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Sample records for kidd blood-group system

  1. The Kidd (JK) Blood Group System.

    PubMed

    Lawicki, Shaun; Covin, Randal B; Powers, Amy A

    2016-11-09

    The Kidd blood group system was discovered in 1951 and is composed of 2 antithetical antigens, Jk(a) and Jk(b), along with a third high-incidence antigen, Jk3. The Jk3 antigen is expressed in all individuals except those with the rare Kidd-null phenotype. Four Kidd phenotypes are therefore possible: Jk(a+b-), Jk(a-b+), Jk(a+b+), and Jk(a-b-). The glycoprotein carrying the Kidd antigens is a 43-kDa, 389-amino acid protein with 10 membrane-spanning domains which functions as a urea transporter on endothelial cells of the renal vasa recta as well as erythrocytes. The HUT11/UT-B/JK (SLC14A1) gene encoding this glycoprotein is located on chromosome 18q12-q21. The Jk(a) and Jk(b) antigens are the result of a single-nucleotide polymorphism present at nucleotide 838 resulting in an aspartate or asparagine amino acid at position 280, respectively. The Kidd blood group can create several difficult transfusion situations. Besides the typical acute hemolytic transfusion reactions common to all clinically relevant blood group antigens, the Kidd antigens are notorious for causing delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions due to the strong anamnestic response exhibited by antibodies directed against Kidd antigens. The Kidd-null phenotype is extremely rare in most ethnic groups, but is clinically significant due to the ability of those with the Kidd-null phenotype to produce antibodies directed against the high-incidence Jk3 antigen. Anti-Jk3 antibodies behave in concordance with anti-Jk(a) or anti-Jk(b) possessing the capability to cause both acute and delayed hemolytic reactions. Antibodies against any of the 3 Kidd antigens can also be a cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, although this is generally mild. In this review, we will outline the makeup of the Kidd system from its historical discovery to the details of the Kidd gene and glycoprotein, and then discuss the practical aspects of Kidd antibodies and transfusion reactions with an extended focus on the Kidd

  2. DNA-based typing of Kell, Kidd, MNS, Dombrock, Colton, and Yt blood group systems in the French Basques.

    PubMed

    Touinssi, Mhammed; Chiaroni, Jacques; Degioanni, Anna; Granier, Thomas; Dutour, Olivier; Bailly, Pascal; Bauduer, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    The Basques demonstrate peculiar characteristics regarding blood group systems. Although ABO, Rhesus, and Duffy have been extensively studied in this population, the distribution of other groups remains largely unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the frequency of less-explored- or still noninvestigated blood groups using DNA-based assays and interpreted these data in the view of population genetics. Polymorphisms of KEL (Kell), SLCA14A1 (Kidd), GYPA/GYPB (MNS), ART4 (Dombrock), AQP1 (Colton), and ACHE (Yt) blood group genes were determined from a sample of more than 100 autochthonous French Basques using allele-specific primer PCR (PCR-ASP) methods. Our results were compared with those previously obtained by the use of serology from both Basque and non-Basque European populations. MNS*1 and JK*1 allele frequencies were comparable with those reported from Basque samples. Conversely, the KEL*1 allele frequency differed significantly. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the other three systems are studied in the Basque population. DO*1 and CO*1 allele frequencies, being respectively 0.35 and 0.96, were significantly inferior to those published from various European populations. There were some discrepancies regarding these six blood systems when comparing molecular typing with serology. These findings may be explained by differences in either criteria for individual selection or technical assays. Nevertheless, these results constitute additional data to be included in the chapter of Basque biological anthropology.

  3. Profile of Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego blood group systems among blood donors in the Southwest region of the Paraná state, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zacarias, Joana Maira Valentini; Langer, Ieda Bernadete Volkweis; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Sell, Ana Maria

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of alleles and genotypes of the blood group systems Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego in 251 regular blood donors registered in the hemotherapy unit of the Southwestern region of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The frequencies were obtained by direct counting on a spreadsheet program and statistical analyses were conducted in order to compare them with other Brazilian populations using chi-squared with Yates correction on OpenEpi software. The frequencies of RHD* negative, RHCE*c/c and RHCE*e/e were higher than expected for the Caucasian population. A difference was also observed for FY alleles, FY*01/FY*01 genotype and FY*02N.01 -67T/C (GATA Box mutation). Two homozygous individuals were defined as a low frequency phenotype K + k- (KEL*01.01/KEL*01.01) and, for Diego blood group system the rare DI*01 allele was found in ten blood donors, of which one was DI*01/DI* 01 (0.4%). The allele and genotype frequencies of Kidd blood group system were similar to expected to Caucasians. The results showed the direction in which to choose donors, the importance of extended genotyping in adequate blood screening and the existence of rare genotypes in Brazilian regular blood donors.

  4. [Detection of hematopoietic chimera by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR with erythrocyte Kidd blood group gene].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu; Xu, Xian-Guo; Liu, Ying; Hong, Xiao-Zhen; Zhu, Fa-Ming; Lü, Hang-Jun; Yan, Li-Xing

    2012-06-01

    This study was aimed to establish the real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) with erythrocyte Kidd blood group gene for detecting the hematopoietic chimera and to investigate the feasibility of this method. The TaqMan MGB probes and special primers were designed on basis of difference of erythrocyte Kidd blood group alleles, the hematopoietic chimerism was detected by RT-qPCR, the DNA chimerism was simulated by means of dilution of multiple proportions, and the sensitivity analysis was performed. The results showed that the RT-qPCR with erythrocyte Kidd blood group gene could effectively distinguish JK*A and JK*B alleles. There was no significant difference between the theoretic value and the practical measured value by this method (P > 0.05). As 156 donor's cells could be discriminated from 10(4) chimeric cells, this method may effectively detect donor's cells with correlation coefficient 0.998. It is concluded that the established RT-qPCR with erythrocyte Kidd blood group gene shows the feasibility for quantitative detection of hematopoietic chimera, and may be used to quantitatively detect chimera in a certain range.

  5. Non-ABO blood group systems phenotyping in non-human primates for blood banking laboratory and xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Ramis, G; Martínez-Alarcon, L; Quereda, J J; Mrowiec, A; Funes, C; Ríos, A; Ramírez, P; Muñoz, A; Majado, M J

    2013-04-01

    Some biomedical research procedures, such as organ xenotransplantation, usually require intensive hemotherapy. Knowledge of the whole phenotype of blood donor and graft could be useful in the field of xenotransplantation. Human and simian-type categories of blood groups have been established and they can be tested by standard methods used for human blood grouping. The aim of this work was to study the incidence of non-ABO blood group systems in different species of non-human primates, which are employed in biomedical research. The phenotype of Rh, Lewis, Kidd, Kell, MNSs, Lutheran, P and Duffy antigens was investigated in olive baboon (n = 48), chacma baboon (n = 9), Guinea baboon (n = 14), Rhesus macaque (n = 38) and squirrel monkey (n = 30) by using commercial microtyping cards. Kell, Lutheran, Kidd and Duffy antigens have been detected in all species, Rh in squirrel monkey, MNSs in rhesus macaque and squirrel monkey, and Lewis in baboon and rhesus macaque. There were differences in frequency and haemagglutination scores between species regardless of their gender and age. The main differences were found in squirrel monkey when compared with baboons and macaques. This typing system provides a tool to assess the presence of antigens in animals used for experimental procedures, such as xenotransplantation and xenotransfusion.

  6. An update on the GLOB blood group system and collection.

    PubMed

    Hellberg, A; Westman, J S; Olsson, M L

    2013-01-01

    The P blood group antigen of the GLOB system is a glycolipid structure, also known as globoside, on the red blood cells (RBCs) of almost all individuals worldwide. The P antigen is intimately related to the Pk and NOR antigens discussed in the review about the P1PK blood group system. Naturally occurring anti-P is present in the serum of individuals with the rare globoside-deficient phenotypes p, P1k, and P2k and has been implicated in hemolytic transfusion reactions as well as unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy. The molecular genetic basis of globoside deficiency is absence of functional P synthase as a result of mutations at the B3GALNT1 locus. Other related glycolipid structures, the LKE and PX2 antigens, remain in the GLOB blood group collection pending further evidence about the genes and gene products responsible for their synthesis.

  7. The ABO blood group system revisited: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Storry, J R; Olsson, M L

    2009-01-01

    The antigens of the ABO system were the first to be recognized as blood groups and actually the first human genetic markers known. Their presence and the realization of naturally occurring antibodies to those antigens lacking from the cells made sense of the erratic failure of blood transfusion hitherto and opened up the possibility of a safe treatment practice in life-threatening blood loss. Although initially apparently simple, the ABO system has come to grow in complexity over the years. The mass of knowledge relating to carbohydrate chemistry, enzymology, molecular genetics, and structural and evolutionary biology is now enormous thanks to more than a century of research using ABO as a principal model. This has provided us with data to form a solid platform of evidence-based transfusion and transplantation medicine used every day in laboratories and clinics around the globe. This review aims to summarize key findings and recent progress made toward further understanding of this surprisingly polymorphic system.

  8. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  9. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  10. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  11. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  12. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  13. A Brief History of Human Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    FARHUD, Dariush D; ZARIF YEGANEH, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of human blood groups, without doubt, has a history as old as man himself. There are at least three hypotheses about the emergence and mutation of human blood groups. Global distribution pattern of blood groups depends on various environmental factors, such as disease, climate, altitude, humidity etc. In this survey, the collection of main blood groups ABO and Rh, along with some minor groups, are presented. Several investigations of blood groups from Iran, particularly a large sampling on 291857 individuals from Iran, including the main blood groups ABO and Rh, as well as minor blood groups such as Duffy, Lutheran, Kell, KP, Kidd, and Xg, have been reviewed. PMID:23514954

  14. ABO blood group system and gastric cancer: a case-control study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Liu, Lei; Ji, Jun; Zhang, Jianian; Yan, Min; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yu, Yingyan

    2012-10-17

    This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for meta-analysis. In our case-control study, the risk of gastric cancer in blood group A was significantly higher than that in non-A groups (O, B and AB) (odd ratio, OR1.34; 95% confidential interval, CI 1.25-1.44). Compared with non-O groups (A, B and AB), individuals with blood group O demonstrated a reduced risk of gastric cancer (OR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.72-0.88). The proportion of H. pylori infection in blood group A individuals was significantly higher than that in non-A blood groups (OR = 1.42; 95% CI 1.05-1.93). We further combined our data with the published data of others, and crossreferenced the risk of gastric cancer with the blood type, finding consistent evidence that gastric cancer risk in the blood A group was higher than that in the non-A groups (OR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.07-1.15), and that blood type O individuals were consistently shown gastric cancer risk reduction (OR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.89-0.94). Our study concluded that there was a slightly increased risk of gastric cancer in blood group A individuals, and people with blood type A are more prone to be infected by H. pylori than other ABO blood type individuals, whereas, a slightly decreased risk of gastric cancer was identified in blood type O individuals.

  15. Blood grouping based on PCR methods and agarose gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sell, Ana Maria; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila

    2015-01-01

    The study of erythrocyte antigens continues to be an intense field of research, particularly after the development of molecular testing methods. More than 300 specificities have been described by the International Society for Blood Transfusion as belonging to 33 blood group systems. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a central tool for red blood cells (RBC) genotyping. PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis are low cost, easy, and versatile in vitro methods for amplifying defined target DNA (RBC polymorphic region). Multiplex-PCR, AS-PCR (Specific Allele Polymerase Chain Reaction), and RFLP-PCR (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-Polymerase Chain Reaction) techniques are usually to identify RBC polymorphisms. Furthermore, it is an easy methodology to implement. This chapter describes the PCR methodology and agarose gel electrophoresis to identify the polymorphisms of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood group systems.

  16. The Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infections in ABO Blood Groups and Rh Type System

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Jitendra Singh; Singh, Savitri; Kaur, Viplesh; Giri, Sumit; Kaushal, Ravi Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs). The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti hepatitis C virus (Anti-HCV), anti HIV-1 and 2, venereal disease research Laboratory test (VDRL) and malaria parasite (MP) antigen. In seroreactive donors, HBsAg, Anti-HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV were positive in 40 cases, 26 cases, 19 cases, 6 cases and 2 cases, respectively. Highest percentage of HBsAg, Anti HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV was observed in blood group A negative (2/50), O negative (1/66), B negative (1/91), AB positive (2/377) blood group respectively. In the present study, the total number of Rhnegative donors is lower when compared to Rh-positive blood donors, but Rh-negative blood donors show higher percentages of seroreactivity for TTIs. Larger scale studies at molecular level are required to improve the knowledge of this aspect. PMID:25568761

  17. ABO blood group system and the coronary artery disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Yang, Sheng-Hua; Xu, Hao; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-03-18

    ABO blood group system, a well-known genetic risk factor, has clinically been demonstrated to be linked with thrombotic vascular diseases. However, the relationship between ABO blood group and coronary artery disease (CAD) is still controversial. We here performed an updated meta-analysis of the related studies and tried to elucidate the potential role of ABO blood group as a risk factor for CAD. All detectable case-control and cohort studies comparing the risk of CAD in different ABO blood groups were collected for this analysis through searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Ultimately, 17 studies covering 225,810 participants were included. The combined results showed that the risk of CAD was significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.26, p = 0.01) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.94, p = 0.0008). Even when studies merely about myocardial infarction (MI) were removed, the risk of CAD was still significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.10, p = 0.03) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85 to 0.93, p < 0.00001). This updated systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that both blood group A and non-O were the risk factors of CAD.

  18. Revisiting the Diego Blood Group System in Amerindians: Evidence for Gene-Culture Comigration

    PubMed Central

    Bégat, Christophe; Bailly, Pascal; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mazières, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Six decades ago the DI*A allele of the Diego blood group system was instrumental in proving Native American populations originated from Siberia. Since then, it has received scant attention. The present study was undertaken to reappraise distribution of the DI*A allele in 144 Native American populations based on current knowledge. Using analysis of variance tests, frequency distribution was studied according to geographical, environmental, and cultural parameters. Frequencies were highest in Amazonian populations. In contrast, DI*A was undetectable in subarctic, Fuegian, Panamanian, Chaco and Yanomama populations. Closer study revealed a correlation that this unequal distribution was correlated with language, suggesting that linguistic divergence was a driving force in the expansion of DI*A among Native Americans. The absence of DI*A in circumpolar Eskimo-Aleut and Na-Dene speakers was consistent with a late migratory event confined to North America. Distribution of DI*A in subtropical areas indicated that gene and culture exchanges were more intense within than between ecozones. Bolstering the utility of classical genetic markers in biological anthropology, the present study of the expansion of Diego blood group genetic polymorphism in Native Americans shows strong evidence of gene-culture comigration. PMID:26148209

  19. Genetic heterogeneity at the glycosyltransferase loci underlying the GLOB blood group system and collection.

    PubMed

    Hellberg, A; Ringressi, A; Yahalom, V; Säfwenberg, J; Reid, M E; Olsson, M L

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to further explore the molecular genetic bases of the clinically important but rare blood group phenotypes p, P(1) (k) and P(2) (k) by analysis of the 4-alpha-galactosyltransferase (P(k)) and 3-beta-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (P) genes responsible for synthesis of the related P(k) (Gb(3)) and P (Gb(4)) antigens respectively. Lack of these glycolipid moieties is associated with severe transfusion reactions and recurrent spontaneous abortions but also offers immunity against certain infectious agents. Blood samples from 20 p and 11 P(1) (k) or P(2) (k) individuals of different geographic and ethnic origin were investigated. DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis was performed following amplification of the coding regions in the P(k) or P genes. In the P(k) gene, nine novel and five previously described mutations were detected. One of the newly found mutations introduced an immediate stop, five shifted the reading frame introducing premature stop codons and three were missense mutations causing amino acid substitutions in conserved regions of the transferase. Four new and two previously described mutations in the P gene were found. Three of the novel alleles reported here carried nonsense mutations whilst the fourth allele had a missense mutation. The finding of 13 novel mutations in 14 alleles emphasizes further the genetic heterogeneity at the glycosyltransferase loci underlying the GLOB blood group system and collection.

  20. Genetic polymorphisms of the Caucasus ethnic groups: distribution of some blood group genetic markers (Part II).

    PubMed

    Nasidze, I S

    1995-08-01

    The compiled data on the distribution of polymorphic blood groups (ABO, Diego, Duffy, Kell-Cellano, Kidd, MN, MNSs, P, Penney, Rh(D), Rh-Hr), secretion ABH antigens in saliva, HLA system (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DR), immunoglobulin (GM1) and other miscellaneous data (phenylthiocarbamide taste, tongue rolling) in the Caucasus are presented. Results of the interpopulation heterogeneity test show that, in spite of the limited territory of the Caucasus, a high level of genetic variability was observed. In terms of gene frequencies, these ethnic groups are approximately equidistant from European and West Asian Populations.

  1. Development and Detection of Kidd Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Kimberly Williams; Bourikian, Seda; McClain, Aryn; Curtis, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Kidd antibodies have a reputation for causing hemolytic transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. We present a case of an untransfused male patient who developed anti-Kidd(a) (Jk(a)) antibodies after receiving an allogenic renal transplant. The formation of this antibody was associated with exposure to the Kidd antigen expressed on the tubular epithelium of the transplanted kidney. The 59-year-old white male patient had received a cadaveric renal transplant at our clinic and returned 5 years later with proteinuria and elevated serum creatinine levels, consistent with nephrotic syndrome. We review the expression of Kidd antigens and the development and detection of Kidd antibodies, and discuss the case reports from the literature of Kidd antibodies associated with kidney-graft rejection that suggest Kidd antigens play a role as a minor histocompatibility antigen.

  2. ABO blood group system and the coronary artery disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo; Yang, Sheng-Hua; Xu, Hao; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    ABO blood group system, a well-known genetic risk factor, has clinically been demonstrated to be linked with thrombotic vascular diseases. However, the relationship between ABO blood group and coronary artery disease (CAD) is still controversial. We here performed an updated meta-analysis of the related studies and tried to elucidate the potential role of ABO blood group as a risk factor for CAD. All detectable case-control and cohort studies comparing the risk of CAD in different ABO blood groups were collected for this analysis through searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Ultimately, 17 studies covering 225,810 participants were included. The combined results showed that the risk of CAD was significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.26, p = 0.01) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.94, p = 0.0008). Even when studies merely about myocardial infarction (MI) were removed, the risk of CAD was still significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.10, p = 0.03) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85 to 0.93, p < 0.00001). This updated systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that both blood group A and non-O were the risk factors of CAD. PMID:26988722

  3. The abundance and organization of polypeptides associated with antigens of the Rh blood group system.

    PubMed

    Gardner, B; Anstee, D J; Mawby, W J; Tanner, M J; von dem Borne, A E

    1991-06-01

    Twelve murine monoclonal antibodies, which react with human red cells of common Rh phenotype but give weak or negative reactions with Rh null erythrocytes, were used in quantitative binding assays and competitive binding assays to investigate the abundance and organization of polypeptides involved in the expression of antigens of the Rh blood group system. Antibodies of the R6A-type (R6A, BRIC-69, BRIC-207) and the 2D10-type (MB-2D10, LA18.18, LA23.40) recognize related structures and 100,000-200,000 molecules of each antibody bind maximally to erythrocytes of common Rh phenotype. Antibodies of the BRIC-125 type (BRICs 32, 122, 125, 126, 168, 211) recognize structures that are unrelated to those recognized by R6A-type and 2D10-type antibodies and between 10,000 and 50,000 antibody molecules bind maximally to erythrocytes of the common Rh phenotype. The binding of antibodies of the R6A-type and the 2D10-type, but not of antibodies of the BRIC-125-type could be partially inhibited by human anti-D antibodies (polyclonal and monoclonal) and a murine anti-e-like antibody. These results are consistent with evidence (Moore & Green 1987; Avent et al., 1988b) that the Rh blood group antigens are associated with a complex that comprises two groups of related polypeptides of M(r) 30,000 and M(r) 35,000-100,000, respectively, and suggest that there are 1-2 x 10(5) copies of this complex per erythrocyte. The polypeptide recognized by antibodies of the BRIC-125 type is likely to be associated with this complex.

  4. Comparison of five blood-typing methods for the feline AB blood group system.

    PubMed

    Seth, Mayank; Jackson, Karen V; Giger, Urs

    2011-02-01

    Objective-To compare the ease of use and accuracy of 5 feline AB blood-typing methods: card agglutination (CARD), immunochromatographic cartridge (CHROM), gel-based (GEL), and conventional slide (SLIDE) and tube (TUBE) agglutination assays. Sample Population-490 anticoagulated blood samples from sick and healthy cats submitted to the Transfusion or Clinical Laboratory at the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Procedures-Sample selection was purposely biased toward those from anemic, type B, or type AB cats or those with autoagglutination. All blood samples were tested by use of GEL, SLIDE, and TUBE methods. Fifty-eight samples were also tested by use of CARD and CHROM methods. The presence of alloantibodies in all cats expressing the B antigen as detected by use of any method was also assessed. Results-Compared with the historical gold-standard TUBE method, good to excellent agreement was achieved with the other typing tests: CARD, 53 of 58 (91% agreement); CHROM, 55 of 58 (95%); GEL, 487 of 490 (99%); and SLIDE, 482 of 487 (99%; 3 samples were excluded because of autoagglutination). Four of the samples with discordant test results originated from cats with FeLV-related anemia. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Current laboratory and in-clinic methods provide simple and accurate typing for the feline AB blood group system with few discrepancies. Retyping after in-clinic typing with the GEL or TUBE laboratory methods is recommended to confirm any type B or AB cats.

  5. BGMUT: NCBI dbRBC database of allelic variations of genes encoding antigens of blood group systems.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Santosh Kumar; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Blumenfeld, Olga O

    2012-01-01

    Analogous to human leukocyte antigens, blood group antigens are surface markers on the erythrocyte cell membrane whose structures differ among individuals and which can be serologically identified. The Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database (BGMUT) is an online repository of allelic variations in genes that determine the antigens of various human blood group systems. The database is manually curated with allelic information collated from scientific literature and from direct submissions from research laboratories. Currently, the database documents sequence variations of a total of 1251 alleles of all 40 gene loci that together are known to affect antigens of 30 human blood group systems. When available, information on the geographic or ethnic prevalence of an allele is also provided. The BGMUT website also has general information on the human blood group systems and the genes responsible for them. BGMUT is a part of the dbRBC resource of the National Center for Biotechnology Information, USA, and is available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/gv/rbc/xslcgi.fcgi?cmd=bgmut. The database should be of use to members of the transfusion medicine community, those interested in studies of genetic variation and related topics such as human migrations, and students as well as members of the general public.

  6. The human porphyrin transporter ABCB6 is dispensable for erythropoiesis but responsible for the new blood group system Langereis

    PubMed Central

    Helias, Virginie; Saison, Carole; Ballif, Bryan A.; Peyrard, Thierry; Takahashi, Junko; Takahashi, Hideo; Tanaka, Mitsunobu; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Puy, Hervé; Le Gall, Maude; Sureau, Camille; Pham, Bach-Nga; Le Pennec, Pierre-Yves; Tani, Yoshihiko; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Arnaud, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB6 has been described as a mitochondrial porphyrin transporter essential for heme biosynthesis1, but is also suspected to contribute to anticancer drug resistance2–4, as do other ABC transporters located at the plasma membrane. We identified ABCB6 as the carrier of the blood group antigen Lan on red blood cells, but also at the plasma membrane of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and established that ABCB6 actually encodes a new blood group system (Langereis, Lan). Targeted sequencing of ABCB6 in 12 unrelated individuals of the blood type Lan− identified 10 different ABCB6 null mutations. This is the first report of deficient alleles of this human ABC transporter gene. Surprisingly, Lan− (ABCB6−/−) individuals do not suffer any clinical consequences, albeit their deficiency in ABCB6 may place them at risk when defining drug dosage. PMID:22246506

  7. Crosstalk between ABO and Forssman (FORS) blood group systems: FORS1 antigen synthesis by ABO gene-encoded glycosyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Miyako; Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Fumiichiro

    2017-01-01

    A and B alleles at the ABO genetic locus specify A and B glycosyltransferases that catalyze the biosynthesis of A and B oligosaccharide antigens, respectively, of blood group ABO system which is important in transfusion and transplantation medicine. GBGT1 gene encodes Forssman glycolipid synthase (FS), another glycosyltransferase that produces Forssman antigen (FORS1). Humans are considered to be Forssman antigen-negative species without functional FS. However, rare individuals exhibiting Apae phenotype carry a dominant active GBGT1 gene and express Forssman antigen on RBCs. Accordingly, FORS system was recognized as the 31st blood group system. Mouse ABO gene encodes a cis-AB transferase capable of producing both A and B antigens. This murine enzyme contains the same GlyGlyAla tripeptide sequence as FSs at the position important for the determination of sugar specificity. We, therefore, transfected the expression construct into appropriate recipient cells and examined whether mouse cis-AB transferase may also exhibit FS activity. The result was positive, confirming the crosstalk between the ABO and FORS systems. Further experiments have revealed that the introduction of this tripeptide sequence to human A transferase conferred some, although weak, FS activity, suggesting that it is also involved in the recognition/binding of acceptor substrates, in addition to donor nucleotide-sugars. PMID:28134301

  8. Phenotypic Profile of Rh and Kell Blood Group Systems among Blood Donors in Cote d'Ivoire, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Siransy Bogui, L.; Dembele, B.; Sekongo, Y.; Abisse, S.; Konaté, S.; Sombo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Few countries in sub-Saharan Africa make systematic searches for antigens C, c, E, and e of the Rh and Kell system antigens in the donor and recipient, thereby exposing transfused patients. Purpose and Objectives. In this paper, we propose to determine the red cell Rh and Kell blood groups among blood donors from traditional techniques to improve medical care of transfused patients. This study will allow us to assess the frequency of blood group antigens in these systems. Study Design and Methods. We carried out a study on the red cell typing in the blood donor population of the National Blood Transfusion Center in Abidjan. This study was performed on 651 blood donors. Results. For the Rh system, the antigen frequencies of D, c, e, C, and E are, respectively, 92.93%, 99.85%, 99.85%, 21.97%, and 13.82%. K antigen is found in 0.77% of donors. Discussion and Conclusion. Although the frequencies of the most immunogenic antigens are lower than in the white race, lack of preventive measures makes the immunological risk high in Africa. Furthermore, Africa is full of specificities that are important to note for a better care of our patients. PMID:25328758

  9. [Distribution of the ABO blood group system and D antigen in Macedonia].

    PubMed

    Stefanovska, V; Stojceska, N; Milenkov, V; Sotirovska, L; Toplicanec, N

    1978-01-01

    The authors have made a serious effort to present the distribution of ABO and D antigens in SRM for the first time after many uers of these antigens in a representative group in a whole population and according to different nationalities. Also, the comparison as done between obtained results and some others (results from some other countries and from other republics in Yugoslavia). The gene frequency of ABO system was analised.

  10. P1PK, GLOB, and FORS blood group systems and GLOB collection: biochemical and clinical aspects. Do we understand it all yet?

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Radoslaw; Buczkowska, Anna; Mikołajewicz, Katarzyna; Krotkiewski, Hubert; Czerwinski, Marcin

    2014-07-01

    Antigens belonging to the P1PK, GLOB, and FORS blood group systems and the GLOB blood group collection represent a closely related set of 13 glycosphingolipids (GSLs). They are synthesized by the coordinated action of glycosyltransferases, encoded by at least 7 different loci. Three of these enzymes show either different activity or a different mRNA expression profile due to genetic polymorphisms, resulting in blood group diversity. In recent years, significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular background and biological functions of these GSLs. Their medical significance is often related to the existence of natural antibodies, as they may cause complications after transfusions and during pregnancies. In addition, GSLs belonging to these blood group systems are receptors for several pathogens. This review summarizes the present knowledge about the complicated network of enzymatic interactions leading to synthesis of these GSLs, as well as their clinical implications.

  11. Phenotypic and allelic profile of ABO and Rhésus D blood group system among blood donor in Antananarivo.

    PubMed

    Randriamanantany, Z A; Rajaonatahina, D H; Razafimanantsoa, F E; Rasamindrakotroka, M T; Andriamahenina, R; Rasoarilalamanarivo, F B; Hanitriniala, S P; Herisoa, F R; Rasamindrakotroka, A; Rakoto Alson, O A

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the phenotypic and allelic profiles of ABO and Rhesus D blood group system among first time blood donors at the National Centre of Blood Supply of Antananarivo. We collected through this retrospective study all data registered during 7 years of practice (from 2003 to 2009). Age and sex were analysed with the result of ABO and RhD screening. They were tested both with Beth Vincent and Simonin tests which were performed in a plate, by using commercial monoclonal antibody (Diaclone(®) et Eryclone(®)), and home-made red cells tests. The Rh D was performed with the same commercial kits. The frequencies of alleles were calculated by using Bernstein method. Data about 45,857 donors were obtained. A male predominance (80.46%) was found and most of our donors were aged <40 (74.92%). 98.90% of the donors were Rh D positive. Phenotypic distribution of each ABO antigen was, respectively, 22.61, 29.66, 6.13 and 41.60% for A, B, AB and O antigen. Allelic frequencies of A, B and O were 0.1559, 0.1987 and 0.6454. These results confirmed the fact that Madagascan population had admixed ethnic origin.

  12. Study on the distribution of MN blood group system in the six caste populations of Tirupati (South India).

    PubMed

    Sethuraman, M; Ramanarao, K V; Ramachandraiah, T; Swami, K S

    1982-06-01

    The MN blood group distribution was analysed in 600 individuals belonging to six caste groups of Tirupati (Andhra Pradesh, South India). the MN blood groups values are as follows: M = 36.00 to 45.00%, N = 10.00 to 16.00%, and MN = 43.00 to 51.00%. The frequency of the M-gene varies from 0.6050 to 0.6650, and that of the N-gene from 0.3350 to 0.3950. The intergroup differences are statistically not significant, indicating homogeneity of phenotype and gene distribution.

  13. Molecular Characterization of the Cytidine Monophosphate-N-Acetylneuraminic Acid Hydroxylase (CMAH) Gene Associated with the Feline AB Blood Group System.

    PubMed

    Omi, Toshinori; Nakazawa, Shota; Udagawa, Chihiro; Tada, Naomi; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Chong, Yong Hwa; Kato, Yuiko; Mitsui, Hiroko; Gin, Azusa; Oda, Hitomi; Azakami, Daigo; Tamura, Kyoichi; Sako, Toshinori; Inagaki, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Tsutsui, Toshihiko; Bonkobara, Makoto; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Ikemoto, Shigenori

    2016-01-01

    Cat's AB blood group system (blood types A, B, and AB) is of major importance in feline transfusion medicine. Type A and type B antigens are Neu5Gc and Neu5Ac, respectively, and the enzyme CMAH participating in the synthesis of Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac is associated with this cat blood group system. Rare type AB erythrocytes express both Neu5Gc and Neu5Ac. Cat serum contains naturally occurring antibodies against antigens occurring in the other blood types. To understand the molecular genetic basis of this blood group system, we investigated the distribution of AB blood group antigens, CMAH gene structure, mutation, diplotypes, and haplotypes of the cat CMAH genes. Blood-typing revealed that 734 of the cats analyzed type A (95.1%), 38 cats were type B (4.9%), and none were type AB. A family of three Ragdoll cats including two type AB cats and one type A was also used in this study. CMAH sequence analyses showed that the CMAH protein was generated from two mRNA isoforms differing in exon 1. Analyses of the nucleotide sequences of the 16 exons including the coding region of CMAH examined in the 34 type B cats and in the family of type AB cats carried the CMAH variants, and revealed multiple novel diplotypes comprising several polymorphisms. Haplotype inference, which was focused on non-synonymous SNPs revealed that eight haplotypes carried one to four mutations in CMAH, and all cats with type B (n = 34) and AB (n = 2) blood carried two alleles derived from the mutated CMAH gene. These results suggested that double haploids selected from multiple recessive alleles in the cat CMAH loci were highly associated with the expression of the Neu5Ac on erythrocyte membrane in types B and AB of the feline AB blood group system.

  14. Molecular Characterization of the Cytidine Monophosphate-N-Acetylneuraminic Acid Hydroxylase (CMAH) Gene Associated with the Feline AB Blood Group System

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Naomi; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Chong, Yong Hwa; Kato, Yuiko; Mitsui, Hiroko; Gin, Azusa; Oda, Hitomi; Azakami, Daigo; Tamura, Kyoichi; Sako, Toshinori; Inagaki, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Tsutsui, Toshihiko; Bonkobara, Makoto; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Ikemoto, Shigenori

    2016-01-01

    Cat’s AB blood group system (blood types A, B, and AB) is of major importance in feline transfusion medicine. Type A and type B antigens are Neu5Gc and Neu5Ac, respectively, and the enzyme CMAH participating in the synthesis of Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac is associated with this cat blood group system. Rare type AB erythrocytes express both Neu5Gc and Neu5Ac. Cat serum contains naturally occurring antibodies against antigens occurring in the other blood types. To understand the molecular genetic basis of this blood group system, we investigated the distribution of AB blood group antigens, CMAH gene structure, mutation, diplotypes, and haplotypes of the cat CMAH genes. Blood-typing revealed that 734 of the cats analyzed type A (95.1%), 38 cats were type B (4.9%), and none were type AB. A family of three Ragdoll cats including two type AB cats and one type A was also used in this study. CMAH sequence analyses showed that the CMAH protein was generated from two mRNA isoforms differing in exon 1. Analyses of the nucleotide sequences of the 16 exons including the coding region of CMAH examined in the 34 type B cats and in the family of type AB cats carried the CMAH variants, and revealed multiple novel diplotypes comprising several polymorphisms. Haplotype inference, which was focused on non-synonymous SNPs revealed that eight haplotypes carried one to four mutations in CMAH, and all cats with type B (n = 34) and AB (n = 2) blood carried two alleles derived from the mutated CMAH gene. These results suggested that double haploids selected from multiple recessive alleles in the cat CMAH loci were highly associated with the expression of the Neu5Ac on erythrocyte membrane in types B and AB of the feline AB blood group system. PMID:27755584

  15. Molecular blood group typing in Banjar, Jawa, Mandailing and Kelantan Malays in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abd Gani, Rahayu; Manaf, Siti Mariam; Zafarina, Zainuddin; Panneerchelvam, Sundararajulu; Chambers, Geoffrey Keith; Norazmi, Mohd Noor; Edinur, Hisham Atan

    2015-08-01

    In this study we genotyped ABO, Rhesus, Kell, Kidd and Duffy blood group loci in DNA samples from 120 unrelated individuals representing four Malay subethnic groups living in Peninsular Malaysia (Banjar: n = 30, Jawa: n = 30, Mandailing: n = 30 and Kelantan: n = 30). Analyses were performed using commercial polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) typing kits (BAG Health Care GmbH, Lich, Germany). Overall, the present study has successfully compiled blood group datasets for the four Malay subethnic groups and used the datasets for studying ancestry and health.

  16. Association of Lewis blood group phenotypes with urinary tract infection in children.

    PubMed

    Jantausch, B A; Criss, V R; O'Donnell, R; Wiedermann, B L; Majd, M; Rushton, H G; Shirey, R S; Luban, N L

    1994-06-01

    Many blood group antigens, genetically controlled carbohydrate molecules, are found on the surface of uroepithelial cells and may affect bacterial adherence and increase the frequency of urinary tract infection (UTI) in adults. Sixty-two children aged 2 weeks to 17 years (mean, 2.3 years) who were hospitalized with fever in association with UTIs caused by Escherichia coli had complete (n = 50) or partial (n = 12) erythrocyte antigen typing to determine the role of erythrocyte antigens and phenotypes in UTI in children; 62 healthy children undergoing nonurologic elective surgery, matched 1 to 1 for age, sex, and race to the patient group, formed the control group. In univariate tests, patients and control subjects did not differ in ABO, Rh, P, Kell, Duffy, MNSs, and Kidd systems by the McNemar test of symmetry (p > 0.05). The frequency of the Lewis (Le) (a-b-) phenotype was higher (16/50 vs 5/50; p = 0.0076) and the frequency of the Le(a + b +) phenotype was lower (8/50 vs 16/50; p = 0.0455) in the patient population than in the control subjects. A stepwise logistic regression model to predict UTI with the explanatory variables A, B, O, M, N, S, s, Pl, Lea, and Leb showed that only the Lea and Leb antigens entered the model with p < 0.1. The Le(a-b-) phenotype was associated with UTI in this pediatric population. The relative risk of UTI in children with the Le(a-b-) phenotype was 3.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 7.9). Specific blood group phenotypes in pediatric populations may provide a means to identify children at risk of having UTI.

  17. Human blood group genes 2004: chromosomal locations and cloning strategies.

    PubMed

    Lögdberg, Lennart; Reid, Marion E; Lamont, Ryan E; Zelinski, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Of the 29 human blood group system genes, 27 have been localized to 14 autosomes and 2 have been assigned to the X chromosome. It is remarkable that 28 of the 29 system genes have now been localized to a single cytogenetic band on a specific chromosome. In this review, we summarize the chromosomal locations and cloning strategies used for those genes encoding blood group systems. We highlight such information about the 3 most recently defined blood group systems (I, GLOB, and GIL). In addition, we provide new information about 2 older blood group systems (SC and RAPH) whose polymorphisms have been defined in cloned genes.

  18. Novel alleles at the JK blood group locus explain the absence of the erythrocyte urea transporter in European families.

    PubMed

    Irshaid, Nidal M; Eicher, Nicole I; Hustinx, Hein; Poole, Joyce; Olsson, Martin L

    2002-02-01

    The Kidd (JK) blood group system is of importance in transfusion medicine. The Jk(null) phenotype is associated with absence of the urea transporter in erythrocytes and moderately reduced ability to concentrate urine. We and others recently reported different molecular alterations in the silenced Jkb-like alleles of Polynesians and Finns, populations with higher Jk(null) frequencies. Here we report novel molecular bases of this phenotype in Caucasians. Blood samples from a Swiss and an English family were investigated by serological methods, urea haemolysis test and JK genotyping. Genomic DNA and JK mRNA were sequenced. Genotyping showed homozygosity for Jka-like alleles. The Swiss Jk(null) alleles deviated from wild-type Jka sequence by a nonsense mutation in exon 7 causing an immediate stop codon (Tyr194stop). The English Jk(null) alleles revealed a genomic 1.6 kilobase pair deletion including exons 4 and 5, the former of which includes the translation start codon. Multiple mRNA splicing variants were detected in reticulocytes but exons 3-5 were absent in all transcripts analysed. Screening for these alleles was negative in random donors. Two novel molecular alterations at the JK locus were defined and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction method for detection of the five known silent Jk alleles was developed to complement JK genotyping in clinical transfusion medicine.

  19. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. PMID:26085552

  20. Blood group change in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Rakul K.; Prakash, N. P.; Vijayalakshmi, K.

    2017-01-01

    Blood group antigens are either sugars or proteins found attached to the red blood cell membrane. ABO blood group antigens are the most clinically important antigens because they are the most immunogenic. As red blood cell antigens are inherited traits, they are usually not altered throughout the life of an individual. There have been occasional case reports of ABO blood group antigen change in malignant conditions. We report two such cases of ABO antigen alteration associated with acute myeloid leukemia. These patients had suppression of their blood group antigens during their leukemic phase, and the antigens were reexpressed when the patients attained remission. PMID:28127141

  1. ABO blood groups and susceptibility to brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Mohsenpour, Behzad; Hajibagheri, Katayon; Afrasiabian, Shahla; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ghasembegloo, Saeideh

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between blood groups and some infections such as norovirus, cholera, and malaria has been reported. Despite the importance of brucellosis, there is a lack of data on the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. Thus, in this study, we examined the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. In this case-control study, the blood groups of 100 patients with brucellosis and 200 healthy individuals were studied. Exclusion criteria for the control group consisted of a positive Coombs Wright test or a history of brucellosis. The chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables between the two groups. The variables that met inclusion criteria for the regression model were entered into the logistic regression model. A total of 43% patients were female and 57% male; 27% were urban and 73% rural. Regression analysis showed that the likelihood of brucellosis infection was 6.26 times more in people with blood group AB than in those with blood group O (P<0.001). However, Rh type was not associated with brucellosis infection. Thus, there is a relationship between blood group and brucellosis. People with blood group AB were susceptible to brucellosis, but no difference was observed for brucellosis infection in terms of blood Rh type.

  2. Extended blood group molecular typing and next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhugong; Liu, Meihong; Mercado, Teresita; Illoh, Orieji; Davey, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Several high-throughput multiplex blood group molecular typing platforms have been developed to predict blood group antigen phenotypes. These molecular systems support extended donor/patient matching by detecting commonly encountered blood group polymorphisms as well as rare alleles that determine the expression of blood group antigens. Extended molecular typing of a large number of blood donors by high-throughput platforms can increase the likelihood of identifying donor red blood cells that match those of recipients. This is especially important in the management of multiply-transfused patients who may have developed several alloantibodies. Nevertheless, current molecular techniques have limitations. For example, they detect only predefined genetic variants. In contrast, target enrichment next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an emerging technology that provides comprehensive sequence information, focusing on specified genomic regions. Target enrichment NGS is able to assess genetic variations that cannot be achieved by traditional Sanger sequencing or other genotyping platforms. Target enrichment NGS has been used to detect both known and de novo genetic polymorphisms, including single-nucleotide polymorphisms, indels (insertions/deletions), and structural variations. This review discusses the methodology, advantages, and limitations of the current blood group genotyping techniques and describes various target enrichment NGS approaches that can be used to develop an extended blood group genotyping assay system.

  3. [Discovery of a novel A2 allel in ABO blood group system and investigation of its distribution in Han population of Chinese Fujian province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai; Chi, Quan; Ren, Ben-Chun

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the distribution of A2 subgroup in Han Population of Chinese Fujian province and its molecular mechanisms. One individual with serologic ABO blood grouping discrepancy was identified with commercially available monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and lectin: anti-A, anti-B, anti-AB, anti-A1, and anti-H reagents according to the routine laboratory methods. DNA sequences of exon 6, 7 and intron 6 of ABO gene were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction using genomic DNA and direct DNA sequencing or sequencing after gene cloning. Red cells of 3 176 A or AB unrelated individuals were tested with anti-A1. The results showed that this individual was identified as A2 subgroup by serological technology, sequencing analysis indicated the A2 subgroup with novel A variant allele, the novel A allele being different from the allele A101 by 467C > T and 607G > A missense mutation in exon 7, no A2 subgroup was identified from the 3 176 individuals by using standard serological technology. It is concluded that a novel A allele responsible for A2 subgroup composing of 467C > T and 607G > A has been firstly confirmed, and the A2 subgroup is very rare in Chinese Fujian Han population.

  4. Blood groups: the past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Geoff; Reid, Marion E

    2010-02-01

    Since the first issue of TRANSFUSION in 1961, there has been a tremendous expansion in not only the number of blood group antigens identified but also in our knowledge of their biochemical basis, function, and more recently, associated DNA changes. As certain techniques became available, our ability to discover and elucidate blood group antigens and appreciate their contribution to biology became possible. In particular, Western blotting, monoclonal antibodies, cloning, and polymerase chain reaction-based assays have led to an explosion of our knowledge base. The study of blood groups has had a significant effect on human genetics where they serve as useful markers in genetic linkage analyses. Indeed blood groups have provided several "firsts" in certain aspects of genetics. Blood group-null phenotypes, as natural human knockouts, have provided valuable insights into the importance of red blood cell membrane components. This review summarizes key aspects of the discovery of blood groups; the inconsistent terminology that has arisen; and the contribution of blood groups to genetics, safe transfusion, transplantation, evolution, and biology.

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies That the ABO Blood Group System Influences Interleukin-10 Levels and the Risk of Clinical Events in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Åsa; Alfredsson, Jenny; Eriksson, Niclas; Wallentin, Lars; Siegbahn, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a major cause of mortality worldwide. We have previously shown that increased interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels are associated with poor outcome in ACS patients. Method We performed a genome-wide association study in 2864 ACS patients and 408 healthy controls, to identify genetic variants associated with IL-10 levels. Then haplotype analyses of the identified loci were done and comparisons to levels of IL-10 and other known ACS related biomarkers. Results Genetic variants at the ABO blood group locus associated with IL-10 levels (top SNP: rs676457, P = 4.4 × 10−10) were identified in the ACS patients. Haplotype analysis, using SNPs tagging the four main ABO antigens (A1, A2, B and O), showed that O and A2 homozygous individuals, or O/A2 heterozygotes have much higher levels of IL-10 compared to individuals with other antigen combinations. In the ACS patients, associations between ABO antigens and von Willebrand factor (VWF, P = 9.2 × 10−13), and soluble tissue factor (sTF, P = 8.6 × 10−4) were also found. In the healthy control cohort, the associations with VWF and sTF were similar to those in ACS patients (P = 1.2 × 10−15 and P = 1.0 × 10−5 respectively), but the healthy cohort showed no association with IL-10 levels (P>0.05). In the ACS patients, the O antigen was also associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death, all causes of death, and recurrent myocardial infarction (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24–1.29, P = 0.029–0.00067). Conclusion Our results suggest that the ABO antigens play important roles, not only for the immunological response in ACS patients, but also for the outcome of the disease. PMID:26600159

  6. Quantitative blood group typing using surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Then, Whui Lyn; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Garnier, Gil

    2015-11-15

    The accurate and reliable typing of blood groups is essential prior to blood transfusion. While current blood typing methods are well established, results are subjective and heavily reliant on analysis by trained personnel. Techniques for quantifying blood group antibody-antigen interactions are also very limited. Many biosensing systems rely on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection to quantify biomolecular interactions. While SPR has been widely used for characterizing antibody-antigen interactions, measuring antibody interactions with whole cells is significantly less common. Previous studies utilized SPR for blood group antigen detection, however, showed poor regeneration causing loss of functionality after a single use. In this study, a fully regenerable, multi-functional platform for quantitative blood group typing via SPR detection is achieved by immobilizing anti-human IgG antibody to the sensor surface, which binds to the Fc region of human IgG antibodies. The surface becomes an interchangeable platform capable of quantifying the blood group interactions between red blood cells (RBCs) and IgG antibodies. As with indirect antiglobulin tests (IAT), which use IgG antibodies for detection, IgG antibodies are initially incubated with RBCs. This facilitates binding to the immobilized monolayer and allows for quantitative blood group detection. Using the D-antigen as an example, a clear distinction between positive (>500 RU) and negative (<100 RU) RBCs is achieved using anti-D IgG. Complete regeneration of the anti-human IgG surface is also successful, showing negligible degradation of the surface after more than 100 regenerations. This novel approach is validated with human-sourced whole blood samples to demonstrate an interesting alternative for quantitative blood grouping using SPR analysis.

  7. Blood group isoantibody stimulation in man by feeding blood group-active bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Georg F.; Horton, Richard E.

    1969-01-01

    It was investigated whether or not the human blood group isoantibodies A and B could be induced by immunogenic stimuli via natural routes with a kind of antigenic substance to which all humans are commonly exposed, or if the appearance of these antibodies is independent of antigenic stimuli as has long been believed. Escherichia coli O86, which possess high human blood group B and faint A activity in vitro, were fed to healthy humans and those with intestinal disorders. 80% of the sick individuals of blood group O and A responded with a significant rise of anti-B antibodies which was frequently de novo in infants; significant increase of anti-A isoantibodies among blood group O individuals was less frequent. Over one-third of the healthy individuals also had a significant isoantibody increase. Intestinal lesions favor isoantibody stimulation by intestinal bacteria; this view was supported by the study of control infants. Persons of blood group A responded more frequently with anti-B and anti-E. coli O86 antibody production than those of blood group O. Isoantibody increase was accompanied with antibody rise against E. coli O86. Inhalation of E. coli O86 or blood group AH(O)-specific hog mucin also evoked isoantibodies. The induced isoantibodies were specifically inhibited by small amounts of human blood group substances. E. coli O86-induced anti-blood group antibodies in germ-free chickens and preexisting blood group antibodies in ordinary chickens were neutralized by intravenous injection of E. coli O86 lipopolysaccharide. This study demonstrates that human isoantibodies A and B are readily elicited via physiological routes, by blood group-active E. coli, provided the genetically determined apparatus of the host is responsive. Antibodies against a person's own blood group were not formed. Interpretation of these results permits some careful generalizations as to the origin of so-called natural antibodies. PMID:4893685

  8. ABO Blood Group Distribution in Serum Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lewkonia, R. M.; Finn, Ronald

    1969-01-01

    A disproportionate excess of blood group O was found in a circumscribed outbreak of serum hepatitis among patients and staff of a haemodialysis unit. The more severe cases were also mostly of group O. This suggests that host factors may be important in the genesis of this disease. PMID:5800364

  9. [Blood group typing in the cat].

    PubMed

    Haarer, M; Grünbaum, E G

    1993-08-01

    Blood group serological diagnosis in cats is clinically relevant for the prophylaxis of blood group incompatibility reactions. In permanent blood donors, cats used for breeding and recipients with a history of prior blood transfusions, testing should consist of blood typing and antibody detection. As test sera and test cells are not commercially available and since parallel tests for various antibody qualities are necessary, they are usually performed in specialized laboratories. Incompatibility testing has a practical clinical relevance in finding a serological diagnosis before each blood transfusion and in cases of kitten mortality. In emergency situations, cross matching can be performed on slides as a screening test. Negative slide test results then should be verified using the more sensitive test tube or microtiter plate tests.

  10. The Immune Response to Blood-Group Substances

    PubMed Central

    Holborow, E. J.; Loewi, G.

    1962-01-01

    Guinea pigs were immunized with purified human A and Lea blood-group substances. Skin testing revealed a delayed hypersensitivity response to A and Lea and other human blood-group substances, showing a very marked degree of cross-reactivity, irrespective of the immunizing antigen. Circulating antibody was tested for by eliciting systemic anaphylaxis, by direct cutaneous anaphylaxis using a dye-spreading method, and by the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test of Ovary. Precipitation and red-cell agglutination tests were also employed. It was found that immunization with A substance consistently produced a major specific anti-A antibody and a minor separate antibody specific for Lea. Immunization with Lea substance did not consistently give rise to detectable circulating antibody. In those animals, however, in which antibody to Lea was found, a reaction with A substance could also be shown. These results could be explained in terms of a small amount of Lea activity in A substance, as revealed by agglutination-inhibition and P.C.A. tests. The results indicate that the polypeptide part of blood-group mucopolysaccharides is the entity chiefly concerned in producing and eliciting delayed hypersensitivity to these substances. The cross-reactivity of the delayed response supports the view that the different human blood-group mucopolysaccharides share a similar polypeptide component. The more precise nature of the circulating antibody is explicable in terms of a response to the specific polysaccharide entity of blood-group substances. These findings are considered in the light of previous work on the relationship of delayed hypersensitivity to the circulating antibody response. The question of a possible delayed response to carbohydrate antigen is left unanswered. PMID:13908295

  11. The Lewis Histo-Blood Group System: Molecular Analysis of the 59T>G, 508G>A, and 1067T>A Polymorphisms in an Amazonian Population

    PubMed Central

    Corvelo, Tereza Cristina de Oliveira; de Loiola, Rosane do Socorro Pompeu; Aguiar, Délia Cristina Figueira; de Matos, Gyselly de Cássia Bastos; de Brito, Danielle Calado

    2013-01-01

    Background The Lewis (FUT3) gene is responsible for the expression of the Lea and Leb blood group antigens. The individuals, who not synthesize these antigens have the phenotype Lewis negative, due to the presence of some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), such as 59T>G, 508G>A and 1067T>A, whose distribution is different in various ethnic groups. Our aim was to verify the frequencies of these SNPs in an admixed population of Belém-Pará-Brazil. Materials and Methods Polymerase chain reaction/restriction enzyme method were used to detect these SNPs in the FUT3 gene, whereas Lewis phenotypes were defined by the direct hemagglutination and in saliva by Dot-Elisa assay in a random sample of 150 individuals from admixed population of Belém in the northeast Brazilian Amazon region. Results The frequency of these SNPs was detected as 47.6% (59T>G), 17.3% (508G>A) and 5.3% (1067T>A).The discrepancies between blood and salivary Lewis phenotypes are related to the relatively high frequencies of 59T>G and the null allele 508G>A. Whereas 38.6% of the individuals were Lewis negative based on blood, only 17.24% also tested negative when their saliva were analyzed. Conclusion We have found a marked consistency between the phenotypes and genotypes of the Lewis blood group system. Furthermore, our obtained FST values reveal distinct frequencies of the FUT3 SNPs between the present sample and its representative ancestral populations. These observations will help to evaluate the Lewis antigens impact as susceptibility markers, in genetic association studies to certain diseases. PMID:23922852

  12. J. R. Kidd: An International Legacy of Learning. Monographs on Comparative and Area Studies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Nancy J.; And Others

    This monograph deals with the many contributions of J. R. Kidd to adult learning on a world scale. In Part 1, a number of scholars, family members, and friends comment upon specific events they witnessed in Kidd's life. This anecdotal, biographical, and historical section begins with an introduction by Nancy J. Cochrane and personal accounts from…

  13. Evolutionary aspects of ABO blood group in humans.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Bonfanti, Carlo

    2015-04-15

    The antigens of the ABO blood group system (A, B and H determinants) are complex carbohydrate molecules expressed on red blood cells and on a variety of other cell lines and tissues. Growing evidence is accumulating that ABO antigens, beyond their key role in transfusion medicine, may interplay with the pathogenesis of many human disorders, including infectious, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases. In this narrative review, after succinct description of the current knowledge on the association between ABO blood groups and the most severe diseases, we aim to elucidate the particularly intriguing issue of the possible role of ABO system in successful aging. In particular, focus will be placed on studies evaluating the ABO phenotype in centenarians, the best human model of longevity.

  14. Relationship between Serum Iron Profile and Blood Groups among the Voluntary Blood Donors of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M M; Adnan, S D; Karim, S; Al-Mamun, M A; Faruki, M A; Islam, K; Nandy, S

    2016-04-01

    ferritin and percentage transferring saturation in different ABO and Rh blood grouping categories. Blood donors with blood group O had lowest haemoglobin, serum iron and transferring saturation levels and donors with blood group A had highest TIBC level. Blood donors with blood group B had lowest serum ferritin level. The understanding of the different blood groups ability to retain iron in their system can give an insight into their ability to handle the disease iron deficiency anaemia.

  15. Blood group antibodies and their significance in transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Poole, Joyce; Daniels, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of almost universally present naturally occurring antibodies in blood plasma led to the discovery of the ABO blood group system which remains, more than 100 years later, the most important and clinically significant of all blood groups. Blood group antibodies play an important role in transfusion medicine, both in relation to the practice of blood transfusion and in pregnancy, but not all are clinically significant. Clinically significant antibodies are capable of causing adverse events following transfusion, ranging from mild to severe, and of causing hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn following placental transfer from mother to fetus. Assessing the clinical significance of antibodies relies heavily on mode of reactivity and historical data relating to specificity; functional assays are sometimes employed. The principals of methodology for blood typing and antibody identification have changed little over the years, relying mainly on serological methods involving red cell agglutination. The recent advent of blood typing using DNA technology, although still in relative infancy, will surely eventually supersede serology. However, deciding on the clinical significance of an antibody when compatible blood is not immediately available is likely to remain as one of the most common dilemmas facing transfusion practitioners.

  16. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  17. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  18. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  19. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  20. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660.20 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Blood...

  1. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  2. Molecular basis of two novel and related high-prevalence antigens in the Kell blood group system, KUCI and KANT, and their serological and spatial association with K11 and KETI

    PubMed Central

    Velliquette, Randall W.; Hue-Roye, Kim; Lomas-Francis, Christine; Gillen, Barbara; Schierts, Jennifer; Gentzkow, Kristie; Peyrard, Thierry; von Zabern, Inge; Flegel, Willy A.; Rodberg, Karen; Debnath, Asim K.; Lee, Soohee; Reid, Marion E.

