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Sample records for kidney hek293 cells

  1. Cellular interactions of zinc oxide nanoparticles with human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells.

    PubMed

    V G, Reshma; P V, Mohanan

    2017-09-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have potential biomedical, industrial and commercial applications. So they constantly come into contact with the body parts during applications. Safety concerns about ZnO NPs are increasing today and yet only few reports are available about their toxicity in kidney cells. It is very essential to analyze the toxicity on kidney because kidney plays a decisive role in nanoparticles excretion. Therefore, the present study focuses on the interaction of ZnO NPs with human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells in vitro. The results showed that the cellular viability was much affected by ZnO NPs in a dose and time dependent manner. Oxidative stress increased the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), was found to be the prime mechanism of cytotoxicity. Formation of ROS eventually induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, lysosomal activity and nuclear condensation, which ultimately leads to apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multi wall carbon nanotubes induce oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Anreddy Rama Narsimha; Reddy, Yellu Narsimha; Krishna, Devarakonda Rama; Himabindu, Vurimindi

    2010-06-04

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the potential toxicity and the general mechanism involved in multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-induced cytotoxicity using human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293) cells. Two multi wall carbon nanotubes (coded as MWCNT1, size: 90-150nm and MWCNT2, size: 60-80nm) used in this study are MWCNT1 (produced by the electric arc method and size of the nanotubes was 90-150nm) and MWCNT2 (produced by the chemical vapor deposition method with size of 60-80nm). To elucidate the possible mechanisms of MWCNT induced cytotoxicity, cell viability, mitochondrial function (MTT assay), cell membrane damage (LDH assay), reduced glutathione (GSH), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and lipid peroxidation levels were quantitatively assessed under carbon nanotubes exposed (48h) conditions. Exposure of different sizes of two carbon nanotubes at dosage levels between 3 and 300mug/ml decreased cell viability in a concentration dependent manner. The IC(50) values (concentration of nanoparticles to induce 50% cell mortality) of two (MWCNT1, MWCNT2) nanoparticles were found as 42.10 and 36.95mug/ml. Exposure of MWCNT (10-100mug/ml) to HEK cells resulted in concentration dependent cell membrane damage (as indicated by the increased levels of LDH), increased production of IL-8, increased TBARS and decreased intracellular glutathione levels. The cytotoxicity and oxidative stress was significantly more in MWCNT2 exposed cells than MWCNT1. In summary, exposure of carbon nanotubes resulted in a concentration dependent cytotoxicity in cultured HEK293 cells that was associated with increased oxidative stress.

  3. Biotransport and intracellular ice formation phenomena in freezing human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T).

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunpeng; Zhao, Gang; Zhou, Xiaoming; Ding, Weiping; Shu, Zhiquan; Gao, Dayong

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the cryobiological characteristics of human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells. The cell membrane hydraulic conductivity (L(pg)) and the activation energy of water transport (E(Lp)) were determined in the absence/presence of cryoprotectant agent (CPA), while the nucleation rate kinetic and thermodynamic parameters (Ωo(SCN) and κo(SCN)) were determined in the absence of CPA. Since dehydration and intracellular ice formation (IIF) are two factors that may cause damage to cells during the freezing process, systematical freezing experiments were carried out at different cooling rates (5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 60°C/min) under the commercial available cryomicroscopy (FDCS 196, Linkham, Waterfield, UK) to further explore the cryoinjury mechanism for HEK293T cells. By simultaneously fitting the water transport equation to the experimentally measured volumetric shrinkage data at 5, 10, and 15°C/min, the "combined best fit" membrane permeability parameters for HEK293T cells in both phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and CPA media (0.75M Me2SO in PBS) are determined. They are L(pg)=2.85×10(-14)m/s/Pa (0.17μm/min/atm), E(Lp)=142.91kJ/mol (34.13kcal/mol) (R(2)=0.990), and L(pg)[cpa]=2.73±0.44×10(-14)m/s/Pa (0.16±0.03μm/min/atm), E(Lp)[cpa]=152.52±27.69kJ/mol (36.42±6.61kcal/mol) (R(2)=0.993), respectively. An optimal cooling rate B(opt) (the highest cooling rate without IIF) was determined to be 14.24°C/min in the absence of CPA. Additionally, the ice nucleation parameters (Ωo(SCN) and κo(SCN)) were averaged to be 1.31±0.11×10(8)m(-2)s(-1) and 7.67±2.55×10(9)K(5) for the cooling rates 20, 30, and 60°C/min. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential proteome analysis of human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293) following mycophenolic acid treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is widely used as a post transplantation medicine to prevent acute organ rejection. In the present study we used proteomics approach to identify proteome alterations in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) after treatment with therapeutic dose of MPA. Following 72 hours MPA treatment, total protein lysates were prepared, resolved by two dimensional gel electrophoresis and differentially expressed proteins were identified by QTOF-MS/MS analysis. Expressional regulations of selected proteins were further validated by real time PCR and Western blotting. Results The proliferation assay demonstrated that therapeutic MPA concentration causes a dose dependent inhibition of HEK-293 cell proliferation. A significant apoptosis was observed after MPA treatment, as revealed by caspase 3 activity. Proteome analysis showed a total of 12 protein spots exhibiting differential expression after incubation with MPA, of which 7 proteins (complement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein, electron transfer flavoprotein subunit beta, cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit, peroxiredoxin 1, thioredoxin domain-containing protein 12, myosin regulatory light chain 2, and profilin 1) showed significant increase in their expression. The expression of 5 proteins (protein SET, stathmin, 40S ribosomal protein S12, histone H2B type 1 A, and histone H2B type 1-C/E/F/G/I) were down-regulated. MPA mainly altered the proteins associated with the cytoskeleton (26%), chromatin structure/dynamics (17%) and energy production/conversion (17%). Both real time PCR and Western blotting confirmed the regulation of myosin regulatory light chain 2 and peroxiredoxin 1 by MPA treatment. Furthermore, HT-29 cells treated with MPA and total kidney cell lysate from MMF treated rats showed similar increased expression of myosin regulatory light chain 2. Conclusion The emerging use of MPA in diverse pathophysiological conditions demands in-depth studies to understand molecular basis of

  5. The role of sensitivity of ALA (PpIX)-based PDT on Human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293T)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhar-e-Alam, M.; Atif, M.; Rehman, T.; Sadia, H.; Firdous, S.

    2011-08-01

    Present study evaluates the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) as photo sensitizer using Human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cell line as an experimental model. Porphyrins derivatives are used as active cytotoxic antitumor agents in PDT. Above mentioned cell line were irradiated with red light (a diode laser, λ = 635 nm) at different doses (0-160 J/cm2) of light. The influence/effectiveness of incubation time, various concentrations of aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and light doses on the cellular viability was studied. HEK293T cells were deliberated by exposing the ALA-PpIX (0-1000 μg/ml) of concentrations. The optimal uptakes of photosensitizer (PS) in cell lines were investigated by means of spectro photo metric measurements. Cells viability was determined by means of neutral red assay (NRA). It was observed that alone, neither photosensitizer nor light dose have significant effect on cells viability, but optimal concentration of PS along with suitable dose of light exhibit effective impact on the viability of cell. Our results showed that light doses of 40 J/cm2 demonstrates effective PDT outcome for HEK293T cell line when incubated with 400 μg/ml, with wrapping up view that HEK293T cell line is very sensitive to ALA-mediated PDT as compared to cell line published in our data. At the end results has been verified by using reactive oxygen species (ROS) measure test.

  6. Cytotoxic effect of microbial biosurfactants against human embryonic kidney cancerous cell: HEK-293 and their possible role in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Arun Kumar; Pradhan, Nilotpala; Mohapatra, Purusottam; Kundu, Chanakya Nath; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2014-11-01

    Two different microbial biosurfactants S9BS and CHBS were isolated from Lysinibacillus fusiformis S9 and Bacillus tequilensis CH. Cytotoxicity effect of these biosurfactants on human embryonic kidney cancerous cell (HEK-293) were studied with the help of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl-)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and morphological changes were observed under inverted microscope. The biosurfactants exhibited positive cytotoxic effect on HEK-293 cell line. It was found that LC50 of S9BS and CHBS were 75 and 100 μg ml(-1), respectively. Further cell cycle and apoptosis analysis of biosurfactant-treated HEK-293 cell line were done by FACS. In this study, cytotoxic effect of glycolipid biosurfactant against HEK-293 cell lines is reported for the first time. Mechanism towards increased membrane permeability of biosurfactant-treated cancer cell may be the incorporation of its lipid moiety into the plasma membrane leading to formation of pores and membrane disruption. Hence, these microbial biosurfactants can prove to be significant biomolecule for cancer treatment.

  7. The Phytoalexin Resveratrol Ameliorates Ochratoxin A Toxicity in Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293) Cells.

    PubMed

    Raghubeer, Shanel; Nagiah, Savania; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Chuturgoon, Anil

    2015-12-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi. It contaminates human and animal food products, and chronic exposure is associated with renal fibrosis in humans (Balkan endemic nephropathy). Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, possesses anti-cancer and antioxidant properties. We investigated the mechanism of cellular oxidative stress induced by OTA, and the effect of resveratrol in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells over 24 and 48 h. Cells were exposed to OTA [IC50 = 1.5 μM (24 h) and 9.4 μM (48 h) determined using MTT assay] and 25 μM resveratrol. Glutathione was quantified by luminometry and gene expression of Nrf2 and OGG1 was determined by qPCR. Protein expression of Nrf2, LonP1, SIRT3, and pSIRT1 was assessed by Western blot, DNA damage (comet assay), and intracellular reactive oxygen species (flow cytometry). At 24 h, resveratrol increased mRNA expression of the DNA repair enzyme, OGG1 (P < 0.05), whereas OTA and OTA+resveratrol significantly decreased OGG1 expression (P < 0.05). OGG1 expression increased during 48-h exposure to resveratrol and OTA+resveratrol (P < 0.05). Comet tail lengths doubled in 48-h OTA-treated cells, whereas at both time periods, OTA+resveratrol yielded shorter comet tails (P < 0.0001). During 24- and 48-h exposure, OTA, resveratrol, and OTA+resveratrol significantly decreased mRNA expression of Nrf2 (P < 0.05). Luminometry analysis of GSH revealed an increase by OTA+resveratrol for 24 and 48 h (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). Western blot analysis showed decreased Nrf2 protein expression during 24-h exposure, but increased Nrf2 expression during 48 h. LonP1 protein expression increased during 24-h exposure to OTA (P < 0.05) and OTA+resveratrol (P < 0.0011) and during 48-h exposure to resveratrol (P < 0.0005).

  8. Preparation, characterization and toxicological investigation of copper loaded chitosan nanoparticles in human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells.

    PubMed

    Arora, Divya; Dhanwal, Vandna; Nayak, Debasis; Saneja, Ankit; Amin, Hina; Ur Rasool, Reyaz; Gupta, Prem Narayan; Goswami, Anindya

    2016-04-01

    Metallic nanoparticles often attribute severe adverse effects to the various organs or tissues at the molecular level despite of their applications in medical, laboratory and industrial sectors. The present study highlights the preparation of copper adsorbed chitosan nanoparticles (CuCSNPs), its characterization and validation of cytotoxicity in human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells. Particle size of the CuCSNPs was determined by using Zetasizer and the copper loading was quantified with the help of ICP/MS. Further characterization of CuCSNPs was carried out by FT-IR analysis to determine the formation of nanoparticles and SEM was conducted for the morphological analysis of the CuCSNPs. The CuCSNPs exhibited pronounced cytotoxic effects towards HEK-293 cells as analyzed by MTT assay. Moreover, the CuCSNPs inhibited the colony formation and induced nuclear damage at the dose of 100 μg/mL, much more effectively than the in built control copper sulfate (CuSO4). At the molecular level, the CuCSNPs were found to be triggering reactive oxygen species (ROS), activating effector caspases and subsequent PARP cleavage to induce cell death in HEK-293 cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cytoprotective effect of glutaraldehyde erythropoietin on HEK293 kidney cells after silver nanoparticle exposure.

    PubMed

    Sooklert, Kanidta; Chattong, Supreecha; Manotham, Krissanapong; Boonwong, Chawikan; Klaharn, I-yanut; Jindatip, Depicha; Sereemaspun, Amornpun

    2016-01-01

    The toxic effects from exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are broadly present in many consumer products, have long raised concerns. Many studies have focused on the mechanisms of nanosilver, which cause toxicity in human cells, but little is known about prevention of this type of injury. This study investigated the in vitro effects of glutaraldehyde erythropoietin (GEPO), a cytoprotective compound derived from erythropoietin, in terms of cell protection against AgNP-induced injury. HEK293 cells were pretreated with or without GEPO before administration of AgNPs. The protective effects of GEPO in this cell line were assessed by the percentage of viable cells, alterations of cell morphology, and the proliferative capability of the cells. In addition, we assessed the role of GEPO in lowering cellular oxidative stress and regulating expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2. The results showed rescue effects on the percentage of viable and proliferative cells among GEPO pretreated cells. Pretreatment with GEPO maintained the normal cell shape and ultrastructural morphology. Moreover, GEPO reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species in cells and activated expression of Bcl2, which are the major mechanisms in protection against cellular toxicity induced by AgNPs. In conclusion, our study showed that the cytotoxic effects from exposure to AgNPs can be prevented by GEPO.

  10. G-protein modulation of N-type calcium channel gating current in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293).

    PubMed Central

    Jones, L P; Patil, P G; Snutch, T P; Yue, D T

    1997-01-01

    1. Voltage-dependent inhibition of N-type calcium currents by G-proteins contributes importantly to presynaptic inhibition. To examine the effect of G-proteins on key intermediary transitions leading to channel opening, we measured both gating and ionic currents arising from recombinant N-type channels (alpha 1B, beta 1b and alpha 2) expressed in transiently transfected human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293). Recombinant expression of a homogeneous population of channels provided a favourable system for rigorous examination of the mechanisms underlying G-protein modulation. 2. During intracellular dialysis with GTP gamma S to activate G-proteins, ionic currents demonstrated classic features of voltage-dependent inhibition, i.e. strong depolarizing prepulses increased ionic currents and produced hyperpolarizing shifts in the voltage-dependent activation of ionic current. No such effects were observed with GDP beta S present to minimize G-protein activity. 3. Gating currents were clearly resolved after ionic current blockade with 0.1 mM free La3+, enabling this first report of gating charge translocation arising exclusively from N-type channels. G-proteins decreased the amplitude of gating currents and produced depolarizing shifts in the voltage-dependent activation of gating charge movement. However, the greatest effect was to induce a approximately 20 mV separation between the voltage-dependent activation of gating charge movement and ionic current. Strong depolarizing prepulses largely reversed these effects. These modulatory features provide telling clues about the kinetic steps affected by G-proteins because gating currents arise from the movement of voltage sensors that trigger channel activation. 4. The mechanistic implications of concomitant G-protein-mediated changes in gating and ionic currents are discussed. We argue that G-proteins act to inhibit both voltage-sensor movement and the transduction of voltage-sensor activation into channel opening. Images

  11. Cytotoxicity of Gold Nanoparticles with Varying Concentration and Under Low Dose Environmental Radiation on Human Embryonic Kidney 293 Cells (HEK-293)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crudup, Shalana; Braender, Bruce; Iftode, Cristina; Dobbins, Tabbetha

    2013-03-01

    Nanomaterials are increasingly being used in medicine. Most research surrounding the health and safety effects of nanomaterials examine the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles alone. Few studies, as this one does, examines the combined effects of nanoparticle concentration and radiation exposure on cytotoxicity to human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK-293). Nanoparticles injected in the body are supposed to undergo biodegradation once they are done their specified task, however, some do not and accumulate in the cells (particularly at the liver and kidney) and this causes intracellular changes. Examples of intracellular changes are the disruption of organelle integrity or gene alterations. This will cause the cells to die because the cells are very sensitive to changes in their pH. The experiments reported here focus on the cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles as a function of varying particle concentrations and also with and without exposure to UV radiation.

  12. Differential State-Dependent Modification of Rat Nav1.6 Sodium Channels Expressed in Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293) Cells by the Pyrethroid Insecticides Tefluthrin and Deltamethrin

    PubMed Central

    He, Bingjun; Soderlund, David M.

    2011-01-01

    We expressed rat Nav1.6 sodium channels in combination with the rat β1 and β2 auxiliary subunits in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and evaluated the effects of the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin on expressed sodium currents using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Both pyrethroids produced concentration-dependent, resting modification of Nav1.6 channels, prolonging the kinetics of channel inactivation and deactivation to produce persistent “late” currents during depolarization and tail currents following repolarization. Both pyrethroids also produced concentration dependent hyperpolarizing shifts in the voltage dependence of channel activation and steady-state inactivation. Maximal shifts in activation, determined from the voltage dependence of the pyrethroid-induced late and tail currents, were ~25 mV for tefluthrin and ~20 mV for deltamethrin. The highest attainable concentrations of these compounds also caused shifts of ~5–10 mV in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation. In addition to their effects on the voltage dependence of inactivation, both compounds caused concentration-dependent increases in the fraction of sodium current that was resistant to inactivation following strong depolarizing prepulses. We assessed the use-dependent effects of tefluthrin and deltamethrin on Nav1.6 channels by determining the effect of trains of 1 to 100 5-ms depolarizing prepulses at frequencies of 20 or 66.7 Hz on the extent of channel modification. Repetitive depolarization at either frequency increased modification by deltamethrin by ~2.3-fold but had no effect on modification by tefluthrin. Tefluthrin and deltamethrin were equally potent as modifiers of Nav1.6 channels in HEK293 cells using the conditions producing maximal modification as the basis for comparison. These findings show that the actions of tefluthrin and deltamethrin of Nav1.6 channels in HEK293 cells differ from the effects of these compounds on Nav1

  13. Identification of selenium-containing proteins in HEK 293 kidney cells using multiple chromatographies, LC-ICPMS and nano-LC-ESIMS.

    PubMed

    Chitta, Karnakar R; Landero-Figueroa, Julio A; Kodali, Phanichand; Caruso, Joseph A; Merino, Edward J

    2013-09-30

    Our previous studies using HeLa and HEK 293 cells demonstrated that selenomethionine, SeMet, exerts more of an antagonistic effect on arsenic than other selenium species. These studies attributed the antagonistic effect of SeMet to decreased levels of reactive oxygen species, ROS, changes in protein phosphorylation and possible incorporation of SeMet into proteins. The present study employs a metallomics approach to identify the selenium-containing proteins in HEK 293 cells raised with SeMet. The proteins were screened and separated using two dimensional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and reversed-phase chromatography (RPC). The Se-containing proteins were identified by peptide mapping using nano-HPLC-Chip-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS).

  14. Mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of antimony species in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) and their comparison with arsenic species.

    PubMed

    Verdugo, Marcelo; Ogra, Yasumitsu; Quiroz, Waldo

    2016-01-01

    Antimony cytotoxicity was assessed in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293). Uptake, mitochondrial respiratory activity, ROS generation and diffusional kinetics were measured using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Furthermore, the toxic effect induced by Sb was compared with As toxicity in regard to ROS generation and diffusional kinetics, which provides information on the protein aggregation process. Our results show a favored uptake of Sb(III) and a more severe effect, decreasing the mitochondrial activity more than in the presence of Sb(V). In comparison with As, the Sb species did not generate a significant increase in ROS generation, which was observed with As(III) and As(V). FRAP analysis yielded important information on the diffusion and binding dynamics of live cells in presence of these metalloids. The mobile fraction showed a strong decrease with the As species and Sb(III). The diffusion rate and the koff-rate were significantly decreased for the As and Sb species but were more strong in the presence of As(III).

  15. Activation of galanin receptor 2 stimulates large conductance Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) (BK) channels through the IP3 pathway in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Na Clara; Bai, Yun-Fei; Yang, Yutao; Hökfelt, Tomas; Xu, Zhi-Qing David

    2014-03-28

    The large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels are widely distributed in the brain, and act as intracellular calcium sensors in neurons. They play an important feedback role in controlling Ca(2+) flux and Ca(2+)-dependent processes, including neurotransmitter release and cellular excitability. In this study, the effects of the neuropeptide galanin on BK channels were examined by determining the whole-cell currents and single-channel activities in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells co-expressing GalR2 and the BK alpha subunit. Galanin enhanced the currents of BK channels, in a concentration-dependent and PTX-independent manner, with an ED50 value of 71.8±16.9 nM. This activation was mediated by GalR2, since its agonist AR-M1896 mimicked the effect of galanin, and since galanin did not facilitate BK currents in cells co-expressing cDNAs of BK and GalR1 or GalR3. The galanin-induced BK current persisted after replacement with Ca(2+)-free solution, suggesting that extracellular Ca(2+) is not essential. Chelating intracellular Ca(2+) by either the slow Ca(2+) buffer EGTA or the fast Ca(2+) buffer BAPTA abolished galanin-mediated activation of BK channels, indicating the important role of intracellular Ca(2+). The role of Ca(2+) efflux from the sarcoplasmic reticulum/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) was confirmed by application of thapsigargin, an irreversible inhibitor that depletes Ca(2+) from SR/ER. Moreover, the inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) was identified as the mediator responsible for increased intracellular Ca(2+) activating BK channels. Taken together, activation of GalR2 leads to elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) is due to Ca(2+) efflux from ER through IP3R sequentially opening BK channels.

  16. CD133 induces tumour-initiating properties in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Canis, Martin; Lechner, Axel; Mack, Brigitte; Zengel, Pamela; Laubender, Rüdiger Paul; Koehler, Udo; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Gires, Olivier

    2013-02-01

    The pentaspan protein CD133 (Prominin-1) is part of the signature of tumour-initiating cells for various cancer entities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of ectopic CD133 expression on tumourigenic properties of otherwise CD133-negative, non-tumourigenic cells in vitro and in vivo. CD133 was stably transfected into human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) which was then sorted for the expression of CD133. The effects of CD133 on cell proliferation were assessed upon standard cell counting of sorted cells at various time points. Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice (n = 30) were injected with HEK293 CD133(high) and CD133(low) transfectants (5 × 10(3), 1 × 10(5), or 5 × 10(6) cells per injection). The expression of CD133, Ki67, CD44s, CD44v6, and EpCAM was analysed upon immunohistochemical staining of cryosections with specific antibodies. In vitro, ectopic expression of CD133 did influence neither cell proliferation nor cell cycle distribution of otherwise CD133-negative HEK293 cells. However, CD133(high) cells generated tumours in vivo in SCID mice with at least 1,000-fold increased frequency compared to CD133(low) cells. Tumour load was also significantly increased in CD133(high) cells as compared to those tumours formed by high numbers of CD133(low) cells. Immunohistochemistry stainings disclosed no changes in Ki67, CD44s, CD44v6, or EpCAM once tumours were formed by either cell type. CD133 induces tumour-initiating properties in HEK293 cells in vivo and is potentially involved in the regulation of tumourigenicity. Future research will aim at the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of CD133-induced tumourigenicity.

  17. Digital Holographic Tomography and Fluorescence Used to Localize sGC in HEK293 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldrake, Eric; Mann, Christopher; Gage, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Digital Holographic Tomography (DHT) is used to analyze and localize the intracellular protein soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. DHT is a non-invasive phase microscopy technique that provides three dimensional quantitative information of HEK293 cells including variance of index of refraction or physical thickness. A fluorescence component will be added to the microscope to further studies of sGC localization. The signaling pathway including nitric oxide (NO) and sGC is studied and has been linked to various cardiovascular diseases, platelet aggregation, and variations in blood pressure via vasodilation. sGC will be labeled using a fluorescent antibody and analyzed using the DHT microscope. DHT will be used to analyze changes in sGC localization in its natural environment and when stimulated by NO. An understanding of how sGC interacts with its surroundings is vital to further research in cardiovascular disease.

  18. High level transient production of recombinant antibodies and antibody fusion proteins in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Volker; Büssow, Konrad; Wagner, Andreas; Weber, Susanne; Hust, Michael; Frenzel, André; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-06-26

    The demand of monospecific high affinity binding reagents, particularly monoclonal antibodies, has been steadily increasing over the last years. Enhanced throughput of antibody generation has been addressed by optimizing in vitro selection using phage display which moved the major bottleneck to the production and purification of recombinant antibodies in an end-user friendly format. Single chain (sc)Fv antibody fragments require additional tags for detection and are not as suitable as immunoglobulins (Ig)G in many immunoassays. In contrast, the bivalent scFv-Fc antibody format shares many properties with IgG and has a very high application compatibility. In this study transient expression of scFv-Fc antibodies in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells was optimized. Production levels of 10-20 mg/L scFv-Fc antibody were achieved in adherent HEK293T cells. Employment of HEK293-6E suspension cells expressing a truncated variant of the Epstein Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen (EBNA) 1 in combination with production under serum free conditions increased the volumetric yield up to 10-fold to more than 140 mg/L scFv-Fc antibody. After vector optimization and process optimization the yield of an scFv-Fc antibody and a cytotoxic antibody-RNase fusion protein further increased 3-4-fold to more than 450 mg/L. Finally, an entirely new mammalian expression vector was constructed for single step in frame cloning of scFv genes from antibody phage display libraries. Transient expression of more than 20 different scFv-Fc antibodies resulted in volumetric yields of up to 600 mg/L and 400 mg/L in average. Transient production of recombinant scFv-Fc antibodies in HEK293-6E in combination with optimized vectors and fed batch shake flasks cultivation is efficient and robust, and integrates well into a high-throughput recombinant antibody generation pipeline.

  19. In vitro evaluation of the comprehensive antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Curtisia dentata (Burm.f) C.A. Sm: toxicological effect on the Human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Fadipe, VO; Mongalo, NI; Opoku, AR

    2015-01-01

    Curtisia dentata is used in African traditional medicine to treat variety of infections. C. dentata leaves were collected from Buffelskloof Nature Reserve, South Africa. The ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity using micro dilution assay against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Candida albicans and some clinical isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from HIV patient. Acetone extract exhibited lowest MIC of 0.01 mg/ml against Candida albicans compared to other extracts. Besides lupeol, betulinic acid and ursolic acid, β-sitosterol was isolated for the first time from C. dentata leaves and exhibited antimicrobial activity with MIC values ranging from 0.20 to 6.25 mg/ml. Furthermore, the ethanol extract and the four isolated compounds revealed microbicidal effect, with MIC index of less than 4. Ethanol extract revealed the best total activity of 2400 ml/g against Mycoplasma hominis. Cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was further investigated against the Human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the MTT assay. Ursolic acid exhibited the lowest LD50 of 122.4 µg/ml against HEK293 cell line while lupeol exhibited LD50 of 278.8 and 289.4 µg/ml against HEK293 and HepG2 respectively. Lupeol exhibited low selectivity index. Ethyl acetate and acetone extracts were further investigated for antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The acetone extract exhibited potent inhibition of DPPH compared to ethyl acetate extract. The findings of the current work validate the use of the plant species in the treatment of various human infections. PMID:27065768

  20. In vitro evaluation of the comprehensive antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Curtisia dentata (Burm.f) C.A. Sm: toxicological effect on the Human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fadipe, V O; Mongalo, N I; Opoku, A R

    2015-01-01

    Curtisia dentata is used in African traditional medicine to treat variety of infections. C. dentata leaves were collected from Buffelskloof Nature Reserve, South Africa. The ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity using micro dilution assay against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Candida albicans and some clinical isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from HIV patient. Acetone extract exhibited lowest MIC of 0.01 mg/ml against Candida albicans compared to other extracts. Besides lupeol, betulinic acid and ursolic acid, β-sitosterol was isolated for the first time from C. dentata leaves and exhibited antimicrobial activity with MIC values ranging from 0.20 to 6.25 mg/ml. Furthermore, the ethanol extract and the four isolated compounds revealed microbicidal effect, with MIC index of less than 4. Ethanol extract revealed the best total activity of 2400 ml/g against Mycoplasma hominis. Cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was further investigated against the Human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the MTT assay. Ursolic acid exhibited the lowest LD50 of 122.4 µg/ml against HEK293 cell line while lupeol exhibited LD50 of 278.8 and 289.4 µg/ml against HEK293 and HepG2 respectively. Lupeol exhibited low selectivity index. Ethyl acetate and acetone extracts were further investigated for antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The acetone extract exhibited potent inhibition of DPPH compared to ethyl acetate extract. The findings of the current work validate the use of the plant species in the treatment of various human infections.

  1. The genome-wide expression profile of Curcuma longa-treated cisplatin-stimulated HEK293 cells

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Ko, Eunjung; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Lee, Eun-Young; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shin, Minkyu; Hong, Moochang; Bae, Hyunsu

    2010-01-01

    AIM The rhizome of turmeric, Curcuma longa (CL), is a herbal medicine used in many traditional prescriptions. It has previously been shown that CL treatment showed greater than 47% recovery from cisplatin-induced cell damage in human kidney HEK 293 cells. This study was conducted to evaluate the recovery mechanisms of CL that occur during cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity by examining the genome wide mRNA expression profiles of HEK 293 -cells. METHOD Recovery mechanisms of CL that occur during cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity were determined by microarray, real-time PCR, immunofluorescent confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis. RESULTS The results of microarray analysis and real-time PCR revealed that NFκB pathway-related genes and apoptosis-related genes were down-regulated in CL-treated HEK 293 cells. In addition, immunofluorescent confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis revealed that NFκB p65 nuclear translocation was inhibited in CL-treated HEK 293 cells. Therefore, the mechanism responsible for the effects of CL on HEK 293 cells is closely associated with regulation of the NFκB pathway. CONCLUSION CL possesses novel therapeutic agents that can be used for the prevention or treatment of cisplatin-induced renal disorders. PMID:20840446

  2. Differential state-dependent modification of rat Na{sub v}1.6 sodium channels expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells by the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin

    SciTech Connect

    He, Bingjun; Soderlund, David M.

    2011-12-15

    We expressed rat Na{sub v}1.6 sodium channels in combination with the rat {beta}1 and {beta}2 auxiliary subunits in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and evaluated the effects of the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin on expressed sodium currents using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Both pyrethroids produced concentration-dependent, resting modification of Na{sub v}1.6 channels, prolonging the kinetics of channel inactivation and deactivation to produce persistent 'late' currents during depolarization and tail currents following repolarization. Both pyrethroids also produced concentration dependent hyperpolarizing shifts in the voltage dependence of channel activation and steady-state inactivation. Maximal shifts in activation, determined from the voltage dependence of the pyrethroid-induced late and tail currents, were {approx} 25 mV for tefluthrin and {approx} 20 mV for deltamethrin. The highest attainable concentrations of these compounds also caused shifts of {approx} 5-10 mV in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation. In addition to their effects on the voltage dependence of inactivation, both compounds caused concentration-dependent increases in the fraction of sodium current that was resistant to inactivation following strong depolarizing prepulses. We assessed the use-dependent effects of tefluthrin and deltamethrin on Na{sub v}1.6 channels by determining the effect of trains of 1 to 100 5-ms depolarizing prepulses at frequencies of 20 or 66.7 Hz on the extent of channel modification. Repetitive depolarization at either frequency increased modification by deltamethrin by {approx} 2.3-fold but had no effect on modification by tefluthrin. Tefluthrin and deltamethrin were equally potent as modifiers of Na{sub v}1.6 channels in HEK293 cells using the conditions producing maximal modification as the basis for comparison. These findings show that the actions of tefluthrin and deltamethrin of Na{sub v}1.6 channels in HEK293

  3. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity caused by yttrium oxide nanoparticles in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Vellaisamy; Bodapati, Sravanthi; Murray, Elizabeth; Rice, Kevin M; Winston, Nicole; Shokuhfar, Tolou; Zhao, Yu; Blough, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The increased use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) has caused new concerns about the potential exposure to biological systems and the potential risk that these materials may pose on human health. Here, we examined the effects of exposure to different concentrations (0-50 μg/mL) and incubation times (10 hours, 24 hours, or 48 hours) of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) NPs on human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Changes in cellular morphology, cell viability, cell membrane integrity, reactive oxygen species levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell death (apoptosis and necrosis), and the DNA damage after NP exposure were compared to the effects seen following incubation with paraquat, a known toxicant. The 24-hour inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) of Y2O3 NPs (41 ± 5 nm in size) in the HEK293 cells was found to be 108 μg/mL. Incubation with Y2O3 NPs (12.25-50 μg/mL) increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, caspase-3 expression and promoted apoptotic- and necrotic-mediated cell death in both a concentration and a time-dependent manner. Decreases in cell survivability were associated with elevations in cellular reactive oxygen species levels, increased mitochondrial membrane permeability, and evidence of DNA damage, which were consistent with the possibility that mitochondria impairment may play an important role in the cytotoxic response. These data demonstrate that the Y2O3 NP exposure is associated with increased cellular apoptosis and necrosis in cultured HEK293 cells.

  4. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity caused by yttrium oxide nanoparticles in HEK293 cells

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Vellaisamy; Bodapati, Sravanthi; Murray, Elizabeth; Rice, Kevin M; Winston, Nicole; Shokuhfar, Tolou; Zhao, Yu; Blough, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background The increased use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) has caused new concerns about the potential exposure to biological systems and the potential risk that these materials may pose on human health. Here, we examined the effects of exposure to different concentrations (0–50 μg/mL) and incubation times (10 hours, 24 hours, or 48 hours) of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) NPs on human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Changes in cellular morphology, cell viability, cell membrane integrity, reactive oxygen species levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell death (apoptosis and necrosis), and the DNA damage after NP exposure were compared to the effects seen following incubation with paraquat, a known toxicant. Results The 24-hour inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) of Y2O3 NPs (41±5 nm in size) in the HEK293 cells was found to be 108 μg/mL. Incubation with Y2O3 NPs (12.25–50 μg/mL) increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, caspase-3 expression and promoted apoptotic- and necrotic-mediated cell death in both a concentration and a time-dependent manner. Decreases in cell survivability were associated with elevations in cellular reactive oxygen species levels, increased mitochondrial membrane permeability, and evidence of DNA damage, which were consistent with the possibility that mitochondria impairment may play an important role in the cytotoxic response. Conclusion These data demonstrate that the Y2O3 NP exposure is associated with increased cellular apoptosis and necrosis in cultured HEK293 cells. PMID:24648735

  5. HEK293T Cells Are Heterozygous for CCR5 Delta 32 Mutation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chunxia; Jia, Xiaopeng; Lu, Lingling; Ma, Ping; Wei, Min

    2016-01-01

    C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a receptor for chemokines and a co-receptor for HIV-1 entry into the target CD4+ cells. CCR5 delta 32 deletion is a loss-of-function mutation, resistant to HIV-1 infection. We tried to induce the CCR5 delta 32 mutation harnessing the genome editing technique, CRISPR-Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, CRISPR and CRISPR associated protein 9, Cas9) in the commonly used cell line human embryonic kidney HEK 293T cells. Surprisingly, we found that HEK293T cells are heterozygous for CCR5 delta 32 mutation, in contrast to the wild type CCR5 cells, human acute T cell leukemia cell line Jurkat and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 cells. This finding indicates that at least one human cell line is heterozygous for the CCR5 delta 32 mutation. We also found that in PCR amplification, wild type CCR5 DNA and mutant delta 32 DNA can form mismatched heteroduplex and move slowly in gel electrophoresis.

  6. HEK293T Cells Are Heterozygous for CCR5 Delta 32 Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Chunxia; Jia, Xiaopeng; Lu, Lingling; Ma, Ping; Wei, Min

    2016-01-01

    C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a receptor for chemokines and a co-receptor for HIV-1 entry into the target CD4+ cells. CCR5 delta 32 deletion is a loss-of-function mutation, resistant to HIV-1 infection. We tried to induce the CCR5 delta 32 mutation harnessing the genome editing technique, CRISPR-Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, CRISPR and CRISPR associated protein 9, Cas9) in the commonly used cell line human embryonic kidney HEK 293T cells. Surprisingly, we found that HEK293T cells are heterozygous for CCR5 delta 32 mutation, in contrast to the wild type CCR5 cells, human acute T cell leukemia cell line Jurkat and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 cells. This finding indicates that at least one human cell line is heterozygous for the CCR5 delta 32 mutation. We also found that in PCR amplification, wild type CCR5 DNA and mutant delta 32 DNA can form mismatched heteroduplex and move slowly in gel electrophoresis. PMID:27042825

  7. A Guide to Transient Expression of Membrane Proteins in HEK-293 Cells for Functional Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Amanda; Wong, Aloysius; Esau, Luke; Lemtiri-Chlieh, Fouad; Gehring, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells are commonly used as host for the heterologous expression of membrane proteins not least because they have a high transfection efficiency and faithfully translate and process proteins. In addition, their cell size, morphology and division rate, and low expression of native channels are traits that are particularly attractive for current-voltage measurements. Nevertheless, the heterologous expression of complex membrane proteins such as receptors and ion channels for biological characterization and in particular for single-cell applications such as electrophysiology remains a challenge. Expression of functional proteins depends largely on careful step-by-step optimization that includes the design of expression vectors with suitable identification tags, as well as the selection of transfection methods and detection parameters appropriate for the application. Here, we use the heterologous expression of a plant potassium channel, the Arabidopsis thaliana guard cell outward-rectifying K+ channel, AtGORK (At5G37500) in HEK-293 cells as an example, to evaluate commonly used transfection reagents and fluorescent detection methods, and provide a detailed methodology for optimized transient transfection and expression of membrane proteins for in vivo studies in general and for single-cell applications in particular. This optimized protocol will facilitate the physiological and cellular characterization of complex membrane proteins. PMID:27486406

  8. A Guide to Transient Expression of Membrane Proteins in HEK-293 Cells for Functional Characterization.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Amanda; Wong, Aloysius; Esau, Luke; Lemtiri-Chlieh, Fouad; Gehring, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells are commonly used as host for the heterologous expression of membrane proteins not least because they have a high transfection efficiency and faithfully translate and process proteins. In addition, their cell size, morphology and division rate, and low expression of native channels are traits that are particularly attractive for current-voltage measurements. Nevertheless, the heterologous expression of complex membrane proteins such as receptors and ion channels for biological characterization and in particular for single-cell applications such as electrophysiology remains a challenge. Expression of functional proteins depends largely on careful step-by-step optimization that includes the design of expression vectors with suitable identification tags, as well as the selection of transfection methods and detection parameters appropriate for the application. Here, we use the heterologous expression of a plant potassium channel, the Arabidopsis thaliana guard cell outward-rectifying K(+) channel, AtGORK (At5G37500) in HEK-293 cells as an example, to evaluate commonly used transfection reagents and fluorescent detection methods, and provide a detailed methodology for optimized transient transfection and expression of membrane proteins for in vivo studies in general and for single-cell applications in particular. This optimized protocol will facilitate the physiological and cellular characterization of complex membrane proteins.

  9. High level transient production of recombinant antibodies and antibody fusion proteins in HEK293 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The demand of monospecific high affinity binding reagents, particularly monoclonal antibodies, has been steadily increasing over the last years. Enhanced throughput of antibody generation has been addressed by optimizing in vitro selection using phage display which moved the major bottleneck to the production and purification of recombinant antibodies in an end-user friendly format. Single chain (sc)Fv antibody fragments require additional tags for detection and are not as suitable as immunoglobulins (Ig)G in many immunoassays. In contrast, the bivalent scFv-Fc antibody format shares many properties with IgG and has a very high application compatibility. Results In this study transient expression of scFv-Fc antibodies in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells was optimized. Production levels of 10-20 mg/L scFv-Fc antibody were achieved in adherent HEK293T cells. Employment of HEK293-6E suspension cells expressing a truncated variant of the Epstein Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen (EBNA) 1 in combination with production under serum free conditions increased the volumetric yield up to 10-fold to more than 140 mg/L scFv-Fc antibody. After vector optimization and process optimization the yield of an scFv-Fc antibody and a cytotoxic antibody-RNase fusion protein further increased 3-4-fold to more than 450 mg/L. Finally, an entirely new mammalian expression vector was constructed for single step in frame cloning of scFv genes from antibody phage display libraries. Transient expression of more than 20 different scFv-Fc antibodies resulted in volumetric yields of up to 600 mg/L and 400 mg/L in average. Conclusion Transient production of recombinant scFv-Fc antibodies in HEK293-6E in combination with optimized vectors and fed batch shake flasks cultivation is efficient and robust, and integrates well into a high-throughput recombinant antibody generation pipeline. PMID:23802841

  10. The effect of five artificial sweeteners on Caco-2, HT-29 and HEK-293 cells.

    PubMed

    van Eyk, Armorel Diane

    2015-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners (AS) have been associated with tumor development (including colon cancer) in both animals and humans although evidence has been conflicting. Additional research was thus conducted by studying the effects of 5 AS on the morphology, cell proliferation and DNA in cells by utilizing Caco-2, HT-29 (colon) and HEK-293 (kidney) cell lines. Cells were exposed to sodium cyclamate, sodium saccharin, sucralose and acesulfame-K (0-50 mM) and aspartame (0-35 mM) over 24, 48 and 72 hours. Morphological changes were presented photographically and % cell viability was determined by using the MTT cell viability assay. Possible DNA damage (comet assay) induced by the AS (0.1, 1 and 10 mM, treated for 24, 48 and 72 hours) was studied. The appearance of "comets" was scored from no damage to severe damage (0-4). Cells became flatter and less well defined at higher AS concentrations (>10 mM). At concentrations >10 mM, decreased cell viability was noted with both increasing concentration and increasing incubation time for all cell lines tested. In general, HEK-293 cells seemed to be less affected then the colon cancer cells. Sucralose and sodium saccharin seemed to elicit the greatest degree of DNA fragmentation of all the sweeteners tested in all the cell lines used. Morphological cell alterations, cell viability and DNA fragmentation seemed to be more in the colon cancer cells. Further studies have to be performed to clarify mechanisms involved causing these alterations in mammalian cells.

  11. Room-temperature, atmospheric plasma needle reduces adenovirus gene expression in HEK 293A host cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Z.; Lu, X.; Cao, Y.; Ning, Q.; Ostrikov, K.; Lu, Y.; Zhou, X.; Liu, J.

    2011-12-01

    Room-temperature, atmospheric-pressure plasma needle treatment is used to effectively minimize the adenovirus (AdV) infectivity as quantified by the dramatic reduction of its gene expression in HEK 293A primary human embryonic kidney cells studied by green fluorescent protein imaging. The AdV titer is reduced by two orders of magnitude within only 8 min of the plasma exposure. This effect is due to longer lifetimes and higher interaction efficacy of the plasma-generated reactive species in confined space exposed to the plasma rather than thermal effects commonly utilized in pathogen inactivation. This generic approach is promising for the next-generation anti-viral treatments and imunotherapies.

