M.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the study of magnetic nanoparticles has been intensively developed not only for their fundamental theoretical interest, but also for their many technological applications, especially biomedical applications, ranging from contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging to the deterioration of cancer cells via hyperthermia treatment. The theoretical and experimental research has shown until now that the magnetic dipolar interactions between nanoparticles can have a significant influence on the magnetic behaviour of the system. But, this influence is not well understood. It is clear that the magnetic dipolar interaction intensity is correlated with the nanoparticle concentration, volume fraction and magnetic moment orientations. In this paper, we try to understand the influence of magnetic dipolar interactions on the behaviour of magnetic nanoparticle systems, for biomedical applications. For the model, we considered spherical nanoparticles with uniaxial anisotropy and lognormal distribution of the sizes. The model involves a simulation stage of the spatial distribution and orientation of the nanoparticles and their easy axes of magnetic anisotropy, and an evaluation stage of the Néel relaxation time. To assess the Néel relaxation time, we are going to discretise and adapt, to the local magnetic field, the Coffey analytical solution for the equation Fokker-Planck describing the dynamics of magnetic moments of nanoparticles in oblique external magnetic field. There are three fundamental aspects of interest in our studies on the magnetic nanoparticles: their spatial & orientational distributions, concentrations and sizes.

  9. An electrostatically and a magnetically confined electron gun lens system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernius, Mark T.; Man, Kin F.; Chutjian, Ara

    1988-01-01

    Focal properties, electron trajectory calculations, and geometries are given for two electron 'gun' lens systems that have a variety of applications in, for example, electron-neutral and electron-ion scattering experiments. One nine-lens system utilizes only electrostatic confinement and is capable of focusing electrons onto a fixed target with extremely small divergence angles, over a range of final energies 1-790 eV. The second gun lens system is a simpler three-lens system suitable for use in a uniform, solenoidal magnetic field. While the focusing properties of such a magnetically confined lens systenm are simpler to deal with, the system does illustrate features of electron extraction and Brillouin flow that have not been suitably emphasized in the literature.

  10. Magnetic suspension system for an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A technique to control a rim suspended in a magnetic field was developed. A complete system was developed, incorporating a support structure, magnetic actuators, a rim drive mechanism, an emergency fail-safe system, servo control system, and control electronics. Open loop and closed loop response of the system at zero speed and at 500 revolutions per minute (r/min) of the rim was obtained and analyzed. The rim was then dynamically balanced and a rim speed of 725 r/min was achieved. An analog simulation of the hardware was developed and tested with the actual control electronics connected to the analog computer. The system under development is stable at rim speeds below 700 r/min. Test results indicate that the rim under test is not rigid. The rim has a warp and a number of binding modes which prevented achievement of higher speeds. Further development efforts are required to achieve higher rim speeds.

  11. POWER SUPPLY CONTROL AND MONITORING FOR THE SNS RING AND TRANSPORT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    LAMBIASE,R.; OERTER,B.; PENG,S.

    2001-06-28

    There are approximately 300 magnet power supplies in the SNS accumulator ring and transport lines. Control and monitoring of the these converters will be primarily accomplished with a new Power Supply Interface and Controller (PSI/PSC) system developed for the SNS project. This PSI/PSC system provides all analog and digital commands and status readbacks in one fiber isolated module. With a maximum rate of 10KHz, the PSI/PSC must be supplemented with higher speed systems for the wide bandwidth pulsed injection supplies, and the even wider bandwidth extraction kickers. This paper describes the implementation of this PSI/PSC system, which was developed throughmore » an industry/laboratory collaboration, and the supplementary equipment used to support the wider bandwidth pulsed supplies.« less

  12. Computational Analysis of Enhanced Magnetic Bioseparation in Microfluidic Systems with Flow-Invasive Magnetic Elements

    PubMed Central

    Khashan, S. A.; Alazzam, A.; Furlani, E. P.

    2014-01-01

    A microfluidic design is proposed for realizing greatly enhanced separation of magnetically-labeled bioparticles using integrated soft-magnetic elements. The elements are fixed and intersect the carrier fluid (flow-invasive) with their length transverse to the flow. They are magnetized using a bias field to produce a particle capture force. Multiple stair-step elements are used to provide efficient capture throughout the entire flow channel. This is in contrast to conventional systems wherein the elements are integrated into the walls of the channel, which restricts efficient capture to limited regions of the channel due to the short range nature of the magnetic force. This severely limits the channel size and hence throughput. Flow-invasive elements overcome this limitation and enable microfluidic bioseparation systems with superior scalability. This enhanced functionality is quantified for the first time using a computational model that accounts for the dominant mechanisms of particle transport including fully-coupled particle-fluid momentum transfer. PMID:24931437

  13. Magnetic confinement system using charged ammonia targets

    DOEpatents

    Porter, Gary D.; Bogdanoff, Anatoly

    1979-01-01

    A system for guiding charged laser targets to a predetermined focal spot of a laser along generally arbitrary, and especially horizontal, directions which comprises a series of electrostatic sensors which provide inputs to a computer for real time calculation of position, velocity, and direction of the target along an initial injection trajectory, and a set of electrostatic deflection means, energized according to a calculated output of said computer, to change the target trajectory to intercept the focal spot of the laser which is triggered so as to illuminate the target of the focal spot.

  14. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid system for permanent magnet DC motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Lada, M. Y.; Baharom, M. F.; Jaafar, H. I.; Ramani, A. N.; Sulaima, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Hybrid system of Photovoltaic (PV) - Wind turbine (WT) generation has more advantages and reliable compared to PV or wind turbine system alone. The aim of this paper is to model and design hybrid system of PV-WT supplying 100W permanent-magnet dc motor. To achieve the objective, both of PV and WT are connected to converter in order to get the same source of DC supply. Then both sources were combined and straightly connected to 100W permanent magnet dc motor. All the works in this paper is only applied in circuit simulator by using Matlab Simulink. The output produced from each converter is expected to be suit to the motor specification. The output produced from each renewable energy system is as expected to be high as it can support the motor if one of them is breakdown

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of the murine cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Akki, Ashwin; Gupta, Ashish; Weiss, Robert G

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a powerful and reliable tool to noninvasively study the cardiovascular system in clinical practice. Because transgenic mouse models have assumed a critical role in cardiovascular research, technological advances in MRI have been extended to mice over the last decade. These have provided critical insights into cardiac and vascular morphology, function, and physiology/pathophysiology in many murine models of heart disease. Furthermore, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has allowed the nondestructive study of myocardial metabolism in both isolated hearts and in intact mice. This article reviews the current techniques and important pathophysiological insights from the application of MRI/MRS technology to murine models of cardiovascular disease.

  16. Electrostatic stabilizer for a passive magnetic bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2015-11-24

    Electrostatic stabilizers are provided for passive bearing systems composed of annular magnets having a net positive stiffness against radial displacements and that have a negative stiffness for vertical displacements, resulting in a vertical instability. Further embodiments are shown of a radial electrostatic stabilizer geometry (using circuitry similar to that employed in the vertical stabilizer). This version is suitable for stabilizing radial (lateral) displacements of a rotor that is levitated by annular permanent magnets that are stable against vertical displacements but are unstable against radial displacements.

  17. Electrostatic stabilizer for a passive magnetic bearing system

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Richard F

    2016-10-11

    Electrostatic stabilizers are provided for passive bearing systems composed of annular magnets having a net positive stiffness against radial displacements and that have a negative stiffness for vertical displacements, resulting in a vertical instability. Further embodiments are shown of a radial electrostatic stabilizer geometry (using circuitry similar to that employed in the vertical stabilizer). This version is suitable for stabilizing radial (lateral) displacements of a rotor that is levitated by annular permanent magnets that are stable against vertical displacements but are unstable against radial displacements.

  18. Non-contacting "snubber bearing" for passive magnetic bearing systems

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F

    2017-08-22

    A new non-contacting magnetic "snubber" bearing is provided for application to rotating systems such as vehicular electromechanical battery systems subject to frequent accelerations. The design is such that in the equilibrium position the drag force of the snubber is very small (milliwatts). However in a typical case, if the rotor is displaced by as little as 2 millimeters a large restoring force is generated without any physical contact between the stationary and rotating parts of the snubber bearing.

  19. High performance magnetic bearing systems using high temperature superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Abboud, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    A magnetic bearing apparatus and a method for providing at least one stabilizing force in a magnetic bearing structure with a superconducting magnetic assembly and a magnetic assembly, by providing a superconducting magnetic member in the superconducting magnetic assembly with a plurality of domains and arranging said superconducting magnetic member such that at least one domain has a domain C-axis vector alignment angularly disposed relative to a reference axis of the magnetic member in the magnetic assembly.

  20. High performance magnetic bearing systems using high temperature superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Abboud, R.G.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed are a magnetic bearing apparatus and a method for providing at least one stabilizing force in a magnetic bearing structure with a superconducting magnetic assembly and a magnetic assembly, by providing a superconducting magnetic member in the superconducting magnetic assembly with a plurality of domains and arranging said superconducting magnetic member such that at least one domain has a domain C-axis vector alignment angularly disposed relative to a reference axis of the magnetic member in the magnetic assembly. 7 figs.

  1. Unraveling surface enabled magnetic phenomena in low dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baljozovic, Milos; Girovsky, Jan; Nowakowski, Jan; Ali, Md Ehesan; Rossmann, Harald; Nijs, Thomas; Aeby, Elise; Nowakowska, Sylwia; Siewert, Dorota; Srivastava, Gitika; WäCkerlin, Christian; Dreiser, Jan; Decurtins, Silvio; Liu, Shi-Xia; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Jung, Thomas A.; Ballav, Nirmalya

    Molecular spin systems with controllable interactions are of both fundamental and applied importance. These systems help us to better understand the fundamental origins of the interactions involved in low dimensional magnetic systems and to put them in the framework of existing models towards their further development. Following our first observation of exchange induced magnetic ordering in paramagnetic porphyrins adsorbed on ferromagnetic Co surface we showed that magnetic properties of such molecules can be controllably altered upon exposure to chemical and physical stimuli. In our most recent work it was shown that a synthetically programmed co-assembly of Fe and Mn phthalocyanines can also be realized on diamagnetic Au(111) surfaces where it induces long-range 2D ferrimagnetic order, at first glance in conflict with the Mermin-Wagner theory. Here we provide evidence for the first direct observation of such ordering from STM/STS and XMCD data and from DFT +U calculations demonstrating key role of the Au(111) surface states in mediating AFM RKKY coupling of the Kondo underscreened magnetic moments.

  2. Solenoid Magnet System for the Fermilab Mu2e Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lamm, M. J.; Andreev, N.; Ambrosio, G.

    2011-12-14

    The Fermilab Mu2e experiment seeks to measure the rare process of direct muon to electron conversion in the field of a nucleus. Key to the design of the experiment is a system of three superconducting solenoids; a muon production solenoid (PS) which is a 1.8 m aperture axially graded solenoid with a peak field of 5 T used to focus secondary pions and muons from a production target located in the solenoid aperture; an 'S shaped' transport solenoid (TS) which selects and transports the subsequent muons towards a stopping target; a detector solenoid (DS) which is an axially graded solenoidmore » at the upstream end to focus transported muons to a stopping target, and a spectrometer solenoid at the downstream end to accurately measure the momentum of the outgoing conversion elections. The magnetic field requirements, the significant magnetic coupling between the solenoids, the curved muon transport geometry and the large beam induced energy deposition into the superconducting coils pose significant challenges to the magnetic, mechanical, and thermal design of this system. In this paper a conceptual design for the magnetic system which meets the Mu2e experiment requirements is presented.« less

  3. Thermomagnetic recording and magnetic-optic playback system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, G. W.; Guisinger, J. E. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A magnetic recording and magneto-optic playback system is disclosed wherein thermomagnetic recording is employed. A transparent isotropic film is heated along a continuous path by a focused laser beam. As each successive area of the path is heated locally to the vicinity of its Curie point in the presence of an applied magnetic field, a magneto-optic density is established proportional to the magnetic field and fixed in place as the area cools once the laser beam moves on to an adjacent area. To play back the recorded data, the intensity of the laser beam is reduced to avoid reaching the vicinity of the Curie point of the film as it is scanned by the laser beam in the same manner as for recording. A Faraday effect analyzer and photo detector are employed as a transducer for producing an output signal.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-26

    This report reviews the current applications of magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system. Since its introduction into the clinical environment in the early 1980's, this technology has had a major impact on the practice of neurology. It has proved to be superior to computed tomography for imaging many diseases of the brain and spine. In some instances it has clearly replaced computed tomography. It is likely that it will replace myelography for the assessment of cervicomedullary junction and spinal regions. The magnetic field strengths currently used appear to be entirely safe for clinical application in neurology except inmore » patients with cardiac pacemakers or vascular metallic clips. Some shortcomings of magnetic resonance imaging include its expense, the time required for scanning, and poor visualization of cortical bone.« less

  5. Absence of magnetic order in low-dimensional (RKKY) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrocchi, Fabio; Leggett, Anthony; Loss, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    We extend the Mermin-Wagner theorem to a system of lattice spins which are spin-coupled to itinerant and interacting charge carriers. We use the Bogoliubov inequality to rigorously prove that neither (anti-) ferromagnetic nor helical long-range order is possible in one and two dimensions at any finite temperature. Our proof applies to a wide class of models including any form of electron-electron and single-electron interactions that are independent of spin. In the presence of Rashba or Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions (SOI) magnetic order is not excluded and intimately connected to equilibrium spin currents. However, in the special case when Rashba and Dresselhaus SOIs are tuned to be equal, magnetic order is excluded again. This opens up a new possibility to control magnetism electrically. [4pt] References: D. Loss, F. L. Pedrocchi, and A. J. Leggett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 107201 (2011).

  6. Active magnetic damper in a power transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozanecka, D.; Kozanecki, Z.; Łagodziński, J.

    2011-05-01

    In rotor dynamics, the bearing characteristics exerts a decisive influence on dynamics of the rotating shaft. The research and application experience have led to active magnetic bearings (AMBs), which allow for unique applications in rotating systems. The paper presents the investigations concerning optimization of the magnetic bearing construction. An active magnetic bearing operates as a radial, auxiliary damper, which cooperates with the long, flexible shaft line (aircraft industry applications) and modifies its dynamic properties. In the developed concept of AMBs for aviation purposes, a necessity of increasing its bearing load capacity and damping has occurred. The second important criterion is a weight reduction. This advanced problem leads to specific requirements on the design and materials for the AMB. To achieve these goals, some simulations have been performed. The experimental results are presented as well.

  7. Pattern formation in diffusive excitable systems under magnetic flow effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mvogo, Alain; Takembo, Clovis N.; Ekobena Fouda, H. P.; Kofané, Timoléon C.

    2017-07-01

    We study the spatiotemporal formation of patterns in a diffusive FitzHugh-Nagumo network where the effect of electromagnetic induction has been introduced in the standard mathematical model by using magnetic flux, and the modulation of magnetic flux on membrane potential is realized by using memristor coupling. We use the multi-scale expansion to show that the system equations can be reduced to a single differential-difference nonlinear equation. The linear stability analysis is performed and discussed with emphasis on the impact of magnetic flux. It is observed that the effect of memristor coupling importantly modifies the features of modulational instability. Our analytical results are supported by the numerical experiments, which reveal that the improved model can lead to nonlinear quasi-periodic spatiotemporal patterns with some features of synchronization. It is observed also the generation of pulses and rhythmics behaviors like breathing or swimming which are important in brain researches.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of living systems by remote detection

    DOEpatents

    Wemmer, David; Pines, Alexander; Bouchard, Louis; Xu, Shoujun; Harel, Elad; Budker, Dmitry; Lowery, Thomas; Ledbetter, Micah

    2013-10-29

    A novel approach to magnetic resonance imaging is disclosed. Blood flowing through a living system is prepolarized, and then encoded. The polarization can be achieved using permanent or superconducting magnets. The polarization may be carried out upstream of the region to be encoded or at the place of encoding. In the case of an MRI of a brain, polarization of flowing blood can be effected by placing a magnet over a section of the body such as the heart upstream of the head. Alternatively, polarization and encoding can be effected at the same location. Detection occurs at a remote location, using a separate detection device such as an optical atomic magnetometer, or an inductive Faraday coil. The detector may be placed on the surface of the skin next to a blood vessel such as a jugular vein carrying blood away from the encoded region.

  9. Artificial Vector Calibration Method for Differencing Magnetic Gradient Tensor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhining; Zhang, Yingtang; Yin, Gang

    2018-01-01

    The measurement error of the differencing (i.e., using two homogenous field sensors at a known baseline distance) magnetic gradient tensor system includes the biases, scale factors, nonorthogonality of the single magnetic sensor, and the misalignment error between the sensor arrays, all of which can severely affect the measurement accuracy. In this paper, we propose a low-cost artificial vector calibration method for the tensor system. Firstly, the error parameter linear equations are constructed based on the single-sensor’s system error model to obtain the artificial ideal vector output of the platform, with the total magnetic intensity (TMI) scalar as a reference by two nonlinear conversions, without any mathematical simplification. Secondly, the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm is used to compute the integrated model of the 12 error parameters by nonlinear least-squares fitting method with the artificial vector output as a reference, and a total of 48 parameters of the system is estimated simultaneously. The calibrated system outputs along the reference platform-orthogonal coordinate system. The analysis results show that the artificial vector calibrated output can track the orientation fluctuations of TMI accurately, effectively avoiding the “overcalibration” problem. The accuracy of the error parameters’ estimation in the simulation is close to 100%. The experimental root-mean-square error (RMSE) of the TMI and tensor components is less than 3 nT and 20 nT/m, respectively, and the estimation of the parameters is highly robust. PMID:29373544

  10. Biosynthesis of Thermoresponsive Magnetic Nanoparticles by Magnetosome Display System.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Tomoko; Shimada, Takumi; Ito, Yasuhito; Honda, Toru; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2018-05-16

    Thermoresponsive magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized using a magnetosome display system. An elastin-like polypeptide decamer of VPGVG (ELP 10 ), which is hydrophobic above the transition temperature ( T t ) and can form an insoluble aggregation, was immobilized on biogenic MNPs in the magnetotactic bacterium, Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. It was suggested that hydrophobicity of the MNP surface increased at 60 °C compared with 20 °C by the immobilization of ELP 10 . Size distribution analysis indicated that the immobilization of ELP 10 onto MNPs induced the increased hydrophobicity with increasing temperatures up to 60 °C, promoting aggregation of the particles by hydrophobic and magnetic interactions. These results suggest that the acceleration of magnetic collection at 60 °C was caused by particle aggregation promoted by hydrophobic interaction between ELP-MNPs. Furthermore, the immobilization of ELP on MNPs gave a quick magnetic collection at 60 °C by external magnetic field. The thermoresponsive properties will further expand the utility of biotechnological applications of biogenic MNPs.

  11. Quantum control of topological defects in magnetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, So; Mohseni, Masoud

    2018-02-01

    Energy-efficient classical information processing and storage based on topological defects in magnetic systems have been studied over the past decade. In this work, we introduce a class of macroscopic quantum devices in which a quantum state is stored in a topological defect of a magnetic insulator. We propose noninvasive methods to coherently control and read out the quantum state using ac magnetic fields and magnetic force microscopy, respectively. This macroscopic quantum spintronic device realizes the magnetic analog of the three-level rf-SQUID qubit and is built fully out of electrical insulators with no mobile electrons, thus eliminating decoherence due to the coupling of the quantum variable to an electronic continuum and energy dissipation due to Joule heating. For a domain wall size of 10-100 nm and reasonable material parameters, we estimate qubit operating temperatures in the range of 0.1-1 K, a decoherence time of about 0.01-1 μ s , and the number of Rabi flops within the coherence time scale in the range of 102-104 .

  12. Development of REBCO HTS Magnet of Magnetic Bearing for Large Capacity Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Taro; Furukawa, Makoto; Nakao, Kengo; Nagashima, Ken; Ogata, Masafumi; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Yoshizawa, Kazuhiro; Arai, Yuuki; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Horiuchi, Shinichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Shimizu, Hideki

    A flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is a promising electrical storage system that moderates fluctuation of electrical power from renewable energy sources. The FESS can charge and discharge the surplus electrical power repetitively with the rotating energy. Particularly, the FESS that utilizes a high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing (HTS bearing) is lower loss than conventional FESS that has mechanical bearing, and has property of longer life operation than secondary batteries. The HTS bearing consists of a HTS bulk and double-pancake coils used 2nd generation REBCO wires. In the development, the HTS double-pancake coils were fabricated and were provided for a levitation test to verify the possibility of the HTS bearing. We successfully confirmed the magnetic field was achieved to design value, and levitation force in the configuration of one YBCO bulk and five double pan-cake coils was obtained to a satisfactory force of 39.2 kN (4 tons).

  13. Remote magnetic actuation using a clinical scale system

    PubMed Central

    Stehning, Christian; Gleich, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    Remote magnetic manipulation is a powerful technique for controlling devices inside the human body. It enables actuation and locomotion of tethered and untethered objects without the need for a local power supply. In clinical applications, it is used for active steering of catheters in medical interventions such as cardiac ablation for arrhythmia treatment and for steering of camera pills in the gastro-intestinal tract for diagnostic video acquisition. For these applications, specialized clinical-scale field applicators have been developed, which are rather limited in terms of field strength and flexibility of field application. For a general-purpose field applicator, flexible field generation is required at high field strengths as well as high field gradients to enable the generation of both torques and forces on magnetic devices. To date, this requirement has only been met by small-scale experimental systems. We have built a highly versatile clinical-scale field applicator that enables the generation of strong magnetic fields as well as strong field gradients over a large workspace. We demonstrate the capabilities of this coil-based system by remote steering of magnetic drills through gel and tissue samples with high torques on well-defined curved trajectories. We also give initial proof that, when equipped with high frequency transmit-receive coils, the machine is capable of real-time magnetic particle imaging while retaining a clinical-scale bore size. Our findings open the door for image-guided radiation-free remote magnetic control of devices at the clinical scale, which may be useful in minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic medical interventions. PMID:29494647

  14. Magnetically switched power supply system for lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacala, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A laser power supply system is described in which separate pulses are utilized to avalanche ionize the gas within the laser and then produce a sustained discharge to cause the gas to emit light energy. A pulsed voltage source is used to charge a storage device such as a distributed capacitance. A transmission line or other suitable electrical conductor connects the storage device to the laser. A saturable inductor switch is coupled in the transmission line for containing the energy within the storage device until the voltage level across the storage device reaches a predetermined level, which level is less than that required to avalanche ionize the gas. An avalanche ionization pulse generating circuit is coupled to the laser for generating a high voltage pulse of sufficient amplitude to avalanche ionize the laser gas. Once the laser gas is avalanche ionized, the energy within the storage device is discharged through the saturable inductor switch into the laser to provide the sustained discharge. The avalanche ionization generating circuit may include a separate voltage source which is connected across the laser or may be in the form of a voltage multiplier circuit connected between the storage device and the laser.

  15. Magnetic storm effects in electric power systems and prediction needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albertson, V. D.; Kappenman, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Geomagnetic field fluctuations produce spurious currents in electric power systems. These currents enter and exit through points remote from each other. The fundamental period of these currents is on the order of several minutes which is quasi-dc compared to the normal 60 Hz or 50 Hz power system frequency. Nearly all of the power systems problems caused by the geomagnetically induced currents result from the half-cycle saturation of power transformers due to simultaneous ac and dc excitation. The effects produced in power systems are presented, current research activity is discussed, and magnetic storm prediction needs of the power industry are listed.

  16. Monitoring long-term evolution of engineered barrier systems using magnets: Magnetic response.

    PubMed

    Rigonat, N; Isnard, O; Harley, S L; Butler, I B

    2018-01-05

    Remote and non-destructive monitoring of the stability and performance of Engineered Barrier Systems for Geological Disposal Facility of is gaining considerable importance in establishing the safety cases for Higher Activity Wastes disposal. This study offers an innovative use of mineral magnetism for monitoring groundwater saturation of the barrier. Four mixtures of permanent magnets (Nd-Fe-B, coated and uncoated; SmCo and AlNiCo) and bentonite were reacted for 4, 8 and 12 months with mildly-saline, high-pH leachates, representing the fluids saturating a time-evolved engineered barrier. Coupled hysteresis and thermomagnetic analyses demonstrate how Nd-Fe-B feature a time-dependent transition from square-like ferromagnetic to superparamagnetic loop via pot-bellied and wasp-waist loops, whereas SmCo and AlNiCo do not show so extensive corrosion-related variations of the intrinsic and extrinsic magnetic properties. This study allowed to identify magnetic materials suitable for shorter- (Nd-Fe-B) and longer-term (SmCo and AlNiCo) monitoring purposes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved operation of magnetic bearings for flywheel energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmood, R. B.; Pang, D.; Anand, D. K.; Kirk, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis and operation of prototype 500-Wh flywheel at low speeds have shown that many factors affect the correct functioning of the magnetic bearings. An examination is made of a number of these, including magnetic bearing control system nonlinearities and displacement transducer positioning, and their effects upon the successful operation of the suspension system. It is observed that the bearing control system is extremely sensitive to actuator parameters such as coil inductance. As a consequence of the analysis of bearing relaxation oscillations, the bearing actuator design methodology which has previously been used, where coil parameter selection is based upon static considerations, has been revised. Displacement transducer sensors which overcome the collocation problem are discussed.

  18. A System Scale Theory for Fast Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoll, D.; Chacon, L.; Lapenta, G.

    2005-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is at the root of explosive phenomena such as solar flares, coronal mass ejections, plasmoid ejection from earth's magnetotail and major disruptions in magnetic fusion energy experiments. Plasmas in all the above mentioned cases are known to have negligible electric resistivity. This small resistivity can not explain the reconnection time scales observed in nature, when using the resistive MHD model. Recently much progress has been made considering the Hall MHD model. Hall physics has been shown to facility fast reconnection when the magnetic field shear scale length is in the order of the ion inertial length. However, in many systems of interest the initial scale lengths of the problem can not justify the use of Hall MHD. Thus a successful system scale theory must involve a current sheet thinning mechanism which brings the relevant scales down to the Hall scales. In this presentation we give examples of how naturally occurring hydrodynamic flows can provide such current sheet thinning [1,2,3] and where these occur in solar [4] and magnetosphere application [5]. We also discuss the primary obstacle for such flow to drive current sheet thinning, the build up of magnetic pressure, and how Hall MHD may overcome this obstacle. [1] Knoll and Brackbill, Phys. Plasmas, vol. 9, 2002 [2] Knoll and Chacon, PRL, vol. 88, 2002 [3] Knoll and Chacon, Phys. Plasmas, 2005 (submitted) [4] Lapenta and Knoll, ApJ, vol. 624, 2005 [5] Brackbill and Knoll, PRL, vol. 86, 2001

  19. Dump system concepts for the Future Circular Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartmann, W.; Atanasov, M.; Barnes, M. J.; Borburgh, J.; Burkart, F.; Goddard, B.; Kramer, T.; Lechner, A.; Ull, A. Sanz; Schmidt, R.; Stoel, L. S.; Ostojic, R.; Rodziewicz, J.; van Trappen, P.; Barna, D.

    2017-03-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh) beam dump system must provide a safe and reliable extraction and dilution of the stored beam onto a dump absorber. Energy deposition studies show that damage limits of presently used absorber materials will already be reached for single bunches at 50 TeV. A fast field rise of the extraction kicker is required in order to sufficiently separate swept single bunches on the extraction protection absorbers in case of an asynchronous beam dump. In line with this demand is the proposal of a highly segmented extraction kicker system which allows for accepting a single kicker switch erratic and thus, significantly reduces the probability of an asynchronous beam dump. Superconducting septa are foreseen to limit the overall system length and power consumption. Two extraction system concepts are presented and evaluated regarding overall system length, energy deposition on absorbers, hardware requirements, radiation issues, and layout flexibility.

  20. Detection of buried magnetic objects by a SQUID gradiometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Hans-Georg; Hartung, Konrad; Linzen, Sven; Schneider, Michael; Stolz, Ronny; Fried, Wolfgang; Hauspurg, Sebastian

    2009-05-01

    We present a magnetic detection system based on superconducting gradiometric sensors (SQUID gradiometers). The system provides a unique fast mapping of large areas with a high resolution of the magnetic field gradient as well as the local position. A main part of this work is the localization and classification of magnetic objects in the ground by automatic interpretation of geomagnetic field gradients, measured by the SQUID system. In accordance with specific features the field is decomposed into segments, which allow inferences to possible objects in the ground. The global consideration of object describing properties and their optimization using error minimization methods allows the reconstruction of superimposed features and detection of buried objects. The analysis system of measured geomagnetic fields works fully automatically. By a given surface of area-measured gradients the algorithm determines within numerical limits the absolute position of objects including depth with sub-pixel accuracy and allows an arbitrary position and attitude of sources. Several SQUID gradiometer data sets were used to show the applicability of the analysis algorithm.

  1. Oval gradient coils for an open magnetic resonance imaging system with a vertical magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Koki; Abe, Mitsushi; Kose, Katsumi; Terada, Yasuhiko

    2017-05-01

    Existing open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems use biplanar gradient coils for the spatial encoding of signals. We propose using novel oval gradient coils for an open vertical-field MRI. We designed oval gradients for a 0.3T open MRI system and showed that such a system could outperform a traditional biplanar gradient system while maintaining adequate gradient homogeneity and subject accessibility. Such oval gradient coils would exhibit high efficiency, low inductance and resistance, and high switching capability. Although the designed oval Y and Z coils showed more heat dissipation and less cooling capability than biplanar coils with the same gap, they showed an efficient heat-dissipation path to the surrounding air, which would alleviate the heat problem. The performance of the designed oval-coil system was demonstrated experimentally by imaging a human hand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Superconducting magnetic control system for manipulation of particulate matter and magnetic probes in medical and industrial applications

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Yung Sheng; Hull, John R.; Askew, Thomas R.

    2006-07-11

    A system and method of controlling movement of magnetic material with at least first and second high temperature superconductors at spaced locations. A plurality of solenoids are associated with the superconductors to induce a persistent currents in preselected high temperature superconductors establishing a plurality of magnetic fields in response to pulsed currents introduced to one or more of the solenoids. Control mechanism in communication with said solenoids and/or said high temperature superconductors are used to demagnetize selected ones of the high temperature superconductors to reduce the magnetic fields substantially to zero. Magnetic material is moved between magnetic fields by establishing the presence thereof and thereafter reducing magnetic fields substantially to zero and establishing magnetic fields in other superconductors arranged in a predetermined configuration.

  3. Avulsed Nasoenteric Bridle System Magnet as an Intranasal Foreign Body.

    PubMed

    Puricelli, Michael D; Newberry, Christopher Ian; Gov-Ari, Eliav

    2016-02-01

    Nasoenteric tubes provide short-term nutrition support to patients unable to take an adequate oral diet. Bridling systems may be used to secure tubes to guard against displacement. We present the first case of an avulsed magnet from a bridling system to raise awareness of this potential complication. The primary methods of securing a nasogastric tube are reviewed, and comparative assessment of the 3 main systems is presented. Diagnosis and management of nasal foreign bodies relevant to this case are reviewed and prevention/safety considerations discussed. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  4. Dynamic analysis of a magnetic bearing system with flux control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Josiah; Walsh, Thomas; Virgin, Lawrence

    1994-01-01

    Using measured values of two-dimensional forces in a magnetic actuator, equations of motion for an active magnetic bearing are presented. The presence of geometric coupling between coordinate directions causes the equations of motion to be nonlinear. Two methods are used to examine the unbalance response of the system: simulation by direct integration in time; and determination of approximate steady state solutions by harmonic balance. For relatively large values of the derivative control coefficient, the system behaves in an essentially linear manner, but for lower values of this parameter, or for higher values of the coupling coefficient, the response shows a split of amplitudes in the two principal directions. This bifurcation is sensitive to initial conditions. The harmonic balance solution shows that the separation of amplitudes actually corresponds to a change in stability of multiple coexisting solutions.

  5. Configurational coupled cluster approach with applications to magnetic model systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Siyuan; Nooijen, Marcel

    2018-05-01

    A general exponential, coupled cluster like, approach is discussed to extract an effective Hamiltonian in configurational space, as a sum of 1-body, 2-body up to n-body operators. The simplest two-body approach is illustrated by calculations on simple magnetic model systems. A key feature of the approach is that equations up to a certain rank do not depend on higher body cluster operators.

  6. The 13-inch magnetic suspension and balance system wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William G., Jr.; Dress, David A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA Langley has a small, subsonic wind tunnel in use with the 13-inch Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS). The tunnel is capable of speeds up to Mach 0.5. This report presents tunnel design and construction details. It includes flow uniformity, angularity, and velocity fluctuation data. It also compares experimental Mach number distribution data with computed results for the General Electric Streamtube Curvature Program.

  7. Effects of dipolar interactions in magnetic nanoparticle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruta, Sergiu; Hovorka, Ondrej; Chantrell, Roy

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the effects of magnetostatic interactions in magnetic nanoparticle systems is of importance in magnetic recording, biomedical applications such as in hyperthermia cancer treatment, or for sensing approaches in biology and chemistry, for example. In this talk we discuss the macroscopic and microscopic effects of dipole-dipole interactions in three-dimensional assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles in various spatial arrangements, including the BCC, FCC, or randomized lattices. Our study is based on the kinetic Monte-Carlo modelling and concentrates on exploring the effect of the particle arrangement, distributions of particle volumes and anisotropy axes, and the role of thermal effects on the overall behaviour of hysteresis loops, ZFC/FC temperature scans and the magnetization decay data computed during the relaxation to equilibrium. In the case of the FCC lattice we find a counter-intuitive effect where increasing the interaction strength enhances/suppresses the hysteresis loop coercivity at high/low temperatures. The analysis of the domain pattern formation and pair correlation functions suggests for the observed behaviour to be a result of the phenomenon of frustration. We also discuss the possibility of observing the super-ferromagnetic phases on similar syste

  8. Design and implementation of magnetically maneuverable capsule endoscope system with direction reference for image navigation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhen-Jun; Ye, Bo; Sun, Yi; Zhang, Hong-Hai; Liu, Sheng

    2014-07-01

    This article describes a novel magnetically maneuverable capsule endoscope system with direction reference for image navigation. This direction reference was employed by utilizing a specific magnet configuration between a pair of external permanent magnets and a magnetic shell coated on the external capsule endoscope surface. A pair of customized Cartesian robots, each with only 4 degrees of freedom, was built to hold the external permanent magnets as their end-effectors. These robots, together with their external permanent magnets, were placed on two opposite sides of a "patient bed." Because of the optimized configuration based on magnetic analysis between the external permanent magnets and the magnetic shell, a simplified control strategy was proposed, and only two parameters, yaw step angle and moving step, were necessary for the employed robotic system. Step-by-step experiments demonstrated that the proposed system is capable of magnetically maneuvering the capsule endoscope while providing direction reference for image navigation. © IMechE 2014.