    2013-01-01

    Background The numerous antigens in the Kell blood group system result from missense nucleotide changes in KEL. Antibodies to antigens in this system can be clinically important. We describe six probands whose plasma contained antibodies to high-prevalence Kell antigens, and discuss their relationship. Study design and methods PCR amplification, direct sequencing, RFLP assays, hemagglutination, flow cytometry, and protein modeling were performed by standard methods. Results Proband 1 (KUCI), and her serologically-compatible sister, were heterozygous for a nucleotide change in exon 11 (KEL*1271C/T; Ala424Val). Proband 2 (KANT) was heterozygous for KEL*1283G/T (Arg428Leu) and KEL*1216C/T (Arg406Stop) in exon 11. RBCs from Proband 1 and her sister were not agglutinated by plasma from Proband 2; however, RBCs from Proband 2 were agglutinated by plasma from Proband 1. Probands 3, 4, 5, and 6 had the KEL*1391C>T change associated with the previously reported KETI− phenotype. Proband 5 was also homozygous for KEL*905T>C encoding the K11−K17+ phenotype. Hemagglutination studies revealed an association between KUCI, KANT, KETI and K11. Protein modeling indicated that whereas Ala424 and Arg428 are clustered, Val302 and Thr464 are not. Conclusion Ala424 in the Kell glycoprotein is associated with the high-prevalence Kell antigen, KUCI (ISBT 006032), which is detected by the antibody of Proband 1. Arg428 is associated with the high-prevalence Kell antigen, KANT (ISBT 006033). The association between KUCI, KANT, KETI, and K11, and the results of protein modeling are discussed. PMID:23560718

  3. Catfish antibodies to blood group substances

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    An antiserum prepared in the freshwater catfish Tandanus tandanus by the injection of O secretor seminal plasma was fractionated into anti-H reagents showing different specificities by absorption with A1B erythrocytes and by absorption and elution from A1B cells. Although purified human and hog H blood group substances inhibited the haemagglutination of O erythrocytes by both the eluate from A1B cells and the serum remaining after absorption with A1B cells, all of the simple sugars tested, except 2′-fucosyl-lactose, failed to inhibit either sample. The H-substances inhibited the A1B-eluate at dilutions which were significantly higher than those required to inhibit the A1B-absorbed serum. Inconsistent with this result was the finding that 2′-fucosyl-lactose, a trisaccharide with a structure similar to the terminal H-active groupings on the type 2 chains of the ABH macromolecules, was a more active inhibitor of the absorbed than of the eluted serum. Seventeen different samples of O secretor saliva either failed to inhibit the A1B-absorbed serum, or produced inhibition at very low dilution. These same saliva samples inhibited the A1B-eluate in high dilution. PMID:5032492

  4. Genetic Kinship Investigation from Blood Groups to DNA Markers

    PubMed Central

    Geserick, Gunther; Wirth, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    The forensic application of hereditary characteristics became possible after the discovery of human blood groups by Karl Landsteiner in 1901. The foundation for their use in kinship investigation was laid by Emil von Dungern and Ludwig Hirschfeld in 1910 by clarification of the inheritance of the ABO groups. Up to the middle of the 20th century further red cell membrane systems were discovered. From the 1920s Fritz Schiff and Georg Strassmann fought for the introduction of blood groups into forensic kinship investigation. A new era of hemogenetics was opened from 1955 as genetic polymorphisms were described in serum proteins. Starting in 1958 there followed the complex HLA system of white blood cells, which from 1963 was joined by polymophisms in erythrocyte enzymes. Therefore, from the 1980s, it was possible to clarify the majority of kinship cases with a combination of conventional markers. From 1990 to 2000 the conventional markers were gradually replaced by the more effective DNA markers. Simultaneously typing shifted from the phenotype level to the genotype level. The genomic structure of conventional genetic markers could also now be explained. As a reflection of scientific progress the legal situation also changed, particularly in the form of the official guidelines for kinship investigation. PMID:22851931

  5. The role of blood groups in the development of diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Karagoz, Hatice; Erden, Abdulsamet; Ozer, Ozerhan; Esmeray, Kubra; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Karahan, Samet; Basak, Mustafa; Bulut, Kadir; Mutlu, Hasan; Simsek, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common condition that is defined as glucose intolerance of varying degree with onset or first recognition during pregnancy and it affects approximately 5% of all pregnancies all over the world. GDM is not only associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as macrosomia, dystocia, birth trauma, and metabolic complications in newborns, but it is also a strong predictor of transitioning to overt DM postpartum. The association of ABO blood groups with DM has been observed before in several epidemiological and genetic studies and resulted with inconsistent findings, but still there are not enough studies in the literature about the association of ABO blood groups with GDM. In this study, we aimed at investigating any possible relationship between the ABO blood group system and GDM and also the transitioning of GDM to overt DM postpartum, in Turkey. Patients and methods A total of 233 patients with GDM from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. The cases that have serologically determined blood groups and Rh factor in the hospital records were included in the study, and the patients with unknown blood groups were excluded. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) and Rh status (+/−). GDM was diagnosed based on the glucose cut-points of the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Society Groups. The distributions of blood groups of the patients with GDM were compared with the distribution of blood groups of 17,314 healthy donors who were admitted to the Turkish Red Crescent Blood Service in our city in 2012. Results There was a significant difference between the patients with GDM and control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups. Blood group AB was found to be higher in the patients with GDM compared to the control group (P=0.029). When the patients were compared according to the development of DM, the ratio

  6. Blood group genotyping: from patient to high-throughput donor screening.

    PubMed

    Veldhuisen, B; van der Schoot, C E; de Haas, M

    2009-10-01

    Blood group antigens, present on the cell membrane of red blood cells and platelets, can be defined either serologically or predicted based on the genotypes of genes encoding for blood group antigens. At present, the molecular basis of many antigens of the 30 blood group systems and 17 human platelet antigens is known. In many laboratories, blood group genotyping assays are routinely used for diagnostics in cases where patient red cells cannot be used for serological typing due to the presence of auto-antibodies or after recent transfusions. In addition, DNA genotyping is used to support (un)-expected serological findings. Fetal genotyping is routinely performed when there is a risk of alloimmune-mediated red cell or platelet destruction. In case of patient blood group antigen typing, it is important that a genotyping result is quickly available to support the selection of donor blood, and high-throughput of the genotyping method is not a prerequisite. In addition, genotyping of blood donors will be extremely useful to obtain donor blood with rare phenotypes, for example lacking a high-frequency antigen, and to obtain a fully typed donor database to be used for a better matching between recipient and donor to prevent adverse transfusion reactions. Serological typing of large cohorts of donors is a labour-intensive and expensive exercise and hampered by the lack of sufficient amounts of approved typing reagents for all blood group systems of interest. Currently, high-throughput genotyping based on DNA micro-arrays is a very feasible method to obtain a large pool of well-typed blood donors. Several systems for high-throughput blood group genotyping are developed and will be discussed in this review.

  7. A questionnaire on survival of kittens depending on the blood groups of the parents.

    PubMed

    Axnér, Eva

    2014-10-01

    Cats more than 2 months of age have alloantibodies against the blood type antigen that they do not possess. Maternal antibodies, including alloantibodies against blood groups, are transferred to the kittens' systemic circulation when they suckle colostrum during the first 12-16 h after birth. If kittens with blood group A or AB nurse from a mother with blood group B they may develop neonatal isoerythrolysis (NI). Breeders can prevent kittens at risk of NI from nursing during the first 16-24 h; after this period it is safe to let them nurse. Kittens depend, however, on the passive transfer of antibodies from the colostrum for early protection against infections. Although it is known that kittens deprived of colostrum will also be deprived of passive systemic immunity, it is not known if this will affect their health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate kitten mortality in litters with B-mothers and A-fathers compared to litters with A-mothers. In addition, the aim was to evaluate the effects of colostrum deprivation on the health of the mothers, and the breeders' opinions and experiences of these combinations of breedings. A web-based questionnaire was constructed and distributed to breeders. The results indicate that there is no difference in mortality between planned litters that have mothers with blood group A and litters with mothers that have blood group B and fathers that have blood group A. When managing blood group incompatibility in cat all factors affecting the health of the cats, including genetic variation, should be considered.

  8. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Reagent and it shall consist of an antibody-containing fluid containing one or more of the blood grouping antibodies listed in § 660.28(d). (b) Source. The source of this product shall be blood, plasma, serum,...

  9. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Reagent and it shall consist of an antibody-containing fluid containing one or more of the blood grouping antibodies listed in § 660.28(d). (b) Source. The source of this product shall be blood, plasma, serum,...

  10. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Reagent and it shall consist of an antibody-containing fluid containing one or more of the blood grouping antibodies listed in § 660.28(d). (b) Source. The source of this product shall be blood, plasma, serum,...

  11. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Reagent and it shall consist of an antibody-containing fluid containing one or more of the blood grouping antibodies listed in § 660.28(d). (b) Source. The source of this product shall be blood, plasma, serum,...

  12. Blood group comparisons between European mouflon sheep and north American desert bighorn sheep.

    PubMed

    Bunch, T D; Nguyen, T C

    1982-01-01

    Blood group systems in true sheep (Ovis) provide an additional method by which phylogenetic relationships can be measured. Of the eight genetic systems of blood groups identified in domestic sheep, all appeared to have their homologue in European mouflons and at least six might have their equivalent in North American desert bighorns. The red cells of the European mouflon, which is believed to be ancestral to domestic sheep, cross-reacted with domestic sheep blood-group typing reagents much more strongly and extensively than did the red cells of desert bighorn sheep. It also was noted that all the Mexican desert bighorns tested were Da positive, but their blood factor was not observed in the Nelson desert bighorns sampled. This observation indicated that the two subspecies might differ from each other with respect to the D blood group system. Transferrin type D was observed in the mouflons, while Tfs D and E were in the desert bighorns. Hemoglobins B and AB were observed in the mouflons but only Hb B occurred in the desert bighorns. The systematic implications of blood group polymorphisms are discussed.

  13. Determination of ABO blood grouping and Rhesus factor from tooth material

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pooja Vijay; Vanishree, M; Anila, K; Hunasgi, Santosh; Suryadevra, Sri Sujan; Kardalkar, Swetha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to determine blood groups and Rhesus factor from dentin and pulp using absorption-elution (AE) technique in different time periods at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 cases, 30 patients each at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months were included in the study. The samples consisted of males and females with age ranging 13–60 years. Patient's blood group was checked and was considered as “control.” The dentin and pulp of extracted teeth were tested for the presence of ABO/Rh antigen, at respective time periods by AE technique. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed in proportion. For comparison, Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used for the small sample. Results: Blood group antigens of ABO and Rh factor were detected in dentin and pulp up to 12 months. For both ABO and Rh factor, dentin and pulp showed 100% sensitivity for the samples tested at 0 month and showed a gradual decrease in the sensitivity as time period increased. The sensitivity of pulp was better than dentin for both the blood grouping systems and ABO blood group antigens were better detected than Rh antigens. Conclusion: In dentin and pulp, the antigens of ABO and Rh factor were detected up to 12 months but showed a progressive decrease in the antigenicity as the time period increased. When compared the results obtained of dentin and pulp in ABO and Rh factor grouping showed similar results with no statistical significance. The sensitivity of ABO blood grouping was better than Rh factor blood grouping and showed a statistically significant result. PMID:27721625

  14. Evaluation of the Secretor Status of ABO Blood Group Antigens in Saliva among Southern Rajasthan Population Using Absorption Inhibition Method

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Nidhi; Mamta; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The ABO blood group system was the significant element for forensic serological examination of blood and body fluids in the past before the wide adaptation of DNA typing. A significant proportion of individuals (80%) are secretors, meaning that antigens present in the blood are also found in other body fluids such as saliva. Absorption inhibition is one such method that works by reducing strength of an antiserum based on type and amount of antigen present in the stains. Aim To check the efficacy of identifying the blood group antigens in saliva and to know the secretor status using absorption inhibition method among southern Rajasthan population. Materials and Methods Blood and saliva samples were collected from 80 individuals comprising 20 individuals in each blood group. The absorption inhibition method was used to determine the blood group antigens in the saliva and then the results were correlated with the blood group of the collected blood sample. The compiled data was statistically analysed using chi-square test. Results Blood groups A & O revealed 100% secretor status for both males and females. While blood groups B and AB revealed 95% secretor status. Conclusion Secretor status evaluation of the ABO blood group antigen in saliva using absorption inhibition method can be a useful tool in forensic examination. PMID:27042574

  15. Paleomagnetism of the Miocene intrusive suite of Kidd Creek: Timing of deformation in the Cascade arc, southern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Swanson, D.A.; Snee, L.W.

    1998-01-01

    Paleomagnetic study of the intrusive suite of Kidd Creek in the southern Washington Cascades (23 sites in dikes and sills) was undertaken to help determine if these rocks are comagmatic and whether they postdate regional folding of the volcanic arc. Fission track and 40Ar-39Ar age determinations indicate an age of ???12.7 Ma (middle Miocene) for these rocks. The similarity of normal-polarity characteristic directions for most samples corroborate the available geochemical data indicating that these rocks are most likely comagmatic. Reversed-polarity directions for samples from four sites, however, show that emplacement of Kidd Creek intrusions spanned at least one reversal of the geomagnetic field. The paleomagnetic directions for the dikes and sills fail a fold test at the 99% confidence level indicating that the Kidd Creek rocks postdate regional folding. The mean in situ direction also indicates that the Kidd Creek and older rocks have been rotated 22?? ?? 6?? clockwise about a vertical or near-vertical axis from the expected Miocene direction. Compression and regional folding of the Cascade arc in southern Washington therefore had ended by ???12 Ma prior to the onset of deformation resulting in rotation of these rocks.

  16. Roby Kidd and the Canadian Association for Adult Education 1951-1961. Occasional Papers in Continuing Education, Number 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Gordon R.

    As director of the Canadian Association for Adult Education (CAAE) from 1951-1961, Roby Kidd led the movement for increased recognition of adult education in Canada. During his tenure, the association continued its major citizenship education projects (Farm and Citizens' Forum and the Joint Planning Commission), carried out many other programs in…

  17. Lifelong Learning and Adult Education. Special Issue in Memory of CIHED Advisory Board Member J. Roby Kidd.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CIHED Newsletter, 1982

    1982-01-01

    This newsletter deals with lifelong learning and adult and continuing education. Included in the issue are the following articles: "The Learning Society," by Solveig M. Turner; "Adult Education at the Beginning of the 1980s," by J. Roby Kidd; "Lifelong Learning in an International Perspective: Selected Case Studies,"…

  18. ABO blood group antigens on human plasma von Willebrand factor after ABO-mismatched bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Shimoyama, T; Matsumoto, M; Fujimura, Y; Takemoto, Y; Sako, M; Hamako, J; Titani, K

    1999-10-15

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) is synthesized exclusively by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, and stored in the intracellular granules or constitutively secreted into plasma. ABO blood group antigens are covalently associated with asparagine-linked sugar chains of plasma vWF. The effect of ABO-mismatched bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or blood stem cell transplantation (BSCT) on the expression of ABO blood group antigens on the vWF was examined to obtain information on the origin of these antigens. In ABO-mismatched (HLA-matched) groups, 8 cases of BMT and 4 cases of BSCT were examined. In all cases, the ABO blood groups on red blood cells were gradually converted to the donor's type within 80 to 90 days after the transplantation. The blood group antigens on the vWF were consistent with the recipient's blood group for the period monitored by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). When vWF was isolated from normal platelets and examined for the blood group antigens using ELISA or immunoblotting, it showed few antigens. However, vWF extracted from veins expressed blood group antigens. These findings indicate that platelet (megakaryocyte)-derived vWF does not contain blood group antigens and that these antigens may be specifically associated with vWF synthesized in endothelial cells and secreted into plasma. Furthermore, it is possible that the persistence of the recipient's blood group antigens on plasma glycoproteins such as vWF, independent of the donor-derived erythrocytes, after ABO-mismatched stem cell transplantation, may influence the immunological system in the production of anti-blood group antibodies resulting in the establishment of immunological tolerance in the recipient plasma.

  19. Hydrothermal and metamorphic berthierine from the Kidd Creek volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, Timmins, Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Wei-Teh, Jiang; Peacor, D.R.; Okita, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    Berthierine, a 7 A?? Fe-Al member of the serpentine group, occurs in the footwall stringer zone of the Archean Kidd Creek massive sulfide deposit, associated with quartz, muscovite, chlorite, pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and local tourmaline, cassiterite, and halloysite. Petrographic and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies reveal different types of berthierine occurrences, including interlayers within the rims on deformed chlorite, intergrowths with muscovite and halloysite, and discrete coarse grains. This is the first reported occurrence of berthierine from volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits. Textural relations suggest that most of the berthierine formed as a primary hydrothermal mineral at relatively high temperatures (~350??C) in the footwall stringer zone, probably by the replacement of a pre-existing aluminous phase such as muscovite or chlorite. However, the intergrowth textures observed by SEM and TEM suggest that some of the berthierine originated by syn- or post-metamorphic replacement of chlorite. -from Authors

  20. SOME CLINICALLY IMPORTANT ERYTHROCYTE BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS IN DONORS.

    PubMed

    Tsintsadze, I; Gorgoshadze, T; Donskov, S; Akhvlediani, L; Nagervadze, M

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of erythrocyte blood group antigens was evaluated among 656 donors; samples were provided by the diagnostic laboratory "Medina" Ltd Health Centre of Batumi. Lab analysis of the sample was conducted by the immunogenetics laboratory at Batumi Shota Rustaveli State University. The frequency of the ABO allele system in donors was as follows: r (0.70), q (0.23), p (0.07). The distribution of Rhesus (Rh) factor in the donor population was as follows: Rh(-) was found among 16.3±1.43% of investigated donors; the Rh(+) phenotype was found in 83.7±1.43% of donors. Additionally, the CcDee phenotype frequency was 29.9±1.78%; CCD-ee was 17.2±1.47%; ccddee was 14.9±1.38%; and CcD-Ee was 13.9±1.34%; ccD-Ee phenotype was 11.1±1.22%; ccD-ee was 5.5±0.88%; same phenotype indicators -2.1±0.55 were observed for CcD-EE and ccD-EE; CCD-Ee was 1.4±0.45%, CCD-EE was 0.4±0.26%; and finally, the frequency of Ccddee phenotype amounts was 1.1±0.40%, ccddEe and CCddee phenotypes were both 0.2±0.17%. The analysis of the Kell system allele revealed a low frequency for the p allele at 0.05, whereas the frequency of the q allele was 0.95. This large epidemiologic analysis of donor blood provides valuable information for hematological and transfusion centers to inform the preparation of blood components for transfusion.

  1. [Blood groups as a risk factor in venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Hernández Cañete, C M; Alvarez Dieguez, R; González Sánchez M de la, C; Díaz Hernández, C; Sánchez Montiel, M E

    1993-01-01

    We report 173 patients with venous thrombosis (or post-thrombotic syndrome) demonstrated by phlebography. We show up the importance of blood groups as risk factor, being very significant the A group. Female sex is associated with a high incidence of this pathology. A frequent location is the left lower limb.

  2. Genetic characterization of the ABO blood group in Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The high polymorphism rate in the human ABO blood group gene seems to be related to susceptibility to different pathogens. It has been estimated that all genetic variation underlying the human ABO alleles appeared along the human lineage, after the divergence from the chimpanzee lineage. A paleogenetic analysis of the ABO blood group gene in Neandertals allows us to directly test for the presence of the ABO alleles in these extinct humans. Results We have analysed two male Neandertals that were retrieved under controlled conditions at the El Sidron site in Asturias (Spain) and that appeared to be almost free of modern human DNA contamination. We find a human specific diagnostic deletion for blood group O (O01 haplotype) in both Neandertal individuals. Conclusion These results suggest that the genetic change responsible for the O blood group in humans predates the human and Neandertal divergence. A potential selective event associated with the emergence of the O allele may have therefore occurred after humans separated from their common ancestor with chimpanzees and before the human-Neandertal population divergence. PMID:19108732

  3. No support for the claim that literary fiction uniquely and immediately improves theory of mind: A reply to Kidd and Castano's commentary on Panero et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    Panero, Maria Eugenia; Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Black, Jessica; Goldstein, Thalia R; Barnes, Jennifer L; Brownell, Hiram; Winner, Ellen

    2017-03-01

    Kidd and Castano (in press) critique our failure to replicate Kidd and Castano (2013) on 3 grounds: failure to exclude people who did not read the texts, failure of random assignment, and failure to exclude people who did not take the Author Recognition Test (ART). This response addresses each of these critiques. Most importantly, we note that even when Kidd and Castano reanalyzed our data in the way that they argue is most appropriate, they still failed to replicate the pattern of results reported in their original study. We thus reaffirm that our replication of Kidd and Castano (2013) found no evidence that literary fiction uniquely and immediately improves theory of mind. Our objective remains not to prove that reading literary fiction does not benefit social cognition, but to call for in-depth research addressing the difficulties in measuring any potential effect and to note the need to temper claims accordingly. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Are the blood groups of women with preeclampsia a risk factor for the development of hypertension postpartum?

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Deniz; Karagoz, Hatice; Ozer, Ozerhan; Esmeray, Kubra; Bulut, Kadir; Aykas, Fatma; Cetinkaya, Ali; Uslu, Emine; Karahan, Samet; Basak, Mustafa; Erden, Abdulsamet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by hypertension (HT) and proteinuria noticeable after 20 weeks of gestation. PE is now considered as a cardiovascular disease risk factor and a number of studies have shown that experiencing PE increases the prevalence of various cardiovascular risk factors, such as metabolic syndrome and HT. In this study, we aimed to investigate any possible relationship between the ABO/Rh blood group system and PE in Turkey. In the second part of the study, we examined the relationship between the ABO blood group system and development of HT after PE. Patients and methods A total of 250 patients with PE from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) and Rh status (+/−). Results There was a significant difference between the patients with PE and the control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups and the percentage of group AB was found to be higher in patients with PE compared to the control group (P=0.029). The risk of developing PE was significantly higher in group AB than other blood groups (P=0.006). The risk of developing HT after PE was significantly higher in group O than other blood groups (P=0.004). Discussion In this study, we found that the patients with blood group AB have a higher risk for PE. The patients with PE of blood group O are at high risk of developing HT, and Rh factor was identified as another risk at this point and these patients should be closely followed postpartum. PMID:27143904

  5. Genotyping of 28 blood group alleles in blood donors from Mali: Prediction of rare phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Ba, Alhassane; Bagayoko, Seydou; Chiaroni, Jacques; Baiily, Pascal; Silvy, Monique

    2016-04-01

    We determined the frequencies of clinically relevant blood group alleles in 300 blood donors from Mali. Multiplex test based on xMAP technology was used to investigate six blood group systems (RH, KEL, MNS, FY, JK, DO, HPA) and complementary analysis were conducted for MNS and RH systems. Polymorphisms that affect the specificity of molecular tests leading to discrepant genotype results are discussed. Antigen expressions were predicted showing that 50% of donors expressed at least one traditional low prevalence antigen, and 11.6% lacked the ability to express at least one high prevalence antigen compatible with Dob-, HPA1a-, S-s-U-, Jsb-, RH:-31 and/or RH:-34 phenotypes.

  6. [ABO blood grouping of fingerprint by means of immunohistochemical procedure].

    PubMed

    Lin, Z; Ohshima, T; Takayasu, T; Nagano, T; Jia, J

    1993-04-01

    For the purpose of ABO-blood typing on fingerprints, the detection of blood group substances in fingerprints attached on nitrocellulose filter or paper was performed immunohistochemically using avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) method. At first, it was fundamentally tested whether ABO-blood typing could be specifically performed for the fingerprints of known ABO blood group, being made experimentally on nitrocellulose filter or paper, and the effect of fixation and paper quality for the detection was also examined. And, ABO-typing was carried out using transferred fingerprints from a slide glass to a nitrocellulose filter. Moreover, using a fingerprint of unknown ABO-type, serially repetitive blood typing (three times) was compared to individually performed grouping (three tests) after dividing a single fingerprint into three parts. In addition, the method of serial ABO-blood typing after the morphological detection of fingerprints by ninhydrine was also considered. As results, according to primary antibodies applied, ABH activities were specifically detected in the fingerprints on nitrocellulose filter and paper. For the fixation procedure of very minute blood group substances to paper, heat fixation was the most effective and methanol fixation was also available. The intensity of immunostaining of fingerprints decreased according to the deterioration of paper quality used. And, the transferred fingerprints on nitrocellulose filter were also specifically typed. Serially repetitive blood typing (anti-B-->anti-A-->anti-H) was possible to fingerprints on nitrocellulose filter, but it gave poor results to those on paper. To overcome this difficulty, after being detected morphologically by ninhydrine, iodine or aluminium powder and decolored thereafter, a fingerprint on paper was divided into three parts and specific blood typing was possible. As for the double blind test to fingerprints on paper, 22 out of 35 fingerprints were specifically typed and the rate of

  7. ABO blood group mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tekgündüz, Sibel Akpınar; Özbek, Namık

    2016-02-01

    Apart from solid organ transplantations, use of ABO-blood group mismatched (ABO-mismatched) donors is acceptable in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. About 20-40% of allogeneic HSCT recipients will receive grafts from ABO-mismatched donors. ABO incompatible HSCT procedures are associated with immediate and late consequences, including but not restricted to acute or delayed hemolytic reactions, delayed red blood cell recovery, pure red cell aplasia and graft-versus-host disease. This review summarizes the current knowledge about consequences of ABO-mismatched HSCT in terms of associated complications and will evaluate its impact on important outcome parameters of HSCT.

  8. The Duffy blood group system in Israeli Jews and Arabs.

    PubMed

    Sandler, S G; Kravitz, C; Sharon, R; Hermoni, D; Ezekiel, E; Cohen, T

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of the Fy gene was studied in 1,207 Israeli Jews and 509 Arabs. The Fy(a--b--) phenotype (FyFy) was observed in Moslem, Christian and Druze Arabs, and in Jewish immigrants from Yemen and Iraq, but not in Sephardi or Ashkenazi Jews. The Fy gene frequencies in Arabs and Jews were compatible with historical evidence of interactions with native African and admixed regional populations. Compared with Rho (cDe) and Jsa, Fy(a--b--) is a more useful genetic marker for recognizing African admixture in Middle Eastern populations.

  9. The histo-blood group ABO system and tissue transplantation.

    PubMed

    Eastlund, T

    1998-10-01

    In general, one might expect that ABO incompatibility of donor and recipient would be important to some degree if viability of the transplanted allograft is important for graft incorporation and function. This is true for some recipients of organs. However, ABO incompatibility appears to play a minor role, if any, in the clinical success of viable cornea and viable skin allografts. Even though A and B antigens may be present on the transplanted tissue, other factors that can contribute include the strength of the immune response, the avidity of the antibody, and the dose of the antigen presented, which may vary from donor to donor. Although A and B antigens are present on endothelium, the use of ABO-incompatible heart valves is successful, as they carry out their mechanical function by using the strength of the connective tissue rather than the viability of the donor endothelium. The presence, immunogenicity, and significance of A and B antigens in human vessel transplants have not been well studied. With the more commonly transplanted tissue, such as bone and tendon, posttransplant success does not depend on cellular viability or ABO compatibility.

  10. The sorting of blood group active proteins during enucleation.

    PubMed

    Satchwell, Timothy J; Bell, Amanda J; Toye, Ashley M

    2015-04-01

    Enucleation represents the critical stage during red blood cell development when the nucleus is extruded from an orthochromatic erythroblast in order to generate a nascent immature reticulocyte. Extrusion of the nucleus results in loss of a proportion of the erythroblast plasma membrane, which surrounds the nucleus, the bulk of the endoplasmic reticulum and a small region of cytoplasm. For this reason enucleation provides an important point in erythroblast differentiation at which proteins not required for the function of the erythrocyte can be lost, whilst those that are important for the structure-function properties of the mature erythrocyte must be efficiently retained in the reticulocyte plasma membrane. Disturbances in protein distribution during enucleation are envisaged to occur during human diseases such as Hereditary Spherocytosis. This article will discuss the current knowledge of erythroblast enucleation in the context of retention and loss of proteins that display antigenic blood group sites and that exist within multiprotein complexes within the erythrocyte membrane.

  11. Evasion of Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum: Rosettes of Blood Group A Impair Recognition of PfEMP1

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Kirsten; Palmkvist, Mia; Ch'ng, Junhong; Kiwuwa, Mpungu Steven; Wahlgren, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The ABO blood group antigens are expressed on erythrocytes but also on endothelial cells, platelets and serum proteins. Notably, the ABO blood group of a malaria patient determines the development of the disease given that blood group O reduces the probability to succumb in severe malaria, compared to individuals of groups A, B or AB. P. falciparum rosetting and sequestration are mediated by PfEMP1, RIFIN and STEVOR, expressed at the surface of the parasitized red blood cell (pRBC). Antibodies to these antigens consequently modify the course of a malaria infection by preventing sequestration and promoting phagocytosis of pRBC. Here we have studied rosetting P. falciparum and present evidence of an immune evasion mechanism not previously recognized. We find the accessibility of antibodies to PfEMP1 at the surface of the pRBC to be reduced when P. falciparum forms rosettes in blood group A RBC, as compared to group O RBC. The pRBC surrounds itself with tightly bound normal RBC that makes PfEMP1 inaccessible to antibodies and clearance by the immune system. Accordingly, pRBC of in vitro cloned P. falciparum devoid of ABO blood group dependent rosetting were equally well detected by anti-PfEMP1 antibodies, independent of the blood group utilized for their propagation. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying the severe forms of malaria may in patients of blood group A depend on the ability of the parasite to mask PfEMP1 from antibody recognition, in so doing evading immune clearance. PMID:26714011

  12. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... various human blood group antigens. This generic type of device does not include materials that are... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances...

  13. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... various human blood group antigens. This generic type of device does not include materials that are... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... various human blood group antigens. This generic type of device does not include materials that are... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances...

  15. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman...

  16. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman...

  17. Induction of Human Blood Group A Antigen Expression on Mouse Cells, Using Lentiviral Gene Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaohu; Lang, Haili; Zhou, Xianpei; Zhang, Li; Yin, Rong; Maciejko, Jessica; Giannitsos, Vasiliki; Motyka, Bruce; Medin, Jeffrey A.; Platt, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The ABO histo-blood group system is the most important antigen system in transplantation medicine, yet no small animal model of the ABO system exists. To determine the feasibility of developing a murine model, we previously subcloned the human α-1,2-fucosyltransferase (H-transferase, EC 2.4.1.69) cDNA and the human α-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (A-transferase, EC 2.4.1.40) cDNA into lentiviral vectors to study their ability to induce human histo-blood group A antigen expression on mouse cells. Herein we investigated the optimal conditions for human A and H antigen expression in murine cells. We determined that transduction of a bicistronic lentiviral vector (LvEF1-AH-trs) resulted in the expression of A antigen in a mouse endothelial cell line. We also studied the in vivo utility of this vector to induce human A antigen expression in mouse liver. After intrahepatic injection of LvEF1-AH-trs, A antigen expression was observed on hepatocytes as detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. In human group A erythrocyte-sensitized mice, A antigen expression in the liver was associated with tissue damage, and deposition of antibody and complement. These results suggest that this gene transfer strategy can be used to simulate the human ABO blood group system in a murine model. This model will facilitate progress in the development of interventions for ABO-incompatible transplantation and transfusion scenarios, which are difficult to develop in clinical or large animal settings. PMID:20163247

  18. Expression of blood group antigens on red cell microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Oreskovic, R T; Dumaswala, U J; Greenwalt, T J

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether epitopes of the A, B, D, Fya, M, N, S, s, and K blood group antigens are present on microvesicle membranes shed by red cells during storage. Vesicles were isolated from outdated units of blood having and lacking the specified antigens. Diluted antisera were absorbed with fixed quantities of vesicles from red cells with the test antigen and red cells lacking that antigen (controls). The adsorbed and unadsorbed antisera were titrated and scored by using panel cells from persons known to be heterozygous for all the non-AB antigens. The mean titration scores following adsorption with the vesicles from A, B, D, M+N-, M-N+, S+s-, S-s+, and Fy(a+b-) units were appreciably lower than the control scores (0, 0, 3, 2, 2, 0, 4, and 4 vs. 19, 23, 34, 13, 12, 16, 18, and 29, respectively), which indicated the presence of these epitopes on the membrane of shed vesicles. The results following adsorption with K:1,2 vesicles were equivocal.

  19. Comparative study of blood group-recognizing lectins toward ABO blood group antigens on neoglycoproteins, glycoproteins and complex-type oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Hamako, J; Ozeki, Y; Titani, K

    2001-02-16

    Binding specificities of ABO blood group-recognizing lectins toward blood group antigens on neoglycoproteins, glycoproteins and complex-type oligosaccharides were studied by lectin-blotting analysis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and lectin-conjugated agarose column chromatography. Human serum albumin conjugated with A- and B-trisaccharides was clearly recognized by Helix pomatia (HPA), Phaseolus lunatus, Dolichos biflorus agglutinins, and Griffonia simplicifolia I agglutinin B(4), respectively. Almost the same results were obtained for human group A and B ovarian cyst and A-active hog gastric mucins, but Glycine max agglutinin only reacted to the group A hog mucin. When human plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF), having Asn-linked blood group antigens, was tested, HPA was highly sensitive to blood group A antigen on the vWF. Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) preferentially bound to the vWF from blood group O plasma. Within the GalNAc-recognizing lectins examined, a biantennary complex-type oligosaccharide having the blood group A structure retarded on an HPA-agarose column, and the affinity was diminished after digestion with alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. This product bound to UEA-I agarose column. These results indicate that HPA and UEA-I are most sensitive for detection of glycoproteins possessing small amounts of blood group A and H antigens and also useful for fractionation of complex-type oligosaccharides with blood group A and H antigens, respectively.

  20. Association of duffy blood group gene polymorphisms with IL8 gene in chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Sippert, Emília Ângela; de Oliveira e Silva, Cléverson; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Sell, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    The antigens of the Duffy blood group system (DARC) act as a receptor for the interleukin IL-8. IL-8 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis due to its chemotactic properties on neutrophils. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association of Duffy blood group gene polymorphisms with the -353T>A, -845T>C and -738T>A SNPs of the IL8 gene in chronic periodontitis. One hundred and twenty-four individuals with chronic periodontitis and 187 controls were enrolled. DNA was extracted using the salting-out method. The Duffy genotypes and IL8 gene promoter polymorphisms were investigated by PCR-RFLP. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Chi square test with Yates correction or Fisher's Exact Test, and the possibility of associations were evaluated by odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. When analyzed separately, for the Duffy blood group system, differences in the genotype and allele frequencies were not observed between all the groups analyzed; and, in nonsmokers, the -845C allele (3.6% vs. 0.4%), -845TC genotype (7.3% vs. 0.7%) and the CTA haplotype (3.6% vs. 0.4%) were positively associated with chronic periodontitis. For the first time to our knowledge, the polymorphisms of erythroid DARC plus IL8 -353T>A SNPs were associated with chronic periodontitis in Brazilian individuals. In Afro-Brazilians patients, the FY*02N.01 with IL8 -353A SNP was associated with protection to chronic periodontitis.

  1. Interaction between haptoglobin subtypes and AB0 blood groups in a Bengalee population.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Arup Ratan; Roy, Jayita Ghoshal

    2005-09-01

    Blood samples from 621 individuals of a Caste Hindu Population from West Bengal (India) were investigated in an attempt to find out an association between the AB0 blood groups and Haptoglobin (HP) subtypes. AB0 blood grouping was done on the basis of the agglutination test with standard anti-sera. Haptoglobin subtyping only for the HP*1 allele was done by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE). A significant association was found with a significantly lower HP*1S allele frequency in blood group 0 versus other AB0 blood groups. A comparatively higher allele frequency of HP*1S was found in this population sample. An inverse relationship between HP*1S and HP*2 has been revealed in each blood group. It appears that the major portion of HP*1 alleles in the A, B, and AB blood groups belongs to the HP*1S allele compared to that of the 0 blood group.

  2. High-Resolution Crystal Structures Elucidate the Molecular Basis of Cholera Blood Group Dependence.

    PubMed

    Heggelund, Julie Elisabeth; Burschowsky, Daniel; Bjørnestad, Victoria Ariel; Hodnik, Vesna; Anderluh, Gregor; Krengel, Ute

    2016-04-01

    Cholera is the prime example of blood-group-dependent diseases, with individuals of blood group O experiencing the most severe symptoms. The cholera toxin is the main suspect to cause this relationship. We report the high-resolution crystal structures (1.1-1.6 Å) of the native cholera toxin B-pentamer for both classical and El Tor biotypes, in complexes with relevant blood group determinants and a fragment of its primary receptor, the GM1 ganglioside. The blood group A determinant binds in the opposite orientation compared to previously published structures of the cholera toxin, whereas the blood group H determinant, characteristic of blood group O, binds in both orientations. H-determinants bind with higher affinity than A-determinants, as shown by surface plasmon resonance. Together, these findings suggest why blood group O is a risk factor for severe cholera.

  3. Paper-based device for rapid typing of secondary human blood groups.

    PubMed

    Li, Miaosi; Then, Whui Lyn; Li, Lizi; Shen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We report the use of bioactive paper for typing of secondary human blood groups. Our recent work on using bioactive paper for human blood typing has led to the discovery of a new method for identifying haemagglutination of red blood cells. The primary human blood groups, i.e., ABO and RhD groups, have been successfully typed with this method. Clinically, however, many secondary blood groups can also cause fatal blood transfusion accidents, despite the fact that the haemagglutination reactions of secondary blood groups are generally weaker than those of the primary blood groups. We describe the design of a user-friendly sensor for rapid typing of secondary blood groups using bioactive paper. We also present mechanistic insights into interactions between secondary blood group antibodies and red blood cells obtained using confocal microscopy. Haemagglutination patterns under different conditions are revealed for optimization of the assay conditions.

  4. High-Resolution Crystal Structures Elucidate the Molecular Basis of Cholera Blood Group Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Heggelund, Julie Elisabeth; Burschowsky, Daniel; Bjørnestad, Victoria Ariel; Hodnik, Vesna; Anderluh, Gregor; Krengel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Cholera is the prime example of blood-group-dependent diseases, with individuals of blood group O experiencing the most severe symptoms. The cholera toxin is the main suspect to cause this relationship. We report the high-resolution crystal structures (1.1–1.6 Å) of the native cholera toxin B-pentamer for both classical and El Tor biotypes, in complexes with relevant blood group determinants and a fragment of its primary receptor, the GM1 ganglioside. The blood group A determinant binds in the opposite orientation compared to previously published structures of the cholera toxin, whereas the blood group H determinant, characteristic of blood group O, binds in both orientations. H-determinants bind with higher affinity than A-determinants, as shown by surface plasmon resonance. Together, these findings suggest why blood group O is a risk factor for severe cholera. PMID:27082955

  5. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of a Type 2 Blood Group A Tetrasaccharide and Development of High-throughput Assays Enables a Platform for Screening Blood Group Antigen-cleaving Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kwan, David H; Ernst, Sabrina; Kötzler, Miriam P; Withers, Stephen G

    2015-08-01

    A facile enzymatic synthesis of the methylumbelliferyl β-glycoside of the type 2 A blood group tetrasaccharide in good yields is reported. Using this compound, we developed highly sensitive fluorescence-based high-throughput assays for both endo-β-galactosidase and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity specific for the oligosaccharide structure of the blood group A antigen. We further demonstrate the potential to use this assay to screen the expressed gene products of metagenomic libraries in the search for efficient blood group antigen-cleaving enzymes.

  6. Constitutive heterochromatin of chromosome 1 and Duffy blood group alleles in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Kosower, N.S.; Gerad, L.; Goldstein, M.; Parasol, N.

    1995-04-24

    Cytogenetic analysis was carried out in unrelated schizophrenic patients, unrelated controls and patients and family members in multiplex families. The size-distribution of chromosome 1 heterochromatic region (1qH, C-band variants) among 21 unrelated schizophrenic patients was different from that found in a group of 46 controls. The patient group had 1qH variants of smaller size than the control group (P < 0.01). Incubation of phytohemagglutinin-treated blood lymphocytes with 5-azacytidine (which causes decondensation and extension of the heterochromatin) led to a lesser degree of heterochromatin decondensation in a group of patients than in the controls (7 schizophrenic, 9 controls, P < 0.01). The distribution of phenotypes of Duffy blood group system (whose locus is linked to the 1qH region) among 28 schizophrenic patients was also different from that in the general population. Cosegregation of schizophrenia with a 1qH (C-band) variant and Duffy blood group allele was observed in one of six multiplex families. The overall results suggest that alterations within the Duffy/1qH region are involved in schizophrenia in some cases. This region contains the locus of D5 dopamine receptor pseudogene 2 (1q21.1), which is transcribed in normal lymphocytes. 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. The association between blood group and the risk of vascular disease in Quebec blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Blais, Claudia; Germain, Marc; Delage, Gilles; Grégoire, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between antigens A and B and arterial thrombosis, such as coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease or peripheral vascular disease, is still unclear. We evaluated the association between blood groups and thrombotic events in a cohort of blood donors from the province of Quebec, Canada. Material and methods Among all whole blood donors aged ≥18 years in Quebec between June 1990 and March 2009, a study sample with known blood groups was linked with the provincial hospitalisation and death records to count vascular events. All hospital admissions and deaths with codes for primary and relevant secondary diagnoses of coronary, cerebrovascular or peripheral diseases, including coronary heart disease interventions, were included. Cox regression was used to evaluate the hazard ratio associated between blood groups and these events adjusted for other baseline characteristics. Results Among the blood donors, 64,686 had a known blood group and were linked with the provincial health databases. The mean age of these donors was 38 years. The Cox multivariate adjusted hazard ratio for coronary, cerebrovascular or peripheral diseases was 1.19 (95% confidence interval: 1.01–1.40) for subjects with blood group AB compared to those with blood group O. There were no statistically significant associations with other blood groups. Only among women aged ≥40 years did those with blood group A have a higher hazard ratio for coronary heart disease (1.40 [1.01–1.92]) than those with blood group O, after adjusting for other characteristics. Discussion When compared to blood group O, only blood group AB was associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation or death because of thrombotic events such as coronary, cerebrovascular or peripheral diseases. However, the associations differed according to age and sex because only females aged ≥40 years with blood group A had a higher risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:27177404

  8. Specificity and kinetics of norovirus binding to magnetic bead- conjugated histo-blood group antigens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) have been identified as candidate receptors for human norovirus (NOR). Type A, type H1, and Lewis histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in humans have been identified as major targets for NOR binding. Pig HBGA-conjugated magnetic beads have been utilized as a means ...

  9. Genetic polymorphism of blood groups and erythrocytes enzymes in population groups of the Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Efremovska, Lj; Schmidt, H D; Scheil, H G; Gjorgjevic, D; Nikoloska Dadic, E

    2007-12-01

    This study presents the results of an examination of 3 blood-group systems (ABO, Rhesus, and P1) and erythrocyte enzymes (ADA, AK, ALADH, PGD, SAHH, PGM1, PGM3, GPT, GOT, ACP, UMPK, ESD and GLO) in populations that reside in R. Macedonia. Four population samples from the Republic of Macedonia (129 Macedonians from Skopje, 98 Albanians from Skopje, 95 Aromanians from Krusevo, 102 Aromanians from Stip) were included in the study. A comparison of the obtained results with data from literature on other Balkan populations has been made. The results of the comparison of the studied alleles indicate relatively small genetic distances among the studied populations. The obtained dendrograms indicate a larger homogeneity in the large Balkan populations, and a manifest trend of separating the Aromanian population of the Stip region. A larger separation is characteristic in the Greek population of Thrace.

  10. Involvement of Rh blood group polypeptides in the maintenance of aminophospholipid asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schroit, A.J.; Connor, J. ); Bloy, C.; Carton, J-P. )

    1990-11-01

    The human erythrocyte (RBC) Rh blood group system consists of a complex of distinct integral membrane polypeptides with physical properties common to the aminophospholipid transporter responsible for the transbilayer movement of phosphatidylserine (PS) in RBC. To assess the involvement of Rh polypeptides in PS translocation, the aminophospholipid translocase was labeled with a photoactivatable PS analogue, {sup 125}I-azido-PS, and with an inhibitor of PS transport, {sup 125}I-labeled 2-(2-pyridyldithio)ethylamine. The ability of monoclonal Rh antibodies to immunoprecipitate the labeled transporter was determined. Immunoprecipitated Rh polypeptides were found to be labeled with the aminophospholipid translocase markers, suggesting that Rh proteins are involved in the transbilayer movement of PS.

  11. Blood group antigen expression is involved in C. albicans interaction with buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Everest-Dass, Arun V; Kolarich, Daniel; Pascovici, Dana; Packer, Nicolle H

    2017-02-01

    Human blood group polymorphisms are known to be determined by the expression of A, B or H antigens and the Lewis antigens. Protection against microbial infections has been associated with inheritance of polymorphisms in genes encoding and regulating the expression of ABH and Lewis antigens in bodily secretions and epithelial tissue surfaces, subsequently resulting in the presentation of different glycosylated terminal antigens on the cell surface. We investigated the role of blood group antigens in diversifying the glycosylation of buccal epithelial cells (BEC) that line the oral cavity. Specifically, we characterized and statistically evaluated the expression of histo-blood group (A, B, O) antigens on N-and O-linked glycans from BEC membrane proteins of various individuals that represented different blood group type and secretor status using a porous graphitic carbon liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PGC-LC-ESI-MS) based glycomics approach. From these BEC membrane proteins a total of 77 N-glycan and 96 O-glycan structures were structurally characterized from 19 individuals and relatively quantitated. The N-glycans from the secretor individuals did not express any A/B blood group determinants, but contained several terminal H-antigens. Apart from the non-secretors, the N-glycan profiles of BEC from all blood groups displayed similar glycan types, while varying in their relative intensities between individuals. However, multivariate analysis of the O-glycans from individuals displayed segregation patterns clearly associated with their blood group type and secretor status. In adhesion assays the oral pathogen Candida albicans showed a significantly higher interaction to blood group O type BECs relative to other blood groups.

  12. Frequency of ABO blood group in peptic ulcer disease in Iranian subjects.

    PubMed

    Rasmi, Y; Sadreddini, M; Peirovi, T; Jamali, M; Khosravifar, F; Dadkhah, A; Fatemi, F; Rahmati, M; Zargari, M; Sharifi, R

    2009-07-01

    The relationship between ABO blood group distribution and Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) has been widely evaluated in the past. But data concerning the same evaluation are very limited in Iran. This study sought to determine the distribution of ABO blood group in patients with PUD in Iranian subjects. Eighty-one patients with PUD (51 male and 30 female; mean age: 49 +/- 18 years) who attended our endoscopy section were enrolled. Blood samples were used for ABO/Rhesus (Rh) blood group antigen typing. The ABO blood group phenotype distribution in subjects was as follows: 37.1% (30/81) for group A, 23.4% (19/81) for group B, 35.6% (28/81) for group O and 4.9% (4/81) for group AB. Rh positivity was found in 63% (51/81) of patients. In local healthy population, ABO/Rh blood group distribution was 33.8, 20.7, 34.7, 8.4 and 89.6% for A, B, O, AB and Rh, respectively. AB blood group distribution in healthy population was higher than PUD (8.4 vs 4.9%). In contrast, Rh positivity of PUD in Iran is lower than healthy subjects (63 vs 89.6%). Variation in the results of studies is related to different study communities. According to these results, probably ABO/Rh blood group has an important role in patients with peptic ulceration. The functional significance of ABO blood group distribution might be associated with biological behavior of PUD. The impact of blood group on PUD may be a focus for further studies.

  13. The Blood Group A Genotype Determines the Level of Expression of the Blood Group A on Platelets But Not the Anti-B Isotiter

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, Barbara; Eichelberger, Beate; Jungbauer, Christof; Panzer, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The extent of expression of the blood group A on platelets is controversial. Further, the relation between platelets' blood group A expression and the titers of isoagglutinins has not been thoroughly investigated, so far. Methods We evaluated the relation between the genotype with platelets' blood group A and H expression estimated by flow cytometry and the titers of isoagglutinins. Results The A expression varied between genotypes and within genotypes. However, the expression in A1 was stronger than in all other genotypes (p < 0.0001). An overlap of expression levels was apparent between homozygous A1A1 and heterozygous A1 individuals. Still, The A1A1 genotype is associated with a particularly high antigen expression (p = 0.009). Platelets' A expression in A2 versus blood group O donors was also significant (p = 0.007), but there was again an overlap of expression. The secretor status had only little influence on the expression (p = 0.18). Also, isoagglutinin titers were not associated with genotypes. Conclusion: To distinguish between A1 and A2 donors may reduce incompatible platelet transfusions and therefore be favorable on platelet transfusion increment. Clinical data are needed to support this notion. PMID:26733767

  14. The Purification of a Blood Group A Glycoprotein: An Affinity Chromatography Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estelrich, J.; Pouplana, R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a purification process through affinity chromatography necessary to obtain specific blood group glycoproteins from erythrocytic membranes. Discusses the preparation of erythrocytic membranes, extraction of glycoprotein from membranes, affinity chromatography purification, determination of glycoproteins, and results. (CW)

  15. Patterns of human genetic variation inferred from comparative analysis of allelic mutations in blood group antigen genes.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Santosh Kumar; Blumenfeld, Olga O

    2011-03-01

    Comparative analysis of allelic variation of a gene sheds light on the pattern and process of its diversification at the population level. Gene families for which a large number of allelic forms have been verified by sequencing provide a useful resource for such studies. In this regard, human blood group-encoding genes are unique in that differences of cell surface traits among individuals and populations can be readily detected by serological screening, and correlation between the variant cell surface phenotype and the genotype is, in most cases, unequivocal. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of allelic forms, compiled in the Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation database, of ABO, RHD/CE, GYPA/B/E and FUT1/2 gene families that encode the ABO, RH, MNS, and H/h blood group system antigens, respectively. These genes are excellent illustrative examples showing distinct mutational patterns among the alleles, and leading to speculation on how their origin may have been driven by recurrent but different molecular mechanisms. We illustrate how alignment of alleles of a gene may provide an additional insight into the DNA variation process and its pathways, and how this approach may serve to catalog alleles of a gene, simplifying the task and content of mutation databases.

  16. Association between ABO blood group and osteoporosis among postmenopausal women of North India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder

    2014-12-01

    The present study is an attempt to examine possible associations between ABO blood groups and the risk of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women of North India. This cross-sectional study involved 250 postmenopausal women from North India, ranging in age from 45 to 80 years. Four anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference), blood sample (ABO status and haemoglobin concentration) and grip strength (dominant as well as non-dominant hand) of all the participants were taken. Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated by using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at lumbar spine (L1-L4) and proximal femur. Analysis of data revealed that at lumbar spine (L1-L4) osteoporosis was more prevalent among individuals with blood group A (31.58%), followed by those with blood group B (29.67%), AB (28.57%) and then blood group O (15%), whereas for proximal femur individuals with blood group AB (21.43%) showed the highest prevalence of osteoporosis followed by a decreasing trend from blood group A (17.54%) to B (12.08%) and then O (5%). Total prevalence of osteoporosis was 26.4% in lumbar spine and 13.2% in proximal femur, indicating that lumbar spine had an elevated risk for osteoporosis among postmenopausal women. All the anthropometric variables, haemoglobin concentration as well as grip strength of individuals with blood group O demonstrated non-significant differences with non-O blood group except for weight and body mass index, where differences were statistically significant. Women with blood group O exhibited significantly higher bone mineral density for lumbar spine (0.90 g/cm(2) vs. 0.85 g/cm(2), p<0.05) and proximal femur (0.87 g/cm(2) vs. 0.79 g/cm(2), p<0.05) as compared to those with non-O blood group, thereby suggesting an increasing risk of osteoporosis among individuals with non-O blood group.

  17. Effect of tissue fixatives on the immunohistochemical expression of ABH blood group isoantigens.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Sumita; Ololade, Omiyosoye; Adegboyega, Patrick A

    2002-09-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis of ABH blood group isoantigens has been shown to be a useful ancillary technique for resolving problems associated with specimen mix-ups in the daily practice of surgical pathology. However, the effects of different fixatives on the expression of these antigens in paraffin-embedded tissues are not known. Therefore, the effects of seven different fixatives on the immunohistochemical expression of ABH blood group isoantigens were studied in tissues from several organs. The following fixatives were used: acetone, 70% ethanol, B5, Bouin, Carnoy, methanol, and 10% formalin. After fixation for 6, 12, and 72 hours, the tissue blocks were embedded in paraffin, and immunohistochemistry was performed on 4 microm-thick tissue sections using monoclonal antibodies to blood group isoantigens (A, B, and H) and the avidin-biotin detection method. Also, immunostaining was performed on step tissue sections with and without antigen retrieval using citrate buffer at pH 6.0. The expression of the blood group isoantigens was concordant with the blood group of the patient in all the cases studied, irrespective of the fixative and time of fixation. However, in the absence of antigen retrieval, the intensity of the staining reaction was diminished. These results showed that irrespective of the fixative used, immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded tissue sections with ABH blood group antibodies is a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective method for sorting out interpretative problems of tissue contaminants (floaters) and specimen mix-ups in surgical pathology.

  18. Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia associated with maternal-fetal incompatibility for blood group B

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Brian R.; Fick, Andrea; Lochowicz, Andrew J.; McFarland, Janice G.; Ball, Robert H.; Peterson, Julie; Aster, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blood group A and B antigens are expressed only weakly on platelets (PLTs) of most individuals but are very strongly expressed on PLTs from approximately 1 percent of normal subjects (Type II high expressers). The implications of this trait for transfusion medicine are undefined. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A family was studied in which two Group B infants were born with neonatal thrombocytopenia, whereas a third infant whose blood group was A2 had a normal PLT count at birth. RESULTS Serologic studies demonstrated a maternal antibody that reacted strongly with PLTs from the father and the two group B children in flow cytometry and with GPIIb/IIIa from their PLTs in solid-phase assays. No PLT-specific antibodies were detected in maternal serum sample, but it contained a high-titer immunoglobulin G antibody specific for blood group B. All PLT-reactive antibody in the mother’s serum was removed by absorption with pooled, washed group A and B red cells (RBCs). Studies with monoclonal anti-B and measurement of serum B-glycosyltransferase activity showed that the father and both group B children were Type II high expressers of blood group B. CONCLUSIONS The findings indicate that high-titer blood group antibodies acquired from the mother can cause thrombocytopenia in infants possessing the Type II high-expresser phenotype despite competition for antibody binding by blood group antigens expressed on RBCs and other tissues. PMID:18028270

  19. Delta check for blood groups: A step ahead in blood safety

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Bhatia, Aakanksha

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood grouping is the single most important test performed by each and every transfusion service. A blood group error has a potential for causing severe life-threatening complications. A number of process strategies have been adopted at various institutions to prevent the occurrence of errors at the time of phlebotomy, pretransfusion testing, and blood administration. A delta check is one such quality control tool that involves the comparison of laboratory test results with results obtained on previous samples from the same patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrieved the records of all transfusion-related incidents reported in our institute, between January 2008 and December 2014. Errors identified as “Failed Delta checks” and their root cause analyses (RCA) were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 17,034 errors related to blood transfusion were reported. Of these, 38 were blood grouping errors. Seventeen blood group errors were identified due to failed delta checks, where the results of two individually drawn grouping samples yielded different blood group results. The RCA revealed that all of these errors occurred in the preanalytical phase of testing. Mislabeling resulting in wrong blood in tube was the most commonly identified cause, accounting for 11 of these errors, while problems with correct patient identification accounted for 5 failed delta checks. CONCLUSION: Delta checks proved to be an effective tool for detecting blood group errors and prevention of accidental mismatched blood transfusions. Preanalytical errors in patient identification or sample labeling were the most frequent. PMID:28316435

  20. Relationship between ABO blood group and pregnancy complications: a systematic literature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Given the expression of ABO blood group antigens on the surface of a wide range of human cells and tissues, the putative interplay of the ABO system in human biology outside the area of transfusion and transplantation medicine constitutes an intriguing byway of research. Thanks to evidence accumulated over more than 50 years, the involvement of the ABO system in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cardiovascular, infectious and neoplastic disorders, is now acknowledged. However, there is controversial information on the potential association between ABO blood type and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and related disorders (eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and intrauterine growth restriction), venous thromboembolism, post-partum haemorrhage and gestational diabetes. To elucidate the role of ABO antigens in pregnancy-related complications, we performed a systematic review of the literature published in the past 50 years. A meta-analytical approach was also applied to the existing literature on the association between ABO status and pre-eclampsia. The results of this systematic review are presented and critically discussed, along with the possible pathogenic implications. PMID:27177402

  1. An integrative evolution theory of histo-blood group ABO and related genes

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Fumiichiro; Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Miyako; Saitou, Naruya; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Blancher, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    The ABO system is one of the most important blood group systems in transfusion/transplantation medicine. However, the evolutionary significance of the ABO gene and its polymorphism remained unknown. We took an integrative approach to gain insights into the significance of the evolutionary process of ABO genes, including those related not only phylogenetically but also functionally. We experimentally created a code table correlating amino acid sequence motifs of the ABO gene-encoded glycosyltransferases with GalNAc (A)/galactose (B) specificity, and assigned A/B specificity to individual ABO genes from various species thus going beyond the simple sequence comparison. Together with genome information and phylogenetic analyses, this assignment revealed early appearance of A and B gene sequences in evolution and potentially non-allelic presence of both gene sequences in some animal species. We argue: Evolution may have suppressed the establishment of two independent, functional A and B genes in most vertebrates and promoted A/B conversion through amino acid substitutions and/or recombination; A/B allelism should have existed in common ancestors of primates; and bacterial ABO genes evolved through horizontal and vertical gene transmission into 2 separate groups encoding glycosyltransferases with distinct sugar specificities. PMID:25307962

  2. Relationship between ABO blood group and pregnancy complications: a systematic literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Given the expression of ABO blood group antigens on the surface of a wide range of human cells and tissues, the putative interplay of the ABO system in human biology outside the area of transfusion and transplantation medicine constitutes an intriguing byway of research. Thanks to evidence accumulated over more than 50 years, the involvement of the ABO system in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cardiovascular, infectious and neoplastic disorders, is now acknowledged. However, there is controversial information on the potential association between ABO blood type and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and related disorders (eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and intrauterine growth restriction), venous thromboembolism, post-partum haemorrhage and gestational diabetes. To elucidate the role of ABO antigens in pregnancy-related complications, we performed a systematic review of the literature published in the past 50 years. A meta-analytical approach was also applied to the existing literature on the association between ABO status and pre-eclampsia. The results of this systematic review are presented and critically discussed, along with the possible pathogenic implications.