  12. A Multi-Omics Analysis of Recombinant Protein Production in Hek293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dietmair, Stefanie; Hodson, Mark P.; Quek, Lake-Ee; Timmins, Nicholas E.; Gray, Peter; Nielsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    Hek293 cells are the predominant hosts for transient expression of recombinant proteins and are used for stable expression of proteins where post-translational modifications performed by CHO cells are inadequate. Nevertheless, there is little information available on the key cellular features underpinning recombinant protein production in Hek293 cells. To improve our understanding of recombinant protein production in Hek293 cells and identify targets for the engineering of an improved host cell line, we have compared a stable, recombinant protein producing Hek293 cell line and its parental cell line using a combination of transcriptomics, metabolomics and fluxomics. Producer cultures consumed less glucose than non-producer cultures while achieving the same growth rate, despite the additional burden of recombinant protein production. Surprisingly, there was no indication that producer cultures compensated for the reduction in glycolytic energy by increasing the efficiency of glucose utilization or increasing glutamine consumption. In contrast, glutamine consumption was lower and the majority of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation were downregulated in producer cultures. We observed an overall downregulation of a large number of genes associated with broad cellular functions (e.g., cell growth and proliferation) in producer cultures, and therefore speculate that a broad adaptation of the cellular network freed up resources for recombinant protein production while maintaining the same growth rate. Increased abundance of genes associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress indicated a possible bottleneck at the point of protein folding and assembly. PMID:22937046

  13. HEK293 cell culture media study towards bioprocess optimization: Animal derived component free and animal derived component containing platforms.

    PubMed

    Liste-Calleja, Leticia; Lecina, Martí; Cairó, Jordi Joan

    2014-04-01

    The increasing demand for biopharmaceuticals produced in mammalian cells has lead industries to enhance bioprocess volumetric productivity through different strategies. Among those strategies, cell culture media development is of major interest. In the present work, several commercially available culture media for Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK293) were evaluated in terms of maximal specific growth rate and maximal viable cell concentration supported. The main objective was to provide different cell culture platforms which are suitable for a wide range of applications depending on the type and the final use of the product obtained. Performing simple media supplementations with and without animal derived components, an enhancement of cell concentration from 2 × 10(6) cell/mL to 17 × 10(6) cell/mL was achieved in batch mode operation. Additionally, the media were evaluated for adenovirus production as a specific application case of HEK293 cells. None of the supplements interfered significantly with the adenovirus infection although some differences were encountered in viral productivity. To the best of our knowledge, the high cell density achieved in the work presented has never been reported before in HEK293 batch cell cultures and thus, our results are greatly promising to further study cell culture strategies in bioreactor towards bioprocess optimization. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid bioreduction of trivalent aurum using banana stem powder and its cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HEK-293 cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunkumar, Pichaimani; Vedagiri, Hemamalini; Premkumar, Kumpati

    2013-03-01

    Bioreduction of metal ions for the synthesis of nanoparticles of well-defined shape and size has been a great challenge in the field of nanotechnology. In this study, we explored the reduction potential of banana stem powder (BSP) for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNP). The kinetics of GNP synthesis was monitored using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The synthesized GNP was characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the cytotoxic potential of the synthesized GNP was investigated using human breast cancer (MCF-7) and normal human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cell lines, as evaluated by changes in cell morphology, cell viability (MTT), and metabolic activity. BSP exhibited a strong reduction of Au(III) to Au (0) at room temperature within 5 min of reaction time. The synthesized GNP was found to be spherical with an average diameter of 30 nm by DLS analysis. The cytotoxicity analysis reveals a direct dose-response relationship, indicating that the cytotoxicity increases with increasing concentrations of the GNP. Significant cytotoxicity was observed in cancer cells (MCF-7) compared to normal cells (HEK-293). Also the cellular uptake of GNP was more pronounced in MCF-7 cells than HEK-293 cells as evidenced by zeta potential, implicating the possible reason for differential cytotoxicity. Thus the present study demonstrates the importance of these unique, less time-consuming, and stable BSP-mediated GNP as potential drug delivery vehicles in the application of anticancer therapy.

  15. TCS2 Increases Olaquindox-Induced Apoptosis by Upregulation of ROS Production and Downregulation of Autophagy in HEK293 Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Daowen; Zhao, Kena; Yang, Xiayun; Xiao, Xilong; Tang, Shusheng

    2017-04-07

    Olaquindox, a feed additive, has drawn public attention due to its potential mutagenicity, genotoxicity, hepatoxicity and nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC2) pathways in olaquindox-induced autophagy in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. The results revealed that olaquindox treatment reduced the cell viability of HEK293 cells and downregulated the expression of TSC2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, olaquindox treatment markedly induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cascaded to autophagy, oxidative stress, and apoptotic cell death, which was effectively eliminated by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Furthermore, overexpression of TSC2 attenuated olaquindox-induced autophagy in contrast to inducing the production of ROS, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Consistently, knockdown of TSC2 upregulated autophagy, and decreased olaquindox-induced cell apoptosis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that TSC2 partly participates in olaquindox-induced autophagy, oxidative stress and apoptosis, and demonstrate that TSC2 has a negative regulation role in olaquindox-induced autophagy in HEK293 cells.

  16. Relief of Oxidative Stress Using Curcumin and Glutathione Functionalized ZnO Nanoparticles in HEK-293 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Zafaryab, Md; Umar, Ahmad; Rizvi, M M A; Fouad, H; Ansari, Z A; Ansari, S G

    2015-11-01

    To elucidate the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) with different surface modifications in relieving the oxidative stress in cultured human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) following investigation was performed. Oxidative stress was artificially induced by hydrogen peroxide in HEK-293 cell culture and its management was studied. Alkyl amines modified ZnO-NPs with curcumin and reduced glutathione (GSH) functionalization was used in managing oxidative stress and had shown promising results. ZnO-NPs used in this study were synthesized via non-aqueous sol-gel method and FESEM characterisation showed them of spherical shape of about 20-50 nm size with amine, curcumin and GSH functionalization. UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopic characterizations confirmed functionalization of ZnO-NPs. Decrease in oxidative stress was found with the dose-dependent culture of HEK-293 cells with these functionalized ZnO-NPs. Cell viability and morphology, as observed using AFM and inverted microscope, was retained with the prescribed dosages of the functionalized nanoparticles while at higher dosages they caused cytotoxicity and death. Diethylamine (DEA) modified ZnO-NPs and their functionalization with GSH and curcumin were found more effective in managing oxidative stress in cells. Present study could help in designing economical and bio-compatible functionalized non-toxic nanoparticles designed for managing oxidative stress leading to possible therapeutical and medicinal uses.

  17. HIV's Nef interacts with β-catenin of the Wnt signaling pathway in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Keren; Barton, Meredith; Gershoony, Dafna; Dasgupta, Ramanuj; Cardozo, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is implicated in major physiologic cellular functions, such as proliferation, migration, cell fate specification, maintenance of pluripotency and induction of tumorigenicity. Proliferation and migration are important responses of T-cells, which are major cellular targets of HIV infection. Using an informatics screen, we identified a previously unsuspected interaction between HIV's Nef protein and β-catenin, a key component of the Wnt pathway. A segment in Nef contains identical amino acids at key positions and structurally mimics the β-catenin binding sites on endogenous β-catenin ligands. The interaction between Nef and β-catenin was confirmed in vitro and in a co-immunoprecipitation from HEK293 cells. Moreover, the introduction of Nef into HEK293 cells specifically inhibited a Wnt pathway reporter.

  18. Enhancing Protein Expression in HEK-293 Cells by Lowering Culture Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chi-Yen; Huang, Zhen; Wen, Wei; Wu, Andrew; Wang, Congzhou; Niu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Animal cells and cell lines, such as HEK-293 cells, are commonly cultured at 37°C. These cells are often used to express recombinant proteins. Having a higher expression level or a higher protein yield is generally desirable. As we demonstrate in this study, dropping culture temperature to 33°C, but not lower, 24 hours after transient transfection in HEK-293S cells will give rise to ~1.5-fold higher expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. By following the time course of the GFP-expressing cells growing at 37°C and 33°C from 24 hours after transfection (including 19 hours recovery at 37°C in the normal growth medium), we found that a mild hypothermia (i.e., 33°C) reduces the growth rate of HEK-293S cells, while increasing cellular productivity of recombinant proteins. As a result, green cells remain undivided in a longer period of time. Not surprisingly, the property of a recombinant protein expressed in the cells grown at 33°C is unaffected, as shown by the use of AMPA receptors. We further demonstrate with the use of PC12 cells that this method may be especially useful when a recombinant protein is difficult to express using a chemical-based, transient transfection method. PMID:25893827

  19. Cholesterol Down-Regulates BK Channels Stably Expressed in HEK 293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiu-Ling; Sun, Hai-Ying; Li, Gui-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol is one of the major lipid components of the plasma membrane in mammalian cells and is involved in the regulation of a number of ion channels. The present study investigates how large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels are regulated by membrane cholesterol in BK-HEK 293 cells expressing both the α-subunit hKCa1.1 and the auxiliary β1-subunit or in hKCa1.1-HEK 293 cells expressing only the α-subunit hKCa1.1 using approaches of electrophysiology, molecular biology, and immunocytochemistry. Membrane cholesterol was depleted in these cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), and enriched with cholesterol-saturated MβCD (MβCD-cholesterol) or low-density lipoprotein (LDL). We found that BK current density was decreased by cholesterol enrichment in BK-HEK 293 cells, with a reduced expression of KCa1.1 protein, but not the β1-subunit protein. This effect was fully countered by the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin or the lysosome function inhibitor bafilomycin A1. Interestingly, in hKCa1.1-HEK 293 cells, the current density was not affected by cholesterol enrichment, but directly decreased by MβCD, suggesting that the down-regulation of BK channels by cholesterol depends on the auxiliary β1-subunit. The reduced KCa1.1 channel protein expression was also observed in cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells with cholesterol enrichment using MβCD-cholesterol or LDL. These results demonstrate the novel information that cholesterol down-regulates BK channels by reducing KCa1.1 protein expression via increasing the channel protein degradation, and the effect is dependent on the auxiliary β1-subunit. PMID:24260325

  20. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals a Signature Profile for Tick-Borne Flavivirus Persistence in HEK 293T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Jennifer; Offerdahl, Danielle K.; Martens, Craig; Sturdevant, Daniel; Turner, Charles V.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Bloom, Marshall E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs) cause febrile illnesses, which may progress to severe encephalitis and/or death in humans globally. Most people who recover from severe acute disease suffer from debilitating neurological sequelae, which may be due to viral persistence, infection-induced neurological cell damage, host response, or some combination of these. Acute TBFV infection of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells in vitro results in the death of >95% of infected cells by day 5. However, replacing cell growth medium allows surviving cells to repopulate and become persistently infected for extended periods of time. The mechanisms responsible for initiation and maintenance of viral persistence remain vague. We subjected the HEK 293T cell transcriptome to deep sequencing to identify genes differentially expressed during acute infection and persistent infection. A total of 451 genes showed unique significant differential expression levels in persistently infected cells relative to the acute phase of infection. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis results suggested that the expression of prosurvival oncogenes AKT2 and ERBB2 was upregulated in persistently infected cells, whereas proapoptotic genes, such as Bad and the beta interferon 1 (IFN-β1) gene, were downregulated. Genes encoding antiviral cytokines such as the CCL5, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and CXCL10 genes were upregulated during the acute phase, but the same genes were relatively quiescent in persistently infected cells. Exogenous induction of apoptosis demonstrated that persistently infected cells were resistant to apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, the differential transcriptome profiles of acute-phase compared to persistently infected HEK 293T cells demonstrated an evasion of apoptosis, which may be critical for a chronic TBFV infection state. These results provide a basis for further study of the mechanisms of TBFV persistence. PMID:27222466

  1. Mitofusin-2 protects against cold stress-induced cell injury in HEK293 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wenbin; Chen, Yaomin; Yang, Qun; Che, Honglei; Chen, Xiangjun; Yao, Ting; Zhao, Fang; Liu, Mingchao; Ke, Tao; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

    2010-06-25

    Mitochondrial impairment is hypothesized to contribute to cell injury during cold stress. Mitochondria fission and fusion are closely related in the function of the mitochondria, but the precise mechanisms whereby these processes regulate cell injury during cold stress remain to be determined. HEK293 cells were cultured in a cold environment (4.0 {+-} 0.1 {sup o}C) for 2, 4, 8, or 12 h. Western blot analyses showed that these cells expressed decreased fission-related protein Drp1 and increased fusion-related protein Mfn2 at 4 h; meanwhile, electron microscopy analysis revealed large and long mitochondrial morphology within these cells, indicating increased mitochondrial fusion. With silencing of Mfn2 but not of Mfn1 by siRNA promoted cold-stress-induced cell death with decreased ATP production in HEK293 cells. Our results show that increased expression of Mfn2 and mitochondrial fusion are important for mitochondrial function as well as cell survival during cold stress. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of mitochondrial fusion and fission in cold-stress-induced cell injury.

  2. Mitofusin-2 protects against cold stress-induced cell injury in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenbin; Chen, Yaomin; Yang, Qun; Che, Honglei; Chen, Xiangjun; Yao, Ting; Zhao, Fang; Liu, Mingchao; Ke, Tao; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

    2010-06-25

    Mitochondrial impairment is hypothesized to contribute to cell injury during cold stress. Mitochondria fission and fusion are closely related in the function of the mitochondria, but the precise mechanisms whereby these processes regulate cell injury during cold stress remain to be determined. HEK293 cells were cultured in a cold environment (4.0+/-0.1 degrees C) for 2, 4, 8, or 12h. Western blot analyses showed that these cells expressed decreased fission-related protein Drp1 and increased fusion-related protein Mfn2 at 4h; meanwhile, electron microscopy analysis revealed large and long mitochondrial morphology within these cells, indicating increased mitochondrial fusion. With silencing of Mfn2 but not of Mfn1 by siRNA promoted cold-stress-induced cell death with decreased ATP production in HEK293 cells. Our results show that increased expression of Mfn2 and mitochondrial fusion are important for mitochondrial function as well as cell survival during cold stress. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of mitochondrial fusion and fission in cold-stress-induced cell injury.

  3. Proteasome Inhibitors Alter Levels of Intracellular Peptides in HEK293T and SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Sayani; Castro, Leandro M.; Dulman, Russell; Yang, Ciyu; Schmidt, Marion; Ferro, Emer S.; Fricker, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    The proteasome cleaves intracellular proteins into peptides. Earlier studies found that treatment of human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells with epoxomicin (an irreversible proteasome inhibitor) generally caused a decrease in levels of intracellular peptides. However, bortezomib (an antitumor drug and proteasome inhibitor) caused an unexpected increase in the levels of most intracellular peptides in HEK293T and SH-SY5Y cells. To address this apparent paradox, quantitative peptidomics was used to study the effect of a variety of other proteasome inhibitors on peptide levels in HEK293T and SH-SY5Y cells. Inhibitors tested included carfilzomib, MG132, MG262, MLN2238, AM114, and clasto-Lactacystin β-lactone. Only MG262 caused a substantial elevation in peptide levels that was comparable to the effect of bortezomib, although carfilzomib and MLN2238 elevated the levels of some peptides. To explore off-target effects, the proteosome inhibitors were tested with various cellular peptidases. Bortezomib did not inhibit tripeptidyl peptidase 2 and only weakly inhibited cellular aminopeptidase activity, as did some of the other proteasome inhibitors. However, potent inhibitors of tripeptidyl peptidase 2 (butabindide) and cellular aminopeptidases (bestatin) did not substantially alter the peptidome, indicating that the increase in peptide levels due to proteasome inhibitors is not a result of peptidase inhibition. Although we cannot exclude other possibilities, we presume that the paradoxical increase in peptide levels upon treatment with bortezomib and other inhibitors is the result of allosteric effects of these compounds on the proteasome. Because intracellular peptides are likely to be functional, it is possible that some of the physiologic effects of bortezomib and carfilzomib arise from the perturbation of peptide levels inside the cell. PMID:25079948

  4. Expression of SEAP (secreted alkaline phosphatase) by baculovirus mediated transduction of HEK 293 cells in a hollow fiber bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Jardin, B A; Zhao, Y; Selvaraj, M; Montes, J; Tran, R; Prakash, S; Elias, C B

    2008-06-30

    A BacMam baculovirus was designed in our laboratory to express the reporter protein secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) driven by the immediate early promoter of human cytomegalovirus promoter (CMV). In vitro tests have been carried out using this recombinant baculovirus to study the secreted protein in two cell lines and under various culture conditions. The transductions were carried out on two commonly used mammalian cell lines namely the human embryonic kidney (HEK 293A) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1). Initial studies clearly demonstrated that the transient expression of SEAP was at least 10-fold higher in the HEK 293 cells than the CHO cells under equivalent experimental conditions. Factorial design experiments were done to study the effect of different parameters such as cell density, MOI, and the histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A concentration. The multiplicity of infection (MOI) and the cell density were found to have the most impact on the process. The enhancer trichostatin A also showed some positive effect. The production of secreted protein in a batch reactor was studied using the Wave disposable bioreactor system. A semi-continuous perfusion process was developed to extend the period of gene expression in mammalian cells using a hollow fiber bioreactor system (HFBR). The growth of cells and viability in both systems was monitored by offline analyses of metabolites. The expression of recombinant protein could be maintained over an extended period of time up to 30 days in the HFBR.

  5. Real-time monitoring of influenza virus production kinetics in HEK293 cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Emma, Petiot; Kamen, Amine

    2013-01-01

    There is an increased interest from the vaccine industry to use mammalian cell cultures for influenza vaccine manufacturing. Therefore, it became important to study the influenza infection mechanism, the viral-host interaction, and the replication kinetics from a bioprocessing stand point to maximize the influenza viral production yield in cell culture. In the present work, influenza replication kinetics was studied in HEK293 cells. Two infection conditions were evaluated, a low (0.01) and a high multiplicity of infection (1.0). Critical time points of the viral production cycle (infection, protein synthesis, viral assembly and budding, viral release, and host-cell death) were identified in small-scale cell cultures. Additionally, cell growth, viability, and viral titers were monitored in the viral production process. The infection state of the cultivated cell population was assessed by influenza immunolabeling throughout the culture period. Influenza virus production kinetics were also on-line monitored by dielectric spectroscopy and successfully correlated to real-time capacitance measures. Overall, this work provided insights into the mechanisms associated with the infection of human HEK293 cell line by the influenza virus and demonstrated, once again, the usefulness of multifrequency scanning permittivity for in-line monitoring and supervision of cell-based viral production processes. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  6. Crocin and Quercetin protect HCT116 and HEK293 cells from Zearalenone-induced apoptosis by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Intidhar; Prola, Alexandre; Boussabbeh, Manel; Guilbert, Arnaud; Bacha, Hassen; Abid-Essefi, Salwa; Lemaire, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    Mycotoxins are considered to be significant contaminants of food and animal feed. Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium in cereals and agricultural products. ZEN has been shown to be cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic in different cell types. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in ZEN-mediated toxicity in human intestine (HCT116) and kidney (HEK293) cells and evaluated the effects of the two common dietary compounds Quercetin (QUER) and Crocin (CRO). We show that ZEN treatment induces ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) as evidenced by XBP1 mRNA splicing and upregulation of GRP78, ATF4, GADD34, PDIA6, and CHOP. Activation of the ER stress response is associated with activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. This apoptotic process is characterized by an increase in ROS generation and lipid peroxidation, a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), and an activation of caspases and DNA damages. We also demonstrate that the antioxidant properties of QUER and CRO help to prevent ER stress and reduce ZEN-induced apoptosis in HCT116 and HEK293 cells. Our results suggest that antioxidant molecule might be helpful to prevent ZEN-induced ER stress and toxicity.

  7. Functional Differences between Mitochondrial Haplogroup T and Haplogroup H in HEK293 Cybrid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Edith E.; Brunner, Susanne M.; Mayr, Johannes A.; Stanger, Olaf; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological case-control studies have revealed associations between mitochondrial haplogroups and the onset and/or progression of various multifactorial diseases. For instance, mitochondrial haplogroup T was previously shown to be associated with vascular diseases, including coronary artery disease and diabetic retinopathy. In contrast, haplogroup H, the most frequent haplogroup in Europe, is often found to be more prevalent in healthy control subjects than in patient study groups. However, justifications for the assumption that haplogroups are functionally distinct are rare. Therefore, we attempted to compare differences in mitochondrial function between haplogroup H and T cybrids. Methodology/Principal Findings Mitochondrial haplogroup H and T cybrids were generated by fusion of HEK293 cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA with isolated thrombocytes of individuals with the respective haplogroups. These cybrid cells were analyzed for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzyme activities, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, growth rate and susceptibility to reactive oxygen species (ROS). We observed that haplogroup T cybrids have higher survival rate when challenged with hydrogen peroxide, indicating a higher capability to cope with oxidative stress. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study show that functional differences exist between HEK293 cybrid cells which differ in mitochondrial genomic background. PMID:23300652

  8. Functional differences between mitochondrial haplogroup T and haplogroup H in HEK293 cybrid cells.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Edith E; Brunner, Susanne M; Mayr, Johannes A; Stanger, Olaf; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological case-control studies have revealed associations between mitochondrial haplogroups and the onset and/or progression of various multifactorial diseases. For instance, mitochondrial haplogroup T was previously shown to be associated with vascular diseases, including coronary artery disease and diabetic retinopathy. In contrast, haplogroup H, the most frequent haplogroup in Europe, is often found to be more prevalent in healthy control subjects than in patient study groups. However, justifications for the assumption that haplogroups are functionally distinct are rare. Therefore, we attempted to compare differences in mitochondrial function between haplogroup H and T cybrids. Mitochondrial haplogroup H and T cybrids were generated by fusion of HEK293 cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA with isolated thrombocytes of individuals with the respective haplogroups. These cybrid cells were analyzed for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzyme activities, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, growth rate and susceptibility to reactive oxygen species (ROS). We observed that haplogroup T cybrids have higher survival rate when challenged with hydrogen peroxide, indicating a higher capability to cope with oxidative stress. The results of this study show that functional differences exist between HEK293 cybrid cells which differ in mitochondrial genomic background.

  9. Splicing of scorpion toxin gene BmKK2 in HEK 293T cells.

    PubMed

    Zhijian, Cao; Chao, Dai; Shijin, Yin; Yingliang, Wu; Jiqun, Sheng; Yonggang, Sha; Wenxin, Li

    2006-01-01

    Using GFP as a reporter gene, splicing of scorpion toxin gene BmKK2 was investigated in cultured HEK 293T cells. The results of RT-PCR and western blotting showed that BmKK2's intron could be recognized and spliced in cultured HEK 293T cells. At the same time, a cryptic splicing site of BmKK2 gene was found at the 91st nucleotide site of the second exon, which is a typical form of alternative splicing. For the first time, alternative splicing would partially explain the diversity of scorpion toxins at the gene level. Moreover, replacing BmKK2's intron with BmP03's intron (an artificial BmKK2-BmP03 mosaic gene) did not affect the intron's recognition and splicing, but increased the expression of the toxin-GFP fusion protein by fluorescence imaging, which indicated that both introns may regulate the expression of toxin-GFP fusion protein. The artificial BmKK2-BmP03 mosaic gene was also spliced into two kinds of mRNA molecules, which showed that sequence of intron was not absolutely conserved. The results suggested that introns of scorpion toxin genes BmKK2 and BmP03 increase the diversity of scorpion toxins and regulate the expression of their genes. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Interleukin-3 Prevents Cellular Death Induced by Oxidative Stress in HEK293 Cells.

    PubMed

    López, Camila; Zamorano, Patricia; Teuber, Stefanie; Salas, Mónica; Otth, Carola; Hidalgo, María A; Concha, Ilona; Zambrano, Angara

    2017-06-01

    Interleukin-3 (IL-3) is a well-characterized growth factor in hematopoietic cells, but it is also expressed in other cell types with poorly described functions. Many studies have provided evidence that IL-3 plays an important role in cell survival. We have previously shown that IL-3 is able to increase glucose uptake in HEK293 cells, suggesting that this factor requires sustained glucose metabolism to promote cell survival. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-3 contributes to cell survival under oxidative stress, a prominent feature in the pathophysiology of cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as in the aging process. Our results suggest a molecular mechanism that involves signaling pathways mediated by PI-3k/Akt and Erk. Altogether, these findings show an important role for IL-3 in supporting the viability of non-hematopoietic systems. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1330-1340, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Co-transfection and tandem transfection of HEK293A cells for overexpression and RNAi experiments.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhen-Li; Shao, Shu-Li; Lv, Jian-Wei; Wang, Chang-He; Yuan, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Xu, Xing-Jun

    2011-03-01

    pIRES2-EGFP was employed and a non-target shRNA expressing plasmid was constructed to simulate overexpression and RNAi (RNA interference) experiments. Transfection of pIRES2-EGFP into HEK293A cells by cationic lipids VigoFect demonstrated that transfection efficiency increased in a dose-dependent manner with amount of DNA plasmid used, and optimal transfection time and cell density should be identified to reach a compromise of higher transfection efficiency and lower toxicity. Co-transfection experiments indicated that the two co-transfected plasmids were equivalently delivered into the same cells, and the co-transfection efficiency was rarely affected by cell density and proportion of the two plasmids. However, plasmid-receipted cells seemed indisposed to accept plasmid again during the second transfection, and very low co-transfection efficiency was observed in tandem transfection.

  12. Human respiratory syncytial virus N, P and M protein interactions in HEK-293T cells.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andressa P; Simabuco, Fernando M; Tamura, Rodrigo E; Guerrero, Manuel C; Ribeiro, Paulo G G; Libermann, Towia A; Zerbini, Luiz F; Ventura, Armando M

    2013-10-01

    Characterization of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV) protein interactions with host cell components is crucial to devise antiviral strategies. Viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein and matrix protein genes were optimized for human codon usage and cloned into expression vectors. HEK-293T cells were transfected with these vectors, viral proteins were immunoprecipitated, and co-immunoprecipitated cellular proteins were identified through mass spectrometry. Cell proteins identified with higher confidence scores were probed in the immunoprecipitation using specific antibodies. The results indicate that nucleoprotein interacts with arginine methyl-transferase, methylosome protein and Hsp70. Phosphoprotein interacts with Hsp70 and tropomysin, and matrix with tropomysin and nucleophosmin. Additionally, we performed immunoprecipitation of these cellular proteins in cells infected with HRSV, followed by detection of co-immunoprecipitated viral proteins. The results indicate that these interactions also occur in the context of viral infection, and their potential contribution for a HRSV replication model is discussed.

  13. Stable high volumetric production of glycosylated human recombinant IFNalpha2b in HEK293 cells

    PubMed Central

    Loignon, Martin; Perret, Sylvie; Kelly, John; Boulais, Denise; Cass, Brian; Bisson, Louis; Afkhamizarreh, Fatemeh; Durocher, Yves

    2008-01-01

    Background Mammalian cells are becoming the prevailing expression system for the production of recombinant proteins because of their capacity for proper protein folding, assembly, and post-translational modifications. These systems currently allow high volumetric production of monoclonal recombinant antibodies in the range of grams per litre. However their use for large-scale expression of cytokines typically results in much lower volumetric productivity. Results We have engineered a HEK293 cell clone for high level production of human recombinant glycosylated IFNα2b and developed a rapid and efficient method for its purification. This clone steadily produces more than 200 mg (up to 333 mg) of human recombinant IFNα2b per liter of serum-free culture, which can be purified by a single-step cation-exchange chromatography following media acidification and clarification. This rapid procedure yields 98% pure IFNα2b with a recovery greater than 70%. Purified IFNα2b migrates on SDS-PAGE as two species, a major 21 kDa band and a minor 19 kDa band. N-terminal sequences of both forms are identical and correspond to the expected mature protein. Purified IFNα2b elutes at neutral pH as a single peak with an apparent molecular weight of 44,000 Da as determined by size-exclusion chromatography. The presence of intramolecular and absence of intermolecular disulfide bridges is evidenced by the fact that non-reduced IFNα2b has a greater electrophoretic mobility than the reduced form. Treatment of purified IFNα2b with neuraminidase followed by O-glycosidase both increases electrophoretic mobility, indicating the presence of sialylated O-linked glycan. A detailed analysis of glycosylation by mass spectroscopy identifies disialylated and monosialylated forms as the major constituents of purified IFNα2b. Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) shows that the glycans are linked to the expected threonine at position 106. Other minor glycosylated forms and non-sialylated species are

  14. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Anantachoke, Natthinee; Lomarat, Pattamapan; Praserttirachai, Wasin; Khammanit, Ruksinee

    2016-01-01

    The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla, Averrhoa bilimbi, Malpighia glabra, Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape, Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress. PMID:28074103

  15. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells.

    PubMed

    Anantachoke, Natthinee; Lomarat, Pattamapan; Praserttirachai, Wasin; Khammanit, Ruksinee; Mangmool, Supachoke

    2016-01-01

    The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla, Averrhoa bilimbi, Malpighia glabra, Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape, Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress.

  16. Microarray analysis of altered gene expression in ERbeta-overexpressing HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunyan; Putnik, Milica; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2009-10-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs), ERalpha and ERbeta, mediate estrogen actions in a broad range of target tissues. With the introduction of microarray techniques, a significant understanding has been gained regarding the interplay between the ERalpha and ERbeta in breast cancer cell lines. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of ERbeta-dependent gene regulation independent of ERalpha, we performed microarray analysis on HEK293/mock and HEK293/ERbeta cells. A total of 332 genes was identified as ERbeta-upregulated genes and 210 identified as ERbeta-downregulated genes. ERbeta-induced and ERbeta-repressed genes were involved in cell-cell signaling, morphogenesis, and cell proliferation. The ERbeta repressive effect on genes related to proliferation was further studied by proliferation assays, where ERbeta expression resulted in a significant decrease in cell proliferation. To identify primary ERbeta target genes, we examined a number of ERbeta-regulated genes using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays for regions bound by ERbeta. Our results showed that ERbeta recruitment was significant to regions associated with 12 genes (IL1RAP, TMSB4X, COLEC12, ENPP2, KLRC1, RERG, RGS16, TNNT2, CYR61, FER1L3, FAM108A1, and CYP4X1), suggesting that these genes are likely to be ERbeta primary target genes. This study has provided novel information on the gene regulatory function of ERbeta independent of ERalpha and identified a number of ERbeta primary target genes. The results of Gene Ontology analysis and proliferation assays are consistent with an antiproliferative role of ERbeta independent of ERalpha.

  17. Allitridi Inhibits Multiple Cardiac Potassium Channels Expressed in HEK 293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Hui; Wu, Wei; Chen, Kui-Hao; Liu, Yi; Deng, Chun-Yu; Yu, Xi-Yong; Jin, Man-Wen; Li, Gui-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Allitridi (diallyl trisulfide) is an active compound (volatile oil) from garlic. The previous studies reported that allitridi had anti-arrhythmic effect. The potential ionic mechanisms are, however, not understood. The present study was designed to determine the effects of allitridi on cardiac potassium channels expressed in HEK 293 cells using a whole-cell patch voltage-clamp technique and mutagenesis. It was found that allitridi inhibited hKv4.3 channels (IC50 = 11.4 µM) by binding to the open channel, shifting availability potential to hyperpolarization, and accelerating closed-state inactivation of the channel. The hKv4.3 mutants T366A, T367A, V392A, and I395A showed a reduced response to allitridi with IC50s of 35.5 µM, 44.7 µM, 23.7 µM, and 42.4 µM. In addition, allitridi decreased hKv1.5, hERG, hKCNQ1/hKCNE1 channels stably expressed in HEK 293 cells with IC50s of 40.2 µM, 19.6 µM and 17.7 µM. However, it slightly inhibited hKir2.1 current (100 µM, inhibited by 9.8% at −120 mV). Our results demonstrate for the first time that allitridi preferably blocks hKv4.3 current by binding to the open channel at T366 and T367 of P-loop helix, and at V392 and I395 of S6 domain. It has a weak inhibition of hKv1.5, hERG, and hKCNQ1/hKCNE1 currents. These effects may account for its anti-arrhythmic effect observed in experimental animal models. PMID:23272117

  18. Rapid establishment of a HEK 293 cell line expressing FVIII-BDD using AAV site-specific integration plasmids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomei; Ping, Han; Zhang, Chun

    2014-09-10

    Stable human cell lines have gradually become the preferred system for large scale production of recombinant proteins for clinical applications because of their capacity of proper protein post-translational modification and low immunogenicity. However, human cell line development technologies are commonly based on random genome integration of protein expressing genes. It is required to screen large numbers of cell clones to identify stable high producer cell clones and the cell line development process usually takes 6 to 12 months. Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) Rep protein is known to induce rAAV DNA integration into a specific site (AAVS1) of the human chromosome 19 and integrated transgenes can stably express proteins. We take advantage of this AAV unique feature to develop a rapid protocol to clone a stable recombinant protein expression human cell line. We have constructed two plasmids. One plasmid, pSVAV2, contains the AAV rep gene for the synthesis of integrase; the second plasmid, pTRP5GFPFVIII-BDD, contains B-domain-deleted factor VIII (FVIII-BDD) and GFP gene flanked by AAV ITRs. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells were co-transfected with the two plasmids and the cells were screened by green fluorescence to establish the recombinant FVIII-BDD cell line. PCR analysis showed that the FVIII-BDD gene has been integrated into the AAVS1 site of human chromosome 19. The FVIII-BDD protein secreted into the extracellular media exhibited coagulant activity. We developed a method of rapid establishment of human HEK 293 cell line expressing recombinant FVIII-BDD protein with AAV site-specific integration plasmids.

  19. Effects of ultra-high dilutions of sodium butyrate on viability and gene expression in HEK 293 cells.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Steven

    2017-02-01

    Several recent studies reported the capability of high diluted homeopathic medicines to modulate gene expression in cell cultures. In line with these studies, we examined whether ultra-high dilutions (30C and 200C) of sodium butyrate (SB) can affect the expression levels of genes involved in acquisition of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. Cell viability was evaluated using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The expression levels of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 genes were determined by real-time PCR assay. Exposure to both 30C and 200C during 48 h led to a significant decrease of the level of expression of TNF-α gene, while expression of IL-2 gene was increased when exposed to 30C, and expression of IL-10 gene was decreased when exposed to 200C. No changes in expression levels of all genes studied were observed in cells treated with both 30C and 200C remedies of SB during the 24 h. Observed changes in gene expression levels after exposure to 30C and 200C remedies of SB during 48 h suggest that extremely low concentrations of this agent can modulate the transcriptome of HEK 293 cells. These results are in line with findings from other studies confirming the ability of homeopathic remedies to modulate gene expression in cell cultures. Copyright © 2017 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cellular mechanisms underlying prostaglandin-induced transient cAMP signals near the plasma membrane of HEK-293 cells

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Thomas; Xin, Wenkuan; Mehats, Céline; Hassell, Kathryn; Piggott, Leslie; Le, Xuan; Karpen, Jeffrey; Conti, Marco

    2007-01-01

    We have previously used cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels as sensors to measure cAMP signals in human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells. We found that prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) triggered transient increases in cAMP concentration near the plasma membrane, whereas total cAMP levels rose to a steady plateau over the same time course. In addition, we presented evidence that the decline in the near-membrane cAMP levels was due primarily to a PGE1-induced stimulation of phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity, and that the differences between near-membrane and total cAMP levels were largely due to diffusional barriers and differential PDE activity. Here, we examine the mechanisms regulating transient, near-membrane cAMP signals. We observed that 5-min stimulation of HEK-293 cells with prostaglandins triggered a two- to threefold increase in PDE4 activity. Extracellular application of H89 (a PKA inhibitor) inhibited stimulation of PDE4 activity. Similarly, when we used CNG channels to monitor cAMP signals we found that both extracellular and intracellular (via the whole-cell patch pipette) application of H89, or the highly selective PKA inhibitor, PKI, prevented the decline in prostaglandin-induced responses. Following pretreatment with rolipram (a PDE4 inhibitor), H89 had little or no effect on near-membrane or total cAMP levels. Furthermore, disrupting the subcellular localization of PKA with the A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) disruptor Ht31 prevented the decline in the transient response. Based on these data we developed a plausible kinetic model that describes prostaglandin-induced cAMP signals. This model has allowed us to quantitatively demonstrate the importance of PKA-mediated stimulation of PDE4 activity in shaping near-membrane cAMP signals. PMID:16899551

  1. [Construction of recombinant human nerve growth factor (rh-β-NGF) eukaryotic vector and its expression in HEK293 cells].

    PubMed

    Li, Jingchuan; Xue, Bofu; Yuan, Yuan; Ma, Mo; Zhu, Lin; Milburn, Rebecca; Le, Li; Hu, Peizhen; Ye, Jing

    2015-03-01

    Human nerve growth factor (NGF) is a nerve cell growth regulation factor, which can provide nutrition for the neurons and promote the neurites outgrowth. In order to produce large-scale recombinant human nerve growth factor (rh-beta-NGF), we constructed a plasmid vector, which can stably express the rh-beta-NGF in the HEK293 cell lines. First, the plasmid of pCMV-beta-NGF-IRES-dhfr was constructed and transformed into HEK293 cells. Then MTX pressurized filter and limiting dilution methods were used to obtain monoclonal HEK293 cell lines. After stepwise reducing serum in culture media, the cells eventually adapted to serum-free medium and secreted rh-beta-NGF. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the expression product owned a molecular weight of about 13 kDa and a purity of more than 50%. The peptide mapping sequencing analysis demonstrated the sequences of rh-beta-NGF matched with the theoretical ones. Later we purified this protein by ion exchange and molecular sieve chromatograph. Finally, our experimental results exhibited that the recombinant cell lines can stably express rh-beta-NGF with a high efficiency of more than 20 pg/cell x day. In addition, this protein could successfully induce differentiation of PC12 cells. In summary, our recombinant HEK293 cells can express bio-active rh-beta-NGF with great efficiency and stability, which supply a valid basis to large-scale production of rh-beta-NGF.

  2. Gene expression profiling analysis of bisphenol A-induced perturbation in biological processes in ER-negative HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Rong; Gu, Liang; Li, Min; Jiang, Cizhong; Cao, Tongcheng; Zhang, Xiaobai

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disruptor which has been detected in human bodies. Many studies have implied that BPA exposure is harmful to human health. Previous studies mainly focused on BPA effects on estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cells. Genome-wide impacts of BPA on gene expression in ER-negative cells is unclear. In this study, we performed RNA-seq to characterize BPA-induced cellular and molecular impacts on ER-negative HEK293 cells. The microscopic observation showed that low-dose BPA exposure did not affect cell viability and morphology. Gene expression profiling analysis identified a list of differentially expressed genes in response to BPA exposure in HEK293 cells. These genes were involved in variable important biological processes including ion transport, cysteine metabolic process, apoptosis, DNA damage repair, etc. Notably, BPA up-regulated the expression of ERCC5 encoding a DNA endonuclease for nucleotide-excision repair. Further electrochemical experiment showed that BPA induced significant DNA damage in ER-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ER-negative HEK293 cells. Collectively, our study revealed that ER-negative HEK293 cells employed mechanisms in response to BPA exposure different from ER-positive cells.

  3. Olaquindox induces DNA damage via the lysosomal and mitochondrial pathway involving ROS production and p53 activation in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Jiang, Liping; She, Yan; Chen, Min; Li, Qiujuan; Yang, Guang; Geng, Chengyan; Tang, Liyun; Zhong, Laifu; Jiang, Lijie; Liu, Xiaofang

    2015-11-01

    Olaquindox (OLA) is a potent antibacterial agent used as a feed additive and growth promoter. In this study, the genotoxic potential of OLA was investigated in the human embryonic kidney cell line 293 (HEK293). Results showed that OLA caused significant increases of DNA migration. Lysosomal membrane permeability and mitochondrial membrane potential were reduced after treatment with OLA. OLA was shown to induce ROS production and GSH depletion. The expression of p53 protein is increased in cells incubated with OLA. The activation of p53 and ATM gene was assessed by exposure to OLA. Furthermore, NAC reduced DNA migration, ROS formation, GSH depletion and the expression of the p53 protein and gene. And desipramine significantly decreased AO fluorescence intensity and the expression of the p53 protein and gene. These results support the assumption that OLA exerted genotoxic effects and induced DNA strand breaks in HEK293 cells, possibly through lysosomal-mitochondrial pathway involving ROS production and p53 activation.

  4. N-stearoyl-l-Tyrosine inhibits the cell senescence and apoptosis induced by H2O2 in HEK293/Tau cells via the CB2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue; Zhou, Kai-Yi; Wang, Ze-Jian; Lu, Yang; Yin, Ming

    2017-06-25

    Although considerable energy and money have been spent trying to inhibit Aβ production and its related metabolic enzyme activities, there are still no drug treatments available to cure even slow for Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, tau protein has been focused recently as the new target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells with or without Tau 411 plasmid were used to evaluate the effect of tau protein on cell viability. H2O2 was added to simulate microenvironment of oxidative stress (OS) during aging. N-stearoyl-l-tyrosine (Nstyr), one of the synthesized N-arachidonoylethanolamide analogues was administrated in HEK293/Tau cells during H2O2 insults. Cellular senescence and tau aberrant modification appeared after tau transfection and aggravated by H2O2 insult which detected by β-galactosidase staining analysis and western blotting analysis. The level of expression of Bcl-2 and the result of FCAS analysis indicated the appearance of cellular apoptosis. The expression of prosenescence moleculars such as p16-Rb and P53 were induced by tau transfection in HEK293 cells. Both p16-Rb and p53 senescent molecules were inhibited by Nstyr. AM251 (1 μM; an antagonist of CB1 cannabinoid receptor) or AM630 (1 μM; an antagonist of CB2 cannabinoid receptor) was used to offset the anti-senescence effects afforded by NsTyr. The anti-senescence and anti-apoptosis effect of NsTyr was completely abolished by AM630. Meanwhile, transfection of siRNACB2 was used to further confirm the above experimental results and it came out the similar results compared with AM630. Taken together, our results suggest that oxidative stress aggravates cellular senescence and apoptosis in HEK293/Tau, which can be reversed by Nstyr via CB2 receptor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transient gene expression: recombinant protein production with suspension-adapted HEK293-EBNA cells.

