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Sample records for kidd blood-group system

  1. Kidd blood group system: a review.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Janis R

    2015-01-01

    The Kidd blood group system has been recognized as clinically important in red blood cell (RBC) serology since its identification in 1951. Forty years later, the JK glycoprotein was determined to be a product of SCL14A1 and was identical to the urea transport protein UT-B produced by HUT11A. The functional role of the protein as a urea transporter in RBC and kidney has been well documented. The polymorphism responsible for the antithetical anigens Jk(a) and Jk(b) was identified in 1994 as c.838G>A (p.Asp280Asn). Recent discoveries have expanded the system to include 23 variant alleles recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion that silence the protein expression and 7 variant alleles presumably producting weak or partia JK antigens. Null phenotypes have been identified in individuals of several populations including those of African, Indian, and Chinese decent, in addition to the well-documented findings in the Polynesian and Finnish populations. This review will examine the historical information about the anigens and antibodies of the JK system as well as catalog the variations of the JK gene. PMID:26308468

  2. Implications of the Kidd blood group system in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rourk, A; Squires, J E

    2012-01-01

    The association of the Kidd blood group system with hemolytic transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the newborn is well known. The Kidd antigens, which are localized to the HUT/UT-B urea transport protein, are found on red blood cells and the endothelial cells of the blood vessels of the medulla of the kidney. Recently it has been suggested that these antigens might play a role as minor histocompatibility antigens in renal transplantation. In the current case, the appearance of an anti-Jk(b) 10 years after renal transplantation associated with early renal allograft rejection further supports the potential importance of these antigens in renal transplantation and allograft rejection. PMID:23286555

  3. Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd and Diego blood group system polymorphism in Brazilian Japanese descendants.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Marli Aparecida Luvisuto Rossett; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Guelsin, Gláucia Andréia Soares; Fracasso, Adriana de Souza; de Melo, Fabiano Cavalcante; Hashimoto, Margareth Naomi; Sell, Ana Maria

    2014-02-01

    Polymorphisms of Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd and Diego blood group systems were studied in 209 unrelated Brazilian Japanese descendants from South of Brazil. The methods used were multiplex-PCR, AS-PCR and RFLP-PCR. The differences in frequencies among the populations were evaluated using chi-square test. The frequencies for Rh, Kell, Kidd and Diego system were similar to those of the Japanese. RHCE(*)CC, RHCE(*)EE genotypes and FY(*)01 allele were lower and FY(*)01N.01 was higher than Japanese. These differences in the frequencies between Brazilian Japanese descendants and Japanese could indicate a gene flow in Brazilian population and reinforce the importance of this knowledge to achieve safe red blood cells. PMID:24231689

  4. Blood groups systems

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

    2014-01-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system. PMID:25535412

  5. Blood groups systems.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

    2014-09-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system. PMID:25535412

  6. [Detection of hematopoietic chimera by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR with erythrocyte Kidd blood group gene].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu; Xu, Xian-Guo; Liu, Ying; Hong, Xiao-Zhen; Zhu, Fa-Ming; Lü, Hang-Jun; Yan, Li-Xing

    2012-06-01

    This study was aimed to establish the real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) with erythrocyte Kidd blood group gene for detecting the hematopoietic chimera and to investigate the feasibility of this method. The TaqMan MGB probes and special primers were designed on basis of difference of erythrocyte Kidd blood group alleles, the hematopoietic chimerism was detected by RT-qPCR, the DNA chimerism was simulated by means of dilution of multiple proportions, and the sensitivity analysis was performed. The results showed that the RT-qPCR with erythrocyte Kidd blood group gene could effectively distinguish JK*A and JK*B alleles. There was no significant difference between the theoretic value and the practical measured value by this method (P > 0.05). As 156 donor's cells could be discriminated from 10(4) chimeric cells, this method may effectively detect donor's cells with correlation coefficient 0.998. It is concluded that the established RT-qPCR with erythrocyte Kidd blood group gene shows the feasibility for quantitative detection of hematopoietic chimera, and may be used to quantitatively detect chimera in a certain range.

  7. [Detection of hematopoietic chimera by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR with erythrocyte Kidd blood group gene].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu; Xu, Xian-Guo; Liu, Ying; Hong, Xiao-Zhen; Zhu, Fa-Ming; Lü, Hang-Jun; Yan, Li-Xing

    2012-06-01

    This study was aimed to establish the real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) with erythrocyte Kidd blood group gene for detecting the hematopoietic chimera and to investigate the feasibility of this method. The TaqMan MGB probes and special primers were designed on basis of difference of erythrocyte Kidd blood group alleles, the hematopoietic chimerism was detected by RT-qPCR, the DNA chimerism was simulated by means of dilution of multiple proportions, and the sensitivity analysis was performed. The results showed that the RT-qPCR with erythrocyte Kidd blood group gene could effectively distinguish JK*A and JK*B alleles. There was no significant difference between the theoretic value and the practical measured value by this method (P > 0.05). As 156 donor's cells could be discriminated from 10(4) chimeric cells, this method may effectively detect donor's cells with correlation coefficient 0.998. It is concluded that the established RT-qPCR with erythrocyte Kidd blood group gene shows the feasibility for quantitative detection of hematopoietic chimera, and may be used to quantitatively detect chimera in a certain range. PMID:22739181

  8. Prevalence of Rh, Duffy, Kell, Kidd & MNSs blood group antigens in the Indian blood donor population

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, R.N.; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Gupta, Richa; Phillip, Jessy

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Little data are available regarding the frequencies of the blood group antigens other than ABO and RhD in the Indian population. Knowledge of the antigen frequencies is important to assess risk of antibody formation and to guide the probability of finding antigen-negative donor blood, which is especially useful when blood is required for a patient who has multiple red cell alloantibodies. This study was carried out to determine the frequencies of the D, C, c, E, e, K, k, Fya, Fyb, Jka, Jkb, M, N, S and s antigens in over 3,000 blood donors. Methods: Samples from randomly selected blood donors from Delhi and nearby areas (both voluntary and replacement) were collected for extended antigen typing during the period January 2009 to January 2010. Antigens were typed via automated testing on the Galileo instrument using commercial antisera. Results: A total of 3073 blood samples from donors were phenotyped. The prevalence of these antigens was found to be as follows in %: D: 93.6, C: 87, c: 58, E: 20, e: 98, K: 3.5, k: 99.97, Fya: 87.4, Fyb: 57.6, Jka: 81.5, Jkb: 67.4, M: 88.7, N: 65.4, S: 54.8 and s: 88.7. Interpretation & conclusions: This study found the prevalence of the typed antigens among Indian blood donors to be statistically different to those in the Caucasian, Black and Chinese populations, but more similar to Caucasians than to the other racial groups. PMID:23640559

  9. The Indian blood group system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q

    2011-01-01

    The Indian blood group system (ISBT: IN/023) consists of two antithetical antigens: In(a) (IN1), which is present in approximately 10 percent of some Arab populations and in 3 percent of Bombay Indians, and its allelic antigen In(b) (IN2), an antigen of high incidence in all populations. In 2007, two new high-incidence antigens were identified as belonging to the IN blood group system, namely IN3 (INFI) and IN4 (INJA). The antigens in this system are located on CD44, a single-pass membrane glycoprotein that is encoded by the CD44 gene on chromosome 11 at position p13. The biologic function of CD44 is as a leukocyte homing receptor and cellular adhesion molecule. The In(a) and In(b) polymorphism represents a 252G>C substitution of CD44, encoding R46P, and lack of IN3 and IN4 results from homozygosity for mutations encoding H85Q and T163R in the CD44 gene. The high-frequency antigen AnWj (901009) has not been assigned to the Indian system, but either is located on an isoform of CD44 or is closely associated with it.

  10. Non-ABO blood group systems phenotyping in non-human primates for blood banking laboratory and xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Ramis, G; Martínez-Alarcon, L; Quereda, J J; Mrowiec, A; Funes, C; Ríos, A; Ramírez, P; Muñoz, A; Majado, M J

    2013-04-01

    Some biomedical research procedures, such as organ xenotransplantation, usually require intensive hemotherapy. Knowledge of the whole phenotype of blood donor and graft could be useful in the field of xenotransplantation. Human and simian-type categories of blood groups have been established and they can be tested by standard methods used for human blood grouping. The aim of this work was to study the incidence of non-ABO blood group systems in different species of non-human primates, which are employed in biomedical research. The phenotype of Rh, Lewis, Kidd, Kell, MNSs, Lutheran, P and Duffy antigens was investigated in olive baboon (n = 48), chacma baboon (n = 9), Guinea baboon (n = 14), Rhesus macaque (n = 38) and squirrel monkey (n = 30) by using commercial microtyping cards. Kell, Lutheran, Kidd and Duffy antigens have been detected in all species, Rh in squirrel monkey, MNSs in rhesus macaque and squirrel monkey, and Lewis in baboon and rhesus macaque. There were differences in frequency and haemagglutination scores between species regardless of their gender and age. The main differences were found in squirrel monkey when compared with baboons and macaques. This typing system provides a tool to assess the presence of antigens in animals used for experimental procedures, such as xenotransplantation and xenotransfusion. PMID:23563364

  11. Biological and clinical aspects of ABO blood group system.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Eiji

    2008-08-01

    The ABO blood group was discovered in 1900 by Austrian scientist, Karl Landsteiner. At present, the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) approves as 29 human blood group systems. The ABO blood group system consists of four antigens (A, B, O and AB). These antigens are known as oligosaccharide antigens, and widely expressed on the membranes of red cell and tissue cells as well as, in the saliva and body fluid. The ABO blood group antigens are one of the most important issues in transfusion medicine to evaluate the adaptability of donor blood cells with bone marrow transplantations, and lifespan of the hemocytes.This article reviews the serology, biochemistry and genetic characteristics, and clinical application of ABO antigens.

  12. [B0 aberrant genotype of AB0 blood group system].

    PubMed

    Zachová, M; Pexa, T; Zelený, M; Mazura, I; Hirt, M

    2004-07-01

    The AB0 blood group system typing remains one of the basic laboratory tasks in a forensic practice. However, problems arise when the analysed samples are seriously degraded. The DNA analysis promised to solve this but an unexpected complication was encountered. For the AB0 blood group system typing a Polymerase Chain Reaction method was used to amplify glycosyltransferase gene, when DNA had been isolated from artificially created blood stains, followed by their subsequent artificial thermal degradation. In the B0 genotype an aberrant genotype was suprisingly found and its structure was confirmed by sequencing. This meant that a newly formed B00 (not the original BO) genotype was present. Such a finding, to our best knowledge, had not been observed yet and we were unable to find any references in the professional literature. The explanation of this result thus remains unclear. PMID:15493712

  13. SERF: a new antigen in the Cromer blood group system.

    PubMed

    Banks, J; Poole, J; Ahrens, N; Seltsam, A; Salama, A; Hue-Roye, K; Storry, J R; Palacajornsuk, P; Ma, B-W; Lublin, D M; Reid, M E

    2004-08-01

    The Cromer blood group system consists of eight high incidence and three low incidence antigens carried on decay-accelerating factor (DAF). This report describes the identification and characterization of a new Cromer high incidence antigen, named SERF. Sequence analyses of DNA from a Thai female whose serum contained the alloantibody to a high incidence antigen in the Cromer blood group system (anti-SERF) and from her two children were performed. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequence analysis on cDNA from the proband and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis on DNA from Thais were also performed. To map the epitope, DAF deletion mutants were tested by immunoblotting with anti-SERF. Sequence analysis revealed a substitution of 647C>T in exon 5 DAF in the proband. The proband's two children and two of 100 Thais were heterozygotes 647C/T. Analysis using DAF deletion mutants revealed the antigenic determinant to be within short consensus repeat 3 (SCR3), which is encoded by exon 5. This study describes a novel high incidence antigen (SERF) in the Cromer blood group system characterized by the amino acid proline at position 182 in SCR3 of DAF. The SERF-negative proband has a substitution mutation that predicts for leucine at this position. SERF has been provisionally assigned the International Society of Blood Transfusion number 021.012 (CROM 12).

  14. [ABO, rhesus and MN system blood groups and spinal osteochondrosis].

    PubMed

    Kolodchenko, V P

    1979-01-01

    Genetically conditioned traits: blood groups ABO, MN and Rh were studied in 695 patients with osteochondrosis and in the population. Among the patients blood groups AB, N and Rh-negative were more frequent than in the control. Blood groups can be regarded as risk factors in vertebral osteochondrosis. Sex and age differences were found.

  15. The LAN blood group system:a review.

    PubMed

    Peyrard, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    LAN (Langereis) was officially recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion in 2012 as being the 33rd human blood group system. It consists of one single high-prevalence antigen,Lan (LANl). The ABCB6 protein is the carrier of the Lan blood group antigen. The ABCB6 gene (chromosome 2q36, 19 exons)encodes the ABCB6 polypeptide (ATP-binding cassette protein,subfamily B, member 6), known as a porphyrin transporter.The exceptional Lan- people do not express ABCB6 (Lan null phenotype), owing to several different molecular mechanisms affecting ABCB6: frameshift leading to a premature stop codon(deletion, insertion, or nonsense mutation of nucleotides);missense mutation; or intronic mutation responsible for RNA splicing defect. Despite the Lan antigen's being reported to play a key role in erythropoiesis and detoxification of cells, Lan people do not appear to demonstrate susceptibility to any disease or seemingly physiologic disorder. Anti-Lan has been described as having variable clinical significance, either for hemolytic transfusion reactions (none to severe) or hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (none to mild). Despite challenging conditions caused by the scarcity of Lan- donors worldwide, Lan- blood should ideally be given to patients with anti-Lan, especially those with a high-titer antibody.

  16. Biochemical characterization of the feline AB blood group system.

    PubMed

    Griot-Wenk, M; Pahlsson, P; Chisholm-Chait, A; Spitalnik, P F; Spitalnik, S L; Giger, U

    1993-12-01

    The biochemical nature of the feline AB blood group system was characterized by analysing red blood cells from homozygous (genotype A/A) and heterozygous (A/B) type A, type B (B/B), and type AB cats. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) of red cell glycolipids revealed that specific neuraminic acids (NA) on gangliosides, containing ceramide dihexoside (CDH) as a backbone, correlated with the feline AB blood group antigens. Although disialogangliosides predominated, mono- and trisialogangliosides were also isolated. B cats expressed solely N-acetyl-NA (NeuNAc) on these gangliosides. In addition to expressing N-glycolyl-NA (NeuNGc) containing gangliosides, A red cells have gangliosides with only NeuNAc or mixtures of both NA. HPTLC profiles of disialogangliosides from homozygous and heterozygous A cats differed slightly in the quantity of disialogangliosides. Equal amounts of NeuNAc and NeuNGc containing disialogangliosides, as well as two intermediary forms, were recovered from AB erythrocytes. Analysing disialogangliosides from red cells belonging to 17 genetically related cats, we consistently obtained the expected disialoganglioside profile, based on blood typing and pedigree information. SDS-PAGE of red cell membrane proteins and blotting with Triticum vulgaris, a lectin recognizing NeuNAc, revealed glycoproteins of approximately 51, 53, and 80 kD in B and AB cats but only a faint band of approximately 53 kD in A cats. By haemagglutination, Triticum vulgaris could also distinguish different blood types by specifically binding to B and AB cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8273913

  17. Genetic polymorphism of the LW blood group system.

    PubMed

    Sistonen, P; Green, C A; Lomas, C G; Tippett, P

    1983-10-01

    Family studies of rare LW(a-b+) propositi confirm the recent finding based on frequency studies that the LW blood groups are polymorphic in Finland (Sistonen & Tippett, 1982); they are controlled by two alleles LWa (0.97) and LWb (0.03) independent from most other common blood group loci. Lod scores for LW and the loci for 27 markers are presented. PMID:6418057

  18. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  19. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  20. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  1. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  2. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  3. [Prenatal typing of Rh- and Kell- blood group system antigens].

    PubMed

    Faas, B H; Maaskant-van Wijk, P A; Beuling, E A; Overbeeke, M A; van der Schoot, C E; Christiaens, G C

    1999-09-01

    Rhesus (Rh) and Kell blood group immunisations are the most frequent causes of haemolytic disease of the newborn. Recently, the molecular bases of the Rh and Kell antigens have been elucidated. Subsequently, specific polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) could be developed to determine the RhD, RhC/Rhc and RhE/Rhe genotypes as well as the KI genotype (from the Kell blood group) with genomic DNA. The tests were applied to genomically determine the foetal Rh and Kell blood groups with DNA obtained from amniotic fluid cells. The genotypes obtained were compared with the Rh phenotypes established by cord blood red cell serology. The PCRs to determine the RhD, Rhc, RhE and Rhe and KI genotypes were found to be reliable. The test for RhC however, resulted in false-positive C genotypes. Indeed, more than half of the subsequently tested C-negative Negroid donors were false-positive with the DNA test. Thus, except for RhC, it is possible to reliably determine the Rh and KI genotypes of a foetus with DNA isolated from amniotic fluid cells. Amniocentesis, however, carries a risk for the pregnancy and therefore the tests will only be justified in pregnant women in whom an antibody has been detected and the father of the foetus is heterozygous for the specific antigen. Recently foetal RhD genotypes were determined in foetal DNA circulating in the plasma of RhD-negative pregnant women. This could eventually lead to the introduction of assays with which the foetal blood group can be determined without any risk to the foetus.

  4. A Brief History of Human Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    FARHUD, Dariush D; ZARIF YEGANEH, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of human blood groups, without doubt, has a history as old as man himself. There are at least three hypotheses about the emergence and mutation of human blood groups. Global distribution pattern of blood groups depends on various environmental factors, such as disease, climate, altitude, humidity etc. In this survey, the collection of main blood groups ABO and Rh, along with some minor groups, are presented. Several investigations of blood groups from Iran, particularly a large sampling on 291857 individuals from Iran, including the main blood groups ABO and Rh, as well as minor blood groups such as Duffy, Lutheran, Kell, KP, Kidd, and Xg, have been reviewed. PMID:23514954

  5. Evolutionary genetics of the human Rh blood group system

    PubMed Central

    Perry, George H.; Xue, Yali; Smith, Richard S.; Meyer, Wynn K.; Çalışkan, Minal; Yanez-Cuna, Omar; Lee, Arthur S.; Gutiérrez-Arcelus, María; Ober, Carole; Hollox, Edward J.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Lee, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The evolutionary history of variation in the human Rh blood group system, determined by variants in the RHD and RHCE genes, has long been an unresolved puzzle in human genetics. Prior to medical treatments and interventions developed in the last century, the D-positive children of D-negative women were at risk for hemolytic disease of the newborn, if the mother produced anti-D antibodies following sensitization to the blood of a previous D-positive child. Given the deleterious fitness consequences of this disease, the appreciable frequencies in European populations of the responsible RHD gene deletion variant (for example, 0.43 in our study) seem surprising. In this study, we used new molecular and genomic data generated from four HapMap population samples to test the idea that positive selection for an as-of-yet unknown fitness benefit of the RHD deletion may have offset the otherwise negative fitness effects of hemolytic disease of the newborn. We found no evidence that positive natural selection affected the frequency of the RHD deletion. Thus, the initial rise to intermediate frequency of the RHD deletion in European populations may simply be explained by genetic drift/ founder effect, or by an older or more complex sweep that we are insufficiently powered to detect. However, our simulations recapitulate previous findings that selection on the RHD deletion is frequency dependent, and weak or absent near 0.5. Therefore, once such a frequency was achieved, it could have been maintained by a relatively small amount of genetic drift. We unexpectedly observed evidence for positive selection on the C allele of RHCE in non-African populations (on chromosomes with intact copies of the RHD gene) in the form of an unusually high FST value and the high frequency of a single haplotype carrying the C allele. RhCE function is not well understood, but the C/c antigenic variant is clinically relevant and can result in hemolytic disease of the newborn, albeit much less commonly

  6. Evolutionary genetics of the human Rh blood group system.

    PubMed

    Perry, George H; Xue, Yali; Smith, Richard S; Meyer, Wynn K; Calışkan, Minal; Yanez-Cuna, Omar; Lee, Arthur S; Gutiérrez-Arcelus, María; Ober, Carole; Hollox, Edward J; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Lee, Charles

    2012-07-01

    The evolutionary history of variation in the human Rh blood group system, determined by variants in the RHD and RHCE genes, has long been an unresolved puzzle in human genetics. Prior to medical treatments and interventions developed in the last century, the D-positive (RhD positive) children of D-negative (RhD negative) women were at risk for hemolytic disease of the newborn, if the mother produced anti-D antibodies following sensitization to the blood of a previous D-positive child. Given the deleterious fitness consequences of this disease, the appreciable frequencies in European populations of the responsible RHD gene deletion variant (for example, 0.43 in our study) seem surprising. In this study, we used new molecular and genomic data generated from four HapMap population samples to test the idea that positive selection for an as-of-yet unknown fitness benefit of the RHD deletion may have offset the otherwise negative fitness effects of hemolytic disease of the newborn. We found no evidence that positive natural selection affected the frequency of the RHD deletion. Thus, the initial rise to intermediate frequency of the RHD deletion in European populations may simply be explained by genetic drift/founder effect, or by an older or more complex sweep that we are insufficiently powered to detect. However, our simulations recapitulate previous findings that selection on the RHD deletion is frequency dependent and weak or absent near 0.5. Therefore, once such a frequency was achieved, it could have been maintained by a relatively small amount of genetic drift. We unexpectedly observed evidence for positive selection on the C allele of RHCE in non-African populations (on chromosomes with intact copies of the RHD gene) in the form of an unusually high F( ST ) value and the high frequency of a single haplotype carrying the C allele. RhCE function is not well understood, but the C/c antigenic variant is clinically relevant and can result in hemolytic disease of the

  7. [ABO system blood group ratios in patients with neuroinfections].

    PubMed

    Rudometov, Iu P; Umanskiĭ, K G; Ashmarina, E E; Andreeva, L S

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of the ABO blood groups in 2009 patients including 1441 ones suffering from etiologically diverse neuroinfections was studied. Certain correlations between the nosological forms and groups of the diseases on the one hand, and the blood factors on the other are demonstrated. The data obtained point to a certain role of hereditary predisposition in the genesis of the neuroinfections. This predisposition predetermines the risk of the illnesses and the gravity of their course, the fact, which is of a practical importance for the clinician.

  8. Blood group gene frequency in a selected north Indian population.

    PubMed

    Nanu, A; Thapliyal, R M

    1997-09-01

    Gene frequencies have been calculated from 6334 blood donors who were tested at a referral hospital in north India, for ABO & Rh and from > 350 donors who were tested for other blood groups. The Hardy Weinberg equation for 2 allel systems and the Bernstein method for 3 or more allel systems have been employed for calculating gene frequencies. The predominance of blood group B (37.39%), Rh D negative frequency of 4.63 per cent, predominance of M gene (0.6383) and M s haplotype (0.4464) and S gene frequency below 0.3 (0.2069) agrees with earlier data. The new findings include the presence of the allels Fy (a-b-) (0.44%) in the Duffy group, S- s- (1.16%) in the Ss group and JK (a-b-) (0.54%) in the Kidd blood group system. These have not been reported in the Indian population. PMID:9378531

  9. Blood group gene frequency in a selected north Indian population.

    PubMed

    Nanu, A; Thapliyal, R M

    1997-09-01

    Gene frequencies have been calculated from 6334 blood donors who were tested at a referral hospital in north India, for ABO & Rh and from > 350 donors who were tested for other blood groups. The Hardy Weinberg equation for 2 allel systems and the Bernstein method for 3 or more allel systems have been employed for calculating gene frequencies. The predominance of blood group B (37.39%), Rh D negative frequency of 4.63 per cent, predominance of M gene (0.6383) and M s haplotype (0.4464) and S gene frequency below 0.3 (0.2069) agrees with earlier data. The new findings include the presence of the allels Fy (a-b-) (0.44%) in the Duffy group, S- s- (1.16%) in the Ss group and JK (a-b-) (0.54%) in the Kidd blood group system. These have not been reported in the Indian population.

  10. The polymorphism of Knops blood group system in Korean population and their relationship with HLA system.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Hyun; Oh, Sohee; Shin, Sue; Park, Jeong Su; Roh, Eun Youn; Song, Eun Young; Park, Myoung Hee; Han, Kyou Sup; Chang, Ju Young

    2013-02-01

    The main purpose of this report is to provide baseline gene frequencies of Knops blood group in the complement receptor 1 gene (CR1) in Korean population. In addition, possible relationship between the CR1 polymorphism and HLA specificities were studied, because the two systems had principal importance in immunity. CR1, which contains Knops antigens, was investigated by PCR-direct sequencing from 238 cord blood from Koreans. HLA data was archived from the enrolled cord blood units. Among the 7 SNPs, only 4843 (for KCAM antigen) and 4223 (for Yk(a)) nucleotide positions showed polymorphism. The genotype frequencies of KCAM were A/A (62.2%), A/G (33.2%), and G/G (4.6%); Yk(a) were C/C (29.4%), C/T (50%), and T/T (20.6%). KCAM (A/A) associated with HLA-DRB1(∗)13 (p=0.003, P(c)=0.0513); KCAM (G/G) with HLA-A(∗)30 (p<0.001, P(c)=0.0012). The Knops blood group system in Korean population has no diversity, except SNPs for KCAM and Yk(a), and the genotype of KCAM related with specific HLA alleles.

  11. Linkage disequilibrium between the ELA and the A blood group systems in Standardbred horses.

    PubMed

    Bailey, E

    1983-01-01

    The linkage group formed by the ELA and A blood group system in horses was studied in American Standardbred horses. The distance between the ELA locus and the A blood group locus was measured as 1.61 centimorgans, observing only the haplotypes contributed by the sires. Strong linkage disequilibrium was found in pacing Standardbred horses for ELA-W1 with Aa, ELA-W5 with Ab and ELA-W10 with Ab. Linkage disequilibrium was apparent at both the population and family level. Among trotting Standardbred horses, linkage disequilibrium was found for ELA-W1 with Aa and for ELA-W10 with Ab. It was not possible to investigate linkage relationships in Thoroughbred horses because of the high frequency of Aa and low frequency of other A system markers.

  12. The Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infections in ABO Blood Groups and Rh Type System.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Jitendra Singh; Singh, Savitri; Kaur, Viplesh; Giri, Sumit; Kaushal, Ravi Prakash

    2014-11-19

    Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs). The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti hepatitis C virus (Anti-HCV), anti HIV-1 and 2, venereal disease research Laboratory test (VDRL) and malaria parasite (MP) antigen. In seroreactive donors, HBsAg, Anti-HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV were positive in 40 cases, 26 cases, 19 cases, 6 cases and 2 cases, respectively. Highest percentage of HBsAg, Anti HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV was observed in blood group A negative (2/50), O negative (1/66), B negative (1/91), AB positive (2/377) blood group respectively. In the present study, the total number of Rhnegative donors is lower when compared to Rh-positive blood donors, but Rh-negative blood donors show higher percentages of seroreactivity for TTIs. Larger scale studies at molecular level are required to improve the knowledge of this aspect.

  13. ABO blood group system and the coronary artery disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Yang, Sheng-Hua; Xu, Hao; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-03-18

    ABO blood group system, a well-known genetic risk factor, has clinically been demonstrated to be linked with thrombotic vascular diseases. However, the relationship between ABO blood group and coronary artery disease (CAD) is still controversial. We here performed an updated meta-analysis of the related studies and tried to elucidate the potential role of ABO blood group as a risk factor for CAD. All detectable case-control and cohort studies comparing the risk of CAD in different ABO blood groups were collected for this analysis through searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Ultimately, 17 studies covering 225,810 participants were included. The combined results showed that the risk of CAD was significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.26, p = 0.01) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.94, p = 0.0008). Even when studies merely about myocardial infarction (MI) were removed, the risk of CAD was still significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.10, p = 0.03) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85 to 0.93, p < 0.00001). This updated systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that both blood group A and non-O were the risk factors of CAD.

  14. Prenatal typing of Rh and Kell blood group system antigens: the edge of a watershed.

    PubMed

    van der Schoot, C Ellen; Tax, G H Martine; Rijnders, Robbert J P; de Haas, Masja; Christiaens, Godelieve C M L

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the molecular basis of the blood group systems has enabled the development of assays for blood group genotyping. At this time, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays validated on fetal material obtained by invasive means (chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis) are available for all clinically relevant fetal blood groups, However, only Rh typing (D, C, c, E, and e) and K1 genotyping assays are discussed in this review. Importantly, one must remember that results of genotyping assays will not always be concordant with serological typing. Thus, the RhD genotyping assays have to be modified in response to increased understanding of the molecular biology of this blood group system. RhD typing assays should produce negative results when tested on the black RhD-negative RHD alleles, RHDpsi and r's. PCR-based assays can be used to determine paternal zygosity. For RhD zygosity testing, the real-time quantitative PCR approach and the direct detection of the hybrid Rhesus box, which is the result of the deletion of the RHD gene are available. Recently, methods for noninvasive prenatal genotyping have been investigated. The use of fetal cells circulating in the maternal circulation has been explored; however, the scarcity of circulating fetal cells has limited the use of this approach. More promising are the results obtained with RhD typing assays with cell-free fetal DNA, which is present in the maternal circulation in a concentration of 25 genomic equivalents per milliliter of maternal blood in early pregnancy increasing to 100 copies per milliliter in the third trimester, which is cleared from the circulation within a few hours of delivery. The positive predictive value of this approach is virtually 100%, but false-negative results are (infrequently) encountered. Therefore, this assay can at present only be used for screening of RhD-negative women to make the use of antenatal prophylaxis more targeted and hence more cost-effective. For the clinical

  15. [A survey on distribution of red cell blood group systems in naxi and primi ethnic groups].

    PubMed

    Xiao, C; Hao, L; Zhang, W; Tao, Y; Zhou, Z; Du, R

    1995-01-01

    A survey of distribution of red cell blood group systems, including ABO, MNSs, Rh and P, was carried out on the Naxi and Primi ethnic groups in Yunnan province. The results based on 104 cases in each of the two ethnic groups showed that both Naxi and Primi possessed a high gene frequency r of 0.6082 and 0.6882, respectively, with gene frequency p = q. The gene frequency m of Naxi (0.8509) was found to be very high among the populations studied in China until now, only next to that of Lizu (0.8709). The most common phenotype of Rh system was CcDE- in both Naxi and Primi, with a quite high cDE frequency. No case of Rh negative was observed in the two ethnic groups. The P1 in Naxi approximated to that in Primi. The red cell blood group systems and their genetic distances suggested that the Naxi and Primi was genetically close to ethnic groups of North China, but different from those of South China. This fact suggests that these two ethnics groups originated from the North China.

  16. A new low-incidence antigen in the Kell blood group system: VLAN (KEL25).

    PubMed

    Jongerius, J M; Daniels, G L; Overbeeke, M A; Petty, A C; Reid, M; Oyen, R; Rijksen, H; van Leeuwen, E F

    1996-01-01

    A multilaboratory investigation has identified a new low-incidence antigen "VLAN' on the red cells of a blood donor. The VLAN antigen is destroyed by 2-aminoethylisothiouronium bromide treatment of the donor's red cells suggesting an association with the Kell system. Monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of erythrocyte antigen analysis with anti-VLAN and with several mouse monoclonal antibodies directed at epitopes on the Kell glycoprotein gave positive results, indicating that the VLAN antigen is located on the Kell glycoprotein. The VLAN red blood cells have the common Kell phenotype: KEL:-1,2,-3,4,5,-6,7,-10,11,12,13,14,-17,18,19,-21,22,-23,-24. Additional serologic data indicate that the VLAN antigen is not part of any other ISBT blood group system, collection or series. A family study showed that the VLAN antigen is inherited since the red cells of two sisters and one niece of the propositus are also VLAN+. The ISBT Working Party on Terminology for Red Cell Surface Antigens has assigned VLAN to the Kell blood group system as KEL25 (number for computer listings 006025).

  17. Molecular-genetic variance of RH blood group system within human population of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Lasić, Lejla; Lojo-Kadrić, Naida; Silajdžić, Elma; Pojskić, Lejla; Hadžiselimović, Rifat; Pojskić, Naris

    2013-02-01

    There are two major theories for inheritance of Rh blood group system: Fisher - Race theory and Wiener theory. Aim of this study was identifying frequency of RHDCE alleles in Bosnian - Herzegovinian population and introduction of this method in screening for Rh phenotype in B&H since this type of analysis was not used for blood typing in B&H before. Rh blood group was typed by Polymerase Chain Reaction, using the protocols and primers previously established by other authors, then carrying out electrophoresis in 2-3% agarose gel. Percentage of Rh positive individuals in our sample is 84.48%, while the percentage of Rh negative individuals is 15.52%. Inter-rater agreement statistic showed perfect agreement (K=1) between the results of Rh blood system detection based on serological and molecular-genetics methods. In conclusion, molecular - genetic methods are suitable for prenatal genotyping and specific cases while standard serological method is suitable for high-throughput of samples.

  18. Duffy Blood Group System and the malaria adaptation process in humans

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Gledson Barbosa; de Carvalho, Glauber Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is an acute infectious disease caused by the protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. The antigens of the Duffy Blood Group System, in addition to incompatibilities in transfusions and hemolytic disease of the newborn, are of great interest in medicine due to their association with the invasion of red blood cells by the parasite Plasmodium vivax. For invasions to occur an interaction between the parasites and antigens of the Duffy Blood Group System is necessary. In Caucasians six antigens are produced by the Duffy locus (Fya, Fyb, F3, F4, F5 and F6). It has been observed that Fy(a-b-) individuals are resistant to Plasmodium knowlesi and P. vivax infection, because the invasion requires at least one of these antigens. The P. vivax Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP) is functionally important in the invasion process of these parasites in Duffy / DARC positive humans. The proteins or fractions may be considered, therefore, an important and potential inoculum to be used in immunization against malaria. PMID:23284245

  19. Revisiting the Diego Blood Group System in Amerindians: Evidence for Gene-Culture Comigration.

    PubMed

    Bégat, Christophe; Bailly, Pascal; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mazières, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Six decades ago the DI*A allele of the Diego blood group system was instrumental in proving Native American populations originated from Siberia. Since then, it has received scant attention. The present study was undertaken to reappraise distribution of the DI*A allele in 144 Native American populations based on current knowledge. Using analysis of variance tests, frequency distribution was studied according to geographical, environmental, and cultural parameters. Frequencies were highest in Amazonian populations. In contrast, DI*A was undetectable in subarctic, Fuegian, Panamanian, Chaco and Yanomama populations. Closer study revealed a correlation that this unequal distribution was correlated with language, suggesting that linguistic divergence was a driving force in the expansion of DI*A among Native Americans. The absence of DI*A in circumpolar Eskimo-Aleut and Na-Dene speakers was consistent with a late migratory event confined to North America. Distribution of DI*A in subtropical areas indicated that gene and culture exchanges were more intense within than between ecozones. Bolstering the utility of classical genetic markers in biological anthropology, the present study of the expansion of Diego blood group genetic polymorphism in Native Americans shows strong evidence of gene-culture comigration. PMID:26148209

  20. Revisiting the Diego Blood Group System in Amerindians: Evidence for Gene-Culture Comigration

    PubMed Central

    Bégat, Christophe; Bailly, Pascal; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mazières, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Six decades ago the DI*A allele of the Diego blood group system was instrumental in proving Native American populations originated from Siberia. Since then, it has received scant attention. The present study was undertaken to reappraise distribution of the DI*A allele in 144 Native American populations based on current knowledge. Using analysis of variance tests, frequency distribution was studied according to geographical, environmental, and cultural parameters. Frequencies were highest in Amazonian populations. In contrast, DI*A was undetectable in subarctic, Fuegian, Panamanian, Chaco and Yanomama populations. Closer study revealed a correlation that this unequal distribution was correlated with language, suggesting that linguistic divergence was a driving force in the expansion of DI*A among Native Americans. The absence of DI*A in circumpolar Eskimo-Aleut and Na-Dene speakers was consistent with a late migratory event confined to North America. Distribution of DI*A in subtropical areas indicated that gene and culture exchanges were more intense within than between ecozones. Bolstering the utility of classical genetic markers in biological anthropology, the present study of the expansion of Diego blood group genetic polymorphism in Native Americans shows strong evidence of gene-culture comigration. PMID:26148209

  1. ABO blood group system and the coronary artery disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo; Yang, Sheng-Hua; Xu, Hao; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    ABO blood group system, a well-known genetic risk factor, has clinically been demonstrated to be linked with thrombotic vascular diseases. However, the relationship between ABO blood group and coronary artery disease (CAD) is still controversial. We here performed an updated meta-analysis of the related studies and tried to elucidate the potential role of ABO blood group as a risk factor for CAD. All detectable case-control and cohort studies comparing the risk of CAD in different ABO blood groups were collected for this analysis through searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Ultimately, 17 studies covering 225,810 participants were included. The combined results showed that the risk of CAD was significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.26, p = 0.01) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.94, p = 0.0008). Even when studies merely about myocardial infarction (MI) were removed, the risk of CAD was still significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.10, p = 0.03) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85 to 0.93, p < 0.00001). This updated systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that both blood group A and non-O were the risk factors of CAD. PMID:26988722

  2. The abundance and organization of polypeptides associated with antigens of the Rh blood group system.

    PubMed

    Gardner, B; Anstee, D J; Mawby, W J; Tanner, M J; von dem Borne, A E

    1991-06-01

    Twelve murine monoclonal antibodies, which react with human red cells of common Rh phenotype but give weak or negative reactions with Rh null erythrocytes, were used in quantitative binding assays and competitive binding assays to investigate the abundance and organization of polypeptides involved in the expression of antigens of the Rh blood group system. Antibodies of the R6A-type (R6A, BRIC-69, BRIC-207) and the 2D10-type (MB-2D10, LA18.18, LA23.40) recognize related structures and 100,000-200,000 molecules of each antibody bind maximally to erythrocytes of common Rh phenotype. Antibodies of the BRIC-125 type (BRICs 32, 122, 125, 126, 168, 211) recognize structures that are unrelated to those recognized by R6A-type and 2D10-type antibodies and between 10,000 and 50,000 antibody molecules bind maximally to erythrocytes of the common Rh phenotype. The binding of antibodies of the R6A-type and the 2D10-type, but not of antibodies of the BRIC-125-type could be partially inhibited by human anti-D antibodies (polyclonal and monoclonal) and a murine anti-e-like antibody. These results are consistent with evidence (Moore & Green 1987; Avent et al., 1988b) that the Rh blood group antigens are associated with a complex that comprises two groups of related polypeptides of M(r) 30,000 and M(r) 35,000-100,000, respectively, and suggest that there are 1-2 x 10(5) copies of this complex per erythrocyte. The polypeptide recognized by antibodies of the BRIC-125 type is likely to be associated with this complex. PMID:9259831

  3. The abundance and organization of polypeptides associated with antigens of the Rh blood group system.

    PubMed

    Gardner, B; Anstee, D J; Mawby, W J; Tanner, M J; von dem Borne, A E

    1991-06-01

    Twelve murine monoclonal antibodies, which react with human red cells of common Rh phenotype but give weak or negative reactions with Rh null erythrocytes, were used in quantitative binding assays and competitive binding assays to investigate the abundance and organization of polypeptides involved in the expression of antigens of the Rh blood group system. Antibodies of the R6A-type (R6A, BRIC-69, BRIC-207) and the 2D10-type (MB-2D10, LA18.18, LA23.40) recognize related structures and 100,000-200,000 molecules of each antibody bind maximally to erythrocytes of common Rh phenotype. Antibodies of the BRIC-125 type (BRICs 32, 122, 125, 126, 168, 211) recognize structures that are unrelated to those recognized by R6A-type and 2D10-type antibodies and between 10,000 and 50,000 antibody molecules bind maximally to erythrocytes of the common Rh phenotype. The binding of antibodies of the R6A-type and the 2D10-type, but not of antibodies of the BRIC-125-type could be partially inhibited by human anti-D antibodies (polyclonal and monoclonal) and a murine anti-e-like antibody. These results are consistent with evidence (Moore & Green 1987; Avent et al., 1988b) that the Rh blood group antigens are associated with a complex that comprises two groups of related polypeptides of M(r) 30,000 and M(r) 35,000-100,000, respectively, and suggest that there are 1-2 x 10(5) copies of this complex per erythrocyte. The polypeptide recognized by antibodies of the BRIC-125 type is likely to be associated with this complex.

  4. Flexible automated platform for blood group genotyping on DNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Paris, Sandra; Rigal, Dominique; Barlet, Valérie; Verdier, Martine; Coudurier, Nicole; Bailly, Pascal; Brès, Jean-Charles

    2014-05-01

    The poor suitability of standard hemagglutination-based assay techniques for large-scale automated screening of red blood cell antigens severely limits the ability of blood banks to supply extensively phenotype-matched blood. With better understanding of the molecular basis of blood antigens, it is now possible to predict blood group phenotype by identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genomic DNA. Development of DNA-typing assays for antigen screening in blood donation qualification laboratories promises to enable blood banks to provide optimally matched donations. We have designed an automated genotyping system using 96-well DNA microarrays for blood donation screening and a first panel of eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms to identify 16 alleles in four blood group systems (KEL, KIDD, DUFFY, and MNS). Our aim was to evaluate this system on 960 blood donor samples with known phenotype. Study data revealed a high concordance rate (99.92%; 95% CI, 99.77%-99.97%) between predicted and serologic phenotypes. These findings demonstrate that our assay using a simple protocol allows accurate, relatively low-cost phenotype prediction at the DNA level. This system could easily be configured with other blood group markers for identification of donors with rare blood types or blood units for IH panels or antigens from other systems. PMID:24726279

  5. Comparison of five blood-typing methods for the feline AB blood group system

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Mayank; Jackson, Karen V.; Giger, Urs

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the ease of use and accuracy of 5 feline AB blood-typing methods: card agglutination (CARD), immunochromatographic cartridge (CHROM), gel-based (GEL), and conventional slide (SLIDE) and tube (TUBE) agglutination assays. Sample Population 490 anticoagulated blood samples from sick and healthy cats submitted to the Transfusion or Clinical Laboratory at the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Procedures Sample selection was purposely biased toward those from anemic, type B, or type AB cats or those with autoagglutination. All blood samples were tested by use of GEL, SLIDE, and TUBE methods. Fifty-eight samples were also tested by use of CARD and CHROM methods. The presence of alloantibodies in all cats expressing the B antigen as detected by use of any method was also assessed. Results Compared with the historical gold-standard TUBE method, good to excellent agreement was achieved with the other typing tests: CARD, 53 of 58 (91% agreement); CHROM, 55 of 58 (95%); GEL, 487 of 490 (99%); and SLIDE, 482 of 487 (99%; 3 samples were excluded because of autoagglutination). Four of the samples with discordant test results originated from cats with FeLV-related anemia. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Current laboratory and in-clinic methods provide simple and accurate typing for the feline AB blood group system with few discrepancies. Retyping after in-clinic typing with the GEL or TUBE laboratory methods is recommended to confirm any type B or AB cats. PMID:21281194

  6. A family showing inheritance of the Anton blood group antigen AnWj and independence of AnWj from Lutheran.

    PubMed

    Poole, J; Levene, C; Bennett, M; Sela, R; van Alphen, L; Spruell, P J

    1991-12-01

    A 43-year-old Arab woman was found to be negative for the high incidence AnWj antigen and her serum contained anti-AnWj. Two of her seven siblings were also AnWj-negative, which provides evidence for the first time that the AnWj-negative phenotype may be an inherited character. Blood groups of the family, in which the parents of the proposita are consanguineous, show that AnWj is not part of the ABO, Rh, MNSs, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, Xg and, notably, Lutheran blood group systems and neither is it X or Y linked.

  7. Development and Detection of Kidd Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Kimberly Williams; Bourikian, Seda; McClain, Aryn; Curtis, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Kidd antibodies have a reputation for causing hemolytic transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. We present a case of an untransfused male patient who developed anti-Kidd(a) (Jk(a)) antibodies after receiving an allogenic renal transplant. The formation of this antibody was associated with exposure to the Kidd antigen expressed on the tubular epithelium of the transplanted kidney. The 59-year-old white male patient had received a cadaveric renal transplant at our clinic and returned 5 years later with proteinuria and elevated serum creatinine levels, consistent with nephrotic syndrome. We review the expression of Kidd antigens and the development and detection of Kidd antibodies, and discuss the case reports from the literature of Kidd antibodies associated with kidney-graft rejection that suggest Kidd antigens play a role as a minor histocompatibility antigen. PMID:26199265

  8. Development and Detection of Kidd Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Kimberly Williams; Bourikian, Seda; McClain, Aryn; Curtis, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Kidd antibodies have a reputation for causing hemolytic transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. We present a case of an untransfused male patient who developed anti-Kidd(a) (Jk(a)) antibodies after receiving an allogenic renal transplant. The formation of this antibody was associated with exposure to the Kidd antigen expressed on the tubular epithelium of the transplanted kidney. The 59-year-old white male patient had received a cadaveric renal transplant at our clinic and returned 5 years later with proteinuria and elevated serum creatinine levels, consistent with nephrotic syndrome. We review the expression of Kidd antigens and the development and detection of Kidd antibodies, and discuss the case reports from the literature of Kidd antibodies associated with kidney-graft rejection that suggest Kidd antigens play a role as a minor histocompatibility antigen.

  9. [ABO system blood groups and the rhesus factor in tumors and tumorlike processes of the ovaries].

    PubMed

    Rybalka, A N; Andreeva, P V; Tikhonenko, L F; Koval'chuk, N A

    1979-01-01

    Under observation were 175 patients with ovarian tumors and cysts. The distribution of ABO blood groups and Rh factor in relation to this pathology was studied as compared with the control series (2000 healthy females). There was noted an increased probability of the incidence of the majority of the ovarian tumor types among AB blood group females compared with other groups (O, A and B), and just the opposite, the probability of the tumoriform processes incidence in AB group females is considerably less than in other groups. The probability of ovarian tumors malignification proved to be the least in B group females. There is noted a considerably increased relative ovarian tumor and cyst morbidity among Rh-positive females compared with Rh-negative ones.

  10. [Blood-group systems ABO and RH in the Kenyan population].

    PubMed

    Lyko, J; Gaertner, H; Kaviti, J N; Kariithi, M W; Akoto, B

    1992-01-01

    The retrospective study was carried out in 38,898 healthy adult blood donors of both sexes, recruited mainly from Nairobi area in Kenya. The percentage proportions of blood groups were: group 0-47.4, group A-26.2, group B-22.0 and group AB-4.4. In all the samples, there were 96.1% Rh (D) positive blood donors. Among these were 0.75% subjects with Rh (D) variant antigen Du positive. Rh (D) negative was only 3.9% among the blood donors. There is a real preponderance of the blood group 0 over the blood groups A, B and especially AB as well as Rh (D) positive over Rh (D) negative. The authors found following frequencies of genes: p(A)0.168, q(B)0.142, r(0)0.690, D positive 0.804, D negative 0.196 and compare their own results with the data of other investigators concerning other Kenyan and African populations.

  11. An inexpensive thread-based system for simple and rapid blood grouping.

    PubMed

    Ballerini, David R; Li, Xu; Shen, Wei

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the use of thread as a flexible and low-cost substrate for the rapid grouping of blood. The use of a capillary substrate such as thread for blood grouping utilises the sensitivity of the flow resistance of large particles in narrow capillary channels to separate agglutinated red blood cells (RBCs) from plasma. Large and discrete particles formed in a continuous liquid phase do not provide capillary wicking driving force and fall behind the capillary wicking front, leading to their separation from the wicking liquid. The capillary substrate therefore provides a very promising but different mechanism for the separation of the agglutinated RBCs and the blood serum phase compared to most existing blood grouping methods. The principle of chromatographic separation is also exploited in this study via the use of suitable dyes to enhance the visual detection of the agglutinated RBCs and the serum phase; surprising and encouraging outcomes are obtained. Using a thread-based device, the ABO and Rh groups can be successfully determined with only 2 μL of whole blood from a pricked finger tip within 1 min and without pre-treatment of the blood sample. It is hoped that a new, inexpensive, rapid and simple method may provide an easy-to-use blood grouping platform well suited to those in developing or remote regions of the world.

  12. [Determination of AB0 blood group system from degraded blood stains on serological and molecular genetic level].

    PubMed

    Zachová, M; Zelený, M; Pexa, T; Mazura, I; Hirt, M

    2004-07-01

    The AB0 blood group system typing remains one of the basic laboratory tasks in a forensic practice. However, problems arise when the analysed samples are seriously degraded. We took blood samples from six volunteers (three men, three women) and made blood stains on pieces of sterile cotton cloth. Blood stains were incubated at three different temperatures (22 degrees C, 37 degrees C, 56 degrees C) for various periods of time (1 day, 1 week, 14 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year). For blood stains degraded at 22 degrees C we also analysed the samples after 3.5 hours of incubation. Moreover, we tried to determine the AB0 blood group system after thermal degradation at high temperature, accurately at 200 degrees C for 10 min. For the AB0 blood group system typing a Polymerase Chain Reaction method was used to amplify glycosyltransferase gene, when DNA had been isolated from artificially created blood stains, followed by their subsequent artificial thermal degradation. For serological AB0 typing the mixed agglutination and the Therkelsen method were used. The DNA analysis seemed to solve problems with seriously degraded blood stains but we found out that classical serological methods were even better in some cases. PMID:15493711

  13. Frequencies of Blood Group Systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy and Clinical Phases of Carrion's Disease in Amazonas, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Luis; Escobar, Jorge; Fernandez, Miguel; Solano, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Carrion's disease (CD), is a human bartonellosis, that is, endemic in the Andes of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. Bartonella bacilliformis, a native hemotrophic bacteria, is the causative agent of CD, and the interaction with the host could have produced changes in the gene frequencies of erythrocyte antigens. The goal here is to investigate the relationship between allele frequencies of blood group systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy and the clinical phases of CD, within a genetic context. In this associative and analytical study, 76 individuals from Bagua Grande, the province of Utcubamba, and the department of Amazonas in Peru, were enrolled. Forty of them resided in Tomocho-Collicate-Vista Hermosa area (high prevalence of cases in chronic phase, verrucous, or eruptive phase, without previous acute phase). Thirty-six individuals were from the area of Miraflores (high prevalence of cases in acute phase only) and were evaluated for blood group systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy. This study constitutes one of the first attempts at evaluating the genetic factors and clinical phases of CD. No significant statistical differences (P > 0.05) between allele frequencies of blood groups MNS, Diego, and Duffy and the prevalence of chronic and acute phases were detected in the two areas of Amazonas, Peru. PMID:24847360

  14. [Blood groups and disease].

    PubMed

    Prokop, O

    1986-09-01

    The inquiry for the sense of blood group polymorphisms (enzyme groups and serum groups included) and their significance for the constitution and also disposition to diseases is for the time being absolutely legitimate. But it is shown that the field--scarcely a new hereditary blood factor has been detected--becomes a subject of speculations, possibly of the teleological kind: "For which purpose is the factor existing?", or even "Why has God made up the factor?". The hypotheses developing on that are often extremely suggestive and incorrect hypotheses on the first opportunity sometimes reappear like a "cork-tumbler". Finally only a few hard facts remain. This is shown with the help of the systems AB0, Duffy, HLA, Hp and Pi. PMID:2947391

  15. Blood groups and filariasis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, H; Santhanam, S

    1989-01-01

    Only a little is known about the studies done with filariasis in relation to blood groups. The present communication reports the results of a preliminary study carried out to investigate any relationship of ABO and Rho(D) blood groups in persons with circulating microfilariae (mf) in blood and with disease manifestations compared with healthy normal controls within a population in similar epidemiological and ecological conditions. Blood groups ABO and Rho(D) were investigated among 271 persons with filarial disease and 172 normal subjects from an endemic area of bancroftian filariasis. No relationship was observed between infection and blood groups. It appeared that blood groups and filarial infection were independent of each other. Also the sex of the individual and stage of the infection, i.e. persons with circulating mf only without manifestations and persons with established manifestation without mf, has no bearing on blood group inheritance. There were 95.05% of Rh-positive and 4.95% of Rh-negative persons in the whole studied population. The observations are similar to other studies.

  16. Blood group genotyping facilitates transfusion of beta-thalassemia patients.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Lilian; Rios, Maria; Pellegrino, Jordão; T O Saad, Sara; F Costa, Fernando

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of blood group genotyping as a supplement to hemagglutination to determine the red blood cell (RBC) antigen profile of polytransfused patients with beta-thalassemia. We selected 10 alloimmunized patients who were receiving antigen-matched RBCs based on phenotype, and had clinical evidence of delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction. DNA was prepared from blood samples and RH E/e, K1/K2, FY A/FY B, and JK A/JK B alleles were determined by PCR-RFLP. RH D/non-D was determined according to the PCR product size associated with the RHD gene sequence in intron 4 and exon 10/3'UTR. RH C/c was tested by multiplex PCR. The phenotypes and genotypes of nine of the 10 samples were discrepant. Five of the discrepancies occurred in the Rh system. One sample was phenotyped as Rhcc and genotyped as RH C/C, and two samples were phenotyped as RhCc and genotyped as RH C/C. Two other samples were phenotyped as RhEe and genotyped as RH e/e. Three samples had discrepancies in the Kidd system with phenotype Jk(a+b+) and were genotyped as homozygous for JK B. One sample had a discrepancy in the Duffy system: it was phenotyped as Fy(a+b-) and homozygous for FY B. Genotyping was very important in determining the true blood groups of many polytransfused patients with beta-thalassemia, and it assisted in the identification of suspected alloantibodies and the selection of antigen-negative RBCs for transfusion.

  17. A 'new' allele giving further insight into the LW blood group system.

    PubMed

    Sistonen, P; Tippett, P

    1982-01-01

    Nea, a red cell antigen present in 6% of Finnish people but in less than 1% of other Europeans tested, is shown to be part of the LW system. Tests on 10,025 Finnish donors show the antithetical relationship of anti-Nea (proposed name anti-LWb) and anti-LW made by LW3 people (proposed name anti-LWa). Tests on families of previously reported LW3 propositi and of LW(a-b+) Finnish donors support the hypothesis that Nea (LWb) is an allele at the LW locus which when homozygous produces the phenotype once called LW3. PMID:6808767

  18. Blood group antigen distribution in Lao blood donors.

    PubMed

    Keokhamphoui, C; Urwijitaroon, Y; Kongphaly, D; Thammavong, T

    2012-01-01

    Blood group antigens can be distributed differently within different nationalities. Therefore, information about the prevalence of blood group antigens in the Lao population will be useful for providing better blood transfusion services in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of blood group antigens in Lao blood donors. Blood samples from 464 Lao national volunteer blood donors were typed for antigens in various blood group systems including ABO, MNS, P1PK, Rh, Kell, Lewis, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego. The results show similar antigen prevalence to that among Northeast Thais for ABO, MNS, P1PK, Rh, Kell, and Duffy systems. In the ABO system, 0 was the highest at 37.72 percent,followed by 35.56 percent B, 19.83 percent A1, 6.47 percent A1B,and 0.43 percent A2B. The common phenotypes were D+C+E-ce+at 60.43 percent, M+N-S-s+ at 46.55 percent, Fy(a+b-) at 80.82 percent, Jk(a+b+) at 39.44 percent, and kk at 99.72 percent.Interestingly, Le(a-b-) was found at 50.43 percent, which was significantly higher than previous reports in Thais and Taiwanese.The P1 antigen was found in only 18.97 percent, which is much lower than in Whites and Blacks. Rare phenotypes were Fy(a-b+)and Jk(a-b-), found at 0.22 percent and 4.31 percent, respectively.In terms of negative antigens the study shows 0.22 percent Fy(a-), 35.34 percent Jk(a-), 29.53 percent Jk(b-), 3.04 percent C-, 2.39 percent e-, and 5.17 percent M-. The high prevalence of C, e, and Fy" and immunogenicity of these antigens may induce alloimmunization in transfusion-dependent patients, creating difficulties providing blood from Lao donors. The information obtained from this study will be useful for improving transfusion therapy in the country, especially for estimation of the availability of compatible blood for patients who have produced antibodies. PMID:23421543

  19. Genotyping of ABO blood group system by PCR and RFLP on mummies discovered at Taklamakan desert in 1912.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z; Kondo, T; Minamino, T; Sun, E; Liu, G; Ohshima, T

    1996-10-01

    ABO genotyping was carried out using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method on the dried remains of nine human mummies which had been discovered at Taklamakan desert in 1912. In all the nine mummies, ABO genotype could be determined as BO type, and ABO phenotype of the eight mummies with hair specimen could be revealed as B type using absorption-elution method. These results mean that ABO phenotype estimated from its genotype by PCR-RFLP was consistent with that by absorption-elution method in all of the eight cases examined. And in the other one child mummy, ABO phenotype could not be examined because of no hair specimen. Although it is impossible to assess the allele frequency of ABO blood group system in the populations having lived in Gao Chang at that time, the present study shows a possibility of ABO genotyping from ancient human remains.

  20. Incidence of important blood groups in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M

    1975-04-01

    Different blood groups were determined in the Bengalee population. The prominent blood group was B in the ABO system, Rh. D negative was only 2.56% whereas Kell was 0.8%. These results have been compared with the Caucasians, Chinese and the Negroes.

  1. Molecular Characterization of the Cytidine Monophosphate-N-Acetylneuraminic Acid Hydroxylase (CMAH) Gene Associated with the Feline AB Blood Group System

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Naomi; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Chong, Yong Hwa; Kato, Yuiko; Mitsui, Hiroko; Gin, Azusa; Oda, Hitomi; Azakami, Daigo; Tamura, Kyoichi; Sako, Toshinori; Inagaki, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Tsutsui, Toshihiko; Bonkobara, Makoto; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Ikemoto, Shigenori

    2016-01-01

    Cat’s AB blood group system (blood types A, B, and AB) is of major importance in feline transfusion medicine. Type A and type B antigens are Neu5Gc and Neu5Ac, respectively, and the enzyme CMAH participating in the synthesis of Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac is associated with this cat blood group system. Rare type AB erythrocytes express both Neu5Gc and Neu5Ac. Cat serum contains naturally occurring antibodies against antigens occurring in the other blood types. To understand the molecular genetic basis of this blood group system, we investigated the distribution of AB blood group antigens, CMAH gene structure, mutation, diplotypes, and haplotypes of the cat CMAH genes. Blood-typing revealed that 734 of the cats analyzed type A (95.1%), 38 cats were type B (4.9%), and none were type AB. A family of three Ragdoll cats including two type AB cats and one type A was also used in this study. CMAH sequence analyses showed that the CMAH protein was generated from two mRNA isoforms differing in exon 1. Analyses of the nucleotide sequences of the 16 exons including the coding region of CMAH examined in the 34 type B cats and in the family of type AB cats carried the CMAH variants, and revealed multiple novel diplotypes comprising several polymorphisms. Haplotype inference, which was focused on non-synonymous SNPs revealed that eight haplotypes carried one to four mutations in CMAH, and all cats with type B (n = 34) and AB (n = 2) blood carried two alleles derived from the mutated CMAH gene. These results suggested that double haploids selected from multiple recessive alleles in the cat CMAH loci were highly associated with the expression of the Neu5Ac on erythrocyte membrane in types B and AB of the feline AB blood group system. PMID:27755584

  2. Benefits of blood group genotyping in multi-transfused patients from the south of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guelsin, Gláucia Andréia Soares; Sell, Ana Maria; Castilho, Lilian; Masaki, Viviane Lika; Melo, Fabiano Cavalcante; Hashimoto, Margareth Naomi; Higa, Tatiana Takahashi; Hirle, Loide Souza; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of blood group genotyping as a supplement to hemagglutination to determine the red blood cell (RBC) antigen profile of polytransfused patients with hematological diseases and renal failure. Seventy-nine patients were selected. They all received more than three units of blood and eight (10%) had already clinical significant alloantibodies occurring alone or in combination against Rh, K, Fya, and Di antigens. DNA was prepared from blood samples and RHCE*E/e, KEL*01/KEL*02, FY*01/FY*02 and JK*01/JK*02 alleles were determined by using PCR-RFLP. RHD*/RHD*Ψ and RHCE*C/c were tested using multiplex PCR. Discrepancies for Rh, Kell, Duffy, and Kidd systems were found between the phenotype and genotype-derived phenotype in 16 of the 38 chronically transfused patients. The genotypes of these patients were confirmed by DNA array analysis (HEA Beadchip(™); Bioarray Solutions, Warren, NJ). Genotyping was very important for the determination of the true blood groups of the polytransfused patients, helped in the identification of suspected alloantibodies and in the selection of antigen-negative RBCs for transfusion.

  3. Blood groups of Barbary apes (Macaca sylvanus).

    PubMed

    Socha, W W; Merz, E; Moor-Jankowski, J

    1981-01-01

    32 Barbary macaques were all found to be secretors of the A and H blood group substances and to have an M-like agglutinogen on their red cells. Hemagglutination tests for other human-type red cell specificities were negative. In contrast, several so-called simian-type specificities were detected on the erythrocytes of Barbary apes by means of the cross-reacting rhesus and baboon antisera. Among these, only the specificities of the graded Drh blood group system were found to be polymorphic in this species of macaques. Blood groups of Barbary apes are compared with those of several other species of macaques and some taxonomic aspects of blood grouping tests are discussed. PMID:7319424

  4. A survey of blood groups.

    PubMed

    Afzal, M; Ziaur-Rehman; Hussain, F; Siddiqi, R

    1977-11-01

    A survey was conducted to investigate into the frequency of different blood groups in Punjab. A total of 1415 persons were included in this survey. The slide method was used for determination of ABO and AB blood groups as well as Rh factor. The frequency of blood group A was 21.20%; B, 36.16%; AB, 9.05% and O, 34.14%. Distribution of blood groups among various castes revealed the incidence of blood group A, 13.57% to 30%; B, 28.125% to 50%; O, 16.67% to 40%; and AB, zero to 25%. Only 2.76% cases were found to be Rh negative. Rh negative frequency was much higher in Baluchs, Awans and Gujjars than Rajputs, Jats and Arains.

  5. [Blood groups - minuses and pluses. Do the blood group antigens protect us from infectious diseases?].

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, Marcin

    2015-06-25

    Human blood can be divided into groups, which is a method of blood classification based on the presence or absence of inherited erythrocyte surface antigens that can elicit immune response. According to the International Society of Blood Transfusion, there are 341 blood group antigens collected in 35 blood group systems. These antigens can be proteins, glycoproteins or glycosphingolipids, and function as transmembrane transporters, ion channels, adhesion molecules or receptors for other proteins. The majority of blood group antigens is present also on another types of cells. Due to their localization on the surface of cells, blood group antigens can act as receptors for various pathogens or their toxins, such as protozoa (malaria parasites), bacteria (Helicobacter pylori, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella dysenteriae) and viruses (Noroviruses, Parvoviruses, HIV). If the presence of group antigen (or its variant which arised due to mutation) is beneficial for the host (e.g. because pathogens are not able to bind to the cells), the blood group may become a selection trait, leading to its dissemination in the population exposed to that pathogen. There are thirteen blood group systems that can be related to pathogen resistance, and it seems that the particular influence was elicit by malaria parasites. It is generally thought that the high incidence of blood groups such as O in the Amazon region, Fy(a-b-) in Africa and Ge(-) in Papua-New Guinea is the result of selective pressure from malaria parasite. This review summarizes the data about relationship between blood groups and resistance to pathogens.

  6. Frequencies of red blood cell major blood group antigens and phenotypes in the Chinese Han population from Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Ma, C; Sun, X; Guan, X; Zhang, X; Saldanha, J; Chen, L; Wang, D

    2016-08-01

    Alloantibodies directed to red blood cell (RBC) antigens play an important role in alloimmune-mediated haemolytic transfusion reactions and haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn. The frequencies and phenotypes of RBC antigens are different in populations from different geographic areas and races. However, the data on major blood group antigens in the Chinese Han population from Mainland China are still very limited; thus, we aimed to investigate them in this study. A total of 1412 unrelated voluntary Chinese Han blood donors were randomly recruited. All donors were typed for blood group antigens: D, C, c, E, e, C(w) , Jk(a) , Jk(b) ,M, N, S, s, Le(a) , Le(b) , K, k. Kp(a) , Kp(b) , Fy(a) , Fy(b) , Lu(a) , Lu(b) , P1 and Di(a) using serological technology. Calculations of antigen and phenotype frequencies were expressed as percentages and for allele frequencies under the standard assumption of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Amongst the Rh antigens, D was the most common (98.94%) followed by e (92.28%), C (88.81%), c (58.43%), E (50.78%) and C(w) (0.07%) with DCe/DCe (R1 R1 , 40.72%) being the most common phenotype. In the Kell blood group system, k was present in 100% of the donors and a rare phenotype, Kp (a+b+), was found in 0.28% of the donors. For the Kidd and Duffy blood group systems, Jk (a+b+) and Fy (a+b-) were the most common phenotypes (44.05% and 84.35%, respectively). In the MNS blood group system, M+N+S-s+ (45.54%) was the most common, whereas M+N-S-s- and M-N+S-s- were not found. The rare Lu (a-b-) and Lu (a+b+) phenotypes were identified in 0.43% and 1.13% of the donors, respectively. Le(a) and Le(b) were seen in 17.92% and 63.03% of donors, respectively. The frequency of Di(a) was 4.75%, which was higher than in the Chinese population in Taiwan region or the Caucasian and Black populations (P < 0.0001). This study systematically describes the frequencies of 24 blood group antigens in the Chinese Han population from Mainland China. The data can

  7. [Blood groups - minuses and pluses. Do the blood group antigens protect us from infectious diseases?].