  3. An integrative evolution theory of histo-blood group ABO and related genes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Fumiichiro; Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Miyako; Saitou, Naruya; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Blancher, Antoine

    2014-10-13

    The ABO system is one of the most important blood group systems in transfusion/transplantation medicine. However, the evolutionary significance of the ABO gene and its polymorphism remained unknown. We took an integrative approach to gain insights into the significance of the evolutionary process of ABO genes, including those related not only phylogenetically but also functionally. We experimentally created a code table correlating amino acid sequence motifs of the ABO gene-encoded glycosyltransferases with GalNAc (A)/galactose (B) specificity, and assigned A/B specificity to individual ABO genes from various species thus going beyond the simple sequence comparison. Together with genome information and phylogenetic analyses, this assignment revealed early appearance of A and B gene sequences in evolution and potentially non-allelic presence of both gene sequences in some animal species. We argue: Evolution may have suppressed the establishment of two independent, functional A and B genes in most vertebrates and promoted A/B conversion through amino acid substitutions and/or recombination; A/B allelism should have existed in common ancestors of primates; and bacterial ABO genes evolved through horizontal and vertical gene transmission into 2 separate groups encoding glycosyltransferases with distinct sugar specificities.

  4. Homozygosity for a null allele of SMIM1 defines the Vel-negative blood group phenotype.

    PubMed

    Storry, Jill R; Jöud, Magnus; Christophersen, Mikael Kronborg; Thuresson, Britt; Åkerström, Bo; Sojka, Birgitta Nilsson; Nilsson, Björn; Olsson, Martin L

    2013-05-01

    The Vel antigen is present on red blood cells (RBCs) from all humans except rare Vel-negative individuals who can form antibodies to Vel in response to transfusion or pregnancy. These antibodies may cause severe hemolytic reactions in blood recipients. We combined SNP profiling and transcriptional network modeling to link the Vel-negative phenotype to SMIM1, located in a 97-kb haplotype block on chromosome 1p36. This gene encodes a previously undiscovered, evolutionarily conserved transmembrane protein expressed on RBCs. Notably, 35 of 35 Vel-negative individuals were homozygous for a frameshift deletion of 17 bp in exon 3. Functional studies using antibodies raised against SMIM1 peptides confirmed a null phenotype in RBC membranes, and SMIM1 overexpression induced Vel expression. Genotype screening estimated that ~1 of 17 Swedish blood donors is a heterozygous deletion carrier and ~1 of 1,200 is a homozygous deletion knockout and enabled identification of Vel-negative donors. Our results establish SMIM1 as a new erythroid gene and Vel as a new blood group system.

  5. Isolation and purification of blood group antigens using immuno-affinity chromatography on short monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Mönster, Andrea; Hiller, Oliver; Grüger, Daniela; Blasczyk, Rainer; Kasper, Cornelia

    2011-02-04

    Monolithic columns have gained increasing attention as stationary phases for the separation of biomolecules and biopharmaceuticals. In the present work the performance of monolithic convective interaction media (CIM(®)) chromatography for the purification of blood group antigens was established. The proteins employed in this study are derived from blood group antigens Knops, JMH and Scianna, equipped both with a His-tag and with a V5-tag by which they can be purified. In a first step a monoclonal antibody directed against the V5-tag was immobilized on a CIM(®) Disk with epoxy chemistry. After this, the immobilized CIM(®) Disk was used in immuno-affinity chromatography to purify the three blood group antigens from cell culture supernatant. Up-scaling of the applied technology was carried out using CIM(®) Tubes. In comparison to conventional affinity chromatography, blood group antigens were also purified via His-tag using a HiTrap(®) metal-affinity column. The two purifications have been compared regarding purity, yield and purification speed. Using the monolithic support, it was possible to isolate the blood group antigens with a higher flow rate than using the conventional bed-packed column.

  6. [Ecoepidemiology of Ascaris lumbricoides in an endemic area and its relation with blood groups].

    PubMed

    Morales, G A; Pino, L A; Chourio-Lozano, G

    1994-01-01

    185 children 1 to 14 years old living in the suburb of San Rafael (Zulia State, Venezuela) were selected for this study with the following results: Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides in the stool samples before administration of a drug to the children and the worms recovered after drug, induced expulsion, showed a high aggregation (K = 0.115 and K = 0.122, respectively); the aggregation of the recovered worms was more intense in girls (K = 0.083), than in boys (K = 0.220); among the blood groups, A. lumbricoides resulted highly prevalent (100%) and less overdispersed in group "AB" (K = 1.26; n = 5), while in the other blood groups the spatial aggregation pattern was strongly overdispersed (A = 0.159; B = 0.133 and O = 0.210); individuals of the blood group "B", make the greatest contribution to environmental contamination, because they presented the greatest values for the abundance and a more intense overdispersion.

  7. High molecular weight blood group A trisaccharide-polyacrylamide glycoconjugates as synthetic blood group A antigens for anti-A antibody removal devices.

    PubMed

    Alikhani, Azadeh; Korchagina, Elena Y; Chinarev, Alexander A; Bovin, Nicolai V; Federspiel, William J

    2009-11-01

    Specific immunoadsorption of blood group antibodies by synthetic antigens immobilized on support matrices in the peri-transplantation period provides a promising solution to hyperacute rejection risk following ABO-incompatible transplantation. In this study, we investigated binding interactions between anti-A antibodies and synthetic blood group A trisaccharide conjugated with polyacrylamide of different molecular weights (30 and 1000 kDa). The glycopolymers were equipped with biotin tags and deposited on streptavidin-coated sensor chips. The affinity and kinetics of anti-A antibodies binding to glycoconjugates were studied using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The high molecular weight conjugate (Atri-PAA(1000)-biotin) enhanced antibody binding capacity by two to three fold compared with the low molecular weight conjugate (Atri-PAA(30)-biotin), whereas varying the carbohydrate content in Atri-PAA(1000)-biotin (20 mol % or 50 mol %) did not affect antibody binding capacity of the glycoconjugate. The obtained results suggest that immunoadsorption devices, especially hollow fiber-based antibody filters which are limited in available surface area for antigen immobilization, may greatly benefit from the new synthetic high molecular weight polyacrylamide glycoconjugates.

  8. Blood Group Antigen Recognition via the Group A Streptococcal M Protein Mediates Host Colonization

    PubMed Central

    De Oliveira, David M. P.; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren; Everest-Dass, Arun; Day, Christopher J.; Dabbs, Rebecca A.; Ve, Thomas; Kobe, Bostjan; Nizet, Victor; Packer, Nicolle H.; Walker, Mark J.; Jennings, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) is responsible for over 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. The highly virulent M1T1 GAS clone is one of the most frequently isolated serotypes from streptococcal pharyngitis and invasive disease. The oral epithelial tract is a niche highly abundant in glycosylated structures, particularly those of the ABO(H) blood group antigen family. Using a high-throughput approach, we determined that a strain representative of the globally disseminated M1T1 GAS clone 5448 interacts with numerous, structurally diverse glycans. Preeminent among GAS virulence factors is the surface-expressed M protein. M1 protein showed high affinity for several terminal galactose blood group antigen structures. Deletion mutagenesis shows that M1 protein mediates glycan binding via its B repeat domains. Association of M1T1 GAS with oral epithelial cells varied significantly as a result of phenotypic differences in blood group antigen expression, with significantly higher adherence to those cells expressing H antigen structures compared to cells expressing A, B, or AB antigen structures. These data suggest a novel mechanism for GAS attachment to host cells and propose a link between host blood group antigen expression and M1T1 GAS colonization. PMID:28119471

  9. O Blood Group as Risk Factor for Preeclampsia among Sudanese Women

    PubMed Central

    Elmugabil, Abdelmageed; Rayis, Duria A.; Ahmed, Mohamed A.; Adam, Ishag; Gasim, Gasim I.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate blood groups and the other possible risk factors for preeclampsia among Sudanese women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case – control study was conducted at Saad Abualila Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan during the period of July 2013 through December 2014. The cases were women with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women were the controls. RESULTS: Two hundred eighty pregnant women were enrolled (140 in each arm of the study). Around one-quarter of all women (280) were primiparae (74.0, 26.4%), the majority were housewives (201, 71.7%). Seventy-nine (28.2%) were illiterate or had no informal education. Around half of the women (130, 46.4%) had O blood group. Binary logistic regression showed association between preeclampsia and lack of antenatal care (OR = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.172–6.494, P = 0.020) as well as O blood group (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.088–2.934, P=0.022). CONCLUSION: The current study showed that women with blood group O were at higher risk of preeclampsia. PMID:28028398

  10. Blood groups and human groups: Collecting and calibrating genetic data after World War Two

    PubMed Central

    Bangham, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Arthur Mourant's The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups (1954) was an “indispensable” reference book on the “anthropology of blood groups” containing a vast collection of human genetic data. It was based on the results of blood-grouping tests carried out on half-a-million people and drew together studies on diverse populations around the world: from rural communities, to religious exiles, to volunteer transfusion donors. This paper pieces together sequential stages in the production of a small fraction of the blood-group data in Mourant's book, to examine how he and his colleagues made genetic data from people. Using sources from several collecting projects, I follow how blood was encountered, how it was inscribed, and how it was turned into a laboratory resource. I trace Mourant's analytical and representational strategies to make blood groups both credibly ‘genetic’ and understood as relevant to human ancestry, race and history. In this story, ‘populations’ were not simply given, but were produced through public health, colonial and post-colonial institutions, and by the labour and expertise of subjects, assistants and mediators. Genetic data were not self-evidently ‘biological’, but were shaped by existing historical and geographical identities, by political relationships, and by notions of kinship and belonging. PMID:25066898

  11. Evolutionary history of the Rh blood group-related genes in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kitano, T; Saitou, N

    2000-08-01

    Rh and its homologous Rh50 gene products are considered to form heterotetramers on erythrocyte membranes. Rh protein has Rh blood group antigen sites, while Rh50 protein does not, and is more conserved than Rh protein. We previously determined both Rh and Rh50 gene cDNA coding regions from mouse and rat, and carried out phylogenetic analyses. In this study, we determined Rh50 gene cDNA coding regions from African clawed frog and Japanese medaka fish, and examined the long-term evolution of the Rh blood group and related genes. We constructed the phylogenetic tree from amino acid sequences. Rh50 genes of African clawed frog and Japanese medaka fish formed a cluster with mammalian Rh50 genes. The gene duplication time between Rh and Rh50 genes was estimated to be about 510 million years ago based on this tree. This period roughly corresponds to the Cambrian, before the divergence between jawless fish and jawed vertebrates. We also BLAST-searched an amino acid sequence database, and the Rh blood group and related genes were found to have homology with ammonium transporter genes of many organisms. Ammonium transporter genes can be classified into two major groups (amt alpha and amt beta). Both groups contain genes from three domains (bacteria, archaea, and eukaryota). The Rh blood group and related genes are separated from both amt alpha and beta groups.

  12. Phenotypic and allelic distribution of the ABO and Rhesus (D) blood groups in the Cameroonian population.

    PubMed

    Ndoula, S T; Noubiap, J J N; Nansseu, J R N; Wonkam, A

    2014-06-01

    Data on blood group phenotypes are important for blood transfusion programs, for disease association and population genetics studies. This study aimed at reporting the phenotypic and allelic distribution of ABO and Rhesus (Rh) groups in various ethnolinguistic groups in the Cameroonians. We obtained ABO and Rhesus blood groups and self-identified ethnicity from 14,546 Cameroonian students. Ethnicity was classified in seven major ethnolinguistic groups: Afro-Asiatic, Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Kordofanian/West Atlantic, Niger-Kordofanian/Adamawa-Ubangui, Niger-Kordofanian/Benue-Congo/Bantu/Grassfield, Niger-Kordofanian/Benue-Congo/Bantu/Mbam and Niger-Kordofanian/Benue-Congo/Bantu/Equatorial. ABO allelic frequencies were determined using the Bernstein method. Differences in phenotypic distribution of blood groups were assessed using the chi-square test; a P value <0.05 being considered as statistically significant. The frequencies of the antigens of blood groups O, A, B and AB were 48.62%, 25.07%, 21.86% and 4.45%, respectively. Rhesus-positive was 96.32%. The allelic frequencies of O, A and B genes were 0.6978, 0.1605 and 0.1416, respectively. Phenotypic frequencies of the blood groups in the general study population and in the different ethnolinguistic groups were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations (P > 0.05). The frequencies of O, A, and B blood phenotypes were significantly lower, respectively, in the Nilo-Saharan group (P = 0.009), the Niger-Kordofanian/Benue-Congo/Bantu groups (P = 0.021) and the Niger-Kordofanian/West-Atlantic group. AB blood group was most frequent in the Niger-Kordofanian/Adamawa-Ubangui group (P = 0.024). Our study provides the first data on ethnic distribution of ABO and Rhesus blood groups in the Cameroonian population and suggests that its general profile is similar to those of several sub-Saharan African populations. We found some significant differences in phenotypic distribution amongst major ethnolinguistic groups

  13. Relation of factor VIII and IX inhibitors with ABO blood groups in 150 patients with haemophilia A and B.

    PubMed

    Torghabeh, Hassan Mansouri; Pourfathollah, Aliakbar; Shooshtari, Mahmood Mahmoodian; Yazdi, Zahra Rezaie

    2006-03-01

    Many investigations have proved relations between ABO blood groups with some diseases and factor VIII and von willebrand level in plasma. In this study we investigated a relation between ABO blood groups and factor VIII and IX inhibitors in 102 patients with haemophilia A and 48 patients with haemophilia B. The assay of inhibitor was done by Bethesda method. There were no relation between ABO blood groups and factor VIII and IX inhibitors.

  14. Comprehensive analysis of blood group antigen binding to classical and El Tor cholera toxin B-pentamers by NMR.

    PubMed

    Vasile, Francesca; Reina, José J; Potenza, Donatella; Heggelund, Julie E; Mackenzie, Alasdair; Krengel, Ute; Bernardi, Anna

    2014-08-01

    Cholera is a diarrheal disease responsible for the deaths of thousands, possibly even hundreds of thousands of people every year, and its impact is predicted to further increase with climate change. It has been known for decades that blood group O individuals suffer more severe symptoms of cholera compared with individuals with other blood groups (A, B and AB). The observed blood group dependence is likely to be caused by the major virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae, the cholera toxin (CT). Here, we investigate the binding of ABH blood group determinants to both classical and El Tor CTB-pentamers using saturation transfer difference NMR and show that all three blood group determinants bind to both toxin variants. Although the details of the interactions differ, we see no large differences between the two toxin genotypes and observe very similar binding constants. We also show that the blood group determinants bind to a site distinct from that of the primary receptor, GM1. Transferred NOESY data confirm that the conformations of the blood group determinants in complex with both toxin variants are similar to those of reported X-ray and solution structures. Taken together, this detailed analysis provides a framework for the interpretation of the epidemiological data linking the severity of cholera infection and an individual's blood group, and brings us one step closer to understanding the molecular basis of cholera blood group dependence.

  15. Association between ABO Blood Group and Risk of Congenital Heart Disease: A 6-year large cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Bailing; You, Guoling; Fu, Qihua; Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    ABO blood group, except its direct clinical implications for transfusion and organ transplantation, is generally accepted as an effect factor for coronary heart disease, but the associations between ABO blood group and congenital heart disease (CHD) are not coherent by previous reports. In this study, we evaluated the the potential relationship between ABO blood group and CHD risk. In 39,042 consecutive inpatients (19,795 CHD VS 19,247 controls), we used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the roles of ABO blood group, gender, and RH for CHD. The associations between ABO blood group and CHD subgroups, were further evaluated using stratification analysis, adjusted by gender. A blood group demonstrated decreased risk for isolated CHD (OR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.78–0.87) in individuals with A blood group in the overall cohort analysis, and the finding was consistently replicated in independent subgroup analysis. ABO blood group may have a role for CHD, and this novel finding provides ABO blood group as a possible marker for CHD, but more studies need to be done. PMID:28211529

  16. Association between ABO Blood Group and Risk of Congenital Heart Disease: A 6-year large cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zu, Bailing; You, Guoling; Fu, Qihua; Wang, Jing

    2017-02-17

    ABO blood group, except its direct clinical implications for transfusion and organ transplantation, is generally accepted as an effect factor for coronary heart disease, but the associations between ABO blood group and congenital heart disease (CHD) are not coherent by previous reports. In this study, we evaluated the the potential relationship between ABO blood group and CHD risk. In 39,042 consecutive inpatients (19,795 CHD VS 19,247 controls), we used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the roles of ABO blood group, gender, and RH for CHD. The associations between ABO blood group and CHD subgroups, were further evaluated using stratification analysis, adjusted by gender. A blood group demonstrated decreased risk for isolated CHD (OR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.78-0.87) in individuals with A blood group in the overall cohort analysis, and the finding was consistently replicated in independent subgroup analysis. ABO blood group may have a role for CHD, and this novel finding provides ABO blood group as a possible marker for CHD, but more studies need to be done.

  17. Fetal DNA in maternal plasma: application to non-invasive blood group genotyping of the fetus.

    PubMed

    Lo, Y M

    2001-06-01

    The non-invasive determination of fetal genetic characteristics, including blood group types, is a long-sought goal of modern genetics. Previous work on the use of fetal cells in maternal blood has been hampered by the rarity of such cells. The recent discovery of cell-tree fetal DNA in maternal blood has opened up new possibilities for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. It is particularly useful that fetal DNA is present in relatively high concentrations in maternal plasma, making its robust detection possible using modern technology. Large-scale clinical trials and standardization of protocols still need to be carried out. However, there is optimism that the accurate and safe prenatal determination of fetal blood group types may be achieved in routine clinical practice in the near future.

  18. Subgrouping of A and AB blood groups in Indian blood centres: is it required?

    PubMed

    Hazarika, Ranjita; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Paramjit

    2011-08-01

    Anti A1 antibody in the serum of A2 and A2B individuals is rare but when present can have laboratory and clinical significance. Routine subgrouping of all A and AB blood groups in blood centres in India is difficult due to economic constraints and has always been a point of debate. This study thus brings out the prevalence of anti A1 antibody and the clinical significance related to its presence. The results of the study showed a low prevalence of anti A1 antibody and when present, it had a low thermal amplitude and titre. Further, no blood group discrepancy or problems during compatibility testing were encountered with these (A1 antibody positive) blood units. Thus, it may be concluded that in India and other developing countries where resources are scarce, routine subgrouping of A and AB may not be really worthwhile unless there is a group discrepancy, problem during compatibility testing or history of a transfusion reaction.

  19. Blood-group-A-like substance in a preparation of pneumococcal vaccine.

    PubMed

    Siber, G R; Ambrosino, D M; Gorgone, B C

    1982-05-01

    A platelet transfusion from a blood group O donor, immunized 1 month before with Pneumovax, caused a hemolytic reaction in a blood group A recipient. Forty-five of 59 group O donors (76%) and all of nine group B donors immunized with Pneumovax had a fourfold or higher anti-A response. Half of the anti-A antibody in high titered donors was in the IgG fraction. Pneumovax contained approximately 30 micrograms of an A-like substance per dose; polyvalent pneumococcal vaccines prepared by two other manufactures contained very low and probably subimmunogenic concentrations. Several culture media prepared from animal tissues contained as antigen of similar physical, immunologic, and chemical properties, and were the most likely source of the contaminant. Manufacturing procedures have since been revised to eliminate A-like substances.

  20. Blood Group Typing: From Classical Strategies to the Application of Synthetic Antibodies Generated by Molecular Imprinting.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Adnan; Dickert, Franz L

    2015-12-31

    Blood transfusion requires a mandatory cross-match test to examine the compatibility between donor and recipient blood groups. Generally, in all cross-match tests, a specific chemical reaction of antibodies with erythrocyte antigens is carried out to monitor agglutination. Since the visual inspection is no longer useful for obtaining precise quantitative information, therefore there is a wide variety of different technologies reported in the literature to recognize the agglutination reactions. Despite the classical methods, modern biosensors and molecular blood typing strategies have also been considered for straightforward, accurate and precise analysis. The interfacial part of a typical sensor device could range from natural antibodies to synthetic receptor materials, as designed by molecular imprinting and which is suitably integrated with the transducer surface. Herein, we present a comprehensive overview of some selected strategies extending from traditional practices to modern procedures in blood group typing, thus to highlight the most promising approach among emerging technologies.

  1. Relic of ancient recombinations in gibbon ABO blood group genes deciphered through phylogenetic network analysis.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Takashi; Noda, Reiko; Takenaka, Osamu; Saitou, Naruya

    2009-06-01

    The primate ABO blood group gene encodes a glycosyl transferase (either A or B type), and is known to have large coalescence times among the allelic lineages in human. We determined nucleotide sequences of ca. 2.2kb of this gene for 23 individuals of three gibbon species (agile gibbon, white-handed gibbon, and siamang), and observed a total of 24 haplotypes. We found relics of five ancient intragenic recombinations, occurred during ca. 2-7 million years ago, through a phylogenetic network analysis. The coalescence time between A and B alleles estimate precede the divergence (ca. 8MYA) of siamang and common gibbon lineages. This establishes the coexistence of divergent allelic lineages of the ABO blood group gene for a long period in the ancestral gibbon species, and strengthens the non-neutral evolution for this gene.

  2. Prognostic Impact of ABO Blood Group on the Survival in Patients with Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Juan; Yang, Li-Chao; He, Zhen-Yu; Li, Fang-Yan; Wu, San-Gang; Sun, Jia-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The impact of ABO blood group on the survival of patients with ovarian cancer remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the ABO blood group in ovarian cancer patients. Methods: 256 ovarian cancer patients who received a cytoreductive surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The prognostic impact of the ABO blood group with respect to overall survival (OS) was analyzed. Results: The median follow-up time was 57 months and the 5-year OS was 70.1%. The 5-year OS were 55.0%, 83.3%, 82.5%, and 70.0% in patients with A, B, AB, and O blood type, respectively (p = 0.003). Patients with blood type A had a poorer 5-year OS than patients with blood type non-A (55.0% vs. 75.0%, p = 0.001), especially in patients with age > 50 years (40.0% vs. 62.5%, p = 0.004). Univariate Cox analyses showed that blood type A was significantly associated with OS than those with non-A types (hazard ratio (HR) 2.210, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.373-3.557, p = 0.001). Blood type A remained an independent prognostic factor for OS than those with non-A blood types in multivariate analyses (HR 2.235, 95% CI 1.360-3.674, p = 0.002). Conclusion: ABO blood group is associated with survival in patients with ovarian cancer, patients with blood type A had a significantly worse OS than patients with non-A blood types, especially in patients with age > 50 years. PMID:26316893

  3. Blood group ABO and Lewis antigens in bladder tumors: correlation between glycosyltransferase activity and antigen expression.

    PubMed

    Orntoft, T F; Wolf, H

    1988-01-01

    Pronounced changes in the expression of ABO and Lewis antigens have been observed in transitional cell carcinomas compared with normal urothelium. These changes are associated with changes in the activity of blood-group gene-encoded glycosyltransferases. This paper describes the correlation between blood-group antigen expression and the activity of glycosyltransferases in transitional cell carcinomas. Examined individuals were A1A2BO, Lewis, and secretor typed by the use of blood and saliva. The activity of alpha-2-, and alpha-4-L-fucosyltransferases as well as the alpha-3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase were determined as p-moles of labelled sugar incorporated by Lacto-N-biose I and 2'-fucosyllactose, respectively, per 100,000 carcinoma cells. In 3 non-secretors whose erythrocytes types as Le(a+b-), the alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferase activity was similar to that in 3 secretors, and the Leb antigen could be demonstrated to be present by monoclonal antibodies, both by immunohistological and immunochemical means. In 11 tumors from A individuals, the A1-transferase was severely reduced in 9 individuals who showed a loss of A antigen expression, and present in 2 individuals with A antigen expression in cytoplasmic vesicles. In conclusion, we demonstrate a good correlation between individual glycosyltransferase activity and expression of blood group Leb and loss of expression of blood group A in transitional cell carcinomas. Immunostaining of neutral glycolipids separated by TLC showed the Leb-active glycolipids to be simple hexa-saccharides in both secretors and non-secretors.

  4. Rh D blood group conversion using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyun O; Baek, Eun J; Kurita, Ryo; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Nakamura, Yukio; Kim, Hyongbum

    2015-06-16

    Group O D-negative blood cells are universal donors in transfusion medicine and methods for converting other blood groups into this universal donor group have been researched. However, conversion of D-positive cells into D-negative is yet to be achieved, although conversion of group A or B cells into O cells has been reported. The Rh D blood group is determined by the RHD gene, which encodes a 12-transmembrane domain protein. Here we convert Rh D-positive erythroid progenitor cells into D-negative cells using RHD-targeting transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). After transfection of TALEN-encoding plasmids, RHD-knockout clones are obtained. Erythroid-lineage cells differentiated from these knockout erythroid progenitor cells do not agglutinate in the presence of anti-D reagents and do not express D antigen, as assessed using flow cytometry. Our programmable nuclease-induced blood group conversion opens new avenues for compatible donor cell generation in transfusion medicine.

  5. Rh D blood group conversion using transcription activator-like effector nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyun O.; Baek, Eun J.; Kurita, Ryo; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Nakamura, Yukio; Kim, Hyongbum

    2015-01-01

    Group O D-negative blood cells are universal donors in transfusion medicine and methods for converting other blood groups into this universal donor group have been researched. However, conversion of D-positive cells into D-negative is yet to be achieved, although conversion of group A or B cells into O cells has been reported. The Rh D blood group is determined by the RHD gene, which encodes a 12-transmembrane domain protein. Here we convert Rh D-positive erythroid progenitor cells into D-negative cells using RHD-targeting transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). After transfection of TALEN-encoding plasmids, RHD-knockout clones are obtained. Erythroid-lineage cells differentiated from these knockout erythroid progenitor cells do not agglutinate in the presence of anti-D reagents and do not express D antigen, as assessed using flow cytometry. Our programmable nuclease-induced blood group conversion opens new avenues for compatible donor cell generation in transfusion medicine. PMID:26078220

  6. Influence of P blood group phenotype on susceptibility to urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Lomberg, H; Edén, C S

    1989-06-01

    Bacterial attachment is an important event in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI). Increased receptivity on the host cells has been suggested influence proneness to infection. The dual function of the globoseries of glycolipids both as receptors for attaching E. coli and as P blood group antigens lead us to examine the P blood group phenotype distribution in UTI prone patient populations. A correlation between the P1 blood group phenotype and susceptibility to UTI was found. Patients with recurrent pyelonephritis had 74/79 (94%), P1 compared to 75% in healthy controls. In contrast patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) had a reduced frequency of P1, 43/74 (58%). P1 and P2 individuals differ in amount and composition of the globoseries of glycolipids on their erythrocytes. A similar difference in other tissues, e.g. uroepithelial cells might explain the association of P1 with UTI. There was, however, no significant difference in bacterial adherence to uroepithelial cells from P1 and P2 individuals. Other mechanisms explaining the increase in P1 individuals in recurrent pyelonephritis are discussed.

  7. No Distinction of Orthology/Paralogy between Human and Chimpanzee Rh Blood Group Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kitano, Takashi; Kim, Choong-Gon; Blancher, Antoine; Saitou, Naruya

    2016-01-01

    On human (Homo sapiens) chromosome 1, there is a tandem duplication encompassing Rh blood group genes (Hosa_RHD and Hosa_RHCE). This duplication occurred in the common ancestor of humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and gorillas, after splitting from their common ancestor with orangutans. Although several studies have been conducted on ape Rh blood group genes, the clear genome structures of the gene clusters remain unknown. Here, we determined the genome structure of the gene cluster of chimpanzee Rh genes by sequencing five BAC (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) clones derived from chimpanzees. We characterized three complete loci (Patr_RHα, Patr_RHβ, and Patr_RHγ). In the Patr_RHβ locus, a short version of the gene, which lacked the middle part containing exons 4–8, was observed. The Patr_RHα and Patr_RHβ genes were located on the locations corresponding to Hosa_RHD and Hosa_RHCE, respectively, and Patr_RHγ was in the immediate vicinity of Patr_RHβ. Sequence comparisons revealed high sequence similarity between Patr_RHβ and Hosa_RHCE, while the chimpanzee Rh gene closest to Hosa_RHD was not Patr_RHα but rather Patr_RHγ. The results suggest that rearrangements and gene conversions frequently occurred between these genes and that the classic orthology/paralogy dichotomy no longer holds between human and chimpanzee Rh blood group genes. PMID:26872772

  8. Genetic Sequencing Analysis of A307 Subgroup of ABO Blood Group.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Lin, Jiajin; Zhu, Suiyong

    2015-09-18

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the serology and gene sequence characteristics of the A307 subgroup of the ABO blood group. MATERIAL AND METHODS Monoclonal anti-A and anti-B antibodies were used to detect the ABO antigens of a proband whose positive blood type was not consistent with the negative blood type of the ABO blood group. Standard A-, B-, and O-negative typing cells were used to test for ABO antibodies in the serum. Additionally, polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) was used to confirm the genotype, and subsequently, exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene were detected by gene sequencing. Samples from the wife and daughters of the proband were also used for serological and genetic testing. RESULTS Red blood cells of the proband showed weak agglutination reaction with anti-A antibody, while anti-B antibody was detected in the serum. Moreover, PCR-SSP detected A307 and O02 alleles, while gene sequencing revealed mutation of c.745C>T in exon 7, which produced a polypeptide chain p.R249W. The A307 gene of the proband was not inherited by his daughters. CONCLUSIONS A mutation (c.745 C>T) in exon 7 of the ABO blood group gene resulted in low activity of a-1,3-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase, producing A3 phenotype.

  9. Carbohydrate content of human erythrocyte membrane. Variations with ABO-blood group.

    PubMed

    Bladier, D; Perret, G; Baudelot, J; Cornillot, P

    1979-04-01

    The study of the carbohydrates of human erythrocyte membranes has been mainly focused on their glycopeptidic and glycolipidic complexes. Modifications of these carbohydrates have been described in subjects with various pathological states. In order to characterize possible changes of the glycopeptides, or glycolipids obtained from erythrocyte membrane in various pathological situations, the determination of the carbohydrate content of the whole membrane appeared a necessary preliminary. This study concerns the determination of the normal values of the main carbohydrates of whole human erythrocyte membranes, with respect to their blood group. Erythrocyte membranes were prepared from donors of the four ABO blood groups. After acidic hydrolysis, the contents of fucose, mannose, galactose, glucose, glucosamine, galactosamine and N-acetylneuraminic acid in each blood group were determined and compared with one another. The galactosamine content of A, B and AB erythrocyte membranes is significantly higher than that of the O-erythrocyte. For galactose, the differences are significant for the following pairs: A/O; B/O; AB/O; A/B; A/AB. Significant differences in the mannose contents of O-erythrocytes and A, B and AB erythrocytes have also been found. This result suggests that a basic difference, in the core of the oligosaccharide chains, may exist between O and A, B, AB erythrocyte membranes.

  10. Expression of ABH blood group antigens, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I, and type IV collagen in the sinusoids of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Terada, T; Nakanuma, Y

    1991-01-01

    The expression of blood group antigens (A, B, H, Lewis(a) and Lewis(b)), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), factor VIII-related antigen, and type IV collagen on the sinusoids was examined immunohistochemically in 15 cases of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), 11 cases of cirrhosis, 12 cases of chronic active hepatitis, and in a control sample of 16 normal livers. Sinusoidal endothelial cells of HCC characteristically showed a diffuse and strong immunoreactivity to ABH blood group antigens in the specimen with a comparable ABO blood group. The sinusoidal endothelial cells were also diffusely and strongly positive for UEA-I receptors. In contrast, in cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis a few sinusoidal endothelial cells were positive for ABH blood group antigens and UEA-I receptors. In normal livers, only a few sinusoidal endothelial cells were positive for ABH blood group antigens and UEA-1 receptors. Tests for factor VIII-related antigen and Lewis blood group antigens were almost negative on sinusoidal endothelial cells. Although type IV collagen was distributed diffusely in the space of Disse in these four groups, its expression was strongest in HCC. Blood vessels of portal tracts and fibrous septa were positive for ABH blood group antigens, UEA-1 receptors, factor VIII-related antigen, and type IV collagen, but negative for Lewis blood group antigens. These findings suggest that some sinusoidal endothelial cells undergo "capillarization" in cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis, and that the majority of sinusoidal endothelial cells of HCC have phenotypic characteristics of capillaries.

  11. Blood Group O-Dependent Cellular Responses to Cholera Toxin: Parallel Clinical and Epidemiological Links to Severe Cholera.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, F Matthew; Santhanam, Srikanth; Kumar, Pardeep; Luo, Qingwei; Ciorba, Matthew A; Fleckenstein, James M

    2016-08-03

    Because O blood group has been associated with more severe cholera infections, it has been hypothesized that cholera toxin (CT) may bind non-O blood group antigens of the intestinal mucosae, thereby preventing efficient interaction with target GM1 gangliosides required for uptake of the toxin and activation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling in target epithelia. Herein, we show that after exposure to CT, human enteroids expressing O blood group exhibited marked increase in cAMP relative to cells derived from blood group A individuals. Likewise, using CRISPR/Cas9 engineering, a functional group O line (HT-29-A(-/-)) was generated from a parent group A HT-29 line. CT stimulated robust cAMP responses in HT-29-A(-/-) cells relative to HT-29 cells. These findings provide a direct molecular link between blood group O expression and differential cellular responses to CT, recapitulating clinical and epidemiologic observations.

  12. Association between ABO blood group and HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma risk in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu; Xu, Hongqin; Ding, Zhongyang; Jin, Qinglong; Gao, Pujun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The ABO blood group has previously been reported to be associated with risk for certain malignancies; however, data about the risks for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to blood type are limited. Thus, we conducted a retrospective case–control study to investigate whether the ABO blood group contributes to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection–induced HCC. From January 2010 to June 2016, 447 consecutive patients with chronic HCV infection were recruited. Of these patients, 217 had HCV-related HCC, and 230 had chronic hepatitis C (CHC) without HCC. We performed multivariate logistic regression to probe the association between the ABO blood group and HCC risk. Compared with subjects with blood type O, patients with blood type A had an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 3.301 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.927–5.653) for HCC after adjusting for age and gender. We found statistically significant associations between blood type A and HCC risk for both men (AOR [95% CI] = 4.192 [1.959–8.973]) and women (AOR [95% CI] = 2.594 [1.231–5.466]), and for patients aged below 70 years (<60 years: AOR [95% CI] = 3.418 [1.338–8.734]; 60–69 years: AOR [95% CI] = 3.917 [1.730–8.867]). Thus, HCC risk is associated with ABO blood type in Chinese CHC patients, and CHC patients with blood type A are more susceptible to HCV-related HCC than patients with other blood types. PMID:27930575

  13. Isolation of a very high molecular weight polylactosamine from an ovarian cyst mucin of blood group

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, A.S.S.; Bush, C.A.

    1986-05-01

    Treatment of a blood group A active ovarian cyst mucin glycoprotein with alkaline borohydride under conditions expected to cleave-O-glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains releases a polysaccharide of average molecular weight 25,000 daltons. It contains no peptide or mannose at the 1% level and carbohydrate analysis gives fuc:galNAc:gal:glcNAc in the ratio of 1:1:2.5:2.5. The /sup 13/C and /sup 1/H NMR spectra show that the polysaccharide has non-reducing terminal side chains of the structure galNAc(..cap alpha..-1 ..-->.. 3)(fuc(..cap alpha..-1 ..-->.. 2)) gal(..beta..-1 ..-->.. 3) glcNAc (i.e. a type 1 chain). Periodate oxidation removes all the fucose and galNAc from the non-reducing terminal but leaves intact the backbone composed of ..beta..-linked gal and glcNAc as would be expected for a polylactosamine. They conclude that this is a high molecular weight polylactosamine which is related to the asparagine linked polylactosamine chains of cell surface glycoproteins which have been implicated in cell differentiation. However, the blood group A polysaccharide from the ovarian cyst mucin is unique in several respects. It has a much larger molecular weight than even the erythroglycan of the red cell membrane protein, band 3, and is linked to the protein by an -O-glycosidic bond rather than the -N-asparagine linkage of the previously known polylactosamines which have a trimannosyl core. Its blood group A side chains are on a type one core rather than type 2 which is found on other polylactosamines.

  14. Is There a Relation between ABO Blood Groups and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Pemphigoid? A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Toosi, Parviz; Azimi, Somayyeh; Esmaili, Nafiseh; Montazami, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Relationship between blood groups and dermatologic diseases remains controversial and was not yet fully elucidated nor explained clearly. The aim of this study was to examine if any relation exists between different types of pemphigoid diseases and ABO blood group. Methods. In this case-control study, 159 pemphigoid patients and 152 healthy matched-controls were evaluated. All blood group (including Rh status) data for the study was obtained from the hospital medical records. Statistical comparisons were completed with chi-square test and logistic regression. Results. Blood group “O” was found in 32.9% of patients and 38.2% of control group. Blood group “A” was found among 30.8% of patients and 34.2% of control group, while group “B” was reported in 27.4% of cases and 21.1% of controls and “AB” was identified among 8.9% of patients and 6.6% of control group. 84.9% of patients were Rh positive, while in the control group 86.2% of patients were Rh positive. No significant differences were found regarding ABO blood groups (P = 0.46) or Rh (P = 0.76) between pemphigoid patients and control group. Also, older females had the higher risk of developing bullous pemphigoid. Conclusion. We found no relationship between ABO blood groups and pemphigoid disease. PMID:27437000

  15. ABO blood groups in oral cancer: a first case-control study in a defined group of Iranian patients.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Hajian, Shima; Fadavi, Elnaz; Sabour, Siamak; Baharvand, Maryam; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh

    2014-01-01

    The ABO blood group has been recently proposed to influence development of oral cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the type of ABO blood group and oral cancer. In a case-control study, 104 patients with oral cancer were compared with 90 blood donors without cancer as controls. Data regarding the patient demographics, blood groups, Rh status, cancer characteristics and oral habits were also compared between two subgroups of squamous and non-squamous oral cancers. For statistical analysis, Chi-square test, t-student Test and Logistic Regression were used to analyze the relationship between ABO blood groups and oral cancer. The frequency of blood group B was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than controls (32% vs 13%) (p value=0.01), but Rh factor did not show significant difference between cases and controls. According to Logistic Regression, people with blood group B and those older than 50 had 3.5 and 19.4 times elevated risk of developing oral cancer, respectively. The frequency of squamous cell cancer was also significantly higher in men and people older than 50. On the other hand, females, people under 50, and those with blood group B were at 5.6, 2.9 and 4.3 times higher risk of developing non-squamous cell oral cancer,respectively. People with blood group B are at a greater risk of developing oral cancer, and female patients under 50 years of age with blood group B have the highest risk to develop non-squamous cell oral cancer.

  16. The cis-AB blood group phenotype: fundamental lessons in glycobiology.

    PubMed

    Yazer, Mark H; Olsson, Martin L; Palcic, Monica M

    2006-07-01

    The cis-AB phenotype can raise questions about an apparently paradoxical inheritance of the ABO blood group, such as the birth of an O child from an AB mother. These subtype ABO alleles confer the ability to create both A and B antigens with a single enzyme. A variety of different cis-AB enzymes have been reported and many feature an interchange of amino acids between the normal A enzyme sequence and its B counterpart, rendering the mutant enzyme capable of creating both antigens. The resulting red blood cells do not usually express A or B antigen at the same level that would be expected on common group A(1) or B red blood cells, and the results of investigations into the kinetics of the cis-AB enzyme more clearly predict the extent of antigen expression. By correctly identifying the cis-AB phenotype, the blood bank can be of assistance to a clinician faced with a patient with what appears to be a genetically impossible ABO blood group.

  17. Duffy blood group genotypes among African-Brazilian communities of the Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Perna, S J Q; Cardoso, G L; Guerreiro, J F

    2007-03-29

    Duffy blood group genotype was studied in 95 unrelated subjects from four African-Brazilian communities of the Amazon region: Trombetas, Pitimandeua, Curiaú, and Mazagão Velho. Genotyping was performed using an allele-specific primer polymerase chain reaction technique for determining the three major alleles at FY blood group, and as expected, FY*O allele was the most common one, with frequencies ranging from 56.4% in Mazagão Velho to 72.2% in Pitimandeua, whereas the FY*O/FY*O genotype was found with frequencies between 32.3% in Mazagão Velho and 58.8% in Curiaú. Genotype and allele distributions in the four Amazonian communities are consistent with a predominantly African origin with some degree of local differentiation and admixture with people of Caucasian ancestry and/or Amerindians. These results reveal that the impact of the FY*O/FY*O genotype on the transmission and endemicity of the vivax malaria deserves to be investigated in full detail in an attempt to identify the contribution of host biological factors and explain the non-homogeneous prevalence of malaria in the region expressed by its different levels of exposure.

  18. [Alanine solution as enzyme reaction buffer used in A to O blood group conversion].

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Bo; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Yin-Ze; Tan, Ying-Xia; Bao, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Ying-Li; Ji, Shou-Ping; Gong, Feng; Gao, Hong-Wei

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of alanine solution as α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase enzyme reaction buffer on the enzymatic activity of A antigen. The binding ability of α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase with RBC in different reaction buffer such as alanine solution, glycine solution, normal saline (0.9% NaCl), PBS, PCS was detected by Western blot. The results showed that the efficiency of A to O conversion in alanine solution was similar to that in glycine solution, and Western blot confirmed that most of enzymes blinded with RBC in glycine or alanine solution, but few enzymes blinded with RBC in PBS, PCS or normal saline. The evidences indicated that binding of enzyme with RBC was a key element for A to O blood group conversion, while the binding ability of α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase with RBC in alanine or glycine solution was similar. It is concluded that alanine solution can be used as enzyme reaction buffer in A to O blood group conversion. In this buffer, the α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase is closely blinded with RBC and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase plays efficient enzymatic activity of A antigen.

  19. SMIM1 variants rs1175550 and rs143702418 independently modulate Vel blood group antigen expression

    PubMed Central

    Christophersen, Mikael K.; Jöud, Magnus; Ajore, Ram; Vege, Sunitha; Ljungdahl, Klara W.; Westhoff, Connie M.; Olsson, Martin L.; Storry, Jill R.; Nilsson, Björn

    2017-01-01

    The Vel blood group antigen is expressed on the red blood cells of most individuals. Recently, we described that homozygosity for inactivating mutations in SMIM1 defines the rare Vel-negative phenotype. Still, Vel-positive individuals show great variability in Vel antigen expression, creating a risk for Vel blood typing errors and transfusion reactions. We fine-mapped the regulatory region located in SMIM1 intron 2 in Swedish blood donors, and observed a strong correlation between expression and rs1175550 as well as with a previously unreported tri-nucleotide insertion (rs143702418; C > CGCA). While the two variants are tightly linked in Caucasians, we separated their effects in African Americans, and found that rs1175550G and to a lesser extent rs143702418C independently increase SMIM1 and Vel antigen expression. Gel shift and luciferase assays indicate that both variants are transcriptionally active, and we identified binding of the transcription factor TAL1 as a potential mediator of the increased expression associated with rs1175550G. Our results provide insight into the regulatory logic of Vel antigen expression, and extend the set of markers for genetic Vel blood group typing. PMID:28084402

  20. Estimating the immunogenicity of blood group antigens: a modified calculation that corrects for transfusion exposures.

    PubMed

    Stack, Gary; Tormey, Christopher A

    2016-10-01

    Calculations of blood group antigen immunogenicity have been based on antigen and antibody frequencies in transfused populations, with the assumption of a single red blood cell (RBC) unit exposure per patient. Given that patients are usually transfused >1 RBC unit, antigen exposures will be greater than assumed, resulting in inaccurate immunogenicity calculations. As such, the goal of this study was to modify the calculation to correct for RBC exposures. To further improve accuracy, we used an empirically-derived immunogenicity for the reference antigen, K, in calculations of absolute immunogencity and eliminated anamnestic and pre-existing antibodies (i.e., antibodies induced outside the study site) from the calculation. Alloantibody numbers for the top 12 specificities and mean RBCs (MRBC) transfused per patient were obtained from the records of a hospital transfusion service. A revised immunogenicity calculation, incorporating a correction for MRBC, was developed. This correction resulted in up to a 4-fold increase in the immunogenicity of relatively high frequency antigens, with smaller increases for lower frequency antigens, yielding the following revised immunogenicity ranking: K>Jk(a) >Lu(a) >E>P1>c>M>Le(b) >C>Le(a) >Fy(a) >S. Use of an empirical value for K immunogenicity resulted in a 1·9-fold increase in absolute immunogenicities for all antigens. In summary, the calculation of blood group antigen immunogenicity has been further refined.

  1. An ancient DNA test of a founder effect in Native American ABO blood group frequencies.

    PubMed

    Halverson, Melissa S; Bolnick, Deborah A

    2008-11-01

    Anthropologists have assumed that reduced genetic diversity in extant Native Americans is due to a founder effect that occurred during the initial peopling of the Americas. However, low diversity could also be the result of subsequent historical events, such as the population decline following European contact. In this study, we show that autosomal DNA from ancient Native American skeletal remains can be used to investigate the low level of ABO blood group diversity in the Americas. Extant Native Americans exhibit a high frequency of blood type O, which may reflect a founder effect, genetic drift associated with the historical population decline, or natural selection in response to the smallpox epidemics that occurred following European contact. To help distinguish between these possibilities, we determined the ABO genotypes of 15 precontact individuals from eastern North America. The precontact ABO frequencies were not significantly different from those observed in extant Native Americans from the same region, but they did differ significantly from the ABO frequencies in extant Siberian populations. Studies of other precontact populations are needed to better test the three hypotheses for low ABO blood group diversity in the Americas, but our findings are most consistent with the hypothesis of a founder effect during the initial settlement of this continent.

  2. HLA, blood groups and secretor status in patients with established rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Jhinghan, B; Mehra, N K; Reddy, K S; Taneja, V; Vaidya, M C; Bhatia, M L

    1986-03-01

    The distribution of HLA-A, -B and -DR antigens as well as blood groups and secretor status was studied in sporadic, North Indian patients of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. While HLA-Aw33 occurred with an increased frequency in the patient group (X2 = 4.01), no statistically significant differences were observed in the frequency of B-locus antigens. In the DR locus, HLA-DR3 was found to be significantly increased (50% vs 26.1%, X2 = 13.8) and DR2 significantly reduced (21.8% vs 47.0%, X2 = 15.6). Also, there was a preponderance of non-'O' blood group individuals in the patient group as compared to controls. The DR3 association was significant only in those patients of RHD who did not have any previous history of rheumatic fever. These results indicate that susceptibility to rheumatic heart disease is HLA-class II mediated, with HLA-DR3 influencing susceptibility and DR2 conferring protection.

  3. Designing modern furnace cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merry, J.; Sarvinis, J.; Voermann, N.

    2000-02-01

    An integrated multidisciplinary approach to furnace design that considers the interdependence between furnace cooling elements and other furnace systems, such as binding, cooling water, and instrumentation, is necessary to achieve maximum furnace production and a long refractory life. The retrofit of the BHP Hartley electric furnace and the Kidd Creek copper converting furnace are successful examples of an integrated approach to furnace cooling design.

  4. Prevalence of Principal Rh Blood Group Antigens in Blood Donors at the Blood Bank of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Vijaya, Sreedhar Babu Kinnera; Rajendran, Arun; Sarella, Jothibai Dorairaj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rhesus (Rh) antigen was discovered in 1940 by Karl Landsteiner and Wiener. Due to its immunogenicity along with A, B antigens, Rh D antigen testing was made mandatory in pre-transfusion testing. Presently there are more than 50 antigens in Rh blood group system but major ones are D, C, E, c, and e. Very few reports are available regarding their prevalence in India and no reports are available from Andhra Pradesh. Aim To study the prevalence of principal Rh blood group antigens like D, C, E, c & e in the voluntary blood donors attending our blood bank. Materials and Methods A prospective cross-sectional non interventional study was carried out on 1000 healthy blood donors from August 2013 to July 2014 at our blood bank. Donors were grouped and typed for ABO and Rh major antigens using monoclonal blood grouping reagents as per the manufacturer’s instructions. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. Comparison of categorical data between antigen positive and negative individuals was done using Chi-square test. Descriptive statistics for the categorical variables were performed by computing the frequencies (percentages) in each category. Incidence was given in proportion with 95% confidence interval. Results A total of 1000 blood samples from donors were phenotyped. Among Rh antigens, e was the most common antigen (98.4%), followed by D-94.1%, C-88%, c-54.9% and E-18.8% with DCe/DCe (R1R1) (43.4%) being the most common phenotype and the least common phenotype is r’r’ (0.1%). Conclusion Database for antigen frequency to at least Rh blood group system in local donors helps to provide antigen negative blood to patients with multiple alloantibodies, minimize alloimmunization rate, and thereby improve blood safety. PMID:27437223

  5. The Galectin CvGal1 from the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Binds to Blood Group A Oligosaccharides on the Hemocyte Surface*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chiguang; Ghosh, Anita; Amin, Mohammed N.; Giomarelli, Barbara; Shridhar, Surekha; Banerjee, Aditi; Fernández-Robledo, José A.; Bianchet, Mario A.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Vasta, Gerardo R.

    2013-01-01

    The galectin CvGal1 from the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), which possesses four tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains, was previously shown to display stronger binding to galactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine relative to d-galactose. CvGal1 expressed by phagocytic cells is “hijacked” by the parasite Perkinsus marinus to enter the host, where it proliferates and causes systemic infection and death. In this study, a detailed glycan array analysis revealed that CvGal1 preferentially recognizes type 2 blood group A oligosaccharides. Homology modeling of the protein and its oligosaccharide ligands supported this preference over type 1 blood group A and B oligosaccharides. The CvGal ligand models were further validated by binding, inhibition, and competitive binding studies of CvGal1 and ABH-specific monoclonal antibodies with intact and deglycosylated glycoproteins, hemocyte extracts, and intact hemocytes and by surface plasmon resonance analysis. A parallel glycomic study carried out on oyster hemocytes (Kurz, S., Jin, C., Hykollari, A., Gregorich, D., Giomarelli, B., Vasta, G. R., Wilson, I. B. H., and Paschinger, K. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288,) determined the structures of oligosaccharides recognized by CvGal1. Proteomic analysis of the hemocyte glycoproteins identified β-integrin and dominin as CvGal1 “self”-ligands. Despite strong CvGal1 binding to P. marinus trophozoites, no binding of ABH blood group antibodies was observed. Thus, parasite glycans structurally distinct from the blood group A oligosaccharides on the hemocyte surface may function as potentially effective ligands for CvGal1. We hypothesize that carbohydrate-based mimicry resulting from the host/parasite co-evolution facilitates CvGal1-mediated cross-linking to β-integrin, located on the hemocyte surface, leading to cell activation, phagocytosis, and host infection. PMID:23824193

  6. Lichenoid reaction associated with silver amalgam restoration in a Bombay blood group patient: A case report.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rohini Rangarao; Mattigatti, Sudha S; Mahaparale, Rushikesh R; Kamble, Amit P

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic relationship between the oral lichenoid reaction (OLR) and dental restorative materials has been confirmed many times. An OLR affecting oral mucosa in direct contact with an amalgam restoration represents a delayed, type IV, cell mediated immune response to mercury or one of the other constituents of the dental amalgam. Bombay blood group patients are more prone to this. A case of bilateral OLR is presented, which is present in relation to amalgam restoration. The lesion healed up after the replacement of restorations with an intermediate restorative material. The clinician should be aware of all the possible pathological etiologies of white lesions. If there is any doubt about the nature or management of a usual oral lesion, a referral to an appropriate specialist is mandatory.

  7. Rotavirus infection and histo-blood group antigens in the children hospitalized with diarrhoea in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Guo, N; Li, J; Yan, X; He, Z; Li, D; Jin, M; Xie, G; Pang, L; Zhang, Q; Liu, N; Duan, Z-J

    2016-08-01

    To explore the association between rotavirus (RV) infection and histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), a cross-sectional study was conducted in children hospitalized with diarrhoea in China from November 2014 to February 2015. In total, 424 sets of stool, saliva and buccal cell samples were collected. For the 125 RV-negative samples, 92% (104/125) were secretors/partial secretors, 8% (10/125) were non-secretors. Among the 299 RV-positive samples, 277 were P[8] and 22 were P[4]. All P[4] and P[8] positive individuals were secretors/partial secretors except for one P[8] (0.3%, 1/299), which was a non-secretor. These findings indicate that P[8] and P[4] RVs preferably infect secretors/partial secretors (p <0.001).

  8. Blood group polymorphisms and geography in the Sierra de Gredos, Spain.

    PubMed

    Mesa, M S; Martín, J; Fuster, V; Fisac, R

    1994-12-01

    The present research is designed to contribute to our knowledge of the influence of geography on the genetic population structure in the Sierra de Gredos (central Spain). This mountain range separates two distinct areas: the Tormes-Alberche valley in the north and the Tiétar valley in the south. Unrelated blood donors (226), whose 4 grandparents were born in the study area, were tested for blood group markers (A1A2BO, RH, MNSs, Kell, P, and Lewis). R matrix analysis in relation to other Spanish populations agrees reasonably well with the cluster analysis of the Prevosti distance matrix using the UPGMA algorithm. Comparisons suggest a certain degree of genetic variation between the populations of these two valleys. The Sierra de Gredos can thus be considered a biological barrier limiting the gene flow between the valleys.

  9. Human Norovirus Interactions with Histo-Blood Group Antigens and Human Milk Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Schroten, Horst; Hanisch, Franz-Georg

    2016-01-01

    Human noroviruses interact with both human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) and human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). The former are believed to be important for a virus infection, while the latter might act as natural decoys in the host during an infection. However, certain noroviruses are known to bind poorly to HBGAs and yet still cause infections; some interact with numerous HBGA types but are nonprevalent; and yet others bind HBGAs and seem to be increasing in prevalence. HBGAs and HMOs can be found as soluble antigens in humans, can be structurally alike, and can interact with equivalent residues at identical binding pockets on the capsid. In this Gem, we discuss HBGA and HMO binding studies for human noroviruses, concentrating on the clinically important genogroup II noroviruses. In short, the roles of HBGA and HMO interactions in norovirus infections are still unclear. PMID:27122582

  10. Structural analysis of the RH-like blood group gene products in nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Salvignol, I.; Calvas, P.; Blancher, A.; Socha, W.W.; Colin, Y.; Le Van Kim, C.; Bailly, P.; Cartron, J.P.; Ruffie, J.; Blancher, A.

    1995-03-01

    Rh-related transcripts present in bone marrow samples from several species of nonhuman primates (chimpanzee, gorilla, gibbon, crab-eating macaque) have been amplified by RT-polymerase chain reaction using primers deduced from the sequence of human RH genes. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the nonhuman transcripts revealed a high degree of similarity to human blood group Rh sequences, suggesting a great conservation of the RH genes throughout evolution. Full-length transcripts, potentially encoding 417 amino acid long proteins homologous to Rh polypeptides, were characterized, as well as mRNA isoforms which harbored nucleotide deletions or insertions and potentially encode truncated proteins. Proteins of 30-40,000 M{sub r}, immunologically related to human Rh proteins, were detected by western blot analysis with antipeptide antibodies, indicating that Rh-like transcripts are translated into membrane proteins. Comparison of human and nonhuman protein sequences was pivotal in clarifying the molecular basis of the blood group C/c polymorphism, showing that only the Pro103Ser substitution was correlated with C/c polymorphism. In addition, it was shown that a proline residue at position 102 was critical in the expression of C and c epitopes, most likely by providing an appropriate conformation of Rh polypeptides. From these data a phylogenetic reconstruction of the RH locus evolution has been calculated from which an unrooted phylogenetic tree could be proposed, indicating that African ape Rh-like genes would be closer to the human RhD gene than to the human RhCE gene. 55 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. "Natural" antibodies and histo-blood groups in biological development with respect to histo-blood group A. A perspective review.