  9. Pulsed Magnetic Field System for Magnetized Target Experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, M. A.; Solberg, J. M.; Logan, B. G.; Perkins, L. J.

    2014-10-01

    High-magnitude magnetic fields applied to inertially confined targets may improve fusion yield and enable basic science applications. We discuss the development of a pulsed magnetic field system for NIF with the goal of applying 10--70 T to various NIF targets. While the driver may be little more than a spark-gap switched capacitor, numerous complex challenges exist in fielding such a system on NIF. The coil surrounding the metallic hohlraum drives induced current in the hohlraum wall. Both the coil and hohlraum wall must survive ohmic heating and J × B forces for several microseconds. Pulsed power must couple to the coil in the NIF environment. The system must not cause late-time optics damage due to debris. There is very limited volume for the driver in a NIF Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator (DIM). We are modeling the coil and hohlraum MHD effects with the LLNL code, ALE3D. However, the simulations lack complete and accurate data for all the required thermo-physical material properties over the expected range of temperatures (below vaporization) and pressures. Therefore, substantial experimental development is planned in the coming year. We present coil and hohlraum simulations results, overall system design, and progress towards an operational prototype test-stand. LLNL is operated by LLNS, LLC, for the U.S. D.O.E., NNSA under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This work was supported by LLNL LDRD 14-ER-028.

  10. Protection of Hardware: Powering Systems (Power Converter, Normal Conducting, and Superconducting Magnets)

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeffer, H.; Flora, B.; Wolff, D.

    2016-01-01

    Along with the protection of magnets and power converters, we have added a section on personnel protection because this is our highest priority in the design and operation of power systems. Thus, our topics are the protection of people, power converters, and magnet loads (protected from the powering equipment), including normal conducting magnets and superconducting magnets.

  11. System having unmodulated flux locked loop for measuring magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D [Blue Springs, MO

    2006-08-15

    A system (10) for measuring magnetic fields, wherein the system (10) comprises an unmodulated or direct-feedback flux locked loop (12) connected by first and second unbalanced RF coaxial transmission lines (16a, 16b) to a superconducting quantum interference device (14). The FLL (12) operates for the most part in a room-temperature or non-cryogenic environment, while the SQUID (14) operates in a cryogenic environment, with the first and second lines (16a, 16b) extending between these two operating environments.

  12. Microfluidic cell disruption system employing a magnetically actuated diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Huh, Yun Suk; Choi, Jong Hyun; Huh, Kyoung Ae Kim; Kim, Kyoung Ae; Park, Tae Jung; Hong, Yeon Ki; Kim, Do Hyun; Hong, Won Hi; Lee, Sang Yup

    2007-12-01

    A microfluidic cell lysis chip equipped with a micromixer and SPE unit was developed and used for quantitative analysis of intracellular proteins. This miniaturized sample preparation system can be employed for any purpose where cell disruption is needed to obtain intracellular constituents for the subsequent analysis. This system comprises a magnetically actuated micromixer to disrupt cells, a hydrophobic valve to manipulate the cell lysate, and a packed porous polymerized monolith chamber for SPE and filtering debris from the cell lysate. Using recombinant Escherichia coli expressing intracellular enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and lipase as model bacteria, we optimized the cell disruption condition with respect to the lysis buffer composition, mixing time, and the frequency of the diaphragm in the micromixer, which was magnetically actuated by an external magnetic stirrer in the micromixer chamber. The lysed sample prepared under the optimal condition was purified by the packed SPE in the microfluidic chip. At a frequency of 1.96 Hz, the final cell lysis efficiency and relative fluorescence intensity of EGFP after the cell disruption process were greater than 90 and 94%, respectively. Thus, this microfluidic cell disruption chip can be used for the efficient lysis of cells for further analysis of intracellular contents in many applications.

  13. Dark field imaging system for size characterization of magnetic micromarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malec, A.; Haiden, C.; Kokkinis, G.; Keplinger, F.; Giouroudi, I.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a dark field video imaging system for the detection and size characterization of individual magnetic micromarkers suspended in liquid and the detection of pathogens utilizing magnetically labelled E.coli. The system follows dynamic processes and interactions of moving micro/nano objects close to or below the optical resolution limit, and is especially suitable for small sample volumes ( 10 μl). The developed detection method can be used to obtain clinical information about liquid contents when an additional biological protocol is provided, i.e., binding of microorganisms (e.g. E.coli) to specific magnetic markers. Some of the major advantages of our method are the increased sizing precision in the micro- and nano-range as well as the setup's simplicity making it a perfect candidate for miniaturized devices. Measurements can thus be carried out in a quick, inexpensive, and compact manner. A minor limitation is that the concentration range of micromarkers in a liquid sample needs to be adjusted in such a manner that the number of individual particles in the microscope's field of view is sufficient.

  14. Non-equilibrium magnetic interactions in strongly correlated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secchi, A.; Brener, S.; Lichtenstein, A. I.; Katsnelson, M. I.

    2013-06-01

    We formulate a low-energy theory for the magnetic interactions between electrons in the multi-band Hubbard model under non-equilibrium conditions determined by an external time-dependent electric field which simulates laser-induced spin dynamics. We derive expressions for dynamical exchange parameters in terms of non-equilibrium electronic Green functions and self-energies, which can be computed, e.g., with the methods of time-dependent dynamical mean-field theory. Moreover, we find that a correct description of the system requires, in addition to exchange, a new kind of magnetic interaction, that we name twist exchange, which formally resembles Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya coupling, but is not due to spin-orbit, and is actually due to an effective three-spin interaction. Our theory allows the evaluation of the related time-dependent parameters as well.

  15. Magnetotransport in Layered Dirac Fermion System Coupled with Magnetic Moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Yoshiki; Morinari, Takao

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the magnetotransport of Dirac fermions coupled with localized moments to understand the physical properties of the Dirac material EuMnBi2. Using an interlayer hopping form, which simplifies the complicated interaction between the layers of Dirac fermions and the layers of magnetic moments in EuMnBi2, the theory reproduces most of the features observed in this system. The hysteresis observed in EuMnBi2 can be caused by the valley splitting that is induced by the spin-orbit coupling and the external magnetic field with the molecular field created by localized moments. Our theory suggests that the magnetotransport in EuMnBi2 is due to the interplay among Dirac fermions, localized moments, and spin-orbit coupling.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of the murine cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Akki, Ashwin; Gupta, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a powerful and reliable tool to noninvasively study the cardiovascular system in clinical practice. Because transgenic mouse models have assumed a critical role in cardiovascular research, technological advances in MRI have been extended to mice over the last decade. These have provided critical insights into cardiac and vascular morphology, function, and physiology/pathophysiology in many murine models of heart disease. Furthermore, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has allowed the nondestructive study of myocardial metabolism in both isolated hearts and in intact mice. This article reviews the current techniques and important pathophysiological insights from the application of MRI/MRS technology to murine models of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23292717

  17. Scale Effects on Magnet Systems of Heliotron-Type Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Imagawa; A, Sagara

    2005-02-01

    For power plants heliotron-type reactors have attractive advantages, such as no current-disruptions, no current-drive, and wide space between helical coils for the maintenance of in-vessel components. However, one disadvantage is that a major radius has to be large enough to obtain large Q-value or to produce sufficient space for blankets. Although the larger radius is considered to increase the construction cost, the influence has not been understood clearly, yet. Scale effects on superconducting magnet systems have been estimated under the conditions of a constant energy confinement time and similar geometrical parameters. Since the necessary magnetic field with a larger radius becomes lower, the increase rate of the weight of the coil support to the major radius is less than the square root. The necessary major radius will be determined mainly by the blanket space. The appropriate major radius will be around 13 m for a reactor similar to the Large Helical Device (LHD).

  18. A magnetic-resonance-imaging-compatible remote catheter navigation system.

    PubMed

    Tavallaei, Mohammad Ali; Thakur, Yogesh; Haider, Syed; Drangova, Maria

    2013-04-01

    A remote catheter navigation system compatible with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been developed to facilitate MRI-guided catheterization procedures. The interventionalist's conventional motions (axial motion and rotation) on an input catheter - acting as the master - are measured by a pair of optical encoders, and a custom embedded system relays the motions to a pair of ultrasonic motors. The ultrasonic motors drive the patient catheter (slave) within the MRI scanner, replicating the motion of the input catheter. The performance of the remote catheter navigation system was evaluated in terms of accuracy and delay of motion replication outside and within the bore of the magnet. While inside the scanner bore, motion accuracy was characterized during the acquisition of frequently used imaging sequences, including real-time gradient echo. The effect of the catheter navigation system on image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was also evaluated. The results show that the master-slave system has a maximum time delay of 41 ± 21 ms in replicating motion; an absolute value error of 2 ± 2° was measured for radial catheter motion replication over 360° and 1.0 ± 0.8 mm in axial catheter motion replication over 100 mm of travel. The worst-case SNR drop was observed to be 2.5%.

  19. Preparation of a Magnetically Switchable Bioelectrocatalytic System Employing Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates in Magnetic Mesocellular Carbon Foam

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Dohun; Oh, Eunkeu

    2005-11-18

    Nanostructured magnetic materials (NMMs)[1] have attracted much attention recently because of their broad biotechnological applications including support matrices for enzyme immobilization,[2] immunoassays,[3] drug delivery,[4] and biosensors.[ 5] Specifically, the easy separation and controlled placement of NMMs by means of an external magnetic field enables their application in the development of immobilized enzyme processes[2] and the construction of magnetically controllable bio-electrocatalytic systems.[5, 6] Herein, we demonstrate the use of immobilized enzymes in NMMs for magnetically switchable bio-electrocatalysis.

  20. The Use of Magnetic Orientation as a Pinning Modality for Investigation of Photon-Magnon Interactions in Magnetic Nanoparticle Systems.

    PubMed

    Cuong, Giap Van; Su, Luong Van; Tue, Nguyen Anh; Khanh, Hoang Quoc; Tuan, Nguyen Anh

    2018-06-01

    In this work, an experimental setup to study the dependence of a visible-light transmission through a magnetic granular film on the magnetic field direction was presented. The results measured the transmission (T) of the visible light, with the wavelengths λ were in the range from 560 to 695 nm, by the magnetic nanogranular films Cox-(Al2O3)100-x system, with Co compositions are x = 10 ÷ 45 at.%, as a function of the magnetic field direction were reported. These investigations were carried out under an external magnetic field of H = 400 Oe, which directs to the normal of the sample surface by an angle varied in the range of φ = 0° ÷ 45°, to magnetize the magnetization direction of all the Co particles following this direction. Consequently, the angle φ between the magnetization direction with the incident-light direction, which sets as the optical axis of the system and always keeps fixedly to the normal of the sample surface, is established. The experimental results showed the different dependencies of T on the angle φ, the magnetic field H, the Co composition x, and the wavelength λ. These dependencies attributed to a behavior that relates to so-called photon-magnon interaction.

  1. Deep brain transcranial magnetic stimulation using variable "Halo coil" system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Y.; Hadimani, R. L.; Crowther, L. J.; Xu, Z.; Qu, J.; Jiles, D. C.

    2015-05-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation has the potential to treat various neurological disorders non-invasively and safely. The "Halo coil" configuration can stimulate deeper regions of the brain with lower surface to deep-brain field ratio compared to other coil configurations. The existing "Halo coil" configuration is fixed and is limited in varying the site of stimulation in the brain. We have developed a new system based on the current "Halo coil" design along with a graphical user interface system that enables the larger coil to rotate along the transverse plane. The new system can also enable vertical movement of larger coil. Thus, this adjustable "Halo coil" configuration can stimulate different regions of the brain by adjusting the position and orientation of the larger coil on the head. We have calculated magnetic and electric fields inside a MRI-derived heterogeneous head model for various positions and orientations of the coil. We have also investigated the mechanical and thermal stability of the adjustable "Halo coil" configuration for various positions and orientations of the coil to ensure safe operation of the system.

  2. Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle Marie H.; Kilgore, Robert A.; Boyden, Richmond P.

    1983-01-01

    This publication, containing 206 entries, supersedes an earlier bibliography, NASA TM-80225 (April 1980). Citations for 18 documents have been added in this updated version. Most of the additions report results of recent studies aimed at increasing the research capabilities of magnetic suspension and balance systems, e.g., increasing force and torque capability, increasing angle of attack capability, and increasing overall system reliability. Some of the additions address the problem of scaling from the relatively small size of existing systems to much larger sizes. The purpose of this bibliography is to provide an up-to-date list of publications that might be helpful to persons interested in magnetic suspension and balance systems for use in wind tunnels. The arrangement is generally chronological by date of publication. However, papers presented at conferences or meetings are placed under dates of presentation. The numbers assigned to many of the citations have been changed from those used in the previous bibliography. This has been done in order to allow outdated citations to be removed and some recently discovered older works to be included in their proper chronological order.

  3. A compact permanent-magnet system for measuring magnetic circular dichroism in resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Jun; Suga, Shigemasa; Fujiwara, Hidenori; Niwa, Hideharu; Kiuchi, Hisao; Harada, Yoshihisa

    2017-03-01

    A compact and portable magnet system for measuring magnetic dichroism in resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering (SX-RIXS) has been developed at the beamline BL07LSU in SPring-8. A magnetic circuit composed of Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets, which realised ∼0.25 T at the center of an 11 mm gap, was rotatable around the axis perpendicular to the X-ray scattering plane. Using the system, a SX-RIXS spectrum was obtained under the application of the magnetic field at an angle parallel, nearly 45° or perpendicular to the incident X-rays. A dedicated sample stage was also designed to be as compact as possible, making it possible to perform SX-RIXS measurements at arbitrary incident angles by rotating the sample stage in the gap between the magnetic poles. This system enables facile studies of magnetic dichroism in SX-RIXS for various experimental geometries of the sample and the magnetic field. A brief demonstration of the application is presented.

  4. Development of a micro nuclear magnetic resonance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goloshevsky, Artem

    Application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to on-line/in-line control of industrial processes is currently limited by equipment costs and requirements for installation. A superconducting magnet generating strong fields is the most expensive part of a typical NMR instrument. In industrial environments, fringe magnetic fields make accommodation of NMR instruments difficult. However, a portable, low-cost and low-field magnetic resonance system can be used in virtually any environment. Development of a number of hardware components for a portable, low-cost NMR instrument is reported in this dissertation. Chapter one provides a discussion on a miniaturized Helmholtz spiral radio-frequency (RF) coil (average diameter equal to 3.5 mm) and an NMR probe built around a capillary (outer diameter = 1.59 mm and inner diameter = 1.02 mm) for flow imaging. Experiments of NMR spectroscopy, static and dynamic (flow) imaging, conducted with the use of the miniaturized coil, are described. Chapter two presents a microfabricated package of two biaxial gradient coils and a Helmholtz RF coil. Planar configuration of discrete wires was used to create magnetic field gradients. Performance of the microfabricated gradient coils while imaging water flow compared well with a commercial gradient set of much larger size. Chapter three reports on flow imaging experiments with power law fluids (aqueous solutions of sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)) of different viscosities, carried out in the NMR probe with the miniaturized RF coil and capillary. Viscosities of the CMC solutions were determined based on the curve fits of the velocity profiles and simultaneous measurements of the flow rates. The curve fits were carried out according to the power law model equations. The NMR viscosity measurements compared well with measurements of the same CMC samples, performed on a conventional rotational rheometer. A portable, home-built transceiver, designed for NMR applications utilizing a

  5. Molten metal feed system controlled with a traveling magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1991-01-01

    A continuous metal casting system in which the feed of molten metal is controlled by means of a linear induction motor capable of producing a magnetic traveling wave in a duct that connects a reservoir of molten metal to a caster. The linear induction motor produces a traveling magnetic wave in the duct in opposition to the pressure exerted by the head of molten metal in the reservoir so that p.sub.c =p.sub.g -p.sub.m where p.sub.c is the desired pressure in the caster, p.sub.g is the gravitational pressure in the duct exerted by the force of the head of molten metal in the reservoir, and p.sub.m is the electromagnetic pressure exerted by the force of the magnetic field traveling wave produced by the linear induction motor. The invention also includes feedback loops to the linear induction motor to control the casting pressure in response to measured characteristics of the metal being cast.

  6. Magnetic microfluidic system for isolation of single cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitterboeck, Richard; Kokkinis, Georgios; Berris, Theocharis; Keplinger, Franz; Giouroudi, Ioanna

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the design and realization of a compact, portable and cost effective microfluidic system for isolation and detection of rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in suspension. The innovative aspect of the proposed isolation method is that it utilizes superparamagnetic particles (SMPs) to label CTCs and then isolate those using microtraps with integrated current carrying microconductors. The magnetically labeled and trapped CTCs can then be detected by integrated magnetic microsensors e.g. giant magnetoresistive (GMR) or giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) sensors. The channel and trap dimensions are optimized to protect the cells from shear stress and achieve high trapping efficiency. These intact single CTCs can then be used for additional analysis, testing and patient specific drug screening. Being able to analyze the CTCs metastasis-driving capabilities on the single cell level is considered of great importance for developing patient specific therapies. Experiments showed that it is possible to capture single labeled cells in multiple microtraps and hold them there without permanent electric current and magnetic field.

  7. Expansion joint for guideway for magnetic levitation transportation system

    DOEpatents

    Rossing, T.D.

    1993-02-09

    An expansion joint that allows a guideway of a magnetic levitation transportation system to expand and contract while minimizing transients occurring in the magnetic lift and drag forces acting on a magnetic levitation vehicle traveling over the joint includes an upper cut or recess extending downwardly from the upper surface of the guideway and a non-intersecting lower cut or recess that extends upwardly from the lower surface of the guideway. The side walls of the cuts can be parallel to each other and the vertical axis of the guideway; the depth of the lower cut can be greater than the depth of the upper cut; and the overall combined lengths of the cuts can be greater than the thickness of the guideway from the upper to lower surface so that the cuts will overlap, but be spaced apart from each other. The distance between the cuts can be determined on the basis of the force transients and the mechanical behavior of the guideway. A second pair of similarly configured upper and lower cuts may be disposed in the guideway; the expansion joint may consist of two upper cuts and one lower cut; or the cuts may have non-parallel, diverging side walls so that the cuts have a substantially dove-tail shape.

  8. Expansion joint for guideway for magnetic levitation transportation system

    DOEpatents

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1993-01-01

    An expansion joint that allows a guideway of a magnetic levitation transportation system to expand and contract while minimizing transients occurring in the magnetic lift and drag forces acting on a magnetic levitation vehicle traveling over the joint includes an upper cut or recess extending downwardly from the upper surface of the guideway and a non-intersecting lower cut or recess that extends upwardly from the lower surface of the guideway. The sidewalls of the cuts can be parallel to each other and the vertical axis of the guideway; the depth of the lower cut can be greater than the depth of the upper cut; and the overall combined lengths of the cuts can be greater than the thickness of the guideway from the upper to lower surface so that the cuts will overlap, but be spaced apart from each other. The distance between the cuts can be determined on the basis of the force transients and the mechanical behavior of the guideway. A second pair of similarly configured upper and lower cuts may be disposed in the guideway; the expansion joint may consist of two upper cuts and one lower cut; or the cuts may have non-parallel, diverging sidewalls so that the cuts have a substantially dove-tail shape.

  9. Optimal and Miniaturized Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonant Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hao

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) technologies for communication and recharging devices have recently attracted significant research attention. Conventional WPT systems based either on far-field or near-field coupling cannot provide simultaneously high efficiency and long transfer range. The Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) method was introduced recently, and it offers the possibility of transferring power with high efficiency over longer distances. Previous SCMR research has only focused on how to improve its efficiency and range through different methods. However, the study of optimal and miniaturized designs has been limited. In addition, no multiband and broadband SCMR WPT systems have been developed and traditional SCMR systems exhibit narrowband efficiency thereby imposing strict limitations on simultaneous wireless transmission of information and power, which is important for battery-less sensors. Therefore, new SCMR systems that are optimally designed and miniaturized in size will significantly enhance various technologies in many applications. The optimal and miniaturized SCMR systems are studied here. First, analytical models of the Conformal SCMR (CSCMR) system and thorough analysis and design methodology have been presented. This analysis specifically leads to the identification of the optimal design parameters, and predicts the performance of the designed CSCMR system. Second, optimal multiband and broadband CSCMR systems are designed. Two-band, three-band, and four-band CSCMR systems are designed and validated using simulations and measurements. Novel broadband CSCMR systems are also analyzed, designed, simulated and measured. The proposed broadband CSCMR system achieved more than 7 times larger bandwidth compared to the traditional SCMR system at the same frequency. Miniaturization methods of SCMR systems are also explored. Specifically, methods that use printable CSCMR with large capacitors, novel topologies including meandered, SRRs, and

  10. Magnetism of metallacrown single-molecule magnets: From a simplest model to realistic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlyukh, Y.; Rentschler, E.; Elmers, H. J.; Hübner, W.; Lefkidis, G.

    2018-06-01

    Electronic and magnetic properties of molecular nanomagnets are determined by competing energy scales due to the crystal field splitting, the exchange interactions between transition metal atoms, and relativistic effects. We present a comprehensive theory embracing all these phenomena based on first-principles calculations. In order to achieve this goal, we start from the FeNi4 cluster as a paradigm. The system can be accurately described on the ab initio level yielding all expected electronic states in a range of multiplicities from 1 to 9, with a ferromagnetic ground state. By adding the spin-orbit coupling between them we obtain the zero-field splitting. This allows to introduce a spin Hamiltonian of a giant spin model, which operates on a smaller energy scale. We compare the computed parameters of this Hamiltonian with the experimental and theoretical magnetic anisotropy energies of the monolayer Ni/Cu(001). In line with them, we find that the anisotropy almost entirely originates from the second-order spin-orbit coupling, the spin-spin coupling constitutes only a small fraction. Finally, we include the ligand atoms in our consideration. This component has a decisive role for the stabilization of molecules in experimental synthesis and characterization, and also substantially complicates the theory by bringing the superexchange mechanisms into play. Since they are higher-order effects involving two hopping matrix elements, not every theory can describe them. Our generalization of the corresponding perturbation theory substantiates the use of complete active space methods for the description of superexchange. At the same time, our numerical results for the {CuFe4} system demonstrate that the Goodenough-Kanamori rules, which are often used to determine the sign of these exchange interactions, cannot deliver quantitative predictions due to the interplay of other mechanisms, e. g., involving multicenter Coulomb integrals. We conclude by comparing ab initio values

  11. Improvements of vacuum system in J-PARC 3 GeV synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, J.; Hikichi, Y.; Namekawa, Y.; Takeishi, K.; Yanagibashi, T.; Kinsho, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Sato, A.

    2017-07-01

    The RCS vacuum system has been upgraded since the completion of its construction towards the objectives of both better vacuum quality and higher reliability of the components. For the better vacuum quality, (1) pressure of the injection beam line was improved to prevent the H-beam from converting to H0; (2) leakage in the beam injection area due to the thermal expansion was eliminated by applying the adequate torque amount for the clamps; (3) new in-situ degassing method of the kicker magnet was developed. For the reliability increase of the components, (1) A considerable number of fluoroelastmer seal was exchanged to metal seal with the low spring constant bellows and the light clamps; (2) TMP controller for the long cable was developed to prevent the controller failure by the severe electrical noise; (3) A number of TMP were installed instead of ion pumps in the RF cavity section as an insurance for the case of pump trouble.

  12. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Yehuda; Mahale, Narayan K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  13. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-08-06

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

  14. Magnet-Based System for Docking of Miniature Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Nathan; Nguyen, Hai D.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype system for docking a miniature spacecraft with a larger spacecraft has been developed by engineers at the Johnson Space Center. Engineers working on Mini AERCam, a free-flying robotic camera, needed to find a way to successfully dock and undock their miniature spacecraft to refuel the propulsion and recharge the batteries. The subsystems developed (see figure) include (1) a docking port, designed for the larger spacecraft, which contains an electromagnet, a ball lock mechanism, and a service probe; and (2) a docking cluster, designed for the smaller spacecraft, which contains either a permanent magnet or an electromagnet. A typical docking operation begins with the docking spacecraft maneuvering into position near the docking port on the parent vehicle. The electromagnet( s) are then turned on, and, if necessary, the docking spacecraft is then maneuvered within the capture envelope of the docking port. The capture envelope for this system is approximated by a 5-in. (12.7-cm) cube centered on the front of the docking-port electromagnet and within an angular misalignment of <30 . Thereafter, the magnetic forces draw the smaller spacecraft toward the larger one and this brings the spacecraft into approximate alignment prior to contact. Mechanical alignment guides provide the final rotational alignment into one of 12 positions. Once the docking vehicle has been captured magnetically in the docking port, the ball-lock mechanism is activated, which locks the two spacecraft together. At this point the electromagnet( s) are turned off, and the service probe extended if recharge and refueling are to be performed. Additionally, during undocking, the polarity of one electromagnet can be reversed to provide a gentle push to separate the two spacecraft. This system is currently being incorporated into the design of Mini AERCam vehicle.

  15. Cluster analysis in systems of magnetic spheres and cubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyanzina, E. S.; Gudkova, A. V.; Donaldson, J. G.; Kantorovich, S. S.

    2017-06-01

    In the present work we use molecular dynamics simulations and graph-theory based cluster analysis to compare self-assembly in systems of magnetic spheres, and cubes where the dipole moment is oriented along the side of the cube in the [001] crystallographic direction. We show that under the same conditions cubes aggregate far less than their spherical counterparts. This difference can be explained in terms of the volume of phase space in which the formation of the bond is thermodynamically advantageous. It follows that this volume is much larger for a dipolar sphere than for a dipolar cube.

  16. An augmented magnetic navigation system for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhe; Cai, Junfeng; Nie, Yuanyuan; Wang, Guotai; Gu, Lixu

    2013-01-01

    This research proposes an augmented magnetic navigation system for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) employing a magnetic tracking system (MTS) combined with a dynamic aortic model and intra-operative ultrasound (US) images. The dynamic 3D aortic model is constructed based on the preoperative 4D computed tomography (CT), which is animated according to the real time electrocardiograph (ECG) input of patient. And a preoperative planning is performed to determine the target position of the aortic valve prosthesis. The temporal alignment is performed to synchronize the ECG signals, intra-operative US image and tracking information. Afterwards, with the assistance of synchronized ECG signals, the contour of aortic root automatic extracted from short axis US image is registered to the dynamic aortic model by a feature based registration intra-operatively. Then the augmented MTS guides the interventionist to confidently position and deploy the aortic valve prosthesis to target. The system was validated by animal studies on three porcine subjects, the deployment and tilting errors of which are 3.17 ± 0.91 mm and 7.40 ± 2.89° respectively.

  17. 13th International Conference on Magnetically Levitated Systems and Linear Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report contains short papers on research being conducted throughout the world on magnetically levitated systems, mainly consisting of trains, and magnetic linear drives. These papers have been index separately elsewhere on the data base.

  18. Design of a 3-D Magnetic Mapping System to Locate Reinforcing Steel in Concrete Pavements

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-12-01

    This report outlines the design, fabrication, and testing of a 3-D magnetic mapping system used to locate reinforcing steel in concrete pavements developed at Kansas State University (KSU) in 2006. The magnetic sensing functionality is based on the p...

  19. Simplified Analytical Model of a Six-Degree-of-Freedom Large-Gap Magnetic Suspension System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J.

    1997-01-01

    A simplified analytical model of a six-degree-of-freedom large-gap magnetic suspension system is presented. The suspended element is a cylindrical permanent magnet that is magnetized in a direction which is perpendicular to its axis of symmetry. The actuators are air core electromagnets mounted in a planar array. The analytical model consists of an open-loop representation of the magnetic suspension system with electromagnet currents as inputs.

  20. A Magnetic Bumper-Tether System Using ZFC Y123

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Roy; Parks, Drew; Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Obot, Victor; Liu, Jianxiong; Arndt, G. D.

    1996-01-01

    We consider the use of magnetic forces in a bumper system, to soften docking procedures. We investigate a system which exhibits no magnetic field except during the docking process, which, if desired, can automatically tether two craft together, and which provides lateral stability during docking. A system composed of zero field cooled Y(1.7)Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) (Y123) tiles and electromagnets is proposed. The Y123 high temperature superconductor (HTS) is mounted on one craft, and the electromagnet on the other. Results of small prototype laboratory experiments are reported. The electromagnet has, for convenience, been replaced by a permanent SmCo ferromagnet in these measurements. When the two craft approach, a mirror image of the ferromagnet is induced in the Y123, and a repulsive bumper force, F(sub B), results. F(sub B) is velocity dependent, and increases with v. For presently available HTS materials, bumper pressure of approx. 3.7 N/cm(exp 2) is achieved using SmCo. This extrapolates to approx. 18 N/cm(exp 2) for an electromagnet, or a force of up to 20 tons for a 1 m(exp 2) system. After reaching a minimum distance of approach, the two colliding craft begin to separate. However, the consequent change of SmCo magnetic field at the Y123 results in a reversal of current in the Y123 so that the Y123 is attractive to the SmCo. The attractive (tether) force, F(sub T), is a function of R = B(sub Fe)/B(sub t, max), where B(sub Fe) is the field at the surface of the ferromagnet, and B(sub t, max) is the maximum trapped field of the Y123, i.e., the trapped field in the so-called critical state. For R greater than or equal to 2, F(sub T) saturates at a value comparable to F(sub B). For a range of initial approach velocities the two craft are tethered following the bumper sequence. Most of the kinetic energy of the collision is first converted to magnetic field energy in the Y123, and then into heat via the creep mechanism. About 15% of the work done against magnetic forces

  1. Micromagnetism in a planar system with a random magnetic anisotropy and two-dimensional magnetic correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komogortsev, S. V.; Fel'k, V. A.; Iskhakov, R. S.; Shadrina, G. V.

    2017-08-01

    The hysteresis loops and the micromagnetic structure of a ferromagnetic nanolayer with a randomly oriented local easy magnetization axis and two-dimensional magnetization correlations are studied using a micromagnetic simulation. The properties and the micromagnetic structure of the nanolayer are determined by the competition between the anisotropy and exchange energies and by the dipole-dipole interaction energy. The magnetic microstructure can be described as an ensemble of stochastic magnetic domains and topological magnetization defects. Dipole-dipole interaction suppresses the formation of topological magnetization defects. The topological defects in the magnetic microstructure can cause a sharper change in the coercive force with the crystallite size than that predicted by the random magnetic anisotropy model.

  2. Evolving Requirements for Magnetic Tape Data Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gniewek, John J.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic tape data storage systems have evolved in an environment where the major applications have been back-up/restore, disaster recovery, and long term archive. Coincident with the rapidly improving price-performance of disk storage systems, the prime requirements for tape storage systems have remained: (1) low cost per MB, (2) a data rate balanced to the remaining system components. Little emphasis was given to configuring the technology components to optimize retrieval of the stored data. Emerging new applications such as network attached high speed memory (HSM), and digital libraries, place additional emphasis and requirements on the retrieval of the stored data. It is therefore desirable to consider the system to be defined both by STorage And Retrieval System (STARS) requirements. It is possible to provide comparative performance analysis of different STARS by incorporating parameters related to (1) device characteristics, and (2) application characteristics in combination with queuing theory analysis. Results of these analyses are presented here in the form of response time as a function of system configuration for two different types of devices and for a variety of applications.

  3. Electrodeless plasma acceleration system using rotating magnetic field method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, T.; Takizawa, K.; Kuwahara, D.; Shinohara, S.

    2017-11-01

    We have proposed Rotating Magnetic Field (RMF) acceleration method as one of electrodeless plasma accelerations. In our experimental scheme, plasma generated by an rf (radio frequency) antenna, is accelerated by RMF antennas, which consist of two-pair, opposed, facing coils, and these antennas are outside of a discharge tube. Therefore, there is no wear of electrodes, degrading the propulsion performance. Here, we will introduce our RMF acceleration system developed, including the experimental device, e.g., external antennas, a tapered quartz tube, a vacuum chamber, external magnets, and a pumping system. In addition, we can change RMF operation parameters (RMF applied current IRMF and RMF current phase difference ϕ, focusing on RMF current frequency fRMF) by adjusting matching conditions of RMF, and investigate the dependencies on plasma parameters (electron density ne and ion velocity vi); e.g., higher increases of ne and vi (˜360 % and 55 %, respectively) than previous experimental results were obtained by decreasing fRMF from 5 MHz to 0.7 MHz, whose RMF penetration condition was better according to Milroy's expression. Moreover, time-varying component of RMF has been measured directly to survey the penetration condition experimentally.

  4. Flywheel Energy Storage System Suspended by Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owusu-Ansah, Prince; Hu, Yefa; Misbawu, Adam

    This work presents a prototype flywheel energy storage system (FESS) suspended by hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB) rotating at a speed of 20000rpm with a maximum storage power capacity of 30W with a maximum tip speed of 300m/s. The design presented is an improvement of most existing FESS, as the design incorporates a unique feature in that the upper and the lower rotor and stator core are tapered which enhances larger thrust and much lower radial force to be exerted on the system. Without any adverse effect being experienced by the model. The work also focuses on the description of developing a prototype FESS suspended by HMB using solid works as a basis of developing in the nearer future a more improved FESS suspended by HMB capable of injecting the ever increasing high energy demand situation in the 21st century and beyond.