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Human blood can be divided into groups, which is a method of blood classification based on the presence or absence of inherited erythrocyte surface antigens that can elicit immune response. According to the International Society of Blood Transfusion, there are 341 blood group antigens collected in 35 blood group systems. These antigens can be proteins, glycoproteins or glycosphingolipids, and function as transmembrane transporters, ion channels, adhesion molecules or receptors for other proteins. The majority of blood group antigens is present also on another types of cells. Due to their localization on the surface of cells, blood group antigens can act as receptors for various pathogens or their toxins, such as protozoa (malaria parasites), bacteria (Helicobacter pylori, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella dysenteriae) and viruses (Noroviruses, Parvoviruses, HIV). If the presence of group antigen (or its variant which arised due to mutation) is beneficial for the host (e.g. because pathogens are not able to bind to the cells), the blood group may become a selection trait, leading to its dissemination in the population exposed to that pathogen. There are thirteen blood group systems that can be related to pathogen resistance, and it seems that the particular influence was elicit by malaria parasites. It is generally thought that the high incidence of blood groups such as O in the Amazon region, Fy(a-b-) in Africa and Ge(-) in Papua-New Guinea is the result of selective pressure from malaria parasite. This review summarizes the data about relationship between blood groups and resistance to pathogens. PMID:26206987

  8. Missense mutation of FUT1 and deletion of FUT2 are responsible for Indian Bombay phenotype of ABO blood group system.

    PubMed

    Koda, Y; Soejima, M; Johnson, P H; Smart, E; Kimura, H

    1997-09-01

    The Bombay phenotype fails to express the ABH antigens of ABO blood group system on red blood cells and in secretions because of a lack in activities of the H gene (FUT1)- and Secretor gene (FUT2)-encoded alpha (1,2)fucosyltransferases. In this study, we have examined the FUT1 and the FUT2 from three unrelated Indian individuals with the Bombay phenotype. These three individuals were found to be homozygous for a T725G mutation in the coding region of the FUT1, which inactivated the enzyme activity. In addition, we did not detect any hybridized band corresponding to the FUT2 by Southern blot analysis using the catalytic domain of the FUT2 as a probe, indicating that the three individuals were homozygous for a gene deletion in the FUT2. These results suggest that the T725G mutation of FUT1 and the gene deletion of FUT2 are responsible for the classical Indian Bombay phenotype.

  9. A century of human blood groups.

    PubMed

    Daniels, G

    2001-10-30

    During the course of the twentieth century, at least 270 authenticated alloantigens have been recognised on the red cell surface. Most of these have been classified into 26 blood group systems, each of which represents a single gene or a cluster of two or three closely-linked homologous genes. Most blood group polymorphisms result from single nucleotide changes encoding amino acid substitutions in cell surface proteins. Many other mechanisms, including recombination between homologous genes, are also involved, especially in the complex Rh and MNS systems. There are at least three common molecular backgrounds to the RhD-negative phenotype. Some blood group antigens are carbohydrates, the polymorphisms resulting from mutations within genes encoding glycosyltransferases. Red cell surface proteins perform a variety of functions. For some the functions are well understood, but for most they can only be surmised from the structure of the protein. Putative functions include, membrane transport, cell adhesion, complement inactivation, binding chemokines, and anchoring the plasma membrane to the cytoskeleton. Some erythroid cell surface antigens may serve their primary purpose during erythropoiesis. Analysis of the development of these proteins on erythroid cells during erythropoiesis, ex vivo, has provided clues to their functions and a useful set of markers for the study of erythropoiesis.

  10. [Population genetics and etho-historical considerations of the uniqueness of the Prasun Kafirs and the Kalash (central Hindu Kush) with regard to the ABO blood group system].

    PubMed

    Bernhard, W

    1980-06-01

    An attempt has been made to interpret the quite rare distribution pattern of ABO blood group genes (p > 0.5000, q < 0.1000 and r < 0.5000) among the Prasun Kafirs and the Kalsh of the central Hindu Kush from the point of view of population genetics and ethnohistory. If we consider the different age groups of the Prasun sample it will be observed that there is a marked increase in the frequency of blood group gene A and a corresponding decrease in blood group gene O as we proceed from older to younger age groups. These changes cna be readily explained on the basis of a prenatal selection through mother-child incompatibility. Because of the relatively small starting value of r < 0.5 a selection takes place against O, resulting in an increase of the blood group gene A. The differences in the gene frequencies among the various age groups are so large that apart from mother-child incompatibility other selective factors may have been involved, as for example the smallpox epidemics in the 1930's and in the beginning of the 1940's. Moreover, significant differences in blood group distribution were secured between the upper and lower valley samples which do not accord with the close marital relationships and the relatively long history of the settlement. It must be assumed therefore that particularly the greater frequency of the blood group gene B in the lower portion of the valley is to be attributed to marital relationships with other Kafir tribes or other ethnic groups (Pathans) which have become more frequent since the islamization at the end of the last century. In the case of the Kalash an age and regional differentiation is only possible to a limited extent. Nevertheless it must be assumed that the extremely high A frequency and the lower O and B frequencies are caused by the same genetic and ethnohistorical factors as it is the case with the Prasun Kafirs.

  11. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. PMID:26085552

  12. Genetic linkage between the Kell blood group system and prolactin-inducible protein loci: provisional assignment of KEL to chromosome 7.

    PubMed

    Zelinski, T; Coghlan, G; Myal, Y; Shiu, R P; Philipps, S; White, L; Lewis, M

    1991-05-01

    The Kell blood group locus (KEL) is tightly linked to the prolactin-inducible protein locus (PIP) with zeta = 9.12 at theta = 0.00 for combined paternal and maternal meioses. In view of the regional localization of PIP to 7q32-q36 (Myal et al. 1989a), a similar assignment for KEL is favoured.

  13. Estimation of nonpaternity in the Mexican population of Nuevo Leon: a validation study with blood group markers.

    PubMed

    Cerda-Flores, R M; Barton, S A; Marty-Gonzalez, L F; Rivas, F; Chakraborty, R

    1999-07-01

    A method for estimating the general rate of nonpaternity in a population was validated using phenotype data on seven blood groups (A1A2BO, MNSs, Rh, Duffy, Lutheran, Kidd, and P) on 396 mother, child, and legal father trios from Nuevo León, Mexico. In all, 32 legal fathers were excluded as the possible father based on genetic exclusions at one or more loci (combined average exclusion probability of 0.694 for specific mother-child phenotype pairs). The maximum likelihood estimate of the general nonpaternity rate in the population was 0.118 +/- 0.020. The nonpaternity rates in Nuevo León were also seen to be inversely related with the socioeconomic status of the families, i.e., the highest in the low and the lowest in the high socioeconomic class. We further argue that with the moderately low (69.4%) power of exclusion for these seven blood group systems, the traditional critical values of paternity index (PI > or = 19) were not good indicators of true paternity, since a considerable fraction (307/364) of nonexcluded legal fathers had a paternity index below 19 based on the seven markers. Implications of these results in the context of genetic-epidemiological studies as well as for detection of true fathers for child-support adjudications are discussed, implying the need to employ a battery of genetic markers (possibly DNA-based tests) that yield a higher power of exclusion. We conclude that even though DNA markers are more informative, the probabilistic approach developed here would still be needed to estimate the true rate of nonpaternity in a population or to evaluate the precision of detecting true fathers. PMID:10407460

  14. Cheiloscopy and blood groups: Aid in forensic identification★

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Bushra; Gupta, Devanand

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Every person has certain features that make them radically distinct from others. One such feature is lip prints. Lip prints remain the same throughout life and are uninfluenced by injuries, diseases, or environmental changes. Different individuals have specific blood groups according to the various antigen–antibody reactions in their bloodstream. Aim To determine the distribution of different patterns of lip prints among subjects having different ABO and Rh blood groups. Objective To determine the correlation between respective characteristics of subjects. Methodology In this study, lip prints were obtained from 122 subjects (62 males and 60 females), and associated blood-group matching was performed to determine the predominant lip print type and to determine any correlation between lip print types and blood groups. Tsuchihashi’s classification of type I (complete vertical grooves), type I′ (incomplete vertical grooves), type II (forking grooves), type III (intersecting grooves), type IV (reticular grooves), and type V (indeterminate grooves) was used to compare with the ABO and Rh blood grouping systems. Result No correlation was found between lip prints and blood groups. Conclusion No significant correlation exists between blood group and lip prints. Lip prints play a vital role in identification because they are unique. PMID:25382951

  15. Relation between fingerprints and different blood groups.

    PubMed

    Fayrouz, I Noor Eldin; Farida, Noor; Irshad, A H

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprint is one of the oldest, reliable and mature biometric technologies and is considered one of the best, cheapest and legitimate proofs of identification. A correlation between physical characteristics like fingerprints and blood group was demonstrated in previous studies. This study was carried out in 2010 on 305 Libyan medical students of Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi, University, Zawia, Libya and were selected randomly having different ABO blood groups, with the objective to a) Study distribution of fingerprint pattern among the subjects having different ABO and Rh blood group b) Correlate any relation between their characters and blood group. The data from the study showed that male: female ratio was 1.2:1. Majority of subjects (48.9%) in this study were of blood group O followed by blood group A (33.1%), B (12.8%) and AB (5.2%). Rh-positive cases constitute about 87.2% of all studied cases. The general distribution of pattern of finger showed high frequency of Loops registering 50.5%; followed by whorls (35.1%) and arches (14.4%). In Rh+ve cases of blood group A and O loops incidences were the highest (52% and 54.3% respectively) then whorls (33.4% and 30.6% respectively), while in blood group B whorls were predominance in both Rh+ve and Rh-ve cases. In all blood groups there were high frequency of loops in thumb, index and little fingers.

  16. Sequence-Based Typing of Human Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    Seltsam, Axel; Doescher, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Summary In the last two decades, all but one of the genes encoding the 30 blood group systems present on red blood cells have been identified. This body of knowledge has permitted the application of molecular techniques to characterize the common blood group antigens and to elucidate the background for some of the variant phenotypes. DNA sequencing methodology was developed in the late 1970s and has become one of the most widely used techniques in molecular biology. In the field of immunohematology, this method is currently used by specialized laboratories to elucidate the molecular basis of unusual blood group phenotypes that cannot be defined by serology and genotyping. Because of the heterogeneity of the blood groups on both the antigen and the genetic level, special knowledge of the biology of blood group systems is needed to design sequencing strategies and interpret sequence data. This review summarizes the technical and immunohematologic expertise that is required when applying sequence-based typing for characterization of human blood groups. PMID:21113262

  17. ABO blood groups and susceptibility to brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Mohsenpour, Behzad; Hajibagheri, Katayon; Afrasiabian, Shahla; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ghasembegloo, Saeideh

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between blood groups and some infections such as norovirus, cholera, and malaria has been reported. Despite the importance of brucellosis, there is a lack of data on the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. Thus, in this study, we examined the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. In this case-control study, the blood groups of 100 patients with brucellosis and 200 healthy individuals were studied. Exclusion criteria for the control group consisted of a positive Coombs Wright test or a history of brucellosis. The chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables between the two groups. The variables that met inclusion criteria for the regression model were entered into the logistic regression model. A total of 43% patients were female and 57% male; 27% were urban and 73% rural. Regression analysis showed that the likelihood of brucellosis infection was 6.26 times more in people with blood group AB than in those with blood group O (P<0.001). However, Rh type was not associated with brucellosis infection. Thus, there is a relationship between blood group and brucellosis. People with blood group AB were susceptible to brucellosis, but no difference was observed for brucellosis infection in terms of blood Rh type.

  18. [Discovery of a novel A2 allel in ABO blood group system and investigation of its distribution in Han population of Chinese Fujian province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai; Chi, Quan; Ren, Ben-Chun

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the distribution of A2 subgroup in Han Population of Chinese Fujian province and its molecular mechanisms. One individual with serologic ABO blood grouping discrepancy was identified with commercially available monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and lectin: anti-A, anti-B, anti-AB, anti-A1, and anti-H reagents according to the routine laboratory methods. DNA sequences of exon 6, 7 and intron 6 of ABO gene were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction using genomic DNA and direct DNA sequencing or sequencing after gene cloning. Red cells of 3 176 A or AB unrelated individuals were tested with anti-A1. The results showed that this individual was identified as A2 subgroup by serological technology, sequencing analysis indicated the A2 subgroup with novel A variant allele, the novel A allele being different from the allele A101 by 467C > T and 607G > A missense mutation in exon 7, no A2 subgroup was identified from the 3 176 individuals by using standard serological technology. It is concluded that a novel A allele responsible for A2 subgroup composing of 467C > T and 607G > A has been firstly confirmed, and the A2 subgroup is very rare in Chinese Fujian Han population.

  19. Correlation between 'H' blood group antigen and Plasmodium falciparum invasion.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Vrushali; Colah, Roshan; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2016-06-01

    The ABO blood group system is the most important blood group system in clinical practice. The relationship between Plasmodium falciparum and ABO blood groups has been studied for many years. This study was undertaken to investigate the abilities of different blood group erythrocytes to support in vitro growth of P. falciparum parasites. P. falciparum parasites of four different strains (3D7, 7G8, Dd2 and RKL9) were co-cultured with erythrocytes of blood group 'A', 'B', 'O' (n = 10 for each) and 'O(h)' (Bombay group) (n = 7) for 5 days. Statistically significant differences were observed on the fourth day among the mean percent parasitemias of 'O', non-'O' ('A' and 'B') and 'O(h)' group cultures. The parasitemias of four strains ranged from 12.23 to 14.66, 11.68 to 13.24, 16.89 to 22.3, and 7.37 to 11.27 % in 'A', 'B', 'O' and Bombay group cultures, respectively. As the expression of H antigen decreased from 'O' blood group to 'A' and 'B' and then to Bombay blood group, parasite invasion (percent parasitemia) also decreased significantly (p < 0.01) and concomitantly, indicating the association of parasite invasion with the amount of H antigen present on the surface of erythrocyte. Thus, the question arises, could H antigen be involved in P. falciparum invasion? To evaluate erythrocyte invasion inhibition, 'O' group erythrocytes were virtually converted to Bombay group-like erythrocytes by the treatment of anti-H lectins extracted from Ulex europaeus seeds. Mean percent parasitemia of lectin-treated cultures on the fourth day was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of non-treated cultures and was found to be similar with the mean percent parasitemia demonstrated by the Bombay group erythrocyte cultures, thus further strengthening the hypothesis.

  20. Relationship between ABO blood groups and malaria*

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Madhu; Chowdhuri, A. N. Rai

    1980-01-01

    A total of 736 patients with fever was tested for malaria and classified according to ABO blood group. Of these, 476 cases had patent parasitaemia at the time of investigation. The distribution of blood groups in this group was significantly different from that in 1300 controls from the same area. While group A was found to be more common in malaria cases than in normals, the reverse situation was found for group O. Possible explanations for this are discussed. PMID:6971187

  1. Quantitative blood group typing using surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Then, Whui Lyn; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Garnier, Gil

    2015-11-15

    The accurate and reliable typing of blood groups is essential prior to blood transfusion. While current blood typing methods are well established, results are subjective and heavily reliant on analysis by trained personnel. Techniques for quantifying blood group antibody-antigen interactions are also very limited. Many biosensing systems rely on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection to quantify biomolecular interactions. While SPR has been widely used for characterizing antibody-antigen interactions, measuring antibody interactions with whole cells is significantly less common. Previous studies utilized SPR for blood group antigen detection, however, showed poor regeneration causing loss of functionality after a single use. In this study, a fully regenerable, multi-functional platform for quantitative blood group typing via SPR detection is achieved by immobilizing anti-human IgG antibody to the sensor surface, which binds to the Fc region of human IgG antibodies. The surface becomes an interchangeable platform capable of quantifying the blood group interactions between red blood cells (RBCs) and IgG antibodies. As with indirect antiglobulin tests (IAT), which use IgG antibodies for detection, IgG antibodies are initially incubated with RBCs. This facilitates binding to the immobilized monolayer and allows for quantitative blood group detection. Using the D-antigen as an example, a clear distinction between positive (>500 RU) and negative (<100 RU) RBCs is achieved using anti-D IgG. Complete regeneration of the anti-human IgG surface is also successful, showing negligible degradation of the surface after more than 100 regenerations. This novel approach is validated with human-sourced whole blood samples to demonstrate an interesting alternative for quantitative blood grouping using SPR analysis. PMID:26047997

  2. Quantitative blood group typing using surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Then, Whui Lyn; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Garnier, Gil

    2015-11-15

    The accurate and reliable typing of blood groups is essential prior to blood transfusion. While current blood typing methods are well established, results are subjective and heavily reliant on analysis by trained personnel. Techniques for quantifying blood group antibody-antigen interactions are also very limited. Many biosensing systems rely on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection to quantify biomolecular interactions. While SPR has been widely used for characterizing antibody-antigen interactions, measuring antibody interactions with whole cells is significantly less common. Previous studies utilized SPR for blood group antigen detection, however, showed poor regeneration causing loss of functionality after a single use. In this study, a fully regenerable, multi-functional platform for quantitative blood group typing via SPR detection is achieved by immobilizing anti-human IgG antibody to the sensor surface, which binds to the Fc region of human IgG antibodies. The surface becomes an interchangeable platform capable of quantifying the blood group interactions between red blood cells (RBCs) and IgG antibodies. As with indirect antiglobulin tests (IAT), which use IgG antibodies for detection, IgG antibodies are initially incubated with RBCs. This facilitates binding to the immobilized monolayer and allows for quantitative blood group detection. Using the D-antigen as an example, a clear distinction between positive (>500 RU) and negative (<100 RU) RBCs is achieved using anti-D IgG. Complete regeneration of the anti-human IgG surface is also successful, showing negligible degradation of the surface after more than 100 regenerations. This novel approach is validated with human-sourced whole blood samples to demonstrate an interesting alternative for quantitative blood grouping using SPR analysis.

  3. [ABO blood group typing in forensic autopsies].

    PubMed

    Nishi, Katsuji

    2005-10-01

    In forensic science and medicine the ABO system has been a major focus, since the record of this blood system is a very prevalent one and A, B and O(H) antigens on erythrocytes are also associated with other cells and tissues throughout the body and are known to be considerably stable to the such violent conditions as heating or drying. However the determination of the ABO grouping from the body often encounters the difficulty due to haemolytic erythrocytes, and putrefaction, mummification or skeletonization of the body during post-mortem interval. In this presentation I review the merit and demerits of the ABO blood-grouping methods utilized in my division at the forensic autopsies according to the haemagglutination, absorption-elution and histochemical techniques and ABO genotyping method. It is important for ABO grouping to know the distribution of the ABO antigen in the body. I would like to emphasize that the species identification prior to ABO grouping is an important procedure because forensic materials such as from saliva, urine and seminal fluid might be contaminated with the fluid from animals, and DNA extracted from vertebrate species might be amplified with the primer for ABO genotyping and the amplified PCR products might be hybridized to those from human.

  4. ABO blood group. Related investigations and their association with defined pathologies.

    PubMed

    Jesch, Ursula; Endler, P Christian; Wulkersdorfer, Beatrix; Spranger, Heinz

    2007-08-10

    The ABO blood group system was discovered by Karl Landsteiner in 1901. Since then, scientists have speculated on an association between different pathologies and the ABO blood group system. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the significance between different blood types of the ABO blood group system and certain pathologies. We included 237 patients with known diagnosis, blood group, sex, and age in the study. As a statistical method, the Chi-square test was chosen. In some cases, a significant association between the blood groups and defined diseases could be determined. Carriers of blood group O suffered from ulcus ventriculi and gastritis (X(2)1 = 78.629, p < 0.001), colitis ulcerosa and duodenitis (X(2)1 = 5.846, p < 0.016), whereas male patients carrying blood group A tended to contract different types of tumours. In patients with intestinal tumours, females with blood group A were more likely to develop the pathology, whereas in males, the blood group O dominated. The development of cholelithiasis was found, above all, in patients with blood group O, which differed from other research where a correlation between this pathology and blood group A was found.

  5. Biofunctionalizing nanofibers with carbohydrate blood group antigens.

    PubMed

    Barr, Katie; Kannan, Bhuvaneswari; Korchagina, Elena; Popova, Inna; Ryzhov, Ivan; Henry, Stephen; Bovin, Nicolai

    2016-11-01

    A rapid and simple method of biofunctionalising nylon, cellulose acetate, and polyvinyl butyral electrospun nanofibers with blood group glycans was achieved by preparing function-spacer-lipid constructs and simply contacting them to fibers with a piezo inkjet printer. A series of water dispersible amphipathic glycan-spacer constructs were synthesized representing a range ABO and related blood group antigens. After immediate contact of the amphipathic glycan-spacer constructs with nanofiber surfaces they self-assembled and were detectable by enzyme immunoassays with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:27388774

  6. [Karl Landsteiner discovers the blood groups].

    PubMed

    Lefrère, J-J; Berche, P

    2010-02-01

    The discovery of ABO blood group was a major step in mastering transfusion therapy. Karl Landsteiner (1868-1843) was the author of this discovery. This paper retraces the hard career of this American scientist of Austrian origin, and describes the circumstances that led his research to the discoveries, which were turning points in the history of the immunology.

  7. Lectins as markers for blood grouping.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fauzia; Khan, Rizwan H; Sherwani, Asma; Mohmood, Sameena; Azfer, Md A

    2002-12-01

    Lectins are unique proteins of varying biological importance. They are characterized by specific binding to carbohydrate residues, whether monosaccharides, disaccharides or polysaccharides. The sugar heads on the surface of the erythrocyte specify the different blood groups. Lectins, as an antigenic determinant of blood group, have come to be an important tool in the identification of different blood groups. A handful of lectins may be considered excellent reagents for anti-A, anti-B, anti-N etc, but the anti-A and anti-M are not yet regarded as commercially suitable antisera. Lectin from Vicia cracca has been proved to be a good anti-A, lectin from Dolichus biflorus can be used as anti-A1, and lectin from Griffonia simplicifolia as anti-B. Lectin from Vicia graminea is said to be a good typing reagent as Anti-N. On the other hand, the lectins involved in polyagglutination are absolutely essential as the reagent of choice and these cannot as yet be replaced by antibodies of any kind. Erythrocytes with exposed cryptantigens are significantly more sensitive to agglutination by certain lectins than by polyclonal antibodies. Peanut agglutinin (PNA), Polybrene, and Glycine max lectins are frequently used for the identification of different cryptantigens. The application of lectins as an anti-B reagent has proven to be as useful as human polyclonal or mouse monoclonal antibodies. Besides their specificity, lectins are excellent reagents because of their lower cost and indigenous production. The importance of various lectins used as markers for blood grouping is discussed.

  8. Blood groups and HLA antigens in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Norrgård, O; Cedergren, B; Angquist, K A; Beckman, L

    1984-01-01

    Frequencies of blood groups (ABO, Rh, MNSs, P, Kell, Lewis and Duffy) and HLA antigens were studied in a series of patients from northern Sweden with abdominal aortic aneurysms. The following significant differences from the controls were found: a decreased frequency of the Rh-negative blood group and increased frequencies of the Kell-positive and MN blood groups. Previously reported associations with the ABO and Rh systems were not confirmed.

  9. Association of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis with Histo-blood Group Antigens.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, E; Dwibedi, B; Kar, S K; Pandey, R M

    2016-07-01

    Association of rotavirus gastroenteritis with histo-blood group antigens in children younger than 5 years admitted with diarrhea (n=389) was studied. Distribution of blood groups in rotavirus positive (n=96) and rotavirus negative (n=51) diarrhea gastroenteritis cases did not show any susceptibility to any blood group; blood group O seemed to be protective. PMID:27508550

  10. Relationship between Serum Iron Profile and Blood Groups among the Voluntary Blood Donors of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M M; Adnan, S D; Karim, S; Al-Mamun, M A; Faruki, M A; Islam, K; Nandy, S

    2016-04-01

    ferritin and percentage transferring saturation in different ABO and Rh blood grouping categories. Blood donors with blood group O had lowest haemoglobin, serum iron and transferring saturation levels and donors with blood group A had highest TIBC level. Blood donors with blood group B had lowest serum ferritin level. The understanding of the different blood groups ability to retain iron in their system can give an insight into their ability to handle the disease iron deficiency anaemia. PMID:27277369

  11. Relationship between Serum Iron Profile and Blood Groups among the Voluntary Blood Donors of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M M; Adnan, S D; Karim, S; Al-Mamun, M A; Faruki, M A; Islam, K; Nandy, S

    2016-04-01

    ferritin and percentage transferring saturation in different ABO and Rh blood grouping categories. Blood donors with blood group O had lowest haemoglobin, serum iron and transferring saturation levels and donors with blood group A had highest TIBC level. Blood donors with blood group B had lowest serum ferritin level. The understanding of the different blood groups ability to retain iron in their system can give an insight into their ability to handle the disease iron deficiency anaemia.

  12. Relationship between blood groups and sex ratio of the newborn.

    PubMed

    Rex-Kiss, B

    1991-01-01

    The examinations prove that due to the foetomaternal blood group incompatibility the sex ratio of the newborn will be higher. The most probable explanation for this fact is that the foetomaternal blood group incompatibility exerts a negative effect on the X chromosome, in consequence of which the elimination rate of the zygotes fertilized by Y chromosome-carrying spermia decrease and thus the sex ratio will be higher. The highest sex ratio was found among the D-negative newborns of D-positive mothers (172.7), whereas the lowest one among the D-positive children of D-positive mothers (113.5). The incompatibility existing in the other antigens of Rh-system and in the ABO-system also elevated the sex ratio to a minor degree.

  13. Blood groups and transfusion medicine in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, M

    1997-12-01

    There are significant differences in the frequencies of various blood group antigens between Taiwanese and Caucasians, and also in the frequencies of the corresponding alloantibodies. The most interesting discoveries concerning Taiwanese are: 1) The most common ABO subgroups are the B3 phenotype, followed by the Ael phenotype. 2) The secretory H-deficient para-Bombay phenotype (OHm), which results from mutations in five different h genes, is not uncommon. 3) The Le(a+b+) phenotype has a frequency of about 25% and the Le(a+b-) phenotype is absent except in a few of the indigenous groups. 4) Anti-'Mi(a)' is the most common clinically significant alloantibody causing intravascular hemolytic transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the newborn. 5) The incidence of the corresponding MiIII blood group phenotype varies among the different ethnic groups, ranging from 0% among descendants of mainland Chinese from north of the Yangste to 88.4% among the Ami tribe. 6) There is an almost complete absence of Di(a) and St(a) antigens among the indigenous populations, in contrast to incidences of greater than 2% among the Chinese ethnic groups. 7) Nearly all (99.67%) Taiwanese are positive for the Rh(D) antigen. Among those with Rh(D) negative phenotype, about 30% have a very weak Rh(D) positive phenotype (Del phenotype). Since the corresponding anti-D antibody is also rarely encountered, routine D typing is not necessary. 8) Some rare blood group phenotypes found in Taiwanese are the i phenotype associated with congenital cataract, DVI phenotype, Dc- phenotype, Jk(a-b-) phenotype, and Lu(a-b-) phenotype.

  14. [Effect of various plasma substitutes on blood groups].

    PubMed

    Kox, W; Höwekamp, C

    1979-12-01

    In order to test the influence of the plasma substitutes Macrodex 6%, Plasmasteril and Expafusin on subsequent blood-typing and serologic tolerance tests, blood specimens of known donors of blood group 0 Rh negative were incubated with the respective plasma substitutes in various dilutions and serologic tests performed. In the AB0 and Rh system, none of the plasma substitutes tested caused falsely positive agglutinations. Reading of cross-match in the albumin test was not impeded in any of the substitutes. The higher molecular dextran Macrodex 6% and the high molecular hydroxyethylene starch Plasmateril appeared to have positive blood-group serologic reactions. With the low molecular hydroxyethylene starch Expafusin no irritations occurred in all tests of cross-matching.

  15. Distribution of ABO and rhesus blood groups in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odokuma, E I; Okolo, A C; Aloamaka, P C

    2007-01-01

    Blood group systems are determined early in intrauterine life, specific to the individual and therefore significant in management and identification. Seven hundred and ninety five volunteer students of the Abraka campus of Delta State University were analyzed in this 4-year retrospective study. Amongst ABO system, blood group O was most common followed by A, B and AB respectively. Rhesus positive was more common than Rhesus negative in the rhesus system. Gender had no significant effect on both blood group systems studied. In the combined ABO and Rhesus blood groups, O positive was most common followed by A positive, B positive, AB positive, O negative and A negative respectively. This study documents ABO and Rhesus blood group distribution patterns amongst south southern Nigerians. Findings will be useful in maintaining a register of possible donors, for effective management of medical emergencies.

  16. Pediatric patient with Bombay blood group: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Bhar Kundu, Sudeshna; De, Anisha; Saha, Anindita; Bhattacharyya, Chiranjib

    2015-01-01

    Bombay blood group is a rare blood group in which there is the absence of H antigen and presence of anti-H antibodies. At the time of blood grouping, this blood group mimics O blood group due to the absence of H antigen, but it shows incompatibility with O group blood during cross matching. Serum grouping or reverse grouping are essential for confirmation of the diagnosis. Patients carrying this blood group can receive blood only from a person with this blood group. Reported cases of anesthesia in the pediatric patient with Bombay blood group are relatively rare. Here, we present successful anesthetic management along with intraoperative blood transfusion in a pediatric patient with Bombay blood group posted for ovarian cystectomy.

  17. Pediatric patient with Bombay blood group: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Bhar (Kundu), Sudeshna; De, Anisha; Saha, Anindita; Bhattacharyya, Chiranjib

    2015-01-01

    Bombay blood group is a rare blood group in which there is the absence of H antigen and presence of anti-H antibodies. At the time of blood grouping, this blood group mimics O blood group due to the absence of H antigen, but it shows incompatibility with O group blood during cross matching. Serum grouping or reverse grouping are essential for confirmation of the diagnosis. Patients carrying this blood group can receive blood only from a person with this blood group. Reported cases of anesthesia in the pediatric patient with Bombay blood group are relatively rare. Here, we present successful anesthetic management along with intraoperative blood transfusion in a pediatric patient with Bombay blood group posted for ovarian cystectomy. PMID:26240554

  18. Pediatric patient with Bombay blood group: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Bhar Kundu, Sudeshna; De, Anisha; Saha, Anindita; Bhattacharyya, Chiranjib

    2015-01-01

    Bombay blood group is a rare blood group in which there is the absence of H antigen and presence of anti-H antibodies. At the time of blood grouping, this blood group mimics O blood group due to the absence of H antigen, but it shows incompatibility with O group blood during cross matching. Serum grouping or reverse grouping are essential for confirmation of the diagnosis. Patients carrying this blood group can receive blood only from a person with this blood group. Reported cases of anesthesia in the pediatric patient with Bombay blood group are relatively rare. Here, we present successful anesthetic management along with intraoperative blood transfusion in a pediatric patient with Bombay blood group posted for ovarian cystectomy. PMID:26240554

  19. Blood groups of Roms (Gypsies) in Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed

    Bernasovský, I; Suchý, J; Bernasovská, K; Vargová, T

    1976-09-01

    Blood groups in 2,935 Roms (Gypsies) of East Slovakia show the following frequencies of phenotypes and genes: A1A2BO phentopes: A1--32.91%, A2--2.42%, B--25.21%, O--30.15%, A1B--8.45%, A2B--0.85%, A1--0.2363, A2--0.0217, B--0.1929, O--0.5491. MN phenotypes: M--27.16%, MN--51.60%, N--21.23%, m--0.5297, n--0.4703. RH phenotypes: Rh positive--89.54%, Rh negative--10.46%; Rh - (D)--0.6766, Rh (d) 0.3234. The frequencies are contrasted with those of other inhabitants, non-Roms of East Slovakia.

  20. Study of blood groups in HIV seropositive patients.

    PubMed

    Sayal, S K; Das, A L; Nema, S K

    1996-01-01

    Blood groups in 104 cases of HIV infection and 300 normal persons were determined. A relatively increased incidence of HIV infection was observed in persons with blood group O and relativey lower incidence in blood group B. Incidence of HIV infection was also low in Rh negative subjects. These results suggest a possible relationship between the incidence of blood group and the natural defence mechanism against HIV infection.

  1. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660.20 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Blood...

  2. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  3. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660.20 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Blood...

  4. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660.20 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Blood...

  5. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  6. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  7. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  8. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  9. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660.20 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Blood...

  10. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660.20 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Blood...

  11. Molecular basis of two novel and related high-prevalence antigens in the Kell blood group system, KUCI and KANT, and their serological and spatial association with K11 and KETI

    PubMed Central

    Velliquette, Randall W.; Hue-Roye, Kim; Lomas-Francis, Christine; Gillen, Barbara; Schierts, Jennifer; Gentzkow, Kristie; Peyrard, Thierry; von Zabern, Inge; Flegel, Willy A.; Rodberg, Karen; Debnath, Asim K.; Lee, Soohee; Reid, Marion E.

    2013-01-01

    Background The numerous antigens in the Kell blood group system result from missense nucleotide changes in KEL. Antibodies to antigens in this system can be clinically important. We describe six probands whose plasma contained antibodies to high-prevalence Kell antigens, and discuss their relationship. Study design and methods PCR amplification, direct sequencing, RFLP assays, hemagglutination, flow cytometry, and protein modeling were performed by standard methods. Results Proband 1 (KUCI), and her serologically-compatible sister, were heterozygous for a nucleotide change in exon 11 (KEL*1271C/T; Ala424Val). Proband 2 (KANT) was heterozygous for KEL*1283G/T (Arg428Leu) and KEL*1216C/T (Arg406Stop) in exon 11. RBCs from Proband 1 and her sister were not agglutinated by plasma from Proband 2; however, RBCs from Proband 2 were agglutinated by plasma from Proband 1. Probands 3, 4, 5, and 6 had the KEL*1391C>T change associated with the previously reported KETI− phenotype. Proband 5 was also homozygous for KEL*905T>C encoding the K11−K17+ phenotype. Hemagglutination studies revealed an association between KUCI, KANT, KETI and K11. Protein modeling indicated that whereas Ala424 and Arg428 are clustered, Val302 and Thr464 are not. Conclusion Ala424 in the Kell glycoprotein is associated with the high-prevalence Kell antigen, KUCI (ISBT 006032), which is detected by the antibody of Proband 1. Arg428 is associated with the high-prevalence Kell antigen, KANT (ISBT 006033). The association between KUCI, KANT, KETI, and K11, and the results of protein modeling are discussed. PMID:23560718

  12. Blood groups as genetic markers in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Brooks, A M; Gillies, W E

    1988-04-01

    A series of 474 mixed cases of glaucoma was assessed to determine whether there were any genetic differences between different types of glaucoma. A careful distinction was made between chronic open angle glaucoma (COAG), acute and chronic angle closure glaucoma, ocular hypertension, low tension glaucoma, patients with large cup disc ratios, and various types of secondary glaucoma including pseudoexfoliation of the lens capsule, uveitic and traumatic glaucoma. Using ABO blood groups, Rhesus groups, ABH secretion or non-secretion, and phenylthiourea tasting we identified certain differences. The differences from normal were significant decrease in Rh-negative patients in chronic closed angle glaucoma (p less than 0.05), a decrease in ABH secretors in ocular hypertension (p less than 0.01), and fewer HB secretors in patients with COAG (p less than 0.02). There was a significant decrease in AH secretors and increase in HB secretors in both pseudoexfoliation with raised intraocular pressure compared with COAG (p less than 0.01) and in secondary glaucomas as a group compared with COAG (p less than 0.01). Tasters of phenylthiourea were more common in traumatic and uveitic glaucoma than in normal controls (p less than 0.05). These results suggest that secondary glaucoma develops in different subjects from COAG, while patients who develop a rise in intraocular pressure proceed to cupping and field loss if they have a certain genetic constitution. The groups of patients are too small for the differences to be of great prognostic value.

  13. Cheiloscopy and its patterns in comparison with ABO blood groups

    PubMed Central

    Telagi, Neethu; Mujib, Ahmed; Spoorthi, BR; Naik, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of different lip print patterns among subjects having different ABO and Rh blood groups and to determine the correlation between their characters and blood groups. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 150 individuals who were randomly selected and blood groups of these subjects were analyzed. Results: The results revealed no association between distribution of lip print (cheiloscopy) pattern and blood groups. Conclusion: Lip print pattern does not show any correlation between blood groups. PMID:22408325

  14. J. R. Kidd: An International Legacy of Learning. Monographs on Comparative and Area Studies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Nancy J.; And Others

    This monograph deals with the many contributions of J. R. Kidd to adult learning on a world scale. In Part 1, a number of scholars, family members, and friends comment upon specific events they witnessed in Kidd's life. This anecdotal, biographical, and historical section begins with an introduction by Nancy J. Cochrane and personal accounts from…

  15. Lifelong Learning and Adult Education. Special Issue in Memory of CIHED Advisory Board Member J. Roby Kidd.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CIHED Newsletter, 1982

    1982-01-01

    This newsletter deals with lifelong learning and adult and continuing education. Included in the issue are the following articles: "The Learning Society," by Solveig M. Turner; "Adult Education at the Beginning of the 1980s," by J. Roby Kidd; "Lifelong Learning in an International Perspective: Selected Case Studies," by J. Roby Kidd; "Continuing…

  16. Genetic Kinship Investigation from Blood Groups to DNA Markers.

    PubMed

    Geserick, Gunther; Wirth, Ingo

    2012-06-01

    The forensic application of hereditary characteristics became possible after the discovery of human blood groups by Karl Landsteiner in 1901. The foundation for their use in kinship investigation was laid by Emil von Dungern and Ludwig Hirschfeld in 1910 by clarification of the inheritance of the ABO groups. Up to the middle of the 20th century further red cell membrane systems were discovered. From the 1920s Fritz Schiff and Georg Strassmann fought for the introduction of blood groups into forensic kinship investigation. A new era of hemogenetics was opened from 1955 as genetic polymorphisms were described in serum proteins. Starting in 1958 there followed the complex HLA system of white blood cells, which from 1963 was joined by polymophisms in erythrocyte enzymes. Therefore, from the 1980s, it was possible to clarify the majority of kinship cases with a combination of conventional markers. From 1990 to 2000 the conventional markers were gradually replaced by the more effective DNA markers. Simultaneously typing shifted from the phenotype level to the genotype level. The genomic structure of conventional genetic markers could also now be explained. As a reflection of scientific progress the legal situation also changed, particularly in the form of the official guidelines for kinship investigation.

  17. Genetic Kinship Investigation from Blood Groups to DNA Markers

    PubMed Central

    Geserick, Gunther; Wirth, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    The forensic application of hereditary characteristics became possible after the discovery of human blood groups by Karl Landsteiner in 1901. The foundation for their use in kinship investigation was laid by Emil von Dungern and Ludwig Hirschfeld in 1910 by clarification of the inheritance of the ABO groups. Up to the middle of the 20th century further red cell membrane systems were discovered. From the 1920s Fritz Schiff and Georg Strassmann fought for the introduction of blood groups into forensic kinship investigation. A new era of hemogenetics was opened from 1955 as genetic polymorphisms were described in serum proteins. Starting in 1958 there followed the complex HLA system of white blood cells, which from 1963 was joined by polymophisms in erythrocyte enzymes. Therefore, from the 1980s, it was possible to clarify the majority of kinship cases with a combination of conventional markers. From 1990 to 2000 the conventional markers were gradually replaced by the more effective DNA markers. Simultaneously typing shifted from the phenotype level to the genotype level. The genomic structure of conventional genetic markers could also now be explained. As a reflection of scientific progress the legal situation also changed, particularly in the form of the official guidelines for kinship investigation. PMID:22851931

  18. ABO blood group and risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    de Giorgi, Vincenzo; Grazzini, Marta; Gori, Alessia; Alfaioli, Barbara; Rossari, Susanna; Crocetti, Emanuele; Vocioni, Franco; Lotti, Torello

    2011-03-01

    Although, for several decades, the role of ABO blood group antigens has been suspected in the development of cancer, to our knowledge, the association between ABO blood group and the risk of malignant melanoma has not been evaluated yet. We, therefore, examined the relationship between ABO blood group and risk of developing cutaneous malignant melanoma. We retrospectively reviewed 445 patients with a histological diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Blood groups were obtained from medical records. The control group was represented by 38 321 patients. We evaluated the data by investigation with statistical analysis to show a statistically significant increased risk of developing a malignant melanoma in the O Rh-negative group (odds ratio = 1.4). We suggest focus on the melanoma cases belonging to the blood groups O Rh-negative in future studies, because all the clues of this study seem to show a correlation between blood groups and the risk of malignant melanoma among these groups.

  19. Study of blood groups and rhesus isoimmunization in antenatal cases.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, D P; Bhutani, B

    1980-06-01

    The present study has been conducted on 1500 pregnant women of Patiala. All the cases were examined for ABO and Rh(D) blood groups; the Rh(D)-negative cases also for evidence of Rh-immunization. The distribution of ABO blood groups reveals 40.20% blood group B, 29.27% blood group O, 22.80% blood group A, and 7.73% blood group AB. Rh(D) blood types reveal 94.40% positive cases and 5.60% negative cases. Incidence of immunization was found to be 1.33% in the total sample and 23.80% in Rh(D)-negative cases. Comparison of these frequencies has been sought with some other studies.

  20. A simple method to recover Norovirus from fresh produce with large sample size by using histo-blood group antigen-conjugated to magnetic beads in a recirculating affinity magnetic separation system (RCAMS).

    PubMed

    Tian, Peng; Yang, David; Mandrell, Robert

    2011-06-30

    Human norovirus (NoV) outbreaks are major food safety concerns. The virus has to be concentrated from food samples in order to be detected. PEG precipitation is the most common method to recover the virus. Recently, histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) have been recognized as receptors for human NoV, and have been utilized as an alternative method to concentrate human NoV for samples up to 40 mL in volume. However, to wash off the virus from contaminated fresh food samples, at least 250 mL of wash volume is required. Recirculating affinity magnetic separation system (RCAMS) has been tried by others to concentrate human NoV from large-volume samples and failed to yield consistent results with the standard procedure of 30 min of recirculation at the default flow rate. Our work here demonstrates that proper recirculation time and flow rate are key factors for success in using the RCAMS. The bead recovery rate was increased from 28% to 47%, 67% and 90% when recirculation times were extended from 30 min to 60 min, 120 min and 180 min, respectively. The kinetics study suggests that at least 120 min recirculation is required to obtain a good recovery of NoV. In addition, different binding and elution conditions were compared for releasing NoV from inoculated lettuce. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and water results in similar efficacy for virus release, but the released virus does not bind to RCAMS effectively unless pH was adjusted to acidic. Either citrate-buffered saline (CBS) wash, or water wash followed by CBS adjustment, resulted in an enhanced recovery of virus. We also demonstrated that the standard curve generated from viral RNA extracted from serially-diluted virus samples is more accurate for quantitative analysis than standard curves generated from serially-diluted plasmid DNA or transcribed-RNA templates, both of which tend to overestimate the concentration power. The efficacy of recovery of NoV from produce using RCAMS was directly compared with that of the

  1. Association of ABO blood groups with Chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naresh C V M; Nadimpalli, Mahathi; Vardhan, Vishnu R; Gopal, Sai D V R

    2010-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) an emerging arboviral infection of public health concern belongs to the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. Blood group antigens are generally known to act as receptors for various etiological agents. The studies defining the relationship between blood groups and CHIKV is limited and hence it is necessary to study these parameters in detail. In the present study 1500 subjects were enrolled and demographic data (Age, Gender, Blood group, CHIKV infection status, and CHIKV infection confirmation mode) was collected from them. The risk of acquiring CHIKV disease and its association with factors such as blood group, age and gender was analyzed statistically. The data of this study showed a possible association between blood group, age and gender of the study population with CHIKV infection. It is observed that CHIKV infections were higher in individuals with Rh positive blood group when compared to their Rh negative counterparts.CHIKV infections were found to be higher in Rh positive individuals of AB and A blood groups than that of Rh negative counterparts. Results also indicated that infections were higher in adults belonging to the age group > 30 years and also higher in males as compared to females enrolled in this study. These data present further evidence for the association of the blood groups, age and gender to susceptibility to CHIKV infection. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. This is the second study showing the possible association of blood groups with chikungunya.

  2. [ABO BLOOD GROUPS AS RISK FACTOR IN HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION

    PubMed

    Gonzáles Flores, Pedro Alejandro; Díaz Ferrer, Javier Omar; Monge Salgado, Eduardo; Watanabe Varas T, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    TITLE: ABO blood groups as risk factor in Helicobacter pylori infection.OBJECTIVE: To asses the relation between ABO blood groups and Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection. METHODS: The present is a case and control study. A study population of dyspeptic patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was selected. Four biopsies were taken from the antrum and the body of the stomach and blood group was typified. Patients with gastrectomy, gastric cancer, treated for Hp infection in the previous six months or without blood group typification were excluded. The population sample was found using EPIINFO 5.1 program. We called case to every patient with Hp (+) biopsy and control all with Hp (-) biopsy. The risk of the infection was calculated with the OR (Odds ratio) and the study sample was compared with the blood bank control group using the Chi-square test (p<0.005).RESULTS: 367 patients were included (202 female). Age average was 45,06 years. 276 (75,2%) were Hp (+). There were not statistically significant differences in the distribution of ABO blood groups between the study population and the blood bank control. When we compared the ABO blood distribution between patients Hp (+) and Hp (-) we found significant differences for blood group O (p=0.004) and blood group A (p=0.03). Statistical analysis revealed an OR=2,22 for the blood group O and OR=0,5 for the blood group A.CONCLUSIONS: 1) The ABO blood group distribution is different in patients with Hp infection compared with those without Hp infection. 2) Blood group O would be a moderate risk factor for infection by Helicobacter pylori. PMID:12140571

  3. ABO blood group and incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Margaret A.; Wolpin, Brian M.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Tworoger, Shelley S.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have observed an association between ABO blood group and risk of certain malignancies, including ovarian cancer; however, no prospective studies of the association with ovarian cancer risk are available. Using data from 49,153 women in the Nurses’ Health Study, we examined the association between ABO blood group and incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer. Study participants reported their blood type and Rh factor in 1996, and 234 women were diagnosed with incident ovarian cancer during 10 years of follow-up. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to model the incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of ovarian cancer for each blood group category. Compared to women with blood group O, women with blood group AB or B had a non-significant 38% increase in ovarian cancer incidence (95% CI=0.88–2.16 for blood group AB and 0.96–1.99 for blood group B), while blood group A was not associated with risk (RR=0.95, 95% CI=0.70–1.30). Combining blood groups AB and B, we observed a statistically significant positive association with presence versus absence of the B antigen overall (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.06–1.88) and for the serous invasive subtype (RR=1.53, 95% CI=1.08–2.17). In this large, prospective cohort of women, presence of the B antigen was positively associated with ovarian cancer incidence, while blood group A was not associated with risk. Additional studies are needed to confirm this association and to explore the mechanisms through which blood group may influence ovarian cancer risk. PMID:20309936

  4. ABO and rhesus blood groups as prognostic factors in transitional cell carcinomas of the upper urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Krogh, J; Kvist, E

    1992-01-01

    In a study of 290 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract an excess of blood group A was found. Comparisons between blood group A versus O and rhesus-positive versus rhesus-negative in relation to tumor stages or grades of dysplasia showed no significant differences neither at presentation nor in actuarial survival rates. It is concluded that the blood group systems ABO and rhesus have no prognostic value in urothelial tumors of the upper urinary tract.

  5. The prognostic value of ABO blood group in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Massimo; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M.; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The antigens of the ABO system are expressed on red blood cell membranes as well as on the surface of several other normal and pathological cells and tissues. Following the first clinical observations more than 60 years ago, the role of ABO blood group in cancer biology has been intensely studied by several investigators, and it is now widely recognised that ABO antigens are associated with the risk of developing several types of tumours, namely pancreatic and gastric cancers. However, whether this association also affects the clinical outcome of cancer patients is less certain. In this narrative review, based on literature data, we discuss the role of ABO blood types as prognostic biomarkers in different types of cancers. The current knowledge of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of the association is also analysed. PMID:26674825

  6. The role of blood groups in the development of diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Karagoz, Hatice; Erden, Abdulsamet; Ozer, Ozerhan; Esmeray, Kubra; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Karahan, Samet; Basak, Mustafa; Bulut, Kadir; Mutlu, Hasan; Simsek, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common condition that is defined as glucose intolerance of varying degree with onset or first recognition during pregnancy and it affects approximately 5% of all pregnancies all over the world. GDM is not only associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as macrosomia, dystocia, birth trauma, and metabolic complications in newborns, but it is also a strong predictor of transitioning to overt DM postpartum. The association of ABO blood groups with DM has been observed before in several epidemiological and genetic studies and resulted with inconsistent findings, but still there are not enough studies in the literature about the association of ABO blood groups with GDM. In this study, we aimed at investigating any possible relationship between the ABO blood group system and GDM and also the transitioning of GDM to overt DM postpartum, in Turkey. Patients and methods A total of 233 patients with GDM from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. The cases that have serologically determined blood groups and Rh factor in the hospital records were included in the study, and the patients with unknown blood groups were excluded. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) and Rh status (+/−). GDM was diagnosed based on the glucose cut-points of the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Society Groups. The distributions of blood groups of the patients with GDM were compared with the distribution of blood groups of 17,314 healthy donors who were admitted to the Turkish Red Crescent Blood Service in our city in 2012. Results There was a significant difference between the patients with GDM and control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups. Blood group AB was found to be higher in the patients with GDM compared to the control group (P=0.029). When the patients were compared according to the development of DM, the ratio

  7. [Duffy blood group antigens: structure, serological properties and function].

    PubMed

    Łukasik, Ewa; Waśniowska, Kazimiera

    2016-01-01

    Duffy (Fy) blood group antigens are located on seven-transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on erythrocytes and endothelial cells, which acts as atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR1) and malarial receptor. The biological role of the Duffy glycoprotein has not been explained yet. It is suggested that Duffy protein modulate the intensity of the inflammatory response. The Duffy blood group system consists of two major antigens, Fy(a) and Fy(b), encoded by two codominant alleles designated FY*A and FY*B which differ by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 125G>A of the FY gene that results in Gly42Asp amino acid change in the Fy(a) and Fy(b) antigens, respectively. The presence of antigen Fy(a) and/or Fy(b) on the erythrocytes determine three Duffy-positive phenotypes: Fy(a+b-), Fy(a-b+) and Fy(a+b+), identified in Caucasian population. The Duffy-negative phenotype Fy(a-b-), frequent in Africans, but very rare in Caucasians, is defined by the homozygous state of FY*B-33 alleles. The FY*B-33 allele is associated with a SNP -33T>C in the promoter region of the FY gene, which suppresses erythroid expression of this gene without affecting its expression in other tissues. The FY*X allele, found in Caucasians, is correlated with weak expression of Fy(b) antigen. Fy(x) antigen differs from the native Fy(b) by the Arg89Cys and Ala100Thr amino acid substitutions due to SNPs: 265C>T and 298G>A in FY*B allele. The frequency of the FY alleles shows marked geographic disparities, the FY*B-33 allele is predominant in Africans, the FY*B in Caucasians, while the FY*A allele is dominant in Asians and it is the most prevalent allele globally. PMID:26943312

  8. Distribution of ABO blood groups in acute leukaemias and lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Vadivelu, Murali K; Damodaran, Senthilkumar; Solomon, John; Rajaseharan, Annabelle

    2004-09-01

    We studied the distribution of ABO blood groups in Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, acute myeloid leukaemia and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, in children up to the age of 12 years, in a hospital-based retrospective study. Blood group data were recorded from the case records of all the patients in a tertiary care centre with the diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, acute myeloid leukaemia and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, during the period 1987-1997. There were 63 Hodgkin's lymphoma, 78 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 116 acute myeloid leukaemia and 522 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients. We assessed the distribution of ABO blood groups and the difference in the distribution from the source population. In Hodgkin's lymphoma, there were 45.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.8-84.5] more patients with B blood group. In acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, there were 14.3% (95% CI: 3.2-25.2) more patients with O blood group. In Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients, there were 56.5% (95% CI: 19.9-85.4) and 52.9% (95% CI: 18.1-82.6) less patients with A blood group, respectively. This shows that the relationship between the ABO blood groups and haematological malignancies merits further investigation in a population-based prospective study. This is the first study of its kind in any Indian population. PMID:15175895

  9. Determination of ABO blood grouping and Rhesus factor from tooth material

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pooja Vijay; Vanishree, M; Anila, K; Hunasgi, Santosh; Suryadevra, Sri Sujan; Kardalkar, Swetha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to determine blood groups and Rhesus factor from dentin and pulp using absorption-elution (AE) technique in different time periods at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 cases, 30 patients each at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months were included in the study. The samples consisted of males and females with age ranging 13–60 years. Patient's blood group was checked and was considered as “control.” The dentin and pulp of extracted teeth were tested for the presence of ABO/Rh antigen, at respective time periods by AE technique. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed in proportion. For comparison, Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used for the small sample. Results: Blood group antigens of ABO and Rh factor were detected in dentin and pulp up to 12 months. For both ABO and Rh factor, dentin and pulp showed 100% sensitivity for the samples tested at 0 month and showed a gradual decrease in the sensitivity as time period increased. The sensitivity of pulp was better than dentin for both the blood grouping systems and ABO blood group antigens were better detected than Rh antigens. Conclusion: In dentin and pulp, the antigens of ABO and Rh factor were detected up to 12 months but showed a progressive decrease in the antigenicity as the time period increased. When compared the results obtained of dentin and pulp in ABO and Rh factor grouping showed similar results with no statistical significance. The sensitivity of ABO blood grouping was better than Rh factor blood grouping and showed a statistically significant result. PMID:27721625

  10. [A large-scale survey for rare blood group screening among blood donors in Chinese over Nanjing area].

    PubMed

    Ma, Ling; Liu, Yan-Chun; Xue, Min; Wei, Peng; Tang, Rong-Cai

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of 10 rare red blood groups in Chinese Nanjing population, so as to provide compatible rare blood to patients and to create a donor data bank. Jk (a-b-) (Kidd) phenotypes were detected by urea, while H-(H), GPA-(MNS), GPC-(Gerbich), i+ (Ii) and Lub-(Lutheran) phenotypes were detected by monoclonal, polyclonal antibodies with U type 96 well microplate technology. The screening of Jsb- and k-(Kell), Fya-(Duffy), Ok-(Ok), s-(MNS) and Dib-(Digeo) phenotypes were performed by polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that 2 Jk (a-b-) out of 40337 donation samples and 3 Fy (a-b+) out of 1782 donation samples were found, while no other rare blood phenotypes (H-, GPA-, GPC-, Lub-, Ok-, s-, Jsb-, k-, Dib- and i+) were detected. It is concluded that the frequencies of Jk (a-b-) and Fya(a-b+) are 0.0049% and 0.168% respectively. No more rare blood phenotype was found in this screening.

  11. The Higher Frequency of Blood Group B in a Brazilian Population with HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Onsten, Tor Gunnar Hugo; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia Maria; Goldani, Luciano Zubaran

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the frequency of and odds for and against HIV infection based on ABO blood type in a large sample of blood donors. Background: Coevolution between pathogens and hosts may explain the ABO system of polymorphisms. HIV-infected cells add ABO(H) blood group antigens to the viral envelope. Naturally occurring antibodies against ABO(H) antigens that are present in normal human sera are able to neutralize ABO-expressing HIV in vitro. Blood donors are ideal for studying blood groups and HIV infection in vivo because all donors are routinely typed and tested. Methods: All blood donors who donated blood between 1994 and 2010 were tested for HIV (ELISA antibody tests and Western blot test or immunofluorescence testing) and were ABO typed (direct and reverse grouping tests). HIV infection based on the ABO blood group was analyzed using the chi-square test and game theory. Results: The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 271,410, of whom 389 were infected with HIV. B-group donors were more infected than non-B donors (p= 0.006). Conclusions: A more restricted antigen recognition capacity of anti-Galα1-3Gal in blood groups AB and B and a weaker antigen-binding capacity of anti-A antibodies may contribute to a higher frequency of HIV infection in blood group B. PMID:24222813

  12. The Bombay blood group: are we out of risk?

    PubMed

    Dipta, T F; Hossain, A Z

    2011-07-01

    The Bombay blood group is a rare blood group, phenotypes of this group lacking H antigen on the red cell membrane and have anti-H in the serum. It fails to express any A, B or H antigen on their red cells or other tissues. The existence of a human H/h genetic polymorphism was first established by Bhende et al. As first discovery in Bombay (Mumbai), in India in 1952, so the name of this rare blood group is known as Bombay blood group. People having Bombay phenotype are mostly confined to the Southeast Asia. Around 179 persons in India with a frequency of 1 in 10,000 have "Bombay Blood group". A high level of consanguinity present among the parents of the Bombay phenotype. The classic Bombay phenotype has been reported in those of Indian descendent. It is quite rare in Caucasian with an incidence of 1 in 250,000. As because in our country there is routine practice of "only forward or cell type grouping" using finger prick method by voluntary blood donors organization and various blood banks; so there is tremendous chance of misinterpretation or unexploration of this Bombay blood group. When misdiagnosed, this Bombay group can cause fatal haemolytic transfusion reaction. For this reason our suggestion is to incorporate "routine serum typing or reverse grouping confirmation" along with 'O' cell control in reverse grouping procedure in every Transfusion Medicine Department or Blood Bank or Blood Donor Centers and this practice should be mandatory to reduce the risk of fatal haemolytic transfusion reaction. In this view we will highlight the incidence, molecular biology and clinical significance of this rare and fatal blood group.

  13. Evaluation of the Secretor Status of ABO Blood Group Antigens in Saliva among Southern Rajasthan Population Using Absorption Inhibition Method

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Nidhi; Mamta; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The ABO blood group system was the significant element for forensic serological examination of blood and body fluids in the past before the wide adaptation of DNA typing. A significant proportion of individuals (80%) are secretors, meaning that antigens present in the blood are also found in other body fluids such as saliva. Absorption inhibition is one such method that works by reducing strength of an antiserum based on type and amount of antigen present in the stains. Aim To check the efficacy of identifying the blood group antigens in saliva and to know the secretor status using absorption inhibition method among southern Rajasthan population. Materials and Methods Blood and saliva samples were collected from 80 individuals comprising 20 individuals in each blood group. The absorption inhibition method was used to determine the blood group antigens in the saliva and then the results were correlated with the blood group of the collected blood sample. The compiled data was statistically analysed using chi-square test. Results Blood groups A & O revealed 100% secretor status for both males and females. While blood groups B and AB revealed 95% secretor status. Conclusion Secretor status evaluation of the ABO blood group antigen in saliva using absorption inhibition method can be a useful tool in forensic examination. PMID:27042574

  14. Gene frequencies of ABO and Rh (D) blood group alleles in a healthy infant population in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omotade, O O; Adeyemo, A A; Kayode, C M; Falade, S L; Ikpeme, S

    1999-01-01

    The ABO and Rhesus blood group systems remain the most important blood group systems clinically. In order to provide gene frequency values for the ABO and Rh (D) alleles in a healthy infant population in south west Nigeria, 4748 healthy infants were typed for ABO and Rh (D) blood groups over a five year period (1988-1992). Overall, 2575 (54.2%) were blood group O, 1023 (21.6%) were blood group A, 1017 (21.4%) were blood group B and 133 (2.8%) were blood group AB. The distribution of the ABO blood groups did not differ significantly from those expected under the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (Goodness-of-fit X2 = 6.09, df = 3, p = 0.1075). The proportions of the infants belonging to the various ABO blood groups did not vary significantly over the period of the study (X2 = 14.53, df = 12, p = 0.268). Overall gene frequencies for the O, A and B genes were 0.7398, 0.1305 and 0.1298 respectively. For the Rh (D) gene, 4520 (95.2%) were Rh-positive while 228 (4.8%) were Rh-negative. However, the proportions of Rh (D) negative infants varied significantly over the period of the study, with a particular year (1991) having nearly twice the usual frequency of Rh-negative individuals (X2 = 31.17, df =, p < 0.001). The frequency of the Rh (D) gene was 0.7809. These figures are reported in the hope that they may find some use as reference for studies of ABO blood groups in health and disease, especially since they were obtained in an infant population in which it is expected that selection pressures should not have started to act to any significant extent.

  15. BOOGIE: Predicting Blood Groups from High Throughput Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Giollo, Manuel; Minervini, Giovanni; Scalzotto, Marta; Leonardi, Emanuela; Ferrari, Carlo; Tosatto, Silvio C. E.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed an incredible growth in the amount of available genotype data due to high throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques. This information may be used to predict phenotypes of medical relevance, and pave the way towards personalized medicine. Blood phenotypes (e.g. ABO and Rh) are a purely genetic trait that has been extensively studied for decades, with currently over thirty known blood groups. Given the public availability of blood group data, it is of interest to predict these phenotypes from HTS data which may translate into more accurate blood typing in clinical practice. Here we propose BOOGIE, a fast predictor for the inference of blood groups from single nucleotide variant (SNV) databases. We focus on the prediction of thirty blood groups ranging from the well known ABO and Rh, to the less studied Junior or Diego. BOOGIE correctly predicted the blood group with 94% accuracy for the Personal Genome Project whole genome profiles where good quality SNV annotation was available. Additionally, our tool produces a high quality haplotype phase, which is of interest in the context of ethnicity-specific polymorphisms or traits. The versatility and simplicity of the analysis make it easily interpretable and allow easy extension of the protocol towards other phenotypes. BOOGIE can be downloaded from URL http://protein.bio.unipd.it/download/. PMID:25893845

  16. ERYTHROCYTE SENSITIZATION BY BLOOD GROUP-SPECIFIC BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.

    PubMed

    SPRINGER, G F; HORTON, R E

    1964-07-01

    Human and chicken erythrocytes are readily coated in vitro by blood group active protein-lipopolysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides from E. coli O(86) and E. coli O(128). Serum albumin, alpha(2)- and beta-lipoproteins inhibit this sensitization. Blood group B specific agglutination of erythrocytes with B or B-like antigens was obtained with antibodies purified by adsorption on and elution from B erythrocytes. Anti-blood group B and E. coli O(86)-specific antibodies could be eluted from E. coli O(86)-coated O erythrocytes. Eel anti-H(O) serum agglutinated O erythrocytes and only those A(1)B red cells which were coated with blood group H(O) active E. coli products. Blood group active substances specifically inhibited agglutination of lipopolysaccharide-coated erythrocytes by anti-B and anti-H(O) agglutinins. Demonstrable amounts of lipopolysaccharide could only be removed from coated erythrocytes by washing them at elevated temperatures (58 degrees C) in physiological solutions. Red cell sensitization with B active E. coli O(86) substances was achieved in vivo in a minority of severely diseased infants and in germ-free and ordinary chicks which were in tourniquet shock after treatment with cathartics. Therefore, a possible mode by which erythrocytes of patients with severe intestinal disorders acquire antigens is the fixation of bacterial substances to their surfaces, if there are not enough of the normally interfering plasma factors present.

  17. Distribution of ABO and Rh D blood groups in the population of Poonch District, Azad Jammu and Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Khan, M N; Khaliq, I; Bakhsh, A; Akhtar, M S; Amin-ud-Din, M

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the distribution of ABO and Rhesus (Rh) D blood groups in the population of Poonch district in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The blood group phenotypes were detected by the classic slide method. The ABO blood group system in the total sample showed the same trend of prevalence as for the general Indian subcontinent (B > or = O > A > AB). The same trend was found among males, but among females the order of prevalence was different (O B > A > AB). However, the allelic frequencies in both sexes were in the order of O > B > A. The Rh positive and negative distribution trend in both sexes was also similar.