    PubMed

    Arend, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The "inappropriate" A-specific ovarian glycosphingolipids discovered in unfertilized C57BL/10J female mice reflect growth processes, which suggest the activity of embryonic stem cells undergoing genetic polymorphism. And the responding anti-GalNAc antibody represents the first classical "natural" antibody, which was unmasked as a highly specific autoantibody. This murine anti-A is subspecifically distinct from the human antibody, discovering by a broader reactivity growth-dependent, xenoreactive A-specific structures also in non-reproductive murine tissues, where an equivalent of the human AB gene family as a cis AB-gene encodes A-and B glycotransferases. Expression of antigen is known to need always more than its encoded enzyme, and the special mechanism which in the C57BL/10J murine ovarian glycospingolipids blocks the expression of "B" still remains still unknown. A herewith arising postulation of a growth-predominating common biological activity may be supported by findings in rats. The number of A-genes here significantly exceeds those of B and in the Wistar rat the A-antigen is only expressed in the wild type, while B-expression requires the transfer of human B. Nevertheless in transgenic rats, the appearance of "A" still remains more pronounced. The observations lead to reports on animals, which do not show AB transferase production or a respective antigen expression in their normal tissues, but inconcistently display A activity in malignant tumors. And respective examples are delivered by phenotype independent neo expressions of "inappropriate" A-specific structures in human cancer. Although in comparison with epitope deletions they are rare, the ubiquitous "natural" (IgM and IgG) anti-A and anti-B levels, against self and not self, irrespective of the blood group in any normal human sera, may reflect invisible "inappropriate" A-specific growth. The role of the associated (auto) anti-B might be different, because B-neo expressions obviously not occur in

  12. Molecular basis of Rh blood group system in the Malaysian population

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Rozi Hanisa; Muhamad, Nor Asiah; Hassan, Afifah; Ayob, Yasmin; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rh molecular studies have been previously mainly conducted in Caucasians and African population. There is a limited data on the molecular basis for Rh genotypes among Asians. Aims: This study aims to characterize the Rh genes and frequency of the various RH genotypes among blood donors in National Blood Centre (NBC), Kuala Lumpur. Materials and Methods: A total of 1014 blood samples were obtained from blood donors from four different ethnic groups (360 Malays, 434 Chinese, 164 Indians and 56 others). Serological and molecular analysis of all 1014 blood samples were performed. An automated deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing analysis was performed. Results: Rh phenotypes and RH genotypes showed heterogeneity and significant association with ethnicities. Discrepancies in allele D, C/c and E/e between phenotypes and genotypes results were observed. Discrepancy results in allele D showed significant association with the ethnic groups of the blood donors in NBC. There were multiple novel mutations (23) and published mutations (5) found in this study. Significant associations between discrepancy results and mutations were found in allele D and C/c. Conclusion: Performing RH molecular analysis in Malaysian population provided the basic database for the distribution of Rh genotypes of donors from major ethnic groups in Malaysia. PMID:25722573

  13. Association of ABO and Rh Blood Groups to Blood-Borne Infections among Blood Donors in Tehran-Iran

    PubMed Central

    MOHAMMADALI, Fatemeh; POURFATHOLLAH, Aliakbar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC), and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011. Methods This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR test. Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate. Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program. Results Overall, 2031451 donor serum samples were collected in 2005-2011. Totally, 10451 were positive test for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The overall seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis was 0.39%, 0.11%, 0.005%, and 0.010%, respectively. Hepatitis B and HIV infections were significantly associated with blood group of donors (P <0.05) ; percentage of HIV Ag/Ab was higher in donors who had blood group “A” and percentage of HBs Ag was lower in donors who had blood group O. There was no significant association between Hepatitis C and syphilis infections with ABO and Rh blood groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood-borne infections is relatively low. PMID:25909065

  14. Individuals with Le(a+b−) Blood Group Have Increased Susceptibility to Symptomatic Vibrio cholerae O1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Arifuzzaman, Mohammad; Ahmed, Tanvir; Rahman, Mohammad Arif; Chowdhury, Fahima; Rashu, Rasheduzzaman; Khan, Ashraful I.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Harris, Jason B.; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Ryan, Edward T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Human genetic factors such as blood group antigens may affect the severity of infectious diseases. Presence of specific ABO and Lewis blood group antigens has been shown previously to be associated with the risk of different enteric infections. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of the Lewis blood group antigens with susceptibility to cholera, as well as severity of disease and immune responses to infection. Methodology We determined Lewis and ABO blood groups of a cohort of patients infected by Vibrio cholerae O1, their household contacts, and healthy controls, and analyzed the risk of symptomatic infection, severity of disease if infected and immune response following infection. Principal Findings We found that more individuals with cholera expressed the Le(a+b−) phenotype than the asymptomatic household contacts (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.03–3.56) or healthy controls (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.13–3.21), as has been seen previously for the risk of symptomatic ETEC infection. Le(a–b+) individuals were less susceptible to cholera and if infected, required less intravenous fluid replacement in hospital, suggesting that this blood group may be associated with protection against V. cholerae O1. Individuals with Le(a–b−) blood group phenotype who had symptomatic cholera had a longer duration of diarrhea and required higher volumes of intravenous fluid replacement. In addition, individuals with Le(a–b−) phenotype also had lessened plasma IgA responses to V. cholerae O1 lipopolysaccharide on day 7 after infection compared to individuals in the other two Lewis blood group phenotypes. Conclusion Individuals with Lewis blood type Le(a+b−) are more susceptible and Le(a–b+) are less susceptible to V. cholerae O1 associated symptomatic disease. Presence of this histo-blood group antigen may be included in evaluating the risk for cholera in a population, as well as in vaccine efficacy studies, as is currently being done for the ABO blood

  15. A dye-assisted paper-based point-of-care assay for fast and reliable blood grouping.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Qiu, Xiaopei; Zou, Yurui; Ye, Yanyao; Qi, Chao; Zou, Lingyun; Yang, Xiang; Yang, Ke; Zhu, Yuanfeng; Yang, Yongjun; Zhou, Yang; Luo, Yang

    2017-03-15

    Fast and simultaneous forward and reverse blood grouping has long remained elusive. Forward blood grouping detects antigens on red blood cells, whereas reverse grouping identifies specific antibodies present in plasma. We developed a paper-based assay using immobilized antibodies and bromocresol green dye for rapid and reliable blood grouping, where dye-assisted color changes corresponding to distinct blood components provide a visual readout. ABO antigens and five major Rhesus antigens could be detected within 30 s, and simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood grouping using small volumes (100 μl) of whole blood was achieved within 2 min through on-chip plasma separation without centrifugation. A machine-learning method was developed to classify the spectral plots corresponding to dye-based color changes, which enabled reproducible automatic grouping. Using optimized operating parameters, the dye-assisted paper assay exhibited comparable accuracy and reproducibility to the classical gel-card assays in grouping 3550 human blood samples. When translated to the assembly line and low-cost manufacturing, the proposed approach may be developed into a cost-effective and robust universal blood-grouping platform.

  16. Differential carbonylation of cytoskeletal proteins in blood group O erythrocytes: potential role in protection against severe malaria.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Darío; Hernáez, María L; Kamali, Ali N; Diez, Amalia; Puyet, Antonio; Bautista, José M

    2012-12-01

    The molecular basis for the prevalence of blood group O in regions where malaria is endemic remains unclear. In some genetic backgrounds oxidative modifications have been linked to a reduced susceptibility to severe malaria disease. Through redox proteomics, we detected differences in carbonylated membrane proteins among the different blood groups, both in Plasmodium-infected and uninfected erythrocytes (RBC). Carbonylation profiles of RBC membrane proteins revealed that group O blood shows a reduced protein oxidation pattern compared to groups A, B and AB. Upon infection with Plasmodium falciparum Dd2, erythrocytes of all blood groups showed increased oxidation of membrane proteins. By examining 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) modified proteins by LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry) we observed that, upon malaria infection, the protein components of lipid rafts and cytoskeleton were the main targets of 4-HNE carbonylation in all blood groups. Ankyrins and protein bands 4.2 and 4.1 were differentially carbonylated in group O as compared to A and B groups. During trophozoite maturation in group O erythrocytes, a steady increase was observed in the number of 4-HNE-modified proteins, suggesting a parasite-driven 4-HNE-carbonylation process. Our findings indicate a possible correlation between the protection against severe malaria in blood group O individuals and a specific pattern of 4-HNE-carbonylation of cytoskeleton proteins.

  17. Non-AUG start codons responsible for ABO weak blood group alleles on initiation mutant backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Miyako; Yamamoto, Fumiichiro

    2017-01-01

    Histo-blood group ABO gene polymorphism is crucial in transfusion medicine. We studied the activity and subcellular distribution of ABO gene-encoded A glycosyltransferases with N-terminal truncation. We hypothesized that truncated enzymes starting at internal methionines drove the synthesis of oligosaccharide A antigen in those already described alleles that lack a proper translation initiation codon. Not only we tested the functionality of the mutant transferases by expressing them and assessing their capacity to drive the appearance of A antigen on the cell surface, but we also analyzed their subcellullar localization, which has not been described before. The results highlight the importance of the transmembrane domain because proteins deprived of it are not able to localize properly and deliver substantial amounts of antigen on the cell surface. Truncated proteins with their first amino acid well within the luminal domain are not properly localized and lose their enzymatic activity. Most importantly, we demonstrated that other codons than AUG might be used to start the protein synthesis rather than internal methionines in translation-initiation mutants, explaining the molecular mechanism by which transferases lacking a classical start codon are able to synthesize A/B antigens. PMID:28139731

  18. Modulation of ABH histo-blood group antigen expression in normal and myasthenic human thymus.

    PubMed

    Sarafian, Victoria S; Marinova, Tsvetana T

    2006-10-01

    The role of ABH histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) in intercellular communication during normal and pathological processes is still uncertain. The present work investigates the expression of ABH HBGA in epithelial cells and lymphocytes in normal thymus, and characterizes the modulation of their immunoreactivity during myasthenic transformation. Immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy were applied on normal young thymus and on myasthenia gravis-associated thymomas and thymic hyperplasias. The Hassall's corpuscules in the thymus of young individuals were homogeneously stained for HBGA, while in hyperplastic glands only their central part was positive. Stromal epithelial cells permanently expressed HBGA in all tissue samples. In thymomas, mainly the lymphocytes in close proximity to antigen expressing epithelial cells were positive, while in the hyperplastic gland the most intensely stained lymphocytes were those within Hassall's corpuscules. Novel evidence for modulation of ABH antigen reactivity in normal and myasthenic human thymus is presented. It suggests that HBGA might participate in the regulation of the cross-talk in the thymocyte microenvironment throughout the ontogeny, as well as during the myasthenic transformation.

  19. Widespread balancing selection and pathogen-driven selection at blood group antigen genes

    PubMed Central

    Fumagalli, Matteo; Cagliani, Rachele; Pozzoli, Uberto; Riva, Stefania; Comi, Giacomo P.; Menozzi, Giorgia; Bresolin, Nereo; Sironi, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Historically, allelic variations in blood group antigen (BGA) genes have been regarded as possible susceptibility factors for infectious diseases. Since host–pathogen interactions are major determinants in evolution, BGAs can be thought of as selection targets. In order to verify this hypothesis, we obtained an estimate of pathogen richness for geographic locations corresponding to 52 populations distributed worldwide; after correction for multiple tests and for variables different from selective forces, significant correlations with pathogen richness were obtained for multiple variants at 11 BGA loci out of 26. In line with this finding, we demonstrate that three BGA genes, namely CD55, CD151, and SLC14A1, have been subjected to balancing selection, a process, rare outside MHC genes, which maintains variability at a locus. Moreover, we identified a gene region immediately upstream the transcription start site of FUT2 which has undergone non-neutral evolution independently from the coding region. Finally, in the case of BSG, we describe the presence of a highly divergent haplotype clade and the possible reasons for its maintenance, including frequency-dependent balancing selection, are discussed. These data indicate that BGAs have been playing a central role in the host–pathogen arms race during human evolutionary history and no other gene category shows similar levels of widespread selection, with the only exception of loci involved in antigen recognition. PMID:18997004

  20. Blood group O alleles in Native Americans: implications in the peopling of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Mena, Benito; Estrada, F Javier; Ulloa-Arvizu, Raúl; Guido, Miriam; Méndez, Rocío; Coral, Ramón; Canto, Thelma; Granados, Julio; Rubí-Castellanos, Rodrigo; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2010-05-01

    All major ABO blood alleles are found in most populations worldwide, whereas the majority of Native Americans are nearly exclusively in the O group. O allele molecular characterization could aid in elucidating the possible causes of group O predominance in Native American populations. In this work, we studied exon 6 and 7 sequence diversity in 180 O blood group individuals from four different Mesoamerican populations. Additionally, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity and population structure including South American populations was performed. Results revealed no significant differences among Mesoamerican and South American groups, but showed significant differences within population groups attributable to previously detected differences in genetic drift and founder effects throughout the American continent. Interestingly, in all American populations, the same set of haplotypes O(1), O(1v), and O(1v(G542A)) was present, suggesting the following: (1) that they constitute the main genetic pool of the founding population of the Americas and (2) that they derive from the same ancestral source, partially supporting the single founding population hypothesis. In addition, the consistent and restricted presence of the G542A mutation in Native Americans compared to worldwide populations allows it to be employed as an Ancestry informative marker (AIM). Present knowledge of the peopling of the Americas allows the prediction of the way in which the G542A mutation could have emerged in Beringia, probably during the differentiation process of Asian lineages that gave rise to the founding population of the continent.

  1. Widespread balancing selection and pathogen-driven selection at blood group antigen genes.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Matteo; Cagliani, Rachele; Pozzoli, Uberto; Riva, Stefania; Comi, Giacomo P; Menozzi, Giorgia; Bresolin, Nereo; Sironi, Manuela

    2009-02-01

    Historically, allelic variations in blood group antigen (BGA) genes have been regarded as possible susceptibility factors for infectious diseases. Since host-pathogen interactions are major determinants in evolution, BGAs can be thought of as selection targets. In order to verify this hypothesis, we obtained an estimate of pathogen richness for geographic locations corresponding to 52 populations distributed worldwide; after correction for multiple tests and for variables different from selective forces, significant correlations with pathogen richness were obtained for multiple variants at 11 BGA loci out of 26. In line with this finding, we demonstrate that three BGA genes, namely CD55, CD151, and SLC14A1, have been subjected to balancing selection, a process, rare outside MHC genes, which maintains variability at a locus. Moreover, we identified a gene region immediately upstream the transcription start site of FUT2 which has undergone non-neutral evolution independently from the coding region. Finally, in the case of BSG, we describe the presence of a highly divergent haplotype clade and the possible reasons for its maintenance, including frequency-dependent balancing selection, are discussed. These data indicate that BGAs have been playing a central role in the host-pathogen arms race during human evolutionary history and no other gene category shows similar levels of widespread selection, with the only exception of loci involved in antigen recognition.

  2. Diverse molecular recognition properties of blood group A binding monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Wright, Whitney Shea

    2016-05-01

    Information about specificity and affinity is critical for use of carbohydrate-binding antibodies. Herein, we evaluated eight monoclonal antibodies to the blood group A (BG-A) antigen. Antibodies 87-G, 9A, HE-10, HE-24, HE-193, HE-195, T36 and Z2A were profiled on a glycan microarray to assess specificity, relative affinity and the influence of glycan density on recognition. Our studies highlight several noteworthy recognition properties. First, most antibodies bound GalNAcα1-3Gal and the BG-A trisaccharide nearly as well as larger BG-A oligosaccharides. Second, several antibodies only bound the BG-A trisaccharide when displayed on certain glycan chains. These first two points indicate that the carrier glycan chains primarily influence selectivity, rather than binding strength. Third, binding of some antibodies was highly dependent on glycan density, illustrating the importance of glycan presentation for recognition. Fourth, some antibodies recognized the tumor-associated Tn antigen, and one antibody only bound the variant composed of a GalNAc-alpha-linked to a serine residue. Collectively, these results provide new insights into the recognition properties of anti-BG-A antibodies.

  3. Clinical Significance of an Alloantibody against the Kell Blood Group Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Mattaloni, Stella Maris; Arnoni, Carine; Céspedes, Rosario; Nonaka, Claudia; Trucco Boggione, Carolina; Luján Brajovich, Melina Eliana; Trejo, Andrea; Zani, Néstor; Biondi, Claudia Silvia; Castilho, Lilian; Cotorruelo, Carlos Miquel

    2017-01-01

    Background Kell null (K0) individuals can produce anti-Ku, an antibody against many epitopes in the Kell glycoprotein, after transfusion and/or pregnancy. Since sensitized K0 patients are rare, little is known about anti-Ku clinical relevance and in particular about its association to hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Case Report This work describes a case of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia due to immune-mediated erythrocyte destruction by an alloantibody directed against the Kell glycoprotein. Serologic and molecular approaches identified an anti-Ku alloantibody in maternal serum. A homozygous IVS3 + 1g>a point mutation (KEL*02N.06 allele) was found to be responsible for the lack of Kell antigen expression in the mother's red blood cell and subsequent alloimmunization after a previous pregnancy. Even though in most cases Kell antibodies are clinically severe and may cause suppression of erythropoiesis, in our case the newborn had a moderate anemia and hyperbilirubinemia that was successfully treated with phototherapy without requiring exchange transfusion. Serological and molecular studies performed in the proband's family members allowed us to provide them with proper counseling regarding alloimmunization after transfusion and/or pregnancy. Conclusions This case enlarges the understanding of the clinical significance of alloantibodies against Kell blood group antigens.

  4. Protein NMR Studies of substrate binding to human blood group A and B glycosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Peters, Thomas; Grimm, Lena Lisbeth; Weissbach, Sophie; Flügge, Friedemann; Begemann, Nora; Palcic, Monica

    2017-03-03

    Donor and acceptor substrate binding to human blood group A and B glycosyltransferases (GTA, GTB) has been studied by a variety of protein NMR experiments. Prior crystallographic studies have shown these enzymes to adopt an open conformation in the absence of substrates. Binding of either the donor substrate UDP-Gal, or of UDP induces a semi-closed conformation. In the presence of both, donor- and acceptor substrates, the enzymes shift towards a closed conformation with ordering of an internal loop and the C-terminal residues, which then completely cover the donor-binding pocket. Chemical shift titrations of uniformly 2H,15N labeled GTA or GTB with UDP affected about 20% of all cross peaks in 1H,15N-TROSY-HSQC spectra reflecting substantial plasticity of the enzymes. On the other hand, it is this conformational flexibility that impedes NH backbone assignments. Chemical shift perturbation experiments using 1-13C-methyl Ile labeled samples revealed two Ile residues, Ile123 at the bottom of the UDP binding pocket, and Ile192 as part of the internal loop that were significantly disturbed upon stepwise addition of UDP and H-disaccharide, also revealing long-range perturbations. Finally, methyl TROSY based relaxation dispersion experiments do not reveal s to ms time scale motions. Although this study reveals substantial conformational plasticity of GTA and GTB it remains enigmatic how binding of substrates shifts the enzymes into catalytically competent states.

  5. [Racism of "Blood" and colonial medicine - Blood group anthropology studies at Keijo Imperial University Department of Forensic Medicine].

    PubMed

    Jung, Joon Young

    2012-12-01

    This paper attempts to explore implications of Colonial medicine's Blood Type Studies, concerning the characteristics and tasks of racism in the Japanese Colonial Empire. Especially, it focuses on the Blood Group Anthropology Studies at Keijo Imperial University Department of Forensic Medicine. In Colonial Korea, the main stream of Blood Type Studies were Blood Group Anthropology Studies, which place Korean people who was inferior to Japanese people in the geography of the race on the one hand, but on the other, put Koreans as a missing link between the Mongolian and the Japanese for fulfillment of the Japanese colonialism, that is, assimilationist ideology. Then, Compared to the Western medicine and Metropole medicine of Japan, How differentiated was this tendency of Colonial Medicine from them? In this paper, main issues of Blood Group Anthropology Studies and its colonial implications are examined.

  6. Effects of prothrombotic markers and non-O blood group in maternal venous thromboembolism during pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Klai, Sarra; Fekih-Mrissa, Najiba; Sassi, Raja B; Mrissa, Ridha; Rachdi, Radhouen; Gritli, Nasredine

    2012-10-01

    Our aim was to assess thrombophilic risk factors and the non-O blood group as contributors to the development of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy and the postpartum period. A total of 199 women underwent blood typing and an extensive thombophilia screening. Factor V Leiden, FII G20210A, protein C deficiency and non-O blood group were significantly associated with venous thromboembolism during pregnancy and postpartum period. A known thrombophilic factor may have consequences for future pregnancies and could have implications for clinical practice. For this reason, women with a history of thromboembolism should be screened for thrombophilia. The non-O blood group could also have an important influence, especially when concomitant with another prothrombotic risk factor mainly pregnancy and thrombophilia.

  7. The chemistry and immunochemistry of blood group A, B, H, and Lewis antigens: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, K O

    2000-01-01

    This article traces reseach on the chemistry and immunochemistry of blood group A, B, H, and Lewis antigens from early work on the identification of soluble sources of these antigens, through the elucidation of the structures of the carbohydrate epitopes responsible for these specificities, to recent work on exploring their possible use as cancer vaccines. The various approaches used in the isolation of oligosaccharides from mucins for use in structural studies are discussed, as are recent efforts in the chemical systhesis of blood group-active oligosaccharides.

  8. Pleiotropic effect of a novel mutation in GCNT2 causing congenital cataract and a rare adult i blood group phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Sek-Shir; Hull, Sarah; Jones, Benjamin; Chana, Ravinder; Thornton, Nicole; Plagnol, Vincent; Moore, Anthony T; Hardcastle, Alison J

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in GCNT2 have been associated with the rare adult i blood group phenotype with or without congenital cataract. We report a novel homozygous frameshift mutation c.1163_1166delATCA, p.(Asn388Argfs*20) as the cause of congenital cataract in two affected siblings. Blood group typing confirmed that both affected males have the rare adult i phenotype, supporting the hypothesis that the partial association of I/i phenotype and congenital cataract is due to the differential expression of GCNT2 isoforms. PMID:28224043

  9. Seasonal tracking of histo-blood group antigen expression and norovirus binding in oyster gastrointestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Peng; Engelbrektson, Anna L; Mandrell, Robert E

    2008-08-01

    Noroviruses (NORs) are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks. Outbreaks are often associated with the consumption of contaminated oysters and generally occur between the months of November and March, when oysters produce the highest levels of glycogen. Oyster glycogen has been proposed as playing a role in NOR accumulation. Recent research indicates that histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) function as viral receptors on human gastrointestinal cells. In this study, oyster glycogen was tested to determine whether it contains HBGA-like molecules and whether it plays a role in NOR binding. The correlation between the amount of HBGA expression and NOR binding also was measured. We also tested whether seasonal changes affected HBGA expression and binding of recombinant NORs. The results indicate that recombinant NOR binding is highly correlated with HBGA expression in Virginica (Crassostrea virginica), Pacific (Crassostrea gigas), and Kumamato (Crassostrea sikamea) oysters, but the association does not have a seasonal pattern. No obvious trend in either HBGA expression or recombinant NOR binding by month was noted. A significant increase in recombinant NOR binding was observed in Virginica and Pacific oysters in a season not generally associated with NOR gastroenteritis outbreaks. A significant increase in HBGA expression also was observed for Pacific and Virginica oysters in the same season. Paradoxically, HBGA expression and NOR binding both were higher in oysters produced in the non-NOR gastroenteritis season (April through October) than in those produced in the NOR gastroenteritis season (November through March), suggesting that seasonal NOR gastroenteritis outbreaks are not associated with high levels of HBGA expression or NOR binding.

  10. Detection of the signature of natural selection in humans: evidence from the Duffy blood group locus.

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, M T; Di Rienzo, A

    2000-01-01

    The Duffy blood group locus, which encodes a chemokine receptor, is characterized by three alleles-FY*A, FY*B, and FY*O. The frequency of the FY*O allele, which corresponds to the absence of Fy antigen on red blood cells, is at or near fixation in most sub-Saharan African populations but is very rare outside Africa. The FST value for the FY*O allele is the highest observed for any allele in humans, providing strong evidence for the action of natural selection at this locus. Homozygosity for the FY*O allele confers complete resistance to vivax malaria, suggesting that this allele has been the target of selection by Plasmodium vivax or some other infectious agent. To characterize the signature of directional selection at this locus, we surveyed DNA sequence variation, both in a 1.9-kb region centered on the FY*O mutation site and in a 1-kb region 5-6 kb away from it, in 17 Italians and in a total of 24 individuals from five sub-Saharan African populations. The level of variation across both regions is two- to threefold lower in the Africans than in the Italians. As a result, the pooled African sample shows a significant departure from the neutral expectation for the number of segregating sites, whereas the Italian sample does not. The FY*O allele occurs on two major haplotypes in three of the five African populations. This finding could be due to recombination, recurrent mutation, population structure, and/or mutation accumulation and drift. Although we are unable to distinguish among these alternative hypotheses, it is likely that the two major haplotypes originated prior to selection on the FY*O mutation. PMID:10762551

  11. A novel paper-based assay for the simultaneous determination of Rh typing and forward and reverse ABO blood groups.

    PubMed

    Noiphung, Julaluk; Talalak, Kwanrutai; Hongwarittorrn, Irin; Pupinyo, Naricha; Thirabowonkitphithan, Pannawich; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2015-05-15

    We propose a new, paper-based analytical device (PAD) for blood typing that allows for the simultaneous determination of ABO and Rh blood groups on the same device. The device was successfully fabricated by using a combination of wax printing and wax dipping methods. A 1:2 blood dilution was used for forward grouping, whereas whole blood could be used for reverse grouping. A 30% cell suspension of A-cells or B-cells was used for haemagglutination on the reverse grouping side. The total assay time was 10 min. The ratio between the distance of red blood cell movement and plasma separation is the criterion for agglutination and indicates the presence of the corresponding antigen or antibody. The proposed PAD has excellent reproducibility in that the same blood groups, namely A, AB, and O, were reported by using different PADs that were fabricated on the same day (n=10). The accuracy for detecting blood group A (n=12), B (n=13), AB (n=9), O (n=14), and Rh (n=48) typing were 92%, 85%, 89%, 93%, and 96%, respectively, in comparison with the conventional slide test method. The haematocrit of the sample affects the accuracy of the results, and appropriate dilution is suggested before typing. In conclusion, this study proposes a novel method that is straightforward, time-saving, and inexpensive for the simultaneous determination of ABO and Rh blood groups, which is promising for use in developing countries.

  12. Typing of blood-group antigens on neutral oligosaccharides by negative-ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongtao; Zhang, Shuang; Tao, Guanjun; Zhang, Yibing; Mulloy, Barbara; Zhan, Xiaobei; Chai, Wengang

    2013-06-18

    Blood-group antigens, such as those containing fucose and bearing the ABO(H)- and Lewis-type determinants expressed on the carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins and glycolipids, and also on unconjugated free oligosaccharides in human milk and other secretions, are associated with various biological functions. We have previously shown the utility of negative-ion electrospay ionization tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation (ESI-CID-MS/MS) for typing of Lewis (Le) determinants, for example, Le(a), Le(x), Le(b), and Le(y) on neutral and sialylated oligosaccharide chains. In the present report, we extended the strategy to characterization of blood-group A-, B-, and H-determinants on type 1 and type 2 and also on type 4 globoside chains to provide a high sensitivity method for typing of all the major blood-group antigens, including the A, B, H, Le(a), Le(x), Le(b), and Le(y) determinants, present in oligosaccharides. Using the principles established, we identified two minor unknown oligosaccharide components present in the products of enzymatic synthesis by bacterial fermentation. We also demonstrated that the unique fragmentations derived from the D- and (0,2)A-type cleavages observed in ESI-CID-MS/MS, which are important for assigning blood-group and chain types, only occur under the negative-ion conditions for reducing sugars but not for reduced alditols or under positive-ion conditions.

  13. Identification of the Molecular and Genetic Basis of PX2, a Glycosphingolipid Blood Group Antigen Lacking on Globoside-deficient Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Westman, Julia S; Benktander, John; Storry, Jill R; Peyrard, Thierry; Hult, Annika K; Hellberg, Åsa; Teneberg, Susann; Olsson, Martin L

    2015-07-24

    The x2 glycosphingolipid is expressed on erythrocytes from individuals of all common blood group phenotypes and elevated on cells of the rare P/P1/P(k)-negative p blood group phenotype. Globoside or P antigen is synthesized by UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:globotriaosyl-ceramide 3-β-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase encoded by B3GALNT1. It is the most abundant non-acid glycosphingolipid on erythrocytes and displays the same terminal disaccharide, GalNAcβ3Gal, as x2. We encountered a patient with mutations in B3GALNT1 causing the rare P-deficient P1 (k) phenotype and whose pretransfusion plasma was unexpectedly incompatible with p erythrocytes. The same phenomenon was also noted in seven other unrelated P-deficient individuals. Thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry, and flow cytometry were used to show that the naturally occurring antibodies made by p individuals recognize x2 and sialylated forms of x2, whereas x2 is lacking on P-deficient erythrocytes. Overexpression of B3GALNT1 resulted in synthesis of both P and x2. Knockdown experiments with siRNA against B3GALNT1 diminished x2 levels. We conclude that x2 fulfills blood group criteria and is synthesized by UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine: globotriaosylceramide 3-β-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Based on this linkage, we proposed that x2 joins P in the GLOB blood group system (ISBT 028) and is renamed PX2 (GLOB2). Thus, in the absence of a functional P synthase, neither P nor PX2 are formed. As a consequence, naturally occurring anti-P and anti-PX2 can be made. Until the clinical significance of anti-PX2 is known, we also recommend that rare P1 (k) or P2 (k) erythrocyte units are preferentially selected for transfusion to P(k) patients because p erythrocytes may pose a risk for hemolytic transfusion reactions due to their elevated PX2 levels.

  14. Histo-Blood Group Antigen Presentation Is Critical for Binding of Norovirus VLP to Glycosphingolipids in Model Membranes.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Waqas; Frank, Martin; Kunze, Angelika; Bally, Marta; Parra, Francisco; Nyholm, Per-Georg; Höök, Fredrik; Larson, Göran

    2017-03-27

    Virus entry depends on biomolecular recognition at the surface of cell membranes. In the case of glycolipid receptors, these events are expected to be influenced by how the glycan epitope close to the membrane is presented to the virus. This presentation of membrane-associated glycans is more restricted than that of glycans in solution, particularly because of orientational constraints imposed on the glycolipid through its lateral interactions with other membrane lipids and proteins. We have developed and employed a total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy-based binding assay and a scheme for molecular dynamics (MD) membrane simulations to investigate the consequences of various glycan presentation effects. The system studied was histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) epitopes of membrane-bound glycosphingolipids (GSLs) derived from small intestinal epithelium of humans (type 1 chain) and dogs (type 2 chain) interacting with GII.4 norovirus-like particles. Our experimental results showed strong binding to all lipid-linked type 1 chain HBGAs but no or only weak binding to the corresponding type 2 chain HBGAs. This is in contrast to results derived from STD experiments with free HBGAs in solution where binding was observed for Lewis x. The MD data suggest that the strong binding to type 1 chain glycolipids was due to the well-exposed (1,2)-linked α-l-Fucp and (1,4)-linked α-l-Fucp residues, while the weaker binding or lack of binding to type 2 chain HBGAs was due to the very restricted accessibility of the (1,3)-linked α-l-Fucp residue when the glycolipid is embedded in a phospholipid membrane. Our results not only contribute to a general understanding of protein-carbohydrate interactions on model membrane surfaces, particularly in the context of virus binding, but also suggest a possible role of human intestinal GSLs as potential receptors for norovirus uptake.

  15. Extensive Genomic Variability of Knops Blood Group Polymorphisms Is Associated with Sickle Cell Disease in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Duru, Kimberley C; Noble, Jenelle A; Guindo, Aldiouma; Yi, Li; Imumorin, Ikhide G; Diallo, Dapa A; Thomas, Bolaji N

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a multisystem disorder characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusive crises, and marked variability in disease severity. Patients require transfusions to manage disease complications, with complements, directed by complement regulatory genes (CR1) and its polymorphisms, implicated in the development of alloantibodies. We hypothesize that CR1 polymorphisms affect complement regulation and function, leading to adverse outcome in SCD. To this end, we determined the genomic diversity of complement regulatory genes by examining single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Knops blood group antigens. Genomic DNA samples from 130 SCD cases and 356 control Africans, 331 SCD cases and 497 control African Americans, and 254 Caucasians were obtained and analyzed, utilizing a PCR—RFLP (polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism) assay. Analyzing for ethnic diversity, we found significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of Sl1/Sl2 (rs17047661) and McCa/b (rs17047660) polymorphisms between Africans, African Americans, and Caucasians (P < 0.05). The homozygote mutant variants had significantly higher frequencies in Africans and African Americans but were insignificant in Caucasians (80.2% and 59.6% vs 5.9% for Sl1/2; and 36% and 24% vs 1.8% for McCa/b). With SCD, we did not detect any difference among cases and controls either in Africa or in the United States. However, we found significant difference in genotypic (P < 0.0001) and allelic frequencies (P < 0.0001) of Sl1/Sl2 (rs17047661) and McCa/b (rs17047660) polymorphisms between SCD groups from Africa and the United States. There was no difference in haplotype frequencies of these polymorphisms among or between groups. The higher frequency of CR1 homozygote mutant variants in Africa but not United States indicates a potential pathogenic role, possibly associated with complicated disease pathophysiology in the former and potentially

  16. Comparative study of substrate and product binding to the human ABO(H) blood group glycosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Soya, Naoto; Shoemaker, Glen K; Palcic, Monica M; Klassen, John S

    2009-11-01

    The first comparative thermodynamic study of the human blood group glycosyltransferases, alpha-(1-->3)-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GTA) and alpha-(1-->3)-galactosyltransferase (GTB), interacting with donor substrates, donor and acceptor analogs, and trisaccharide products in vitro is reported. The binding constants, measured at 24 degrees C with the direct electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ES-MS) assay, provide new insights into these model GTs and their interactions with substrate and product. Notably, the recombinant forms of GTA and GTB used in this study are shown to exist as homodimers, stabilized by noncovalent interactions at neutral pH. In the absence of divalent metal ion, neither GTA nor GTB exhibits any appreciable affinity for its native donors (UDP-GalNAc, UDP-Gal). Upon introduction of Mn(2+), both donors undergo enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis in the presence of either GTA or GTB. Hydrolysis of UDP-GalNAc in the presence of GTA proceeds very rapidly under the solution conditions investigated and a binding constant could not be directly measured. In contrast, the rate of hydrolysis of UDP-Gal in the presence of GTB is significantly slower and, utilizing a modified approach to analyze the ES-MS data, a binding constant of 2 x 10(4) M(-1) was established. GTA and GTB bind the donor analogs UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-Glc with affinities similar to those measured for UDP-Gal and UDP-GalNAc (GTB only), suggesting that the native donors and donor analogs bind to the GTA and GTB through similar interactions. The binding constant determined for GTA and UDP-GlcNAc (approximately 1 x 10(4) M(-1)), therefore, provides an estimate for the binding constant for GTA and UDP-GalNAc. Binding of GTA and GTB with the A and B trisaccharide products was also investigated for the first time. In the absence of UDP and Mn(2+), both GTA and GTB recognize their respective trisaccharide products but with a low affinity approximately 10(3) M(-1); the presence of UDP and Mn(2

  17. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab′)2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool. PMID:27484487

  18. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-08-03

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab')2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool.

  19. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Getaneh; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of 22 ± 0.29 (median ± standard error of the mean). Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%), A (136, 32.7%), B (87, 20.9%), and AB (18, 4.3%). Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%). The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416). ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (P = 0.022). High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, P = 0.003) compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia. PMID:26925291

  20. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemu, Getaneh; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of 22 ± 0.29 (median ± standard error of the mean). Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%), A (136, 32.7%), B (87, 20.9%), and AB (18, 4.3%). Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%). The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416). ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (P = 0.022). High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, P = 0.003) compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia.

  1. Blood Group Typing: From Classical Strategies to the Application of Synthetic Antibodies Generated by Molecular Imprinting †

    PubMed Central

    Mujahid, Adnan; Dickert, Franz L.

    2015-01-01

    Blood transfusion requires a mandatory cross-match test to examine the compatibility between donor and recipient blood groups. Generally, in all cross-match tests, a specific chemical reaction of antibodies with erythrocyte antigens is carried out to monitor agglutination. Since the visual inspection is no longer useful for obtaining precise quantitative information, therefore there is a wide variety of different technologies reported in the literature to recognize the agglutination reactions. Despite the classical methods, modern biosensors and molecular blood typing strategies have also been considered for straightforward, accurate and precise analysis. The interfacial part of a typical sensor device could range from natural antibodies to synthetic receptor materials, as designed by molecular imprinting and which is suitably integrated with the transducer surface. Herein, we present a comprehensive overview of some selected strategies extending from traditional practices to modern procedures in blood group typing, thus to highlight the most promising approach among emerging technologies. PMID:26729127

  2. Simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood group typing using a paper-based device and barcode-like interpretation.

    PubMed

    Songjaroen, Temsiri; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2016-05-19

    A new platform of a paper-based analytical device (PAD) for simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood group typing has been reported. This platform can overcome the discrepancy results as influenced by the individual haematocrit. The test and the control of non-haemagglutination on each channel were performed in parallel. The PAD was fabricated by printing six parallel channels with wax onto Whatman No. 4 filter paper. An LF1 blood separation membrane was used for the separation of plasma from whole blood for reverse grouping. The blood group was identified by haemagglutination of the corresponding antigen-antibody. For forward grouping, Anti-A, -B and -A,B were treated on the test line of PAD, and inactivated Anti-A, -B and -A,B were immobilized on the control line. For reverse grouping, 30% standard A-cells, B- and O- were added to the test channel after plasma separation, and O-cells were used as a control. Then, 0.9% normal saline (NSS) containing 1% Tween-20 was bi-functionally used for dilution of the blood sample and elution of the non-agglutinated RBCs within the channels. The distance of agglutinated RBCs in each test line was compared with the distance of non-agglutinated RBCs in the parallel control line. The forward and reverse patterns of blood groups A, B, AB and O were a barcode-like chart in which the results can be visually analysed. The PAD has excellent reproducibility when 10 replications of the A, B, AB or O blood groups were performed. The results of both forward and reverse grouping were highly correlated with conventional methods compared with the slide method and tube method, respectively (n = 76). Thus, this ABO typing PAD holds great potential for future applications in blood typing point-of-care testing.

  3. Novel UDP-GalNAc Derivative Structures Provide Insight into the Donor Specificity of Human Blood Group Glycosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Gerd K; Pesnot, Thomas; Palcic, Monica M; Jørgensen, Rene

    2015-12-25

    Two closely related glycosyltransferases are responsible for the final step of the biosynthesis of ABO(H) human blood group A and B antigens. The two enzymes differ by only four amino acid residues, which determine whether the enzymes transfer GalNAc from UDP-GalNAc or Gal from UDP-Gal to the H-antigen acceptor. The enzymes belong to the class of GT-A folded enzymes, grouped as GT6 in the CAZy database, and are characterized by a single domain with a metal dependent retaining reaction mechanism. However, the exact role of the four amino acid residues in the specificity of the enzymes is still unresolved. In this study, we report the first structural information of a dual specificity cis-AB blood group glycosyltransferase in complex with a synthetic UDP-GalNAc derivative. Interestingly, the GalNAc moiety adopts an unusual yet catalytically productive conformation in the binding pocket, which is different from the "tucked under" conformation previously observed for the UDP-Gal donor. In addition, we show that this UDP-GalNAc derivative in complex with the H-antigen acceptor provokes the same unusual binding pocket closure as seen for the corresponding UDP-Gal derivative. Despite this, the two derivatives show vastly different kinetic properties. Our results provide a important structural insight into the donor substrate specificity and utilization in blood group biosynthesis, which can very likely be exploited for the development of new glycosyltransferase inhibitors and probes.

  4. Structural characterization of neutral oligosaccharides with blood-group A and H activity isolated from bovine submaxillary mucin.

    PubMed Central

    Savage, A V; D'Arcy, S M; Donoghue, C M

    1991-01-01

    In this study we investigated the structures of 11 neutral oligosaccharides released from bovine submaxillary mucin by alkaline borohydride treatment and isolated by h.p.l.c. One hexa-, one penta-, three tetra-, four tri- and two di-saccharides containing core types 1, 2, 3 or 4 were obtained. We report their structures, determined by a combination of one- and two-dimensional 1H n.m.r. spectroscopy at 270 MHz and methylation analysis involving g.l.c.-m.s., along with their approximate molar ratios. Only three of these oligosaccharides have previously been reported in this source. Of the new oligosaccharides, one contains the blood-group-A antigenic determinant, two contain the blood-group-H type 2 determinant, while another contains the blood-group-H type 3 determinant. The oligosaccharide GlcNAc beta (1----6)[GlcNAc beta (1----3)]GalNAcol, although previously found as a core structure, has been isolated here as a novel trisaccharide. PMID:1718265

  5. Multiple hydrothermal and metamorphic events in the Kidd Creek volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, Timmins, Ontario: evidence from tourmalines and chlorites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Coad, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The tourmalines and chlorites record a series of multiple hydrothermal and metamorphic events. Paragenetic studies suggest that tourmaline was deposited during several discrete stages of mineralization, as evidence by brecciation and cross-cutting relationships. Most of the tourmalines have two concentric growth zones defined by different colours (green, brown, blue, yellow). Some tourmalines also display pale discordant rims that cross-cut and embay the inner growth zones and polycrystalline, multiple-extinction domains. Late sulphide veinlets (chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite) transect the inner growth zones and pale discordant rims of many crystals. The concentric growth zones are interpreted as primary features developed by the main ore-forming hydrothermal system, whereas the discordant rims, polycrystalline domains, and cross-cutting sulphide veinlets reflect post-ore metamorphic processes. Variations in mineral proportions and mineral chemistry within the deposit mainly depend on fluctuations in temperature, pH, water/rock ratios, and amounts of entrained seawater. -from Authors

  6. ABO (histo) blood group phenotype development and human reproduction as they relate to ancestral IgM formation: A hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Arend, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a histo (blood) group) ABO phenotype and the exclusion of an autoreactive IgM or isoagglutinin activity arise apparently in identical glycosylation of complementary domains on cell surfaces and plasma proteins. The fundamental O-glycan emptiness of the circulating IgM, which during the neonatal amino acid sequencing of the variable regions is exerting germline-specific O-GalNAc glycan-reactive serine/threonine residues that in the plasma of the adult human blood group O individuals apparently remain associated with the open glycosidic sites on the ABOH convertible red cell surface, must raise suggestions on a transient expression of developmental glycans, which have been "lost" over the course of maturation. In fact, while the mammalian non-somatic, embryogenic stem cell (ESC)- germ cell (GC) transformation is characterized by a transient and genetically as-yet-undefined trans-species-functional O-GalNAc glycan expression, in the C57BL/10 mouse such expression was potentially identified in growth-dependent, blood group A-like GalNAc glycan-bearing, ovarian glycolipids complementary with the syngeneic anti-A reactive IgM, which does not appear in early ovariectomized animals. This non-somatically encoded, polyreactive, ancestral IgM molecule has not undergone clonal selection and does primarily not differentiate between self and non-self and might, due to amino acid hydroxyl groups, highly suggest substrate competition with subsequent O-glycosylations in ongoing ESC-GC transformations and affecting GC maturation. However, the membrane-bound somatic N/O-glycotransferases, which initiate, after formation of the zygote, the complex construction of the human ABO phenotypes in the trans cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, are associated and/or completed with soluble enzyme versions exerting identical specificities in plasma and likely competing vice versa by glycosylation of neonatal IgM amino acids, where they suggest to accomplish the clearance of anti

  7. Allelic variance among ABO blood group genotypes in a population from the western region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Hindawi, Salwa Ibrahim; Al-harthi, Sameer; Alam, Qamre; Alam, Mohammad Zubair; Haque, Absarul; Ahmad, Waseem; Damanhouri, Ghazi A

    2016-01-01

    Background Characterization of the ABO blood group at the phenotype and genotype levels is clinically essential for transfusion, forensics, and population studies. This study elucidated ABO phenotypes and genotypes, and performed an evaluation of their distribution in individuals from the western region of Saudi Arabia. Methods One-hundred and seven samples underwent standard serological techniques for ABO blood group phenotype analysis. ABO alleles and genotypes were identified using multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and electrophoretic analysis was performed to evaluate the highly polymorphic ABO locus. Results A phenotype distribution of 37.4%, 30.8%, 24.3%, and 7.5% was found for blood groups O, A, B, and AB respectively in our study cohort. Genotype analysis identified 10 genotype combinations with the O01/O02 and A102/O02 genotypes being the most frequent with frequencies of 33.6% and 14.95%, respectively. Common genotypes such as A101/A101, A101/A102, A101/B101, B101/B101, and O01/O01 were not detected. Similarly, the rare genotypes, cis-AB01/O02, cis-AB01/O01, and cis-AB01/A102 were not found in our cohort. The most frequently observed allele was O02 (35.98%) followed by the A102 allele (17.76%). Furthermore, our findings are discussed in reference to ABO allele and genotype frequencies found in other ethnic groups. Conclusion The study has a significant implication on the management of blood bank and transfusion services in Saudi Arabian patients. PMID:28090491

  8. Stabilization of Transfected Cells Expressing Low-Incidence Blood Group Antigens: Novel Methods Facilitating Their Use as Reagent-Cells

    PubMed Central

    González, Cecilia; Esteban, Rosa; Canals, Carme; Muñiz-Díaz, Eduardo; Nogués, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Background The identification of erythrocyte antibodies in the serum of patients rely on panels of human red blood cells (RBCs), which coexpress many antigens and are not easily available for low-incidence blood group phenotypes. These problems have been addressed by generating cell lines expressing unique blood group antigens, which may be used as an alternative to human RBCs. However, the use of cell lines implies several drawbacks, like the requirement of cell culture facilities and the high cost of cryopreservation. The application of cell stabilization methods could facilitate their use as reagent cells in clinical laboratories. Methods We generated stably-transfected cells expressing low-incidence blood group antigens (Dia and Lua). High-expresser clones were used to assess the effect of TransFix® treatment and lyophilization as cell preservation methods. Cells were kept at 4°C and cell morphology, membrane permeability and antigenic properties were evaluated at several time-points after treatment. Results TransFix® addition to cell suspensions allows cell stabilization and proper antigen detection for at least 120 days, despite an increase in membrane permeability and a reduction in antigen expression levels. Lyophilized cells showed minor morphological changes and antigen expression levels were rather conserved at days 1, 15 and 120, indicating a high stability of the freeze-dried product. These stabilized cells have been proved to react specifically with human sera containing alloantibodies. Conclusions Both stabilization methods allow long-term preservation of the transfected cells antigenic properties and may facilitate their distribution and use as reagent-cells expressing low-incidence antigens, overcoming the limited availability of such rare RBCs. PMID:27603310

  9. Blood Group Determination using DNA extracted from Exfoliated Primary Teeth at Various Time Durations and Temperatures: A PCR Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Sham S; Salman, Afreen; Hegde, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based blood group on tooth pulp obtained from teeth stored for 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year following extraction and to evaluate the stability of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in primary tooth subjected to a temperature of 200°C ± 5°C for 15 minutes. Materials and methods Dental pulp tissue was collected from 40 exfoliated primary teeth stored for various time durations and temperature and preserved at 4°C till DNA extraction was carried out. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted using silica membrane-based spin-column procedure of QIAamp DNA minikit from BioRad. Deoxyribonucleic acid was subjected to PCR amplification and monoplex allele-specific PCR primers for ABO genotyping. Statistical analysis used The data were analyzed by comparison (based on percentage). Results In our study, overall, 85% samples showed a DNA yield. Cent percent results were obtained for samples studied at the end of 1 month followed by 90 and 80% for samples studied for 6 months and 1 year respectively. Heated samples showed 70% result. Conclusion Polymerase chain reaction was found to be an effective method for blood group determination for teeth stored at various time durations and temperatures. However, as the time interval increased, the number of positive results obtained decreased. How to cite this article Pai RK, Bhat SS, Salman A, Hegde S. Blood Group Determination using DNA extracted from Exfoliated Primary Teeth at Various Time Durations and Temperatures: A PCR Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):308-312. PMID:28127161

  10. Organization of the human LU gene and molecular basis of the Lu(a)/Lu(b) blood group polymorphism.

    PubMed

    El Nemer, W; Rahuel, C; Colin, Y; Gane, P; Cartron, J P; Le Van Kim, C

    1997-06-15

    The Lutheran (Lu) blood group antigens and the B-cell adhesion molecule (B-CAM) epithelial cancer antigen are carried by recently cloned integral glycoproteins that belong to the Ig superfamily. We have previously shown that the Lu and B-CAM antigens are encoded by the same gene, LU, and that alternative splicing of the primary transcript most likely accounts for the presence of both antigens on two isoforms that differ by the length of their cytoplasmic tails. In the present report, we isolated the human LU gene by cloning a 20-kb HindIII fragment from Lu(a - b+) genomic DNA. The LU gene is organized into 15 exons distributed over 12.5 kb. Alternative splicing of intron 13 generates the 2.5- and 4.0-kb transcript spliceoforms encoding the long tail and the short tail Lu polypeptides, respectively. Sequencing of the major mRNA species (2.5 kb) amplified from human bone marrow, kidney, placenta, and skeletal muscle did not suggest the presence of tissue-specific Lu glycoprotein isoforms. The same transcription initiation point, located 22 bp upstream from the initiation codon, was characterized in several tissues. In agreement with the wide tissue distribution of the Lu messengers, the GC-rich proximal 5' flanking region of the LU gene does not contain TATA or CAAT boxes, but includes several potential binding sites for the ubiquitous Sp1 transcription factor. In addition, the distal 5' region, encompassing nucleotides -673 to -764, contains clustered binding sequences for the GATA, CACCC, and Ets transcription factors. Analysis of the coding sequences amplified from genomic DNA of Lu(a + b-) or Lu(a - b+) donors showed a single nucleotide change in exon 3 (A229G) that correlates with an Aci I restriction site polymorphism and results in a His77Arg amino-acid substitution. Polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis indicated that the A229G mutation is associated with the Lu(a)/Lu(b) blood group polymorphism. When expressed in Chinese

  11. Red blood cell complement receptor one level varies with Knops blood group, α+thalassaemia and age among Kenyan children

    PubMed Central

    Opi, D H; Uyoga, S; Orori, E N; Williams, T N; Rowe, J A

    2016-01-01

    Both the invasion of red blood cells (RBCs) by Plasmodium falciparum parasites and the sequestration of parasite-infected RBCs in the microvasculature are mediated in part by complement receptor one (CR1). RBC surface CR1 level can vary between individuals by more than 20-fold and may be associated with the risk of severe malaria. The factors that influence RBC CR1 level variation are poorly understood, particularly in African populations. We studied 3535 child residents of a malaria-endemic region of coastal Kenya and report, for the first time, that the CR1 Knops blood group alleles Sl2 and McCb, and homozygous HbSS are positively associated with RBC CR1 level. Sickle cell trait and ABO blood group did not influence RBC CR1 level. We also confirm the previous observation that α+thalassaemia is associated with reduced RBC CR1 level, possibly due to small RBC volume, and that age-related changes in RBC CR1 expression occur throughout childhood. RBC CR1 level in malaria-endemic African populations is a complex phenotype influenced by multiple factors that should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future studies on CR1 and malaria susceptibility. PMID:26844958

  12. Estimation of combat-related blood group alloimmunization and delayed serologic transfusion reactions in U.S. military veterans.

    PubMed

    Tormey, Christopher A; Stack, Gary

    2009-05-01

    The goals of this study were to estimate blood group alloimmunization arising from combat-related transfusion and the prevalence of delayed serologic transfusion reactions (DSTRs) in military veteran patients. Blood group alloantibodies documented in the transfusion records at a Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center were categorized according to whether they developed before ("pre-existing") or during ("hospital-acquired") VA care and whether they were associated with anamnestic immune responses. Combat-related alloantibodies were estimated by adding anamnestic to pre-existing antibodies, revealing that 256 veterans made 322 combat-related alloantibodies. The combat-related alloimmunization rate was 1.37% (256/18,750), and combat-related alloantibodies represented 55.8% (322/577) of total alloantibodies. The highest rate of combat-related alloimmunization was observed in World War II-era veterans. Approximately 11.2% (25/224) of veterans with hospital-acquired antibodies experienced a DSTR due to prior alloimmunization. In conclusion, combat-related alloimmunization accounted for more than half of antibodies in military veterans and was a predisposing factor for DSTRs.

  13. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmashkin, A. A.; Dubrovskii, V. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.

    2012-05-01

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  14. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Dolmashkin, A A; Dubrovskii, V A; Zabenkov, I V

    2012-05-31

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  15. Molecular typing for blood group antigens within 40 min by direct polymerase chain reaction from plasma or serum.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Franz F; Flegel, Willy A; Bittner, Rita; Döscher, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Determining blood group antigens by serological methods may be unreliable in certain situations, such as in patients after chronic or massive transfusion. Red cell genotyping offers a complementary approach, but current methods may take much longer than conventional serological typing, limiting their utility in urgent situations. To narrow this gap, we devised a rapid method using direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification while avoiding the DNA extraction step. DNA was amplified by PCR directly from plasma or serum of blood donors followed by a melting curve analysis in a capillary rapid-cycle PCR assay. We evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying the clinically relevant Fy(a) , Fy(b) , Jk(a) and Jk(b) antigens, with our analysis being completed within 40 min of receiving a plasma or serum sample. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value at least 84%. Direct PCR with melting point analysis allowed faster red cell genotyping to predict blood group antigens than any previous molecular method. Our assay may be used as a screening tool with subsequent confirmatory testing, within the limitations of the false-negative rate. With fast turnaround times, the rapid-cycle PCR assay may eventually be developed and applied to red cell genotyping in the hospital setting.

  16. [Hemolytic anemia caused by graft-versus-host reaction in ABO-nonidentical renal transplants from blood group O donors].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; Díaz Corte, C; Navascués, R A

    2001-01-01

    Acute hemolytic anemia is one of the side effects associated with cyclosporin and tacrolimus therapy, and three mechanisms have been described to account for hemolytic anemia in patients receiving these drugs: drug induced hemolysis, autoimmune hemolysis and alloimmune hemolysis resulting from donor lymphocytes derived from the allograft (passenger lymphocyte syndrome). We report four cases of renal transplant recipients who developed alloimmune hemolytic anemia due to minor ABO incompatibility while under treatment with cyclosporin (two) and tacrolimus (two). The anti-erythrocyte antibodies responsible for hemolysis were of the IgG isotype and showed anti-A or anti-B specificity. These findings suggest that the hemolysis could be related to alloantibodies derived from the clonal development of donor B lymphocytes in the recipients (microchimerism). In summary, hemolytic anemia due to ABO-minor incompatibility occurs infrequently after renal transplantation. Risks are higher for patients A, B or AB blood group receiving an O blood group graft under treatment with cyclosporin or tacrolimus. Follow-up of these patients is warranted for the early detection and optimal management may be achieved by reduction of immunosuppression and change to mycophenolate mofetil.

  17. Structural diversity and biological importance of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood group carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    ABO, H, secretor and Lewis histo-blood system genes control the expression of part of the carbohydrate repertoire present in areas of the body occupied by microorganisms. These carbohydrates, besides having great structural diversity, act as potential receptors for pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms influencing susceptibility and resistance to infection and illness. Despite the knowledge of some structural variability of these carbohydrate antigens and their polymorphic levels of expression in tissue and exocrine secretions, little is known about their biological importance and potential applications in medicine. This review highlights the structural diversity, the biological importance and potential applications of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood carbohydrates.

  18. Attenuated live cholera vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR elicits significantly higher serum vibriocidal antibody titers in persons of blood group O.

    PubMed Central

    Lagos, R; Avendaño, A; Prado, V; Horwitz, I; Wasserman, S; Losonsky, G; Cryz, S; Kaper, J B; Levine, M M

    1995-01-01

    Persons of blood group O are at increased risk of developing cholera gravis. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind safety-immunogenicity trial of live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR in 5- to 9-year-old Chilean children, vibriocidal antibody seroconversion (74% overall) did not differ by blood group. However, the reciprocal geometric mean titer (GMT) in blood group O vaccines (GMT = 486) was higher than that in non-O vaccines (GMT = 179) (P < 0.02). PMID:7822046

  19. Attenuated live cholera vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR elicits significantly higher serum vibriocidal antibody titers in persons of blood group O.

    PubMed

    Lagos, R; Avendaño, A; Prado, V; Horwitz, I; Wasserman, S; Losonsky, G; Cryz, S; Kaper, J B; Levine, M M

    1995-02-01

    Persons of blood group O are at increased risk of developing cholera gravis. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind safety-immunogenicity trial of live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR in 5- to 9-year-old Chilean children, vibriocidal antibody seroconversion (74% overall) did not differ by blood group. However, the reciprocal geometric mean titer (GMT) in blood group O vaccines (GMT = 486) was higher than that in non-O vaccines (GMT = 179) (P < 0.02).

  20. Human blood group typing based on digital photographs of RBC agglutination process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubrovski, V. A.; Dolmashkin, A. A.

    2010-08-01

    A method for the monitoring of the human erythrocyte agglutination reaction in vitro, which is the basis for determining the human blood type (group), is proposed. The method is based on a statistical analysis of digital photographs of the agglutination process. It is experimentally shown that this analysis of photographs makes it possible to determine the probability that the agglutination reaction of erythrocytes of the studied specimen of blood with corresponding isohemagglutinating sera does occur. To increase the rate of the agglutination reaction of erythrocytes and to improve the sensitivity of the method of monitoring, the bioobject under study is subjected to the action of ultrasonic waves, as was previously proposed by the authors, and the result of the erythrocyte agglutination reaction is read optically. It is shown that, in principle, the method of statistical processing of digital photographs can be used to develop devices for automatic human blood typing in the AB0 and Rh systems.

  1. SUPPRESSION OF BLOOD GROUP AGGLUTINABILITY OF HUMAN ERYTHROCYTES BY CERTAIN BACTERIAL POLYSACCHARIDES

    PubMed Central

    Ceppellini, Ruggero; Landy, Maurice

    1963-01-01

    Erythrocytes coated with bacterial capsular polysaccharides, notably the Vi antigen, were no longer agglutinated by antibodies directed against the various antigens native to the red cell surface. These effects could not be attributed to prevention of antibody uptake even though in some systems the uptake of antibody was diminished. In fact, agglutination by Rh-incomplete antibody was brought back to the original titer only after the sensitized Vi-coated cells had been subjected to ten alternating exposures to globulin and antiglobulin. Hemagglutination by Newcastle, mumps, and influenza viruses was also suppressed. Erythrocytes coated with Vi polysaccharide assumed the distinctive physicochemical attributes of this acidic polymer which results in a stabilization of the erythrocyte suspension as manifested by increased electrophoretic mobility and a striking decrease in the rate of sedimentation. Among the possible models for explaining the nature of the Vi effect on immune agglutination, the data favor interference with lattice formation. PMID:14019651

  2. R and G color component competition of RGB image decomposition as a criterion to register RBC agglutinates for blood group typing.