    PubMed

    Meissner, P; Pick, H; Kulangara, A; Chatellard, P; Friedrich, K; Wurm, F M

    2001-10-20

    Transient gene expression (TGE) in mammalian cells at the reactor scale is becoming increasingly important for the rapid production of recombinant proteins. We improved a process for transient calcium phosphate-based transfection of HEK293-EBNA cells in a 1-3 L bioreactor volume. Cells were adapted to suspension culture using a commercially available medium (BioWhittaker, Walkersville, MD). Process parameters were optimized using a plasmid reporter vector encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP/CLONTECH, Palo Alto, CA, USA). Using GFP as a marker-protein, we observed by microscopic examination transfection efficiencies between 70-100%. Three different recombinant proteins were synthesized within a timeframe of 7 days from time of transfection to harvest. The first, a human recombinant IgG(1)-type antibody, was secreted into the supernatant of the cell culture and achieved a final concentration of >20 mg/L. An E. coli-derived DNA-binding protein remained intracellular, as expected, but accumulated to such a concentration that the lysate of cells, taken up into the entire culture volume, gave a concentration of 18 mg/L. The third protein, a transmembrane receptor, was expressed at 3-6 x 10(6) molecules/cell.

  6. Chelerythrine chloride induces apoptosis in renal cancer HEK-293 and SW-839 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Meng; Zhang, Meng; Fan, Peng-Li; Qin, Yu-Hua; Zhao, Hong-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid chelerythrine chloride (CC) has inhibitory effects on various tumors. However, the anticancer activity of CC and its underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated in renal cancer cells. The present study examined the effects of CC on growth inhibition and apoptosis of renal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays revealed that CC markedly suppressed the growth of HEK-293 and human renal cancer SW-839 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The xenograft mouse model, which was performed in nude mice, exhibited a reduced tumor growth following CC treatment. In addition, the present study revealed that CC significantly decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, which was accompanied by upregulation of p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and downregulation of Bcl-2, caspase-3 and PARP. Furthermore, the use of PD98059, a specific mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor, potentiated the proapoptotic effects of CC, which indicated that CC may induce apoptosis in renal cancer cells partly via inhibition of ERK activity. Overall, the results of the present study demonstrated that CC may be developed as a potential anticancer treatment for patients with renal cancer.

  7. Overexpression of amyloid precursor protein increases copper content in HEK293 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Suazo, Miriam; Hodar, Christian; Morgan, Carlos; Cerpa, Waldo; Cambiazo, Veronica; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.; Gonzalez, Mauricio

    2009-05-15

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane glycoprotein widely expressed in mammalian tissues and plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease. However, its physiological function remains elusive. Cu{sup 2+} binding and reduction activities have been described in the extracellular APP135-156 region, which might be relevant for cellular copper uptake and homeostasis. Here, we assessed Cu{sup 2+} reduction and {sup 64}Cu uptake in two human HEK293 cell lines overexpressing APP. Our results indicate that Cu{sup 2+} reduction increased and cells accumulated larger levels of copper, maintaining cell viability at supra-physiological levels of Cu{sup 2+} ions. Moreover, wild-type cells exposed to both Cu{sup 2+} ions and APP135-155 synthetic peptides increased copper reduction and uptake. Complementation of function studies in human APP751 transformed Fre1 defective Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells rescued low Cu{sup 2+} reductase activity and increased {sup 64}Cu uptake. We conclude that Cu{sup 2+} reduction activity of APP facilitates copper uptake and may represent an early step in cellular copper homeostasis.

  8. Fluorescence Microspectroscopy for Testing the Dimerization Hypothesis of BACE1 Protein in Cultured HEK293 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardeen, Spencer; Johnson, Joseph L.; Heikal, Ahmed A.

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that results from the formation of beta-amyloid plaques in the brain that trigger the known symptoms of memory loss in AD patients. The beta-amyloid plaques are formed by the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the proteases BACE1 and gamma-secretase. These enzyme-facilitated cleavages lead to the production of beta-amyloid fragments that aggregate to form plaques, which ultimately lead to neuronal cell death. Recent detergent protein extraction studies suggest that BACE1 protein forms a dimer that has significantly higher catalytic activity than its monomeric counterpart. In this contribution, we examine the dimerization hypothesis of BACE1 in cultured HEK293 cells using complementary fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy methods. Cells were transfected with a BACE1-EGFP fusion protein construct and imaged using confocal, and differential interference contrast to monitor the localization and distribution of intracellular BACE1. Complementary fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy measurements enabled us to examine the conformational and environmental changes of BACE1 as a function of substrate binding. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we also quantified the diffusion coefficient of BACE1-EGFP on the plasma membrane as a means to test the dimerization hypothesis as a fucntion of substrate-analog inhibitition. Our results represent an important first towards examining the substrate-mediated dimerization hypothesis of BACE1 in live cells.

  9. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 by diallyl sulfides (DAS) in HEK 293T cells.

    PubMed

    Elango, Erode M; Asita, Hag; Nidhi, Gunapalan; Seema, Parvathy; Banerji, Asoke; Kuriakose, Moni A

    2004-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) is involved in modulating inflammatory response through the synthesis of prostaglandins. The inducible isoform of the enzyme, COX-2, is overexpressed in some malignant and premalignant lesions. Several preclinical and clinical studies have reported COX-2 inhibition as an effective strategy for chemoprevention. Nonsteroidal anitinflammatory drugs (NASIDs) such as celecoxib, are the most widely investigated COX-2 inhibitors. The oil-soluble diallyl sulfides (DAS) include monosulfides (DAMS), disulfides (DADS) and trisulfides (DATS). They were found to be effective against canine and human tumors, the mechanism of which remains unresolved. We attempted a comparative evaluation of the antiproliferative effect of DAS in HEK 293T cells. The cells were treated with increasing concentrations of DAMS, DADS and DATS. There were significant differences between the IC50 values of DAMS, DADS and DATS. RT-PCR was performed and the expression of COX-2 was compared with that of b actin. DATS inhibited COX-2 gene expression significantly stronger than DAMS and DADS. The data are suggestive of antineoplastic effect of DAS, mediated by controlling COX-2 expression.

  10. Peptidomic analysis of HEK293T cells: Effect of the proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin on intracellular peptides

    PubMed Central

    Fricker, Lloyd D.; Gelman, Julia S.; Castro, Leandro M.; Gozzo, Fabio C.; Ferro, Emer S.

    2012-01-01

    Peptides derived from cytosolic, mitochondrial, and nuclear proteins have been detected in extracts of animal tissues and cell lines. To test whether the proteasome is involved in their formation, HEK293T cells were treated with epoxomicin (0.2 μM or 2 μM) for 1 hour and quantitative peptidomics analysis was performed. Altogether, 147 unique peptides were identified by mass spectrometry sequence analysis. Epoxomicin treatment decreased the levels of the majority of intracellular peptides, consistent with inhibition of the proteasome beta-2 and beta-5 subunits. Treatment with the higher concentration of epoxomicin elevated the levels of some peptides. Most of the elevated peptides resulted from cleavages at acidic residues, suggesting that epoxomicin increased the processing of proteins through the beta-1 subunit. Interestingly, some of the peptides that were elevated by the epoxomicin treatment had hydrophobic residues in P1 cleavage sites. Taken together, these findings suggest that while the proteasome is the major source of intracellular peptides, other peptide-generating mechanisms exist. Because intracellular peptides are likely to perform intracellular functions, studies using proteasome inhibitors need to be interpreted with caution as it is possible that the effects of these inhibitors are due to a change in the peptide levels rather than inhibition of protein degradation. PMID:22304392

  11. Inhibitory effects of neferine on Nav1.5 channels expressed in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Wang, Huan; Xiao, Jun-Hua; Wang, Jia-Ling; Xiang, Ji-Zhou; Tang, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Neferine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid in Lotus Plumule, was proved to have a wide range of biological activities. In the present study, using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we investigated the effects of neferine on Nav1.5 channels that are stably expressed in HEK 293 cells. We found that neferine potently and reversibly inhibited Nav1.5 currents in a concentration dependent manner with a half-maximal inhibition (IC50) being 26.15 μmol/L. The inhibitory effects of neferine on Nav1.5 currents were weaker than those of quinidine at the same concentration. The steady-state inactivation curve was significantly shifted towards hyperpolarizing direction in the presence of 30 μmol/L neferine, while the voltage-dependent activation was unaltered. Neferine prolonged the time to peak of activation, increased the inactivation time constants of Nav1.5 currents and markedly slowed the recovery from inactivation. The inhibitory effect of neferine could be potentiated in a frequency-dependent manner. These results suggested that neferine can block Nav1.5 channels under the open state and inactivating state and it is an open channel blocker of Nav1.5 channels.

  12. Identification of a preassembled TRH receptor-G(q/11) protein complex in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Drastichova, Zdenka; Novotny, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions define specificity in signal transduction and these interactions are central to transmembrane signaling by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). It is not quite clear, however, whether GPCRs and the regulatory trimeric G-proteins behave as freely and independently diffusible molecules in the plasma membrane or whether they form some preassociated complexes. Here we used clear-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (CN-PAGE) to investigate the presumed coupling between thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor and its cognate G(q/11) protein in HEK293 cells expressing high levels of these proteins. Under different solubilization conditions, the TRH receptor (TRH-R) was identified to form a putative pentameric complex composed of TRH-R homodimer and G(q/11) protein. The presumed association of TRH-R with G(q/11)α or Gβ proteins in plasma membranes was verified by RNAi experiments. After 10- or 30-min hormone treatment, TRH-R signaling complexes gradually dissociated with a concomitant release of receptor homodimers. These observations support the model in which GPCRs can be coupled to trimeric G-proteins in preassembled signaling complexes, which might be dynamically regulated upon receptor activation. The precoupling of receptors with their cognate G-proteins can contribute to faster G-protein activation and subsequent signal transfer into the cell interior.

  13. High LIN28A Expressing Ovarian Cancer Cells Secrete Exosomes That Induce Invasion and Migration in HEK293 Cells.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, Vanessa A; Cleys, Ellane R; Da Silveira, Juliano C; Spillman, Monique A; Winger, Quinton A; Bouma, Gerrit J

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most aggressive and deadly form of ovarian cancer and is the most lethal gynecological malignancy worldwide; therefore, efforts to elucidate the molecular factors that lead to epithelial ovarian cancer are essential to better understand this disease. Recent studies reveal that tumor cells release cell-secreted vesicles called exosomes and these exosomes can transfer RNAs and miRNAs to distant sites, leading to cell transformation and tumor development. The RNA-binding protein LIN28 is a known marker of stem cells and when expressed in cancer, it is associated with poor tumor outcome. We hypothesized that high LIN28 expressing ovarian cancer cells secrete exosomes that can be taken up by nontumor cells and cause changes in gene expression and cell behavior associated with tumor development. IGROV1 cells were found to contain high LIN28A and secrete exosomes that were taken up by HEK293 cells. Moreover, exposure to these IGROV1 secreted exosomes led to significant increases in genes involved in Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), induced HEK293 cell invasion and migration. These changes were not observed with exosomes secreted by OV420 cells, which contain no detectable amounts of LIN28A or LIN28B. No evidence was found of LIN28A transfer from IGROV1 exosomes to HEK293 cells.

  14. Accumulation of the SET protein in HEK293T cells and mild oxidative stress: cell survival or death signaling.

    PubMed

    Leopoldino, Andréia M; Squarize, Cristiane H; Garcia, Cristiana B; Almeida, Luciana O; Pestana, Cezar R; Polizello, Ana C M; Uyemura, Sérgio A; Tajara, Eloiza H; Gutkind, J Silvio; Curti, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    SET protein (I2PP2A) is an inhibitor of PP2A, which regulates the phosphorylated Akt (protein kinase B) levels. We assessed the effects of SET overexpression in HEK293T cells, both in the presence and the absence of mild oxidative stress induced by 50 μM tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Immunoblotting assays demonstrated that SET accumulated in HEK293T cells and increased the levels of phosphorylated Akt and PTEN; in addition, SET decreased glutathione antioxidant defense of cell and increased expression of genes encoding antioxidant defense proteins. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that accumulated SET was equally distributed in cytoplasm and nucleus; however, in cells that had been exposed to oxidative stress, SET was found in large aggregates in the cytoplasm. SET accumulation in HEK293T cells correlated with inhibition of basal apoptosis as evidenced by a decrease in annexin V staining and activity of caspases; under mild oxidative stress, SET accumulation correlated with caspase-independent cell death, as evidenced by increased PI and annexin V/PI double staining. The results suggest that accumulated SET could act via Akt/PTEN either as cell survival signal or as oxidative stress sensor for cell death.

  15. Fluorescence fluctuation analysis of BACE1-GFP fusion protein in cultured HEK293 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardeen, Spencer; Johnson, Joseph L.; Heikal, Ahmed A.

    2016-10-01

    Beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is a type I transmembrane aspartyl protease. In the amyloidogenic pathway, BACE1 provides β-secretase activity that cleaves the amyloid precursor protein (APP) that leads to amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides. The aggregation of these Aβ will ultimately results in amyloid plaque formation, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid aggregation leads to progressive memory impairment and neural loss. Recent detergent protein extraction studies suggest that the untreated BACE1 protein forms a dimer that has significantly higher catalytic activity than its monomeric counterpart. Here, we examine the dimerization hypothesis of BACE1 in cultured HEK293 cells using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Cells were transfected with a BACE1-EGFP fusion protein construct and imaged using confocal and DIC microscopy to monitor labeled BACE1 localization and distribution within the cell. Our one-photon fluorescence fluctuation autocorrelation of BACE1- EGFP on the plasma membrane of HEK cells is modeled using two diffusing species on the plasma membrane with estimated diffusion coefficients of 1.39 x 10-7 cm2/sec and 2.8 x 10-8 cm2/sec under resting conditions and STA-200 inhibition, respectively. Anomalous diffusion model also provided adequate description of the observed autocorrelation function of BACE1- EGFP on the plasma membrane with an estimate exponent (α) of 0.8 and 0.5 for resting and STA-200 treated cells, respectively. The corresponding hydrodynamic radius of this transmembrane fusion protein was estimated using the measured diffusion coefficients assuming both Stokes-Einstein and Saffman-Delbruck models. Our results suggest a complex diffusion pattern of BACE1-EGFP on the plasma membrane of HEK cells with the possibility for dimer formation, especially under STA-200 inhibition.

  16. Modulating patterned adhesion and repulsion of HEK 293 cells on microengineered parylene-C/SiO2 substrates

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, M. A.; Bunting, A. S.; Cameron, K.; Murray, A. F.; Shipston, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes high resolution patterning of HEK 293 cells on a construct of micropatterned parylene-C and silicon dioxide. Photolithographic patterning of parylene-C on silicon dioxide is an established and consistent process. Activation of patterns by immersion in serum has previously enabled patterning of murine hippocampal neurons and glia, as well as the human hNT cell line. Adapting this protocol we now illustrate high resolution patterning of the HEK 293 cell line. We explore hypotheses that patterning is mediated by transmembrane integrin interactions with differentially absorbed serum proteins, and also by etching the surface substrate with piranha solution. Using rationalized protein activation solutions in place of serum, we show that cell patterning can be modulated or even inverted. These cell-patterning findings assist our wider goal of engineering and interfacing functional neuronal networks via a silicon semiconductor platform. PMID:22847960

  17. Pharmacological characterization of emerging synthetic cannabinoids in HEK293T cells and hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Costain, Willard J; Tauskela, Joseph S; Rasquinha, Ingrid; Comas, Tanya; Hewitt, Melissa; Marleau, Vincent; Soo, Evelyn C

    2016-09-05

    There has been a worldwide proliferation of synthetic cannabinoids that have become marketed as legal alternatives to cannabis (marijuana). Unfortunately, there is a dearth of information about the pharmacological effects of many of these emerging synthetic cannabinoids (ESCs), which presents a challenge for regulatory authorities that need to take such scientific evidence into consideration in order to regulate ECSs as controlled substances. We aimed to characterize the pharmacological properties of ten ESCs using two cell based assays that enabled the determination of potency and efficacy relative to a panel of well-characterized cannabinoids. Agonist-mediated inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels was monitored in live HEK293T cells transfected with human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene (CNR1) and pGloSensor-22F. Pharmacological analysis of this data indicated that all of the ESCs tested were full agonists, with the following rank order of potency: Win 55212-2≈5F-PB-22≈AB-PINACA≈EAM-2201≈MAM-2201>JWH-250≈ PB-22>AKB48 N-(5FP)>AKB-48≈STS-135>XLR-11. Assessment of agonist-stimulated depression of Ca(2+) transients was also used to confirm the efficacy of five ESCs (XLR-11, JWH-250, AB-PINACA, 5F-PB-22, and MAM-2201) in cultured primary hippocampal neurons. This work aims to help inform decisions made by regulatory agencies concerned with the profusion of these poorly characterized recreational drugs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. HIV’s Nef Interacts with β-Catenin of the Wnt Signaling Pathway in HEK293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Keren; Barton, Meredith; Gershoony, Dafna; DasGupta, Ramanuj; Cardozo, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is implicated in major physiologic cellular functions, such as proliferation, migration, cell fate specification, maintenance of pluripotency and induction of tumorigenicity. Proliferation and migration are important responses of T-cells, which are major cellular targets of HIV infection. Using an informatics screen, we identified a previously unsuspected interaction between HIV’s Nef protein and β-catenin, a key component of the Wnt pathway. A segment in Nef contains identical amino acids at key positions and structurally mimics the β-catenin binding sites on endogenous β-catenin ligands. The interaction between Nef and β-catenin was confirmed in vitro and in a co-immunoprecipitation from HEK293 cells. Moreover, the introduction of Nef into HEK293 cells specifically inhibited a Wnt pathway reporter. PMID:24130899

  19. Unraveling molecular effects of ADAR1 overexpression in HEK293T cells by label-free quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jisheng; Wang, Xiaoyue; Lü, Xin; Jing, Ruirui; Li, Junqiang; Li, CuiLing; Wang, Daoguang; Bi, Baibin; Chen, Xinjun; Wang, Fengqin; Sun, Shengnan; Gong, Jing; Azadzoi, Kazem M; Yang, Jing-Hua

    2016-06-17

    ADAR1 is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) editing enzyme that specifically converts adenosine to inosine. ADAR1 is ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes and participate in various cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation and immune responses. We report here a new proteomics study of HEK293T cells with and without ADAR1 overexpression. The up- and down-regulated proteins by ADAR1 overexpression are identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) followed by label-free protein quantification. Totally 1,495 proteins (FDR < 0.01) are identified, among which 211 are up- and 159 are down-regulated for at least 1.5-fold (n = 3, p < 0.05). Gene ontology analysis reveals that these ADAR1-regulated proteins are involved in protein translation and cell cycle regulation. Bioinformatics analysis identifies a closely related network consistent for the protein translation machinery and a tightly connected network through proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-interactions. Up-regulation of the proteins in the PCNA-mediated cell proliferation network is confirmed by Western blotting. In addition, ADAR1 overexpression is confirmed to increase cell proliferation in HEK293T cells and A549 cells. We conclude that ADAR1 overexpression modulates the protein translation and cell cycle networks through PCNA-mediated protein-protein interaction to promote cell proliferation in HEK293 cells.

  20. EP2 Induces p38 Phosphorylation via the Activation of Src in HEK 293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Kyung-Soo; Shim, Minsub

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major product of cyclooxygenase, binds to four different prostaglandin E2 receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) which are G-protein coupled transmembrane receptors (GPCRs). Although GPCRs including EP receptors have been shown to be associated with their specific G proteins, recent evidences suggest that GPCRs can regulate MAPK signaling via non-G protein coupled pathways including Src. EP2 is differentially expressed in various tissues and the expression of EP2 is induced by extracellular stimuli. We hypothesized that an increased level of EP2 expression may affect MAPK signaling. The overexpression of EP2 in HEK 293 cells resulted in significant increase in intracellular cAMP levels response to treatment with butaprost, a specific EP2 agonist, while overexpression of EP2 alone did not increase intracellular cAMP levels. However, EP2 overexpression in the absence of PGE2 induced an increase in the level of p38 phosphorylation as well as the kinase activity of p38, suggesting that up-regulation of EP2 may promote p38 activation via non-G protein coupled pathway. Inhibition of Src completely blocked EP2-induced p38 phosphorylation and overexpression of Src increased the level of p38 phosphorylation, indicating that Src is upstream kinase for EP2-induced p38 phosphorylation. EP2 overexpression also increased the Src activity and EP2 protein was co-immunoprecipitated with Src. Furthermore, sequential co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that EP2, Src, and β-arrestin can form a complex. Our study found a novel pathway in which EP2 is associated with Src, regulating p38 pathway. PMID:26535079

  1. Deciphering µ-opioid receptor phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in HEK293 cells

    PubMed Central

    Doll, Christian; Pöll, Florian; Peuker, Kenneth; Loktev, Anastasia; Glück, Laura; Schulz, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The molecular basis of agonist-selective signalling at the µ-opioid receptor is poorly understood. We have recently shown that full agonists such as [D-Ala2-MePhe4-Gly-ol]enkephalin (DAMGO) stimulate the phosphorylation of a number of carboxyl-terminal phosphate acceptor sites including threonine 370 (Thr370) and serine 375 (Ser375), and that is followed by a robust receptor internalization. In contrast, morphine promotes a selective phosphorylation of Ser375 without causing rapid receptor internalization. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Here, we identify kinases and phosphatases that mediate agonist-dependent phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the µ-opioid receptor using a combination of phosphosite-specific antibodies and siRNA knock-down screening in HEK293 cells. KEY RESULTS We found that DAMGO-driven phosphorylation of Thr370 and Ser375 was preferentially catalysed by G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) 2 and 3, whereas morphine-driven Ser375 phosphorylation was preferentially catalysed by GRK5. On the functional level, inhibition of GRK expression resulted in enhanced µ-opioid receptor signalling and reduced receptor internalization. Analysis of GRK5-deficient mice revealed that GRK5 selectively contributes to morphine-induced Ser375 phosphorylation in brain tissue. We also identified protein phosphatase 1γ as a µ-opioid receptor phosphatase that catalysed Thr370 and Ser375 dephosphorylation at or near the plasma membrane within minutes after agonist removal, which in turn facilitates receptor recycling. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Together, the morphine-activated µ-opioid receptor is a good substrate for phosphorylation by GRK5 but a poor substrate for GRK2/3. GRK5 phosphorylates µ-opioid receptors selectively on Ser375, which is not sufficient to drive significant receptor internalization. PMID:22725608

  2. Identification and subcellular localization of molecular complexes of Gq/11α protein in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Drastichova, Zdenka; Novotny, Jiri

    2012-08-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins localized in the plasma membrane convey the signals from G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to different effectors. At least some types of G-protein α subunits have been shown to be partly released from plasma membranes and to move into the cytosol after receptor activation by the agonists. However, the mechanism underlying subcellular redistribution of trimeric G-proteins is not well understood and no definitive conclusions have been reached regarding the translocation of Gα subunits between membranes and cytosol. Here we used subcellular fractionation and clear-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to identify molecular complexes of G(q/11)α protein and to determine their localization in isolated fractions and stability in naïve and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-treated HEK293 cells expressing high levels of TRH receptor and G(11)α protein. We identified two high-molecular-weight complexes of 300 and 140 kDa in size comprising the G(q/11) protein, which were found to be membrane-bound. Both of these complexes dissociated after prolonged treatment with TRH. Still other G(q/11)α protein complexes of lower molecular weight were determined in the cytosol. These 70 kDa protein complexes were barely detectable under control conditions but their levels markedly increased after prolonged (4-16 h) hormone treatment. These results support the notion that a portion of G(q/11)α can undergo translocation from the membrane fraction into soluble fraction after a long-term activation of TRH receptor. At the same time, these findings indicate that the redistribution of G(q/11)α is brought about by the dissociation of high-molecular-weight complexes and concomitant formation of low-molecular-weight complexes containing the G(q/11)α protein.

  3. Biophysical characterisation of electrofused giant HEK293-cells as a novel electrophysiological expression system

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, D.; Terpitz, U.; Zhou, A.; Reuss, R.; Mueller, K.; Sukhorukov, V.L.; Gessner, P.; Nagel, G.; Zimmermann, U.; Bamberg, E. . E-mail: ernst.bamberg@mpibp-frankfurt.mpg.de

    2006-09-22

    Giant HEK293 cells of 30-65 {mu}m in diameter were produced by three-dimensional multi-cell electrofusion in 75 mOsm sorbitol media. These strong hypotonic conditions facilitated fusion because of the spherical shape and smooth membrane surface of the swollen cells. A regulatory volume decrease (RVD), as observed at higher osmolalities, did not occur at 75 mOsm. In contrast to field-treated, but unfused cells, the increase in volume induced by hypotonic shock was only partly reversible in the case of fused giant cells after their transfer into isotonic medium. The large size of the electrofused cells allowed the study of their electrophysiological properties by application of both whole-cell and giant excised patch-clamp techniques. Recordings on giant cells yielded a value of 1.1 {+-} 0.1 {mu}F/cm{sup 2} for the area-specific membrane capacitance. This value was consistent with that of the parental cells. The area-specific conductivity of giant cells (diameter > 50 {mu}m) was found to be between 12.8 and 16.1 {mu}S/cm{sup 2}, which is in the range of that of the parental cells. Measurements with patch-pipettes containing fluorescein showed uniform dye uptake in the whole-cell configuration, but not in the cell-attached configuration. The diffusion-controlled uniform uptake of the dye into the cell interior excludes internal compartmentalisation. The finding of a homogeneous fusion was also supported by expression of the yellow fluorescent protein YFP (as part of the fusion-protein ChR2-YFP) in giant cells since no plasma-membrane bound YFP-mediated fluorescence was detected in the interior of the electrofused cells. Functional expression and the electrophysiological characterisation of the light-activated cation channel Channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2) yielded similar results as for parental cells. Most importantly, the giant cells exhibited a comparable expression density of the channel protein in the plasma membrane as observed in parental cells. This demonstrates that

  4. Protective effect of deferricoprogen isolated from Monascus purpureus NTU 568 on citrinin-induced apoptosis in HEK-293 cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Chuan; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Liang, Yu-Han; Lin, Zhi-Hu; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2012-08-15

    Monascus species have traditionally been used in Asian food, with rice as their fermentation substrate. Red mold rice (RMR) contains citrinin, a nephrotoxic agent capable of exerting oxidative stress and cellular apoptosis. We investigated the components in RMR that could minimize the adverse effects of citrinin. Combining chemical separations and bioactivity assays, we identified an antioxidative component called deferricoprogen (DFC) in the fermented rice of Monascus purpureus NTU 568. The DFC structure was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectra analysis. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical-scavenging activity of DFC was similar to that of vitamin E. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometric analysis showed the effect of DFC and citrinin on cell viability and cell cycle. DFC was found to be protective against the cytotoxicity and cell death induced by citrinin on human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells. DFC also demonstrated anti-apoptotic property in preventing citrinin-induced apoptosis.

  5. SET overexpression in HEK293 cells regulates mitochondrial uncoupling proteins levels within a mitochondrial fission/reduced autophagic flux scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, Luciana O.; Goto, Renata N.; Neto, Marinaldo P.C.; Sousa, Lucas O.; Curti, Carlos; Leopoldino, Andréia M.

    2015-03-06

    We hypothesized that SET, a protein accumulated in some cancer types and Alzheimer disease, is involved in cell death through mitochondrial mechanisms. We addressed the mRNA and protein levels of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 (S and L isoforms) by quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence as well as other mitochondrial involvements, in HEK293 cells overexpressing the SET protein (HEK293/SET), either in the presence or absence of oxidative stress induced by the pro-oxidant t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). SET overexpression in HEK293 cells decreased UCP1 and increased UCP2 and UCP3 (S/L) mRNA and protein levels, whilst also preventing lipid peroxidation and decreasing the content of cellular ATP. SET overexpression also (i) decreased the area of mitochondria and increased the number of organelles and lysosomes, (ii) increased mitochondrial fission, as demonstrated by increased FIS1 mRNA and FIS-1 protein levels, an apparent accumulation of DRP-1 protein, and an increase in the VDAC protein level, and (iii) reduced autophagic flux, as demonstrated by a decrease in LC3B lipidation (LC3B-II) in the presence of chloroquine. Therefore, SET overexpression in HEK293 cells promotes mitochondrial fission and reduces autophagic flux in apparent association with up-regulation of UCP2 and UCP3; this implies a potential involvement in cellular processes that are deregulated such as in Alzheimer's disease and cancer. - Highlights: • SET, UCPs and autophagy prevention are correlated. • SET action has mitochondrial involvement. • UCP2/3 may reduce ROS and prevent autophagy. • SET protects cell from ROS via UCP2/3.

  6. SET overexpression in HEK293 cells regulates mitochondrial uncoupling proteins levels within a mitochondrial fission/reduced autophagic flux scenario.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luciana O; Goto, Renata N; Neto, Marinaldo P C; Sousa, Lucas O; Curti, Carlos; Leopoldino, Andréia M

    2015-03-06

    We hypothesized that SET, a protein accumulated in some cancer types and Alzheimer disease, is involved in cell death through mitochondrial mechanisms. We addressed the mRNA and protein levels of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 (S and L isoforms) by quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence as well as other mitochondrial involvements, in HEK293 cells overexpressing the SET protein (HEK293/SET), either in the presence or absence of oxidative stress induced by the pro-oxidant t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). SET overexpression in HEK293 cells decreased UCP1 and increased UCP2 and UCP3 (S/L) mRNA and protein levels, whilst also preventing lipid peroxidation and decreasing the content of cellular ATP. SET overexpression also (i) decreased the area of mitochondria and increased the number of organelles and lysosomes, (ii) increased mitochondrial fission, as demonstrated by increased FIS1 mRNA and FIS-1 protein levels, an apparent accumulation of DRP-1 protein, and an increase in the VDAC protein level, and (iii) reduced autophagic flux, as demonstrated by a decrease in LC3B lipidation (LC3B-II) in the presence of chloroquine. Therefore, SET overexpression in HEK293 cells promotes mitochondrial fission and reduces autophagic flux in apparent association with up-regulation of UCP2 and UCP3; this implies a potential involvement in cellular processes that are deregulated such as in Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Opposite temperature effect on transport activity of KCC2/KCC4 and N(K)CCs in HEK-293 cells.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Anna-Maria; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2011-12-09

    Cation chloride cotransporters play essential roles in many physiological processes such as volume regulation, transepithelial salt transport and setting the intracellular chloride concentration in neurons. They consist mainly of the inward transporters NCC, NKCC1, and NKCC2, and the outward transporters KCC1 to KCC4. To gain insight into regulatory and structure-function relationships, precise determination of their activity is required. Frequently, these analyses are performed in HEK-293 cells. Recently the activity of the inward transporters NKCC1 and NCC was shown to increase with temperature in these cells. However, the temperature effect on KCCs remains largely unknown. Here, we determined the temperature effect on KCC2 and KCC4 transport activity in HEK-293 cells. Both transporters demonstrated significantly higher transport activity (2.5 fold for KCC2 and 3.3 fold for KCC4) after pre-incubation at room temperature compared to 37°C. These data identify a reciprocal temperature dependence of cation chloride inward and outward cotransporters in HEK-293 cells. Thus, lower temperature should be used for functional characterization of KCC2 and KCC4 and higher temperatures for N(K)CCs in heterologous mammalian expression systems. Furthermore, if this reciprocal effect also applies to neurons, the action of inhibitory neurotransmitters might be more affected by changes in temperature than previously thought.

  8. Modification of the cell based assay for brevetoxins using human cardiac voltage dependent sodium channels expressed in HEK-293 cells.

    PubMed

    Fairey, E R; Bottein Dechraoui, M Y; Sheets, M F; Ramsdell, J S

    2001-09-01

    Assays using living cells provide an effective means to generate activity measurements of toxins, especially in situations where the toxins are part of a complex mixture or in an unfamiliar form such as natural or synthetic derivatives or bioactive metabolites. An important step in the refinement of cell based assays is to simplify the cellular reactions needed or required to generate the functional response of interest. Advances in the engineering of functional responses in cells provide a means to direct the response to given toxins. In this report, we describe the homogeneous high level expression of the initial target for brevetoxin, the voltage dependent sodium channel in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293). HEK cells stably transfected with a 6.208 kb cDNA of human heart voltage-dependent Na(+) channel (hH1a) were examined as an alternative to mouse neuroblastoma cells (N2A). The HEK-hH1a cells showed a reduced dependence on cofactors, increased sensitivity to brevetoxin and a useful means to assure absolute selectivity to the sodium channel. We next assessed the assay in a reporter gene format. Expression of a panel of minimal response elements as well as the c-fos promoter failed to provide a response to brevetoxin, indicating that the HEK cells lack a necessary intermediate signaling component. The expression of voltage dependent sodium channels in HEK cells is anticipated to provide enhanced performance for cell-based detection of toxins for drug and natural product discovery, biomonitoring and environmental monitoring.

  9. P2X7 receptor-mediated calcium dynamics in HEK293 cells: experimental characterization and modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Garbo, A.; Alloisio, S.; Nobile, M.

    2012-04-01

    The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) induces ionotropic Ca2 + signalling in different cell types. It plays an important role in the immune response and in the nervous system. Here, the mechanisms underlying intracellular Ca2 + variations evoked by 3‧-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl-ATP (BzATP), a potent agonist of the P2X7R, in transfected HEK293 cells, are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. We propose a minimal model of P2X7R that is capable of reproducing, qualitatively and quantitatively, the experimental data. This approach was also adopted for the P2X7R variant, which lacks the entire C-terminus tail (trP2X7R). Then we introduce a biophysical model describing the Ca2 + dynamics in HEK293. Our model gives an account of the ionotropic Ca2 + influx evoked by BzATP on the basis of the kinetics model of P2X7R. To explain the complex Ca2 + responses evoked by BzATP, the model predicted that an impairment in Ca2 + extrusion flux through the plasma membrane is a key factor for Ca2 + homeostasis in HEK293 cells.

  10. Properties of HERG channels stably expressed in HEK 293 cells studied at physiological temperature.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Z; Gong, Q; Ye, B; Fan, Z; Makielski, J C; Robertson, G A; January, C T

    1998-01-01

    We have established stably transfected HEK 293 cell lines expressing high levels of functional human ether-a go-go-related gene (HERG) channels. We used these cells to study biochemical characteristics of HERG protein, and to study electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of HERG channel current at 35 degrees C. HERG-transfected cells expressed an mRNA band at 4.0 kb. Western blot analysis showed two protein bands (155 and 135 kDa) slightly larger than the predicted molecular mass (127 kDa). Treatment with N-glycosidase F converted both bands to smaller molecular mass, suggesting that both are glycosylated, but at different levels. HERG current activated at voltages positive to -50 mV, maximum current was reached with depolarizing steps to -10 mV, and the current amplitude declined at more positive voltages, similar to HERG channel current expressed in other heterologous systems. Current density at 35 degrees C, compared with 23 degrees C, was increased by more than twofold to a maximum of 53.4 +/- 6.5 pA/pF. Activation, inactivation, recovery from inactivation, and deactivation kinetics were rapid at 35 degrees C, and more closely resemble values reported for the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K+ current (I(Kr)) at physiological temperatures. HERG channels were highly selective for K+. When we used an action potential clamp technique, HERG current activation began shortly after the upstroke of the action potential waveform. HERG current increased during repolarization to reach a maximum amplitude during phases 2 and 3 of the cardiac action potential. HERG contributed current throughout the return of the membrane to the resting potential, and deactivation of HERG current could participate in phase 4 depolarization. HERG current was blocked by low concentrations of E-4031 (IC50 7.7 nM), a value close to that reported for I(Kr) in native cardiac myocytes. Our data support the postulate that HERG encodes a major constituent of I(Kr) and suggest that

  11. Lentiviral Vectors Mediate Long-Term and High Efficiency Transgene Expression in HEK 293T cells

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yingying; Yan, Renhe; Li, Andrew; Zhang, Yanling; Li, Jinlong; Du, Hongyan; Chen, Baihong; Wei, Wenjin; Zhang, Yi; Sumners, Colin; Zheng, Haifa; Li, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    . Surprisingly, neither the HS4 insulator nor the UCOE sequence improved the GFP expression level or stability. Clonal cell lines with HCV E1 gene were generated from LV-CMV-E1 vector-infected 293T cells. A representative recombinant cell line maintained stable E1expression for at least 9 weeks without significant difference in morphology compared with untreated 293T cells. Conclusion: The results suggest that all five vectors can stably transduce 293T cells, producing long term transgene expression with different efficiencies. However, neither the insulator nor the UCOE improved the GFP expression. The vectors containing the promoter CMV or CMV (β-globin intron) generated the highest gene expressions, manifesting as more favorable candidates for recombinant protein production in HEK293T cells. PMID:26005375

  12. Exposition of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) on the surface of HEK293T cell and evaluation of its expression

    PubMed Central

    Mirian, Mina; Taghizadeh, Razieh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Salehi, Mansour; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Sadeghi-aliabadi, Hojjat; Kouhpayeh, Shirin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is considered as a global health concern and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is the most immunogenic protein of HBV. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of HBsAg on the cell surface of human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293T). After transformation of expression vector pcDNA/HBsAg to E.coli TOP10F’, plasmid was extracted and digested with BglII. Afterwards, the linearized vector was transfected to cells and treated with hygromycin B for 5 weeks to expand the resulted clonies. The permanent expression of HBsAg followed by flow cytometry uptill now about one year. Genomic DNA was extracted from transfected cells and the existence of HBsAg gene was assessed by PCR. Real-time RT-PCR was utilized to measure the expression at the RNA level and flow cytometery was carried out to assess protein expression. Insertion of HBsAg cDNA in HEK293T genome was confirmed by PCR. The results of real-time RT-PCR illustrated that each cell expresses 2275 copies of mRNA molecule. Flow cytometry showed that compared with negative control cells, 99.9% of transfected cells express HBsAg on their surface. In conclusion, stable expression of hepatitis B surface antigen on the membrane of HEK293T provides an accurate post-translational modification, proper structure, and native folding in contrast with purified protein from prokaryotic expression systems. Therefore, these exposing HBsAg cells are practical in therapeutic, pharmaceutical, and biological sets of research. PMID:27920818

  13. Carcinogenic activity of PbS quantum dots screened using exosomal biomarkers secreted from HEK293 cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hee; Kim, Hye-Rim; Lee, Bo-Ram; Choi, Eun-Sook; In, Su-Il; Kim, Eunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Lead sulfide (PbS) quantum dots (QDs) have been applied in the biomedical area because they offer an excellent platform for theragnostic applications. In order to comprehensively evaluate the biocompatibility of PbS QDs in human cells, we analyzed the exosomes secreted from cells because exosomes are released during cellular stress to convey signals to other cells and serve as a reservoir of enriched biomarkers. PbS QDs were synthesized and coated with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) to allow the particles to disperse in water. Exosomes were isolated from HEK293 cells treated with PbS–MPA at concentrations of 0 µg/mL, 5 µg/mL, and 50 µg/mL, and the exosomal expression levels of miRNAs and proteins were analyzed. As a result, five miRNAs and two proteins were proposed as specific exosomal biomarkers for the exposure of HEK293 cells to PbS–MPA. Based on the pathway analysis, the molecular signature of the exosomes suggested that PbS–MPA QDs had carcinogenic activity. The comet assay and expression of molecular markers, such as p53, interleukin (IL)-8, and C-X-C motif chemokine 5, indicated that DNA damage occurred in HEK293 cells following PbS–MPA exposure, which supported the carcinogenic activity of the particles. In addition, there was obvious intensification of miRNA expression signals in the exosomes compared with that of the parent cells, which suggested that exosomal biomarkers could be detected more sensitively than those of whole cellular extracts. PMID:26355701

  14. Carcinogenic activity of PbS quantum dots screened using exosomal biomarkers secreted from HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hee; Kim, Hye-Rim; Lee, Bo-Ram; Choi, Eun-Sook; In, Su-Il; Kim, Eunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Lead sulfide (PbS) quantum dots (QDs) have been applied in the biomedical area because they offer an excellent platform for theragnostic applications. In order to comprehensively evaluate the biocompatibility of PbS QDs in human cells, we analyzed the exosomes secreted from cells because exosomes are released during cellular stress to convey signals to other cells and serve as a reservoir of enriched biomarkers. PbS QDs were synthesized and coated with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) to allow the particles to disperse in water. Exosomes were isolated from HEK293 cells treated with PbS-MPA at concentrations of 0 µg/mL, 5 µg/mL, and 50 µg/mL, and the exosomal expression levels of miRNAs and proteins were analyzed. As a result, five miRNAs and two proteins were proposed as specific exosomal biomarkers for the exposure of HEK293 cells to PbS-MPA. Based on the pathway analysis, the molecular signature of the exosomes suggested that PbS-MPA QDs had carcinogenic activity. The comet assay and expression of molecular markers, such as p53, interleukin (IL)-8, and C-X-C motif chemokine 5, indicated that DNA damage occurred in HEK293 cells following PbS-MPA exposure, which supported the carcinogenic activity of the particles. In addition, there was obvious intensification of miRNA expression signals in the exosomes compared with that of the parent cells, which suggested that exosomal biomarkers could be detected more sensitively than those of whole cellular extracts.

  15. Urocortin2 prolongs action potential duration and modulates potassium currents in guinea pig myocytes and HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Zhen; Zhu, Yi-Chun

    2015-07-05

    We previously reported that activation of corticotropin releasing factor receptor type 2 by urocortin2 up-regulates both L-type Ca(2+) channels and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in ventricular myocytes and plays an important role in cardiac contractility and arrhythmogenesis. This study goal was to further test the hypothesis that urocortin2 may modulate action potentials as well as rapidly and slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents. With whole cell patch-clamp techniques, action potentials and slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents were recorded in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes, respectively. And rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents were tested in hERG-HEK293 cells. Urocortin2 produced a time- and concentration-dependent prolongation of action potential duration. The EC50 values of action potential duration and action potential duration at 90% of repolarization were 14.73 and 24.3nM respectively. The prolongation of action potential duration of urocortin2 was almost completely or partly abolished by H-89 (protein kinase A inhibitor) or KB-R7943 (Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange inhibitor) pretreatment respectively. And urocortin2 caused reduction of rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents in hERG-HEK293 cells. In addition, urocortin2 slowed the rate of slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel activation, and rightward shifted the threshold of slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents to more positive potentials. Urocortin2 prolonged action potential duration via activation of protein kinase A and Na(+)/ Ca(2+) exchange in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes in a time- and concentration- dependent manner. In hERG-HEK293 cells, urocortin2 reduced rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current density which may contribute to action potential duration prolongation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Blocking effect of NIP-142 on the KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel current expressed in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Namekata, Iyuki; Tsuruoka, Noriko; Tsuneoka, Yayoi; Matsuda, Tomoyuki; Takahara, Akira; Tanaka, Yoshio; Suzuki, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Iida-Tanaka, Naoko; Tanaka, Hikaru

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of NIP-142, a benzopyran compound with terminating effect on experimental atrial arrhythmia, on the KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel, which underlies the slow component of the cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channel (I(Ks)). NIP-142, as well as chromanol 293B, showed concentration-dependent blockade of the current expressed in HEK293 cells; the EC(50) value of NIP-142 and chromanol 293B for the inhibition of tail current was 13.2 µM and 4.9 µM, respectively. These results indicate that NIP-142 has blocking effect on the KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel current.