  18. The functional importance of blood group-active molecules in human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Anstee, D J

    2011-01-01

    Antigens of 23 of the 30 human blood group systems are defined by the amino acid sequence of red cell membrane proteins. The antigens of DI, RH, RHAG, MNS, GE and CO systems are carried on blood group-active proteins (Band 3, D and CE polypeptides, RhAG, Glycophorins A and B, Glycophorins C and D and Aquaporin 1, respectively) which are expressed at high levels (>200,000 copies/red cell). These major proteins contribute to essential red cell functions either directly as membrane transporters and by providing linkage to the underlying red cell skeleton or by facilitating the membrane assembly of the protein complexes involved in these processes. The proteins expressing antigens of the remaining 17 blood group systems are much less abundant (<20,000 copies/red cell) and their functional importance for the circulating red cell is largely unknown. Human gene knock-outs (null phenotypes) have been described for many of these minor blood group-active proteins, but only absence of Kx glycoprotein has been clearly linked with pathology directly related to the function of circulating red cells. Recent evidence suggesting the normal quality control system for glycoprotein synthesis is altered during the latter stages of red cell production raises the possibility that many of these low abundance blood group-active proteins are vestigial. In sickle cell disease and polycythaemia vera, elevated Lutheran glycoprotein expression may contribute to pathology. Dyserythropoiesis with reduced antigen expression can result from mutations in the erythroid transcription factors GATA-1 and EKLF.

  19. Blood groups of the mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata).

    PubMed

    Froehlich, J W; Socha, W W; Wiener, A S; Moor-Jankowski, J; Thorington, R W

    1977-01-01

    Fifty-two howler monkeys were tested for their human-type A-B-O blood groups. All were group B, as shown by the presence of B and H in their saliva, and anti-A in serum. The B-like agglutinogen of their red cells is common to all New World monkey species tested, and is of different origin and significance than their true A-B-O blood group. Differences among the B-like agglutinogens of the red cells of howler monkeys, marmosets, rabbits and humans group B were demonstrated, and limited tests have also been performed to study the biochemical basis of the anti-B reactions. PMID:412971

  20. Trend of blood group distribution among the Jirels of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chapagain, R H; Subba, B; Kunwar, C B; Subedi, J; Blengero, J; Williams, S; Towne, B

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to find out the trend of blood group distribution among the Jirels, a small tribe, descended from Kirat tribe and to compare with other castes within Nepal and with people of other continents. Blood group distribution (ABO grouping and Rh typing) was studied among 2093 Jirels (Male-1057 and Female-1036). The frequency of distribution of A, B, O and AB was 55.05%, 14.72%, 21.64% and 8.6% respectively. The group A was found to be most common among the Jirels where as O is most common in the world. Only 0.14%of the Jirels were was found to be Rhesus Negative (Rh -ve).

  1. Erythrina lectins detect the H/HI blood groups.

    PubMed

    Sudakevitz, D; Gilboa-Garber, N; Levene, C; Sela, R; Bhattacharyya, L

    1991-08-01

    The lectin purified from Erythrina corallodendron seeds which binds N-acetyllactosamine greater than N-acetyl-D-galactosamine greater than alpha and beta galactosides greater than D-galactose was examined for its ABO(H) blood group specificity. It has been shown that this lectin causes the strongest hemagglutination of O(H) and weakest of Oh(Bombay) red blood cells, and interacts with the H antigen in association with the I antigen. The reactions of Erythrina corallodendron and Erythrina indica lectins (which are similar in sugar specificity) with erythrocytes of different ABO(H) and Ii blood groups (the I bloods were all from adults and the i from either cord or adult bloods) revealed the following order of activity: O(H)I greater than A2 I greater than O(H)i adult greater than A2BI greater than BI greater than O(H)i cord greater than A1I greater than A1i adult greater than Bi cord greater than A1BI greater than Ai cord greater than ABi cord greater than OhI. The Erythrina indica lectin showed a lower differentiation between the agglutination of O(H) and Oh erythrocytes. Both Erythrina lectins exhibited H/HI blood group preference but were not inhibited by the saliva from ABO(H) "secretors". Thus they may be classified with the Cytisus sessilifolius, Lotus tetragonolobus and Laburnum alpinum lectins which are inhibited by lactose but not by H blood group substances in secretions.

  2. Expression of blood group genes by mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Richard; Schnaidt, Martina; Klaffschenkel, Roland A.; Siegel, Georg; Schüle, Michael; Rädlein, Maria Anna; Hermanutz-Klein, Ursula; Ayturan, Miriam; Buadze, Marine; Gassner, Christoph; Danielyan, Lusine; Kluba, Torsten; Northoff, Hinnak; Flegel, Willy A.

    2011-01-01

    Incompatible blood group antigens are highly immunogenic and can cause graft rejections. Focusing on distinct carbohydrate- and protein-based membrane structures, defined by blood group antigens, we investigated human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured in human serum. The presence of H (CD173), ABO, RhD, RhCE, RhAG, Kell, urea transporter type B (SLC14A1, previously known as JK), and Duffy antigen receptor of chemokines (DARC) was evaluated at the levels of genome, transcriptome and antigen. Fucosyltransferase-1 (FUT1), RHCE, KEL, SLC14A1 (JK) and DARC mRNA were transcribed in MSCs. FUT1 mRNA transcription was lost during differentiation. The mRNA transcription of SLC14A1 (JK) decreased during chondrogenic differentiation, while that of DARC increased during adipogenic differentiation. All MSCs synthesized SLC14A1 (JK) but no DARC protein. However, none of the protein antigens tested occurred on the surface, indicating a lack of associated protein function in the membrane. As A and B antigens are neither expressed nor adsorbed, concerns of ABO compatibility with human serum supplements during culture are alleviated. The H antigen expression by GD2dim+ MSCs identified two distinct MSC subpopulations and enabled their isolation. We hypothesize that GD2dim+H+ MSCs retain a better “stemness”. Because immunogenic blood group antigens are lacking, they cannot affect MSC engraftment in vivo, which is promising for clinical applications. PMID:21418181

  3. Paleomagnetism of the Miocene intrusive suite of Kidd Creek: Timing of deformation in the Cascade arc, southern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Swanson, D.A.; Snee, L.W.

    1998-01-01

    Paleomagnetic study of the intrusive suite of Kidd Creek in the southern Washington Cascades (23 sites in dikes and sills) was undertaken to help determine if these rocks are comagmatic and whether they postdate regional folding of the volcanic arc. Fission track and 40Ar-39Ar age determinations indicate an age of ???12.7 Ma (middle Miocene) for these rocks. The similarity of normal-polarity characteristic directions for most samples corroborate the available geochemical data indicating that these rocks are most likely comagmatic. Reversed-polarity directions for samples from four sites, however, show that emplacement of Kidd Creek intrusions spanned at least one reversal of the geomagnetic field. The paleomagnetic directions for the dikes and sills fail a fold test at the 99% confidence level indicating that the Kidd Creek rocks postdate regional folding. The mean in situ direction also indicates that the Kidd Creek and older rocks have been rotated 22?? ?? 6?? clockwise about a vertical or near-vertical axis from the expected Miocene direction. Compression and regional folding of the Cascade arc in southern Washington therefore had ended by ???12 Ma prior to the onset of deformation resulting in rotation of these rocks.

  4. Are the blood groups of women with preeclampsia a risk factor for the development of hypertension postpartum?

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Deniz; Karagoz, Hatice; Ozer, Ozerhan; Esmeray, Kubra; Bulut, Kadir; Aykas, Fatma; Cetinkaya, Ali; Uslu, Emine; Karahan, Samet; Basak, Mustafa; Erden, Abdulsamet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by hypertension (HT) and proteinuria noticeable after 20 weeks of gestation. PE is now considered as a cardiovascular disease risk factor and a number of studies have shown that experiencing PE increases the prevalence of various cardiovascular risk factors, such as metabolic syndrome and HT. In this study, we aimed to investigate any possible relationship between the ABO/Rh blood group system and PE in Turkey. In the second part of the study, we examined the relationship between the ABO blood group system and development of HT after PE. Patients and methods A total of 250 patients with PE from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) and Rh status (+/−). Results There was a significant difference between the patients with PE and the control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups and the percentage of group AB was found to be higher in patients with PE compared to the control group (P=0.029). The risk of developing PE was significantly higher in group AB than other blood groups (P=0.006). The risk of developing HT after PE was significantly higher in group O than other blood groups (P=0.004). Discussion In this study, we found that the patients with blood group AB have a higher risk for PE. The patients with PE of blood group O are at high risk of developing HT, and Rh factor was identified as another risk at this point and these patients should be closely followed postpartum. PMID:27143904

  5. Genotyping of 28 blood group alleles in blood donors from Mali: Prediction of rare phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Ba, Alhassane; Bagayoko, Seydou; Chiaroni, Jacques; Baiily, Pascal; Silvy, Monique

    2016-04-01

    We determined the frequencies of clinically relevant blood group alleles in 300 blood donors from Mali. Multiplex test based on xMAP technology was used to investigate six blood group systems (RH, KEL, MNS, FY, JK, DO, HPA) and complementary analysis were conducted for MNS and RH systems. Polymorphisms that affect the specificity of molecular tests leading to discrepant genotype results are discussed. Antigen expressions were predicted showing that 50% of donors expressed at least one traditional low prevalence antigen, and 11.6% lacked the ability to express at least one high prevalence antigen compatible with Dob-, HPA1a-, S-s-U-, Jsb-, RH:-31 and/or RH:-34 phenotypes. PMID:26616029

  6. Hydrothermal and metamorphic berthierine from the Kidd Creek volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, Timmins, Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Wei-Teh, Jiang; Peacor, D.R.; Okita, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    Berthierine, a 7 A?? Fe-Al member of the serpentine group, occurs in the footwall stringer zone of the Archean Kidd Creek massive sulfide deposit, associated with quartz, muscovite, chlorite, pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and local tourmaline, cassiterite, and halloysite. Petrographic and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies reveal different types of berthierine occurrences, including interlayers within the rims on deformed chlorite, intergrowths with muscovite and halloysite, and discrete coarse grains. This is the first reported occurrence of berthierine from volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits. Textural relations suggest that most of the berthierine formed as a primary hydrothermal mineral at relatively high temperatures (~350??C) in the footwall stringer zone, probably by the replacement of a pre-existing aluminous phase such as muscovite or chlorite. However, the intergrowth textures observed by SEM and TEM suggest that some of the berthierine originated by syn- or post-metamorphic replacement of chlorite. -from Authors

  7. Distribution of ABO and Rh (D) blood groups among the Konda Kammaras of Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Veerraju, P

    1981-01-01

    The frequency distribution of ABO and Rh (D) blood groups among the Konda Kammaras, a tribal population of Andhra Pradesh has been presented. In the ABO system (n = 125) the adjusted frequencies were: p = 0.2202, q = 0.1802 and r = 0.5996. The gene frequency (n = 123) of the Rh (D) negative trait was 0.2017. The results are compared with those from the neighbouring tribal and caste populations.

  8. [Polymorphism of LW blood group gene in Chinese population].

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Qing; Yu, Qiong; Liu, Xu; Liang, Yan-Lian; Wei, Tian-Li

    2008-06-01

    In order to study the polymorphism of Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) blood group gene in Chinese population, peripheral blood samples anticoagulated with EDTA from 160 unrelated volunteer blood donors were randomly collected, and genomic DNA were extracted. 160 DNA samples were analyzed for exon 1 of LW gene by direct DNA sequencing, and detected for LWa/LWb allele by improved PCR-SSP genotyping. The results showed that all LW allele in 160 donors were LWa homozygous, and the LWa allele occurred commonly. In conclusion, LWa allele occurs with incidence of 100% of donors in this study, while LWb allele has not been found in Chinese population. PMID:18549656

  9. Evasion of Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum: Rosettes of Blood Group A Impair Recognition of PfEMP1

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Kirsten; Palmkvist, Mia; Ch'ng, Junhong; Kiwuwa, Mpungu Steven; Wahlgren, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The ABO blood group antigens are expressed on erythrocytes but also on endothelial cells, platelets and serum proteins. Notably, the ABO blood group of a malaria patient determines the development of the disease given that blood group O reduces the probability to succumb in severe malaria, compared to individuals of groups A, B or AB. P. falciparum rosetting and sequestration are mediated by PfEMP1, RIFIN and STEVOR, expressed at the surface of the parasitized red blood cell (pRBC). Antibodies to these antigens consequently modify the course of a malaria infection by preventing sequestration and promoting phagocytosis of pRBC. Here we have studied rosetting P. falciparum and present evidence of an immune evasion mechanism not previously recognized. We find the accessibility of antibodies to PfEMP1 at the surface of the pRBC to be reduced when P. falciparum forms rosettes in blood group A RBC, as compared to group O RBC. The pRBC surrounds itself with tightly bound normal RBC that makes PfEMP1 inaccessible to antibodies and clearance by the immune system. Accordingly, pRBC of in vitro cloned P. falciparum devoid of ABO blood group dependent rosetting were equally well detected by anti-PfEMP1 antibodies, independent of the blood group utilized for their propagation. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying the severe forms of malaria may in patients of blood group A depend on the ability of the parasite to mask PfEMP1 from antibody recognition, in so doing evading immune clearance. PMID:26714011

  10. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman...

  11. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman...

  12. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman...

  13. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman...

  14. Distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups in Nepalese medical students: a report.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, T; Pramanik, S

    2000-01-01

    The frequencies of ABO and rhesus blood groups vary from one population to another. We studied blood group distribution in 120 Nepalese students; 34% were blood group A, 29% group B, 4% group AB and 32.5% group O. The frequency of Rh-negative blood was 3.33% and Rh-positive 96.66%.

  15. Blood groups and ABH saliva secretion in Koya Dora and Konda Kammara tribes of Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Veerraju, P; Babu, M S; Jaikishan, G; Walter, H; Naidu, J M; Rao, T V; Raju, B M

    1982-09-01

    The present paper reports the distribution of blood groups and ABH saliva secretion in two Andhra tribal populations: the Koya Dora and the Konda Kammara. 100 Koya Dora and nearly 110 Konda Kammara adults of both sexes were tested for A1A2BO, MN, Rh (CcDEe) blood groups and ABH saliva secretion. The gene frequencies for A1A2BO, MN and ABH and the gene as well as chromosome frequencies for Rh (CcDEe) systems were calculated. Koya Doras show a higher incidence of A gene than B gene, while the reverse trend is seen in Konda Kammaras. Both the tribes show a high M gene frequency. No Rh(D) negative individual was found in Koya Doras, while 4.59% of Konda Kammaras are Rh(D) negative. The chromosomes CDE, CdE, cDe, cdE, Cde and cde are absent in Koya Doras, while only the four chromosomes CDE, CdE, cDe and cdE are absent in Konda Kammaras. The chromosome CDe shows the highest frequency in both the tribes. The frequency of secretors is, as usual, higher than that of nonsecretors in both the tribes. The intergroup variation between the two tribes is not statistically significant for MN, Rh (CcDEe) and ABH systems, while the difference is significant for the A1A2BO blood groups. Suitable comparisons have also been made with all the other available data from Andhra Pradesh tribal populations with respect to different systems studied. Finally Fi estimates have been calculated after Harpending et al. (1973) and Workman et al. (1974) for Koya Doras and Konda Kammaras to assess their degree of endogamy, considering the codominant systems studied, which suggest that Koya Doras are relatively more isolated than Konda Kammaras.

  16. Antenatal genotyping of the blood groups of the fetus.

    PubMed

    Avent, N D

    1998-01-01

    Antenatal genotyping of the fetus is now in widespread use as an aid to the clinical management in cases where there is the potential of haemolytic disease of the newborn occurring. The rapid diagnosis of an antigen-negative fetus will preclude the requirement for further, potentially risky invasive procedures being performed, whilst the determination of an antigen-positive fetus allows the potential of intensifying obstetric care for this pregnancy. Molecular genotyping is a major clinical application which has led from the determination of the molecular bases of blood group antigens expressed, most of which have been defined at the level of the gene. All assays used are dependent on the Polymerase Chain Reaction amplification of fetal DNA derived from either amniotic fluid or chorionic villi. Recent work has explored the potential of utilising fetal cells found to be present in maternal peripheral blood as a source of nucleic acid for prenatal diagnosis. Using non-invasive methods will preclude exposing mother and fetus to the potential hazards of invasive methods (amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling and cordocentesis) which include miscarriage, fetal malformations and further maternal alloimmunisation.

  17. Transfusion reaction in a case with the rare Bombay blood group.

    PubMed

    Shahshahani, Hayedeh Javadzadeh; Vahidfar, Mohamad Reza; Khodaie, Seyed Ali

    2013-01-01

    Bombay phenotype is extremely rare in Caucasian with an incidence of 1 in 250,000. When individuals with the Bombay phenotype need blood transfusion, they can receive only autologous blood or blood from another Bombay blood group. Transfusing blood group O red cells to them can cause a fatal hemolytic transfusion reaction. In this study, we report a case with the rare Bombay blood group that was misdiagnosed as the O blood group and developed a hemolytic transfusion reaction. This highlights the importance of both forward and reverse typing in ABO blood grouping and standard cross-matching and performing standard pretransfusion laboratory tests in hospital blood banks.

  18. Transfusion reaction in a case with the rare Bombay blood group.

    PubMed

    Shahshahani, Hayedeh Javadzadeh; Vahidfar, Mohamad Reza; Khodaie, Seyed Ali

    2013-01-01

    Bombay phenotype is extremely rare in Caucasian with an incidence of 1 in 250,000. When individuals with the Bombay phenotype need blood transfusion, they can receive only autologous blood or blood from another Bombay blood group. Transfusing blood group O red cells to them can cause a fatal hemolytic transfusion reaction. In this study, we report a case with the rare Bombay blood group that was misdiagnosed as the O blood group and developed a hemolytic transfusion reaction. This highlights the importance of both forward and reverse typing in ABO blood grouping and standard cross-matching and performing standard pretransfusion laboratory tests in hospital blood banks. PMID:23559776

  19. High-Resolution Crystal Structures Elucidate the Molecular Basis of Cholera Blood Group Dependence.

    PubMed

    Heggelund, Julie Elisabeth; Burschowsky, Daniel; Bjørnestad, Victoria Ariel; Hodnik, Vesna; Anderluh, Gregor; Krengel, Ute

    2016-04-01

    Cholera is the prime example of blood-group-dependent diseases, with individuals of blood group O experiencing the most severe symptoms. The cholera toxin is the main suspect to cause this relationship. We report the high-resolution crystal structures (1.1-1.6 Å) of the native cholera toxin B-pentamer for both classical and El Tor biotypes, in complexes with relevant blood group determinants and a fragment of its primary receptor, the GM1 ganglioside. The blood group A determinant binds in the opposite orientation compared to previously published structures of the cholera toxin, whereas the blood group H determinant, characteristic of blood group O, binds in both orientations. H-determinants bind with higher affinity than A-determinants, as shown by surface plasmon resonance. Together, these findings suggest why blood group O is a risk factor for severe cholera.

  20. Genetic predisposition to chikungunya--a blood group study in chikungunya affected families.

    PubMed

    Lokireddy, Sudarsanareddy; Sarojamma, Vemula; Ramakrishna, Vadde

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of CHIKV virus infected Aedes mosquitoes. During monsoon outbreak of chikungunya fever, we carried out the genetic predisposition to chikungunya in disease affected 100 families by doing blood group (ABO) tests by focusing on individuals who were likely to have a risk of chikungunya and identified the blood group involved in susceptibility/resistance to chikungunya. In the present study, based on blood group antigens, the individuals were kept in four groups - A (108), B (98), AB (20) and O (243). The result obtained was showed all Rh positive blood group individuals are susceptible to chikungunya fever. Among ABO group, the blood group O +ve individuals are more susceptible to chikungunya than other blood groups. No blood group with Rh negative was affected with chikungunya, it indicates Rh -ve more resistance to chikungunya.

  1. High-Resolution Crystal Structures Elucidate the Molecular Basis of Cholera Blood Group Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Heggelund, Julie Elisabeth; Burschowsky, Daniel; Bjørnestad, Victoria Ariel; Hodnik, Vesna; Anderluh, Gregor; Krengel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Cholera is the prime example of blood-group-dependent diseases, with individuals of blood group O experiencing the most severe symptoms. The cholera toxin is the main suspect to cause this relationship. We report the high-resolution crystal structures (1.1–1.6 Å) of the native cholera toxin B-pentamer for both classical and El Tor biotypes, in complexes with relevant blood group determinants and a fragment of its primary receptor, the GM1 ganglioside. The blood group A determinant binds in the opposite orientation compared to previously published structures of the cholera toxin, whereas the blood group H determinant, characteristic of blood group O, binds in both orientations. H-determinants bind with higher affinity than A-determinants, as shown by surface plasmon resonance. Together, these findings suggest why blood group O is a risk factor for severe cholera. PMID:27082955

  2. Binding of the blood group-reactive lectins to human adult kidney specimens.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, L; Juusela, H; Virtanen, I

    1990-01-01

    The binding of a panel of blood group-reactive lectins to frozen sections of human kidney was studied with a special emphasis on reactivity with endothelia and basement membranes. The blood group A-reactive lectins, all specific for alpha-D-N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), Helix aspersa (HAA), Helix pomatia (HPA), and Griffonia simplicifolia I-A4 (GSA-I-A4) agglutinins bound to the endothelium in specimens with blood groups A and AB. In other samples, these lectins reacted predominantly with tubular basement membranes, as well as with certain tubules. Both Dolichos biflorus (DBA) and Vicia villosa agglutinins (VVA), reported to react with blood group A1 substance, failed to reveal endothelia in most specimens, but bound differently to tubules in all blood groups. The blood group B-reactive lectins, specific for alpha-D-galactose (alpha-Gal) or GalNAc, respectively, GSA-I-B4 and Sophora japonica agglutinin (SJA), bound to the endothelia in specimens from blood group B or AB and in other specimens bound only to certain tubules. Among the blood group O-reactive lectins, specific for alpha-L-fucose (Fuc), Ulex europaeus I agglutinin (UEA-I) conjugates, but not other lectins with a similar nominal specificity, bound strongly to endothelia in specimens with blood group O. The UEA-I conjugates bound distinctly more faintly to endothelia in specimens of other blood groups. The present results indicate that lectins, binding to defined blood group determinants, react with endothelia in specimens of the respective blood group status. Furthermore, they suggest that basement membranes and some tubules in the human kidney show a distinct heterogeneity in their expression of saccharide residues, related to their blood group status.

  3. Human Noroviruses' Fondness for Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bishal K.; Leuthold, Mila M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis around the world. Human noroviruses interact with the polymorphic human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), and this interaction is thought to be important for infection. Indeed, synthetic HBGAs or HBGA-expressing enteric bacteria were shown to enhance norovirus infection in B cells. A number of studies have found a possible relationship between HBGA type and norovirus susceptibility. The genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII.4) noroviruses are the dominant cluster, evolve every other year, and are thought to modify their binding interactions with different HBGA types. Here we show high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of the capsid protruding (P) domains from epidemic GII.4 variants from 2004, 2006, and 2012, cocrystallized with a panel of HBGA types (H type 2, Lewis Y, Lewis B, Lewis A, Lewis X, A type, and B type). Many of the HBGA binding interactions were found to be complex, involving capsid loop movements, alternative HBGA conformations, and HBGA rotations. We showed that a loop (residues 391 to 395) was elegantly repositioned to allow for Lewis Y binding. This loop was also slightly shifted to provide direct hydrogen- and water-mediated bonds with Lewis B. We considered that the flexible loop modulated Lewis HBGA binding. The GII.4 noroviruses have dominated outbreaks over the past decade, which may be explained by their exquisite HBGA binding mechanisms, their fondness for Lewis HBGAs, and their temporal amino acid modifications. IMPORTANCE Our data provide a comprehensive picture of GII.4 P domain and HBGA binding interactions. The exceptionally high resolutions of our X-ray crystal structures allowed us to accurately recognize novel GII.4 P domain interactions with numerous HBGA types. We showed that the GII.4 P domain-HBGA interactions involved complex binding mechanisms that were not previously observed in norovirus structural studies. Many of the GII.4 P domain

  4. Frequency of ABO/Rhesus Blood Groups in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Oner, Can; Dogan, Burcu; Telatar, Berrin; Celik Yagan, Canan Fidan; Oguz, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between ABO/Rh blood groups and diabetes mellitus is still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between ABO/Rhesus blood groups and diabetes in Turkish population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Istanbul Medeniyet University Göztepe Education and Training Hospital's Diabetes Units. The study group was composed of 421 patients with type-1 diabetes, 484 patients with type-2 diabetes and 432 controls. Blood samples were collected and tested for ABO/Rhesus blood groups. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 17.0. A significant association was found between blood groups and diabetes mellitus. The frequency of AB blood group was significantly higher in type-1 diabetics; and A blood group was significantly higher in type-2 diabetics. Furthermore, Rh negativity were significantly more frequent in type-2 diabetics.

  5. Constitutive heterochromatin of chromosome 1 and Duffy blood group alleles in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Kosower, N.S.; Gerad, L.; Goldstein, M.; Parasol, N.

    1995-04-24

    Cytogenetic analysis was carried out in unrelated schizophrenic patients, unrelated controls and patients and family members in multiplex families. The size-distribution of chromosome 1 heterochromatic region (1qH, C-band variants) among 21 unrelated schizophrenic patients was different from that found in a group of 46 controls. The patient group had 1qH variants of smaller size than the control group (P < 0.01). Incubation of phytohemagglutinin-treated blood lymphocytes with 5-azacytidine (which causes decondensation and extension of the heterochromatin) led to a lesser degree of heterochromatin decondensation in a group of patients than in the controls (7 schizophrenic, 9 controls, P < 0.01). The distribution of phenotypes of Duffy blood group system (whose locus is linked to the 1qH region) among 28 schizophrenic patients was also different from that in the general population. Cosegregation of schizophrenia with a 1qH (C-band) variant and Duffy blood group allele was observed in one of six multiplex families. The overall results suggest that alterations within the Duffy/1qH region are involved in schizophrenia in some cases. This region contains the locus of D5 dopamine receptor pseudogene 2 (1q21.1), which is transcribed in normal lymphocytes. 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. What would Karl Landsteiner do? The ABO blood group and stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Heal, J M; Liesveld, J L; Phillips, G L; Blumberg, N

    2005-11-01

    ABO blood group antigens, of great importance in transplantation and transfusion, are present on virtually all cells, as well as in soluble form in plasma and body fluids. Naturally occurring plasma IgM and IgG antibodies against these antigens are ubiquitous. Nonetheless, the ABO blood group system is widely ignored by many transfusion services, except for purposes of red cell transfusion. We implemented a policy of transfusing only ABO identical platelets and red cells in patients undergoing stem cell transplantation or treatment for hematologic malignancies. Major bleeding episodes have occurred in about 5% of patients undergoing induction therapy for acute leukemia as compared with 15-20% in the literature. Overall survival times appear to be superior to that in historical cohorts. In 2002-2004, treatment-related mortality at 100 days in our Blood and Marrow Transplant Unit was 0.7% for autologous transplants (n=148), 13% for sibling allogeneic transplants (n=110), and 24% (n=62) for matched unrelated allogeneic transplants, suggesting that our approach is safe. We speculate that more rigorous efforts on the part of transfusion services to provide ABO identical blood components, and to remove incompatible supernatant plasma, when necessary, might yield reduced morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing stem cell transplantation.

  7. Prevalence of feline blood groups in the Montreal area of Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Fosset, Fabrice T J; Blais, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    The feline AB blood group system has clinical significance because type B cats have natural alloimmune anti-A antibodies which can cause isoerythrolysis of the newborn and life-threatening transfusion reactions. In the United States, the prevalence of type B blood is estimated to be 1% to 2%. This study determined the prevalence of feline AB blood groups among 207 potential blood donor cats that included 178 domestic cats, in the Montreal area of Quebec, Canada. Blood typing was performed using a standardized tube technique. Blood types AB and B were confirmed using a backtyping technique. The frequency of blood types among the studied population was as follows: 95.2% type A, 4.4% type B, and 0.48% type AB. Among domestic cats, the frequency was 94.4% for type A, 5% for type B, and 0.6% for type AB. The frequency of type B was higher than expected, which reinforces the recommendation to ensure blood compatibility of the recipient and donor before transfusion through typing and possibly cross-matching as well. PMID:24381340

  8. Degradation of blood group antigens in human colon ecosystems. I. In vitro production of ABH blood group-degrading enzymes by enteric bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, L C; Boulding, E T

    1976-01-01

    Human feces contain enzymes produced by enteric bacteria that degrade the A, B, and H blood group antigens of gut mucin glycoproteins. We have studied their production in fecal cultures to determine if such cultures can be a source for enzyme purification and to explore how blood group antigen-degrading enzymes are adapted in individual human colon ecosystems. They were present in fecal cultures from each of 27 healthy subjects, including ABH nonsecretors. Heat-sensitive obligate anaerobes are their major source. From 39 to 85% of the total enzyme activity produced by growing cultures was extracellular. Commercial hog gastric mucin and salivary glycoproteins, including Lea saliva which lacks A, B, and H antigens, enhance production of A-, B-, and H-degrading activity in anaerobic fecal cultures irrespective of the glycoprotein's blood group specificity. There is evidence that the host's ABO blood type and secretor status affects the specificity of blood group-degrading enzymes produced by his fecal bacteria in vitro. Thus, fecal inocula from B secretors incubated with hog gastric mucin (A and H specificity) or with Lea saliva produced greater levels of B-degrading than A- or H-degrading activity, and inocula from A secretors in similar media produced greater levels of A-degrading than B- or H-degrading activity. Blood group-degrading enzymes produced in fecal cultures are glycosidases and not proteases. The B-degrading enzyme cleaves the B antigenic determinant alpha-D-galactose from the oligosaccharide side chains of mucin glycoproteins with B specificity. Anaerobic fecal cultures containing blood group substances are a feasible source for purifying blood group antigen-degrading enzymes. Prior adaptation to blood group antigens in the gut mucins of type A and type B secretors affects the specificity of the enzymes produced in vitro. PMID:54365

  9. [Blood group characteristics of Hapsburgs belonging to the line of Josef, Palatine of Hungary].

    PubMed

    Lontainé, S Z; Susa, E; Varga, T

    1980-10-01

    Results of the reported examination of blood-group characteristics and inheritance of historical personalities of Hungary evidence that blood-group determination or identification can be successfully carried out from bone or/and hair specimens having been buried and/or conserved for a long time. It should be mentioned, that determination of blood-group in such specimens and evaluation of results requires an exceptional carefulness since specific reactions may occur.

  10. The association between blood group and the risk of vascular disease in Quebec blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Blais, Claudia; Germain, Marc; Delage, Gilles; Grégoire, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between antigens A and B and arterial thrombosis, such as coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease or peripheral vascular disease, is still unclear. We evaluated the association between blood groups and thrombotic events in a cohort of blood donors from the province of Quebec, Canada. Material and methods Among all whole blood donors aged ≥18 years in Quebec between June 1990 and March 2009, a study sample with known blood groups was linked with the provincial hospitalisation and death records to count vascular events. All hospital admissions and deaths with codes for primary and relevant secondary diagnoses of coronary, cerebrovascular or peripheral diseases, including coronary heart disease interventions, were included. Cox regression was used to evaluate the hazard ratio associated between blood groups and these events adjusted for other baseline characteristics. Results Among the blood donors, 64,686 had a known blood group and were linked with the provincial health databases. The mean age of these donors was 38 years. The Cox multivariate adjusted hazard ratio for coronary, cerebrovascular or peripheral diseases was 1.19 (95% confidence interval: 1.01–1.40) for subjects with blood group AB compared to those with blood group O. There were no statistically significant associations with other blood groups. Only among women aged ≥40 years did those with blood group A have a higher hazard ratio for coronary heart disease (1.40 [1.01–1.92]) than those with blood group O, after adjusting for other characteristics. Discussion When compared to blood group O, only blood group AB was associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation or death because of thrombotic events such as coronary, cerebrovascular or peripheral diseases. However, the associations differed according to age and sex because only females aged ≥40 years with blood group A had a higher risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:27177404

  11. ABO blood groups and oral premalignancies: A clinical study in selected Indian population.

    PubMed

    Bhateja, S; Arora, G

    2014-01-01

    Background: The ABO blood group antigens are present on the surface of red blood cells and various epithelial cells. As the majority of human cancers are derived from epithelial cells, changes in blood group antigens constitute an important aspect of human cancers. The aim of the study was to establish clinical usefulness of ABO blood group as a predisposing factor in early diagnosis and management of patients with oral precancerous lesions/conditions. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 50 control and 50 oral precancer (25 leukoplakia and 25 Oral Submucous Fibrosis) confirmed by histopathologic examination. All samples were subjected to blood group testing and their prevalence was compared by Z-test using STATA version 8. Results: The "A" blood group was prevalent among the precancerous group. Significant differences on prevalences of blood groups were found (P < 0.05) between control versus leukoplakia and OSMF. Interestingly, 24% gutka chewers who had higher number of grades of dysplasia were falling in "A" blood group. Conclusion: Blood group type should be considered along with other risk factors to understand the individual patient's risk and further studies in larger samples with inclusion of Rh factor is needed to elucidate the relationship with ABO blood group types.

  12. [Serologic characteristics and population distribution of subtypes B2 and AB2 of ABO blood group].

    PubMed

    Duan, Fu-Cai; Wang, Ming-Lu; Zhou, Ke-Li; Li, Da-Yuan; Zhang, Qin-Yong; Ma, Ai-Ping; Yang, He-Ying; Li, Jian-Hua; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Fang; Gao, Ying-Xue

    2010-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the serologic characteristics, genetic background and population distribution of B2 and AB2 subtype in Chinese ABO blood group. The classic blood group serological technology was used to detect ABO blood group of the propositus and their family members, the anti-B1 serum prepared by yourself was used to investigate the distribution of B1/B2 and AB1/AB2 subtype of the blood donor. The results indicated that the antigen of propositus was AB2 subtype and that of his child was B2 subtype. The anti-B1 antibody was detected in blood serum of propositus; the antigen of 3 from 2318 blood donors with B blood group were found to be B2 subtype, the antigen of 2 from 826 blood donors with AB blood group were found to be AB2 subtype. The investigation on propositus and the 3 B2 blood donor families showed that B2 antigen displays genetic characteristics of blood group. It is concluded that B2/AB2 subtype is from family inheritance, while B2 subtype is amounted to 0.129% in B blood group, and AB2 subtype is amounted to 0.224% in AB blood group.

  13. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products... nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman...

  14. Relative Susceptibilities of ABO Blood Groups to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Afoakwah, Richmond; Aubyn, Edmond; Prah, James; Nwaefuna, Ekene Kwabena; Boampong, Johnson N.

    2016-01-01

    The clinical outcome of falciparum malaria in endemic areas is influenced by erythrocyte polymorphisms including the ABO blood groups. Studies have reported association of ABO blood group to resistance, susceptibility, and severity of P. falciparum malaria infection. Individuals with blood group “A” have been found to be highly susceptible to falciparum malaria whereas blood group “O” is said to confer protection against complicated cases. We analyzed samples from 293 young children less than six years old with malaria in the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. It was observed that group O was present in about 16.1% of complicated cases weighed against 40.9% of uncomplicated controls. Individuals with complicated malaria were about twice likely to be of blood groups A and B compared to group O (A versus O, OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.59–2.26, P < 0.0001; B versus O, OR = 1.82. 95% CI = 1.57–2.23, P < 0.0001). Blood group O participants with complicated diseases had low parasitaemia compared to the other blood groups (P < 0.0001). This may give blood group O individuals a survival advantage over the other groups in complicated malaria as suggested. Participants with complicated falciparum malaria were generally anaemic and younger than those with uncomplicated disease. PMID:26981125

  15. Correlation Among Lip Print Pattern, Finger Print Pattern and Abo Blood Group

    PubMed Central

    N, Srilekha; A, Anuradha; Srinivas G, Vijay; Devi R, Sabitha

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To study correlation between lip print pattern, finger print pattern and ABO blood group. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 27 males and 27 females who were aged between 20–40 years. Lip prints, finger prints and ABO and Rh blood groups of each individual were recorded. Lip prints were classified, based on Suzuki’s and Tsuchihashi’s classification and finger prints were classified, based on Michael’s and Kucken’s classification. The results were statistically analyzed by using Chi–square test. Results: Complete vertical lip print, loop finger print pattern, O+ blood group were predominant among individual groups. O+ blood group-type I lip print combination, loop finger print pattern-type IV lip print pattern combination, O+ blood group-loop finger print pattern combination and both B+ blood group-loop finger print pattern- type IV lip print pattern combination and O+ blood group-loop finger print pattern-type I lip print pattern were predominant. Conclusion: Though lip prints, finger prints and blood groups had their own specificities, correlation of the three parameters did not show any significance. PMID:24783079

  16. Specificity and kinetics of norovirus binding to magnetic bead- conjugated histo-blood group antigens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) have been identified as candidate receptors for human norovirus (NOR). Type A, type H1, and Lewis histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in humans have been identified as major targets for NOR binding. Pig HBGA-conjugated magnetic beads have been utilized as a means ...

  17. Genetic polymorphism of blood groups and erythrocytes enzymes in population groups of the Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Efremovska, Lj; Schmidt, H D; Scheil, H G; Gjorgjevic, D; Nikoloska Dadic, E

    2007-12-01

    This study presents the results of an examination of 3 blood-group systems (ABO, Rhesus, and P1) and erythrocyte enzymes (ADA, AK, ALADH, PGD, SAHH, PGM1, PGM3, GPT, GOT, ACP, UMPK, ESD and GLO) in populations that reside in R. Macedonia. Four population samples from the Republic of Macedonia (129 Macedonians from Skopje, 98 Albanians from Skopje, 95 Aromanians from Krusevo, 102 Aromanians from Stip) were included in the study. A comparison of the obtained results with data from literature on other Balkan populations has been made. The results of the comparison of the studied alleles indicate relatively small genetic distances among the studied populations. The obtained dendrograms indicate a larger homogeneity in the large Balkan populations, and a manifest trend of separating the Aromanian population of the Stip region. A larger separation is characteristic in the Greek population of Thrace.

  18. Validation of a blood group genotyping method based on high-resolution melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tianxiang; Hong, Ying; Wang, Naihong; Fu, Xuemei; Zhou, Changhua

    2014-01-01

    The detection of polymorphism is the basis of blood group genotyping and phenotype prediction. Genotyping may be useful to determine blood groups when serologic results are unclear. The development and application of different methods for blood group genotyping may be needed as a substitute for blood group typing. The purpose of this study is to establish an approach for blood group genotyping based on a melting curve analysis of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using DNA extracted from whole blood, we developed and validated a DNA typing method for detecting DO*01/DO*02, DO*01/DI*02, LU*01/LU*02, and GYPB*03/GYBP*04 alleles using a melting curve analysis. All assays were confirmed with a commercial reagent containing sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP), and a cohort of the samples was confirmed with sequencing. Results for all blood groups were within the range of specificity and assay variability. Genotypes of 300 blood donors were fully consistent with PCR-SSP data. The obtained genotype distribution is in complete concordance with existing data for the Chinese population. There are several advantages for this approach of blood group genotyping: lower contamination rates with PCR products in this laboratory, ease of performance, automation potential, and rapid cycling time.

  19. Silencing and overexpression of human blood group antigens in transfusion: Paving the way for the next steps.

    PubMed

    Bagnis, Claude

    2015-05-01

    In the field of transfusion, controlling expression of blood group system antigens on the surface of RBCs has been envisioned as a major research objective for five decades. With the advent of gene transfer techniques in the 1980s, genetic manipulation acquired the tools and know-how necessary to propose this goal along with other strategies. Besides the use of gene transfer to study blood group antigens and to develop tools for transfusion purposes, since the beginning of the new millennium, technological advances in combination with the recognition of the clinical potential of gene transfer have led the transfusion domain into development of cell therapy approaches for therapeutic purposes based on genetic manipulation.

  20. Blood groups and histocompatibility antigens in habitual abortion.

    PubMed

    Carapella-de Luca, E; Purpura, M; Coghi, I; Nicotra, M; Bottini, E

    1980-01-01

    Forty-six couples with at least two consecutive abortions were examined. The morphological and the functional clinical check-ups were constantly negative. In all the couples a karyotype analysis was carried out including an investigation of C and/or G bands. The phenotypes of ABO, Rh, MNSs and HLA-systems were also determined. No significant difference was observed in the distribution of ABO phenotypes between males and females, or between subjects with abortions and controls. Regarding the Rh system, the most important findings are the absence of phenotypes with the E allele in double dose, the reduction of the frequency of the CCDee phenotype and the increase in the frequency of the ccDEe phenotype. Concerning MNSs system, an increase in the frequency of the phenotypes with the S allele in double dose is observed. Females with habitual abortions show a higher incidence of Bw35 as compared both to males and to the controls. No significant differences were observed for other antigens. The persistence of a genetic disequilibrium both in the Rh and the MNSs systems suggests that the selection might act against certain antigenic combinations, independently from the state of materno-foetal compatibility. Though preliminary, our data seem to give some support to this hypothesis. They also suggest that Bw35 antigen may be important in human reproduction.

  1. The Blood Group A Genotype Determines the Level of Expression of the Blood Group A on Platelets But Not the Anti-B Isotiter

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, Barbara; Eichelberger, Beate; Jungbauer, Christof; Panzer, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The extent of expression of the blood group A on platelets is controversial. Further, the relation between platelets' blood group A expression and the titers of isoagglutinins has not been thoroughly investigated, so far. Methods We evaluated the relation between the genotype with platelets' blood group A and H expression estimated by flow cytometry and the titers of isoagglutinins. Results The A expression varied between genotypes and within genotypes. However, the expression in A1 was stronger than in all other genotypes (p < 0.0001). An overlap of expression levels was apparent between homozygous A1A1 and heterozygous A1 individuals. Still, The A1A1 genotype is associated with a particularly high antigen expression (p = 0.009). Platelets' A expression in A2 versus blood group O donors was also significant (p = 0.007), but there was again an overlap of expression. The secretor status had only little influence on the expression (p = 0.18). Also, isoagglutinin titers were not associated with genotypes. Conclusion: To distinguish between A1 and A2 donors may reduce incompatible platelet transfusions and therefore be favorable on platelet transfusion increment. Clinical data are needed to support this notion. PMID:26733767

  2. The Purification of a Blood Group A Glycoprotein: An Affinity Chromatography Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estelrich, J.; Pouplana, R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a purification process through affinity chromatography necessary to obtain specific blood group glycoproteins from erythrocytic membranes. Discusses the preparation of erythrocytic membranes, extraction of glycoprotein from membranes, affinity chromatography purification, determination of glycoproteins, and results. (CW)

  3. Inhibition of proliferation of normal and transformed neural cells by blood group-related oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    A synthetic tetrasaccharide structurally related to blood groups and selectin ligands inhibited division of astrocytes, gliomas, and neuroblastomas at micromolar concentrations. The compound was cytostatic for primary astrocytes in culture, but cytotoxic for fast proliferating cell lines. PMID:1512552

  4. Association between ABO blood group and osteoporosis among postmenopausal women of North India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder

    2014-12-01

    The present study is an attempt to examine possible associations between ABO blood groups and the risk of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women of North India. This cross-sectional study involved 250 postmenopausal women from North India, ranging in age from 45 to 80 years. Four anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference), blood sample (ABO status and haemoglobin concentration) and grip strength (dominant as well as non-dominant hand) of all the participants were taken. Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated by using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at lumbar spine (L1-L4) and proximal femur. Analysis of data revealed that at lumbar spine (L1-L4) osteoporosis was more prevalent among individuals with blood group A (31.58%), followed by those with blood group B (29.67%), AB (28.57%) and then blood group O (15%), whereas for proximal femur individuals with blood group AB (21.43%) showed the highest prevalence of osteoporosis followed by a decreasing trend from blood group A (17.54%) to B (12.08%) and then O (5%). Total prevalence of osteoporosis was 26.4% in lumbar spine and 13.2% in proximal femur, indicating that lumbar spine had an elevated risk for osteoporosis among postmenopausal women. All the anthropometric variables, haemoglobin concentration as well as grip strength of individuals with blood group O demonstrated non-significant differences with non-O blood group except for weight and body mass index, where differences were statistically significant. Women with blood group O exhibited significantly higher bone mineral density for lumbar spine (0.90 g/cm(2) vs. 0.85 g/cm(2), p<0.05) and proximal femur (0.87 g/cm(2) vs. 0.79 g/cm(2), p<0.05) as compared to those with non-O blood group, thereby suggesting an increasing risk of osteoporosis among individuals with non-O blood group.

  5. ABO Blood Groups and Genetic Risk Factors for Thrombosis in Croatian Population

    PubMed Central

    Jukić, Irena; Bingulac-Popović, Jasna; Đogić, Vesna; Babić, Ivana; Culej, Jelena; Tomičić, Maja; Vuk, Tomislav; Šarlija, Dorotea; Balija, Melita

    2009-01-01

    Aim To assess the association between ABO blood group genotypes and genetic risk factors for thrombosis (FV Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutations) in the Croatian population and to determine whether genetic predisposition to thrombotic risk is higher in non-OO blood group genotypes than in OO blood group genotypes. Methods The study included 154 patients with thrombosis and 200 asymptomatic blood donors as a control group. Genotyping to 5 common alleles of ABO blood groups was performed by polymerase chain reaction with sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP). FV Leiden was determined by PCR-SSP, while prothrombin and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase were determined by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results There was an association between non-OO blood group genotypes and the risk of thrombosis (odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-3.27). The strongest association with thrombotic risk was recorded for A1B/A2B blood group genotypes (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.10-6.74), followed by BB/O1B/O2B (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.25-4.21) and O1A1/O2A1 (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.15-3.31). FV Leiden increased the risk of thrombosis 31-fold in the group of OO carriers and fourfold in the group of non-OO carriers. There was no significant difference in the risk of thrombosis between OO and non-OO blood groups associated with prothrombin mutation. Non-OO carriers positive for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase had a 5.7 times greater risk of thrombosis than that recorded in OO carriers negative for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Conclusion Study results confirmed the association of non-OO blood group genotypes with an increased risk of thrombosis in Croatia. PMID:20017223

  6. Association of ABO blood group with fracture pattern and mortality in hip fracture patients

    PubMed Central

    Smith, RP; Khan, A; Aghedo, D; Venkatesan, M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The mechanism of falling has been proposed as the exclusive explanation for hip fracture pattern. Evidence exists that other genetic factors also influence proximal femoral fracture configuration. The ABO blood group serotype has been associated with other pathologies but any role in hip fracture has yet to be definitively characterised. Methods Our National Hip Fracture Database was interrogated over a four-year period. All patients had their blood group retrieved, and this was compared with hip fracture pattern and mortality rates. Confounding factors were accounted for using logistic regression and the Cox proportional hazards model. Results A total of 2,987 consecutive patients presented to our institution. Those with blood group A were significantly more likely to sustain intracapsular fractures than ‘non-A’ individuals (p=0.009). The blood group distribution of patients with intracapsular fractures was identical to that of the national population of England. However, blood group A was less common in patients with intertrochanteric fractures than in the general population (p=0.0002). Even after correction for age and sex, blood group A was associated with a decrease in the odds of suffering an intertrochanteric fracture to 80% (p=0.002). Blood group A had inferior survivorship correcting for age, sex and hip fracture pattern (hazard ratio: 1.14, p=0.035). This may be due to associated increased prevalence of co-morbid disease in this cohort. Conclusions Blood group is an independent predictor of hip fracture pattern, with group A patients more likely to sustain an intracapsular fracture and non-A individuals more likely to sustain an intertrochanteric fracture. The determinants of fracture pattern are likely to be related to complex interactions at a molecular level based on genetic susceptibility. The mechanism of fall may not be the only aetiological determinant of proximal femoral fracture configuration. PMID:25198976

  7. Interaction of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli with lectins and blood group antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, K H; Skelton, S K; Feeley, J C

    1985-01-01

    Lectins and blood group antibodies were used to probe the surface structures of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Of the 29 strains tested, there were distinct reaction patterns. The lectin-reactive and blood group antibody-reactive sites on the bacterial surface were distinguishable from the heat-stable (lipopolysaccharide) antigenic determinants. The interactions were strain specific. The reactive sites were stable with respect to culture media and passage and may be useful as additional markers for strain characterization. PMID:2410445

  8. Comparison of Lip Print Patterns in Two Indian Subpopulations and Its Correlation in ABO Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    Suragimath, Girish; Sande, Abhijeet R; Kulkarni, Prasad; Nimbal, Anand; Shankar, T.; Gowd, T. Snigdha; Shetty, Prajwal K

    2014-01-01

    Background: The study of lip-print pattern (cheiloscopy) is a scientific method for personal identification and plays a major role in forensic and criminal investigations. Objective: To compare the lip print patterns in Kerala and Maharashtra population and correlate between ABO blood groups. Materials and Methods: Two hundred subjects, 100 from Maharashtra and 100 from Kerala were considered for the study. Lip prints were recorded, analyzed according to Tsuchihashi classification. The lip print patterns were compared in the two populations, correlated in ABO blood groups. The data obtained was statistically analyzed with SPSS software using chi-square test. Results: In our study, predominant lip print pattern observed in Kerala population was type IV (53%) and Maharashtra population was type II (42%). The difference between the two population was statistically significant (p<0.001). Subjects with A+ and O- blood groups had type II lip print predominance. Subjects with B+, AB+ and O+ blood groups had type IV predominance. The lip print patterns do not show any correlation in ABO blood groups. Conclusion: Lip prints are unique to each individual and are different even in two persons. Lip print patterns were different in the two sub populations studied, and they showed no correlation in ABO blood groups. PMID:25478445

  9. Re-Os Abundance and Isotope Systematics of Al-undepleted Komatiites in the Kidd-Munro Assemblage: Results From Dundonald Beach, Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, A.; Sproule, R. A.; Walker, R. J.; Lesher, C. M.

    2004-05-01

    Petrographic and geochemical studies suggest that all Precambrian komatiites have undergone variable degrees of weathering, hydrothermal alteration and metamorphism. The effects of these secondary processes in some suites have manifested into large-scale open-system behavior of Re-Os elemental and isotope systematics of whole rocks, which, in some cases, yield inaccurate age and large uncertainties in calculated initial Os isotopic compositions of the emplaced lavas. Thus, some of the previous Os isotopic studies of Precambrian komatiites for which the crystallization ages were known from other radiogenic isotope systematics (e.g., Sm-Nd, Pb-Pb) have relied on Os-rich, relatively well-preserved primary igneous minerals (e.g., olivine and chromite) in order to calculate the initial Os isotopic compositions of the host lavas. Consequently, the whole-rock concentrations of Re and Os in these altered komatiites can neither be used to infer their concentrations in the parental liquids nor their partitioning behaviors during generation and subsequent differentiation of komatiitic magmas. Here we report the Re-Os concentrations of whole rocks from a suite of ca. 2.7-Ga komatiitic rocks from the Dundonald Beach area, part of the Kidd-Munro volcanic assemblage in the Abitibi greenstone belt, Canada. We show that it is possible to calculate the original Re concentrations in the emplaced lavas, and to estimate the gain or loss of Re through comparison of their measured concentrations and those recalculated from their correlations with other incompatible, yet relatively immobile major oxide and trace elements (e.g., Al2O3, Zr, Hf, Yb). We also demonstrate the statistical significance of this scheme of correction with the reduced values of MSWD (by an order of magnitude) and respective uncertainties in slope (by 2-3 orders of magnitude) of regressions involving Re and the immobile elements. Based on the absence of a correlation between loss of Re and the Os isotopic

  10. [Distribution of ABO blood groups and incidence of Rh factor (D) in various ethnic groups in the Hindu Kush region (Kafirs, Kalash Chitrali)].

    PubMed

    Bernhard, W

    1980-02-01

    With the aid of Eldon cards the distribution of the ABO blood groups and of the Rh factor (D) was investigated in different native ethnic groups (Kafirs, Kalash, Chitrali) in the Hindu Kush region of Afghanistan and Pakistan. All studied groups are characterized by a relatively high frequency of blood group gene A and extremely low frequencies of B and O. This distribution differs appreciably from that of the rest of the Indian subcontinent as well as that of the adjacent Central Asiatic areas. The possible causes of the exceptional position of the native Hindu Kush groups in the ABO blood group system are discussed. It may be assumed that selection as a result of mother-child compatibility played a role as will be shown in a later paper. Concerning the studied traits of the Rhesus system, all investigated groups fit in the range of variation of the South Asian area. PMID:6773468

  11. The ABO and rhesus blood groups in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Viskum, K

    1975-12-01

    During the 3 year period 1970-1972 a total of 554 patients were notified for the first time as having bacillary or abacillary pulmonary tuberculosis in the Municipality of Copenhagen; 99 per cent of these patients were typed according to the ABO and rhesus system. The bacillary patients showed an excess of group O and AB and a deficit of A and B as compared to the general population. The deviations were statistically highly significant for group O and A. The distribution according to the rhesus system did not deviate from the expected pattern. The ABO and rhesus distribution of the abacillary patients did not differ significantly from the expected pattern. During a follow-up period of 2-5 years after the initial diagnosis 104 bacillary patients died; the ABO pattern among the survivors was now closer to the normal; this resulted from a high number of deaths from tuberculosis among patients of group O and a low number among those belonging to group A. More rhesus negative patients died from tuberculosis than rhesus positive. It is concluded that a study of the ABO and rhesus pattern among the tuberculosis patients becomes biased if a break-down by bacteriological findings and history is not made. It is also important that the study covers all patients who contract tuberculosis within a certain period, as the longevity of the patients is apparently to some extent dependent on their blood group.

  12. Relationship between ABO blood group and pregnancy complications: a systematic literature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Given the expression of ABO blood group antigens on the surface of a wide range of human cells and tissues, the putative interplay of the ABO system in human biology outside the area of transfusion and transplantation medicine constitutes an intriguing byway of research. Thanks to evidence accumulated over more than 50 years, the involvement of the ABO system in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cardiovascular, infectious and neoplastic disorders, is now acknowledged. However, there is controversial information on the potential association between ABO blood type and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and related disorders (eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and intrauterine growth restriction), venous thromboembolism, post-partum haemorrhage and gestational diabetes. To elucidate the role of ABO antigens in pregnancy-related complications, we performed a systematic review of the literature published in the past 50 years. A meta-analytical approach was also applied to the existing literature on the association between ABO status and pre-eclampsia. The results of this systematic review are presented and critically discussed, along with the possible pathogenic implications. PMID:27177402

  13. Effect of ABO blood group mismatching on corneal epithelial cells: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Chan, J.; Dua, H.; Powell-Richards, A.; Jones, D; Harris, I.

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To determine, in vitro, the effects of blood group ABO mismatching on corneal epithelial cells.
METHODS—Corneal epithelial cell cultures were established from 32 human cadaver donor eyes. Epithelial cells (100 µl of 4 × 102 cells per µl) were incubated for 4 hours with antibodies against blood group antigens A, B, and AB, with and without complement. Cell lysis was assayed by a chemiluminescent assay using Cytolite reagent. Live cells, remaining after incubation, were counted in a scintillation counter. The blood group of the donors was determined retrospectively, in a blinded manner.
RESULTS—Retrospective tracing of donor blood groups was possible for 20 donors. In all cases the blood group corresponded with that suggested by the cell lysis assay. Significant cell lysis was observed when known A group cells were incubated with anti-A and anti-AB antibody, B group cells were incubated with anti-B and AB antibody, and AB group cells were incubated with anti-AB antibody. Lysis occurred only in the presence of complement. No lysis of O group cells was observed with any of the antibodies. In all cases, lysis was observed only with neat (serum) antibody concentrations.
CONCLUSIONS—Blood group ABO mismatching results in significant lysis of corneal epithelial cells. The antibody concentration required for lysis equals that found in serum. Such levels of antibody are unlikely to be achieved in tears and/or aqueous. This may offer an explanation for the conflicting reports of the studies on the effect of blood group matching on corneal grafts. The variability in the outcome may reflect the levels of antibodies gaining access to the corneal cells and not the mismatching alone.

 PMID:11520765

  14. Relationship between ABO blood groups and carcinoma of esophagus and cardia in Chaoshan inhabitants of China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Min; Lu, Shan-Ming; Tian, Dong-Ping; Zhao, Hu; Xiao-YunLi; Li, De-Rui; Zheng, Zhi-Chao

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the relationship between ABO blood groups and carcinoma of esophagus and cardia in Chaoshan inhabitants of China, which is a unique Littoral high-risk area of esophageal carcinoma in China. The poor communication and transportation in the past has made Chaoshan a relatively closed area and kept its culture and custure of old China thousand years ago. METHODS: Data on age, sex, ABO blood type and X-ray or pathological diagnose of the patients with carcinoma of esophagus or cardia were collected from the Tumor Hospital. First Affiliated Hospital, Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College; and the Central Hospital of Shantou and the Central Hospital of Jieyang. A total of 6685 patients with esophageal carcinoma (EC) and 2955 patients with cardiac cancer (CC) in Chaoshan district were retrospectively assessed for their association with ABO blood groups. RESULTS: The distribution of ABO blood groups in patients with EC or CC was similar to the normal local population in Chaoshan. However, blood group B in male patients with CC and in the patients with carcinoma in the upper third esophagus was 2.3% and 4.7% higher than the corresponding controls. The relative risk B∶O was 1.1415 (P < 0.05) and 1.2696 (P < 0.05), respectively. No relationship was found between ABO blood groups and tumor differentiation. CONCLUSION: ABO blood group B is associated with the incidence of CC in male individuals and carcinoma in the upper third esophagus. The distribution of ABO blood groups varies in the different geographical and ethnic groups. As a result, proper controls are very important for such studies. PMID:11819849

  15. Automated readout of the BG-8 blood-grouping machine. Results of 10,000 blood group and 4,000 rhesus D factor determinations.

    PubMed

    Rechsteiner, J; Benjamin, C J

    1976-01-01

    An automated readout device recording light transmission in the eight channels of the BG-8, blood-grouping machine after removal of agglutinates is described. Using a continuous recording of positive or negative signals in the eight channels independently, 7.5% of 10,000 blood group determinations had to be retested because of clots in the samples, lacking reactions or excess reactions on the recorder. No incorrect recordings of blood groups were obtained, however. Using anti-D serum together with anti-CDE serum, the rhesus D factor was correctly detected in 99.92% of 3,891 samples, and the Du factor was detected in all 5 samples known to carry this antigen. Using a discontinuous recording of integrated and synchronised signals, adapted to fully automated data processing, another 5% of the samples had to be retested because of inadequate phasing of the reactions in the eight channels of the BQ-8. The results described are influenced by the poor quality of the blood samples used for the study.

  16. Blood groups and human groups: collecting and calibrating genetic data after World War Two.

    PubMed

    Bangham, Jenny

    2014-09-01

    Arthur Mourant's The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups (1954) was an "indispensable" reference book on the "anthropology of blood groups" containing a vast collection of human genetic data. It was based on the results of blood-grouping tests carried out on half-a-million people and drew together studies on diverse populations around the world: from rural communities, to religious exiles, to volunteer transfusion donors. This paper pieces together sequential stages in the production of a small fraction of the blood-group data in Mourant's book, to examine how he and his colleagues made genetic data from people. Using sources from several collecting projects, I follow how blood was encountered, how it was inscribed, and how it was turned into a laboratory resource. I trace Mourant's analytical and representational strategies to make blood groups both credibly 'genetic' and understood as relevant to human ancestry, race and history. In this story, 'populations' were not simply given, but were produced through public health, colonial and post-colonial institutions, and by the labour and expertise of subjects, assistants and mediators. Genetic data were not self-evidently 'biological', but were shaped by existing historical and geographical identities, by political relationships, and by notions of kinship and belonging.

  17. Isolation and purification of blood group antigens using immuno-affinity chromatography on short monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Mönster, Andrea; Hiller, Oliver; Grüger, Daniela; Blasczyk, Rainer; Kasper, Cornelia

    2011-02-01

    Monolithic columns have gained increasing attention as stationary phases for the separation of biomolecules and biopharmaceuticals. In the present work the performance of monolithic convective interaction media (CIM(®)) chromatography for the purification of blood group antigens was established. The proteins employed in this study are derived from blood group antigens Knops, JMH and Scianna, equipped both with a His-tag and with a V5-tag by which they can be purified. In a first step a monoclonal antibody directed against the V5-tag was immobilized on a CIM(®) Disk with epoxy chemistry. After this, the immobilized CIM(®) Disk was used in immuno-affinity chromatography to purify the three blood group antigens from cell culture supernatant. Up-scaling of the applied technology was carried out using CIM(®) Tubes. In comparison to conventional affinity chromatography, blood group antigens were also purified via His-tag using a HiTrap(®) metal-affinity column. The two purifications have been compared regarding purity, yield and purification speed. Using the monolithic support, it was possible to isolate the blood group antigens with a higher flow rate than using the conventional bed-packed column.

  18. Correlation of Lip Prints with Gender, ABO Blood Groups and Intercommissural Distance

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Pradhuman; Sachdeva, Suresh K; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Saharan, Swati; Sachdeva, Kompal

    2013-01-01

    Background: In forensics, the mouth allows for a myriad of possibilities. Lip print on glass or cigarette butt found at crime scenes may link to a suspect. Hence, a dentist has to actively play his role in personal identification and criminal investigation. Aims: To investigate the uniqueness of the lip print patterns in relation to gender, ABO blood groups and intercommissural distance (ICD). Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 208 randomly selected students. The lip print of each subject was obtained and pattern was analyzed according to Tsuchihashi classification. The blood group and ICD at rest position was recorded for each. Results: The study showed that Type II (branched) lip pattern to be most prominent. The B+ blood group was the most common in both genders and the ICD is higher in males. The lip print pattern does not show any correlation between ABO blood groups, gender, and ICD. Conclusions: The lip print pattern shows no correlation with gender, ABO blood groups, or ICD. Further studies with larger samples are required to obtain statistical significance of this correlation. PMID:24020053

  19. Further study of Rh, Kell, Duffy, P, MN, Lewis and Gerbiech blood groups of the Thais.

    PubMed

    Chandanayingyong, D; Bejrachandra, S; Metaseta, P; Pongsataporn, S

    1979-06-01

    Blood and saliva from unselected blood donors at the Blood Bank, Siriraj Hospital were studied. Two Kell positive, two Rh negative and one Gerbiech negative were found, which could be considered as rare blood type in Thailand. The commonest Rh gene complex was CDe (R11 and the presence of CDE (Rz) in this study are the usual pattern of people in Southeast Asia. Fya is very common as in other people of Asia. In the Lewis system, the incidence of Le (a + b -) was 28.48% which agree well with our previous report 30.9%. There were 410 out of 1,668, (23.17%) who were found to be Lea non-secretor and 95 of them have Lewis antibodies in their sera. Aberrant secretion patterns were also found in this study, 5 people were found to secrete A or B substances according to their blood groups but no H substance was detectable. Further investigation of Lewis groups and secretion in Thailand are needed.

  20. Comparison Between Conventional and Automated Techniques for Blood Grouping and Crossmatching: Experience from a Tertiary Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwat, Swarupa Nikhil; Sharma, Jayashree H; Jose, Julie; Modi, Charusmita J

    2015-01-01

    Context: The routine immunohematological tests can be performed by automated as well as manual techniques. These techniques have advantages and disadvantages inherent to them. Aims: The present study aims to compare the results of manual and automated techniques for blood grouping and crossmatching so as to validate the automated system effectively. Materials and Methods: A total of 1000 samples were subjected to blood grouping by the conventional tube technique (CTT) and the automated microplate LYRA system on Techno TwinStation. A total of 269 samples (multitransfused patients and multigravida females) were compared for 927 crossmatches by the CTT in indirect antiglobulin phase against the column agglutination technique (CAT) performed on Techno TwinStation. Results: For blood grouping, the study showed a concordance in results for 942/1000 samples (94.2%), discordance for 4/1000 (0.4%) samples and uninterpretable result for 54/1000 samples (5.4%). On resolution, the uninterpretable results reduced to 49/1000 samples (4.9%) with 951/1000 samples (95.1%) showing concordant results. For crossmatching, the automated CAT showed concordant results in 887/927 (95.6%) and discordant results in 3/927 (0.32%) crossmatches as compared to the CTT. Total 37/927 (3.9%) crossmatches were not interpretable by the automated technique. Conclusions: The automated system shows a high concordance of results with CTT and hence can be brought into routine use. However, the high proportion of uninterpretable results emphasizes on the fact that proper training and standardization are needed prior to its use. PMID:26417159

  1. The ABO blood grouping of a minute hair sample by the immunohistochemical technique.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, S; Yoshino, M; Sato, H; Miyake, B; Seta, S

    1987-01-01

    The unlabeled antibody (PAP) immunoperoxidase technique was applied to the ABO blood grouping of human scalp hairs. Hair samples were subjected to longitudinal- or cross-sectioning, thus obtaining suitable samples for subsequent immunostaining. The immunostaining was carried out using rabbit anti-A and anti-B sera as the primary antibodies. With this technique, the group-specific staining which is revealed as a dark brown precipitate was clearly observed within the medullae of the hair shaft, and depending on the presence or absence of these precipitates, respective blood groups of unknown hair samples were determined. At the hair root, on the other hand, positive stainings were observed not only in medullary cells but also in some cortical cells of the keratogenous zone. From the present study, it can be safely said that this technique is of practical use for the ABO blood grouping from a minute (less than 3 mm) hair sample.