  5. An integrated open-cavity system for magnetic bead manipulation.

    PubMed

    Abu-Nimeh, F T; Salem, F M

    2013-02-01

    Superparamagnetic beads are increasingly used in biomedical assays to manipulate, transport, and maneuver biomaterials. We present a low-cost integrated system designed in bulk CMOS to manipulate and separate biomedical magnetic beads. The system consists of 8 × 8 coil-arrays suitable for single bead manipulation, or collaborative multi-bead manipulation, using pseudo-parallel executions. We demonstrate the flexibility of the design in terms of different coil sizes, DC current levels, and layout techniques. In one array module example, the size of a single coil is 30 μm × 30 μm and the full array occupies an area of 248 μm × 248 μm in 0.5 μm CMOS technology. The programmable DC current source supports 8 discrete levels up to 1.5 mA. The total power consumption of the entire module is 9 mW when running at full power.

  6. Alpha Channeling in Open-System Magnetic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, Nathaniel

    The Grant DE-SC0000736, Alpha Channeling in Open-System Magnetic Devices, is a continuation of the Grant DE-FG02-06ER54851, Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines. In publications funded by DE-SC0000736, the grant DE-FG02-06ER54851 was actually credited. The key results obtained under Grant DE-SC0000736, Alpha Channeling in Open-System Magnetic Devices, appear in a series of publications. The earlier effort under DE-FG02- 06ER54851 was the subject of a previous Final Report. The theme of this later effort has been unusual confinement effects, or de-confinement effects, in open-field magnetic confinement devices. First, the possibilities in losing axisymmetry were explored. Then a number of issues in rotating plasmamore » were addressed. Most importantly, a spinoff application to plasma separations was recognized, which also resulted in a provisional patent application. (That provisional patent application, however, was not pursued further.) Alpha channeling entails injecting waves into magnetically confined plasma to release energy from one particular ion while ejecting that ion. The ejection of the ion is actually a concomitant effect in releasing energy from the ion to the wave. In rotating plasma, there is the opportunity to store the energy in a radial electric field rather than in waves. In other words, the ejected alpha particle loses its energy to the radial potential, which in turn produces plasma rotation. This is a very useful effect, since producing radial electric fields by other means are technologically more difficult. In fact, one can heat ions, and then eject them, to produce the desired radial field. In each case, there is a separation effect of different ions, which generalizes the original alpha-channeling concept of separating alpha ash from hydrogen. In a further generalization of the separation concept, a double-well filter represents a new way to produce high-throughput separations of ions, potentially useful for nuclear waste remediation.« less

  7. Nonlinear feedback model attitude control using CCD in magnetic suspension system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, CHIN-E.; Hou, Ann-San

    1994-01-01

    A model attitude control system for a CCD camera magnetic suspension system is studied in this paper. In a recent work, a position and attitude sensing method was proposed. From this result, model position and attitude of a magnetic suspension system can be detected by generating digital outputs. Based on this achievement, a control system design using nonlinear feedback techniques for magnetic suspended model attitude control is proposed.

  8. A Digital Control Algorithm for Magnetic Suspension Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Thomas C.

    1996-01-01

    An ongoing program exists to investigate and develop magnetic suspension technologies and modelling techniques at NASA Langley Research Center. Presently, there is a laboratory-scale large air-gap suspension system capable of five degree-of-freedom (DOF) control that is operational and a six DOF system that is under development. Those systems levitate a cylindrical element containing a permanent magnet core above a planar array of electromagnets, which are used for levitation and control purposes. In order to evaluate various control approaches with those systems, the Generic Real-Time State-Space Controller (GRTSSC) software package was developed. That control software package allows the user to implement multiple control methods and allows for varied input/output commands. The development of the control algorithm is presented. The desired functionality of the software is discussed, including the ability to inject noise on sensor inputs and/or actuator outputs. Various limitations, common issues, and trade-offs are discussed including data format precision; the drawbacks of using either Direct Memory Access (DMA), interrupts, or program control techniques for data acquisition; and platform dependent concerns related to the portability of the software, such as memory addressing formats. Efforts to minimize overall controller loop-rate and a comparison of achievable controller sample rates are discussed. The implementation of a modular code structure is presented. The format for the controller input data file and the noise information file is presented. Controller input vector information is available for post-processing by mathematical analysis software such as MATLAB1.

  9. Magnetic manipulation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in a microfluidic system for drug delivery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agiotis, L.; Theodorakos, I.; Samothrakitis, S.; Papazoglou, S.; Zergioti, I.; Raptis, Y. S.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONS), have attracted major interest, due to their small size and unique magnetic properties, for drug delivery applications. In this context, iron oxide nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) (150 nm magnetic core diameter), were used as drug carriers, aiming to form a magnetically controlled nano-platform. The navigation capabilities of the iron oxide nanoparticles in a microfluidic channel were investigated by simulating the magnetic field and the magnetic force applied on the magnetic nanoparticles inside a microfluidic chip. The simulations have been performed using finite element method (ANSY'S software). The optimum setup which intends to simulate the magnetic navigation of the nanoparticles, by the use of MRI-type fields, in the human circulatory system, consists of two parallel permanent magnets to produce a homogeneous magnetic field, in order to ensure the maximum magnetization of the magnetic nanoparticles, an electromagnet for the induction of the magnetic gradients and the creation of the magnetic force and a microfluidic setup so as to simulate the blood flow inside the human blood vessels. The magnetization of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles and the consequent magnetic torque developed by the two permanent magnets, together with the mutual interactions between the magnetized nanoparticles lead to the creation of rhabdoid aggregates in the direction of the homogeneous field. Additionally, the magnetic gradients introduced by the operation of the electromagnet are capable of directing the aggregates, as a whole, to the desired direction. By removing the magnetic fields, the aggregates are disrupted, due to the super paramagnetic nature of the nanoparticles, avoiding thus the formation of undesired thrombosis.

  10. Magnetically-induced solid-phase microextraction fiber actuation system for quantitative headspace and liquid sampling

    DOEpatents

    Harvey, Chris; Carter, Jerry; Chambers, David M.

    2017-05-23

    A magnetically-induced SPME fiber actuation system includes a SPME fiber holder and a SPME fiber holder actuator, for holding and magnetically actuating a SPME fiber assembly. The SPME fiber holder has a plunger with a magnetic material to which the SPME fiber assembly is connected, and the magnetic SPME fiber holder actuator has an elongated barrel with a loading chamber for receiving the SPME fiber assembly-connected SPME fiber holder, and an external magnet which induces axial motion of the magnetic material of the plunger to extend/retract the SPME fiber from/into the protective needle of the SPME fiber assembly.

  11. Development of a temperature-variable magnetic resonance imaging system using a 1.0T yokeless permanent magnet.

    PubMed

    Terada, Y; Tamada, D; Kose, K

    2011-10-01

    A temperature variable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system has been developed using a 1.0 T permanent magnet. A permanent magnet, gradient coils, radiofrequency coil, and shim coil were installed in a temperature variable thermostatic bath. First, the variation in the magnetic field inhomogeneity with temperature was measured. The inhomogeneity has a specific spatial symmetry, which scales linearly with temperature, and a single-channel shim coil was designed to compensate for the inhomogeneity. The inhomogeneity was drastically reduced by shimming over a wide range of temperature from -5°C to 45°C. MR images of an okra pod acquired at different temperatures demonstrated the high potential of the system for visualizing thermally sensitive properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. System and method for heating ferrite magnet motors for low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Patel Bhageerath; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Huh, Kum-Kang

    A system and method for heating ferrite permanent magnets in an electrical machine is disclosed. The permanent magnet machine includes a stator assembly and a rotor assembly, with a plurality of ferrite permanent magnets disposed within the stator assembly or the rotor assembly to generate a magnetic field that interacts with a stator magnetic field to produce a torque. A controller of the electrical machine is programmed to cause a primary field current to be applied to the stator windings to generate the stator magnetic field, so as to cause the rotor assembly to rotate relative to the stator assembly.more » The controller is further programmed to cause a secondary current to be applied to the stator windings to selectively generate a secondary magnetic field, the secondary magnetic field inducing eddy currents in at least one of the stator assembly and the rotor assembly to heat the ferrite permanent magnets.« less

  13. Polymerase chain reaction system using magnetic beads for analyzing a sample that includes nucleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Nasarabadi, Shanavaz

    2011-01-11

    A polymerase chain reaction system for analyzing a sample containing nucleic acid includes providing magnetic beads; providing a flow channel having a polymerase chain reaction chamber, a pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber, and a post pre polymerase magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber. The nucleic acid is bound to the magnetic beads. The magnetic beads with the nucleic acid flow to the pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position in the flow channel. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are washed with ethanol. The nucleic acid in the polymerase chain reactionmore » chamber is amplified. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are separated into a waste stream containing the magnetic beads and a post polymerase chain reaction mix containing the nucleic acid. The reaction mix containing the nucleic acid flows to an analysis unit in the channel for analysis.« less

  14. System and method for heating ferrite magnet motors for low temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Reddy, Patel Bhageerath; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Huh, Kum-Kang

    2017-07-04

    A system and method for heating ferrite permanent magnets in an electrical machine is disclosed. The permanent magnet machine includes a stator assembly and a rotor assembly, with a plurality of ferrite permanent magnets disposed within the stator assembly or the rotor assembly to generate a magnetic field that interacts with a stator magnetic field to produce a torque. A controller of the electrical machine is programmed to cause a primary field current to be applied to the stator windings to generate the stator magnetic field, so as to cause the rotor assembly to rotate relative to the stator assembly. The controller is further programmed to cause a secondary current to be applied to the stator windings to selectively generate a secondary magnetic field, the secondary magnetic field inducing eddy currents in at least one of the stator assembly and the rotor assembly to heat the ferrite permanent magnets.

  15. Structure-borne sound from magnetic resonance imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungar, Eric E.; Zapfe, Jeffrey A.

    2003-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems are known to produce a considerable amount of audible noise. The recent tendency to install such systems on above-grade floors has led to increasing concerns about structure-borne noise transmission from the MRI to adjacent occupied areas. This paper presents the results of a study in which structure-borne noise forces produced by two operational MRI systems were determined via measurement of the floor vibrations induced by the systems and of the impedance of their supporting floors. Forces with known spectra were applied to the floors of planned MRI suites in a hospital extension and the corresponding noise in adjacent areas was measured. Similarly, airborne noise was introduced in the planned suites and the related noise in adjacent areas was measured. The results then were scaled to correspond to the measured MRI forces and airborne noise. It was found that in areas below the planned MRI installations structure-borne noise would predominate, unless it is mitigated. Structure-borne noise isolation of MRI systems, whose environments must meet stringent vibration criteria, is discussed briefly.

  16. Characterization of the ELIMED prototype permanent magnet quadrupole system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, A. D.; Schillaci, F.; Pommarel, L.; Romano, F.; Amato, A.; Amico, A. G.; Calanna, A.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; Amato, C.; De Luca, G.; Flacco, F. A.; Gallo, G.; Giove, D.; Grmek, A.; La Rosa, G.; Leanza, R.; Maggiore, M.; Malka, V.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Scuderi, V.; Vauzour, B.; Zappalà, E.

    2017-01-01

    The system described in this work is meant to be a prototype of a more performing one that will be installed at ELI-Beamlines in Prague for the collection of ions produced after the interaction Laser-target, [1]. It has been realized by the researchers of INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) and SIGMAPHI, a French company, using a system of Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs), [2]. The final system that will be installed in Prague is designed for protons and carbons up to 60 MeV/u, around 10 times more than the energies involved in the present work. The prototype, shown in this work, has been tested in collaboration with the SAPHIR experimental facility group at LOA (Laboratoire d'Optique Appliqueé) in Paris using a 200 TW Ti:Sapphire laser system. The purpose of this work is to validate the design and the performances of this large and compact bore system and to characterize the beam produced after the interaction laser-target and its features. Moreover, the optics simulations have been compared with a real beam shape on a GAFChromic film. The procedure used during the experimental campaign and the most relevant results are reported here demonstrating a good agreement with the simulations and a good control on the beam optics.

  17. Digital control analysis and design of a field-sensed magnetic suspension system.

    PubMed

    Li, Jen-Hsing; Chiou, Juing-Shian

    2015-03-13

    Magnetic suspension systems are mechatronic systems and crucial in several engineering applications, such as the levitation of high-speed trains, frictionless bearings, and wind tunnels. Magnetic suspension systems are nonlinear and unstable systems; therefore, they are suitable educational benchmarks for testing various modeling and control methods. This paper presents the digital modeling and control of magnetic suspension systems. First, the magnetic suspension system is stabilized using a digital proportional-derivative controller. Subsequently, the digital model is identified using recursive algorithms. Finally, a digital mixed linear quadratic regulator (LQR)/H∞ control is adopted to stabilize the magnetic suspension system robustly. Simulation examples and a real-world example are provided to demonstrate the practicality of the study results. In this study, a digital magnetic suspension system model was developed and reviewed. In addition, equivalent state and output feedback controls for magnetic suspension systems were developed. Using this method, the controller design for magnetic suspension systems was simplified, which is the novel contribution of this study. In addition, this paper proposes a complete digital controller design procedure for magnetic suspension systems.

  18. Methods, systems and devices for detecting threatening objects and for classifying magnetic data

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K [Shelley, ID; Roybal, Lyle G [Idaho Falls, ID; Rohrbaugh, David T [Idaho Falls, ID; Spencer, David F [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-01-24

    A method for detecting threatening objects in a security screening system. The method includes a step of classifying unique features of magnetic data as representing a threatening object. Another step includes acquiring magnetic data. Another step includes determining if the acquired magnetic data comprises a unique feature.

  19. Magnetic properties of Ni-Cu-Mn ferrite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumaih, Kh.

    2011-10-01

    Three groups according to the substitution of Cu 2+ and Mn 3+ in the system Ni 1-xCu xFe 2-yMn yO 4 ferrite with x = 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, and y varying from 0.0 to 1.0 in steps of 0.25 are prepared by solid state reactions. The phases of the Ni 1-xCu xFe 2-yMn yO 4 ferrite have been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results demonstrate that all of the synthesized materials are spinel with cubic unit cell and the lattice constant increased with increases of the Cu and Mn ions for all samples. The hyperfine interaction was studied by the Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature for all samples. The spectra of all samples show two well-resolved Zeeman patterns corresponding to A- and B-sites. The hyperfine field decreases with increasing Cu and Mn ions concentration. The Curie temperature, TC, was calculated from the temperature dependence of magnetization curves. The hysteresis curve recorded at room temperature shows that the samples are ferrimagnetic materials. The cation distribution was estimated from the results of Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements.

  20. Safety of implantable pacemakers and cardioverter defibrillators in the magnetic field of a novel remote magnetic navigation system.

    PubMed

    Jilek, Clemens; Tzeis, Stylianos; Reents, Tilko; Estner, Heidi-Luise; Fichtner, Stephanie; Ammar, Sonia; Wu, Jinjin; Hessling, Gabriele; Deisenhofer, Isabel; Kolb, Christof

    2010-10-01

    Electromagnetic interference with pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) systems may cause temporary or permanent system malfunction of implanted devices. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential interference of a novel magnetic navigation system with implantable rhythm devices. A total of 121 devices (77 pacemakers, 44 ICDs) were exposed to an activated NIOBE II® Magnetic Navigation System (Stereotaxis, St. Louis, MO, USA) at the maximal magnetic field strength of 0.1 Tesla and evaluated in vitro with respect to changes in parameter settings of the device, changes of the battery status/detection of elective replacement indication, or alterations of data stored in the device. A total of 115 out of 121 (95%) devices were free of changes in parameter settings, battery status, and internally stored data after repeated exposition to the electromagnetic field of the remote magnetic navigation system. Interference with the magnetic navigation field was observed in 6 pacemakers, resulting in reprogramming to a power-on-reset mode with or without detection of the elective replacement indication in 5 devices and abnormal variance of battery status in one device. All pacemakers could be reprogrammed to the initial modes and the battery status proved to be normal some minutes after the pacemakers had been removed from the magnetic field. Interference of a remote magnetic navigation system (at maximal field strength) with pacemakers and ICDs not connected to leads with antitachycardic detection and therapies turned off is rare. Occurring functional abnormalities could be reprogrammed in our sample. An in vitro study will give information about interference of devices connected to leads. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Expanded Equations for Torque and Force on a Cylindrical Permanent Magnet Core in a Large-Gap Magnetic Suspension System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J.

    1997-01-01

    The expanded equations for torque and force on a cylindrical permanent magnet core in a large-gap magnetic suspension system are presented. The core is assumed to be uniformly magnetized, and equations are developed for two orientations of the magnetization vector. One orientation is parallel to the axis of symmetry, and the other is perpendicular to this axis. Fields and gradients produced by suspension system electromagnets are assumed to be calculated at a point in inertial space which coincides with the origin of the core axis system in its initial alignment. Fields at a given point in the core are defined by expanding the fields produced at the origin as a Taylor series. The assumption is made that the fields can be adequately defined by expansion up to second-order terms. Examination of the expanded equations for the case where the magnetization vector is perpendicular to the axis of symmetry reveals that some of the second-order gradient terms provide a method of generating torque about the axis of magnetization and therefore provide the ability to produce six-degree-of-freedom control.

  2. Construction of vacuum system for Tristan accumulation ring

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimaru, H.; Horikoshi, G.; Kobayashi, M.

    1983-08-01

    An all aluminum-alloy vacuum system for the TRISTAN accumulation ring is now under construction. Aluminum and aluminum alloys are preferred materials for ultrahigh vacuum systems of large electron storage rings because of their good thermal conductivity, extremely low outgassing rate, and low residual radioactivity. Vacuum beam chambers for the dipole and quadrupole magnets are extruded using porthole dies. The aluminum alloy 6063-T6 provides superior performance in extrusion. For ultrahigh vacuum performance, a special extrusion technique is applied which, along with the outgassing procedure used, is described in detail. Aluminum alloy 3004 seamless elliptical bellows are inserted between the dipole andmore » quadrupole magnet chambers. These bellows are produced by the hydraulic forming of a seamless tube. The seamless bellows and the beam chambers are joined by fully automatic welding. The ceramic chambers for the kicker magnets, the fast bump magnets, and the slow beam intensity monitor are inserted in the aluminum alloy beam chambers. The ceramic chamber (98% alumina) and elliptical bellows are brazed with brazing sheets (4003-3003-4003) in a vacuum furnace. The brazing technique is described. The inner surface of the ceramic chamber is coated with a TiMo alloy by vacuum evaporation to permit a smooth flow of the RF wall current. Other suitable aluminum alloy components, including fittings, feedthroughs, gauges, optical windows, sputter ion pumps, turbomolecular pumps, and valves have been developed; their fabrication is described.« less

  3. 4H Leukodystrophy: A Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring System.

    PubMed

    Vrij-van den Bos, Suzanne; Hol, Janna A; La Piana, Roberta; Harting, Inga; Vanderver, Adeline; Barkhof, Frederik; Cayami, Ferdy; van Wieringen, Wessel N; Pouwels, Petra J W; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Bernard, Geneviève; Wolf, Nicole I

    2017-06-01

    4H (hypomyelination, hypodontia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) leukodystrophy (4H) is an autosomal recessive hypomyelinating white matter (WM) disorder with neurologic, dental, and endocrine abnormalities. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring system for 4H. A scoring system (0-54) was developed to quantify hypomyelination and atrophy of different brain regions. Pons diameter and bicaudate ratio were included as measures of cerebral and brainstem atrophy, and reference values were determined using controls. Five independent raters completed the scoring system in 40 brain MRI scans collected from 36 patients with genetically proven 4H. Interrater reliability (IRR) and correlations between MRI scores, age, gross motor function, gender, and mutated gene were assessed. IRR for total MRI severity was found to be excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.87; 95% confidence interval: 0.80-0.92) but varied between different items with some (e.g., myelination of the cerebellar WM) showing poor IRR. Atrophy increased with age in contrast to hypomyelination scores. MRI scores (global, hypomyelination, and atrophy scores) significantly correlated with clinical handicap ( p  < 0.01 for all three items) and differed between the different genotypes. Our 4H MRI scoring system reliably quantifies hypomyelination and atrophy in patients with 4H, and MRI scores reflect clinical disease severity. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Study for a Design of Magnet System for the SPD Detector NICA LHEP JINR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudin, Ivan P.

    2016-02-01

    The choice of magnet system for the Spin Physics Detector of the NICA Collider of LHEP JINR is given. The inverse problem of magnetostatics is solved for a magnetic field of 0.5 tesla in the aperture a) ɸ 3 m x 5 m and b) ɸ 3 m x 6 m. We also discuss the design of the magnet with a field of 0.3 T. The paper presents the results obtained for the "warm" and SC versions of the magnetic system: currents (ampere-turns), the geometry (size) of the coil and the iron yoke, weight (on the whole and the individual elements), the magnet transportation and assembly.

  5. Design and fabrication of a magnetic propulsion system for self-propelled capsule endoscope.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingyuan; Hu, Chengzhi; Chen, Zhenzhi; Zhang, Honghai; Liu, Sheng

    2010-12-01

    This paper investigates design, modeling, simulation, and control issues related to self-propelled endoscopic capsule navigated inside the human body through external magnetic fields. A novel magnetic propulsion system is proposed and fabricated, which has great potential of being used in the field of noninvasive gastrointestinal endoscopy. Magnetic-analysis model is established and finite-element simulations as well as orthogonal design are performed for obtaining optimized mechanical and control parameters for generating appropriate external magnetic field. Simulated intestinal tract experiments are conducted, demonstrating controllable movement of the capsule under the developed magnetic propulsion system.

  6. Calibration of a magnetic induction system for measurement of hypervelocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breeze, S. P.

    1993-03-01

    A device to measure the velocity and to determine the character of a material launched in a flight tube during the execution of an experiment has been constructed. This measurement device provides a self generating signal, is nonintrusive, compact, and accurate. The signals are reproducible, and it is relatively inexpensive to procure. The MAgnetic Velocity Induction System (MAVIS) has been the technique used to measure projectile velocities in the two-stage light gas gun at Sandia for many years. Several experiments were conducted to study the MAVIS data signatures produced by various metal projectiles at velocities raging from 0.8 km/sec to nearly 7.0 km/sec, as well as fragmented metal projectiles, and a highly conductive carbon plasma. This report deals with the results of those calibration experiments. The data signature study may be used as an aid in the interpretation of the other test data records.

  7. Tunable biasing magnetic field design of ferrite tuner for ICRF heating system in EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manman, XU; Yuntao, SONG; Gen, CHEN; Yanping, ZHAO; Yuzhou, MAO; Guang, LIU; Zhen, PENG

    2017-11-01

    Ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating has been used in tokamaks as one of the most successful auxiliary heating tools and has been adopted in the EAST. However, the antenna load will fluctuate with the change of plasma parameters in the ICRF heating process. To ensure the steady operation of the ICRF heating system in the EAST, fast ferrite tuner (FFT) has been carried out to achieve real-time impedance matching. For the requirements of the FFT impedance matching system, the magnet system of the ferrite tuner (FT) was designed by numerical simulations and experimental analysis, where the biasing magnetic circuit and alternating magnetic circuit were the key researched parts of the ferrite magnet. The integral design goal of the FT magnetic circuit is that DC bias magnetic field is 2000 Gs and alternating magnetic field is ±400 Gs. In the FTT, E-type magnetic circuit was adopted. Ferrite material is NdFeB with a thickness of 30 mm by setting the working point of NdFeB, and the ampere turn of excitation coil is 25 through the theoretical calculation and simulation analysis. The coil inductance to generate alternating magnetic field is about 7 mH. Eddy-current effect has been analyzed, while the magnetic field distribution has been measured by a Hall probe in the medium plane of the biasing magnet. Finally, the test results show the good performance of the biasing magnet satisfying the design and operating requirements of the FFT.

  8. Manufacturing of a superconducting magnet system for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source at KBSI.

    PubMed

    Lee, B S; Choi, S; Yoon, J H; Park, J Y; Won, M S

    2012-02-01

    A magnet system for a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source is being developed by the Korea Basic Science Institute. The configuration of the magnet system consists of 3 solenoid coils for a mirror magnetic field and 6 racetrack coils for a hexapole magnetic field. They can generate axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the beam injection part and 2.2 T at the extraction part. A radial magnetic field of 2.1 T is achievable at the plasma chamber wall. A step type winding process was employed in fabricating the hexapole coil. The winding technique was confirmed through repeated cooling tests. Superconducting magnets and a cryostat system are currently being manufactured.

  9. Asymmetric magnetic proximity effect in a Pd/Co/Pd trilayer system

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Dong -Ok; Song, Kyung Mee; Choi, Yongseong; ...

    2016-05-06

    In spintronic devices consisting of ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic systems, the ferromagnet-induced magnetic moment in the adjacent nonmagnetic material significantly influences the spin transport properties. In this study, such magnetic proximity effect in a Pd/Co/Pd trilayer system is investigated by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and x-ray resonant magnetic reflectivity, which enables magnetic characterizations with element and depth resolution. We observe that the total Pd magnetic moments induced at the top Co/Pd interface are significantly larger than the Pd moments at the bottom Pd/Co interface, whereas transmission electron microscopy and reflectivity analysis indicate the two interfaces are nearly identical structurally. Furthermore, such asymmetry inmore » magnetic proximity effects could be important for understanding spin transport characteristics in ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic systems and its potential application to spin devices.« less

  10. New measuring system for the distribution of a magnetic force by using an optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigaki, H.; Oya, T.; Itoh, M.; Hida, A.; Iwata, K.

    1993-01-01

    A new measuring system using an optical fiber and a position sensing photodetector was developed to measure a three-dimensional distribution of a magnetic force. A steel ball attached to a cantilever made of an optical fiber generated force in a magnetic field. The displacement of the ball due to the force was detected by a position-sensing photodetector with the capability of detecting two-directional coordinates of the position. By scanning the sensing system in a magnetic field, we obtained distributions of two-directional component of the magnetic force vector. The component represents the gradient of a squared magnetic field. The usefulness of the system for measuring the magnetic field distribution in a narrow clearance and for evaluating superconducting machine components such as magnetic bearings was verified experimentally.

  11. Asymmetric magnetic proximity effect in a Pd/Co/Pd trilayer system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong -Ok; Song, Kyung Mee; Choi, Yongseong

    In spintronic devices consisting of ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic systems, the ferromagnet-induced magnetic moment in the adjacent nonmagnetic material significantly influences the spin transport properties. In this study, such magnetic proximity effect in a Pd/Co/Pd trilayer system is investigated by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and x-ray resonant magnetic reflectivity, which enables magnetic characterizations with element and depth resolution. We observe that the total Pd magnetic moments induced at the top Co/Pd interface are significantly larger than the Pd moments at the bottom Pd/Co interface, whereas transmission electron microscopy and reflectivity analysis indicate the two interfaces are nearly identical structurally. Furthermore, such asymmetry inmore » magnetic proximity effects could be important for understanding spin transport characteristics in ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic systems and its potential application to spin devices.« less

  12. Fuzzy self-learning control for magnetic servo system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarn, J. H.; Kuo, L. T.; Juang, K. Y.; Lin, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    It is known that an effective control system is the key condition for successful implementation of high-performance magnetic servo systems. Major issues to design such control systems are nonlinearity; unmodeled dynamics, such as secondary effects for copper resistance, stray fields, and saturation; and that disturbance rejection for the load effect reacts directly on the servo system without transmission elements. One typical approach to design control systems under these conditions is a special type of nonlinear feedback called gain scheduling. It accommodates linear regulators whose parameters are changed as a function of operating conditions in a preprogrammed way. In this paper, an on-line learning fuzzy control strategy is proposed. To inherit the wealth of linear control design, the relations between linear feedback and fuzzy logic controllers have been established. The exercise of engineering axioms of linear control design is thus transformed into tuning of appropriate fuzzy parameters. Furthermore, fuzzy logic control brings the domain of candidate control laws from linear into nonlinear, and brings new prospects into design of the local controllers. On the other hand, a self-learning scheme is utilized to automatically tune the fuzzy rule base. It is based on network learning infrastructure; statistical approximation to assign credit; animal learning method to update the reinforcement map with a fast learning rate; and temporal difference predictive scheme to optimize the control laws. Different from supervised and statistical unsupervised learning schemes, the proposed method learns on-line from past experience and information from the process and forms a rule base of an FLC system from randomly assigned initial control rules.

  13. Development of a Hybrid Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasound Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Victoria; Rivens, Ian; Collins, David J.; Leach, Martin O.; ter Haar, Gail R.

    2014-01-01

    A system which allows magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound (US) image data to be acquired simultaneously has been developed. B-mode and Doppler US were performed inside the bore of a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner using a clinical 1–4 MHz US transducer with an 8-metre cable. Susceptibility artefacts and RF noise were introduced into MR images by the US imaging system. RF noise was minimised by using aluminium foil to shield the transducer. A study of MR and B-mode US image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a function of transducer-phantom separation was performed using a gel phantom. This revealed that a 4 cm separation between the phantom surface and the transducer was sufficient to minimise the effect of the susceptibility artefact in MR images. MR-US imaging was demonstrated in vivo with the aid of a 2 mm VeroWhite 3D-printed spherical target placed over the thigh muscle of a rat. The target allowed single-point registration of MR and US images in the axial plane to be performed. The system was subsequently demonstrated as a tool for the targeting and visualisation of high intensity focused ultrasound exposure in the rat thigh muscle. PMID:25177702

  14. Pulsed magnetic field generation suited for low-field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaunkar, Neelam Prabhu; Selvaraj, Jayaprakash; Theh, Wei-Shen; Weber, Robert; Mina, Mani

    2018-05-01

    Pulsed magnetic fields can be used to provide instantaneous localized magnetic field variations. In presence of static fields, pulsed field variations are often used to apply torques and in-effect to measure behavior of magnetic moments in different states. In this work, the design and experimental performance of a pulsed magnetic field generator suited for low static field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) applications is presented. One of the challenges of low bias field NMR measurements is low signal to noise ratio due to the comparable nature of the bias field and the pulsed field. Therefore, a circuit is designed to apply pulsed currents through an inductive load, leading to generation of pulsed magnetic fields which can temporarily overpower the effect of the bias field on magnetic moments. The designed circuit will be tuned to operate at the precession frequency of 1H (protons) placed in a bias field produced by permanent magnets. The designed circuit parameters may be tuned to operate under different bias conditions. Therefore, low field NMR measurements can be performed for different bias fields. Circuit simulations were used to determine design parameters, corresponding experimental measurements will be presented in this work.

  15. A β-Ta system for current induced magnetic switching in the absence of external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenzhe; Qian, Lijuan; Xiao, Gang

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic switching via Giant Spin Hall Effect (GSHE) has received great interest for its role in developing future spintronics logic or memory devices. In this work, a new material system (i.e. a transition metal sandwiched between two ferromagnetic layers) with interlayer exchange coupling is introduced to realize the deterministic field-free perpendicular magnetic switching. This system uses β-Ta, as the GSHE agent to generate a spin current and as the interlayer exchange coupling medium to generate an internal field. The critical switching current density at zero field is on the order of 106 A/cm2 due to the large spin Hall angle of β-Ta. The internal field, along with switching efficiency, depends strongly on the orthogonal magnetization states of two ferromagnetic coupling layers in this system.

  16. The magnetic signature of ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szitkar, F.; Dyment, J.; Honsho, C.; Horen, H.; Fouquet, Y.

    2013-12-01

    While the magnetic response of basalt-hosted hydrothermal sites is well known, that of ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal sites (UMHS) remains poorly documented. Here we present the magnetic signature of three of the six UMHS investigated to date on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, i.e. sites Rainbow, Ashadze (1 and 2), and Logachev. Two magnetic signatures are observed. Sites Rainbow and Ashadze 1 are both characterized by a positive reduced-to-the-pole magnetic anomaly, i.e. a positive magnetization contrast. Conversely, sites Ashadze 2 and Logachev do not exhibit any clear magnetic signature. Rock-magnetic measurements on samples from site Rainbow reveal a strong magnetization (~30 A/m adding induced and remanent contributions) borne by sulfide-impregnated serpentinites; the magnetic carrier being magnetite. This observation can be explained by three (non exclusive) processes: (1) higher temperature serpentinization at the site resulting in the formation of more abundant / more strongly magnetized magnetite; (2) the reducing hydrothermal fluid protecting magnetite at the site from the oxidation which otherwise affects magnetite in contact with seawater; and (3) the formation of primary (hydrothermal) magnetite. We apply a new inversion method developed by Honsho et al. (2012) to the high-resolution magnetic anomalies acquired 10 m above seafloor at sites Rainbow and Ashadze 1. This method uses the Akaike Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) and takes full advantage of the near-seafloor measurements, avoiding the upward-continuation (i.e. loss of resolution) of other inversion schemes. This inversion reveals a difference in the intensity of equivalent magnetization obtained assuming a 100 m thick magnetic layer, ~30 A/m at site Rainbow and only 8A/m at site Ashadze, suggesting a thinner or less magnetized source for the latter. Hydrothermal sites at Ashadze 2 and Logachev are much smaller (of the order of 10 m) than the previous ones (several 100 m). These sites, known as

  17. A Real-Time Localization System for an Endoscopic Capsule Using Magnetic Sensors †

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Duc Minh; Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic sensing technology offers an attractive alternative for in vivo tracking with much better performance than RF and ultrasound technologies. In this paper, an efficient in vivo magnetic tracking system is presented. The proposed system is intended to localize an endoscopic capsule which delivers biomarkers around specific locations of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. For efficiently localizing a magnetic marker inside the capsule, a mathematical model has been developed for the magnetic field around a cylindrical magnet and used with a localization algorithm that provides minimum error and fast computation. The proposed tracking system has much reduced complexity compared to the ones reported in the literature to date. Laboratory tests and in vivo animal trials have demonstrated the suitability of the proposed system for tracking a magnetic marker with expected accuracy. PMID:25379813

  18. [Analysis of accidents for magnetically induced displacement of the large ferromagnetic material in magnetic resonance systems].