  17. Multiresidue Method for Analysis of β Agonists in Swine Urine by Enzyme Linked Receptor Assay Based on β2 Adrenergic Receptor Expressed in HEK293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; She, Yongxin; Wang, Miao; Jin, Maojun; Li, Yongfei; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    A novel enzyme-linked receptor assay (ELRA) based on β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) has been developed for rapid and high-throughput detection of β-adrenergic agonists (β-agonists) in urine. Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) were introduced as the expression system to enhance the functionality of the recombinant β2-AR, and the attempt to detect β-agonists in swine urine using such approaches was accomplished unprecedentedly. In this article, a recombinant porcine β2-AR was produced in the inner membrane of HEK293 cells and purified from crude membrane protein by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. After activity identification, the recombinant receptor was used in the development of direct competitive ELRA. Several parameters such as blocking buffer and blocking process were optimized and the performance of the system was determined. The IC50 concentrations of clenbuterol, salbutamol, and ractopamine were 34, 53 and 63 μg/L, and the average recovery rates were 68.2%, 60.3% and 65.5%, respectively. ELRA based on β2-AR shows a series of advantages such as safety, easy operation, and high efficiency, making it promising for the rapid screening of β-agonists in animal urine. PMID:26422475

  18. High Yield Expression of Recombinant Human Proteins with the Transient Transfection of HEK293 Cells in Suspension

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Ganesh P.; Johnson, Roy W.; Moniz, Heather A.; Moremen, Kelley W.; Barb, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The art of producing recombinant proteins with complex post-translational modifications represents a major challenge for studies of structure and function. The rapid establishment and high recovery from transiently-transfected mammalian cell lines addresses this barrier and is an effective means of expressing proteins that are naturally channeled through the ER and Golgi-mediated secretory pathway. Here is one protocol for protein expression using the human HEK293F and HEK293S cell lines transfected with a mammalian expression vector designed for high protein yields. The applicability of this system is demonstrated using three representative glycoproteins that expressed with yields between 95-120 mg of purified protein recovered per liter of culture. These proteins are the human FcγRIIIa and the rat α2-6 sialyltransferase, ST6GalI, both expressed with an N-terminal GFP fusion, as well as the unmodified human immunoglobulin G1 Fc. This robust system utilizes a serum-free medium that is adaptable for expression of isotopically enriched proteins and carbohydrates for structural studies using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Furthermore, the composition of the N-glycan can be tuned by adding a small molecule to prevent certain glycan modifications in a manner that does not reduce yield. PMID:26779721

  19. Minimal role of base excision repair in TET-induced global DNA demethylation in HEK293T cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chunlei; Qin, Taichun; Barton, Michelle Craig; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Issa, Jean-Pierre J

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation of 5-methylcytosine by TET family proteins can induce DNA replication-dependent (passive) DNA demethylation and base excision repair (BER)-based (active) DNA demethylation. The balance of active vs. passive TET-induced demethylation remains incompletely determined. In the context of large scale DNA demethylation, active demethylation may require massive induction of the DNA repair machinery and thus compromise genome stability. To study this issue, we constructed a tetracycline-controlled TET-induced global DNA demethylation system in HEK293T cells. Upon TET overexpression, we observed induction of DNA damage and activation of a DNA damage response; however, BER genes are not upregulated to promote DNA repair. Depletion of TDG (thymine DNA glycosylase) or APEX1 (apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1), two key BER enzymes, enhances rather than impairs global DNA demethylation, which can be explained by stimulated proliferation. By contrast, growth arrest dramatically blocks TET-induced global DNA demethylation. Thus, in the context of TET-induction in HEK293T cells, the DNA replication-dependent passive mechanism functions as the predominant pathway for global DNA demethylation. In the same context, BER-based active demethylation is markedly restricted by limited BER upregulation, thus potentially preventing a disastrous DNA damage response to extensive active DNA demethylation. PMID:26440216

  20. Propofol inhibits hERG K(+) channels and enhances the inhibition effects on its mutations in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Sheng-Na; Jing, Ying; Yang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Li-Rong

    2016-11-15

    QT interval prolongation, a potential risk for arrhythmias, may result from gene polymorphisms relevant to cardiomyocyte repolarization. Another noted cause of QT interval prolongation is the administration of chemical compounds such as anesthetics, which may affect a specific type of cardiac K(+) channel encoded by the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG). hERG K(+) current was recorded using whole-cell patch clamp in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells expressing wild type (WT) or mutated hERG channels. Expression of hERG K(+) channel proteins was evaluated using western blot and confirmed by fluorescent staining and imaging. Computational modeling was adopted to identify the possible binding site(s) of propofol with hERG K(+) channels. Propofol had a significant inhibitory effect on WT hERG K(+) currents in a concentration-dependent manner, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 60.9±6.4μM. Mutations in drug-binding sites (Y652A or F656C) of the hERG channel were found to attenuate hERG current blockage by propofol. However, propofol did not inhibit the trafficking of hERG protein to the cell membrane. Meanwhile, for the three selective hERG K(+) channel mutant heterozygotes WT/Q738X-hERG, WT/A422T-hERG, and WT/H562P-hERG, the IC50 of propofol was calculated as 14.2±2.8μM, 3.3±1.2μM, and 5.9±1.9μM, respectively, which were much lower than that for the wild type. These findings indicate that propofol may potentially increase QT interval prolongation risk in patients via direct inhibition of the hERG K(+) channel, especially in those with other concurrent triggering factors such as hERG gene mutations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Cleavable N-Terminal Signal Peptide Promotes Widespread Olfactory Receptor Surface Expression in HEK293T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Blythe D.; Natarajan, Niranjana; Protzko, Ryan J.; Acres, Omar W.; Pluznick, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are G protein-coupled receptors that detect odorants in the olfactory epithelium, and comprise the largest gene family in the genome. Identification of OR ligands typically requires OR surface expression in heterologous cells; however, ORs rarely traffic to the cell surface when exogenously expressed. Therefore, most ORs are orphan receptors with no known ligands. To date, studies have utilized non-cleavable rhodopsin (Rho) tags and/or chaperones (i.e. Receptor Transporting Protein, RTP1S, Ric8b and Gαolf) to improve surface expression. However, even with these tools, many ORs still fail to reach the cell surface. We used a test set of fifteen ORs to examine the effect of a cleavable leucine-rich signal peptide sequence (Lucy tag) on OR surface expression in HEK293T cells. We report here that the addition of the Lucy tag to the N-terminus increases the number of ORs reaching the cell surface to 7 of the 15 ORs (as compared to 3/15 without Rho or Lucy tags). Moreover, when ORs tagged with both Lucy and Rho were co-expressed with previously reported chaperones (RTP1S, Ric8b and Gαolf), we observed surface expression for all 15 receptors examined. In fact, two-thirds of Lucy-tagged ORs are able to reach the cell surface synergistically with chaperones even when the Rho tag is removed (10/15 ORs), allowing for the potential assessment of OR function with only an 8-amino acid Flag tag on the mature protein. As expected for a signal peptide, the Lucy tag was cleaved from the mature protein and did not alter OR-ligand binding and signaling. Our studies demonstrate that widespread surface expression of ORs can be achieved in HEK293T cells, providing promise for future large-scale deorphanization studies. PMID:23840901

  2. Investigation of free fatty acid associated recombinant membrane receptor protein expression in HEK293 cells using Raman spectroscopy, calcium imaging, and atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Juqiang; Xu, Han; Wu, Yangzhe; Tang, Mingjie; McEwen, Gerald D; Liu, Pin; Hansen, Dane R; Gilbertson, Timothy A; Zhou, Anhong

    2013-02-05

    G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) is a previously orphaned G-protein-coupled receptor that apparently functions as a sensor for dietary fat in the gustatory and digestive systems. In this study, a cDNA sequence encoding a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible mature peptide of GPR120 was inserted into an expression vector and transfected in HEK293 cells. We measured Raman spectra of single HEK293 cells as well as GPR120-expressing HEK293-GPR120 cells at a 48 h period following the additions of Dox at several concentrations. We found that the spectral intensity of HEK293-GPR120 cells is dependent upon the dose of Dox, which correlates with the accumulation of GPR120 protein in the cells. However, the amount of the fatty acid activated changes in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) as measured by ratiometric calcium imaging was not correlated with Dox concentration. Principal components analysis (PCA) of Raman spectra reveals that the spectra from different treatments of HEK293-GPR120 cells form distinct, completely separated clusters with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area of 1, while those spectra for the HEK293 cells form small overlap clusters with the ROC area of 0.836. It was also found that expression of GPR120 altered the physiochemical and biomechanical properties of the parental cell membrane surface, which was quantitated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). These findings demonstrate that the combination of Raman spectroscopy, calcium imaging, and AFM may provide new tools in noninvasive and quantitative monitoring of membrane receptor expression induced alterations in the biophysical and signaling properties of single living cells.

  3. Biophysical and Pharmacological Characterization of Nav1.9 Voltage Dependent Sodium Channels Stably Expressed in HEK-293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Sonia; Padilla, Karen; Printzenhoff, David; Castle, Neil A.

    2016-01-01

    The voltage dependent sodium channel Nav1.9, is expressed preferentially in peripheral sensory neurons and has been linked to human genetic pain disorders, which makes it target of interest for the development of new pain therapeutics. However, characterization of Nav1.9 pharmacology has been limited due in part to the historical difficulty of functionally expressing recombinant channels. Here we report the successful generation and characterization of human, mouse and rat Nav1.9 stably expressed in human HEK-293 cells. These cells exhibit slowly activating and inactivating inward sodium channel currents that have characteristics of native Nav1.9. Optimal functional expression was achieved by coexpression of Nav1.9 with β1/β2 subunits. While recombinantly expressed Nav1.9 was found to be sensitive to sodium channel inhibitors TC-N 1752 and tetracaine, potency was up to 100-fold less than reported for other Nav channel subtypes despite evidence to support an interaction with the canonical local anesthetic (LA) binding region on Domain 4 S6. Nav1.9 Domain 2 S6 pore domain contains a unique lysine residue (K799) which is predicted to be spatially near the local anesthetic interaction site. Mutation of this residue to the consensus asparagine (K799N) resulted in an increase in potency for tetracaine, but a decrease for TC-N 1752, suggesting that this residue can influence interaction of inhibitors with the Nav1.9 pore. In summary, we have shown that stable functional expression of Nav1.9 in the widely used HEK-293 cells is possible, which opens up opportunities to better understand channel properties and may potentially aid identification of novel Nav1.9 based pharmacotherapies. PMID:27556810

  4. STIM1 and STIM2 Proteins Differently Regulate Endogenous Store-operated Channels in HEK293 Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Shalygin, Alexey; Skopin, Anton; Kalinina, Vera; Zimina, Olga; Glushankova, Lyuba; Mozhayeva, Galina N.; Kaznacheyeva, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum calcium sensors stromal interaction molecules 1 and 2 (STIM1 and STIM2) are key modulators of store-operated calcium entry. Both these sensors play a major role in physiological functions in normal tissue and in pathology, but available data on native STIM2-regulated plasma membrane channels are scarce. Only a few studies have recorded STIM2-induced CRAC (calcium release-activated calcium) currents. On the other hand, many cell types display store-operated currents different from CRAC. The STIM1 protein regulates not only CRAC but also transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels, but it has remained unclear whether STIM2 is capable of regulating store-operated non-CRAC channels. Here we present for the first time experimental evidence for the existence of endogenous non-CRAC STIM2-regulated channels. As shown in single-channel patch clamp experiments on HEK293 cells, selective activation of native STIM2 proteins or STIM2 overexpression results in store-operated activation of Imin channels, whereas STIM1 activation blocks this process. Changes in the ratio between active STIM2 and STIM1 proteins can switch the regulation of Imin channels between store-operated and store-independent modes. We have previously characterized electrophysiological properties of different Ca2+ influx channels coexisting in HEK293 cells. The results of this study show that STIM1 and STIM2 differ in the ability to activate these store-operated channels; Imin channels are regulated by STIM2, TRPC3-containing INS channels are induced by STIM1, and TRPC1-composed Imax channels are activated by both STIM1 and STIM2. These new data about cross-talk between STIM1 and STIM2 and their different roles in store-operated channel activation are indicative of an additional level in the regulation of store-operated calcium entry pathways. PMID:25533457

  5. Overexpression of CLC-3 in HEK293T cells yields novel currents that are pH dependent.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, James J; Filali, Mohammed S; Volk, Kenneth A; Collins, Malia M; Moreland, Jessica G; Lamb, Fred S

    2008-01-01

    ClC-3 is a member of the ClC family of anion channels/transporters. Recently, the closely related proteins ClC-4 and ClC-5 were shown to be Cl(-)/H(+) antiporters (39, 44). The function of ClC-3 has been controversial. We studied anion currents in HEK293T cells expressing wild-type or mutant ClC-3. The basic biophysical properties of ClC-3 currents were very similar to those of ClC-4 and ClC-5, and distinct from those of the swelling-activated anion channel. ClC-3 expression induced currents with time-dependent activation that rectified sharply in the outward direction. The reversal potential of the current shifted by -48.3 +/- 2.5 mV per 10-fold (decade) change in extracellular Cl(-) concentration, which did not conform to the behavior of an anion-selective channel based upon the Nernst equation, which predicts a -58.4 mV/decade shift at 22 degrees C. Manipulation of extracellular pH (6.35-8.2) altered reversal potential by 10.2 +/- 3.0 mV/decade, suggesting that ClC-3 currents were coupled to proton movement. Mutation of a specific glutamate residue (E224A) changed voltage dependence in a manner similar to that observed in other ClC Cl(-)/H(+) antiporters. Mutant currents exhibited Nernstian changes in reversal potential in response to altered extracellular Cl(-) concentration that averaged -60 +/- 3.4 mV/decade and were pH independent. Thus ClC-3 overexpression induced a pH-sensitive conductance in HEK293T cells that is biophysically similar to ClC-4 and ClC-5.

  6. Endogenous and exogenous hydrogen sulfide facilitates T-type calcium channel currents in Cav3.2-expressing HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Miyamoto, Yosuke; Kanaoka, Daiki; Ide, Hiroki; Yoshida, Shigeru; Ohkubo, Tsuyako; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2014-02-28

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gasotransmitter, is formed from l-cysteine by multiple enzymes including cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). We have shown that an H2S donor, NaHS, causes hyperalgesia in rodents, an effect inhibited by knockdown of Cav3.2 T-type Ca(2+) channels (T-channels), and that NaHS facilitates T-channel-dependent currents (T-currents) in NG108-15 cells that naturally express Cav3.2. In the present study, we asked if endogenous and exogenous H2S participates in regulation of the channel functions in Cav3.2-transfected HEK293 (Cav3.2-HEK293) cells. dl-Propargylglycine (PPG), a CSE inhibitor, significantly decreased T-currents in Cav3.2-HEK293 cells, but not in NG108-15 cells. NaHS at 1.5mM did not affect T-currents in Cav3.2-HEK293 cells, but enhanced T-currents in NG108-15 cells. In the presence of PPG, NaHS at 1.5mM, but not 0.1-0.3mM, increased T-currents in Cav3.2-HEK293 cells. Similarly, Na2S, another H2S donor, at 0.1-0.3mM significantly increased T-currents in the presence, but not absence, of PPG in Cav3.2-HEK293 cells. Expression of CSE was detected at protein and mRNA levels in HEK293 cells. Intraplantar administration of Na2S, like NaHS, caused mechanical hyperalgesia, an effect blocked by NNC 55-0396, a T-channel inhibitor. The in vivo potency of Na2S was higher than NaHS. These results suggest that the function of Cav3.2 T-channels is tonically enhanced by endogenous H2S synthesized by CSE in Cav3.2-HEK293 cells, and that exogenous H2S is capable of enhancing Cav3.2 function when endogenous H2S production by CSE is inhibited. In addition, Na2S is considered a more potent H2S donor than NaHS in vitro as well as in vivo.

  7. E3 Ligase SCFβTrCP-induced DYRK1A Protein Degradation Is Essential for Cell Cycle Progression in HEK293 Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Tang, Yu; Chen, Long; Liu, Na; Lang, Fangfang; Liu, Heng; Wang, Pin; Sun, Xiulian

    2016-01-01

    DYRK1A, located on the Down syndrome (DS) critical region of chromosome 21, was found to be overexpressed in brains of DS and Alzheimer's disease individuals. DYRK1A was considered to play important roles in the pathogenesis of DS and Alzheimer's disease; however, the degradation mechanism of DYRK1A was still unclear. In this study, we found that DYRK1A was degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in HEK293 cells. The N terminus of DYRK1A that was highly unstable in HEK293 cells contributed to proteolysis of DYRK1A. E3 ligase SCFβTrCP mediated ubiquitination and promoted degradation of DYRK1A through an unconserved binding motif (49SDQQVSALS57) lying in the N terminus. Any Ser-Ala substitution in this motif could decrease the binding between DYRK1A and β-transducin repeat containing protein (βTrCP), resulting in stabilization of DYRK1A. We also found DYRK1A protein was elevated in the G0/G1 phase and decreased in the S and G2/M phase, which was negatively correlated to βTrCP levels in the HEK293 cell cycle. Knockdown of βTrCP caused arrest of the G0/G1 phase, which could be partly rescued by down-regulation of DYRK1A. Our study uncovered a new regulatory mechanism of DYRK1A degradation by SCFβTrCP in HEK293 cell cycle progression. PMID:27807027

  8. Wild-type and mutated presenilins 2 trigger p53-dependent apoptosis and down-regulate presenilin 1 expression in HEK293 human cells and in murine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Alves da Costa, Cristine; Paitel, Erwan; Mattson, Mark P.; Amson, Robert; Telerman, Adam; Ancolio, Karine; Checler, Frédéric

    2002-01-01

    Presenilins 1 and 2 are two homologous proteins that, when mutated, account for most early onset Alzheimer's disease. Several lines of evidence suggest that, among various functions, presenilins could modulate cell apoptotic responses. Here we establish that the overexpression of presenilin 2 (PS2) and its mutated form Asn-141-Ile-PS2 alters the viability of human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells as established by combined trypan blue exclusion, sodium 3′-[1-(phenylamino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro)benzene sulfonic acid hydrate assay, and propidium iodide incorporation FACS analyses. The two parent proteins increase the acetyl-DEVD-al-sensitive caspase-3-like activity in both HEK293 cells and Telencephalon specific murine neurons, modulate Bax and bcl-2 expressions, and enhance cytochrome C translocation into the cytosol. We show that overexpression of both wild-type and mutated PS2 increases p53-like immunoreactivity and transcriptional activity. We also establish that wild-type- and mutated PS2-induced caspase activation is reduced by p53 antisense approach and by pifithrin-α, a chemical inhibitor of p53. Furthermore, mouse fibroblasts in which the PS2 gene has been knocked out exhibited strongly reduced p53-transcriptional activity. Finally, we establish that the overexpression of both wild-type and mutated PS2 is accompanied by a drastic reduction of endogenous presenilin 1 (PS1) expression. Interestingly, pifithrin-α diminished endogenous PS2 immunoreactivity, whereas the inhibitor increases PS1 expression. Altogether, our data demonstrate that wild-type and familial Alzheimer's disease-linked PS2 trigger apoptosis and down-regulate PS1 expression through p53-dependent mechanisms. PMID:11904448

  9. Dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel antagonists and agonists block Kv4.2, Kv4.3 and Kv1.4 K+ channels expressed in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Noriyuki; Ohya, Susumu; Muraki, Katsuhiko; Giles, Wayne; Imaizumi, Yuji

    2003-06-01

    (1) We have determined the molecular basis of nicardipine-induced block of cardiac transient outward K(+) currents (I(to)). Inhibition of I(to) was studied using cloned voltage-dependent K(+) channels (Kv) channels, rat Kv4.3L, Kv4.2, and Kv1.4, expressed in human embryonic kidney cell line 293 (HEK293) cells. (2) Application of the dihydropyridine Ca(2+) channel antagonist, nicardipine, accelerated the inactivation rate and reduced the peak amplitude of Kv4.3L currents in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50): 0.42 micro M). The dihydropyridine (DHP) Ca(2+) channel agonist, Bay K 8644, also blocked this K(+) current (IC(50): 1.74 micro M). (3) Nicardipine (1 micro M) slightly, but significantly, shifted the voltage dependence of activation and steady-state inactivation to more negative potentials, and also slowed markedly the recovery from inactivation of Kv4.3L currents. (4) Coexpression of K(+) channel-interacting protein 2 (KChIP2) significantly slowed the inactivation of Kv4.3L currents as expected. However, the features of DHP-induced block of K(+) current were not substantially altered. (5) Nicardipine exhibited similar block of Kv1.4 and Kv4.2 channels stably expressed in HEK293 cells; IC(50)'s were 0.80 and 0.62 micro M, respectively. (6) Thus, at submicromolar concentrations, DHP Ca(2+) antagonist and agonist inhibit Kv4.3L and have similar inhibiting effects on other components of cardiac I(to), Kv4.2 and Kv1.4.

  10. Human concentrative nucleoside transporter 3 transfection with ultrasound and microbubbles in nucleoside transport deficient HEK293 cells greatly increases gemcitabine uptake.

    PubMed

    Paproski, Robert J; Yao, Sylvia Y M; Favis, Nicole; Evans, David; Young, James D; Cass, Carol E; Zemp, Roger J

    2013-01-01

    Gemcitabine is a hydrophilic clinical anticancer drug that requires nucleoside transporters to cross plasma membranes and enter cells. Pancreatic adenocarcinomas with low levels of nucleoside transporters are generally resistant to gemcitabine and are currently a clinical problem. We tested whether transfection of human concentrative nucleoside transporter 3 (hCNT3) using ultrasound and lipid stabilized microbubbles could increase gemcitabine uptake and sensitivity in HEK293 cells made nucleoside transport deficient by pharmacologic treatment with dilazep. To our knowledge, no published data exists regarding the utility of using hCNT3 as a therapeutic gene to reverse gemcitabine resistance. Our ultrasound transfection system--capable of transfection of cell cultures, mouse muscle and xenograft CEM/araC tumors--increased hCNT3 mRNA and (3)H-gemcitabine uptake by >2,000- and 3,400-fold, respectively, in dilazep-treated HEK293 cells. Interestingly, HEK293 cells with both functional human equilibrative nucleoside transporters and hCNT3 displayed 5% of (3)H-gemcitabine uptake observed in cells with only functional hCNT3, suggesting that equilibrative nucleoside transporters caused significant efflux of (3)H-gemcitabine. Efflux assays confirmed that dilazep could inhibit the majority of (3)H-gemcitabine efflux from HEK293 cells, suggesting that hENTs were responsible for the majority of efflux from the tested cells. Oocyte uptake transport assays were also performed and provided support for our hypothesis. Gemcitabine uptake and efflux assays were also performed on pancreatic cancer AsPC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells with similar results to that of HEK293 cells. Using the MTS proliferation assay, dilazep-treated HEK293 cells demonstrated 13-fold greater resistance to gemcitabine compared to dilazep-untreated HEK293 cells and this resistance could be reversed by transfection of hCNT3 cDNA. We propose that transfection of hCNT3 cDNA using ultrasound and microbubbles may be a

  11. A cancer/testis antigen, NY-SAR-35, induces EpCAM, CD44, and CD133, and activates ERK in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Myung-Ha; Kim, Ye-Rin; Bae, Jae-Ho; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Yull

    2017-03-04

    The cancer/testis (CT) antigen NY-SAR-35 gene is located on the X chromosome and is aberrantly expressed in various cancers but not in normal tissues, other than testes. Previously, we reported the expression of NY-SAR-35 enhanced cell growth, proliferation, and invasion in HEK293 and cancer cells. To extend understanding of the NY-SAR-35 gene, we used a next generation sequencing (NGS) approach. NY-SAR-35 expression induced growth, proliferation, metastasis, and stemness genes, as indicated by the up-regulations of CXCR4, EpCAM, CD133, and CD44, at the mRNA and protein levels. The expression of NY-SAR-35 in HEK293 cells significantly increased ERK phosphorylation, but not the phosphorylation of AKT. In HEK293/NY-SAR-35 cells, the expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins, including p53, Bax, and p21, were reduced and that of cyclin E was increased. Also, NY-SAR-35 increased the expressions of pluripotency genes (Nanog, Oct-4, and Sox2) and the ability of HEK293 cells to form colonies. Taken together, the present study indicates NY-SAR-35 functions as a CT antigen that triggers oncogenesis and self-renewal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. DNA Damage Signaling Is Required for Replication of Human Bocavirus 1 DNA in Dividing HEK293 Cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xuefeng; Xu, Peng; Zou, Wei; Shen, Weiran; Peng, Jianxin; Liu, Kaiyu; Engelhardt, John F; Yan, Ziying; Qiu, Jianming

    2017-01-01

    Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), an emerging human-pathogenic respiratory virus, is a member of the genus Bocaparvovirus of the Parvoviridae family. In human airway epithelium air-liquid interface (HAE-ALI) cultures, HBoV1 infection initiates a DNA damage response (DDR), activating all three phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PI3KKs): ATM, ATR, and DNA-PKcs. In this context, activation of PI3KKs is a requirement for amplification of the HBoV1 genome (X. Deng, Z. Yan, F. Cheng, J. F. Engelhardt, and J. Qiu, PLoS Pathog, 12:e1005399, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005399), and HBoV1 replicates only in terminally differentiated, nondividing cells. This report builds on the previous discovery that the replication of HBoV1 DNA can also occur in dividing HEK293 cells, demonstrating that such replication is likewise dependent on a DDR. Transfection of HEK293 cells with the duplex DNA genome of HBoV1 induces hallmarks of DDR, including phosphorylation of H2AX and RPA32, as well as activation of all three PI3KKs. The large viral nonstructural protein NS1 is sufficient to induce the DDR and the activation of the three PI3KKs. Pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of any one of the PI3KKs significantly decreases both the replication of HBoV1 DNA and the downstream production of progeny virions. The DDR induced by the HBoV1 NS1 protein does not cause obvious damage to cellular DNA or arrest of the cell cycle. Notably, key DNA replication factors and major DNA repair DNA polymerases (polymerase η [Pol η] and polymerase κ [Pol κ]) are recruited to the viral DNA replication centers and facilitate HBoV1 DNA replication. Our study provides the first evidence of the DDR-dependent parvovirus DNA replication that occurs in dividing cells and is independent of cell cycle arrest.

  13. Receptor FGFRL1 acts as a tumor suppressor in nude mice when overexpressed in HEK 293 Tet-On cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Lei; Steinberg, Florian; Trueb, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 (FGFRL1) is a transmembrane receptor that interacts with heparin and FGF ligands. In contrast to the classical FGF receptors, FGFR1 to FGFR4, it does not appear to affect cell growth and proliferation. In the present study, an inducible gene expression system was utilized in combination with a xenograft tumor model to investigate the effects of FGFRL1 on cell adhesion and tumor formation. It was determined that recombinant FGFRL1 promotes the adhesion of HEK 293 Tet-On® cells in vitro. Moreover, when such cells are induced to express FGFRL1ΔC they aggregate into huge clusters. If injected into nude mice, the cells form large tumors. Notably, this tumor growth is completely inhibited when the expression of FGFRL1 is induced. The forced expression of FGFRL1 in the tumor tissue may restore contact inhibition, thereby preventing growth of the cells in nude mice. The results of the present study demonstrate that FGFRL1 acts as a tumor suppressor similar to numerous other cell adhesion proteins. It is therefore likely that FGFRL1 functions as a regular cell-cell adhesion protein. PMID:28101211

  14. Selection and optimization of transfection enhancer additives for increased virus-like particle production in HEK293 suspension cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Laura; Fuenmayor, Javier; González-Domínguez, Irene; Gutiérrez-Granados, Sonia; Segura, Maria Mercedes; Gòdia, Francesc

    2015-12-01

    The manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals in mammalian cells typically relies on the use of stable producer cell lines. However, in recent years, transient gene expression has emerged as a suitable technology for rapid production of biopharmaceuticals. Transient gene expression is particularly well suited for early developmental phases, where several potential therapeutic targets need to be produced and tested in vivo. As a relatively new bioprocessing modality, a number of opportunities exist for improving cell culture productivity upon transient transfection. For instance, several compounds have shown positive effects on transient gene expression. These transfection enhancers either facilitate entry of PEI/DNA transfection complexes into the cell or nucleus or increase levels of gene expression. In this work, the potential of combining transfection enhancers to increase Gag-based virus-like particle production levels upon transfection of suspension-growing HEK 293 cells is evaluated. Using Plackett-Burman design of experiments, it is first tested the effect of eight transfection enhancers: trichostatin A, valproic acid, sodium butyrate, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), lithium acetate, caffeine, hydroxyurea, and nocodazole. An optimal combination of compounds exhibiting the highest effect on gene expression levels was subsequently identified using a surface response experimental design. The optimal consisted on the addition of 20 mM lithium acetate, 3.36 mM valproic acid, and 5.04 mM caffeine which increased VLP production levels 3.8-fold, while maintaining cell culture viability at 94%.

  15. Attenuation of Oxidative Stress in HEK 293 Cells by the TCM Constituents Schisanhenol, Baicalein, Resveratrol or Crocetin and Two Defined Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bend, John Richard; Xia, Xue Yan; Chen, Daofeng; Awaysheh, Abudi; Lo, Andrea; Rieder, Michael John; Rylett, Rebecca Jane

    2015-01-01

    Our working hypothesis is that single bioactive phytochemicals with antioxidant properties that are important constituents of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and their defined mixtures have potential as chemoprotective agents for chronic conditions characterized by oxidative and nitrosative stress, including Alzheimer's. Here we evaluate the ability of baicalein, crocetin, trans-resveratrol or schisanhenol and two defined mixtures of these TCM phytochemicals to attenuate the toxicity resulting from exposure to cell permeant t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBPH) in wild-type and bioengineered (to express choline acetyltransferase) HEK 293 cells. Endpoints of tBHP-initiated oxidative and nitrosative stress in both types of HEK 293 cells and its attenuation by TCM constituents and mixtures included cytotoxicity (LDH release); depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH); formation of S-glutathionylated proteins; oxidative changes to the disulfide proteome; and real-time changes in intracellular redox status. At low µM concentrations, each of the TCM constituents and mixtures effectively attenuated intracellular toxicity due to exposure of HEK 293 cells to 50 or 250 µM tBHP for 30 min to 3 h. Confocal microscopy of HEK 293 cells transfected with mutated green fluorescent protein (roGFP2) showed effective attenuation of tBHP oxidation by baicalein in real time. Three redox-regulated proteins prominent in the disulfide proteome of HEK 293 cells were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We conclude that single TCM chemicals and their simple mixtures have potential for use in adjunct chemoprotective therapy. Advantages of mixtures compared to single TCM constituents include the ability to combine compounds with varying molecular mechanisms of cytoprotection for enhanced biological activity; and to combine chemicals with complementary pharmacokinetic properties to increase half-life and prolong activity in vivo. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered

  16. Transient transfection of serum-free suspension HEK 293 cell culture for efficient production of human rFVIII

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hemophilia A is a bleeding disorder caused by deficiency in coagulation factor VIII. Recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) is an alternative to plasma-derived FVIII for the treatment of hemophilia A. However, commercial manufacturing of rFVIII products is inefficient and costly and is associated to high prices and product shortage, even in economically privileged countries. This situation may be solved by adopting more efficient production methods. Here, we evaluated the potential of transient transfection in producing rFVIII in serum-free suspension HEK 293 cell cultures and investigated the effects of different DNA concentration (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 μg/106 cells) and repeated transfections done at 34° and 37°C. Results We observed a decrease in cell growth when high DNA concentrations were used, but no significant differences in transfection efficiency and in the biological activity of the rFVIII were noticed. The best condition for rFVIII production was obtained with repeated transfections at 34°C using 0.4 μg DNA/106 cells through which almost 50 IU of active rFVIII was produced six days post-transfection. Conclusion Serum-free suspension transient transfection is thus a viable option for high-yield-rFVIII production. Work is in progress to further optimize the process and validate its scalability. PMID:22115125

  17. Rapid Cl⁻/HCO⁻₃exchange kinetics of AE1 in HEK293 cells and hereditary stomatocytosis red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Frumence, Etienne; Genetet, Sandrine; Ripoche, Pierre; Iolascon, Achille; Andolfo, Immacolata; Le Van Kim, Caroline; Colin, Yves; Mouro-Chanteloup, Isabelle; Lopez, Claude

    2013-09-15

    Anion exchanger 1 (AE1) or band 3 is a membrane protein responsible for the rapid exchange of chloride for bicarbonate across the red blood cell membrane. Nine mutations leading to single amino-acid substitutions in the transmembrane domain of AE1 are associated with dominant hereditary stomatocytosis, monovalent cation leaks, and reduced anion exchange activity. We set up a stopped-flow spectrofluorometry assay coupled with flow cytometry to investigate the anion transport and membrane expression characteristics of wild-type recombinant AE1 in HEK293 cells, using an inducible expression system. Likewise, study of three stomatocytosis-associated mutations (R730C, E758K, and G796R), allowed the validation of our method. Measurement of the rapid and specific chloride/bicarbonate exchange by surface expressed AE1 showed that E758K mutant was fully active compared with wild-type (WT) AE1, whereas R730C and G796R mutants were inactive, reinforcing previously reported data on other experimental models. Stopped-flow analysis of AE1 transport activity in red blood cell ghost preparations revealed a 50% reduction of G796R compared with WT AE1 corresponding to a loss of function of the G796R mutated protein, in accordance with the heterozygous status of the AE1 variant patients. In conclusion, stopped-flow led to measurement of rapid transport kinetics using the natural substrate for AE1 and, conjugated with flow cytometry, allowed a reliable correlation of chloride/bicarbonate exchange to surface expression of AE1, both in recombinant cells and ghosts and therefore a fine comparison of function between different stomatocytosis samples. This technical approach thus provides significant improvements in anion exchange analysis in red blood cells.

  18. 3D printing of HEK 293FT cell-laden hydrogel into macroporous constructs with high cell viability and normal biological functions.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Liliang; Yao, Rui; Chen, Xi; Na, Jie; Sun, Wei

    2015-02-18

    3D printing has evolved into a versatile technology for fabricating tissue-engineered constructs with spatially controlled cells and biomaterial distribution to allow biomimicking of in vivo tissues. In this paper, we reported a novel study of 3D printing of cell lines derived from human embryonic kidney tissue into a macroporous tissue-like construct. Nozzle temperature, chamber temperature and the composition of the matrix material were studied to achieve high cell viability (>90%) after 3D printing and construct formation. Long-term construct stability with a clear grid structure up to 30 days was observed. Cells continued to grow as cellular spheroids with strong cell-cell interactions. Two transfected cell lines of HEK 293FT were also 3D printed and showed normal biological functions, i.e. protein synthesis and gene activation in responding to small molecule stimulus. With further refinement, this 3D cell printing technology may lead to a practical fabrication of functional embryonic tissues in vitro.

  19. MicroRNA-939 down-regulates CD2-associated protein by targeting promoter in HEK-293T cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Ling-Zhi; Zhou, Guo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    CD2-associated protein (CD2AP) serves as a slit diaphragm (SD) protein and plays essential roles in maintaining podocyte integrity and reducing proteinuria. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are novel regulators of gene expression. Podocyte-specific loss of miRNAs would lead to significant proteinuria. Here, we report new evidence in which miRNAs may function to suppress CD2AP expression through a transcriptional way. By scanning human CD2AP promoter in silico for sequences complementary to known miRNAs, we chose miR-939, miR-148b*, miR-191*, miR-638 as four candidates and transfected them into HEK-293T cells. Dual-luciferase reporter assay identified that only miR-939 significantly reduced the relative luciferase activity of CD2AP promoter region. Further analysis confirmed that the mRNA and protein expressions of CD2AP were also down-regulated by miR-939. In conclusion, we have identified that miR-939 targets CD2AP promoter sequences and suppresses its gene expression. These findings suggest that miRNAs may mediate podocyte injury via reducing the expression of the SD proteins, such as CD2AP.

  20. Hyperosmotic pressure on HEK 293 cells during the growth phase, but not the production phase, improves adenovirus production.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chun Fang; Kamen, Amine

    2012-01-01

    Hyperosmotic stress has been widely explored as a means of improving specific antibody productivity in mammalian cell cultures. In contrast, a decrease in cell-specific productivity of adenovirus production has been reported in several studies in which virus production in HEK 293 cell cultures was conducted under hyperosmotic conditions. However, production of viral vectors and, in particular, adenoviral vectors is the result of two consecutive phases: the growth phase and the virus production phase. In this study, the singular and combined effects of osmolality on the phases of cell growth and virus production were evaluated in culture media with osmolalities ranging from 250 to 410mOsm. A two-factor, five-level full factorial design was used to investigate the effect of osmotic stress on cell physiology, as determined through the characterization of cell growth, cell metabolism, cell viability, cell cycle, cell RNA and total protein content, and total virus yield/cell-specific virus productivity. Overall, the results show that the growth of cells under hyperosmotic conditions induced favorable physiological states for viral production, and the specific virus productivity was improved by more than 11-fold when the medium's osmolality was increased from 250 to 410mOsm during the cell growth phase. Both hypo- and hyperosmotic stresses in the virus production phase reduced virus productivity by as much as a factor of six. Optimal virus productivity was achieved by growing cells in media with an osmolality of 370mOsm or greater, followed by a virus production phase at an osmolality of 290mOsm. Compared to standard culture and production conditions in isotonic media, the shift from high to low osmolality between the two phases resulted in a two- to three-fold increase in virus yields. This hyperosmotic pressure effect on virus productivity was reproduced in five different commercial serum-free media. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  1. Reduced expression of Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor-alpha modulates the cytotoxic effect of busulfan in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Janka; Bien, Sandra; Sonnemann, Jürgen; Beck, James F; Wieland, Thomas; Kroemer, Heyo K; Ritter, Christoph A

    2007-03-01

    High-dose busulfan is an important component in many conditioning protocols for hematopoietic stem cell or bone marrow transplantation. Treatment with busulfan results in the inhibition of cell cycle progression and apoptosis of tumor cells. As Rho GTPases are involved in cell cycle regulation, we investigated the influence of modified Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor-alpha (GDI), a physiological inhibitor of Rho GTPases, on busulfan activity in cancer cells. RhoGDIalpha has been shown to be overexpressed in multiple types of tumors such as ovarian and breast cancer. To investigate the role of RhoGDIalpha, we established a RhoGDIalpha knockdown by the transient transfection of HEK293 cells with specific small interfering RNA resulting in strongly reduced RhoGDIalpha mRNA and protein expression. Other members of the RhoGDI family such as RhoGDIbeta and RhoGDIgamma were not affected. In RhoGDIalpha knockdown cells, cell cycle regulation was not altered by the downregulation of RhoGDIalpha; however, the rate of apoptotic cells increased when compared with the control small interfering RNA-transfected cells. In addition, treatment of cells with busulfan resulted in a further increased apoptotic rate, as determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis and caspase-3 activation. Such a sensitization of RhoGDIalpha small interfering RNA transfected cells was also found upon treatment with doxorubicin and taxol. In summary, we could demonstrate that the expression of RhoGDIalpha influences the sensitivity of cells toward busulfan-induced cytotoxicity.

  2. Inhibition of NAMPT pathway by FK866 activates the function of p53 in HEK293T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, Basant Kumar; Dittrich, Tino; Chandra, Prakash; Becker, Annette; Lippka, Yannick; Selvakumar, Divakarvel; Klusmann, Jan-Henning; Reinhardt, Dirk; Welte, Karl

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In 293T cells, p53 is considered to be inactive due to its interaction with the large T-antigen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation of p53 at lysine 382 is important for its functional activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First evidence to document the presence of a functional p53 in 293T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of NAMPT/SIRT pathway by FK866 in 293T cells increases the functional activity of p53. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This activation of p53 involves reversible acetylation of p53 at lysine 382. -- Abstract: Inactivation of p53 protein by endogenous and exogenous carcinogens is involved in the pathogenesis of different human malignancies. In cancer associated with SV-40 DNA tumor virus, p53 is considered to be non-functional mainly due to its interaction with the large T-antigen. Using the 293T cell line (HEK293 cells transformed with large T antigen) as a model, we provide evidence that p53 is one of the critical downstream targets involved in FK866-mediated killing of 293T cells. A reduced rate of apoptosis and an increased number of cells in S-phase was accompanied after knockdown of p53 in these cells. Inhibition of NAMPT by FK866, or inhibition of SIRT by nicotinamide decreased proliferation and triggered death of 293T cells involving the p53 acetylation pathway. Additionally, knockdown of p53 attenuated the effect of FK866 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest. The data presented here shed light on two important facts: (1) that p53 in 293T cells is active in the presence of FK866, an inhibitor of NAMPT pathway; (2) the apoptosis induced by FK866 in 293T cells is associated with increased acetylation of p53 at Lys382, which is required for the functional activity of p53.