  2. Molecular basis for H blood group deficiency in Bombay (Oh) and para-Bombay individuals.

    PubMed

    Kelly, R J; Ernst, L K; Larsen, R D; Bryant, J G; Robinson, J S; Lowe, J B

    1994-06-21

    The penultimate step in the biosynthesis of the human ABO blood group oligosaccharide antigens is catalyzed by alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase(s) (GDP-L-fucose: beta-D-galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.69), whose expression is determined by the H and Secretor (SE) blood group loci (also known as FUT1 and FUT2, respectively). These enzymes construct Fuc alpha 1-->2Gal beta-linkages, known as H determinants, which are essential precursors to the A and B antigens. Erythrocytes from individuals with the rare Bombay and para-Bombay blood group phenotypes are deficient in H determinants, and thus A and B determinants, as a consequence of apparent homozygosity for null alleles at the H locus. We report a molecular analysis of a human alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene, thought to correspond to the H blood group locus, in a Bombay pedigree and a para-Bombay pedigree. We find inactivating point mutations in the coding regions of both alleles of this gene in each H-deficient individual. These results define the molecular basis for H blood group antigen deficiency in Bombay and para-Bombay phenotypes, provide compelling evidence that this gene represents the human H blood group locus, and strongly support a hypothesis that the H and SE loci represent distinct alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase genes. Candidate sequences for the human SE locus are identified by low-stringency Southern blot hybridization analyses, using a probe derived from the H alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene.

  3. [Analysis of the association of ABO blood groups and Rhesus factor with myasthenia].

    PubMed

    Gekht, B M; Agafonov, B V; Tsuman, V G; Shagal, D I; Sidorova, O P; Nalivkin, A E

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of ABO blood groups and rhesus factor was studied in patients with myasthenia as compared with the control. There was a statistically significant association of the diseases with the rhesus-negative phenotype and that of generalized myasthenia concurrent with thymoma with the B (III) blood group. The examination revealed no other determinants of the significant association with the disease. The values of a disease risk were obtained for persons having myasthenia-associated signs. It is concluded that the Rh-negative phenotype shows a 1.3-fold increase in the risk of the disease as compared with those having Rh-positive persons.

  4. Immunochemical studies on blood groups LXII. Fractionation of hog and human A, H, and AH blood group active substance on insoluble immunoadsorbents of Dolichos and Lotus lectins.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M E; Kabat, E A

    1976-02-01

    The purified lectins from Lotus tetragonolobus and Dolichos biflorus were coupled to Sepharose 2B to make insoluble adsorbents for purification and fractionation of blood group A and H active glycoproteins. With both adsorbents, hog gastric mucin A + H blood substance (HGM), purified by phenol-ethanol precipitation, yielded fractions showing only A, only H, or AH activities. The AH fraction was obtained when the adsorbent column was overloaded with HGM and its A and H specificities seem to be carried on the same molecules since they were not separable by chromatography on either column. However A and H specificities of blood group substance from the stomach of a presumably heterozygous individual hog were both on the same molecules as they too could not be fractionated on either column. Analytical properties of the isolated fractions were generally similar to those of the unfractionated material, the purfied A substances had a higher galactosamine/fucose ratio than did the H substances. Although the original A + H showed very little specific optical rotation, the separated A and H substances rotated positively and negatively, respectively. The lectin-Sepharose adsorbents have also proven useful in isolating A or H substances directly from the crude commercial hog gastric mucin. Blood group A2 substance from a human ovarian cyst yielded two fractions on the Lotus-Sepharose column; the effluent did not interact with the Lotus lectin but precipitated the Ulex and Dolichos lectins and anti-A, and appears to contain type 1 H determinants. The other fraction reacted with Lotus and Ulex lectin as well as with Dolichos and anti-A.

  5. The role of ABO blood groups in Crohn’s disease and in monitoring response to infliximab treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qiao; Wang, Lingyun; Zhang, Shenghong; Feng, Ting; Li, Li; Chen, Baili; Chen, Minhu

    2016-01-01

    Background The variation in ABO blood groups is reported to be associated with multiple diseases. Infliximab (IFX) has been widely used in the treatment of Crohn’s disease (CD). We aim to investigate the distribution of ABO blood groups in Chinese patients with CD and to explore its impact on response to IFX. Materials and methods Patients with CD were consecutively recruited to the study between 2007 and 2014. CD patients receiving IFX therapy were followed for at least two years. Results In 293 patients with CD, most patients (40.6%) had blood type O (119/293). The odds ratio (OR) of CD in blood type O patients was 1.06 (95%CI: 0.6–1.86; p=0.84) compared to all other blood types. Among those CD patients, 107 patients received IFX treatment. One year after the first course of IFX, a significant association was found between the overall ABO system and outcomes of IFX treatment (p<0.001). CD patients with blood type AB (OR=4.42, 95% CI: 1.04–18.76; p=0.044) were more likely to achieve mucosal healing, while CD patients with blood type A had a high risk of losing response (OR=0.38, 95% CI: 0.15–0.96; p=0.040). Discussion ABO blood groups are not associated with prevalence of CD. Patients with blood type AB had a better response to IFX while those with blood type A appeared to have a risk of losing response to IFX. PMID:27136434

  6. THE HISTOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE BLOOD GROUP SUBSTANCES IN MAN AS DISCLOSED BY IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE

    PubMed Central

    Szulman, Aron E.

    1962-01-01

    The H antigen was mapped out by immunofluorescence in human tissues (including those of fetuses from 15 cm crown-heel length) from individuals of the various groups within the ABO system, both secretors and non-secretors. The distribution of the antigen can be summarized under the following headings: Cell walls of endothelium: present throughout the cardiovascular system; Cell walls of stratified epithelia: in skin, non-cornifying squamous stratified membranes, transitional epithelia; Mucus: occurring wherever the latter is produced in secretor individuals and confined to a few special topographical areas in non-secretors; Secretions and excretions: the pancreatic and sudoriferous (independent of secretor status), and mammary and uterine (governed by the secretor makeup) all contain it. The distribution of the H antigen is most fully represented in tissues of group O. It follows an over-all universal pattern, characteristically modified in non-secretors, equally valid for antigens A and B described in a preceding study. Within this pattern, in tissues of the non-O groups, the complement of the H substance in its various forms wanes in a manner consistent with the hypothesis that it serves as a substrate for the A1, A2, B genes, exerting their action with different degrees of efficiency. The secretor:non-secretor phenomena can be most simply interpreted by viewing the non-secretor, recessive gene (in the homozygous, ss condition) as inhibiting the production of some of the water-soluble forms of the blood group substances. Since the gene was never found responsible for dissociation of the H and A, B antigens its inhibitory action is thought to be wrought at the point of formation of the basic H substance or its precursor. PMID:19867211

  7. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr dating of an Archean massive sulfide deposit: Kidd Creek, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Maas, R.; McCulloch, M.T.; Campbell, I.H.; Coad, P.R.

    1986-07-01

    Highly altered felsic metavolcanics associated with the Kidd Creek, Ontario, Cu-Zn massive sulfide deposit show a large range of Sm/Nd ratios and yield a Sm-Nd isochron of 2674 +/- 40 Ma (initial ratio epsilon/sub Nd/ = 1.55 +/- 0.30), which represents the time of rare-earth-element redistribution during intense hydrothermal alteration. That the Sm-Nd age is consistent with age constraints on ore deposition provided by precise U-Pb zircon data indicates contemporaneity of ore deposition, hydrothermal alteration, and rare-earth mobility. The age is therefore interpreted as a minimum age of ore deposition. In contrast, the Rb-Sr age of the altered rocks, as well as the metavolcanic rocks outside the alteration zone, has been reset at 2576 +/- 26 Ma, most likely as a result of widespread low-temperature metasomatism unrelated to ore deposition. The results suggest that Sm-Nd dating could be a useful tool in the study of ore deposits and, potentially, in the study of a wide range of mineralizations. Initial epsilon/sub Nd/(T) values for massive ore, altered felsic volcanics, and their weakly altered precursors are identical, indicating derivation and redistribution of light-rare-earth elements within the altered footwall volcanics. These data suggest that the footwall volcanics have also supplied part of the base metals to the stratiform ore.

  8. [Heart surgery in a female patient with blood group Oh (Bombay phenotype)].

    PubMed

    Schricker, K T; Neidhardt, B; Hacker, R; Kail, R

    1983-01-14

    A 62-year-old woman with stenosing coronary artery disease had the rare blood group Oh (Bombay phenotype). After prophylactic deep-freeze conservation of autologous blood, direct myocardial revascularization was successfully accomplished under extracorporeal circulation. Three deep-freeze units of erythrocyte concentrates were used. Both operation and postoperative wound healing progressed without complication.

  9. [Karl Landsteiner (1868–1943) and the discovery of blood groups].

    PubMed

    Aymard, J-P

    2012-11-01

    Karl Landsteiner, a Viennese M.D. and pathologist, discovered in the years 1900–1901 the first human blood groups, ABO groups. Furthermore, he made numerous significant contributions to various fields of the biomedical science. In this paper I report on his life and work in Vienna, The Hague and New York.

  10. The relationship between juvenile and non-juvenile periodontitis, ABO blood groups and haemoglobin types.

    PubMed

    Arowojolu, M O; Dosmu, E B; Adingbola, T S

    2002-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between juvenile and non-juvenile peridontitis (JP, non-JP), ABO blood groups and haemoglobin type. The heamoglobin electrophoresis was determined by routine technique using cellulose acetate paper and tris buffer at pH 8.5. Tile blood grouping was carried out on all specimens. Forty Nigerian adolescent individuals were investigated, twenty of which were diagnosed as having JP while the remaining 20 were diagnosed a having plaque-induced chronic periodontitis (non JP). This latter group was used as the control group. All the JP patients were either of blood group B/AB, rhesus positive while the non-JP subjects had B rhesus positive/negative, O rhesus positive/negative or AB rhesus positive. The differences between the results of the test and the control groups were statistically significant P < 0.05. All the forty subjects (JP and non-JP) had the haemoglobin type A and none of them exhibited the S and C haemoglobin types. There is a need to further investigate the relationship between juvenile periodontitis, ABO blood group and the common haemoglobin types (A, AS, S, C, and SS) at molecular level.

  11. Blood groups and human groups: Collecting and calibrating genetic data after World War Two

    PubMed Central

    Bangham, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Arthur Mourant's The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups (1954) was an “indispensable” reference book on the “anthropology of blood groups” containing a vast collection of human genetic data. It was based on the results of blood-grouping tests carried out on half-a-million people and drew together studies on diverse populations around the world: from rural communities, to religious exiles, to volunteer transfusion donors. This paper pieces together sequential stages in the production of a small fraction of the blood-group data in Mourant's book, to examine how he and his colleagues made genetic data from people. Using sources from several collecting projects, I follow how blood was encountered, how it was inscribed, and how it was turned into a laboratory resource. I trace Mourant's analytical and representational strategies to make blood groups both credibly ‘genetic’ and understood as relevant to human ancestry, race and history. In this story, ‘populations’ were not simply given, but were produced through public health, colonial and post-colonial institutions, and by the labour and expertise of subjects, assistants and mediators. Genetic data were not self-evidently ‘biological’, but were shaped by existing historical and geographical identities, by political relationships, and by notions of kinship and belonging. PMID:25066898

  12. Phenotypic and allelic distribution of the ABO and Rhesus (D) blood groups in the Cameroonian population.

    PubMed

    Ndoula, S T; Noubiap, J J N; Nansseu, J R N; Wonkam, A

    2014-06-01

    Data on blood group phenotypes are important for blood transfusion programs, for disease association and population genetics studies. This study aimed at reporting the phenotypic and allelic distribution of ABO and Rhesus (Rh) groups in various ethnolinguistic groups in the Cameroonians. We obtained ABO and Rhesus blood groups and self-identified ethnicity from 14,546 Cameroonian students. Ethnicity was classified in seven major ethnolinguistic groups: Afro-Asiatic, Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Kordofanian/West Atlantic, Niger-Kordofanian/Adamawa-Ubangui, Niger-Kordofanian/Benue-Congo/Bantu/Grassfield, Niger-Kordofanian/Benue-Congo/Bantu/Mbam and Niger-Kordofanian/Benue-Congo/Bantu/Equatorial. ABO allelic frequencies were determined using the Bernstein method. Differences in phenotypic distribution of blood groups were assessed using the chi-square test; a P value <0.05 being considered as statistically significant. The frequencies of the antigens of blood groups O, A, B and AB were 48.62%, 25.07%, 21.86% and 4.45%, respectively. Rhesus-positive was 96.32%. The allelic frequencies of O, A and B genes were 0.6978, 0.1605 and 0.1416, respectively. Phenotypic frequencies of the blood groups in the general study population and in the different ethnolinguistic groups were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations (P > 0.05). The frequencies of O, A, and B blood phenotypes were significantly lower, respectively, in the Nilo-Saharan group (P = 0.009), the Niger-Kordofanian/Benue-Congo/Bantu groups (P = 0.021) and the Niger-Kordofanian/West-Atlantic group. AB blood group was most frequent in the Niger-Kordofanian/Adamawa-Ubangui group (P = 0.024). Our study provides the first data on ethnic distribution of ABO and Rhesus blood groups in the Cameroonian population and suggests that its general profile is similar to those of several sub-Saharan African populations. We found some significant differences in phenotypic distribution amongst major ethnolinguistic groups

  13. Distribution of A1A2BO and Rho (D) blood groups in tribal populations of Andhra Pradesh, South India.

    PubMed

    Goud, J D; Rao, P R

    1979-06-01

    The paper reports the distribution of A1A2BO and Rho (D) blood groups among five tribal populations, Koya Dora, Raj Gond, Naikpod, Pardhan and Lambadi from three districts of Andhra Pradesh, South India. Blood samples from a total of 1090 unrelated individuals were tested. Koya Doras were, however, sampled from five distant localities to find out intratribal variation, if any. In A1A2BO blood group system the combined frequencies of "P1" and "P2" among the five Koya Groups always exceeded the frequency of "q", a characteristic feature of many tribal populations of Andhra Pradesh. However, among Raj Gond, Naikpod, Pardhan and Lambadi tribes the frequency of "q" is higher than "p" with the maximum in Pardhans. The frequency of "r" is always higher than the combined frequencies of "p1" and "p2" except in Raj Gonds. The higher frequency of "q" over "p" among Naikpod, Pardhan and Lambadi tribes is indicative of a tendency towards the distribution pattern found in North India. A few Rh negative persons were detected only in Koya Dora, Raj Gond and Lambadis indicating that the allele r (cde) is present in these populations, although in a low frequency.

  14. ABO blood groups in the primate species of Cebidae from the Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Corvelo, T C O; Schneider, H; Harada, M L

    2002-06-01

    The ABO blood groups were determined in blood and saliva collected from 40 Aotus infulatus, 74 Saimiri sciureus, and 96 Cebus apella from the Amazonian region along the Tocantins river. Saliva samples were tested for human ABH antigens by a standard hemagglutination inhibition test. Aotus infulatus showed monomorphism, exhibiting only the B blood group. Saimiri sciureus exhibited the A (67) and AB (7) phenotypes. All four phenotypes have been found in C. apella: O (8), A (52), B (19) and AB (17). The observed distribution was as expected assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The titers of ABH substances varied among the species and phenotypes. The B-like agglutinogen, common to all New World monkey species tested, was detected in the red blood cells. Sera were used to detect naturally occurring antibodies and the results showed discrepancies between serum and saliva phenotypes in all species studied. PMID:12190854

  15. Emergency dilatation and curettage in a patient with Bombay blood group.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad Asghar; Sohaib, Muhammad

    2014-08-01

    Bombay blood group is a rare autosomal recessive phenotype within the ABO blood group. It represents genetically suppressed A, B and H genes. When considering such patients for transfusion, only blood of identical Bombay type can be safely transfused. We are reporting a patient having Bombay phenotypic blood, underwent emergency dilatation and curettage with active per vaginal bleeding due to retained products of placenta. There are numerous anaesthetic considerations, including emergency surgery with hemodynamic instability due to ongoing blood loss, dilutional coagulopathy as well as presence of Bombay phenotype that severely limit the possibility of red blood cell transfusion. Only four donors were registered with the blood bank of the institution and none was traceable. It becomes a real challenge for the anesthesiologist to manage such type of patients without having units of red packed cell which management is described hereby.

  16. Prognostic value of Rhesus blood groups in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Bryne, M; Thrane, P S; Lilleng, R; Dabelsteen, E

    1991-11-15

    In the current study of the prognosis of all patients (N equals 70) with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of floor of mouth in Norway during the period 1963 to 1972, the authors found that patients with Rhesus (Rh) (D)-negative blood group had significantly poorer prognosis (mean 5-year survival, 8%) than patients with Rh (D)-positive blood group (5-year survival, 30%) (P equals 0.04). This extends the authors' previous observations in another group of oral cancer patients. The authors do not know the explanation for this association. However, the Rh gene locus is located on the short arm of chromosome 1 which reportedly has shown rearrangements in some head and neck SCC and other human neoplasms. The authors therefore speculate that the Rh gene locus may be linked with chromosome 1 changes of importance for the progression of oral SCC.

  17. Blood Group Typing: From Classical Strategies to the Application of Synthetic Antibodies Generated by Molecular Imprinting.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Adnan; Dickert, Franz L

    2015-01-01

    Blood transfusion requires a mandatory cross-match test to examine the compatibility between donor and recipient blood groups. Generally, in all cross-match tests, a specific chemical reaction of antibodies with erythrocyte antigens is carried out to monitor agglutination. Since the visual inspection is no longer useful for obtaining precise quantitative information, therefore there is a wide variety of different technologies reported in the literature to recognize the agglutination reactions. Despite the classical methods, modern biosensors and molecular blood typing strategies have also been considered for straightforward, accurate and precise analysis. The interfacial part of a typical sensor device could range from natural antibodies to synthetic receptor materials, as designed by molecular imprinting and which is suitably integrated with the transducer surface. Herein, we present a comprehensive overview of some selected strategies extending from traditional practices to modern procedures in blood group typing, thus to highlight the most promising approach among emerging technologies. PMID:26729127

  18. Rh D blood group conversion using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyun O; Baek, Eun J; Kurita, Ryo; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Nakamura, Yukio; Kim, Hyongbum

    2015-06-16

    Group O D-negative blood cells are universal donors in transfusion medicine and methods for converting other blood groups into this universal donor group have been researched. However, conversion of D-positive cells into D-negative is yet to be achieved, although conversion of group A or B cells into O cells has been reported. The Rh D blood group is determined by the RHD gene, which encodes a 12-transmembrane domain protein. Here we convert Rh D-positive erythroid progenitor cells into D-negative cells using RHD-targeting transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). After transfection of TALEN-encoding plasmids, RHD-knockout clones are obtained. Erythroid-lineage cells differentiated from these knockout erythroid progenitor cells do not agglutinate in the presence of anti-D reagents and do not express D antigen, as assessed using flow cytometry. Our programmable nuclease-induced blood group conversion opens new avenues for compatible donor cell generation in transfusion medicine.

  19. No Distinction of Orthology/Paralogy between Human and Chimpanzee Rh Blood Group Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kitano, Takashi; Kim, Choong-Gon; Blancher, Antoine; Saitou, Naruya

    2016-01-01

    On human (Homo sapiens) chromosome 1, there is a tandem duplication encompassing Rh blood group genes (Hosa_RHD and Hosa_RHCE). This duplication occurred in the common ancestor of humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and gorillas, after splitting from their common ancestor with orangutans. Although several studies have been conducted on ape Rh blood group genes, the clear genome structures of the gene clusters remain unknown. Here, we determined the genome structure of the gene cluster of chimpanzee Rh genes by sequencing five BAC (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) clones derived from chimpanzees. We characterized three complete loci (Patr_RHα, Patr_RHβ, and Patr_RHγ). In the Patr_RHβ locus, a short version of the gene, which lacked the middle part containing exons 4–8, was observed. The Patr_RHα and Patr_RHβ genes were located on the locations corresponding to Hosa_RHD and Hosa_RHCE, respectively, and Patr_RHγ was in the immediate vicinity of Patr_RHβ. Sequence comparisons revealed high sequence similarity between Patr_RHβ and Hosa_RHCE, while the chimpanzee Rh gene closest to Hosa_RHD was not Patr_RHα but rather Patr_RHγ. The results suggest that rearrangements and gene conversions frequently occurred between these genes and that the classic orthology/paralogy dichotomy no longer holds between human and chimpanzee Rh blood group genes. PMID:26872772

  20. Distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups in patients with HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sezik, M; Toyran, H; Yapar, E G

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the relationship between HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) syndrome and the maternal blood groups. Five hundred and forty-seven women with severe preeclampsia were included and divided into eight groups according to their blood groups: A Rh-positive (n=203), A Rh-negative (n=38), B Rh-positive (n=83), B Rh-negative (n=10), 0 Rh-positive (n=148), 0 Rh-negative (n=21), AB Rh-positive (n=39), and AB Rh-negative (n=5). The groups were controlled by analysis of variance and found to be homogeneous with respect to parity, gestational age, blood pressure, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet values, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, uric acid, and proteinuria. Incidence of HELLP syndrome was 24% in the overall study population whereas 48% of the patients with the blood group O Rh-negative had HELLP syndrome associated with an increase in risk by a factor of 3.1. To our knowledge this is the first report of such an association.

  1. Binding of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus to Antigens of the ABH Histo-Blood Group Family

    PubMed Central

    Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Ganière, Jean Pierre; André-Fontaine, Geneviève; Blanchard, Dominique; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2000-01-01

    The ability of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus to agglutinate human erythrocytes and to attach to rabbit epithelial cells of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts was shown to depend on the presence of ABH blood group antigens. Indeed, agglutination was inhibited by saliva from secretor individuals but not from nonsecretors, the latter being devoid of H antigen. In addition, erythrocytes of the rare Bombay phenotype, which completely lack ABH antigens, were not agglutinated. Native viral particles from extracts of infected rabbit liver as well as virus-like particles from the recombinant virus capsid protein specifically bound to synthetic A and H type 2 blood group oligosaccharides. Both types of particles could attach to adult rabbit epithelial cells of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts. This binding paralleled that of anti-H type 2 blood group reagents and was inhibited by the H type 2-specific lectin UEA-I and polyacrylamide-conjugated H type 2 trisaccharide. Young rabbit tissues were almost devoid of A and H type 2 antigens, and only very weak binding of virus particles could be obtained on these tissues. PMID:11090195

  2. The ABO Blood Group is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients With Resected Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fukumoto, Koichi; Taniguchi, Tetsuo; Usami, Noriyasu; Kawaguchi, Koji; Fukui, Takayuki; Ishiguro, Futoshi; Nakamura, Shota; Yokoi, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    Background The ABO blood group is reported to be associated with the incidence and patient survival for several types of malignancies. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the prognostic significance of the ABO blood group in patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods A total of 333 patients (218 men and 115 women) with resected NSCLC were included in this study. In addition to age, sex, smoking status, preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, operative procedure, histology of tumors, pathological stage (p-stage), and adjuvant therapy, the association between the ABO blood group and survival was explored. Results The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 83.0% and 71.6% for blood group O, 67.2% and 62.3% for blood group A, 68.8% and 68.8% for blood group B and 69.2% and 65.3% for blood group AB, respectively. A multivariate analysis for overall survival showed the ABO blood group (group A vs. group O: HR 2.47, group AB vs. group O: HR 3.62) to be an independent significant prognostic factor, in addition to age, sex, smoking status, p-stage, and serum CEA level. A multivariate analysis for disease-free survival also showed the ABO blood group to be an independent significant prognostic factor. Conclusions The ABO blood group is an independent prognostic factor in patients with resected NSCLC. Studies of other larger cohorts are therefore needed to confirm the relationship between the ABO blood group and the prognosis among patients with resected NSCLC. PMID:25483106

  3. Norwalk Virus-Like Particle Hemagglutination by Binding to H Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, Anne M.; Atmar, Robert L.; Marcus, Donald M.; Estes, Mary K.

    2003-01-01

    Noroviruses are a major cause of epidemic acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Here we report our discovery that recombinant Norwalk virus virus-like particles (rNV VLPs) agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs). Since histo-blood group antigens are expressed on gut mucosa as well as RBCs, we used rNV VLP hemagglutination (HA) as a model system for studying NV attachment to cells in order to help identify a potential NV receptor(s). rNV VLP HA is dependent on low temperature (4°C) and acidic pH. Of the 13 species of RBCs tested, rNV VLPs hemagglutinated only chimpanzee and human RBCs. The rNV VLPs hemagglutinated all human type O (11 of 11), A (9 of 9), and AB (4 of 4) RBCs; however, few human type B RBC samples (4 of 14) were hemagglutinated. HA with periodate- and neuraminidase-treated RBCs indicated that rNV VLP binding was carbohydrate dependent and did not require sialic acid. The rNV VLPs did not hemagglutinate Bombay RBCs (zero of seven) that lack H type 2 antigen, and an anti-H type 2 antibody inhibited rNV VLP HA of human type O RBCs. These data indicated that the H type 2 antigen functions as the rNV VLP HA receptor on human type O RBCs. The rNV VLP HA was also inhibited by rNV VLP-specific monoclonal antibody 8812, an antibody that inhibits VLP binding to Caco-2 cells. Convalescent-phase sera from NV-infected individuals showed increased rNV VLP HA inhibition titers compared to prechallenge sera. In carbohydrate binding assays, the rNV VLPs bound to synthetic Lewis d (Led), Leb, H type 2, and Ley antigens, and these antigens also inhibited rNV VLP HA of human type O RBCs. Overall, our results indicate that carbohydrate antigens in the gut are a previously unrecognized factor in NV pathogenesis. PMID:12477845

  4. [Changes of the thymus gland in patients operated for myasthenia in dependence on the blood grouping and Rh-factor].

    PubMed

    Peliukhovskiĭ, S V

    2006-02-01

    In 1974-2001 yrs there were examined 250 patients with various forms of myasthenia, of them in 95 (38%) the dependence of thymus gland changes from the blood grouping and Rh-factor presence was studied. The blood group in 39 (41%) of patients was A (II) Rh+ and in 22% - 0 (I).

  5. Toxoplasmosis-Associated Difference in Intelligence and Personality in Men Depends on Their Rhesus Blood Group but Not ABO Blood Group

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Preiss, Marek; Klose, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii influences the behaviour of infected animals and probably also personality of infected humans. Subjects with a Rhesus-positive blood group are protected against certain behavioural effects associated with Toxoplasma infection, including the deterioration of reaction times and personality factor shift. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we searched for differences in the toxoplasmosis-associated effects between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by testing 502 soldiers with two personality tests and two intelligence tests. The infected subjects expressed lower levels of all potentially pathognomic factors measured with the N-70 questionnaire and in neurasthenia measured with NEO-PI-R. The RhD-positive, Toxoplasma-infected subjects expressed lower while RhD-negative, Toxoplasma-infected subjects expressed higher intelligence than their Toxoplasma-free peers. The observed Toxoplasma-associated differences were always larger in RhD-negative than in RhD-positive subjects. Conclusions RhD phenotype plays an important role in the strength and direction of association between latent toxoplasmosis and not only psychomotor performance, but also personality and intelligence. PMID:23593448

  6. The occurrence of blood group substances (A, B, H, Le-a, Le-b) in salivary glands and salivary gland tumors. An immunohistochemical investigation.

    PubMed

    Hamper, K; Caselitz, J; Seifert, G; Seitz, R; Poschmann, A

    1986-07-01

    The distribution of blood group substances A, B, H, Le-a and Le-b in normal and neoplastic salivary gland tissue was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry. The serological ABH blood group status of one third of the patients was known. Lewis blood group and secretory status were not known. In normal tissue, expression of blood group antigens corresponded to the serological blood group. Blood group substance H was present in almost every gland, regardless of the serological blood group. In submandibular glands, Le-b was rather selective for mucous acini. In tumors, a relationship of blood group expression to a glandular pattern and a high differentiation could be observed. Blood group substances were expressed at a high level in benign and highly differentiated malignant tumors. In poorly differentiated malignant tumors, they were mostly absent. Blood group expression evaluation could be of value in establishing the level of functional differentiation in salivary gland tumors.

  7. Bombay blood group: Is prevalence decreasing with urbanization and the decreasing rate of consanguineous marriage

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Sujata; Kotasthane, Dhananjay S.; Chowdhury, Puskar S.; Sarkar, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Context: Bombay blood group although rare is found to be more prevalent in the Western and Southern states of India, believed to be associated with consanguineous marriage. Aims: To estimate the prevalence of the Bombay blood group (Oh) in the urban population of Puducherry. To find the effect of urbanization on consanguineous marriage and to establish whether consanguinity plays a part in the prevalence of Oh group. To compare Oh group prevalence with that of other neighboring states, where population is not predominantly urban. Settings and Design: This is a descriptive study in a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry, over a period of 6 years. Materials and Methods: All blood samples showing ‘O’ group were tested with anti-H lectin. Specialized tests like Adsorption Elution Technique, inhibition assay for determination of secretor status were performed on Oh positive cases. Any history of consanguineous marriage was recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: All variables were categorical variable and percentage and proportions were calculated manually. Results: Analysis of the results of 35,497 study subjects showed that the most common group was ‘O’ group constituting 14,164 (39.90%) of subjects. Only three “Oh” that is, Bombay phenotype (0.008%) were detected. Consanguinity was observed in two cases (66.66%). Conclusions: This study shows the prevalence of Bombay blood group representing the urban population of Puducherry, to be high (0.008%) and associated with consanguineous marriage (66.66%). Thus, consanguinity is still an important risk factor present, even in an urban population in Southern India. PMID:26420929

  8. Maternal ABO and rhesus blood group phenotypes and hepatitis B surface antigen carriage.

    PubMed

    Lao, T T; Sahota, D S; Chung, M-K; Cheung, T K W; Cheng, Y K Y; Leung, T Y

    2014-11-01

    In view of a persistently high prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriage in our obstetric population, we examined the association between HBsAg carriage with maternal ABO and rhesus (Rh) blood group phenotypes determined at routine antenatal screening. In a retrospective study, the antenatal screening results of women booked for confinement between 1998 and 2011 in our hospital were examined for the relationship between HBsAg carriage with the ABO and rhesus blood groups, taking into account also the effects of advanced maternal age (≥ 35 years) and parity status (nulliparous or multiparous), and year of birth before or following the availability of the hepatitis B vaccine (1984). HBsAg carriage was found in 9.9%, 9.6%, 9.1% and 10.2% (P = 0.037) for group-A (n = 20 581 or 26.1%), -B (n = 20 744 or 26.4%), -AB (n = 5138 or 6.5%) and -O (n = 32 242 or 41.0%) among the 78705 women in the study cohort. Rhesus negativity was found in 0.6%, and HBsAg carriage was 12.3% and 9.8%, respectively, for the Rh-negative and Rh-positive women (P = 0.071). Carriage rate between group-O and non-O was influenced by nulliparity, age ≥ 35 years and Rh-positive status. Regression analysis indicated that group-B (P = 0.044, aOR = 1.062, 95% CI 1.002-1.127) and group-AB (P = 0.016, aOR = 1.134, 95% CI 1.024-1.256) were associated with HBsAg carriage. Blood groups-B and -AB are associated with increased hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in our population, and further studies are warranted to elucidate the implications of this on the sequelae of HBV infection.

  9. Isolation of a very high molecular weight polylactosamine from an ovarian cyst mucin of blood group

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, A.S.S.; Bush, C.A.

    1986-05-01

    Treatment of a blood group A active ovarian cyst mucin glycoprotein with alkaline borohydride under conditions expected to cleave-O-glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains releases a polysaccharide of average molecular weight 25,000 daltons. It contains no peptide or mannose at the 1% level and carbohydrate analysis gives fuc:galNAc:gal:glcNAc in the ratio of 1:1:2.5:2.5. The /sup 13/C and /sup 1/H NMR spectra show that the polysaccharide has non-reducing terminal side chains of the structure galNAc(..cap alpha..-1 ..-->.. 3)(fuc(..cap alpha..-1 ..-->.. 2)) gal(..beta..-1 ..-->.. 3) glcNAc (i.e. a type 1 chain). Periodate oxidation removes all the fucose and galNAc from the non-reducing terminal but leaves intact the backbone composed of ..beta..-linked gal and glcNAc as would be expected for a polylactosamine. They conclude that this is a high molecular weight polylactosamine which is related to the asparagine linked polylactosamine chains of cell surface glycoproteins which have been implicated in cell differentiation. However, the blood group A polysaccharide from the ovarian cyst mucin is unique in several respects. It has a much larger molecular weight than even the erythroglycan of the red cell membrane protein, band 3, and is linked to the protein by an -O-glycosidic bond rather than the -N-asparagine linkage of the previously known polylactosamines which have a trimannosyl core. Its blood group A side chains are on a type one core rather than type 2 which is found on other polylactosamines.

  10. Outcome of consecutive pregnancies in a patient with Bombay (Oh) blood group.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S; Makar, Y; Laycock, R A; Gooch, A; Poole, J; Hadley, A

    2002-12-01

    A young lady with a rare Bombay (Oh) blood group had two successive uneventful pregnancies. Her serum contained a potent high-titre anti-H and serological as well as chemiluminescence tests, suggesting that the antibody was haemolytic. Her husband was of the normal H status. Theoretically, both babies should have been positive for the H antigen and should have suffered from haemolytic disease of the newborn. This apparent conundrum could be owing to the weak expression of the H antigens on the infant red cells.

  11. ABO and Rh blood groups in relation to sex ratio, mean number and mortality of sibs.

    PubMed

    Allan, T M

    1977-01-01

    Data are presented on the sex ratio, mean number and mortality of the sibs of 17,060 schoolchildren, and on the sex ratio and mean number of the sibs of 5,785 blood donors, in relation to the children's and donors' sex and ABO and Rh blood groups. The sex ratio is significantly higher for the sibs of AB + B than for those of A + O schoolboys, and for the sibs of Rh-negative than for those of Rh-positive male blood donors, but in both cases the mean number of sibs is exactly the same for the first-mentioned as for the second-mentioned category.

  12. Is There a Relation between ABO Blood Groups and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Pemphigoid? A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Toosi, Parviz; Azimi, Somayyeh; Esmaili, Nafiseh; Montazami, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Relationship between blood groups and dermatologic diseases remains controversial and was not yet fully elucidated nor explained clearly. The aim of this study was to examine if any relation exists between different types of pemphigoid diseases and ABO blood group. Methods. In this case-control study, 159 pemphigoid patients and 152 healthy matched-controls were evaluated. All blood group (including Rh status) data for the study was obtained from the hospital medical records. Statistical comparisons were completed with chi-square test and logistic regression. Results. Blood group “O” was found in 32.9% of patients and 38.2% of control group. Blood group “A” was found among 30.8% of patients and 34.2% of control group, while group “B” was reported in 27.4% of cases and 21.1% of controls and “AB” was identified among 8.9% of patients and 6.6% of control group. 84.9% of patients were Rh positive, while in the control group 86.2% of patients were Rh positive. No significant differences were found regarding ABO blood groups (P = 0.46) or Rh (P = 0.76) between pemphigoid patients and control group. Also, older females had the higher risk of developing bullous pemphigoid. Conclusion. We found no relationship between ABO blood groups and pemphigoid disease. PMID:27437000

  13. [Alanine solution as enzyme reaction buffer used in A to O blood group conversion].

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Bo; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Yin-Ze; Tan, Ying-Xia; Bao, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Ying-Li; Ji, Shou-Ping; Gong, Feng; Gao, Hong-Wei

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of alanine solution as α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase enzyme reaction buffer on the enzymatic activity of A antigen. The binding ability of α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase with RBC in different reaction buffer such as alanine solution, glycine solution, normal saline (0.9% NaCl), PBS, PCS was detected by Western blot. The results showed that the efficiency of A to O conversion in alanine solution was similar to that in glycine solution, and Western blot confirmed that most of enzymes blinded with RBC in glycine or alanine solution, but few enzymes blinded with RBC in PBS, PCS or normal saline. The evidences indicated that binding of enzyme with RBC was a key element for A to O blood group conversion, while the binding ability of α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase with RBC in alanine or glycine solution was similar. It is concluded that alanine solution can be used as enzyme reaction buffer in A to O blood group conversion. In this buffer, the α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase is closely blinded with RBC and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase plays efficient enzymatic activity of A antigen.

  14. Molecular basis and expression of the LWa/LWb blood group polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Hermand, P; Gane, P; Mattei, M G; Sistonen, P; Cartron, J P; Bailly, P

    1995-08-15

    The Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) blood group antigens reside on a 42-kD erythrocyte membrane glycoprotein that has recently been cloned. Here, we found that the molecular basis for the LWa/LWb polymorphism is determined by a single base pair mutation (A308G) that correlates with a Pvu II restriction site and results in a Gln70Arg amino acid substitution. COS-7 cells transfected with LWa or LWb cDNAs reacted with human anti-LWa and anti-LWb sera, respectively, as well as with a murine monoclonal anti-LWab antibody, as shown by flow cytometry analysis. Moreover, a 42-kD protein was immunoprecipitated from the transfected cells with the monoclonal anti-LWab antibody. These findings indicate that LWa and LWb are alleles of the LW blood group locus as defined also by a monoclonal anti-LWab of nonhuman origin. In addition, the LW locus has been assigned to chromosome 19p13.3 by in situ hybridization. Study by Southern blot analysis indicated also that the LW locus is composed of a single gene that was not grossly rearranged in rare LW(a-b-) and Rhnull individuals deficient for LW antigens. In addition, Pvu II restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis indicated that these variants were all homozygous for a phenotypically silent LWa allele. PMID:7632968

  15. Duffy blood group genotypes among African-Brazilian communities of the Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Perna, S J Q; Cardoso, G L; Guerreiro, J F

    2007-03-29

    Duffy blood group genotype was studied in 95 unrelated subjects from four African-Brazilian communities of the Amazon region: Trombetas, Pitimandeua, Curiaú, and Mazagão Velho. Genotyping was performed using an allele-specific primer polymerase chain reaction technique for determining the three major alleles at FY blood group, and as expected, FY*O allele was the most common one, with frequencies ranging from 56.4% in Mazagão Velho to 72.2% in Pitimandeua, whereas the FY*O/FY*O genotype was found with frequencies between 32.3% in Mazagão Velho and 58.8% in Curiaú. Genotype and allele distributions in the four Amazonian communities are consistent with a predominantly African origin with some degree of local differentiation and admixture with people of Caucasian ancestry and/or Amerindians. These results reveal that the impact of the FY*O/FY*O genotype on the transmission and endemicity of the vivax malaria deserves to be investigated in full detail in an attempt to identify the contribution of host biological factors and explain the non-homogeneous prevalence of malaria in the region expressed by its different levels of exposure.

  16. The use of ABO blood groups as markers for mosquito biting studies.

    PubMed

    Bryan, J H; Smalley, M E

    1978-01-01

    Discrepancies between malaria inoculation rates measured entomologically and parasitologically may be explained, at least in part, if infants and children receive less mosquito bites per night than do adults. We found that this problem could be studied by choosing women and children of different ABO blood groups. In preliminary laboratory studies it was found that the blood group of a mosquito's blood meal could be determined in parous and nulliparous mosquitoes for at least 24 hours, and, nullipares up to 34 hours, after feeding. An antiserum against the O group was necessary to distinguish non A or B red cells from those of animal origin. Cross reactions did occur, presumably as a result of the digestion by mosquitoes of the red cell surfaces, but in every case the strongest and earliest developing agglutination was that of the host. Field studies were made using women and children sleeping under mosquito nets, the holes in which made the nets a trapping device. The women, on average, received over seven times more bites per night than did the children. The migration of blood-fed mosquitoes from one net to another was negligible.

  17. ABO Blood Group, Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity, and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Herbert; Lu, Lingeng; Kidd, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Carriage of a non–O ABO blood group and colonization by Helicobacter pylori are thought to be risk factors for pancreatic cancer. We examined these associations in a population-based case–control study of 373 case patients and 690 control subjects frequency matched on sex and age. Control subjects were selected by random-digit dialing. Seropositivity for H pylori and its virulence protein CagA was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Increased risk of pancreatic cancer was associated with non–O blood group (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02 to 1.83, P = .034) and CagA-negative H pylori seropositivity (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.07 to 2.66, P = .025), but no association was observed for CagA seropositivity (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.52 to 1.16). An association between pancreatic cancer risk and CagA-negative H pylori seropositivity was found among individuals with non–O blood type but not among those with O blood type (OR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.49 to 5.20, P = .0014; OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.62 to 2.64, P = .51, respectively). This study demonstrates an association between pancreatic cancer and H pylori colonization, particularly for individuals with non–O blood types. PMID:20181960

  18. Human blood-group MN and precursor specificities: structural and biological aspects.

    PubMed

    Springer, G F; Desai, P R

    1975-03-01

    The human blood-group MM and NN antigens carry 2 to 4 immunodominant groupings per repeating subunit and differ only by one sialic acid residue per immunodominant group. This residue covers in the MM antigen the beta-D-galactopyranosyl group that is terminal in the N immunodominant structure and that, together with a terminal alpha-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid residue, is responsible for N specificity. M specificity was readily converted into N specificity by mild acid treatment. N structure is the immediate biochemical precursor of M structure, and M and N antigenic specificities are not determined by two allelic genes as believed hitherto. The NN antigen was inactivated by beta-D-galactosidase as well as by removal of N-acetylneuraminic acid. Some of the reactivities of the NN antigen, lost upon beta-D-galactosidase treatment, reappeared on subsequent partial N-acetylneuraminic acid removal. The structure uncovered by complete sialic acid depletion of MN antigens is the Thomsen-Friedenreich T antigen, the specificity of which is determined by beta-D-galactopyranosyl groups. Beta-D-Galactosidase treatment transformed the T antigen into one possessing Tnactivity. The significance of blood-group MN active substances extends to human breast cancer, where MN antigens were found in benign and malignant glands, but some of their precursors in cancerous tissue only.

  19. The middle-Norway eye-screening study. III. The prevalence of capsular glaucoma is influenced by blood-group antigens.

    PubMed

    Ringvold, A; Blika, S; Elsås, T; Guldahl, J; Juel, E; Brevik, T; Hesstvedt, P; Hoff, K; Høisen, H; Kjørsvik, S

    1993-04-01

    The association between blood groups (ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy) and pseudo-exfoliation syndrome, simple, and capsular glaucoma have been evaluated. The findings were: 1). No statistically significant abnormalities regarding blood group distribution in persons with pseudo-exfoliation syndrome. 2). In contrast to simple glaucoma, capsular glaucoma showed an abnormal distribution in the ABO- and the Kell-system. There was less glaucoma prevalence in the capsular A1-group compared to the O-group (p = 0.013), and less in the K1 negative group compared to the K1 positive one (p = 0.005). This trend was even escalated when combining the two systems: Among the K1 negative persons the glaucoma prevalence was lower in the A1-group compared to the O-group (p = 0.003). In the K1 negative group only 9 of 61 A1-persons developed glaucoma, in contrast to the K1 positive group where 4 of 4 A1-persons had glaucoma. This difference gave p < or = 0.00038, whereas the corresponding difference for the O-groups showed p = 0.65. It is concluded that once a person with blood group A1 has developed pseudo-exfoliation syndrome, the risk that capsular glaucoma will occur is about 7 times higher when that person is K1 positive compared to K1 negative. Perhaps this observation may be used as a prognostic factor for non-glaucomatous PE positive persons.

  20. Prevalence of Principal Rh Blood Group Antigens in Blood Donors at the Blood Bank of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Vijaya, Sreedhar Babu Kinnera; Rajendran, Arun; Sarella, Jothibai Dorairaj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rhesus (Rh) antigen was discovered in 1940 by Karl Landsteiner and Wiener. Due to its immunogenicity along with A, B antigens, Rh D antigen testing was made mandatory in pre-transfusion testing. Presently there are more than 50 antigens in Rh blood group system but major ones are D, C, E, c, and e. Very few reports are available regarding their prevalence in India and no reports are available from Andhra Pradesh. Aim To study the prevalence of principal Rh blood group antigens like D, C, E, c & e in the voluntary blood donors attending our blood bank. Materials and Methods A prospective cross-sectional non interventional study was carried out on 1000 healthy blood donors from August 2013 to July 2014 at our blood bank. Donors were grouped and typed for ABO and Rh major antigens using monoclonal blood grouping reagents as per the manufacturer’s instructions. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. Comparison of categorical data between antigen positive and negative individuals was done using Chi-square test. Descriptive statistics for the categorical variables were performed by computing the frequencies (percentages) in each category. Incidence was given in proportion with 95% confidence interval. Results A total of 1000 blood samples from donors were phenotyped. Among Rh antigens, e was the most common antigen (98.4%), followed by D-94.1%, C-88%, c-54.9% and E-18.8% with DCe/DCe (R1R1) (43.4%) being the most common phenotype and the least common phenotype is r’r’ (0.1%). Conclusion Database for antigen frequency to at least Rh blood group system in local donors helps to provide antigen negative blood to patients with multiple alloantibodies, minimize alloimmunization rate, and thereby improve blood safety. PMID:27437223

  1. The Galectin CvGal1 from the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Binds to Blood Group A Oligosaccharides on the Hemocyte Surface*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chiguang; Ghosh, Anita; Amin, Mohammed N.; Giomarelli, Barbara; Shridhar, Surekha; Banerjee, Aditi; Fernández-Robledo, José A.; Bianchet, Mario A.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Vasta, Gerardo R.

    2013-01-01

    The galectin CvGal1 from the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), which possesses four tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains, was previously shown to display stronger binding to galactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine relative to d-galactose. CvGal1 expressed by phagocytic cells is “hijacked” by the parasite Perkinsus marinus to enter the host, where it proliferates and causes systemic infection and death. In this study, a detailed glycan array analysis revealed that CvGal1 preferentially recognizes type 2 blood group A oligosaccharides. Homology modeling of the protein and its oligosaccharide ligands supported this preference over type 1 blood group A and B oligosaccharides. The CvGal ligand models were further validated by binding, inhibition, and competitive binding studies of CvGal1 and ABH-specific monoclonal antibodies with intact and deglycosylated glycoproteins, hemocyte extracts, and intact hemocytes and by surface plasmon resonance analysis. A parallel glycomic study carried out on oyster hemocytes (Kurz, S., Jin, C., Hykollari, A., Gregorich, D., Giomarelli, B., Vasta, G. R., Wilson, I. B. H., and Paschinger, K. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288,) determined the structures of oligosaccharides recognized by CvGal1. Proteomic analysis of the hemocyte glycoproteins identified β-integrin and dominin as CvGal1 “self”-ligands. Despite strong CvGal1 binding to P. marinus trophozoites, no binding of ABH blood group antibodies was observed. Thus, parasite glycans structurally distinct from the blood group A oligosaccharides on the hemocyte surface may function as potentially effective ligands for CvGal1. We hypothesize that carbohydrate-based mimicry resulting from the host/parasite co-evolution facilitates CvGal1-mediated cross-linking to β-integrin, located on the hemocyte surface, leading to cell activation, phagocytosis, and host infection. PMID:23824193

  2. Identification of the Molecular and Genetic Basis of PX2, a Glycosphingolipid Blood Group Antigen Lacking on Globoside-deficient Erythrocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Julia S.; Benktander, John; Storry, Jill R.; Peyrard, Thierry; Hult, Annika K.; Hellberg, Åsa; Teneberg, Susann; Olsson, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    The x2 glycosphingolipid is expressed on erythrocytes from individuals of all common blood group phenotypes and elevated on cells of the rare P/P1/Pk-negative p blood group phenotype. Globoside or P antigen is synthesized by UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:globotriaosyl-ceramide 3-β-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase encoded by B3GALNT1. It is the most abundant non-acid glycosphingolipid on erythrocytes and displays the same terminal disaccharide, GalNAcβ3Gal, as x2. We encountered a patient with mutations in B3GALNT1 causing the rare P-deficient P1k phenotype and whose pretransfusion plasma was unexpectedly incompatible with p erythrocytes. The same phenomenon was also noted in seven other unrelated P-deficient individuals. Thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry, and flow cytometry were used to show that the naturally occurring antibodies made by p individuals recognize x2 and sialylated forms of x2, whereas x2 is lacking on P-deficient erythrocytes. Overexpression of B3GALNT1 resulted in synthesis of both P and x2. Knockdown experiments with siRNA against B3GALNT1 diminished x2 levels. We conclude that x2 fulfills blood group criteria and is synthesized by UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine: globotriaosylceramide 3-β-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Based on this linkage, we proposed that x2 joins P in the GLOB blood group system (ISBT 028) and is renamed PX2 (GLOB2). Thus, in the absence of a functional P synthase, neither P nor PX2 are formed. As a consequence, naturally occurring anti-P and anti-PX2 can be made. Until the clinical significance of anti-PX2 is known, we also recommend that rare P1k or P2k erythrocyte units are preferentially selected for transfusion to Pk patients because p erythrocytes may pose a risk for hemolytic transfusion reactions due to their elevated PX2 levels. PMID:26055721

  3. Action of glycosyl transferases upon "Bombay" (Oh) erythrocytes. Conversion to cells showing blood-group H and A specificities.

    PubMed

    Schenkel-Brunner, H; Prohaska, R; Tuppy, H

    1975-08-15

    Individuals of the rare "Bombay" (Oh) blood-group phenotype lacking, due to a genetic defect, the alpha(1-2)fucosyl transferase, which is responsible for converting blood-group H precursor substances to H-specific structures. Treatment with GDP-fucose and alpha(1-2)fucosyl transferase prepared from gastric mucosa of O individuals to transform native or ficin-treated "Bombay" erythrocytes into cells phenotypically resembling O cells. The transformation was achieved, however, after prior incubation of the "Bombay" erythrocytes with neuraminidase, indicating that blood-group H precursor molecules on the surface of these cells are masked by sialyl residues. Blood-group A specificity was conferred upon neuraminidase-treated "Bombay" cells by enzymatic transfer of alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine residues, in addition to alpha-fucose residues.

  4. Genogroup IV and VI Canine Noroviruses Interact with Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Breiman, Adrien; le Pendu, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human noroviruses (HuNV) are a significant cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. HuNV attaches to cell surface carbohydrate structures known as histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) prior to internalization, and HBGA polymorphism among human populations is closely linked to susceptibility to HuNV. Noroviruses are divided into 6 genogroups, with human strains grouped into genogroups I (GI), II, and IV. Canine norovirus (CNV) is a recently discovered pathogen in dogs, with strains classified into genogroups IV and VI. Whereas it is known that GI to GIII noroviruses bind to HBGAs and GV noroviruses recognize terminal sialic acid residues, the attachment factors for GIV and GVI noroviruses have not been reported. This study sought to determine the carbohydrate binding specificity of CNV and to compare it to the binding specificities of noroviruses from other genogroups. A panel of synthetic oligosaccharides were used to assess the binding specificity of CNV virus-like particles (VLPs) and identified α1,2-fucose as a key attachment factor. CNV VLP binding to canine saliva and tissue samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and immunohistochemistry confirmed that α1,2-fucose-containing H and A antigens of the HBGA family were recognized by CNV. Phenotyping studies demonstrated expression of these antigens in a population of dogs. The virus-ligand interaction was further characterized using blockade studies, cell lines expressing HBGAs, and enzymatic removal of candidate carbohydrates from tissue sections. Recognition of HBGAs by CNV provides new insights into the evolution of noroviruses and raises concerns regarding the potential for zoonotic transmission of CNV to humans. IMPORTANCE Infections with human norovirus cause acute gastroenteritis in millions of people each year worldwide. Noroviruses can also affect nonhuman species and are divided into 6 different groups based on their capsid sequences. Human noroviruses in genogroups

  5. Lichenoid reaction associated with silver amalgam restoration in a Bombay blood group patient: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Rohini Rangarao; Mattigatti, Sudha S.; Mahaparale, Rushikesh R.; Kamble, Amit P.

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic relationship between the oral lichenoid reaction (OLR) and dental restorative materials has been confirmed many times. An OLR affecting oral mucosa in direct contact with an amalgam restoration represents a delayed, type IV, cell mediated immune response to mercury or one of the other constituents of the dental amalgam. Bombay blood group patients are more prone to this. A case of bilateral OLR is presented, which is present in relation to amalgam restoration. The lesion healed up after the replacement of restorations with an intermediate restorative material. The clinician should be aware of all the possible pathological etiologies of white lesions. If there is any doubt about the nature or management of a usual oral lesion, a referral to an appropriate specialist is mandatory. PMID:27217647

  6. Lichenoid reaction associated with silver amalgam restoration in a Bombay blood group patient: A case report.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rohini Rangarao; Mattigatti, Sudha S; Mahaparale, Rushikesh R; Kamble, Amit P

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic relationship between the oral lichenoid reaction (OLR) and dental restorative materials has been confirmed many times. An OLR affecting oral mucosa in direct contact with an amalgam restoration represents a delayed, type IV, cell mediated immune response to mercury or one of the other constituents of the dental amalgam. Bombay blood group patients are more prone to this. A case of bilateral OLR is presented, which is present in relation to amalgam restoration. The lesion healed up after the replacement of restorations with an intermediate restorative material. The clinician should be aware of all the possible pathological etiologies of white lesions. If there is any doubt about the nature or management of a usual oral lesion, a referral to an appropriate specialist is mandatory.

  7. Structural Constraints on Human Norovirus Binding to Histo-Blood Group Antigens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bishal K; Leuthold, Mila M; Hansman, Grant S

    2016-01-01

    Human norovirus interacts with the polymorphic human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), and this interaction is thought to be important for infection. The genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) noroviruses are the dominant cluster, evolve every other year, and are thought to modify their binding interactions with different HBGA types. Most human noroviruses bind HBGAs, while some strains were found to have minimal or no HBGA interactions. Here, we explain some possible structural constraints for several noroviruses that were found to bind poorly to HBGAs by using X-ray crystallography. We showed that one aspartic acid was flexible or positioned away from the fucose moiety of the HBGAs and this likely hindered binding, although other fucose-interacting residues were perfectly oriented. Interestingly, a neighboring loop also appeared to influence the loop hosting the aspartic acid. These new findings might explain why some human noroviruses bound HBGAs poorly, although further studies are required. PMID:27303720

  8. An evaluation of some factors affecting the detection of blood group antibodies by automated methods.

    PubMed

    Kolberg, J; Nordhagen, R

    1975-01-01

    Some factors affecting the sensitivity of the automated methods for blood group antibody detection have been evaluated. The experiments revealed influencing differences between various albumin preparations. In the BMC method, one lot of albumin permitted no significant antibody detection. In the LISP technique, a plateau of maximum Polybrene activity was found. The beginning of this plateau depended on both the albumin preparation and the Polybrene lot. In the BMC method, methyl cellulose gave optimal sensitivity within a concentration range of 0.3 to 0.5 per cent. The stability of test cells stored in ACD at 4 C was studied. All test cells could be used safely up to two weeks. Cells from different donors showed variable reactivity after three weeks. PMID:1101466

  9. Structural analysis of the RH-like blood group gene products in nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Salvignol, I.; Calvas, P.; Blancher, A.; Socha, W.W.; Colin, Y.; Le Van Kim, C.; Bailly, P.; Cartron, J.P.; Ruffie, J.; Blancher, A.

    1995-03-01

    Rh-related transcripts present in bone marrow samples from several species of nonhuman primates (chimpanzee, gorilla, gibbon, crab-eating macaque) have been amplified by RT-polymerase chain reaction using primers deduced from the sequence of human RH genes. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the nonhuman transcripts revealed a high degree of similarity to human blood group Rh sequences, suggesting a great conservation of the RH genes throughout evolution. Full-length transcripts, potentially encoding 417 amino acid long proteins homologous to Rh polypeptides, were characterized, as well as mRNA isoforms which harbored nucleotide deletions or insertions and potentially encode truncated proteins. Proteins of 30-40,000 M{sub r}, immunologically related to human Rh proteins, were detected by western blot analysis with antipeptide antibodies, indicating that Rh-like transcripts are translated into membrane proteins. Comparison of human and nonhuman protein sequences was pivotal in clarifying the molecular basis of the blood group C/c polymorphism, showing that only the Pro103Ser substitution was correlated with C/c polymorphism. In addition, it was shown that a proline residue at position 102 was critical in the expression of C and c epitopes, most likely by providing an appropriate conformation of Rh polypeptides. From these data a phylogenetic reconstruction of the RH locus evolution has been calculated from which an unrooted phylogenetic tree could be proposed, indicating that African ape Rh-like genes would be closer to the human RhD gene than to the human RhCE gene. 55 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Risk Factors, Coronary Severity, Outcome and ABO Blood Group: A Large Chinese Han Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Xu, Rui-Xia; Dong, Qian; Liu, Geng; Li, Jian-Jun

    2015-10-01

    ABO blood type locus has been reported to have ethnic difference and to be a pivotal genetic determinant of cardiovascular risk, whereas few prospective data regarding the impact on cardiovascular outcomes are available in a large cohort of patients with angiography-proven coronary artery disease, especially from the Chinese population. The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic role of blood type in future cardiovascular events (CVEs) in Chinese Han patients undergoing coronary angiography.The population of this prospective cohort study consisted of 3823 eligible patients, and followed annually to capture all CVEs. Baseline characteristics and ABO blood type were obtained. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the risk of ABO blood type on CVEs.New CVEs occurred in 348 patients [263 (10.3%) non-O and 85 (7.8%) O] during a median period of 24.6 months follow-up. Significantly, non-O blood group was related to the presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis and several risk factors including inflammatory markers. The log-rank test revealed that there was a significant difference between non-O and O blood groups in event-free survival analysis (P = 0.026). In particular, the Cox proportional hazards models revealed that non-O blood type was associated with increased CVEs risk [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.320 (1.033-1.685)], even after adjusting for potential confounders [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) non-O: 1.289 (1.003-1.656); A: 1.083 (0.797-1.472); B: 1.481 (1.122-1.955); AB: 1.249 (0.852-1.831), respectively].Non-O blood type is associated with future CVEs in Chinese Han patients undergoing coronary angiography.

  11. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    HRV, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  12. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection estimated by 14C-urea breath test and gender, blood groups and Rhesus factor.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Milorad; Artiko, Vera; Novosel, Slavica; Ille, Tanja; Šobić-Šaranović, Dragana; Pavlović, Smiljana; Jakšić, Emilija; Stojković, Mirjana; Antić, Andrija; Obradović, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was the detection of helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and estimation of this infection relationship with age, gender, blood groups and Rhesus factor, as well as the assessment of the accuracy of the method. A total of 227 patients with gastritis were examined. Blood ABO groups and Rh positivity were determined using standard tests. Infection by HP was proved by (14)C-urea breath test and gastric biopsy. Patients were aged 20-81 years (X=51.7 years) and the presence of HP was not related to the age (P>0.05). From the total number of patients, 25/69 males and 68/158 females were HP positive. There was no significant difference between genders and HP infection (P>0.05). From the 227 investigated patients, 69 (30%) belonged to blood group O, 96 (42%) to A, 40 (18%) to B and 22 (10%) to AB. HP was detected in 27/69 patients with blood group O, 45/96 patients with blood group A, 16/40 patients with blood group B and 5/22 patients with blood group AB. There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in the incidence of HP infection between these groups (proving that HP infection did not depend upon the blood groups). Also, there was no significant correlation between the presence of particular blood group in HP+ patients related to the reported frequency of the blood groups in Serbian population (0--38%, A--42%, B--15%, AB--5%). HP was found in 16/36 Rh- and in 77/191 Rh+ patients without statistical difference (P>0.05). Also, there was no significant correlation of the presence of the Rh factor in the HP positive patients to the frequency of the Rh factor in the Serbian population (84% Rh+ and 16% Rh-). The basic value of the HP+ test was slightly, but not significantly lower in comparison to the HP- patients (P>0.05). On the contrary, test values showed a highly significant difference (P<0.01) in HP+ and HP- patients. In conclusion, in adults HP infection does not depend upon the patient's age, gender, blood group type or Rh factor. In

  13. Blood groups and red cell acid phosphatase types in a Mixteca population resident in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Buentello, L.; García, P.; Lisker, R.; Salamanca, F.; Peñaloza, R.

    1999-01-01

    Several blood groups, ABO, Rh, Ss, Fy, Jk, and red cell acid phosphatase (ACP) types were studied in a native Mixteca population that has resided in Mexico City since 1950. Gene frequencies were obtained and used to establish admixture estimates with blacks and whites. The subjects came from three different geographical areas: High Mixteca, Low Mixteca, and Coast Mixteca. All frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The difference in the ABO frequencies was statistically significant when subjects from the three areas were compared simultaneously. Rh frequencies differed only between the High and the Low Mixteca populations. The ACP frequencies were similar between the Low Mixteca population and a previously reported Mestizo population. However, there were significant differences between the High Mixteca group and a Mestizo population, all the subjects being from Oaxaca. This is the first report of Ss, Fy, Jk, and ACP frequencies in a Mixteca population. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:525-529, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Is ABO blood group truly a risk factor for thrombosis and adverse outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shan; Welsby, Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABO blood type is one of the most readily available laboratory tests, and serves as a vital determinant in blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The ABO antigens are expressed not only on red blood cell membranes, determining the compatibility of transfusion, but also on the surface of other human cells, including epithelium, platelet and vascular endothelium, therefore extending the research into other involvements of cardiovascular disease and postoperative outcomes. ABO blood group has been recognized as a risk factor of venous thrombosis embolism since the 1960’s, effects now understood to be related to ABO dependent variations are procoagulant factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels. Levels of vWF, mostly genetically determined, are strongly associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). It mediates platelet adhesion aggregation and stabilizes FVIII in plasma. Moreover, many studies have tried to identify the relationship between ABO blood types and ischemic heart disease. Unlike the clear and convincing associations between VTE and ABO blood type, the link between ABO blood type and ischemic heart disease is less consistent and may be confusing. Other than genetic factors, ischemic heart disease is strongly related to diet, race, lipid metabolism and economic status. In this review, we’ll summarize the data relating race and genetics, including ABO blood type, to VTE, ischemic heart disease and postoperative bleeding after cardiac surgery. PMID:25276299

  15. Atomic resolution structural characterization of recognition of histo-blood group antigens by Norwalk virus

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jae-Mun; Hutson, Anne M.; Estes, Mary K.; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram

    2008-07-28

    Members of Norovirus, a genus in the family Caliciviridae, are causative agents of epidemic diarrhea in humans. Susceptibility to several noroviruses is linked to human histo-blood type, and its determinant histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are regarded as receptors for these viruses. Specificity for these carbohydrates is strain-dependent. Norwalk virus (NV) is the prototype genogroup I norovirus that specifically recognizes A- and H-type HBGA, in contrast to genogroup II noroviruses that exhibit a more diverse HBGA binding pattern. To understand the structural basis for how HBGAs interact with the NV capsid protein, and how the specificity is achieved, we carried out x-ray crystallographic analysis of the capsid protein domain by itself and in complex with A- and H-type HBGA at a resolution of {approx}1.4 {angstrom}. Despite differences in their carbohydrate sequence and linkage, both HBGAs bind to the same surface-exposed site in the capsid protein and project outward from the capsid surface, substantiating their possible role in initiating cell attachment. Precisely juxtaposed polar side chains that engage the sugar hydroxyls in a cooperative hydrogen bonding and a His/Trp pair involved in a cation-p interaction contribute to selective and specific recognition of A- and H-type HBGAs. This unique binding epitope, confirmed by mutational analysis, is highly conserved, but only in the genogroup I noroviruses, suggesting that a mechanism by which noroviruses infect broader human populations is by evolving different sites with altered HBGA specificities.

  16. A modified PCR-SSP method for the identification of ABO blood group antigens.

    PubMed

    Downing, J; Darke, C

    2003-08-01

    The ABO blood group antigens are carbohydrate molecules synthesized by the glycosyltransferases encoded by the ABO gene on chromosome 9. Kidney transplantation across the ABO barrier generally leads to rapid humoral graft rejection due to the presence of naturally occurring antibodies to the A and B antigens. We have developed a method for ABO typing our cadaveric organ donors by the polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). The method uses 12 primers in eight PCR mixtures and is performed under the same conditions as our routine HLA-A, B, C PCR-SSP typing. The PCR-SSP-based types of 166 regular blood donors and 148 cadaveric organ donors all showed total concordance with their serologically assigned ABO groups. Six individuals possessing the ABO A subgroups (A3, Ax and Aend) all typed as A1 by PCR-SSP, as expected. PCR-SSP is an appropriate method for ABO typing of cadaveric organ donors and, importantly, enables both ABO and HLA typing to be performed on the same DNA material.