    PubMed

    Doubrovski, Valeri A; Ganilova, Yuliya A; Zabenkov, Igor V

    2014-03-01

    A new approach of the criterion assignment for registration of erythrocyte agglutinates to instrumentally determine blood group type is suggested. The criterion is based on comparison of R and G components of RGB decomposition of microscopy digital image taken for the blood-serum mixture sample. For the chosen experimental conditions, the minimal size (area) of RBC agglutinate to be registered by the criterion suggested is estimated theoretically. The proposed method was tested experimentally on the example of monitoring agglutinates in flow. The encouraging experimental results were obtained for improvement of the resolving power of the method; the optimal experimental conditions were revealed for maximum resolution. Though the suggested method was realized for dynamic (flow) blood group determination, it could also be applied for diagnostics in a stationary environment. This approach increases the reliability of RBC agglutinates registration and, hence, blood group typing. The results may be used to develop the apparatus for automated determination of human blood group.

  3. The PFA-100R cannot detect blood group-dependent inhibition of platelet function by eptifibatide or abciximab at therapeutic plasma concentrations.

    PubMed

    Feuring, M; Ruf, A; Schultz, A; Wehling, M

    2010-01-01

    Previous investigations revealed that AB0 blood groups are associated with divergent concentrations of several coagulation factors. Concentrations of von Willebrand factor (vWF) and factor VIII are lower in individuals with blood group 0 compared to subjects with blood group A, B or AB, which might in turn result in a reduced inhibition of platelet aggregation in individuals with blood group 0. The aim of the present in vitro investigation was to elucidate the impact of AB0 blood group-dependent vWF concentrations on eptifibatide and abciximab mediated inhibition of GPIIb/IIIa function. Platelet function was measured with the platelet function analyzer PFA-100(R) at baseline and at increasing concentrations of eptifibatide and abciximab. It was stratified for blood group 0 vs A. If measured with the collagen/ADP cartridge, blood group 0 was associated with a prolonged mean baseline closure time in comparison with blood group A (94.3 +/- 14.6 s vs. 74.6 +/- 9.9 s, p = 0.007) which was paralleled by reduced concentrations of vWF and factor VIII. In contrast, no statistically significant differences in closure times (167.4 +/- 83.9 s vs. 140.1 +/- 99.0 s, p = 0.562) could be found in the presence of eptifibatide (0.1 microg/ml). Higher concentrations of abciximab (1 microg/ml) than those of eptifibatide were needed to increase the closure times in both cartridges of the PFA-100, but at this concentration of abciximab differences in closure times could not be detected most probably due to higher variability at these drug concentrations. The PFA-100(R) is not suitable for monitoring abciximab or eptifibatide within the therapeutic concentration range because the highest concentrations where the PFA-100(R) had measurable closure times of below 300 s is much too low to lead to the necessary platelet inhibition and, consequently, does not resemble the in vivo situation.

  4. Distribution of ABO blood groups in the patients with intracranial aneurysm and association of different risk factors with particular blood type

    PubMed Central

    Bir, Shyamal Chandra; Bollam, Papireddy; Nanda, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The association between ABO blood groups and intracranial aneurysms is not well-known. Many co-morbid factors are associated with intracranial aneurysms. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of different blood group in patients with intracranial aneurysm and to look for associations between risk factors and these groups. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study includes 1,491 cases who underwent surgical operations for intracranial aneurysms from 1993-2014. We have evaluated the information related to clinical history, ABO blood groups and associated risk factors in the patients both ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms by chart review of the cases. Results: In our study, out of 1,491 cases, the most common ABO blood groups were group O (668 cases, 44.80%) and Group A (603 cases, 40.44%), and Rh(+) in 1,319 (88.4%) and Rh(-) in 147 (11.6%). Blood Group A (43% vs. 36%) and Group B (16.2% vs. 8.6%) were significantly higher in Caucasian and African Americans respectively. However, in general population, there was no significant difference in blood groups between Caucasians and African Americans. Rh(-) factor was significantly higher in Caucasians compared to African Americans. Incidence of smoking was significantly higher in aneurysm patients with O group compared to others. In addition, incidence of hypercholesterolemia was significantly higher in aneurysm patients with A group compared to others. Conclusion: The racial disparity in the distribution of blood groups, and risk factor association with blood groups in the development of intracranial aneurysm needs to be considered. The findings from our study may be useful in identifying patients at increased risk. Further study may be required to establish the risks from multiple centers studies around the world. PMID:26396600

  5. A case of nearly mistaken AB para-Bombay blood group donor transplanted to a group 'O' recipient.

    PubMed

    Townamchai, Natavudh; Watanaboonyongcharoen, Phandee; Chancharoenthana, Wiwat; Avihingsanon, Yingyos

    2014-10-31

    Unintentional ABO mismatch kidney transplantation can cause detrimental hyperacute rejection. We report the first successful ABO incompatible kidney transplantation from an AB para-Bombay donor to O recipient. At the initial evaluation, the donor's ABO type was discordance on the cell typing and serum typing, which typed to be 'O' as cell typing and 'AB' as serum typing. At the second investigation, it was confirmed that the donor had a unique, rare but not uncommon blood type AB para-Bombay which was incompatible with the recipient's blood group. The kidney transplantation was successfully performed by an ABO incompatible preconditioning, double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) and rituximab. The serum creatinine at 12 months post-transplantation was 1.3 mg/dL. The pathology of the kidney biopsy showed no signs of rejection.

  6. Blood Group Substances as Potential Therapeutic Agents for the Prevention and Treatment of Infection with Noroviruses Proving Novel Binding Patterns in Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Shin; Yokobori, Takehiko; Ueta, Gen; Ide, Munenori; Altan, Bolag; Thongprachum, Aksara; Nishimura, Toyo; Nakajima, Tamiko; Kominato, Yoshihiko; Asao, Takayuki; Saniabadi, Abby R.; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Le Pendu, Jacques; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Blood group-related glycans determining ABO and Lewis blood groups are known to function as attachment factors for most of the norovirus (NoV) strains. To identify binding specificity of each NoV, recombinant norovirus-like particles (VLPs) and human saliva samples with different ABO, Lewis phenotypes and secretor status have been commonly applied. When binding specificities of VLPs prepared from 16 different genotypes of NoVs in GI and GII genogroups were characterized in samples of human gastric mucosa compared to human saliva based on blood group phenotypes, considerable differences were observed for several strains. Novel binding specificities determined by an ELISA using preparations from human gastric mucosa were also ascertained by immunohistochemical analyses using human jejunal mucosa, widely believed to be susceptible to NoV infection. Further, A, B and O(H) blood group substances prepared from porcine and squid tissues were found to be effective for preventing ABO blood group-specific binding of VLPs to both saliva and mucosa samples. Therefore, these blood group substances might have potential for the prevention and treatment of NoV infection. PMID:24558470

  7. Prognostic Correlations between ABO Blood Group and Pre-Treatment Plasma Epstein-Barr Virus DNA in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Receiving Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Fei; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Li-Zhi; Tian, Li; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study is to assess the prognostic value of ABO blood group in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the data on 1397 patients with non-metastatic, newly diagnosed NPC treated using IMRT. Patient survival between different ABO blood groups were compared using log-rank test. Cox hazards model was adopted to establish independent prognostic factors. Results In our study, the distribution of the A, B, AB and O blood groups was 26.6% (372/1397), 26.2% (366/1397), 5.2% (73/1397) and 42.0% (586/1397), respectively. The cut-off value of pre-treatment Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA based on disease-free survival (DFS) was 1355 copies/ml (area under curve [AUC], 0.649; sensitivity, 0.76; specificity, 0.496) for the whole cohort. Estimated four-year DFS, overall survival (OS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) rates were 81.7%, 89.2%, 89.4% and 92.3% for blood group A; 82.1%, 89.3%, 89.0% and 92.0% for group B; 83.3%, 88.1%, 86.2% and 95.5% for group AB, 80.9%, 90.7%, 88.4% and 90.2% for group O (P > 0.05 for all rates). Multivariate analysis revealed ABO blood group was not an independent prognostic factor for DFS, OS, DMFS or LRRFS (P > 0.05 for all rates) after adjusting for plasma EBV DNA in either the whole cohort or subgroup analysis by gender. Conclusions The prognostic value of ABO blood group may be limited for patients with NPC in the era of IMRT, and no substantial correlation between ABO blood group and plasma EBV DNA was observed. PMID:27835689

  8. Recognition of Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Carbohydrates in Lettuce by Human GII.4 Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Esseili, Malak A.; Lu, Zhongyan; Saif, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human norovirus (HuNoV) genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) strains account for about 80% of the gastroenteritis outbreaks in the United States. Contaminated food is a major transmission vehicle for this virus. In humans, pigs, and oysters, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) act as attachment factors for HuNoVs. In lettuce, although the virus-like particles (VLPs) of a GII.4 HuNoV were found to bind to cell wall carbohydrates, the exact binding site has not been investigated. Here, we show the presence of HBGA-like carbohydrates in the cell wall of lettuce. The digestion of lettuce leaves with cell wall-degrading enzymes exposed more binding sites and significantly increased the level of binding of GII.4 HuNoV VLPs. Competition assays showed that both the HBGA monoclonal antibody, recognizing the H type, and plant lectins, recognizing α-l-fucose in the H type, effectively inhibited VLP binding to lettuce tissues. Lettuce cell wall components were isolated and their NoV VLP binding characteristics were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The binding was inhibited by pretreatment of the lettuce cell wall materials with α-1,2-fucosidase. Collectively, our results indicate that H-type HBGA-like carbohydrates exist in lettuce tissues and that GII.4 HuNoV VLPs can bind the exposed fucose moiety, possibly in the hemicellulose component of the cell wall. IMPORTANCE Salad crops and fruits are increasingly recognized as vehicles for human norovirus (HuNoV) transmission. A recent study showed that HuNoVs specifically bind to the carbohydrates of the lettuce cell wall. Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are carbohydrates and are known as the attachment factors for HuNoV infection in humans. In this study, we show the presence of HBGA-like carbohydrates in lettuce, to which HuNoVs specifically bind. These results suggest that specifically bound HuNoVs cannot be removed by simple washing, which may allow viral transmission to consumers. Our findings provide new

  9. The evaluation of histo-blood group ABO typing by flow cytometric and PCR-amplification of specific alleles analyses and their application in clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Aki, Kensaku; Izumi, Azusa; Hosoi, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    ABO antigens are oligosaccharide antigens, and are widely distributed on red blood and tissue cells as well as in saliva and body fluid. Therefore, these antigens are important not only for blood transfusion, but also for tissue cell and organ transplantations. Also, blood, hair, and seminal fluid are important sources of evidence at crime scenes, and these antigens are some of the most important markers for personal identification in forensic investigations. Here, we describe the development and use of quantitative analysis of A, B, and H antigens on red blood cells by employing flow cytometric analysis and the ABO genotyping method based on PCR-amplification of specific alleles (PASA) within DNA, especially from blood and saliva. In this study, flow cytometric analysis could be used to compare the differences between the expression of A and/or B and H antigens on red blood cells with various phenotypes, and the PASA method was able to determine the genotype of the type cisA(2)B(3) pedigree using only DNA extracted from saliva. These analysis methods are simple and useful for judging the ABO blood group system and genotyping, and are used widely throughout research and clinical laboratories and forensic fields.

  10. Expression of the Blood-Group-Related Gene B4galnt2 Alters Susceptibility to Salmonella Infection.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Philipp; Steck, Natalie; Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Seidel, Janice A; Künzel, Sven; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Basic, Marijana; Bleich, Andre; Johnsen, Jill M; Vallance, Bruce A; Baines, John F; Grassl, Guntram A

    2015-07-01

    Glycans play important roles in host-microbe interactions. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the blood group glycosyltransferase β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4galnt2) are variable in wild mouse populations, and loss of B4galnt2 expression is associated with altered intestinal microbiota. We hypothesized that variation in B4galnt2 expression alters susceptibility to intestinal pathogens. To test this, we challenged mice genetically engineered to express different B4galnt2 tissue-specific patterns with a Salmonella Typhimurium infection model. We found B4galnt2 intestinal expression was strongly associated with bacterial community composition and increased Salmonella susceptibility as evidenced by increased intestinal inflammatory cytokines and infiltrating immune cells. Fecal transfer experiments demonstrated a crucial role of the B4galnt2-dependent microbiota in conferring susceptibility to intestinal inflammation, while epithelial B4galnt2 expression facilitated epithelial invasion of S. Typhimurium. These data support a critical role for B4galnt2 in gastrointestinal infections. We speculate that B4galnt2-specific differences in host susceptibility to intestinal pathogens underlie the strong signatures of balancing selection observed at the B4galnt2 locus in wild mouse populations.

  11. Recent developments in fetal nucleic acids in maternal plasma: implications to noninvasive prenatal fetal blood group genotyping.

    PubMed

    Lo, Y M D

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of circulating cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma has opened up new possibilities for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. Fetal DNA in maternal plasma has been used for the noninvasive prenatal determination of the RhD status of fetuses carried by RhD-negative pregnant women. In such analysis, the possible need of an internal control for the presence of detectable amounts of fetal DNA in a particular maternal plasma sample has been actively discussed. Recently, the development of a robust method for discriminating single nucleotide differences in plasma DNA using single allele base extension reaction (SABER) followed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has opened up the possibilities of using a panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms as such a positive control. A second approach is the recent successful development of fetal epigenetic markers which can be developed into universal fetal DNA markers. These developments hold promise to allow the eventual widespread utilization of maternal plasma DNA analysis for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of blood group mismatches between the mother and fetus.

  12. COMPARISON OF OUTCOMES BETWEEN BLOOD GROUP O AND NON-GROUP O PREMATURE NEONATES RECEIVING RED CELL TRANSFUSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Boral, Leonard I.; Staubach, Zane G.; de Leeuw, Reny; MacIvor, Duncan C.; Kryscio, Richard; Bada, Henrietta S.

    2015-01-01

    Background At some institutions all babies requiring red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) receive group O RBCs. Although transfused O plasma is minimized in packed RBCs, small amounts of residual anti-A, anti-B and anti-A, B in group O packed RBCs may bind to the corresponding A and B antigens of non-group O RBCs, possibly hemolyzing their native RBCs and thereby releasing free hemoglobin theoretically resulting in hypercoagulability and promoting bacterial growth from free iron. Study Design and Methods Transfused group O and non- group O premature infants in the University of Kentucky Children’s Hospital NICU database were compared for a number of severity markers to determine if transfused non-group O patients had worse outcomes than those of group O. Results 724 neonates in this sample of NICU babies received at least one blood component. There were no significant differences between group O and non-group O babies with regard to final disposition or complications. Conclusions This reassuring finding validates the longstanding neonatal transfusion practice of using group O packed red cells for NICU babies of all blood groups. However, because a recent study shows increased mortality from NEC in AB neonates receiving only group O RBC and suggests a change in neonatal transfusion practice to ABO group specific red cells, more studies may be warranted PMID:24225743

  13. Binding to histo-blood group antigen-expressing bacteria protects human norovirus from acute heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Breiman, Adrien; le Pendu, Jacques; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate if histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) expressing bacteria have any protective role on human norovirus (NoV) from acute heat stress. Eleven bacterial strains were included, belonging to Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Clostridium difficile, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and B. longum. HBGA expression of the bacteria as well as binding of human NoV virus-like particles (VLPs, GI.1, and GII.4 strains) to the bacteria were detected by flow cytometry. NoV VLPs pre-incubated with HBGA expressing or non-HBGA expressing bacteria were heated and detected by both direct ELISA and porcine gastric mucin-binding assay. The NoV-binding abilities of the bacteria correlated well with their HBGA expression profiles. Two HBGA expressing E. coli (LMG8223 and LFMFP861, both GI.1 and GII.4 binders) and one non-HBGA expressing E. coli (ATCC8739, neither GI.1 nor GII.4 binder) were selected for the heat treatment test with NoV VLPs. Compared with the same cell numbers of non-HBGA expressing E. coli, the presence of HBGA-expressing E. coli could always maintain higher antigen integrity, as well as mucin-binding ability of NoV VLPs of both GI.1 and GII.4 after heat-treatment at 90°C for 2 min. These results indicate that HBGA-expressing bacteria may protect NoVs during the food processing treatments, thereby facilitating their transmission. PMID:26191052

  14. Exclusion of linkage between alcoholism and the MNS blood group region on chromosome 4q in multiplex families

    SciTech Connect

    Neiswanger, K.; Kaplan, B.; Hill, S.Y.

    1995-02-27

    Polymorphic DNA markers on the long arm of chromosome 4 were used to examine linkage to alcoholism in 20 multiplex pedigrees. Fifteen loci were determined for 124 individuals. Lod scores were calculated assuming both dominant and recessive disease modes of inheritance, utilizing incidence data by age and gender that allow for correction for variable age of onset and frequency of the disorder by gender. Under the assumption that alcoholism is homogeneous in this set of pedigrees, and that a recessive mode with age and gender correction is the most appropriate, the total lod scores for all families combined were uniformly lower than -2.0. This suggests an absence of linkage between the putative alcoholism susceptibility gene and markers in the region of the MNS blood group (4q28-31), a region for which we had previously found suggestive evidence of linkage to alcoholism. The 100 cM span of chromosome 4 studied includes the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) loci. Using the recessive mode, no evidence for linkage to alcoholism was found for the markers tested, which spanned almost the entire long arm of chromosome 4. Under the dominant mode, no evidence for linkage could be found for several of the markers. 36 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. ABO Blood Group Alleles and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    PubMed Central

    Markt, Sarah C.; Shui, Irene M.; Unger, Robert H.; Urun, Yuksel; Berg, Christine D.; Black, Amanda; Brennan, Paul; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gapstur, Susan M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Canzian, Federico; Larranga, Nerea; Le Marchand, Loic; Ma, Jing; Naccarati, Alessio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stampfer, Meir J.; Stattin, Par; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stram, Daniel O.; Tjønneland, Anne; Travis, Ruth C.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Ziegler, Regina G.; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Wilson, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Background ABO blood group has been associated with risk of cancers of the pancreas, stomach, ovary, kidney and skin, but has not been evaluated in relation to risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Methods We used three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs8176746, rs505922, and rs8176704) to determine ABO genotype in 2,774 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4,443 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate age and study adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between blood type, genotype and risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥8 or locally advanced/metastatic disease (stage T3/T4/N1/M1). Results We found no association between ABO blood type and risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Type A: OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.87-1.08; Type B: OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.77-1.09; Type AB: OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.98-1.59, compared to Type O, respectively). Similarly, there was no association between ‘dose’ of A or B alleles and aggressive prostate cancer risk. Conclusions ABO blood type was not associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:26268879

  16. Spike Protein VP8* of Human Rotavirus Recognizes Histo-Blood Group Antigens in a Type-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pengwei; Xia, Ming; Zhong, Weiming; Wei, Chao; Wang, Leyi; Morrow, Ardythe

    2012-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs), an important cause of severe diarrhea in children, have been found to recognize sialic acid as receptors for host cell attachment. While a few animal RVs (of P[1], P[2], P[3], and P[7]) are sialidase sensitive, human RVs and the majority of animal RVs are sialidase insensitive. In this study, we demonstrated that the surface spike protein VP8* of the major P genotypes of human RVs interacts with the secretor histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Strains of the P[4] and P[8] genotypes shared reactivity with the common antigens of Lewis b (Leb) and H type 1, while strains of the P[6] genotype bound the H type 1 antigen only. The bindings between recombinant VP8* and human saliva, milk, or synthetic HBGA oligosaccharides were demonstrated, which was confirmed by blockade of the bindings by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to Leb and/or H type 1. In addition, specific binding activities were observed when triple-layered particles of a P[8] (Wa) RV were tested. Our results suggest that the spike protein VP8* of RVs is involved in the recognition of human HBGAs that may function as ligands or receptors for RV attachment to host cells. PMID:22345472

  17. The Aymara of Western Bolivia. IV. Gene frequencies for eight blood groups and 19 protein and erythrocyte enzyme systems.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrell, R E; Bertin, T; Young, R; Barton, S A; Murillo, F; Schull, W J

    1978-01-01

    A total of 315 individuals, mainly of Aymara origin, from western Bolivia were examined for genetic variation at eight red cell antigen and 19 serum protein and red cell enzyme loci. The gene frequencies for polymorphic loci and the discovery of several rare variants are discussed in terms of previous work among the Aymara and the closely related Quechua. The effect of inclusion of related individuals in the sample on gene frequency, variance of gene frequency and genetic distance, is discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:736042

  18. Block synthesis of A (type 2) and B (type 2) tetrasaccharides related to the human ABO blood group system.

    PubMed

    Ryzhov, Ivan M; Korchagina, Elena Yu; Popova, Inna S; Tyrtysh, Tatiana V; Paramonov, Alexander S; Bovin, Nicolai V

    2016-07-22

    Herein we report the synthesis of 3-aminopropyl glycosides of A (type 2) and B (type 2) tetrasaccharides via [3 + 1] block scheme. Peracetylated trichloroacetimidates of A and B trisaccharides were used as glycosyl donors. The well-known low reactivity of 4-OH group of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine forced us to test four glucosamine derivatives (3-Bz-1,6-anhydro-GlcNAc and 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl β-glycosides of 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAc, 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcN3, and 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAc2) to select the best glycosyl acceptor for the synthesis of type 2 tetrasaccharides. The desired tetrasacchrides were not isolated, when 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl glycosyde of 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAcβ was glycosylated. Glycosylation of 3-Bz-1,6-anhydro-GlcNAc derivative resulted in α-glycoside as a major product. High stereospecificity was achieved only in the synthesis of B (type 2) tetrasaccharide, when 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAc2β was applied as the glycosyl acceptor (β/α 5:1), whereas glycosylation with trichloroacetimidate of A trisaccharide was not stereospecific (β/α 1.3:1). Glycosylation of 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl glycoside of 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcN3β with trichloroacetimidates of A and B trisaccharides provided the same stereochemical yield (β/α 1.5:1).

  19. The one-pot multienzyme (OPME) synthesis of human blood group H antigens and a human milk oligosaccharide (HMOS) with highly active Thermosynechococcus elongates α1-2-fucosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Wu, Yijing; Yu, Hai; Shah, Ishita M; Li, Yanhong; Zeng, Jie; Liu, Bin; Mills, David A; Chen, Xi

    2016-03-11

    A novel α1-2-fucosyltransferase from Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 (Te2FT) with high fucosyltransferase activity and low donor hydrolysis activity was discovered and characterized. It was used in an efficient one-pot multienzyme (OPME) fucosylation system for the high-yield synthesis of human blood group H antigens containing β1-3-linked galactosides and an important human milk oligosaccharide (HMOS) lacto-N-fucopentaose I (LNFP I) on preparative and gram scales. LNFP I was shown to be selectively consumed by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis but not Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and is a potential prebiotic.

  20. [Population genetics of the inhabitants of Northern European USSR. II. Blood group distribution and antropogenetic characteristics in 6 villages in Archangel Oblast].

    PubMed

    Revazov, A A; Pasekov, V P; Lukasheva, I D

    1975-01-01

    The paper deals with the distribution of genetic markers (systems ABO, MN, Rh (D), Hp, PTC) and a number of demographic (folding of arms, hand clasping, tongue rolling, right- and left-handedness, of the type of ear lobe, of the types of dermatoglyphic patterns) in the inhabitants of 6 villages in the Mezen District of the Archangelsk Region of the RSFSR (river Peosa basin). The data presented in this work were obtained in the course of examination of over 800 persons. Differences in the interpretation of the results of generally adopted methods of statistical analysis of samples from small populations are discussed. Among the systems analysed in one third of all the cases there was a statistically significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg's ratios. For the MN blood groups and haptoglobins this was caused by the excess of heterozygotes. The test of Hardy--Weinberg's ratios at the level of two-loci phenotypes revealed no statistically significant deviations either in separate villages or in all the villages taken together. The analysis of heterogeneity with respect to markers inherited according to Mendel's law revealed statistically significant differences between villages in all the systems except haptoglobins. A considerable heterogeneity in the distribution of family names, the frequencies of some of them varying from village to village from 0 to 90%. Statistically significant differences between villages were shown for all the anthropogenetic characters except arm folding, hand clasping and right-left-handedness. Considering the uniformity of the environmental pressure in the region examined, the heterogeneity of the population studied is apparently associated with a random genetic differentiation (genetic drift) and, possibly, with the effect of the progenitor.

  1. Epithelial Expression of Human ABO Blood Group Genes Is Dependent upon a Downstream Regulatory Element Functioning through an Epithelial Cell-specific Transcription Factor, Elf5.

    PubMed

    Sano, Rie; Nakajima, Tamiko; Takahashi, Yoichiro; Kubo, Rieko; Kobayashi, Momoko; Takahashi, Keiko; Takeshita, Haruo; Ogasawara, Kenichi; Kominato, Yoshihiko

    2016-10-21

    The human ABO blood group system is of great importance in blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The ABO system is composed of complex carbohydrate structures that are biosynthesized by A- and B-transferases encoded by the ABO gene. However, the mechanisms regulating ABO gene expression in epithelial cells remain obscure. On the basis of DNase I-hypersensitive sites in and around ABO in epithelial cells, we prepared reporter plasmid constructs including these sites. Subsequent luciferase assays and histone modifications indicated a novel positive regulatory element, designated the +22.6-kb site, downstream from ABO, and this was shown to enhance ABO promoter activity in an epithelial cell-specific manner. Expression of ABO and B-antigen was reduced in gastric cancer KATOIII cells by biallelic deletion of the +22.6-kb site using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that the site bound to an epithelial cell-specific transcription factor, Elf5. Mutation of the Ets binding motifs to abrogate binding of this factor reduced the regulatory activity of the +22.6-kb site. Furthermore, ELF5 knockdown with shRNA reduced both endogenous transcription from ABO and B-antigen expression in KATOIII cells. Thus, Elf5 appeared to be involved in the enhancer potential of the +22.6-kb site. These results support the contention that ABO expression is dependent upon a downstream positive regulatory element functioning through a tissue-restricted transcription factor, Elf5, in epithelial cells.

  2. Relationship between genotypes of the Duffy blood groups and malarial infection in different ethnic groups of Choco, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Jorge; Ramirez, Jose L; Bedoya, Gabriel; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Maestre, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The negative homozygous condition for the Duffy blood group (Fy-/Fy-) confers natural resistance to Plasmodium vivax infection. Studies carried out in pursuing this direction in Colombia are scarce. Objective: To describe the relationship between Duffy genotypes in three ethnic communities of La Italia (Chocó) and malarial infection. Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects with malaria. Sample size: Afro-Colombians 73; Amerindian (Emberá) 74, and Mestizo, 171. The presence of Plasmodium infection was assessed by thick smear and the status of the Duffy gene was studied by PCR and RFLP to help identify changes to T-46C and A131G which originate the genotypes T/T, T/C , C/C and G/G, G/A, A/A. Results: Infection by Plasmodium was detected in 17% of cases with 62% due to P. falciparum and 27% due to P. vivax. Duffy genotypes were significantly associated with ethnicity (p= 0.003). Individuals with the C/C, A/A diplotypes were exclusively infected by P. falciparum, whereas the other diplotypes were infected with either of the species. In the Amerindian and Mestizo populations, the frequency of the T-46 allele was 0.90-1.00, among Afro-Colombians this was 0.50, the same as with the C allele and with an absence of heterozygous. At locus 131, the maximum frequency of the G allele was 0.30 in Amerindians and the maximum of the A allele was 0.69 in Afro-Colombians. Conclusions: In the Amerindian and mestizo populations studied, there was a predominance of the allele T-46 (FY+) but this was not observed with the P. vivax infection. P. vivax was ruled out in all FY- individuals. PMID:24893190

  3. Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Substances of Human Enteric Bacteria as Specific Adsorbents for Human Noroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Takayuki; Suenaga, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Fuzawa, Miyu; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Okabe, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) have been suggested to be receptors or coreceptors for human noroviruses (HuNoVs) expressed on the intestinal epithelium. We isolated an enteric bacterium strain (SENG-6), closely related to Enterobacter cloacae, bearing HBGA-like substances from a fecal sample of a healthy individual by using a biopanning technique with anti-HBGA antibodies. The binding capacities of four genotypes of norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs) to Enterobacter sp. SENG-6 cells were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that NoVLPs bound mainly to extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, where the HBGA-like substances were localized. EPS that contained HBGA-like substances extracted from Enterobacter sp. SENG-6 was shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to be capable of binding to NoVLPs of a GI.1 wild-type strain (8fIIa) and a GII.6 strain that can recognize A antigen but not to an NoVLP GI.1 mutant strain (W375A) that loses the ability to bind to A antigen. Enzymatic cleavage of terminal N-acetyl-galactosamine residues in the bacterial EPS weakened bacterial EPS binding to the GI.1 wild-type strain (8fIIa). These results indicate that A-like substances in the bacterial EPS play a key role in binding to NoVLPs. Since the specific binding of HuNoVs to HBGA-positive enteric bacteria is likely to affect the transmission and infection processes of HuNoVs in their hosts and in the environment, further studies of human enteric bacteria and their binding capacity to HuNoVs will provide a new scientific platform for understanding interactions between two types of microbes that were previously regarded as biologically unrelated. PMID:23804639

  4. Bacterial histo-blood group antigens contributing to genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with a microfiltration membrane.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Miura, Takayuki; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Ishii, Satoshi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrated the genotype-dependent removal of human norovirus particles with a microfiltration (MF) membrane in the presence of bacteria bearing histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Three genotypes (GII.3, GII.4, and GII.6) of norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs) were mixed with three bacterial strains (Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, Escherichia coli O86:K61:B7, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), respectively, and the mixture was filtered with an MF membrane having a nominal pore size of 0.45 μm. All NoVLP genotypes were rejected by the MF membrane in the presence of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, which excreted HBGAs as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). This MF membrane removal of NoVLPs was not significant when EPS was removed from cells of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6. GII.6 NoVLP was not rejected with the MF membrane in the presence of E. coli O86:K61:B7, but the removal of EPS of E. coli O86:K61:B7 increased the removal efficiency due to the interaction of NoVLPs with the exposed B-antigen in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of E. coli O86:K61:B7. No MF membrane removal of all three genotypes was observed when S. epidermidis, an HBGA-negative strain, was mixed with NoVLPs. These results demonstrate that the location of HBGAs on bacterial cells is an important factor in determining the genotype-dependent removal efficiency of norovirus particles with the MF membrane. The presence of HBGAs in mixed liquor suspended solids from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot plant was confirmed by immune-transmission electron microscopy, which implies that bacterial HBGAs can contribute to the genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with MBR using MF membrane.

  5. Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae Strain SENG-6, a Bacterium Producing Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Substances That Can Bind with Human Noroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Yang, Peiyi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain SENG-6, isolated from healthy human feces, produces histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-like substances that can bind with human noroviruses. Based on the genome sequence analysis, strain SENG-6 belongs to the species Enterobacter cloacae. The genome sequence of this strain should help identify genes associated with the production of HBGA-like substances. PMID:27563051

  6. Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae Strain SENG-6, a Bacterium Producing Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Substances That Can Bind with Human Noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoshi; Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Yang, Peiyi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-08-25

    Enterobacter sp. strain SENG-6, isolated from healthy human feces, produces histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-like substances that can bind with human noroviruses. Based on the genome sequence analysis, strain SENG-6 belongs to the species Enterobacter cloacae The genome sequence of this strain should help identify genes associated with the production of HBGA-like substances.

  7. Molecular basis of the globoside-deficient P(k) blood group phenotype. Identification of four inactivating mutations in the UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine: globotriaosylceramide 3-beta-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase gene.

    PubMed

    Hellberg, Asa; Poole, Joyce; Olsson, Martin L

    2002-08-16

    The biochemistry and molecular genetics underlying the related carbohydrate blood group antigens P, P(k), and LKE in the GLOB collection and P1 in the P blood group system are complex and not fully understood. Individuals with the rare but clinically important erythrocyte phenotypes P(1)(k) and P(2)(k) lack the capability to synthesize P antigen identified as globoside, the cellular receptor for Parvo-B19 virus and some P-fimbriated Escherichia coli. As in the ABO system, naturally occurring antibodies, anti-P of the IgM and IgG class with hemolytic and cytotoxic capacity, are formed. To define the molecular basis of the P(k) phenotype we analyzed the full coding region of a candidate gene reported in 1998 as a member of the 3-beta-galactosyltransferase family but later shown to possess UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:globotriaosylceramide 3-beta-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase or globoside synthase activity. Homozygosity for different nonsense mutations (C(202) --> T and 538insA) resulting in premature stop codons was found in blood samples from two individuals of the P(2)(k) phenotype. Two individuals with P(1)(k) and P(2)(k) phenotypes were homozygous for missense mutations causing amino acid substitutions (E266A or G271R) in a highly conserved region of the enzymatically active carboxyl-terminal domain in the transferase. We conclude that crucial mutations in the globoside synthase gene cause the P(k) phenotype.

  8. Thermodynamic signature of substrates and substrate analogs binding to human blood group B galactosyltransferase from isothermal titration calorimetry experiments.

    PubMed

    Sindhuwinata, Nora; Grimm, Lena L; Weißbach, Sophie; Zinn, Sabrina; Munoz, Eva; Palcic, Monica M; Peters, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    It has been observed earlier that human blood group B galactosyltransferase (GTB) hydrolyzes its donor substrate UDP-Galactose (UDP-Gal) in the absence of acceptor substrate, and that this reaction is promoted by the presence of an acceptor substrate analog, α-L-Fuc-(1,2)-β-D-3-deoxy-Gal-O-octyl (3DD). This acceleration of enzymatic hydrolysis of UDP-Gal was traced back to an increased affinity of GTB toward the donor substrate in the presence of 3DD. Herein, we present new thermodynamic data from isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) on the binding of donor and acceptor substrates and analogs to GTB. ITC data are supplemented by surface plasmon resonance and STD-NMR titration experiments. These new data validate mutual allosteric control of binding of donor and acceptor substrates to GTB. It is of note that ITC experiments reveal significant differences in enthalpic and entropic contributions to binding of the natural donor substrate UDP-Gal, when compared with its analog UDP-Glucose (UDP-Glc). This may reflect different degrees of ordering of an internal loop (amino acids 176-194) and the C-terminus (amino acids 346-354), which close the binding pocket on binding of UDP-Gal or UDP-Glc. As both ligands have rather similar dissociation constants KD and almost identical modes of binding this finding is unexpected. Another surprising finding is that an acceptor analog, α-L-Fuc-(1,2)-β-D-3-amino-3-deoxy-Gal-O-octyl (3AD) as well as the constituent monosaccharide β-D-3-amino-3-deoxy-Gal-O-octyl (3AM) effectively inhibit enzymatic hydrolysis of UDP-Gal. This is unexpected, too, because in analogy to the effects of 3DD one would have predicted acceleration of enzymatic hydrolysis of UDP-Gal. It is difficult to explain these observations based on structural data alone. Therefore, our results highlight that there is an urgent need of experimental studies into the dynamic properties of GTB.

  9. Blood groups in the Species Survival Plan®, European endangered species program, and managed in situ populations of bonobo (Pan paniscus), common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), gorilla (Gorilla ssp.), and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus ssp.).

    PubMed

    Gamble, Kathryn C; Moyse, Jill A; Lovstad, Jessica N; Ober, Carole B; Thompson, Emma E

    2011-01-01

    Blood groups of humans and great apes have long been considered similar, although they are not interchangeable between species. In this study, human monoclonal antibody technology was used to assign human ABO blood groups to whole blood samples from great apes housed in North American and European zoos and in situ managed populations, as a practical means to assist blood transfusion situations for these species. From a subset of each of the species (bonobo, common chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutans), DNA sequence analysis was performed to determine blood group genotype. Bonobo and common chimpanzee populations were predominantly group A, which concurred with historic literature and was confirmed by genotyping. In agreement with historic literature, a smaller number of the common chimpanzees sampled were group O, although this O blood group was more often present in wild-origin animals as compared with zoo-born animals. Gorilla blood groups were inconclusive by monoclonal antibody techniques, and genetic studies were inconsistent with any known human blood group. As the genus and, specifically, the Bornean species, orangutans were identified with all human blood groups, including O, which had not been reported previously. Following this study, it was concluded that blood groups of bonobo, common chimpanzees, and some orangutans can be reliably assessed by human monoclonal antibody technology. However, this technique was not reliable for gorilla or orangutans other than those with blood group A. Even in those species with reliable blood group detection, blood transfusion preparation must include cross-matching to minimize adverse reactions for the patient.

  10. Negative regulation of HLA-DR expression on endothelial cells by anti-blood group A/B antibody ligation and mTOR inhibition.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Kenta; Miwa, Yuko; Uchida, Kazuharu; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    2017-02-01

    Donor-specific antibody (DSA), particularly against HLA class II, is a major cause of chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) after transplantation, although ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation has recently demonstrated favorable graft outcomes. The condition of no injury even in the presence of anti-donor antibody has been referred to as "accommodation", which would be one of the key factors for successful long-term graft survival. The purpose of this study was to analyze the beneficial effect of anti-blood group A/B antibody ligation on endothelial cells against HLA-DR antibody-mediated, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Blood group A/B-expressing endothelial cells EA.hy926 or Human Umbilical Vein Endothelia Cells (HUVEC) were incubated with IFNγ in the presence or absence of anti-blood group A/B antibody or mTOR inhibitor (mTOR-i) for 48h. The effects on signaling pathway, HLA expression, complement regulatory factors, and CDC were investigated. Expression of HLA-DR on EA.hy926 or HUVEC were successfully elicited by IFNγ treatment, although little or no expression was observed in quiescent cells. Pre-incubation with anti-blood group A/B antibody had resistance to HLA-DR antibody-mediated CDC against IFNγ-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner. This finding was ascribed to decreased expression of HLA-DR by post-translational regulation and increased expression of CD55/59, which was related to ERK and mTOR pathway inhibition. mTOR-i also inhibited HLA-DR expression by itself. Furthermore, the combination of mTOR-I and anti-blood group A/B ligation had an additive effect in preventing HLA-DR antibody-mediated CDC. Anti-blood group A/B antibody might play a preventive role in CAMR. Inhibition of the ERK and mTOR pathways may contribute to the development of a novel treatment in the maintenance period after transplantation.

  11. The association between multiple intestinal helminth infections and blood group, anaemia and nutritional status in human populations from Dore Bafeno, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Degarege, A; Animut, A; Medhin, G; Legesse, M; Erko, B

    2014-06-01

    In this cross-sectional study, the associations between helminth infections and ABO blood group, anaemia and undernutrition were investigated in 480 febrile outpatients who visited Dore Bafeno Health Centre, southern Ethiopia, in December 2010. Stool specimens were processed using the Kato-Katz method and examined for intestinal helminth infections. Haemoglobin level was measured using a HemoCue machine and blood group was determined using an antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using height and weight measurements. Among the study participants, 50.2% were infected with intestinal helminths. Ascaris lumbricoides (32.7%), Trichuris trichiura (12.7%), Schistosoma mansoni (11.9%) and hookworm (11.0%) were the most frequently diagnosed helminths. The odds of infection and mean eggs per gram of different intestinal helminth species were comparable between the various blood groups. Among individuals who were infected with intestinal helminth(s), the mean haemoglobin level was significantly lower in individuals harbouring three or more helminth species and blood type AB compared to cases with double or single helminth infection and blood type O, respectively. The odds of being underweight was significantly higher in A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infected individuals of age ≤ 5 and ≥ 20 years, respectively, when compared to individuals of the matching age group without intestinal helminths. In conclusion, infection with multiple intestinal helminths was associated with lower haemoglobin level, which was more severe in individuals with blood type AB. Future studies should focus on mechanisms by which blood group AB exacerbates the helminth-related reduction in mean haemoglobin level.

  12. Role of ABO blood group and of other risk factors on the presence of residual vein obstruction after deep-vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Dentali, Francesco; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Turato, Sara; Crestani, Silvia; Ambrosino, Pasquale; Bonfanti, Carlo; Di Minno, Giovanni; Ageno, Walter; Franchini, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    The presence of residual vein obstruction (RVO) has been consistently associated with an increased risk of post-thrombotic syndrome in patients with a previous deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and there is some evidence suggesting an increased risk of DVT recurrence. Only few studies have assessed potential risk factors for RVO. In this study, we evaluated whether ABO blood group with or without associated thrombophilic abnormalities is associated with RVO after a standard course of anticoagulation for a first DVT. Patients with a first DVT who underwent screening for thrombophilic abnormalities were eligible for this study. Information was collected on ABO blood group and on risk factors for DVT. Each patient underwent compression ultrasonography of the lower limbs for the detection of RVO at least 6months after a standard course of anticoagulant treatment. A total of 268 patients (mean age 50.3years, 120 women) were included. After 8.3±2.9months of anticoagulant treatment, 126 (47.0%) patients had RVO. At multivariate analysis, active malignancy (Odds Ratios [OR] 5.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.17, 14.13), non-O blood group (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.61, 8.56), and femoral involvement (OR 3.35 95% CI 1.94, 5.78) were significantly associated with RVO whereas an unprovoked index event was only marginally significant (OR 1.81 95% CI 0.98, 3.36 p 0.06) and severe thrombophilia was not associated with RVO (OR 1.32 95% CI 0.56, 3.11). After a standard course of anticoagulation for a first DVT, patients with non-O blood group are at increased risk of RVO.

  13. Fetal blood group genotyping from DNA from maternal plasma: an important advance in the management and prevention of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.

    PubMed

    Daniels, G; Finning, K; Martin, P; Soothill, P

    2004-11-01

    The cloning of blood group genes and subsequent identification of the molecular bases of blood group polymorphisms has made it possible to predict blood group phenotypes from DNA with a reasonable degree of accuracy. The major application of this technology, which has now become the standard of care, is the determination of a fetal RHD genotype in women with anti-D, to assess whether the fetus is at risk of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). Initially, the procurement of fetal DNA required the invasive procedures of amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Since the discovery of fetal DNA in maternal plasma in 1997, the technology of detecting an RHD gene in this very small quantity of fetal DNA has developed rapidly, so that non-invasive fetal D typing can now be provided as a diagnostic service for D-negative pregnant women with anti-D. Within a few years, it is probable that fetuses of all D-negative pregnant women will be tested for RHD, to establish whether the mother requires antenatal anti-D immunoglobulin prophylaxis.

  14. ABO/Rh Blood Groups and Risk of HIV Infection and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors of Abidjan, Côte D’ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Siransy, Liliane Kouabla; Nanga, Zizendorf Yves; Zaba, Flore Sandrine; Tufa, Nyasenu Yawo; Dasse, Sery Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions like ABO and Rh blood groups would influence the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and the susceptibility to HIV infection and hepatitis B. We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in a population of voluntary blood donors in the Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan. All blood donors who donated blood between January and June 2014 were tested for HBs antigen and anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA tests) and were ABO typed. The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 45,538, of which 0.32% and 8.07% were respectively infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus. O-group donors were more infected than non-O donors. Our study is an outline concerning the search for a link between ABO and Rh blood groups and hepatitis B and HIV infection. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the interaction between these two infections and contribute to the search for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26495131

  15. The O-Linked Glycome and Blood Group Antigens ABO on Mucin-Type Glycoproteins in Mucinous and Serous Epithelial Ovarian Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Vitiazeva, Varvara; Kattla, Jayesh J.; Flowers, Sarah A.; Lindén, Sara K.; Premaratne, Pushpa; Weijdegård, Birgitta; Sundfeldt, Karin; Karlsson, Niclas G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated proteins where the glycosylation has been shown to play an important role in cancer. Normal epithelial ovarian cells do not express secreted mucins, but their abnormal expression has previously been described in epithelial ovarian cancer and may relate to tumor formation and progression. The cyst fluids were shown to be a rich source for acidic glycoproteins. The study of these proteins can potentially lead to the identification of more effective biomarkers for ovarian cancer. Methods In this study, we analyzed the expression of the MUC5AC and the O-glycosylation of acidic glycoproteins secreted into ovarian cyst fluids. The samples were obtained from patients with serous and mucinous ovarian tumors of different stages (benign, borderline, malignant) and grades. The O-linked oligosaccharides were released and analyzed by negative-ion graphitized carbon Liquid Chromatography (LC) coupled to Electrospray Ionization tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MSn). The LC-ESI-MSn of the oligosaccharides from ovarian cyst fluids displayed differences in expression of fucose containing structures such as blood group ABO antigens and Lewis-type epitopes. Results The obtained data showed that serous and mucinous benign adenomas, mucinous low malignant potential carcinomas (LMPs, borderline) and mucinous low-grade carcinomas have a high level of blood groups and Lewis type epitopes. In contrast, this type of fucosylated structures were low abundant in the high-grade mucinous carcinomas or in serous carcinomas. In addition, the ovarian tumors that showed a high level of expression of blood group antigens also revealed a strong reactivity towards the MUC5AC antibody. To visualize the differences between serous and mucinous ovarian tumors based on the O-glycosylation, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using mass spectrometry average compositions (MSAC). Conclusion Mucinous benign and LMPs along with mucinous low-grade carcinomas

  16. Molecular RH blood group typing of serologically D-/CE+ donors: the use of a polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer test kit with pooled samples.

    PubMed

    Londero, Donatella; Fiorino, Mauro; Miotti, Valeria; de Angelis, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The known presence of RHD blood group alleles in apparently D– individuals who are positive for C or E antigens leads to an appropriate investigation for the RHD gene on the red blood cells (RBCs) of D– blood donors, thus preventing their RBCs from immunizing D– recipients. Ready-to-use polymerase chain reaction–sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) typing kits are available and allow single-sample results. The need to perform this testing on a large number of donors affiliated with the Transfusion Department of Udine (Northern Italy) led to the use of molecular genetic RH blood group typing with PCR-SSP test kits and DNA samples mixed in pools. From a population of 35,000 blood donors screened for D antigen by serologic typing, a total of 235 samples, distributed in pools of 5 DNA samples, were investigated. Positive results were reevaluated by opening the pools and retesting single samples. Validation of DNA-pool typing with commercial kits was done. Among 235 genotyped samples, 12 were found to be PCR positive (5.1%), exhibiting DEL genotype and RHD-CE-D hybrid alleles. Our data demonstrate that the use of a PCR-SSP commercial test kit with pooled samples is a helpful and valid method to correctly detect RHD alleles. As a consequence, we reclassified our donors as carriers of potentially immunogenic alleles.

  17. The GO4KIDDS Brief Adaptive Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Adrienne; Taheri, Azin; Ting, Victoria; Weiss, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accurate measurement of adaptive behaviour is important in both clinical and research contexts. While several good clinical measures exist, as well as brief research measures for adults with intellectual disability, there is need for a brief and efficient measure for research with children and youth. We present preliminary psychometric…

  18. Influences of ABO blood group, age and gender on plasma coagulation factor VIII, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor and ADAMTS13 levels in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zongkui; Dou, Miaomiao; Du, Xi; Ma, Li; Sun, Pan; Cao, Haijun; Ye, Shengliang; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Fengjuan; Lin, Fangzhao

    2017-01-01

    Background ABO blood group is a hereditary factor of plasma levels of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF). Age and gender have been shown to influence FVIII, VWF, fibrinogen (Fbg), and ADAMTS13 (A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13). We investigated the effects of ABO type, age, and gender on plasma levels of FVIII, Fbg, VWF, and ADAMTS13 in a Chinese population. Methods A total of 290 healthy volunteers were eligible for this study. ABO blood group was determined by indirect technique. FVIII:C and Fbg were measured by clotting assays. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag), collagen-binding activity (VWF:CBA), and ADAMTS13 antigen were assessed by ELISA, whereas VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:Rcof) was performed by agglutination of platelets with ristocetin. Results Mean FVIII:C and VWF levels (VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, and VWF:Rcof) were significantly higher in non-O than in O type subjects (p < 0.05 for all comparison). ADAMTS13 antigen decreased with increasing age, whereas the other parameters increased. Other than ADAMTS13 (p < 0.01), no gender-related variations were observed in the other parameters. Moreover, FVIII:C, Fbg, VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, and VWF:Rcof showed significant and positive relationships with age (r = 0.421, 0.445, 0.410, 0.401, and 0.589, resp.; all p < 0.001), whereas a negative relationship was observed for ADAMTS13 antigen (r = 0.306; p = 0.006). Furthermore, FVIII:C were strongly correlated with VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, and VWF:Rcof (r = 0.746, r = 0.746, and r = 0.576, resp.; p < 0.0001). VWF parameters were also strongly correlated with each other (r = 0.0.847 for VWF:Ag and VWF:CBA; r = 0.722 for VWF:Ag and VWF:Rcof; p < 0.0001). Conclusions ABO blood group, age, and gender showed different effects on plasma levels of FVIII:C, Fbg, VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, VWF:Rcof, and ADAMTS13 antigen. These new data on a Chinese population are quite helpful to compare with other ethnic groups. PMID

  19. [Prolonged erythrocytic T activation, depression of blood group A and increase of fetal hemoglobin in a myelodysplastic syndrome evolving into erythroleukemia].

    PubMed

    Gioseffi, O N; Del Río, F; Pardini, P; Kitagawa, M

    1991-04-01

    T cryptantigen can be exposed on the red cell membrane as a result of removal of terminal glycosides, either by bacterial enzymes or by incomplete synthesis of the cell membrane due to somatic mutation, usually caused by a neoplasm. T-activated erythrocytes have been observed in different pathologies, but they have not been seen associated with other abnormalities of red blood cell proteins described in myelodysplastic syndromes or acute leukaemias. A patient with initial diagnosis of refractory anaemia that evolved into erythroleukaemia showed prolonged T-activation, a depressed A blood-group antigen and an increase of foetal haemoglobin, simultaneously. The evolutive pattern of T-activation suggests more an abnormal erythropoiesis than an enzymatic effect and a certain relationship with the haemolytic syndrome.

  20. Risk of advanced gastric precancerous lesions in Helicobacter pylori infected subjects is influenced by ABO blood group and cagA status.

    PubMed

    Rizzato, Cosmeri; Kato, Ikuko; Plummer, Martyn; Muñoz, Nubia; Stein, Angelika; Jan van Doorn, Leen; Franceschi, Silvia; Canzian, Federico

    2013-07-15

    A higher incidence of stomach cancer in ABO blood type A individuals than in those with blood type O has been known for a long time. We studied this association in relation to Helicobacter pylori (Hp) of different cagA status. For our study, we used baseline gastric histopathology data and DNAs from frozen gastric biopsies of 2,077 subjects enrolled in a chemoprevention trial for gastric precancerous lesions in Venezuela. We analyzed six single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ABO gene, and we assessed the presence of the Hp cagA gene. Odds ratios (ORs) for risk of advanced precancerous gastric lesions were calculated using individuals with normal gastric epithelium or non-atrophic gastritis as a reference. Among individuals carrying a cagA negative Hp infection or no Hp infection, those with blood type A had a lower risk of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia than those with blood type O (OR=0.60; 95% CI 0.38-0.94). In carriers of cagA positive Hp strains, individuals with blood type A had a higher risk of IM or dysplasia than those with blood type O (OR=1.42, 95% CI 1.09-1.86) and a higher risk if compared to subjects carrying cagA negative strain and non-A blood group (OR=3.82, 95% CI=2.80-5.20). The interaction between Hp cagA status and blood type was statistically significant (p=0.0006). We showed that SNPs in the ABO gene, predictive of ABO blood groups, are associated with risk of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in individuals infected with Hp, but the assessment of the risk is strictly dependent on cagA status.

  1. Variation at ABO histo-blood group and FUT loci and diffuse and intestinal gastric cancer risk in a European population.

    PubMed

    Duell, Eric J; Bonet, Catalina; Muñoz, Xavier; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Severi, Gianluca; Canzian, Federico; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Boeing, Heiner; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Argüelles, Marcial; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Chamosa, Saioa; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Rutch C; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Siersema, Peter D; Peeters, Petra H M; Ohlsson, Bodil; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ye, Weimin; Johansson, Matthias; Fenger, Claus; Riboli, Elio; Sala, Núria; González, Carlos A

    2015-02-15

    ABO blood serotype A is known to be associated with risk of gastric cancer (GC), but little is known how ABO alleles and the fucosyltransferase (FUT) enzymes and genes which are involved in Lewis antigen formation [and in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) binding and pathogenicity] may be related to GC risk in a European population. The authors conducted an investigation of 32 variants at ABO and FUT1-7 loci and GC risk in a case-control study of 365 cases and 1,284 controls nested within the EPIC cohort (the EPIC-Eurgast study). Four variants (including rs505922) in ABO, and allelic blood group A (AO+AA, odds ratio=1.84, 95%CI=1.20-2.80) were associated with diffuse-type GC; however, conditional models with other ABO variants indicated that the associations were largely due to allelic blood group A. One variant in FUT5 was also associated with diffuse-type GC, and four variants (and haplotypes) in FUT2 (Se), FUT3 (Le) and FUT6 with intestinal-type GC. Further, one variant in ABO, two in FUT3 and two in FUT6 were associated with H. pylori infection status in controls, and two of these (in FUT3 and FUT6) were weakly associated with intestinal-type GC risk. None of the individual variants surpassed a Bonferroni corrected p-value cutoff of 0.0016; however, after a gene-based permutation test, two loci [FUT3(Le)/FUT5/FUT6 and FUT2(Se)] were significantly associated with diffuse- and intestinal-type GC, respectively. Replication and functional studies are therefore recommended to clarify the role of ABO and FUT alleles in H. pylori infection and subtype-specific gastric carcinogenesis.

  2. Risk of advanced gastric precancerous lesions in Helicobacter pylori infected subjects is influenced by ABO blood group and cagA status

    PubMed Central

    Rizzato, Cosmeri; Kato, Ikuko; Plummer, Martyn; Muñoz, Nubia; Stein, Angelika; van Doorn, Leen Jan; Franceschi, Silvia; Canzian, Federico

    2013-01-01

    A higher incidence of stomach cancer in ABO blood type A individuals than in those with blood type O has been known for a long time. We studied this association in relation to Helicobacter pylori (Hp) of different cagA status. For this study we used baseline gastric histopathology data and DNAs from frozen gastric biopsies of 2077 subjects enrolled in a chemoprevention trial for gastric precancerous lesions in Venezuela. We analyzed 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ABO gene and we assessed the presence of the Hp cagA gene. Odds ratios for risk of advanced precancerous gastric lesions were calculated using individuals with normal gastric epithelium or non-atrophic gastritis as a reference. Among individuals carrying a cagA negative Hp infection or no Hp infection, those with blood type A had a lower risk of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia than those with blood type O (OR=0.60; 95% CI 0.38-0.94). In carriers of cagA positive Hp strains, individuals with blood type A had a higher risk of intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia than those with blood type O (OR=1.42, 95% CI 1.09-1.86) and a higher risk if compared with subjects carrying cagA− strain and non-A blood group (OR=3.82, 95%CI=2.80-5.20). The interaction between Hp cagA status and blood type was statistically significant (P=0.0006). We showed that SNPs in the ABO gene, predictive of ABO blood groups, are associated with risk of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in individuals infected with Hp, but the assessment of the risk is strictly dependent on cagA status. PMID:23319424

  3. IMMUNOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON BLOOD GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Carlos; Lundblad, Arne; Kabat, Elvin A.