    PubMed

    Yamatani, Yuya; Doi, Tsukasa; Ueyama, Tsuyoshi; Nishiki, Shigeo; Ogura, Akio; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Okuaki, Tomoyuki; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    To improve magnetic resonance (MR) safety, we surveyed the accidents caused by large ferromagnetic materials brought into MR systems accidentally. We sent a questionnaire to 700 Japanese medical institutions and received 405 valid responses (58%). A total of 97 accidents in 77 institutions were observed and we analyzed them regarding incidental rate, the detail situation and environmental factors. The mean accident rate of each institute was 0.7/100,000 examinations, which was widely distributed (0-25.6/100,000) depending on the institute. In this survey, relatively small institutes with less than 500 beds tend to have these accidents more frequently (p<0.01). The institutes in which daily MR examination counts are more than 10 patients have fewer accidents than those with less than 10 daily examinations. The institutes with 6-10 MR examinations daily have significantly more accidents than that with more than 10 daily MR examinations (p<0.01). The main mental factors of the accidents were considered to be "prejudice" and "carelessness" but some advocate "ignorance." Though we could not find significant reduction in the institutes that have lectures and training for MR safety, we should continue lectures and training for MR safety to reduce accidents due to "ignorance."

  19. Magnetic tracking for TomoTherapy systems: gradiometer based methods to filter eddy-current magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    McGary, John E; Xiong, Zubiao; Chen, Ji

    2013-07-01

    TomoTherapy systems lack real-time, tumor tracking. A possible solution is to use electromagnetic markers; however, eddy-current magnetic fields generated in response to a magnetic source can be comparable to the signal, thus degrading the localization accuracy. Therefore, the tracking system must be designed to account for the eddy fields created along the inner bore conducting surfaces. The aim of this work is to investigate localization accuracy using magnetic field gradients to determine feasibility toward TomoTherapy applications. Electromagnetic models are used to simulate magnetic fields created by a source and its simultaneous generation of eddy currents within a conducting cylinder. The source position is calculated using a least-squares fit of simulated sensor data using the dipole equation as the model equation. To account for field gradients across the sensor area (≈ 25 cm(2)), an iterative method is used to estimate the magnetic field at the sensor center. Spatial gradients are calculated with two arrays of uniaxial, paired sensors that form a gradiometer array, where the sensors are considered ideal. Experimental measurements of magnetic fields within the TomoTherapy bore are shown to be 1%-10% less than calculated with the electromagnetic model. Localization results using a 5 × 5 array of gradiometers are, in general, 2-4 times more accurate than a planar array of sensors, depending on the solenoid orientation and position. Simulation results show that the localization accuracy using a gradiometer array is within 1.3 mm over a distance of 20 cm from the array plane. In comparison, localization errors using single array are within 5 mm. The results indicate that the gradiometer method merits further studies and work due to the accuracy achieved with ideal sensors. Future studies should include realistic sensor models and extensive numerical studies to estimate the expected magnetic tracking accuracy within a TomoTherapy system before proceeding

  20. Direct measurement of the impulse in a magnetic thrust chamber system for laser fusion rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Maeno, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki

    2011-08-15

    An experiment is conducted to measure an impulse for demonstrating a magnetic thrust chamber system for laser fusion rocket. The impulse is produced by the interaction between plasma and magnetic field. In the experiment, the system consists of plasma and neodymium permanent magnets. The plasma is created by a single-beam laser aiming at a polystyrene spherical target. The impulse is 1.5 to 2.2 {mu}Ns by means of a pendulum thrust stand, when the laser energy is 0.7 J. Without magnetic field, the measured impulse is found to be zero. These results indicate that the system for generating impulse is working.

  1. A simple and low-cost permanent magnet system for NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chonlathep, K.; Sakamoto, T.; Sugahara, K.; Kondo, Y.

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a simple, easy to build, and low-cost magnet system for NMR, of which homogeneity is about 4 ×10-4 at 57 mT, with a pair of two commercially available ferrite magnets. This homogeneity corresponds to about 90 Hz spectral resolution at 2.45 MHz of the hydrogen Larmor frequency. The material cost of this NMR magnet system is little more than 100. The components can be printed by a 3D printer.

  2. Magnetic-field-induced dose effects in MR-guided radiotherapy systems: dependence on the magnetic field strength.

    PubMed

    Raaijmakers, A J E; Raaymakers, B W; Lagendijk, J J W

    2008-02-21

    Several institutes are currently working on the development of a radiotherapy treatment system with online MR imaging (MRI) modality. The main difference between their designs is the magnetic field strength of the MRI system. While we have chosen a 1.5 Tesla (T) magnetic field strength, the Cross Cancer Institute in Edmonton will be using a 0.2 T MRI scanner and the company Viewray aims to use 0.3 T. The magnetic field strength will affect the severity of magnetic field dose effects, such as the electron return effect (ERE): considerable dose increase at tissue air boundaries due to returning electrons. This paper has investigated how the ERE dose increase depends on the magnetic field strength. Therefore, four situations where the ERE occurs have been simulated: ERE at the distal side of the beam, the lateral ERE, ERE in cylindrical air cavities and ERE in the lungs. The magnetic field comparison values were 0.2, 0.75, 1.5 and 3 T. Results show that, in general, magnetic field dose effects are reduced at lower magnetic field strengths. At the distal side, the ERE dose increase is largest for B = 0.75 T and depends on the irradiation field size for B = 0.2 T. The lateral ERE is strongest for B = 3 T but shows no effect for B = 0.2 T. Around cylindrical air cavities, dose inhomogeneities disappear if the radius of the cavity becomes small relative to the in-air radius of the secondary electron trajectories. At larger cavities (r > 1 cm), dose inhomogeneities exist for all magnetic field strengths. In water-lung-water phantoms, the ERE dose increase takes place at the water-lung transition and the dose decreases at the lung-water transition, but these effects are minimal for B = 0.2 T. These results will contribute to evaluating the trade-off between magnetic field dose effects and image quality of MR-guided radiotherapy systems.

  3. Improved power transfer to wearable systems through stretchable magnetic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, N.; Bedair, S. S.

    2016-05-01

    The use of wireless power transfer is common in stretchable electronics since physical wiring can be easily destroyed as the system is stretched. This work presents the first demonstration of improved inductive power coupling to a stretchable system through the addition of a thin layer of ferroelastomeric material. A ferroelastomer, an elastomeric polymer loaded with magnetic particulates, has a permeability greater than one while retaining the ability to survive significant mechanical strains. A recently developed ferroelastomer composite based on sendust platelets within a soft silicone elastomer was incorporated into liquid metal stretchable inductors based on the liquid metal galinstan in fluidic channels. For a single-turn inductor, the maximum power transfer efficiency rises from 71 % with no backplane, to 81 % for a rigid ferrite backplane on the transmitter side alone, to 86 % with a ferroelastomer backplane on the receiver side as well. The coupling between a commercial wireless power transmitter coil with ferrite backplane to a five-turn liquid metal inductor was also investigated, finding an improvement in power transfer efficiency from 81 % with only a rigid backplane to 90 % with the addition of the ferroelastomer backplane. Both the single and multi-turn inductors were demonstrated surviving up to 50 % uniaxial applied strain.

  4. Tunable system for production of mirror and cusp configurations using chassis of permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Alexander; Bushmelov, Maxim; Batishchev, Oleg

    2018-03-01

    Compact arrays of permanent magnets have shown promise as replacements for electromagnets in applications requiring magnetic cusps and mirrors. An adjustable system capable of suspending and translating a pair of light, nonmagnetic chassis carrying such sources of magnetic field has been designed and constructed. Using this device to align two cylindrical chassis, strong solenoid-like domains of field, as well as classic biconic cusp and magnetic mirror topologies, are generated. Employing a pair of ring-shaped chassis instead, the superposition of their naturally-emitted cusps is demonstrated to produce sextupolar and octupolar magnetic fields.

  5. Active tensor magnetic gradiometer system final report for Project MM–1514

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David V.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hutton, S. Raymond

    2014-01-01

    An interactive computer simulation program, based on physical models of system sensors, platform geometry, Earth environment, and spheroidal magnetically-permeable targets, was developed to generate synthetic magnetic field data from a conceptual tensor magnetic gradiometer system equipped with an active primary field generator. The system sensors emulate the prototype tensor magnetic gradiometer system (TMGS) developed under a separate contract for unexploded ordnance (UXO) detection and classification. Time-series data from different simulation scenarios were analyzed to recover physical dimensions of the target source. Helbig-Euler simulations were run with rectangular and rod-like source bodies to determine whether such a system could separate the induced component of the magnetization from the remanent component for each target. This report concludes with an engineering assessment of a practical system design.

  6. Development of superconducting high gradient magnetic separation system for highly viscous fluid for practical use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, S.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2011-11-01

    In the industrial plants processing highly viscous fluid such as foods or industrial products, it is necessary to remove the metallic wear debris originating from pipe in manufacturing line which triggers quality loss. In this study, we developed a high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system which consists of superconducting magnet to remove the metallic wear debris. The magnetic separation experiment and the particle trajectory simulation were conducted with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a model material (viscosity coefficient was 10 Pa s, which is 10,000 times higher than that in water). In order to develop a magnetic separation system for practical use, the particle trajectory simulation by using solenoidal superconducting magnet was conducted, and the possibility of the magnetic separation for removing ferromagnetic stainless steel (SUS) particles in highly viscous fluid of 10 Pa s was indicated. Based on the results, the number of filters to obtain required separation efficiency was examined to design the practical separation system.

  7. Studies on the Magnetic Center of the Mu2e Solenoid System

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, M. L.; Ambrosio, G.; Buehler, M.

    2014-01-01

    The definition of the magnetic center in the Mu2e solenoid system is not trivial given the S-shaped nature of the transport solenoid. Moreover, due to the fringe field of the larger bore adjacent magnets-production solenoid and the detector solenoid-the magnetic center does not coincide with the geometric center of the system. The reference magnetic center can be obtained by tracking a low-momentum charged particle through the whole system. This paper will discuss this method and will evaluate the deviations from the nominal magnetic center given the tolerances in the manufacturing and the alignment of the coils. Methods for the correctionmore » of the magnetic center will also be presented.« less

  8. Magnetic field simulation and shimming analysis of 3.0T superconducting MRI system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Z. K.; Liu, Z. Z.; Tang, G. S.; Zhang, X. C.; Duan, L. J.; Liu, W. C.

    2018-04-01

    3.0T superconducting magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system has become the mainstream of modern clinical MRI system because of its high field intensity and high degree of uniformity and stability. It has broad prospects in scientific research and other fields. We analyze the principle of magnet designing in this paper. We also perform the magnetic field simulation and shimming analysis of the first 3.0T/850 superconducting MRI system in the world using the Ansoft Maxwell simulation software. We guide the production and optimization of the prototype based on the results of simulation analysis. Thus the magnetic field strength, magnetic field uniformity and magnetic field stability of the prototype is guided to achieve the expected target.

  9. Rats avoid high magnetic fields: dependence on an intact vestibular system

    PubMed Central

    Houpt, Thomas A.; Cassell, Jennifer A.; Riccardi, Christina; DenBleyker, Megan D.; Hood, Alison; Smith, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary HOUPT, T.A., J.A. CASSELL, C. RICCARDI, M.D. DENBLEYKER, A. HOOD, AND J.C. SMITH. Rats avoid high magnetic fields: dependence on an intact vestibular system. PHYSIOL BEHAV 00(0)000-000, 2006. High strength static magnetic fields are thought to be benign and largely undetectable by mammals. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines increase in strength, however, potential aversive effects may become clinically relevant. Here we report that rats find entry into a 14.1 T magnet aversive, and that they can detect and avoid entry into the magnet at a point where the magnetic field is 2 T or lower. Rats were trained to climb a ladder through the bore of a 14.1 T superconducting magnet. After their first climb into 14.1 T, most rats refused to re-enter the magnet or climb past the 2 T field line. This result was confirmed in a resistive magnet in which the magnetic field was varied from 1 to 14 T. Detection and avoidance required the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear, because labyrinthectomized rats readily traversed the magnet. The inner ear is a novel site for magnetic field transduction in mammals, but perturbation of the vestibular apparatus would be consistent with human reports of vertigo and nausea around high strength MRI machines. PMID:17585969

  10. Public magnetic field exposure based on internal current density for electric low voltage systems.

    PubMed

    Keikko, Tommi; Seesvuori, Reino; Hyvönen, Martti; Valkealahti, Seppo

    2009-04-01

    A measurement concept utilizing a new magnetic field exposure metering system has been developed for indoor substations where voltage is transformed from a medium voltage of 10 or 20 kV to a low voltage of 400 V. The new metering system follows the guidelines published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. It can be used to measure magnetic field values, total harmonic distortion of the magnetic field, magnetic field exposure ratios for public and workers, load current values, and total harmonic distortion of the load current. This paper demonstrates how exposure to non-sinusoidal magnetic fields and magnetic flux density exposure values can be compared directly with limit values for internal current densities in a human body. Further, we present how the magnetic field and magnetic field exposure behaves in the vicinity of magnetic field sources within the indoor substation and in the neighborhood. Measured magnetic fields around the substation components have been used to develop a measurement concept by which long-term measurements in the substations were performed. Long-term measurements revealed interesting and partly unexpected dependencies between the measured quantities, which have been further analyzed. The principle of this paper is to substitute a demanding exposure measurement with measurements of the basic quantities like the 50 Hz fundamental magnetic field component, which can be estimated based on the load currents for certain classes of substation lay-out.

  11. Magnetic tweezers optimized to exert high forces over extended distances from the magnet in multicellular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaggi, L.; Pasakarnis, L.; Brunner, D.; Aegerter, C. M.

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic tweezers are mainly divided into two classes depending on the ability of applying torque or forces to the magnetic probe. We focused on the second category and designed a device composed by a single electromagnet equipped with a core having a special asymmetric profile to exert forces as large as 230 pN-2.8 μm Dynabeads at distances in excess of 100 μm from the magnetic tip. Compared to existing solutions our magnetic tweezers overcome important limitations, opening new experimental paths for the study of a wide range of materials in a variety of biophysical research settings. We discuss the benefits and drawbacks of different magnet core characteristics, which led us to design the current core profile. To demonstrate the usefulness of our magnetic tweezers, we determined the microrheological properties inside embryos of Drosophila melanogaster during the syncytial stage. Measurements in different locations along the dorsal-ventral axis of the embryos showed little variation, with a slight increase in cytoplasm viscosity at the periphery of the embryos. The mean cytoplasm viscosity we obtain by active force exertion inside the embryos is comparable to that determined passively using high-speed video microrheology.

  12. Static magnetic field reduced exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by spermatozoa using magnetic nanoparticle gene delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katebi, Samira; Esmaeili, Abolghasem; Ghaedi, Kamran

    2016-03-01

    Spermatozoa could introduce exogenous oligonucleotides of interest to the oocyte. The most important reason of low efficiency of sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is low uptake of exogenous DNA by spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of static magnetic field on exogenous oligonucleotide uptake of spermatozoa using magnetofection method. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) associated with the labeled oligonucleotides were used to increase the efficiency of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa. We used high-field/high-gradient magnet (NdFeB) to enhance and accelerate exogenous DNA sedimentation at the spermatozoa surface. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to measure viability and percentage of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by sperm. Flow cytometry analysis showed a significant increase in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa (P<0.001) when spermatozoa were incubated in exogenous oligonucleotide solution and MNPs. However, by applying static magnetic field during magnetofection method, a significant decrease in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake was observed (P<0.05). Findings of this study showed that MNPs were effective to increase exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa; however unlike others studies, static magnetic field, was not only ineffective to enhance exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa but also led to reduction in efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles in gene transfer.

  13. Amplification of large scale magnetic fields in a decaying MHD system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kiwan

    2017-10-01

    Dynamo theory explains the amplification of magnetic fields in the conducting fluids (plasmas) driven by the continuous external energy. It is known that the nonhelical continuous kinetic or magnetic energy amplifies the small scale magnetic field; and the helical energy, the instability, or the shear with rotation effect amplifies the large scale magnetic field. However, recently it was reported that the decaying magnetic energy independent of helicity or instability could generate the large scale magnetic field. This phenomenon may look somewhat contradictory to the conventional dynamo theory. But it gives us some clues to the fundamental mechanism of energy transfer in the magnetized conducting fluids. It also implies that an ephemeral astrophysical event emitting the magnetic and kinetic energy can be a direct cause of the large scale magnetic field observed in space. As of now the exact physical mechanism is not yet understood in spite of several numerical results. The plasma motion coupled with a nearly conserved vector potential in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) system may transfer magnetic energy to the large scale. Also the intrinsic property of the scaling invariant MHD equation may decide the direction of energy transfer. In this paper we present the simulation results of inversely transferred helical and nonhelical energy in a decaying MHD system. We introduce a field structure model based on the MHD equation to show that the transfer of magnetic energy is essentially bidirectional depending on the plasma motion and initial energy distribution. And then we derive α coefficient algebraically in line with the field structure model to explain how the large scale magnetic field is induced by the helical energy in the system regardless of an external forcing source. And for the algebraic analysis of nonhelical magnetic energy, we use the eddy damped quasinormalized Markovian approximation to show the inverse transfer of magnetic energy.

  14. Conversion of the magnetic field measured in three components on the magnetic sensor body's random coordinate system into three components on geographical coordinate system through quaternion rotation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIM, M.; PARK, Y.; Jung, H.; SHIN, Y.; Rim, H.; PARK, C.

    2017-12-01

    To measure all components of a physical property, for example the magnetic field, is more useful than to measure its magnitude only in interpretation and application thereafter. To convert the physical property measured in 3 components on a random coordinate system, for example on moving magnetic sensor body's coordinate system, into 3 components on a fixed coordinate system, for example on geographical coordinate system, by the rotations of coordinate system around Euler angles for example, we should have the attitude values of the sensor body in time series, which could be acquired by an INS-GNSS system of which the axes are installed coincident with those of the sensor body. But if we want to install some magnetic sensors in array at sea floor but without attitude acquisition facility of the magnetic sensors and to monitor the variation of magnetic fields in time, we should have also some way to estimate the relation between the geographical coordinate system and each sensor body's coordinate system by comparison of the vectors only measured on both coordinate systems on the assumption that the directions of the measured magnetic field on both coordinate systems are the same. For that estimation, we have at least 3 ways. The first one is to calculate 3 Euler angles phi, theta, psi from the equation Vgeograph = Rx(phi) Ry(theta) Rz(psi) Vrandom, where Vgeograph is the vector on geographical coordinate system etc. and Rx(phi) is the rotation matrix around the x axis by the angle phi etc. The second one is to calculate the difference of inclination and declination between the 2 vectors on spherical coordinate system. The third one, used by us for this study, is to calculate the angle of rotation along a great circle around the rotation axis, and the direction of the rotation axis. We installed no. 1 and no. 2 FVM-400 fluxgate magnetometers in array near Cheongyang Geomagnetic Observatory (IAGA code CYG) and acquired time series of magnetic fields for CYG and for

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus: current state of the art and novel approaches.

    PubMed

    Postal, M; Lapa, A Tamires; Reis, F; Rittner, L; Appenzeller, S

    2017-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated disease affecting 0.1% of the general population. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus have been more frequently recognized and reported in recent years, occurring in up to 75% of patients during the disease course. Magnetic resonance imaging is known to be a useful tool for the detection of structural brain abnormalities in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus patients because of the excellent soft-tissue contrast observed with MRI and the ability to acquire multiplanar images. In addition to conventional magnetic resonance imaging techniques to evaluate the presence of atrophy and white matter lesions, several different magnetic resonance imaging techniques have been used to identify microstructural or functional abnormalities. This review will highlight different magnetic resonance imaging techniques, including the advanced magnetic resonance imaging methods used to determine central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus.

  16. Preclinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Systems Biology in Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Chris; Rodriguez, Olga C.; VanMeter, John; Fricke, Stanley T.; Rood, Brian R.; Lee, YiChien; Wang, Sean S.; Madhavan, Subha; Gusev, Yuriy; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Wang, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Biologically accurate mouse models of human cancer have become important tools for the study of human disease. The anatomical location of various target organs, such as brain, pancreas, and prostate, makes determination of disease status difficult. Imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, can greatly enhance diagnosis, and longitudinal imaging of tumor progression is an important source of experimental data. Even in models where the tumors arise in areas that permit visual determination of tumorigenesis, longitudinal anatomical and functional imaging can enhance the scope of studies by facilitating the assessment of biological alterations, (such as changes in angiogenesis, metabolism, cellular invasion) as well as tissue perfusion and diffusion. One of the challenges in preclinical imaging is the development of infrastructural platforms required for integrating in vivo imaging and therapeutic response data with ex vivo pathological and molecular data using a more systems-based multiscale modeling approach. Further challenges exist in integrating these data for computational modeling to better understand the pathobiology of cancer and to better affect its cure. We review the current applications of preclinical imaging and discuss the implications of applying functional imaging to visualize cancer progression and treatment. Finally, we provide new data from an ongoing preclinical drug study demonstrating how multiscale modeling can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of cancer biology and therapy. PMID:23219428

  17. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuanhu

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation describes two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance theory and experiments which have been developed to study quadruples in the solid state. The technique of multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, MQMAS is first compared with another technique, dynamic-angle spinning (DAS). The similarity between the two techniques allows us to extend much of the DAS work to the MQMAS case. Application of MQMAS to a series of aluminum containing materials is then presented. The superior resolution enhancement through MQMAS is exploited to detect the five- and six-coordinated aluminum in many aluminosilicate glasses. Combiningmore » the MQMAS method with other experiments, such as HETCOR, greatly expands the possibility of the use of MQMAS to study a large range of problems and is demonstrated in Chapter 5. Finally, the technique switching-angle spinning (SAS) is applied to quadrupolar nuclei to fully characterize a quadrupolar spin system in which all of the 8 NMR parameters are accurately determined. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate that with the combination of two-dimensional NMR concepts and new advanced spinning technologies, a series of multiple-dimensional NMR techniques can be designed to allow a detailed study of quadrupolar nuclei in the solid state.« less

  18. Method and system for controlling a permanent magnet machine

    DOEpatents

    Walters, James E.

    2003-05-20

    Method and system for controlling the start of a permanent magnet machine are provided. The method allows to assign a parameter value indicative of an estimated initial rotor position of the machine. The method further allows to energize the machine with a level of current being sufficiently high to start rotor motion in a desired direction in the event the initial rotor position estimate is sufficiently close to the actual rotor position of the machine. A sensing action allows to sense whether any incremental changes in rotor position occur in response to the energizing action. In the event no changes in rotor position are sensed, the method allows to incrementally adjust the estimated rotor position by a first set of angular values until changes in rotor position are sensed. In the event changes in rotor position are sensed, the method allows to provide a rotor alignment signal as rotor motion continues. The alignment signal allows to align the estimated rotor position relative to the actual rotor position. This alignment action allows for operating the machine over a wide speed range.

  19. Potential benefits of magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, Pierce L.; Dress, David A.; Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The potential of Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS) to improve conventional wind tunnel testing techniques is discussed. Topics include: elimination of model geometry distortion and support interference to improve the measurement accuracy of aerodynamic coefficients; removal of testing restrictions due to supports; improved dynamic stability data; and stores separation testing. Substantial increases in wind tunnel productivity are anticipated due to the coalescence of these improvements. Specific improvements in testing methods for missiles, helicopters, fighter aircraft, twin fuselage transports and bombers, state separation, water tunnels, and automobiles are also forecast. In a more speculative vein, new wind tunnel test techniques are envisioned as a result of applying MSBS, including free-flight computer trajectories in the test section, pilot-in-the-loop and designer-in-the-loop testing, shipboard missile launch simulation, and optimization of hybrid hypersonic configurations. Also addressed are potential applications of MSBS to such diverse technologies as medical research and practice, industrial robotics, space weaponry, and ore processing in space.

  20. Study to Establish Ride Comfort Criteria for High Speed Magnetically Levitated Transportation Systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-06-01

    Advanced high speed fixed guideway transportation systems such as magnetic levitation systems have speed, acceleration, : and banking capabilities which present new guideway design issues. This increased performance results in new concerns : for pass...

  1. Quantized spin-momentum transfer in atom-sized magnetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loth, Sebastian

    2010-03-01

    Our ability to quickly access the vast amounts of information linked in the internet is owed to the miniaturization of magnetic data storage. In modern disk drives the tunnel magnetoresistance effect (TMR) serves as sensitive reading mechanism for the nanoscopic magnetic bits [1]. At its core lies the ability to control the flow of electrons with a material's magnetization. The inverse effect, spin transfer torque (STT), allows one to influence a magnetic layer by high current densities of spin-polarized electrons and carries high hopes for applications in non-volatile magnetic memory [2]. We show that equivalent processes are active in quantum spin systems. We use a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operating at low temperature and high magnetic field to address individual magnetic structures and probe their spin excitations by inelastic electron tunneling [3]. As model system we investigate transition metal atoms adsorbed to a copper nitride layer grown on a Cu crystal. The magnetic atoms on the surface possess well-defined spin states [4]. Transfer of one magnetic atom to the STM tip's apex creates spin-polarization in the probe tip. The combination of functionalized tip and surface adsorbed atom resembles a TMR structure where the magnetic layers now consist of one magnetic atom each. Spin-polarized current emitted from the probe tip not only senses the magnetic orientation of the atomic spin system, it efficiently transfers spin angular momentum and pumps the quantum spin system between the different spin states. This enables further exploration of the microscopic mechanisms for spin-relaxation and stability of quantum spin systems. [4pt] [1] Zhu and Park, Mater. Today 9, 36 (2006).[0pt] [2] Huai, AAPPS Bulletin 18, 33 (2008).[0pt] [3] Heinrich et al., Science 306, 466 (2004).[0pt] [4] Hirjibehedin et al., Science 317, 1199 (2007).

  2. Comparison of digital controllers used in magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, William A.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic systems that were once controlled by analog circuits are now controlled by digital computers. Presented is a comparison of the digital controllers presently used with magnetic suspension and balance systems. The overall responses of the systems are compared using a computer simulation of the magnetic suspension and balance system and the digital controllers. The comparisons include responses to both simulated force and position inputs. A preferred digital controller is determined from the simulated responses.

  3. Development of a Superconducting Magnet System for the ONR/General Atomics Homopolar Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaubel, K. M.; Langhorn, A. R.; Creedon, W. P.; Johanson, N. W.; Sheynin, S.; Thome, R. J.

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes the design, testing and operational experience of a superconducting magnet system presently in use on the Homopolar Motor Program. The homopolar motor is presently being tested at General Atomics in San Diego, California for the U.S Navy Office of Naval Research. The magnet system consists of two identical superconducting solenoid coils housed in two cryostats mounted integrally within the homopolar motor housing. The coils provide the static magnetic field required for motor operation and are wound using NbTi superconductor in a copper matrix. Each magnet is conduction cooled using a Gifford McMahon cryocooler. The coils are in close proximity to the iron motor housing requiring a cold to warm support structure with high stiffness and strength. The design of the coils, cold to warm support structure, cryogenic system, and the overall magnet system design will be described. The test results and operational experience will also be described.

  4. Tradeoff between magnet volume and tuning capacitor in a free piston Stirling engine power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Z. X.; Nasar, S. A.; Rosswurm, Mark

    This paper presents the criteria in selecting the size of the tuning capacitor, and the cost tradeoff between magnet volume and tuning capacitor in a free piston Stirling engine power generation system. The permissible range of capacitor size corresponding to different magnet volume, in order to prevent magnet demagnetization and stabilize the operation of the system, is determined. Within the permissible range suitable capacitor size may be selected to compensate the inductive load of the system to improve the overall power factor. If the capacitor size is not in the permissible range, there would exist a danger of losing magnet strength, or unstable operation of the engine that would destroy the engine due to unbounded amplitude of piston oscillations. The theory developed is then applied to a practical system, and the cost tradeoff between magnet volume and capacitor is studied.

  5. Calibration of Helmholtz Coils for the characterization of MEMS magnetic sensor using fluxgate magnetometer with DAS1 magnetic range data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Farooq; Dennis, John Ojur; Md Khir, Mohd Haris; Hamid, Nor Hisham

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the calibration of Helmholtz coils for the characterization of MEMS Magnetic sensor using Fluxgate magnetometer with DAS1 Magnetic Range Data Acquisition System. The Helmholtz coils arrangement is often used to generate a uniform magnetic field in space. In the past, standard magnets were used to calibrate the Helmholtz coils. A method is presented here for calibrating these coils using a Fluxgate magnetometer and known current source, which is easier and results in greater accuracy.

  6. [The role of magnetic stimulation in diagnosis of the peripheral nervous system].

    PubMed

    Dressler, D; Benecke, R; Meyer, B U; Conrad, B

    1988-12-01

    Magnetic stimulation has recently been introduced as a new method for stimulation of neuronal tissues. Up to now most investigators were emphasized the advantages of this method for the investigation of the central nervous system. With this paper we want to show that magnetic stimulation may also be useful for the examination of the peripheral nervous system. Both, magnetic and electrical stimulation, seem to employ the same stimulation mechanisms in the nervous tissue. The results obtained with both methods should therefore be comparable. By measuring EMG-latencies after electrical and magnetic stimulation (Fig. 1) the exact site of magnetic stimulation can be determined. Magnetic stimulation offers major advantages over electrical stimulation: 1) Magnetic stimulation is a painless method even when high stimulus intensities are used. 2) Magnetic stimulation can reach deep neuronal structures that are not easily accessible using electrical stimulation (Fig. 2, Fig. 3). 3) Using a wide range of stimulus intensities (Fig. 4, Fig. 5) magnetic stimulation provides a much better descrimination of different components of the compound muscle action potential than electrical stimulation. Magnetic stimulation seems to be a promising new method for the electrodiagnostic examination of pain- sensitive patients, especially when deep-lying peripheral nerves have to be investigated.

  7. Doxorubicin-modified magnetic nanoparticles as a drug delivery system for magnetic resonance imaging-monitoring magnet-enhancing tumor chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Liang, Po-Chin; Chen, Yung-Chu; Chiang, Chi-Feng; Mo, Lein-Ray; Wei, Shwu-Yuan; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Win-Li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles consisting of a magnetic Fe3O4 core and a shell of aqueous stable polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated with doxorubicin (Dox) (SPIO-PEG-D) for tumor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement and chemotherapy. The size of SPIO nanoparticles was ~10 nm, which was visualized by transmission electron microscope. The hysteresis curve, generated with vibrating-sample magnetometer, showed that SPIO-PEG-D was superparamagnetic with an insignificant hysteresis. The transverse relaxivity (r 2) for SPIO-PEG-D was significantly higher than the longitudinal relaxivity (r 1) (r 2/r 1 >10). The half-life of Dox in blood circulation was prolonged by conjugating Dox on the surface of SPIO with PEG to reduce its degradation. The in vitro experiment showed that SPIO-PEG-D could cause DNA crosslink more serious, resulting in a lower DNA expression and a higher cell apoptosis for HT-29 cancer cells. The Prussian blue staining study showed that the tumors treated with SPIO-PEG-D under a magnetic field had a much higher intratumoral iron density than the tumors treated with SPIO-PEG-D alone. The in vivo MRI study showed that the T2-weighted signal enhancement was stronger for the group under a magnetic field, indicating that it had a better accumulation of SPIO-PEG-D in tumor tissues. In the anticancer efficiency study for SPIO-PEG-D, the results showed that there was a significantly smaller tumor size for the group with a magnetic field than the group without. The in vivo experiments also showed that this drug delivery system combined with a local magnetic field could reduce the side effects of cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The results showed that the developed SPIO-PEG-D nanoparticles own a great potential for MRI-monitoring magnet-enhancing tumor chemotherapy.

  8. Real-time visualization of magnetic flux densities for transcranial magnetic stimulation on commodity and fully immersive VR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalivarapu, Vijay K.; Serrate, Ciro; Hadimani, Ravi L.

    2017-05-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive procedure that uses time varying short pulses of magnetic fields to stimulate nerve cells in the brain. In this method, a magnetic field generator ("TMS coil") produces small electric fields in the region of the brain via electromagnetic induction. This technique can be used to excite or inhibit firing of neurons, which can then be used for treatment of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, migraine, and depression. It is however challenging to focus the induced electric field from TMS coils to smaller regions of the brain. Since electric and magnetic fields are governed by laws of electromagnetism, it is possible to numerically simulate and visualize these fields to accurately determine the site of maximum stimulation and also to develop TMS coils that can focus the fields on the targeted regions. However, current software to compute and visualize these fields are not real-time and can work for only one position/orientation of TMS coil, severely limiting their usage. This paper describes the development of an application that computes magnetic flux densities (h-fields) and visualizes their distribution for different TMS coil position/orientations in real-time using GPU shaders. The application is developed for desktop, commodity VR (HTC Vive), and fully immersive VR CAVETM systems, for use by researchers, scientists, and medical professionals to quickly and effectively view the distribution of h-fields from MRI brain scans.

  9. An LQR controller design approach for a Large Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J.; Schaffner, Philip R.

    1990-01-01

    Two control approaches for a Large Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS) are investigated and numerical results are presented. The approaches are based on Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) control theory and include a nonzero set point regulator with constant disturbance input and an integral feedback regulator. The LGMSS provides five degree of freedom control of a cylindrical suspended element which is composed of permanent magnet material. The magnetic actuators are air core electromagnets mounted in a planar way.

  10. A 10 Kelvin 3 Tesla Magnet for Space Flight ADR Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, Jim; Shirron, Peter; Canavan, Edgar; DiPirro, Michael; Riall, Sara; Pourrahimi, Shahin

    2003-01-01

    Many future space flight missions are expected to use adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs) to reach detector operating temperatures well below one Kelvin. The goal is to operate each ADR with a mechanical cooler as its heat sink, thus avoiding the use of liquid cryogens. Although mechanical coolers are being developed to operate at temperatures of 6 Kelvin and below, there is a large efficiency cost associated with operating them at the bottom of their temperature range. For the multi-stage ADR system being developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, the goal is to operate with a 10 Kelvin mechanical cooler heat sink. With currently available paramagnetic materials, the highest temperature ADR stage in such a system will require a magnetic field of approximately three Tesla. Thus the goal is to develop a small, lightweight three Tesla superconducting magnet for operation at 10 Kelvin. It is important that this magnet have a low current/field ratio. Because traditional NbTi magnets do not operate safely above about six Kelvin, a magnet with a higher Tc is required. The primary focus has been on Nb3Sn magnets. Since standard Nb3Sn wire must be coated with thick insulation, wound on a magnet mandrel and then reacted, standard Nb,Sn magnets are quite heavy and require high currents Superconducting Systems developed a Nb3Sn wire which can be drawn down to small diameter, reacted, coated with thin insulation and then wound on a small diameter coil form. By using this smaller wire and operating closer to the wire s critical current, it should be possible to reduce the mass and operating current of 10 Kelvin magnets. Using this "react-then-wind" technology, Superconducting Systems has produced prototype 10 Kelvin magnets. This paper describes the development and testing of these magnets and discusses the outlook for including 10 Kelvin magnets on space-flight missions.