  17. Modulation of MUC1 and blood group antigen expression in gastric adenocarcinoma cells by cytokines.

    PubMed

    Grohmann, Georg P M; Schirmacher, Peter; Manzke, Oliver; Hanisch, Franz Georg; Dienes, Hans P; Baldus, Stephan E

    2003-08-01

    Immunohistological studies demonstrated that MUC1 expression in gastric cancer is associated with a poor prognosis. As a mediator of cell-cell interactions, MUC1 may also be involved in metastasis. However, these aspects are of relevance since cytokine levels are locally increased as a consequence of peritumorous inflammatory response and coexisting chronic gastritis. Therefore we analyzed the potential influence of several cytokines on the expression of tumor-associated MUC1 and Lewis blood group antigens in gastric carcinoma cells. Gastric cancer cell lines AGS and KATOIII were incubated with the cytokines interleukin-1beta, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and hepatocyte growth factor over a period of 72 h. Expressions of mucin antigens and cytokine secretion were measured by immunocytochemistry and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Analysis by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) demonstrated that MUC1 and sialyl Lewis A reactivities of AGS cells were increased significantly following TNF-alpha stimulation but not by other cytokines. Expression of mucin-associated antigens by cell line KATOIII was not affected by any of the employed cytokines. These data provide evidence that TNF-alpha can raise the expression of important mucin peptide as well as mucin-associated carbohydrate antigens and thereby potentially influence the progression of gastric carcinomas. PMID:12906871

  18. Anti-Sdx: a "new" auto-agglutinin related to the Sda blood group.

    PubMed

    Marsh, W L; Johnson, C L; Oyen, R; Nichols, M E; DiNapoli, J; Young, H; Brassel, J; Cusumano, I; Bazaz, G R; Haber, J M; Wolf, C F

    1980-01-01

    Two examples of a "new" IgM saline-agglutinating auto-antibody are described. The antibodies bind complement, have the ability to cause in vivo hemolysis, and are most active at room temperature at a pH of about 6.5. Despite tests on more than 5,000 people, no nonreactive cell sample has been found. The reactive antigen is not denatured by neuraminidase, papain, or ficin, and is present on i adult red blood cells. The antibodies appear to be slightly inhibited by human saliva and milk, and more convincingly inhibited by urine from Sd(a+) persons. They are not inhibited by urine from Sd(a-) persons, but are strongly inhibited by guinea pig urine. The serologic characteristics indicate a relationship to the Sda blood group and the auto-antibody has been named antiSdx. Sdx antigen is present on red blood cells from some higher primates and is absent from rabbit, rhesus monkey, dog and sheep cells. PMID:7355457

  19. Histo-blood group antigens: a common niche for norovirus and rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming; Jiang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) and rotaviruses (RVs), the two most important causes of viral acute gastroenteritis, are found to recognise histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as receptors or ligands for attachment. Human HBGAs are highly polymorphic containing ABO, secretor and Lewis antigens. In addition, both NoVs and RVs are highly diverse in how they recognise these HBGAs. Structural analysis of the HBGA-binding interfaces of NoVs revealed a conserved central binding pocket (CBP) interacting with a common major binding saccharide (MaBS) of HBGAs and a variable surrounding region interacting with additional minor binding saccharides. The conserved CBP indicates a strong selection of NoVs by the host HBGAs, whereas the variable surrounding region explains the diverse recognition patterns of different HBGAs by NoVs and RVs as functional adaptations of the viruses to human HBGAs. Diverse recognition of HBGAs has also been found in bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Thus, exploratory research into whether such diverse recognitions also occur for other viral and bacterial pathogens that recognise HBGAs is warranted. PMID:24606759

  20. [Racism of "Blood" and colonial medicine - Blood group anthropology studies at Keijo Imperial University Department of Forensic Medicine].

    PubMed

    Jung, Joon Young

    2012-12-01

    This paper attempts to explore implications of Colonial medicine's Blood Type Studies, concerning the characteristics and tasks of racism in the Japanese Colonial Empire. Especially, it focuses on the Blood Group Anthropology Studies at Keijo Imperial University Department of Forensic Medicine. In Colonial Korea, the main stream of Blood Type Studies were Blood Group Anthropology Studies, which place Korean people who was inferior to Japanese people in the geography of the race on the one hand, but on the other, put Koreans as a missing link between the Mongolian and the Japanese for fulfillment of the Japanese colonialism, that is, assimilationist ideology. Then, Compared to the Western medicine and Metropole medicine of Japan, How differentiated was this tendency of Colonial Medicine from them? In this paper, main issues of Blood Group Anthropology Studies and its colonial implications are examined.

  1. Atomic force microscopy measurements reveal multiple bonds between Helicobacter pylori blood group antigen binding adhesin and Lewis b ligand.

    PubMed

    Parreira, P; Shi, Q; Magalhaes, A; Reis, C A; Bugaytsova, J; Borén, T; Leckband, D; Martins, M C L

    2014-12-01

    The strength of binding between the Helicobacter pylori blood group antigen-binding adhesin (BabA) and its cognate glycan receptor, the Lewis b blood group antigen (Le(b)), was measured by means of atomic force microscopy. High-resolution measurements of rupture forces between single receptor-ligand pairs were performed between the purified BabA and immobilized Le(b) structures on self-assembled monolayers. Dynamic force spectroscopy revealed two similar but statistically different bond populations. These findings suggest that the BabA may form different adhesive attachments to the gastric mucosa in ways that enhance the efficiency and stability of bacterial adhesion.

  2. Structural Analysis of Determinants of Histo-Blood Group Antigen Binding Specificity in Genogroup I Noroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Shanker, Sreejesh; Czako, Rita; Sankaran, Banumathi; Atmar, Robert L.; Estes, Mary K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human noroviruses (NoVs) cause acute epidemic gastroenteritis. Susceptibility to the majority of NoV infections is determined by genetically controlled secretor-dependent expression of histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are also critical for NoV attachment to host cells. Human NoVs are classified into two major genogroups (genogroup I [GI] and GII), with each genogroup further divided into several genotypes. GII NoVs are more prevalent and exhibit periodic emergence of new variants, suggested to be driven by altered HBGA binding specificities and antigenic drift. Recent epidemiological studies show increased activity among GI NoVs, with some members showing the ability to bind nonsecretor HBGAs. NoVs bind HBGAs through the protruding (P) domain of the major capsid protein VP1. GI NoVs, similar to GII, exhibit significant sequence variations in the P domain; it is unclear how these variations affect HBGA binding specificities. To understand the determinants of possible strain-specific HBGA binding among GI NoVs, we determined the structure of the P domain of a GI.7 clinical isolate and compared it to the previously determined P domain structures of GI.1 and GI.2 strains. Our crystallographic studies revealed significant structural differences, particularly in the loop regions of the GI.7 P domain, altering its surface topography and electrostatic landscape and potentially indicating antigenic variation. The GI.7 strain bound to H- and A-type, Lewis secretor, and Lewis nonsecretor families of HBGAs, allowing us to further elucidate the structural determinants of nonsecretor HBGA binding among GI NoVs and to infer several contrasting and generalizable features of HBGA binding in the GI NoVs. IMPORTANCE Human noroviruses (NoVs) cause acute epidemic gastroenteritis. Recent epidemiological studies have shown increased prevalence of genogroup I (GI) NoVs. Although secretor-positive status is strongly correlated with NoV infection, cases of NoV infection

  3. The LWb blood group as a marker of prehistoric Baltic migrations and admixture.

    PubMed

    Sistonen, P; Virtaranta-Knowles, K; Denisova, R; Kucinskas, V; Ambrasiene, D; Beckman, L

    1999-06-01

    Archaeological findings and historical records indicate frequent migrations and exchange of genetic material between populations in the Baltic Sea area. However, there have so far been very few attempts to trace migrations in this area using genetic markers. We have studied the Baltic populations with respect to exceptional variations in the frequencies of the Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) blood group. The frequency of the uncommon LWb gene was high in the Balts, around 6% among Latvians and Lithuanians, very low among the other western Europeans (0-0.1%) and apparently absent in Asiatic and African populations. From the Baltic region of peak frequency there was a regular decline of LWb incidence (a descending cline) in the neighboring populations: 4.0% in the Estonians, 2.9% in the Finns, 2. 2% in the Vologda Russians, and 2.0% in the Poles. Thus the distribution of LWb suggests considerable and extensive Baltic admixture, especially in the north and northeast direction. In Southern Sweden with an LWb frequency of 0.3%, the Baltic influence appeared slight, while in the population of the Swedish island Gotland in the middle of the Baltic Sea there was a significantly increased LWb frequency of 1.0% compared with that of Western European countries. The distinction of codominantly inherited LW antigenic forms, LWa and LWb (previously Nea), is known to be due to a single base substitution. Based on our population data, it is plausible that the expansion of this point mutation occurred only once during human history. Furthermore, our data indicate that the expansion of the LWb mutation occurred in Balts and that LWb can be considered a 'Baltic tribal marker', its presence in other populations being an indicator of the degree of Baltic genetic influence. PMID:10364680

  4. Tulane Virus Recognizes the A Type 3 and B Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongsheng; Huang, Pengwei; Zou, Lu; Lowary, Todd L.; Tan, Ming

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tulane virus (TV), the prototype of the Recovirus genus in the calicivirus family, was isolated from the stools of rhesus monkeys and can be cultivated in vitro in monkey kidney cells. TV is genetically closely related to the genus Norovirus and recognizes the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), similarly to human noroviruses (NoVs), making it a valuable surrogate for human NoVs. However, the precise structures of HBGAs recognized by TV remain elusive. In this study, we performed binding and blocking experiments on TV with extended HBGA types and showed that, while TV binds all four types (types 1 to 4) of the B antigens, it recognizes only the A type 3 antigen among four types of A antigens tested. The requirements for HBGAs in TV replication were demonstrated by blocking of TV replication in cell culture using the A type 3/4 and B saliva samples. Similar results were also observed in oligosaccharide-based blocking assays. Importantly, the previously reported, unexplained increase in TV replication by oligosaccharide in cell-based blocking assays has been clarified, which will facilitate the application of TV as a surrogate for human NoVs. IMPORTANCE Our understanding of the role of HBGAs in NoV infection has been significantly advanced in the past decade, but direct evidence for HBGAs as receptors for human NoVs remains lacking due to a lack of a cell culture method. TV recognizes HBGAs and can replicate in vitro, providing a valuable surrogate for human NoVs. However, TV binds to some but not all saliva samples from A-positive individuals, and an unexplained observation of synthetic oligosaccharide blocking of TV binding has been reported. These issues have been resolved in this study. PMID:25392226

  5. Deletion of antigens of the Lewis a/b blood group family in human prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Young, W. W.; Mills, S. E.; Lippert, M. C.; Ahmed, P.; Lau, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    The expression of antigens of the blood group Lewis a/b family were studied in a series of 42 prostatectomy specimens from patients with adenocarcinoma clinically confined to the prostate; 19 of these were later reclassified as pathologic Stage C. Staining of normal or hyperplastic versus neoplastic epithelium was assessed in routinely processed, paraffin-embedded tissue using murine monoclonal antibodies and an avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase technique. Antigens screened and the antibodies used to recognize them were Lewis a (CF4C4), Lewis b and Type 1 H (NS10), monosialosyl Lewis a I (19.9), and disialosyl Lewis a and monosialosyl Lewis a II (FH7). FH7 strongly stained the benign epithelium of all 39 Lewis positive cases, suggesting that the sialyltransferase responsible for synthesis of FH7-reactive determinants is highly active in benign prostatic tissue. When compared to the reactivity of benign epithelium in Lewis positive cases, the staining of the carcinomas was markedly reduced in 18 cases (46%) and absent in 16 cases (41%). This reduction or loss of staining of the malignant epithelium was observed for all antibodies that stained the corresponding benign epithelium of each case. In only five of the cases (13%) was the intensity of staining in the carcinoma equal to that of the surrounding benign epithelium. No cases in this latter group had recurrence of disease, whereas in the other staining groups 25-33% of the cases had recurrences; median follow-up for the entire group was 78 months. No correlation was apparent between Gleason score and the staining pattern with these antigens. In summary, antigens of the Lewis a/b family are deleted in a high percentage of cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2454582

  6. Designing modern furnace cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merry, J.; Sarvinis, J.; Voermann, N.

    2000-02-01

    An integrated multidisciplinary approach to furnace design that considers the interdependence between furnace cooling elements and other furnace systems, such as binding, cooling water, and instrumentation, is necessary to achieve maximum furnace production and a long refractory life. The retrofit of the BHP Hartley electric furnace and the Kidd Creek copper converting furnace are successful examples of an integrated approach to furnace cooling design.

  7. Typing of Blood-Group Antigens on Neutral Oligosaccharides by Negative-Ion Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongtao; Zhang, Shuang; Tao, Guanjun; Zhang, Yibing; Mulloy, Barbara; Zhan, Xiaobei; Chai, Wengang

    2013-01-01

    Blood-group antigens, such as those containing fucose and bearing the ABO(H)- and Lewis-type determinants expressed on the carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins and glycolipids, and also on unconjugated free oligosaccharides in human milk and other secretions, are associated with various biological functions. We have previously shown the utility of negative-ion electrospay ionization tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation (ESI-CID-MS/MS) for typing of Lewis (Le) determinants, e.g. Lea, Lex, Leb, and Ley on neutral and sialylated oligosaccharide chains. In the present report we extended the strategy to characterization of blood-group A-, B- and H-determinants on type 1 and type 2, and also on type 4 globoside chains to provide a high sensitivity method for typing of all the major blood-group antigens, including the A, B, H, Lea, Lex, Leb, and Ley determinants, present in oligosaccharides. Using the principles established we identified two minor unknown oligosaccharide components present in the products of enzymatic synthesis by bacterial fermentation. We also demonstrated that the unique fragmentations derived from the D- and 0,2A-type cleavages observed in ESI-CID-MS/MS, which are important for assigning blood-group and chain types, only occur under the negative-ion conditions for reducing sugars but not for reduced alditols or under positive-ion conditions. PMID:23692402

  8. Distribution of ABO and Rh-D blood groups among blood donors in a tertiary care centre in South India.

    PubMed

    Das, P K; Nair, S C; Harris, V K; Rose, D; Mammen, J J; Bose, Y N; Sudarsanam, A

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of ABO and Rh-D blood groups was studied among 150,536 blood donors screened at the Dr John Scudder Memorial Blood Bank, Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore, over a period of 11 years (April 1988 to March 1999). The most common blood group was found to be group O [58,330 (38.75%)], followed by group B [49,202 (32.69%)], and group A [28,372 (18.85%)]. The least common blood group was AB group [7,930 (5.27%)]. A2 or A2B groups were found in 3.01% and 1.43% of donors, respectively. The prevalence of Rh-D negative group was found in 8,225 (5.47%) donors. Bombay group (H negative non-secretor, genotype hh phenotype Oh) was found in six donors (0.004%). Although the incidence of Rh-D negative group was identical to previously published data from North India, the most common blood group was O group in our study as opposed to B group.

  9. Human milk oligosaccharides and Lewis blood group: individual high-throughput sample profiling to enhance conclusions from functional studies.

    PubMed

    Blank, Dennis; Dotz, Viktoria; Geyer, Rudolf; Kunz, Clemens

    2012-05-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are discussed to play a crucial role in an infant's development. Lewis blood group epitopes, in particular, seem to remarkably contribute to the beneficial effects of HMO. In this regard, large-scale functional human studies could provide evidence of the variety of results from in vitro investigations, although increasing the amount and complexity of sample and data handling. Therefore, reliable screening approaches are needed. To predict the oligosaccharide pattern in milk, the routine serological Lewis blood group typing of blood samples can be applied due to the close relationship between the biosynthesis of HMO and the Lewis antigens on erythrocytes. However, the actual HMO profile of the individual samples does not necessarily correspond to the serological determinations. This review demonstrates the capabilities of merging the traditional serological Lewis blood group typing with the additional information provided by the comprehensive elucidation of individual HMO patterns by means of state-of-the-art analytics. Deduced from the association of the suggested HMO biosynthesis with the Lewis blood group, the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiles of oligosaccharides in individual milk samples exemplify the advantages and the limitations of sample assignment to distinct groups.

  10. Correlation of Palatal Rugoscopy with Gender, Palatal Vault Height and ABO Blood Groups in Three Different Indian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Verma, KG; Verma, P; Bansal, N; Basavaraju, S; Sachdeva, SK; Khosa, R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Palatal rugae (PR) are asymmetrical irregular elevations, recorded during maxillary cast fabrication, that can be used for identification purpose if previous comparative sources are available. Aim: This study investigated uniqueness of PR patterns in relation to gender, palatal vault forms, and ABO blood groups in three (North-East [N-E], Northern and Western) populations of India. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted on randomly selected 90 students, 30 from each sub population. Design - The palatal vault was recorded as Types I, II, and III. The maxillary casts were analyzed for each subject. The blood group of each subject was also recorded. Pearson's correlation coefficient tests were performed on cross-tabulations to evaluate significant relationship among different variables. Results: The PR number was more among females with an insignificant correlation among gender and mean rugae size on both sides. Types I and II hard palate vaults were seen associated with straight forwardly directed PR pattern, while Type III with curved forwardly directed PR. On the right side, straight rugae shape was most common type. On the left side, straight rugae shape was most common in Northern population while in N-E and Western populations curved rugae was the dominating type. A highly significant correlation was found between ABO blood groups and different PR patterns. Conclusions: PR possesses unique characteristics and can be used along with palatal vault forms as well as ABO blood groups for racial and individualistic soft tissue oral print in forensic cases. PMID:25328791

  11. Genotyping of 22 blood group antigen polymorphisms and establishing a national recipient registry in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yun Ji; Chung, Yousun; Hwang, Sang Mee; Park, Jeong Su; Kwon, Jeong-Ran; Choi, Young Sill; Kim, Jun Nyun; Lee, Dong Han; Kwon, So-Yong; Cho, Nam-Sun; Song, Eun Young; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Han, Kyou Sup

    2016-05-01

    It is often difficult for standard blood banks in Korea to supply adequate amounts of blood for patients with rare phenotype. Moreover, the definition of a blood in need is ambiguous, and much remains to be learned. In this study, we determined the prevalence of various red blood cell (RBC) antigens from a donor viewpoint and estimated the demand for specific antigen-negative blood from a patient viewpoint. Our data will aid the establishment of a Rare Blood Program in Korea (KRBP). RBC genotyping of 419 blood donors was performed using a Lifecodes RBC/RBC-R typing kit (Immucor, Norcross, GA). A national recipient registry website has been established. Each hospital-based blood bank voluntarily enters data on antibodies detected and identified and the outcomes of specific antigen testing. We calculated the availabilities of specific antigen-negative blood components based on these registry data and predicted the prevalence of RBC antigens via RBC genotyping. The prevalences of various RBC antigens in the D-negative population were determined for the first time, and the Cartwright, Scianna, Dombrock, Colton, Landsteiner-Wiener, Cromer, and Knops blood group systems were identified. The availabilities of specific antigen-negative units differed when calculations were based on serotyping or genotyping, especially in the D-negative group. Data on the prevalences of various blood antigens are essential for estimating the availabilities of blood components that are appropriate for use by patients expressing relevant antibodies. Then, blood banks would be able to efficiently supply safe blood products. PMID:27021300

  12. Noroviruses Distinguish between Type 1 and Type 2 Histo-Blood Group Antigens for Binding▿

    PubMed Central

    Shirato, Haruko; Ogawa, Satoko; Ito, Hiromi; Sato, Takashi; Kameyama, Akihiko; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Xiaofan, Zheng; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Wakita, Takaji; Ishii, Koji; Takeda, Naokazu

    2008-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a causative agent of acute gastroenteritis. NoV binds to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), namely, ABH antigens and Lewis (Le) antigens, in which type 1 and type 2 carbohydrate core structures constitute antigenically distinct variants. Norwalk virus, the prototype strain of norovirus, binds to the gastroduodenal junction, and this binding is correlated with the presence of H type 1 antigen but not with that of H type 2 antigen (S. Marionneau, N. Ruvoen, B. Le Moullac-Vaidye, M. Clement, A. Cailleau-Thomas, G. Ruiz-Palacois, P. Huang, X. Jiang, and J. Le Pendu, Gastroenterology 122:1967-1977, 2002). It has been unknown whether NoV distinguishes between the type 1 and type 2 chains of A and B antigens. In this study, we synthesized A type 1, A type 2, B type 1, and B type 2 pentasaccharides in vitro and examined the function of the core structures in the binding between NoV virus-like particles (VLPs) and HBGAs. The attachment of five genogroup I (GI) VLPs from 5 genotypes and 11 GII VLPs from 8 genotypes, GI/1, GI/2, GI/3, GI/4, GI/8, GII/1, GII/3, GII/4, GII/5, GII/6, GII/7, GII/12, and GII/14, to ABH and Le HBGAs was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based binding assays and Biacore analyses. GI/1, GI/2, GI/3, GI/4, GI/8, and GII/4 VLPs were more efficiently bound to A type 2 than A type 1, and GI/8 and GII/4 VLPs were more efficiently bound to B type 2 than B type 1, indicating that NoV VLPs distinguish between type 1 and type 2 carbohydrates. The dissociation of GII/4 VLPs from B type 1 was slower than that from B type 2 in the Biacore experiments; moreover, the binding to B type 1 was stronger than that to B type 2 in the ELISA experiments. These results indicated that the type 1 carbohydrates bind more tightly to NoV VLPs than the type 2 carbohydrates. This property may afford NoV tissue specificity. GII/4 is known to be a global epidemic genotype and binds to more HBGAs than other genotypes. This characteristic may be linked

  13. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab′)2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool. PMID:27484487

  14. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab')2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool. PMID:27484487

  15. Hemocytes and Plasma of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Display a Diverse Repertoire of Sulfated and Blood Group A-modified N-Glycans*

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Simone; Jin, Chunsheng; Hykollari, Alba; Gregorich, Daniel; Giomarelli, Barbara; Vasta, Gerardo R.; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Paschinger, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) has become a useful model system for glycan-dependent host-parasite interactions due to the hijacking of the oyster galectin CvGal1 for host entry by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus, the causative agent of Dermo disease. In this study, we examined the N-glycans of both the hemocytes, which via CvGal1 are the target of the parasite, and the plasma of the oyster. In combination with HPLC fractionation, exoglycosidase digestion, and fragmentation of the glycans, mass spectrometry revealed that the major N-glycans of plasma are simple hybrid structures, sometimes methylated and core α1,6-fucosylated, with terminal β1,3-linked galactose; a remarkable high degree of sulfation of such glycans was observed. Hemocytes express a larger range of glycans, including core-difucosylated paucimannosidic forms, whereas bi- and triantennary glycans were found in both sources, including structures carrying sulfated and methylated variants of the histo-blood group A epitope. The primary features of the oyster whole hemocyte N-glycome were also found in dominin, the major plasma glycoprotein, which had also been identified as a CvGal1 glycoprotein ligand associated with hemocytes. The occurrence of terminal blood group moieties on oyster dominin and on hemocyte surfaces can account in part for their affinity for the endogenous CvGal1. PMID:23824194

  16. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Getaneh; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of 22 ± 0.29 (median ± standard error of the mean). Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%), A (136, 32.7%), B (87, 20.9%), and AB (18, 4.3%). Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%). The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416). ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (P = 0.022). High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, P = 0.003) compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia. PMID:26925291

  17. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemu, Getaneh; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of 22 ± 0.29 (median ± standard error of the mean). Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%), A (136, 32.7%), B (87, 20.9%), and AB (18, 4.3%). Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%). The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416). ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (P = 0.022). High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, P = 0.003) compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia.

  18. Blood Group Typing: From Classical Strategies to the Application of Synthetic Antibodies Generated by Molecular Imprinting †

    PubMed Central

    Mujahid, Adnan; Dickert, Franz L.

    2015-01-01

    Blood transfusion requires a mandatory cross-match test to examine the compatibility between donor and recipient blood groups. Generally, in all cross-match tests, a specific chemical reaction of antibodies with erythrocyte antigens is carried out to monitor agglutination. Since the visual inspection is no longer useful for obtaining precise quantitative information, therefore there is a wide variety of different technologies reported in the literature to recognize the agglutination reactions. Despite the classical methods, modern biosensors and molecular blood typing strategies have also been considered for straightforward, accurate and precise analysis. The interfacial part of a typical sensor device could range from natural antibodies to synthetic receptor materials, as designed by molecular imprinting and which is suitably integrated with the transducer surface. Herein, we present a comprehensive overview of some selected strategies extending from traditional practices to modern procedures in blood group typing, thus to highlight the most promising approach among emerging technologies. PMID:26729127

  19. Association between Knops blood group polymorphisms and susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Aparecida Maria; Kashima, Simone; Bonfim-Silva, Ricardo; Azevedo, Rochele; Abraham, Kuruvilla Joseph; Albuquerque, Sérgio Roberto Lopes; Bordin, José Orlando; Júnior, Dante Mário Langhi; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2011-10-01

    Complement receptor 1 (CR1) gene polymorphisms that are associated with Knops blood group antigens may influence the binding of Plasmodium parasites to erythrocytes, thereby affecting susceptibility to malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotype and allele and haplotype frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Knops blood group antigens and examine their association with susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of Brazil. One hundred and twenty-six individuals from the Brazilian Amazon were studied. The CR1-genomic fragment was amplified by PCR and six SNPs and haplotypes were identified after DNA sequence analysis. Allele and haplotype frequencies revealed that the Kn(b) allele and H8 haplotype were possibly associated with susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum. The odds ratios were reasonably high, suggesting a potentially important association between two Knops blood antigens (Kn(b) and KAM(+)) that confer susceptibility to P. falciparum in individuals from the Brazilian Amazon.

  20. Association between Knops blood group polymorphisms and susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Aparecida Maria; Kashima, Simone; Bonfim-Silva, Ricardo; Azevedo, Rochele; Abraham, Kuruvilla Joseph; Albuquerque, Sérgio Roberto Lopes; Bordin, José Orlando; Júnior, Dante Mário Langhi; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2011-01-01

    Complement receptor 1 (CR1) gene polymorphisms that are associated with Knops blood group antigens may influence the binding of Plasmodium parasites to erythrocytes, thereby affecting susceptibility to malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotype and allele and haplotype frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Knops blood group antigens and examine their association with susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of Brazil. One hundred and twenty-six individuals from the Brazilian Amazon were studied. The CR1-genomic fragment was amplified by PCR and six SNPs and haplotypes were identified after DNA sequence analysis. Allele and haplotype frequencies revealed that the Knb allele and H8 haplotype were possibly associated with susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum. The odds ratios were reasonably high, suggesting a potentially important association between two Knops blood antigens (Knb and KAM+) that confer susceptibility to P. falciparum in individuals from the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:22215954

  1. [Mobilization of Blood: Blood Transfusion Service, Blood Group Research, and Total Defence in Switzerland, 1940-1960].

    PubMed

    Germann, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    During World War II and the early Cold War period, a rapid development of the blood transfusion service and a boom in blood group research occurred in Switzerland. Unprecedented volumes of blood were stored and enormous quantities of blood group data were recorded. In the following paper I will argue that this mobilization of blood was strongly shaped by military institutions and aims. The military worked closely with the Red Cross in order to build a blood transfusion service that was supposed to guarantee a permanent readiness for war and help prepare the nation for an imagined nuclear conflict. Concurrently, geneticists, anthropologists, and physicians obtained new opportunities for scientific research in collaboration with the military and the Red Cross enabling them access to comprehensive military data and modern serological laboratories. The paper points out how this cooperation between the military and the sciences influenced and transformed the cultural meanings, the medical uses of as well as the knowledge about human blood. PMID:26902059

  2. Duffy blood group gene polymorphisms among malaria vivax patients in four areas of the Brazilian Amazon region

    PubMed Central

    Cavasini, Carlos E; de Mattos, Luiz C; Couto, Álvaro AR D'Almeida; Couto, Vanja SC D'Almeida; Gollino, Yuri; Moretti, Laurence J; Bonini-Domingos, Cláudia R; Rossit, Andréa RB; Castilho, Lilian; Machado, Ricardo LD

    2007-01-01

    Background Duffy blood group polymorphisms are important in areas where Plasmodium vivax predominates, because this molecule acts as a receptor for this protozoan. In the present study, Duffy blood group genotyping in P. vivax malaria patients from four different Brazilian endemic areas is reported, exploring significant associations between blood group variants and susceptibility or resistance to malaria. Methods The P. vivax identification was determined by non-genotypic and genotypic screening tests. The Duffy blood group was genotyped by PCR/RFLP in 330 blood donors and 312 malaria patients from four Brazilian Amazon areas. In order to assess the variables significance and to obtain independence among the proportions, the Fisher's exact test was used. Results The data show a high frequency of the FYA/FYB genotype, followed by FYB/FYB, FYA/FYA, FYA/FYB-33 and FYB/FYB-33. Low frequencies were detected for the FYA/FYX, FYB/FYX, FYX/FYX and FYB-33/FYB-33 genotypes. Negative Duffy genotype (FYB-33/FYB-33) was found in both groups: individuals infected and non-infected (blood donors). No individual carried the FYX/FYB-33 genotype. Some of the Duffy genotypes frequencies showed significant differences between donors and malaria patients. Conclusion The obtained data suggest that individuals with the FYA/FYB genotype have higher susceptibility to malaria. The presence of the FYB-33 allele may be a selective advantage in the population, reducing the rate of infection by P. vivax in this region. Additional efforts may contribute to better elucidate the physiopathologic differences in this parasite/host relationship in regions endemic for P. vivax malaria, in particular the Brazilian Amazon region. PMID:18093292

  3. Novel UDP-GalNAc Derivative Structures Provide Insight into the Donor Specificity of Human Blood Group Glycosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Gerd K; Pesnot, Thomas; Palcic, Monica M; Jørgensen, Rene

    2015-12-25

    Two closely related glycosyltransferases are responsible for the final step of the biosynthesis of ABO(H) human blood group A and B antigens. The two enzymes differ by only four amino acid residues, which determine whether the enzymes transfer GalNAc from UDP-GalNAc or Gal from UDP-Gal to the H-antigen acceptor. The enzymes belong to the class of GT-A folded enzymes, grouped as GT6 in the CAZy database, and are characterized by a single domain with a metal dependent retaining reaction mechanism. However, the exact role of the four amino acid residues in the specificity of the enzymes is still unresolved. In this study, we report the first structural information of a dual specificity cis-AB blood group glycosyltransferase in complex with a synthetic UDP-GalNAc derivative. Interestingly, the GalNAc moiety adopts an unusual yet catalytically productive conformation in the binding pocket, which is different from the "tucked under" conformation previously observed for the UDP-Gal donor. In addition, we show that this UDP-GalNAc derivative in complex with the H-antigen acceptor provokes the same unusual binding pocket closure as seen for the corresponding UDP-Gal derivative. Despite this, the two derivatives show vastly different kinetic properties. Our results provide a important structural insight into the donor substrate specificity and utilization in blood group biosynthesis, which can very likely be exploited for the development of new glycosyltransferase inhibitors and probes.

  4. Structural characterization of neutral oligosaccharides with blood-group A and H activity isolated from bovine submaxillary mucin.

    PubMed Central

    Savage, A V; D'Arcy, S M; Donoghue, C M

    1991-01-01

    In this study we investigated the structures of 11 neutral oligosaccharides released from bovine submaxillary mucin by alkaline borohydride treatment and isolated by h.p.l.c. One hexa-, one penta-, three tetra-, four tri- and two di-saccharides containing core types 1, 2, 3 or 4 were obtained. We report their structures, determined by a combination of one- and two-dimensional 1H n.m.r. spectroscopy at 270 MHz and methylation analysis involving g.l.c.-m.s., along with their approximate molar ratios. Only three of these oligosaccharides have previously been reported in this source. Of the new oligosaccharides, one contains the blood-group-A antigenic determinant, two contain the blood-group-H type 2 determinant, while another contains the blood-group-H type 3 determinant. The oligosaccharide GlcNAc beta (1----6)[GlcNAc beta (1----3)]GalNAcol, although previously found as a core structure, has been isolated here as a novel trisaccharide. PMID:1718265

  5. Expression of blood group antigens in urinary tract tumours: prospective fluorescence study using cryostat sections of fresh frozen tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, S J; Abel, P; Henderson, D; Jones, N; Feizi, T

    1986-01-01

    Cryostat sections of fresh frozen tissues were used in a prospective study of blood group H and A antigen fluorescence in 73 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. The aim was to evaluate antigen expression without subjecting the tumour tissues to organic solvents that extract blood group active glycolipids. Deletion of the genetically predicted antigen was twice as common in tumours of pT1 or greater stage than those of pTa stage and also twice as common in poorly differentiated than in moderately well differentiated tumours. The considerable heterogeneity and overlap, however, in patterns of reactivity in tumours of various histopathological stages and grades and the effect of secretor status on antigenicity meant that there was no obvious antigenic feature that correlated precisely with invasive stage or differentiation grade. It remains to be determined whether the antigen positive and antigen negative tumours represent different disease entities with differing clinical courses. Our results indicate, however, that studies of the blood group antigens in urinary tract tumours are more likely to be of value in research into biochemical disorders in the neoplastic process than in routine clinical assessment as a guide to treatment. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:3540013

  6. ABO (histo) blood group phenotype development and human reproduction as they relate to ancestral IgM formation: A hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Arend, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a histo (blood) group) ABO phenotype and the exclusion of an autoreactive IgM or isoagglutinin activity arise apparently in identical glycosylation of complementary domains on cell surfaces and plasma proteins. The fundamental O-glycan emptiness of the circulating IgM, which during the neonatal amino acid sequencing of the variable regions is exerting germline-specific O-GalNAc glycan-reactive serine/threonine residues that in the plasma of the adult human blood group O individuals apparently remain associated with the open glycosidic sites on the ABOH convertible red cell surface, must raise suggestions on a transient expression of developmental glycans, which have been "lost" over the course of maturation. In fact, while the mammalian non-somatic, embryogenic stem cell (ESC)- germ cell (GC) transformation is characterized by a transient and genetically as-yet-undefined trans-species-functional O-GalNAc glycan expression, in the C57BL/10 mouse such expression was potentially identified in growth-dependent, blood group A-like GalNAc glycan-bearing, ovarian glycolipids complementary with the syngeneic anti-A reactive IgM, which does not appear in early ovariectomized animals. This non-somatically encoded, polyreactive, ancestral IgM molecule has not undergone clonal selection and does primarily not differentiate between self and non-self and might, due to amino acid hydroxyl groups, highly suggest substrate competition with subsequent O-glycosylations in ongoing ESC-GC transformations and affecting GC maturation. However, the membrane-bound somatic N/O-glycotransferases, which initiate, after formation of the zygote, the complex construction of the human ABO phenotypes in the trans cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, are associated and/or completed with soluble enzyme versions exerting identical specificities in plasma and likely competing vice versa by glycosylation of neonatal IgM amino acids, where they suggest to accomplish the clearance of anti

  7. Mucosal Blood Group Antigen Expression Profiles and HIV Infections: A Study among Female Sex Workers in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Chanzu, Nadia Musimbi; Mwanda, Walter; Oyugi, Julius; Anzala, Omu

    2015-01-01

    Background The ABO blood group antigens are carbohydrate moieties expressed on human red blood cells however; these antigens can also be expressed on some other cells particularly the surface of epithelial cells and may be found in mucosal secretions. In many human populations 80% secrete ABO antigens (termed ‘secretors’) while 20% do not (termed ‘non-secretors’). Furthermore, there are disease conditions that are associated with secretor status. Objective To investigate correlations between secretor status and HIV infection among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. Methodology This cross-sectional study recruited 280 female sex workers aged 18–65 years from the Pumwani Majengo cohort, Kenya. Blood typing was determined by serological techniques using monoclonal antibodies to the ABO blood group antigens. Secretor phenotyping was determined using anti-H specific lectins specific to salivary, vaginal and cervical blood group H antigen using the agglutination inhibition technique and correlated to individual HIV sero-status. Participants were additionally screened for Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis. Results Out of the 280 participants, 212 (75.7%) were secretors and 68 (24.3%) were non-secretors. The incidence of all infections: HIV, Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis was higher among secretors compared to non-secretors. However, this difference was only statistically significant for HIV infection incidence rates: HIV infected secretors (83.7%) versus HIV un-infected secretors (71.8%) (p = 0.029) Based on ABO phenotype stratification, the incidence of HIV infection was higher among blood group A secretors (26/52 = 50%), in comparison to B (12/39 = 33.3%: p = 0.066), AB (3/9 = 33.3%: p = 0.355), and O secretors (36/112 = 32.1%: p = 0.028). Conclusion This is the first report to document the variable expression of the ABH blood group antigens profiling secretor and non-secretor phenotypes

  8. Blockade of invariant TCR-CD1d interaction specifically inhibits antibody production against blood group A carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Tazawa, Hirofumi; Irei, Toshimitsu; Tanaka, Yuka; Igarashi, Yuka; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Ohdan, Hideki

    2013-10-10

    Previously, we detected B cells expressing receptors for blood group A carbohydrates in the CD11b(+)CD5(+) B-1a subpopulation in mice, similar to that in blood group O or B in humans. In the present study, we demonstrate that CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are required to produce anti-A antibodies (Abs), probably through collaboration with B-1a cells. After immunization of wild-type (WT) mice with human blood group A red blood cells (A-RBCs), interleukin (IL)-5 exclusively and transiently increased and the anti-A Abs were elevated in sera. However, these reactions were not observed in CD1d(-/-) mice, which lack NKT cells. Administration of anti-mouse CD1d blocking monoclonal Abs (mAb) prior to immunization abolished IL-5 production by NKT cells and anti-A Ab production in WT mice. Administration of anti-IL-5 neutralizing mAb also diminished anti-A Ab production in WT mice, suggesting that IL-5 secreted from NKT cells critically regulates anti-A Ab production by B-1a cells. In nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID/γc(null)) mice, into which peripheral blood mononuclear cells from type O human volunteers were engrafted, administration of anti-human CD1d mAb prior to A-RBC immunization completely inhibited anti-A Ab production. Thus, anti-CD1d treatment might constitute a novel approach that could help in evading Ab-mediated rejection in ABO-incompatible transplant recipients.

  9. Stabilization of Transfected Cells Expressing Low-Incidence Blood Group Antigens: Novel Methods Facilitating Their Use as Reagent-Cells

    PubMed Central

    González, Cecilia; Esteban, Rosa; Canals, Carme; Muñiz-Díaz, Eduardo; Nogués, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Background The identification of erythrocyte antibodies in the serum of patients rely on panels of human red blood cells (RBCs), which coexpress many antigens and are not easily available for low-incidence blood group phenotypes. These problems have been addressed by generating cell lines expressing unique blood group antigens, which may be used as an alternative to human RBCs. However, the use of cell lines implies several drawbacks, like the requirement of cell culture facilities and the high cost of cryopreservation. The application of cell stabilization methods could facilitate their use as reagent cells in clinical laboratories. Methods We generated stably-transfected cells expressing low-incidence blood group antigens (Dia and Lua). High-expresser clones were used to assess the effect of TransFix® treatment and lyophilization as cell preservation methods. Cells were kept at 4°C and cell morphology, membrane permeability and antigenic properties were evaluated at several time-points after treatment. Results TransFix® addition to cell suspensions allows cell stabilization and proper antigen detection for at least 120 days, despite an increase in membrane permeability and a reduction in antigen expression levels. Lyophilized cells showed minor morphological changes and antigen expression levels were rather conserved at days 1, 15 and 120, indicating a high stability of the freeze-dried product. These stabilized cells have been proved to react specifically with human sera containing alloantibodies. Conclusions Both stabilization methods allow long-term preservation of the transfected cells antigenic properties and may facilitate their distribution and use as reagent-cells expressing low-incidence antigens, overcoming the limited availability of such rare RBCs. PMID:27603310

  10. Impact of antigenic exposures and role of molecular blood grouping in enhancing transfusion safety in chronically transfused thalassemics

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Agrawal, Soma; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Chowdhry, Mohit; Thakur, Uday Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Red cell alloimmunization is an acknowledged complication of blood transfusion. Current transfusion practices for thalassemia do not cater to this risk. Serological phenotyping is usually not reliable in these cases unless performed before the first transfusion. Under such circumstances, molecular blood grouping is an effective alternative. Aim: To perform molecular blood group genotyping in chronically transfused thalassemia patients and assess the risk of antigenic exposure and incidence of alloimmunization with current transfusion protocols. Materials and Methods: Molecular blood group genotyping was performed for 47 chronically transfused thalassemia patients. Their 1-year transfusion records were retrieved to assess the antigenic exposure and the frequency thereof. Results: Of 47 patients, 6 were already alloimmunized (3 with anti-E and 3 with anti-K) and were receiving the corresponding antigen negative units. We observed that random selection of ABO and Rh D matched units resulted in 57.7% ±8.26% chance of Rh and Kell phenotype matching also. Forty-four patients had received one or more antigenic exposures at least once. The 6 already alloimmunized patients were further exposed to antigens other than the ones they were immunized to. During the study period, only one patient developed an alloantibody, anti-E with exposure to antigens C (92%) and/or E (32%) at each transfusion. Conclusion: Several factors apart from mere antigen exposure may influence the development of alloimmunization as most of our patients received antigenic exposures but not alloimmunized. Our data provide an impetus for future large-scale studies to understand the development of alloimmunization in such patients. PMID:27605852

  11. Impact of antigenic exposures and role of molecular blood grouping in enhancing transfusion safety in chronically transfused thalassemics

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Agrawal, Soma; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Chowdhry, Mohit; Thakur, Uday Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Red cell alloimmunization is an acknowledged complication of blood transfusion. Current transfusion practices for thalassemia do not cater to this risk. Serological phenotyping is usually not reliable in these cases unless performed before the first transfusion. Under such circumstances, molecular blood grouping is an effective alternative. Aim: To perform molecular blood group genotyping in chronically transfused thalassemia patients and assess the risk of antigenic exposure and incidence of alloimmunization with current transfusion protocols. Materials and Methods: Molecular blood group genotyping was performed for 47 chronically transfused thalassemia patients. Their 1-year transfusion records were retrieved to assess the antigenic exposure and the frequency thereof. Results: Of 47 patients, 6 were already alloimmunized (3 with anti-E and 3 with anti-K) and were receiving the corresponding antigen negative units. We observed that random selection of ABO and Rh D matched units resulted in 57.7% ±8.26% chance of Rh and Kell phenotype matching also. Forty-four patients had received one or more antigenic exposures at least once. The 6 already alloimmunized patients were further exposed to antigens other than the ones they were immunized to. During the study period, only one patient developed an alloantibody, anti-E with exposure to antigens C (92%) and/or E (32%) at each transfusion. Conclusion: Several factors apart from mere antigen exposure may influence the development of alloimmunization as most of our patients received antigenic exposures but not alloimmunized. Our data provide an impetus for future large-scale studies to understand the development of alloimmunization in such patients.

  12. An examination of co-infection in acute gastroenteritis and histo-blood group antigens leading to viral infection susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    FURUYA, KENTA; NAKAJIMA, HITOSHI; SASAKI, YOUSUKE; URITA, YOSHIHISA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate co-infection in the gastrointestinal tract in terms of viruses, bacteria and the ABO blood group. We hypothesized that a combination of norovirus (NV) and bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract could affect the likelihood of an individual to contracting NV. Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are considered to act as receptors that can lead to NV susceptibility. In addition to genetics, co-infection in the gastrointestinal tract may be associated with this mechanism. A total of 370 patients with acute gastroenteritis presenting with diarrhea (14–89 years) were recruited. The male/female ratio was 20/17. Single infection (bacteria or virus), co-infection with two viruses, and co-infection with one virus and one bacterium were statistically analyzed. In total, 88 of the 376 subjects (23.4%) were positive for one virus, and 50 (13.3%) were positive for one bacterium. Co-transfection with bacteria and a virus were detected in 46 (47.9%) of the 96 bacterial gastroenteritis cases. Statistical analysis revealed that co-infection of bacteria and NV was not significant in all viral infections (P=0.768). In terms of the ABO histo-blood group type and NV infection, the frequency in the O type was not significantly increased (P=0.052). Co-infection of bacteria and a virus occurred frequently in the gastrointestinal tract. The ABO blood phenotype expression was not a significant factor in NV infection in the present case series and the results did not suggest an affinity of NV for specific bacteria. PMID:26998270

  13. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Dolmashkin, A A; Dubrovskii, V A; Zabenkov, I V

    2012-05-31

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  14. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmashkin, A. A.; Dubrovskii, V. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.

    2012-05-01

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  15. Multiple hydrothermal and metamorphic events in the Kidd Creek volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, Timmins, Ontario: evidence from tourmalines and chlorites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Coad, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The tourmalines and chlorites record a series of multiple hydrothermal and metamorphic events. Paragenetic studies suggest that tourmaline was deposited during several discrete stages of mineralization, as evidence by brecciation and cross-cutting relationships. Most of the tourmalines have two concentric growth zones defined by different colours (green, brown, blue, yellow). Some tourmalines also display pale discordant rims that cross-cut and embay the inner growth zones and polycrystalline, multiple-extinction domains. Late sulphide veinlets (chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite) transect the inner growth zones and pale discordant rims of many crystals. The concentric growth zones are interpreted as primary features developed by the main ore-forming hydrothermal system, whereas the discordant rims, polycrystalline domains, and cross-cutting sulphide veinlets reflect post-ore metamorphic processes. Variations in mineral proportions and mineral chemistry within the deposit mainly depend on fluctuations in temperature, pH, water/rock ratios, and amounts of entrained seawater. -from Authors

  16. Association of ABO Blood Group and Rh factor with Periodontal Disease in a Population of Virajpet, Karnataka: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Vivek, S; Jain, Jithesh; Simon, Sequiera Peter; Battur, Hemanth; Supreetha, S; Haridas, Reshmi

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was an association between periodontal diseases and ABO blood groups. Materials & Methods: An epidemiological study was was carried out on 220 subjects who were randomly selected from individuals referred for periodontal treatment or for other reasons regarding Oral health at Coorg Institute of Dental Sciences. Results: The findings of our study revealed that subject’s blood group O (65.8) and Rh positive (73.33%) had a greater propensity for periodontitis. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed blood groups and Rh factor can act as a determinant of periodontitis. How to cite this article: Vivek S, Jain J, Simon SP, Battur H, Supreetha S, Haridas R. Association of ABO Blood Group and Rh factor with Periodontal Disease in a Population of Virajpet, Karnataka: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):30-34. PMID:24155617

  17. Distribution of ABO blood groups in the patients with intracranial aneurysm and association of different risk factors with particular blood type

    PubMed Central

    Bir, Shyamal Chandra; Bollam, Papireddy; Nanda, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The association between ABO blood groups and intracranial aneurysms is not well-known. Many co-morbid factors are associated with intracranial aneurysms. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of different blood group in patients with intracranial aneurysm and to look for associations between risk factors and these groups. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study includes 1,491 cases who underwent surgical operations for intracranial aneurysms from 1993-2014. We have evaluated the information related to clinical history, ABO blood groups and associated risk factors in the patients both ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms by chart review of the cases. Results: In our study, out of 1,491 cases, the most common ABO blood groups were group O (668 cases, 44.80%) and Group A (603 cases, 40.44%), and Rh(+) in 1,319 (88.4%) and Rh(-) in 147 (11.6%). Blood Group A (43% vs. 36%) and Group B (16.2% vs. 8.6%) were significantly higher in Caucasian and African Americans respectively. However, in general population, there was no significant difference in blood groups between Caucasians and African Americans. Rh(-) factor was significantly higher in Caucasians compared to African Americans. Incidence of smoking was significantly higher in aneurysm patients with O group compared to others. In addition, incidence of hypercholesterolemia was significantly higher in aneurysm patients with A group compared to others. Conclusion: The racial disparity in the distribution of blood groups, and risk factor association with blood groups in the development of intracranial aneurysm needs to be considered. The findings from our study may be useful in identifying patients at increased risk. Further study may be required to establish the risks from multiple centers studies around the world. PMID:26396600

  18. Blood Group Substances as Potential Therapeutic Agents for the Prevention and Treatment of Infection with Noroviruses Proving Novel Binding Patterns in Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Shin; Yokobori, Takehiko; Ueta, Gen; Ide, Munenori; Altan, Bolag; Thongprachum, Aksara; Nishimura, Toyo; Nakajima, Tamiko; Kominato, Yoshihiko; Asao, Takayuki; Saniabadi, Abby R.; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Le Pendu, Jacques; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Blood group-related glycans determining ABO and Lewis blood groups are known to function as attachment factors for most of the norovirus (NoV) strains. To identify binding specificity of each NoV, recombinant norovirus-like particles (VLPs) and human saliva samples with different ABO, Lewis phenotypes and secretor status have been commonly applied. When binding specificities of VLPs prepared from 16 different genotypes of NoVs in GI and GII genogroups were characterized in samples of human gastric mucosa compared to human saliva based on blood group phenotypes, considerable differences were observed for several strains. Novel binding specificities determined by an ELISA using preparations from human gastric mucosa were also ascertained by immunohistochemical analyses using human jejunal mucosa, widely believed to be susceptible to NoV infection. Further, A, B and O(H) blood group substances prepared from porcine and squid tissues were found to be effective for preventing ABO blood group-specific binding of VLPs to both saliva and mucosa samples. Therefore, these blood group substances might have potential for the prevention and treatment of NoV infection. PMID:24558470

  19. A case of nearly mistaken AB para-Bombay blood group donor transplanted to a group ‘O’ recipient

    PubMed Central

    Townamchai, Natavudh; Watanaboonyongcharoen, Phandee; Chancharoenthana, Wiwat; Avihingsanon, Yingyos

    2014-01-01

    Unintentional ABO mismatch kidney transplantation can cause detrimental hyperacute rejection. We report the first successful ABO incompatible kidney transplantation from an AB para-Bombay donor to O recipient. At the initial evaluation, the donor's ABO type was discordance on the cell typing and serum typing, which typed to be ‘O’ as cell typing and ‘AB’ as serum typing. At the second investigation, it was confirmed that the donor had a unique, rare but not uncommon blood type AB para-Bombay which was incompatible with the recipient's blood group. The kidney transplantation was successfully performed by an ABO incompatible preconditioning, double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) and rituximab. The serum creatinine at 12 months post-transplantation was 1.3 mg/dL. The pathology of the kidney biopsy showed no signs of rejection. PMID:25362187

  20. Immunosuppressive protocols for transplantation and certain hematologic malignancies can prevent the primary immune response to the D blood group antigen.

    PubMed

    Seager, Adair; Sandler, S G

    2013-01-01

    A review of the published literature on Rh alloimmunization reveals that its incidence varies with the volume of infused D+ red blood cells (RBCs), the probable Rh genotype of the RBCs, and the immune competency of the D- recipient. Among the reports of Rh alloimmunization on different clinical circumstances, we identified five studies in which a combined total of 62 D- recipients of hematopoetic stem cell or solid -organ transplants were transfised with D+ RBCs and none (0%) formed anti-D. The observation that immunosuppressive protocols developed to prevent rejection of tissue and organ transplants also prevented alloimmunization to the D blood group antigen raises the possibility of practical applications in blood transfusion practice. PMID:24325172

  1. Structure of a metal-independent bacterial glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the synthesis of histo-blood group A antigen

    PubMed Central

    Thiyagarajan, Nethaji; Pham, Tram T. K.; Stinson, Brittany; Sundriyal, Amit; Tumbale, Percy; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle; Brew, Keith; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are a source of antigenic variation between individuals that modulates resistance and susceptibility to pathogens and is a barrier to the spread of enveloped viruses. HBGAs are also produced by a few prokaryotes where they are synthesized by glycosyltransferases (GTs) related to human HBGA synthases. Here we report the first structure of a bacterial GT of this family, from an intestinal resident, Bacteroides ovatus. Unlike its mammalian homologues and other GTs with similar folds, this protein lacks a metal-binding Asp-X-Asp motif and is fully active in the absence of divalent metal ions, yet is strikingly similar in structure and in its interactions with substrates to structurally characterized mammalian metal-dependent mammalian homologues. This shows how an apparently major divergence in catalytic properties can be accommodated by minor structural adjustments and illustrates the structural underpinnings of horizontal transfer of a functional gene from prokaryotes to vertebrates. PMID:23230506

  2. A sequence of tests of minute human blood stains for human origin identification and ABO blood grouping.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, K

    1986-01-01

    A series of examinations is presented for human origin identification and ABO blood grouping of doubtful minute human blood stains. A blood-stained thread (0.5 cm in length) was first tested to identify human origin by microprecipitation method and then the ABO blood type was determined by both a modified absorption-elution test and a modified mixed agglutination. In the continuous tests, the maximum limits of positive reactions of the microprecipitation method, the modified absorption-elution test, and the modified mixed agglutination were 1:640, 1:160, and 1:2,560 diluted blood, respectively. A and B agglutinogens were more sensitively determined than H agglutinogen. Hemagglutinogens of blood stains on cotton threads were more easily detected than those of polyester ones. PMID:3825313

  3. Hemagglutination inhibition studies of water soluble blood group substances recovered from the erythrocytes of classical Bombay Oh subjects.

    PubMed

    Vos, G H; Moores, P P

    1976-01-01

    Using ethanol and acetone fractionation to isolate soluble blood group substances from red blood cells, 'Bombay' Oh bloods were found to contain variable amounts of concealed H substance. The IgG variety of anti-H in 'Bombay' bloods has a greater affinity for these substances than the IgM variety of anti-H. Group O parents of 'Bombay' Oh subjects were found to have normal levels of H substance, indicating that individuals heterozygous for a recessive suppressor gene 'x' synthesize it normally. In the 'Bombay' family studied, Lewis determinants were abnormally expressed in two members. Lewis activity was detected in the soluble extracts of their red blood cells but not by the direct agglutination test. Further tests using known Le(a-b-) types are necessary to determine whether these findings are linked to the 'Bombay' Oh phenomenon.

  4. A case of nearly mistaken AB para-Bombay blood group donor transplanted to a group 'O' recipient.

    PubMed

    Townamchai, Natavudh; Watanaboonyongcharoen, Phandee; Chancharoenthana, Wiwat; Avihingsanon, Yingyos

    2014-10-31

    Unintentional ABO mismatch kidney transplantation can cause detrimental hyperacute rejection. We report the first successful ABO incompatible kidney transplantation from an AB para-Bombay donor to O recipient. At the initial evaluation, the donor's ABO type was discordance on the cell typing and serum typing, which typed to be 'O' as cell typing and 'AB' as serum typing. At the second investigation, it was confirmed that the donor had a unique, rare but not uncommon blood type AB para-Bombay which was incompatible with the recipient's blood group. The kidney transplantation was successfully performed by an ABO incompatible preconditioning, double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) and rituximab. The serum creatinine at 12 months post-transplantation was 1.3 mg/dL. The pathology of the kidney biopsy showed no signs of rejection.

  5. Binding Patterns of Rotavirus Genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8] in China with Histo-Blood Group Antigens.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Li, Dan-di; Sun, Xiao-Man; Guo, Yan-Qing; Xiang, Jing-Yao; Wang, Wei-Huan; Zhang, Li-Xia; Gu, Qing-Jiu; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are an important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. It has been found that RV may recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as ligands or receptors and bind HBGAs in a type-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated the binding specificity of VP8* proteins from human rotaviruses (RV) that are prevalent in China including genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8]. Through the saliva- and oligosaccharide-based binding assays, we found that the VP8* proteins of P[4] and P[8] RV showed similar reactivity with the Leb and H type 1 antigens, while P[6] RV weakly bound the Leb antigen. These findings may facilitate further research into RV host specificity and vaccine development. PMID:26274396

  6. Binding Patterns of Rotavirus Genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8] in China with Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Li, Dan-di; Sun, Xiao-man; Guo, Yan-qing; Xiang, Jing-yao; Wang, Wei-huan; Zhang, Li-xia; Gu, Qing-jiu; Duan, Zhao-jun

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are an important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. It has been found that RV may recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as ligands or receptors and bind HBGAs in a type-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated the binding specificity of VP8* proteins from human rotaviruses (RV) that are prevalent in China including genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8]. Through the saliva- and oligosaccharide-based binding assays, we found that the VP8* proteins of P[4] and P[8] RV showed similar reactivity with the Leb and H type 1 antigens, while P[6] RV weakly bound the Leb antigen. These findings may facilitate further research into RV host specificity and vaccine development. PMID:26274396

  7. Immunosuppressive protocols for transplantation and certain hematologic malignancies can prevent the primary immune response to the D blood group antigen.

    PubMed

    Seager, Adair; Sandler, S G

    2013-01-01

    A review of the published literature on Rh alloimmunization reveals that its incidence varies with the volume of infused D+ red blood cells (RBCs), the probable Rh genotype of the RBCs, and the immune competency of the D- recipient. Among the reports of Rh alloimmunization on different clinical circumstances, we identified five studies in which a combined total of 62 D- recipients of hematopoetic stem cell or solid -organ transplants were transfised with D+ RBCs and none (0%) formed anti-D. The observation that immunosuppressive protocols developed to prevent rejection of tissue and organ transplants also prevented alloimmunization to the D blood group antigen raises the possibility of practical applications in blood transfusion practice.

  8. ABO and Rh(D) blood group distribution and their implication for feto-maternal incompatibility among the Palestinian population.

    PubMed

    Dudin, A A; Rambaud-Cousson, A; Badawi, S; Da'na, N A; Thalji, A; Hannoun, A

    1993-01-01

    ABO and Rh(D) blood group distribution was evaluated among Palestinian women in the southern area of the West Bank and east Jerusalem. Eleven per cent of women were Rh(D) negative. The review of the last 12,169 deliveries at Makassed Hospital showed that 4.8% of Rh(D)-negative mothers gave birth to Rh(D)-positive infants with haemolytic disease of the newborn. Thirty per cent of A or B infants born to O Rh(D)-positive mothers had a positive direct antiglobulin test with the presence of allo-immune A or B antibody in infant serum. ABO incompatibility was a major reason for phototherapy during the 1st week of life. Results and possibilities for prevention are discussed.

  9. Blood Group Discrepancy-First Sign of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in a Child.

    PubMed

    Datta, Suvro Sankha; Reddy, Mahua; Basu, Sabita; Krishnan, Shekhar

    2016-06-01

    A 12-year-old male child was presented in the emergency with features of anemia and mild icterus on day+67 of HSCT. The child was suffering from Fanconi anemia and undergone HSCT from ABO-matched, fully HLA matched sibling donor. The diagnosis of mixed type AIHA due to cytomegalovirus reactivation was made in the immunohematology laboratory and blood group discrepancy was the first sign of AIHA in this patient. Though the cold agglutinin titer was not significant but the clinical symptoms and laboratory evidences were suggestive of significant hemolysis due to underlying IgG autoantibody. In addition the high complement avidity of IgM autoantibody might also be a contributing factor for clinically significant hemolysis in this case. The patient was successfully treated with phenotype matched blood transfusion, rituximab and oral steroid therapy. PMID:27408394

  10. Selection of tumor antigens as targets for immune attack using immunohistochemistry: II. Blood group-related antigens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Zhang, H S; Cordon-Cardo, C; Reuter, V E; Singhal, A K; Lloyd, K O; Livingston, P O

    1997-09-26

    Blood group-related antigens have been attractive targets for immunotherapy of cancer since their initial identification as cancer-related antigens. However, available information on the relative expression of most of these antigens on human malignant and normal tissues has been insufficient for selecting optimal antigens and tumors for immune attack. In this study, the distribution of the blood group-related antigens TF, Tn, sTn, Le(a), sialyl Le(a), Le(b), Le(x), sialyl Le(x), polyfucosyl Le(x) and Le(y) on 13 types of cancer and 16 normal tissues was compared. Our results show that sTn is strongly expressed on cancers of breast, colon, stomach, ovary, prostate and uterus; Tn on prostate cancer; TF on cancers of breast, colon, ovary, prostate and uterus; Le(y) on the cancers of colon, lung, pancreas and ovary; Le(a) and Le(x) on gastric cancer; and sialyl Le(a) and sialyl Le(x) on colon cancer. The complete absence of these antigens on cancers of neuroectodermal or mesodermal origin including melanoma, sarcoma, neuroblastoma and B cell lymphoma is as striking as their widespread presence on tumors of epithelial origin. Normal tissues were also tested. Tn and Le(b) were only detected on gastric and ovarian epithelia; sTn on Leydig cells of testis in addition to gastric and ovarian epithelia; Le(x) and sialyl Le(x) on polymorphonuclear leukocytes; and TF, Le(a), sialyl Le(a), Le(x), sialyl Le(x), polyfucosyl Le(x) and Le(y) on epithelia from a variety of tissues.