  3. Intracellular characterization of Gag VLP production by transient transfection of HEK 293 cells.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Laura; González-Domínguez, Irene; Segura, María Mercedes; Gòdia, Francesc

    2017-11-01

    Transient transfection is a fast, flexible, and cost-effective approach to produce biological products. Despite the continued interest in transient transfection, little is known regarding the transfection process at the intracellular level, particularly for complex products, such as virus-like particles (VLPs). The kinetics of PEI-mediated transfection following an established in-house protocol is reported in this work with the aim of characterizing and understanding the complete process leading to VLP generation and identifying important events driving process improvement. For this purpose, DNA/PEI polyplexes' internalization in cells was tracked using Cy3 DNA staining. The production of a fluorescently labeled Gag polyprotein (a Gag-GFP fusion construct that forms fluorescent Gag-VLPs) was monitored by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, and the VLP concentration in supernatants was measured by fluorometry. DNA/PEI polyplexes interact with the cell membrane immediately after polyplex addition to the cell culture. A linear increase in the number of cells expressing the protein is observed during the first 60 min of contact between the cells and polyplexes. No additional improvement in the number of cells expressing the protein (up to 60%) or VLP production (up to 1 × 10(10) VLPs/mL) is observed with additional contact time between the cells and polyplexes. Polyplexes can be detected in the cytoplasm of transfected cells as early as 1.5 h post-transfection (hpt) and reach the nucleus approximately 4 hpt. GFP fluorescence is observed homogeneously in the cytoplasm of transfected cells 24 hpt, but generalized VLP budding is not observed by microscopy until 48 hpt. Although all cells have internalized a polyplex soon after transfection, only a fraction of cells (60%) express the fluorescent Gag protein. VLP production kinetics was also studied. Fluorescence in the supernatant (enveloped VLPs) is 40% less than total fluorescence, supernatant plus pellet

  4. Rapid high-throughput cloning and stable expression of antibodies in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Spidel, Jared L; Vaessen, Benjamin; Chan, Yin Yin; Grasso, Luigi; Kline, J Bradford

    2016-12-01

    Single-cell based amplification of immunoglobulin variable regions is a rapid and powerful technique for cloning antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for purposes ranging from general laboratory reagents to therapeutic drugs. From the initial screening process involving small quantities of hundreds or thousands of mAbs through in vitro characterization and subsequent in vivo experiments requiring large quantities of only a few, having a robust system for generating mAbs from cloning through stable cell line generation is essential. A protocol was developed to decrease the time, cost, and effort required by traditional cloning and expression methods by eliminating bottlenecks in these processes. Removing the clonal selection steps from the cloning process using a highly efficient ligation-independent protocol and from the stable cell line process by utilizing bicistronic plasmids to generate stable semi-clonal cell pools facilitated an increased throughput of the entire process from plasmid assembly through transient transfections and selection of stable semi-clonal cell pools. Furthermore, the time required by a single individual to clone, express, and select stable cell pools in a high-throughput format was reduced from 4 to 6months to only 4 to 6weeks. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of NOD2-mediated proteome response to muramyl dipeptide in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Weichart, Dieter; Gobom, Johan; Klopfleisch, Sina; Häsler, Robert; Gustavsson, Niklas; Billmann, Susanne; Lehrach, Hans; Seegert, Dirk; Schreiber, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip

    2006-01-27

    NOD2, a cytosolic receptor for the bacterial proteoglycan fragment muramyl dipeptide (MDP), plays an important role in the recognition of intracellular pathogens. Variants in the bacterial sensor domain of NOD2 are genetically associated with an increased risk for the development of Crohn disease, a human chronic inflammatory bowel disease. In the present study, global protein expression changes after MDP stimulation were analyzed by two-dimensional PAGE of total protein extracts of human cultured cells stably transfected with expression constructs encoding for wild type NOD2 (NOD2(WT)) or the disease-associated NOD2 L1007fsinsC (NOD2(SNP13)) variant. Differentially regulated proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) peptide mass fingerprinting and MALDI MS/MS. The limited overlap in the responses of the NOD2-overexpressing cell lines to MDP included a down-regulation of heat shock 70-kDa protein 4. A complex pro-inflammatory program regulated by NOD2(WT) that encompasses a regulation of key genes involved in protein folding, DNA repair, cellular redox homeostasis, and metabolism was observed both under normal growth conditions and after stimulation with MDP. By using the comparison of NOD2(WT) and disease-associated NOD2(SNP13) variant, we have identified a proteomic signature pattern that may further our understanding of the influence of genetic variations in the NOD2 gene in the pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

  6. Delta-6 desaturase from borage converts linoleic acid to gamma-linolenic acid in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Nimal, Jonathan; Li, Wanli; Liu, Xia; Cao, Wenguang

    2011-07-08

    Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3 n6) is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid of the omega-6 family and is found to be effective in prevention and/or treatment of various health problems. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of increasing γ-linolenic acid contents in mammalian cells using the delta-6 gene from Borago officinalis. The borage Δ6-desaturase gene (sDelta-6) was codon-optimized and introduced into HEK293 cells by lipofectin transfection. Co-expression of GFP with sDelta-6 and RT-PCR analysis indicated that sDelta-6 could be expressed in mammalian cells. Subsequently, the heterologous expression of borage Δ6-desaturase was evaluated by fatty acid analysis. Total cellular lipid analysis of transformed cells fed with linoleic acid (LA 18:2 n6) as a substrate showed that the expression of sDelta-6 resulted in an 228-483% (p<0.05) increase of GLA when compared with that in the control cells. The highest conversion efficiency of LA into GLA in sDelta-6(+) cells was 6.9 times higher than that in the control group (11.59% vs. 1.69%; p<0.05). Our present work demonstrated that the sDelta-6 gene from borage could be functionally expressed in mammalian cells, and could convert LA into GLA. Furthermore, this study may pave the way to generate transgenic livestock that can synthesise GLA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. COG Complex Complexities: Detailed Characterization of a Complete Set of HEK293T Cells Lacking Individual COG Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Bailey Blackburn, Jessica; Pokrovskaya, Irina; Fisher, Peter; Ungar, Daniel; Lupashin, Vladimir V.

    2016-01-01

    The Conserved Oligomeric Golgi complex is an evolutionarily conserved multisubunit tethering complex (MTC) that is crucial for intracellular membrane trafficking and Golgi homeostasis. The COG complex interacts with core vesicle docking and fusion machinery at the Golgi; however, its exact mechanism of action is still an enigma. Previous studies of COG complex were limited to the use of CDGII (Congenital disorders of glycosylation type II)-COG patient fibroblasts, siRNA mediated knockdowns, or protein relocalization approaches. In this study we have used the CRISPR approach to generate HEK293T knock-out (KO) cell lines missing individual COG subunits. These cell lines were characterized for glycosylation and trafficking defects, cell proliferation rates, stability of COG subunits, localization of Golgi markers, changes in Golgi structure, and N-glycan profiling. We found that all KO cell lines were uniformly deficient in cis/medial-Golgi glycosylation and each had nearly abolished binding of Cholera toxin. In addition, all cell lines showed defects in Golgi morphology, retrograde trafficking and sorting, sialylation and fucosylation, but severities varied according to the affected subunit. Lobe A and Cog6 subunit KOs displayed a more severely distorted Golgi structure, while Cog2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 knock outs had the most hypo glycosylated form of Lamp2. These results led us to conclude that every subunit is essential for COG complex function in Golgi trafficking, though to varying extents. We believe that this study and further analyses of these cells will help further elucidate the roles of individual COG subunits and bring a greater understanding to the class of MTCs as a whole. PMID:27066481

  8. Generation of apoptosis-resistant HEK293 cells with CRISPR/Cas mediated quadruple gene knockout for improved protein and virus production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weifeng; Xiao, Dan; Shan, Linlin; Zhao, Junli; Mao, Qinwen; Xia, Haibin

    2017-11-01

    Apoptosis has important functions during pathophysiologic processes. However, from a biopharmaceutical point of view, active apoptosis of host cells is undesirable during viral packaging or protein expression, because it decreases the efficiency of viral or protein production. Here we used the CRISPR/Cas technique to knock out four pro-apoptotic genes, Caspase3, Caspase6, Caspase7 and AIF1, in HEK293 cells, and successfully produced an apoptosis-resistant cell line. Furthermore, this cell line showed higher expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins and higher packaging efficiency for the virus carrying these proteins than control HEK293 cells. This study not only produced an apoptosis-resistant cell line that is useful in producing apoptosis-inducing proteins or viruses expressing these proteins, but also provides a methodology to build other apoptosis-resistant cell lines. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Process intensification for high yield production of influenza H1N1 Gag virus-like particles using an inducible HEK-293 stable cell line.

    PubMed

    Venereo-Sanchez, Alina; Simoneau, Melanie; Lanthier, Stéphane; Chahal, Parminder; Bourget, Lucie; Ansorge, Sven; Gilbert, Rénald; Henry, Olivier; Kamen, Amine

    2017-07-24

    Influenza virus dominant antigens presentation using virus like particle (VLP) approach is attractive for the development of new generation of influenza vaccines. Mammalian cell platform offers many advantages for VLP production. However, limited attention has been paid to the processing of mammalian cell produced VLPs. Better understanding of the production system could contribute to increasing the yields and making large-scale VLP vaccine manufacturing feasible. In a previous study, we have generated a human embryonic kidney HEK-293 inducible cell line expressing Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA), which was used to produce VLPs upon transient transfection with a plasmid containing HIV-1 Gag. In this work, to streamline the production process, we have developed a new HEK-293 inducible cell line adapted to suspension growth expressing the three proteins HA, NA (H1N1 A/PR/8/1934) and the Gag fused to GFP for monitoring the VLP production. The process was optimized to reach higher volumetric yield of VLPs by increasing the cell density at the time of induction without sacrificing the cell specific productivity. A 5-fold improvement was achieved by doing media evaluation at small scale. Furthermore, a 3-L perfusion bioreactor mirrored the performance of small-scale shake flask cultures with sequential medium replacement. The cell density was increased to 14×10(6) cells/ml at the time of induction which augmented by 60-fold the volumetric yield to 1.54×10(10) Gag-GFP fluorescent events/ml, as measured by flow cytometry. The 9.5-L harvest from the perfusion bioreactor was concentrated by tangential flow filtration at low shear rate. The electron micrographs revealed the presence of VLPs of 100-150nm with the characteristic dense core of HIV-1 particles. The developed process shows the feasibility of producing high quantity of influenza VLPs from an inducible mammalian stable cell line aiming at large scale vaccine manufacturing. Crown Copyright © 2017

  10. Downregulation of striatin leads to hyperphosphorylation of MAP2, induces depolymerization of microtubules and inhibits proliferation of HEK293T cells.

    PubMed

    Kaźmierczak-Barańska, Julia; Pęczek, Łukasz; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Cieślak, Marcin J

    2015-01-16

    Microtubules are tubular polymers of α/β-tubulin that are involved in the maintenance of cell shape, motility, and intracellular transport and in the segregation of chromosomes during cell division. Microtubules are dynamic structures, and their assembly is regulated by phosphoproteins called microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). We propose that striatin, a protein belonging to the striatin family of proteins, is involved in regulation of microtubules. In HEK293T cells, striatin colocalizes with microtubules and stably associates with PP2Ac. Inhibition of striatin expression results in hyperphosphorylation of MAP2 and destabilizes microtubules. Striatin-induced destabilization of microtubules inhibited the proliferation of HEK293T cells and caused the accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. These results suggest that the PP2A/striatin complex modulates microtubule dynamics by regulating MAP2 phosphorylation.

  11. Effects of Tannic Acid, Green Tea and Red Wine on hERG Channels Expressed in HEK293 Cells.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xi; Guo, Yusong; Xu, Bingyuan; Li, Wenya; Lin, Yue; Sun, Xiaorun; Ding, Chunhua; Zhang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Tannic acid presents in varying concentrations in plant foods, and in relatively high concentrations in green teas and red wines. Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels expressed in multiple tissues (e.g. heart, neurons, smooth muscle and cancer cells), and play important roles in modulating cardiac action potential repolarization and tumor cell biology. The present study investigated the effects of tannic acid, green teas and red wines on hERG currents. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wines on hERG currents stably transfected in HEK293 cells were studied with a perforated patch clamp technique. In this study, we demonstrated that tannic acid inhibited hERG currents with an IC50 of 3.4 μM and ~100% inhibition at higher concentrations, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ23.2 mV). Remarkably, a 100-fold dilution of multiple types of tea (green tea, oolong tea and black tea) or red wine inhibited hERG currents by ~90%, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ30.8 mV and Δ26.0 mV, respectively). Green tea Lung Ching and red wine inhibited hERG currents, with IC50 of 0.04% and 0.19%, respectively. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wine on hERG currents were irreversible. These results suggest tannic acid is a novel hERG channel blocker and consequently provide a new mechanistic evidence for understanding the effects of tannic acid. They also revealed the potential pharmacological basis of tea- and red wine-induced biology activities.

  12. Redox regulation of neutral sphingomyelinase-1 activity in HEK293 cells through a GSH-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Martín, Sergio F; Sawai, Hirofumi; Villalba, José M; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2007-03-15

    Phospholipases are essential enzymes in cellular signalling processes such as cellular differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Based on its high degree of homology with sequences of prokaryote SMases, a type of Mg(2+)-dependent PLC (nSMase-1) was recently discovered which displayed strong redox dependence for activity in vitro [F. Rodrigues-Lima, A.C. Fensome, M. Josephs, J. Evans, R.J. Veldman, M. Katan (2000), J. Biol. Chem. 275 (36) 28316-28325]. The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that glutathione could be a natural regulator of nSMase-1 activity ex vivo. We studied how altering glutathione levels and redox ratio modulate nSMase-1 activity in a HEK293 cell line that ectopically overexpressed the nSMase-1 gene. Diminishing total glutathione with BSO without altering significantly the GSH/GSSG ratio did not affect nSMase-1 activity. Treatment of cells with diamide produced a transient decrease of total glutathione and a sharp, but also transient, decrease of the GSH/GSSG ratio. Under these conditions, nSMase-1 activity was temporarily activated and then returned to normal levels. Simultaneous treatment with BSO and diamide that resulted in permanent decreases of total glutathione and GSH/GSSG redox ratio produced a sustained activation of nSMase-1 activity. Taken together, these data indicate that altering the GSH/GSSG ratio by increasing GSSG or decreasing GSH levels, but not the total concentration of glutathione, modulates nSMase-1 activity. Our findings are the first evidence supporting the ex vivo regulation of nSMase-1 through a redox glutathione-dependent mechanism.

  13. SKF-96365 blocks human ether-à-go-go-related gene potassium channels stably expressed in HEK 293 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Yang, Lei; Chen, Kui-Hao; Sun, Hai-Ying; Jin, Man-Wen; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Li, Gui-Rong

    2016-02-01

    SKF-96365 is a TRPC channel antagonist commonly used to characterize the potential functions of TRPC channels in different systems, which was recently reported to induce QTc prolongation on ECG by inhibiting TRPC channels. The present study investigates whether the blockade of cardiac repolarization currents would be involved in the increase of QTc interval. Cardiac repolarization currents were recorded in HEK 293 cells stably expressing human ether-à-go-go-related gene potassium (hERG or hKv11.1) channels, hKCNQ1/hKCNE1 channels (IKs) or hKir2.1 channels and cardiac action potentials were recorded in guinea pig ventricular myocytes using a whole-cell patch technique. The potential effect of SKF-96365 on QT interval was evaluated in ex vivo guinea pig hearts. It was found that SKF-96365 inhibited hERG current in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50, 3.4μM). The hERG mutants S631A in the pore helix and F656V of the S6 region reduced the inhibitory sensitivity with IC50s of 27.4μM and 11.0μM, suggesting a channel pore blocker. In addition, this compound inhibited IKs and hKir2.1currents with IC50s of 10.8 and 8.7μM. SKF-96365 (10μM) significantly prolonged ventricular APD90 in guinea pig ventricular myocytes and QTc interval in ex vivo guinea pig hearts. These results indicate that the TRPC channel antagonist SKF-96365 exerts blocking effects on hERG, IKs, and hKir2.1 channels. Prolongation of ventricular APD and QT interval is related to the inhibition of multiple repolarization potassium currents, especially hERG channels.

  14. Microcystin-LR stabilizes c-myc protein by inhibiting protein phosphatase 2A in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Huihui; Cai, Yan; Xie, Ping; Xiao, Wuhan; Chen, Jun; Ji, Wei; Zhao, Sujuan

    2014-05-07

    Microcystin-LR is the most toxic and the most frequently encountered toxin produced by the cyanobacteria in the contaminated aquatic environment. Previous studies have demonstrated that Microcystin-LR is a potential carcinogen for animals and humans, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified Microcystin-LR as a possible human carcinogen. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of Microcystin-LR-induced carcinogenesis remain a mystery. C-myc is a proto-oncogene, abnormal expression of which contributes to the tumor development. Although several studies have demonstrated that Microcystin-LR could induce c-myc expression at the transcriptional level, the exact connection between Microcystin-LR toxicity and c-myc response remains unclear. In this study, we showed that the c-myc protein increased in HEK293 cells after exposure to Microcystin-LR. Coexpression of protein phosphatase 2A and two stable c-myc protein point mutants (either c-myc(T58A) or c-myc(S62A)) showed that Microcystin-LR increased c-myc protein level mainly through inhibiting protein phosphatase 2A activity which altered the phosphorylation status of serine 62 on c-myc. In addition, we also showed that Microcystin-LR could increase c-myc promoter activity as revealed by luciferase reporter assay. And the TATA box for P1 promoter of c-myc might be involved. Our results suggested that Microcystin-LR can stimulate c-myc transcription and stabilize c-myc protein, which might contribute to hepatic tumorigenesis in animals and humans.

  15. LC-MS analysis of Hep-2 and Hek-293 cell lines treated with Brazilian red propolis reveals differences in protein expression.

    PubMed

    da Silva Frozza, Caroline O; da Silva Brum, Emyle; Alving, Anjali; Moura, Sidnei; Henriques, João A P; Roesch-Ely, Mariana

    2016-08-01

    Red propolis, an exclusive variety of propolis found in the northeast of Brazil has shown to present antitumour activity, among several other biological properties. This article aimed to help to evaluate the underlying molecular mechanisms of the potential anticancer effects of red propolis on tumour, Hep-2, and non-tumour cells, Hek-293. Differentially expressed proteins in human cell lines were identified through label-free quantitative MS-based proteomic platform, and cells were stained with Giemsa to show morphological changes. A total of 1336 and 773 proteins were identified for Hep-2 and Hek-293, respectively. Among the proteins here identified, 16 were regulated in the Hep-2 cell line and 04 proteins in the Hek-293 line. Over a total of 2000 proteins were identified under MS analysis, and approximately 1% presented differential expression patterns. The GO annotation using Protein Analysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships classification system revealed predominant molecular function of catalytic activity, and among the biological processes, the most prominent was associated to cell metabolism. The proteomic profile here presented should help to elucidate further molecular mechanisms involved in inhibition of cancer cell proliferation by red propolis, which remain unclear to date. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Analysis of proteolytic processes and enzymatic activities in the generation of huntingtin n-terminal fragments in an HEK293 cell model.

    PubMed

    Tebbenkamp, Andrew T N; Crosby, Keith W; Siemienski, Zoe B; Brown, Hilda H; Golde, Todd E; Borchelt, David R

    2012-01-01

    N-terminal fragments of mutant huntingtin (htt) that terminate between residues 90-115, termed cleavage product A or 1 (cp-A/1), form intracellular and intranuclear inclusion bodies in the brains of patients with Huntington's disease (HD). These fragments appear to be proteolytic products of the full-length protein. Here, we use an HEK293 cell culture model to investigate huntingtin proteolytic processing; previous studies of these cells have demonstrated cleavage of htt to cp-A/1 like htt fragments. Recombinant N-terminal htt fragments, terminating at residue 171 (also referred to as cp-B/2 like), were efficiently cleaved to produce cp-A/1 whereas fragments representing endogenous caspase, calpain, and metalloproteinase cleavage products, terminating between residues 400-600, were inefficiently cleaved. Using cysteine-labeling techniques and antibody binding mapping, we localized the C-terminus of the cp-A/1 fragments produced by HEK293 cells to sequences minimally limited by cysteine 105 and an antibody epitope composed of residues 115-124. A combination of genetic and pharmacologic approaches to inhibit potential proteases, including γ-secretase and calpain, proved ineffective in preventing production of cp-A/1. Our findings indicate that HEK293 cells express a protease that is capable of efficiently cleaving cp-B/2 like fragments of htt with normal or expanded glutamine repeats. For reasons that remain unclear, this protease cleaves longer htt fragments, with normal or expanded glutamine expansions, much less efficiently. The protease in HEK293 cells that is capable of generating a cp-A/1 like htt fragment may be a novel protease with a high preference for a cp-B/2-like htt fragment as substrate.

  17. Optimizing the transient transfection process of HEK-293 suspension cells for protein production by nucleotide ratio monitoring.

    PubMed

    de Los Milagros Bassani Molinas, Maria; Beer, Christiane; Hesse, Friedemann; Wirth, Manfred; Wagner, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Large scale, transient gene expression (TGE) is highly dependent of the physiological status of a cell line. Therefore, intracellular nucleotide pools and ratios were used for identifying and monitoring the optimal status of a suspension cell line used for TGE. The transfection efficiency upon polyethyleneimine (PEI)-mediated transient gene delivery into HEK-293 cells cultured in suspension was investigated to understand the effect of different culture and transfection conditions as well as the significance of the culture age and the quality of the cell line used. Based on two different bicistronic model plasmids expressing the human erythropoietin gene (rHuEPO) in the first position and green fluorescent protein as reporter gene in the second position and vice versa, a completely serum-free transient transfection process was established. The process makes use of a 1:1 mixture of a special calcium-free DMEM and the FreeStyle™ 293 Expression Medium. Maximum transfectability was achieved by adjusting the ratio for complex formation to one mass part of DNA and three parts of PEI corresponding to an N/P (nitrogen residues/DNA phosphates) ratio of 23 representing a minimum amount of DNA for the polycation-mediated gene delivery. Applying this method, maximum transfectabilities between 70 and 96 % and a rHuEPO concentration of 1.6 μg mL(-1) 72 h post transfection were reached, when rHuEPO gene was expressed from the first position of the bicistronic mRNA. This corresponded to 10 % of the total protein concentration in the cell-free supernatant of the cultures in protein-free medium. Up to 30 % higher transfectabilities were found for cells of early passages compared to those from late passages under protein-free culture conditions. In contrast, when the same cells were propagated in serum-containing medium, higher transfectabilities were found for late-passage cells, while up to 40 % lower transfectabilities were observed for early-passage cells. Nucleotide

  18. Transfected HEK293 Cells Expressing Functional Recombinant Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) – A Receptor Associated with Severe Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Anja; Joergensen, Louise; Barbati, Zachary R.; Craig, Alister; Hviid, Lars; Jensen, Anja T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein expressed on endothelial cells and cells of the immune system. Human ICAM-1 mediates adhesion and migration of leucocytes, and is implicated in inflammatory pathologies, autoimmune diseases and in many cancer processes. Additionally, ICAM-1 acts as receptor for pathogens like human rhinovirus and Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites. A group of related P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) domains, the DBLβ, mediates ICAM-1 binding of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. This ICAM‑1-binding phenotype has been suggested to be involved in the development of cerebral malaria. However, more studies identifying cross-reactive antibody and ICAM-1-binding epitopes and the establishment of a clinical link between DBLβ expression and e.g. cerebral malaria are needed before the DBLβ domains can be put forward as vaccine candidates and go into clinical trials. Such studies require availability of functional recombinant ICAM-1 in large quantities. In this study, we compared recombinant ICAM-1 expressed in HEK293 and COS-7 cells with mouse myeloma NS0 ICAM-1 purchased from a commercial vendor in terms of protein purity, yield, fold, ability to bind DBLβ, and relative cost. We present a HEK293 cell-based, high-yield expression and purification scheme for producing inexpensive, functional ICAM‑1. ICAM-1 expressed in HEK293 is applicable to malaria research and can also be useful in other research fields. PMID:23936131

  19. [Producing recombinant adenovirus encoding green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP) by suspension cultured HEK-293 N3S cells].

    PubMed

    Tian, Bo; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qun-Wei; Bi, Jian-Jin; Wang, Lan; Zhu, Bao-Zhen; Geng, Yue; Wu, Zu-Ze

    2007-09-01

    Adenovirus vectors are one of the most promising gene transfer systems. They are of great value for gene therapy because these vectors achieve temporal high-level transgene expression and high gene transfer efficiency. To meet increasing needs of adenovirus vectors for gene therapy programs, parallel development of efficient, scalable and reproducible production processes is required. Perfusion cultivation of 293 cells is one of the most commonly used methods to produce adenovirus vectors and it is suitable for industrialized production specially. Experimental studies had been carried out to produce recombinant adenovirus containing the green fluorescent protein gene (Ad-GFP) by perfusion cultivation of HEK-293 N3S cells in a 5L stirring bioreactors. Perfusion rate was 1-2 volume/day. To infect the 293 N3S cells with Ad-GFP at the density of (2-4) x 10(6) cells/ ml. The time of collecting cells was 48 hours post infection. After three rounds of freeze/thaw and centrifugation, the crude viral lysates were stored at--80 degrees C until use. Then to get the Ad-GFP products by 2 x CsCl-gradient purification. The purity of the products was determined by the A260/A280 ratio and a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. The infective titer was determined by a TCID50 assay. The culture term was 10-12 days. The infectious titer, the number of virus particle and the ratio of infectious titer to virus particle for the product were 1.0 x 10(11) IU/mL, 1.68 x 10(12) VP/mL and 6.0% IU/VP respectively. The A260/A280 ratio was 1.33, and the purity determined by HPLC was 99.2%. The cell specific productivity was around 1000 IU/cell. By perfusion cultivation of 293 N3S cells in a 5L stirring bioreactors, we established the production process for Ad-GFP, which paves a way to produce other recombinant adenovirus for gene therapy.

  20. Chloroquine-resistant isoforms of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter acidify lysosomal pH in HEK293 cells more than chloroquine-sensitive isoforms.

    PubMed

    Reeves, David C; Liebelt, David A; Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Roepe, Paul D; Fidock, David A; Akabas, Myles H

    2006-12-01

    The emergence of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria imperils the lives of millions of people in Africa, Southeast Asia and South America. Chloroquine resistance is associated with mutations in the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT). We expressed chloroquine-sensitive (HB3) and resistant (Dd2) pfcrt alleles in HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells. PfCRT localized to the lysosomal limiting membrane and was not detected in the plasma membrane. We observed significant acidification of lysosomes containing PfCRT HB3 and Dd2, with Dd2 acidifying significantly more than HB3. A mutant HB3 allele expressing the K76T mutation (earlier found to be key for chloroquine resistance) acidified to the same extent as Dd2, whereas the acidification by a Dd2 allele expressing the T76K "back mutation" was significantly less than Dd2. Thus, the amino acid at position 76 is both an important determinant of chloroquine resistance in parasites and of lysosomal acidification following heterologous expression. PfCRT may be capable of modulating the pH of the parasite digestive vacuole, and thus chloroquine availability. Chloroquine accumulation and glycyl-phenylalanine-2-naphthylamide-induced release of lysosomal Ca(2+) stores were unaffected by PfCRT expression. Cytoplasmic domain mutations did not alter PfCRT sorting to the lysosomal membrane. This heterologous expression system will be useful to characterize PfCRT protein structure and function, and elucidate its molecular role in chloroquine resistance.

  1. Phosphorylation of ezrin on Thr567 is required for the synergistic activation of cell spreading by EPAC1 and protein kinase A in HEK293T cells

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Euan; Koschinski, Andreas; Zaccolo, Manuela; Cameron, Ryan T.; Baillie, George S.; Baillie, Gemma L.; Porter, Alison; McElroy, Stuart P.; Yarwood, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the actin binding protein, ezrin, and the cAMP-sensor, EPAC1, cooperate to induce cell spreading in response to elevations in intracellular cAMP. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects we generated a model of EPAC1-dependent cell spreading based on the stable transfection of EPAC1 into HEK293T (HEK293T–EPAC1) cells. We found that direct activation of EPAC1 with the EPAC-selective analogue, 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP (007), promoted cell spreading in these cells. In addition, co-activation of EPAC1 and PKA, with a combination of the adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, and the cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, rolipram, was found to synergistically enhance cell spreading, in association with cortical actin bundling and mobilisation of ezrin to the plasma membrane. PKA activation was also associated with phosphorylation of ezrin on Thr567, as detected by an electrophoretic band mobility shift during SDS-PAGE. Inhibition of PKA activity blocked ezrin phosphorylation and reduced the cell spreading response to cAMP elevation to levels induced by EPAC1-activation alone. Transfection of HEK293T–EPAC1 cells with inhibitory ezrin mutants lacking the key PKA phosphorylation site, ezrin-Thr567Ala, or the ability to associate with actin, ezrin-Arg579Ala, promoted cell arborisation and blocked the ability of EPAC1 and PKA to further promote cell spreading. The PKA phospho-mimetic mutants of ezrin, ezrin-Thr567Asp had no effect on EPAC1-driven cell spreading. Our results indicate that association of ezrin with the actin cytoskeleton and phosphorylation on Thr567 are required, but not sufficient, for PKA and EPAC1 to synergistically promote cell spreading following elevations in intracellular cAMP. PMID:25913012

  2. Inhibitory effects of hesperetin on Nav1.5 channels stably expressed in HEK 293 cells and on the voltage-gated cardiac sodium current in human atrial myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Wang, Hong-fei; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yu-fang; Ma, Rong; Xiang, Ji-zhou; Du, Xin-ling; Tang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Voltage-gated sodium channels composed of a pore-forming α subunit and auxiliary β subunits are responsible for the upstroke of the action potential in cardiac myocytes. The pore-forming subunit of the cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5, which is encoded by SCN5A, is the main ion channel that conducts the voltage-gated cardiac sodium current (INa) in cardiac cells. The current study sought to investigate the inhibitory effects of hesperetin on human cardiac Nav1.5 channels stably expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells and on the voltage-gated cardiac sodium current (INa) in human atrial myocytes. Methods: The effects of hesperetin on human cardiac Nav1.5 channels expressed in HEK 293 cells and on cardiac Na+ currents in human atrial myocytes were examined through whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Results: Nav1.5 currents were potently and reversibly suppressed in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner by hesperetin, which exhibited an IC50 of 62.99 μmol/L. Hesperetin significantly and negatively shifted the voltage-dependent activation and inactivation curves. Hesperetin also markedly decelerated Nav1.5 current inactivation and slowed the recovery from Nav1.5 channel inactivation. The hesperetin-dependent blockage of Nav1.5 currents was frequency-dependent. Hesperetin also potently and reversibly inhibited Na+ current (INa) in human atrial myocytes, consistently with its effects on Nav1.5 currents in HEK 293 cells. Conclusion: Hesperetin is a potent inhibitor of INa in human atrial myocytes and Nav1.5 channels expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Hesperetin probably functions by blocking the open state and the inactivated state of these channels. PMID:27694909

  3. Salvia fruticosa reduces intrinsic cellular and H2O2-induced DNA oxidation in HEK 293 cells; assessment using flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Hani, Saleem Bani; Bayachou, Mekki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of water-soluble extract of Salvia fruticosa (Greek sage) (S. fruticosa) leaves in reducing both intrinsic cellular and H2O2-induced DNA oxidation in cultured human embryonic kidney 293 cells. S. fruticosa, native to the Eastern-Mediterranean basin, is widely used as a medicinal herb for treatment of various diseases. Methods Dried leaves of S. fruticosa were extracted in phosphate buffer saline and purified using both vacuum and high pressure filtrations. Each mL of the preparation contained (7.1±1.0) mg of extract. HEK-293 cells were incubated in one set with S. fruticosa extract in the presence of 0.1 mmol/L H2O2, and in the other set with the addition of the extract alone. The DNA oxidation was measured using fluorescence upon fluorescein isothiocyanate derivatization of 8-oxoguanine moieties. The fluorescence was measured using flow cytometry technique. Results Cells incubated 3 h with 150 µL extract and exposed to 0.1 mmol/L H2O2 showed lower intensity of fluorescence, and thus lower DNA oxidation. Moreover, cells incubated 3 h with 100 µL of the extract showed lower intensity of fluorescence, and thus lower intrinsic cellular DNA oxidation compared to control (without S. fruticosa). Conclusions The results from this study suggest that the water-soluble extract of S. fruticosa leaves protects against both H2O2-induced and intrinsic cellular DNA oxidation in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. PMID:25182726

  4. Viability of HEK 293 cells on poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesized from a mutant Azotobacter vinelandii strain. Cast film and electrospun scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Romo-Uribe, Angel; Meneses-Acosta, Angelica; Domínguez-Díaz, Maraolina

    2017-12-01

    Sterilization, cytotoxicity and cell viability are essential properties defining a material for medical applications and these characteristics were investigated for poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) of 230kDa obtained by bacterial synthesis from a mutant strain of Azotobacter vinelandii. Cell viability was investigated for two types of PHB scaffolds, solution cast films and non-woven electrospun fibrous membranes, and the efficiency was compared against a culture dish. The biosynthesized PHB was sterilized by ultraviolet radiation and autoclave, it was found that the thermal properties and intrinsic viscosity remained unchanged indicating that the sterilization methods did not degrade the polymer. Sterilized scaffolds were then seeded with human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells to evaluate the cytotoxic response. The cell viability of these cells was evaluated for up to six days, and the results showed that the cell morphology was normal, with no cytotoxic effects. The films and electrospun membranes exhibited over 95% cell viability whereas the viability in culture dishes reached only ca. 90%. The electrospun membrane, however, exhibited significantly higher cell density than the cast film suggesting that the fibrous morphology enables better nutrients transfer. The results indicate that the biosynthesized PHB stands UV and autoclave sterilization methods, it is biocompatible and non-toxic for cell growth of human cell lines. Furthermore, cell culture for up to 18 days showed that 62% and 90% of mass was lost for the film and fibrous electrospun scaffold, respectively. This is a favorable outcome for use in tissue engineering where material degradation, as tissue regenerates, is desirable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin-coated PEI/DNA complexes for targeted gene delivery in HEK 293 and HCT 116 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; You, Renchuan; Liu, Guiyang; Li, Xiufang; Sheng, Weihua; Yang, Jicheng; Li, Mingzhong

    2014-04-25

    Polyethylenimine (PEI) has attracted much attention as a DNA condenser, but its toxicity and non-specific targeting limit its potential. To overcome these limitations, Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ASF), a natural protein rich in arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides that contains negative surface charges in a neutral aqueous solution, was used to coat PEI/DNA complexes to form ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes. Coating these complexes with ASF caused fewer surface charges and greater size compared with the PEI/DNA complexes alone. In vitro transfection studies revealed that incorporation of ASF led to greater transfection efficiencies in both HEK (human embryonic kidney) 293 and HCT (human colorectal carcinoma) 116 cells, albeit with less electrostatic binding affinity for the cells. Moreover, the transfection efficiency in the HCT 116 cells was higher than that in the HEK 293 cells under the same conditions, which may be due to the target bonding affinity of the RGD peptides in ASF for integrins on the HCT 116 cell surface. This result indicated that the RGD binding affinity in ASF for integrins can enhance the specific targeting affinity to compensate for the reduction in electrostatic binding between ASF-coated PEI carriers and cells. Cell viability measurements showed higher cell viability after transfection of ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes than after transfection of PEI/DNA binary complexes alone. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release studies further confirmed the improvement in the targeting effect of ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes to cells. These results suggest that ASF-coated PEI is a preferred transfection reagent and useful for improving both the transfection efficiency and cell viability of PEI-based nonviral vectors.

  6. Flufenamic acid is a tool for investigating TRPC6-mediated calcium signalling in human conditionally immortalised podocytes and HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Foster, Rebecca R; Zadeh, Maryam A H; Welsh, Gavin I; Satchell, Simon C; Ye, Yi; Mathieson, Peter W; Bates, David O; Saleem, Moin A

    2009-04-01

    Mutations in the cation channel TRPC6 result in a renal-specific phenotype of familial nephrotic syndrome, affecting intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) signalling in the glomerular podocyte. Tools to study native TRPC6 activity are scarce, although there has been recent success with flufenamic acid (FFA). We confirm the specificity of FFA for TRPC6 both in an artificial expression system and in a human conditionally immortalised podocyte cell line (ciPod). Cells were loaded with fura-2AM and changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) were calculated. 200microM FFA induced an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in HEK293 cells with native TRPC6 expression, which was enhanced by overexpression of TRPC6 and completely blocked in the absence of extracellular calcium. Expressed TRPC7 did not significantly affect the response to FFA whereas expressed TRPC3 reduced it. FFA also induced an increase ciPod in [Ca(2+)](i), which was inhibited using SKF96365 and 2-APB, but not indomethacin. In ciPod, adenovirus (Ad-v) wild type (WT) TRPC6 increased [Ca(2+)](i) activity to FFA compared to native TRPC6, whereas activity was significantly reduced with Ad-v dominant negative (DN) TRPC6. The niflumic acid (NFA) induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in ciPod was not affected by Ad-v TRPC6 DN, and in HEK293 cells was not affected by WT TRPC6. In conclusion, FFA activates TRPC6 [Ca(2+)](i) signalling in both ciPod and HEK293 cells independently of TRPC3 and TRPC7, and independently of properties of the fenamate family.

  7. Modeling of the adrenergic response of the human IKs current (hKCNQ1/hKCNE1) stably expressed in HEK-293 cells.

    PubMed

    Imredy, John P; Penniman, Jacob R; Dech, Spencer J; Irving, Winston D; Salata, Joseph J

    2008-11-01

    Stable coexpression of human (h)KCNQ1 and hKCNE1 in human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells reconstitutes a nativelike slowly activating delayed rectifier K+ current (HEK-I(Ks)), allowing beta-adrenergic modulation of the current by stimulation of endogenous receptors in the host cell line. HEK-I(Ks) was enhanced two- to fourfold by isoproterenol (EC50 = 13 nM), forskolin (10 microM), or 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (50 microM), indicating an intact cAMP-dependent ion channel-regulating pathway analogous to the PKA-dependent regulation observed in native cardiac myocytes. Activation kinetics of HEK-I(Ks) were accurately fit with a novel modified second-order Hodgkin-Huxley (H-H) gating model incorporating a fast and a slow gate, each independent of each other in scale and adrenergic response, or a "heterodimer" model. Macroscopically, beta-adrenergic enhancement shifted the current activation threshold to more negative potentials and accelerated activation kinetics while leaving deactivation kinetics relatively unaffected. Modeling of the current response using the H-H model indicated that observed changes in gating could be explained by modulation of the opening rate of the fast gate. Under control conditions at nearly physiological temperatures (35 degrees C), rate-dependent accumulation of HEK-I(Ks) was observed only at pulse frequencies exceeding 3 Hz. Rate-dependent accumulation of I(Ks) at high pulsing rate had two phases, an initial staircaselike effect followed by a slower, incremental accumulation phase. These phases are readily interpreted in the context of a heterodimeric H-H model with two independent gates with differing closing rates. In the presence of isoproterenol after normalizing for its tonic effects, rate-dependent accumulation of HEK-I(Ks) appeared at lower pulse frequencies and was slightly enhanced (approximately 25%) over control.

  8. Nutraceutical properties of dietary plants extracts: prevention of diabetic nephropathy through inhibition of glycation and toxicity to erythrocytes and HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Tupe, Rashmi S; Sankhe, Neena M; Shaikh, Shamim A; Kemse, Nisha G; Khaire, Amrita A; Phatak, Devyani V; Parikh, Juhi U

    2015-01-01

    Glycated albumin is reported to elicit pathobiologic effects in diabetic nephropathy and abrogating its biologic effects has novel therapeutic potential. This study examines the effects of dietary plants extracts (Laurus nobilis, Carum carvi, Coccinia grandis, Mentha arvensis, Phaseolus vulgaris) against albumin glycation and its toxicity to erythrocytes and HEK293 cells. Albumin (10 mg/ml) was incubated with fructose (250 mM) in PBS along with aqueous plant extracts (1% w/v) for 4 d. After incubation, the antiglycation potential of extracts was estimated by measuring AGEs, fructosamine, amyloids, carbonyls, free amino groups, and antioxidant potential of albumin. The glycation extent of the treated samples was determined by boronate affinity chromatography. Effect of extracts against glycation induced cytotoxicity in erythrocytes and HEK 293 cells was assessed by estimating viability, glutathione, and antioxidant capacity. Plant extracts were tested for their phenolic content and antioxidant potential (reducing potential, DPPH, ABTS, NO, and H2O2 radical scavenging activities). Plant extracts significantly decreased the AGEs formation and amyloid aggregation in glycated BSA (p < 0.001). Further, fructosamine and carbonyls were reduced to 55-72% and 83-89%, respectively. Free amino group and antioxidant activity of albumin were also preserved by 1.25-1.40-fold and 1.75-1.8-fold, respectively. Further, co-incubation of extracts with glycated albumin, protected erythrocytes, and HEK293 cells as they inhibited cellular hemolysis/toxicity (p < 0.001) by upregulating cellular antioxidants. Plant co-incubation reversed many modifications in albumin glycation, cellular dysfunction indicating that dietary sources with antiglycating and antioxidant potential could be considered for the effective management of diabetic nephropathy.

  9. Lysophosphatidylcholine augments Ca(v)3.2 but not Ca(v)3.1 T-type Ca(2+) channel current expressed in HEK-293 cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Mingqi; Uchino, Tomoko; Kaku, Toshihiko; Kang, Lin; Wang, Yan; Takebayashi, Satoshi; Ono, Katsushige

    2006-01-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) has been shown to induce electrophysiological disturbances to arrhythmogenesis. However, the effects of LPC on the low-voltage-activated T-type Ca(2+) channels in the heart are not understood yet. We found that LPC increases the T-type Ca(2+) channel current (I(Ca.T)) in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. To further investigate the underlying modulatory mechanism of LPC on T-type Ca(2+) channels, we utilized HEK-293 cells stably expressing alpha1G and alpha1H subunits (HEK-293/alpha1G and HEK-293/alpha1H), by use of patch-clamp techniques. A low concentration of LPC (10 micromol/l) significantly increased Ca(v)3.2 I(Ca.T) (alpha1H) that were similar to those observed in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Activation and steady-state inactivation curves were shifted in the hyperpolarized direction by 5.1 +/- 0.2 and 4.6 +/- 0.4 mV, respectively, by application of 10 micromol/l LPC. The pretreatment of cells with a protein kinase C inhibitor (chelerythrine) attenuated the effects of LPC on I(Ca.T) (alpha1H). However, the application of LPC failed to modify Ca(v)3.1 (alpha1G) I(Ca.T) at concentrations of 10-50 micromol/l. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that extracellularly applied LPC augments Ca(v)3.2 I(Ca.T) (alpha1H) but not Ca(v)3.1 I(Ca.T) (alpha1G) in a heterologous expression system, possibly by modulating protein kinase C signaling.