    1971-01-01

    The immunochemical properties of purified A1 and A2 glycoproteins have been compared to ascertain whether their antigenic determinants differ. Quantitative precipitin and complement-fixation studies using several anti-A sera as well as purified γG anti-A antibodies clearly showed a specificity difference. This was also supported by absorption studies: A2 substance specifically removed antibodies reacting with A2 substance leaving anti-A1 activity. A1 substance was more effective than A2 substance in dissolving an A1 anti-A1-specific precipitate. Purified γM anti-A hemolyzed A1 cells more readily than A2 cells. Inhibition studies using mono- and difucosyl type 2 A-active oligosaccharides showed that type 2 difucosyl receptors are present in A2 substance. The structural basis for the specificity difference between A1 and A2 would appear to be that A2 substances lack type 1 A determinants; this would account for the observed higher H and Leb activity in A2 substances. PMID:4104425

  4. Biosynthesis of the carbohydrate antigenic determinants, Globo H, blood group H, and Lewis b: a role for prostate cancer cell alpha1,2-L-fucosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, E V; Chawda, Ram; Locke, Robert D; Piskorz, Conrad F; Matta, Khushi L

    2002-03-01

    Prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells were unique among several human cancer cell lines which include two other prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3 and DU-145, in expressing alpha1,2-L-fucosyltransferase (FT) as an exclusive FT activity. Affinity gel-GDP and Sephacryl S100 HR columns were used for a partial purification of this enzyme from 3.9 x 10(9) LNCaP cells (approximately 200-fold; 40% yield). The K(m) value (2.7 mM) for the LacNAc type 2 acceptor was quite similar to the one reported for the cloned blood group H gene-specified alpha1,2-FT [Chandrasekaran et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 8914-8924]. N-Ethylmaleimide was a potent inhibitor (K(i ) 12.5 microM). The enzyme showed four-fold acceptor preference for the LacNAc type 2 unit in comparison to the T-hapten in mucin core 2 structure. Its main features were similar to those of the cloned enzyme: (1) C-6 sulfation of terminal Gal in the LacNAc unit increased the acceptor efficiency, whereas C-6 sialylation abolished acceptor ability; (2) C-6 sulfation of GlcNAc in LacNAc type 2 decreased by 80% the acceptor ability, whereas LacNAc type 1 was unaffected; (3) Lewis x did not serve as an acceptor; (4) the C-4 hydroxyl rather than the C-6 hydroxyl group of the GlcNAc moiety in LacNAc type1 was essential for activity; and (5) the acrylamide copolymer of Galbeta1,3GlcNAcbeta-O-Al was the best acceptor among the acrylamide copolymers. Additionally, highly significant biological features of alpha1,2FT were identified in the present study. The synthesis of Globo H and Lewis b determinants became evident from the fact that Galbeta1,3GalNAcbeta1,3Galalpha-O-Me and Galbeta1,3(Fucalpha1,4)Glc-NAcbeta1,3Galbeta-O-Me served as high-affinity acceptors for this enzyme. Further, D-Fucbeta1,3Gal-NAcbeta1,3Galalpha-O-Me was a very efficient acceptor, indicating that the C-6 hydroxyl group of the terminal Gal moiety in Globo H is not essential for the enzyme activity. Thus, the present study was able to demonstrate three different

  5. The influence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond in differential recognition of inhibitory acceptor analogs by human ABO(H) blood group A and B glycosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoa P; Seto, Nina O L; Cai, Ye; Leinala, Eeva K; Borisova, Svetlana N; Palcic, Monica M; Evans, Stephen V

    2003-12-05

    Human ABO(H) blood group glycosyltransferases GTA and GTB catalyze the final monosaccharide addition in the biosynthesis of the human A and B blood group antigens. GTA and GTB utilize a common acceptor, the H antigen disaccharide alpha-l-Fucp-(1-->2)-beta-d-Galp-OR, but different donors, where GTA transfers GalNAc from UDP-GalNAc and GTB transfers Gal from UDP-Gal. GTA and GTB are two of the most homologous enzymes known to transfer different donors and differ in only 4 amino acid residues, but one in particular (Leu/Met-266) has been shown to dominate the selection between donor sugars. The structures of the A and B glycosyltransferases have been determined to high resolution in complex with two inhibitory acceptor analogs alpha-l-Fucp(1-->2)-beta-d-(3-deoxy)-Galp-OR and alpha-l-Fucp-(1-->2)-beta-d-(3-amino)-Galp-OR, in which the 3-hydroxyl moiety of the Gal ring has been replaced by hydrogen or an amino group, respectively. Remarkably, although the 3-deoxy inhibitor occupies the same conformation and position observed for the native H antigen in GTA and GTB, the 3-amino analog is recognized differently by the two enzymes. The 3-amino substitution introduces a novel intramolecular hydrogen bond between O2' on Fuc and N3' on Gal, which alters the minimum-energy conformation of the inhibitor. In the absence of UDP, the 3-amino analog can be accommodated by either GTA or GTB with the l-Fuc residue partially occupying the vacant UDP binding site. However, in the presence of UDP, the analog is forced to abandon the intramolecular hydrogen bond, and the l-Fuc residue is shifted to a less ordered conformation. Further, the residue Leu/Met-266 that was thought important only in distinguishing between donor substrates is observed to interact differently with the 3-amino acceptor analog in GTA and GTB. These observations explain why the 3-deoxy analog acts as a competitive inhibitor of the glycosyltransferase reaction, whereas the 3-amino analog displays complex modes of

  6. A novel O-linked glycan modulates Campylobacter jejuni major outer membrane protein-mediated adhesion to human histo-blood group antigens and chicken colonization

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Jafar; Pirinccioglu, Necmettin; Oldfield, Neil J.; Carlsohn, Elisabet; Stoof, Jeroen; Aslam, Akhmed; Self, Tim; Cawthraw, Shaun A.; Petrovska, Liljana; Colborne, Natalie; Sihlbom, Carina; Borén, Thomas; Wooldridge, Karl G.; Ala'Aldeen, Dlawer A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis; strategies to prevent infection are hampered by a poor understanding of the complex interactions between host and pathogen. Previous work showed that C. jejuni could bind human histo-blood group antigens (BgAgs) in vitro and that BgAgs could inhibit the binding of C. jejuni to human intestinal mucosa ex vivo. Here, the major flagella subunit protein (FlaA) and the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) were identified as BgAg-binding adhesins in C. jejuni NCTC11168. Significantly, the MOMP was shown to be O-glycosylated at Thr268; previously only flagellin proteins were known to be O-glycosylated in C. jejuni. Substitution of MOMP Thr268 led to significantly reduced binding to BgAgs. The O-glycan moiety was characterized as Gal(β1–3)-GalNAc(β1–4)-GalNAc(β1–4)-GalNAcα1-Thr268; modelling suggested that O-glycosylation has a notable effect on the conformation of MOMP and this modulates BgAg-binding capacity. Glycosylation of MOMP at Thr268 promoted cell-to-cell binding, biofilm formation and adhesion to Caco-2 cells, and was required for the optimal colonization of chickens by C. jejuni, confirming the significance of this O-glycosylation in pathogenesis. PMID:24451549

  7. The Laminin 511/521 Binding Site on the Lutheran Blood Group Glycoprotein is Located at theFlexible Junction of Ig Domains 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Mankelow, Tosti J.; Burton, Nicholas; Stedansdottir, Fanney O.; Spring, Frances A.; Parsons, Stephen F.; Pesersen, Jan S.; Oliveira, Cristiano L.P.; Lammie, Donna; Wess, Timothy; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel A.; Brady, R. Leo; Anstee, David J.

    2007-07-01

    The Lutheran blood group glycoprotein, first discovered on erythrocytes, is widely expressed in human tissues. It is a ligand for the {alpha}5 subunit of Laminin 511/521, an extracellular matrix protein. This interaction may contribute to vasocclusive events that are an important cause of morbidity in sickle cell disease. Using X-ray crystallography, small angle X-ray scattering and site directed mutagenesis we show that the extracellular region of Lutheran forms an extended structure with a distinctive bend between the second and third immunoglobulin-like domains. The linker between domains 2 and 3 appears to be flexible and is a critical determinant in maintaining an overall conformation for Lutheran that is capable of binding to Laminin. Mutagenesis studies indicate that Asp312 of Lutheran and the surrounding cluster of negatively charged residues in this linker region form the Laminin binding site. Unusually, receptor binding is therefore not a function of the domains expected to be furthermost from the plasma membrane. These studies imply that structural flexibility of Lutheran may be essential for its interaction with Laminin and present a novel opportunity for the development of therapeutics for sickle cell disease.

  8. Structures of a human blood group glycosyltransferase in complex with a photo-activatable UDP-Gal derivative reveal two different binding conformations

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, René; Batot, Gaëlle; Mannerstedt, Karin; Imberty, Anne; Breton, Christelle; Hindsgaul, Ole; Royant, Antoine; Palcic, Monica M.

    2014-01-01

    Glycosyltransferases (GTs) catalyse the sequential addition of monosaccharides to specific acceptor molecules and play major roles in key biological processes. GTs are classified into two main families depending on the inverted or retained stereochemistry of the glycosidic bond formed during the reaction. While the mechanism of inverting enzymes is well characterized, the precise nature of retaining GTs is still a matter of much debate. In an attempt to clarify this issue, studies were initiated to identify reaction-intermediate states by using a crystallographic approach based on caged substrates. In this paper, two distinct structures of AA(Gly)B, a dual-specificity blood group synthase, are described in complex with a UDP-galactose derivative in which the O6′′ atom is protected by a 2-nitrobenzyl group. The distinct conformations of the caged substrate in both structures of the enzyme illustrate the highly dynamic nature of its active site. An attempt was also made to photolyse the caged compound at low temperature, which unfortunately is not possible without damaging the uracil group as well. These results pave the way for kinetic crystallography experiments aiming at trapping and characterizing reaction-intermediate states in the mechanism of enzymatic glycosyl transfer. PMID:25084373

  9. Quantitative Influence of ABO Blood Groups on Factor VIII and Its Ratio to von Willebrand Factor, Novel Observations from an ARIC Study of 11,673 Subjects.

    PubMed

    Song, Jaewoo; Chen, Fengju; Campos, Marco; Bolgiano, Doug; Houck, Katie; Chambless, Lloyd E; Wu, Kenneth K; Folsom, Aaron R; Couper, David; Boerwinkle, Eric; Dong, Jing-fei

    2015-01-01

    ABO blood groups are known to influence the plasma level of von Willebrand factor (VWF), but little is known about the relationship between ABO and coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). We analyzed the influence of ABO genotypes on VWF antigen, FVIII activity, and their quantitative relationship in 11,673 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. VWF, FVIII, and FVIII/VWF levels varied significantly among O, A (A1 and A2), B and AB subjects, and the extent of which varied between Americans of European (EA) and African (AA) descent. We validated a strong influence of ABO blood type on VWF levels (15.2%), but also detected a direct ABO influence on FVIII activity (0.6%) and FVIII/VWF ratio (3.8%) after adjustment for VWF. We determined that FVIII activity changed 0.54% for every 1% change in VWF antigen level. This VWF-FVIII relationship differed between subjects with O and B blood types in EA, AA, and in male, but not female subjects. Variations in FVIII activity were primarily detected at low VWF levels. These new quantitative influences on VWF, FVIII and the FVIII/VWF ratio help understand how ABO genotypes differentially influence VWF, FVIII and their ratio, particularly in racial and gender specific manners.

  10. Regulation of the oncodevelopmental expression of type 1 chain ABH and Lewis(b) blood group antigens in human colon by alpha-2-L-fucosylation.

    PubMed Central

    Orntoft, T F; Greenwell, P; Clausen, H; Watkins, W M

    1991-01-01

    Blood group antigen expression in the distal human colon is related to the development of the organ and is modified by malignant transformation. To elucidate the biochemical basis for these changes, we have (a) analysed the activity of glycosyltransferases coded for by the H, Se, Le, X, and A genes, in tissue biopsy specimens from normal and malignant proximal and distal human colon; (b) characterised the glycosphingolipids expressed in the various regions of normal and malignant colon by immunostaining of high performance thin layer chromatography plates; and (c) located the antigens on tissue sections from the same subjects by immunohistochemistry. In both secretors and non-secretors we found a significantly higher activity of alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferases in carcinomatous rectal tissue than in tissue from normal subjects, whereas the other transferase activities studied showed no significant differences. The acceptor substrate specificity suggested that both the Se and the H gene dependent alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferases are increased in carcinomas. In non-malignant tissue the only enzyme which showed appreciably higher activity in caecum than in rectum was alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferase. Immunochemistry and immunohistochemistry showed alpha-2-L-fucosylated structures in normal caecum from secretors and in tumour tissue from both secretors and non-secretors. We conclude that the alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferases control the expression of ABH, and Lewis(b) structures in normal and malignant colon. Images Figure 4 PMID:1826491

  11. Histochemical analysis of the chemical structure of blood group-related carbohydrate chains in serous cells of human submandibular glands using lectin staining and glycosidase digestion.

    PubMed

    Ito, N; Nishi, K; Nakajima, M; Okamura, Y; Hirota, T

    1989-07-01

    Using lectin staining methods in combination with exo- and endo-glycosidase digestion procedures, we analyzed the chemical structure of different types of blood group-related substances in serous cells of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human submandibular glands. Serous cells produced only H antigen; A and B antigens were not present, and the expression of H antigen is dependent on the secretor status of the tissue donor. Although reactivity with Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) was not markedly reduced by alpha-L-fucosidase digestion, an affinity for peanut agglutinin (PNA) was seen after fucosidase digestion in the cells from secretors. In those from nonsecretors, no PNA reactivity appeared after enzyme digestion. On the other hand, sialidase digestion elicited PNA reactivity in serous cells irrespective of the donor's secretor status. PNA reactivity observed after fucosidase or sialidase digestion was susceptible to endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (endo-GalNAc-dase) digestion. SBA reactivity in UEA-I-negative cells from secretors, or in cells from fetuses and newborn infants, was markedly reduced by beta-galactosidase digestion. After galactosidase digestion, reactivity with Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin II (GSA-II) appeared in the corresponding cells. This GSA-II reactivity was almost completely eliminated by subsequent beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase digestion. Whereas PNA reactivity in these cells was not reduced by beta-galactosidase treatment, it was significantly diminished by endo-GalNAc-dase digestion. These results suggest that at least two kinds of precursor disaccharides are produced in submandibular serous cells, i.e., SBA-reactive D-galactose-(beta 1-3,4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and PNA-reactive D-galactose-(beta 1-3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine alpha 1-serine or threonine (O-glycosidically linked Type 3 chain or T antigen). Final fucosylation and synthesis of these two types of precursor chain appear to be under the control of the secretor

  12. Structural Analysis of Histo-Blood Group Antigen Binding Specificity in a Norovirus GII.4 Epidemic Variant: Implications for Epochal Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Shanker, Sreejesh; Choi, Jae-Mun; Sankaran, Banumathi; Atmar, Robert L.; Estes, Mary K.; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram

    2012-03-23

    Susceptibility to norovirus (NoV), a major pathogen of epidemic gastroenteritis, is associated with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are also cell attachment factors for this virus. GII.4 NoV strains are predominantly associated with worldwide NoV epidemics with a periodic emergence of new variants. The sequence variations in the surface-exposed P domain of the capsid protein resulting in differential HBGA binding patterns and antigenicity are suggested to drive GII.4 epochal evolution. To understand how temporal sequence variations affect the P domain structure and contribute to epochal evolution, we determined the P domain structure of a 2004 variant with ABH and secretor Lewis HBGAs and compared it with the previously determined structure of a 1996 variant. We show that temporal sequence variations do not affect the binding of monofucosyl ABH HBGAs but that they can modulate the binding strength of difucosyl Lewis HBGAs and thus could contribute to epochal evolution by the potentiated targeting of new variants to Lewis-positive, secretor-positive individuals. The temporal variations also result in significant differences in the electrostatic landscapes, likely reflecting antigenic variations. The proximity of some of these changes to the HBGA binding sites suggests the possibility of a coordinated interplay between antigenicity and HBGA binding in epochal evolution. From the observation that the regions involved in the formation of the HBGA binding sites can be conformationally flexible, we suggest a plausible mechanism for how norovirus disassociates from salivary mucin-linked HBGA before reassociating with HBGAs linked to intestinal epithelial cells during its passage through the gastrointestinal tract.

  13. Crystal Structures of GII.10 and GII.12 Norovirus Protruding Domains in Complex with Histo-Blood Group Antigens Reveal Details for a Potential Site of Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Hansman, Grant S.; Biertümpfel, Christian; Georgiev, Ivelin; McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Tongqing; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kwong, Peter D.

    2011-10-10

    Noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide, and interactions with human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are thought to play a critical role in their entry mechanism. Structures of noroviruses from genogroups GI and GII in complex with HBGAs, however, reveal different modes of interaction. To gain insight into norovirus recognition of HBGAs, we determined crystal structures of norovirus protruding domains from two rarely detected GII genotypes, GII.10 and GII.12, alone and in complex with a panel of HBGAs, and analyzed structure-function implications related to conservation of the HBGA binding pocket. The GII.10- and GII.12-apo structures as well as the previously solved GII.4-apo structure resembled each other more closely than the GI.1-derived structure, and all three GII structures showed similar modes of HBGA recognition. The primary GII norovirus-HBGA interaction involved six hydrogen bonds between a terminal {alpha}fucose1-2 of the HBGAs and a dimeric capsid interface, which was composed of elements from two protruding subdomains. Norovirus interactions with other saccharide units of the HBGAs were variable and involved fewer hydrogen bonds. Sequence analysis revealed a site of GII norovirus sequence conservation to reside under the critical {alpha}fucose1-2 and to be one of the few patches of conserved residues on the outer virion-capsid surface. The site was smaller than that involved in full HBGA recognition, a consequence of variable recognition of peripheral saccharides. Despite this evasion tactic, the HBGA site of viral vulnerability may provide a viable target for small molecule- and antibody-mediated neutralization of GII norovirus.

  14. Prevention of pure red cell aplasia after major or bidirectional ABO blood group incompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantation by pretransplant reduction of host anti-donor isoagglutinins

    PubMed Central

    Stussi, Georg; Halter, Jörg; Bucheli, Eveline; Valli, Piero V.; Seebach, Lutz; Gmür, Jürg; Gratwohl, Alois; Schanz, Urs; Passweg, Jakob R.; Seebach, Jörg D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Persistent anti-donor isoagglutinins after major ABO blood group incompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may cause delayed red blood cell engraftment and post-transplant pure red cell aplasia. Design and Methods We investigated the effect of pretransplant anti-donor isoagglutinin reduction by in vivo absorption and/or plasmapheresis on the incidence of pure red cell aplasia and the time to red blood cell engraftment in 153 hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with major ABO incompatibility. Results Twelve patients (8%) developed pure red cell aplasia, 3/98 (3%) with, and 9/55 (16%) without prior isoagglutinin reduction (p=0.009). Red blood cell engraftment was faster in patients with isoagglutinin reduction; in addition, peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, acute graft-versus-host disease, and younger age were associated with faster red blood cell engraftment in Cox regression analysis. In patients with pure red cell aplasia the mean red blood cell engraftment occurred after 225 days (p<0.001) and was associated with a simultaneous decrease of anti-donor isoagglutinins. Patients with pure red cell aplasia had higher pretransplant anti-donor isoagglutinin titers (p=0.001) and received more post-transplant red blood cell transfusions (p<0.001). Conclusions Following major ABO incompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, pure red cell aplasia and delayed red blood cell engraftment depend on the levels of anti-donor isoagglutinins and are efficiently prevented by the pretransplant removal of these isoagglutinins. The benefits of reducing the time of transfusion-dependency and transfusion-associated risks must be carefully balanced against the potential side effects of isoagglutinin reduction. PMID:19144657

  15. Association between expression of the H histo-blood group antigen, alpha1,2fucosyltransferases polymorphism of wild rabbits, and sensitivity to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Patrice; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Le Moullac-Vaidye, Béatrice; Marchandeau, Stéphane; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    RHDV (rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus) is a highly virulent calicivirus that has become a major cause of mortality in wild rabbit populations (Oryctolagus cuniculus). It binds to the histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) H type 2 which requires an alpha1,2fucosyltransferase for its synthesis. In rabbit, three alpha1,2fucosyltransferases genes are known, Fut1, Fut2, and Sec1. Nonfunctional alleles at any of these loci could potentially confer resistance to RHDV, similar to human FUT2 alleles that determine the nonsecretor phenotype and resistance to infection by various NoV strains. In this study, we looked for the presence of H type 2 on buccal epithelial cells of wild rabbits from two geographic areas under RHDV pressure and from one RHDV-free area. Some animals with diminished H type 2 expression were found in the three populations (nonsecretor-like phenotype). Their frequency markedly increased according to the RHDV impact, suggesting that outbreaks selected survivors with low expression of the virus ligand. Polymorphisms of the Fut1, Fut2, and Sec1 coding regions were determined among animals that either died or survived outbreaks. The Fut2 and Sec1 genes presented a high polymorphism and the frequency of one Sec1 allele was significantly elevated, over 6-fold, among survivors. Sec1 enzyme variants showed either moderate, low, or undetectable catalytic activity, whereas all variant Fut2 enzymes showed strong catalytic activity. This functional analysis of the enzymes encoded by each Fut2 and Sec1 allele suggests that the association between one Sec1 allele and survival might be explained by a deficit of alpha1,2fucosyltransferase expression rather than by impaired catalytic activity.

  16. Histo-blood group gene polymorphisms as potential genetic modifiers of the development of coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, K; Ihara, K; Ikeda, K; Nagata, H; Mizuno, Y; Hara, T

    2012-04-01

    Abnormal immunological responses to certain microbial agents may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease (KD). The association studies between histo-blood group genes (Lewis and ABO blood types) and various types of infectious diseases or vasculopathy have been carried out based on the fact that glycosylated antigens could directly mediate microbial infections. We attempted to clarify the role of blood type antigens in the development of KD and coronary artery lesions in KD patients. The subjects included 164 KD patients enrolled from 1998 to 2003 (1st group), 232 patients from 2004 to 2009 (2nd group), and 223 healthy children and 118 patients with growth hormone deficiency as controls. The genotyping of the FUT2 and FUT3 genes, and ABO genotypes, was determined with the TaqMan SNP assay and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. No significant differences were observed in the genotypes and allele frequencies of the FUT2 and FUT3 genes between the groups. The frequency of the BB blood genotype was significantly higher in KD patients with coronary artery lesions in the 1st and 2nd groups than in the controls (17% and 14% vs. 5%, P = 0.0020). This is the first report to investigate the roles of ABO and Lewis blood types in the development of KD, and in the formation of coronary artery lesions in KD patients. These data suggest that the ABO blood type may play a role in the development of coronary artery lesions in KD patients.

  17. Predictive value of cord blood bilirubins for hyperbilirubinemia in neonates at risk for maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility and hemolytic disease of the newborn

    PubMed Central

    Calkins, Kara L.; Roy, Devika; Molchan, Lauren; Bradley, Lyndsey; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Walker, Valencia P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the predictive ability of cord blood bilirubin (CBB) for hyperbilirubinemia in a population at risk for maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility and hemolytic disease of the newborn. Study Design This is a single center retrospective case-control study. Cases received phototherapy; controls did not. Cases were matched 1:3 to controls by gender and treating physician. Inclusion criteria included: ≥ 35 weeks gestation, CBB, and one or more total serum bilirubin (TSB) concentrations. The primary outcome was CBB. Secondary outcomes were a TSB > 75th percentile, length of stay, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. The prognostic ability of CBB for phototherapy and TSB > 75th percentile was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictors for phototherapy and TSB > 75th percentile. Result When compared to controls (n=142), cases (n=54) were more likely to have a positive Coombs’ test (82% vs. 41%, p<0.001) and TSB > 75th percentile (85% vs. 21%, p<0.001). When compared to controls, cases had a higher mean (±SD) CBB (2.5±0.5 vs. 1.8±0.4 mg/dL, p<0.001). The area under the ROC curve (±SEM) for CBB for phototherapy and TSB >75th percentile was 0.87±0.03 (p<0.001, 95% CI 0.82,0.93) and 0.87±0.03 (p<0.001, 95% CI 0.82,0.92), respectively. Conclusion In this study, the mean CBB concentration was higher in neonates who received phototherapy compared to those who did not. CBB concentrations may help predict severe hyperbilirubinemia and phototherapy in a population at risk for hemolytic disease of the newborn. PMID:26518407

  18. Identification of a new alpha1,2-fucosyltransferase involved in O-antigen biosynthesis of Escherichia coli O86:B7 and formation of H-type 3 blood group antigen.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei; Shen, Jie; Liu, Xianwei; Shao, Jun; Yi, Wen; Chow, Christine S; Wang, Peng G

    2008-11-04

    Escherichia coli O86 possesses high human blood group B activity because of its O-antigen structure, sharing the human blood group B epitope. In this study, the wbwK gene of E. coli O86:B7 was expressed and purified as the GST fusion protein. Thereafter, the wbwK gene was biochemically identified to encode an alpha1,2-fucosyltransferase through radioactivity assays, as well as mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. WbwK shows strict substrate specificity and only recognizes Gal beta1,3GalNAc alpha-OR (T-antigen and derivatives) as the acceptor to generate the H-type 3 blood group antigen. In contrast to other alpha1,2-fucosyltransferases, WbwK does not display activity toward the simple substrate Gal beta-OMe. Comparison with another recently characterized alpha1,2-fucosyltransferase (WbsJ) of E. coli O128:B12 indicates a low level of amino acid identity between them; however, they share a common acceptor substrate, Gal beta1,3GalNAc alpha-OR. Domain swapping between WbwK and WbsJ revealed that the smaller variable domains located in the C-terminus determine substrate specificity, whereas the larger variable domain in the N-terminus might play a role in forming the correct conformation for substrate binding or for localization of the alpha1,2-fucosyltransferase involved in O-antigen biosynthesis. In addition, milligram scale biosynthesis of the H-type 3 blood group antigen was explored using purified recombinant WbwK. WbwK may have potential applications in masking T-antigen, the tumor antigen, in vivo.

  19. Reassessment of ABO blood group, sex, and age on laboratory parameters used to diagnose von Willebrand disorder: potential influence on the diagnosis vs the potential association with risk of thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Soltani, Soma; McDonald, Jane; Grezchnik, Ella; Easton, Leanne; Favaloro, James W C

    2005-12-01

    We reassessed the influence of ABO blood group, sex, and age on plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF) antigen, vWF:ristocetin cofactor, vWF:collagen binding assay, and factor VIII coagulant (FVIII:C). Data show that levels of vWF and FVIII:C increase with increasing age (P < .001 for all parameters) and that the ABO blood group influences plasma levels such that O group levels are significantly less than non-O group levels. There was no significant association with sex and Rh status. The selection of normal ranges based on ABO blood groups may influence the clinical diagnosis of von Willebrand disease (vWD) but might not be clinically relevant or help identify people at increased risk of bleeding. Differences in ABO-related ranges were more extensive at the high end of the ranges. This is of particular interest because high levels of vWF and FVIII are associated with thrombosis risk, and an ABO relationship also has been described. O group individuals may or may not be at greater risk for bleeding (they have lower levels of vWF and FVIII:C) and are more likely to be diagnosed with vWD. It also is possible that O group status may be protective for thrombosis.

  20. Histochemical analysis of blood group antigens in human sublingual glands and pancreas. An application of high-performance liquid chromatography to estimate the quantity of galactose liberated from tissue sections by alpha-galactosidase digestion.

    PubMed

    Ito, N; Tabata, S; Kawahara, S; Hirano, Y; Nakajima, K; Uchida, K; Hirota, T

    1993-03-01

    Using immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from three different sources as well as anti-B lectin, GSAI-B4 staining and alpha-galactosidase digestion, blood group B antigens were localized and analysed in tissue sections of sublingual glands from blood group B and AB individuals. Quantitative analysis of galactose was simultaneously carried out on the supernatant enzyme solution used for treating tissue sections by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, galactose liberated from the pancreas tissues of blood group B and AB individuals was also estimated by HPLC analysis in order to compare the content of antigens. mAb-B(H079) and GSAI-B4 reacted uniformly with the mucous cells from blood group B and AB secretors. On the other hand, other mAbs-B(B006 and A582) recognized the antigen in a limited number of cells or was even negative in some cases of blood group AB individuals. Only mAb-B(H079) recognized the B antigens in mucous cells from non-secretors. Digestion with alpha-galactosidase resulted in the consistent appearance of H and Le(b) antigens in the mucous cells of all the secretors examined, although the reduction of staining intensity with anti-B reagents was not so marked. Le(y) antigens also appeared in some cases after the enzyme digestion. In non-secretors, Le(b) and Le(y) antigens, but not H antigens, appeared in some mucous cells following enzyme digestion. HPLC analysis of galactose revealed that alpha-galactosidase can specifically liberate the terminal galactose residues of B antigens, and no marked difference was present in the content of liberated galactose from mucous cells of sublingual glands among the individuals investigated (8.5-11.7 nmoles cm-2). No galactose was detected in samples from the sublingual glands of non-secretors, and only a trace amount of galactose was detected in the samples from pancreas tissues. These results suggest that the observed difference in the reactivity of different reagents with

  1. Characterization of WbiQ: An {alpha}1,2-fucosyltransferase from Escherichia coli O127:K63(B8), and synthesis of H-type 3 blood group antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, Nicholas; Styslinger, Thomas; Mei, Zhen; Han, Weiqing; Zhao, Guohui; Wang, Peng George

    2010-11-12

    Research highlights: {yields} WbiQ is an {alpha}1,2-fucosyltransferase from Escherichia coli O127. {yields} WbiQ demonstrates strict substrate specificity for the Gal-{beta}1,3-GalNAc acceptor. {yields} WbiQ was used to synthesize milligram scale of the H-type 3 blood group antigen. -- Abstract: Escherichia coli O127:K63(B8) possesses high human blood group H (O) activity due to its O-antigen repeating unit structure. In this work, the wbiQ gene from E. coli O127:K63(B8) was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and purified as a fusion protein containing an N-terminal GST affinity tag. Using the GST-WbiQ fusion protein, the wbiQ gene was identified to encode an {alpha}1,2-fucosyltransferase using a radioactivity based assay, thin-layer chromatography assay, as well confirming product formation by using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The fused enzyme (GST-WbiQ) has an optimal pH range from 6.5 to 7.5 and does not require the presence of a divalent metal to be enzymatically active. WbiQ displays strict substrate specificity, displaying activity only towards acceptors that contain Gal-{beta}1,3-GalNAc-{alpha}-OR linkages; indicating that both the Gal and GalNAc residues are vital for enzymatic activity. In addition, WbiQ was used to prepare the H-type 3 blood group antigen, Fuc-{alpha}1,2-Gal-{beta}1,3-GalNAc-{alpha}-OMe, on a milligram scale.

  2. Molecular cloning, sequence, and expression of a human GDP-L-fucose:. beta. -D-galactoside 2-. alpha. -L-fucosyltransferase cDNA that can form the H blood group antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.D.; Ernst, L.K.; Nair, R.P.; Lowe, J.B. )

    1990-09-01

    The authors have previously used a gene-transfer scheme to isolate a human genomic DNA fragment that determines expression of a GDP-L-fucose:{beta}D-galactoside 2-{alpha}-L-fucosyltransferase. Although this fragment determined expression of an {alpha}(1,2)FT whose kinetic properties mirror those of the human H blood group {alpha}(1,2)FT, their precise nature remained undefined. They describe here the molecular cloning, sequence, and expression of a human of cDNA corresponding to these human genomic sequences. When expressed in COS-1 cells, the cDNA directs expression of cell surface H structures and a cognate {alpha}(1,2)FT activity with properties analogous to the human H blood group {alpha}(1,2)FT. The cDNA sequence predicts a 365-amino acid polypeptide characteristic of a type II transmembrane glycoprotein with a domain structure analogous to that of other glycosyltransferases but without significant primary sequence similarity to these or other known proteins. To directly demonstrate that the cDNA encodes an {alpha}(1,2)FT, the COOH-terminal domain predicted to be Golgi-resident was expressed in COS-1 cells as a catalytically active, secreted, and soluble protein A fusion peptide. Southern blot analysis showed that this cDNA identified DNA sequences syntenic to the human H locus on chromosome 19. These results strongly suggest that this cloned {alpha}(1,2)FT cDNA represents the product of the human H blood group locus.

  3. Characterization of WbiQ: An α1,2-fucosyltransferase from Escherichia coli O127:K63(B8), and synthesis of H-type 3 blood group antigen.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Nicholas; Styslinger, Thomas; Mei, Zhen; Han, Weiqing; Zhao, Guohui; Wang, Peng George

    2010-11-12

    Escherichia coli O127:K63(B8) possesses high human blood group H (O) activity due to its O-antigen repeating unit structure. In this work, the wbiQ gene from E. coli O127:K63(B8) was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and purified as a fusion protein containing an N-terminal GST affinity tag. Using the GST-WbiQ fusion protein, the wbiQ gene was identified to encode an α1,2-fucosyltransferase using a radioactivity based assay, thin-layer chromatography assay, as well confirming product formation by using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The fused enzyme (GST-WbiQ) has an optimal pH range from 6.5 to 7.5 and does not require the presence of a divalent metal to be enzymatically active. WbiQ displays strict substrate specificity, displaying activity only towards acceptors that contain Gal-β1,3-GalNAc-α-OR linkages; indicating that both the Gal and GalNAc residues are vital for enzymatic activity. In addition, WbiQ was used to prepare the H-type 3 blood group antigen, Fuc-α1,2-Gal-β1,3-GalNAc-α-OMe, on a milligram scale.

  4. Selenoglycosides in silico: ab initio-derived reparameterization of MM4, conformational analysis using histo-blood group ABH antigens and lectin docking as indication for potential of bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Strino, Francesco; Lii, Jenn-Huei; Koppisetty, Chaitanya A K; Nyholm, Per-Georg; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2010-12-01

    The identification of glycan epitopes such as the histo-blood group ABH determinants as docking sites for bacterial/viral infections and signals in growth regulation fuels the interest to develop non-hydrolysable mimetics for therapeutic applications. Inevitably, the required substitution of the linkage oxygen atom will alter the derivative's topology. Our study addresses the question of the impact of substitution of oxygen by selenium. In order to characterize spatial parameters and flexibility of selenoglycosides, we first performed ab initio calculations on model compounds to refine the MM4 force field. The following application of the resulting MM4R version appears to reduce the difference to ab initio data when compared to using the MM4 estimator. Systematic conformational searches on the derivatives of histo-blood group ABH antigens revealed increased flexibility with acquisition of additional low-energy conformer(s), akin to the behavior of S-glycosides. Docking analysis using the Glide program for eight test cases indicated potential for bioactivity, giving further experimental investigation a clear direction to testing Se-glycosides as lectin ligands.

  5. Selenoglycosides in silico: ab initio-derived reparameterization of MM4, conformational analysis using histo-blood group ABH antigens and lectin docking as indication for potential of bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strino, Francesco; Lii, Jenn-Huei; Koppisetty, Chaitanya A. K.; Nyholm, Per-Georg; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2010-12-01

    The identification of glycan epitopes such as the histo-blood group ABH determinants as docking sites for bacterial/viral infections and signals in growth regulation fuels the interest to develop non-hydrolysable mimetics for therapeutic applications. Inevitably, the required substitution of the linkage oxygen atom will alter the derivative's topology. Our study addresses the question of the impact of substitution of oxygen by selenium. In order to characterize spatial parameters and flexibility of selenoglycosides, we first performed ab initio calculations on model compounds to refine the MM4 force field. The following application of the resulting MM4R version appears to reduce the difference to ab initio data when compared to using the MM4 estimator. Systematic conformational searches on the derivatives of histo-blood group ABH antigens revealed increased flexibility with acquisition of additional low-energy conformer(s), akin to the behavior of S-glycosides. Docking analysis using the Glide program for eight test cases indicated potential for bioactivity, giving further experimental investigation a clear direction to testing Se-glycosides as lectin ligands.

  6. Review of the problems involved in using enzymes in blood group serology--provision of freeze-dried ICSH/ISBT protease enzyme and anti-D reference standards. International Council for Standardization in Haematology. International Society of Blood Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Scott, M L; Voak, D; Phillips, P K; Hoppe, P A; Kochman, S A

    1994-01-01

    Proteolytic enzyme preparations and techniques used routinely in blood group serology for the detection of atypical patient antibodies prior to transfusion vary widely and are often poorly standardised. Recent advances have been made in the use of biochemical methods to standardise and stabilise the potency of the enzyme preparations used. A joint working party of the International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH) and the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) has investigated possibilities for the provision of standards for the protease preparations and techniques. The specification for these standards was that the performance of enzyme reference preparation in the reference technique should be of equivalent sensitivity to the ICSH/ISBT LISS spin indirect antiglobulin test using a titration series of a reference weak anti-D, and be free from false-positive reactions. The working party circulated materials for evaluation in inter-laboratory trials, followed by a laboratory workshop meeting to achieve agreement on the specification for reference materials and methods. Reference freeze-dried papain at 0.6 azoalbumin units and weak anti-D preparations (91/562) have been prepared and validated to meet these specifications. The performance of a test enzyme preparation in the technique for which it is recommended for use should be at least equal to that of the reference papain preparation, by the reference two-stage technique in terms of sensitivity, using a titration series of the reference anti-D, and freedom from false-positive reactions, using six fresh inert sera. The reference papain and weak anti-D can also be used to calibrate the level of proteolytic activity required in other procedures in blood group serology, such as new technology methods for antibody detection, and automated and microplate cell grouping procedures. These preparations and an agreed method for their use are now available from listed centres as ICSH/ISBT and Food

  7. Conformational analysis of thioglycoside derivatives of histo-blood group ABH antigens using an ab initio-derived reparameterization of MM4: implications for design of non-hydrolysable mimetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strino, Francesco; Lii, Jenn-Huei; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Nyholm, Per-Georg

    2009-12-01

    Histo-blood group ABH antigens serve as recognition sites for infectious microorganisms and tissue lectins in intercellular communication, e.g. in tumor progression. Thus, they are of interest as a starting point for drug design. In this respect, potent non-hydrolysable derivatives such as thioglycosides are of special interest. As prerequisite to enable estimations of ligand properties relative to their natural counterparts, conformational properties of the thioglycosidic derivatives of ABH trisaccharides and their disaccharide units were calculated using systematic and filtered systematic searches with the MM4 force field. Parameters for the glycosidic torsions of thioglycosides were independently derived from ab initio calculations. The resulting energy deviations required a reparameterization of MM4 to a new parameter set called MM4R. The data sets obtained using MM4R reveal that the thioglycosides have somewhat increased levels of flexibility about the major low-energy conformations shared with the corresponding O-glycosides. In the trisaccharides, the thiosubstitution of the Gal[NAc]α1-3Gal linkage leads to a preference for a conformation which is the secondary minimum of the natural counterparts. This conformation also generates contacts between the N-acetyl group and the fucose moiety in the blood group A derivative. Calculations further indicate that thiosubstitution of only the Fucα1-2Gal linkage does not affect the conformational preferences compared to the natural trisaccharide. Thiosubstitution of both linkages in the trisaccharide results in increased flexibility but the favored conformation of the natural trisaccharides is preferred. The study suggests that thioglycoside derivatives of ABH antigens could have pharmaceutical interest as ligands of lectins and other carbohydrate-binding proteins.

  8. Lea blood group antigen on human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Dunstan, R.A.; Simpson, M.B.; Rosse, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    One- and two-stage radioligand assays were used to determine if human platelets possess the Lea antigen. Goat IgG anti-Lea antibody was purified by multiple adsorptions with Le(a-b-) human red blood cells, followed by affinity chromatography with synthetic Lea substance and labeling with /sup 125/I. Human IgG anti-Lea antibody was used either in a two stage radioassay with /sup 125/I-labeled mouse monoclonal IgG anti-human IgG as the second antibody or, alternatively, purified by Staph protein A chromatography, labeled with /sup 125/I, and used in a one-stage radioassay. Platelets from donors of appropriate red blood cell phenotypes were incubated with the antisera, centrifuged through phthalate esters, and assayed in a gamma scintillation counter. Dose response and saturation curve analysis demonstrate the presence of Lewis a antigen on platelets from Lea+ donors. Furthermore, platelets from an Le(a-b-) donor incubated in Le (a+b-) plasma adsorb Lea antigen in a similar manner to red blood cells. The clinical significance of these antigens in platelet transfusion remains undefined.

  9. [Variability of blood group frequencies in Romania].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H D; Scheil, H G

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of two population samples from Dobruja and Muntenia (Romania) as well as data from the literature (AB0, MN, Rhesus (D/d) and HPA). The data have been pooled according to the different regions of Romania. Interestingly, the Carpathian Mountains do not form a genetical barrier: there are clear genetical similarities between the provinces east and west as well as between the provinces south and north from the mountains. The differences and similarities between Romania as a whole and other populations in this region reflect the historical processes of the last centuries.

  10. Analysis of a Larger SNP Dataset from the HapMap Project Confirmed That the Modern Human A Allele of the ABO Blood Group Genes Is a Descendant of a Recombinant between B and O Alleles.

    PubMed

    Itou, Masaya; Sato, Mitsuharu; Kitano, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The human ABO blood group gene consists of three main alleles (A, B, and O) that encode a glycosyltransferase. The A and B alleles differ by two critical amino acids in exon 7, and the major O allele has a single nucleotide deletion (Δ261) in exon 6. Previous evolutionary studies have revealed that the A allele is the most ancient, B allele diverged from the A allele with two critical amino acid substitutions in exon 7, and the major O allele diverged from the A allele with Δ261 in exon 6. However, a recent phylogenetic network analysis study showed that the A allele of humans emerged through a recombination between the B and O alleles. In the previous study, a restricted dataset from only two populations was used. In this study, therefore, we used a large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) dataset from the HapMap Project. The results indicated that the A101-A201-O09 haplogroup was a recombinant lineage between the B and O haplotypes, containing the intact exon 6 from the B allele and the two critical A type sites in exon 7 from the major O allele. Its recombination point was assumed to be located just behind Δ261 in exon 6.

  11. The genetic structure of a tribal population, the Yanomama Indians XI. Gene frequencies for 10 blood groups and the ABH-Le secretor traits in the Yanomama and their neighbors; the uniqueness of the tribe.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, R H; Gershowitz, H; Layrisse, M; Neel, J V

    1975-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of blood group typings for a total of 33 villages distributed among five South American Indian tribes--Yanomama (21 villages), Makiritare (eight villages), Macushi (two villages), Piaroa (one village), and Wapishana (one village). These new results for the Yanomama and Makiritare tribes have been combined with those previously reported to allow a better appreciation of the distribution of allelic frequencies in the tribes. The relationship of the Yanomama to other South American Indian tribes is investigated using data on six polymorphic loci (Rh, MNS, Fy, Jk, Di, Hp). By use of four genetic measures (two of genetic relationship and two of genetic diversity), we demonstrate that the Yanomama are genetically unique among a sample of 20 South American tribes. In addition, the Yanomama show somewhat less genetic diversity for the six loci analyzed than the average South American tribe. Taken together, these results indicate a rather long period of isolation for the population antecedent to the Yanomama--perhaps since the time of entry of man into the South American continent. The pattern of genetic relationships and genetic diversity for the 20 tribes is consistent with the hypothesis that evolution in South America proceeded by a process of fission-fusion leading to isolation of subpopulations with subsequent genetic differentiation as a consequence of population isolation. The uniqueness of the Yanomama appears to stem entirely from such a process, there being no evidence of any selective differential for the loci analyzed. PMID:50736

  12. Localization of blood-group-related linear poly-N-acetyllactosamine structure in different human tissues by Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin-II staining following endo-beta-galactosidase digestion.

    PubMed

    Ito, N; Kawahara, S; Hirano, Y; Morimura, Y; Nakajima, K; Uchida, K; Hirota, T

    1994-04-01

    Endo-beta-galactosidase from Escherichia freundii cleaves polylactosaminyl structures as follows: R-GlcNAc beta I-3Gal beta I-4GlcNac beta I-R' + H2O-->R-GlcNAc beta I-3Gal + GlcNAc beta I-R'. By staining with Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin-II following the enzyme digestion, the distribution of R-GlcNAc beta I-3Gal beta I-4GlcNAc can be demonstrated in tissue sections. This carbohydrate chain is one of the backbone structures carrying the blood-group-related antigens and, thus, localization of this structure may provide detailed information about the distribution of variants with different backbone structures. Various formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections were stained by Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin-II with or without prior enzyme digestion and the reactivity of the agglutinin imparted by enzyme digestion was studied in the following tissues and cells: pancreatic acinar cells, gastric surface mucosae, duct cells and mucous cells of salivary glands and tracheal glands, surface epithelium of trachea, goblet cells of large intestine, columnar epithelium of uterine cervical glands, distal and collecting tubules of kidney, certain cells of anterior lobe and colloid of middle lobe of pituitary glands, epithelial reticular cells and Hassall's corpuscles of thymus and Kupffer cells of liver. In gastric surface mucosae, the reactivity of the agglutinin appeared in non-secretor individuals but not in the secretor individuals, and in mucous cells of salivary and tracheal glands the reactivity appeared in Le(a- b-) non-secretor individuals but not in Le(a + b-) non-secretor or secretor individuals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. pH-induced conformational changes in human ABO(H) blood group glycosyltransferases confirm the importance of electrostatic interactions in the formation of the semi-closed state.

    PubMed

    Johal, Asha R; Blackler, Ryan J; Alfaro, Javier A; Schuman, Brock; Borisova, Svetlana; Evans, Stephen V

    2014-03-01

    The homologous human ABO(H) A and B blood group glycosyltransferases GTA and GTB have two mobile polypeptide loops surrounding their active sites that serve to allow substrate access and product egress and to recognize and sequester substrates for catalysis. Previous studies have established that these enzymes can move from the "open" state to the "semi-closed" then "closed" states in response to addition of a substrate. The contribution of electrostatic interactions to these conformational changes has now been demonstrated by the determination at various pH of the structures of GTA, GTB and the chimeric enzyme ABBA. At near-neutral pH, GTA displays the closed state in which both mobile loops order around the active site, whereas ABBA and GTB display the open state. At low pH, the apparent protonation of the DXD motif in GTA leads to the expulsion of the donor analog to yield the open state, whereas at high pH, both ABBA and GTB form the semi-closed state in which the first mobile loop becomes an ordered α-helix. Step-wise deprotonation of GTB in increments of 0.5 between pH 6.5 and 10.0 shows that helix ordering is gradual, which indicates that the formation of the semi-closed state is dependent on electrostatic forces consistent with the binding of substrate. Spectropolarimetric studies of the corresponding stand-alone peptide in solution reveal no tendency toward helix formation from pH 7.0 to 10.0, which shows that pH-dependent stability is a product of the larger protein environment and underlines the importance of substrate in active site ordering.

  14. High Resolution Structures of the Human ABO(H) Blood Group Enzymes in Complex with Donor Analogs Reveal That the Enzymes Utilize Multiple Donor Conformations to Bind Substrates in a Stepwise Manner.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Susannah M L; Meloncelli, Peter J; Zheng, Ruixiang B; Haji-Ghassemi, Omid; Johal, Asha R; Borisova, Svetlana N; Lowary, Todd L; Evans, Stephen V

    2015-11-06

    Homologous glycosyltransferases α-(1→3)-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GTA) and α-(1→3)-galactosyltransferase (GTB) catalyze the final step in ABO(H) blood group A and B antigen synthesis through sugar transfer from activated donor to the H antigen acceptor. These enzymes have a GT-A fold type with characteristic mobile polypeptide loops that cover the active site upon substrate binding and, despite intense investigation, many aspects of substrate specificity and catalysis remain unclear. The structures of GTA, GTB, and their chimeras have been determined to between 1.55 and 1.39 Å resolution in complex with natural donors UDP-Gal, UDP-Glc and, in an attempt to overcome one of the common problems associated with three-dimensional studies, the non-hydrolyzable donor analog UDP-phosphono-galactose (UDP-C-Gal). Whereas the uracil moieties of the donors are observed to maintain a constant location, the sugar moieties lie in four distinct conformations, varying from extended to the "tucked under" conformation associated with catalysis, each stabilized by different hydrogen bonding partners with the enzyme. Further, several structures show clear evidence that the donor sugar is disordered over two of the observed conformations and so provide evidence for stepwise insertion into the active site. Although the natural donors can both assume the tucked under conformation in complex with enzyme, UDP-C-Gal cannot. Whereas UDP-C-Gal was designed to be "isosteric" with natural donor, the small differences in structure imposed by changing the epimeric oxygen atom to carbon appear to render the enzyme incapable of binding the analog in the active conformation and so preclude its use as a substrate mimic in GTA and GTB.

  15. Glycosyltransfer in mutants of putative catalytic residue Glu303 of the human ABO(H) A and B blood group glycosyltransferases GTA and GTB proceeds through a labile active site.

    PubMed

    Blackler, Ryan J; Gagnon, Susannah M L; Polakowski, Robert; Rose, Natisha L; Zheng, Ruixiang B; Letts, James A; Johal, Asha R; Schuman, Brock; Borisova, Svetlana N; Palcic, Monica M; Evans, Stephen V

    2016-11-22

    The homologous glycosyltransferases α-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GTA) and α-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GTB) carry out the final synthetic step of the closely related human ABO(H) blood group A and B antigens. The catalytic mechanism of these model retaining enzymes remains under debate, where Glu303 has been suggested to act as a putative nucleophile in a double displacement mechanism, a local dipole stabilizing the intermediate in an orthogonal associative mechanism or a general base to stabilize the reactive oxocarbenium ion-like intermediate in an S N i-like mechanism. Kinetic analysis of GTA and GTB point mutants E303C, E303D, E303Q and E303A shows that despite the enzymes having nearly identical sequences, the corresponding mutants of GTA/GTB have up to a 13-fold difference in their residual activities relative to wild type. High-resolution single crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal, surprisingly, that the mutated Cys, Asp and Gln functional groups are no more than 0.8 Å further from the anomeric carbon of donor substrate compared to wild type. However, complicating the analysis is the observation that Glu303 itself plays a critical role in maintaining the stability of a strained "double-turn" in the active site through several hydrogen bonds, and any mutation other than E303Q leads to significantly higher thermal motion or even disorder in the substrate recognition pockets. Thus, there is a remarkable juxtaposition of the mutants E303C and E303D, which retain significant activity despite disrupted active site architecture, with GTB/E303Q, which maintains active site architecture but exhibits zero activity. These findings indicate that nucleophilicity at position 303 is more catalytically valuable than active site stability and highlight the mechanistic elasticity of these enzymes.

  16. Purification of the Lewis blood-group gene associated alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase from human milk: an enzyme transferring fucose primarily to type 1 and lactose-based oligosaccharide chains.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P H; Watkins, W M

    1992-10-01

    A soluble Lewis blood-group gene associated alpha-3/4-L-fucosyltransferase has been purified from human milk by a series of steps involving hydrophobic chromatography on Phenyl Sepharose 4B, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50, affinity chromatography on GDP-hexanolamine Sepharose 4B and gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200. The first step separated alpha-3-L-fucosyltransferase activity directed towards N-acetylglucosamine in Type 2 (Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc-R) acceptors from an alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase fraction acting on both Type 1 (Gal beta 1-3GlcNAc-R) and Type 2 acceptors. Further purification of this latter fraction on CM-Sephadex and GDP-hexanolamine Sepharose gave a single peak of fucosyltransferase activity that catalysed the addition of fucose to N-acetylglucosamine in both Type 1 and Type 2 acceptors and to the O-3 position of glucose in lactose-based oligosaccharides. The enzyme preparation at this stage resembled previously described alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase preparations purified from human milk. However, gel filtration of this preparation on Sephacryl S-200 or Sephadex G-150 separated further amounts of alpha-3-fucosyltransferase activity acting solely on Type 2 acceptors and left a residual alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase that retained strong alpha-4 activity with the Type 1 acceptor, lacto-N-biose 1, and alpha-3 activity with 2'-fucosyllactose, but had relatively little alpha-3 activity with N-acetyllactosamine and virtually no capacity to transfer fucose to glycoproteins with N-linked oligosaccharide chains having unsubstituted terminal Type 2 structures.

  17. Characterization of AfaE adhesins produced by extraintestinal and intestinal human Escherichia coli isolates: PCR assays for detection of Afa adhesins that do or do not recognize Dr blood group antigens.

    PubMed

    Le Bouguénec, C; Lalioui, L; du Merle, L; Jouve, M; Courcoux, P; Bouzari, S; Selvarangan, R; Nowicki, B J; Germani, Y; Andremont, A; Gounon, P; Garcia, M I

    2001-05-01

    Operons of the afa family are expressed by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections in humans and animals. The recently demonstrated heterogeneity of these operons (L. Lalioui, M. Jouve, P. Gounon, and C. Le Bouguénec, Infect. Immun. 67:5048-5059, 1999) was used to develop a new PCR assay for detecting all the operons of the afa family with a single genetic tool. This PCR approach was validated by investigating three collections of human E. coli isolates originating from the stools of infants with diarrhea (88 strains), the urine of patients with pyelonephritis (97 strains), and the blood of cancer patients (115 strains). The results obtained with this single test and those previously obtained with several PCR assays were closely correlated. The AfaE adhesins encoded by the afa operons are variable, particularly with respect to the primary sequence encoded by the afaE gene. The receptor binding specificities have not been determined for all of these adhesins; some recognize the Dr blood group antigen (Afa/Dr(+) adhesins) on the human decay-accelerating factor (DAF) as a receptor, and others (Afa/Dr(-) adhesins) do not. Thus, the afa operons detected in this study were characterized by subtyping the afaE gene using specific PCRs. In addition, the DAF-binding capacities of as-yet-uncharacterized AfaE adhesins were tested by various cellular approaches. The afaE8 subtype (Afa/Dr(-) adhesin) was found to predominate in afa-positive isolates from sepsis patients (75%); it was frequent in afa-positive pyelonephritis E. coli (55.5%) and absent from diarrhea-associated strains. In contrast, Afa/Dr(+) strains (regardless of the afaE subtype) were associated with both diarrhea (100%) and extraintestinal infections (44 and 25% in afa-positive pyelonephritis and sepsis strains, respectively). These data suggest that there is an association between the subtype of AfaE adhesin and the physiological site of the infection

  18. A simple method to recover Norovirus from fresh produce with large sample size by using histo-blood group antigens conjugated magnetic beads re-circulating immunomagnetic separation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noroviruses (NoV) annually cause millions of cases of gastrointestinal disease in the United States. Although NoV outbreaks are generally associated with raw shellfish, particularly oysters, outbreaks have also been known to occur from other common-source food-borne vehicles such as lettuce, frozen...

  19. [Role of genetic blood markers (ABO-HLA systems) in the formation of increased sensitivity to occupational allergen epichlorohydrin].

    PubMed

    Davydova, N S; Bodienkova, G M

    2002-01-01

    The authors demonstrated that genetic factors play the certain role in hypersensitivity to occupational allergen epichlorohydrin. The sensibilized workers demonstrated higher incidence of individuals with OB (III) blood group and having phenotypic B8 antigen of HLA-system.

  20. International Research at ARI: The European Science Coordination Office

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    stratified systems theory for possible implementation in the U.S. Army. Brunel University, UK. (DAJA45-85-C-0009). Kidd, J.M. & Knasel , E.G. (1980). Work...Cambridge. (DAJA37- 80-C-0449). B-5 Knasel , E.G., Super, D.E. & Kidd, J.M. (1981). Work salience and work values: Their dimensions, assessment and

  1. Variation in the gene frequencies of three generations of humans from Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cerda-Flores, R M; Garza-Chapa, R

    1989-04-01

    Allele frequencies for the ABO, Rh, MNSs, Duffy, Kidd, Lutheran, P and Lewis blood group systems in 207 persons whose 4 grandparents were born in the Monterrey Metropolitan area (MMA), grouped into 3 generations, were ascertained along with other related population from the MMA, Mestizos from Saltillo, Coahuila and Tlaxcala, and from the populations thought to have contributed to their genetic constitution (native Mexican Indians and Spanish). Genetic admixture and distance estimates were calculated. Gene frequencies of the three generations from MMA are intermediate to those of the ancestral populations, indicating that they are Mestizo but with a genetic structure different from Mestizos of Saltillo and Tlaxcala. Both genetic admixture and distance estimates indicate that the oldest generation exhibits the greatest Spanish influence which decreases in the youngest generation and in the other MMA populations as a result of the immigration from the central states of Mexico.

  2. JK null alleles identified from Japanese individuals with Jk(a−b−) phenotype.

    PubMed

    Onodera, T; Sasaki, K; Tsuneyama, H; Isa, K; Ogasawara, K; Satake, M; Tadokoro, K; Uchikawa, M

    2014-05-01

    The Kidd blood group system consists of three common phenotypes: Jk(a+b−), Jk(a−b+) and Jk(a+b+), and one rare phenotype, Jk(a−b−). Jka/Jkb polymorphism is associated with c.838G>A (p.Asp280Asn) in exon 9 of the JK (SLC14A1) gene, and the corresponding alleles are named JK*01 and JK*02. The rare phenotype Jk(a−b−) was first found in a Filipina of Spanish and Chinese ancestry, and to date, several JK null alleles responsible for the Jk(a−b−) phenotype have been reported. We report seven novel JK null alleles, 4 with a JK*01 background and 3 with a JK*02 background, identified from Jk(a−b−) Japanese.

  3. Glycophorins, blood groups, and protection from severe malaria

    PubMed Central

    Wassmer, Samuel C.; Carlton, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    In Malaŵi, Malungo alibe odi is a saying that translates as: “Malaria does not ask permission before coming in”. The recent finding of a new severe malaria resistance locus next to a cluster of glycophorin genes involved in Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte invasion seems to suggest otherwise: that evolutionary pressure is enabling erythrocytes to lock the door to keep malaria out. PMID:26613665

  4. Glycophorins, Blood Groups, and Protection from Severe Malaria.

    PubMed

    Wassmer, Samuel C; Carlton, Jane M

    2016-01-01

    In Malaŵi, Malungo alibe odi is a saying that translates as: 'Malaria does not ask permission before coming in'. The recent finding of a new severe malaria resistance locus next to a cluster of glycophorin genes involved in Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte invasion seems to suggest otherwise: that evolutionary pressure is enabling erythrocytes to lock the door to keep malaria out.

  5. [Recent advance on blood group antigen modification of porcine erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie-Xi; Zhang, Yang-Pei

    2002-06-01

    Advances in the field of xenotransplantation raise the intriguing possibility of using porcine red blood cells (pRBCs) as an alternative source for blood transfusion. Serologically, pRBCs share a number of characteristics with human red blood cells (RBCs), so pRBCs are considered the most likely donor for xenotransfusion. However, xenoantigens on porcine erythrocytes play major roles in antibody-mediated RBC destruction. Although the alphaGal epitope (Galalpha1, 3Galbeta1, 4GalNAc-R) is the major xenoantigen on porcine erythrocytes and is responsible for the binding of the majority of human natural antibodies, other non-alphaGal xenoantigens have been identified. The importance of these non-alphaGal xenoantigens in binding human natural antibodies and subsequently triggering immunological responses cannot be underestimated.