  11. Blood Group Antigens C, Lub and P1 May Have a Role in HIV Infection in Africans

    PubMed Central

    Motswaledi, Modisa Sekhamo; Kasvosve, Ishmael; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi Omoniyi

    2016-01-01

    Background Botswana is among the world’s countries with the highest rates of HIV infection. It is not known whether or not this susceptibility to infection is due to genetic factors in the population. Accumulating evidence, however, points to the role of erythrocytes as potential mediators of infection. We therefore sought to establish the role, if any, of some erythrocyte antigens in HIV infection in a cross-section of the population. Methods 348 (346 HIV-negative and 2 HIV-positive) samples were obtained from the National Blood Transfusion Service as residual samples, while 194 HIV-positive samples were obtained from the Botswana-Harvard HIV Reference Laboratory. Samples were grouped for twenty three antigens. Chi-square or Fischer Exact analyses were used to compare the frequencies of the antigens in the two groups. A stepwise, binary logistic regression was used to study the interaction of the various antigens in the light of HIV-status. Results The Rh antigens C and E were associated with HIV-negative status, while blood group Jka, P1 and Lub were associated with HIV-positive status. A stepwise binary logistic regression analysis yielded group C as the most significant protective blood group while Lub and P1 were associated with significantly higher odds ratio in favor of HIV-infection. The lower-risk-associated group C was significantly lower in Africans compared to published data for Caucasians and might partially explain the difference in susceptibility to HIV-1. Conclusion The most influential antigen C, which also appears to be protective, is significantly lower in Africans than published data for Caucasians or Asians. On the other hand, there appear to be multiple antigens associated with increased risk that may override the protective role of C. A study of the distribution of these antigens in other populations may shed light on their roles in the HIV pandemic. PMID:26900853

  12. ABO Blood Group and the Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Case-Control Study in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jin-Hong; Liu, Li; Xie, Shuang-Shuang; Li, Wen-Wen; Yang, Xia; Fan, Wen-Bo; Gai, Zhong-Tao; Chen, Shi-Jun; Kato, Naoya

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have observed an association between the ABO blood group and risk of certain malignancies. However, no studies of the association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk are available. We conducted this hospital-based case-control study to examine the association with HCC in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods From January 2004 to December 2008, a total of 6275 consecutive eligible patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were recruited. 1105 of them were patients with HBV-related HCC and 5,170 patients were CHB without HCC. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between the ABO blood group and HCC risk. Results Compared with subjects with blood type O, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for the association of those with blood type A and HCC risk was 1.39 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05–1.83] after adjusting for age, sex, type 2 diabetes, cirrhosis, hepatitis B e antigen, and HBV DNA. The associations were only statistically significant [AOR (95%CI) = 1.56(1.14–2.13)] for men, for being hepatitis B e antigen positive [AOR (95%CI) = 4.92(2.83–8.57)], for those with cirrhosis [AOR (95%CI), 1.57(1.12–2.20)], and for those with HBV DNA≤105copies/mL [AOR (95%CI), 1.58(1.04–2.42)]. Stratified analysis by sex indicated that compared with those with blood type O, those with blood type B also had a significantly high risk of HCC among men, whereas, those with blood type AB or B had a low risk of HCC among women. Conclusions The ABO blood type was associated with the risk of HCC in Chinese patients with CHB. The association was gender-related. PMID:22235351

  13. Novel association of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and soluble P-selectin with the ABO blood group in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjing; Xu, Qun; Zhuang, Yunlong; Chen, Yuanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that the ABO gene can affect circulating expression levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) in Caucasians. However, several factors may affect the association, including the distribution and variations of the ABO gene, ethnic diversity and the inflammatory response status. The aim of the present study was to investigate this issue in Asian subjects of various blood groups. A total of 800 blood samples were randomly selected from healthy blood donors. The ABO blood groups were examined using standard serological tests, and ABO genotypes of group A and group AB specimens were analyzed. Plasma concentrations of sICAM-1 and sP-selectin were detected by standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In healthy Chinese individuals, blood group A was detected to be significantly associated with lower circulating expression levels of sICAM-1 and sP-selectin, compared with group O. Individuals with ≥1 A1 allele had significantly lower expression levels of sICAM-1 and sP-selectin compared with all other ABO groups. The data indicate the significant association of ABO blood group antigens with sICAM-1 and sP-selectin expression levels in a healthy Chinese population, independent of the specific variations and distributions of ABO blood groups among ethnic populations. This result provides evidence for the previously unidentified role of ABO blood group antigens in the regulation of the inflammatory adhesion process. Accordingly, it can be proposed that ABO blood groups may require consideration when soluble adhesion molecules are identified as predictors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:27446295

  14. Recognition of Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Carbohydrates in Lettuce by Human GII.4 Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Esseili, Malak A.; Lu, Zhongyan; Saif, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human norovirus (HuNoV) genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) strains account for about 80% of the gastroenteritis outbreaks in the United States. Contaminated food is a major transmission vehicle for this virus. In humans, pigs, and oysters, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) act as attachment factors for HuNoVs. In lettuce, although the virus-like particles (VLPs) of a GII.4 HuNoV were found to bind to cell wall carbohydrates, the exact binding site has not been investigated. Here, we show the presence of HBGA-like carbohydrates in the cell wall of lettuce. The digestion of lettuce leaves with cell wall-degrading enzymes exposed more binding sites and significantly increased the level of binding of GII.4 HuNoV VLPs. Competition assays showed that both the HBGA monoclonal antibody, recognizing the H type, and plant lectins, recognizing α-l-fucose in the H type, effectively inhibited VLP binding to lettuce tissues. Lettuce cell wall components were isolated and their NoV VLP binding characteristics were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The binding was inhibited by pretreatment of the lettuce cell wall materials with α-1,2-fucosidase. Collectively, our results indicate that H-type HBGA-like carbohydrates exist in lettuce tissues and that GII.4 HuNoV VLPs can bind the exposed fucose moiety, possibly in the hemicellulose component of the cell wall. IMPORTANCE Salad crops and fruits are increasingly recognized as vehicles for human norovirus (HuNoV) transmission. A recent study showed that HuNoVs specifically bind to the carbohydrates of the lettuce cell wall. Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are carbohydrates and are known as the attachment factors for HuNoV infection in humans. In this study, we show the presence of HBGA-like carbohydrates in lettuce, to which HuNoVs specifically bind. These results suggest that specifically bound HuNoVs cannot be removed by simple washing, which may allow viral transmission to consumers. Our findings provide new

  15. Blood group O alleles in Native Americans: implications in the peopling of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Mena, Benito; Estrada, F Javier; Ulloa-Arvizu, Raúl; Guido, Miriam; Méndez, Rocío; Coral, Ramón; Canto, Thelma; Granados, Julio; Rubí-Castellanos, Rodrigo; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2010-05-01

    All major ABO blood alleles are found in most populations worldwide, whereas the majority of Native Americans are nearly exclusively in the O group. O allele molecular characterization could aid in elucidating the possible causes of group O predominance in Native American populations. In this work, we studied exon 6 and 7 sequence diversity in 180 O blood group individuals from four different Mesoamerican populations. Additionally, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity and population structure including South American populations was performed. Results revealed no significant differences among Mesoamerican and South American groups, but showed significant differences within population groups attributable to previously detected differences in genetic drift and founder effects throughout the American continent. Interestingly, in all American populations, the same set of haplotypes O(1), O(1v), and O(1v(G542A)) was present, suggesting the following: (1) that they constitute the main genetic pool of the founding population of the Americas and (2) that they derive from the same ancestral source, partially supporting the single founding population hypothesis. In addition, the consistent and restricted presence of the G542A mutation in Native Americans compared to worldwide populations allows it to be employed as an Ancestry informative marker (AIM). Present knowledge of the peopling of the Americas allows the prediction of the way in which the G542A mutation could have emerged in Beringia, probably during the differentiation process of Asian lineages that gave rise to the founding population of the continent. PMID:19862808

  16. Expression of the Blood-Group-Related Gene B4galnt2 Alters Susceptibility to Salmonella Infection.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Philipp; Steck, Natalie; Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Seidel, Janice A; Künzel, Sven; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Basic, Marijana; Bleich, Andre; Johnsen, Jill M; Vallance, Bruce A; Baines, John F; Grassl, Guntram A

    2015-07-01

    Glycans play important roles in host-microbe interactions. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the blood group glycosyltransferase β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4galnt2) are variable in wild mouse populations, and loss of B4galnt2 expression is associated with altered intestinal microbiota. We hypothesized that variation in B4galnt2 expression alters susceptibility to intestinal pathogens. To test this, we challenged mice genetically engineered to express different B4galnt2 tissue-specific patterns with a Salmonella Typhimurium infection model. We found B4galnt2 intestinal expression was strongly associated with bacterial community composition and increased Salmonella susceptibility as evidenced by increased intestinal inflammatory cytokines and infiltrating immune cells. Fecal transfer experiments demonstrated a crucial role of the B4galnt2-dependent microbiota in conferring susceptibility to intestinal inflammation, while epithelial B4galnt2 expression facilitated epithelial invasion of S. Typhimurium. These data support a critical role for B4galnt2 in gastrointestinal infections. We speculate that B4galnt2-specific differences in host susceptibility to intestinal pathogens underlie the strong signatures of balancing selection observed at the B4galnt2 locus in wild mouse populations. PMID:26133982

  17. Structural insight in histo-blood group binding by the F18 fimbrial adhesin FedF.

    PubMed

    Moonens, Kristof; Bouckaert, Julie; Coddens, Annelies; Tran, Thao; Panjikar, Santosh; De Kerpel, Maia; Cox, Eric; Remaut, Han; De Greve, Henri

    2012-10-01

    F18-positive enterotoxigenic and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli are responsible for post-weaning diarrhoea and oedema disease in pigs and lead to severe production losses in the farming industry. F18 fimbriae attach to the small intestine of young piglets by latching onto glycosphingolipids with A/H blood group determinants on type 1 core. We demonstrate the N-terminal domain of the F18 fimbrial subunit FedF to be responsible for ABH-mediated attachment and present its X-ray structure in ligand-free form and bound to A and B type 1 hexaoses. The FedF lectin domain comprises a 10-stranded immunoglobulin-like β-sandwich. Three linear motives, Q(47) -N(50), H(88) -S(90) and R(117) -T(119), form a shallow glycan binding pocket near the tip of the domain that is selective for type 1 core glycans in extended conformation. In addition to the glycan binding pocket, a polybasic loop on the membrane proximal surface of FedF lectin domain is shown to be required for binding to piglet enterocytes. Although dispensable for ABH glycan recognition, the polybasic surface adds binding affinity in the context of the host cell membrane, a mechanism that is proposed to direct ABH-glycan binding to cell-bound glycosphingolipids and could allow bacteria to avoid clearance by secreted glycoproteins. PMID:22812428

  18. Exclusion of linkage between alcoholism and the MNS blood group region on chromosome 4q in multiplex families

    SciTech Connect

    Neiswanger, K.; Kaplan, B.; Hill, S.Y.

    1995-02-27

    Polymorphic DNA markers on the long arm of chromosome 4 were used to examine linkage to alcoholism in 20 multiplex pedigrees. Fifteen loci were determined for 124 individuals. Lod scores were calculated assuming both dominant and recessive disease modes of inheritance, utilizing incidence data by age and gender that allow for correction for variable age of onset and frequency of the disorder by gender. Under the assumption that alcoholism is homogeneous in this set of pedigrees, and that a recessive mode with age and gender correction is the most appropriate, the total lod scores for all families combined were uniformly lower than -2.0. This suggests an absence of linkage between the putative alcoholism susceptibility gene and markers in the region of the MNS blood group (4q28-31), a region for which we had previously found suggestive evidence of linkage to alcoholism. The 100 cM span of chromosome 4 studied includes the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) loci. Using the recessive mode, no evidence for linkage to alcoholism was found for the markers tested, which spanned almost the entire long arm of chromosome 4. Under the dominant mode, no evidence for linkage could be found for several of the markers. 36 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Allele-related variation in minisatellite repeats involved in the transcription of the blood group ABO gene.

    PubMed

    Irshaid, N M; Chester, M A; Olsson, M L

    1999-09-01

    Since the cloning in 1990 of cDNA corresponding to mRNA transcribed at the blood group ABO locus, polymorphisms at the ABO locus and phenotype-genotype correlation have been analysed by several investigators. An enhancer-active minisatellite motif reported to contain four 43-bp repeats has been analysed by PCR in blood samples from 160 random Swedish blood donors. Different sizes of the DNA fragments obtained led to further analysis by direct sequencing. Fragments with either one or four 43-bp repeats were identified. A nucleotide substitution (G-->A) at nt. 41 of 43 was found in all alleles with only one repeat. Correlation with the ABO genotypes of the samples, as determined by a panel of ABO genotyping techniques, revealed an allele-related variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). The A1 and the infrequent O2 allele had only one repeat whilst A2, B, O1 and O1v had four repeats and thus generated longer (by 129 bp) fragments. A further 74 samples obtained from various geographical areas/ethnic groups indicated a widespread correlation with few exceptions. In conclusion, a novel ABO polymorphism located in the 5'-nontranslated region involved in transcriptional regulation of the ABO gene is reported and its relationship to common alleles at this locus defined.

  20. Potential role of molecular mimicry between Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide and host Lewis blood group antigens in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Appelmelk, B J; Simoons-Smit, I; Negrini, R; Moran, A P; Aspinall, G O; Forte, J G; De Vries, T; Quan, H; Verboom, T; Maaskant, J J; Ghiara, P; Kuipers, E J; Bloemena, E; Tadema, T M; Townsend, R R; Tyagarajan, K; Crothers, J M; Monteiro, M A; Savio, A; De Graaff, J

    1996-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is involved in gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Earlier studies already suggested a role for autoimmune phenomena in H. pylori-linked disease. We now report that lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of H. pylori express Lewis y, Lewis x, and H type I blood group structures similar to those commonly occurring in gastric mucosa. Immunization of mice and rabbits with H. pylori cells or purified LPS induced an anti-Lewis x or y or anti-H type I response, yielding antibodies that bound human and murine gastric glandular tissue, granulocytes, adenocarcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma cells. Experimental oral infections in mice or natural infection in humans yielded anti-Lewis antibodies also. The beta chain of gastric (H+,K+)-ATPase, the parietal cell proton pump involved in acid secretion, contained Lewis y epitopes; gastric mucin contained Lewis x and y antigenic determinants. Growth in mice of a hybridoma that secretes H. pylori-induced anti-Lewis y monoclonal antibodies resulted in histopathological evidence of gastritis, which indicates a direct pathogenic role for anti-Lewis antibodies. In conclusion, our observations demonstrate that molecular mimicry between H. pylori LPS and the host, based on Lewis antigens, and provide understanding of an autoimmune mechanism for H. pylori-associated type B gastritis.

  1. Altered expression of Lewis blood group and related antigens in fetal, normal adult and malignant tissues of the uterine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Nakayama, M; Tanizawa, O

    1990-01-01

    The expression of the Lewis blood group and its related antigens in fetal, normal adult and malignant tissues of the uterine endometrium was examined immunohistochemically using a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies with specificities for Lewis-a (La), Sialyl Lewis-a (SLa), Lewis-b (Lb), Lewis-X (LX), Sialyl Lewis-X (SLX) and Lewis-Y (LY) antigens. La, SLa and SLX having one fucose residue were detected in a small number of fetal tissues, while Lb and LY having two fucose residues were found in most cases. In the adult endometrium, expression of Lb and LY was considerably lower than those in fetal tissues, although expression of La and SLa was not different between these two tissues. Expression of LX and SLX was pronounced in adult when compared with fetal tissues. Malignant endometrial glands expressed La, SLa, Lb and LY, extensively, while LX and SLX were expressed less than in normal tissues. Lb and LY can thus be considered oncofetal antigens, extensively expressed in fetal and malignant tissues but not in normal adult tissues. Expression of Lb and LY was greater than that of La and SLA in carcinoma; an increase in the activity of fucose transferase might be associated with malignant transformation in the uterine endometrium.

  2. Expression of human histo-blood group ABO genes is dependent upon DNA methylation of the promoter region.

    PubMed

    Kominato, Y; Hata, Y; Takizawa, H; Tsuchiya, T; Tsukada, J; Yamamoto, F

    1999-12-24

    We have investigated the regulatory role of DNA methylation in the expression of the human histo-blood group ABO genes. The ABO gene promoter region contains a CpG island whose methylation status correlates well with gene expression in the cell lines tested. The CpG island was found hypomethylated in some cell lines that expressed ABO genes, whereas the other cell lines that did not express ABO genes were hypermethylated. Whereas constitutive transcriptional activity of the ABO gene promoter was demonstrated in both expressor and nonexpressor cell lines by transient transfection of reporter constructs containing the ABO gene promoter sequence, HhaI methylase-catalyzed in vitro methylation of the promoter region prior to DNA transfection suppressed the promoter activity when introduced into the expressor gastric cancer cell line KATOIII cells. On the other hand, in the nonexpressor gastric cancer cell line MKN28 cells, treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in demethylation of the ABO gene promoter and appearance of A-transferase messages, as well as A-antigens synthesized by A-transferase. Taken together, these studies suggest that DNA methylation of the ABO gene promoter may play an important role in the regulation of ABO gene expression. PMID:10601288

  3. Expression of the Blood-Group-Related Gene B4galnt2 Alters Susceptibility to Salmonella Infection

    PubMed Central

    Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Seidel, Janice A.; Künzel, Sven; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Basic, Marijana; Bleich, Andre; Johnsen, Jill M.; Vallance, Bruce A.; Baines, John F.; Grassl, Guntram A.

    2015-01-01

    Glycans play important roles in host-microbe interactions. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the blood group glycosyltransferase β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4galnt2) are variable in wild mouse populations, and loss of B4galnt2 expression is associated with altered intestinal microbiota. We hypothesized that variation in B4galnt2 expression alters susceptibility to intestinal pathogens. To test this, we challenged mice genetically engineered to express different B4galnt2 tissue-specific patterns with a Salmonella Typhimurium infection model. We found B4galnt2 intestinal expression was strongly associated with bacterial community composition and increased Salmonella susceptibility as evidenced by increased intestinal inflammatory cytokines and infiltrating immune cells. Fecal transfer experiments demonstrated a crucial role of the B4galnt2-dependent microbiota in conferring susceptibility to intestinal inflammation, while epithelial B4galnt2 expression facilitated epithelial invasion of S. Typhimurium. These data support a critical role for B4galnt2 in gastrointestinal infections. We speculate that B4galnt2-specific differences in host susceptibility to intestinal pathogens underlie the strong signatures of balancing selection observed at the B4galnt2 locus in wild mouse populations. PMID:26133982

  4. Binding to histo-blood group antigen-expressing bacteria protects human norovirus from acute heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Breiman, Adrien; le Pendu, Jacques; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate if histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) expressing bacteria have any protective role on human norovirus (NoV) from acute heat stress. Eleven bacterial strains were included, belonging to Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Clostridium difficile, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and B. longum. HBGA expression of the bacteria as well as binding of human NoV virus-like particles (VLPs, GI.1, and GII.4 strains) to the bacteria were detected by flow cytometry. NoV VLPs pre-incubated with HBGA expressing or non-HBGA expressing bacteria were heated and detected by both direct ELISA and porcine gastric mucin-binding assay. The NoV-binding abilities of the bacteria correlated well with their HBGA expression profiles. Two HBGA expressing E. coli (LMG8223 and LFMFP861, both GI.1 and GII.4 binders) and one non-HBGA expressing E. coli (ATCC8739, neither GI.1 nor GII.4 binder) were selected for the heat treatment test with NoV VLPs. Compared with the same cell numbers of non-HBGA expressing E. coli, the presence of HBGA-expressing E. coli could always maintain higher antigen integrity, as well as mucin-binding ability of NoV VLPs of both GI.1 and GII.4 after heat-treatment at 90°C for 2 min. These results indicate that HBGA-expressing bacteria may protect NoVs during the food processing treatments, thereby facilitating their transmission. PMID:26191052

  5. Detection of Lewis, P1, and some MNS blood group system antibodies by a solid phase assay.

    PubMed

    Rolih, S; Thomas, R; Sinor, L

    1995-01-01

    Some solid phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) assays are designed to detect IgG antibodies to red blood cell (RBC) antigens. These assays use anti-IgG-coated red cells as the indicator. It is reported that most antibodies to Lea, Leb, P1, M, and N fail to react by solid phase (SP), presumably because they are IgM antibodies. Those detected are assumed to be IgG. In one year, during routine testing using SPRCA to screen patients for intended RBC transfusion, 28 of 59 such examples were found to react: anti-Lea(9), -Leb(1), -M(14), -N(1), and -P1(3). A study was undertaken to determine if reactivity was due to crosslinking by IgM antibodies of antigen-positive indicator RBCs to antigen-positive reagent RBC monolayers, or due to detection of IgG antibodies. Antibodies were tested according to standard SP protocols, except where IgG-neutralized indicator RBCs were substituted for anti-IgG-active indicator cells. The 59 samples were retested with antigen-positive and antigen-negative indicator RBCs. Only 5 of 59 reacted optimally when antigen-positive indicator cells were used: anti-Lea(2), -Leb(1), -M(1), and -N(1). The reactions of all antibodies were abolished when the anti-IgG component of the indicator was neutralized by soluble IgG. These findings show that detection of most Lewis, P1, M, and N antibodies by SPRCA is dependent on the presence of an IgG antibody in the serum.

  6. Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Substances of Human Enteric Bacteria as Specific Adsorbents for Human Noroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Takayuki; Suenaga, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Fuzawa, Miyu; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Okabe, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) have been suggested to be receptors or coreceptors for human noroviruses (HuNoVs) expressed on the intestinal epithelium. We isolated an enteric bacterium strain (SENG-6), closely related to Enterobacter cloacae, bearing HBGA-like substances from a fecal sample of a healthy individual by using a biopanning technique with anti-HBGA antibodies. The binding capacities of four genotypes of norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs) to Enterobacter sp. SENG-6 cells were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that NoVLPs bound mainly to extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, where the HBGA-like substances were localized. EPS that contained HBGA-like substances extracted from Enterobacter sp. SENG-6 was shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to be capable of binding to NoVLPs of a GI.1 wild-type strain (8fIIa) and a GII.6 strain that can recognize A antigen but not to an NoVLP GI.1 mutant strain (W375A) that loses the ability to bind to A antigen. Enzymatic cleavage of terminal N-acetyl-galactosamine residues in the bacterial EPS weakened bacterial EPS binding to the GI.1 wild-type strain (8fIIa). These results indicate that A-like substances in the bacterial EPS play a key role in binding to NoVLPs. Since the specific binding of HuNoVs to HBGA-positive enteric bacteria is likely to affect the transmission and infection processes of HuNoVs in their hosts and in the environment, further studies of human enteric bacteria and their binding capacity to HuNoVs will provide a new scientific platform for understanding interactions between two types of microbes that were previously regarded as biologically unrelated. PMID:23804639

  7. Bacterial histo-blood group antigens contributing to genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with a microfiltration membrane.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Miura, Takayuki; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Ishii, Satoshi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrated the genotype-dependent removal of human norovirus particles with a microfiltration (MF) membrane in the presence of bacteria bearing histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Three genotypes (GII.3, GII.4, and GII.6) of norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs) were mixed with three bacterial strains (Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, Escherichia coli O86:K61:B7, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), respectively, and the mixture was filtered with an MF membrane having a nominal pore size of 0.45 μm. All NoVLP genotypes were rejected by the MF membrane in the presence of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, which excreted HBGAs as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). This MF membrane removal of NoVLPs was not significant when EPS was removed from cells of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6. GII.6 NoVLP was not rejected with the MF membrane in the presence of E. coli O86:K61:B7, but the removal of EPS of E. coli O86:K61:B7 increased the removal efficiency due to the interaction of NoVLPs with the exposed B-antigen in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of E. coli O86:K61:B7. No MF membrane removal of all three genotypes was observed when S. epidermidis, an HBGA-negative strain, was mixed with NoVLPs. These results demonstrate that the location of HBGAs on bacterial cells is an important factor in determining the genotype-dependent removal efficiency of norovirus particles with the MF membrane. The presence of HBGAs in mixed liquor suspended solids from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot plant was confirmed by immune-transmission electron microscopy, which implies that bacterial HBGAs can contribute to the genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with MBR using MF membrane. PMID:27095709

  8. Cell attachment protein VP8* of a human rotavirus specifically interacts with A-type histo-blood group antigen

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liya; Crawford, Sue E.; Czako, Rita; Cortes-Penfield, Nicolas W; Smith, David F.; Le Pendu, Jacques; Estes, Mary K.; Venkataram Prasad, B. V.

    2012-01-01

    As with many other viruses, the initial cell attachment of rotaviruses, major causative agent of infantile gastroenteritis, is mediated by interactions with specific cellular glycans1–4. The distally located VP8* domain of the rotavirus spike protein VP45 mediates such interactions. The existing paradigm is that ‘sialidase-sensitive’ animal rotavirus strains bind to glycans with terminal sialic acid (Sia), whereas ‘sialidase-insensitive’ human rotavirus (HR) strains bind to glycans with internal Sia such as GM13. Although the involvement of Sia in the animal strains is firmly supported by crystallographic studies1,3,6,7, it is not yet known how VP8* of HRs interacts with Sia and whether their cell attachment necessarily involves sialoglycans. We found that VP8* of a HR strain specifically recognizes A-type histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) using a glycan array screen comprised of 511 glycans, and that virus infectivity in HT-29 cells is abrogated by anti-Atype antibodies as well as significantly enhanced in CHO cells genetically modified to express the A-type HBGA, providing a novel paradigm for initial cell attachment of HR. HBGAs are genetically determined glycoconjugates present in mucosal secretions, epithelial and on red blood cells8, and are recognized as susceptibility and cell attachment factors for gastric pathogens like H. pylori9 and noroviruses10. Our crystallographic studies show that the A-type HBGA binds to the HR VP8* at the same location as the Sia in the VP8* of animal rotavirus, and suggest how subtle changes within the same structural framework allow for such receptor switching. These results raise the possibility that host susceptibility to specific HR strains and pathogenesis are influenced by genetically controlled expression of different HBGAs among the world’s population. PMID:22504179

  9. Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae Strain SENG-6, a Bacterium Producing Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Substances That Can Bind with Human Noroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Yang, Peiyi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain SENG-6, isolated from healthy human feces, produces histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-like substances that can bind with human noroviruses. Based on the genome sequence analysis, strain SENG-6 belongs to the species Enterobacter cloacae. The genome sequence of this strain should help identify genes associated with the production of HBGA-like substances. PMID:27563051

  10. Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae Strain SENG-6, a Bacterium Producing Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Substances That Can Bind with Human Noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoshi; Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Yang, Peiyi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain SENG-6, isolated from healthy human feces, produces histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-like substances that can bind with human noroviruses. Based on the genome sequence analysis, strain SENG-6 belongs to the species Enterobacter cloacae The genome sequence of this strain should help identify genes associated with the production of HBGA-like substances. PMID:27563051

  11. The C3b/C4b receptor is recognized by the Knops, McCoy, Swain-langley, and York blood group antisera

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Erythrocytes (E) lacking high incidence blood group antigens were screened by an antiglobulin test with a monoclonal antibody to human complement receptor type 1 (CR1; C3b/C4b receptor; CD35). Some examples of E lacking Knops, McCoy, Swain-Langley, and York antigens, a serologically related group, were not agglutinated. Moreover, E of the null phenotype for these same antigens were nonreactive. To further explore this relationship, E expressing these antigens were surface labeled, solubilized, and incubated with the corresponding blood group- specific antisera. CR1 was immunoprecipitated, indicating that the epitopes recognized by each of these antisera are expressed on CR1. E of two individuals, putative null phenotypes for the Knops, McCoy, and Swain-Langley blood group antigens, expressed a very low number of CR1 (less than 30/E; approximately 10% of the normal mean). This observation accounts for their lack of reactivity in the antiglobulin test and their prior designation as null phenotypes. Also, the previously reported low as well as variable expression of CR1 on E explains prior difficulties in the serologic analyses of these blood group antigens. PMID:1708809

  12. Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae Strain SENG-6, a Bacterium Producing Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Substances That Can Bind with Human Noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoshi; Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Yang, Peiyi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain SENG-6, isolated from healthy human feces, produces histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-like substances that can bind with human noroviruses. Based on the genome sequence analysis, strain SENG-6 belongs to the species Enterobacter cloacae The genome sequence of this strain should help identify genes associated with the production of HBGA-like substances.

  13. Expression of Histo-Blood Group A Type 1, 2 and 3 Antigens in Normal Skin and Extramammary Paget’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Aki; Kimura, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Yuki; Uede, Koji; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of histo-blood group A type 1, 2 and 3 antigens was investigated using immunohistochemistry in normal human skin and extramammary Paget’s disease (EMPD). We used monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) Bioclone-A (BA) and AR-1, which react with histo-blood group A type 1/2, and type 3 antigens, respectively. We found that A type 1, 2 and 3 antigens were expressed in the upper layer of the epidermis. We also found that the duct cells of the eccrine glands expressed A type 1/2 antigens and A type 3 antigens regardless of secretor status. The dark cells of the eccrine glands expressed A type 1, 2 and 3 antigens from A blood group secretors, but not from non-secretors. Apocrine glands, hair follicles and sebaceous glands did not express these antigens. Since these antigens were localized in the eccrine glands, we examined the possibility of a skin tumor marker. Interestingly, 7 out of 16 extramammary Paget’s disease cases were immunopositive for these antigens. Six cases were accompanied by dermal invasion. Five cases without dermal invasion were immunonegative against these antigens. These results suggest that the expression of histo-blood group A antigens in EMPD are associated with a poor histopathological prognosis. PMID:19180201

  14. Blood groups in the Species Survival Plan®, European endangered species program, and managed in situ populations of bonobo (Pan paniscus), common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), gorilla (Gorilla ssp.), and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus ssp.).

    PubMed

    Gamble, Kathryn C; Moyse, Jill A; Lovstad, Jessica N; Ober, Carole B; Thompson, Emma E

    2011-01-01

    Blood groups of humans and great apes have long been considered similar, although they are not interchangeable between species. In this study, human monoclonal antibody technology was used to assign human ABO blood groups to whole blood samples from great apes housed in North American and European zoos and in situ managed populations, as a practical means to assist blood transfusion situations for these species. From a subset of each of the species (bonobo, common chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutans), DNA sequence analysis was performed to determine blood group genotype. Bonobo and common chimpanzee populations were predominantly group A, which concurred with historic literature and was confirmed by genotyping. In agreement with historic literature, a smaller number of the common chimpanzees sampled were group O, although this O blood group was more often present in wild-origin animals as compared with zoo-born animals. Gorilla blood groups were inconclusive by monoclonal antibody techniques, and genetic studies were inconsistent with any known human blood group. As the genus and, specifically, the Bornean species, orangutans were identified with all human blood groups, including O, which had not been reported previously. Following this study, it was concluded that blood groups of bonobo, common chimpanzees, and some orangutans can be reliably assessed by human monoclonal antibody technology. However, this technique was not reliable for gorilla or orangutans other than those with blood group A. Even in those species with reliable blood group detection, blood transfusion preparation must include cross-matching to minimize adverse reactions for the patient.

  15. The presence of an RHD pseudogene containing a 37 base pair duplication and a nonsense mutation in africans with the Rh D-negative blood group phenotype.

    PubMed

    Singleton, B K; Green, C A; Avent, N D; Martin, P G; Smart, E; Daka, A; Narter-Olaga, E G; Hawthorne, L M; Daniels, G

    2000-01-01

    Antigens of the Rh blood group system are encoded by 2 homologous genes, RHD and RHCE, that produce 2 red cell membrane proteins. The D-negative phenotype is considered to result, almost invariably, from homozygosity for a complete deletion of RHD. The basis of all PCR tests for predicting fetal D phenotype from DNA obtained from amniocytes or maternal plasma is detection of the presence of RHD. These tests are used in order to ascertain the risk of hemolytic disease of the newborn. We have identified an RHD pseudogene (RHD psi) in Rh D-negative Africans. RHDpsi contains a 37 base pair (bp) insert in exon 4, which may introduce a stop codon at position 210. The insert is a sequence duplication across the boundary of intron 3 and exon 4. RHDpsi contains another stop codon in exon 6. The frequency of RHDpsi in black South Africans is approximately 0.0714. Of 82 D-negative black Africans, 66% had RHDpsi, 15% had the RHD-CE-D hybrid gene associated with the VS+ V- phenotype, and only 18% completely lacked RHD. RHDpsi is present in about 24% of D-negative African Americans and 17% of D-negative South Africans of mixed race. No RHD transcript could be detected in D-negative individuals with RHDpsi, probably as a result of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Existing PCR-based methods for predicting D phenotype from DNA are not suitable for testing Africans or any population containing a substantial proportion of people with African ethnicity. Consequently, we have developed a new test that detects the 37 bp insert in exon 4 of RHDpsi. (Blood. 2000; 95:12-18)

  16. Variant ABO Blood Group Alleles, Secretor Status and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: Results from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Wolpin, Brian M.; Kraft, Peter; Xu, Mousheng; Steplowski, Emily; Olsson, Martin L.; Arslan, Alan A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gross, Myron; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Jacobs, Eric J.; LaCroix, Andrea; Petersen, Gloria; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Allen, Naomi E.; Amundadottir, Laufey; Austin, Melissa A.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Buring, Julie E.; Canzian, Federico; Chanock, Stephen J.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Hallmans, Göran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Kooperberg, Charles; Mendelsohn, Julie B.; Michaud, Dominique S.; Overvad, Kim; Patel, Alpa V.; Sanchéz, Maria-José; Sansbury, Leah; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Slimani, Nadia; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Visvanathan, Kala; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Watters, Joanne; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Hartge, Patricia; Fuchs, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Subjects with non-O ABO blood group alleles have increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Glycosyltransferase activity is greater for the A1 versus A2 variant, while O01 and O02 variants are nonfunctioning. We hypothesized: (1) A1 allele would confer greater risk than A2 allele, (2) protective effect of the O allele would be equivalent for O01 and O02 variants, (3) secretor phenotype would modify the association with risk. Methods We determined ABO variants and secretor phenotype from single nucleotide polymorphisms in ABO and FUT2 genes in 1533 cases and 1582 controls from 12 prospective cohort studies. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for pancreatic cancer were calculated using logistic regression. Results An increased risk was observed in participants with A1, but not A2 alleles. Compared to subjects with genotype O/O, genotypes A2/O, A2/A1, A1/O, and A1/A1 had ORs of 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72–1.26), 1.46 (95%CI, 0.98–2.17), 1.48 (95%CI, 1.23–1.78), and 1.71 (95%CI, 1.18–2.47). Risk was similar for O01 and O02 variant O alleles. Compared to O01/O01, the ORs for each additional allele of O02, A1, and A2 were 1.00 (95%CI, 0.87–1.14), 1.38 (95%CI, 1.20–1.58), and 0.96 (95%CI, 0.77–1.20); P-value, O01 versus O02=0.94, A1 versus A2=0.004. Secretor phenotype was not an effect modifier (P-interaction=0.63). Conclusions Among participants in a large prospective cohort consortium, ABO allele subtypes corresponding to increased glycosyltransferase activity were associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk. Impact These data support the hypothesis that ABO glycosyltransferase activity influences pancreatic cancer risk, rather than actions of other nearby genes on chromosome 9q34. PMID:20971884

  17. Structural characterization of glycosylinositolphospholipids with a blood group type B sugar unit from the edible mushroom, Hypsizygus marmoreus.

    PubMed

    Itonori, Saki; Yamawaki, Saho; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Kenji; Hada, Noriyasu; Takeda, Tadahiro; Dulaney, John T; Sugita, Mutsumi

    2008-07-01

    Edible fungi, mushrooms, are a popular food in Japan and over 15 cultured mushroom species are available at the food markets. Recently, constituents or ingredients of edible mushrooms have drawn attention because possibilities have been seen for their medical usage. Mycoglycolipids (basidiolipids) of higher mushrooms have been characterized as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, having a common core structure of Manalpha1-2Ins1-[PO(4)]-Cer and extensions of Man, Gal, and/or Fuc sugar moieties. Seven mycoglycolipids were purified from the edible mushroom Hypsizygus marmoreus by successive column chromatography on ion exchange Sephadex (DEAE-Sephadex) and silicic acid (Iatrobeads). Their structures were characterized to be Ins1-[PO(4)]-Cer (AGL0), Manalpha1-2Ins1-[PO(4)]-Cer (AGL1), Galbeta1-6Manalpha1-2Ins1-[PO(4)]-Cer (AGL2), Fucalpha1- 2Galbeta1-6Manalpha1-2Ins1-[PO(4)]-Cer (AGL3), Galalpha1-3(Fucalpha1-2)Galbeta1-6Manalpha1-2Ins1-[PO(4)]-Cer (AGL4), Galalpha1-2Galalpha1-3(Fucalpha1-2)Galbeta1-6Manalpha1-2Ins1-[PO(4)]-Cer (AGL5), and Galalpha1-2Galalpha1-2Galalpha1-3(Fucalpha1-2)Galbeta1-6Manalpha1-2Ins1-[PO(4)]-Cer (AGL6) by sugar compositional analysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, partial acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, immunochemical analysis, gas-liquid chromatography (GC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Ceramide constituents of their mycoglycolipids were composed of phytosphingosine as the sole sphingoid, and mainly 2-hydroxy C22:0 and C24:0 acids as the fatty acids. By immunochemical detection, the terminal structure of AGL4, Galalpha1-3(Fucalpha1-2)Galbeta-, was shown to have blood group type B activity. Galalpha1-2 and its repeating sequence in AGL5 and AGL6 are novel structures on the nonreducing sugar end in mycoglycolipids. These two mycoglycolipids in H. marmoreus

  18. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Binding of GII.4 Norovirus Variants onto Human Blood Group Antigens▿

    PubMed Central

    de Rougemont, A.; Ruvoen-Clouet, N.; Simon, B.; Estienney, M.; Elie-Caille, C.; Aho, S.; Pothier, P.; Le Pendu, J.; Boireau, W.; Belliot, G.

    2011-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis in children and adults. For the last 2 decades, genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) NoVs have been circulating worldwide. GII.4 NoVs can be divided into variants, and since 2002 they have circulated in the population before being replaced every 2 or 3 years, which raises questions about the role of their histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) ligands in their evolution. To shed light on these questions, we performed an analysis of the interaction between representative GII.4 variants and HBGAs, and we determined the role of selected amino acids in the binding profiles. By mutagenesis, we showed that there was a strict structural requirement for the amino acids, directly implicated in interactions with HBGAs. However, the ablation of the threonine residue at position 395 (ΔT395), an epidemiological feature of the post-2002 variants, was not deleterious to the binding of the virus-like particle (VLP) to the H antigen, while binding to A and B antigens was severely hampered. Nevertheless, the ΔT395 VLPs gained the capacity to bind to the Lewis x and sialyl-Lewis x antigens in comparison with the wild-type VLP, demonstrating that amino acid residues outside the HBGA binding site can modify the binding properties of NoVs. We also analyzed the attachment of baculovirus-expressed VLPs from six variants (Bristol, US95/96, Hunter, Yerseke, Den Haag, and Osaka) that were isolated from 1987 to 2007 to phenotyped saliva samples and synthetic HBGAs. We showed that the six variants could all attach to saliva of secretors irrespective of the ABO phenotype and to oligosaccharides characteristic of the secretor phenotype. Interestingly, Den Haag and Osaka variants additionally bound to carbohydrates present in the saliva of Lewis-positive nonsecretors. The carbohydrate binding profile and the genetic and mutagenesis analysis suggested that GII.4 binding to Lewis x and sialyl-Lewis x antigens might be a by-product of the

  19. The non-Mendelian inheritance of Lewis-c blood group substance, as demonstrated in the case of a Bombay, Le(a-b-c-) saliva.

    PubMed

    Savvas, R S

    1975-01-01

    A Bombay, Le(a-b-) saliva was shown to lack Pneumococcus type XIV activity, an unusual situation, since this sample should be rich in this precursor to the ABO blood group substances. However, the sample was found to contain a new serological specificity, Le-c. It is argued that simple Mendelian inheritance does not occur with Le-c and single gene control cannot be demonstrated. Failure to repress a fetal gene at birth, as implicated by the similarity in structure between Le-c and carcinoembryonic antigen [SIMMONS and PERLMANN], has been excluded as the mechanism of inheritance of this blood group substance, due to the inability to detect carcinoembryonic antigen in the test saliva.

  20. Distribution of ABO and Rh-D blood groups in the Benin area of Niger-Delta: Implication for regional blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Enosolease, Mathew Ebose; Bazuaye, Godwin Nosa

    2008-01-01

    ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group antigens are hereditary characters and are useful in population genetic studies, in resolving medico-legal issues and more importantly in compatibility test in blood transfusion practice. Data on frequency distribution of ABO and Rh-D in Niger-Delta region of Nigeria are not available; hence we made an attempt to retrospectively analyze the records on the blood donors, transfusion recipients and patients attending antenatal care or some other medical interventions. Over a twenty-year period between 1986 and 2005, a total of 160,431 blood samples were grouped for ABO and Rh-D at the blood bank of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Blood group distribution among these samples showed phenotypes A, B, AB and O as 23.72%, 20.09%, 2.97% and 53.22%, respectively. The Rh-D negative phenotype was found among 6.01% of the samples tested.

  1. Localization of blood-group A and I antigenic sites on inside-out and rightside-out human erythrocyte membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Schenkel-Brunner, H; Cartron, J P; Doinel, C

    1979-01-01

    Investigations of the fixation of 125I-labelled anti-A and anti-I antibodies onto rightside-out and inside-out membrane vesicles prepared from human A1 and OI erythrocytes, respectively, showed that both antibodies were bound to the rightside-out vesicles, giving clear evidence that blood group A and I antigenic sites are exclusively localized on the external surface of the membrane. PMID:84784

  2. The association between multiple intestinal helminth infections and blood group, anaemia and nutritional status in human populations from Dore Bafeno, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Degarege, A; Animut, A; Medhin, G; Legesse, M; Erko, B

    2014-06-01

    In this cross-sectional study, the associations between helminth infections and ABO blood group, anaemia and undernutrition were investigated in 480 febrile outpatients who visited Dore Bafeno Health Centre, southern Ethiopia, in December 2010. Stool specimens were processed using the Kato-Katz method and examined for intestinal helminth infections. Haemoglobin level was measured using a HemoCue machine and blood group was determined using an antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using height and weight measurements. Among the study participants, 50.2% were infected with intestinal helminths. Ascaris lumbricoides (32.7%), Trichuris trichiura (12.7%), Schistosoma mansoni (11.9%) and hookworm (11.0%) were the most frequently diagnosed helminths. The odds of infection and mean eggs per gram of different intestinal helminth species were comparable between the various blood groups. Among individuals who were infected with intestinal helminth(s), the mean haemoglobin level was significantly lower in individuals harbouring three or more helminth species and blood type AB compared to cases with double or single helminth infection and blood type O, respectively. The odds of being underweight was significantly higher in A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infected individuals of age ≤ 5 and ≥ 20 years, respectively, when compared to individuals of the matching age group without intestinal helminths. In conclusion, infection with multiple intestinal helminths was associated with lower haemoglobin level, which was more severe in individuals with blood type AB. Future studies should focus on mechanisms by which blood group AB exacerbates the helminth-related reduction in mean haemoglobin level.

  3. The A0 blood group genotype modifies the jejunal glycomic binding pattern profile of piglets early associated with a simple or complex microbiota.

    PubMed

    Priori, D; Colombo, M; Koopmans, S-J; Jansman, A J M; van der Meulen, J; Trevisi, P; Bosi, P

    2016-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium glycocalyx sugar motif is an important determinant of the bacterial-host interaction and may be affected in pigs by gut microbiota and by blood group genotype. The aim was to study the effect of intestinal association with different microbiota and A0 blood group genotypes on the expressed glycomic pattern in the small intestine. Twelve caesarean-derived pigs previously associated with a simple association (SA) or complex association (CA) microbiota were selected at 26 to 37 d of age. In each subject, different jejunal loops were perfused for 8 h with enterotoxigenic K88 (ETEC), ETEC fimbriae (F4), (LAM), or a saline control. The piglets were genotyped for A0 blood group and the glycomic profile was evaluated by microscopic screening of lectin binding: peanut agglutinin (PNA), which is galactose specific; agglutinin I (UEA), which is fucose specific; lectin II (MALii), which is sialic acid specific; concavalin A, which is mannose specific; soybean agglutinin (SBA), which is -acetyl-galactosamine specific; and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), which is -acetyl-glucosamine specific. A0 pigs had fewer UEA-positive cells, MALii-positive cells ( < 0.001), and SBA-positive cells ( < 0.10) than 00 pigs. Simple association pigs had more SBA positive cells ( < 0.01) than CA pigs. Enterotoxigenic K88-perfused intestinal loops had fewer UEA-positive cells ( < 0.01) and WGA positive cells ( < 0.001) cells and more PNA positive cells (only in SA pigs, < 0.01). No effects of introduction of F4 and LAM in the intestinal lumen were observed. The porcine A0 blood group genotype and the luminal presence of ETEC strongly affected the jejunal mucosa glycomic pattern profile whereas an early oral simple or complex microbial association had limited effects. Pig genetic background has relevance on the cross talk between intestinal epithelium glycocalyx sugar motif and ETEC and, ultimately, on the gut microbial colonization in later life. PMID:27065129

  4. Fine specificities of two lectins from Cymbosema roseum seeds: a lectin specific for high-mannose oligosaccharides and a lectin specific for blood group H type II trisaccharide.

    PubMed

    Dam, Tarun K; Cavada, Benildo S; Nagano, Celso S; Rocha, Bruno Am; Benevides, Raquel G; Nascimento, Kyria S; de Sousa, Luiz Ag; Oscarson, Stefan; Brewer, C Fred

    2011-07-01

    The legume species of Cymbosema roseum of Diocleinae subtribe produce at least two different seed lectins. The present study demonstrates that C. roseum lectin I (CRL I) binds with high affinity to the "core" trimannoside of N-linked oligosaccharides. Cymbosema roseum lectin II (CRL II), on the other hand, binds with high affinity to the blood group H trisaccharide (Fucα1,2Galα1-4GlcNAc-). Thermodynamic and hemagglutination inhibition studies reveal the fine binding specificities of the two lectins. Data obtained with a complete set of monodeoxy analogs of the core trimannoside indicate that CRL I recognizes the 3-, 4- and 6-hydroxyl groups of the α(1,6) Man residue, the 3- and 4-hydroxyl group of the α(1,3) Man residue and the 2- and 4-hydroxyl groups of the central Man residue of the trimannoside. CRL I possesses enhanced affinities for the Man5 oligomannose glycan and a biantennary complex glycan as well as glycoproteins containing high-mannose glycans. On the other hand, CRL II distinguishes the blood group H type II epitope from the Lewis(x), Lewis(y), Lewis(a) and Lewis(b) epitopes. CRL II also distinguishes between blood group H type II and type I trisaccharides. CRL I and CRL II, respectively, possess differences in fine specificities when compared with other reported mannose and fucose recognizing lectins. This is the first report of a mannose-specific lectin (CRL I) and a blood group H type II-specific lectin (CRL II) from seeds of a member of the Diocleinae subtribe.

  5. Role of ABO blood group and of other risk factors on the presence of residual vein obstruction after deep-vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Dentali, Francesco; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Turato, Sara; Crestani, Silvia; Ambrosino, Pasquale; Bonfanti, Carlo; Di Minno, Giovanni; Ageno, Walter; Franchini, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    The presence of residual vein obstruction (RVO) has been consistently associated with an increased risk of post-thrombotic syndrome in patients with a previous deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and there is some evidence suggesting an increased risk of DVT recurrence. Only few studies have assessed potential risk factors for RVO. In this study, we evaluated whether ABO blood group with or without associated thrombophilic abnormalities is associated with RVO after a standard course of anticoagulation for a first DVT. Patients with a first DVT who underwent screening for thrombophilic abnormalities were eligible for this study. Information was collected on ABO blood group and on risk factors for DVT. Each patient underwent compression ultrasonography of the lower limbs for the detection of RVO at least 6months after a standard course of anticoagulant treatment. A total of 268 patients (mean age 50.3years, 120 women) were included. After 8.3±2.9months of anticoagulant treatment, 126 (47.0%) patients had RVO. At multivariate analysis, active malignancy (Odds Ratios [OR] 5.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.17, 14.13), non-O blood group (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.61, 8.56), and femoral involvement (OR 3.35 95% CI 1.94, 5.78) were significantly associated with RVO whereas an unprovoked index event was only marginally significant (OR 1.81 95% CI 0.98, 3.36 p 0.06) and severe thrombophilia was not associated with RVO (OR 1.32 95% CI 0.56, 3.11). After a standard course of anticoagulation for a first DVT, patients with non-O blood group are at increased risk of RVO.

  6. Models for Prediction of Factor VIII Half-Life in Severe Haemophiliacs: Distinct Approaches for Blood Group O and Non-O Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Kathelijn; van Dijk, Karin; Denis, Cécile V.; van den Berg, H. Marijke; Lenting, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is critical for the in vivo survival of factor VIII (FVIII). Since FVIII half-life correlates with VWF-antigen pre-infusion levels, we hypothesized that VWF levels are useful to predict FVIII half-life. Methodology Standardized half-life studies and analysis of pre-infusion VWF and VWF-propeptide levels were performed in a cohort of 38 patients with severe haemophilia A (FVIII <1 IU/ml), aged 15–44 years. Nineteen patients had blood-group O. Using multivariate linear regression-analysis (MVLR-analysis), the association of VWF-antigen, VWF-propeptide, age and body-weight with FVIII half-life was evaluated. Principal Findings FVIII half-life was shorter in blood-group O-patients compared to non-O-patients (11.5±2.6 h versus 14.3±3.0 h; p = 0.004). VWF-antigen levels correlated with FVIII half-life considerably better in patients with blood-group non-O than O (Pearson-rank = 0.70 and 0.47, respectively). Separate prediction models evolved from MVLR-analysis for blood-group O and non-O patients, based on VWF-antigen and VWF/propeptide ratio. Predicted half-lives deviated less than 3 h of observed half-life in 34/38 patients (89%) or less than 20% in 31/38 patients (82%). Conclusion Our approach may identify patients with shorter FVIII half-lives, and adapt treatment protocols when half-life studies are unavailable. In addition, our data indicate that survival of FVIII is determined by survival of endogenous VWF rather than VWF levels per se. PMID:19707594

  7. ABO/Rh Blood Groups and Risk of HIV Infection and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors of Abidjan, Côte D'ivoire.

    PubMed

    Siransy, Liliane Kouabla; Nanga, Zizendorf Yves; Zaba, Flore Sandrine; Tufa, Nyasenu Yawo; Dasse, Sery Romuald

    2015-09-01

    Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions like ABO and Rh blood groups would influence the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and the susceptibility to HIV infection and hepatitis B. We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in a population of voluntary blood donors in the Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan. All blood donors who donated blood between January and June 2014 were tested for HBs antigen and anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA tests) and were ABO typed. The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 45,538, of which 0.32% and 8.07% were respectively infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus. O-group donors were more infected than non-O donors. Our study is an outline concerning the search for a link between ABO and Rh blood groups and hepatitis B and HIV infection. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the interaction between these two infections and contribute to the search for new therapeutic approaches.

  8. ABO blood group but not haemostasis genetic polymorphisms significantly influence thrombotic risk: a study of 180 homozygotes for the Factor V Leiden mutation.

    PubMed

    2006-12-01

    Limited data exist on the impact of additional genetic risk factors on the clinical manifestations of factor (F) V Leiden homozygotes. A retrospective multi-centre cohort study was performed to assess the role of the FII G20210A gene mutation, the protein C (PC) promoter CG haplotype, the combination of two PC polymorphisms (A-1641G, C-1654T), the FXIII Val34Leu polymorphism, two thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor polymorphisms (Thr325Ile, Ala147Thr), two plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 polymorphisms (-675 4G/5G, A-844G), the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and the ABO blood group on the thrombotic phenotype in FV Leiden homozygotes. 127 subjects with venous thrombosis and 53 asymptomatic subjects were analysed. The T allele of MTHFR C677T was more frequent in symptomatic subjects than in asymptomatic ones (68% vs. 45%, P = 0.02; odds ratio (OR) 2.8, 95% CI 1.3-5.8, after adjustment for potential confounders). For the other polymorphisms, no difference was observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. The non-O blood group was more frequent among symptomatic carriers (84% vs. 57%, P = 0.0002; OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.7-9.7). In conclusion, except for the ABO blood group, none of the polymorphisms studied contribute strongly to the thrombotic risk in FV Leiden homozygotes.

  9. Increased risk of venous thrombosis by AB alleles of the ABO blood group and Factor V Leiden in a Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Most cases of a predisposition to venous thrombosis are caused by resistance to activated protein C, associated in 95% of cases with the Factor V Leiden allele (FVL or R506Q). Several recent studies report a further increased risk of thrombosis by an association between the AB alleles of the ABO blood group and Factor V Leiden. The present study investigated this association with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in individuals treated at the Hemocentro de Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. A case-control comparison showed a significant risk of thrombosis in the presence of Factor V Leiden (OR = 10.1), which was approximately doubled when the AB alleles of the ABO blood group were present as well (OR = 22.3). These results confirm that the increased risk of deep vein thrombosis in the combined presence of AB alleles and Factor V Leiden is also applicable to the Brazilian population suggesting that ABO blood group typing should be routinely added to FVL in studies involving thrombosis. PMID:21637678

  10. Blood groups, ABH saliva secretion and colour vision deficiency in Hindu castes and religious groups of West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, M; Naidu, J M; Suryanarayana, B

    1994-12-01

    The distribution of A1A2B0 and Rh(D) blood groups, ABH saliva secretion and red-green colour blindness among fourteen Hindu caste groups, besides Christian and Muslim populations of West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India, is reported. All the Hindu castes except Brahmin, Kshatriya and Reddy exhibit relatively higher frequency of group B over group A. The subtyping of group A reveals that group A2 records an incidence ranging from 0.98% to 7.78%. The interpopulation chi-square tests for A1A2B0 blood group distribution indicate significant variation between several Hindu castes. The Vysya, Reddy and Adi Andhra castes not only differ from each other but also register significant variation from a majority of other populations. In the ABH saliva secretion also Vysya deviate from all other populations by recording the highest incidence (37.70%) of non-secretors, while the lowest frequency (19.98%) was observed among Kamma. The Rh(D) negative blood group is observed in all Hindu castes and religious groups with an incidence ranging from 1.04% in Vysya to 8.11% in Kamma. All the sixteen populations investigated exhibit prevalence of red-green colour blindness with a relatively higher frequency of deutan type over protan.

  11. ABO/Rh Blood Groups and Risk of HIV Infection and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors of Abidjan, Côte D’ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Siransy, Liliane Kouabla; Nanga, Zizendorf Yves; Zaba, Flore Sandrine; Tufa, Nyasenu Yawo; Dasse, Sery Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions like ABO and Rh blood groups would influence the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and the susceptibility to HIV infection and hepatitis B. We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in a population of voluntary blood donors in the Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan. All blood donors who donated blood between January and June 2014 were tested for HBs antigen and anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA tests) and were ABO typed. The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 45,538, of which 0.32% and 8.07% were respectively infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus. O-group donors were more infected than non-O donors. Our study is an outline concerning the search for a link between ABO and Rh blood groups and hepatitis B and HIV infection. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the interaction between these two infections and contribute to the search for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26495131

  12. Blood Groups in the Species Survival Plan®, European Endangered Species Program, and Managed in situ Populations of Bonobo (Pan paniscus), Common Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), Gorilla (Gorilla ssp.), and Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus ssp.)

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Kathryn C.; Moyse, Jill A.; Lovstad, Jessica N.; Ober, Carole B.; Thompson, Emma E.

    2014-01-01

    Blood groups of humans and great apes long have been considered similar although are not interchangeable between species. In this study, human monoclonal antibody technology was used to assign human ABO blood groups to whole blood samples from great apes housed in North American and European zoos and in situ managed populations, as a practical means to assist blood transfusion situations for these species. From a subset of each of the species (bonobo, common chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutans), DNA sequence analysis was performed to determine blood group genotype. Bonobo and common chimpanzee populations were predominantly group A which concurred with historic literature and was confirmed by genotyping. In agreement with historic literature, a smaller number of the common chimpanzees sampled were group O although this O blood group was more often present in wild-origin animals as compared to zoo-born animals. Gorilla blood groups were inconclusive by monoclonal antibody techniques and by genetic studies were inconsistent with any known human blood group. As the genus and specifically the Bornean species, orangutans were identified with all human blood groups, including O, which had not been reported previously. Following this study, it was concluded that blood groups of bonobo, common chimpanzees, and some orangutans can be reliably assessed by human monoclonal antibody technology. However, this technique was not reliable for gorilla or orangutans other than those with blood group A. Even in those species with reliable blood group detection, blood transfusion preparation must include cross-matching to minimize adverse reactions for the patient. PMID:20853409

  13. Identification of novel rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus B-cell epitopes and their interaction with host histo-blood group antigens.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanhua; Wang, Fang; Fan, Zhiyu; Hu, Bo; Liu, Xing; Wei, Houjun; Xue, Jiabin; Xu, Weizhong; Qiu, Rulong

    2016-02-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease, caused by rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), results in the death of millions of adult rabbits worldwide, with a mortality rate that exceeds 90%. The sole capsid protein, VP60, is divided into shell (S) and protruding (P) domains, and the more exposed P domain likely contains determinants for cell attachment and antigenic diversity. Nine mAbs against VP60 were screened and identified. To map antigenic epitopes, a set of partially overlapping and consecutive truncated proteins spanning VP60 were expressed. The minimal determinants of the linear B-cell epitopes of VP60 in the P domain, N(326)PISQV(331), D(338)MSFV(342) and K(562)STLVFNL(569), were recognized by one (5H3), four (1B8, 3D11, 4C2 and 4G2) and four mAbs (1D4, 3F7, 5G2 and 6B2), respectively. Sequence alignment showed epitope D(338)MSFV(342) was conserved among all RHDV isolates. Epitopes N(326)PISQV(331) and K(562)STLVFNL(569) were highly conserved among RHDV G1-G6 and variable in RHDV2 strains. Previous studies demonstrated that native viral particles and virus-like particles (VLPs) of RHDV specifically bound to synthetic blood group H type 2 oligosaccharides. We established an oligosaccharide-based assay to analyse the binding of VP60 and epitopes to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Results showed VP60 and its epitopes (aa 326-331 and 338-342) in the P2 subdomain could significantly bind to blood group H type 2. Furthermore, mAbs 1B8 and 5H3 could block RHDV VLP binding to synthetic H type 2. Collectively, these two epitopes might play a key role in the antigenic structure of VP60 and interaction of RHDV and HBGA. PMID:26612210

  14. The O-Linked Glycome and Blood Group Antigens ABO on Mucin-Type Glycoproteins in Mucinous and Serous Epithelial Ovarian Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Vitiazeva, Varvara; Kattla, Jayesh J.; Flowers, Sarah A.; Lindén, Sara K.; Premaratne, Pushpa; Weijdegård, Birgitta; Sundfeldt, Karin; Karlsson, Niclas G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated proteins where the glycosylation has been shown to play an important role in cancer. Normal epithelial ovarian cells do not express secreted mucins, but their abnormal expression has previously been described in epithelial ovarian cancer and may relate to tumor formation and progression. The cyst fluids were shown to be a rich source for acidic glycoproteins. The study of these proteins can potentially lead to the identification of more effective biomarkers for ovarian cancer. Methods In this study, we analyzed the expression of the MUC5AC and the O-glycosylation of acidic glycoproteins secreted into ovarian cyst fluids. The samples were obtained from patients with serous and mucinous ovarian tumors of different stages (benign, borderline, malignant) and grades. The O-linked oligosaccharides were released and analyzed by negative-ion graphitized carbon Liquid Chromatography (LC) coupled to Electrospray Ionization tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MSn). The LC-ESI-MSn of the oligosaccharides from ovarian cyst fluids displayed differences in expression of fucose containing structures such as blood group ABO antigens and Lewis-type epitopes. Results The obtained data showed that serous and mucinous benign adenomas, mucinous low malignant potential carcinomas (LMPs, borderline) and mucinous low-grade carcinomas have a high level of blood groups and Lewis type epitopes. In contrast, this type of fucosylated structures were low abundant in the high-grade mucinous carcinomas or in serous carcinomas. In addition, the ovarian tumors that showed a high level of expression of blood group antigens also revealed a strong reactivity towards the MUC5AC antibody. To visualize the differences between serous and mucinous ovarian tumors based on the O-glycosylation, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using mass spectrometry average compositions (MSAC). Conclusion Mucinous benign and LMPs along with mucinous low-grade carcinomas

  15. The human Kell blood group binds the erythroid 4.1R protein: new insights into the 4.1R-dependent red cell membrane complex.

    PubMed

    Azouzi, Slim; Collec, Emmanuel; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli; Colin, Yves; Le Van Kim, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    Protein 4.1R plays an important role in maintaining the mechanical properties of the erythrocyte membrane. We analysed the expression of Kell blood group protein in erythrocytes from a patient with hereditary elliptocytosis associated with complete 4.1R deficiency (4.1(-) HE). Flow cytometry and Western blot analyses revealed a severe reduction of Kell. In vitro pull down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments from erythrocyte membranes showed a direct interaction between Kell and 4.1R. Using different recombinant domains of 4.1R and the cytoplasmic domain of Kell, we demonstrated that the R(46) R motif in the juxta-membrane region of Kell binds to lobe B of the 4.1R FERM domain. We also observed that 4.1R deficiency is associated with a reduction of XK and DARC (also termed ACKR1) proteins, the absence of the glycosylated form of the urea transporter B and a slight decrease of band 3. The functional alteration of the 4.1(-) HE erythrocyte membranes was also determined by measuring various transport activities. We documented a slower rate of HCO3 (-) /Cl(-) exchange, but normal water and ammonia transport across erythrocyte membrane in the absence of 4.1. These findings provide novel insights into the structural organization of blood group antigen proteins into the 4.1R complex of the human red cell membrane.

  16. The Hidden Conformation of Lewis x, a Human Histo-Blood Group Antigen, Is a Determinant for Recognition by Pathogen Lectins.

    PubMed

    Topin, Jérémie; Lelimousin, Mickaël; Arnaud, Julie; Audfray, Aymeric; Pérez, Serge; Varrot, Annabelle; Imberty, Anne

    2016-07-15

    Histo-blood group epitopes are fucosylated branched oligosaccharides with well-defined conformations in solution that are recognized by receptors, such as lectins from pathogens. We report here the results of a series of experimental and computational endeavors revealing the unusual distortion of histo-blood group antigens by bacterial and fungal lectins. The Lewis x trisaccharide adopts a rigid closed conformation in solution, while crystallography and molecular dynamics reveal several higher energy open conformations when bound to the Ralstonia solanacearum lectin, which is in agreement with thermodynamic and kinetic measurements. Extensive molecular dynamics simulations confirm rare transient Le(x) openings in solution, frequently assisted by distortion of the central N-acetyl-glucosamine ring. Additional directed molecular dynamic trajectories revealed the role of a conserved tryptophan residue in guiding the fucose into the binding site. Our findings show that conformational adaptation of oligosaccharides is of paramount importance in cell recognition and should be considered when designing anti-infective glyco-compounds. PMID:27198630

  17. An adhesin-like protein, Lam29, from Lactobacillus mucosae ME-340 binds to histone H3 and blood group antigens in human colonic mucus.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masamichi; Kinoshita, Hideki; Huang, I-Nung; Eguchi, Kei; Tsurumi, Takuya; Kawai, Yasushi; Kitazawa, Haruki; Kimura, Katsunori; Taketomo, Naoki; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Sase, Tomohiko; Miura, Koh; Ogawa, Hitoshi; Shibata, Chikashi; Horii, Akira; Saito, Tadao

    2012-01-01

    A cell-surface 29-kDa protein (Lam29, cysteine-binding protein of the ABC transporter) from Lactobacillus mucosae ME-340 showed an adhesin-like property for human ABO blood group antigens expressed on the gastrointestinal mucosa. In addition, here we report that Lam29 also bound to an 18-kDa protein on human colonic mucus. By ligand blot assay and N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein, it was identified as human histone H3. By ligand blot and microplate binding assays with recombinant histone H3, binding between Lam29 and histone H3 was confirmed. The adhesion of ME-340 cells to histone H3 was significantly inhibited by 26% after the addition of 2.5 mg/mL Lam29 as compared to the absence of Lam29 (p<0.01). By GHCl extraction and transcription attenuation of ME-340 cells, binding reduction of ME340 cells against histone H3 was detected at 12% and 13% respectively, as compared to control cells by the BIACORE assay (p<0.01). These data indicate that Lam29 shows multiple binding activities to blood group antigens and histone H3 in human colonic mucus. This is the first report to indicate that lactobacilli expressing Lam29 adhere to histone H3 on gastrointestinal mucosa.

  18. Flow cytometric analysis of the Rh1 (Rho, D) antigen activity on red cells: various Rh blood group phenotypes including Du variants.

    PubMed

    Ota, M; Hasekura, H; Fukushima, H; Yonemura, I

    1989-04-01

    Rh1 (Rho, D) antigen activity has been analyzed by the use of the indirect immunofluorescence flow cytometry (FCM), and the Rh blood group genotypes were able to be successfully determined from the intensity of fluorescence detected in flow cytometry using the anti-D IgG that was fractionated in a Protein A Sepharose CL-4B column as the primary antibody. The relative amount of the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) bound to the D (R1R1, CDe/CDe), the high grade Du (R2r',cDE/Cde), the low grade Du (K1r, CDue/cde), and the d (rr, cde/cde) red cells was estimated from the mean fluorescent intensity. The FITC-binding activity of the high grade Du and low grade Du was 83% and 21% that of D. The antigen-antibody complex density profile was analyzed by using the FITC-conjugated protein-A in place of the second antibody. Compared with the found results using anti-human globulin as the second antibody, this method was less sensitive but it still was able to demonstrate the different degrees of fluorescence according to the Rh genotypes. The present FCM method is both simple and useful for (1) measuring the relative amount of antigens, (2) for detecting the dosage effect and (3) for deferminins the blood group genotypes.

  19. Flow cytometric analysis of the Rh1 (Rho, D) antigen activity on red cells: various Rh blood group phenotypes including Du variants.

    PubMed

    Ota, M; Hasekura, H; Fukushima, H; Yonemura, I

    1989-04-01

    Rh1 (Rho, D) antigen activity has been analyzed by the use of the indirect immunofluorescence flow cytometry (FCM), and the Rh blood group genotypes were able to be successfully determined from the intensity of fluorescence detected in flow cytometry using the anti-D IgG that was fractionated in a Protein A Sepharose CL-4B column as the primary antibody. The relative amount of the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) bound to the D (R1R1, CDe/CDe), the high grade Du (R2r',cDE/Cde), the low grade Du (K1r, CDue/cde), and the d (rr, cde/cde) red cells was estimated from the mean fluorescent intensity. The FITC-binding activity of the high grade Du and low grade Du was 83% and 21% that of D. The antigen-antibody complex density profile was analyzed by using the FITC-conjugated protein-A in place of the second antibody. Compared with the found results using anti-human globulin as the second antibody, this method was less sensitive but it still was able to demonstrate the different degrees of fluorescence according to the Rh genotypes. The present FCM method is both simple and useful for (1) measuring the relative amount of antigens, (2) for detecting the dosage effect and (3) for deferminins the blood group genotypes. PMID:2509769

  20. The human Kell blood group binds the erythroid 4.1R protein: new insights into the 4.1R-dependent red cell membrane complex.

    PubMed

    Azouzi, Slim; Collec, Emmanuel; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli; Colin, Yves; Le Van Kim, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    Protein 4.1R plays an important role in maintaining the mechanical properties of the erythrocyte membrane. We analysed the expression of Kell blood group protein in erythrocytes from a patient with hereditary elliptocytosis associated with complete 4.1R deficiency (4.1(-) HE). Flow cytometry and Western blot analyses revealed a severe reduction of Kell. In vitro pull down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments from erythrocyte membranes showed a direct interaction between Kell and 4.1R. Using different recombinant domains of 4.1R and the cytoplasmic domain of Kell, we demonstrated that the R(46) R motif in the juxta-membrane region of Kell binds to lobe B of the 4.1R FERM domain. We also observed that 4.1R deficiency is associated with a reduction of XK and DARC (also termed ACKR1) proteins, the absence of the glycosylated form of the urea transporter B and a slight decrease of band 3. The functional alteration of the 4.1(-) HE erythrocyte membranes was also determined by measuring various transport activities. We documented a slower rate of HCO3 (-) /Cl(-) exchange, but normal water and ammonia transport across erythrocyte membrane in the absence of 4.1. These findings provide novel insights into the structural organization of blood group antigen proteins into the 4.1R complex of the human red cell membrane. PMID:26455906

  1. Action of alpha-galactosidase from Clostridium sporogenes and coffee beans on blood group B antigen of erythrocytes. The effect on the viability of erythrocytes in circulation.