  10. CHLOROQUINE-RESISTANT ISOFORMS OF THE Plasmodium falciparum CHLOROQUINE RESISTANCE TRANSPORTER ACIDIFY LYSOSOMAL pH IN HEK293 CELLS MORE THAN CHLOROQUINE-SENSITIVE ISOFORMS*

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, David C.; Liebelt, David A.; Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Roepe, Paul D.; Fidock, David A.; Akabas, Myles H.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria imperils the lives of millions of people in Africa, Southeast Asia and South America. Chloroquine resistance is associated with mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT). We expressed chloroquine sensitive (HB3) and resistant (Dd2) pfcrt alleles in HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells. PfCRT localized to the lysosomal limiting membrane and was not detected in the plasma membrane. We observed significant acidification of lysosomes containing PfCRT HB3 and Dd2, with Dd2 acidifying significantly more than HB3. A mutant HB3 allele expressing the K76T mutation (earlier found to be key for chloroquine resistance) acidified to the same extent as Dd2, whereas the acidification of a Dd2 allele expressing the T76K “back mutation” was significantly less than Dd2. Thus, the amino acid at position 76 is both an important determinant of chloroquine resistance in parasites and of lysosomal acidification following heterologous expression. PfCRT may be capable of modulating the pH of the parasite digestive vacuole, and thus chloroquine availability. Chloroquine accumulation and glycyl-phenylalanine-2-naphthylamide-induced release of lysosomal Ca2+ stores were unaffected by PfCRT expression. Cytoplasmic domain mutations did not alter PfCRT sorting to the lysosomal membrane. This heterologous expression system will be useful to characterize PfCRT protein structure and function, and elucidate its molecular role in chloroquine resistance. PMID:17014918

  11. Effects of two plant growth regulators, indole-3-acetic acid and β-naphthoxyacetic acid, on genotoxicity in Drosophila SMART assay and on proliferation and viability of HEK293 cells from the perspective of carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz, Asuman; Kaya, Bülent; Savaş, Burhan; Topcuoğlu, Ş Fatih

    2011-10-01

    In this study, the mutagenic and recombinogenic effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a plant growth regulator naturally synthesized in plants but produced synthetically, and β-naphthoxyacetic acid (BNOA), a synthetic plant growth regulator widely used in agricultural regions, were investigated using the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila wings. The effect of the same plant growth regulators against the proliferation and viability of a human immortalized embryonic kidney HEK293 cells which is at the early stage of carcinogenesis were also examined with MTT and trypan-blue exclusion assays. For the SMART assay, two different crosses were used: a standard and a high-bioactivation (HB) cross, involving the flare-3 and the multiple wing hairs markers. The HB cross involved flies characterized by an increased cytochrome P-450-dependent bioactivation capacity, which permits the more efficient biotransformation of promutagens and procarcinogens. In both crosses, the wings of the two types of progeny, inversion-free marker heterozygotes and balancer heterozygotes, were analyzed. The results show that IAA and BNOA are not mutagenic or recombinogenic in the wing cells of Drosophila. Furthermore, neither plant growth regulator affected the proliferation rate of HEK293 cells; however, both of them induced cell death at high concentrations.

  12. Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Vitamin D-induced Decrease in Polyol Pathway and Subtle Modulation of Glycolysis in HEK293T Cells.

    PubMed

    Santos, G C; Zeidler, J D; Pérez-Valencia, J A; Sant'Anna-Silva, A C B; Da Poian, A T; El-Bacha, T; Almeida, F C L

    2017-08-25

    We combined (1)H NMR metabolomics with functional and molecular biochemical assays to describe the metabolic changes elicited by vitamin D in HEK293T, an embryonic proliferative cell line adapted to high-glucose concentrations. Activation of the polyol pathway, was the most important consequence of cell exposure to high glucose concentration, resembling cells exposed to hyperglycemia. Vitamin D induced alterations in HEK293T cells metabolism, including a decrease in sorbitol, glycine, glutamate, guanine. Vitamin D modulated glycolysis by increasing phosphoglycerate mutase and decreasing enolase activities, changing carbon fate without changing glucose consumption, lactate export and Krebs cycle. The decrease in sorbitol intracellular concentration seems to be related to vitamin D regulated redox homeostasis and protection against oxidative stress, and helped maintaining the high proliferative phenotype, supported by the decrease in glycine and guanine and orotate concentration and increase in choline and phosphocholine concentration. The decrease in orotate and guanine indicated an increased biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidines. Vitamin D elicited metabolic alteration without changing cellular proliferation and mitochondrial respiration, but reclaiming reductive power. Our study may contribute to the understanding of the metabolic mechanism of vitamin D upon exposure to hyperglycemia, suggesting a role of protection against oxidative stress.

  13. Enhancing heterologous protein expression and secretion in HEK293 cells by means of combination of CMV promoter and IFNα2 signal peptide.

    PubMed

    Román, Ramón; Miret, Joan; Scalia, Federica; Casablancas, Antoni; Lecina, Martí; Cairó, Jordi J

    2016-12-10

    Efficient production and secretion of recombinant proteins in mammalian cell lines relies in a combination of genetic, metabolic and culture strategy factors. The present work assesses the influence of two key genetic components of expression vectors (promoter and signal peptide) on protein production and secretion effciency in HEK293 cells expressing eGFP as a reporter protein. Firstly, the strength of 3 different promoters was evaluated using transient expression methods. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the highest level of intracellular protein expression was found when eGFP was under the control of CMV promoter, being 3-times higher in comparison to the rest of the promoters tested. Secondly, 5 different signal peptides were assessed in stable transfected cell lines. Spectrofluorometry was used to determine intra- and extracellular protein expression levels in terms of fluorescence, and the results were further confirmed by SDS-PAGE. The highest secretion efficiency was found for human IFNα2 signal peptide, achieving up to 2-fold increase in the amount of secreted protein compared to other signal peptides. The results showed that the combination of CMV promoter and IFNα2 signal peptide resulted highly efficient for recombinant protein production in HEK293 cells.

  14. The common food additive carrageenan is not a ligand for Toll-Like- Receptor 4 (TLR4) in an HEK293-TLR4 reporter cell-line model.

    PubMed

    McKim, James M; Wilga, Paul C; Pregenzer, Jeffrey F; Blakemore, William R

    2015-04-01

    Carrageenan (CGN) is widely used in the food manufacturing industry as an additive that stabilizes and thickens food products. Standard animal safety studies in which CGN was administered in diet showed no adverse effects. However, several in vitro studies have reported that intestinal inflammation is caused by CGN and that this effect is mediated through Toll-Like-Receptor 4 (TLR4). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of different types of CGN to bind and activate TLR4 signaling. To accomplish this a TLR4/MD-2/CD14/NFκB/SEAP reporter construct in a HEK293 cell line was used. The reporter molecule, secretable alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), was measured as an indicator of TLR4 activation. The test compounds were exposed to this system at concentrations of 0.1, 1, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000, and 5000 ng/mL for 24 h. Cytotoxicity was evaluated following the 24 h exposure period by LDH leakage and ATP. CGN binding to serum proteins was characterized by Toluidine Blue. The results show that CGN does not bind to TLR4 and is not cytotoxic to the HEK293 cells at the concentrations and experimental conditions tested and that CGN binds tightly to serum proteins. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of phosphomimetic and non-phosphorylatable mutations of phospholemman on L-type calcium channels gating in HEK 293T cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Kai; Wang, Yue-Peng; Zhou, Zhi-Wen; Jiang, Yi-Bo; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiao-Meng; Li, Yi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phospholemman (PLM) is an important phosphorylation substrate for protein kinases A and C in the heart. Until now, the association between PLM phosphorylation status and L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) gating has not been fully understood. We investigated the kinetics of LTCCs in HEK 293T cells expressing phosphomimetic or nonphosphorylatable PLM mutants. Methods: The LTCCs gating was measured in HEK 293T cells transfected with LTCC and wild-type (WT) PLM, phosphomimetic or nonphosphorylatable PLM mutants: 6263AA, 6869AA, AAAA, 6263DD, 6869DD or DDDD. Results: WT PLM significantly slowed LTCCs activation and deactivation while enhanced voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI). PLM mutants 6869DD and DDDD significantly increased the peak of the currents. 6263DD accelerated channel activation, while 6263AA slowed it more than WT PLM. 6869DD significantly enhanced PLM-induced increase of VDI. AAAA slowed the channel activation more than 6263AA, and DDDD accelerated the channel VDI more than 6869DD. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that phosphomimetic PLM could stimulate LTCCs and alter their dynamics, while PLM nonphosphorylatable mutant produced the opposite effects. PMID:25656605

  16. Impact of phosphomimetic and non-phosphorylatable mutations of phospholemman on L-type calcium channels gating in HEK 293T cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kai; Wang, Yue-Peng; Zhou, Zhi-Wen; Jiang, Yi-Bo; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiao-Meng; Li, Yi-Gang

    2015-03-01

    Phospholemman (PLM) is an important phosphorylation substrate for protein kinases A and C in the heart. Until now, the association between PLM phosphorylation status and L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) gating has not been fully understood. We investigated the kinetics of LTCCs in HEK 293T cells expressing phosphomimetic or nonphosphorylatable PLM mutants. The LTCCs gating was measured in HEK 293T cells transfected with LTCC and wild-type (WT) PLM, phosphomimetic or nonphosphorylatable PLM mutants: 6263AA, 6869AA, AAAA, 6263DD, 6869DD or DDDD. WT PLM significantly slowed LTCCs activation and deactivation while enhanced voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI). PLM mutants 6869DD and DDDD significantly increased the peak of the currents. 6263DD accelerated channel activation, while 6263AA slowed it more than WT PLM. 6869DD significantly enhanced PLM-induced increase of VDI. AAAA slowed the channel activation more than 6263AA, and DDDD accelerated the channel VDI more than 6869DD. Our results demonstrate that phosphomimetic PLM could stimulate LTCCs and alter their dynamics, while PLM nonphosphorylatable mutant produced the opposite effects. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  17. A replacement of the active-site aspartic acid residue 293 in mouse cathepsin D affects its intracellular stability, processing and transport in HEK-293 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Partanen, Sanna; Storch, Stephan; Löffler, Hans-Gerhard; Hasilik, Andrej; Tyynelä, Jaana; Braulke, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The substitution of an active-site aspartic acid residue by asparagine in the lysosomal protease cathepsin D (CTSD) results in a loss of enzyme activity and severe cerebrocortical atrophy in a novel form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in sheep [Tyynelä, Sohar, Sleat, Gin, Donnelly, Baumann, Haltia and Lobel (2000) EMBO J. 19, 2786-2792]. In the present study we have introduced the corresponding mutation by replacing aspartic acid residue 293 with asparagine (D293N) into the mouse CTSD cDNA to analyse its effect on synthesis, transport and stability in transfected HEK-293 cells. The complete inactivation of mutant D293N mouse CTSD was confirmed by a newly developed fluorimetric quantification system. Moreover, in the heterologous overexpression systems used, mutant D293N mouse CTSD was apparently unstable and proteolytically modified during early steps of the secretory pathway, resulting in a loss of mass by about 1 kDa. In the affected sheep, the endogenous mutant enzyme was stable but also showed the shift in its molecular mass. In HEK-293 cells, the transport of the mutant D293N mouse CTSD to the lysosome was delayed and associated with a low secretion rate compared with wild-type CTSD. These data suggest that the mutation may result in a conformational change which affects stability, processing and transport of the enzyme. PMID:12350228

  18. Cell-based co-transfection microarrays for use with HEK293T cells on a poly D-lysine-coated polystyrene microplate.

    PubMed

    Soni, Meenal; Lai, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the human genome sequence has identified thousands of putative genes with unknown function; therefore, a new tool allowing for rapid identification of gene functions is needed. Reverse transfection microarray technology, which turns a DNA microarray into a cell-based microarray, has emerged for simultaneously studying the function of many genes. Since the initial demonstration in 2001, many variations have surfaced, making the technology more versatile for a broad range of applications. We have developed a protocol to make ready-to-transfect DNA microarrays in a 96-well microplate for co-transfection of two plasmids into HEK293T cells. This cell-based microarray in a microplate may be used for screening hundreds of analytes against multiple protein targets in parallel, providing a powerful tool for functional genomics and drug discovery.

  19. High-level expression and purification of soluble form of human natural killer cell receptor NKR-P1 in HEK293S GnTI(-) cells.

    PubMed

    Bláha, Jan; Kalousková, Barbora; Skořepa, Ondřej; Pažický, Samuel; Novák, Petr; Vaněk, Ondřej

    2017-12-01

    Human natural killer receptor protein 1 (NKR-P1, CD161, gene klrb1) is a C-type lectin-like receptor of natural killer (NK) cells responsible for recognition of its cognate protein ligand lectin-like transcript 1 (LLT1). NKR-P1 is the single human orthologue of the prototypical rodent NKR-P1 receptors. Naturally, human NKR-P1 is expressed on the surface of NK cells, where it serves as inhibitory receptor; and on T and NKT cells functioning as co-stimulatory receptor promoting secretion of IFNγ. Most notably, it is expressed on Th17 and Tc17 lymphocytes where presumably promotes targeting into LLT1 expressing immunologically privileged niches. We tested effect of different protein tags (SUMO, TRX, GST, MsyB) on expression of soluble NKR-P1 in E. coli. Then we optimized the expression construct of soluble NKR-P1 by preparing a library of expression constructs in pOPING vector containing the extracellular lectin-like domain with different length of the putative N-terminal stalk region and tested its expression in Sf9 and HEK293 cells. Finally, a high-level expression of soluble NKR-P1 was achieved by stable expression in suspension-adapted HEK293S GnTI(-) cells utilizing pOPINGTTneo expression vector. Purified soluble NKR-P1 is homogeneous, deglycosylatable, crystallizable and monomeric in solution, as shown by size-exclusion chromatography, multi-angle light scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ziram and sodium N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate inhibit ubiquitin activation through intracellular metal transport and increased oxidative stress in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Kathleen E; Valentine, William M

    2015-04-20

    Ubiquitin activating enzyme E1 plays a pivotal role in ubiquitin based protein signaling through regulating the initiating step of the cascade. Previous studies demonstrated that E1 is inhibited by covalent modification of reactive cysteines contained within the ubiquitin-binding groove and by conditions that increase oxidative stress and deplete cellular antioxidants. In this study, we determined the relative contribution of covalent adduction and oxidative stress to E1 inhibition produced by ziram and sodium N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDC) in HEK293 cells. Although no dithiocarbamate-derived E1 adducts were identified on E1 using shotgun LC/MS/MS for either ziram or DMDC, both dithiocarbamates significantly decreased E1 activity, with ziram demonstrating greater potency. Ziram increased intracellular levels of zinc and copper, DMDC increased intracellular levels of only copper, and both dithiocarbamates enhanced oxidative injury evidenced by elevated levels of protein carbonyls and expression of heme oxygenase-1. To assess the contribution of intracellular copper transport to E1 inhibition, coincubations were performed with the copper chelator triethylenetetramine hydrochloride (TET). TET significantly protected E1 activity for both of the dithiocarbamates and decreased the associated oxidative injury in HEK293 cells as well as prevented dithiocarbamate-mediated lipid peroxidation assayed using an ethyl aracidonate micelle system. Because TET did not completely ameliorate intracellular transport of copper or zinc for ziram, TET apparently maintained E1 activity through its ability to diminish dithiocarbamate-mediated oxidative stress. Experiments to determine the relative contribution of elevated intracellular zinc and copper were performed using a metal free incubation system and showed that increases in either metal were sufficient to inhibit E1. To evaluate the utility of the HEK293 in vitro system for screening environmental agents, a series of additional

  1. The protective role of Nrf2-Gadd45b against antimony-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xingkang; An, Zesheng; Lu, Chao; Chen, Yue; Du, E; Qi, Shiyong; Yang, Kuo; Zhang, Zhihong; Xu, Yong

    2016-08-10

    Antimony (Sb) is one of the most prevalent heavy metals and frequently causes biological toxicity. However, the specific mechanisms by which Sb elicits its toxic effects remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we found antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) caused a dose-dependent cytotoxicity against HEK293 cells, and Sb2O3-induced excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) was closely correlated with increased cell apoptosis. Mechanistic investigation manifested that nuclear factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and nuclear translocation were significantly induced under Sb2O3 treatment in HEK293 cells, and Nrf2 knockdown aggregated Sb2O3-induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, elevated Gadd45b expression actives the phosphorylation of MAPKs upon Sb2O3 exposure, whereas Gadd45b knockdown diminished Sb2O3-induced activation of MAPKs and promoted cell apoptosis. In the meantime, however, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was found to ameliorate Nrf2 expression and nuclear translocation as well as Gadd45b expression and MAPKs activation by repressing Sb2O3-induced ROS production. More importantly, we found Gadd45b was transcriptionally enhanced by Nrf2 through binding to three canonical antioxidant response elements (AREs) within its promoter region. Either Sb2O3 or TBHQ (a selective Nrf2 activator) treatment, Gadd45b expression was significantly increased by luciferase assay. Nrf2 inhibition greatly diminished Gadd45b expression due to reduced binding of Nrf2 in Gadd45b promoter under Sb2O3 treatment. To summarize, this study demonstrated the Nrf2-Gadd45b signaling axis exhibited a protective role in Sb-induced cell apoptosis.

  2. Evaluation of influence of Ap4A analogues on Fhit-positive HEK293T cells; cytotoxicity and ability to induce apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Pęcherzewska, Róża; Kaczmarek, Renata; Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara; Stec, Wojciech J

    2011-08-15

    Fragile histidine triad (Fhit) protein encoded by tumour suppressor FHIT gene is a proapoptotic protein with diadenosine polyphosphate (Ap(n)A, n=2-6) hydrolase activity. It has been hypothesised that formation of Fhit-substrate complex results in an apoptosis initiation signal while subsequent hydrolysis of Ap(n)A terminates this action. A series of Ap(n)A analogues have been identified in vitro as strong Fhit ligands [Varnum, J. M.; Baraniak, J.; Kaczmarek, R.; Stec, W. J.; Brenner, C. BMC Chem. Biol.2001, 1, 3]. We assumed that in Fhit-positive cells these compounds might preferentially bind to Fhit and inhibit its hydrolytic activity what would prolong the lifetime of apoptosis initiation signalling complex. Therefore, several Fhit inhibitors were tested for their cytotoxicity and ability to induce apoptosis in Fhit-positive HEK293T cells. These experiments have shown that Ap(4)A analogue, containing a glycerol residue instead of the central pyrophosphate and two terminal phosphorothioates [A(PS)-CH(2)CH(OH)CH(2)-(PS)A (1)], is the most cytotoxic among test compounds (IC(50)=17.5±4.2 μM) and triggers caspase-dependent cell apoptosis. The Fhit-negative HEK293T cells (in which Fhit was silenced by RNAi) were not sensitive to compound 1. These results indicate that the Ap(4)A analogue 1 induces Fhit-dependent apoptosis and therefore, it can be considered as a drug candidate for anticancer therapy in Fhit-positive cancer cells and in Fhit-negative cancer cells, in which re-expression of Fhit was accomplished by gene therapy.

  3. Soluble adenylyl cyclase accounts for high basal cCMP and cUMP concentrations in HEK293 and B103 cells.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Alan; Danker, Kerstin Y; Wolter, Sabine; Bähre, Heike; Kaever, Volkhard; Seifert, Roland

    2014-05-30

    Intact HEK293 cells and B103 neuroblastoma cells possess high basal concentrations of the established second messengers cAMP and cGMP and of the emerging second messengers cCMP and cUMP. We asked the question which nucleotidyl cyclase accounts for the high basal cNMP concentrations. Activators and inhibitors of soluble guanylyl cyclase had no major effects on cNMPs, and the activator of membranous adenylyl cyclase forskolin increased only cAMP. Addition of bicarbonate to medium increased, whereas removal of bicarbonate decreased levels of all four cNMPs. The inhibitor of soluble adenylyl cyclase, 2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylthio)-N'-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene) propanehydrazide (KH7), reduced bicarbonate-stimulated cNMPs. In conclusion, bicarbonate-stimulated soluble adenylyl cyclase plays an important role in the regulation of basal cellular cNMP levels, most notably cCMP and cUMP.

  4. Discovery of (2-aminophenyl)methanol as a new molecular chaperone that rescues the localization of P123S mutant pendrin stably expressed in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Nabeyama, Wataru; Ishihara, Kenji; Ban, Hyun Seung; Wada, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-01

    Pendred syndrome is the most common form of syndromic deafness. It is associated with a mutation in the SLC26A4 gene that encodes pendrin, which is thought to maintain the ion concentration of endolymph in the inner ear most likely by acting as a chloride/bicarbonate transporter. Mutations in the SLC26A4 gene are responsible for sensorineural hearing loss. In this study, we established a stable HEK293 cell line expressing P123S mutant pendrin and developed screening methods for compounds that show pharmacological chaperone activity by image analysis using CellInsight™. Morphological analysis of stained cells in each well of 96-well plates yielded six compounds in the compound library. Furthermore, fluorescence intensity analysis of the intracellular localization of P123S mutant pendrin in HEK293 cells using FLUOVIEW™ and cytotoxicity experiments revealed that (2-aminophenyl)methanol 8 is the most promising molecular chaperone to rescue P123S mutant pendrin: the plasma membrane (M)/cytoplasm (C) ratios are 1.5 and 0.9 at the concentrations of 0.3 and 0.1mM, respectively, and a sustained effect was observed 12h after removal of the compound from the cell medium. Because the M/C ratio of salicylate, which was previously discovered as a molecular chaperone of P123S mutant pendrin, was approximately 1 at 10mM concentration and a sustained effect was not observed even at 6h, (2-aminophenyl)methanol 8 was 100 times more potent and exhibited a longer sustained effect than salicylate. These findings suggest that (2-aminophenyl)methanol 8 is an attractive candidate for therapeutic agent for Pendred syndrome patients.

  5. Down syndrome critical region 2 protein inhibits the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {beta} in HEK293 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hae Jin; Park, Joongkyu; Seo, Su Ryeon; Kim, Jongsun; Paik, Seung R.; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2008-11-21

    Down syndrome is mainly caused by a trisomy of chromosome 21. The Down syndrome critical region 2 (DSCR2) gene is located within a part of chromosome 21, the Down syndrome critical region (DSCR). To investigate the function of DSCR2, we sought to identify DSCR2-interacting proteins using yeast two-hybrid assays. A human fetal brain cDNA library was screened, and DSCR2 was found to interact with a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {beta}, (PPAR{beta}). A co-immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that DSCR2 physically interacts with PPAR{beta} in mammalian HEK293 cells. DSCR2 also inhibited the ligand-induced transcriptional activity of PPAR{beta}. Furthermore, PPAR{beta} also decreased the solubility of DSCR2, which increased levels of insoluble DSCR2.

  6. Antioxidant Activity and Induction of mRNA Expressions of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Mangmool, Supachoke; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2015-08-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera, collected in different provinces in Thailand, were determined for the contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids, major components, and antioxidant activity. The extract and its major active components were investigated for the inhibition of H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production and the effects on antioxidant enzymes mRNA expression. The extract, crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin, significantly reduced the reactive oxygen species production inducing by H2O2 in HEK-293 cells. Treatment with isoquercetin significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and heme oxygenase 1. These results confirm that M. oleifera leaves are good sources of natural antioxidant with isoquercetin as an active compound. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Functional properties of cardiac L-type calcium channels transiently expressed in HEK293 cells. Roles of alpha 1 and beta subunits

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The cardiac dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel was transiently expressed in HEK293 cells by transfecting the rabbit cardiac calcium channel alpha 1 subunit (alpha 1C) alone or in combination with the rabbit calcium channel beta subunit cloned from skeletal muscle. Transfection with alpha 1C alone leads to the expression of inward, voltage-activated, calcium or barium currents that exhibit dihydropyridine sensitivity and voltage- as well as calcium-dependent inactivation. Coexpression of the skeletal muscle beta subunit increases current density and the number of high-affinity dihydropyridine binding sites and also affects the macroscopic kinetics of the current. Recombinant alpha 1C beta channels exhibit a slowing of activation and a faster inactivation rate when either calcium or barium carries the charge. Our data suggest that both an increase in the number of channels as well as modulatory effects on gating underlie the modifications observed upon beta subunit coexpression. PMID:7539049

  8. Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Laura E.; Fuchs, Celine; Nicholson, Martin W.; Stephenson, F. Anne; Thomson, Alex M.; Jovanovic, Jasmina N.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory neurons act in the central nervous system to regulate the dynamics and spatio-temporal co-ordination of neuronal networks. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. It is released from the presynaptic terminals of inhibitory neurons within highly specialized intercellular junctions known as synapses, where it binds to GABAA receptors (GABAARs) present at the plasma membrane of the synapse-receiving, postsynaptic neurons. Activation of these GABA-gated ion channels leads to influx of chloride resulting in postsynaptic potential changes that decrease the probability that these neurons will generate action potentials. During development, diverse types of inhibitory neurons with distinct morphological, electrophysiological and neurochemical characteristics have the ability to recognize their target neurons and form synapses which incorporate specific GABAARs subtypes. This principle of selective innervation of neuronal targets raises the question as to how the appropriate synaptic partners identify each other. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, a novel in vitro co-culture model system was established, in which medium spiny GABAergic neurons, a highly homogenous population of neurons isolated from the embryonic striatum, were cultured with stably transfected HEK293 cell lines that express different GABAAR subtypes. Synapses form rapidly, efficiently and selectively in this system, and are easily accessible for quantification. Our results indicate that various GABAAR subtypes differ in their ability to promote synapse formation, suggesting that this reduced in vitro model system can be used to reproduce, at least in part, the in vivo conditions required for the recognition of the appropriate synaptic partners and formation of specific synapses. Here the protocols for culturing the medium spiny neurons and generating HEK293 cells lines expressing GABAARs are first described, followed by detailed

  9. HEK293 in cell biology and cancer research: phenotype, karyotype, tumorigenicity, and stress-induced genome-phenotype evolution.

    PubMed

    Stepanenko, A A; Dmitrenko, V V

    2015-09-15

    293 cell line (widely known as the Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells) and its derivatives were the most used cells after HeLa in cell biology studies and after CHO in biotechnology as a vehicle for the production of adenoviral vaccines and recombinant proteins, for analysis of the neuronal synapse formation, in electrophysiology and neuropharmacology. Despite the historically long-term productive exploitation, the origin, phenotype, karyotype, and tumorigenicity of 293 cells are still debated. 293 cells were considered the kidney epithelial cells or even fibroblasts. However, 293 cells demonstrate no evident tissue-specific gene expression signature and express the markers of renal progenitor cells, neuronal cells and adrenal gland. This complicates efforts to reveal the authentic cell type/tissue of origin. On the other hand, the potential to propagate the highly neurotropic viruses, inducible synaptogenesis, functionality of the endogenous neuron-specific voltage-gated channels, and response to the diverse agonists implicated in neuronal signaling give credibility to consider 293 cells of neuronal lineage phenotype. The compound phenotype of 293 cells can be due to heterogeneous, unstable karyotype. The mean chromosome number and chromosome aberrations differ between 293 cells and derivatives as well as between 293 cells from the different cell banks/labs. 293 cells are tumorigenic, whereas acute changes of expression of the cancer-associated genes aggravate tumorigenicity by promoting chromosome instability. Importantly, the procedure of a stable empty vector transfection can also impact karyotype and phenotype. The discussed issues caution against misinterpretations and pitfalls during the different experimental manipulations with 293 cells.

  10. Inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate-activated current by bis(7)-tacrine in HEK-293 cells expressing NR1/NR2A or NR1/NR2B receptors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuwei; Li, Chaoying

    2012-12-01

    In normal rat forebrain, the NR1/NR2A and NR1/NR2B dimmers are the main constitutional forms of NMDA receptors. The present study was carried out to determine the functional properties of the heteromeric NMDA receptor subunits and their inhibition by bis(7)-tacrine (B7T). Rat NR1, NR2A and NR2B cDNAs were transfected into human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK-293). The inhibition of NMDA-activated currents by B7T was detected in HEK-293 cell expressing NR1/NR2A or NR1/NR2B receptors by using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. The results showed that in HEK-293 cells expressing NR1/NR2A receptor, 1 μmol/L B7T inhibited 30 μmol/L NMDA- and 1000 μmol/L NMDA-activated steady-state currents by 46% and 40%, respectively (P>0.05; n=5), suggesting that the inhibition of B7T on NR1/NR2A receptor doesn't depend on NMDA concentration, which is consistent with a non-competitive mechanism of inhibition. But for the NR1/NR2B receptor, 1 μmol/L B7T inhibited 30 μmol/L NMDA- and 1000 μmol/L NMDA-activated steady-state currents by 61% and 13%, respectively (P<0.05; n=6), showing that B7T appears to be competitive with NMDA. In addition, simultaneous application of 1 μmol/L B7T and 1000 μmol/L NMDA produced a moderate inhibition of peak NMDA-activated current, followed by a gradual decline of the current to a steady state. However, the gradual onset of inhibition produced by B7T applied simultaneously with NMDA was eliminated when B7T was given 5 s before NMDA. These results suggested that B7T inhibition of NMDA current mediated by NR1/NR2B receptor was slow onset, and it did not depend on the presence of the agonist. With holding potentials ranging from -50 to +50 mV, the B7T inhibition rate of NMDA currents didn't change significantly, and neither did the reversal potential. We are led to conclude that the NR1/NR2B recombinant receptor can serve as a very useful model for studying the molecular mechanism of NMDA receptor inhibition by B7T.

  11. Improvement in the suspension-culture production of recombinant adeno-associated virus-LacZ in HEK-293 cells using polyethyleneimine-DNA complexes in combination with hypothermic treatment.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Guo, Meijin; Zhang, Shuxiang; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2008-06-01

    rAAV (recombinant adeno-associated virus) has become a very useful gene-delivery vector for gene therapy. However, it is very difficult to generate rAAV using triple transfection on a commercial scale, owing to its low transfection efficiency. An optimal procedure for transfection in suspension-culture mode was developed for rAAV-LacZ production in suspension-cultured HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney-293) cells mediated by PEI (polyethyleneimine)-DNA complexes in combination with transient severe hypothermia at 4 degrees C for 1 h in the present study (LacZ is the product of the reporter gene lacZ, which codes for beta-D-galactosidase). It showed that the PEI/DNA ratio, cell density at the beginning of transfection and cell-cycle arrest in G2/M-phase were key factors affecting suspension-culture triple-transfection efficiency and rAAV-LacZ productivity. After incubation at 4 degrees C for 1 h and re-warming at 37 degrees C for 18 h, HEK-293 cells at 1x10(6) cells/ml were transfected with PEI-DNA complexes at a PEI/DNA ratio of 5:1 (w/w) with final concentrations of 30 mug/ml 25 kDa linear PEI and 6 mug/ml plasmid DNA in culture. After 6 h incubation for transfection, an equal volume of medium was added to the culture for additional 48 h growth until harvest. Finally, the high transfection efficiency of some 75% and rAAV-LacZ titre of (7.48+/-0.59)x10(11) physical particles or 1.86+/-0.96x10(10) infectious particles were achieved in 250 ml shake flasks with 60 ml working volume, indicating a promising application for scale-up.

  12. Effects of excretory/secretory products from Clonorchis sinensis and the carcinogen dimethylnitrosamine on the proliferation and cell cycle modulation of human epithelial HEK293T cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Min; Kim, June-Sung; Choi, Min-Ho; Hong, Sung-Tae; Bae, Young Mee

    2008-09-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is one of the most prevalent parasitic helminths in Korea. Although cholangiocarcinoma can be induced by C. sinensis infection, the underlying mechanism is not clearly understood. To assess the role of C. sinensis infection in carcinogenesis, an in vitro system was established using the human epithelial cell line HEK293T. In cells exposed to the excretory/secretory products (ESP) of C. sinensis and the carcinogen dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), cellular proliferation and the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase increased. Moreover, the expression of the cell cycle proteins E2F1, p-pRb, and cyclin B was dramatically increased when ESP and DMN were added together. Similarly, the transcription factor E2F1 showed its highest level of activity when ESP and DMN were added simultaneously. These findings indicate that DMN and ESP synergistically affect the regulation of cell cycle-related proteins. Our results suggest that exposure to C. sinensis and a small amount of a carcinogen such as DMN can promote carcinogenesis in the bile duct epithelium via uncontrolled cellular proliferation and the upregulation of cell cycle-related proteins.

  13. High-Throughput Lipidomic and Transcriptomic Analysis To Compare SP2/0, CHO, and HEK-293 Mammalian Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Kumar, Amit; Priola, Joseph; Bahri, Michelle; Heffner, Kelley M; Wang, Miao; Han, Xianlin; Bowen, Michael A; Betenbaugh, Michael J

    2017-02-07

    A combined lipidomics and transcriptomics analysis was performed on mouse myeloma SP2/0, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells in order to compare widely used mammalian expression systems. Initial thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis indicated that phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) were the major lipid components in all cell lines with lower amounts of sphingomyelin (SM) in SP2/0 compared to CHO and HEK, which was subsequently confirmed and expanded upon following mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. HEK contained 4-10-fold higher amounts of lyso phosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) and 2-4-fold higher amounts of lyso phosphatidylcholine (LPC) compared to SP2/0 and CHO cell lines. C18:1 followed by C16:1 were the main contributors to the difference in both LPE and LPC levels. Alternatively, the SP2/0 cell line exhibited 30-65-fold lower amounts of SM principally in the amount of 16:0. By mapping the transcriptomics data to KEGG pathways, we found expression levels of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lysophospholipid acyltransferase (LPEAT), lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), and lysophospholipase (LYPLA) can contribute to the differences in LPE and LPC. Sphingomyelin synthases (SMS) and sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase (SMase) enzymes may play roles in SM differences across the three cell lines. The results of this study provide insights that will aid the understanding of the physiological and secretory differences across recombinant protein production systems.

  14. Combination treatment with 6-mercaptopurine and allopurinol in HepG2 and HEK293 cells – Effects on gene expression levels and thiopurine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Haglund, Sofie; Vikingsson, Svante; Almer, Sven; Söderman, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Combination treatment with low-dose thiopurine and allopurinol (AP) has successfully been used in patients with inflammatory bowel disease with a so called skewed thiopurine metabolite profile. In red blood cells in vivo, it reduces the concentration of methylated metabolites and increases the concentration of the phosphorylated ones, which is associated with improved therapeutic efficacy. This study aimed to investigate the largely unknown mechanism of AP on thiopurine metabolism in cells with an active thiopurine metabolic pathway using HepG2 and HEK293 cells. Cells were treated with 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) and AP or its metabolite oxypurinol. The expression of genes known to be associated with thiopurine metabolism, and the concentration of thiopurine metabolites were analyzed. Gene expression levels were only affected by AP in the presence of 6MP. The addition of AP to 6MP affected the expression of in total 19 genes in the two cell lines. In both cell lines the expression of the transporter SLC29A2 was reduced by the combined treatment. Six regulated genes in HepG2 cells and 8 regulated genes in HEK293 cells were connected to networks with 18 and 35 genes, respectively, present at known susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease, when analyzed using a protein-protein interaction database. The genes identified as regulated as well as the disease associated interacting genes represent new candidates for further investigation in the context of combination therapy with thiopurines and AP. However, no differences in absolute metabolite concentrations were observed between 6MP+AP or 6MP+oxypurinol vs. 6MP alone in either of the two cell lines. In conclusion; the effect of AP on gene expression levels requires the presence of 6MP, at least in vitro. Previously described AP-effects on metabolite concentrations observed in red blood cells in vivo could not be reproduced in our cell lines in vitro. AP’s effects in relation to thiopurine metabolism are complex

  15. Detergent Induction of HEK 293A Cell Membrane Permeability Measured under Quiescent and Superfusion Conditions Using Whole Cell Patch Clamp

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Detergents have several biological applications but present cytotoxicity concerns, since they can solubilize cell membranes. Using the IonFlux 16, an ensemble whole cell planar patch clamp, we observed that anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and cationic, fluorescent octadecyl rhodamine B (ORB) increased the membrane permeability of cells substantially within a second of exposure, under superfusion conditions. Increased permeability was irreversible for 15 min. At subsolubilizing detergent concentrations, patched cells showed increased membrane currents that reached a steady state and were intact when imaged using fluorescence microscopy. SDS solubilized cells at concentrations of 2 mM (2× CMC), while CTAB did not solubilize cells even at concentrations of 10 mM (1000× CMC). The relative activity for plasma membrane current induction was 1:20:14 for SDS, CTAB, and ORB, respectively. Under quiescent conditions, the relative ratio of lipid to detergent in cell membranes at the onset of membrane permeability was 1:7:5 for SDS, CTAB, and ORB, respectively. The partition constants (K) for SDS, CTAB, and ORB were 23000, 55000, and 39000 M–1, respectively. Combining the whole cell patch clamp data and XTT viability data, SDS ≤ 0.2 mM and CTAB and ORB ≤ 1 mM induced cell membrane permeability without causing acute toxicity. PMID:24548291

  16. Optimization of HEK-293S cell cultures for the production of adenoviral vectors in bioreactors using on-line OUR measurements.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, J; Lecina, M; Solà, C; Cairó, J J; Gòdia, F

    2012-01-01

    The culture of HEK-293S cells in a stirred tank bioreactor for adenoviral vectors production for gene therapy is studied. Process monitoring using oxygen uptake rate (OUR) was performed. The OUR was determined on-line by the dynamic method, providing good information of the process evolution. OUR enabled cell activity monitoring, facilitating as well the determination of the feeding rate in perfusion cultures and when to infect the culture. Batch cultures were used to validate the monitoring methodology. A cell density of 10×10(5)cell/mL was infected, producing 1.3×10(9) infectious viral particles/mL (IVP/mL). To increase cell density values maintaining cell specific productivity, perfusion cultures, based on tangential flow filtration, were studied. In this case, OUR measurements were used to optimize the dynamic culture medium feeding strategy, addressed to avoid any potential nutrient limitation. Furthermore, the infection protocol was defined in order to optimize the use of the viral inoculum, minimizing the uncontrolled release of particles through the filter unit mesh. All these developments enabled an infection at 78×10(5)cell/mL with the consequent production of 44×10(9)IVP/mL, representing a cell specific productivity 4.3 times higher than for the batch culture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased levels of inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) protect HEK293 cells from tumor necrosis factor (alpha)- and Fas-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Verbsky, John; Majerus, Philip W

    2005-08-12

    The overexpression of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase has recently been shown to protect HEK293 cells from tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF(alpha))-induced apoptosis. This overexpression leads to an increase in the levels of both inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (InsP5) and inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate (InsP6). Cells that overexpress InsP5 2-kinase have increased levels of InsP6 and are also protected from TNFalpha-induced apoptosis; furthermore, cells that express an RNA interference construct to the 2-kinase are deficient in InsP6 and are sensitized to TNFalpha-induced apoptosis. Therefore the protective effect of 5/6-kinase on TNFalpha-mediated apoptosis is due to an increase of InsP6 or to a metabolite derived from InsP6. Furthermore, we find that the InsP6 also protects from Fas-mediated apoptosis. No effect was seen in the endocytic rate of transferrin receptor, caspase 8 activity, or TNF receptor number at the cell surface. Cells that overexpress 2-kinase do show an increase in the amount of receptor-interacting protein (RIP), while cells with reduced InsP6 levels show relatively less RIP, providing a possible mechanism for the effect on apoptosis.

  18. TRIB3 enhances cell viability during glucose deprivation in HEK293-derived cells by upregulating IGFBP2, a novel nutrient deficiency survival factor.

    PubMed

    Örd, Tiit; Örd, Daima; Adler, Priit; Vilo, Jaak; Örd, Tõnis

    2015-10-01

    Glucose deprivation occurs in several human diseases, including infarctions and solid tumors, and leads to cell death. In this article, we investigate the role of the pseudokinase Tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3) in the cellular stress response to glucose starvation using cell lines derived from HEK293, which is highly glycolytic under standard conditions. Our results show that TRIB3 mRNA and protein levels are strongly upregulated in glucose-deprived cells via the induction of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor kinase PERK. Cell survival in glucose-deficient conditions is enhanced by TRIB3 overexpression and reduced by TRIB3 knockdown. Genome-wide gene expression profiling uncovered approximately 40 glucose deprivation-responsive genes that are affected by TRIB3, including several genes involved in signaling processes and metabolism. Based on transcription factor motif analysis, the majority of TRIB3-downregulated genes are target genes of ATF4, which TRIB3 is known to inhibit. The gene most substantially upregulated by TRIB3 is insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2). IGFBP2 mRNA and protein levels are downregulated in cells subjected to glucose deprivation, and reduced IGFBP2 expression aggravates cell death during glucose deficiency, while overexpression of IGFBP2 prolongs cell survival. Moreover, IGFBP2 silencing abrogates the pro-survival effect of TRIB3. Since TRIB3 augments IGFBP2 expression in glucose-starved cells, the data indicate that IGFBP2 contributes to the attenuation of cell death by TRIB3. These results implicate TRIB3 and IGFBP2, both of which are known to be overexpressed in several types of cancers, as pro-survival modulators of cell viability in nutrient-deficient microenvironments.

  19. Functional expression of milligram quantities of the synthetic human serotonin transporter gene in a tetracycline-inducible HEK293 cell line.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Hidehito; Sugio, Shigetoshi

    2011-04-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT), a member of the solute carrier 6 family, is responsible for reuptake of the monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) from the synaptic cleft on the neural cells, and a vital target for several antidepressants. To investigate biophysical studies of this pharmacologically relevant transporter, we developed a mammalian expression system with tetracycline-inducible HEK293 cells using synthetic human SERT genes produced by PCR-based self-assembly method. Codon-optimization of this de novo constructed genes and construction of stable cell lines improved expression 3.5-fold and single-step immunoaffinity purification with FLAG-epitope tag yielded around one milligram functional SERT per liter culture medium assessed by [(3)H] imipramine ligand binding. Some characterizations including electrospray ionization MS/MS analysis, subcellular localization and cellular-uptake assay demonstrated that expressed human SERT was properly expressed, folded and fully functional. The long cytosolic N-terminal of SERT was predicted as containing 'intrinsically disordered region (IDR)' (∼85 residues) by DISOPRED2 program. We engineered this salient region by step-wise truncation and ligand binding assay determined that dissociation constant for a series of de novo designed truncation constructs was close to the one for full-length wild type SERT. Our expression platform using synthetic codon-optimized gene and mammalian stable cell lines is feasible to produce milligram-scale functional membrane transporter for further biophysical and biochemical studies.

  20. Global Characteristics of CSIG-Associated Gene Expression Changes in Human HEK293 Cells and the Implications for CSIG Regulating Cell Proliferation and Senescence.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liwei; Zhao, Wenting; Zhu, Feng; Yuan, Fuwen; Xie, Nan; Li, Tingting; Wang, Pingzhang; Tong, Tanjun

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence-inhibited gene (CSIG), also named as ribosomal_L1 domain-containing 1 (RSL1D1), is implicated in various processes including cell cycle regulation, cellular senescence, apoptosis, and tumor metastasis. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanism underlying its functions. To screen important targets and signaling pathways modulated by CSIG, we compared the gene expression profiles in CSIG-silencing and control HEK293 cells using Affymetrix microarray Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChips. A total of 590 genes displayed statistically significant expression changes, with 279 genes up-regulated and 311 down-regulated, respectively. These genes are involved in a broad array of biological processes, mainly in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle, signal transduction, oxidation reduction, development, and cell adhesion. The differential expression of genes such as ZNF616, KPNA5, and MAP3K3 was further validated by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Furthermore, we investigated the correlated expression patterns of Cdc14B, ESCO1, KPNA5, MAP3K3, and CSIG during cell cycle and senescence progression, which imply the important pathways CSIG regulating cell cycle and senescence. The mechanism study showed that CSIG modulated the mRNA half-life of Cdc14B, CASP7, and CREBL2. This study shows that expression profiling can be used to identify genes that are transcriptionally or post-transcriptionally modified following CSIG knockdown and to reveal the molecular mechanism of cell proliferation and senescence regulated by CSIG.