  6. From Kidd to Dewey: The Origin and Meaning of "Social Efficiency"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary historians of education associate the term "social efficiency" with a group of US educators who, in the 1910s and 1920s, aimed at creating a technocratic school and a conservative society of social stability and harmony. However, an investigation of the origin of the term indicates that "social efficiency" began…

  7. Use of sialylated or sulfated derivatives and acrylamide copolymers of Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha- and GalNAc alpha- to determine the specificities of blood group T- and Tn-specific lectins and the copolymers to measure anti-T and anti-Tn antibody levels in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Jain, R K; Chandrasekaran, E V; Matta, K L

    1995-02-01

    Sialylated or sulfated derivatives and acrylamide copolymers of blood group T-(Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha-) and Tn-(GalNAc alpha) haptens were studied for their interaction with the lectins of peanut (PNA), Agaricus bisporus-(ABA), Helix pomatia-(HPA) and Vicia villosa B4-(VVA), using asialo Cowper's gland mucin (ACGM), which contains both T and Tn epitopes, as the coating substrate in enzyme linked lectin assay. Both T and Tn copolymers (-40 haptens) showed high affinity and strict specificity; although the T-copolymer at 0.05-0.07 microM concentration caused 50% inhibition of interaction of either PNA or ABA with ACGM, there was little inhibition of the HPA and VVA interactions even at over 100 times that concentration. The Tn-copolymer at 0.02-0.05 microM inhibited HPA or VVA interaction with ACGM by 50% but gave virtually no inhibition of PNA and ABA binding. Sialyl, sulfate or methyl group substitution on C-6 of GalNAc of the T-haptene did not prevent interaction with PNA but almost abolished interaction with ABA. In contrast, sialyl or sulfate group on C-6 and sulfate on C-3 of Gal in Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha- inhibited almost completely the interaction of PNA with ACGM but had only a slight effect on the interaction of ABA; C-6 substitution with either sialic acid or sulfate on GalNAc alpha- almost abolished the interaction of both HPA and VVA with ACGM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Characterization of the specificities of human blood group H gene-specified alpha 1,2-L-fucosyltransferase toward sulfated/sialylated/fucosylated acceptors: evidence for an inverse relationship between alpha 1,2-L-fucosylation of Gal and alpha 1,6-L-fucosylation of asparagine-linked GlcNAc.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, E V; Jain, R K; Larsen, R D; Wlasichuk, K; Matta, K L

    1996-07-09

    The assembly of complex structures bearing the H determinant was examined by characterizing the specificities of a cloned blood group H gene-specified alpha 1,2-L-fucosyltransferase (FT) toward a variety of sulfated, sialylated, or fucosylated Gal beta 1,3/4GlcNAc beta- or Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha-based acceptor structures. (a) As compared to the basic type 2, Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta-(K(m) = 1.67 mM), the basic type 1 was 137% active (K(m) = 0.83 mM). (b) On C-6 sulfation of Gal, type 1 became 142.1% active and type 2 became 223.0% active (K(m) = 0.45 mM). (c) On C-6 sulfation of GlcNAc, type 2 showed 33.7% activity. (d) On C-3 or C-4 fucosylation of GlcNAc, both types 1 and 2 lost activity. (e) Type 1 showed 70.8% and 5.8% activity, respectively, on C-6 and C-4 O-methylation of GlcNAc. (f) Type 1 retained 18.8% activity on alpha 2,6-sialylation of GlcNAc. (g) Terminal type 1 or 2 of extended chain had lower activity. (h) With Gal in place of GlcNAc in type 1, the activity became 43.2%. (i) Compounds with terminal alpha 1,3-linked Gal were inactive. (j) Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha- (the T-hapten) was approximately 0.4-fold as active as Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta-. (k) C-6 sulfation of Gal on the T-hapten did not affect the acceptor activity. (l) C-6 sulfation of GalNAc decreased the activity to 70%, whereas on C-6 sulfation of both Gal and GalNAc the T-hapten lost the acceptor ability. (m) C-6 sialylation of GalNAc also led to inactivity. (n) beta 1,6 branching from GalNAc of the T-hapten by a GlcNAc residue or by units such as Gal beta 1, 4GlcNAc-, Gal beta 1,4(Fuc alpha 1,3)GlcNAc-, or 3-sulfoGal beta 1,4GlcNAc- resulted in 111.9%, 282.8%, 48.3%, and 75.3% activities, respectively. (o) The enhancement of enzyme affinity by a sulfo group on C-6 of Gal was demonstrated by an increase (approximately 5-fold) in the K(m) for Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta 1,6(Gal beta 1,3)GalNAc alpha-O-Bn in presence of 6-sulfoGal beta 1,- 4GlcNAc beta-O-Me (3.0 mM). (p) Among the two sites in

  9. A preliminary assessment of the ForenSeq™ FGx System: next generation sequencing of an STR and SNP multiplex.

    PubMed

    Silvia, Ashley L; Shugarts, Nathan; Smith, Jenifer

    2017-01-01

    The ForenSeq™ FGx System (Illumina, San Diego, CA) was initially evaluated in concordance with SWGDAM guidelines for internal validation to determine the quality of the system's components: the ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit reagents, the MiSeq FGx™ instrument, and the ForenSeq™ Universal Analysis Software, for the analysis of targeted, forensically informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and short tandem repeats (STRs). This multiplex consisted of STRs (autosomal, X, and Y) and SNPs (identity, ancestry, and phenotypic) that were run using one preparation process. Overall, the ForenSeq™ FGx System performed as well as the traditional capillary electrophoresis-based method in producing usable profile information, along with additional information that could aid in investigative leads. The MiSeq FGx™ System was validated using DNA samples in studies testing reproducibility, repeatability, concordance, sensitivity, and mock case single donor samples. Overall, genotyping results for STRs and SNPs were concordant with the profiles generated from conventional STR analysis using Identifiler and SNPs typed by 23andMe analysis. Genotypes of the ForenSeq™ aSNPs were used to evaluate biogeographical ancestry estimations using ForenSeq™ Universal Analysis Software, FROG-kb database (KIDD aiSNP 55 panel), and 23andMe. The system was shown to provide reproducible genotypes and reliable results were obtained at levels as low as 50 pg. All mock case samples were concordant with the donor profile. The results support consideration of the ForenSeq™ FGx System as an acceptable alternative to current STR and SNP analysis, pending formal developmental and internal validation studies.

  10. Does a single session of reading literary fiction prime enhanced mentalising performance? Four replication experiments of Kidd and Castano (2013).

    PubMed

    Samur, Dalya; Tops, Mattie; Koole, Sander L

    2017-01-17

    Prior experiments indicated that reading literary fiction improves mentalising performance relative to reading popular fiction, non-fiction, or not reading. However, the experiments had relatively small sample sizes and hence low statistical power. To address this limitation, the present authors conducted four high-powered replication experiments (combined N = 1006) testing the causal impact of reading literary fiction on mentalising. Relative to the original research, the present experiments used the same literary texts in the reading manipulation; the same mentalising task; and the same kind of participant samples. Moreover, one experiment was pre-registered as a direct replication. In none of the experiments did reading literary fiction have any effect on mentalising relative to control conditions. The results replicate earlier findings that familiarity with fiction is positively correlated with mentalising. Taken together, the present findings call into question whether a single session of reading fiction leads to immediate improvements in mentalising.

  11. Erythrocyte antigen and reticulocyte engraftment after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, I; Ozer, Y; Yüksel, M K; Arat, M; Arslan, O

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study was to study the usefulness of erythrocyte antigen (EA) measurement to study engraftment after allogeneic HSCT. In all, 31 consecutive patients receiving HLA-identical bone marrow (BM) (n=13) or peripheral blood stem cells (n=18) were investigated. Apart from the ABO group, 15 EAs representing six minor blood groups were followed by the simple tube agglutination technique. A total of 20 (64.5%) patients received ABO-identical, eight (25.8%) received ABO minor and three (9.7%) received ABO major mismatched grafts. In all, 29 patients were followed for a median of 12 (6-16) months; 65% of the patients expressed donor type EA 1 month and almost all did so 6 months after transplant. Reticulocyte engraftment was significantly shorter than EA engraftment (median 18 vs 35 days) (P=0.001). Patients who received PB stem cells showed significantly faster EA and reticulocyte engraftment than patients who received BM stem cells (P=0.038 and 0.025). ABO compatibility did not have an impact on reticulocyte and EA engraftment (P=0.4 and 0.55). The earliest donor type EA detected was from the Rh and Kidd system. These data suggest that EA and reticulocyte assays are useful in monitoring engraftment.

  12. ABO and RH1 blood group phenotyping in pigs (Sus scrofa) using microtyping cards.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Majado, M J; Quereda, J J; Herrero-Medrano, J M; Ríos, A; Ramírez, P; Muñoz, A

    2010-01-01

    Transplantation or transfusion with ABO disparity is a cause for rejection or for severe hemodynamic alterations. ABO groups in pigs are commonly an unknown variable, which has been previously assessed by means of hemagglutination tests or immunohistochemical procedures on tissues. Herein, we have reported a simple method using commercial microcards for human ABO typing. However, the reagents directly derived from human sera included in these cards can result in false determinations due to alpha-gal interference. The ABO groups of 19 wild-type pigs (Landrace x Large White) were assessed using 2 commercial cards: Human sera-based and monoclonal antibody-based cards. The human sera cards determined that 8 pigs belonged to the AB group and 11 to the B group. The monoclonal antibody cards determined that 8 pigs belonged to the A group and 11 to the O group. None of the pigs showed reactions to Rh1 antibodies. Because the B group has not been described in pigs, the reaction in human sera cards represented an interference with alpha-gal antigen, a molecule structurally similar to the B blood antigen. Thus, microtyping cards based on monoclonal antibodies provided simple, quick way to assess ABO groups in pigs used for xenotransplantation. ABO concordance should always be investigated for these types of procedures.

  13. Seasonal Tracking of Histo-blood Group Antigen Expression and Norovirus Binding in Oyster Gastrointestinal Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noroviruses (NORs) are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks and the illnesses are sometimes described as “highly seasonal syndrome” or "winter vomiting disease”. Outbreaks are often associated with the consumption of contaminated oysters or other bivalves and generally occur betw...

  14. Blood group antigen studies using CdTe quantum dots and flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Cabral Filho, Paulo E; Pereira, Maria IA; Fernandes, Heloise P; de Thomaz, Andre A; Cesar, Carlos L; Santos, Beate S; Barjas-Castro, Maria L; Fontes, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    New methods of analysis involving semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots [QDs]) as fluorescent probes have been highlighted in life science. QDs present some advantages when compared to organic dyes, such as size-tunable emission spectra, broad absorption bands, and principally exceptional resistance to photobleaching. Methods applying QDs can be simple, not laborious, and can present high sensibility, allowing biomolecule identification and quantification with high specificity. In this context, the aim of this work was to apply dual-color CdTe QDs to quantify red blood cell (RBC) antigen expression on cell surface by flow cytometric analysis. QDs were conjugated to anti-A or anti-B monoclonal antibodies, as well as to the anti-H (Ulex europaeus I) lectin, to investigate RBCs of A1, B, A1B, O, A2, and Aweak donors. Bioconjugates were capable of distinguishing the different expressions of RBC antigens, both by labeling efficiency and by flow cytometry histogram profile. Furthermore, results showed that RBCs from Aweak donors present fewer amounts of A antigens and higher amounts of H, when compared to A1 RBCs. In the A group, the amount of A antigens decreased as A1 > A3 > AX = Ael, while H antigens were AX = Ael > A1. Bioconjugates presented stability and remained active for at least 6 months. In conclusion, this methodology with high sensibility and specificity can be applied to study a variety of RBC antigens, and, as a quantitative tool, can help in achieving a better comprehension of the antigen expression patterns on RBC membranes. PMID:26185442

  15. The ABO Histo-Blood Group and AKI in Critically Ill Patients with Trauma or Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brian J.; Mangalmurti, Nilam S.; Nguyen, Tam D.; Holena, Daniel N.; Wu, Qufei; Nguyen, Ethan T.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Lanken, Paul N.; Christie, Jason D.; Meyer, Nuala J.; Shashaty, Michael G.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective ABO blood types are determined by antigen modifications on glycoproteins and glycolipids and associated with altered plasma levels of inflammatory and endothelial injury markers implicated in AKI pathogenesis. We sought to determine the association of ABO blood types with AKI risk in critically ill patients with trauma or sepsis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We conducted two prospective cohort studies at an urban, academic, level I trauma center and tertiary referral center; 497 patients with trauma admitted to the surgical intensive care unit between 2005 and 2010 with an injury severity score >15 and 759 patients with severe sepsis admitted to the medical intensive care unit between 2008 and 2013 were followed for 6 days for the development of incident AKI. AKI was defined by Acute Kidney Injury Network creatinine and dialysis criteria. Results Of 497 patients with trauma, 134 developed AKI (27%). In multivariable analysis, blood type A was associated with higher AKI risk relative to type O among patients of European descent (n=229; adjusted risk, 0.28 versus 0.14; risk difference, 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.24; P=0.02). Of 759 patients with sepsis, AKI developed in 326 (43%). Blood type A again conferred higher AKI risk relative to type O among patients of European descent (n=437; adjusted risk, 0.53 versus 0.40; risk difference, 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.04 to 0.23; P=0.01). Findings were similar when analysis was restricted to those patients who did not develop acute respiratory distress syndrome or were not transfused. We did not detect a significant association between blood type and AKI risk among individuals of African descent in either cohort. Conclusions Blood type A is independently associated with AKI risk in critically ill patients with trauma or severe sepsis of European descent, suggesting a role for ABO glycans in AKI susceptibility. PMID:26342043

  16. Association of ABO and Colton Blood Group Gene Polymorphisms With Hematological Traits Variation

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Shirin; Mashayekhi, Amir; Fatahi, Neda; Mahdavi, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hematological parameters are appraised routinely to determine overall human health and to diagnose and monitor certain diseases. In GWASs, more than 30 loci carrying common deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymorphisms have been identified related to hematological traits. In this study, we investigated the contribution of ABO rs2073823 along with AQP1 rs1049305 and rs10244884 polymorphisms in hematological traits variation in a cohort of Iranian healthy individuals. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 168 healthy volunteer. Genotyping was performed by ARMS-PCR or PCR-RFLP and confirmed by DNA sequencing. Complete blood analyses were conducted for the participants. Significant association was observed between AQP1 rs1049305 and the hematological traits including hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count (P = 0.012, 0.008, and 0.011, respectively). The AQP1 rs10244884 status was also significantly linked to hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in the study cohort (P = 0.015 and 0.041, respectively). Furthermore, ABO rs2073823 polymorphism was identified as a hemoglobin and hematocrit levels modifier (both with P = 0.004). AQP1 and ABO variants appear to predict hemoglobin and hematocrit levels but not other erythrocyte phenotype parameters including red blood cell counts and red blood cell indices. PMID:26632894

  17. The use of hirudin as universal anticoagulant in haematology, clinical chemistry and blood grouping.

    PubMed

    Menssen, H D; Melber, K; Brandt, N; Thiel, E

    2001-12-01

    Undesirable interactions between anticoagulants and diagnostic test kit procedures so far have prevented the development of a single uniform blood sampling tube. Contrary to K2-EDTA, heparin and other anticoagulants, hirudin only minimally alters blood cells and dissolved blood constituents, thus qualifying as a universal anticoagulant for diagnostic purposes. Automated complete blood counts, automated analyses of clinical chemistry analytes and immunohaematology were performed from hirudinised and routinely processed blood obtained from healthy volunteers (n=35) and hospitalised patients (n=45). Hirudin (400 ATU/ml blood) sufficiently anticoagulated blood for diagnostic purposes. The measurements of automated complete blood counts obtained from K2-EDTA-anticoagulated and hirudinised blood correlated significantly as did the measurements of 24 clinical chemistry analytes from hirudinised plasma and serum. Regression analysis revealed that the results of complete blood counts and clinical chemistry tests were predictable from the respective measurements from hirudinised blood (p=0.001). Immunohaematological tests and cross-matching from hirudinised and native blood of the same donors gave identical results. Single clotting factors, but not global coagulation analytes, could be measured from hirudinised blood. Therefore, a universal hirudin-containing blood sampling tube could be designed for automated analysis of haematological, serological and clinical chemistry analytes.

  18. Playing Games during a Lecture Hour: Experience with an Online Blood Grouping Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaskar, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Theory lectures are boring and sleep inducing for students, and it is difficult to get their full attention during 1 h of lecture. The ability of students to concentrate diminishes 20-25 min after the start of the lecture. There is also a lack of active participation of students during theory lectures. In an effort to break the monotony of the…

  19. [Investigation of family pedigree rare blood group of JK(a-b-) phenotype].

    PubMed

    Gong, Tian-Xiang; Hong, Ying; Zhou, Chan-Ghua

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the rare individual JK(a-b-) phenotype of proband family and explore its molecular mechanism and the genetic background, in order to provide base for searching compatible donor to blood transfusion of the individuals with rare JK(a-b-) phenotype. Urea lysis test was used to screen the JK(a-b-) phenotype and results were confirmed with serological method. The genotypes were detected with PCR-SSP. The 4-11 exons and their flanking intron regions of JK gene were amplified and sequenced. The results showed that her elder brother has a same phenotype JK(a-b-) and genotypes JK(a)/JK(b) with proband. The phenotype and genotypes of their parent is JK (a+b-) and JK(a)/JK(b), respectively; and the younger sister's is JK (a+b-) and JK(a)/JK(a). Acceptor site of intron 5 3' g > a mutation was detected in proband and her elder brother, which may cause the JK(a-b-) phenotype of proband and her elder brother. There is g/a and a at this site in their parent and younger sister, respectively. Additionally, the SNP (ncbi:rs8090908) a > g at nt-99 in intron 3 was found in proband and her elder brother, it needs to be explored whether the SNP is related to JK(a-b-) phenotype. This SNP was not found in their parent and younger sister. This JK(a-b-) phenotype abides by the rule of dominant inheritance in the family, suggesting that there is higher probability to find homology phenotype and genotype by investigating in their family, especially in their siblings.

  20. Heterozygote Advantage Probably Maintains Rhesus Factor Blood Group Polymorphism: Ecological Regression Study

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus factor polymorphism has been an evolutionary enigma since its discovery in 1939. Carriers of the rarer allele should be eliminated by selection against Rhesus positive children born to Rhesus negative mothers. Here I used an ecologic regression study to test the hypothesis that Rhesus factor polymorphism is stabilized by heterozygote advantage. The study was performed in 65 countries for which the frequencies of RhD phenotypes and specific disease burden data were available. I performed multiple multivariate covariance analysis with five potential confounding variables: GDP, latitude (distance from the equator), humidity, medical care expenditure per capita and frequencies of smokers. The results showed that the burden associated with many diseases correlated with the frequencies of particular Rhesus genotypes in a country and that the direction of the relation was nearly always the opposite for the frequency of Rhesus negative homozygotes and that of Rhesus positive heterozygotes. On the population level, a Rhesus-negativity-associated burden could be compensated for by the heterozygote advantage, but for Rhesus negative subjects this burden represents a serious problem. PMID:26811928

  1. Impact of ABO blood group mismatch in alemtuzumab-based reduced-intensity conditioned haematopoietic SCT.

    PubMed

    Brierley, C K; Littlewood, T J; Peniket, A J; Gregg, R; Ward, J; Clark, A; Parker, A; Malladi, R; Medd, P

    2015-07-01

    The impact of ABO incompatibility on clinical outcomes following haematopoietic SCT (HSCT) remains controversial. This retrospective study assessed the effect of ABO mismatch on transplant outcomes and transfusion requirements in 594 patients undergoing reduced-intensity conditioned (RIC) HSCT with alemtuzumab in three UK transplant centres. We found no significant effects of minor, major or bidirectional ABO mismatch on overall survival, relapse-free survival, nonrelapse mortality or relapse incidence. Although the rate of acute GVHD was unaffected by ABO mismatch, the incidence of extensive chronic GVHD was higher in patients with minor and major mismatch compared with those who were ABO matched (hazard ratio (HR) 1.74, P=0.032 for minor, HR 1.69 P=0.0036 for major mismatch). Red cell and platelet transfusion requirements in the first 100 days post transplant did not differ by ABO mismatch. In this large UK series, ABO mismatch in RIC HSCT has no clinically significant effect on survival outcomes but appears to modify susceptibility to extensive chronic GVHD.

  2. ABO blood group and nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk in a population of Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Liming; Sun, Xiaojiang; Zhang, Lizhen; Su, Dan

    2013-08-15

    Previous studies found that the ABO blood type alters the individual susceptibility of some malignancies. However, whether such an association exists between ABO blood type and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unknown. A case-control study was conducted, with 1,538 patients who had NPC and 1,260 cancer-free controls. The association between ABO blood type and NPC incidence was evaluated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Compared with subjects with blood type O, a relatively higher risk was observed among cases with blood types A or AB, with ORs (95% confidence interval) of 1.287 (1.072 - 1.545), p = 0.007 and 1.390 (1.007 - 1.919), p = 0.045, respectively, after adjusting for gender, age, smoking status and family history of cancer. The rate of distant metastasis was significantly higher among male patients with blood type A than in patients with non-A blood types (6.8 vs. 3.5%, p = 0.027). Our results suggest that blood types A or AB is associated with an increased risk of NPC. Further studies are needed to confirm this association and to explore the mechanisms involved.

  3. A dispermic chimera with mixed field blood group B and mosaic 46,XY/47,XYY karyotype.

    PubMed

    Cho, Duck; Lee, Sang Ku; Yazer, Mark Harris; Shin, Myung Geun; Shin, Jong Hee; Suh, Soon Pal; Song, Jeong Won; Jeon, Mee Jeong; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Jong Tae; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2007-06-01

    Chimerism in humans is a rare phenomenon often initially identified in the resolution of an ABO blood type discrepancy. We report a dispermic chimera who presented with mixed field in his B antigen typing that might have been mistaken for the B3 subtype. The propositus is a healthy Korean male blood donor. Neither his clinical history nor initial molecular investigation of his ABO gene explained his mixed field agglutination with murine anti-B. Chimerism was suspected, and 9 short tandem repeat (STR) loci were analyzed on DNA extracted from blood, buccal swabs, and hair from this donor and on DNA isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes from his parents. The propositus' red blood cells demonstrated mixed field agglutination with anti-B. Exon 6 and 7 and flanking intronic regions of his ABO gene were sequenced and revealed an O01/O02 genotype. B allele haplotype-specific PCR, along with exon 6 and 7 cloning and sequencing demonstrated a third ABO allele, B101. Four STR loci demonstrated a pattern consistent with a double paternal chromosome contribution in the propositus, thus confirming chimerism. His karyotype revealed a mosaic pattern: 32/50 metaphases were 46,XY and 18/50 metaphases demonstrated 47,XYY.

  4. [Quality control for ABO blood group typing of neonatal umbilical cord blood].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lan-Ting; Liang, Xiao-Lan; Han, Jun-Ling; Li, Qian; Qiu, Lu-Gui; Yu, Li-Jia; Sun, Le-Jing; DU, Ying

    2010-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate a quality control method for ABO typing of neonatal umbilical cord blood(UCB). The routine serology method was used to identify the ABO type of UCB samples. These samples with questions were further detected by sequence specific primer PCR (PCR-SSP). The results showed that among total of 76120 UCB samples identified by positive ABO typing, there were 78 samples (1 per thousand) which could not be determined. Of these 78 samples, 30 (56.92%) samples with a weak agglutination reaction were excluded by reverse ABO typing. Out of 260 samples in reverse ABO typing, 148 samples were consistent with positive ABO typing, 112 samples (43.08%) were inconsistent with the positive ABO typing. 58 undetermined samples were detected by PCR-SSP. Out of them the genotyping results of 45 samples confirmed the serological typing, the phenotyping results in 3 cases were inconsistent to that of genotyping. 10 cases showed the unconformity between positive and reverse typing, but the genotyping results were fully consistent with the positive typing. In conclusion, positive typing for red cell antigens combined with PCR-SSP is efficient and sensitive for quality control of ABO typing for neonatal UCB.

  5. Pancreatic cancer: Helicobacter pylori colonization, N-nitrosamine exposures, and ABO blood group.

    PubMed

    Risch, Harvey A

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years of research with animal models has shown that pancreatic adenocarcinoma is induced by N-nitrosamine carcinogens, which damage DNA through adduct formation. Human risk factors for pancreatic cancer include gastric colonization by Helicobacter pylori, as well as dietary intake of those same N-nitrosamines or of nitrite which forms those N-nitrosamines in the stomach, and cigarette smoking which also contains those N-nitrosamines. Physiologic actions of H. pylori colonization enhance the carcinogenic effect of N-nitrosamines delivered by smoking or dietary sources. This effect is modulated by host inflammatory response to the organism, by various virulence and other properties of the Helicobacter itself, and by host-organism interactions. A recent genome-wide association study identified SNPs within the ABO 9q34 locus as statistically significantly associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. A number of recent and older studies going back 40 yr also support the ABO association. ABO-product antigens are expressed on gastrointestinal epithelium on which H. pylori binds, and ABO genotype is known to be associated with risks of duodenal and gastric ulcer and with risk of gastric cancer, conditions definitively related to Helicobacter colonization. We suspect that ABO genotype/phenotype status influences the behavior of H. pylori which in turn affects gastric and pancreatic secretory function, and these ultimately influence the pancreatic carcinogenicity of dietary- and smoking-related N-nitrosamine exposures, and thus risk of pancreatic cancer. Our study results on the interaction of ABO and H. pylori significantly confirm this hypothesis and together with other existing studies strongly implicate this organism in the disease etiology.

  6. Big issues, small systems: managing with information in medical research.

    PubMed

    Jones, J; Preston, H

    2000-08-01

    This subject of this article is the design of a database system for handling files related to the work of the Molecular Genetics Department of the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory. It examines specialist information needs identified within this organization and it indicates how the design of the Rhesus Information Tracking System was able to meet current needs. Rapid Applications Development prototyping forms the basis of the investigation, linked to interview, questionnaire, and observation techniques in order to establish requirements for interoperability. In particular, the place of this specialist database within the much broader information strategy of the National Blood Service will be examined. This unique situation is analogous to management activities in broader environments and a number of generic issues are highlighted by the research.

  7. Correlation between lack of norovirus replication and histo-blood group antigen expression in 3D-intestinal epithelial cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noroviruses (NoV) are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. An in vitro model for NoV replication remains elusive, making study of the virus difficult. One publication utilizing a 3-dimensional (3D) intestinal model derived from Int407 cells reported NoV replication and extensive cytopathi...

  8. The UK national external quality assessment scheme in blood group serology. Compatibility testing 1981-1982: performance and practice.

    PubMed

    Holburn, A M; Prior, D

    1984-01-01

    The design of exercises of compatibility testing was modified in 1981 in order better to accommodate participants' serological practices. Ten reference laboratories were also enrolled in order to determine the 'correct' results for each exercise. In 1981-1982 3.5 to 36% of participants missed incompatibilities in exercises in which undiluted antibodies were issued and this did not represent an improvement over performance obtained in 1979-1980. Surveys were undertaken of antiglobulin test procedures and revealed that serological practices continue to change, old techniques are being modified, new techniques are being employed but standardization shows little overall improvement. Surveys of quality control procedures and of cross-match procedures for agglutination in albumin and for agglutination of enzyme treated cells show equal lack of standardization.

  9. Determination of ABO blood group genotypes using the real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification method

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, CHAO; ZHU, JUANLI; YANG, JIANGCUN; WAN, YINSHENG; MA, TING; CUI, YALI

    2015-01-01

    ABO genotyping is commonly used in several situations, including blood transfusion, personal identification and disease detection. The present study developed a novel method for ABO genotyping, using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). This method allows the simultaneous determination of six ABO genotypes under 40 min at a constant temperature of 62°C. The genotypes of 101 blood samples were determined to be AA (n=6), AO (n=38), BB (n=12), BO (n =29), AB (n=8) and OO (n=8) by the LAMP assay. The results were compared with the phenotypes determined by serological assay and the genotypes determined by direct sequencing, and no discrepancies were observed. This novel and rapid method, with good accuracy and reasonably cost effective, provides a supplement to routine serological ABO typing and may also be useful in other point-of-care testing. PMID:26238310

  10. Computerized system for the selection of the most HLA-compatible kidney recipient (France-Transplant).

    PubMed

    Busson, M; Petit, A; Hors, J; Dausset, J; Mathieu, J P; Jourde, P; Puerto, A; Pinson, G

    1978-01-01

    The RITRAN program is applied to renal transplantation and operates within the framework of France Transplant. It makes it possible to choose the most compatible kidney recipient within the ABO blood group system and within the major histocompatibility system in man (HLA). The file presently comprises the data stored on tape concerning 1800 dialysis patients who are awaiting grafts. It is managed by UNIVAC 1108 computer. More than 25 medical-surgical transplant teams from France, Switzerland, Holland and Spain are connected with the computer. It was five years ago that the first interrogation system began operating in real time 20 hours out of 24, using a telex line, and it continues to provide complete satisfaction. The updating of the data is done by the RITREC system, also using a telex machine. An adaptation of the programs applied for choosing blood and platelet donors is in the process of being realized.

  11. Advances in Blood Typing.

    PubMed

    Quraishy, N; Sapatnekar, S

    The clinical importance of blood group antigens relates to their ability to evoke immune antibodies that are capable of causing hemolysis. The most important antigens for safe transfusion are ABO and D (Rh), and typing for these antigens is routinely performed for patients awaiting transfusion, prenatal patients, and blood donors. Typing for other blood group antigens, typically of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood groups, is sometimes necessary, for patients who have, or are likely to develop antibodies to these antigens. The most commonly used typing method is serological typing, based on hemagglutination reactions against specific antisera. This method is generally reliable and practical for routine use, but it has certain drawbacks. In recent years, molecular typing has emerged as an alternative or supplemental typing method. It is based on detecting the polymorphisms and mutations that control the expression of blood group antigens, and using this information to predict the probable antigen type. Molecular typing methods are useful when traditional serological typing methods cannot be used, as when a patient has been transfused and the sample is contaminated with red blood cells from the transfused blood component. Moreover, molecular typing methods can precisely identify clinically significant variant antigens that cannot be distinguished by serological typing; this capability has been exploited for the resolution of typing discrepancies and shows promise for the improved transfusion management of patients with sickle cell anemia. Despite its advantages, molecular typing has certain limitations, and it should be used in conjunction with serological methods.

  12. HLA A/B recombination in a white woman with the S-s-phenotype of the MNS system.

    PubMed

    Salaru, N N

    1995-01-01

    In cases of disputed parentage, the possibility of simultaneous occurrence of rare events in the population must be considered. PURPOSE--To report a case in which HLA-A/B recombination and homozygosity of a silent allele, typical of Negroes, in an individual apparently without this miscegenation were coexistent. METHODS--Alleged father, mother and dizygotic twin children were racially classified according to their apparent somatic characters. Blood group genetic markers of ABO, Rh, MNS, Kell, Duffy, HLA-A, -B systems were phenotyped; mother's HLA genotyping was performed by her parents test. RESULTS--The phenotype of the White mother, in the MNS system, was M+; N-; S-; s-. Alleged father and both twins were phenotipically compatible. The assumed maternity relating to both children was possible if mother presented an HLA-A/B recombination. CONCLUSION--In miscegenated populations, the breakup between ethnical appearance and blood group markers is foreseeable. Allele/haplotypic frequencies of these populations should be estimated. Casuistically, the association of events with low frequency in the population can be the cause of apparent exclusions of parentage.

  13. Canadian Diving Symposium (4th) Held at the Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine, Toronto, Ontario, 24-25 October, 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    depth in real-time. The XDC-2 Digital Decompression Monitor was designed for DCIEM on contract by CTF Systems Incorporated.(6 ) The advantage of a...Kuehn, DCIEM Historically, diving research has been a primary interest at DCIEM since the early design work on the Kidd-Stubbs decompression com- puter...i.n the electronics package, which is designed to be temperature-I.ndependent. The display uni.t uses light-emitting diodes to show actual depth, safe

  14. Ship Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Guided missile cruiser equipped with advanced Aegis fleet defense system which automatically tracks hundreds of attacking aircraft or missiles, then fires and guides the ship's own weapons in response. Designed by Ingalls Shipbuilding for the US Navy, the U.S.S. Ticonderoga is the first of four CG-47 cruisers to be constructed. NASTRAN program was used previously in another Navy/Ingalls project involving design and construction of four DDG-993 Kidd Class guided missile destroyers.

  15. Partial deletion in the JK locus causing a Jk(null) phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lucien, Nicole; Chiaroni, Jacques; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Bailly, Pascal

    2002-02-01

    A new alteration of the blood group JK*A allele was identified in a Jk(null) patient from Tunisia with an allo-anti-Jk3 in her serum. Southern blot and exon mapping analyses revealed an internal deletion within the Kidd (JK) locus encompassing exons 4 and 5. Sequence analysis of the Jk transcript showed that exons 4 and 5 were missing but were replaced by a 136-base-pair (bp) intron 3 sequence located 315 bp and 179 bp upstream from exon 4. This sequence is flanked by typical donor-acceptor cryptic splice sites used in the mutant but not in the normal JK gene. Because the translation initiation codon is located in exon 4, the Jk protein is not produced.

  16. Development of a rapid macro-Raman spectroscopy system for nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Duo; Chen, Guannan; Feng, Shangyuan; Pan, Jianji; Lin, Juqiang; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Rong

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the utility of a home-made surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) system for detection of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). A Raman spectral system with a special probe and a millimeter order excitation laser spot size was developed to acquire SERS signals of blood plasma. High quality SERS spectra can be recorded from blood plasma samples belonging to 60 healthy volunteers and 96 NPC patients, and the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 95.8% and 91.7%, respectively, can be achieved for classification between normal and cancer blood groups by principal component analysis combined with linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA). This exploratory study demonstrates that SERS based on a larger laser spot together with PCA-LDA has the potential for detection of nasopharyngeal cancer, and even for further in vivo cancer detection in the future.

  17. A complex alloantigen system in Florida sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis pratensis: Evidence for the major histocompatibility (B) system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvi, S.I.; Gee, G.F.; Miller, M.M.; Briles, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    The B blood group system constitutes the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) in birds. The Mhc is a cluster of genes largely devoted to the processing and presentation of antigen. The Mhc is highly polymorphic in many species and, thus, useful in the evaluation of genetic diversity for fitness traits within populations of a variety of animals. Correlations found between particular Mhc haplotypes and resistance to certain diseases emphasize the importance of understanding the functional significance of diversity of the Mhc, particularly in species threatened with extinction. As part of studies focused on genetic diversity in wild birds, serological techniques were used to define a highly polymorphic alloantigen system in seven families of Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis). The results of analyses with antisera produced within the crane families and with chicken Mhc antigen-specific reagents revealed a single major alloantigen system that is likely the Mhc of the Florida sandhill crane. Preliminary experiments indicate that these crane alloantisera will provide a means of defining .the Mhc in other species of cranes.

  18. The trophoblastic Tower of Babel: classification systems for metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Kohorn, E I

    1995-02-01

    There are presently three classifications of metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors (MGTM). The first is that of low-risk and high-risk neoplasia devised by Hammond, now designated the National Cancer Institute classification. The second is that of FIGO that attempts to conform to the staging of other gynecologic malignancies by that organization. The third is a scoring system adopted by World Health Organization (WHO) from the original devised by Bagshawe. This scoring system is finding the widest acceptance and is increasingly being used for treatment planning. However, different investigators not only define risk groups differently from the WHO recommendation, but also modify the WHO scoring system in novel, individualistic ways that changes the total score and outcome assessment. This results in patients with the same risk factors being placed in different WHO risk groups. Comparison of therapy between center is then invalidated. Furthermore, it would appear preferable that the WHO scoring system is restricted to metastatic neoplasia. To achieve a uniform scoring system for MGTN there needs to be consensus (i) whether lung metastases should be detected by chest X ray or CAT scan; (ii) whether the size of metastases should be measured clinically or radiologically (including ultrasound, CAT scan, and MRI); (iii) are multiple lung or brain metastases counted by CAT scan or MRI; (iv) are ABO blood groups to be included so that the number of points is uniform for different centers; and (v) that idiosyncratic and individual categories are not added or omitted from the score.

  19. [Genetic polymorphism of blood group and erythrocyte enzymes in three ethno-territorial groups of the northern European part of Russia].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, I V; Spitsyn, V A; Makarov, S V; Bychkovskaia, L S; Paé, G V

    2001-11-01

    Using the data on five red cell markers (AB0, PGM1, ACP1, GLO1, and ESD) polymorphisms, the population genetic structure of three ethnic territorial groups from the north of European Russia (Continental Nentsy, Kola Saami, and Russian Coast-dwellers) was described. In general, the groups studied a Caucasoid pattern of the frequency distribution of erythrocytic marker alleles. However, a substantial contribution of a Mongoloid component to the Nenets gene pool, expressed as a high frequency of the PGM1*1 allele along with a low frequency of the GLO1*1 allele, was observed. Three ethnic territorial groups examined were close to one another with respect to the distribution of classical biochemical markers. The interpopulation diversity was low (the mean FST = 0.015). The differences observed were for the most part caused by the genetic characteristics of Nentsy. The maximum interpopulation diversity was observed for the GLO1 locus (FST = 0.056).

  20. DNA extraction for short tandem repeat typing from mixed samples using anti-human leukocyte CD45 and ABO blood group antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yano, Shizue; Honda, Katsuya; Kaminiwa, Junko; Nishi, Takeki; Iwabuchi, Yayoi; Sugano, Yukiko; Kurosu, Akira; Suzuki, Yasuhito

    2014-05-01

    DNA testing from mixed cell samples can be difficult to use successfully in criminal investigations. Here, we present a method for the extraction of DNA from mixed bloodstains involving plural contributors, after antibody-microbead captured cell separation. This method, together with the multiplex short tandem repeat typing presented, has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA profiles corresponding to the ABO blood type. Methodological steps include magnetic separation using leukocyte specific CD45 antibody-coated microbeads and centrifugal separation of leukocyte agglutination by ABO antibody. The detection results of variable mixed ratio showed that the target DNA was detected accurately as low as 1:512 mixed ratio, regardless of the large amount of the background DNA present. The method presented here is applicable to PCR-based identification for various kinds of mixed samples.

  1. Localization of Rh1(D), 2(C), 3(E), 4(c), 5(e) and 25(LW) antigens of human Rh blood groups in fetal erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, H; Segawa, M; Ota, M; Yonemura, I; Hiraide, K; Hasekura, H

    1987-01-01

    The fetal erythrocyte membranes were partially solubilized with Triton X-100 at the low concentration (0.5%). The localizations of Rh1(D), 2(C), 3(E), 4(c), 5(e) and 25(LW) were investigated. Using hemagglutination inhibition assay, Rh1(D) antigen activity was observed in the Triton-treated membrane (Triton shell) containing mainly band 1, 2 (spectrin), band 5 (actin), band 4.1 and a part of band 3, while Rh2(C), 3(E), 4(c), 5(e) and 25(LW) antigens were detected in the supernatant containing band 3, 6, 2.2, 2.3 and 4.2. It is suggested that: Rh1(D) antigen would associate with cytoskeleton matrix of fetal erythrocyte membranes; Rh1(D) and Rh25(LW) antigens might be integral membrane proteins, while Rh2(C), 3(E), 4(c) and 5(e) antigens would be surface membrane proteins which are easily released from membranes by EDTA, mercaptoethanol and alkaline treatments.

  2. In vitro generated Rh(null) red cells recapitulate the in vivo deficiency: a model for rare blood group phenotypes and erythroid membrane disorders.

    PubMed

    Cambot, Marie; Mazurier, Christelle; Canoui-Poitrine, Florence; Hebert, Nicolas; Picot, Julien; Clay, Denis; Picard, Véronique; Ripoche, Pierre; Douay, Luc; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, Anne; Cartron, Jean-Pierre

    2013-05-01

    Lentiviral modification combined with ex vivo erythroid differentiation was used to stably inhibit RhAG expression, a critical component of the Rh(rhesus) membrane complex defective in the Rh(null) syndrome. The cultured red cells generated recapitulate the major alterations of native Rh(null) cells regarding antigen expression, membrane deformability, and gas transport function, providing the proof of principle for their use as model of Rh(null) syndrome and to investigate Rh complex biogenesis in human primary erythroid cells. Using this model, we were able to reveal for the first time that RhAG extinction alone is sufficient to explain ICAM-4 and CD47 loss observed on native Rh(null) RBCs. Together with the effects of RhAG forced expression in Rh(null) progenitors, this strongly strengthens the hypothesis that RhAG is critical to Rh complex formation. The strategy is also promising for diagnosis purpose in order to overcome the supply from rare blood donors and is applicable to other erythroid defects and rare phenotypes, providing models to dissect membrane biogenesis of multicomplex proteins in erythroid cells, with potential clinical applications in transfusion medicine.

  3. A personal computer network system for equitable allocation of cadaver organs.

    PubMed

    Shimada, M; Akazawa, K; Moriguchi, S; Odaka, T; Nose, Y

    1991-01-01

    We developed a personal computer network system for the equitable allocation of cadaveric organs. This network consists of a host computer (IBM PS55 model 5570 T) and various kinds of personal computers manufactured by many different computer makers in Japan. The merits of our personal computer network include lower cost and an easy access to the host computer from all the centres participating in this network while using their own favourite personal computers. Among the programs made for allocating cadaveric organs, we present in this paper the program for livers. This program was developed with a modified version of the logic developed by Starzl et al. The grade modification for the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) in the United States was used as the basis for classification of medical urgency. Our program weighed the factors of medical urgency, compatibility of blood group and waiting time. Distance factors were omitted because of the smaller area of the network compared to that of UNOS. This computer network would be linked to other computer networks in creating a national organ procurement and transplant network in Japan, in order to help them to catch up with other advanced transplant countries. Such an equal and objective computer system should allow organ transplantation to become more widely accepted.

  4. Solar system positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

    2006-01-01

    Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

  5. Ion Acoustic Microscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    Paul Doyle 1 AMXMR-STM, Mr. Jim Kidd 1 AMXMR-MCP, Dr. George Quinn I AMXMR-OP, Dr. Robert E. Singler 1 AMXMR-MCP, Dr. Dennis Viechniechi 1 AMXMR-OM...Dr. George Mayer 1 Dr. Frederick Rothwarf I Dr. Andrew Crowson 1 Dr. Mack Mellor 1 Commander, Naval Coastal Systems Center ATTN: Code 715, Mr. Steve...Harry Diamond Laboratories ATTN: DELHD-TD 2800 Powder Mill Road Adelphi, MD 20783 Dr. Robert P. Walson Cunmmins Engine Company, Inc. Mail Code 50165

  6. [Role of alimentary factors in development of digestive system diseases].

    PubMed

    Gil'miiarova, F N; Radomskaia, V M; Gergel', N I; Gusiakova, O A; Zubova, I A; Sidorova, I F; Sazonova, O V; Kolesova, T A

    2009-01-01

    In work the data are presented, which characterize the connection of a diet with disease of illnesses of digestive organs which rises in process of increase of products that contain gluten and meat reduction in diet. Immune reaction is found out, that shows the appearance of antibodies. A gladin and fabric transglutaminaze. Reaction characteristics are different in people with different blood groups.

  7. Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System A A A ... could put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  8. Data Systems vs. Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Amatayakul, Margret K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

  9. Review of the Uruguayan Kidney Allocation System: the solution to a complex problem, preliminary data.

    PubMed

    Bengochea, M; Alvarez, I; Toledo, R; Carretto, E; Forteza, D

    2010-01-01

    The National Kidney Transplant Program with cadaveric donors is based on centralized and unique waitlist, serum bank, and allocation criteria, approved by Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante (INDT) in agreement with clinical teams. The median donor rates over last 3 years is 20 per million population and the median number of waitlist candidates is 450. The increased number of waiting list patients and the rapid aging of our populations demanded strategies for donor acceptance, candidate assignment, and analysis of more efficient and equitable allocation models. The objectives of the new national allocation system were to improve posttransplant patient and graft survivals, allow equal access to transplantation, and reduce waitlist times. The objective of this study was to analyze variables in our current allocation system and to create a mathematical/simulation model to evaluate a new allocation system. We compared candidates and transplanted patients for gender, age, ABO blood group, human leukocyte agents (HLA), percentage of reactive antibodies (PRA), and waiting list and dialysis times. Only 2 factors showed differences: highly sensitized and patients >65 years old (Bernoulli test). An agreement between INDT and Engineering Faculty yielded a major field of study. During 2008 the data analysis and model building began. The waiting list data of the last decade of donors and transplants were processed to develop a virtual model. We used inputs of candidates and donors, with outputs and structure of the simulation system to evaluate the proposed changes. Currently, the INDT and the Mathematics and Statistics Institute are working to develop a simulation model, that is able to analyze our new national allocation system.

  10. Operating Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.; Brown, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A computer operating system spans multiple layers of complexity, from commands entered at a keyboard to the details of electronic switching. In addition, the system is organized as a hierarchy of abstractions. Various parts of such a system and system dynamics (using the Unix operating system as an example) are described. (JN)

  11. Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. The Respiratory System The respiratory system is made up of organs ... vessels, and the muscles that enable breathing. The Respiratory System Figure A shows the location of the respiratory ...

  12. Lymph system

    MedlinePlus

    Lymphatic system ... Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Lymphatic system. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon ... 2015:chap 9. Hall JE. The microcirculation and lymphatic system: capillary fluid exchange, interstitial fluid, and lymph flow. ...

  13. Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Digestive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Digestive System A A A ... the body can absorb and use. About the Digestive System Almost all animals have a tube-type digestive ...

  14. Mechanical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    The presentation provides an overview of requirement and interpretation letters, mechanical systems safety interpretation letter, design and verification provisions, and mechanical systems verification plan.

  15. Systems Thinking (and Systems Doing).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brethower, Dale M.; Dams, Peter-Cornelius

    1999-01-01

    Introduces human performance technology (HPT) by answering the following questions related to: what systems does; practical issues and questions to which systems thinking is relevant; research questions and answers with respect to systems thinking; how HPT practitioners can do systems thinking; systems thinking tools; what is and is not known…

  16. An integrated system of ABO typing and multiplex STR testing for forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xianhua; He, Juan; Jia, Fei; Shen, Hongying; Zhao, Jinling; Chen, Chuguang; Bai, Liping; Liu, Feng; Hou, Guangwei; Guo, Faye

    2012-12-01

    A new amplification system for ABO and STR genotyping in a single reaction has been successfully developed. Two types of information can be obtained from a biological sample at one time. One is the classical information of ABO blood group typing for screening suspects and the other is STR information for individual identification. The system allows for the simultaneous detection of 15 autosomal STR loci (containing all CODIS STR loci as well as Penta D and Penta E), six ABO genotypes (O/O, B/B, A/A, A/O, A/B, and B/O) and the gender-determining locus Amelogenin. Primers are designed so that the amplicons are distributed ranging from 75bp to 500bp within a four-dye fluorescent design, leaving a fourth dye for the internal size standard. With 30 cycles, the results showed that the optimal amount of DNA template for this multiplex ranges from 250pg to 2ng and the lowest detection threshold is 125pg (as low as 63pg for ABO loci). For the DNA template outside the optimal detection range, we could adjust the number of cycles to obtain the robust profiles. Mixture studies showed that over 83% of minor alleles were detected at 1:9 ratios. The full profiles were still observed when 4ng of degraded DNA was digested by DNase I and 1ng undegraded DNA was added to 40μM haematin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based conditions including the concentrations of primers, magnesium and the Taq polymerase as well as volume, cycle numbers and annealing temperature were examined and optimised. In addition, the system was validated by 364 bloodstain samples and 32 common casework samples. According to the Chinese National Standards and Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines, our system demonstrates good detection performance and is an ideal tool for forensic DNA typing with potential application.

  17. Work Importance and Its Measurement: Review of the Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Super, 1986b; Super, 1982) got underway, Kidd and Knasel (1980) reviewed relevant English-language publications on the subject and, in work leading up to...the development of the WIS Salience Inventory (Nevill & Super, 1987; Super & Nevill, 1985) developed a model of role importance ( Knasel , Super & Kidd...WIS group ( Knasel , Super & Kidd, 1981; Nevill & Super, 1986a; Super. 1982), have concluded that with adequate conceptual work and careful instrument

  18. Fluid Management System (FMS) fluid systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fluid management system (FMS) fluid systems overview are presented. Topics addressed include: fluid management system description including system requirements (integrated nitrogen system, integrated water system, and integrated waste gas system) and physical description; and fluid management system evolution.

  19. Systems thinking.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Derek; Colosi, Laura; Lobdell, Claire

    2008-08-01

    Evaluation is one of many fields where "systems thinking" is popular and is said to hold great promise. However, there is disagreement about what constitutes systems thinking. Its meaning is ambiguous, and systems scholars have made diverse and divergent attempts to describe it. Alternative origins include: von Bertalanffy, Aristotle, Lao Tsu or multiple aperiodic "waves." Some scholars describe it as synonymous with systems sciences (i.e., nonlinear dynamics, complexity, chaos). Others view it as taxonomy-a laundry list of systems approaches. Within so much noise, it is often difficult for evaluators to find the systems thinking signal. Recent work in systems thinking describes it as an emergent property of four simple conceptual patterns (rules). For an evaluator to become a "systems thinker", he or she need not spend years learning many methods or nonlinear sciences. Instead, with some practice, one can learn to apply these four simple rules to existing evaluation knowledge with transformative results.

  20. Telemetry Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center developed satellite telemetry processing technology to meet NASA's sophisticated processing requirements. The Microelectronic Systems Branch, a 'company' within Goddard, provided NASA with the telemetry data systems from 1985 to 1994. TSI/Telsys, Inc. was then founded to commercialize the systems and began operations on October 1, 1995. The system aids the remote sensing industry by providing affordable and quick access to data collected from space.

  1. Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  2. System Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk

  3. Cryogenic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoyama, Kenji

    2002-02-01

    In this lecture we discuss the principle of method of cooling to a very low temperature, i.e. cryogenic. The "gas molecular model" will be introduced to explain the mechanism cooling by the expansion engine and the Joule-Thomson expansion valve. These two expansion processes are normally used in helium refrigeration systems to cool the process gas to cryogenic temperature. The reverse Carnot cycle will be discussed in detail as an ideal refrigeration cycle. First the fundamental process of liquefaction and refrigeration cycles will be discussed, and then the practical helium refrigeration system. The process flow of the system and the key components; -compressor, expander, and heat exchanger- will be discussed. As an example of an actual refrigeration system, we will use the cryogenic system for the KEKB superconducting RF cavity. We will also discuss the liquid helium distribution system, which is very important, especially for the cryogenic systems used in accelerator applications. 1 Principles of Cooling and Fundamental Cooling Cycle 2 Expansion engine, Joule-Thomson expansion, kinetic molecular theory, and enthalpy 3 Liquefaction Systems 4 Refrigeration Systems 5 Practical helium liquefier/refrigeration system 6 Cryogenic System for TRISTAN Superconducting RF Cavity

  4. A novel mutation at the JK locus causing Jk null phenotype in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yan; Zhou, Xueyan; Li, Yang; Zhao, Dan; Liang, Shuyuan; Zhao, Xuejian; Yang, Baoxue

    2005-12-01

    Urea transporters are a group of proteins that facilitate urea movement across biological membranes. Kidd blood group (Jk antigen) and urea transporter of human erythrocytes are carried by the same protein UT-B. To investigate the molecular basis of the Jk null phenotype in the Chinese population, blood samples from Chinese individuals were screened using the 2 mol/L urea solution hemolysis test. Urea and water permeability of erythrocytes membrane was measured by stopped-flow light scattering. Genomic DNA was extracted from lymphocytes. UT-B gene of JKnnu's family was analyzed using genomic PCR by primers designed to cover sequences of all exons and exon-intron boundaries in human UT-B gene. One Jk null subject was found from twenty thousand screened Chinese individuals, and it was confirmed that this individual did not express the erythrocyte urea transporter. Genomic sequence analysis of the Jk null individual showed that there were two point mutations, G-->C, which is novel, and G-->A, at the 3'-acceptor splice site (AG) of intron 5 of UT-B gene. Exon 6 is spliced out in the UT-B transcript due to either of these mutations. Water permeability in Jk null erythrocytes (Pf, -0.00037 cm/s) was significantly lower than that in normal erythrocytes (Pf, -0.00062 cm/s) after HgCl2 incubation, providing evidence for UT-B facilitated water transport in human erythrocytes.

  5. A fatal case of severe hemolytic disease of newborn associated with anti-Jk(b).

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Duck; Lee, Young Hwan

    2006-02-01

    The Kidd blood group is clinically significant since the Jk antibodies can cause acute and delayed transfusion reactions as well as hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN). In general, HDN due to anti-Jk(b) incompatibility is rare and it usually displays mild clinical symptoms with a favorable prognosis. Yet, we apparently experienced the second case of HDN due to anti-Jk(b) with severe clinical symptoms and a fatal outcome. A female patient having the AB, Rh(D)-positive blood type was admitted for jaundice on the fourth day after birth. At the time of admission, the patient was lethargic and exhibited high pitched crying. The laboratory data indicated a hemoglobin value of 11.4 mg/dL, a reticulocyte count of 14.9% and a total bilirubin of 46.1 mg/dL, a direct bilirubin of 1.1 mg/dL and a strong positive result (+++) on the direct Coomb's test. As a result of the identification of irregular antibody from the maternal serum, anti-Jk(b) was detected, which was also found in the eluate made from infant's blood. Despite the aggressive treatment with exchange transfusion and intensive phototherapy, the patient died of intractable seizure and acute renal failure on the fourth day of admission. Therefore, pediatricians should be aware of the clinical courses of hemolytic jaundice due to anti-Jk(b), and they should be ready to treat this disease with active therapeutic interventions.

  6. European genome-wide association study identifies SLC14A1 as a new urinary bladder cancer susceptibility gene

    PubMed Central

    Rafnar, Thorunn; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Sulem, Patrick; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Aben, Katja K.; Witjes, J. Alfred; Grotenhuis, Anne J.; Verhaegh, Gerald W.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A.; Besenbacher, Soren; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Stacey, Simon N.; Gudmundsson, Julius; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Bjarnason, Hjordis; Zanon, Carlo; Helgadottir, Hafdis; Jonasson, Jon Gunnlaugur; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Jonsson, Eirikur; Geirsson, Gudmundur; Nikulasson, Sigfus; Petursdottir, Vigdis; Bishop, D. Timothy; Chung-Sak, Sei; Choudhury, Ananya; Elliott, Faye; Barrett, Jennifer H.; Knowles, Margaret A.; de Verdier, Petra J.; Ryk, Charlotta; Lindblom, Annika; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Vineis, Paolo; Polidoro, Silvia; Guarrera, Simonetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panadero, Angeles; Sanz-Velez, José I.; Sanchez, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Garcia-Prats, Maria D.; Hengstler, Jan G.; Selinski, Silvia; Gerullis, Holger; Ovsiannikov, Daniel; Khezri, Abdolaziz; Aminsharifi, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Mahyar; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Veldink, Jan H.; Zeegers, Maurice P.; Kellen, Eliane; Fostinelli, Jacopo; Andreoli, Daniele; Arici, Cecilia; Porru, Stefano; Buntinx, Frank; Ghaderi, Abbas; Golka, Klaus; Mayordomo, José I.; Matullo, Giuseppe; Kumar, Rajiv; Steineck, Gunnar; Kiltie, Anne E.; Kong, Augustine; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.

    2011-01-01

    Three genome-wide association studies in Europe and the USA have reported eight urinary bladder cancer (UBC) susceptibility loci. Using extended case and control series and 1000 Genomes imputations of 5 340 737 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we searched for additional loci in the European GWAS. The discovery sample set consisted of 1631 cases and 3822 controls from the Netherlands and 603 cases and 37 781 controls from Iceland. For follow-up, we used 3790 cases and 7507 controls from 13 sample sets of European and Iranian ancestry. Based on the discovery analysis, we followed up signals in the urea transporter (UT) gene SLC14A. The strongest signal at this locus was represented by a SNP in intron 3, rs17674580, that reached genome-wide significance in the overall analysis of the discovery and follow-up groups: odds ratio = 1.17, P = 7.6 × 10−11. SLC14A1 codes for UTs that define the Kidd blood group and are crucial for the maintenance of a constant urea concentration gradient in the renal medulla and, through this, the kidney's ability to concentrate urine. It is speculated that rs17674580, or other sequence variants in LD with it, indirectly modifies UBC risk by affecting urine production. If confirmed, this would support the ‘urogenous contact hypothesis’ that urine production and voiding frequency modify the risk of UBC. PMID:21750109

  7. Genetic variation in Arizona Mexican Americans: estimation and interpretation of admixture proportions.

    PubMed

    Long, J C; Williams, R C; McAuley, J E; Medis, R; Partel, R; Tregellas, W M; South, S F; Rea, A E; McCormick, S B; Iwaniec, U

    1991-02-01

    Mexican Americans are a numerous and fast growing ethnic population in the United States. Yet little is known about their genetic structure. Since they are a hybrid, it is of interest to identify their parental populations and to estimate the relative contributions of these groups. This information is relevant to historical, biomedical, and evolutionary concerns. New genetic typings on 730 Arizona Mexican Americans for the HLA-A, HLA-B, ABO, Rh, MNSs, Duffy, Kidd, and Kell loci are presented here and they are used to estimate ancestral contributions. We considered both a dihybrid model with Amerindians and Spaniards as proposed ancestors, and a trihybrid model with Amerindians, Spaniards, and Africans as proposed ancestors. A modified weighted least squares method that allows for linkage disequilibrium was used to estimate ancestral contributions for each model. The following admixture estimates were obtained: Amerindian, 0.29 +/- 0.04; Spaniard, 0.68 +/- 0.05; and African, 0.03 +/- 0.02. The interpretation of these results with respect to Amerindian and Spanish ancestry is straightforward. African ancestry is strongly supported by the presence of a marker of African descent, Fy, despite the fact that the standard error of the estimate is as large as the estimated admixture proportion. An evaluation of the sensitivity of these results to a number of variables is presented: 1) our choices of ancestral allele frequencies, 2) the possibility of selection at HLA and the blood groups, and 3) genetic drift in Mexican Americans.