    PubMed

    Dybus, S; Aminoff, D

    1983-01-01

    The effect of alpha-galactosidase, purified from Clostridium sporogenes (Maebashi), was examined on erythrocytes from rats, rabbits and gibbons. The amount of galactose released by alpha-galactosidase from Cl. sporogenes and from coffee beans was compared. The amount of sialic acid released by Vibrio cholera sialidase was also determined. Loss of blood group B specificity following treatment with alpha-galactosidase was demonstrated with anti-B lectin. In animal models, removal of all the alpha-galactosyl residues with the coffee bean or clostridial alpha-galactosidase resulted in no change in the sequestration pattern of the treated erythrocytes over a period of several days. In contrast, erythrocytes treated with sialidase were rapidly sequestered from the circulation.

  2. Evidence that verotoxins (Shiga-like toxins) from Escherichia coli bind to P blood group antigens of human erythrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bitzan, M; Richardson, S; Huang, C; Boyd, B; Petric, M; Karmali, M A

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of verotoxins (VTs) with human erythrocytes (RBCs) in vitro was investigated, with particular reference to the role of P blood group glycolipids that are structurally related to the known VT receptors. RBC binding of purified VT1, VT2, VT2c, and VT2e was detected by direct and indirect immunofluorescence. Glycolipids were extracted from defined RBCs, separated by thin-layer chromatography, and assessed for VT binding in an overlay assay by adding toxin and specific antibodies. All VTs bound to P1 phenotype (Pk, P, and P1 antigens) and P2 phenotype (Pk and P antigens) RBCs but not to p phenotype (lacking the Pk, P, and P1 antigens) RBCs. Binding of VT1 and VT2 was approximately 10-fold greater to P1 and the rare Pk2 (Pk antigen but no P1 or P antigen) phenotype cells than to P2 phenotype RBCs, whereas VT2e bound equally well to P1 and P2 phenotype cells. The VT1 and VT2 immunofluorescence results correlated with the detection of P1 and/or increased amounts of Pk (globotriaosylceramide) antigen; VT2e immunofluorescence correlated with the detection of P (globotetraosylceramide) antigen. The Pk band pattern and VT binding observed in the thin-layer chromatogram of human P1 and P phenotype RBC extracts varied from that of human kidney and Pk1 phenotype (Pk and P1 antigens) RBCs. We conclude that each VT binds to human RBCs in vitro by utilizing specific P blood group glycolipids as receptors. On P1 and P phenotype RBCs, the accessibility of the Pk antigen for VTs appeared to be restricted. The occurrence of VT-RBC binding in natural VT-producing Escherichia coli disease and its relevance for the pathophysiology of hemolytic uremic syndrome remain to be established. Images PMID:8039905

  3. Risk of advanced gastric precancerous lesions in Helicobacter pylori infected subjects is influenced by ABO blood group and cagA status

    PubMed Central

    Rizzato, Cosmeri; Kato, Ikuko; Plummer, Martyn; Muñoz, Nubia; Stein, Angelika; van Doorn, Leen Jan; Franceschi, Silvia; Canzian, Federico

    2013-01-01

    A higher incidence of stomach cancer in ABO blood type A individuals than in those with blood type O has been known for a long time. We studied this association in relation to Helicobacter pylori (Hp) of different cagA status. For this study we used baseline gastric histopathology data and DNAs from frozen gastric biopsies of 2077 subjects enrolled in a chemoprevention trial for gastric precancerous lesions in Venezuela. We analyzed 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ABO gene and we assessed the presence of the Hp cagA gene. Odds ratios for risk of advanced precancerous gastric lesions were calculated using individuals with normal gastric epithelium or non-atrophic gastritis as a reference. Among individuals carrying a cagA negative Hp infection or no Hp infection, those with blood type A had a lower risk of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia than those with blood type O (OR=0.60; 95% CI 0.38-0.94). In carriers of cagA positive Hp strains, individuals with blood type A had a higher risk of intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia than those with blood type O (OR=1.42, 95% CI 1.09-1.86) and a higher risk if compared with subjects carrying cagA− strain and non-A blood group (OR=3.82, 95%CI=2.80-5.20). The interaction between Hp cagA status and blood type was statistically significant (P=0.0006). We showed that SNPs in the ABO gene, predictive of ABO blood groups, are associated with risk of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in individuals infected with Hp, but the assessment of the risk is strictly dependent on cagA status. PMID:23319424

  4. Histo-Blood Group Antigens Act as Attachment Factors of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Infection in a Virus Strain-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Kristina; Le Gall-Reculé, Ghislaine; Grassi, Paola; Abrantes, Joana; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Le Moullac-Vaidye, Beatrice; Lopes, Ana M.; Esteves, Pedro J.; Strive, Tanja; Marchandeau, Stéphane; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart M.; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Rabbit Hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a calicivirus of the Lagovirus genus, and responsible for rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD), kills rabbits between 48 to 72 hours post infection with mortality rates as high as 50–90%. Caliciviruses, including noroviruses and RHDV, have been shown to bind histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) and human non-secretor individuals lacking ABH antigens in epithelia have been found to be resistant to norovirus infection. RHDV virus-like particles have previously been shown to bind the H type 2 and A antigens. In this study we present a comprehensive assessment of the strain-specific binding patterns of different RHDV isolates to HBGAs. We characterized the HBGA expression in the duodenum of wild and domestic rabbits by mass spectrometry and relative quantification of A, B and H type 2 expression. A detailed binding analysis of a range of RHDV strains, to synthetic sugars and human red blood cells, as well as to rabbit duodenum, a likely gastrointestinal site for viral entrance was performed. Enzymatic cleavage of HBGA epitopes confirmed binding specificity. Binding was observed to blood group B, A and H type 2 epitopes in a strain-dependent manner with slight differences in specificity for A, B or H epitopes allowing RHDV strains to preferentially recognize different subgroups of animals. Strains related to the earliest described RHDV outbreak were not able to bind A, whereas all other genotypes have acquired A binding. In an experimental infection study, rabbits lacking the correct HBGA ligands were resistant to lethal RHDV infection at low challenge doses. Similarly, survivors of outbreaks in wild populations showed increased frequency of weak binding phenotypes, indicating selection for host resistance depending on the strain circulating in the population. HBGAs thus act as attachment factors facilitating infection, while their polymorphism of expression could contribute to generate genetic resistance to RHDV at the population

  5. IMMUNOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON BLOOD GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Carlos; Lundblad, Arne; Kabat, Elvin A.

    1971-01-01

    The immunochemical properties of purified A1 and A2 glycoproteins have been compared to ascertain whether their antigenic determinants differ. Quantitative precipitin and complement-fixation studies using several anti-A sera as well as purified γG anti-A antibodies clearly showed a specificity difference. This was also supported by absorption studies: A2 substance specifically removed antibodies reacting with A2 substance leaving anti-A1 activity. A1 substance was more effective than A2 substance in dissolving an A1 anti-A1-specific precipitate. Purified γM anti-A hemolyzed A1 cells more readily than A2 cells. Inhibition studies using mono- and difucosyl type 2 A-active oligosaccharides showed that type 2 difucosyl receptors are present in A2 substance. The structural basis for the specificity difference between A1 and A2 would appear to be that A2 substances lack type 1 A determinants; this would account for the observed higher H and Leb activity in A2 substances. PMID:4104425

  6. The GO4KIDDS Brief Adaptive Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Adrienne; Taheri, Azin; Ting, Victoria; Weiss, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accurate measurement of adaptive behaviour is important in both clinical and research contexts. While several good clinical measures exist, as well as brief research measures for adults with intellectual disability, there is need for a brief and efficient measure for research with children and youth. We present preliminary psychometric…

  7. The Laminin 511/521 Binding Site on the Lutheran Blood Group Glycoprotein is Located at theFlexible Junction of Ig Domains 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Mankelow, Tosti J.; Burton, Nicholas; Stedansdottir, Fanney O.; Spring, Frances A.; Parsons, Stephen F.; Pesersen, Jan S.; Oliveira, Cristiano L.P.; Lammie, Donna; Wess, Timothy; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel A.; Brady, R. Leo; Anstee, David J.

    2007-07-01

    The Lutheran blood group glycoprotein, first discovered on erythrocytes, is widely expressed in human tissues. It is a ligand for the {alpha}5 subunit of Laminin 511/521, an extracellular matrix protein. This interaction may contribute to vasocclusive events that are an important cause of morbidity in sickle cell disease. Using X-ray crystallography, small angle X-ray scattering and site directed mutagenesis we show that the extracellular region of Lutheran forms an extended structure with a distinctive bend between the second and third immunoglobulin-like domains. The linker between domains 2 and 3 appears to be flexible and is a critical determinant in maintaining an overall conformation for Lutheran that is capable of binding to Laminin. Mutagenesis studies indicate that Asp312 of Lutheran and the surrounding cluster of negatively charged residues in this linker region form the Laminin binding site. Unusually, receptor binding is therefore not a function of the domains expected to be furthermost from the plasma membrane. These studies imply that structural flexibility of Lutheran may be essential for its interaction with Laminin and present a novel opportunity for the development of therapeutics for sickle cell disease.

  8. Noninvasive determination of fetal rh blood group, D antigen status by cell-free DNA analysis in maternal plasma: experience in a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Chinen, Paulo Alexandre; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Martinhago, Ciro Dresch; Camano, Luiz; Daher, Silvia; Pares, David Baptista da Silva; Minett, Thais; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2010-11-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of Rh blood group, D antigen (RHD) fetal genotyping, using real-time polymerase chain reaction in maternal blood samples, in a racially mixed population. We performed a prospective study conducted between January 2006 and December 2007, analyzing fetal RHD genotype in the plasma of 102 D- pregnant women by real-time polymerase chain reaction, targeting exons 7 and 10 of the RHD gene. Genotype results were compared with cord blood phenotype obtained after delivery or before the first intrauterine transfusion when necessary. Most of the participants (75.5%) were under 28 weeks of pregnancy, and 87.5% had at least one relative of black ancestry. By combining amplification of two exons, the accuracy of genotyping was 98%, sensitivity was 100%, and specificity was 92%. The positive likelihood ratio was 12.5, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0. The two false-positive cases were confirmed to be pseudogene RHD by real-time polymerase chain reaction. There were no differences between the patients with positive or negative Coombs test ( P = 0.479). Determination of fetal RHD status in maternal peripheral blood was highly sensitive in this racially mixed population and was not influenced by the presence of antierythrocyte antibodies.

  9. The UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme in Blood Group Serology. ABO and D grouping and antibody screening 1982-1983.

    PubMed

    Holburn, A M; Prior, D

    1986-01-01

    In seven surveys of blood grouping the overall rates of major error were 0.12% and 0.37% for uncomplicated ABO and D grouping respectively. Of 17 errors of ABO grouping, 13 were errors of transposition or interpretation and four were apparently technical. Of 52 errors of D grouping, 20 appeared to be errors of transposition or interpretation and 32 were apparently technical. Of the 32 technical errors of D grouping, 31 were D-negative grouped as Du (29) or D-positive (2) and most of these errors were due to misgrouping in the antiglobulin test. Causes of error in D grouping by antiglobulin test include anti-Bg and other contaminating immune antibodies, residual unabsorbed anti-A and the inherently high rate of false positive results obtained in the antiglobulin test. In view of the lack of benefit of Du testing to blood recipients or to pregnant women and of the possible adverse consequences of misgrouping D-negative patients as Du or D-positive, it is recommended that Du testing be abandoned in these groups of patients. The surveys of antibody screening demonstrated lack of standardisation and error rates similar to those previously reported in the UK for compatibility testing.

  10. Histo-blood group A/B versus H status of human carcinoma cells as correlated with haptotactic cell motility: approach with A and B gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, D; Handa, K; Withers, D A; Hakomori, S

    1997-08-01

    In a search for the molecular basis of ABH status of tumors as correlated with malignancy, we studied various malignancy-related phenotypes of high H/Le(y)-expressing tumor cell lines in comparison with phenotypes of the same lines transfected with histo-blood group A or B genes. A and B gene transfectants, prepared independently from different H-active parental cells, showed A or B activity and abolition of H activity. All A and B gene transfectants, regardless of source, were characterized by significantly reduced Matrigel-dependent haptotactic motility. The level of haptotaxis of all transfectants was similar to that of parental cells in the presence of antibodies against human integrin subunits alpha3, alpha6, or beta1. These subunits showed high expression of A or B epitope in the A and B gene transfectants. Enhancement versus reduction of malignancy, associated with deletion versus induction of A/B epitopes, may be due in part to enhanced haptotaxis sustained by alpha3, alpha6, and beta1 integrin receptors, the activities of which are regulated by H or A/B glycosylation. These phenotypic changes provide a rationale for the deletion of A and B epitopes as one criterion defining human tumor malignancy. PMID:9242430

  11. Differential binding of human blood group Sd(a+) and Sd(a-) Tamm-Horsfall glycoproteins with Dolichos biflorus and Vicia villosa-B4 agglutinins.

    PubMed

    Wu, A M; Wu, J H; Watkins, W M; Chen, C P; Song, S C; Chen, Y Y

    1998-06-16

    The binding patterns of human blood group Sd(a+) and Sd(a-) Tamm-Horsfall glycoproteins (THGPs) with respect to four GalNAc specific agglutinins were studied by quantitative precipitin assay (QPA) and enzyme linked lectinosorbent assay (ELLSA). Of the native and asialo Sd(a+) and Sd(a-) THGP tested by QPA and ELLSA, only native and asialo Sd(a+) bound well with Dolichos biflorus (DBA) and Vicia villosa-B4 (VVA-B4), while Sd(a-) THGP reacted poorly with these two lectins. Neither Sd(a+) nor Sd(a-) THGPs reacted with two other GalNAc alpha-anomer specific lectins: Codium fragile subspecies tomentosoides and Artocarpus integrifolia. Furthermore, the binding of asialo Sd(a+)THGP-VVA-B4 and native Sd(a+)THGP-DBA through GalNAc beta--> was confirmed by inhibition assay. These results demonstrate that DBA and VVA-B4 are useful reagents to differentiate between Sd(a+) and Sd(a-) THGP.

  12. ABO and Rhesus Blood Groups and Risk of Endometriosis in a French Caucasian Population of 633 Patients Living in the Same Geographic Area

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Mélanie; Souza, Carlos; Santulli, Pietro; Lafay-Pillet, Marie-Christine; de Ziegler, Dominique; Chapron, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The identification of epidemiological factors increasing the risk of endometriosis could shorten the time to diagnosis. Specific blood groups may be more common in patients with endometriosis. Study Design. We designed a cross-sectional study of 633 Caucasian women living in the same geographic area. Study group included 311 patients with histologically proven endometriosis. Control group included 322 patients without endometriosis as checked during surgery. Frequencies of ABO and Rhesus groups in the study and control groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. We observed a higher proportion of Rh-negative women in the study group, as compared to healthy controls. Multivariate analysis showed that Rh-negative women are twice as likely to develop endometriosis (aOR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.20–2.90). There was no significant difference in ABO group distribution between patients and controls. There was no difference when taking into account either the clinical forms (superficial endometriosis, endometrioma, and deep infiltration endometriosis) or the rAFS stages. Conclusion. Rh-negative women are twice as likely to develop endometriosis. Chromosome 1p, which contains the genes coding for the Rhesus, could also harbor endometriosis susceptibility genes. PMID:25243164

  13. Findings of graft biopsy specimens within 90 days after ABO blood group incompatible living donor kidney transplantation compared with ABO-identical and non-identical transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ushigome, Hidetaka; Okamoto, Masahiko; Koshino, Katsuhiro; Nobori, Syuji; Okajima, Hideaki; Masuzawa, Naoko; Urasaki, Koji; Yoshimura, Norio

    2010-07-01

    As immunosuppressive therapy has advanced, we have markedly improved the outcome of ABO blood group incompatible living donor kidney transplantation. Consequently, graft survival at early phase after ABO-incompatible transplantation has been favorable than ABO-compatible transplantation in Japan. But in these days, it has been assumed that transplant glomerulopathy within one yr after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation might be significantly precipitated. That may be because of chronic, active antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). We performed kidney graft biopsies at the early phase within 90 d after living donor kidney transplantation that involved the episode and protocol biopsies and studied findings of graft biopsy specimens when compared with ABO incompatible and compatible involving non-identical and identical transplantations. In ABO-incompatible transplant cases, the ratio occurring glomerulitis, especially severe injury of g 2-3, was significantly higher than that of identical and non-identical transplant cases (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in t score, i score, ptc score and v score between three transplant groups. The cases occurring AMR were concordant with the cases recognized with severe glomerulitis. AMR was difficult to be diagnosed by C4d analysis in ABO-incompatible transplant cases. Glomerular injury score, g score, may be considered as more significant and the injury should be cured thoroughly.

  14. The Laminin 511/521–binding site on the Lutheran blood group glycoprotein is located at the flexible junction of Ig domains 2 and 3

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Nicholas; Stefansdottir, Fanney O.; Spring, Frances A.; Parsons, Stephen F.; Pedersen, Jan S.; Oliveira, Cristiano L. P.; Lammie, Donna; Wess, Timothy; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel Anne; Anstee, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The Lutheran blood group glycoprotein, first discovered on erythrocytes, is widely expressed in human tissues. It is a ligand for the α5 subunit of Laminin 511/521, an extracellular matrix protein. This interaction may contribute to vaso-occlusive events that are an important cause of morbidity in sickle cell disease. Using x-ray crystallography, small-angle x-ray scattering, and site-directed mutagenesis, we show that the extracellular region of Lutheran forms an extended structure with a distinctive bend between the second and third immunoglobulin-like domains. The linker between domains 2 and 3 appears to be flexible and is a critical determinant in maintaining an overall conformation for Lutheran that is capable of binding to Laminin. Mutagenesis studies indicate that Asp312 of Lutheran and the surrounding cluster of negatively charged residues in this linker region form the Laminin-binding site. Unusually, receptor binding is therefore not a function of the domains expected to be furthermost from the plasma membrane. These studies imply that structural flexibility of Lutheran may be essential for its interaction with Laminin and present a novel opportunity for the development of therapeutics for sickle cell disease. PMID:17638854

  15. Crystal Structures of GII.10 and GII.12 Norovirus Protruding Domains in Complex with Histo-Blood Group Antigens Reveal Details for a Potential Site of Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Hansman, Grant S.; Biertümpfel, Christian; Georgiev, Ivelin; McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Tongqing; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kwong, Peter D.

    2011-10-10

    Noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide, and interactions with human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are thought to play a critical role in their entry mechanism. Structures of noroviruses from genogroups GI and GII in complex with HBGAs, however, reveal different modes of interaction. To gain insight into norovirus recognition of HBGAs, we determined crystal structures of norovirus protruding domains from two rarely detected GII genotypes, GII.10 and GII.12, alone and in complex with a panel of HBGAs, and analyzed structure-function implications related to conservation of the HBGA binding pocket. The GII.10- and GII.12-apo structures as well as the previously solved GII.4-apo structure resembled each other more closely than the GI.1-derived structure, and all three GII structures showed similar modes of HBGA recognition. The primary GII norovirus-HBGA interaction involved six hydrogen bonds between a terminal {alpha}fucose1-2 of the HBGAs and a dimeric capsid interface, which was composed of elements from two protruding subdomains. Norovirus interactions with other saccharide units of the HBGAs were variable and involved fewer hydrogen bonds. Sequence analysis revealed a site of GII norovirus sequence conservation to reside under the critical {alpha}fucose1-2 and to be one of the few patches of conserved residues on the outer virion-capsid surface. The site was smaller than that involved in full HBGA recognition, a consequence of variable recognition of peripheral saccharides. Despite this evasion tactic, the HBGA site of viral vulnerability may provide a viable target for small molecule- and antibody-mediated neutralization of GII norovirus.

  16. Lewis histo-blood group α1,3/α1,4 fucose residues may both mediate binding to GII.4 noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Waqas; Frank, Martin; Koppisetty, Chaitanya A K; Larson, Göran; Nyholm, Per-Georg

    2012-09-01

    Human noroviruses cause recurrent epidemics of gastroenteritis known to be dominated by the clinically important GII.4 genotype which recognizes human Secretor gene-dependent ABH histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as attachment factors. There is increasing evidence that GII.4 noroviruses have undergone evolutionary changes to recognize Lewis antigens and non-Secretor saliva. In this study, we have investigated the possibilities of the Lewis α1,3/α1,4 fucoses as mediators of binding of GII.4 noroviruses to Lewis antigens. The study was carried out using molecular dynamics simulations of Lewis type-1 and type-2 chain HBGAs in complex with VA387 P domain dimers in explicit water. Based on the computer simulations, we suggest the possibility of two receptor binding modes for Lewis HBGAs: the "Secretor pose" with the Secretor Fucα1,2 in the binding site and the "Lewis pose" with the Lewis Fucα1,3/α1,4 residues in the binding site. This was further supported by an extensive GlyVicinity analysis of the Protein Data Bank with respect to the occurrence of the Lewis and Secretor poses in complexes of Lewis antigens with lectins and antibodies as well as GII norovirus strains. The Lewis pose can also explain the interactions of GII.4 norovirus strains with Le(x) and SLe(x) structures. Moreover, the present model suggests binding of complex branched polysaccharides, with the Lewis antigens at the nonreducing end, to P domain dimers of GII.4 strains. Our results are relevant for understanding the evolution of norovirus binding specificities and for in silico design of future antiviral therapeutics.

  17. Structural Analysis of Histo-Blood Group Antigen Binding Specificity in a Norovirus GII.4 Epidemic Variant: Implications for Epochal Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Shanker, Sreejesh; Choi, Jae-Mun; Sankaran, Banumathi; Atmar, Robert L.; Estes, Mary K.; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram

    2012-03-23

    Susceptibility to norovirus (NoV), a major pathogen of epidemic gastroenteritis, is associated with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are also cell attachment factors for this virus. GII.4 NoV strains are predominantly associated with worldwide NoV epidemics with a periodic emergence of new variants. The sequence variations in the surface-exposed P domain of the capsid protein resulting in differential HBGA binding patterns and antigenicity are suggested to drive GII.4 epochal evolution. To understand how temporal sequence variations affect the P domain structure and contribute to epochal evolution, we determined the P domain structure of a 2004 variant with ABH and secretor Lewis HBGAs and compared it with the previously determined structure of a 1996 variant. We show that temporal sequence variations do not affect the binding of monofucosyl ABH HBGAs but that they can modulate the binding strength of difucosyl Lewis HBGAs and thus could contribute to epochal evolution by the potentiated targeting of new variants to Lewis-positive, secretor-positive individuals. The temporal variations also result in significant differences in the electrostatic landscapes, likely reflecting antigenic variations. The proximity of some of these changes to the HBGA binding sites suggests the possibility of a coordinated interplay between antigenicity and HBGA binding in epochal evolution. From the observation that the regions involved in the formation of the HBGA binding sites can be conformationally flexible, we suggest a plausible mechanism for how norovirus disassociates from salivary mucin-linked HBGA before reassociating with HBGAs linked to intestinal epithelial cells during its passage through the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. Intragraft expression of recipient-type ABO blood group antigens: long-term follow-up and histological features after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuichi; Haga, Hironori; Egawa, Hiroto; Okuno, Tomoko; Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Kambe, Michiyo; Marusawa, Hiroyuki; Chiba, Tsutomu; Manabe, Toshiaki

    2005-05-01

    Several reports have shown detection of recipient-type ABO histo-blood group antigens (r-ABOAg) in the liver allograft, which may represent either true intragraft chimerism or other events such as cell injury. Little is known about factors that affect the timing and extent of r-ABOAg expression in the graft. We examined 65 recipients who underwent ABO nonidentical living donor liver transplantation (61 compatible, 4 incompatible). Ninety-seven postoperative specimens (71 episode biopsies, 16 protocol biopsies, and 10 explanted allografts) were available for evaluation with immunohistochemistry of ABH blood type antigens. The expression of r-ABOAg was assessed in relation to histological and clinical factors. Capillaries in the portal tracts were the primary sites of r-ABOAg expression. The percentage of specimens showing r-ABOAg expression increased with lengthening of the post-transplantation period. Only 1 (4%) of 28 specimens showed endothelium with r-ABOAg within 1 year after the procedure, but 10 (29%) of 35 did between 1 and 5 years after transplantation and 21 (62%) of 34 after more than 5 years. Proportional analysis found that chronic rejection was a significant factor (P = 0.006) for any r-ABOAg expression in the capillaries, and allograft portal fibrosis was a significant predictive factor for extensive r-ABOAg expression (seen in more than one third of the portal tracts) in the capillaries (P = 0.017). Sex mismatch, age of recipients, age of donors, graft/recipient body weight ratio, and histology other than chronic rejection and fibrosis did not correlate with the expression of r-ABOAg. In conclusion, these observations suggest that portal capillaries with r-ABOAg are the results of graft injury and repair, and some of them may be neovessels of recipient origin.

  19. Mapping rare erythrocyte phenotypes in morocco: a tool to overcome transfusion challenges.

    PubMed

    Benahadi, A; Boulahdid, S; Adouani, B; Laouina, A; Mokhtari, A; Soulaymani, A; Hajjout, K; Benajiba, M; Alami, R

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to search for the distribution of blood groups in all the regions of Morocco. This study, done for the first time, aimed to provide the frequency of the Rhesus system and Kell (K) in more than 55000 blood donors from nine different regions around the country. In addition, the frequency of the Cellano, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood antigens was searched for 500 blood donors from the Rabat's region. Frequency of blood donors with rare blood groups was characterized for the first time in the country and compared to results found from other populations. PMID:24744962

  20. The αGal Epitope of the Histo-Blood Group Antigen Family Is a Ligand for Bovine Norovirus Newbury2 Expected to Prevent Cross-Species Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Zakhour, Maha; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Charpilienne, Annie; Langpap, Brigitte; Poncet, Didier; Peters, Thomas; Bovin, Nicolai; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Among Caliciviridae, the norovirus genus encompasses enteric viruses that infect humans as well as several animal species, causing gastroenteritis. Porcine strains are classified together with human strains within genogroup II, whilst bovine norovirus strains represent genogroup III. Various GI and GII human strains bind to carbohydrates of the histo-blood group family which may be shared among mammalian species. Genetic relatedness of human and animal strains as well as the presence of potentially shared ligands raises the possibility of norovirus cross-species transmission. In the present study, we identified a carbohydrate ligand for the prototype bovine norovirus strain Bo/Newbury2/76/UK (NB2). Attachment of virus-like particles (VLPs) of the NB2 strain to bovine gut tissue sections showed a complete match with the staining by reagents recognizing the Galα1,3 motif. Alpha-galactosidase treatment confirmed involvement of a terminal alpha-linked galactose. Specific binding of VLPs to the αGal epitope (Galα3Galβ4GlcNAcβ-R) was observed. The binding of Galα3GalαOMe to rNB2 VLPs was characterized at atomic resolution employing saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments. Transfection of human cells with an α1,3galactosyltransferase cDNA allowed binding of NB2 VLPs, whilst inversely, attachment to porcine vascular endothelial cells was lost when the cells originated from an α1,3galactosyltransferase KO animal. The αGal epitope is expressed in all mammalian species with the exception of the Hominidaea family due to the inactivation of the α1,3galactosyltransferase gene (GGTA1). Accordingly, the NB2 carbohydrate ligand is absent from human tissues. Although expressed on porcine vascular endothelial cells, we observed that unlike in cows, it is not present on gut epithelial cells, suggesting that neither man nor pig could be infected by the NB2 bovine strain. PMID:19578439

  1. Synthesis and solution conformation of the type 2 blood group oligosaccharide. cap alpha. LFuc(1. -->. 2). beta. DGal(1. -->. 4). beta. DGlcNAc

    SciTech Connect

    Rosevear, P.R.; Nunez, H.A.; Barker, R.

    1982-03-16

    Partially purified glycosyltransferases and chemically synthesized sugar nucleotides have been used to prepare a number of oligosaccharides related to the type 2 (human) blood group (H) substance. The following oligosaccharides were prepared and purified by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography: ..cap alpha..LFuc(1..-->..2)-..beta..DGal(1..-->..4)..beta..DGlcNAc-hexanolamine, ..cap alpha..LFuc(1..-->..2)..beta..D(1-/sup 13/C)Gal(1..-->..4)..beta..DGlcNAc-hexanolamine, ..cap alpha..L(1-/sup 13/C)Fuc(1..-->..2)..beta..D(1-/sup 13/C)Gal(1..-->..4)..beta..DGlcNAc-hexanolamine, ..cap alpha..L(1-/sup 13/C)-Fuc(1..-->..2)..beta..D(1-/sup 13/C)Gal(1..-->..4)..beta..DGlcNAc, ..cap alpha..LFuc(1..-->..2)..beta..D-(1-/sup 13/C)Gal(1..-->..4)..beta..DGlcNAc, ..cap alpha..L(1-/sup 13/C)Fuc(1..-->..2)..beta..D(1-/sup 13/C)-Gal(1..-->..4)..beta..DGlc, ..cap alpha..LFuc(1..-->..2)..beta..D(1-/sup 13/C)Gal-hexanolamine, ..cap alpha..L(1-/sup 13/C)Fuc(1..-->..2)..beta..D(1-/sup 13/C)Gal-ethanol, ..cap alpha..LFuc(1..-->..2)..beta..D-(1-/sup 13/C)Gal-ethanol, ..cap alpha..L(1-/sup 13/C)Fuc(1..-->..2)..beta..DGal-ethanol and ..cap alpha..LFuc(1..-->..2)..beta..D(2-/sup 13/C)Gal-ethanol. Specific /sup 13/C enrichment and comparison with /sup 13/C-enriched model compounds allowed unambiguous assignment of /sup 13/C resonances. Fucosylation at O2 of ..beta..DGal(1..-->..4)..beta..DGlcNAc-hexanolamine caused a 5.6 ppm downfield shift of the C2 resonance of Gal. Fucosylation of the disaccharide ..beta..DGal(1..-->..4)DGlcNAc resulted in a similar pattern of chemical shift changes. Interresidue coupling constants (/sup 3/J/sub C1-C1'/ approx. = 1.5 Hz observed as line broadening, /sup 3/J/sub H1-C2'/ approx. = 3.2 Hz, /sup 3/J/sub C1'-C3''/ approx. = 0 Hz, /sup 3/J/sub C1'-C5''/ approx. = 1.0 Hz observed as line broadening, and /sup 2/J/sub C1'-C4''/ approx. = 1.5 Hz) in the enriched oligosaccharides allowed estimation of the most abundant conformer for the Phi and Psi torsion

  2. Identification of two new hemagglutinins of Escherichia coli, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-specific fimbriae and a blood group M-specific agglutinin, by cloning the corresponding genes in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Rhen, M; Klemm, P; Korhonen, T K

    1986-01-01

    Genes encoding the Escherichia coli IH11165 hemagglutinins with specificity for terminal N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and blood group M antigen, respectively, were cloned by a cosmid cloning procedure. A 22-kilobase-pair subclone expressed both hemagglutination specificities in the nonhemagglutinating E. coli HB101 recipient strain. Derivatives obtained by insertion and deletion mutagenesis expressed either one of the two hemagglutination specificities. Both agglutinins were purified; the agglutinin recognizing terminal N-acetyl-D-glucosamine was associated with a new type of fimbria (G fimbria) with an apparent subunit molecular mass of 19.5 kilodaltons, whereas the blood group M agglutinin (M agglutinin) was nonfimbrial and had an apparent subunit mass of 21 kilodaltons. Images PMID:2877972

  3. An assessment of the clinical utility of routine antenatal screening of pregnant women at first clinic attendance for haemoglobin genotypes, haematocrit, ABO and Rh blood groups in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jeremiah, Zaccheaus Awortu

    2005-12-01

    This prospective study was designed to provide the frequencies of the haemoglobin genotypes, ABO and Rh blood groups and their effects on the haematocrit values among pregnant women in Port Harcourt. One hundred and eighty (180) pregnant women at their first clinic attendance and in their first pregnancy (parity - 0) participated in this study. The overall frequencies obtained for ABO and Rh blood groups were: 26.67% for group A, 18.33% for B, 2.22% for AB and 52.78% for O. Rh D positive was 95.56% while Rh D negative was 4.44%. The frequencies of haemoglobin genotypes were 70.00% for HbAA, 29.44% for HbAS and 0.56% for HbSS. HbAC and SC did not occur in this study population. The mean haematocrit value was 34.64%. This was found to be independent of the ABO and Rh blood groups (P > 0.05). On the other hand, haemoglobin genotypes were found to exert significant effects on the haematocrit values (F = 8.01, P = 0.0005). No significant relationship was found to exist between age and the haematocrit values. (F = 0.91, P > 0.05). Since pregnancy in sickle cell disease is associated with morbidity, proper antenatal monitoring and counselling will be necessary to prevent fatal outcomes.

  4. Molecular cloning, sequence, and expression of a human GDP-L-fucose:. beta. -D-galactoside 2-. alpha. -L-fucosyltransferase cDNA that can form the H blood group antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.D.; Ernst, L.K.; Nair, R.P.; Lowe, J.B. )

    1990-09-01

    The authors have previously used a gene-transfer scheme to isolate a human genomic DNA fragment that determines expression of a GDP-L-fucose:{beta}D-galactoside 2-{alpha}-L-fucosyltransferase. Although this fragment determined expression of an {alpha}(1,2)FT whose kinetic properties mirror those of the human H blood group {alpha}(1,2)FT, their precise nature remained undefined. They describe here the molecular cloning, sequence, and expression of a human of cDNA corresponding to these human genomic sequences. When expressed in COS-1 cells, the cDNA directs expression of cell surface H structures and a cognate {alpha}(1,2)FT activity with properties analogous to the human H blood group {alpha}(1,2)FT. The cDNA sequence predicts a 365-amino acid polypeptide characteristic of a type II transmembrane glycoprotein with a domain structure analogous to that of other glycosyltransferases but without significant primary sequence similarity to these or other known proteins. To directly demonstrate that the cDNA encodes an {alpha}(1,2)FT, the COOH-terminal domain predicted to be Golgi-resident was expressed in COS-1 cells as a catalytically active, secreted, and soluble protein A fusion peptide. Southern blot analysis showed that this cDNA identified DNA sequences syntenic to the human H locus on chromosome 19. These results strongly suggest that this cloned {alpha}(1,2)FT cDNA represents the product of the human H blood group locus.

  5. Characterization of WbiQ: An {alpha}1,2-fucosyltransferase from Escherichia coli O127:K63(B8), and synthesis of H-type 3 blood group antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, Nicholas; Styslinger, Thomas; Mei, Zhen; Han, Weiqing; Zhao, Guohui; Wang, Peng George

    2010-11-12

    Research highlights: {yields} WbiQ is an {alpha}1,2-fucosyltransferase from Escherichia coli O127. {yields} WbiQ demonstrates strict substrate specificity for the Gal-{beta}1,3-GalNAc acceptor. {yields} WbiQ was used to synthesize milligram scale of the H-type 3 blood group antigen. -- Abstract: Escherichia coli O127:K63(B8) possesses high human blood group H (O) activity due to its O-antigen repeating unit structure. In this work, the wbiQ gene from E. coli O127:K63(B8) was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and purified as a fusion protein containing an N-terminal GST affinity tag. Using the GST-WbiQ fusion protein, the wbiQ gene was identified to encode an {alpha}1,2-fucosyltransferase using a radioactivity based assay, thin-layer chromatography assay, as well confirming product formation by using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The fused enzyme (GST-WbiQ) has an optimal pH range from 6.5 to 7.5 and does not require the presence of a divalent metal to be enzymatically active. WbiQ displays strict substrate specificity, displaying activity only towards acceptors that contain Gal-{beta}1,3-GalNAc-{alpha}-OR linkages; indicating that both the Gal and GalNAc residues are vital for enzymatic activity. In addition, WbiQ was used to prepare the H-type 3 blood group antigen, Fuc-{alpha}1,2-Gal-{beta}1,3-GalNAc-{alpha}-OMe, on a milligram scale.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies as blood grouping reagents.

    PubMed

    Voak, D

    1990-04-01

    The large volume requirements for high quality ABO and Rh(D) typing reagents can now be supplied by selected monoclonal antibodies. Superior anti-A and anti-B monoclonal reagents can be prepared, from blends of at least two antibodies, to optimize the intensity of agglutination for slide tests and the potency for the detection of the weaker sub-groups, including Ax and Bw, by tube techniques. New quality control steps have been described for some highly sensitive anti-A/anti-B antibodies to avoid the detection of traces of A on B cells or traces of B on A1 cells, which results from the non-specific activity of A and B transferases. Excellent anti-A,B reagents may also be made by blends of at least two antibodies to optimize both A and B reactions, but the need for their continued use is now debatable. The development of high titre IgM monoclonal anti-D reagents offers simple rapid saline Rh(D) typing of both patients and donors, but they cannot reliably detect weak D (Du) and some D variants, e.g. the epitopes on D category VI cells. However, this can be achieved by blending an IgM anti-D with IgG (polyclonal) anti-D which can detect these types after conversion of negative saline tests to an antiglobulin phase. In addition, high grade Du, D categories and variants can be reliably detected (for typing donors) by selected monoclonal IgM and IgG anti-Ds by use of suitably enhanced tests without the use of an antiglobulin test.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. [Solid phase techniques in blood group serology].

    PubMed

    Uthemann, H; Sturmfels, L; Lenhard, V

    1993-06-01

    As alternatives to hemagglutination, solid-phase red blood cell adherence assays are of increasing importance. The adaptation of the new techniques to microplates offers several advantages over hemagglutination. Using microplates the assays may be processed semiautomatically, and the results can be read spectrophotometrically and interpreted by a personal computer. In this paper, different red blood cell adherence assays for AB0 grouping, Rh typing, Rh phenotyping, antibody screening and identification, as well as crossmatching will be described.

  8. Analysis of a Larger SNP Dataset from the HapMap Project Confirmed That the Modern Human A Allele of the ABO Blood Group Genes Is a Descendant of a Recombinant between B and O Alleles.

    PubMed

    Itou, Masaya; Sato, Mitsuharu; Kitano, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The human ABO blood group gene consists of three main alleles (A, B, and O) that encode a glycosyltransferase. The A and B alleles differ by two critical amino acids in exon 7, and the major O allele has a single nucleotide deletion (Δ261) in exon 6. Previous evolutionary studies have revealed that the A allele is the most ancient, B allele diverged from the A allele with two critical amino acid substitutions in exon 7, and the major O allele diverged from the A allele with Δ261 in exon 6. However, a recent phylogenetic network analysis study showed that the A allele of humans emerged through a recombination between the B and O alleles. In the previous study, a restricted dataset from only two populations was used. In this study, therefore, we used a large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) dataset from the HapMap Project. The results indicated that the A101-A201-O09 haplogroup was a recombinant lineage between the B and O haplotypes, containing the intact exon 6 from the B allele and the two critical A type sites in exon 7 from the major O allele. Its recombination point was assumed to be located just behind Δ261 in exon 6.

  9. The genetic structure of a tribal population, the Yanomama Indians XI. Gene frequencies for 10 blood groups and the ABH-Le secretor traits in the Yanomama and their neighbors; the uniqueness of the tribe.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, R H; Gershowitz, H; Layrisse, M; Neel, J V

    1975-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of blood group typings for a total of 33 villages distributed among five South American Indian tribes--Yanomama (21 villages), Makiritare (eight villages), Macushi (two villages), Piaroa (one village), and Wapishana (one village). These new results for the Yanomama and Makiritare tribes have been combined with those previously reported to allow a better appreciation of the distribution of allelic frequencies in the tribes. The relationship of the Yanomama to other South American Indian tribes is investigated using data on six polymorphic loci (Rh, MNS, Fy, Jk, Di, Hp). By use of four genetic measures (two of genetic relationship and two of genetic diversity), we demonstrate that the Yanomama are genetically unique among a sample of 20 South American tribes. In addition, the Yanomama show somewhat less genetic diversity for the six loci analyzed than the average South American tribe. Taken together, these results indicate a rather long period of isolation for the population antecedent to the Yanomama--perhaps since the time of entry of man into the South American continent. The pattern of genetic relationships and genetic diversity for the 20 tribes is consistent with the hypothesis that evolution in South America proceeded by a process of fission-fusion leading to isolation of subpopulations with subsequent genetic differentiation as a consequence of population isolation. The uniqueness of the Yanomama appears to stem entirely from such a process, there being no evidence of any selective differential for the loci analyzed. PMID:50736

  10. Evidence for sialylated type 1 blood group chains on human erythrocyte membranes revealed by agglutination of neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes with Waldenström's macroglobulin IgMWOO and hybridoma antibody FC 10.2.

    PubMed

    Picard, J K; Loveday, D; Feizi, T

    1985-01-01

    Haemagglutination studies have been performed with untreated and neuraminidase-treated human erythrocytes of the three Lewis antigen types Le(a-b-), Le(a+b-) and Le(a-b+) using two monoclonal antibodies, IgMWOO and FC 10.2, which were previously shown to recognize the type 1 based blood group chains: Gal beta 1----3GlcNAc beta 1----3Gal beta 1----4Glc/GlcNAc (for explanation of abbreviations see table IV legend). Both antibodies behaved as cold agglutinins with neuraminidase-treated but not with untreated erythrocytes of the three Lewis antigen types. Neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes of i antigen type were similarly agglutinated. This haemagglutination was specifically inhibited by the type 1 based milk oligosaccharide lacto-N-tetraose. Thus, there is strong evidence for the occurrence of sialylated type 1 chains on human erythrocyte membranes of I and i antigen types. In addition, evidence for the presence of type 1 chains which are both sialylated and fucosylated was obtained by (1) haemagglutination of Le(a+b-) erythrocytes with the monoclonal antibody 19.9; (2) increased haemagglutination of neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes with anti-H antibodies of Bombay serum; (3) increased haemagglutination of neuraminidase-treated Le(a+b-) cells with anti-Lea antibodies, and (4) the appearance of Lea antigen activity on neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes of Le(a-b+) type.

  11. Expression of M-N#1, a histo-blood group B-like antigen, is strongly up-regulated in nonapoptosing mammary epithelial cells during rat mammary gland involution.

    PubMed

    Mengwasser, J; Sleeman, J P

    2001-06-01

    Antibodies against the histo-blood group B-like antigen M-N#1 efficiently block the growth in vivo of rat mammary carcinoma cells that bear the antigen (Sleeman et al., 1999, Oncogene 18, 4485--4494). To try to understand the function of the M-N#1 antigen, we investigated when and where the antigen is expressed during the normal function of the rat mammary gland. Expression was virtually only seen during mammary gland involution. Here, strong expression of the antigen was observed in mammary epithelial cells, beginning around 2 days postweaning and lasting throughout the involution process. Dexamethasone treatment of animals postlactation inhibited alveolar collapse and remodeling in the mammary gland but inhibited neither the apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells nor the expression of the M-N#1 antigen. We show that up-regulation of carbohydrate antigens is not a general phenomenon during mammary gland involution, and thus that M-N#1 antigen expression is specifically regulated. Up-regulation of alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase A, an enzyme required for M-N#1 antigen synthesis, is at least partly responsible for regulated M-N#1 antigen expression postlactation. Most significantly, we observed that the M-N#1 antigen is virtually exclusively expressed on nonapoptosing epithelial cells in the involuting mammary gland. These data suggest that M-N#1 antigen expression might either provide a survival function and/or be expressed in epithelial cells that are destined to grow and remodel mammary duct structures. PMID:11445549

  12. [A population-genetics approach to the problem of nonspecific biological resistance of the human body. III. The ABO and rhesus blood group systems of healthy and sick children and their mothers].

    PubMed

    Kurbatova, O L; Botvin'ev, O K; Altukhov, Iu P

    1984-04-01

    ABO and Rhesus blood types have been specified in 2047 diseased newborns, diseased infants and children who died before the age of one, as well as in their mothers. 527 healthy children and their mothers were investigated as a control group. A significant difference in the ABO phenotype frequencies has been revealed between: i) healthy and dead children, ii) mothers of diseased newborns and mothers of healthy children, iii) dead children and their mothers. The significant increase in the incidence of maternal Rhesus-negative phenotype, as compared with the control group, was shown in the groups of diseased newborns, diseased infants and dead children. In the same groups, mothers differ significantly from their children with respect to the frequency of Rhesus phenotypes. The incidence of Rhesus-incompatible mother-child pairs in the groups of diseased newborns, diseased infants and dead children was shown to be two times higher than the respective frequency in the control group and the expected frequency. A certain increase in the frequency of ABO-incompatible pairs was revealed in the groups of diseased newborns and dead children, but the difference, as compared to the control group, did not prove to be statistically significant. A hypothesis was advanced to the effect that the mother-child incompatibility for Rhesus and ABO antigens may result not only in fetal wastage and haemolytic disease of newborns, but also in the decrease of child's resistance to diseases of different origin.

  13. A simple method to recover Norovirus from fresh produce with large sample size by using histo-blood group antigens conjugated magnetic beads re-circulating immunomagnetic separation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noroviruses (NoV) annually cause millions of cases of gastrointestinal disease in the United States. Although NoV outbreaks are generally associated with raw shellfish, particularly oysters, outbreaks have also been known to occur from other common-source food-borne vehicles such as lettuce, frozen...

  14. Critical thickness for the saturation state of strain relaxation in the InGaAs/GaAs systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, D.; Araújo, D.; Aragón, G.; García, R.

    1998-04-01

    Using previously published relaxation models [D. J. Dunstan, P. Kidd, L. K. Howard and R. H. Dixon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3390 (1991) and D. González, D. Araújo, G. Aragón, and R. Garcı´a, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2475 (1997)] that predict the strain relaxation in the InGaAs/GaAs system, before and during the stage of relaxation saturation, the critical thickness where dislocation interactions begin to limit the plastic relaxation is estimated. The approximations used to deduce an analytical expression are shown to be appropriate for describing the regime of relaxation considered. A good agreement with experimental data previously published by other authors permits a physical explanation for the different observed regimes of relaxation to be given.

  15. [Connection between the group factors of the blood systems ABO, MNSs, and rhesus and peculiarities of the vaccination process in children immunized against smallpox].

    PubMed

    Lebedinskiĭ, A P; Sokhin, A A; Frolov, V K; Frolov, A K; Lysakova, V I

    1975-12-01

    The ahthors present new data on the character of the vaccine process in children associated with the characteristics of the blood group ABO, MNSs and Rh systems. The greater frequency of occurrence and more manifest reactions were noted in children with blood groups A, B, AB, M and Rho (D) - in comparison with those having blood groups O, Rho (D) +, MN and N. There was a significant prevalence of chromosomal aberrations in the primarily immunized children with blood groups A in comparison with groups O, B and AB. The data obtained pointed to the negative effect of the mimi-rating antigens of the smallpox virus on the immunogenesis in smallpox. Search for methods of releasing the vaccine of these antigens is necessary for reduction of the reactogenic properties and increase of immunogenecity of the smallpox vaccines.

  16. Red blood cell phenotype matching for various ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Badjie, Karafa S W; Tauscher, Craig D; van Buskirk, Camille M; Wong, Clare; Jenkins, Sarah M; Smith, Carin Y; Stubbs, James R

    2011-01-01

    Patients requiring chronic transfusion support are at risk of alloimmunization after red blood cell (RBC) transfusion because of a disparity between donor and recipient antigen profiles. This research explored the probability of obtaining an exact extended phenotype match between blood donors randomly selected from our institution and patients randomly selected from particular ethnic groups. Blood samples from 1,000 blood donors tested by molecular method were evaluated for the predicted phenotype distribution of Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS. A random subsample of 800 donor phenotypes was then evaluated for the probability of obtaining an exact match with respect to phenotype with a randomly selected patient from a particular ethnic group. Overall, there was a greater than 80 percent probability of finding an exact donor-recipient match for the K/k alleles in the Kell system. The probability ranged from 3 percent to 38 percent, depending on the ethnicity and disparities in phenotypic profiles, for the Rh, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS systems. A significant donor-recipient phenotype mismatch ratio exists with certain blood group antigens such that, with current routine ABO and D matching practices, recipients of certain ethnic groups are predisposed to alloimmunization. PMID:22356481

  17. Red blood cell phenotype matching for various ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Badjie, Karafa S W; Tauscher, Craig D; van Buskirk, Camille M; Wong, Clare; Jenkins, Sarah M; Smith, Carin Y; Stubbs, James R

    2011-01-01

    Patients requiring chronic transfusion support are at risk of alloimmunization after red blood cell (RBC) transfusion because of a disparity between donor and recipient antigen profiles. This research explored the probability of obtaining an exact extended phenotype match between blood donors randomly selected from our institution and patients randomly selected from particular ethnic groups. Blood samples from 1,000 blood donors tested by molecular method were evaluated for the predicted phenotype distribution of Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS. A random subsample of 800 donor phenotypes was then evaluated for the probability of obtaining an exact match with respect to phenotype with a randomly selected patient from a particular ethnic group. Overall, there was a greater than 80 percent probability of finding an exact donor-recipient match for the K/k alleles in the Kell system. The probability ranged from 3 percent to 38 percent, depending on the ethnicity and disparities in phenotypic profiles, for the Rh, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS systems. A significant donor-recipient phenotype mismatch ratio exists with certain blood group antigens such that, with current routine ABO and D matching practices, recipients of certain ethnic groups are predisposed to alloimmunization.

  18. Rh18 and hrS blood groups and antibodies.

    PubMed

    Moores, P

    1994-01-01

    Anti-hrS, also known as the Shabalala antibody, is unlikely to be found in unabsorbed human serum. The term 'anti-hrS, was devised by Shapiro in 1960 to describe the antibodies remaining in the absorbed serum after anti-Rh18 had been absorbed with R2R2 red cells. R2R2-absorbed anti-Rh18 (anti-hrS), although an interesting research tool, is therefore clinically irrelevant. Unabsorbed anti-Rh18, on the other hand, is a clinically significant antibody. It is compatible not only with Rh-'deleted' and Rhnull red cells, as described by Shapiro, but is also compatible with the red cells of numbers of Southern African Blacks and Coloureds (mixed race) who have Ro, Rou or R2r phenotypes. Anti-Rh18 causes haemolytic disease of the newborn and, when uncontaminated with other antibodies, is a further reagent for resolving Rh grouping problems.

  19. H-deficient blood groups ( Bombay) of Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Gerard, G; Vitrac, D; Le Pendu, J; Muller, A; Oriol, R

    1982-11-01

    Forty-two H-deficient individuals (lacking H antigen on erythrocytes) with anti-H in their sera were found on Reunion Island. A, B, and AB Bombay subjects had small but detectable amounts of A and/or B antigens on erythrocytes. All the H-deficient phenotypes tested were nonsecretors of ABH in their saliva, and one-third were Lewis negative. Fifty-three of the 108 (49%) unaffected members in the 14 Bombay pedigrees analyzed were se/se, showing that the families were selected for the nonsecretor trait, and suggesting that the Bombay probands used to select the families have se/se genotype. In accordance with this concept, all the children from Bombay nonsecretor x unaffected nonsecretor matings were se/se. Segregation of H and Se is compatible with the genetic model proposing that Se and H are closely linked structural genes, and the analysis of the present and previously published Bombay pedigrees strongly supports this model.

  20. Mice Expressing RHAG and RHD Human Blood Group Genes

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Dominique; da Silva, Nelly; Metral, Sylvain; Cortes, Ulrich; Callebaut, Isabelle; Picot, Julien; Mouro-Chanteloup, Isabelle; Cartron, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Anti-RhD prophylaxis of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is highly effective, but as the suppressive mechanism remains uncertain, a mouse model would be of interest. Here we have generated transgenic mice expressing human RhAG and RhD erythrocyte membrane proteins in the presence and, for human RhAG, in the absence, of mouse Rhag. Human RhAG associates with mouse Rh but not mouse Rhag on red blood cells. In Rhag knockout mice transgenic for human RHAG, the mouse Rh protein is “rescued” (re-expressed), and co-immunoprecipitates with human RhAG, indicating the presence of hetero-complexes which associate mouse and human proteins. RhD antigen was expressed from a human RHD gene on a BAC or from RHD cDNA under control of β-globin regulatory elements. RhD was never observed alone, strongly indicative that its expression absolutely depends on the presence of transgenic human RhAG. This first expression of RhD in mice is an important step in the creation of a mouse model of RhD allo-immunisation and HDFN, in conjunction with the Rh-Rhag knockout mice we have developed previously. PMID:24260394

  1. Rh18 and hrS blood groups and antibodies.

    PubMed

    Moores, P

    1994-01-01

    Anti-hrS, also known as the Shabalala antibody, is unlikely to be found in unabsorbed human serum. The term 'anti-hrS, was devised by Shapiro in 1960 to describe the antibodies remaining in the absorbed serum after anti-Rh18 had been absorbed with R2R2 red cells. R2R2-absorbed anti-Rh18 (anti-hrS), although an interesting research tool, is therefore clinically irrelevant. Unabsorbed anti-Rh18, on the other hand, is a clinically significant antibody. It is compatible not only with Rh-'deleted' and Rhnull red cells, as described by Shapiro, but is also compatible with the red cells of numbers of Southern African Blacks and Coloureds (mixed race) who have Ro, Rou or R2r phenotypes. Anti-Rh18 causes haemolytic disease of the newborn and, when uncontaminated with other antibodies, is a further reagent for resolving Rh grouping problems. PMID:8036793

  2. Cytogenetic and blood group studies of sheep/goat chimaeras.

    PubMed

    Fehilly, C B; Willadsen, S M; Dain, A R; Tucker, E M

    1985-05-01

    Aggregation chimaeras were composed of quarter (or 1 cell) contributions from 4-cell blastocysts of sheep or goats, or of an 8-cell blastocyst of one species enveloped in three 8-cell blastocysts of the other. Gestation was in sheep or goat recipient females. Of the 10 living animals born, 3 were identified as interspecific chimaeras by body conformation and coat type among the 7 quarter/quarter aggregations and 1 among the 3 giant aggregates. Interspecific chimaerism was identified by cytogenetic study of umbilicus and blood lymphocytes respectively of 2 of these, one from each type of aggregate. Intraspecific sex chimaerism was found in 3 other animals; 2 were of giant aggregate origin, but the 1 of quarter/quarter origin must have acquired it by placental anastomosis with a twin conceptus. Tests using species-specific monoclonal antibodies and electrophoretic separation of haemoglobins and isoenzymes demonstrated sheep and goat erythrocytes in one giant aggregate chimaera; their relative proportions and those of the blood lymphocytes changed over a period of 31 months from approximately 60% goat and 40% sheep to more than 90% sheep. The plasma transferrins and amylases did not show similar relative changes from their predominantly goat-like character and, by implication, neither did their tissues of origin. PMID:4020767

  3. Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of

  4. Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of

  5. 78 FR 43245 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... electronically via the Commission's Filing Online system at http://www.prc.gov . Those who cannot submit comments... accessed via the Commission's Web site ( http://www.prc.gov ). The Commission appoints Curtis E. Kidd to.... Pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 505, Curtis E. Kidd is appointed to serve as an officer of the Commission...

  6. 78 FR 79025 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... electronically via the Commission's Filing Online system at http://www.prc.gov . Those who cannot submit comments... ( http://www.prc.gov ). The Commission appoints Curtis E. Kidd to serve as Public Representative in these... E. Kidd is appointed to serve as an officer of the Commission to represent the interests of...

  7. 78 FR 3476 - International Mail Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Online system at http://www.prc.gov . Those who cannot submit comments electronically should contact the... 39 CFR 3007. The Commission appoints Curtis Kidd to represent the interests of the general public... 39 U.S.C. 505, the Commission designates Curtis Kidd to serve as an officer of the Commission...

  8. 78 FR 3477 - International Mail Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Online system at http://www.prc.gov . Those who cannot submit comments electronically should contact the... nonpublic material appears at 39 CFR 3007.40. The Commission appoints Curtis E. Kidd to represent the... Service's Notice. 2. Pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 505, the Commission designates Curtis E. Kidd to serve as...

  9. 78 FR 3922 - International Mail Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... Online system at http://www.prc.gov . Those who cannot submit comments electronically should contact the... 39 CFR part 3007. The Commission appoints Curtis E. Kidd to represent the interests of the general.... Pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 505, the Commission designates Curtis E. Kidd to serve as an officer of...

  10. JK null alleles identified from Japanese individuals with Jk(a−b−) phenotype.

    PubMed

    Onodera, T; Sasaki, K; Tsuneyama, H; Isa, K; Ogasawara, K; Satake, M; Tadokoro, K; Uchikawa, M

    2014-05-01

    The Kidd blood group system consists of three common phenotypes: Jk(a+b−), Jk(a−b+) and Jk(a+b+), and one rare phenotype, Jk(a−b−). Jka/Jkb polymorphism is associated with c.838G>A (p.Asp280Asn) in exon 9 of the JK (SLC14A1) gene, and the corresponding alleles are named JK*01 and JK*02. The rare phenotype Jk(a−b−) was first found in a Filipina of Spanish and Chinese ancestry, and to date, several JK null alleles responsible for the Jk(a−b−) phenotype have been reported. We report seven novel JK null alleles, 4 with a JK*01 background and 3 with a JK*02 background, identified from Jk(a−b−) Japanese. PMID:24877238

  11. From Kidd to Dewey: The Origin and Meaning of "Social Efficiency"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary historians of education associate the term "social efficiency" with a group of US educators who, in the 1910s and 1920s, aimed at creating a technocratic school and a conservative society of social stability and harmony. However, an investigation of the origin of the term indicates that "social efficiency" began its career in 1894 in…

  12. Disability and Deprivation. Selected Papers of a Conference on Disability and Deprivation (Boise, Idaho, June 9-10, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO.

    Rodger L. Hurley discusses the causal relationship between poverty and mental retardation; John W. Kidd describes limitations in special education systems. Also, David L. Cowen considers health problems and health care of the poor. (JD)

  13. Characterization of the specificities of human blood group H gene-specified alpha 1,2-L-fucosyltransferase toward sulfated/sialylated/fucosylated acceptors: evidence for an inverse relationship between alpha 1,2-L-fucosylation of Gal and alpha 1,6-L-fucosylation of asparagine-linked GlcNAc.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, E V; Jain, R K; Larsen, R D; Wlasichuk, K; Matta, K L

    1996-07-01

    The assembly of complex structures bearing the H determinant was examined by characterizing the specificities of a cloned blood group H gene-specified alpha 1,2-L-fucosyltransferase (FT) toward a variety of sulfated, sialylated, or fucosylated Gal beta 1,3/4GlcNAc beta- or Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha-based acceptor structures. (a) As compared to the basic type 2, Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta-(K(m) = 1.67 mM), the basic type 1 was 137% active (K(m) = 0.83 mM). (b) On C-6 sulfation of Gal, type 1 became 142.1% active and type 2 became 223.0% active (K(m) = 0.45 mM). (c) On C-6 sulfation of GlcNAc, type 2 showed 33.7% activity. (d) On C-3 or C-4 fucosylation of GlcNAc, both types 1 and 2 lost activity. (e) Type 1 showed 70.8% and 5.8% activity, respectively, on C-6 and C-4 O-methylation of GlcNAc. (f) Type 1 retained 18.8% activity on alpha 2,6-sialylation of GlcNAc. (g) Terminal type 1 or 2 of extended chain had lower activity. (h) With Gal in place of GlcNAc in type 1, the activity became 43.2%. (i) Compounds with terminal alpha 1,3-linked Gal were inactive. (j) Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha- (the T-hapten) was approximately 0.4-fold as active as Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta-. (k) C-6 sulfation of Gal on the T-hapten did not affect the acceptor activity. (l) C-6 sulfation of GalNAc decreased the activity to 70%, whereas on C-6 sulfation of both Gal and GalNAc the T-hapten lost the acceptor ability. (m) C-6 sialylation of GalNAc also led to inactivity. (n) beta 1,6 branching from GalNAc of the T-hapten by a GlcNAc residue or by units such as Gal beta 1, 4GlcNAc-, Gal beta 1,4(Fuc alpha 1,3)GlcNAc-, or 3-sulfoGal beta 1,4GlcNAc- resulted in 111.9%, 282.8%, 48.3%, and 75.3% activities, respectively. (o) The enhancement of enzyme affinity by a sulfo group on C-6 of Gal was demonstrated by an increase (approximately 5-fold) in the K(m) for Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta 1,6(Gal beta 1,3)GalNAc alpha-O-Bn in presence of 6-sulfoGal beta 1,- 4GlcNAc beta-O-Me (3.0 mM). (p) Among the two sites in

  14. Characterization of the specificities of human blood group H gene-specified alpha 1,2-L-fucosyltransferase toward sulfated/sialylated/fucosylated acceptors: evidence for an inverse relationship between alpha 1,2-L-fucosylation of Gal and alpha 1,6-L-fucosylation of asparagine-linked GlcNAc.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, E V; Jain, R K; Larsen, R D; Wlasichuk, K; Matta, K L

    1996-07-01

    The assembly of complex structures bearing the H determinant was examined by characterizing the specificities of a cloned blood group H gene-specified alpha 1,2-L-fucosyltransferase (FT) toward a variety of sulfated, sialylated, or fucosylated Gal beta 1,3/4GlcNAc beta- or Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha-based acceptor structures. (a) As compared to the basic type 2, Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta-(K(m) = 1.67 mM), the basic type 1 was 137% active (K(m) = 0.83 mM). (b) On C-6 sulfation of Gal, type 1 became 142.1% active and type 2 became 223.0% active (K(m) = 0.45 mM). (c) On C-6 sulfation of GlcNAc, type 2 showed 33.7% activity. (d) On C-3 or C-4 fucosylation of GlcNAc, both types 1 and 2 lost activity. (e) Type 1 showed 70.8% and 5.8% activity, respectively, on C-6 and C-4 O-methylation of GlcNAc. (f) Type 1 retained 18.8% activity on alpha 2,6-sialylation of GlcNAc. (g) Terminal type 1 or 2 of extended chain had lower activity. (h) With Gal in place of GlcNAc in type 1, the activity became 43.2%. (i) Compounds with terminal alpha 1,3-linked Gal were inactive. (j) Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha- (the T-hapten) was approximately 0.4-fold as active as Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta-. (k) C-6 sulfation of Gal on the T-hapten did not affect the acceptor activity. (l) C-6 sulfation of GalNAc decreased the activity to 70%, whereas on C-6 sulfation of both Gal and GalNAc the T-hapten lost the acceptor ability. (m) C-6 sialylation of GalNAc also led to inactivity. (n) beta 1,6 branching from GalNAc of the T-hapten by a GlcNAc residue or by units such as Gal beta 1, 4GlcNAc-, Gal beta 1,4(Fuc alpha 1,3)GlcNAc-, or 3-sulfoGal beta 1,4GlcNAc- resulted in 111.9%, 282.8%, 48.3%, and 75.3% activities, respectively. (o) The enhancement of enzyme affinity by a sulfo group on C-6 of Gal was demonstrated by an increase (approximately 5-fold) in the K(m) for Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta 1,6(Gal beta 1,3)GalNAc alpha-O-Bn in presence of 6-sulfoGal beta 1,- 4GlcNAc beta-O-Me (3.0 mM). (p) Among the two sites in

  15. Characterization of the Monument Hill fault system and implications for the active tectonics of the Red Rock Valley, Southwestern Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regalla, Christine A.; Anastasio, David J.; Pazzaglia, Frank J.

    2007-08-01

    New geologic mapping, morphologic fault scarp modeling, and geomorphic metrics in the Red Rock Valley, southwestern Montana, help characterize the Quaternary history of the virtually unstudied Monument Hill fault and tectonics of the youthful and seismically active Red Rock graben. Two generations of Pleistocene surface ruptures are preserved along the Monument Hill fault. Similarity in rupture ages along multiple strands, determined from offset alluvial surfaces and morphologic modeling, suggest earthquake clusters at 22-32 ka and possibly >160 ka. Quaternary activity along the Monument Hill fault is also reflected in elongate drainage basins and channel profiles with anomalously steep reaches coincident with mapped faults. An anticlinal accommodation zone at Kidd accommodates a change in fault polarity between the en echelon Monument Hill and Red Rock faults and a northward decrease in extension within the Red Rock graben. The unique rupture histories of the Monument Hill and Red Rock faults, however, suggest the systems are not seismogenically linked and that the accommodation zone serves as a rupture barrier. The geometry, interconnectivity, and kinematics of faults in the Red Rock Valley may represent a snapshot of the early stages of extension applicable to the evolution of other Northern Basin and Range grabens.