  11. Low temperature superconductor and aligned high temperature superconductor magnetic dipole system and method for producing high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Ramesh; Scanlan, Ronald; Ghosh, Arup K.

    A dipole-magnet system and method for producing high-magnetic-fields, including an open-region located in a radially-central-region to allow particle-beam transport and other uses, low-temperature-superconducting-coils comprised of low-temperature-superconducting-wire located in radially-outward-regions to generate high magnetic-fields, high-temperature-superconducting-coils comprised of high-temperature-superconducting-tape located in radially-inward-regions to generate even higher magnetic-fields and to reduce erroneous fields, support-structures to support the coils against large Lorentz-forces, a liquid-helium-system to cool the coils, and electrical-contacts to allow electric-current into and out of the coils. The high-temperature-superconducting-tape may be comprised of bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper-oxide or rare-earth-metal, barium-copper-oxide (ReBCO) where the rare-earth-metal may be yttrium, samarium, neodymium, or gadolinium. Advantageously, alignment of themore » large-dimension of the rectangular-cross-section or curved-cross-section of the high-temperature-superconducting-tape with the high-magnetic-field minimizes unwanted erroneous magnetic fields. Alignment may be accomplished by proper positioning, tilting the high-temperature-superconducting-coils, forming the high-temperature-superconducting-coils into a curved-cross-section, placing nonconducting wedge-shaped-material between windings, placing nonconducting curved-and-wedge-shaped-material between windings, or by a combination of these techniques.« less

  12. Aspects of Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in Asymmetric Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Aunai, Nicolas; Zenitani, Seiji; Kuznetsova, Masha; Birn, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric reconnection is being investigated by means of particle-in-cell simulations. The research has two foci: The direction of the reconnection line in configurations with nonvanishing magnetic fields; and the question why reconnection can be faster if a guide field is added to an otherwise unchanged asymmetric configuration. We find that reconnection prefers a direction, which maximizes the available magnetic energy, and show that this direction coincides with the bisection of the angle between the asymptotic magnetic fields. Regarding the difference in reconnection rates between planar and guide field models, we demonstrate that a guide field can provide essential confinement for particles in the reconnection region, which the weaker magnetic field in one of the inflow directions cannot necessarily provide.

  13. Aspects of Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in Asymmetric Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Aunai, Nicolas; Zeitani, Seiji; Kuznetsova, Masha; Birn, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric reconnection is being investigated by means of particle-in-cell simulations. The research has two foci: the direction of the reconnection line in configurations with non-vanishing magnetic fields; and the question why reconnection can be faster if a guide field is added to an otherwise unchanged asymmetric configuration. We find that reconnection prefers a direction, which maximizes the available magnetic energy, and show that this direction coincides with the bisection of the angle between the asymptotic magnetic fields. Regarding the difference in reconnection rates between planar and guide field models, we demonstrate that a guide field can provide essential confinement for particles in the reconnection region, which the weaker magnetic field in one of the inflow directions cannot necessarily provide.

  14. Aspects of collisionless magnetic reconnection in asymmetric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hesse, Michael; Aunai, Nicolas; Kuznetsova, Masha

    2013-06-15

    Asymmetric reconnection is being investigated by means of particle-in-cell simulations. The research has two foci: the direction of the reconnection line in configurations with nonvanishing magnetic fields; and the question why reconnection can be faster if a guide field is added to an otherwise unchanged asymmetric configuration. We find that reconnection prefers a direction, which maximizes the available magnetic energy, and show that this direction coincides with the bisection of the angle between the asymptotic magnetic fields. Regarding the difference in reconnection rates between planar and guide field models, we demonstrate that a guide field can provide essential confinement formore » particles in the reconnection region, which the weaker magnetic field in one of the inflow directions cannot necessarily provide.« less

  15. System and method of operating toroidal magnetic confinement devices

    DOEpatents

    Chance, M.S.; Jardin, S.C.; Stix, T.H.; Grimm, R.C.; Manickam, J.; Okabayashi, M.

    1984-08-30

    This invention pertains to methods and arrangements for attaining high beta values in plasma confinement devices. More specifically, this invention pertains to methods for accessing the second stability region of operation in toroidal magnetic confinement devices.

  16. Scaling and Optimization of Magnetic Refrigeration for Commercial Building HVAC Systems Greater than 175 kW in Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; West, David L; Mallow, Anne M

    Heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVACR) account for approximately one- third of building energy consumption. Magnetic refrigeration presents an opportunity for significant energy savings and emissions reduction for serving the building heating, cooling, and refrigeration loads. In this paper, we have examined the magnet and MCE material requirements for scaling magnetic refrigeration systems for commercial building cooling applications. Scaling relationships governing the resources required for magnetic refrigeration systems have been developed. As system refrigeration capacity increases, the use of superconducting magnet systems becomes more applicable, and a comparison is presented of system requirements for permanent and superconducting (SC) magnetization systems.more » Included in this analysis is an investigation of the ability of superconducting magnet based systems to overcome the parasitic power penalty of the cryocooler used to keep SC windings at cryogenic temperatures. Scaling relationships were used to develop the initial specification for a SC magnet-based active magnetic regeneration (AMR) system. An optimized superconducting magnet was designed to support this system. In this analysis, we show that the SC magnet system consisting of two 0.38 m3 regenerators is capable of producing 285 kW of cooling power with a T of 28 K. A system COP of 4.02 including cryocooler and fan losses which illustrates that an SC magnet-based system can operate with efficiency comparable to traditional systems and deliver large cooling powers of 285.4 kW (81.2 Tons).« less

  17. Stellar fibril magnetic systems. I - Reduced energy state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1984-01-01

    The remarkable fibril structure of the magnetic fields at the surface of the sun (with fibrils compressed to 1,000-2,000 gauss) lies outside existing statistical theories of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The total energy of the fibril field is enhanced by a factor of more than 100 above the energy for the mean field in a continuum state. The magnetic energy density within a fibril is of the order of 100 times the local kinetic energy density, so that no simple application of equipartition principles is possible. It is pointed out that the total energy of the atmosphere (thermal + gravitational + magnetic) is reduced by the fibril state of the field by avoiding the magnetic inhibition of the convective overturning, suggesting that the formation of the observed intense fibril state may be in response to the associated energy reduction. Calculation of the minimum total energy of a polytropic atmosphere permeated by magnetic fibrils yields theoretical fibril fields of the order of 1-5 kilogauss when characteristics appropriate to the solar convective zone are introduced, in rough agreement with the actual fields of 1-2 kilogauss. The polytrope model, although crude, establishes that a large reduction in total energy is made possible by the fibril state.

  18. The fast reciprocating magnetic probe system on the J-TEXT tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fuming; Chen, Zhipeng, E-mail: zpchen@hust.edu.cn; Zhuang, Ge

    The fast reciprocating magnetic probe (FRMP) system is newly developed on the Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT) to measure the local magnetic fluctuations at the plasma edge. The magnetic probe array in the FRMP consists of four 2-dimensional magnetic probes arranged at different radial locations to detect local poloidal and radial magnetic fields. These probes are protected by a graphite and boron nitride casing to improve the frequency response of each probe; they are mounted on the head of a movable rod, which is oriented along radial direction at the top of the torus. In the experiments, multiple core diagnosticsmore » show that the insertion of the FRMP has little impact on the equilibrium of the plasma. Local magnetic fluctuations inside the last closed flux surface are successfully measured by the FRMP.« less

  19. Power supply system for the superconducting outsert of the CHMFL hybrid magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Z.; Zhu, J.; Chen, W.; Jiang, D.; Huang, P.; Chen, Z.; Tan, Y.; Kuang, G.

    2017-12-01

    The construction of a new hybrid magnet, consisting of a 11 T superconducting outsert and a 34 T resistive insert magnet, has been finished at the Chinese High Magnetic Field Laboratory (CHMFL) in Hefei. With a room temperature bore of 800 mm in diameter, the hybrid magnet superconducting outsert is composed of four separate Nb3Sn-based Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC) coils electrically connected in series and powered by a single power supply system. The power supply system for the superconducting outsert consists of a 16 kA DC power supply, a quench protection system, a pair of 16 kA High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) current leads, and two Low Temperature Superconducting bus-lines. The design and manufacturing of the power supply system have been completed at the CHMFL. This paper describes the design features of the power supply system as well as the current fabrication condition of its main components.

  20. Muon Spin Relaxation/Rotation Studies of Novel Magnetic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, Graeme

    Muon spin relaxation/rotation is a powerful technique for probing magnetism in materials. As a real space probe, the muon complements neutron scattering's reciprocal space sensitivity. Muons probe magnetic fluctuations in a frequency window between inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance. In this presentation I will describe our recent work on geometrically frustrated materials including the pyrochlore lattice compounds Yb2Ti

  1. A simple anaesthetic and monitoring system for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Rejger, V S; Cohn, B F; Vielvoye, G J; de Raadt, F B

    1989-09-01

    Clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a digital tomographic technique which utilizes radio waves emitted by hydrogen protons in a powerful magnetic field to form an image of soft-tissue structures and abnormalities within the body. Unfortunately, because of the relatively long scanning time required and the narrow deep confines of the MRI tunnel and Faraday cage, some patients cannot be examined without the use of heavy sedation or general anaesthesia. Due to poor access to the patient and the strong magnetic field, several problems arise in monitoring and administering anaesthesia during this procedure. In this presentation these problems and their solutions, as resolved by our institution, are discussed. Of particular interest is the anaesthesia circuit specifically adapted for use during MRI scanning.

  2. Free-energy landscapes in magnetic systems from metadynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóbik, Jaroslav; MartoÅák, Roman; Cambel, Vladimír

    2017-10-01

    The knowledge of the free-energy barriers separating different states is critically important for the assessment of the long-term stability of information stored in magnetic devices. This information, however, is not directly accessible by standard simulations of microscopic models because of the ubiquitous time-scale problem, related to the fact that the transitions among different free-energy minima are characteristic of rare events. Here, we show that by employing the metadynamics algorithm based on suitably chosen collective variables, namely, helicity and circulation, it is possible to reliably recover the free-energy landscape. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach on an example of a vortex nucleation process in a magnetic nanodot with lowered spatial symmetry. With the help of reconstructed free-energy surfaces, we show the origin of symmetry broken vortex nucleation, where one polarity of the nucleated vortex core is preferred, even though only an in-plane magnetic field is present.

  3. The magnet system of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, A.; Anerella, M.; Cozzolino, J.

    1995-07-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a colliding ring accelerator to be completed in 1999. Through collisions of heavy ions it is hoped to observe the creation of matter at extremely high temperatures and densities, similar to what may have occurred in the original ``Big Bang.`` The collider rings will consist of 1740 superconducting magnet elements. Some of elements are being manufactured by industrial partners (Northrop Grumman and Everson Electric). Others are being constructed or assembled at BNL. A description is given of the magnet designs, the plan for manufacturing and testmore » results. In the manufacturing of the magnets, emphasis has been placed on uniformity of their performance and on quality. Results so far indicate that this emphasis has been very successful.« less

  4. The magnet system of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, A.; Anerella, M.; Cozzolino, J.

    1996-07-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a colliding ring accelerator to be completed in 1999. Through collisions of heavy ions it is hoped to observe the creation of matter at extremely high temperatures and densities, similar to what may have occurred in the original ``Big Bang``. The collider rings will consist of 1,740 superconducting magnet elements. Some of these elements are being manufactured by industrial partners (Northrop Grumman and Everson Electric). Others are being constructed or assembled at BNL. A description is given of the magnet designs, the plan for manufacturing andmore » test results. In the manufacturing of the magnets, emphasis has been placed on uniformity of their performance and on quality. Results so far indicate that this emphasis has been very successful.« less

  5. Visualization and quantification of magnetic nanoparticles into vesicular systems by combined atomic and magnetic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, C.; Department of Physics, SAPIENZA University of Rome, Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185, Rome; Corsetti, S.

    2015-06-23

    We report a phenomenological approach for the quantification of the diameter of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) incorporated in non-ionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes) using magnetic force microscopy (MFM). After a simple specimen preparation, i.e., by putting a drop of solution containing MNPs-loaded niosomes on flat substrates, topography and MFM phase images are collected. To attempt the quantification of the diameter of entrapped MNPs, the method is calibrated on the sole MNPs deposited on the same substrates by analyzing the MFM signal as a function of the MNP diameter (at fixed tip-sample distance) and of the tip-sample distance (for selected MNPs). After calibration,more » the effective diameter of the MNPs entrapped in some niosomes is quantitatively deduced from MFM images.« less

  6. Plumbing the depths of Yellowstone's hydrothermal system from helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, C.; Bedrosian, P.; Holbrook, W. S.; Auken, E.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Hurwitz, S.; Sims, K. W. W.; Carr, B.; Dickey, K.

    2017-12-01

    Although Yellowstone's iconic hydrothermal systems and lava flows are well mapped at the surface, their groundwater flow systems and thickness are almost completely unknown. In order to track the geophysical signatures of geysers, hot springs, mud pots, steam vents, hydrothermal explosion craters and lava flows at depths to hundreds of meters, we collected helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic (HEM) data. The data cover significant portions of the caldera including a majority of the known thermal areas. HEM data constrain electrical resistivity which is sensitive to groundwater salinity and temperature, phase distribution (liquid-vapor), and clay formed during chemical alteration of rocks. The magnetic data are sensitive to variations in the magnetization of lava flows, faults and hydrothermal alteration. The combination of electromagnetic and magnetic data is ideal for mapping zones of cold fresh water, hot saline water, steam, clay, and altered and unaltered rock. Preliminary inversion of the HEM data indicates very low resistivity directly beneath the northern part of Yellowstone Lake, intersecting with the lake bottom in close correspondence with mapped vents, fractures and hydrothermal explosion craters and are also associated with magnetic lows. Coincident resistivity and magnetic lows unassociated with mapped alteration occur, for example, along the southeast edge of the Mallard Lake dome and along the northeastern edge of Sour Creek Dome, suggesting the presence of buried alteration. Low resistivities unassociated with magnetic lows may relate to hot and/or saline groundwater or thin (<50 m) layers of early lake sediments to which the magnetic data are insensitive. Resistivity and magnetic lows follow interpreted caldera boundaries in places, yet deviate in others. In the Norris-Mammoth Corridor, NNE-SSW trending linear resistivity and magnetic lows align with mapped faults. This pattern of coincident resistivity and magnetic lows may reflect fractures

  7. Recent progress towards developing a high field, high-T(sub c) superconducting magnet for magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derochemont, L. Pierre; Oakes, Carlton E.; Squillante, Michael R.; Duan, Hong-Min; Hermann, Allen M.; Andrews, Robert J.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Maroni, Victor A.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.; Kelliher, Warren C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews superconducting magnets and high T(sub c) superconducting oxide ceramic materials technology to identify areas of fundamental impasse to the fabrication of components and devices that tap what are believed to be the true potential of these new materials. High T(sub c) ceramics pose problems in fundamentally different areas which need to be solved unlike low T(sub c) materials. The authors map out an experimental plan designed to research process technologies which, if suitably implemented, should allow these deficiencies to be solved. Finally, assessments are made of where and on what regimes magnetic system designers should focus their attention to advance the practical development of systems based on these new materials.

  8. A micro-computer based system to compute magnetic variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, R.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical model of magnetic variation in the continental United States (COT48) was implemented in the Ohio University LORAN C receiver. The model is based on a least squares fit of a polynomial function. The implementation on the microprocessor based LORAN C receiver is possible with the help of a math chip, Am9511 which performs 32 bit floating point mathematical operations. A Peripheral Interface Adapter (M6520) is used to communicate between the 6502 based micro-computer and the 9511 math chip. The implementation provides magnetic variation data to the pilot as a function of latitude and longitude. The model and the real time implementation in the receiver are described.

  9. A micro-computer-based system to compute magnetic variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Rajan

    1987-01-01

    A mathematical model of magnetic variation in the continental United States was implemented in the Ohio University Loran-C receiver. The model is based on a least squares fit of a polynomial function. The implementation on the microprocessor based Loran-C receiver is possible with the help of a math chip which performs 32 bit floating point mathematical operations. A Peripheral Interface Adapter is used to communicate between the 6502 based microcomputer and the 9511 math chip. The implementation provides magnetic variation data to the pilot as a function of latitude and longitude. The model and the real time implementation in the receiver are described.

  10. The oldest magnetic record in our solar system identified using nanometric imaging and numerical modeling.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jay; Williams, Wyn; Almeida, Trevor P; Nagy, Lesleis; Muxworthy, Adrian R; Kovács, András; Valdez-Grijalva, Miguel A; Fabian, Karl; Russell, Sara S; Genge, Matthew J; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E

    2018-03-21

    Recordings of magnetic fields, thought to be crucial to our solar system's rapid accretion, are potentially retained in unaltered nanometric low-Ni kamacite (~ metallic Fe) grains encased within dusty olivine crystals, found in the chondrules of unequilibrated chondrites. However, most of these kamacite grains are magnetically non-uniform, so their ability to retain four-billion-year-old magnetic recordings cannot be estimated by previous theories, which assume only uniform magnetization. Here, we demonstrate that non-uniformly magnetized nanometric kamacite grains are stable over solar system timescales and likely the primary carrier of remanence in dusty olivine. By performing in-situ temperature-dependent nanometric magnetic measurements using off-axis electron holography, we demonstrate the thermal stability of multi-vortex kamacite grains from the chondritic Bishunpur meteorite. Combined with numerical micromagnetic modeling, we determine the stability of the magnetization of these grains. Our study shows that dusty olivine kamacite grains are capable of retaining magnetic recordings from the accreting solar system.

  11. Magnet/cryocooler integration for thermal stability in conduction-cooled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H.-M.; Kwon, K. B.

    2002-05-01

    The stability conditions that take into accounts the size of superconducting magnets and the refrigeration capacity of cryocoolers are investigated for the conduction-cooled systems without liquid cryogens. The worst scenario in the superconducting systems is that the heat generation in the resistive state exceeds the refrigeration, causing a rise in the temperature of the magnet winding and leading to burnout. It is shown by an analytical solution that in the continuously resistive state, the temperature may increase indefinitely or a stable steady state may be reached, depending upon the relative size of the magnet with respect to the refrigeration capacity of the cryocooler. The stability criteria include the temperature-dependent properties of the magnet materials and the refrigeration characteristics of the cryocooler. A useful graphical scheme is presented and the design of the stable magnet/cryocooler interface is demonstrated.

  12. Magnetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboud, Essam; El-Masry, Nabil; Qaddah, Atef; Alqahtani, Faisal; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.

    2015-06-01

    The Rahat volcanic field represents one of the widely distributed Cenozoic volcanic fields across the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula. Its human significance stems from the fact that its northern fringes, where the historical eruption of 1256 A.D. took place, are very close to the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. In the present work, we analyzed aeromagnetic data from the northern part of Rahat volcanic field as well as carried out a ground gravity survey. A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth to basement using various geophysical methods, such as Tilt Derivative, Euler Deconvolution and 2D modeling inversion. Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level) at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300-500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend) with some minor trends in EW direction.

  13. Simple System to Measure the Earth's Magnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akoglu, R.; Halilsoy, M.; Mazharimousavi, S. Habib

    2010-01-01

    Our aim in this proposal is to use Faraday's law of induction as a simple lecture demonstration to measure the Earths magnetic field (B). This will also enable the students to learn about how electric power is generated from rotational motion. Obviously the idea is not original, yet it may be attractive in the sense that no sophisticated devices…

  14. Dynamic modelling and response characteristics of a magnetic bearing rotor system including auxiliary bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, April M.; Flowers, George T.; Trent, Victor S.

    1993-01-01

    Auxiliary bearings are a critical feature of any magnetic bearing system. They protect the soft iron core of the magnetic bearing during an overload or failure. An auxiliary bearing typically consists of a rolling element bearing or bushing with a clearance gap between the rotor and the inner race of the support. The dynamics of such systems can be quite complex. It is desired to develop a rotor-dynamic model and assess the dynamic behavior of a magnetic bearing rotor system which includes the effects of auxiliary bearings. Of particular interest is the effects of introducing sideloading into such a system during failure of the magnetic bearing. A model is developed from an experimental test facility and a number of simulation studies are performed. These results are presented and discussed.

  15. A Differential Polarized Light Interferometric System For Measuring Flatness Of Magnetic Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Wang; Da-Cheng, Li; Ye, Chen; Ling, Du; Mang, Cao

    1987-01-01

    A kind of differential polarizdd laser interferometric system for non-contact and dynamic measurement of the flatness characteristic of magnetic disks without the effect of the axial vibration is described in this papper.

  16. Magnetic control systems for large spacecraft with applications to space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, H.; Machnick, J.; Nakashima, A.; Henry, J.; Tompetrini, K.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic control systems for large space vehicles offer the advantage of a simple, reliable, low cost augmentation to the primary control system. When used for momentum management, a magnetic torque source offers a long life and noncontaminant environment when compared to a mass expulsion torque source. These qualities make such systems suitable for employment with the Space Telescope, which is a long life, high performance vehicle with optics and scientific instruments which would be degraded by contamination due to mass expulsion products. The various applications of magnetic systems on the Space Telescope are considered. The future trend in magnetic control of large space vehicles lies in providing a known three axis reference for backup operations, such as recovery of the primary control mode.

  17. A novel technique for tailoring frontal osteoplastic flaps using the ENT magnetic navigation system.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Luca; Pistochini, Andrea; Bignami, Maurizio; Meloni, Francesco; Turri Zanoni, Mario; Castelnuovo, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The ENT magnetic navigation system is potentially useful and offers the most accurate technique for harvesting frontal osteoplastic flaps. It represents a valid tool in the wide range of instruments available to rhinologists. Precise delineation of the boundaries of the frontal sinus is a crucial step when harvesting a frontal osteoplastic flap. We present a novel technique using the ENT magnetic navigation system. Nineteen patients affected by different pathologies involving the frontal sinus underwent an osteoplastic flap procedure using the ENT magnetic navigation system between January 2009 and April 2011. The ENT magnetic navigation system was found to be a safe and accurate tool for delineating the frontal sinus boundaries. No intraoperative complications occurred during the osteoplastic procedures.

  18. [Mechanical Shimming Method and Implementation for Permanent Magnet of MRI System].

    PubMed

    Xue, Tingqiang; Chen, Jinjun

    2015-03-01

    A mechanical shimming method and device for permanent magnet of MRI system has been developed to meet its stringent homogeneity requirement without time-consuming passive shimming on site, installation and adjustment efficiency has been increased.

  19. Theoretical investigation on the magnetization enhancement of Fe3O4-reduced graphene oxide nanoparticle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majidi, M. A.; Wicaksono, Y.; Fauzi, A. D.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.; Rusydi, A.

    2017-04-01

    We present a theoretical study on the enhancement of magnetization of Fe3O4 nanoparticle system upon addition of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Experimental data have shown that the magnetization of Fe3O4-rGO nanoparticle system increases with increasing rGO content up to about 5 wt%, but decreases back as the rGO content increases further. We propose that the enhancement is due to spin-flipping of Fe ions at the tetrahedral sites assisted by oxygen vacancies at the Fe3O4 particle boundaries. These oxygen vacancies are induced by the presence of rGO flakes that adsorb oxygen atoms from Fe3O4 particles around them. To understand the enhancement of the magnetization, we construct a tight-binding based model Hamiltonian for the Fe3O4 nanoparticle system with the concentration of oxygen vacancies being controlled by the rGO content. We calculate the magnetization as a function of the applied magnetic field for various values of rGO wt%. We use the method of dynamical mean-field theory and perform the calculations for a room temperature. Our result for rGO wt% dependence of the saturated magnetization shows a very good agreement with the existing experimental data of the Fe3O4-rGO nanoparticle system. This result may confirm that our model already carries the most essential idea needed to explain the above phenomenon of magnetization enhancement.

  20. Mobile refrigeration system for precool and warm up of superconducting magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandla, S. K.; Longsworth, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Conservation of helium has become more important in recent years due to global shortages in supply. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) superconducting magnets use approximately 20% of the world’s helium reserves in liquid form to cool down and maintain operating temperatures at 4 K. This paper describes a mobile cryogenic refrigeration system, which has been developed by Sumitomo (SHI) Cryogenics of America, Inc. to conserve helium by shipping MRI magnets warm and cooling them down or servicing them on site at a medical facility. The system can cool a typical magnet from room temperature to below 40K in less than a week. The system consists of four single stage Displex®-type Gifford-McMahon (GM) expanders in a cryostat with heat exchangers integrated on the cold ends that cool the helium gas, which is circulated in a closed-loop system through the magnet by a cryogenic fan. The system is configured with heaters on the heat exchangers to effectively warm up a magnet. The system includes a scroll vacuum pump, which is used to evacuate the helium circuit with or without the magnet and turbo pump to evacuate the cryostat. Vacuum-jacketed transfer lines connect the cryostat to the magnet. The system is designed with its own controller for continuous operation of precool, warm up and evacuation processes with automatic and manual controls. The cryostat, pumps and gas controls are mounted on a dewar cart. One compressor and the system controller are mounted on a compressor and control cart, and the other three compressors are mounted on separate carts.

  1. Preliminary investigations of design philosophies and features applicable to large magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, C. P.; Fortescue, P. W.; Allcock, G. A.; Goodyer, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The technology which is required to allow the principles of magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBS) to be applied to the high Reynolds number transonic testing of aircraft models is examined. A test facility is presented as comprising a pressurized transonic cryogenic wind tunnel, with the MSBS providing full six degree of freedom control. The electro-magnets which are superconducting and fed from quiet, bipolar power supplies are examined. A model control system having some self adaptive characteristics is discussed.

  2. Optical multichannel room temperature magnetic field imaging system for clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Lembke, G.; Erné, S. N.; Nowak, H.; Menhorn, B.; Pasquarelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    Optically pumped magnetometers (OPM) are a very promising alternative to the superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) used nowadays for Magnetic Field Imaging (MFI), a new method of diagnosis based on the measurement of the magnetic field of the human heart. We present a first measurement combining a multichannel OPM-sensor with an existing MFI-system resulting in a fully functional room temperature MFI-system. PMID:24688820

  3. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Rote, Donald M.; He, Jianliang; Johnson, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    A propulsion and stabilization system comprising a series of FIG. 8 coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the FIG. 8 coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension.

  4. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Rote, D.M.; He, J.; Johnson, L.R.

    1994-01-04

    A propulsion and stabilization system are described comprising a series of coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance, and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension. 8 figures.

  5. Condition for a Bounded System of Klein-Gordon Particles in Electric and Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisoglu, Hasan Fatih; Sogut, Kenan

    2018-07-01

    We investigate the motion of relativistic spinless particles in an external electromagnetic field that is considered to has a constant magnetic field and a time-dependent electric field. For such a system, we obtain analytical eigenfunctions through Asymptotic Iteration Method. We also obtain a condition of choosing the external magnetic field for which the system is bounded with usage of the method in perturbation theory.

  6. Study of multi-level atomic systems with the application of magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jianping; Roy, Subhankar; Ummal Momeen, M.

    2018-04-01

    The complexity of multiple energy levels associated with each atomic system determines the various processes related to light- matter interactions. It is necessary to understand the influence of different levels in a given atomic system. In this work we focus on multi- level atomic schemes with the application of magnetic field. We analyze the different EIT windows which appears in the presence of moderately high magnetic field (∼ 10 G) strength.

  7. Repeated action of a constant magnetic field on the blood coagulation system in artificially produced anemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabrodina, L. V.

    1974-01-01

    Changes are discussed in the coagulatory system of the blood in rabbits under the influence of a constant magnetic field of an intensity of 2500 oersteds against the background of artificially induced anemia. Reversibility of the changes produced and the presence of the adaptational effect are noted. Taking all this into consideration, the changes involving the coagulatory system of the blood which arise under the influence of a constant magnetic field may be considered to have a nerve-reflex nature.

  8. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Rote, D.M.; He, Jianliang; Johnson, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses a propulsion and stabilization system comprising a series of figure 8 coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the figure 8 coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension.

  9. Evaluation and Improvement of Eddy Current Position Sensors in Magnetically Suspended Flywheel Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Palazzolo, Alan B.; Thomas, Erwin M., III; Jansen, Ralph H.; McLallin, Kerry (Technical Monitor); Soeder, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Eddy current position sensor performance is evaluated for use in a high-speed flywheel development system. The flywheel utilizes a five axis active magnetic bearing system. The eddy current sensors are used for position feedback for the bearing controller. Measured characteristics include sensitivity to multiple target materials and susceptibility to noise from the magnetic bearings and from sensor-to-sensor crosstalk. Improvements in axial sensor configuration and techniques for noise reduction are described.

  10. Structural characterization of a magnetic granular system under a time-dependent magnetic field: Voronoi tessellation and multifractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moctezuma, R. E.; Arauz-Lara, J. L.; Donado, F.

    2018-04-01

    The structure of a two-dimensional magnetic granular system was determined by multifractal and Voronoi polygon analysis for a wide range of particle concentrations. Randomizing of the particle motions are produced by applying to the system a time-dependent sinusoidal magnetic field directed along the vertical direction. Both repulsive and attractive short-range interactions between the particles are induced. A direct observation of such system shows qualitatively that, as particle concentration increases, the structure evolves from being liquid-like at low particle concentrations to solid-like at high concentrations. We observe the formation of clusters which are small and weakly bonded and short-lived at low concentrations. Above a threshold particle concentration, clusters grow larger and are more strongly attached. In the system, one can distinguish the mobile particles from the immobile particles belonging to clusters, they can be considered separately as two different phases, a fluid and a solid. We determined the information entropy of the system as a whole and separately from each phase as particle concentration increases. The distribution of the Voronoi polygon areas are well fitted by a two-parameter gamma distribution and we have found that the regularity factor shows a notable change when pieces of the solid phase start to form. The methods we use here show that they can use even when the system is heterogeneous and they provide information when changes start.

  11. A simple and low-cost permanent magnet system for NMR.

    PubMed

    Chonlathep, K; Sakamoto, T; Sugahara, K; Kondo, Y

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a simple, easy to build, and low-cost magnet system for NMR, of which homogeneity is about 4×10 -4 at 57mT, with a pair of two commercially available ferrite magnets. This homogeneity corresponds to about 90Hz spectral resolution at 2.45MHz of the hydrogen Larmor frequency. The material cost of this NMR magnet system is little more than $100. The components can be printed by a 3D printer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Site-specific magnetic anisotropies in R2Fe14B systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, T.; Tsuchiura, H.

    2018-04-01

    The local magnetic anisotropy of R ions in R2Fe14B (R = Dy, Ho) systems is studied based on a microscopic effective spin model constructed from the information obtained by using first-principles calculations. By taking into account up to 6-th order crystal electric field parameters, the model satisfactory describes the observed magnetization curves and the temperature dependence of anisotropy constants. We found that at low temperatures, the noncollinear structure appears in the Ho2Fe14B system reflecting the local magnetic anisotropy.

  13. Experimental evaluation of a magnetic torquer rod using an innovative test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhari Mehrjardi, Mohamad; Mirshams, Mehran

    2010-03-01

    In today's world satellites have an immense and profound role in a country's financial, social and military development and having the technology of creation and launching satellites is a yard stick to a country's progress. Each satellite, like any other advanced machine is consisted of many subsystems in order to do its mission, among those, the attitude Control subsystem has the duty of stabilizing and orientation. Depending on the type of stabilization and control laws, different actuators like momentum wheels, reaction wheels, magnetic torquers and etcetera are used. Due to its smaller shape and weight, lower cost and minimal power consumption, the magnetic torquer is frequently used in low-earth orbit satellites. A magnetic torquer is consisted of a winding wire and a magnetic core that with the current of electricity passing through the winding wire, a magnetic dipole moment is produced. In reaction to the earth's magnetic field, this moment produces the required torque. Thus, having a broader understanding of the specification of the magnetic torquer before using it in the satellite is quite necessary. As a result, in this paper we try to show how to make such system in the laboratory. A magnetorquer is manufactured that the main idea is to estimate the magnetic dipole moment from the magnetic field measurement by this magnetic torquer. To achieve this, first we talk about the theories of creating such device and test system, then we will delve into the more technical aspects of designing such subsystem. In the end, from the output results, the performance curve of the magnetic torquer is produced and the linear areas and scale coefficients are determined. This paper presents test methodology, experimental setup and test results of manufacturing a torque rod with CK30 ferromagnetic alloy core.

  14. Experimental evaluation of a magnetic torquer rod using an innovative test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhari Mehrjardi, Mohamad; Mirshams, Mehran

    2009-12-01

    In today's world satellites have an immense and profound role in a country's financial, social and military development and having the technology of creation and launching satellites is a yard stick to a country's progress. Each satellite, like any other advanced machine is consisted of many subsystems in order to do its mission, among those, the attitude Control subsystem has the duty of stabilizing and orientation. Depending on the type of stabilization and control laws, different actuators like momentum wheels, reaction wheels, magnetic torquers and etcetera are used. Due to its smaller shape and weight, lower cost and minimal power consumption, the magnetic torquer is frequently used in low-earth orbit satellites. A magnetic torquer is consisted of a winding wire and a magnetic core that with the current of electricity passing through the winding wire, a magnetic dipole moment is produced. In reaction to the earth's magnetic field, this moment produces the required torque. Thus, having a broader understanding of the specification of the magnetic torquer before using it in the satellite is quite necessary. As a result, in this paper we try to show how to make such system in the laboratory. A magnetorquer is manufactured that the main idea is to estimate the magnetic dipole moment from the magnetic field measurement by this magnetic torquer. To achieve this, first we talk about the theories of creating such device and test system, then we will delve into the more technical aspects of designing such subsystem. In the end, from the output results, the performance curve of the magnetic torquer is produced and the linear areas and scale coefficients are determined. This paper presents test methodology, experimental setup and test results of manufacturing a torque rod with CK30 ferromagnetic alloy core.