  8. Geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  9. CALUTRON SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, E.O.

    1958-08-12

    A calutron system capable of functioning with only a portion of the separation tanks in the system operating is described. The invention is a calutron system comprssing a closed series of alternated tanks and electromagnets having a mid-yoke connecting intermediate positions of the series. dividing the series into twv-o portions, and thereby providing a closed magnetic path through either of the portions.

  10. Systemic Darwinism

    PubMed Central

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-01-01

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a “compositional paradigm” according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality. PMID:18697926

  11. Systemic darwinism.

    PubMed

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-08-19

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality.

  12. Anticipatory systems as linguistic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2000-05-01

    The idea of system is well established although not well defined. What makes up a system depends on the observer. Thinking in terms of systems is only a convenient way to conceptualize organizations, natural or artificial, that show coherent properties. Among all properties, which can be ascribed to systems, one property seems to be more outstanding than others, namely that of being anticipatory. In nature, anticipatory properties are found only in living organizations. In this way it can be said to separate non-living systems from living because there is no indication that any natural phenomenon occurring in systems where there is no indication of life is anticipatory. The characteristic of living systems is that they are exposed to the evolution contrary to causal systems that do not undergo changes due to the influence of the environment. Causal systems are related to the past in such a way that subsequent situations can be calculated from knowledge of past situations. In causal systems the past is the cause of the present and there is no reference to the future as a determining agent, contrary to anticipatory systems where expectations are the cause of the present action. Since anticipatory properties are characteristic of living systems, this property, as all other properties in living systems, is a result of the evolution and can be found in plants as well as in animals. Thus, it is not only tied to consciousness but is found at a more basic level, i.e., in the interplay between genotype and phenotype. Anticipation is part of the genetic language in such a way that appropriate actions, for events in the anticipatory systems environment, are inscribed in the genes. Anticipatory behavior, as a result of the interpretation of the genetic language, has been selected by the evolution. In this paper anticipatory systems are regarded as linguistic systems and I argue that as such anticipation cannot be fragmented but must be holistically studied. This has the

  13. Power system

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  14. Phacoemulsification systems.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    Our objectives in conducting this evaluation were to present an overview of a basic phacoemulsification system and its components, to describe the phacoemulsification procedure within the context of the operating principles of the system's components, and to compare two manufacturers' products. Specifications for additional phacoemulsification systems are available in the November 1989 edition of ECRI's Hospital Product Comparison System. Both of the evaluated systems enable a surgeon to perform a complete cataract extraction procedure by phacoemulsification. We rated both units Acceptable. In selecting a unit, users should consider performance, safety, human factors design, and manufacturer training and support. Although list prices vary widely among available systems, cost factors should not override clinical performance and safety requirements. While we measured certain engineering parameters, such as stroke length and ultrasound (US) output forces exerted on a medium, we stress that the results of these tests do not provide enough information to predict clinical performance. Clinical performance of phacoemulsification systems can be determined only by the experience of the clinicians who use them. Clinicians should review our evaluation thoroughly before making a purchasing decision. The information we present is useful for purchasing the evaluated or other available models because our criteria will guide users in assessing all components, and our findings and discussion on some aspects are common to many available systems (e.g., type of pump, irrigation and aspiration [I/A] characteristics). The in-depth clinical and technical information will help users to better understand principles, thereby helping them to better define their needs. Although we discovered a number of problems with the evaluated models, users should not assume that similar or other problems do not exist with systems that we did not evaluate. The willingness of manufacturers to cooperate in

  15. Electronic system

    DOEpatents

    Robison, G H; Dickson, J F

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is designed for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. The system comprises separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation an electronic channel associated with each input means, including control means and indicating means; timing means adapted to apply a signal from the input means after a predetermined time to the control means to deactivate each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after the observation of each group of events. (D.L.C.)

  16. Systems and Components Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Systems and Components - Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, Derrick Crane System, and Crane System Details - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. Systems Vaccinology

    PubMed Central

    Pulendran, Bali; Li, Shuzhao; Nakaya, Helder I

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the greatest triumphs of modern medicine, yet we remain largely ignorant of the mechanisms by which successful vaccines stimulate protective immunity. Two recent advances are beginning to illuminate such mechanisms: realization of the pivotal role of the innate immune system in sensing microbes and stimulating adaptive immunity, and advances in systems biology. Recent studies have used systems biology approaches to obtain a global picture of the immune responses to vaccination in humans. This has enabled the identification of early innate signatures that predict the immunogenicity of vaccines, and identification of potentially novel mechanisms of immune regulation. Here we review these advances, and critically examine the potential opportunities and challenges posed by systems biology in vaccine development. PMID:21029962

  18. Respiratory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  19. Bioculture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figliozzi, Gianine; Sato, Kevin Y.; Sun. Sidney

    2013-01-01

    The document is a 2 page fact sheet that describes the Bioculture system, how it may be used by researchers for life science research, how and when it will be installed and validated aboard the international space station.

  20. Microelectromechanical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, Kaigham J.

    1995-01-01

    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) is an enabling technology that merges computation and communication with sensing and actuation to change the way people and machines interact with the physical world. MEMS is a manufacturing technology that will impact widespread applications including: miniature inertial measurement measurement units for competent munitions and personal navigation; distributed unattended sensors; mass data storage devices; miniature analytical instruments; embedded pressure sensors; non-invasive biomedical sensors; fiber-optics components and networks; distributed aerodynamic control; and on-demand structural strength. The long term goal of ARPA's MEMS program is to merge information processing with sensing and actuation to realize new systems and strategies for both perceiving and controlling systems, processes, and the environment. The MEMS program has three major thrusts: advanced devices and processes, system design, and infrastructure.

  1. SAMPLING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hannaford, B.A.; Rosenberg, R.; Segaser, C.L.; Terry, C.L.

    1961-01-17

    An apparatus is given for the batch sampling of radioactive liquids such as slurries from a system by remote control, while providing shielding for protection of operating personnel from the harmful effects of radiation.

  2. Systems Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.

    1998-03-17

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

  3. Race--Social, Biological, or Lemonade?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents comments on an article by R. L. Sternberg, E. L. Grigorenko, and K. K. Kidd and another article by H. Tang, T. Quertermous, B. Rodriguez, S. L. Kardia, X. Zhu, X., A. Brown, et al. (2005). On the day that the author of this paper reads Sternberg, Grigorenko, and Kidd's (January 2005) article on race, an article from the…

  4. Systemic fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Levy, Steven Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that fluoride, through different applications and formulas, works to control caries development. The first observations of fluoride's effects on dental caries were linked to fluoride naturally present in the drinking water, and then from controlled water fluoridation programs. Other systemic methods to deliver fluoride were later suggested, including dietary fluoride supplements such as salt and milk. These systemic methods are now being questioned due to the fact that many studies have indicated that fluoride's action relies mainly on its post-eruptive effect from topical contact with the tooth structure. It is known that even the methods of delivering fluoride known as 'systemic' act mainly through a topical effect when they are in contact with the teeth. The effectiveness of water fluoridation in many geographic areas is lower than in previous eras due to the widespread use of other fluoride modalities. Nevertheless, this evidence should not be interpreted as an indication that systemic methods are no longer relevant ways to deliver fluoride on an individual basis or for collective health programs. Caution must be taken to avoid excess ingestion of fluoride when prescribing dietary fluoride supplements for children in order to minimize the risk of dental fluorosis, particularly if there are other relevant sources of fluoride intake - such as drinking water, salt or milk and/or dentifrice. Safe and effective doses of fluoride can be achieved when combining topical and systemic methods.

  5. Systemic trauma.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering.

  6. Turbine system

    DOEpatents

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson

    2016-05-03

    A turbine system is disclosed. The turbine system includes a transition duct having an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The turbine system further includes a turbine section connected to the transition duct. The turbine section includes a plurality of shroud blocks at least partially defining a hot gas path, a plurality of buckets at least partially disposed in the hot gas path, and a plurality of nozzles at least partially disposed in the hot gas path. At least one of a shroud block, a bucket, or a nozzle includes means for withstanding high temperatures.

  7. Robotic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A complicated design project, successfully carried out by New York manufacturing consultant with help from NERAC, Inc., resulted in new type robotic system being marketed for industrial use. Consultant Robert Price, operating at E.S.I, Inc. in Albany, NY, sought help from NERAC to develop an automated tool for deburring the inside of 8 inch breech ring assemblies for howitzers produced by Watervliet Arsenal. NERAC conducted a search of the NASA data base and six others. From information supplied, Price designed a system consisting of a standard industrial robot arm, with a specially engineered six-axis deburring tool fitted to it. A microcomputer and computer program direct the tool on its path through the breech ring. E.S.I. markets the system to aerospace and metal cutting industries for deburring, drilling, routing and refining machined parts.

  8. Microbiology System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

  9. ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Robison, G.H. et al.

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is described for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. It is comprised of separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation: an electronic channel associated with each input means including control means and indicating means; timing means associated with each of the input means and the control means and adapted to derive a signal from the input means and apply it after a predetermined time to the control means to effect deactivation of each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after observation of each group of events.

  10. Computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Lola

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the discussions, Ocean Climate Data Workshop hosts gave participants an opportunity to hear about, see, and test for themselves some of the latest computer tools now available for those studying climate change and the oceans. Six speakers described computer systems and their functions. The introductory talks were followed by demonstrations to small groups of participants and some opportunities for participants to get hands-on experience. After this familiarization period, attendees were invited to return during the course of the Workshop and have one-on-one discussions and further hands-on experience with these systems. Brief summaries or abstracts of introductory presentations are addressed.

  11. Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

  12. Immunochemical and immunohistological expression of Lewis histo-blood group antigens in small intestine including individuals of the Le(a+b+) and Le(a-b-) nonsecretor phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Henry, S M; Samuelsson, B E; Oriol, R

    1994-12-01

    Histological samples and total non-acid glycosphingolipids were prepared from small intestine of human cadavers with the Le(a+b+) and Le(a-b-) nonsecretor phenotypes and contrasted with the more common Lewis phenotypes. Glycolipid fractions were analysed by thin-layer chromatography and tested for Lewis activity with monoclonal antibodies reactive to Lewis epitopes. Paraffin-embedded small intestine sections were also fluorescently immunostained with anti-Lewis antibodies. Unlike the common Lewis positive phenotypes, we were immunochemically able to demonstrate the copresence of large amounts of Lea and Leb glycolipids in the Le(a+b+) sample. In addition we demonstrated increased formation of extended Lewis structures in this phenotype. By immunohistochemistry Lea, Leb and type 1 precursor chain epitopes could be demonstrated in the brush border. These results show that the expression of the Le(a+b+) phenotype at the erythrocyte phenotyping level parallels the small intestinal expression of this phenotype, and the patterns of Lewis antigen expressions are unique to this phenotype. By immunohistochemistry and immunochemistry we also demonstrated the presence of trace amounts of Lewis active glycoconjugates in the small intestine of the Le(a-b-) nonsecretor and Le(a+b-) samples. In the Le(a-b-) nonsecretor Lea and Leb activity was absent and type 1 precursor was present in brush border, while Leb activity was immunohistologically demonstrated in the Golgi apparatus of the deep glands. Trace amounts of both Lea and Leb glycolipids were identified in this sample. In parallel trace Leb activity could also be detected in the glycolipids of the Le(a+b-) sample and could be immunohistologically demonstrated to be fully expressed in occasional cells in the deep glands of the small intestine, a pattern quite dissimilar to that of the Le(a-b-) nonsecretor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. International Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Farhad, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Completes a discussion of a systems model of distance education (in articles since May 1999) focusing on the most complex level, international. Discussion includes transfer of technology from United States universities to developing nations, the free market, and the age of the global economy. Presents a list of "early indicators" of changes in…

  14. Auditory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ades, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    The physical correlations of hearing, i.e. the acoustic stimuli, are reported. The auditory system, consisting of external ear, middle ear, inner ear, organ of Corti, basilar membrane, hair cells, inner hair cells, outer hair cells, innervation of hair cells, and transducer mechanisms, is discussed. Both conductive and sensorineural hearing losses are also examined.

  15. Instructional Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banathy, Bela H.

    The underlying assumption of this book is that the systems approach has a dual role in education. "As applied 'in' education, it offers a powerful methodology for decisionmaking and design development. As applied 'to' education, it may bring about a clear understanding of what education is truly about." The essential purpose of the book is to…

  16. Immune System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  17. Systems Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christakis, Alexander; Hammond, Debora; Jackson, Michael; Laszlo, Alexander; Mitroff, Ian; Snowden, Dave; Troncale, Len; Carr-Chellman, Alison; Spector, J. Michael; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of systems science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Alexander Christakis, Debora Hammond, Michael Jackson, Alexander Laszlo, Ian Mitroff, Dave…

  18. Exploring Enterprise, System of Systems, and System and Software Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    2009 Carnegie Mellon University Exploring Enterprise, System of Systems, and System and Software Architectures Software Engineering Institute...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exploring Enterprise, System of Systems, and System and Software Architectures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Carnegie Mellon University, Software Engineering Institute,Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY

  19. Surveying System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Sunrise Geodetic Surveys are setting up their equipment for a town survey. Their equipment differs from conventional surveying systems that employ transit rod and chain to measure angles and distances. They are using ISTAC Inc.'s Model 2002 positioning system, which offers fast accurate surveying with exceptional signals from orbiting satellites. The special utility of the ISTAC Model 2002 is that it can provide positioning of the highest accuracy from Navstar PPS signals because it requires no knowledge of secret codes. It operates by comparing the frequency and time phase of a Navstar signal arriving at one ISTAC receiver with the reception of the same set of signals by another receiver. Data is computer processed and translated into three dimensional position data - latitude, longitude and elevation.

  20. Solar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  1. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  2. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1985-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  3. Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The 1100C Virtual Window is based on technology developed under NASA Small Business Innovation (SBIR) contracts to Ames Research Center. For example, under one contract Dimension Technologies, Inc. developed a large autostereoscopic display for scientific visualization applications. The Virtual Window employs an innovative illumination system to deliver the depth and color of true 3D imaging. Its applications include surgery and Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans, viewing for teleoperated robots, training, and in aviation cockpit displays.

  4. Security system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  5. Tychonic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The world system proposed in 1583 by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601). Unable to accept the Copernican doctrine that the Earth moves around the Sun, he put forward the view, later disproved by Kepler (1571-1630), that the planets move around the Sun, but the Sun and Moon move around the Earth. The theory explained the observed variations of the phases of Venus, for which the Ptolemai...

  6. Systemic Assurance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-31

    to, warranty of fitness for purpose or merchantability, exclusivity, or results obtained from use of the material. Stevens Institute of Technology...customer organizations judge them fit for use in the mission environment. These assurance judgments must be based on evidence that a system manifests...which it is achieved. Assurance is a human judgment of fitness for use. This judgment is thus contextualized by the mission definition, the features

  7. Copernican System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The heliocentric (i.e. `Sun-centered') theory proposed by the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), and published by him in 1543 in his book, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium. In this system Copernicus placed the Sun at the center of the universe and regarded the Earth and the planets as moving around it in circular orbits. Because of his retention of the notion of circular motion...

  8. CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Shannon, R.H.; Williamson, H.E.

    1962-10-30

    A boiling water type nuclear reactor power system having improved means of control is described. These means include provisions for either heating the coolant-moderator prior to entry into the reactor or shunting the coolantmoderator around the heating means in response to the demand from the heat engine. These provisions are in addition to means for withdrawing the control rods from the reactor. (AEC)

  9. Bioregenerative system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The design course is an eight semester credit multi-disciplinary engineering design course taught primarily to Engineering Science, Aerospace, Electrical and Mechanical Engineering seniors. This year the course project involved the design of the three interrelated loops: atmospheric, liquid nutrient and solid waste management, associated with growing higher plants to support man during long-term space missions. The project is complementary to the NASA Kennedy Space Center Controlled Environmental Life Support System (CELSS) project. The first semester the class worked on a preliminary design for a complete system. This effort included means for monitoring and control of composition, temperature, flow rate, etc., for the atmosphere and liquid nutrient solution; disease and contaminant monitoring and control; plant mechanical support, propagation and harvesting; solid and liquid waste recycling; and system maintenance and refurbishing. The project has significant biological, mechanical, electrical and Al/Robotics aspects. The second semester a small number of subsystems or components, identified as important and interesting during the first semester, were selected for detail design, fabrication, and testing. The class was supported by close cooperation with The Kennedy Space Center and by two teaching assistants. The availability of a dedicated, well equipped project room greatly enhanced the communication and team spirit of the class.

  10. Braking system

    DOEpatents

    Norgren, D.U.

    1982-09-23

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling means causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

  11. Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  12. Sterilization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

  13. Purification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T. (Inventor); Gibbons, Randall E. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A system for prolonging the life of a granulated activated charcoal (GAC) water treatment device is disclosed in which an ultraviolet light transparent material is used to constrain water to flow over carbon surfaces. It is configured to receive maximum flux from a UV radiation source for the purpose of preventing microbial proliferation on the carbon surfaces; oxidizing organic contaminants adsorbed from the water onto the carbon surfaces and from biodegradation of adsorbed microbial forms; disinfecting water; and oxidizing organic contaminants in the water.

  14. Relaxation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  15. Systems Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Boran, Aislyn D. W.; Iyengar, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    We examine how physiology and pathophysiology are studied from a systems perspective, using high-throughput experiments and computational analysis of regulatory networks. We describe the integration of these analyses with pharmacology, which leads to new understanding of drug action and enables drug discovery for complex diseases. Network studies of drug-target relationships can serve as an indication on the general trends in the approved drugs and the drug-discovery progress. There is a growing number of targeted therapies approved and in the pipeline, which meets a new set of problems with efficacy and adverse effects. The pitfalls of these mechanistically based drugs are described, along with how a systems view of drug action is increasingly important to uncover intricate signaling mechanisms that play an important part in drug action, resistance mechanisms, and off-target effects. Computational methodologies enable the classification of drugs according to their structures and to which proteins they bind. Recent studies have combined the structural analyses with analysis of regulatory networks to make predictions about the therapeutic effects of drugs for complex diseases and possible off-target effects. PMID:20687178

  16. Transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Kurosawa, Kanji; Koga, Bunichiro; Ito, Hideki; Kiriyama, Shigeru; Higuchi, Shizuo

    2003-05-20

    A transport system includes a traveling rail (1) which constitutes a transport route and a transport body (3) which is capable of traveling on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. Flexible drive tubes (5) are arranged on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. The transport body includes a traveling wheel (4) which is capable of rolling on the traveling rail and drive wheels (2) which are capable of rolling on the drive tubes upon receiving the rotational drive power generated by pressure of a pressure medium supplied to the drive tubes while depressing the drive tubes. The traveling rail includes a plurality of transport sections and the transport body is capable of receiving a rotational drive force from the drive tubes at every transport sections. If necessary, a transport route changeover switch which changes over the transport route can be provided between the transport sections.

  17. Power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, G.

    1982-01-01

    Significant events in current, prototype, and experimental utility power generating systems in 1981 are reviewed. The acceleration of licensing and the renewal of plans for reprocessing of fuel for nuclear power plants are discussed, including the rise of French reactor-produced electricity to over 40% of the country's electrical output. A 4.5 MW fuel cell neared completion in New York City, while three 2.5 MW NASA-designed windpowered generators began producing power in the state of Washington. Static bar compensators, nonflammable-liquid cooled power transformers, and ZnO surge arrestors were used by utilities for the first time, and the integration of a coal gasifier-combined cycle power plant approached the planning phase. An MHD generator was run for 1000 hours and produced 50-60 kWe, while a 20 MVA superconducting generator was readied for testing.

  18. Pumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Kime, J.A.

    1987-05-19

    This patent describes a gas-oil production system for pumping formation fluid in a well through a tubing string within which a down hole pump connects to a hydraulic stroking device through a rod string providing the pump including a plunger reciprocally driven by the hydraulic stroking device toward an upper terminal position during a plunger upstroke. The rod string normally supports the weight of a column of fluid and toward a lower terminal position at the end of a plunger downstroke during which the weight of the column fluid is normally transferred to the tubing string through fluid within the pump. The method for detecting when the well is pumped off comprises: supplying working fluid to the hydraulic stroking device to raise the hydraulic stroking device and thereby move the plunger from the lower terminal position to the upper terminal position; and removing the working fluid at a controlled rate from the hydraulic stroking device.

  19. Systems toxicology.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas; van Vliet, Erwin; Jaworska, Joanna; Bonilla, Leo; Skinner, Nigel; Thomas, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The need for a more mechanistic understanding of the ways in which chemicals modulate biological pathways is urgent if we are to identify and better assess safety issues relating to a wide range of substances developed by the pharmaceutical, chemical, agri-bio, and cosmetic industries. Omics technologies provide a valuable opportunity to refine existing methods and provide information for so-called integrated testing strategies via the creation of signatures of toxicity. By mapping these signatures to underlying pathways of toxicity, some of which have been identified by toxicologists over the last few decades, and bringing them together with pathway information determined from biochemistry and molecular biology, a "systems toxicology" approach will enable virtual experiments to be conducted that can improve the prediction of hazard and the assessment of compound toxicity.

  20. Separation system

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Leslie S.

    1986-01-01

    A separation system for dewatering radioactive waste materials includes a disposal container, drive structure for receiving the container, and means for releasably attaching the container to the drive structure. Separation structure disposed in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure retains solids while allowing passage of liquids. Inlet port structure in the container top wall is normally closed by first valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the inlet port and discharge port structure at the container periphery receives liquid that passes through the separation structure and is normally closed by second valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the discharge ports. The container also includes coupling structure for releasable engagement with the centrifugal drive structure. Centrifugal force produced when the container is driven in rotation by the drive structure opens the valve structures, and radioactive waste material introduced into the container through the open inlet port is dewatered, and the waste is compacted. The ports are automatically closed by the valves when the container drum is not subjected to centrifugal force such that containment effectiveness is enhanced and exposure of personnel to radioactive materials is minimized.

  1. Incinerator system

    SciTech Connect

    Rathmell, R.K.

    1986-10-07

    An incineration system is described which consists of: combustion chamber structure having an inlet, an outlet, and burner structure in the combustion chamber, heat exchanger structure defining a chamber, divider structure between the heat exchanger chamber and the combustion chamber, an array of tubes extending through the heat exchanger chamber to the inlet of the combustion chamber at the divider structure. The heat exchanger chamber has an inlet coupled to the outlet of the combustion chamber for flow of the combustion products discharged from the combustion chamber through the heat exchanger chamber over the tubes in heat exchange relation, and an outlet for discharge of products from the heat exchanger chamber, aspirator sleeve structure secured to the divider structure between the heat exchanger chamber and the combustion chamber. Each aspirator sleeve receives the outlet end of a heat exchanger tube in slip fit relation so that the heat exchanger tubes are free to thermally expand longitudinally within the aspirator sleeves, and means for flowing vapor through the heat exchanger tubes into the combustion chamber at sufficiently high velocity to produce a reduced pressure effect in the aspirator sleeves in the heat exchanger chamber to draw a minor fraction of combustion products through the aspirator sleeves into the combustion chamber for reincineration.

  2. Systemic vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Poonam; Sharma, Sanjeev; Baltaro, Richard; Hurley, John

    2011-03-01

    The systemic vasculitides are characterized by inflammation of blood vessel walls. Vessels of any type, in any organ can be affected, resulting in a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms. The heterogenous nature of vasculitides presents a diagnostic challenge. The American College of Rheumatology classification criteria and the Chapel Hill Consensus Conference nomenclature are the most widely used to distinguish different forms of vasculitis. The Chapel Hill Consensus Conference nomenclature defines 10 primary vasculitides based on vessel size (large, medium, and small). The diagnosis relies on the recognition of a compatible clinical presentation supported by specific laboratory or imaging tests and confirmatory histology. Antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody testing has been of particular benefit in defining a subgroup of small vessel vasculitides. Treatment is based on clinical presentation and the pattern of organ involvement. Glucocorticoids are the primary treatment for many forms of vasculitis. Additional immunosuppressive agents, including methotrexate and cyclophosphamide, are sometimes required. Newer approaches, such as the use of anti-tumor necrosis factor or B cell therapies, are being tried in resistant cases. Patients can experience considerable treatment-related toxicity, especially infection from immunosuppressive therapy and adverse effects from steroids (e.g., osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, cataract). Vitamin D and calcium prophylaxis are recommended in patients on long-term steroid therapy.

  3. Endocrine System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Teens > Endocrine System A A A ... is called the endocrine system . What Is the Endocrine System? Although we rarely think about the endocrine system, ...

  4. New Systems Produced by Systemic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Wendy; Clem, Jo; Caine, Renate N.; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Chapman, Carrie; Flinders, David J.; Malopinsky, Larissa V.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents new systems produced by systemic change. First is Systemic Changes in the Chugach School District by Wendy Battino and Jo Clem. Second is Systemic Changes in Public Schools through Brain-Based Learning by Renate N. Caine. Third is A Vision of an Information-Age Educational System by Charles M. Reigeluth. Fourth is Systemic…

  5. Airborne Global Positioning System Antenna System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-14

    GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM ANTENNA SYSTEM DISTRIBUTION: SMC/ GP (3 cys); AFFSA...standard that airborne Global Positioning System ( GPS ) antenna system must meet to be identified with the applicable MSO marking. The similarity of...UNCLASSIFIED DOCUMENT NO. DATE NO. MSO-C144 14 Oct 04 Initial Release REV: REV: SHEET 1 OF 16 TITLE: AIRBORNE GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

  6. Possible role of ABO system in age-related diseases and longevity: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Claudia; Caruso, Calogero; Vasto, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    ABO blood group antigens are expressed either on the surface of red blood cells either on a variety of other cells. Based on the available knowledge of the genes involved in their biosynthesis and their tissue distribution, their polymorphism has been suggested to provide intraspecies diversity allowing to cope with diverse and rapidly evolving pathogens. Accordingly, the different prevalence of ABO group genotypes among the populations has been demonstrated to be driven by malaria selection. In the similar manner, a particular ABO blood group may contribute to favour life-extension via biological mechanisms important for surviving or eluding serious disease. In this review, we will suggest the possible association of ABO group with age-related diseases and longevity taking into account the biological role of the ABO glycosyltransferases on some inflammatory mediators as adhesion molecules.

  7. RADAR WARNING SYSTEM,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    RADAR TRACKING, *AIRCRAFT DEFENSE SYSTEMS, RADAR EQUIPMENT, AIR TO AIR, SEARCH RADAR, GUIDED MISSILES, HIGH SPEED BOMBING, EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS, FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AIRCRAFT, TIME, CHINA.

  8. System design description cone penetrometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Seda, R.Y., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The system design description documents in detail the design of the cone penetrometer system. The systems includes the cone penetrometer physical package, raman spectroscopy package and moisture sensor package. Information pertinent to the system design, development, fabrication and testing is provided.

  9. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  10. From systems biology to systems biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Antony, Paul M A; Balling, Rudi; Vlassis, Nikos

    2012-08-01

    Systems Biology is about combining theory, technology, and targeted experiments in a way that drives not only data accumulation but knowledge as well. The challenge in Systems Biomedicine is to furthermore translate mechanistic insights in biological systems to clinical application, with the central aim of improving patients' quality of life. The challenge is to find theoretically well-chosen models for the contextually correct and intelligible representation of multi-scale biological systems. In this review, we discuss the current state of Systems Biology, highlight the emergence of Systems Biomedicine, and highlight some of the topics and views that we think are important for the efficient application of Systems Theory in Biomedicine.

  11. Engineering Bacterial Surface Displayed Human Norovirus Capsid Proteins: A Novel System to Explore Interaction Between Norovirus and Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Mengya; Yu, Qianqian; Tian, Peng; Gao, Zhiyong; Wang, Dapeng; Shi, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are major contributors to acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks. Many aspects of HuNoVs are poorly understood due to both the current inability to culture HuNoVs, and the lack of efficient small animal models. Surrogates for HuNoVs, such as recombinant viral like particles (VLPs) expressed in eukaryotic system or P particles expressed in prokaryotic system, have been used for studies in immunology and interaction between the virus and its receptors. However, it is difficult to use VLPs or P particles to collect or isolate potential ligands binding to these recombinant capsid proteins. In this study, a new strategy was used to collect HuNoVs binding ligands through the use of ice nucleation protein (INP) to display recombinant capsid proteins of HuNoVs on bacterial surfaces. The viral protein-ligand complex could be easily separated by a low speed centrifugation step. This system was also used to explore interaction between recombinant capsid proteins of HuNoVs and their receptors. In this system, the VP1 capsid encoding gene (ORF2) and the protruding domain (P domain) encoding gene (3′ terminal fragment of ORF2) of HuNoVs GI.1 and GII.4 were fused with 5′ terminal fragment of INP encoding gene (inaQn). The results demonstrated that the recombinant VP1 and P domains of HuNoVs were expressed and anchored on the surface of Escherichia coli BL21 cells after the bacteria were transformed with the corresponding plasmids. Both cell surface displayed VP1 and P domains could be recognized by HuNoVs specific antibodies and interact with the viral histo-blood group antigens receptors. In both cases, displayed P domains had better binding abilities than VP1. This new strategy of using displayed HuNoVs capsid proteins on the bacterial surface could be utilized to separate HuNoVs binding components from complex samples, to investigate interaction between the virus and its receptors, as well as to develop an oral vaccine for HuNoVs. PMID

  12. Global Positioning System Shipborne Reference System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-30

    Office of Naval Research Space and Remote Sensing 1997 Annual Report 1 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM SHIPBORNE REFERENCE SYSTEM James R. Clynch...N00014-97-WR30044 LONG-TERM GOAL The long term goal is to improve the navigation capability of naval vessels using the Global Positioning System ...COVERED 00-00-1997 to 00-00-1997 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Positioning System Shipborne Reference System 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  13. Mechanical systems: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation of several mechanized systems is presented. The articles are contained in three sections: robotics, industrial mechanical systems, including several on linear and rotary systems and lastly mechanical control systems, such as brakes and clutches.

  14. Endocrine System (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Parents > Endocrine System A A A ... to help the body function properly. About the Endocrine System The foundations of the endocrine system are the ...

  15. Immune System (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Immune System KidsHealth > For Parents > Immune System A A A ... can lead to illness and infection. About the Immune System The immune system is the body's defense against ...

  16. Irregular antibodies in no hemolytic autoimmune diseases are able to induce erythrophagocytosis.

    PubMed

    López-Díaz, Paola Ester; Ruiz-Olivera, María Del Rocío; Hernández-Osorio, Luis Alberto; Vargas-Arzola, Jaime; Valle-Jiménez, Xareni; Aguilar-Ruiz, Sergio Roberto; Torres-Aguilar, Honorio

    2016-08-25

    Irregular antibodies are produced by alloimmunization because of pregnancies or blood transfusions. They are called "irregular" due to target erythrocyte antigens from "rare blood systems," those different from the ABO system. Irregular antibodies have been widely investigated in immunohematology since their presence in blood donors may lead to difficulties in blood typing and in blood cross-matching, or to induce hemolytic transfusion reactions. Nevertheless, their incidence and participation in the physiopathology of autoimmune diseases have not been thoroughly studied. In this work, we analyzed the presence and pro-hemolytic capabilities of irregular antibodies in patients with different autoimmune diseases lacking signs of hemolytic anemia, in comparison with healthy multiparous women. Five of 141 autoimmune patients (3.5 %) and two of 77 multiparous women (2.6 %) were positive. Although frequency was relatively low and similar in both populations, the targeted antigens were Kell (k, Kp(b), Js(b)) and Luth (Lu(b)) in multiparous women, and the same plus Duffy (Fy(a)), Kidd (Jk(a)) and MNS (M, s) in autoimmune patients. Irregular antibodies from autoimmune patients did not induce complement-mediated hemolysis (intravascular), but they were able to induce macrophages-mediated phagocytosis (extravascular hemolysis) in vitro. It is the first approach exploring the presence of irregular antibodies associated with the loss of immune tolerance and demonstrating their hemolytic potential in autoimmune patients without hemolytic manifestations. The presence of irregular antibodies targeted to Duffy (Fya), Kidd (Jka) and MNS (M, s) antigens only in autoimmune patients suggests a loss of immune tolerance to these erythrocyte antigens.

  17. Quantify information system benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Koppel, L.B.

    1995-06-01

    What are information systems and how do they relate to control systems? How do information systems produce benefits in hydrocarbon processing? What are some examples of benefit-generating information system applications? Information System Benefits (ISBEN) is a structured methodology for estimating information system benefits in hydrocarbon processing. The paper discusses information and control systems, information system benefits and applications, objectives, strategies and measures of ISBEN, ISBEN business drivers, ISBEN database, ISBEN methodology, and implementation.

  18. Data Systems Task Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    A08873 MARINE CORPS WASHINGTON DC F/B 5/9 DATA SYSTEMS TASK ANALYSIS. (U) "CLASSIFIEO. -%mm . LEVELIs DATA SYSTEMS O0 TASK ANALYSIS DCI) OO JF AUG 28...TECI-NICIAN jl. CCMPUTER SYSTEMS EVALLATOR ,13. LCMPUTER SYSTEMS MANAGER 314. LCMPUTER SYSTEMS MCNITOR A5o LCMPUTER TERMINAL OPERATOR j16. LCNFIGURATION...OPERATOR )27. DATA PROCESSING NCO )28. DATA PROCESSINIG TECHNICIAN 329e DATA SYSTEMS LIBRARIAN )35* DATA SYSTEMS OPERATICNS Cl-IEF 331. DATA SYSTEMS

  19. Practical systems thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konkarikoski, K.; Ritala, R.; Ihalainen, H.

    2010-07-01

    System is a dynamic and complex whole, interacting as a structured functional unit. Systems thinking provides tools for understanding a such system structure and its dynamic behavior. Practical systems thinking course teaches first year bachelor students basics about systems and how open problem can be formulated to system task.

  20. System of systems modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, James E.; Anderson, Dennis James; Longsine, Dennis E.; Shirah, Donald N.

    2005-01-01

    This report documents the results of an LDRD program entitled 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' that was conducted during FY 2003 and FY 2004. Systems that themselves consist of multiple systems (referred to here as System of Systems or SoS) introduce a level of complexity to systems performance analysis and optimization that is not readily addressable by existing capabilities. The objective of the 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' project was to develop an integrated modeling and simulation environment that addresses the complex SoS modeling and analysis needs. The approach to meeting this objective involved two key efforts. First, a static analysis approach, called state modeling, has been developed that is useful for analyzing the average performance of systems over defined use conditions. The state modeling capability supports analysis and optimization of multiple systems and multiple performance measures or measures of effectiveness. The second effort involves time simulation which represents every system in the simulation using an encapsulated state model (State Model Object or SMO). The time simulation can analyze any number of systems including cross-platform dependencies and a detailed treatment of the logistics required to support the systems in a defined mission.

  1. System Software Framework for System of Systems Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Roscoe C.; Peterson, Benjamin L; Thompson, Hiram C.

    2005-01-01

    Project Constellation implements NASA's vision for space exploration to expand human presence in our solar system. The engineering focus of this project is developing a system of systems architecture. This architecture allows for the incremental development of the overall program. Systems can be built and connected in a "Lego style" manner to generate configurations supporting various mission objectives. The development of the avionics or control systems of such a massive project will result in concurrent engineering. Also, each system will have software and the need to communicate with other (possibly heterogeneous) systems. Fortunately, this design problem has already been solved during the creation and evolution of systems such as the Internet and the Department of Defense's successful effort to standardize distributed simulation (now IEEE 1516). The solution relies on the use of a standard layered software framework and a communication protocol. A standard framework and communication protocol is suggested for the development and maintenance of Project Constellation systems. The ARINC 653 standard is a great start for such a common software framework. This paper proposes a common system software framework that uses the Real Time Publish/Subscribe protocol for framework-to-framework communication to extend ARINC 653. It is highly recommended that such a framework be established before development. This is important for the success of concurrent engineering. The framework provides an infrastructure for general system services and is designed for flexibility to support a spiral development effort.

  2. Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred during the last decade in intelligent systems technologies (a.k.a. knowledge-based systems, KBS) including research, feasibility demonstrations, and technology implementations in operational environments. Evaluation and simulation data obtained to date in real-time operational environments suggest that cost-effective utilization of intelligent systems technologies can be realized for Automated Rendezvous and Capture applications. The successful implementation of these technologies involve a complex system infrastructure integrating the requirements of transportation, vehicle checkout and health management, and communication systems without compromise to systems reliability and performance. The resources that must be invoked to accomplish these tasks include remote ground operations and control, built-in system fault management and control, and intelligent robotics. To ensure long-term evolution and integration of new validated technologies over the lifetime of the vehicle, system interfaces must also be addressed and integrated into the overall system interface requirements. An approach for defining and evaluating the system infrastructures including the testbed currently being used to support the on-going evaluations for the evolutionary Space Station Freedom Data Management System is presented and discussed. Intelligent system technologies discussed include artificial intelligence (real-time replanning and scheduling), high performance computational elements (parallel processors, photonic processors, and neural networks), real-time fault management and control, and system software development tools for rapid prototyping capabilities.

  3. [X-33 Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works has compiled an Annual Performance Report of the X-33/RLV Program. This report consists of individual reports from all industry team members, as well as NASA team centers. This portion of the report is comprised of a status report of Allied-Signal Aerospace's contribution to the program. The following is a summary of the work reviewed under their portion of the agreement: (1) Communication Systems; (2) Environmental Control Systems- Active Thermal Control System (ATCS), Purge and Vent System, Hydrogen Detection System (HDS), Avionics Bay Inerting System (ABIS), and Flush Air Data System (FADS); (2) Landing Systems; (3) Power Management and Generation Systems; (4) Flight Control Actuation System (FCAS)- Electric Power Control & Distribution System (EPCDS), and Battery Power System (BPS); and (5) Vehicle Management Systems (VMS)- VMS Hardware, VMS Software Development Activities, and System Integration Laboratory (SIL).

  4. Systems engineering and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, B.S.; Fabrycky, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    An introduction to systems is provided and tools for systems analysis are considered, taking into account system definitions and concepts, approaches for bringing systems into being, models in systems analysis, economic analysis techniques, mathematical modeling and optimization, probability and statistics, queuing theory and analysis, and control concepts and techniques. The system design process is discussed along with the design for operational feasibility, systems engineering management, and system design case studies. Attention is given to conceptual design, preliminary system design, detail design and development, system test and evaluation, design for reliability, design for maintainability, design for supportability, design for economic feasibility, communication system design, finite population system design, energy storage system design, and procurement-inventory system design.

  5. Language as a System of Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, J. W. F.; Hervey, S. G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Based on Mulder's previous classification of all semiotic systems designed to describe the system of discrete features in human languages, this article explores a further subclassification of the genus language into species. (CLK)

  6. Freedom System Text and Graphics System (TAGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Text and Graphics System (TAGS) is a high-resolution facsimile system that scans text or graphics material and converts the analog SCAN data into serial digital data. This video shows the TAGS in operation.

  7. LCLS XTOD Attenuator System System Concept Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kishiyama, K; Roeben, M; Trent, J; Ryutov, D; Shen, S

    2006-04-12

    The attenuator system for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray Transport, Optics and Diagnostics (XTOD) system has been configured and analyzed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Technologies Engineering Division (NTED) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. The system layout, performance analyses and selection of the vacuum components are presented in this System Conceptual Review (SCR) report. Also included are the plans for prototype, procurement, mechanical integration, and the cost estimates.

  8. Systems Theory, Systems Technology, and Curriculum Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, David

    1978-01-01

    John Goodlad (1958) stated that "Nowhere in education is there greater need for a conceptual system to guide decision-making than the field of curriculum." This research attempts to explore ways in which systems thinking can provide a conceptual system, to illuminate the study of curriculum and guide the design of curricula. (Author/RK)

  9. Intelligent tutoring systems for systems engineering methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Richard J.; Toland, Joel; Decker, Louis

    1991-01-01

    The general goal is to provide the technology required to build systems that can provide intelligent tutoring in IDEF (Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing Definition Method) modeling. The following subject areas are covered: intelligent tutoring systems for systems analysis methodologies; IDEF tutor architecture and components; developing cognitive skills for IDEF modeling; experimental software; and PC based prototype.

  10. Differential urinary specific gravity as a molecular phenotype of the bladder cancer genetic association in the urea transporter gene, SLC14A1.

    PubMed

    Koutros, Stella; Baris, Dalsu; Fischer, Alexander; Tang, Wei; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Karagas, Margaret R; Schwenn, Molly; Johnson, Alison; Figueroa, Jonine; Waddell, Richard; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Rothman, Nathaniel; Silverman, Debra T

    2013-12-15

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified associations between markers within the solute carrier family 14 (urea transporter), member 1 (SLC14A1) gene and risk of bladder cancer. SLC14A1 defines the Kidd blood groups in erythrocytes and is also involved in concentration of the urine in the kidney. We evaluated the association between a representative genetic variant (rs10775480) of SLC14A1 and urine concentration, as measured by urinary specific gravity (USG), in a subset of 275 population-based controls enrolled in the New England Bladder Cancer Study. Overnight urine samples were collected, and USG was measured using refractometry. Analysis of covariance was used to estimate adjusted least square means for USG in relation to rs10775480. We also examined the mRNA expression of both urea transporters, SLC14A1 and SLC14A2, in a panel of human tissues. USG was decreased with each copy of the rs10775480 risk T allele (p-trend = 0.011) with a significant difference observed for CC vs. TT genotypes (p-value(tukey) = 0.024). RNA-sequencing in the bladder tissue showed high expression of SLC14A1 and the absence of SLC14A2, while both transporters were expressed in the kidney. We suggest that the molecular phenotype of this GWAS finding is the genotype-specific biological activity of SLC14A1 in the bladder tissue. Our data suggest that SLC14A1 could be a unique urea transporter in the bladder that has the ability to influence urine concentration and that this mechanism might explain the increased bladder cancer susceptibility associated with rs10775480.

  11. Systems Intelligence Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Törmänen, Juha; Hämäläinen, Raimo P.; Saarinen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Systems intelligence (SI) (Saarinen and Hämäläinen, 2004) is a construct defined as a person's ability to act intelligently within complex systems involving interaction and feedback. SI relates to our ability to act in systems and reason about systems to adaptively carry out productive actions within and with respect to systems such as…

  12. Collaborative Systems Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pocatilu, Paul; Ciurea, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    Collaborative systems are widely used today in various activity fields. Their complexity is high and the development involves numerous resources and costs. Testing collaborative systems has a very important role for the systems' success. In this paper we present taxonomy of collaborative systems. The collaborative systems are classified in many…

  13. Systems Engineering Measurement Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    Systems Engineering Measurement Primer A Basic Introduction to Systems Engineering Measurement Concepts and Use Version 1.0 March 1998 This document...Federal Systems Garry Roedler Lockheed Martin Management & Data Systems Cathy Tilton The National Registry, Inc. E. Richard Widmann Raytheon Systems...IV 1. INTRODUCTION

  14. Intelligent test integration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sztipanovits, J.; Padalkar, S.; Rodriguez-Moscoso, J.; Kawamura, K.; Purves, B.; Williams, R.; Biglari, H.

    1988-01-01

    A new test technology is described which was developed for space system integration. The ultimate purpose of the system is to support the automatic generation of test systems in real time, distributed computing environments. The Intelligent Test Integration System (ITIS) is a knowledge based layer above the traditional test system components which can generate complex test configurations from the specification of test scenarios.

  15. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Katherine A.; Murray, Regan; Walker, La Tonya Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  16. DDL system: Design systhesis of digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language was integrated into the CADAT system environment of NASA-MSFC. The major technical aspects of this integration are summarized. Automatic hardware synthesis is now possible starting with a high level description of the system to be synthesized. The DDL system provides a high level design verification capability, thereby minimizing design changes in the later stages of the design cycle. An overview of the DDL system covering the translation, simulation and synthesis capabilities is provided. Two companion documents (the user's and programmer's manuals) are to be consulted for detailed discussions.

  17. Microwave landing system autoland system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, J. B.; Craven, B. K.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the ability of present day aircraft equipped with automatic flight control systems to fly advanced Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) approaches. The tactical approach used to achieve this objective included reviewing the design and autoland operation of the MD-80 aircraft, simulating the MLS approaches using a batch computer program, and assessing the performance of the autoland system from computer generated data. The results showed changes were required to present Instrument Landing System (ILS) procedures to accommodate the new MLS curved paths. It was also shown that in some cases, changes to the digital flight guidance systems would be required so that an autoland could be performed.

  18. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-08-25

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  19. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-02-24

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  20. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr, Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2016-10-11

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  1. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2013-05-07

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  2. The LSST: A System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claver, Chuck F.; Debois-Felsmann, G. P.; Delgado, F.; Hascall, P.; Marshall, S.; Nordby, M.; Schumacher, G.; Sebag, J.; LSST Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a complete observing system that acquires and archives images, processes and analyzes them, and publishes reduced images and catalogs of sources and objects. The LSST will operate over a ten year period producing a survey of 20,000 square degrees over the entire [Southern] sky in 6 filters (ugrizy) with each field having been visited several hundred times enabling a wide spectrum of science from fast transients to exploration of dark matter and dark energy. The LSST itself is a complex system of systems consisting of the 8.4m 3-mirror telescope, a 3.2 billion pixel camera, and a peta-scale data management system. The LSST project uses a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) methodology to ensure an integrated approach to system design and rigorous definition of system interfaces and specifications. The MBSE methodology is applied through modeling of the LSST's systems with the System Modeling Language (SysML). The SysML modeling recursively establishes the threefold relationship between requirements, logical & physical functional decomposition and definition, and system and component behavior at successively deeper level of abstraction and detail. The LSST modeling includes the analysis and documenting the flow of command and control information and data between the suite of systems in the LSST observatory that are needed to carry out the activities of the survey. The MBSE approach is applied throughout all stages of the project from design, to validation and verification, though to commissioning.

  3. Systems Architecture for a Nationwide Healthcare System.

    PubMed

    Abin, Jorge; Nemeth, Horacio; Friedmann, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    From a national level to give Internet technology support, the Nationwide Integrated Healthcare System in Uruguay requires a model of Information Systems Architecture. This system has multiple healthcare providers (public and private), and a strong component of supplementary services. Thus, the data processing system should have an architecture that considers this fact, while integrating the central services provided by the Ministry of Public Health. The national electronic health record, as well as other related data processing systems, should be based on this architecture. The architecture model described here conceptualizes a federated framework of electronic health record systems, according to the IHE affinity model, HL7 standards, local standards on interoperability and security, as well as technical advice provided by AGESIC. It is the outcome of the research done by AGESIC and Systems Integration Laboratory (LINS) on the development and use of the e-Government Platform since 2008, as well as the research done by the team Salud.uy since 2013.

  4. TWRSview system requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, J.A.; Lee, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

  5. Multivariable Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-01-01

    one). Examples abound of systems with numerous controlled variables, and the modern tendency is toward ever greater utilization of systems and plants of this kind. We call them multivariable control systems (MCS).

  6. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  7. Manned systems technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretoi, Remus

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on manned systems technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: crew-systems interfaces and interactions; crew training; on-board systems maintenance and support; habitability and environment; and computational human factors.

  8. Air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

  9. Wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  10. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Parents > Lungs and Respiratory System Print ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't happen ...

  11. The Trinity System

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Billy Joe; Vigil, Benny Manuel

    2015-01-13

    This paper describes the Trinity system, the first ASC Advanced Technology System (ATS-1). We describe the Trinity procurement timeline, the ASC computing strategy, the Trinity specific mission needs, and the Trinity system specifications.

  12. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Parents > Lungs and Respiratory System A ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't happen ...

  13. Evaluating a Portfolio System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smit, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Contributes to the knowledge of portfolio systems for writing evaluation by sharing evaluative procedures and their results. Reports on the results of a survey of students evaluated using a portfolio system. Finds that students preferred the portfolio system. (RS)

  14. Antiskid braking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pazdera, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Published report describes analytical development and simulation of braking system. System prevents wheels from skidding when brakes are applied, significantly reducing stopping distance. Report also presents computer simulation study on system as applied to aircraft.

  15. Digestive System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Digestive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Digestive System A A A ... out of the body as feces. About the Digestive System Every morsel of food we eat has to ...

  16. Immune System Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth > For Kids > Quiz: Immune System A A A How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! About KidsHealth ...

  17. Systems interface biology

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines. PMID:16971329

  18. System status display information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, L. G.; Erickson, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The system Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the flight crew with enhanced capabilities for monitoring and managing aircraft systems. Guidelines for the design of the electronic system displays were established. The technical approach involved the application of a system engineering approach to the design of candidate displays and the evaluation of a Hernative concepts by part-task simulation. The system engineering and selection of candidate displays are covered.

  19. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  20. Systems interface biology.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-10-22

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines.

  1. The LSST: A System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claver, Chuck F.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Delgado, F.; Hascall, P.; Horn, D.; Marshall, S.; Nordby, M.; Schalk, T. L.; Schumacher, G.; Sebag, J.; LSST Project Team

    2010-01-01

    The LSST is a complete observing system that acquires and archives images, processes and analyzes them, and publishes reduced images and catalogs of sources and objects. The LSST will operate over a ten year period producing a survey of 20,000 square degrees over the entire southern sky in 6 filters (ugrizy) with each field having been visited several hundred times enabling a wide spectrum of science from fast transients to exploration of dark matter and dark energy. The LSST itself is a complex system of systems consisting of the 8.4m three mirror telescope, a 3.2 billion pixel camera, and a peta-scale data management system. The LSST project uses a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) methodology to ensure an integrated approach to system design and rigorous definition of system interfaces and specifications. The MBSE methodology is applied through modeling of the LSST's systems with the System Modeling Language (SysML). The SysML modeling recursively establishes the threefold relationship between requirements, logical & physical functional decomposition and definition, and system and component behavior at successively deeper levels of abstraction and detail. The MBSE approach is applied throughout all stages of the project from design, to validation and verification, though to commissioning.

  2. Lightside Atmospheric Revitalization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colling, A. K.; Cushman, R. J.; Hultman, M. M.; Nason, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The system was studied as a replacement to the present baseline LiOH system for extended duration shuttle missions. The system consists of three subsystems: a solid amine water desorbed regenerable carbon dioxide removal system, a water vapor electrolysis oxygen generating system, and a Sabatier reactor carbon dioxide reduction system. The system is designed for use on a solar powered shuttle vehicle. The majority of the system's power requirements are utilized on the Sun side of each orbit, when solar power is available.

  3. Control system design method

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  4. Umbra's system representation.

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Michael James

    2005-07-01

    This document describes the Umbra System representation. Umbra System representation, initially developed in the spring of 2003, is implemented in Incr/Tcl using concepts borrowed from Carnegie Mellon University's Architecture Description Language (ADL) called Acme. In the spring of 2004 through January 2005, System was converted to Umbra 4, extended slightly, and adopted as the underlying software system for a variety of Umbra applications that support Complex Systems Engineering (CSE) and Complex Adaptive Systems Engineering (CASE). System is now a standard part Of Umbra 4. While Umbra 4 also includes an XML parser for System, the XML parser and Schema are not described in this document.

  5. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  6. Epilogue: Systems Approaches and Systems Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Each of the five systems approaches discussed in this volume: system dynamics (SD), the viable systems model (VSM), strategic options development and analysis (SODA), soft systems methodology (SSM) and critical systems heuristics (CSH) has a pedigree. Not in the sense of the sometimes absurd spectacle of animals paraded at dog shows. Rather, their pedigree derives from their systems foundations, their capacity to evolve and their flexibility in use. None of the five approaches has developed out of use in restricted and controlled contexts of either low or high levels of complicatedness. Neither has any one of them evolved as a consequence of being applied only to situations with either presumed stakeholder agreement on purpose, or courteous disagreement amongst stakeholders, or stakeholder coercion. The compilation is not a celebration of abstract ‘methodologies', but of theoretically robust approaches that have a genuine pedigree in practice.

  7. Systems engineering for very large systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewkowicz, Paul E.

    1993-01-01

    Very large integrated systems have always posed special problems for engineers. Whether they are power generation systems, computer networks or space vehicles, whenever there are multiple interfaces, complex technologies or just demanding customers, the challenges are unique. 'Systems engineering' has evolved as a discipline in order to meet these challenges by providing a structured, top-down design and development methodology for the engineer. This paper attempts to define the general class of problems requiring the complete systems engineering treatment and to show how systems engineering can be utilized to improve customer satisfaction and profit ability. Specifically, this work will focus on a design methodology for the largest of systems, not necessarily in terms of physical size, but in terms of complexity and interconnectivity.

  8. Expert system requirements for power system restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Kafka, R.J. ); Milanicz, D.P. )

    1994-08-01

    This paper is one of series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration. Expert systems are being considered for restoring bulk power supplies. In general, there are three restoration periods following a major power disturbance: establishment of initial sources of power, re-integration of a skeleton of the bulk power supply, and minimization of the unserved loads. Expert systems together with analytical tools have the potential of addressing the restoration procedures over these three periods. This paper describes the expert system requirements from the point of view of the practicing power engineers with emphasis placed on the initial power sources and requirements. The paper draws on the previous reports by the Power System Restoration Working Group.

  9. INSENS sensor system

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.W.; Baker, J.; Benzel, D.M.; Fuess, D.A.

    1993-09-29

    This paper describes an unattended ground sensor system that has been developed for the immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The system, known as INSENS, was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for use by the United States Border Patrol. This system assists in the detection of illegal entry of aliens and contraband (illegal drugs, etc.) into the United States along its land borders. Key to the system is its flexible modular design which allows future software and hardware enhancements to the system without altering the fundamental architecture of the system. Elements of the system include a sensor system capable of processing signals from multiple directional probes, a repeater system, and a handheld monitor system. Seismic, passive infrared (PIR), and magnetic probes are currently supported. The design of the INSENS system elements and their performance are described.

  10. Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2014-05-01

    For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases.

  11. Immune System as a Sensory System

    PubMed Central

    Dozmorov, Igor M.; Dresser, D.

    2010-01-01

    As suggested by the well-known gestalt concept the immune system can be regarded as an integrated complex system, the functioning of which cannot be fully characterized by the behavior of its constituent elements. Similar approaches to the immune system in particular and sensory systems in general allows one to discern similarities and differences in the process of distinguishing informative patterns in an otherwise random background, thus initiating an appropriate and adequate response. This may lead to a new interpretation of difficulties in the comprehension of some immunological phenomena. PMID:21686066

  12. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  13. Nonscanning confocal ranging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, P. C.; Arons, E.

    1995-03-01

    We demonstrate a nonscanning confocal ranging system based on spatially incoherent interferometry. Such a system has significant advantages over the conventional confocal imaging system and other interferometric systems. We develop the theory in terms of coherence cells and demonstrate the equivalence of our method to the conventional confocal methods. Experimental results are also provided.

  14. System Engineering Fundamentals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JAN 2001 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2001 to 00-00-2001 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE System...73 PART 3. SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND CONTROL Chapter 9. Work Breakdown Structure...divided into four parts: Introduction; Systems Engineering Process; Systems Analysis and Control ; and Planning, Organizing, and Managing. The first part

  15. Microsphere insulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Mark S. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A new insulation system is provided that contains microspheres. This insulation system can be used to provide insulated panels and clamshells, and to insulate annular spaces around objects used to transfer, store, or transport cryogens and other temperature-sensitive materials. This insulation system provides better performance with reduced maintenance than current insulation systems.

  16. Medical imaging systems

    DOEpatents

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-06-25

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  17. Vehicle tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalm, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Several systems have been developed to accomplish vehicle location. The systems consist of three types: Dead Reckoning, Satellite, and LORAN C. If the information is to be sent back to a central location, some type of radiocommunication system is needed. One can use the existing voice radio or add a radio system just for transmitting the data.

  18. Intelligent inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Jeniece; Dale, Ken; Holloway, Mike; Gaby, Willard

    1997-01-01

    The intelligent inspection system is an advanced controller and analysis system for dimensional measuring machines dedicated to measuring surface of revolution mechanical parts. IIS was developed by the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Oak Ridge Y-12 plant because no commercial product was available to replace the obsolete computing systems on these important machines.

  19. Integrated library systems.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, C M

    1983-01-01

    The development of integrated library systems is discussed. The four major discussion points are (1) initial efforts; (2) network resources; (3) minicomputer-based systems; and (4) beyond library automation. Four existing systems are cited as examples of current systems. PMID:6354321

  20. Noncooperative rendezvous radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A fire control radar system was developed, assembled, and modified. The baseline system and modified angle tracking system are described along with the performance characteristics of the baseline and modified systems. Proposed changes to provide additional techniques for radar evaluation are presented along with flight test data.