  16. Genetic markers in the blood of multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Marković, S; Bozicević, D; Simić, D; Brzović, Z

    1991-01-01

    Poligenetically determined predisposition to multiple sclerosis (MS) defines the way of immunological reaction to environmental factors and leads to clinically manifest disease. Although the connection between MS and some loci of the HLA system has been established, the hereditary predisposition to MS remains to be elucidated. We determined the phenotypes of monogenic hereditary characteristics linked to the surface of red blood cells that were obtained from 45 MS patients and 458 healthy subjects. The antigens on the erythrocytic surface of the ABO, Rh, MN, Ss, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, P and Lewis system were analyzed. Our results demonstrate that the MS patients differ from the normal subjects with regard to the Rh, ABO and Lewis erythrocytic antigens. The Rh positive factor was present in 95.55% of the MS patients compared to 84.29% of the controls, whereas the Rh negative factor was found in only 4.45% of the MS patients and 15.71% of the healthy subjects. The blood group O was demonstrated in 22.22% of the MS patients compared to 40.42% of the healthy persons. The MS patients had the blood group A in 15.11% of the cases as opposed to 43.99% of the subjects in the control groups. The blood group B was found in 22.22% of the MS patients compared to 11.10% of the controls. The distribution of the Lewis system in the MS patients was also demonstrated to be different from that in the general population. The MS patients were found to have less frequently the Le a+b- phenotype (11.12%) and more frequently Le a- b- (13.33%) compared to the healthy subjects who had the Le a+b- phenotype in 12.00% of the cases and Le a- b- in 5.00%.

  17. [Frequency of phenotypes and genes of the polymorphic blood systems in a population as dependent on the age factor].

    PubMed

    Mozalevskiĭ, A F; Iushchenko, G K; Dudina, E A

    1989-01-01

    The frequency of blood groups ABO, Rh, MNS, P, haptoglobin as well as distribution of phenotypic combinations of two different loci are compared in groups of children and adults. The frequency of phenotype O, Rh-negative and P-positive people is revealed to increase in adults, that testifies to the influence of the age factor on the distribution of the human polymorphic blood systems.

  18. The HLA system: structure and function.

    PubMed Central

    Bodmer, W F

    1987-01-01

    The HLA system is the major histocompatibility system of man and was found through a search for blood group-like determinants on white blood cells that would be effective in matching for transplantation. The HLA system has its counterparts in other species of mammals, birds, and reptiles including the much studied H2 system of the mouse. The HLA system started from a series of antigens defined by a combination of relatively crude serology and genetics, supported by extensive statistical analysis. It has turned out to be a complex genetic region determining two major sets of cell surface products which mediate essential functional interactions between cells of the immune system, and so have a major role in the control of the immune response. Polymorphism in the HLA region is thus associated with a wide variety of diseases with an immune aetiology. PMID:3312304

  19. Seasonal Tracking of Histo-blood Group Antigen Expression and Norovirus Binding in Oyster Gastrointestinal Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noroviruses (NORs) are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks and the illnesses are sometimes described as “highly seasonal syndrome” or "winter vomiting disease”. Outbreaks are often associated with the consumption of contaminated oysters or other bivalves and generally occur betw...

  20. Association of ABO and Colton Blood Group Gene Polymorphisms With Hematological Traits Variation

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Shirin; Mashayekhi, Amir; Fatahi, Neda; Mahdavi, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hematological parameters are appraised routinely to determine overall human health and to diagnose and monitor certain diseases. In GWASs, more than 30 loci carrying common deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymorphisms have been identified related to hematological traits. In this study, we investigated the contribution of ABO rs2073823 along with AQP1 rs1049305 and rs10244884 polymorphisms in hematological traits variation in a cohort of Iranian healthy individuals. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 168 healthy volunteer. Genotyping was performed by ARMS-PCR or PCR-RFLP and confirmed by DNA sequencing. Complete blood analyses were conducted for the participants. Significant association was observed between AQP1 rs1049305 and the hematological traits including hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count (P = 0.012, 0.008, and 0.011, respectively). The AQP1 rs10244884 status was also significantly linked to hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in the study cohort (P = 0.015 and 0.041, respectively). Furthermore, ABO rs2073823 polymorphism was identified as a hemoglobin and hematocrit levels modifier (both with P = 0.004). AQP1 and ABO variants appear to predict hemoglobin and hematocrit levels but not other erythrocyte phenotype parameters including red blood cell counts and red blood cell indices. PMID:26632894

  1. Sibship asymmetries of rhesus blood groups in the presence of maternal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Knox, E G; Battey, D A; Bird, G W

    1979-01-01

    The genotypes of the children of R1r, R2r, and R1R2 fathers, and Rh-immunized rr mothers, were examined. R1r fathers had an excess of R1r over rr children, and R1R2 fathers had an excess of R1 r over R2r children. These asymmetries confirm the findings of a previous study. The possibilities of artefactual self-selection, of genotyping errors, and of errors in assigning paternity, were examined and excluded. Alternative models of genetic transmission and of antigenic structure were studied, but no basis for explaining the findings was found or formulated. Three possible biological explanations were formulated including (a) asymmetric segregation of the rhesus genes, (b) selective early fetal loss, and (c) a selective effect upon the performance of sperms bearing different haplotypes. The first of these three appeared unlikely. The data did not provide a basis for supporting or rejecting or differentiating the other two.

  2. Perioperative management of patient with Bombay blood group undergoing mitral valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Priye, Shio; Sathyanarayan, J; Shivaprakash, S; Reddy, Durgaprasad

    2015-12-01

    Bombay red blood cell phenotype is an extremely rare blood type for which patients can receive only autologous or Bombay phenotype red blood cells. We report a case of stenotic mitral valve with Bombay phenotype who underwent minimal invasive right lateral thoracotomy for the replacement of the mitral valve. A male patient from Bangladesh presented to the hospital with New York Heart Association III symptoms. His medical evaluation revealed severe mitral valve stenosis and mild aortic valve regurgitation. The patient received erythropoietin, intravenous iron succinate and folic acid tablets. Autologous blood transfusion was carried out. The mitral valve was replaced with a prosthetic valve successfully. After weaning off from cardiopulmonary bypass, heparinisation was corrected with protamine. Post-operatively, the patient received autologous red blood cells. The patient recovered after 1-day of inotropic support with adrenaline and milrinone, and diuretics and was discharged on the 5(th) post-operative day.

  3. Perioperative management of patient with Bombay blood group undergoing mitral valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Priye, Shio; Sathyanarayan, J; Shivaprakash, S; Reddy, Durgaprasad

    2015-01-01

    Bombay red blood cell phenotype is an extremely rare blood type for which patients can receive only autologous or Bombay phenotype red blood cells. We report a case of stenotic mitral valve with Bombay phenotype who underwent minimal invasive right lateral thoracotomy for the replacement of the mitral valve. A male patient from Bangladesh presented to the hospital with New York Heart Association III symptoms. His medical evaluation revealed severe mitral valve stenosis and mild aortic valve regurgitation. The patient received erythropoietin, intravenous iron succinate and folic acid tablets. Autologous blood transfusion was carried out. The mitral valve was replaced with a prosthetic valve successfully. After weaning off from cardiopulmonary bypass, heparinisation was corrected with protamine. Post-operatively, the patient received autologous red blood cells. The patient recovered after 1-day of inotropic support with adrenaline and milrinone, and diuretics and was discharged on the 5th post-operative day. PMID:26903676

  4. [Investigation of family pedigree rare blood group of JK(a-b-) phenotype].

    PubMed

    Gong, Tian-Xiang; Hong, Ying; Zhou, Chan-Ghua

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the rare individual JK(a-b-) phenotype of proband family and explore its molecular mechanism and the genetic background, in order to provide base for searching compatible donor to blood transfusion of the individuals with rare JK(a-b-) phenotype. Urea lysis test was used to screen the JK(a-b-) phenotype and results were confirmed with serological method. The genotypes were detected with PCR-SSP. The 4-11 exons and their flanking intron regions of JK gene were amplified and sequenced. The results showed that her elder brother has a same phenotype JK(a-b-) and genotypes JK(a)/JK(b) with proband. The phenotype and genotypes of their parent is JK (a+b-) and JK(a)/JK(b), respectively; and the younger sister's is JK (a+b-) and JK(a)/JK(a). Acceptor site of intron 5 3' g > a mutation was detected in proband and her elder brother, which may cause the JK(a-b-) phenotype of proband and her elder brother. There is g/a and a at this site in their parent and younger sister, respectively. Additionally, the SNP (ncbi:rs8090908) a > g at nt-99 in intron 3 was found in proband and her elder brother, it needs to be explored whether the SNP is related to JK(a-b-) phenotype. This SNP was not found in their parent and younger sister. This JK(a-b-) phenotype abides by the rule of dominant inheritance in the family, suggesting that there is higher probability to find homology phenotype and genotype by investigating in their family, especially in their siblings. PMID:22931673

  5. Next-Generation Sequencing for Antenatal Prediction of KEL1 Blood Group Status.

    PubMed

    Rieneck, Klaus; Clausen, Frederik Banch; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2015-01-01

    The KEL1 antigen can give rise to immunization of KEL2 mothers. Maternal antibodies can be transferred to the fetus and destroy fetal red blood cells and their stem cell precursors and give rise to serious fetal disease. It is important to be able to predict the fetal KEL status in order to intervene in those pregnancies where the fetus is at risk, and to ascertain when the fetus is not at risk. Technically it can be demanding to predict KEL1 status from a maternal blood sample. The KEL1 allele is based on a single SNP present in about 1-10 % of cell-free maternal DNA after gestation week 10. Here we describe our protocol for antenatal prediction of fetal KEL1 status by NGS analysis of maternal DNA on a MiSeq instrument.

  6. Heterozygote Advantage Probably Maintains Rhesus Factor Blood Group Polymorphism: Ecological Regression Study

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus factor polymorphism has been an evolutionary enigma since its discovery in 1939. Carriers of the rarer allele should be eliminated by selection against Rhesus positive children born to Rhesus negative mothers. Here I used an ecologic regression study to test the hypothesis that Rhesus factor polymorphism is stabilized by heterozygote advantage. The study was performed in 65 countries for which the frequencies of RhD phenotypes and specific disease burden data were available. I performed multiple multivariate covariance analysis with five potential confounding variables: GDP, latitude (distance from the equator), humidity, medical care expenditure per capita and frequencies of smokers. The results showed that the burden associated with many diseases correlated with the frequencies of particular Rhesus genotypes in a country and that the direction of the relation was nearly always the opposite for the frequency of Rhesus negative homozygotes and that of Rhesus positive heterozygotes. On the population level, a Rhesus-negativity-associated burden could be compensated for by the heterozygote advantage, but for Rhesus negative subjects this burden represents a serious problem. PMID:26811928

  7. Playing Games during a Lecture Hour: Experience with an Online Blood Grouping Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaskar, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Theory lectures are boring and sleep inducing for students, and it is difficult to get their full attention during 1 h of lecture. The ability of students to concentrate diminishes 20-25 min after the start of the lecture. There is also a lack of active participation of students during theory lectures. In an effort to break the monotony of the…

  8. [Study on RHCE genotyping of Rh blood group in Uygur nationality of Xinjiang in China].

    PubMed

    Bai, Xu-Hua; Lan, Jiong-Cai; Gong, Xiao-Yan; Cui, Li; Zhou, Hua-You

    2010-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the characteristics of RHCE genotyping of Xinjiang Uygur nationality population in China. Primers for detecting RHCE genes were designed according to the references, 89 Uygur nationality RhD-negative samples, 233 Han nationality RhD-negative samples and 109 Han nationality RhD-positive samples were detected by sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) for RHCE genotyping. All above-mentioned samples were unrelated. The results indicated that RHE/e genotyping results were consistent with the serological test results in the samples of Uygur and Han nationality, regardless of the RhD-negative samples or the RhD-positive samples. The RHC/c genotyping results from 89 RhD-negative samples of Uygur nationality were consistent with serological test results. However, total error of RHC/c genotyping from 233 RhD-negative and 109 RhD-positive samples of Han nationality was 5.05%. In conclusion, this method of RHCE genotyping is suitable for the analysis of the RHE/e genotyping of Uygur nationality, no erroneous RHC/c genotyping of Uygur nationality was found in this study, but this method needs to be further studied.

  9. Synthesis and Evaluation of Biotinylated Bivalent HistoBlood Group Antigens for Capturing Human Noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Dhawane, Abasaheb N; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Gurale, Bharat P; Dinh, Hieu; Vinjé, Jan; Iyer, Suri S

    2016-08-17

    A panel of biotinylated bivalent H-type glycans that have been reported as binding ligands for human noroviruses were synthesized using a modular synthetic strategy. These glycoconjugates were attached to streptavidin-coated magnetic beads and used to recover human norovirus from fecal samples using a magnetic bead-based assay. The biotinylated bivalent glycans synthesized for this study exhibited similar or better capturing ability when compared to commercial biotinylated glycopolymers. PMID:27383368

  10. The hypothesis on function of glycosphingolipids and ABO blood groups revisited.

    PubMed

    Kościelak, Jerzy

    2012-06-01

    Twenty-five years ago the author proposed new ideas of glycoprotein (GPs) and glycosphingolipid (GSLs) functions at the cell membrane. The GPs, apart from their glycan carrying capacity, were assumed to have specific, protein associated, functions. In contrast, GSLs such as those of globo and neolacto/lacto series, were considered to be energetically cheap membrane packing substances, filling in membrane spaces not covered with functional GPs. The terminal carbohydrate structures of the neolacto/lacto GSLs, i.e., sialic acid residues and ABH glycotopes, were postulated to have either regulatory or protective functions, respectively. A special active role was ascribed to terminal β-galactosyl residues of GSLs and GPs. Gangliosides were considered to be functional GSLs. In the present review the author discusses these old ideas in context of the contemporary knowledge and comes to the conclusion that they have not aged.

  11. The use of hirudin as universal anticoagulant in haematology, clinical chemistry and blood grouping.

    PubMed

    Menssen, H D; Melber, K; Brandt, N; Thiel, E

    2001-12-01

    Undesirable interactions between anticoagulants and diagnostic test kit procedures so far have prevented the development of a single uniform blood sampling tube. Contrary to K2-EDTA, heparin and other anticoagulants, hirudin only minimally alters blood cells and dissolved blood constituents, thus qualifying as a universal anticoagulant for diagnostic purposes. Automated complete blood counts, automated analyses of clinical chemistry analytes and immunohaematology were performed from hirudinised and routinely processed blood obtained from healthy volunteers (n=35) and hospitalised patients (n=45). Hirudin (400 ATU/ml blood) sufficiently anticoagulated blood for diagnostic purposes. The measurements of automated complete blood counts obtained from K2-EDTA-anticoagulated and hirudinised blood correlated significantly as did the measurements of 24 clinical chemistry analytes from hirudinised plasma and serum. Regression analysis revealed that the results of complete blood counts and clinical chemistry tests were predictable from the respective measurements from hirudinised blood (p=0.001). Immunohaematological tests and cross-matching from hirudinised and native blood of the same donors gave identical results. Single clotting factors, but not global coagulation analytes, could be measured from hirudinised blood. Therefore, a universal hirudin-containing blood sampling tube could be designed for automated analysis of haematological, serological and clinical chemistry analytes. PMID:11798089

  12. Sibship asymmetries of rhesus blood groups in the presence of maternal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Knox, E G; Battey, D A; Bird, G W

    1979-01-01

    The genotypes of the children of R1r, R2r, and R1R2 fathers, and Rh-immunized rr mothers, were examined. R1r fathers had an excess of R1r over rr children, and R1R2 fathers had an excess of R1 r over R2r children. These asymmetries confirm the findings of a previous study. The possibilities of artefactual self-selection, of genotyping errors, and of errors in assigning paternity, were examined and excluded. Alternative models of genetic transmission and of antigenic structure were studied, but no basis for explaining the findings was found or formulated. Three possible biological explanations were formulated including (a) asymmetric segregation of the rhesus genes, (b) selective early fetal loss, and (c) a selective effect upon the performance of sperms bearing different haplotypes. The first of these three appeared unlikely. The data did not provide a basis for supporting or rejecting or differentiating the other two. PMID:111423

  13. Blood group antigen studies using CdTe quantum dots and flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Cabral Filho, Paulo E; Pereira, Maria IA; Fernandes, Heloise P; de Thomaz, Andre A; Cesar, Carlos L; Santos, Beate S; Barjas-Castro, Maria L; Fontes, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    New methods of analysis involving semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots [QDs]) as fluorescent probes have been highlighted in life science. QDs present some advantages when compared to organic dyes, such as size-tunable emission spectra, broad absorption bands, and principally exceptional resistance to photobleaching. Methods applying QDs can be simple, not laborious, and can present high sensibility, allowing biomolecule identification and quantification with high specificity. In this context, the aim of this work was to apply dual-color CdTe QDs to quantify red blood cell (RBC) antigen expression on cell surface by flow cytometric analysis. QDs were conjugated to anti-A or anti-B monoclonal antibodies, as well as to the anti-H (Ulex europaeus I) lectin, to investigate RBCs of A1, B, A1B, O, A2, and Aweak donors. Bioconjugates were capable of distinguishing the different expressions of RBC antigens, both by labeling efficiency and by flow cytometry histogram profile. Furthermore, results showed that RBCs from Aweak donors present fewer amounts of A antigens and higher amounts of H, when compared to A1 RBCs. In the A group, the amount of A antigens decreased as A1 > A3 > AX = Ael, while H antigens were AX = Ael > A1. Bioconjugates presented stability and remained active for at least 6 months. In conclusion, this methodology with high sensibility and specificity can be applied to study a variety of RBC antigens, and, as a quantitative tool, can help in achieving a better comprehension of the antigen expression patterns on RBC membranes. PMID:26185442

  14. Blood group antigen studies using CdTe quantum dots and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Cabral Filho, Paulo E; Pereira, Maria I A; Fernandes, Heloise P; de Thomaz, Andre A; Cesar, Carlos L; Santos, Beate S; Barjas-Castro, Maria L; Fontes, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    New methods of analysis involving semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots [QDs]) as fluorescent probes have been highlighted in life science. QDs present some advantages when compared to organic dyes, such as size-tunable emission spectra, broad absorption bands, and principally exceptional resistance to photobleaching. Methods applying QDs can be simple, not laborious, and can present high sensibility, allowing biomolecule identification and quantification with high specificity. In this context, the aim of this work was to apply dual-color CdTe QDs to quantify red blood cell (RBC) antigen expression on cell surface by flow cytometric analysis. QDs were conjugated to anti-A or anti-B monoclonal antibodies, as well as to the anti-H (Ulex europaeus I) lectin, to investigate RBCs of A1, B, A1B, O, A2, and Aweak donors. Bioconjugates were capable of distinguishing the different expressions of RBC antigens, both by labeling efficiency and by flow cytometry histogram profile. Furthermore, results showed that RBCs from Aweak donors present fewer amounts of A antigens and higher amounts of H, when compared to A1 RBCs. In the A group, the amount of A antigens decreased as A1 > A3 > AX = Ael, while H antigens were AX = Ael > A1. Bioconjugates presented stability and remained active for at least 6 months. In conclusion, this methodology with high sensibility and specificity can be applied to study a variety of RBC antigens, and, as a quantitative tool, can help in achieving a better comprehension of the antigen expression patterns on RBC membranes. PMID:26185442

  15. Viral shape-shifting: norovirus evasion of the human immune system.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Eric F; Lindesmith, Lisa C; Lobue, Anna D; Baric, Ralph S

    2010-03-01

    Noroviruses are the most common cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, and explosive outbreaks frequently occur in community settings, where the virus can immobilize large numbers of infected individuals for 24-48 hours, making the development of effective vaccines and antiviral therapies a priority. However, several challenges have hampered therapeutic design, including: the limitations of cell culture and small-animal model systems; the complex effects of host pre-exposure histories; differential host susceptibility, which is correlated with blood group and secretor status; and the evolution of novel immune escape variants. In this Review, we discuss the molecular and structural mechanisms that facilitate the persistence of noroviruses in human populations.

  16. [Geno- and phenotypic distribution by the ABO and Rhesus systems in the population of Minsk].

    PubMed

    Tolochko, G V; Ivanov, L V

    1978-03-01

    The distribution of blood groups of the ABO system is different in the rhesus-positive and rhesus-negative subpopulations. An increasing frequency of the phenotype A2 in the rhesus-negative subpopulation is observed. The calculation of the gene frequency reveals a deficiency of genes A1 and O, and the increasing frequency of genes A2 and B in the rhesus-negative part of the population. On the whole for the inhabitants of Minsk the ratio of the phenotypes A2/A1 differs significantly from the corresponding index for the republic as a whole, which is the evidence of a significant migration of the population in the capital of Byelorussia. The observed correlative dependences in the distribution of the genes of ABO system and of the rhesus system permit to recommend the accomplishment of a scientific search between the hereditary pathology and the susceptibility to different diseases and blood groups taking into consideration the rhesus appurtenance of the populations studied.

  17. The locus for apolipoprotein E (apoE) is close to the Lutheran (Lu) blood group locus on chromosome 19.

    PubMed

    Gedde-Dahl, T; Olaisen, B; Teisberg, P; Wilhelmy, M C; Mevåg, B; Helland, R

    1984-01-01

    Linkage has been described between the loci for apolipoprotein E (apoE) and the complement C3 (C3) on chromosome 19. C3 is known to belong to a linkage group with gene order C3-Se-Lu. The present study revealed linkage between Se and apoE with peak lod score +3.3 at recombination fraction 0.08 in males and +1.36 at 0.22 in females, and linkage between apoE and Lu with lod score +4.52 at zero recombination in sexes combined. The C3-apoE linkage gives lod score +4.00 at theta = 0.18 in males, but +0.04 at theta = 0.45 in females. Triple heterozygote families confirm that apoE is on the Se side and on the Lu side of C3. Allelic association between apoE and Lu has not been ruled out. Combining our data with published data on C3-Se and Se-Lu, this segment of chromosome 19 has an average age sex ratio of female/male recombination of 2.3.

  18. H-deficient blood groups of Reunion island. II. Differences between Indians (Bombay Phenotype) and whites (Reunion phenotype).

    PubMed

    Le Pendu, J; Gerard, G; Vitrac, D; Juszczak, G; Liberge, G; Rouger, P; Salmon, C; Lambert, F; Dalix, A M; Oriol, R

    1983-05-01

    Two variants of recessive, H-deficient nonsecretor individuals (h/h, se/se) were identified on Reunion Island: (1) H-negative individuals corresponding to the classical Bombay phenotypes (OhO, OhA, OhB, OhAB) who lack completely the H antigen on their red cells; all of them were Indian and had strong anti-H antibodies reacting with normal O and Oh red cells from whites; and (2) H-weak individuals (Oh, Ah, Bh, ABh). This phenotype represented the majority (85%) of the H-deficient phenotypes on Reunion Island, and all of them were white. They had only a weak expression of the H antigen and showed small but detectable amounts of ABH antigens on their red cells. Their anti-H antibodies reacted with normal O erythrocytes, but failed to react with Oh red cells, regardless of the ethnic origin of the donor. They were all from the same geographical area on the Island (Cilaos) and showed homogeneous titers of anti-H antibodies in sera. We propose to call this particular variant of weak H phenotype, belonging to the so-called para-Bombay series, Reunion.

  19. Determination of ABO blood group genotypes using the real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification method

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, CHAO; ZHU, JUANLI; YANG, JIANGCUN; WAN, YINSHENG; MA, TING; CUI, YALI

    2015-01-01

    ABO genotyping is commonly used in several situations, including blood transfusion, personal identification and disease detection. The present study developed a novel method for ABO genotyping, using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). This method allows the simultaneous determination of six ABO genotypes under 40 min at a constant temperature of 62°C. The genotypes of 101 blood samples were determined to be AA (n=6), AO (n=38), BB (n=12), BO (n =29), AB (n=8) and OO (n=8) by the LAMP assay. The results were compared with the phenotypes determined by serological assay and the genotypes determined by direct sequencing, and no discrepancies were observed. This novel and rapid method, with good accuracy and reasonably cost effective, provides a supplement to routine serological ABO typing and may also be useful in other point-of-care testing. PMID:26238310

  20. Frequencies and ethnic distribution of ABO and Rh(D) blood groups in Mauritania: results of first nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Hamed, C T; Bollahi, M A; Abdelhamid, I; Med Mahmoud, M A; Ba, B; Ghaber, S; Habti, N; Houmeida, A

    2012-04-01

    There is no data available on the ABO/Rh(D) frequencies in the Mauritanian population. We retrospectively analysed records of a 5-year database that contained ABO/Rh phenotype and ethnic origin of 10 116 volunteers giving blood at the national blood transfusion centre to derive the frequencies of ABO/Rh(D) groups in the Mauritanian population. The two race categories in the country and their sub-ethnic groups: the Moors (whites and black) and the black Africans (Pulhars, Soninkes and Wolof) were included in this study. Globally, group O had the highest frequency (49.10%) followed by A (28.28%), B (18.56%) and AB (4.05%). This order more common in North African populations was found in four of the five ethnic groups composing our population. Allele frequencies were, respectively, 70.20%, 17.74% and 12.04% giving the same order of O > A > B. We observed no significant variation in these frequencies between the different ethnic groups. Rhesus study showed that with a percentage of 94.23% Rh(D) positive is by far the most prevalent, while Rh(D) negative is present only in 5.77% of the total population. This frequency distribution supports the mixed-race composition of the Mauritanian population.

  1. SMIM1 is a type II transmembrane phosphoprotein and displays the Vel blood group antigen at its carboxyl-terminus.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Lionel; Kelley, Liam P; Helias, Virginie; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Ballif, Bryan A

    2015-11-30

    Disruption of SMIM1, encoding small integral membrane protein 1, is responsible for the Vel-negative blood type, a rare but clinically-important blood type. However, the exact nature of the Vel antigen and how it is presented by SMIM1 are poorly understood. Using mass spectrometry we found several sites of phosphorylation in the N-terminal region of SMIM1 and we found the initiating methionine of SMIM1 to be acetylated. Flow cytometry analyses of human erythroleukemia cells expressing N- or C-terminally Flag-tagged SMIM1, several point mutants of SMIM1, and a chimeric molecule between Kell and SMIM1 demonstrated that SMIM1 carries the Vel antigen as a type II membrane protein with a predicted C-terminal extracellular domain of only 3-12 amino acids. PMID:26452714

  2. Correlation between lack of norovirus replication and histo-blood group antigen expression in 3D-intestinal epithelial cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noroviruses (NoV) are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. An in vitro model for NoV replication remains elusive, making study of the virus difficult. One publication utilizing a 3-dimensional (3D) intestinal model derived from Int407 cells reported NoV replication and extensive cytopathi...

  3. Serological distinction of A antigen between red blood cells and saliva in blood grouping of blood and body fluid stains.

    PubMed

    Sagisaka, K; Iwasa, M; Yokoi, T

    1984-02-01

    A antigens of red blood cells and body fluids such as saliva, semen and sweat could be serologically distinguished using rabbit or guinea pig immune anti-A. As for antisera specific for red blood cell A, A+ rabbits were intravenously immunized with A group red blood cells. The resulting antisera were absorbed with O and B red cells and with A. Se saliva. The absorbed anti-A reacted with A red cells (titer 1:32) and was not inhibited with A. Se saliva. Guinea pigs were intramuscularly injected with A. Se saliva. Crude antisera contained agglutinins to human red cells which were abolished by absorption with A red cells. After absorption with O. Se saliva, the antisera were proved to have agglutinin activity with A group saliva using latex coated with A. Se saliva. A antigens from blood or body fluid stains could be distinguished by the elution method with these anti-A sera. PMID:6719447

  4. HLA A/B recombination in a white woman with the S-s-phenotype of the MNS system.

    PubMed

    Salaru, N N

    1995-01-01

    In cases of disputed parentage, the possibility of simultaneous occurrence of rare events in the population must be considered. PURPOSE--To report a case in which HLA-A/B recombination and homozygosity of a silent allele, typical of Negroes, in an individual apparently without this miscegenation were coexistent. METHODS--Alleged father, mother and dizygotic twin children were racially classified according to their apparent somatic characters. Blood group genetic markers of ABO, Rh, MNS, Kell, Duffy, HLA-A, -B systems were phenotyped; mother's HLA genotyping was performed by her parents test. RESULTS--The phenotype of the White mother, in the MNS system, was M+; N-; S-; s-. Alleged father and both twins were phenotipically compatible. The assumed maternity relating to both children was possible if mother presented an HLA-A/B recombination. CONCLUSION--In miscegenated populations, the breakup between ethnical appearance and blood group markers is foreseeable. Allele/haplotypic frequencies of these populations should be estimated. Casuistically, the association of events with low frequency in the population can be the cause of apparent exclusions of parentage. PMID:8520596

  5. HLA A/B recombination in a white woman with the S-s-phenotype of the MNS system.

    PubMed

    Salaru, N N

    1995-01-01

    In cases of disputed parentage, the possibility of simultaneous occurrence of rare events in the population must be considered. PURPOSE--To report a case in which HLA-A/B recombination and homozygosity of a silent allele, typical of Negroes, in an individual apparently without this miscegenation were coexistent. METHODS--Alleged father, mother and dizygotic twin children were racially classified according to their apparent somatic characters. Blood group genetic markers of ABO, Rh, MNS, Kell, Duffy, HLA-A, -B systems were phenotyped; mother's HLA genotyping was performed by her parents test. RESULTS--The phenotype of the White mother, in the MNS system, was M+; N-; S-; s-. Alleged father and both twins were phenotipically compatible. The assumed maternity relating to both children was possible if mother presented an HLA-A/B recombination. CONCLUSION--In miscegenated populations, the breakup between ethnical appearance and blood group markers is foreseeable. Allele/haplotypic frequencies of these populations should be estimated. Casuistically, the association of events with low frequency in the population can be the cause of apparent exclusions of parentage.

  6. Re-Os systematics of komatiites and komatiitic basalts at Dundonald Beach, Ontario, Canada: Evidence for a complex alteration history and implications of a late-Archean chondritic mantle source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Amitava; Sproule, Rebecca A.; Walker, Richard J.; Lesher, C. Michael

    2005-11-01

    Osmium isotopic compositions, and Re and Os concentrations have been examined in one komatiite unit and two komatiitic basalt units at Dundonald Beach, part of the 2.7 Ga Kidd-Munro volcanic assemblage in the Abitibi greenstone belt, Ontario, Canada. The komatiitic rocks in this locality record at least three episodes of alteration of Re-Os elemental and isotope systematics. First, an average of 40% and as much as 75% Re may have been lost due to shallow degassing during eruption and/or hydrothermal leaching during or immediately after emplacement. Second, the Re-Os isotope systematics of whole rock samples with 187Re/ 188Os ratios >1 were reset at ˜2.5 Ga, possibly due to a regional metamorphic event. Third, there is evidence for relatively recent gain and loss of Re in some rocks. Despite the open-system behavior, some aspects of the Re-Os systematics of these rocks can be deciphered. The bulk distribution coefficient for Os (D Ossolid/liquid) for the Dundonald rocks is ˜3 ± 1 and is well within the estimated D values obtained for komatiites from the nearby Alexo area and stratigraphically-equivalent komatiites from Munro Township. This suggests that Os was moderately compatible during crystal-liquid fractionation of the magmas parental to the Kidd-Munro komatiitic rocks. Whole-rock samples and chromite separates with low 187Re/ 188Os ratios (<1) yield a precise chondritic average initial 187Os/ 188Os ratio of 0.1083 ± 0.0006 (γ Os = 0.0 ± 0.6) for their well-constrained ˜2715 Ma crystallization age. The chondritic initial Os isotopic composition of the mantle source for the Dundonald rocks is consistent with that determined for komatiites in the Alexo area and in Munro Township, suggesting that the mantle source region for the Kidd-Munro volcanic assemblage had evolved with a long-term chondritic Re/Os before eruption. The chondritic initial Os isotopic composition of the Kidd-Munro komatiites is indistinguishable from that of the projected

  7. A complex alloantigen system in Florida sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis pratensis: Evidence for the major histocompatibility (B) system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvi, S.I.; Gee, G.F.; Miller, M.M.; Briles, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    The B blood group system constitutes the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) in birds. The Mhc is a cluster of genes largely devoted to the processing and presentation of antigen. The Mhc is highly polymorphic in many species and, thus, useful in the evaluation of genetic diversity for fitness traits within populations of a variety of animals. Correlations found between particular Mhc haplotypes and resistance to certain diseases emphasize the importance of understanding the functional significance of diversity of the Mhc, particularly in species threatened with extinction. As part of studies focused on genetic diversity in wild birds, serological techniques were used to define a highly polymorphic alloantigen system in seven families of Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis). The results of analyses with antisera produced within the crane families and with chicken Mhc antigen-specific reagents revealed a single major alloantigen system that is likely the Mhc of the Florida sandhill crane. Preliminary experiments indicate that these crane alloantisera will provide a means of defining .the Mhc in other species of cranes.

  8. Ship Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Guided missile cruiser equipped with advanced Aegis fleet defense system which automatically tracks hundreds of attacking aircraft or missiles, then fires and guides the ship's own weapons in response. Designed by Ingalls Shipbuilding for the US Navy, the U.S.S. Ticonderoga is the first of four CG-47 cruisers to be constructed. NASTRAN program was used previously in another Navy/Ingalls project involving design and construction of four DDG-993 Kidd Class guided missile destroyers.

  9. [Automatic reading of ABO and Rh groups on microplates using FMC medium and an IBG Systems reader].

    PubMed

    Mauri, J; Maymo, R M; Pérez, M A; Yusta, V; Mas, J; Puig, L

    1991-06-01

    We present in this paper our experience in the routine use of an automatic reader for microtiter plates (IBG Systems). A total of 2044 samples from blood donors have been tested for ABO (haematic and seric) and Rh (D antigen) blood group typing. The red blood cell samples have been tested against monoclonal anti-A, anti-B, anti-AB and anti-Rh 1 (D) sera (using two different anti-D reagents). As a negative control, 3% albumin solution was employed. In order to determine the seric groups, the plasma samples were tested against A1, A2, B and 0 cells. In all cases the red cells were suspended in Ficoll 400R-Methyl cellulose (FMC), and 0.01 Bromelin was added to red blood cell samples to be typed. The obstacles in the automatic readings were mainly solved by visual reading of the microplates. In the 2,044 samples analysed with the automatic reader, 19 discrepancies (0.94%) were found in ABO typing. In all cases the error was in the seric blood group. Three false positive reactions were found with 0 red cells. Two false negative with B red cells, interpreted by the automatic reader as doubtful results. Three positive readings were detected, in one case the positivity was due to alloantibodies (C + D specificities), the other two cases were autoagglutinations. False negative reactions were found, in 11 cases, 8 of them due to lipaemia and the remaining three were haemolysed plasma samples. It should be stressed that out of 19 cases of discrepancy, only 5 (0.24%) were due to the automatic reader while the remaining were due, to sample troubles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. A new human Duffy blood group specificity defined by a murine monoclonal antibody. Immunogenetics and association with susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    A new Duffy specificity, Fy6, defined by a murine monoclonal antibody of the IgG1 kappa class, is related to susceptibility to malarial invasion. In humans, Fy6 is present on the red cells of all persons except those of the Fy(a-b-) type, a distribution resembling that of Fy3. However proteolytic enzyme treatment of red cells enhances the reactivity of Fy3, whereas Fy6, like Fya and Fyb, is susceptible to degradation by this process. The number of Fy6 sites on human red cells was found to be 12,200 per cell, in close agreement with earlier estimates of the number of Fya sites. Anti-Fy6 reacted in western blots with a membrane glycoprotein of approximately 46,000 Mr, not significantly different from that of a molecule known to bear the Fya determinant. The Fy6 epitope is shown to be present on the red cells of some but not all nonhuman primate species, where it has a distribution not only distinctly different from Fya, Fyb, and Fy3, but in close accordance with susceptibility to penetration by Plasmodium vivax. Thus, the red cells of two species of macaques (Macaca mulatta and M. fascicularis), which are invaded by Plasmodium knowlesi but not by P. vivax are shown to have other Duffy antigens but to be devoid of Fy6. It appears, therefore, that the red cell epitopes used by these closely related species are distinct, and that susceptibility to P. vivax merozoite penetration is dependent on the presence of Fy6. PMID:2442291

  11. Norovirus recognizes histo-blood group antigens on the gastrointestinal cells of clams, mussels and oysters: a possible mechanism of bio-accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a set of HBGA-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was used to detect the expression of HBGA in three oyster species consumed commonly (pacific, virginica, and kumamato), and manila clams, and blue mussels. rNVLPs were applied to plate coated with oyster, mussel or clam GI homogena...

  12. [Genetic polymorphism of blood group and erythrocyte enzymes in three ethno-territorial groups of the northern European part of Russia].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, I V; Spitsyn, V A; Makarov, S V; Bychkovskaia, L S; Paé, G V

    2001-11-01

    Using the data on five red cell markers (AB0, PGM1, ACP1, GLO1, and ESD) polymorphisms, the population genetic structure of three ethnic territorial groups from the north of European Russia (Continental Nentsy, Kola Saami, and Russian Coast-dwellers) was described. In general, the groups studied a Caucasoid pattern of the frequency distribution of erythrocytic marker alleles. However, a substantial contribution of a Mongoloid component to the Nenets gene pool, expressed as a high frequency of the PGM1*1 allele along with a low frequency of the GLO1*1 allele, was observed. Three ethnic territorial groups examined were close to one another with respect to the distribution of classical biochemical markers. The interpopulation diversity was low (the mean FST = 0.015). The differences observed were for the most part caused by the genetic characteristics of Nentsy. The maximum interpopulation diversity was observed for the GLO1 locus (FST = 0.056).

  13. The 3' flanking region of the human ABO histo-blood group gene is involved in negative regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sano, Rie; Nakajima, Tamiko; Takahashi, Keiko; Kubo, Rieko; Yazawa, Shin; Kominato, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression is driven by promoters, enhancers, silencers, and other cis-regulatory elements upstream and downstream of the gene. Previous studies of the regulation of human ABO gene transcription have focused mainly on the 5' region, including the core promoter and the region proximal to it. However, as the involvement of the 3' flanking region in transcriptional regulation has not yet been examined, we focused on this issue. The 3' region approximately 2.2kb downstream of the ABO gene was PCR-amplified and inserted into a cloning vector, followed by sequence determination and preparation of luciferase reporter vectors. Transient transfections into KATOIII and K562 cells were performed using various reporter plasmids containing the 3' region. The 3' region of the ABO gene, which was characterized by a high degree of sequence repetition, was effectively cloned by a single-copy cloning method. Transfections in KATOIII and K562 cells showed that negative elements were demonstrable within the 3' region. These observations suggest that negative regulatory elements seem to be present in the 3' region of ABO in both epithelial and erythroid lineages. As we had observed a negative region just upstream of the ABO promoter, transcription from ABO could be negatively regulated by repressive regions just upstream of the promoter and downstream of the gene. Further studies of the enhancer will be required for elucidating the molecular basis of ABO gene expression. PMID:21144789

  14. Monoclonal antibody GOM-2 binds to blood group B-Le(y) active glycolipid antigens on human gastric cancer cells, KATO-III.

    PubMed

    Sueyoshi, S; Nagakura, H; Kato, A; Uetsuki, S; Nakayama, Y; Adachi, M

    1992-04-01

    The antigen structure of a mouse monoclonal antibody, GOM-2, established by immunization with KATO-III human gastric cancer cells, was examined. GOM-2 reactive glycolipids were prepared from KATO-III cells and treated with endoglycoceramidase. Structural studies of ten GOM-2 reactive oligosaccharides by a combination of glycosidase digestions, methylation, and affinity chromatography on an Ulex europeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) column revealed that nine of them had a Y-related B-active difucosylated determinant (B-Le(y)) and one had a B-active determinant. Affinity chromatography of the purified and modified oligosaccharides on an immobilized GOM-2 column demonstrated that GOM-2 has a novel binding specificity: it binds tightly to the biantennary structure carrying the B-Le(y) determinant at the termini or the branched structure carrying the B-Le(y) structure at two nonreducing termini. PMID:1344715

  15. Solar system positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

    2006-01-01

    Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

  16. Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System Print A A ... could put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  17. Review of the Uruguayan Kidney Allocation System: the solution to a complex problem, preliminary data.

    PubMed

    Bengochea, M; Alvarez, I; Toledo, R; Carretto, E; Forteza, D

    2010-01-01

    The National Kidney Transplant Program with cadaveric donors is based on centralized and unique waitlist, serum bank, and allocation criteria, approved by Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante (INDT) in agreement with clinical teams. The median donor rates over last 3 years is 20 per million population and the median number of waitlist candidates is 450. The increased number of waiting list patients and the rapid aging of our populations demanded strategies for donor acceptance, candidate assignment, and analysis of more efficient and equitable allocation models. The objectives of the new national allocation system were to improve posttransplant patient and graft survivals, allow equal access to transplantation, and reduce waitlist times. The objective of this study was to analyze variables in our current allocation system and to create a mathematical/simulation model to evaluate a new allocation system. We compared candidates and transplanted patients for gender, age, ABO blood group, human leukocyte agents (HLA), percentage of reactive antibodies (PRA), and waiting list and dialysis times. Only 2 factors showed differences: highly sensitized and patients >65 years old (Bernoulli test). An agreement between INDT and Engineering Faculty yielded a major field of study. During 2008 the data analysis and model building began. The waiting list data of the last decade of donors and transplants were processed to develop a virtual model. We used inputs of candidates and donors, with outputs and structure of the simulation system to evaluate the proposed changes. Currently, the INDT and the Mathematics and Statistics Institute are working to develop a simulation model, that is able to analyze our new national allocation system.

  18. The Glass Slide Extraction System Snap Card Improves Non-Invasive Prenatal Genotyping in Pregnancies with Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Thomasz; Doescher, Andrea; Haydock, Paul V.; Aldrich, Russ; Petershofen, Eduard K.; Müller, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Determination of fetal blood groups in maternal plasma samples critically depends on adequate pre-analytical steps for optimal amplification of fetal DNA. We compared the extraction of cell-free DNA by binding on a glass surface (BCSI SNAP™ Card) with an automated system based on bead technology (MagnaPure compact™). Methods Maternal blood samples from 281 pregnancies (7th-39th week of gestation) with known antibodies were evaluated in this study. Both the SNAP card and the MagnaPure method were applied to isolate DNA in order to directly compare the amplification in a single base extension assay and/or real-time PCR. Results The mean concentration of total DNA obtained by the SNAP card (33.8 ng/µl) exceeded more than twofold that of MagnaPure extraction (15.7 ng/µl). SNAP card-extracted samples allowed to detect 3.7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) versus 2.5 SNPs in MagnaPure extracts to control for traces of fetal DNA. This difference is highest for samples from 7th-13th week of gestation. Conclusion The SNAP card system improves DNA extraction efficacy for prenatal diagnosis in maternal blood samples and provides an at least eightfold higher total amount of DNA for the ensuing analysis. Its advantage is most evident for samples from early stages of pregnancy and thus especially valuable for pregnancies with antibodies. PMID:26733769

  19. Operating Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.; Brown, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A computer operating system spans multiple layers of complexity, from commands entered at a keyboard to the details of electronic switching. In addition, the system is organized as a hierarchy of abstractions. Various parts of such a system and system dynamics (using the Unix operating system as an example) are described. (JN)

  20. Salivary agglutinin is the major component in human saliva that modulates the lectin pathway of the complement system.

    PubMed

    Gunput, Sabrina Tg; Wouters, Diana; Nazmi, Kamran; Cukkemane, Nivedita; Brouwer, Mieke; Veerman, Enno Ci; Ligtenberg, Antoon Jm

    2016-05-01

    Saliva interacts with blood after mucosal damage or leakage of gingival crevicular fluid. Surface-adsorbed salivary agglutinin (SAG) activates the lectin pathway (LP) of the complement system via mannose-binding lectin, while SAG in solution inhibits complement activation. In the present study we investigated if, next to SAG, whole and glandular saliva itself and other salivary glycoproteins activate or inhibit the LP. Complement activation was measured by detecting C4 deposition on microtiter plates coated with saliva or purified proteins. Complement inhibition was measured after incubating serum with saliva or proteins in microtiter plates coated with mannan, an LP activator. Adsorbed whole, sublingual and submandibular saliva showed LP-dependent complement activation. Blood group secretors, but not non-secretors, activated the LP. Saliva of both secretors and non-secretors inhibited C4 deposition on mannan. After depletion of SAG, saliva no longer inhibited the LP. Other salivary proteins, including amylase, MUC5B and histatin 2, did not activate or inhibit the LP. Surface-adsorbed whole saliva and glandular saliva samples activate the LP of complement, depending on the presence of SAG and the secretor status of the donor. In solution, saliva inhibits the LP, depending on the presence of SAG, but independent of the secretor status. PMID:27048414

  1. Crystal Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  2. Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  3. Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Betty

    This paper on delivery systems for preparing and training early childhood educators focuses on three main topics: (1) adequacy of delivery systems and access; (2) market influences on delivery systems; and (3) linking preparation and professional development components. Questions addressed include the following: Would the current preparation and…

  4. System Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk

  5. Geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  6. [Information systems].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Maniega, José Antonio; Trío Maseda, Reyes

    2005-03-01

    The arrival of victims of the terrorist attacks of 11 March at the hospital put the efficiency of its information systems to the test. To be most efficient, these systems should be simple and directed, above all, to the follow-up of victims and to providing the necessary information to patients and families. A specific and easy to use system is advisable. PMID:15771852

  7. CALUTRON SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, E.O.

    1958-08-12

    A calutron system capable of functioning with only a portion of the separation tanks in the system operating is described. The invention is a calutron system comprssing a closed series of alternated tanks and electromagnets having a mid-yoke connecting intermediate positions of the series. dividing the series into twv-o portions, and thereby providing a closed magnetic path through either of the portions.

  8. Systemic darwinism.

    PubMed

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-08-19

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality. PMID:18697926

  9. Systemic darwinism.

    PubMed

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-08-19

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality.

  10. Power system

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  11. Saturn Systems.

    PubMed

    U Rehman, Habib; McKee, Nida A; McKee, Michael L

    2016-01-15

    Several ring systems (Saturn systems) have been studied using DFT methods that include dispersion effects. Comparison with X-ray structures are made with three systems, and the agreement is quite good. Binding enthalpies and binding free energies in dichloromethane and toluene have been computed. The effect of an encapsulated lithium cation is accessed by comparing C60 @(C6 H4 )10 and [Li@C60 @(C6 H4 )10 ](+). The [Li@C60 ](+) cation is a much better acceptor than C60 which leads to greater donor-acceptor interactions and larger charge transfer from the ring to [Li@C60 ](+).

  12. Saturn Systems.

    PubMed

    U Rehman, Habib; McKee, Nida A; McKee, Michael L

    2016-01-15

    Several ring systems (Saturn systems) have been studied using DFT methods that include dispersion effects. Comparison with X-ray structures are made with three systems, and the agreement is quite good. Binding enthalpies and binding free energies in dichloromethane and toluene have been computed. The effect of an encapsulated lithium cation is accessed by comparing C60 @(C6 H4 )10 and [Li@C60 @(C6 H4 )10 ](+). The [Li@C60 ](+) cation is a much better acceptor than C60 which leads to greater donor-acceptor interactions and larger charge transfer from the ring to [Li@C60 ](+). PMID:26096724

  13. Electronic system

    DOEpatents

    Robison, G H; Dickson, J F

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is designed for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. The system comprises separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation an electronic channel associated with each input means, including control means and indicating means; timing means adapted to apply a signal from the input means after a predetermined time to the control means to deactivate each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after the observation of each group of events. (D.L.C.)

  14. Clinical features, molecular genetics, and pathophysiology of dominant optic atrophy.

    PubMed

    Votruba, M; Moore, A T; Bhattacharya, S S

    1998-10-01

    Inherited optic neuropathies are a significant cause of childhood and adult blindness and dominant optic atrophy (DOA) is the most common form of autosomally inherited (non-glaucomatous) optic neuropathy. Patients with DOA present with an insidious onset of bilateral visual loss and they characteristically have temporal optic nerve pallor, centrocaecal visual field scotoma, and a colour vision deficit, which is frequently blue-yellow. Evidence from histological and electrophysiological studies suggests that the pathology is confined to the retinal ganglion cell. A gene for dominant optic atrophy (OPA1) has been mapped to chromosome 3q28-qter, and studies are under way to refine the genetic interval in which the gene lies, to map the region physically, and hence to clone the gene. A second locus for dominant optic atrophy has recently been shown to map to chromosome 18q12.2-12.3 near the Kidd blood group locus. The cloning of genes for dominant optic atrophy will provide important insights into the pathophysiology of the retinal ganglion cell in health and disease. These insights may prove to be of great value in the understanding of other primary ganglion cell diseases, such as the mitochondrially inherited Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and other diseases associated with ganglion cell loss, such as glaucoma.

  15. European genome-wide association study identifies SLC14A1 as a new urinary bladder cancer susceptibility gene

    PubMed Central

    Rafnar, Thorunn; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Sulem, Patrick; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Aben, Katja K.; Witjes, J. Alfred; Grotenhuis, Anne J.; Verhaegh, Gerald W.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A.; Besenbacher, Soren; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Stacey, Simon N.; Gudmundsson, Julius; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Bjarnason, Hjordis; Zanon, Carlo; Helgadottir, Hafdis; Jonasson, Jon Gunnlaugur; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Jonsson, Eirikur; Geirsson, Gudmundur; Nikulasson, Sigfus; Petursdottir, Vigdis; Bishop, D. Timothy; Chung-Sak, Sei; Choudhury, Ananya; Elliott, Faye; Barrett, Jennifer H.; Knowles, Margaret A.; de Verdier, Petra J.; Ryk, Charlotta; Lindblom, Annika; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Vineis, Paolo; Polidoro, Silvia; Guarrera, Simonetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panadero, Angeles; Sanz-Velez, José I.; Sanchez, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Garcia-Prats, Maria D.; Hengstler, Jan G.; Selinski, Silvia; Gerullis, Holger; Ovsiannikov, Daniel; Khezri, Abdolaziz; Aminsharifi, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Mahyar; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Veldink, Jan H.; Zeegers, Maurice P.; Kellen, Eliane; Fostinelli, Jacopo; Andreoli, Daniele; Arici, Cecilia; Porru, Stefano; Buntinx, Frank; Ghaderi, Abbas; Golka, Klaus; Mayordomo, José I.; Matullo, Giuseppe; Kumar, Rajiv; Steineck, Gunnar; Kiltie, Anne E.; Kong, Augustine; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.

    2011-01-01

    Three genome-wide association studies in Europe and the USA have reported eight urinary bladder cancer (UBC) susceptibility loci. Using extended case and control series and 1000 Genomes imputations of 5 340 737 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we searched for additional loci in the European GWAS. The discovery sample set consisted of 1631 cases and 3822 controls from the Netherlands and 603 cases and 37 781 controls from Iceland. For follow-up, we used 3790 cases and 7507 controls from 13 sample sets of European and Iranian ancestry. Based on the discovery analysis, we followed up signals in the urea transporter (UT) gene SLC14A. The strongest signal at this locus was represented by a SNP in intron 3, rs17674580, that reached genome-wide significance in the overall analysis of the discovery and follow-up groups: odds ratio = 1.17, P = 7.6 × 10−11. SLC14A1 codes for UTs that define the Kidd blood group and are crucial for the maintenance of a constant urea concentration gradient in the renal medulla and, through this, the kidney's ability to concentrate urine. It is speculated that rs17674580, or other sequence variants in LD with it, indirectly modifies UBC risk by affecting urine production. If confirmed, this would support the ‘urogenous contact hypothesis’ that urine production and voiding frequency modify the risk of UBC. PMID:21750109

  16. European genome-wide association study identifies SLC14A1 as a new urinary bladder cancer susceptibility gene.

    PubMed

    Rafnar, Thorunn; Vermeulen, Sita H; Sulem, Patrick; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Aben, Katja K; Witjes, J Alfred; Grotenhuis, Anne J; Verhaegh, Gerald W; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A; Besenbacher, Soren; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Stacey, Simon N; Gudmundsson, Julius; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Bjarnason, Hjordis; Zanon, Carlo; Helgadottir, Hafdis; Jonasson, Jon Gunnlaugur; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Jonsson, Eirikur; Geirsson, Gudmundur; Nikulasson, Sigfus; Petursdottir, Vigdis; Bishop, D Timothy; Chung-Sak, Sei; Choudhury, Ananya; Elliott, Faye; Barrett, Jennifer H; Knowles, Margaret A; de Verdier, Petra J; Ryk, Charlotta; Lindblom, Annika; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Vineis, Paolo; Polidoro, Silvia; Guarrera, Simonetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panadero, Angeles; Sanz-Velez, José I; Sanchez, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Garcia-Prats, Maria D; Hengstler, Jan G; Selinski, Silvia; Gerullis, Holger; Ovsiannikov, Daniel; Khezri, Abdolaziz; Aminsharifi, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Mahyar; van den Berg, Leonard H; Ophoff, Roel A; Veldink, Jan H; Zeegers, Maurice P; Kellen, Eliane; Fostinelli, Jacopo; Andreoli, Daniele; Arici, Cecilia; Porru, Stefano; Buntinx, Frank; Ghaderi, Abbas; Golka, Klaus; Mayordomo, José I; Matullo, Giuseppe; Kumar, Rajiv; Steineck, Gunnar; Kiltie, Anne E; Kong, Augustine; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Kiemeney, Lambertus A

    2011-11-01

    Three genome-wide association studies in Europe and the USA have reported eight urinary bladder cancer (UBC) susceptibility loci. Using extended case and control series and 1000 Genomes imputations of 5 340 737 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we searched for additional loci in the European GWAS. The discovery sample set consisted of 1631 cases and 3822 controls from the Netherlands and 603 cases and 37 781 controls from Iceland. For follow-up, we used 3790 cases and 7507 controls from 13 sample sets of European and Iranian ancestry. Based on the discovery analysis, we followed up signals in the urea transporter (UT) gene SLC14A. The strongest signal at this locus was represented by a SNP in intron 3, rs17674580, that reached genome-wide significance in the overall analysis of the discovery and follow-up groups: odds ratio = 1.17, P = 7.6 × 10(-11). SLC14A1 codes for UTs that define the Kidd blood group and are crucial for the maintenance of a constant urea concentration gradient in the renal medulla and, through this, the kidney's ability to concentrate urine. It is speculated that rs17674580, or other sequence variants in LD with it, indirectly modifies UBC risk by affecting urine production. If confirmed, this would support the 'urogenous contact hypothesis' that urine production and voiding frequency modify the risk of UBC.

  17. SAMPLING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hannaford, B.A.; Rosenberg, R.; Segaser, C.L.; Terry, C.L.

    1961-01-17

    An apparatus is given for the batch sampling of radioactive liquids such as slurries from a system by remote control, while providing shielding for protection of operating personnel from the harmful effects of radiation.

  18. Systems Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucks, D. P.; Bell, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the analysis of the administrative systems of various environmental programs related to water quality and pollution policy. A list of 70 references published in 1976 and 1977 is also presented. (HM)

  19. Microelectromechanical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, Kaigham J.

    1995-01-01

    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) is an enabling technology that merges computation and communication with sensing and actuation to change the way people and machines interact with the physical world. MEMS is a manufacturing technology that will impact widespread applications including: miniature inertial measurement measurement units for competent munitions and personal navigation; distributed unattended sensors; mass data storage devices; miniature analytical instruments; embedded pressure sensors; non-invasive biomedical sensors; fiber-optics components and networks; distributed aerodynamic control; and on-demand structural strength. The long term goal of ARPA's MEMS program is to merge information processing with sensing and actuation to realize new systems and strategies for both perceiving and controlling systems, processes, and the environment. The MEMS program has three major thrusts: advanced devices and processes, system design, and infrastructure.

  20. Recommender systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Linyuan; Medo, Matúš; Yeung, Chi Ho; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2012-10-01

    The ongoing rapid expansion of the Internet greatly increases the necessity of effective recommender systems for filtering the abundant information. Extensive research for recommender systems is conducted by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers. Despite substantial theoretical and practical achievements, unification and comparison of different approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article, we review recent developments in recommender systems and discuss the major challenges. We compare and evaluate available algorithms and examine their roles in the future developments. In addition to algorithms, physical aspects are described to illustrate macroscopic behavior of recommender systems. Potential impacts and future directions are discussed. We emphasize that recommendation has great scientific depth and combines diverse research fields which makes it interesting for physicists as well as interdisciplinary researchers.

  1. Respiratory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  2. Laser Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Tunable diode lasers are employed as radiation sources in high resolution infrared spectroscopy to determine spectral characteristics of gaseous compounds. With other laser systems, they are produced by Spectra-Physics, and used to monitor chemical processes, monitor production of quantity halogen lamps, etc. The Laser Analytics Division of Spectra-Physics credits the system's reliability to a program funded by Langley in the 1970s. Company no longer U.S.-owned. 5/22/97

  3. Systems and Components Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Systems and Components - Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, Derrick Crane System, and Crane System Details - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  4. Chaotic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myasishchev, Denis; Bixler, David

    2009-04-01

    Chaos theory is a current topic in physics research and is of great scientific and applied interest. Chaotic systems include weather patterns, genetic evolution and free market economics. Modeling chaotic phenomena using electronic circuits is a convenient way to analyze nonlinear systems. We have built various types of circuits and examined the conditions under which chaos occurs. Chua's circuit and analog computing circuits (ones that directly model systems of differential equations) were in the spotlight during the fall semester. An R-C phase space diagram for the Chua's circuit was constructed and the phase transitions were examined. Different analog computing circuits were built and the resulting attractors, attractor phases, and bifurcations were recorded. A mechanical system, the two block train model, is the current focus of study. The goal is to examine attractors produced by a mechanical system, a computer simulation, and a corresponding circuit in order to prove that the same experimental results can be obtained from different sources. This way if a mechanical system is too complicated to build, it can be substituted by a suitable circuit.

  5. Preliminary data on an association between blood groups and serum markers used for the so-called "triple screening": free oestriol MoM values are decreased in rhesus-negative (Rh-) women.

    PubMed

    Sancken, U; Bartels, I

    2001-03-01

    The serum markers human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) in 606 rhesus-negative (Rh-) women have been compared with 18 960 controls. There were no significant differences in the distribution of hCG and AFP between these two cohorts. However the uE3 values in Rh- women were significantly lowered (median: 0.85 MoM).

  6. Systems Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.

    1998-03-17

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

  7. Systemic fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Levy, Steven Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that fluoride, through different applications and formulas, works to control caries development. The first observations of fluoride's effects on dental caries were linked to fluoride naturally present in the drinking water, and then from controlled water fluoridation programs. Other systemic methods to deliver fluoride were later suggested, including dietary fluoride supplements such as salt and milk. These systemic methods are now being questioned due to the fact that many studies have indicated that fluoride's action relies mainly on its post-eruptive effect from topical contact with the tooth structure. It is known that even the methods of delivering fluoride known as 'systemic' act mainly through a topical effect when they are in contact with the teeth. The effectiveness of water fluoridation in many geographic areas is lower than in previous eras due to the widespread use of other fluoride modalities. Nevertheless, this evidence should not be interpreted as an indication that systemic methods are no longer relevant ways to deliver fluoride on an individual basis or for collective health programs. Caution must be taken to avoid excess ingestion of fluoride when prescribing dietary fluoride supplements for children in order to minimize the risk of dental fluorosis, particularly if there are other relevant sources of fluoride intake - such as drinking water, salt or milk and/or dentifrice. Safe and effective doses of fluoride can be achieved when combining topical and systemic methods.

  8. Systemic trauma.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering.

  9. Systemic trauma.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering. PMID:24617751

  10. Systemic fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Levy, Steven Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that fluoride, through different applications and formulas, works to control caries development. The first observations of fluoride's effects on dental caries were linked to fluoride naturally present in the drinking water, and then from controlled water fluoridation programs. Other systemic methods to deliver fluoride were later suggested, including dietary fluoride supplements such as salt and milk. These systemic methods are now being questioned due to the fact that many studies have indicated that fluoride's action relies mainly on its post-eruptive effect from topical contact with the tooth structure. It is known that even the methods of delivering fluoride known as 'systemic' act mainly through a topical effect when they are in contact with the teeth. The effectiveness of water fluoridation in many geographic areas is lower than in previous eras due to the widespread use of other fluoride modalities. Nevertheless, this evidence should not be interpreted as an indication that systemic methods are no longer relevant ways to deliver fluoride on an individual basis or for collective health programs. Caution must be taken to avoid excess ingestion of fluoride when prescribing dietary fluoride supplements for children in order to minimize the risk of dental fluorosis, particularly if there are other relevant sources of fluoride intake - such as drinking water, salt or milk and/or dentifrice. Safe and effective doses of fluoride can be achieved when combining topical and systemic methods. PMID:21701196

  11. Turbine system

    DOEpatents

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson

    2016-05-03

    A turbine system is disclosed. The turbine system includes a transition duct having an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The turbine system further includes a turbine section connected to the transition duct. The turbine section includes a plurality of shroud blocks at least partially defining a hot gas path, a plurality of buckets at least partially disposed in the hot gas path, and a plurality of nozzles at least partially disposed in the hot gas path. At least one of a shroud block, a bucket, or a nozzle includes means for withstanding high temperatures.

  12. Microbiology System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

  13. Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

  14. ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Robison, G.H. et al.

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is described for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. It is comprised of separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation: an electronic channel associated with each input means including control means and indicating means; timing means associated with each of the input means and the control means and adapted to derive a signal from the input means and apply it after a predetermined time to the control means to effect deactivation of each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after observation of each group of events.

  15. Computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Lola

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the discussions, Ocean Climate Data Workshop hosts gave participants an opportunity to hear about, see, and test for themselves some of the latest computer tools now available for those studying climate change and the oceans. Six speakers described computer systems and their functions. The introductory talks were followed by demonstrations to small groups of participants and some opportunities for participants to get hands-on experience. After this familiarization period, attendees were invited to return during the course of the Workshop and have one-on-one discussions and further hands-on experience with these systems. Brief summaries or abstracts of introductory presentations are addressed.

  16. System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morecroft, John

    System dynamics is an approach for thinking about and simulating situations and organisations of all kinds and sizes by visualising how the elements fit together, interact and change over time. This chapter, written by John Morecroft, describes modern system dynamics which retains the fundamentals developed in the 1950s by Jay W. Forrester of the MIT Sloan School of Management. It looks at feedback loops and time delays that affect system behaviour in a non-linear way, and illustrates how dynamic behaviour depends upon feedback loop structures. It also recognises improvements as part of the ongoing process of managing a situation in order to achieve goals. Significantly it recognises the importance of context, and practitioner skills. Feedback systems thinking views problems and solutions as being intertwined. The main concepts and tools: feedback structure and behaviour, causal loop diagrams, dynamics, are practically illustrated in a wide variety of contexts from a hot water shower through to a symphony orchestra and the practical application of the approach is described through several real examples of its use for strategic planning and evaluation.

  17. Systems Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H S.

    2006-06-01

    The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

  18. Irrigation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Under contract with Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a Lubrication Handbook intended as a reference source for designers and manufacturers of aerospace hardware and crews responsible for maintenance of such equipment. Engineers of Lindsay Manufacturing Company learned of this handbook through NASA Tech Briefs and used it for supplemental information in redesigning gear boxes for their center pivot agricultural irrigation system.

  19. STAR System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doverspike, James E.

    The STAR System is a developmental guidance approach to be used with elementary school children in the 5th or 6th grades. Two basic purposes underlie STAR: to increase learning potential and to enhance personal growth and development. STAR refers to 4 basic skills: sensory, thinking, adapting, and revising. Major components of the 4 skills are:…

  20. Bioconversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The production of higher valued products from biomass is the focus of this reference and planning guide for those who deal with the demands of energy recovery. International experts explain the processes and potentials for genetic engineering to bioenergy systems, utilizing biomass lignin and producing chemicals from biomass using wet oxidation. They present studies of possible liquid fuel production in developing countries as well as information on new research and development such as an aquatic biomass growth system integrated with an anaerobic digestion system for producing fuel gas. Several chapters describe the use of forage crops as chemical feedstocks, production of chemicals from microalgae, and the technology and economics of chemicals from wood. CONTENTS: Fuels and Chemicals from Biomass: a Role for GeneSplicing Technology. Lactic Acid Production by Pure and Mixed Bacterial Cultures. Conversion of Lignin to Useful Chemical Products. Chemicals from Microalgae. Forage Crops as Chemical Feedstocks. Biomass Conversion into Chemicals Using Wet Oxidation. Technology and Economics of Chemicals from Wood. An Integrated Anaerobic Digestion System for the Production of Energy and Livestock Fleed Based on Aquatic Biomass Production on Sand Using Seawater Spray. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass in the Developing Countries--an Agricultural and Economic Perspective, Part I--Introduction and Background. Part II--the Tropical Environment and the Availability of Suitable Land. Part III--Agricultural Properties of Energy Crops. Part IV--Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Options and Summary and Conclusions. Index.