  15. Current induced vortex wall dynamics in helical magnetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roostaei, Bahman

    2015-03-01

    Nontrivial topology of interfaces separating phases with opposite chirality in helical magnetic metals result in new effects as they interact with spin polarized current. These interfaces or vortex walls consist of a one dimensional array of vortex lines. We predict that adiabatic transfer of angular momentum between vortex array and spin polarized current will result in topological Hall effect in multi-domain samples. Also we predict that the motion of the vortex array will result in a new damping mechanism for magnetic moments based on Lenz's law. We study the dynamics of these walls interacting with electric current and use fundamental electromagnetic laws to quantify those predictions. On the other hand discrete nature of vortex walls affects their pinning and results in low depinning current density. We predict the value of this current using collective pinning theory.

  16. Genetically targeted magnetic control of the nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Michael A.; Smith, Cody J.; Ottolini, Matteo; Barker, Bryan S.; Purohit, Aarti M.; Grippo, Ryan M.; Gaykema, Ronald P.; Spano, Anthony J.; Beenhakker, Mark P.; Kucenas, Sarah; Patel, Manoj K.; Deppmann, Christopher D.; Güler, Ali D.

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetic and chemogenetic actuators are critical for deconstructing the neural correlates of behavior. However, these tools have several limitations, including invasive modes of stimulation or slow on/off kinetics. We have overcome these disadvantages by synthesizing a single component, magnetically sensitive actuator, “Magneto,” comprised of the cation channel, TRPV4, fused to the paramagnetic protein, ferritin. We validate non-invasive magnetic control over neuronal activity by demonstrating remote stimulation of cells using in vitro calcium imaging assays, electrophysiological recordings in brain slices, in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the brains of freely moving mice, and behavioral outputs in zebrafish and mice. As proof of concept, we used Magneto to delineate a causal role of striatal dopamine receptor 1 neurons in mediating reward behavior in mice. Together, our results present Magneto as a novel actuator capable of remotely controlling circuits associated with complex animal behaviors. PMID:26950006

  17. Magnetic suspension and pointing system. [on a carrier vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. W.; Groom, N. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus for providing accurate pointing of instruments on a carrier vehicle and for providing isolation of the instruments from the vehicle's motion disturbances is presented. The apparatus includes two assemblies, with connecting interfaces, each assembly having a separate function. The first assembly is attached to the carrier vehicle and consists of an azimuth gimbal and an elevation gimbal which provide coarse pointing of the instruments by allowing two rotations of the instruments relative to the carrier vehicle. The second or vernier pointing assembly is made up of magnetic suspension and fine pointing actuators, roll motor segments, and an instrument mounting plate around which a continuous annular rim is attached which provides appropriate magnetic circuits for the actuators and the roll motor segments. The vernier pointing assembly provides six degree-of-freedom isolation from carrier motion disturbances.

  18. Theory of fluorescence polarization in magnetically oriented photosynthetic systems.

    PubMed Central

    Knox, R S; Davidovich, M A

    1978-01-01

    Many cells and cell fragments are known to assume specific alignments with respect to an applied magnetic field. One indicator of this alignment is a difference between the intensities of fluorescence observed in polarizations parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic filed. We calculate these two intensities using a model that assumes axially symmetric membranes and that covers a wide variety of shapes from flat disk to right cylinder. The fluorescence is assumed to originate at chromophores randomly exicted but nonrandomly oriented in the membranes. The membrane alignment is assumed to be due to the net torque on a nonrandom distribution of diamagnetically anisotropic molecules. The predicted results are consistent with most magnetoorientation data from green cells, but we are able to show that Chlorella data are not consistent with the hypothesis that the membranes have, and maintain, a cuplike configuration. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:737283

  19. Novel magnet-retained prosthetic system for facial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mostafa M; Piper, James M; Hansen, Nancy A; Sutton, Alan J; Schmalbach, Cecelia E

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic facial defects negatively impact speech, mastication, deglutition, dental hygiene, and psychosocial well-being. Reconstruction must address restoration of function and aesthetics to provide quality of life. This report describes soft-tissue reconstruction using a novel magnet-retained facial prosthesis without osseointegrated abutments, performed in a patient after traumatic loss of the entire left lower part of the face, including lips, commissure, and mentum. This reconstructive technique successfully addressed the cosmetic defect while also restoring function with respect to speech and oral nutrition. For this reason, magnet-retained facial prosthesis should be added to free tissue transfer and regional flaps as a reasonable option in the reconstructive algorithm for complex soft-tissue defects of the lower face.

  20. Superconducting magnetic energy storage apparatus structural support system

    DOEpatents

    Withers, Gregory J.; Meier, Stephen W.; Walter, Robert J.; Child, Michael D.; DeGraaf, Douglas W.

    1992-01-01

    A superconducting magnetic energy storage apparatus comprising a cylindrical superconducting coil; a cylindrical coil containment vessel enclosing the coil and adapted to hold a liquid, such as liquefied helium; and a cylindrical vacuum vessel enclosing the coil containment vessel and located in a restraining structure having inner and outer circumferential walls and a floor; the apparatus being provided with horizontal compression members between (1) the coil and the coil containment vessel and (2) between the coil containment vessel and the vacuum vessel, compression bearing members between the vacuum vessel and the restraining structure inner and outer walls, vertical support members (1) between the coil bottom and the coil containment vessel bottom and (2) between the coil containment vessel bottom and the vacuum vessel bottom, and external supports between the vacuum vessel bottom and the restraining structure floor, whereby the loads developed by thermal and magnetic energy changes in the apparatus can be accommodated and the structural integrity of the apparatus be maintained.

  1. Tracking of the magnet system geometry during Wendelstein 7-X construction to achieve the designed magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, T.; Bräuer, T.; Bykov, V.; Egorov, K.; Endler, M.; Fellinger, J.; Kißlinger, J.; Köppen, M.; Schauer, F.

    2015-06-01

    Wendelstein 7-X, currently under commissioning at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik in Greifswald, Germany, is a modular advanced stellarator, combining the modular coil concept with optimized properties of the plasma. Most of the envisaged magnetic configurations of the machine are rather sensitive to symmetry breaking perturbations which are the consequence of unavoidable manufacturing and assembly tolerances. This overview describes the successive tracking of the Wendelstein 7-X magnet system geometry starting from the manufacturing of the winding packs up to the modelling of the influence of operation loads. The deviations found were used to calculate the resulting error fields and to compare them with the compensation capacity of the trim coils.

  2. Conceptual Study of Permanent Magnet Machine Ship Propulsion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    cycloconverter subsystem is designed using advanced thyristors and can be either water or air cooled. The machine-cycloconverter, many-phase or parallel...Turnb, Phase, Poles, Air Gap ................................. 3-9 3-5 Machine Characteristics Versus Number of Poles (large machine, 40 000 hp). Poles...cylindrical permanent magnet generator forces the power conditioner to provide for both frequency change and voltage control. The complexity of this dual

  3. Magnetically Responsive Optical Nanoprobes (MagRONs) and Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-28

    5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER The regents of the University of...research. MagMOON Architechtures I Controlled deposition of magnetic materials onto any nanosensor Prism coated nanoparticles Electric field sensors...into a predefined pattern has been the focus of many investigations.[7-11] For example, strawberry-like composite materials using organic -inorganic

  4. Circuitry, systems and methods for detecting magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K [Shelley, ID; Spencer, David F [Idaho Falls, ID; Roybal, Lyle G [Idaho Falls, ID; Rohrbaugh, David T [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-14

    Circuitry for detecting magnetic fields includes a first magnetoresistive sensor and a second magnetoresistive sensor configured to form a gradiometer. The circuitry includes a digital signal processor and a first feedback loop coupled between the first magnetoresistive sensor and the digital signal processor. A second feedback loop which is discrete from the first feedback loop is coupled between the second magnetoresistive sensor and the digital signal processor.

  5. Dynamic modelling and response characteristics of a magnetic bearing rotor system with auxiliary bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, April M.; Flowers, George T.; Trent, Victor S.

    1995-01-01

    Auxiliary bearings are a critical feature of any magnetic bearing system. They protect the soft iron core of the magnetic bearing during an overload or failure. An auxiliary bearing typically consists of a rolling element bearing or bushing with a clearance gap between the rotor and the inner race of the support. The dynamics of such systems can be quite complex. It is desired to develop a rotordynamic model which describes the dynamic behavior of a flexible rotor system with magnetic bearings including auxiliary bearings. The model is based upon an experimental test facility. Some simulation studies are presented to illustrate the behavior of the model. In particular, the effects of introducing sideloading from the magnetic bearing when one coil fails is studied.

  6. Rotordynamic Modelling and Response Characteristics of an Active Magnetic Bearing Rotor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, April M.; Flowers, George T.; Trent, Victor S.

    1996-01-01

    Auxiliary bearings are a critical feature of any magnetic bearing system. They protect the soft iron core of the magnetic bearing during an overload or failure. An auxiliary bearing typically consists of a rolling element bearing or bushing with a clearance gap between the rotor and the inner race of the support. The dynamics of such systems can be quite complex. It is desired to develop a rotordynamic model which describes the dynamic behavior of a flexible rotor system with magnetic bearings including auxiliary bearings. The model is based upon an experimental test facility. Some simulation studies are presented to illustrate the behavior of the model. In particular, the effects of introducing sideloading from the magnetic bearing when one coil fails is studied. These results are presented and discussed.

  7. Redundant unbalance compensation of an active magnetic bearing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutterer, Markus; Kalteis, Gerald; Schrödl, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    To achieve a good running behavior of a magnetic levitated rotor, a well-developed position controller and different compensation methods are required. Two very important structures in this context are the reduction of the gyroscopic effect and the unbalance vibration. Both structures have in common that they need the angular velocity information for calculation. For industrial applications this information is normally provided by an angle sensor which is fixed on the rotor. The angle information is also necessary for the field oriented control of the electrical drive. The main drawback of external position sensors are the case of a breakdown or an error of the motor controller. Therefore, the magnetic bearing can get unstable, because no angular velocity information is provided. To overcome this problem the presented paper describes the development of a selfsensing unbalance rejection in combination with a selfsensing speed control of the motor controller. Selfsensing means in this context that no angle sensor is required for the unbalance or torque control. With such structures two redundant speed and angle information sources are available and can be used for the magnetic bearing and the motor controller without the usage of an angle sensor.

  8. Mass determination with the magnetic levitation method—proposal for a new design of electromechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajastie, H.; Riski, K.; Satrapinski, A.

    2009-06-01

    The method for realization of the kilogram using 'superconducting magnetic levitation' was re-evaluated at MIKES. The realization of the kilogram based on the traditional levitation method is limited by the imperfections of the superconducting materials and the indefinable dependence between supplied electrical energy and the gravitational potential energy of the superconducting mass. This indefiniteness is proportional to the applied magnetic field and is caused by increasing losses and trapped magnetic fluxes. A new design of an electromechanical system for the levitation method is proposed. In the proposed system the required magnetic field and the corresponding force are reduced, as the mass of the body (hanging from a mass comparator) is compensated by the reference weight on the mass comparator. The direction of the magnetic force can be upward (levitation force, when the body is over the coil) or downward (repulsive force, when the body is under the coil). The initial force to move the body from the coil is not needed and magnetic field sensitivity is increased, providing linearization of displacement versus applied current. This new construction allows a lower magnetic induction, reduces energy losses compared with previous designs of electromechanical system and reduces the corresponding systematic error.

  9. Optical position measurement for a large gap magnetic suspension system: Design and performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Sharon S.; Clemmons, James I., Jr.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Duncan, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    An optical measurement system (OMS) has been designed and tested for a large gap magnetic suspension system (LGMSS). The LGMSS will be used to study control laws for magnetic suspension systems for vibration isolation and pointing applications. The LGMSS features six degrees of freedom and consists of a planar array of electromagnets that levitate and position a cylindrical element containing a permanent magnet core. The OMS provides information on the location and orientation of the element to the LGMSS control system to stabilize suspension. The hardware design of this optical sensing system and the tracking algorithms are presented. The results of analyses and experiments are presented that define the accuracy limits of the optical sensing system and that quantify the errors in position estimation.

  10. Study on frequency characteristics of wireless power transmission system based on magnetic coupling resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, L. H.; Liu, Z. Z.; Hou, Y. J.; Zeng, H.; Yue, Z. K.; Cui, S.

    2017-11-01

    In order to study the frequency characteristics of the wireless energy transmission system based on the magnetic coupling resonance, a circuit model based on the magnetic coupling resonant wireless energy transmission system is established. The influence of the load on the frequency characteristics of the wireless power transmission system is analysed. The circuit coupling theory is used to derive the minimum load required to suppress frequency splitting. Simulation and experimental results verify that when the load size is lower than a certain value, the system will appear frequency splitting, increasing the load size can effectively suppress the frequency splitting phenomenon. The power regulation scheme of the wireless charging system based on magnetic coupling resonance is given. This study provides a theoretical basis for load selection and power regulation of wireless power transmission systems.

  11. Improvement of immunoassay detection system by using alternating current magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, R.; Mizoguchi, T.; Kandori, A.

    2016-03-01

    A major goal with this research was to develop a low-cost and highly sensitive immunoassay detection system by using alternating current (AC) magnetic susceptibility. We fabricated an improved prototype of our previously developed immunoassay detection system and evaluated its performance. The prototype continuously moved sample containers by using a magnetically shielded brushless motor, which passes between two anisotropic magneto resistance (AMR) sensors. These sensors detected the magnetic signal in the direction where each sample container passed them. We used the differential signal obtained from each AMR sensor's output to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the magnetic signal measurement. Biotin-conjugated polymer beads with avidin-coated magnetic particles were prepared to examine the calibration curve, which represents the relation between AC magnetic susceptibility change and polymer-bead concentration. For the calibration curve measurement, we, respectively, measured the magnetic signal caused by the magnetic particles by using each AMR sensor installed near the upper or lower part in the lateral position of the passing sample containers. As a result, the SNR of the prototype was 4.5 times better than that of our previous system. Moreover, the data obtained from each AMR sensor installed near the upper part in the lateral position of the passing sample containers exhibited an accurate calibration curve that represented good correlation between AC magnetic susceptibility change and polymer-bead concentration. The conclusion drawn from these findings is that our improved immunoassay detection system will enable a low-cost and highly sensitive immunoassay.

  12. Improvement of immunoassay detection system by using alternating current magnetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, R; Mizoguchi, T; Kandori, A

    2016-03-01

    A major goal with this research was to develop a low-cost and highly sensitive immunoassay detection system by using alternating current (AC) magnetic susceptibility. We fabricated an improved prototype of our previously developed immunoassay detection system and evaluated its performance. The prototype continuously moved sample containers by using a magnetically shielded brushless motor, which passes between two anisotropic magneto resistance (AMR) sensors. These sensors detected the magnetic signal in the direction where each sample container passed them. We used the differential signal obtained from each AMR sensor's output to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the magnetic signal measurement. Biotin-conjugated polymer beads with avidin-coated magnetic particles were prepared to examine the calibration curve, which represents the relation between AC magnetic susceptibility change and polymer-bead concentration. For the calibration curve measurement, we, respectively, measured the magnetic signal caused by the magnetic particles by using each AMR sensor installed near the upper or lower part in the lateral position of the passing sample containers. As a result, the SNR of the prototype was 4.5 times better than that of our previous system. Moreover, the data obtained from each AMR sensor installed near the upper part in the lateral position of the passing sample containers exhibited an accurate calibration curve that represented good correlation between AC magnetic susceptibility change and polymer-bead concentration. The conclusion drawn from these findings is that our improved immunoassay detection system will enable a low-cost and highly sensitive immunoassay.

  13. Open-Access, Low-Magnetic-Field MRI System for Lung Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, Ross W.; Rosen, Matthew S.; Tsai, Leo L.; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Patz, Samuel; Ruset, Iullian C.; Hersman, F. William

    2009-01-01

    An open-access magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system is being developed for use in research on orientational/gravitational effects on lung physiology and function. The open-access geometry enables study of human subjects in diverse orientations. This system operates at a magnetic flux density, considerably smaller than the flux densities of typical other MRI systems, that can be generated by resistive electromagnet coils (instead of the more-expensive superconducting coils of the other systems). The human subject inhales air containing He-3 or Xe-129 atoms, the nuclear spins of which have been polarized by use of a laser beam to obtain a magnetic resonance that enables high-resolution gas space imaging at the low applied magnetic field. The system includes a bi-planar, constant-current, four-coil electromagnet assembly and associated electronic circuitry to apply a static magnetic field of 6.5 mT throughout the lung volume; planar coils and associated circuitry to apply a pulsed magnetic-field-gradient for each spatial dimension; a single, detachable radio-frequency coil and associated circuitry for inducing and detecting MRI signals; a table for supporting a horizontal subject; and electromagnetic shielding surrounding the electromagnet coils.

  14. Automated paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data acquisition with an in-line horizontal "2G" system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullender, Tom A. T.; Frederichs, Thomas; Hilgenfeldt, Christian; de Groot, Lennart V.; Fabian, Karl; Dekkers, Mark J.

    2016-09-01

    Today's paleomagnetic and magnetic proxy studies involve processing of large sample collections while simultaneously demanding high quality data and high reproducibility. Here we describe a fully automated interface based on a commercial horizontal pass-through "2G" DC-SQUID magnetometer. This system is operational at the universities of Bremen (Germany) and Utrecht (Netherlands) since 1998 and 2006, respectively, while a system is currently being built at NGU Trondheim (Norway). The magnetometers are equipped with "in-line" alternating field (AF) demagnetization, a direct-current bias field coil along the coaxial AF demagnetization coil for the acquisition of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and a long pulse-field coil for the acquisition of isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM). Samples are contained in dedicated low magnetization perspex holders that are manipulated by a pneumatic pick-and-place-unit. Upon desire samples can be measured in several positions considerably enhancing data quality in particular for magnetically weak samples. In the Bremen system, the peak of the IRM pulse fields is actively measured which reduces the discrepancy between the set field and the field that is actually applied. Techniques for quantifying and removing gyroremanent overprints and for measuring the viscosity of IRM further extend the range of applications of the system. Typically c. 300 paleomagnetic samples can be AF demagnetized per week (15 levels) in the three-position protocol. The versatility of the system is illustrated by several examples of paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data processing.

  15. Magnetic Levitation Force Measurement System at Any Low Temperatures From 20 K To 300 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Sukru; Guner, S. Baris; Coskun, Elvan

    2015-03-01

    Most of the magnetic levitation force measurements in previous studies were performed at liquid nitrogen temperatures. For the levitation force of MgB2 and iron based superconducting samples, magnetic levitation force measurement system is needed. In this study, magnetic levitation force measurement system was designed. In this system, beside vertical force versus vertical motion, lateral and vertical force versus lateral motion measurements, the vertical force versus temperature at the fixed distance between permanent magnet PM - superconducting sample SS and the vertical force versus time measurements were performed at any temperatures from 20 K to 300 K. Thanks to these measurements, the temperature dependence, time dependence, and the distance (magnetic field) and temperature dependences of SS can be investigated. On the other hand, the magnetic stiffness MS measurements can be performed in this system. Using the measurement of MS at different temperature in the range, MS dependence on temperature can be investigated. These measurements at any temperatures in the range help to the superconductivity properties to be characterized. This work was supported by TUBTAK-the Scientific and technological research council of Turkey under project of MFAG - 110T622. This system was applied to the Turkish patent institute with the Application Number of 2013/13638 on 22/11/2013.

  16. Spin diffusion in the Mn2+ ion system of II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimov, A. A.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Debus, J.; Tartakovskii, I. I.; Waag, A.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.; Kossut, J.; Bayer, M.

    2010-07-01

    The magnetization dynamics in diluted magnetic semiconductor heterostructures based on (Zn,Mn)Se and (Cd,Mn)Te were studied optically and simulated numerically. In samples with inhomogeneous magnetic ion distribution, these dynamics are contributed by spin-lattice relaxation and spin diffusion in the Mn spin system. A spin-diffusion coefficient of 7×10-8cm2/s was evaluated for Zn0.99Mn0.01Se from comparison of experiment and theory. Calculations of the exciton giant Zeeman splitting and the magnetization dynamics in ordered alloys and digitally grown parabolic quantum wells show perfect agreement with the experimental data. In both structure types, spin diffusion contributes essentially to the magnetization dynamics.

  17. Development of a new compact intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging system: concept and initial experience.

    PubMed

    Morita, Akio; Sameshima, Tetsuro; Sora, Shigeo; Kimura, Toshikazu; Nishimura, Kengo; Itoh, Hirotaka; Shibahashi, Keita; Shono, Naoyuki; Machida, Toru; Hara, Naoko; Mikami, Nozomi; Harihara, Yasushi; Kawate, Ryoichi; Ochiai, Chikayuki; Wang, Weimin; Oguro, Toshiki

    2014-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during surgery has been shown to improve surgical outcomes, but the current intraoperative MRI systems are too large to install in standard operating suites. Although 1 compact system is available, its imaging quality is not ideal. We developed a new compact intraoperative MRI system and evaluated its use for safety and efficacy. This new system has a magnetic gantry: a permanent magnet of 0.23 T and an interpolar distance of 32 cm. The gantry system weighs 2.8 tons and the 5-G line is within the circle of 2.6 m. We created a new field-of-view head coil and a canopy-style radiofrequency shield for this system. A clinical trial was initiated, and the system has been used in 44 patients. This system is significantly smaller than previous intraoperative MRI systems. High-quality T2 images could discriminate tumor from normal brain tissue and identify anatomic landmarks for accurate surgery. The average imaging time was 45.5 minutes, and no clinical complications or MRI system failures occurred. Floating organisms or particles were minimal (1/200 L maximum). This intraoperative, compact, low-magnetic-field MRI system can be installed in standard operating suites to provide relatively high-quality images without sacrificing safety. We believe that such a system facilitates the introduction of the intraoperative MRI.

  18. Design of a 3-D Magnetic Mapping System to Locate Reinforcing Steel in Concrete Pavements : Technical Summary

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-12-01

    This report outlines the design, fabrication, and testing of a 3-D magnetic mapping system used to locate reinforcing steel in concrete pavements developed at Kansas State University (KSU) in 2006. The magnetic sensing functionality is based on the p...

  19. Safety of High Speed Guided Ground Transportation Systems. Broadband Magnetic Fields : Their Possible Role in EMF Associated Bioeffects

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1993-08-01

    This report reviews electric and magnetic field (EMF) exposures from electrical transportation systems, including : electrically powered rail and magnetic levitation (maglev). Material also covered includes research concerning : biological effects of...

  20. Steel characteristics measurement system using Barkhausen jump sum rate and magnetic field intensity and method of using same

    DOEpatents

    Kohn, Gabriel; Hicho, George; Swartzendruber, Lydon

    1997-01-01

    A steel hardness measurement system and method of using same are provided for measuring at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic of a ferromagnetic sample as a function of at least one magnetic characteristic of the sample. A magnetic field generator subjects the sample to a variable external magnetic field. The magnetic field intensity of the magnetic field generated by the magnetic field generating means is measured and a signal sensor is provided for measuring Barkhausen signals from the sample when the sample is subjected to the external magnetic field. A signal processing unit calculates a jump sum rate first moment as a function of the Barkhausen signals measured by the signal sensor and the magnetic field intensity, and for determining the at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic as a function of the jump sum rate first moment.

  1. Steel characteristics measurement system using Barkhausen jump sum rate and magnetic field intensity and method of using same

    DOEpatents

    Kohn, G.; Hicho, G.; Swartzendruber, L.

    1997-04-08

    A steel hardness measurement system and method of using same are provided for measuring at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic of a ferromagnetic sample as a function of at least one magnetic characteristic of the sample. A magnetic field generator subjects the sample to a variable external magnetic field. The magnetic field intensity of the magnetic field generated by the magnetic field generating means is measured and a signal sensor is provided for measuring Barkhausen signals from the sample when the sample is subjected to the external magnetic field. A signal processing unit calculates a jump sum rate first moment as a function of the Barkhausen signals measured by the signal sensor and the magnetic field intensity, and for determining the at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic as a function of the jump sum rate first moment. 7 figs.

  2. Tri-axial square Helmholtz coil system at the Alibag Magnetic Observatory: upgraded to a magnetic sensor calibration facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahavarkar, Prasanna; John, Jacob; Dhapre, Vijay; Dongre, Varun; Labde, Sachin

    2018-04-01

    A tri-axial square Helmholtz coil system for the study of palaeomagnetic studies, manufactured by GEOFYZIKA (former Czechoslovakia), was successfully commissioned at the Alibag Magnetic Observatory (IAGA code: ABG) in the year 1985. This system was used for a few years, after which the system encountered technical problems with the control unit. Rectification of the unit could not be undertaken, as the information document related to this system was not available, and as a result the system had been lying in an unused state for a long time, until 2015, when the system was recommissioned and upgraded to a test facility for calibrating the magnetometer sensors. We have upgraded the system with a constant current source and a data-logging unit. Both of these units have been designed and developed in the institute laboratory. Also, re-measurements of the existing system have been made thoroughly. The upgraded system is semi-automatic, enabling non-specialists to operate it after a brief period of instruction. This facility is now widely used at the parent institute and external institutions to calibrate magnetometers and it also serves as a national facility. Here the design of this system with the calibration results for the space-borne fluxgate magnetometers is presented.

  3. Theory of anisotropic hybridization-broadened magnetic response in cerium and actinide systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Gong-Jia; Cooper, Bernard R.

    1993-11-01

    Inelastic-neutron-scattering measurements on cerium and plutonium monopnictides, thought to have moderately delocalized f electrons, yield magnetic-excitation spectra with anisotropic dispersion; while reasonably sharp excitations have been observed only for USb and UTe among presumably more-delocalized uranium monopnictides and monochalcogenides. For UTe the broadening as well as the dispersion is quite anisotropic. We have now extended our previous theory for the magnetic behavior of hybridizing partially delocalized f-electron systems to include hybridization-induced relaxation effects in the magnetic response, and this work and results are reported in the present paper. Each partially delocalized f-electron ion is coupled by hybridization to the band sea; and this both leads to a hybridization-mediated anisotropic two-ion interaction giving magnetic ordering and also gives a damping mechanism, via the coupling to the band sea, for the excitations of the magnetically ordered lattice. This coupling also provides a strong renormalization of the magnetic-excitation energies obtained for the ionic lattice coupled by the two-ion interaction. To treat these effects on the magnetic response we have developed a formalism for calculating the dynamic susceptibility based on the projection-operator method developed by Mori and others. We have applied our model and theory to the behavior of CeSb, CeBi, PuSb, UP, UAs, and UTe; and excellent overall agreement with the wide range of unusual experimentally observed anisotropic magnetic-excitation behavior is obtained.

  4. Design and test of a flat-top magnetic field system driven by capacitor banks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Peng, Tao; Xiao, Houxiu; Zhao, Jianlong; Pan, Yuan; Herlach, Fritz; Li, Liang

    2014-04-01

    An innovative method for generating a flat-top pulsed magnetic field by means of capacitor banks is developed at the Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center (WHMFC). The system consists of two capacitor banks as they are normally used to generate a pulsed field. The two discharge circuits (the magnet circuit and the auxiliary circuit) are coupled by a pulse transformer such that the electromotive force (EMF) induced via the transformer in the magnet circuit containing the magnet coil is opposed to the EMF of the capacitor bank. At a certain point before the current pulse in the coil reaches its peak, the auxiliary circuit is triggered. With optimized parameters for charging voltage and trigger delay, the current in the magnet circuit can be approximately kept constant to obtain a flat-top. A prototype was developed at the WHMFC; the magnet circuit was energized by seven 1 MJ (3.2 mF/25 kV) capacitor modules and the auxiliary circuit by four 1 MJ modules. Fields up to 41 T with 6 ms flat-top have been obtained with a conventional user magnet used at the WHMFC.

  5. Evaluation of the attractive force of different types of new-generation magnetic attachment systems.

    PubMed

    Akin, Hakan; Coskun, M Emre; Akin, E Gulsah; Ozdemir, A Kemal

    2011-03-01

    Rare earth magnets have been used in prosthodontics, but their tendency for corrosion in the oral cavity and insufficient attractive forces limit long-term clinical application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the attractive force of different types of new-generation magnetic attachment systems. The attractive force of the neodymium-iron-boron (Nd-Fe-B) and samarium-cobalt (Sm-Co) magnetic attachment systems, including closed-field (Hilop and Hicorex) and open-field (Dyna and Steco) systems, was measured in a universal testing machine (n=5). The data were statistically evaluated with 1-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test (α=.05). The closed-field systems exhibited greater (P<.001) attractive force than the open-field systems. Moreover, there was a statistically significant difference in attractive force between Nd-Fe-B and Sm-Co magnets (P<.001). The strongest attractive force was found with the Hilop system (9.2 N), and the lowest force was found with the Steco system (2.3 N). The new generation of Nd-Fe-B closed-field magnets, along with improved technology, provides sufficient denture retention for clinical application. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Phase Equilibria and Magnetic Phases in the Ce-Fe-Co-B System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tian; Kevorkov, Dmytro; Medraj, Mamoun

    2016-01-01

    Ce-Fe-Co-B is a promising system for permanent magnets. A high-throughput screening method combining diffusion couples, key alloys, Scanning Electron Microscope/Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectroscope (SEM/WDS), and Magnetic Force Microscope (MFM) is used in this research to understand the phase equilibria and to explore promising magnetic phases in this system. Three magnetic phases were detected and their homogeneity ranges were determined at 900 °C, which were presented by the formulae: Ce2Fe14−xCoxB (0 ≤ x ≤ 4.76), CeCo4−xFexB (0 ≤ x ≤ 3.18), and Ce3Co11−x FexB4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 6.66). The phase relations among the magnetic phases in this system have been studied. Ce2(Fe, Co)14B appears to have stronger magnetization than Ce(Co, Fe)4B and Ce3(Co, Fe)11B4 from MFM analysis when comparing the magnetic interactions of selected key alloys. Also, a non-magnetic CeCo12−xFexB6 (0 ≤ x ≤ 8.74) phase was detected in this system. A boron-rich solid solution with Ce13FexCoyB45 (32 ≤ x ≤ 39, 3 ≤ y ≤ 10) chemical composition was also observed. However, the crystal structure of this phase could not be found in the literature. Moreover, ternary solid solutions ε1 (Ce2Fe17−xCox (0 ≤ x ≤ 12.35)) and ε2 (Ce2Co17−xFex (0 ≤ x ≤ 3.57)) were found to form between Ce2Fe17 and Ce2Co17 in the Ce-Fe-Co ternary system at 900 °C. PMID:28772374

  7. Controlling magnetism of a complex metallic system using atomic individualism.

    PubMed

    Mudryk, Y; Paudyal, D; Pecharsky, V K; Gschneidner, K A; Misra, S; Miller, G J

    2010-08-06

    When the complexity of a metallic compound reaches a certain level, a specific location in the structure may be critically responsible for a given fundamental property of a material while other locations may not play as much of a role in determining such a property. The first-principles theory has pinpointed a critical location in the framework of a complex intermetallic compound--Gd(5)Ge(4)--that resulted in a controlled alteration of the magnetism of this compound using precise chemical tools.

  8. Controlling Magnetism of a Complex Metallic System Using Atomic Individualism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudryk, Y.; Paudyal, D.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Gschneidner, K. A., Jr.; Misra, S.; Miller, G. J.

    2010-08-01

    When the complexity of a metallic compound reaches a certain level, a specific location in the structure may be critically responsible for a given fundamental property of a material while other locations may not play as much of a role in determining such a property. The first-principles theory has pinpointed a critical location in the framework of a complex intermetallic compound—Gd5Ge4—that resulted in a controlled alteration of the magnetism of this compound using precise chemical tools.

  9. Software for System for Controlling a Magnetically Levitated Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    In a rotor assembly having a rotor supported for rotation by magnetic bearings, a processor controlled by software or firmware controls the generation of force vectors that position the rotor relative to its bearings in a 'bounce' mode in which the rotor axis is displaced from the principal axis defined between the bearings and a 'tilt' mode in which the rotor axis is tilted or inclined relative to the principal axis. Waveform driven perturbations are introduced to generate force vectors that excite the rotor in either the 'bounce' or 'tilt' modes.

  10. System and method of operating toroidal magnetic confinement devices

    DOEpatents

    Chance, Morrell S.; Jardin, Stephen C.; Stix, Thomas H.; Grimm, deceased, Ray C.; Manickam, Janardhan; Okabayashi, Michio

    1987-01-01

    For toroidal magnetic confinement devices the second region of stability against ballooning modes can be accessed with controlled operation. Under certain modes of operation, the first and second stability regions may be joined together. Accessing the second region of stability is accomplished by forming a bean-shaped plasma and increasing the indentation until a critical value of indentation is reached. A pusher coil, located at the inner-major-radius side of the device, is engaged to form a bean-shaped poloidal cross-section in the plasma.

  11. Near-Seafloor Magnetic Exploration of Submarine Hydrothermal Systems in the Kermadec Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caratori Tontini, F.; de Ronde, C. E. J.; Tivey, M.; Kinsey, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic data can provide important information about hydrothermal systems because hydrothermal alteration can drastically reduce the magnetization of the host volcanic rocks. Near-seafloor data (≤70 m altitude) are required to map hydrothermal systems in detail; Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are the ideal platform to provide this level of resolution. Here, we show the results of high-resolution magnetic surveys by the ABE and Sentry AUVs for selected submarine volcanoes of the Kermadec arc. 3-D magnetization models derived from the inversion of magnetic data, when combined with high resolution seafloor bathymetry derived from multibeam surveys, provide important constraints on the subseafloor geometry of hydrothermal upflow zones and the structural control on the development of seafloor hydrothermal vent sites as well as being a tool for the discovery of previously unknown hydrothermal sites. Significant differences exist between the magnetic expressions of hydrothermal sites at caldera volcanoes ("donut" pattern) and cones ("Swiss cheese" pattern), respectively. Subseafloor 3-D magnetization models also highlight structural differences between focused and diffuse vent sites.