  1. β1- and β3- voltage-gated sodium channel subunits modulate cell surface expression and glycosylation of Nav1.7 in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Laedermann, Cédric J; Syam, Ninda; Pertin, Marie; Decosterd, Isabelle; Abriel, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) are glycoproteins composed of a pore-forming α-subunit and associated β-subunits that regulate Nav α-subunit plasma membrane density and biophysical properties. Glycosylation of the Nav α-subunit also directly affects Navs gating. β-subunits and glycosylation thus comodulate Nav α-subunit gating. We hypothesized that β-subunits could directly influence α-subunit glycosylation. Whole-cell patch clamp of HEK293 cells revealed that both β1- and β3-subunits coexpression shifted V ½ of steady-state activation and inactivation and increased Nav1.7-mediated I Na density. Biotinylation of cell surface proteins, combined with the use of deglycosydases, confirmed that Nav1.7 α-subunits exist in multiple glycosylated states. The α-subunit intracellular fraction was found in a core-glycosylated state, migrating at ~250 kDa. At the plasma membrane, in addition to the core-glycosylated form, a fully glycosylated form of Nav1.7 (~280 kDa) was observed. This higher band shifted to an intermediate band (~260 kDa) when β1-subunits were coexpressed, suggesting that the β1-subunit promotes an alternative glycosylated form of Nav1.7. Furthermore, the β1-subunit increased the expression of this alternative glycosylated form and the β3-subunit increased the expression of the core-glycosylated form of Nav1.7. This study describes a novel role for β1- and β3-subunits in the modulation of Nav1.7 α-subunit glycosylation and cell surface expression.

  2. Efficient inhibition of beta-secretase gene expression in HEK293 cells by tRNAVal-driven and CTE-helicase associated hammerhead ribozymes.

    PubMed

    Nawrot, Barbara; Antoszczyk, Slawomir; Maszewska, Maria; Kuwabara, Tomoko; Warashina, Masaki; Taira, Kazunari; Stec, Wojciech J

    2003-10-01

    The beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) is a major component of toxic amyloid plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Abeta is liberated by sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretases. The level of Abeta depends directly on the hydrolytic activity of beta-secretase. Therefore, beta-secretase is an excellent target for drug design. An approach based on RNA-cleaving ribozymes was developed to control expression of beta-secretase. Two sites of mRNA coding beta-site APP cleaving enzyme were chosen as target sequences for endogenously delivered ribozymes. The ribozyme cassette was designed to constitute a catalytic hammerhead core and substrate recognition arms, flanked at the 5'-terminus by tRNAVal and at the 3'-terminus by constitutive transport element sequences. Ribozyme cassettes were cloned into a pUC19 plasmid and used for transient transfection of HEK293 cells. We demonstrate that such ribozymes efficiently inhibit beta-secretase gene expression at both the mRNA (up to 95%) and the protein (up to 90%) levels. Inhibition of beta-site APP cleaving enzyme activity directly influences the intra- and extracellular population of Abeta peptide. Therefore, such ribozymes may be considered as molecular tools for silencing the beta-secretase activity, and further, as therapeutic agents for anti-amyloid treatment.

  3. The role of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs/SLCOs) in the toxicity of different microcystin congeners in vitro: A comparison of primary human hepatocytes and OATP-transfected HEK293 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, A.; Hoeger, S.J.; Stemmer, K.; Feurstein, D.J.; Knobeloch, D.; Nussler, A.; Dietrich, D.R.

    2010-05-15

    Cellular uptake of microcystins (MCs), a family of cyclic cyanobacterial heptapeptide toxins, occurs via specific organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), where MCs inhibit serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase (PP). Despite comparable PP-inhibitory capacity, MCs differ greatly in their acute toxicity, thus raising the question whether this discrepancy results from MC-specific toxikokinetic rather than toxicodynamic differences. OATP-mediated uptake of MC congeners MCLR, -RR, -LW and -LF was compared in primary human hepatocytes and HEK293 cells stably expressing recombinant human OATP1B1/SLCO1B1 and OATP1B3/SLCO1B3 in the presence/absence of OATP substrates taurocholate (TC) and bromosulfophthalein (BSP) and measuring PP-inhibition and cytotoxicity. Control vector expressing HEK293 were resistant to MC cytotoxicity, while TC and BSP competition experiments reduced MC cytotoxicity in HEK293-OATP transfectants, thus confirming the requirement of OATPs for trans-membrane transport. Despite comparable PP-inhibiting capabilities, MCLW and -LF elicited cytotoxic effects at lower equimolar concentrations than MCLR and MCRR, hence suggesting congener selective transport into HEK293-OATP transfectants and primary human hepatocytes. Primary human hepatocytes appeared one order of magnitude more sensitive to MC congeners than the corresponding HEK293 -OATP transfectants. Although the latter maybe due to a much lower level of PPs in primary human hepatocytes, the presence of OATPs other than 1B1 or 1B3 may have added to an increased uptake of MCs. In view of the high sensitivity of human hepatocytes and currently MCLR-only based risk calculations, the actual risk of human MC-intoxication and ensuing liver damage could be underestimated in freshwater cyanobacterial blooms where MCLW and-LF predominate.

  4. Generation of HIV-1 Gag VLPs by transient transfection of HEK 293 suspension cell cultures using an optimized animal-derived component free medium.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Laura; Gutiérrez-Granados, Sonia; Martínez, Marta; Blanco, Julià; Gòdia, Francesc; Segura, María Mercedes

    2013-07-20

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) offer great promise as candidates for new vaccine strategies. Large-scale approaches for the manufacturing of HIV-1 Gag VLPs have mainly focused on the use of the baculovirus expression system. In this work, the development and optimization of an HIV-1 Gag VLP production protocol by transient gene expression in mammalian cell suspension cultures is reported. To facilitate process optimization, a Gag-GFP fusion construct enabling the generation of fluorescent VLPs was used. The great majority of Gag-GFP present in cell culture supernatants was shown to be correctly assembled into virus-like particles of the expected size and morphology consistent with immature HIV-1 particles. Medium optimization was performed using design of experiments (DoE). Culture medium supplementation with non-animal derived components including recombinant proteins and lipids of synthetic or non-animal-derived origin resulted in improved HEK 293 cell growth and VLP production. The maximum cell density attained using the optimized Freestyle culture medium was 5.4×10(6)cells/mL in batch mode, almost double of that observed using the unsupplemented medium (2.9×10(6)cells/mL). Best production performance was attained when cells were transfected at mid-log phase (2-3×10(6)cells/mL) with medium exchange at the time of transfection using standard amounts of plasmid DNA and polyethylenimine. By using an optimized production protocol, VLP titers were increased 2.4-fold obtaining 2.8μg of Gag-GFP/mL or 2.7×10(9)VLPs/mL according to ELISA and nanoparticle tracking quantification analyses, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative characterization of capsaicin-induced TRPV1 ion channel activation in HEK293 cells by impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Maxi; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Krinke, Dana; Zitzmann, Franziska D; Hill, Kerstin; Schaefer, Michael; Robitzki, Andrea A

    2016-11-01

    The analysis of receptor activity, especially in its native cellular environment, has always been of great interest to evaluate its intrinsic but also downstream biological activity. An important group of cellular receptors are ion channels. Since they are involved in a broad range of crucial cell functions, they represent important therapeutic targets. Thus, novel analytical techniques for the quantitative monitoring and screening of biological receptor activity are of great interest. In this context, we developed an impedance spectroscopy-based label-free and non-invasive monitoring system that enabled us to analyze the activation of the transient receptor potential channel Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in detail. TRPV1 channel activation by capsaicin resulted in a reproducible impedance decrease. Moreover, concentration response curves with an EC50 value of 0.9 μM could be determined. Control experiments with non TRPV1 channel expressing HEK cells as well as experiments with the TRPV1 channel blocker ruthenium red validated the specificity of the observed impedance decrease. More strikingly, through correlative studies with a cytoskeleton restructuring inhibitor mixture and equivalent circuit analysis of the acquired impedance spectra, we could quantitatively discriminate between the direct TRPV1 channel activation and downstream-induced biological effects. In summary, we developed a quantitative impedimetric monitoring system for the analysis of TRPV1 channel activity as well as downstream-induced biological activity in living cells. It has the capabilities to identify novel ion channel activators as well as inhibitors for the TRPV1 channel but could also easily be applied to other ion channel-based receptors.

  6. Electron tomography of HEK293T cells using scanning electron microscope-based scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    You, Yun-Wen; Chang, Hsun-Yun; Liao, Hua-Yang; Kao, Wei-Lun; Yen, Guo-Ji; Chang, Chi-Jen; Tsai, Meng-Hung; Shyue, Jing-Jong

    2012-10-01

    Based on a scanning electron microscope operated at 30 kV with a homemade specimen holder and a multiangle solid-state detector behind the sample, low-kV scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is presented with subsequent electron tomography for three-dimensional (3D) volume structure. Because of the low acceleration voltage, the stronger electron-atom scattering leads to a stronger contrast in the resulting image than standard TEM, especially for light elements. Furthermore, the low-kV STEM yields less radiation damage to the specimen, hence the structure can be preserved. In this work, two-dimensional STEM images of a 1-μm-thick cell section with projection angles between ±50° were collected, and the 3D volume structure was reconstructed using the simultaneous iterative reconstructive technique algorithm with the TomoJ plugin for ImageJ, which are both public domain software. Furthermore, the cross-sectional structure was obtained with the Volume Viewer plugin in ImageJ. Although the tilting angle is constrained and limits the resulting structural resolution, slicing the reconstructed volume generated the depth profile of the thick specimen with sufficient resolution to examine cellular uptake of Au nanoparticles, and the final position of these nanoparticles inside the cell was imaged.

  7. Dephosphorylation and inactivation of Akt/PKB is counteracted by protein kinase CK2 in HEK 293T cells.

    PubMed

    Di Maira, Giovanni; Brustolon, Francesca; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Ruzzene, Maria

    2009-10-01

    Akt (PKB) is a critical kinase in cell-survival pathways. Its activity depends on the phosphorylation of Thr308 and Ser473, by PDK1 and mTORC2, respectively. We found that Akt can be further stimulated through phosphorylation of Ser129 by another kinase, CK2. Here we show that phosphorylation of Akt at Ser129 also facilitates its association with Hsp90 chaperone, thus preventing Thr308 dephosphorylation. This is supported by the following observations: (1) phospho-Thr308 decreases when Ser129 is mutated to alanine, (2) this decrease is abolished by cell treatment with okadaic acid (to inactivate PP2A) or geldanamycin (to inactivate Hsp90), (3) phosphorylation of Ser129 neither enhances the activity of PDK1 nor hampers the in vitro activity of PP2A on Thr308, but increases the Hsp90 association to Akt. These data support the view that the antiapoptotic potential of CK2 is at least in part mediated by its ability to maintain Akt in its active form.

  8. TRH-receptor mobility and function in intact and cholesterol-depleted plasma membrane of HEK293 cells stably expressing TRH-R-eGFP.

    PubMed

    Brejchová, Jana; Sýkora, Jan; Ostašov, Pavel; Merta, Ladislav; Roubalová, Lenka; Janáček, Jiří; Hof, Martin; Svoboda, Petr

    2015-03-01

    Here we investigated the effect of disruption of plasma membrane integrity by cholesterol depletion on thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRH-R) surface mobility in HEK293 cells stably expressing TRH-R-eGFP fusion protein (VTGP cells). Detailed analysis by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) in bleached spots of different sizes indicated that cholesterol depletion did not result in statistically significant alteration of mobile fraction of receptor molecules (Mf). The apparent diffusion coefficient (Dapp) was decreased, but this decrease was detectable only under the special conditions of screening and calculation of FRAP data. Analysis of mobility of receptor molecules by raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) did not indicate any significant difference between control and cholesterol-depleted cells. Results of our FRAP and RICS experiments may be collectively interpreted in terms of a "membrane fence" model which regards the plasma membrane of living cells as compartmentalized plane where lateral diffusion of membrane proteins is limited to restricted areas by cytoskeleton constraints. Hydrophobic interior of plasma membrane, studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy of hydrophobic membrane probe DPH, became substantially more "fluid" and chaotically organized in cholesterol-depleted cells. Decrease of cholesterol level impaired the functional coupling between the receptor and the cognate G proteins of Gq/G11 family. the presence of an unaltered level of cholesterol in the plasma membrane represents an obligatory condition for an optimum functioning of TRH-R signaling cascade. The decreased order and increased fluidity of hydrophobic membrane interior suggest an important role of this membrane area in TRH-R-Gq/G11α protein coupling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. PI3K pathway is involved in ERK signaling cascade activation by histamine H2R agonist in HEK293T cells.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Natalia; Diaz Nebreda, Antonela; Monczor, Federico; Gutkind, J Silvio; Davio, Carlos; Fernandez, Natalia; Shayo, Carina

    2016-09-01

    Histamine, through histamine H2 receptor (H2R), modulates different biological processes, involving the modulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathways. Many evidences have demonstrated the existence and importance of the crossregulation between these two signaling pathways. The aim of the present work was to determine the molecular mechanisms leading to PI3K and ERK pathways modulation induced by the H2R agonist amthamine and to evaluate the possible interplay between them. Phosphorylation levels of ERK and Akt were examined by Western blot in HEK293T cells expressing the human H2R, in the presence of H2R agonist and dominant negative mutants or pharmacological inhibitors of different proteins/pathways. Transcriptional activity assays were assessed to determine SRE activity. Amthamine-mediated cellular proliferation was investigated in MA-10A cells in the presence of PI3K inhibitor. H2R agonist inhibits PI3K/Akt/mTOR and stimulates Ras/MEK/ERK pathways. Moreover, PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling inhibition is necessary to achieve H2R mediated ERK activation. In the presence of a constitutive active mutant of Akt, amthamine is not able to mediate ERK activation. This crosstalk affects classical ERK downstream targets such as Elk1 phosphorylation and the transcriptional activity of the SRE, classically associated to proliferation. We further demonstrate that amthamine-induced proliferation in Leydig MA-10 tumor cells, is enhanced by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor. These results describe a crosstalk between PI3K/AKT/mTOR and Ras/MEK/ERK pathways induced by H2R stimulation with implications in cell proliferation. This work indicates that the modulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway by H2R in turn regulates Ras/MEK/ERK activation conditioning the proliferative capacity of the cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Calcium concentration jumps reveal dynamic ion selectivity of calcium-activated chloride currents in mouse olfactory sensory neurons and TMEM16b-transfected HEK 293T cells

    PubMed Central

    Sagheddu, Claudia; Boccaccio, Anna; Dibattista, Michele; Montani, Giorgia; Tirindelli, Roberto; Menini, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+-activated Cl− channels play relevant roles in several physiological processes, including olfactory transduction, but their molecular identity is still unclear. Recent evidence suggests that members of the transmembrane 16 (TMEM16, also named anoctamin) family form Ca2+-activated Cl− channels in several cell types. In vertebrate olfactory transduction, TMEM16b/anoctamin2 has been proposed as the major molecular component of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels. However, a comparison of the functional properties in the whole-cell configuration between the native and the candidate channel has not yet been performed. In this study, we have used the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique to measure functional properties of the native channel in mouse isolated olfactory sensory neurons and compare them with those of mouse TMEM16b/anoctamin2 expressed in HEK 293T cells. We directly activated channels by rapid and reproducible intracellular Ca2+ concentration jumps obtained from photorelease of caged Ca2+ and determined extracellular blocking properties and anion selectivity of the channels. We found that the Cl− channel blockers niflumic acid, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) and DIDS applied at the extracellular side of the membrane caused a similar inhibition of the two currents. Anion selectivity measured exchanging external ions and revealed that, in both types of currents, the reversal potential for some anions was time dependent. Furthermore, we confirmed by immunohistochemistry that TMEM16b/anoctamin2 largely co-localized with adenylyl cyclase III at the surface of the olfactory epithelium. Therefore, we conclude that the measured electrophysiological properties in the whole-cell configuration are largely similar, and further indicate that TMEM16b/anoctamin2 is likely to be a major subunit of the native olfactory Ca2+-activated Cl− current. PMID:20837642

  11. Calcium concentration jumps reveal dynamic ion selectivity of calcium-activated chloride currents in mouse olfactory sensory neurons and TMEM16b-transfected HEK 293T cells.

    PubMed

    Sagheddu, Claudia; Boccaccio, Anna; Dibattista, Michele; Montani, Giorgia; Tirindelli, Roberto; Menini, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels play relevant roles in several physiological processes, including olfactory transduction, but their molecular identity is still unclear. Recent evidence suggests that members of the transmembrane 16 (TMEM16, also named anoctamin) family form Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in several cell types. In vertebrate olfactory transduction, TMEM16b/anoctamin2 has been proposed as the major molecular component of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels. However, a comparison of the functional properties in the whole-cell configuration between the native and the candidate channel has not yet been performed. In this study, we have used the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique to measure functional properties of the native channel in mouse isolated olfactory sensory neurons and compare them with those of mouse TMEM16b/anoctamin2 expressed in HEK 293T cells. We directly activated channels by rapid and reproducible intracellular Ca(2+) concentration jumps obtained from photorelease of caged Ca(2+) and determined extracellular blocking properties and anion selectivity of the channels. We found that the Cl(-) channel blockers niflumic acid, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) and DIDS applied at the extracellular side of the membrane caused a similar inhibition of the two currents. Anion selectivity measured exchanging external ions and revealed that, in both types of currents, the reversal potential for some anions was time dependent. Furthermore, we confirmed by immunohistochemistry that TMEM16b/anoctamin2 largely co-localized with adenylyl cyclase III at the surface of the olfactory epithelium. Therefore, we conclude that the measured electrophysiological properties in the whole-cell configuration are largely similar, and further indicate that TMEM16b/anoctamin2 is likely to be a major subunit of the native olfactory Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current.

  12. Protein alterations induced by long-term agonist treatment of HEK293 cells expressing thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor and G11alpha protein.

    PubMed

    Drastichova, Zdenka; Bourova, Lenka; Hejnova, Lucie; Jedelsky, Petr; Svoboda, Petr; Novotny, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether sustained stimulation with thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), a peptide with important physiological functions, can possibly affect expression of plasma membrane proteins in HEK293 cells expressing high levels of TRH receptor and G(11)alpha protein. Our previous experiments using silver-stained two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoretograms did not reveal any significant changes in an overall composition of membrane microdomain proteins after long-term treatment with TRH of these cells (Matousek et al. 2005 Cell Biochem Biophys 42: 21-40). Here we used a purified plasma membrane fraction prepared by Percoll gradient centrifugation and proteins resolved by 2D electrophoresis were stained with SYPRO Ruby gel stain. The high enrichment in plasma membrane proteins of this preparation was confirmed by a multifold increase in the number of TRH receptors and agonist stimulated G-protein activity, compared to postnuclear supernatant. By a combination of these approaches we were able to determine a number of clearly discernible protein changes in the plasma membrane-enriched fraction isolated from cells treated with TRH (1 x 10(-5) M, 16 h): 4 proteins disappeared, the level of 18 proteins decreased and the level of 39 proteins increased. Our concomitant immunochemical determinations also indicated a clear down-regulation of G(q/11)alpha proteins in preparations from hormone-treated cells. In parallel, we observed decrease in caspase 3 and alterations in some other apoptotic marker proteins, which were in line with the presumed antiapoptotic effect of TRH.

  13. Over-expression of GFP-FEZ1 causes generation of multi-lobulated nuclei mediated by microtubules in HEK293 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lanza, Daniel C.F.; Trindade, Daniel M.; Assmann, Eliana M.; Kobarg, Joerg

    2008-06-10

    FEZ1 (Fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1) is an ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans protein UNC-76, involved in neuronal development and axon outgrowth, in that worm. Mammalian FEZ1 has already been reported to cooperate with PKC-zeta in the differentiation and polarization of PC12 neuronal cells. Furthermore, FEZ1 is associated with kinesin 1 and JIP1 to form a cargo-complex responsible for microtubule based transport of mitochondria along axons. FEZ1 can also be classified as a hub protein, since it was reported to interact with over 40 different proteins in yeast two-hybrid screens, including at least nine nuclear proteins. Here, we transiently over-expressed GFP-FEZ1full in human HEK293 and HeLa cells in order to study the sub-cellular localization of GFP-FEZ1. We observed that over 40% of transiently transfected cells at 3 days post-transfection develop multi-lobulated nuclei, which are also called flower-like nuclei. We further demonstrated that GFP-FEZ1 localizes either to the cytoplasm or the nuclear fraction, and that the appearance of the flower-like nuclei depends on intact microtubule function. Finally, we show that FEZ1 co-localizes with both, {alpha}- and especially with {gamma}-tubulin, which localizes as a centrosome like structure at the center of the multiple lobules. In summary, our data suggest that FEZ1 has an important centrosomal function and supply new mechanistic insights to the formation of flower-like nuclei, which are a phenotypical hallmark of human leukemia cells.

  14. Hypotonic Activation of the Myo-Inositol Transporter SLC5A3 in HEK293 Cells Probed by Cell Volumetry, Confocal and Super-Resolution Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Andronic, Joseph; Shirakashi, Ryo; Pickel, Simone U.; Westerling, Katherine M.; Klein, Teresa; Holm, Thorge; Sauer, Markus; Sukhorukov, Vladimir L.

    2015-01-01

    Swelling-activated pathways for myo-inositol, one of the most abundant organic osmolytes in mammalian cells, have not yet been identified. The present study explores the SLC5A3 protein as a possible transporter of myo-inositol in hyponically swollen HEK293 cells. To address this issue, we examined the relationship between the hypotonicity-induced changes in plasma membrane permeability to myo-inositol Pino [m/s] and expression/localization of SLC5A3. Pino values were determined by cell volumetry over a wide tonicity range (100–275 mOsm) in myo-inositol-substituted solutions. While being negligible under mild hypotonicity (200–275 mOsm), Pino grew rapidly at osmolalities below 200 mOsm to reach a maximum of ∼3 nm/s at 100–125 mOsm, as indicated by fast cell swelling due to myo-inositol influx. The increase in Pino resulted most likely from the hypotonicity-mediated incorporation of cytosolic SLC5A3 into the plasma membrane, as revealed by confocal fluorescence microscopy of cells expressing EGFP-tagged SLC5A3 and super-resolution imaging of immunostained SLC5A3 by direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM). dSTORM in hypotonic cells revealed a surface density of membrane-associated SLC5A3 proteins of 200–2000 localizations/μm2. Assuming SLC5A3 to be the major path for myo-inositol, a turnover rate of 80–800 myo-inositol molecules per second for a single transporter protein was estimated from combined volumetric and dSTORM data. Hypotonic stress also caused a significant upregulation of SLC5A3 gene expression as detected by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In summary, our data provide first evidence for swelling-mediated activation of SLC5A3 thus suggesting a functional role of this transporter in hypotonic volume regulation of mammalian cells. PMID:25756525

  15. Divalent metal transporter 1 (Dmt1) Mediates Copper Transport in the Duodenum of Iron-Deficient Rats and When Overexpressed in Iron-Deprived HEK-293 Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lingli; Garrick, Michael D.; Garrick, Laura M.; Zhao, Lin; Collins, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular copper-binding proteins (metallothionein I/II) and a copper exporter (Menkes copper-transporting ATPase) are upregulated in duodenal enterocytes from iron-deficient rats, consistent with copper accumulation in the intestinal mucosa. How copper enters enterocytes during iron deficiency is, however, not clear. Divalent metal transporter 1 (Dmt1), the predominant iron importer in the mammalian duodenum, also transports other metal ions, possibly including copper. Given this possibility and that Dmt1 expression is upregulated by iron deprivation, we sought to test the hypothesis that Dmt1 transports copper during iron deficiency. Two model systems were utilized: the Belgrade (b) rat, expressing mutant Dmt1, and an inducible Dmt1-overexpression cell culture system. Mutant rats (b/b) were fed a semipurified, AIN93G-based control diet and phenotypically normal littermates (+/b) were fed control or iron-deficient diets for ∼14 wk. An everted gut sleeve technique and a colorimetric copper quantification assay were utilized to assess duodenal copper transport. The control diet-fed +/b rats had normal hematological parameters, whereas iron-deprived +/b and b/b rats were iron deficient and Dmt1 mRNA and protein levels increased. Importantly, duodenal copper transport was similar in the control +/b and b/b rats; however, it significantly increased (∼4-fold) in the iron-deprived +/b rats. Additional experiments in Dmt1 overexpressing HEK-293 cells showed that copper (64Cu) uptake was stimulated (∼3-fold) in the presence of an iron chelator. Dmt1 transcript stabilization due to a 3′ iron-responsive element was also documented, likely contributing to increased transport activity. In summary, these studies suggest that Dmt1 enhances copper uptake into duodenal enterocytes during iron deprivation. PMID:24089420

  16. When less becomes more: optimization of protein expression in HEK293-EBNA1 cells using plasmid titration - a case study for NLRs.

    PubMed

    Halff, Els F; Versteeg, Marian; Brondijk, T Harma C; Huizinga, Eric G

    2014-07-01

    Transient transfection of the human HEK293-EBNA1 cell line using polyethyleneimine is widely adopted for recombinant protein production. Whereas high expression of many targets is achieved, purification yields of some highly expressed proteins remain low due to aggregation. We hypothesized that for these proteins the expression rates achieved at standard transfection conditions are too high, causing an overload of the protein folding machinery. Here we present plasmid titration as an efficient method to vary expression rates for the optimization of soluble protein expression. In plasmid titration a dilution series of expression vector mixed with dummy plasmid is transfected in small scale cultures. Application to GFP shows that plasmid titration achieves a wide range of expression levels while maintaining high transfection efficiencies even at 500-fold plasmid dilution. Application of plasmid titration to selected Nod-like receptors (NLRs), which at standard conditions are highly expressed but poorly soluble, delays the onset of NLR aggregation and improves cell viability and the buildup of biomass. The amount of soluble protein depends on the combination of dilution factor and harvest day in a protein specific manner. For NOD1 50-fold plasmid dilution increases the amount of soluble protein approximately 5-fold. Due to its association with chaperones at all dilution factors tested we were unable to purify NOD1 to homogeneity. For NLRC4, which did not associate with chaperones, 10-fold plasmid dilution increased the purification yield 2-fold. This improvement, obtained with minimal effort due to the simplicity of the method, shows that reducing total expression may increase soluble protein yield. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Divalent metal transporter 1 (Dmt1) mediates copper transport in the duodenum of iron-deficient rats and when overexpressed in iron-deprived HEK-293 cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lingli; Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M; Zhao, Lin; Collins, James F

    2013-12-01

    Intracellular copper-binding proteins (metallothionein I/II) and a copper exporter (Menkes copper-transporting ATPase) are upregulated in duodenal enterocytes from iron-deficient rats, consistent with copper accumulation in the intestinal mucosa. How copper enters enterocytes during iron deficiency is, however, not clear. Divalent metal transporter 1 (Dmt1), the predominant iron importer in the mammalian duodenum, also transports other metal ions, possibly including copper. Given this possibility and that Dmt1 expression is upregulated by iron deprivation, we sought to test the hypothesis that Dmt1 transports copper during iron deficiency. Two model systems were utilized: the Belgrade (b) rat, expressing mutant Dmt1, and an inducible Dmt1-overexpression cell culture system. Mutant rats (b/b) were fed a semipurified, AIN93G-based control diet and phenotypically normal littermates (+/b) were fed control or iron-deficient diets for ~14 wk. An everted gut sleeve technique and a colorimetric copper quantification assay were utilized to assess duodenal copper transport. The control diet-fed +/b rats had normal hematological parameters, whereas iron-deprived +/b and b/b rats were iron deficient and Dmt1 mRNA and protein levels increased. Importantly, duodenal copper transport was similar in the control +/b and b/b rats; however, it significantly increased (~4-fold) in the iron-deprived +/b rats. Additional experiments in Dmt1 overexpressing HEK-293 cells showed that copper ((64)Cu) uptake was stimulated (∼3-fold) in the presence of an iron chelator. Dmt1 transcript stabilization due to a 3' iron-responsive element was also documented, likely contributing to increased transport activity. In summary, these studies suggest that Dmt1 enhances copper uptake into duodenal enterocytes during iron deprivation.

  18. Constitutive oligomerization of human D2 dopamine receptors expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf9) and in HEK293 cells. Analysis using co-immunoprecipitation and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Gazi, Lucien; López-Giménez, Juan F; Rüdiger, Martin P; Strange, Philip G

    2003-10-01

    Human D2Long (D2L) and D2Short (D2S) dopamine receptor isoforms were modified at their N-terminus by the addition of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or a FLAG epitope tag. The receptors were then expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf9) cells using the baculovirus system, and their oligomerization was investigated by means of co-immunoprecipitation and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). [3H]Spiperone labelled D2 receptors in membranes prepared from Sf9 cells expressing epitope-tagged D2L or D2S receptors, with a pKd value of approximately 10. Co-immunoprecipitation using antibodies specific for the tags showed constitutive homo-oligomerization of D2L and D2S receptors in Sf9 cells. When the FLAG-tagged D2S and HIV-tagged D2L receptors were co-expressed, co-immunoprecipitation showed that the two isoforms can also form hetero-oligomers in Sf9 cells. Time-resolved FRET with europium and XL665-labelled antibodies was applied to whole Sf9 cells and to membranes from Sf9 cells expressing epitope-tagged D2 receptors. In both cases, constitutive homo-oligomers were revealed for D2L and D2S isoforms. Time-resolved FRET also revealed constitutive homo-oligomers in HEK293 cells expressing FLAG-tagged D2S receptors. The D2 receptor ligands dopamine, R-(-)propylnorapomorphine, and raclopride did not affect oligomerization of D2L and D2S in Sf9 and HEK293 cells. Human D2 dopamine receptors can therefore form constitutive oligomers in Sf9 cells and in HEK293 cells that can be detected by different approaches, and D2 oligomerization in these cells is not regulated by ligands.

  19. Effect of therapeutic concentration of lithium on live HEK293 cells; increase of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, change of overall protein composition and alteration of surface layer of plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Vosahlikova, Miroslava; Ujcikova, Hana; Chernyavskiy, Oleksandr; Brejchova, Jana; Roubalova, Lenka; Alda, Martin; Svoboda, Petr

    2017-05-01

    The effect of long-term exposure of live cells to lithium cations (Li) was studied in HEK293 cells cultivated in the presence of 1mM LiCl for 7 or 21days. The alteration of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase level, protein composition and biophysical state of plasma membrane was determined with the aim to characterize the physiological state of Li-treated cells. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase level was determined by [(3)H]ouabain binding and immunoblot assays. Overall protein composition was determined by 2D electrophoresis followed by proteomic analysis by MALDI-TOF MS/MS and LFQ. Li interaction with plasma membrane was characterized by fluorescent probes DPH, TMA-DPH and Laurdan. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was increased in plasma membranes isolated from cells exposed to Li. Identification of Li-altered proteins by 2D electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF MS/MS and LFQ suggests a change of energy metabolism in mitochondria and cytosol and alteration of cell homeostasis of calcium. Measurement of Laurdan generalized polarization indicated a significant alteration of surface layer of isolated plasma membranes prepared from both types of Li-treated cells. Prolonged exposure of HEK293 cells to 1mM LiCl results in up-regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase expression, reorganization of overall cellular metabolism and alteration of the surface layer/polar head-group region of isolated plasma membranes. Our findings demonstrate adaptation of live HEK293 cell metabolism to prolonged exposure to therapeutic concentration of Li manifested as up-regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase expression, alteration of protein composition and change of the surface layer of plasma membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of the β1 Auxiliary Subunit on Modification of Rat Nav1.6 Sodium Channels Expressed in HEK293 Cells by the Pyrethroid Insecticides Tefluthrin and Deltamethrin

    PubMed Central

    He, Bingjun; Soderlund, David M.

    2015-01-01

    We expressed rat Nav1.6 sodium channels with or without the rat β1 subunit in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and evaluated the effects of the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin on whole-cell sodium currents. In assays with the Nav1.6 α subunit alone, both pyrethroids prolonged channel inactivation and deactivation and shifted the voltage dependence of channel activation and steady-state inactivation toward hyperpolarization. Maximal shifts in activation were ~18 mV for tefluthrin and ~24 mV for deltamethrin. These compounds also caused hyperpolarizing shifts of ~10–14 mV in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation and increased in the fraction of sodium current that was resistant to inactivation. The effects of pyrethroids on the voltage-dependent gating greatly increased the size of sodium window currents compared to unmodified channels; modified channels exhibited increased probability of spontaneous opening at membrane potentials more negative than the normal threshold for channel activation and incomplete channel inactivation. Coexpression of Nav1.6 with the β1 subunit had no effect on the kinetic behavior of pyrethroid-modified channels but had divergent effects on the voltage-dependent gating of tefluthrin- or deltamethrin-modified channels, increasing the size of tefluthrin-induced window currents but decreasing the size of corresponding deltamethrin-induced currents. Unexpectedly, the β1 subunit did not confer sensitivity to use-dependent channel modification by either tefluthrin or deltamethrin. We conclude from these results that functional reconstitution of channels in vitro requires careful attention to the subunit composition of channel complexes to ensure that channels in vitro are faithful functional and pharmacological models of channels in neurons. PMID:26708501

  1. Effects of the β1 auxiliary subunit on modification of Rat Na(v)1.6 sodium channels expressed in HEK293 cells by the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    He, Bingjun; Soderlund, David M

    2016-01-15

    We expressed rat Nav1.6 sodium channels with or without the rat β1 subunit in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and evaluated the effects of the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin on whole-cell sodium currents. In assays with the Nav1.6 α subunit alone, both pyrethroids prolonged channel inactivation and deactivation and shifted the voltage dependence of channel activation and steady-state inactivation toward hyperpolarization. Maximal shifts in activation were ~18 mV for tefluthrin and ~24 mV for deltamethrin. These compounds also caused hyperpolarizing shifts of ~10-14 mV in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation and increased in the fraction of sodium current that was resistant to inactivation. The effects of pyrethroids on the voltage-dependent gating greatly increased the size of sodium window currents compared to unmodified channels; modified channels exhibited increased probability of spontaneous opening at membrane potentials more negative than the normal threshold for channel activation and incomplete channel inactivation. Coexpression of Nav1.6 with the β1 subunit had no effect on the kinetic behavior of pyrethroid-modified channels but had divergent effects on the voltage-dependent gating of tefluthrin- or deltamethrin-modified channels, increasing the size of tefluthrin-induced window currents but decreasing the size of corresponding deltamethrin-induced currents. Unexpectedly, the β1 subunit did not confer sensitivity to use-dependent channel modification by either tefluthrin or deltamethrin. We conclude from these results that functional reconstitution of channels in vitro requires careful attention to the subunit composition of channel complexes to ensure that channels in vitro are faithful functional and pharmacological models of channels in neurons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transport of the placental estriol precursor 16α-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (16α-OH-DHEAS) by stably transfected OAT4-, SOAT-, and NTCP-HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Schweigmann, H; Sánchez-Guijo, A; Ugele, B; Hartmann, K; Hartmann, M F; Bergmann, M; Pfarrer, C; Döring, B; Wudy, S A; Petzinger, E; Geyer, J; Grosser, G

    2014-09-01

    16α-Hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (16α-OH-DHEAS) mainly originates from the fetus and serves as precursor for placental estriol biosynthesis. For conversion of 16α-OH-DHEAS to estriol several intracellular enzymes are required. However, prior to enzymatic conversion, 16α-OH-DHEAS must enter the cells by carrier mediated transport. To identify these carriers, uptake of 16α-OH-DHEAS by the candidate carriers organic anion transporter OAT4, sodium-dependent organic anion transporter SOAT, Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide NTCP, and organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP2B1 was measured in stably transfected HEK293 cells by LC-MS-MS. Furthermore, the study aimed to localize SOAT in the human placenta. Stably transfected OAT4-HEK293 cells revealed a partly sodium-dependent transport for 16α-OH-DHEAS with an apparent Km of 23.1 ± 5.1 μM and Vmax of 485.0 ± 39.1 pmol/mg protein/min, while stably transfected SOAT- and NTCP-HEK293 cells showed uptake only under sodium conditions with Km of 319.0 ± 59.5 μM and Vmax of 1465.8 ± 118.8 pmol/mg protein/min for SOAT and Km of 51.4 ± 9.9 μM and Vmax of 1423.3 ± 109.6 pmol/mg protein/min for NTCP. In contrast, stably transfected OATP2B1-HEK293 cells did not transport 16α-OH-DHEAS at all. Immunohistochemical studies and in situ hybridization of formalin fixed and paraffin embedded sections of human late term placenta showed expression of SOAT in syncytiotrophoblasts, predominantly at the apical membrane as well as in the vessel endothelium. In conclusion, OAT4, SOAT, and NTCP were identified as carriers for the estriol precursor 16α-OH-DHEAS. At least SOAT and OAT4 seem to play a functional role for the placental estriol synthesis as both are expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast of human placenta. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heterodimerization with the β1 subunit directs the α2 subunit of nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase to calcium-insensitive cell-cell contacts in HEK293 cells: Interaction with Lin7a.

    PubMed

    Hochheiser, Julia; Haase, Tobias; Busker, Mareike; Sömmer, Anne; Kreienkamp, Hans-Jürgen; Behrends, Sönke

    2016-12-15

    Nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase is a heterodimeric enzyme consisting of an α and a β subunit. Two different α subunits (α1 and α2) give rise to two heterodimeric enzymes α1/β1 and α2/β1. Both coexist in a wide range of tissues including blood vessels and the lung, but expression of the α2/β1 form is generally much lower and approaches levels similar to the α1/β1 form in the brain only. In the present paper, we show that the α2/β1 form interacts with Lin7a in mouse brain synaptosomes based on co-precipitation analysis. In HEK293 cells, we found that the overexpressed α2/β1 form, but not the α1/β1 form is directed to calcium-insensitive cell-cell contacts. The isolated PDZ binding motif of an amino-terminally truncated α2 subunit was sufficient for cell-cell contact localization. For the full length α2 subunit with the PDZ binding motif this was only the case in the heterodimer configuration with the β1 subunit, but not as isolated α2 subunit. We conclude that the PDZ binding motif of the α2 subunit is only accessible in the heterodimer conformation of the mature nitric oxide-sensitive enzyme. Interaction with Lin7a, a small scaffold protein important for synaptic function and cell polarity, can direct this complex to nectin based cell-cell contacts via MPP3 in HEK293 cells. We conclude that heterodimerization is a prerequisite for further protein-protein interactions that direct the α2/β1 form to strategic sites of the cell membrane with adjacent neighbouring cells. Drugs increasing the nitric oxide-sensitivity of this specific form may be particularly effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of the heteroduplex mobility assay and cell sorting to select genome sequences of the CCR5 gene in HEK 293T cells edited by transcription activator-like effector nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Nerys-Junior, Arildo; Costa, Lendel C.; Braga-Dias, Luciene P.; Oliveira, Márcia; Rossi, Átila D.; da Cunha, Rodrigo Delvecchio; Gonçalves, Gabriel S.; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) are one of the most promising tools for modifying genomes. These site-specific enzymes cause double-strand breaks that allow gene disruption or gene insertion, thereby facilitating genetic manipulation. The major problem associated with this approach is the labor-intensive procedures required to screen and confirm the cellular modification by nucleases. In this work, we produced a TALEN that targets the human CCR5 gene and developed a heteroduplex mobility assay for HEK 293T cells to select positive colonies for sequencing. This approach provides a useful tool for the quick detection and easy assessment of nuclease activity. PMID:24688299

  5. Use of the heteroduplex mobility assay and cell sorting to select genome sequences of the CCR5 gene in HEK 293T cells edited by transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Nerys-Junior, Arildo; Costa, Lendel C; Braga-Dias, Luciene P; Oliveira, Márcia; Rossi, Atila D; da Cunha, Rodrigo Delvecchio; Gonçalves, Gabriel S; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2014-03-01

    Engineered nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) are one of the most promising tools for modifying genomes. These site-specific enzymes cause double-strand breaks that allow gene disruption or gene insertion, thereby facilitating genetic manipulation. The major problem associated with this approach is the labor-intensive procedures required to screen and confirm the cellular modification by nucleases. In this work, we produced a TALEN that targets the human CCR5 gene and developed a heteroduplex mobility assay for HEK 293T cells to select positive colonies for sequencing. This approach provides a useful tool for the quick detection and easy assessment of nuclease activity.

  6. Interaction between amiodarone and hepatitis-C virus nucleotide inhibitors in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and HEK-293 Cav1.2 over-expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Lagrutta, Armando; Zeng, Haoyu; Imredy, John; Balasubramanian, Bharathi; Dech, Spencer; Lis, Edward; Wang, Jixin; Zhai, Jin; DeGeorge, Joseph; Sannajust, Frederick

    2016-10-01

    Several clinical cases of severe bradyarrhythmias have been reported upon co-administration of the Hepatitis-C NS5B Nucleotide Polymerase Inhibitor (HCV-NI) direct-acting antiviral agent, sofosbuvir (SOF), and the Class-III anti-arrhythmic amiodarone (AMIO). We model the cardiac drug-drug interaction (DDI) between AMIO and SOF, and between AMIO and a closely-related SOF analog, MNI-1 (Merck Nucleotide Inhibitor #1), in functional assays of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), to provide mechanistic insights into recently reported clinical cases. AMIO co-applied with SOF or MNI-1 increased beating rate or field potential (FP) rate and decreased impedance (IMP) and Ca(2+) transient amplitudes in hiPSC-CM syncytia. This action resembled that of Ca(2+) channel blockers (CCBs) in the model, but CCBs did not substitute for AMIO in the DDI. AMIO analog dronedarone (DRON) did not substitute for, but competed with AMIO in the DDI. Ryanodine and thapsigargin, decreasing intracellular Ca(2+) stores, and SEA-0400, a Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger-1 (NCX1) inhibitor, partially antagonized or suppressed DDI effects. Other agents affecting FP rate only exerted additive or subtractive effects, commensurate with their individual effects. We also describe an interaction between AMIO and MNI-1 on Cav1.2 ion channels in an over-expressing HEK-293 cell line. MNI-1 enhanced Cav1.2 channel inhibition by AMIO, but did not affect inhibition of Cav1.2 by DRON, verapamil, nifedipine, or diltiazem. Our data in hiPSC-CMs indicate that HCV-NI agents such as SOF and MNI-1 interact with key intracellular Ca(2+)-handling mechanisms. Additional study in a Cav1.2 HEK-293 cell-line suggests that HCV-NIs potentiate the inhibitory action of AMIO on L-type Ca(2+) channels.

  7. Production of Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus Vectors Using Suspension HEK293 Cells and Continuous Harvest of Vector From the Culture Media for GMP FIX and FLT1 Clinical Vector.