  12. [Design of Adjustable Magnetic Field Generating Device in the Capsule Endoscope Tracking System].

    PubMed

    Ruan, Chao; Guo, Xudong; Yang, Fei

    2015-08-01

    The capsule endoscope swallowed from the mouth into the digestive system can capture the images of important gastrointestinal tract regions. It can compensate for the blind spot of traditional endoscopic techniques. It enables inspection of the digestive system without discomfort or need for sedation. However, currently available clinical capsule endoscope has some limitations such as the diagnostic information being not able to correspond to the orientation in the body, since the doctor is unable to control the capsule motion and orientation. To solve the problem, it is significant to track the position and orientation of the capsule in the human body. This study presents an AC excitation wireless tracking method in the capsule endoscope, and the sensor embedded in the capsule can measure the magnetic field generated by excitation coil. And then the position and orientation of the capsule can be obtained by solving a magnetic field inverse problem. Since the magnetic field decays with distance dramatically, the dynamic range of the received signal spans three orders of magnitude, we designed an adjustable alternating magnetic field generating device. The device can adjust the strength of the alternating magnetic field automatically through the feedback signal from the sensor. The prototype experiment showed that the adjustable magnetic field generating device was feasible. It could realize the automatic adjustment of the magnetic field strength successfully, and improve the tracking accuracy.

  13. Correlation of simulation/finite element analysis to the separation of intrinsically magnetic spores and red blood cells using a microfluidic magnetic deposition system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianxin; Moore, Lee; Xue, Wei; Kim, James; Zborowski, Maciej; Chalmers, Jeffrey J

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic separation of cells has been, and continues to be, widely used in a variety of applications, ranging from healthcare diagnostics to detection of food contamination. Typically, these technologies require cells labeled with antibody magnetic particle conjugate and a high magnetic energy gradient created in the flow containing the labeled cells (i.e., a column packed with magnetically inducible material), or dense packing of magnetic particles next to the flow cell. Such designs, while creating high magnetic energy gradients, are not amenable to easy, highly detailed, mathematic characterization. Our laboratories have been characterizing and developing analysis and separation technology that can be used on intrinsically magnetic cells or spores which are typically orders of magnitude weaker than typically immunomagnetically labeled cells. One such separation system is magnetic deposition microscopy (MDM) which not only separates cells, but deposits them in specific locations on slides for further microscopic analysis. In this study, the MDM system has been further characterized, using finite element and computational fluid mechanics software, and separation performance predicted, using a model which combines: 1) the distribution of the intrinsic magnetophoretic mobility of the cells (spores); 2) the fluid flow within the separation device; and 3) accurate maps of the values of the magnetic field (max 2.27 T), and magnetic energy gradient (max of 4.41 T 2 /mm) within the system. Guided by this model, experimental studies indicated that greater than 95% of the intrinsically magnetic Bacillus spores can be separated with the MDM system. Further, this model allows analysis of cell trajectories which can assist in the design of higher throughput systems. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Clinical study on the coronary artery interventions guided by the magnetic navigation system].

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-jian; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lian-sheng; Zhu, Tie-bing; Yang, Zhi-jian; Cao, Ke-jiang

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of the magnetic navigation system used in the real world percutaneous coronary artery intervention. All lesions detected by the coronary artery angiography in the magnetic-navigation catheter lab indicated for percutaneous coronary artery intervention (PCI) were included and treated under the guidance of the magnetic navigation system. The characteristics of the target lesion, process of the procedure, time and dosage of the X-ray exposure, and procedure-related complication were recorded and analyzed. One hundred and twenty one patients with 138 lesions were recruited and intervened by PCI during the period from April 2006 to June 2008. Thirty lesions were classified as type A, 50 as type B1, 36 as type B2, 22 as type C (including seven total occlusions). The average stenosis of the target lesions was (85.3 +/- 10.0)%, mean length was (21.1 +/- 10.0) mm. Under the guidance of the magnetic navigation system, 134 target lesions were passed by the magnetic guide-wires, the lesion passing ratio was 97.1%. The X-ray exposure time, X-ray dosage and the contrast volume used during the period of the wire placement were (55.9 +/- 35.4) seconds, (98.0 +/- 86.1) mGy/(490.0 +/- 422.2) microGym(2) and (8.0 +/- 5.4) ml, respectively. A total of 164 stents were implanted in the vessels where the target lesions were passed by the magnetic wires. There was no magnetic navigation system associated complication. Magnetic guide-wires failed to pass four target lesions, two of which were chronic total occlusions (CTOs), and the other two were calcified subtotal occlusions. It is feasible and safe to adopt the magnetic navigation system for the real-world coronary artery intervention. The magnetic guide-wire possesses a high lesion-passing ratio. The CTOs and calcified subtotal occlusions are not ideal lesions for use of the magnetic navigation system.

  15. Magnetic-field-mediated coupling and control in hybrid atomic-nanomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretiakov, A.; LeBlanc, L. J.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetically coupled hybrid quantum systems enable robust quantum state control through Landau-Zener transitions. Here, we show that an ultracold atomic sample magnetically coupled to a nanomechanical resonator can be used to cool the resonator's mechanical motion, to measure the mechanical temperature, and to enable entanglement of more than one of these mesoscopic objects. We calculate the expected coupling for both permanent-magnet and current-conducting nanostring resonators and describe how this hybridization is attainable using recently developed fabrication techniques, including SiN nanostrings and atom chips.

  16. Modification of electric and magnetic dipole emission in anisotropic plasmonic systems.

    PubMed

    Noginova, N; Hussain, R; Noginov, M A; Vella, J; Urbas, A

    2013-10-07

    In order to investigate the effects of plasmonic environments on spontaneous emission of magnetic and electric dipoles, we have studied luminescence of Eu³⁺ ions in close vicinity to gold nanostrip arrays. Significant changes in the emission kinetics, emission polarization, and radiation patterns have been observed in the wavelength range corresponding to the plasmonic resonance. The effect of the plasmonic resonance on the magnetic dipole transition ⁵D₀-->⁷F₁ is found to be very different from its effect on the electric dipole transitions. This makes Eu³⁺₋ containing complexes promising for mapping local distributions of magnetic and electric fields in metamaterials and plasmonic systems.

  17. Exploration of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Behavior in a Magnetic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Jeramy; Camley, Robert E.; Anderson, Nicholas R.

    2018-04-01

    We study nonlinear spin motion in one-dimensional magnetic chains. We find significant differences from the classic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) problem examining nonlinear elastic motion in a chain. We find that FPU behavior, the transfer of energy among low order eigenmodes, does not occur in magnetic systems with only exchange and external fields, but does exist if a uniaxial anisotropy is also present. The FPU behavior may be altered or turned off through the magnitude and orientation of an external magnetic field. A realistic micromagnetic model shows such behavior could be measurable.

  18. Consecutive magnetic phase diagram of UCoGe-URhGe-UIrGe system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospíšil, Jiří; Haga, Yoshinori; Miyake, Atsushi; Kambe, Shinsaku; Tateiwa, Naoyuki; Tokunaga, Yo; Honda, Fuminori; Nakamura, Ai; Homma, Yoshiya; Tokunaga, Masashi; Aoki, Dai; Yamamoto, Etsuji

    2018-05-01

    We prepared single crystals in UCo1-xRhxGe and UIr1-xRhxGe systems to establish a complex dU-U-T (dU-U is the shortest interatomic uranium distance and T is temperature) magnetic phase diagram. This recognized a characteristic maximum in magnetic susceptibility at temperature Tmax along the b axis as an important parameter. Three magnetically ordered regions can be distinguished within this scope; first a ferromagnetic region with Curie temperature

  19. Design concepts and cost studies for magnetic suspension and balance systems. [wind tunnel apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    The application of superconducting magnets for suspension and balance of wind tunnel models was studied. Conceptual designs are presented for magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) configurations compatible with three high Reynolds number cases representing specified combinations of test conditions and model sizes. Concepts in general met initially specified performance requirements such as duty cycle, force and moment levels, model angular displacement and positioning accuracy with nominal design requirements for support subsystems. Other performance requirements, such as forced model sinusoidal oscillations, and control force magnitude and frequency, were modified so as to alleviate the magnitude of magnet, power, and cryogenic design requirements.

  20. Open-loop characteristics of magnetic suspension systems using electromagnets mounted in a planar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J.; Britcher, Colin P.

    1992-01-01

    The open-loop characteristics of a Large-Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS) were studied and numerical results are presented. The LGMSS considered provides five-degree-of-freedom control. The suspended element is a cylinder that contains a core composed of permanent magnet material. The magnetic actuators are air core electromagnets mounted in a planar array. Configurations utilizing five, six, seven, and eight electromagnets were investigated and all configurations were found to be controllable from coil currents and observable from suspended element positions. Results indicate that increasing the number of coils has an insignificant effect on mode shapes and frequencies.

  1. Magnetic field effect on the liquidus boundary of Bi-Mn binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsui, Yoshifuru; Koyama, Keiichi; Oikawa, Katsunari; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2014-10-01

    The magnetic field effect (MFE) on liquidus boundary of Bi-Mn binary system was investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and the computer coupling of phase diagram method (CALPHAD). The liquidus boundary for Bi-18at.%Mn and Bi-24at.%Mn rose clearly by the application of the magnetic fields. The MFE for liquidus boundary temperature Tliq changed from ΔTliq∝B2 to ΔTliq∝B because of the large increase of the peritectic temperature from BiMn and BiMn1.08 by the application of magnetic field.

  2. Magnetization of a quantum spin system induced by a linear polarized laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvyagin, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    It is shown that a linear polarized laser can cause magnetization of a spin system with magnetic anisotropy, the distinguished axis of which is perpendicular to the polarization of the laser field. In the dynamical regime the magnetization oscillates around the nonzero value determined by the parameters of the system. Oscillations have the frequency of the laser field, modulated by the lower Rabi-like frequencies. In the steady-state regime, for a large time scale greater than the characteristic relaxation time, the Rabi-like oscillations are damped, and the magnetization oscillates with the frequency of the laser field around the value which is determined by the relaxation rate also. Analytic results are presented for the spin-1/2 chain. The most direct manifestation of such a behavior can be observed in spin-1/2 Ising chain materials if the linear polarization of the laser field is chosen to be perpendicular to the Ising axis.

  3. Some aspects of wind tunnel magnetic suspension systems with special application at large physical scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, C. P.

    1983-01-01

    Wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBSs) have so far failed to find application at the large physical scales necessary for the majority of aerodynamic testing. Three areas of technology relevant to such application are investigated. Two variants of the Spanwise Magnet roll torque generation scheme are studied. Spanwise Permanent Magnets are shown to be practical and are experimentally demonstrated. Extensive computations of the performance of the Spanwise Iron Magnet scheme indicate powerful capability, limited principally be electromagnet technology. Aerodynamic testing at extreme attitudes is shown to be practical in relatively conventional MSBSs. Preliminary operation of the MSBS over a wide range of angles of attack is demonstrated. The impact of a requirement for highly reliable operation on the overall architecture of Large MSBSs is studied and it is concluded that system cost and complexity need not be seriously increased.

  4. Design and implementation of a magnetically suspended microrobotic pick-and-place system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shameli, Ehsan; Craig, David G.; Khamesee, Mir Behrad

    2006-04-01

    Micromanipulation is an emerging technology in such diverse areas as precision engineering, microfabrication, and microsurgery. Each of these areas impose certain technological constraints and requirements in fabrication, actuation, and control. This paper performs a review on the latest technologies of microrobotic actuation techniques and suggests a suitable technique for the actuation of a magnetically levitated microrobot. The microrobot, suspended in an externally produced magnetic field, consists of a gripper attached to a series of permanent magnets and is capable of simple pick and place tasks. A number of electromagnets produce the external magnetic field and three laser sensors feedback the position of the levitated microrobot. Through finite element analysis, performance of the levitation system was investigated, and simulations and experiments were carried out to demonstrate the practical capabilities of the proposed system.

  5. The Interplanetary Magnetic Field and Magnetospheric Current Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Alaoui, Mostafa

    2003-01-01

    We have performed systematic global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation studies driven by an idealized time series of solar wind parameters to establish basic cause and effect relationships between the solar wind variations and the ionosphere parameters. We studied six cases in which the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) rotated from southward to northward in one minute. In three cases (cases A, B, and C) we ran five hours of southward IMF with Beta(sub Zeta) = 5 nT, followed by five hours of northward IMF with Beta(sub Zeta) = 5 nT. In the other three cases (cases D, E, and F) the magnetic field magnitude was increased to 10 nT. The solar wind parameters were: For cases A and D a density of 5 cm(exp -3), a thermal pressure of 3.3 nPa, and a solar wind speed 375 km/s, for cases B and E a density of 10 cm(exp -3), a thermal pressure of 9.9 nPa, and a solar wind speed 420 km/s, while for cases C and F a density of 15 cm(exp -3), a thermal pressure of 14.9 nPa, and a solar wind speed of 600 km/s.

  6. Analytical models for coupling reliability in identical two-magnet systems during slow reversals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kani, Nickvash; Naeemi, Azad

    2017-12-01

    This paper follows previous works which investigated the strength of dipolar coupling in two-magnet systems. While those works focused on qualitative analyses, this manuscript elucidates reversal through dipolar coupling culminating in analytical expressions for reversal reliability in identical two-magnet systems. The dipolar field generated by a mono-domain magnetic body can be represented by a tensor containing both longitudinal and perpendicular field components; this field changes orientation and magnitude based on the magnetization of neighboring nanomagnets. While the dipolar field does reduce to its longitudinal component at short time-scales, for slow magnetization reversals, the simple longitudinal field representation greatly underestimates the scope of parameters that ensure reliable coupling. For the first time, analytical models that map the geometric and material parameters required for reliable coupling in two-magnet systems are developed. It is shown that in biaxial nanomagnets, the x ̂ and y ̂ components of the dipolar field contribute to the coupling, while all three dimensions contribute to the coupling between a pair of uniaxial magnets. Additionally, the ratio of the longitudinal and perpendicular components of the dipolar field is also very important. If the perpendicular components in the dipolar tensor are too large, the nanomagnet pair may come to rest in an undesirable meta-stable state away from the free axis. The analytical models formulated in this manuscript map the minimum and maximum parameters for reliable coupling. Using these models, it is shown that there is a very small range of material parameters which can facilitate reliable coupling between perpendicular-magnetic-anisotropy nanomagnets; hence, in-plane nanomagnets are more suitable for coupled systems.

  7. Onset of a Propagating Self-Sustained Spin Reversal Front in a Magnetic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Andrew D.

    2014-03-01

    The energy released in a magnetic material by reversing spins as they relax toward equilibrium can lead to a dynamical magnetic instability in which all the spins in a sample rapidly reverse in a run-away process known as magnetic deflagration. A well-defined front separating reversed and un-reversed spins develops that propagates at a constant speed. This process is akin to a chemical reaction in which a flammable substance ignites and the resulting exothermic reaction leads via thermal conduction to increases in the temperature of an adjacent unburned substance that ignites it. In a magnetic system the reaction is the reversal of spins that releases Zeeman energy and the magnetic anisotropy barrier is the reaction's activation energy. An interesting aspect of magnetic systems is that these key energies-the activation energy and the energy released-can be independently controlled by applied magnetic fields enabling systematic studies of these magnetic instabilities. We have studied the instability that leads to the ignition of magnetic deflagration in a thermally driven Mn12-Ac molecular magnet single crystal. Each Mn12-ac molecule is a uniaxial nanomagnet with spin 10 and energy barrier of 60 K. We use a longitudinal field (a field parallel to the easy axis) to set the energy released and a transverse field to control the activation energy. A heat pulse is applied to one end of the crystal to initiate the process. We study the crossover between slow magnetic relaxation and rapid, self-sustained magnetic deflagration as a function of these fields at low temperature (0.5 K). An array of Hall sensors adjacent to a single crystal is used to detect and measure the speed of the spin-reversal front. I will describe a simple model we developed based on a reaction-diffusion process that describes our experimental findings. I will also discuss prospects for observing spin-fronts driven by magnetic dipole interactions between molecules that can be sonic, i.e. travel near

  8. Supersolid-like magnetic states in a mixed honeycomb-triangular lattice system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlea, Ovidiu

    Field-induced magnetic states that occur in layered triangular antiferromagnets have been of broad interest due to the emergence of new exotic phases, such as topologically ordered states and supersolids. Experimental realization of the supersolid states where spin components break simultaneously the translational and rotational symmetries remains scarce. In this context, the mixed vanadate -carbonate K2Mn3(VO4)2CO3 is a very promising system. This compound contains two types of two-dimensional layers alternately stacked along the crystallographic c-axis: one layer consists of a honeycomb web structure made of edge sharing MnO6 octahedra, while the other consists of MnO5 trigonal bipyramids linked by [CO3] triangles to form a triangular magnetic lattice. Magnetization and heat capacity measurements reveal a complex magnetic phase diagram that includes three phase transition associated with sequential long range magnetic ordering of the different sublattices. The lowest temperature state resembles a supersolid state that was predicted to occur in two-dimensional frustrated magnet with easy axis anisotropy. Such a supersolid phase is defined by a commensurate √3× √3 magnetic superlattice, where two thirds of the spins are canted away from the easy axis direction. Applied magnetic field destabilizes this ordered state and induces a cascade of new exotic magnetic ground states. The nature of these field-induced magnetic states is evaluated by using neutron scattering techniques. Work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Scientific User Facilities Division and Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  9. A superconducting conveyer system using multiple bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors and permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, T.; Koshizuka, N.; Nagashima, K.; Murakami, M.

    Developments of non-contact superconducting devices like superconducting magnetic levitation transfer and superconducting flywheel energy storage system have been performed based on the interactions between bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors and permanent magnets, in that the superconductors can stably be levitated without any active control. The performances of noncontact superconducting devices are dependent on the interaction forces like attractive forces and stiffness. In the present study, we constructed a non-contact conveyer for which the guide rails were prepared by attaching many Fe-Nd-B magnets onto an iron base plate. Along the translational direction, all the magnets were arranged as to face the same pole, and furthermore their inter-distance was made as small as possible. The guide rail has three magnet rows, for which the magnets were glued on the iron plate such that adjacent magnet rows have opposite poles like NSN. At the center row, the magnetic field at zero gap reached 0.61T, while the field strengths of two rows on the side edges were only 0.48T due to magnetic interactions among permanent magnets. We then prepared a cryogenic box made with FRP that can store several bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors 25 mm in diameter cooled by liquid nitrogen. It was found that the levitation forces and stiffness increased with increasing the number of bulk superconductors installed in the box, although the levitation force per unit bulk were almost the same. We also confirmed that these forces are dependent on the configuration of bulk superconductors.

  10. Squid-based CW NMR system for measuring the magnetization of helium-3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Kevin Spencer

    This thesis describes the design and construction of a SQUID-based CW NMR system together with its application in a study of the two dimensional magnetism of 3He. 3He provides an exemplary system for the study of two-dimensional magnetism. Two-dimensional 3He films of varying coverages may be formed by plating 3He on relatively uniform two-dimensional substrates, such as GTA Grafoil and ZYX graphite substrates. At coverages above approximately 20 atoms/nm. 2 on these substrates, the second layer of 3He exhibits a strong ferromagnetic ordering tendency. The ferromagnetic ordering presents as a rapid onset of measured magnetization that becomes independent of the applied magnetic field as film temperatures approach 1 mK. Very low applied magnetic fields are used to probe the ferromagnetic ordering in order to minimize masking of the measured magnetization and to stay within the available bandwidth of the SQUID. Commensurate with the ferromagnetic ordering, the NMR linewidth increases dramatically at these coverages and temperatures. An increasing linewidth equates to a short decay time with respect to pulsed NMR probing of the two-dimensional 3He magnetization. The decay times at these coverages and temperatures become so short that they fall below the minimum recovery time necessary for a SQUID-based pulsed NMR system to recover from the relatively large tipping pulse and acquire meaningful data. To address this problem, we have designed a SQUID-based CW NMR system to leverage as much of an already-existing pulsed NMR system as possible but allow accurate measurement of the rapid onset of ferromagnetic ordering of the 3He films below the approximate 1 mK temperature limit of the pulsed NMR system.

  11. Remote monitoring system for the cryogenic system of superconducting magnets in the SuperKEKB interaction region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, K.; Ohuchi, N.; Zong, Z.; Arimoto, Y.; Wang, X.; Yamaoka, H.; Kawai, M.; Kondou, Y.; Makida, Y.; Hirose, M.; Endou, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Nakamura, T.

    2017-12-01

    A remote monitoring system was developed based on the software infrastructure of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) for the cryogenic system of superconducting magnets in the interaction region of the SuperKEKB accelerator. The SuperKEKB has been constructed to conduct high-energy physics experiments at KEK. These superconducting magnets consist of three apparatuses, the Belle II detector solenoid, and QCSL and QCSR accelerator magnets. They are each contained in three cryostats cooled by dedicated helium cryogenic systems. The monitoring system was developed to read data of the EX-8000, which is an integrated instrumentation system to control all cryogenic components. The monitoring system uses the I/O control tools of EPICS software for TCP/IP, archiving techniques using a relational database, and easy human-computer interface. Using this monitoring system, it is possible to remotely monitor all real-time data of the superconducting magnets and cryogenic systems. It is also convenient to share data among multiple groups.

  12. Dynamical systems for modeling evolution of the magnetic field of the Sun, stars and planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E.

    2016-12-01

    The magnetic activity of the Sun, stars and planets are connected with a dynamo process based on the combined action of the differential rotation and the alpha-effect. Application of this concept allows us to get different types of solutions which can describe the magnetic activity of celestial bodies. We investigated the dynamo model with the meridional circulation by the low-mode approach. This approach is based on an assumption that the magnetic field can be described by non-linear dynamical systems with a relatively small number of parameters. Such non-linear dynamical systems are based on the equations of dynamo models. With this method dynamical systems have been built for media which contains the meridional flow and thickness of the spherical shell where dynamo process operates. It was shown the possibility of coexistence of quiasi-biennial oscillations, 22-year cycle, and grand minima of magnetic activity which is consistent with the observational data for the solar activity. We obtained different regimes (oscillations, vacillations, dynamo-bursts) depending on a value of the dynamo-number, the meridional circulation, and thickness of the spherical shell. We discuss features of these regimes and compare them with the observed features of the magnetic fields of the Sun, stars and Earth. We built theoretical paleomagnetic time scale and butterfly-diagrams for the helicity and toroidal magnetic field for different regimes.

  13. Development of a Split Bitter-type Magnet System for Dusty Plasma Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Evan; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.; Birmingham, William J.; Rivera, William F.

    2014-10-01

    A 10 Tesla Bitter-type magnetic system is under development at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). We present here an optimization technique that uses differential evolution to minimize the omhic heating produced by the coils, while constraining the magnetic field in the experimental volume. The code gives us the optimal dimensions for the coil system including: coil length, turn thickness, disks radii, resistance, and total current required for a constant magnetic field. Finite element parametric optimization is then used to establish the optimal design for water cooling holes. Placement of the cooling holes will also take into consideration the magnetic forces acting on the copper alloy disks to ensure the material strength is not compromised during operation. The proposed power and cooling water delivery subsystems for the coils are also presented. Upon completion and testing of the magnet system, planned experiments include the propagation of magnetized waves in dusty plasma crystals under various boundary conditions, and viscosity in rotational shear flow, among others.

  14. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging phantoms: A review and the need for a system phantom.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Kathryn E; Ainslie, Maureen; Barker, Alex J; Boss, Michael A; Cecil, Kim M; Charles, Cecil; Chenevert, Thomas L; Clarke, Larry; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L; Finn, Paul; Gembris, Daniel; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Hill, Derek L G; Jack, Clifford R; Jackson, Edward F; Liu, Guoying; Russek, Stephen E; Sharma, Samir D; Steckner, Michael; Stupic, Karl F; Trzasko, Joshua D; Yuan, Chun; Zheng, Jie

    2018-01-01

    The MRI community is using quantitative mapping techniques to complement qualitative imaging. For quantitative imaging to reach its full potential, it is necessary to analyze measurements across systems and longitudinally. Clinical use of quantitative imaging can be facilitated through adoption and use of a standard system phantom, a calibration/standard reference object, to assess the performance of an MRI machine. The International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine AdHoc Committee on Standards for Quantitative Magnetic Resonance was established in February 2007 to facilitate the expansion of MRI as a mainstream modality for multi-institutional measurements, including, among other things, multicenter trials. The goal of the Standards for Quantitative Magnetic Resonance committee was to provide a framework to ensure that quantitative measures derived from MR data are comparable over time, between subjects, between sites, and between vendors. This paper, written by members of the Standards for Quantitative Magnetic Resonance committee, reviews standardization attempts and then details the need, requirements, and implementation plan for a standard system phantom for quantitative MRI. In addition, application-specific phantoms and implementation of quantitative MRI are reviewed. Magn Reson Med 79:48-61, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. Thermal protection performance of magnetohydrodynamic heat shield system based on multipolar magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Li; Jun, Liu; Weiqiang, Liu

    2017-07-01

    In order to cover the shortage of dipole magnetic field in the magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) heat shield system, physical model of a multipolar magnetic field with central and peripheral solenoids is constructed. By employing the governing equations of three dimensional thermochemical nonequilibrium flow with electromagnetic source terms based on the low magneto-Reynolds assumption, the flow control performance of the dipole and multipolar magnetic fields are numerically simulated. To make the results comparable, two groups of cases are designed by first assuming equal stagnation magnetic induction strength and secondly assuming equal ampere-turns. Results show that, the five-magnet system, whose central polar orientation is the same with the peripheral ones, have stronger work capability and better shock control and thermal protection performance. Moreover, the five-solenoid systems are the best when the ampere-turns of the central solenoid are twice and fourth of the peripheral ones under those two circumstances respectively. Compared with the dipole magnetic field, the stagnation non-catalytic heat fluxes are decreased by a factor of 47.5% and 34.0% respectively.

  16. Control of magnetic bearing systems via the Chebyshev polynomial-based unified model (CPBUM) neural network.

    PubMed

    Jeng, J T; Lee, T T

    2000-01-01

    A Chebyshev polynomial-based unified model (CPBUM) neural network is introduced and applied to control a magnetic bearing systems. First, we show that the CPBUM neural network not only has the same capability of universal approximator, but also has faster learning speed than conventional feedforward/recurrent neural network. It turns out that the CPBUM neural network is more suitable in the design of controller than the conventional feedforward/recurrent neural network. Second, we propose the inverse system method, based on the CPBUM neural networks, to control a magnetic bearing system. The proposed controller has two structures; namely, off-line and on-line learning structures. We derive a new learning algorithm for each proposed structure. The experimental results show that the proposed neural network architecture provides a greater flexibility and better performance in controlling magnetic bearing systems.

  17. Performance of magnetic field‐guided navigation system for interventional neurosurgical and cardiac procedures

    PubMed Central

    Chu, James C.H.; Hsi, Wen Chien; Hubbard, Lincoln; Zhang, Yunkai; Bernard, Damian; Reeder, Pamela; Lopes, Demetrius

    2005-01-01

    A hospital‐based magnetic guidance system (MGS) was installed to assist a physician in navigating catheters and guide wires during interventional cardiac and neurosurgical procedures. The objective of this study is to examine the performance of this magnetic field‐guided navigation system. Our results show that the system's radiological imaging components produce images with quality similar to that produced by other modern fluoroscopic devices. The system's magnetic navigation components also deflect the wire and catheter tips toward the intended direction. The physician, however, will have to oversteer the wire or catheter when defining the steering angle during the procedure. The MGS could be clinically useful in device navigation deflection and vessel access. PACS numbers: 07.55.Db, 07.85.‐m PMID:16143799

  18. Design of permanent magnet synchronous motor speed control system based on SVPWM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haibo

    2017-04-01

    The control system is designed to realize TMS320F28335 based on the permanent magnet synchronous motor speed control system, and put it to quoting all electric of injection molding machine. The system of the control method used SVPWM, through the sampling motor current and rotating transformer position information, realize speed, current double closed loop control. Through the TMS320F28335 hardware floating-point processing core, realize the application for permanent magnet synchronous motor in the floating point arithmetic, to replace the past fixed-point algorithm, and improve the efficiency of the code.

  19. Instrumentation status of the low-b magnet systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    SciTech Connect

    Darve, C.; /Fermilab; Balle, C.

    2011-05-01

    The low-{beta} magnet systems are located in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) insertion regions around the four interaction points. They are the key elements in the beams focusing/defocusing process allowing proton collisions at luminosity up to 10{sup 34}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. Those systems are a contribution of the US-LHC Accelerator project. The systems are mainly composed of the quadrupole magnets (triplets), the separation dipoles and their respective electrical feed-boxes (DFBX). The low-{beta} magnet systems operate in an environment of extreme radiation, high gradient magnetic field and high heat load to the cryogenic system due to the beam dynamic effect. Due tomore » the severe environment, the robustness of the diagnostics is primordial for the operation of the triplets. The hardware commissioning phase of the LHC was completed in February 2010. In the sake of a safer and more user-friendly operation, several consolidations and instrumentation modifications were implemented during this commissioning phase. This paper presents the instrumentation used to optimize the engineering process and operation of the final focusing/defocusing quadrupole magnets for the first years of operation.« less

  20. Magnetic refrigeration system with separated inlet and outlet flow

    SciTech Connect

    Auringer, Jon Jay; Boeder, Andre Michael; Chell, Jeremy Jonathan

    An active magnetic regenerative (AMR) refrigerator apparatus can include at least one AMR bed with a first end and a second end and a first heat exchanger (HEX) with a first end and a second end. The AMR refrigerator can also include a first pipe that fluidly connects the first end of the first HEX to the first end of the AMR bed and a second pipe that fluidly connects the second end of the first HEX to the first end of the AMR bed. The first pipe can divide into two or more sub-passages at the AMR bed. Themore » second pipe can divide into two or more sub-passages at the AMR bed. The sub-passages of the first pipe and the second pipe can interleave at the AMR bed.« less

  1. Evaluation of aerodynamic derivatives from a magnetic balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghunath, B. S.; Parker, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    The dynamic testing of a model in the University of Virginia cold magnetic balance wind-tunnel facility is expected to consist of measurements of the balance forces and moments, and the observation of the essentially six degree of freedom motion of the model. The aerodynamic derivatives of the model are to be evaluated from these observations. The basic feasibility of extracting aerodynamic information from the observation of a model which is executing transient, complex, multi-degree of freedom motion is demonstrated. It is considered significant that, though the problem treated here involves only linear aerodynamics, the methods used are capable of handling a very large class of aerodynamic nonlinearities. The basic considerations include the effect of noise in the data on the accuracy of the extracted information. Relationships between noise level and the accuracy of the evaluated aerodynamic derivatives are presented.

  2. Development of magnetic bearing system for a new third-generation blood pump.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Joo; Ahn, Chi Bum; Choi, Jaesoon; Park, Jun Woo; Song, Seung-Joon; Sun, Kyung

    2011-11-01

    A magnetic bearing system is a crucial component in a third-generation blood pump, particularly when we consider aspects such as system durability and blood compatibility. Many factors such as efficiency, occupying volume, hemodynamic stability in the flow path, mechanical stability, and stiffness need to be considered for the use of a magnetic bearing system in a third-generation blood pump, and a number of studies have been conducted to develop novel magnetic bearing design for better handling of these factors. In this study, we developed and evaluated a new magnetic bearing system having a motor for a new third-generation blood pump. This magnetic bearing system consists of a magnetic levitation compartment and a brushless direct current (BLDC) motor compartment. The active-control degree of freedom is one; this control is used for controlling the levitation in the axial direction. The levitation in the radial direction has a passive magnetic levitation structure. In order to improve the system efficiency, we separated the magnetic circuit for axial levitation by using a magnetic circuit for motor drive. Each magnetic circuit in the bearing system was designed to have a minimum gap by placing mechanical parts, such as the impeller blades, outside the circuit. A custom-designed noncontact gap sensor was used for minimizing the system volume. We fabricated an experimental prototype of the proposed magnetic bearing system and evaluated its performance by a control system using the Matlab xPC Target system. The noncontact gap sensor was an eddy current gap sensor with an outer diameter of 2.38 mm, thickness of 0.88 mm, and resolution of 5 µm. The BLDC motor compartment was designed to have an outer diameter of 20 mm, length of 28.75 mm, and power of 4.5 W. It exhibited a torque of 8.6 mNm at 5000 rpm. The entire bearing system, including the motor and the sensor, had an outer diameter of 22 mm and a length of 97 mm. The prototype exhibited sufficient levitation

  3. The System of Secondary Periodicities and Resonances Based on β Lyrae Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulsky, M. Yu.

    Original integral interconsistent and interconnected magnetohydrodynamical system of periodicities and resonances over their long-time variabilities is developed. The study is based upon three different observed secondary periods in β Lyrae system and taking into account geometrical features of the nonstandard magnetic field in a losing star, as well as due to the asynchronizm of the orbital and rotational periods.

  4. Computer simulation of magnetization-controlled shunt reactors for calculating electromagnetic transients in power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Karpov, A. S.

    2013-01-15

    A computer procedure for simulating magnetization-controlled dc shunt reactors is described, which enables the electromagnetic transients in electric power systems to be calculated. It is shown that, by taking technically simple measures in the control system, one can obtain high-speed reactors sufficient for many purposes, and dispense with the use of high-power devices for compensating higher harmonic components.

  5. Magnetic induction system for two-stage gun projectile velocity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, R L; Konrad, C H

    1984-05-01

    A magnetic induction technique for measuring projectile velocities has been implemented on Sandia's two-stage light gas gun. The system has been designed to allow for projectile velocity measurements to an accuracy of approx. 0.2 percent. The velocity system has been successfully tested in a velocity range of 3.5 km/s to 6.5 km/s.

  6. A single-solenoid pulsed-magnet system for single-crystal scattering studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Zahirul; Capatina, Dana; Ruff, Jacob P. C.; Das, Ritesh K.; Trakhtenberg, Emil; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Narumi, Yasuo; Welp, Ulrich; Canfield, Paul C.

    2012-03-01

    We present a pulsed-magnet system that enables x-ray single-crystal diffraction in addition to powder and spectroscopic studies with the magnetic field applied on or close to the scattering plane. The apparatus consists of a single large-bore solenoid, cooled by liquid nitrogen. A second independent closed-cycle cryostat is used for cooling samples near liquid helium temperatures. Pulsed magnetic fields close to ˜30 T with a zero-to-peak-field rise time of ˜2.9 ms are generated by discharging a 40 kJ capacitor bank into the magnet coil. The unique characteristic of this instrument is the preservation of maximum scattering angle (˜23.6°) on the entrance and exit sides of the magnet bore by virtue of a novel double-funnel insert. This instrument will facilitate x-ray diffraction and spectroscopic studies that are impractical, if not impossible, to perform using split-pair and narrow-opening solenoid magnets. Furthermore, it offers a practical solution for preserving optical access in future higher-field pulsed magnets.

  7. Detection of ferromagnetic target based on mobile magnetic gradient tensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Y. I. N.; Yingtang, Zhang; Zhining, Li; Hongbo, Fan; Guoquan, Ren

    2016-03-01

    Attitude change of mobile magnetic gradient tensor system critically affects the precision of gradient measurements, thereby increasing ambiguity in target detection. This paper presents a rotational invariant-based method for locating and identifying ferromagnetic targets. Firstly, unit magnetic moment vector was derived based on the geometrical invariant, such that the intermediate eigenvector of the magnetic gradient tensor is perpendicular to the magnetic moment vector and the source-sensor displacement vector. Secondly, unit source-sensor displacement vector was derived based on the characteristic that the angle between magnetic moment vector and source-sensor displacement is a rotational invariant. By introducing a displacement vector between two measurement points, the magnetic moment vector and the source-sensor displacement vector were theoretically derived. To resolve the problem of measurement noises existing in the realistic detection applications, linear equations were formulated using invariants corresponding to several distinct measurement points and least square solution of magnetic moment vector and source-sensor displacement vector were obtained. Results of simulation and principal verification experiment showed the correctness of the analytical method, along with the practicability of the least square method.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER) supplement. Magnet system special investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of magnet system special investigations listed below are summarized: 4 Tesla Magnet Alternate Design Study; 6 Tesla Magnet Manufacturability Study. The conceptual design for a 4 Tesla superconducting magnet system for use with an alternate (supersonic) ETF power train is described, and estimated schedule and cost are identified. The magnet design is scaled from the ETF 6 T Tesla design. Results of a manufacturability study and a revised schedule and cost estimate for the ETF 6 T magnet are reported. Both investigations are extensions of the conceptual design of a 6 T magnet system performed earlier as a part of the overall MED-ETF conceptual design described in Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER) Vol. V, System Design Description (SDD) 503 dated September, 1981, DOE/NASA/0224-1; NASA CR-165/52.

  9. Hypervelocity impacts and magnetization of small bodies in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Guangqing; Ahrens, Thomas J.; Hide, Raymond

    1995-01-01

    The observed magnetism of asteroids such as Gaspra and Ida (and other small bodies in the solar system including the Moon and meteorites) may have resulted from an impact-induced shock wave producing a thermodynamic state in which iron-nickel alloy, dispersed in a silicate matrix, is driven from the usual low-temperature, low-pressure, alpha, kaemacite, phase to the paramagnetic, epsilon (hcp), phase. The magnetization was acquired upon rarefaction and reentry into the ferromagnetic, alpha, structure. The degree of remagnetization depends on the strength of the ambient field, which may have been associated with a Solar-System-wide magnetic field. A transient field induced by the impact event itself may have resulted in a significant, or possibly, even a dominant contribution, as well. The scaling law of Housen et al. (Housen, K. R., R. M. Schmidt, and K. A. Holsapple 1991) for catastrophic asteroid impact disaggregation imposes a constraint on the degree to which small planetary bodies may be magnetized and yet survive fragmentation by the same event. Our modeling results show it is possible that Ida was magnetized when a large impact fractured a 125 +/- 22-km-radius protoasteroid to form the Koronis family. Similarly, we calculate that Gaspra could be a magnetized fragment of a 45 +/- 15 km-radius protoasteroid.

  10. Prominence Bubbles and Plumes: Thermo-magnetic Buoyancy in Coronal Cavity Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Hurlburt, N.

    2009-05-01

    The Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope continues to produce high spatial and temporal resolution images of solar prominences in both the Ca II 396.8 nm H-line and the H-alpha 656.3 nm line. Time series of these images show that many quiescent prominences produce large scale (50 Mm) dark "bubbles" that "inflate" into, and sometimes burst through, the prominence material. In addition, small-scale (2--5 Mm) dark plumes are seen rising into many quiescent prominences. We show typical examples of both phenomena and argue that they originate from the same mechanism: concentrated and heated magnetic flux that rises due to thermal and magnetic buoyancy to equilibrium heights in the prominence/coronal-cavity system. More generally, these bubbles and upflows offer a source of both magnetic flux and mass to the overlying coronal cavity, supporting B.C. Low's theory of CME initiation via steadily increasing magnetic buoyancy breaking through the overlying helmut streamer tension forces. Quiescent prominences are thus seen as the lowermost parts of the larger coronal cavity system, revealing through thermal effects both the cooled downflowing "drainage" from the cavity and the heated upflowing magnetic "plasmoids" supplying the cavity. We compare SOT movies to new 3D compressible MHD simulations that reproduce the dark turbulent plume dynamics to establish the magnetic and thermal character of these buoyancy-driven flows into the corona.

  11. Reduction of cogging torque in dual rotor permanent magnet generator for direct coupled wind energy systems.

    PubMed

    Paulsamy, Sivachandran

    2014-01-01

    In wind energy systems employing permanent magnet generator, there is an imperative need to reduce the cogging torque for smooth and reliable cut in operation. In a permanent magnet generator, cogging torque is produced due to interaction of the rotor magnets with slots and teeth of the stator. This paper is a result of an ongoing research work that deals with various methods to reduce cogging torque in dual rotor radial flux permanent magnet generator (DRFPMG) for direct coupled stand alone wind energy systems (SAWES). Three methods were applied to reduce the cogging torque in DRFPMG. The methods were changing slot opening width, changing magnet pole arc width and shifting of slot openings. A combination of these three methods was applied to reduce the cogging torque to a level suitable for direct coupled SAWES. Both determination and reduction of cogging torque were carried out by finite element analysis (FEA) using MagNet Software. The cogging torque of DRFPMG has been reduced without major change in induced emf. A prototype of 1 kW, 120 rpm DRFPMG was fabricated and tested to validate the simulation results. The test results have good agreement with the simulation predictions.

  12. Self-organized magnetic particles to tune the mechanical behavior of a granular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Meredith; Wang, Dong; Barés, Jonathan; Behringer, Robert P.

    2016-09-01

    Above a certain density a granular material jams. This property can be controlled by either tuning a global property, such as the packing fraction or by applying shear strain, or at the micro-scale by tuning grain shape, inter-particle friction or externally controlled organization. Here, we introduce a novel way to change a local granular property by adding a weak anisotropic magnetic interaction between particles. We measure the evolution of the pressure, P, and coordination number, Z, for a packing of 2D photo-elastic disks, subject to uniaxial compression. A fraction R m of the particles have embedded cuboidal magnets. The strength of the magnetic interactions between particles is too weak to have a strong direct effect on P or Z when the system is jammed. However, the magnetic interactions play an important role in the evolution of latent force networks when systems containing a large enough fraction of the particles with magnets are driven through unjammed to jammed states. In this case, a statistically stable network of magnetic chains self-organizes before jamming and overlaps with force chains once jamming occurs, strengthening the granular medium. This property opens a novel way to control mechanical properties of granular materials.

  13. Reduction of Cogging Torque in Dual Rotor Permanent Magnet Generator for Direct Coupled Wind Energy Systems

    PubMed Central

    Paulsamy, Sivachandran

    2014-01-01

    In wind energy systems employing permanent magnet generator, there is an imperative need to reduce the cogging torque for smooth and reliable cut in operation. In a permanent magnet generator, cogging torque is produced due to interaction of the rotor magnets with slots and teeth of the stator. This paper is a result of an ongoing research work that deals with various methods to reduce cogging torque in dual rotor radial flux permanent magnet generator (DRFPMG) for direct coupled stand alone wind energy systems (SAWES). Three methods were applied to reduce the cogging torque in DRFPMG. The methods were changing slot opening width, changing magnet pole arc width and shifting of slot openings. A combination of these three methods was applied to reduce the cogging torque to a level suitable for direct coupled SAWES. Both determination and reduction of cogging torque were carried out by finite element analysis (FEA) using MagNet Software. The cogging torque of DRFPMG has been reduced without major change in induced emf. A prototype of 1 kW, 120 rpm DRFPMG was fabricated and tested to validate the simulation results. The test results have good agreement with the simulation predictions. PMID:25202746

  14. Development of a compact 30 T magnetic field system for OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiksel, G.; Backhus, R.; McNally, P.; Viges, E.; Villalta, M.; Jacobs-Perkins, D.; Betti, R.

    2017-10-01

    Aiming at conducting studies of magnetized high-energy density plasmas in a high magnetic field, we are developing a compact system capable of creating a pulsed magnetic field of about 30T in a volume of several cubic centimeters. The system prototype will be tested at the University of Michigan and will be adopted afterwards for use at the OMEGA facility of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) of the University of Rochester, NY. The system consists of a pulsed power supply situated outside of the Omega vacuum chamber and a magnetic coil inserted into the chamber with a diagnostic inserter. The power supply is based on a 50 μF/20kV storage capacitor and is capable of driving a pulse of current of up to 50kA through the coil. The power supply is connected with the coil via a low-inductive chain of power cables and a strip transmission line. The system electrical, magnetic, and thermal analysis will be presented along with the results of initial testing. This work is supported in part through a DOE-OFES award DE-SC0016258 and a University of Michigan research Grant U051442.

  15. Magnetic levitation systems for future aeronautics and space research and missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankson, Isaiah M.; Mankins, John C.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives, advantages, and research needs for several applications of superconducting magnetic levitation to aerodynamics research, testing, and space-launch are discussed. Applications include very large-scale magnetic balance and suspension systems for high alpha testing, support interference-free testing of slender hypersonic propulsion/airframe integrated vehicles, and hypersonic maglev. Current practice and concepts are outlined as part of a unified effort in high magnetic fields R&D within NASA. Recent advances in the design and construction of the proposed ground-based Holloman test track (rocket sled) that uses magnetic levitation are presented. It is protected that ground speeds of up to Mach 8 to 11 at sea-level are possible with such a system. This capability may enable supersonic combustor tests as well as ramjet-to-scramjet transition simulation to be performed in clean air. Finally a novel space launch concept (Maglifter) which uses magnetic levitation and propulsion for a re-usable 'first stage' and rocket or air-breathing combined-cycle propulsion for its second stage is discussed in detail. Performance of this concept is compared with conventional advanced launch systems and a preliminary concept for a subscale system demonstration is presented.

  16. A Magnetic Suspension and Excitation System for Spin Vibration Testing of Turbomachinery Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dexter; Brown, Gerald V.; Mehmed, Oral

    1998-01-01

    The Dynamic Spin Rig (DSR) is used to perform vibration tests of turbomachinery blades and components under spinning conditions in a vacuum. A heteropolar radial active magnetic bearing was integrated into the DSR to provide non-contact magnetic suspension and mechanical excitation of the rotor to induce turbomachinery blade vibrations. The magnetic bearing replaces one of the two existing conventional radial ball bearings. Prior operation of the DSR used two voice-coil type linear electromagnetic shakers which provided axial excitation of the rotor. The new magnetic suspension and excitation system has provided enhanced testing capabilities. Tests were performed at high rotational speeds for longer duration and higher vibration amplitudes. Some characteristics of the system include magnetic bearing stiffness values up to 60,000 lb./in., closed loop control bandwidth around 500 Hz, and multi-directional radial excitation of the rotor. This paper reports on the implementation and operation of this system and presents some test results using this system.

  17. Structural and magnetic properties of FeCoC system obtained by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincón Soler, A. I.; Rodríguez Jacobo, R. R.; Medina Barreto, M. H.; Cruz-Muñoz, B.

    2017-11-01

    Fe96-XCoXC4 (x = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 at. %) alloys were obtained by mechanical alloying of Fe, C and Co powders using high-energy milling. The structural and magnetic properties of the alloy system were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Mössbauer Spectrometry at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed a BCC-FeCoC structure phase for all samples, as well as a lattice parameter that slightly decreases with Co content. The saturation magnetization and coercive field were analyzed as a function of Co content. The Mössbauer spectra were fitted with a hyperfine magnetic field distribution showing the ferromagnetic behavior and the disordered character of the samples. The mean hyperfine magnetic field remained nearly constant (358 T) with Co content.

  18. Stress-based control of magnetic nanowire domain walls in artificial multiferroic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, J.; Bryan, M. T.; Schrefl, T.; Allwood, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Artificial multiferroic systems, which combine piezoelectric and piezomagnetic materials, offer novel methods of controlling material properties. Here, we use combined structural and magnetic finite element models to show how localized strains in a piezoelectric film coupled to a piezomagnetic nanowire can attract and pin magnetic domain walls. Synchronous switching of addressable contacts enables the controlled movement of pinning sites, and hence domain walls, in the nanowire without applied magnetic field or spin-polarized current, irrespective of domain wall structure. Conversely, domain wall-induced strain in the piezomagnetic material induces a local potential difference in the piezoelectric, providing a mechanism for sensing domain walls. This approach overcomes the problems in magnetic nanowire memories of domain wall structure-dependent behavior and high power consumption. Nonvolatile random access or shift register memories based on these effects can achieve storage densities >1 Gbit/In2, sub-10 ns switching times, and power consumption <100 keV per operation.

  19. Magnetic Levitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Hull, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the principles of magnetic levitation presented in the physics classroom and applied to transportation systems. Topics discussed include three classroom demonstrations to illustrate magnetic levitation, the concept of eddy currents, lift and drag forces on a moving magnet, magnetic levitation vehicles, levitation with permanent magnets…

  20. Magnetic guide-wire navigation in pulmonary and systemic arterial catheterization: initial experience in pigs.

    PubMed

    Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Grabitz, Ralf; Seghaye, Marie-Christine

    2007-04-01

    Cardiovascular catheterization can be challenging whenever a stenosis or an abnormal vascular course interferes with probing the target vessel. This study addresses the feasibility of navigating a guide wire with a magnetic tip by an external magnetic field through pulmonary and systemic arteries in an experimental porcine model. We investigated six piglets using magnetic guide-wire navigation. Two pulmonary arteriograms were taken from different angles in order to reconstruct the three-dimensional vessel anatomy. A computer interface then calculated three-dimensional coordinates for the vessel in space. Using these coordinates, two external magnets were positioned to create magnetic vectors along the expected vessel course. Magnetically enabled guide wires were then navigated into the vessels using the magnetic field to orient the guide-wire tips. Aortic and renal branches were addressed in a similar fashion. Difficulty in reaching the target vessel was reflected by the number of attempts that were necessary. After 10 failed attempts, the maneuver was recorded to have failed. Thirty-five of 37 (94.6%) arteries with branches at acute angles were reached successfully using magnetic navigation. In two pigs, the left upper lobe artery could not be probed. Peripheral arteries of small diameter were easier to reach than large central arteries, requiring less attempts. Magnetic guide-wire navigation is feasible in the arteries of the lungs, the head and neck, and the kidneys. It is particularly useful in entering small arterial branches at acute angles and may facilitate interventional therapy in a variety of vascular diseases in children and adults.

  1. Cross Feedback Control of a Magnetic Bearing System: Controller Design Considering Gyroscopic Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Markus; Kucera, Ladislav

    1996-01-01

    For flywheel rotors or other rotors with significant ratios of moments of inertia, the influence of gyroscopic effects has to be considered. While conservative or damped systems remain stable even under gyroscopic effects, magnetically suspended rotors can be destabilized with increasing rotational speed. The influence of gyroscopic effects on the stability and behavior of a magnetic bearing system is analyzed. The analysis is carried out with a rigid body model for the rotor and a nonlinear model for the magnetic bearing and its amplifier. Cross feedback control can compensate gyroscopic effects. This compensation leads to better system performance and can avoid instability. Furthermore, the implementation of this compensation is simple. The main structure of a decentralized controller can still be used. It has only to be expanded by the cross feedback path.

  2. A Magnetic Tracking System based on Highly Sensitive Integrated Hall Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlageter, Vincent; Drljaca, Predrag; Popovic, Radivoje S.; KuČERA, Pavel

    A tracking system with five degrees of freedom based on a 2D-array of 16 Hall sensors and a permanent magnet is presented in this paper. The sensitivity of the Hall sensors is increased by integrated micro- and external macro-flux-concentrators. Detection distance larger than 20cm (during one hour without calibration) is achieved using a magnet of 0.2cm3. This corresponds to a resolution of the sensors of 0.05µTrms. The position and orientation of the marker is displayed in real time at least 20 times per second. The sensing system is small enough to be hand-held and can be used in a normal environment. This presented tracking system has been successfully applied to follow a small swallowed magnet through the entire human digestive tube. This approach is extremely promising as a new non-invasive diagnostic technique in gastro-enterology.

  3. Design and testing of a magnetic suspension and damping system for a space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ockman, N. J.

    1972-01-01

    The basic equations of motion are derived for a two dimensional, three degree of freedom simulation of a space telescope coupled to a spacecraft by means of a magnetic suspension and isolation system. The system consists of paramagnetic or ferromagnetic discs confined to the magnetic field between two Helmholtz coils. Damping is introduced by varying the magnetic field in proportion to a velocity signal derived from the telescope. The equations of motion are nonlinear, similar in behavior to the one-dimensional Van der Pol equation. The computer simulation was verified by testing a 264-kilogram air bearing platform which simulates the telescope in a frictionless environment. The simulation demonstrated effective isolation capabilities for disturbance frequencies above resonance. Damping in the system improved the response near resonance and prevented the build-up of large oscillatory amplitudes.

  4. Systems and methods for creation of conducting networks of magnetic particles through dynamic self-assembly process

    DOEpatents

    Snezhko, Oleksiy [Woodridge, IL; Aronson, Igor [Darien, IL; Kwok, Wai-Kwong [Downers Grove, IL

    2011-01-25

    Self-assembly of magnetic microparticles in AC magnetic fields. Excitation of the system by an AC magnetic field provides a variety of patterns that can be controlled by adjusting the frequency and the amplitude of the field. At low particle densities the low-frequency magnetic excitation favors cluster phase formation, while high frequency excitation favors chains and netlike structures. For denser configurations, an abrupt transition to the network phase was obtained.

  5. Progressive magnetic softening of ferromagnetic layers in multilayer ferromagnet-nonmagnet systems and the role of granularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Siddharth S.; Siva, Vantari; Pradhan, Paresh C.; Nayak, Maheswar; Senapati, Kartik; Sahoo, Pratap K.

    2017-06-01

    We report a study of the structural and magnetic behavior of the topmost magnetic layer in a ferromagnet-nonmagnet (Co-Au) multilayer system. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction measurements performed on a series of multilayers showed a gradual decrease in the grain size of the topmost magnetic layer with the increasing number of bilayers. Concurrently, the magnetic hardness and magneto-crystalline anisotropy of the top Co layer were found to decrease, as observed by magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements. This magnetic softening has been discussed in the light of Herzer's random anisotropy model. Micromagnetic simulations of the multilayer system also corroborated these observations.

  6. Demonstration of an Enhanced Vertical Magnetic Gradient System for UXO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    fluxgate magnetometers , data recording console, laser altimeter, and acoustic altimeters were tested to ensure proper operation and performance. The VG...Simultaneous Electromagnetic Induction and Magnetometer System WAA wide area assessment ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We wish to express our sincere...sensors. The benefits of vertical gradient (VG) configurations in magnetometer systems are common knowledge, and these configurations are routinely

  7. Magnetic navigation system assisted stenting of coronary bifurcation lesions.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Cihan; Magro, Michael; Patterson, Mark S; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Ciampichetti, Isabella; van Weenen, Sander; van Domburg, Ron T; Serruys, Patrick W; Boersma, Eric; van Geuns, Robert-Jan

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic guidewire assisted percutaneous coronary interventions (MPCI) could have certain advantages in coronary bifurcation lesions. We aimed to report the angiographic characteristics of the bifurcation lesions, as well as the procedural and clinical outcomes of the MPCI patients. The lesion characteristics and the treatment effect were assessed by performing diagnostic and quantitative coronary angiography with dedicated bifurcation software. A total of 76 patients (age 65 years, 78% male) were assigned to undergo MPCI, in which two-thirds of the lesions were located in LAD/D1. Fifty-seven out of 78 lesions (73%) had a diseased side branch and complex stenting techniques were used in the majority of the lesions (64%). All 59/78 (76%) fenestration attempts were successfully performed and only 13 dedicated bifurcation stents were implanted. The average acute gain in minimal luminal diameter was 1.08±0.81 mm, 0.80±0.70 mm and 0.59±0.56 mm for the proximal, distal and side branch, respectively. The procedural success was 69% with a procedure time of 107±43 minutes, fluoroscopy time of 34±24 minutes and contrast use of 338±136 ml. At a mean of 1.8-years follow-up, 15 patients (20%) had a cardiac event. MPCI is associated with good angiographic, fenestration and procedural success rates in the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions.

  8. The new eclipsing magnetic binary system E 1114 + 182

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, P.; Schmidt, G. D.; Liebert, J.; Tapia, S.; Strittmatter, P. A.; West, S.; Stockman, H. S.; Kuehr, H.; Lamb, D. Q.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of E 1114 + 182, the first eclipsing AM Herculis binary system and the shortest-period eclipsing cataclysmic variable known, is presented. The time-resolved X-ray observations which led to the system's recognition as an AM Her system with a roughly 90 minute orbital period are reported. The current optical photometric and polarimetric ephemeris and a description of the system's phase-modulated properties are given. The detailed photometric eclipse profile and the highly variable spectroscopic behavior are addressed. This information is used to determine systemic parameters and derive new information on the line emission regions. The data put severe constraints on current torque models for keeping the binary and white dwarf rotation in phase.

  9. Low-Cost HTS Based Magnet System with an Inductively Coupled Pulsed Energy Extraction Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    Agustsson, Ronald

    In this project, RadiaBeam Technologies was tasked with developing a novel solution for a cost effective quench protection based on fast expansion of the normal zone. By inductively coupling a strong electromagnetic pulse via a resonant LC circuit, we attempted to demonstrate accelerated normal zone propagation. The AC field induces currents in the superconducting layer with the current density exceeding that of the critical current density, J c. This creates a large normal zone, uniformly distributing the dissipation through the magnet body. The method does not rely on thermal heating of the conductor, thus enabling nearly instantaneous protection. Through themore » course of the Phase II project, RadiaBeam Technologies continued extensive numerical modeling of the inductive quench system, re-designed and built several iterations of the POC system for testing and observed evidence of a transient partial quench being induced. However the final device was not fabricated. This was a consequence of the fundamentally complex nature of the energy extraction process and the challenges associated even with demonstrating the proof of concept in a bench top device.« less

  10. SNS Resonance Control Cooling Systems and Quadrupole Magnet Cooling Systems DIW Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Magda, Karoly

    This report focuses on control of the water chemistry for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Resonance Control Cooling System (RCCS)/Quadrupole Magnet Cooling System (QMCS) deionized water (DIW) cooling loops. Data collected from spring 2013 through spring 2016 are discussed, and an operations regime is recommended.It was found that the RCCS operates with an average pH of 7.24 for all lines (from 7.0 to 7.5, slightly alkaline), the average low dissolved oxygen is in the area of < 36 ppb, and the main loop average resistivity of is > 14 MΩ-cm. The QMCS was found to be operating in a similarmore » regime, with a slightly alkaline pH of 7.5 , low dissolved oxygen in the area of < 45 ppb, and main loop resistivity of 10 to 15 MΩ-cm. During data reading, operational corrections were done on the polishing loops to improve the water chemistry regime. Therefore some trends changed over time.It is recommended that the cooling loops operate in a regime in which the water has a resistivity that is as high as achievable, a dissolved oxygen concentration that is as low as achievable, and a neutral or slightly alkaline pH.« less

  11. Magnetophoretic velocimetry of manganese(II) in a single microdroplet in a flow system under a high gradient magnetic field generated with a superconducting magnet.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Masayori; Watarai, Hitoshi

    2002-10-01

    An experimental system for magnetophoretic velocimetry, which could determine the volume magnetic susceptibility of a single particle dispersed in a liquid phase from a magnetophoretic velocity, has been developed. A micrometer-sized high-gradient magnetic field could be generated in a capillary by a pair of iron pole pieces in a superconducting magnet (10 T). The magnetophoretic behavior of a single particle in a capillary flow system was investigated under the inhomogeneous magnetic field. From the magnetophoretic velocity of a polystyrene latex particle dispersed in a MnCl2 aqueous solution, the product of the magnetic flux density and the gradient, B(dB/dx), was determined as a function of the position along the capillary. The maximum value of B(dB/dx) was 4.7 x 10(4) T2 m(-1), which was approximately 100 times higher than that obtained by two Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets (0.4 T). Organic droplets extracting manganese(II) with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide from MnCl2 solution were used as test samples. The difference of the volume magnetic susceptibility between the droplet and the medium could be determined from the magnetophoretic velocity. This method allowed us to continuously measure a volume magnetic susceptibility of 10-6 level for a picoliter droplet and to determine manganese(II) in the single droplet at the attomole level.

  12. Development of a magnetic system for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Érica L.; Carvalho, Juliana F.; Pontes, Thales R. F.; Oliveira, Elquio E.; Francelino, Bárbara L.; Medeiros, Aldo C.; do Egito, E. Sócrates T.; Araujo, José H.; Carriço, Artur S.

    2009-05-01

    We report a study to develop a magnetic system for local delivery of amoxicillin. Magnetite microparticles produced by coprecipitation were coated with a solution of amoxicillin and Eudragit ®S100 by spray drying. Scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the particles were superparamagnetic, with an average diameter of 17.2 μm, and an initial susceptibility controllable by the magnetite content in the suspension feeding the sprayer. Our results suggest a possible way to treat Helicobacter pylori infections, using an oral drug delivery system, and open prospects to coat magnetic microparticles by spray drying for biomedical applications.

  13. Application of a high-energy-density permanent magnet material in underwater systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, C. P.; Egan, C.; Krol, W. P.

    1996-06-01

    This paper addresses the application of high-energy-density permanent magnet (PM) technology to (1) the brushless, axial-field PM motor and (2) the integrated electric motor/pump system for under-water applications. Finite-element analysis and lumped parameter magnetic circuit analysis were used to calculate motor parameters and performance characteristics and to conduct tradeoff studies. Compact, efficient, reliable, and quiet underwater systems are attainable with the development of high-energy-density PM material, power electronic devices, and power integrated-circuit technology.

  14. Development of superconducting magnetic bearing with superconducting coil and bulk superconductor for flywheel energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Y.; Seino, H.; Yoshizawa, K.; Nagashima, K.

    2013-11-01

    We have been developing superconducting magnetic bearing for flywheel energy storage system to be applied to the railway system. The bearing consists of a superconducting coil as a stator and bulk superconductors as a rotor. A flywheel disk connected to the bulk superconductors is suspended contactless by superconducting magnetic bearings (SMBs). We have manufactured a small scale device equipped with the SMB. The flywheel was rotated contactless over 2000 rpm which was a frequency between its rigid body mode and elastic mode. The feasibility of this SMB structure was demonstrated.

  15. Development of the heat treatment system for the 40 T hybrid magnet superconducting outsert.

    PubMed

    Chen, W G; Chen, Z M; Chen, Z Y; Huang, P C; He, P; Zhu, J W

    2011-10-01

    The heat treatment of Nb(3)Sn coil with the glass fabric insulation is one of the key and critical processes for the outsert solenoids of the 40 T hybrid magnet, which could be wound with cable-in-conduit conductors using the insulation-wind-and-react technique. The manufacturing of the large vertical type vacuum/Ar atmosphere-protection heat treatment system has been completed and recently installed in the High Magnetic Filed Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The heat treatment system composed mainly the furnace, the purging gas supply system, the control system, the gas impurities monitoring system, and so on. At present, the regulation and testing of the heat treatment system has been successfully finished, and all of technical parameters meet or exceed specifications.

  16. Development of the heat treatment system for the 40 T hybrid magnet superconducting outsert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W. G.; Chen, Z. M.; Chen, Z. Y.; Huang, P. C.; He, P.; Zhu, J. W.

    2011-10-01

    The heat treatment of Nb3Sn coil with the glass fabric insulation is one of the key and critical processes for the outsert solenoids of the 40 T hybrid magnet, which could be wound with cable-in-conduit conductors using the insulation-wind-and-react technique. The manufacturing of the large vertical type vacuum/Ar atmosphere-protection heat treatment system has been completed and recently installed in the High Magnetic Filed Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The heat treatment system composed mainly the furnace, the purging gas supply system, the control system, the gas impurities monitoring system, and so on. At present, the regulation and testing of the heat treatment system has been successfully finished, and all of technical parameters meet or exceed specifications.

  17. Verification of Spin Magnetic Attitude Control System using air-bearing-based attitude control simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ousaloo, H. S.; Nodeh, M. T.; Mehrabian, R.

    2016-09-01

    This paper accomplishes one goal and it was to verify and to validate a Spin Magnetic Attitude Control System (SMACS) program and to perform Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) air-bearing experiments. A study of a closed-loop magnetic spin controller is presented using only magnetic rods as actuators. The magnetic spin rate control approach is able to perform spin rate control and it is verified with an Attitude Control System (ACS) air-bearing MATLAB® SIMULINK® model and a hardware-embedded LABVIEW® algorithm that controls the spin rate of the test platform on a spherical air bearing table. The SIMULINK® model includes dynamic model of air-bearing, its disturbances, actuator emulation and the time delays caused by on-board calculations. The air-bearing simulator is employed to develop, improve, and carry out objective tests of magnetic torque rods and spin rate control algorithm in the experimental framework and to provide a more realistic demonstration of expected performance of attitude control as compared with software-based architectures. Six sets of two torque rods are used as actuators for the SMACS. It is implemented and simulated to fulfill mission requirement including spin the satellite up to 12 degs-1 around the z-axis. These techniques are documented for the full nonlinear equations of motion of the system and the performances of these techniques are compared in several simulations.

  18. The design of photoelectric signal processing system for a nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian; Zhou, Binquan; Li, Hong; Zhao, Xinghua; Mu, Weiwei; Wu, Wenfeng

    2017-10-01

    Navigation technology is crucial to the national defense and military, which can realize the measurement of orientation, positioning, attitude and speed for moving object. Inertial navigation is not only autonomous, real-time, continuous, hidden, undisturbed but also no time-limited and environment-limited. The gyroscope is the core component of the inertial navigation system, whose precision and size are the bottleneck of the performance. However, nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope is characteristic of the advantage of high precision and small size. Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope can meet the urgent needs of high-tech weapons and equipment development of new generation. This paper mainly designs a set of photoelectric signal processing system for nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope based on FPGA, which process and control the information of detecting laser .The photoelectric signal with high frequency carrier is demodulated by in-phase and quadrature demodulation method. Finally, the processing system of photoelectric signal can compensate the residual magnetism of the shielding barrel and provide the information of nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope angular velocity.

  19. Gas gap heat switch for a cryogen-free magnet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, J.; Borges de Sousa, P.; Martins, D.; Kar, S.; Bonfait, G.; Catarino, I.

    2015-12-01

    Cryogen-free superconducting magnet systems (CFMS) have become popular over the last two decades for the simple reason that the use of liquid helium is rather cumbersome and that helium is a scarce resource. Some available CFMS use a mechanical cryocooler as the magnet's cold source. However, the variable temperature insert (VTI) for some existing CFMS are not strictly cryogen-free as they are still based on helium gas circulation through the sample space. We designed a prototype of a gas gap heat switch (GGHS) that allows a thermal management of a completely cryogen-free magnet system, with no helium losses. The idea relies on a parallel cooling path to a variable temperature insert (VTI) of a magnetic properties measurement system under development at Inter-University Accelerator Centre. A Gifford-McMahon cryocooler (1.5 W @ 4.2 K) would serve primarily as the cold source of the superconducting magnet, dedicating 1 W to this cooling, under quite conservative safety factors. The remaining cooling power (0.5 W) is to be diverted towards a VTI through a controlled GGHS that was designed and built with a 80 μm gap width. The built GGHS thermal performance was measured at 4 K, using helium as the exchange gas, and its conductance is compared both with a previously developed analytical model and a finite element method. Lessons learned lead to a new and more functional prototype yet to be reported.

  20. Efficient and reliable characterization of the corticospinal system using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kukke, Sahana N; Paine, Rainer W; Chao, Chi-Chao; de Campos, Ana C; Hallett, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a method to reliably characterize multiple features of the corticospinal system in a more efficient manner than typically done in transcranial magnetic stimulation studies. Forty transcranial magnetic stimulation pulses of varying intensity were given over the first dorsal interosseous motor hot spot in 10 healthy adults. The first dorsal interosseous motor-evoked potential size was recorded during rest and activation to create recruitment curves. The Boltzmann sigmoidal function was fit to the data, and parameters relating to maximal motor-evoked potential size, curve slope, and stimulus intensity leading to half-maximal motor-evoked potential size were computed from the curve fit. Good to excellent test-retest reliability was found for all corticospinal parameters at rest and during activation with 40 transcranial magnetic stimulation pulses. Through the use of curve fitting, important features of the corticospinal system can be determined with fewer stimuli than typically used for the same information. Determining the recruitment curve provides a basis to understand the state of the corticospinal system and select subject-specific parameters for transcranial magnetic stimulation testing quickly and without unnecessary exposure to magnetic stimulation. This method can be useful in individuals who have difficulty in maintaining stillness, including children and patients with motor disorders.