    PubMed

    Grieger, Joshua C; Soltys, Stephen M; Samulski, Richard Jude

    2016-02-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has shown great promise as a gene therapy vector in multiple aspects of preclinical and clinical applications. Many developments including new serotypes as well as self-complementary vectors are now entering the clinic. With these ongoing vector developments, continued effort has been focused on scalable manufacturing processes that can efficiently generate high-titer, highly pure, and potent quantities of rAAV vectors. Utilizing the relatively simple and efficient transfection system of HEK293 cells as a starting point, we have successfully adapted an adherent HEK293 cell line from a qualified clinical master cell bank to grow in animal component-free suspension conditions in shaker flasks and WAVE bioreactors that allows for rapid and scalable rAAV production. Using the triple transfection method, the suspension HEK293 cell line generates greater than 1 × 10(5) vector genome containing particles (vg)/cell or greater than 1 × 10(14) vg/l of cell culture when harvested 48 hours post-transfection. To achieve these yields, a number of variables were optimized such as selection of a compatible serum-free suspension media that supports both growth and transfection, selection of a transfection reagent, transfection conditions and cell density. A universal purification strategy, based on ion exchange chromatography methods, was also developed that results in high-purity vector preps of AAV serotypes 1-6, 8, 9 and various chimeric capsids tested. This user-friendly process can be completed within 1 week, results in high full to empty particle ratios (>90% full particles), provides postpurification yields (>1 × 10(13) vg/l) and purity suitable for clinical applications and is universal with respect to all serotypes and chimeric particles. To date, this scalable manufacturing technology has been utilized to manufacture GMP phase 1 clinical AAV vectors for retinal neovascularization (AAV2), Hemophilia B (scAAV8), giant axonal

  8. Echinacea-induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevation in HEK293

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With a traditional medical use for treatment of various ailments, herbal preparations of Echinacea are now popularly used to improve immune responses. One likely mode of action is that alkamides from Echinacea bind to cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors and induce a transient increase in intracellular Ca2+. Here, we show that unidentified compounds from Echinacea purpurea induce cytosolic Ca2+ elevation in non-immune-related cells, which lack CB2 receptors and that the Ca2+ elevation is not influenced by alkamides. Methods A non-immune human cell line, HEK293, was chosen to evaluate E. purpurea root extracts and constituents as potential regulators of intracellular Ca2+ levels. Changes in cytosolic Ca2+ levels were monitored and visualized by intracellular calcium imaging. U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), an antagonist of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor, were tested to determine the mechanism of this Ca2+ signaling pathway. E. purpurea root ethanol extracts were fractionated by preparative HPLC, screened for bioactivity on HEK293 cells and by GC-MS for potential constituent(s) responsible for this bioactivity. Results A rapid transient increase in cytosolic Ca2+ levels occurs when E. purpurea extracts are applied to HEK293 cells. These stimulatory effects are phospholipase C and IP3 receptor dependent. Echinacea-evoked responses could not be blocked by SR 144528, a specific CB2 receptor antagonist, indicating that CB2 is not involved. Ca2+ elevation is sustained after the Echinacea-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores; this longer-term effect is abolished by 2-APB, indicating a possible store operated calcium entry involvement. Of 28 HPLC fractions from E. purpurea root extracts, six induce cytosolic Ca2+ increase. Interestingly, GC-MS analysis of these fractions, as well as treatment of HEK293 cells with known individual and combined chemicals, indicates the components thought to be

  9. Echinacea-induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevation in HEK293.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lankun; Rowe, Eric W; Jeftinija, Ksenija; Jeftinija, Srdija; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Nikolau, Basil J; McKay, Jodi; Kohut, Marian; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    2010-11-23

    With a traditional medical use for treatment of various ailments, herbal preparations of Echinacea are now popularly used to improve immune responses. One likely mode of action is that alkamides from Echinacea bind to cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors and induce a transient increase in intracellular Ca2+. Here, we show that unidentified compounds from Echinacea purpurea induce cytosolic Ca2+ elevation in non-immune-related cells, which lack CB2 receptors and that the Ca2+ elevation is not influenced by alkamides. A non-immune human cell line, HEK293, was chosen to evaluate E. purpurea root extracts and constituents as potential regulators of intracellular Ca2+ levels. Changes in cytosolic Ca2+ levels were monitored and visualized by intracellular calcium imaging. U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), an antagonist of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor, were tested to determine the mechanism of this Ca2+ signaling pathway. E. purpurea root ethanol extracts were fractionated by preparative HPLC, screened for bioactivity on HEK293 cells and by GC-MS for potential constituent(s) responsible for this bioactivity. A rapid transient increase in cytosolic Ca2+ levels occurs when E. purpurea extracts are applied to HEK293 cells. These stimulatory effects are phospholipase C and IP3 receptor dependent. Echinacea-evoked responses could not be blocked by SR 144528, a specific CB2 receptor antagonist, indicating that CB2 is not involved. Ca2+ elevation is sustained after the Echinacea-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores; this longer-term effect is abolished by 2-APB, indicating a possible store operated calcium entry involvement. Of 28 HPLC fractions from E. purpurea root extracts, six induce cytosolic Ca2+ increase. Interestingly, GC-MS analysis of these fractions, as well as treatment of HEK293 cells with known individual and combined chemicals, indicates the components thought to be responsible for the major

  10. Pharmacological and signaling analysis of human chemokine receptor CCR-7 stably expressed in HEK-293 cells: high-affinity binding of recombinant ligands MIP-3beta and SLC stimulates multiple signaling cascades.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, S K; McGrath, D A; Grigoriadis, D; Bacon, K B

    1999-10-05

    The chemokine receptor CCR-7 is expressed in T, NK, and dendritic cells in a time-ordered and stimulus-dependent manner. Thorough analyses of the pharmacological profiles of the recombinant ligands for CCR-7, MIP-3beta/ELC/CK-beta 11, and SLC/Exodus-2/TCA4/6C-kine, using CCR-7-expressing HEK-293E transfectants determine that ligands both bind with a K(d) in the 100 pM range-10- to 100-fold greater affinities than published K(d) values. High-affinity binding of each ligand is associated with rapid mobilization of intracellular calcium and cell migration as predicted for chemokine GPCRs, and in keeping with more recent evidence, robust activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  11. Inhibitory effects of hesperetin on Kv1.5 potassium channels stably expressed in HEK 293 cells and ultra-rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current in human atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Wang, Hong-Fei; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yu-Fang; Ma, Rong; Xiang, Ji-Zhou; Du, Xin-Ling; Tang, Qiang

    2016-10-15

    In the present study, the inhibitory effects of hesperetin (HSP) on human cardiac Kv1.5 channels expressed in HEK 293 cells and the ultra-rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current (Ikur) in human atrial myocytes were examined by using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp techniques. We found that hesperetin rapidly and reversibly suppressed human Kv1.5 current in a concentration dependent manner with a half-maximal inhibition (IC50) of 23.15 μΜ with a Hill coefficient of 0.89. The current was maximally diminished about 71.36% at a concentration of 300μM hesperetin. Hesperetin significantly positive shifted the steady-state activation curve of Kv1.5, while negative shifted the steady-state inactivation curve. Hesperetin also accelerated the inactivation and markedly slowed the recovery from the inactivation of Kv1.5 currents. Block of Kv1.5 currents by hesperetin was in a frequency dependent manner. However, inclusion of 30μM hesperetin in pipette solution produced no effect on Kv1.5 channel current, while the current were remarkable and reversibly inhibited by extracellular application of 30μM hesperetin. We also found that hesperetin potently and reversibly inhibited the ultra-repaid delayed K(+) current (Ikur) in human atrial myocytes, which is in consistent with the effects of hesperetin on Kv1.5 currents in HEK 293 cells. In conclusion, hesperetin is a potent inhibitor of Ikur (which is encoded by Kv1.5), with blockade probably due to blocking of both open state and inactivated state channels from outside of the cell. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Glucose Dependency of the Metabolic Pathway of HEK 293 Cells Measured by a Flow-through Type pH/CO2 Sensor System Using ISFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Akira; Mohri, Satoshi; Nakamura, Michihiro; Naruse, Keiji

    Our group previously reported the application of a flow-through type pH/CO2 sensor system designed to evaluate the metabolic activity of cultured cells. The sensor system consists of two ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs), an ISFET to measure the total pH change and an ISFET enclosed within a gas-permeable silicone tube to measure the pH change attributable to CO2. In that study, we used the system to quantitatively analyze metabolic switching induced by glucose concentration changes in three cultured cell types (bovine arterial endothelium cell (BAEC), human umbilical vein endothelium cell (HUVEC), and rat cardiomuscle cell (RCMC)), and to measure the production rates of total carbonate and free lactic acid in the cultured cells. In every cell type examined, a decrease in the glucose concentration led to an increase in total carbonate, a product of cellular respiration, and a decrease of free lactic acid, a product of glycolysis. There were very significant differences among the cell types, however, in the glucose concentrations at the metabolic switching points. We postulated that the cell has a unique switching point on the metabolic pathway from glycolysis to respiration. In this paper we use our sensor system to evaluate the metabolic switching of human embryonic kidney 293 cells triggered by glucose concentration changes. The superior metabolic pathway switched from glycolysis to respiration when the glucose concentration decreased to about 2 mM. This result was very similar to that obtained in our earlier experiments on HUVECs, but far different from our results on the other two cells types, BAECs and RCMCs. This sensor system will be useful for analyzing cellular metabolism for many applications and will yield novel information on different cell types.

  13. Production process reproducibility and product quality consistency of transient gene expression in HEK293 cells with anti-PD1 antibody as the model protein.

    PubMed

    Ding, Kai; Han, Lei; Zong, Huifang; Chen, Junsheng; Zhang, Baohong; Zhu, Jianwei

    2017-03-01

    Demonstration of reproducibility and consistency of process and product quality is one of the most crucial issues in using transient gene expression (TGE) technology for biopharmaceutical development. In this study, we challenged the production consistency of TGE by expressing nine batches of recombinant IgG antibody in human embryonic kidney 293 cells to evaluate reproducibility including viable cell density, viability, apoptotic status, and antibody yield in cell culture supernatant. Product quality including isoelectric point, binding affinity, secondary structure, and thermal stability was assessed as well. In addition, major glycan forms of antibody from different batches of production were compared to demonstrate glycosylation consistency. Glycan compositions of the antibody harvested at different time periods were also measured to illustrate N-glycan distribution over the culture time. From the results, it has been demonstrated that different TGE batches are reproducible from lot to lot in overall cell growth, product yield, and product qualities including isoelectric point, binding affinity, secondary structure, and thermal stability. Furthermore, major N-glycan compositions are consistent among different TGE batches and conserved during cell culture time.

  14. Incorporation of podoplanin into HIV released from HEK-293T cells, but not PBMC, is required for efficient binding to the attachment factor CLEC-2

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Platelets are associated with HIV in the blood of infected individuals and might modulate viral dissemination, particularly if the virus is directly transmitted into the bloodstream. The C-type lectin DC-SIGN and the novel HIV attachment factor CLEC-2 are expressed by platelets and facilitate HIV transmission from platelets to T-cells. Here, we studied the molecular mechanisms behind CLEC-2-mediated HIV-1 transmission. Results Binding studies with soluble proteins indicated that CLEC-2, in contrast to DC-SIGN, does not recognize the viral envelope protein, but a cellular factor expressed on kidney-derived 293T cells. Subsequent analyses revealed that the cellular mucin-like membranous glycoprotein podoplanin, a CLEC-2 ligand, was expressed on 293T cells and incorporated into virions released from these cells. Knock-down of podoplanin in 293T cells by shRNA showed that virion incorporation of podoplanin was required for efficient CLEC-2-dependent HIV-1 interactions with cell lines and platelets. Flow cytometry revealed no evidence for podoplanin expression on viable T-cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Podoplanin was also not detected on HIV-1 infected T-cells. However, apoptotic bystander cells in HIV-1 infected cultures reacted with anti-podoplanin antibodies, and similar results were obtained upon induction of apoptosis in a cell line and in PBMCs suggesting an unexpected link between apoptosis and podoplanin expression. Despite the absence of detectable podoplanin expression, HIV-1 produced in PBMC was transmitted to T-cells in a CLEC-2-dependent manner, indicating that T-cells might express an as yet unidentified CLEC-2 ligand. Conclusions Virion incorporation of podoplanin mediates CLEC-2 interactions of HIV-1 derived from 293T cells, while incorporation of a different cellular factor seems to be responsible for CLEC-2-dependent capture of PBMC-derived viruses. Furthermore, evidence was obtained that podoplanin expression is

  15. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-Associated Protein (PI3KAP)/XB130 Crosslinks Actin Filaments through Its Actin Binding and Multimerization Properties In Vitro and Enhances Endocytosis in HEK293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Daisuke; Akama, Takeshi; Chida, Kazuhiro; Minami, Shiro; Ito, Koichi; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Actin-crosslinking proteins control actin filament networks and bundles and contribute to various cellular functions including regulation of cell migration, cell morphology, and endocytosis. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-associated protein (PI3KAP)/XB130 has been reported to be localized to actin filaments (F-actin) and required for cell migration in thyroid carcinoma cells. Here, we show a role for PI3KAP/XB130 as an actin-crosslinking protein. First, we found that the carboxyl terminal region of PI3KAP/XB130 containing amino acid residues 830–840 was required and sufficient for localization to F-actin in NIH3T3 cells, and this region is directly bound to F-actin in vitro. Moreover, actin-crosslinking assay revealed that recombinant PI3KAP/XB130 crosslinked F-actin. In general, actin-crosslinking proteins often multimerize to assemble multiple actin-binding sites. We then investigated whether PI3KAP/XB130 could form a multimer. Blue native-PAGE analysis showed that recombinant PI3KAP/XB130 was detected at 250–1200 kDa although the molecular mass was approximately 125 kDa, suggesting that PI3KAP/XB130 formed multimers. Furthermore, we found that the amino terminal 40 amino acids were required for this multimerization by co-immunoprecipitation assay in HEK293T cells. Deletion mutants of PI3KAP/XB130 lacking the actin-binding region or the multimerizing region did not crosslink actin filaments, indicating that actin binding and multimerization of PI3KAP/XB130 were necessary to crosslink F-actin. Finally, we examined roles of PI3KAP/XB130 on endocytosis, an actin-related biological process. Overexpression of PI3KAP/XB130 enhanced dextran uptake in HEK 293 cells. However, most of the cells transfected with the deletion mutant lacking the actin-binding region incorporated dextran to a similar extent as control cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PI3KAP/XB130 crosslinks F-actin through both its actin-binding region and multimerizing region and

  16. High- and low-affinity sites for sodium in δ-OR-Gi1α (Cys (351)-Ile (351)) fusion protein stably expressed in HEK293 cells; functional significance and correlation with biophysical state of plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Vošahlíková, Miroslava; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Roubalová, Lenka; Hof, Martin; Svoboda, Petr

    2014-05-01

    The effect of sodium, potassium, and lithium on δ-opioid receptor ligand binding parameters and coupling with the cognate G proteins was compared in model HEK293 cell line stably expressing PTX-insensitive δ-OR-Gi1α (Cys(351)-Ile(351)) fusion protein. Agonist [(3)H]DADLE binding was decreased in the order Na(+) ≫ Li(+) > K(+) > (+)NMDG. When plotted as a function of increasing NaCl concentrations, the binding was best-fitted with a two-phase exponential decay considering two Na(+)-responsive sites (r (2) = 0.99). High-affinity Na(+)-sites were characterized by Kd = 7.9 mM and represented 25 % of the basal level determined in the absence of ions. The remaining 75 % represented the low-affinity sites (Kd = 463 mM). Inhibition of [(3)H]DADLE binding by lithium, potassium, and (+)-NMDG proceeded in low-affinity manner only. Surprisingly, the affinity/potency of DADLE-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding was increased in a reverse order: Na(+) < K(+) < Li(+). This result was demonstrated in PTX-treated as well as PTX-untreated cells. Therefore, it is not restricted to Gi1α(Cys(351)-Ile(351)) within the δ-OR-Gi1α fusion protein, but is also valid for stimulation of endogenous G proteins of Gi/Go family in HEK293 cells. Biophysical studies of interaction of ions with polar head-group region of lipids using Laurdan generalized polarization indicated the low-affinity type of interaction only proceeding in the order: Cs(+) < K(+) < Na(+) < Li(+). The results are discussed in terms of interaction of Na(+), K(+) and Li(+) with the high- and low-affinity sites located in water-accessible part of δ-OR binding pocket. We also consider the role of negatively charged Cl(-), Br(-), and I(-) counter anions in inhibition of both [(3)H]DADLE and [(35)S]GTPγS binding.

  17. A role for protein kinase C in the regulation of membrane fluidity and Ca²(+) flux at the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes of HEK293 and Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihong; Meng, Qingli; Jing, Xian; Xu, Pingxiang; Luo, Dali

    2011-02-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) plays a prominent role in the regulation of a variety of cellular functions, including Ca²(+) signalling. In HEK293 and Jurkat cells, the Ca²(+) release and Ca²(+) uptake stimulated by several different activators were attenuated by activation of PKC with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) and potentiated by PKC inhibition with Gö6983 or knockdown of PKCα or PKCβ using shRNA. Immunostaining and Western blotting analyses revealed that PKCα and PKCβII accumulated at the plasma membrane (PM) and that these isoforms, along with PKCβI, also translocated to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) upon activation with PMA. Measurements of membrane fluidity showed that, like the cell membrane stabilizers bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ursodeoxycholate (UDCA), PMA and OAG significantly reduced the fluidity of both the PM and ER membranes; these effects were blocked in PKC-knockdown cells. Interestingly, both BSA and UDCA inhibited the Ca²(+) responses to agonists to the same extent as PMA, whereas Tween 20, which increases membrane fluidity, raised the internal Ca²(+) concentration. Thus, activation of PKC induces both translocation of PKC to the PM and ER membranes and downregulation of membrane fluidity, thereby negatively modulating Ca²(+) flux.

  18. Niosomes based on synthetic cationic lipids for gene delivery: the influence of polar head-groups on the transfection efficiency in HEK-293, ARPE-19 and MSC-D1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, E; Puras, G; Agirre, M; Zárate, J; Grijalvo, S; Pons, R; Eritja, R; Martinez-Navarrete, G; Soto-Sanchez, C; Fernández, E; Pedraz, J L

    2015-01-28

    We designed niosomes based on three lipids that differed only in the polar-head group to analyze their influence on the transfection efficiency. These lipids were characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering before being incorporated into the niosomes which were characterized in terms of pKa, size, zeta potential, morphology and physical stability. Nioplexes were obtained upon the addition of a plasmid. Different ratios (w/w) were selected to analyze the influence of this parameter on size, charge and the ability to condense, release and protect the DNA. In vitro transfection experiments were performed in HEK-293, ARPE-19 and MSC-D1 cells. Our results show that the chemical composition of the cationic head-group clearly affects the physicochemical parameters of the niosomes and especially the transfection efficiency. Only niosomes based on cationic lipids with a dimethyl amino head group (lipid 3) showed a transfection capacity when compared with their counterparts amino (lipid 1) and tripeptide head-groups (lipid 2). Regarding cell viability, we clearly observed that nioplexes based on the cationic lipid 3 had a more deleterious effect than their counterparts, especially in ARPE-19 cells at 20/1 and 30/1 ratios. Similar studies could be extended to other series of cationic lipids in order to progress in the research on safe and efficient non-viral vectors for gene delivery purposes.

  19. Sulfonation of raloxifene in HEK293 cells overexpressing SULT1A3: Involvement of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4) in excretion of sulfate metabolites.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaotong; Wang, Shaoxiang; Sun, Hua; Wu, Baojian

    2015-12-01

    Excretion of sulfate metabolites is an essential process in disposition of raloxifene via the sulfonation pathway. However, the transporters responsible for excretion of raloxifene sulfates remain undefined. Here, sulfonation of raloxifene and excretion of its sulfate metabolites were investigated using SULT1A3-overexpressing HEK293 cells (or SULT293 cells) with significant expression of BCRP and MRP4. SULT293 cell lysate catalyzed the sulfonation of raloxifene at both 6-OH and 4'-OH groups, generating raloxifene-6-sulfate (R-6-S) and raloxifene-4'-sulfate (R-4'-S), respectively. Sulfate formation followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Km = 0.49 μM and Vmax = 5.79 pmol/min/mg for R-6-S; Km = 0.33 μM and Vmax = 1.25 pmol/min/mg for R-4'-S). As expected, the recombinant SULT1A3 enzyme showed a high similarity in raloxifene sulfonation profiles with the lysate preparation. Ko143, a selective inhibitor of BCRP, significantly decreased the excretion rates of raloxifene sulfates (maximal 66.1%) while increasing the intracellular sulfates (maximal 282%). As a result, the apparent efflux clearance (CLef,app, representing the efflux efficiency of raloxifene sulfates) was substantially reduced (maximal 85.6%). Likewise, the pan-MRP inhibitor MK-571 significantly deceased the excretion rates (maximal 69.6%) and CLef,app values (maximal 96.0%) of raloxifene sulfates while increasing the intracellular sulfates (maximal 667%). Further, the short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting BCRP significantly reduced (maximal 35.0%) sulfate excretion. Use of BCRP shRNA also caused significant decreases (maximal 52.5%) in the CLef,app values. Silencing of MRP4 by shRNA led to a substantial alteration in sulfate disposition (i.e., 28.6-37.8% reductions in sulfate excretion, 30.5-59.3% elevations in intracellular sulfates, and 44.8-47.7% deceases in CLef,app values). In conclusion, two sulfate metabolites R-6-S and R-4'-S were generated from raloxifene in SULT293 cells. Cellular

  20. Delivery of the autofluorescent protein R-phycoerythrin by calcium phosphate nanoparticles into four different eukaryotic cell lines (HeLa, HEK293T, MG-63, MC3T3): Highly efficient, but leading to endolysosomal proteolysis in HeLa and MC3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Mathis; Rotan, Olga; Papadopoulos, Chrisovalantis; Schulze, Nina; Meyer, Hemmo; Epple, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles can be used as carriers to transport biomolecules like proteins and synthetic molecules across the cell membrane because many molecules are not able to cross the cell membrane on their own. The uptake of nanoparticles together with their cargo typically occurs via endocytosis, raising concerns about the possible degradation of the cargo in the endolysosomal system. As the tracking of a dye-labelled protein during cellular uptake and processing is not indicative of the presence of the protein itself but only for the fluorescent label, a label-free tracking was performed with the red-fluorescing model protein R-phycoerythrin (R-PE). Four different eukaryotic cell lines were investigated: HeLa, HEK293T, MG-63, and MC3T3. Alone, the protein was not taken up by any cell line; only with the help of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, an efficient uptake occurred. After the uptake into HeLa cells, the protein was found in early endosomes (shown by the marker EEA1) and lysosomes (shown by the marker Lamp1). There, it was still intact and functional (i.e. properly folded) as its red fluorescence was detected. However, a few hours after the uptake, proteolysis started as indicated by the decreasing red fluorescence intensity in the case of HeLa and MC3T3 cells. 12 h after the uptake, the protein was almost completely degraded in HeLa cells and MC3T3 cells. In HEK293T cells and MG-63 cells, no degradation of the protein was observed. In the presence of Bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of acidification and protein degradation in lysosomes, the fluorescence of R-PE remained intact over the whole observation period in the four cell lines. These results indicate that despite an efficient nanoparticle-mediated uptake of proteins by cells, a rapid endolysosomal degradation may prevent the desired (e.g. therapeutic) effect of a protein inside a cell.

  1. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel blockers memantine, MRZ 2/579 and other amino-alkyl-cyclohexanes antagonise 5-HT(3) receptor currents in cultured HEK-293 and N1E-115 cell systems in a non-competitive manner.

    PubMed

    Rammes, G; Rupprecht, R; Ferrari, U; Zieglgänsberger, W; Parsons, C G

    2001-06-22

    The type 3 serotonin (5-HT(3)) receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel. In concentration-clamp experiments, we investigated the effects of the uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists memantine, amantadine and MRZ 2/579 on 5-HT receptors stabley expressed in HEK-293 cells and on native 5-HT(3) receptors in the N1E-115 cell line. All agents antagonized serotonin (10 microM)-induced inward currents with similar potency to that reported for NMDA receptors. This effect was characterized by inducing a pronounced receptor desensitization, and was probably non-competitive and voltage-independent. In contrast, (S)-ketamine was much weaker as an antagonist of 5-HT(3) receptors than NMDA receptors. Similar effects on 5-HT(3) receptors have been reported previously for a variety of anti-depressants and it is possible that the clinical anti-depressant effects reported for both memantine and amantadine are mediated, at least in part, by antagonistic effects at 5-HT(3) receptors.

  2. Advantages of COS-1 monkey kidney epithelial cells as packaging host for small-volume production of high-quality recombinant lentiviruses.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shannon L; Shioda, Toshi

    2009-04-01

    The HEK293T human embryonic kidney cells have been used widely as a packaging host for transfection-based production of recombinant lentiviruses. The present study describes advantages of using COS-1 African green monkey kidney cells versus HEK293T cells as a packaging host for small-volume production of high-quality recombinant lentiviruses. The particle performance index, defined as the ratio of infection-competent viral particles to the total number of particles, was three- to four-fold greater in transfection supernatants generated using COS-1 cells than that generated using HEK293T cells. Adhesion of HEK293T cells to the cell culture-treated plastic surface was weak, causing significant HEK293T cell contamination in the transfection supernatants produced by laboratory automation using the 96-well cell culture plates. In contrast, COS-1 cells adhered strongly to the plastic surface, and cell contamination was not detected in the transfection supernatants. These results suggest that COS-1 cells may be a useful alternative packaging host for use for automated generation of large numbers of high-quality lentivirus reagents, particularly because they eliminate the need for additional purification steps to remove viral particles from cell culture supernatant.

  3. COS-1 cells as packaging host for production of lentiviruses.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Crystal J; Shioda, Toshi

    2011-03-01

    We present a protocol for in vitro production of recombinant lentiviruses using COS-1 African green monkey kidney epithelial cells and HEK293T human embryonic kidney epithelial cells as packaging cells. COS-1 and HEK293T express SV40 large T antigen, amplifying transfected circular plasmids harboring SV40 replication origin. Support protocols for evaluation of transfection efficiency by in situ β-galactosidase enzyme activity assay and titer of infection-capable virions are also provided. Advantages of using COS-1 packaging cells over the standard HEK293T cells for contamination-sensitive applications or automated processing are discussed.

  4. A Human Embryonic Kidney 293T Cell Line Mutated at the Golgi α-Mannosidase II Locus*

    PubMed Central

    Crispin, Max; Chang, Veronica T.; Harvey, David J.; Dwek, Raymond A.; Evans, Edward J.; Stuart, David I.; Jones, E. Yvonne; Lord, J. Michael; Spooner, Robert A.; Davis, Simon J.

    2009-01-01

    Disruption of Golgi α-mannosidase II activity can result in type II congenital dyserythropoietic anemia and induce lupus-like autoimmunity in mice. Here, we isolated a mutant human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cell line called Lec36, which displays sensitivity to ricin that lies between the parental HEK 293T cells, in which the secreted and membrane-expressed proteins are dominated by complex-type glycosylation, and 293S Lec1 cells, which produce only oligomannose-type N-linked glycans. Stem cell marker 19A was transiently expressed in the HEK 293T Lec36 cells and in parental HEK 293T cells with and without the potent Golgi α-mannosidase II inhibitor, swainsonine. Negative ion nano-electrospray ionization mass spectra of the 19A N-linked glycans from HEK 293T Lec36 and swainsonine-treated HEK 293T cells were qualitatively indistinguishable and, as shown by collision-induced dissociation spectra, were dominated by hybrid-type glycosylation. Nucleotide sequencing revealed mutations in each allele of MAN2A1, the gene encoding Golgi α-mannosidase II: a point mutation that mapped to the active site was found in one allele, and an in-frame deletion of 12 nucleotides was found in the other allele. Expression of the wild type but not the mutant MAN2A1 alleles in Lec36 cells restored processing of the 19A reporter glycoprotein to complex-type glycosylation. The Lec36 cell line will be useful for expressing therapeutic glycoproteins with hybrid-type glycans and as a sensitive host for detecting mutations in human MAN2A1 causing type II congenital dyserythropoietic anemia. PMID:19465480

  5. Beta-catenin Forms Protein Aggregation at High Concentrations in HEK293TCells

    PubMed Central

    Jazi, Marie Saghaeian; Najafi, Seyed Mahmoud Arab

    2017-01-01

    Background: The canonical Wnt signal transduction (or the Wnt/β-catenin pathway) plays a crucial role in the development of animals and in carcinogenesis. Beta-catenin is the central component of this signaling pathway. The activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling results in the cytoplasmic and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. In the nucleus, β-catenin interacts with the TCF/LEF transcription factors and, therefore, participates in the upregulation or downregulation of some important genes involved in diverse cellular activities. In addition, β-catenin is a critical component of the cadherin-mediated cell adherens junction. We had previously noticed that very high cellular concentrations of β-catenin had a negative effect on the transcriptional activity of this protein and, therefore, the aim of this study was to find a mechanism for this negative interaction. Methods: Cell fractionation, western blotting, and immunofluorescence microscopy experiments were performed to measure β-catenin protein levels and β-catenin cellular localization in HEK293Tcells transfected with various amounts of a β-catenin-encoding plasmid. Also, total RNA was extracted from the cells and used for reverse transcriptase-PCR experiments to measure the expression of the β-catenin target genes. SPSS, version 16, was used to analyze the results statistically. Results: We demonstrated that overexpression of β-catenin led to the formation of rod-shaped protein aggregates. The aggregate structures were mainly formed in the cell nucleus and were heavy enough to be isolated by centrifugation. Beta-catenin aggregate formation was accompanied by a decrease in the expression of the β-catenin target genes used in this study. Conclusion: Since deregulation of β-catenin function occurs in several human diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders, the results of this paper further support the possible biological and clinical significance of β-catenin aggregate formation. PMID

  6. Polycystin-1 promotes PKC{alpha}-mediated NF-{kappa}B activation in kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Banzi, Manuela; Aguiari, Gianluca; Trimi, Viky; Mangolini, Alessandra; Pinton, Paolo; Witzgall, Ralph; Rizzuto, Rosario; Senno, Laura del . E-mail: sen@unife.it

    2006-11-17

    Polycystin-1 (PC1), the PKD1 gene product, is a membrane receptor which regulates many cell functions, including cell proliferation and apoptosis, both typically increased in cyst lining cells in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Here we show that PC1 upregulates the NF-{kappa}B signalling pathway in kidney cells to prevent cell death. Human embryonic kidney cell lines (HEK293{sup CTT}), stably expressing a PC1 cytoplasmic terminal tail (CTT), presented increased NF-{kappa}B nuclear levels and NF-{kappa}B-mediated luciferase promoter activity. This, consistently, was reduced in HEK293 cells in which the endogenous PC1 was depleted by RNA interference. CTT-dependent NF-{kappa}B promoter activation was mediated by PKC{alpha} because it was blocked by its specific inhibitor Ro-320432. Furthermore, it was observed that apoptosis, which was increased in PC1-depleted cells, was reduced in HEK293{sup CTT} cells and in porcine kidney LtTA cells expressing a doxycycline-regulated CTT. Staurosporine, a PKC inhibitor, and parthenolide, a NF-{kappa}B inhibitor, significantly reduced the CTT-dependent antiapoptotic effect. These data reveal, therefore, a novel pathway by which polycystin-1 activates a PKC{alpha}-mediated NF-{kappa}B signalling and cell survival.

  7. QSAR model for predicting cell viability of human embryonic kidney cells exposed to SiO₂ nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Manganelli, Serena; Leone, Caterina; Toropov, Andrey A; Toropova, Alla P; Benfenati, Emilio

    2016-02-01

    A predictive model for the viability (%) of cultured human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) exposed to 20 and 50 nm silica nanoparticles was built using 'optimal descriptors' as mathematical functions of size, concentration and exposure time. The calculation was carried out with CORAL software (http://www.insilico.eu/coral/) on five random splits of combined systems (particle size-particle concentration-cell exposure time) into training, calibration, and validation sets. The R(2) values of the best models were above 0.68. The average statistical quality of the model for the viability (%) of HEK293 exposed to different concentrations of silica nanoparticles measured by MTT assay is satisfactory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Targeting kidney CLC-K channels: pharmacological profile in a human cell line versus Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Imbrici, Paola; Liantonio, Antonella; Gradogna, Antonella; Pusch, Michael; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2014-10-01

    CLC-K chloride channels play a crucial role in kidney physiology and genetic mutations, affecting their function are responsible for severe renal salt loss in humans. Thus, compounds that selectively bind to CLC-Ka and/or CLC-Kb channels and modulate their activity may have a significant therapeutic potential. Here, we compare the biophysical and pharmacological behaviors of human CLC-K channels expressed either in HEK293 cells or in Xenopus oocytes and we show that CLC-K channel properties are greatly influenced by the biochemical environment surrounding the channels. Indeed, in HEK293 cells the potentiating effect of niflumic acid (NFA) on CLC-Ka/barttin and CLC-Kb/barttin channels seems to be absent while the blocking efficacy of niflumic acid and benzofuran derivatives observed in oocytes is preserved. The NFA block does not seem to involve the accessory subunit barttin on CLC-K1 channels. In addition, the sensitivity of CLC-Ks to external Ca(2+) is reduced in HEK293 cells. Based on our findings, we propose that mammalian cell lines are a suitable expression system for the pharmacological profiling of CLC-Ks.

  9. Osmotic induction of calcium accumulation in human embryonic kidney cells detected with a high sensitivity FRET calcium sensor.

    PubMed

    Hou, Bi-Huei; Takanaga, Hitomi; Griesbeck, Oliver; Frommer, Wolf B

    2009-08-01

    Calcium serves as a second messenger in glucose-triggered insulin secretion of pancreatic cells. Less is known about sugar signaling in non-excitable cells. Here, the high sensitivity FRET calcium sensor TN-XXL was used to characterize glucose-induced calcium responses in non-excitable human embryonic kidney HEK293T cells. HEK293T cells responded to perfusion with glucose with a sustained and concentration-dependent increase in cytosolic calcium levels. Sucrose and mannitol triggered comparable calcium responses, suggesting that the increase of the calcium concentration was caused by osmotic effects. HEK293T cells are characterized by low endogenous glucose uptake capacity as shown with a high sensitivity glucose sensor. Consistently, when glucose influx was artificially increased by co-expression of GLUT glucose transporters, the glucose-induced calcium increase was significantly reduced. Neither calcium depletion, nor gadolinium or thapsigargin were able to inhibit the calcium accumulation. Taken together, membrane impermeable osmolytes such as sucrose and mannitol lead to an increase in calcium levels, while the effect of glucose depends on the cell's glucose uptake capacity and will thus vary between cell types in the body that differ in their glucose uptake capacity.

  10. Osmotic induction of calcium accumulation in human embryonic kidney cells detected with a high sensitivity FRET calcium sensor

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Bi-Huei; Takanaga, Hitomi; Griesbeck, Oliver; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium serves as a second messenger in glucose-triggered insulin secretion of pancreatic cells. Less is known about sugar signaling in non-excitable cells. Here, the high sensitivity FRET calcium sensor TN-XXL was used to characterize glucose-induced calcium responses in non-excitable human embryonic kidney HEK293T cells. HEK293T cells responded to perfusion with glucose with a sustained and concentration-dependent increase in cytosolic calcium levels. Sucrose and mannitol triggered comparable calcium responses, suggesting that the increase of the calcium concentration was caused by osmotic effects. HEK293T cells are characterized by low endogenous glucose uptake capacity as shown with a high sensitivity glucose sensor. Consistently, when glucose influx was artificially increased by co-expression of GLUT glucose transporters, the glucose-induced calcium increase was significantly reduced. Neither calcium depletion, nor gadolinium or thapsigargin were able to inhibit the calcium accumulation. Taken together, membrane impermeable osmolytes such as sucrose and mannitol lead to an increase in calcium levels, while the effect of glucose depends on the cell's glucose uptake capacity and will thus vary between cell types in the body that differ in their glucose uptake capacity. PMID:19628278

  11. Enhanced production of secretory glycoprotein VSTM1-v2 with mouse IgGκ signal peptide in optimized HEK293F transient transfection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huihui; Zou, Xiajuan; Li, Ting; Wang, Xiaolin; Yuan, Wanqiong; Chen, Yingyu; Han, Wenling

    2016-02-01

    VSTM1-v2 is a secretory glycoprotein identified by our laboratory. Our previous study revealed that VSTM1-v2 could promote differentiation and activation of Th17 cells. To explore the role of VSTM1-v2 in the immune system further, a source of abundant high-quality recombinant protein is warranted. However, high-level expression of bioactive VSTM1-v2 is difficult due to its weak secretion capacity. To obtain sufficient recombinant VSTM1-v2, we developed an improved expression and purification system by replacing the native signal peptide with a mouse IgGκ signal peptide that did not alter the protein cleavage site. We also optimized parameters for a transient gene expression system in HEK293F cells suspended in serum-free media with polyethyleneimine. Finally, 3.6 mg/L recombinant VSTM1-v2 protein with N-glycosylation and no less than 95% purity was obtained through one-step purification with Ni affinity chromatography. The final yield after purification was increased by more than 7-fold compared to the yield from our previously reported HEK293T system (from 0.5 mg/L to 3.6 mg/L). More importantly, VSTM1-v2 protein exhibited excellent bioactivity. In conclusion, the improved system is not only a dependable source of abundant bioactive VSTM1-v2 for functional studies but also demonstrates a highly efficient approach for enhancing the production of proteins in a short time period, especially for secretory proteins with poor yields.

  12. Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase containing virus-like particles produced in HEK-293 suspension culture: An effective influenza vaccine candidate.

    PubMed

    Venereo-Sanchez, Alina; Gilbert, Renald; Simoneau, Melanie; Caron, Antoine; Chahal, Parminder; Chen, Wangxue; Ansorge, Sven; Li, Xuguang; Henry, Olivier; Kamen, Amine

    2016-06-17

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) constitute a promising alternative as influenza vaccine. They are non-replicative particles that mimic the morphology of native viruses which make them more immunogenic than classical subunit vaccines. In this study, we propose HEK-293 cells in suspension culture in serum-free medium as an efficient platform to produce large quantities of VLPs. For this purpose, a stable cell line expressing the main influenza viral antigens hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) (subtype H1N1) under the regulation of a cumate inducible promoter was developed (293HA-NA cells). The production of VLPs was evaluated by transient transfection of plasmids encoding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Gag or M1 influenza matrix protein. To facilitate the monitoring of VLPs production, Gag was fused to the green fluorescence protein (GFP). The transient transfection of the gag containing plasmid in 293HA-NA cells increased the release of HA and NA seven times more than its counterpart transfected with the M1 encoding plasmid. Consequently, the production of HA-NA containing VLPs using Gag as scaffold was evaluated in a 3-L controlled stirred tank bioreactor. The VLPs secreted in the culture medium were recovered by ultracentrifugation on a sucrose cushion and ultrafiltered by tangential flow filtration. Transmission electron micrographs of final sample revealed the presence of particles with the average typical size (150-200nm) and morphology of HIV-1 immature particles. The concentration of the influenza glycoproteins on the Gag-VLPs was estimated by single radial immunodiffusion and hemagglutination assay for HA and by Dot-Blot for HA and NA. More significantly, intranasal immunization of mice with influenza Gag-VLPs induced strong antigen-specific mucosal and systemic antibody responses and provided full protection against a lethal intranasal challenge with the homologous virus strain. These data suggest that, with further optimization and characterization

  13. Structures and biosynthesis of the N- and O-glycans of recombinant human oviduct-specific glycoprotein expressed in human embryonic kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaojing; Tao, Shujuan; Orlando, Ron; Brockhausen, Inka; Kan, Frederick W K

    2012-09-01

    Oviduct-specific glycoprotein (OVGP1) is a major mucin-like glycoprotein synthesized and secreted exclusively by non-ciliated secretory cells of mammalian oviduct. In vitro functional studies showed that OVGP1 plays important roles during fertilization and early embryo development. We have recently produced recombinant human oviduct-specific glycoprotein (rhOVGP1) in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. The present study was undertaken to characterize the structures and determine the biosynthetic pathways of the N- and O-glycans of rhOVGP1. Treatment of the stable rhOVGP1-expressing HEK293 cells with either GalNAcα-Bn to block O-glycan extension, tunicamycin to block N-glycosylation, or neuraminidase increased the electrophoretic mobility of rhOVGP1. A detailed analysis of O- and N-linked glycans of rhOVGP1 by mass spectrometry showed a broad range of many simple and complex glycan structures. In order to identify the enzymes involved in the glycosylation of rhOVGP1, we assayed glycosyltransferase activities involved in the assembly of O- and N-glycans in HEK293 cells, and compared these to those from the immortalized human oviductal cells (OE-E6/E7). Our results demonstrate that HEK293 and OE-E6/E7 cells exhibit a similar spectrum of glycosyltransferase activities that can synthesize elongated and sialylated O-glycans with core 1 and 2 structures, as well as complex multiantennary N-glycans. It is anticipated that the knowledge gained from the present study will facilitate future studies of the role of the glycans of human OVGP1 in fertilization and early embryo development.

  14. Nano-silicon dioxide toxicological characterization on two human kidney cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paget, V.; Sergent, J. A.; Chevillard, S.

    2011-07-01

    Silicon dioxide nanoparticles (n-SiO2) have recently encountered a wide variety of applications in medicine or engineering but their toxicological effects are poorly understood. In this study, we have used SiO2-25 nm and SiO2-100 nm mono-dispersed nanoparticles labeled with Rhodamine B and TMPyP respectively. These two fluorophores were incorporated during synthesis in order to track nanoparticles cell incorporation. Up-to-date, no evaluation of the toxicological effects of these nanoparticles upon human kidney has been published. As kidney is one of the major traditional retention organs, the aim of our study is to evaluate the potential toxicity of these nanoparticles on two human cell lines from proximal tubule (Caki-1 and Hek293). Our results report that the two cell lines do not show similar responses after 24 hours of exposure to SiO2-nanoparticles disregarding a similar origin in the kidney. Interestingly, our results indicate that for both tested SiO2-nanoparticles, Caki-1 cells present a higher sensitivity in terms of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than Hek293 cells. Furthermore, our results show that for similar concentration of exposure, SiO2-25 nm seems to be more cytotoxic and genotoxic than SiO2-100nm for both tested cell lines.

  15. Limitations to the development of recombinant human embryonic kidney 293E cells using glutamine synthetase-mediated gene amplification: Methionine sulfoximine resistance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Da Young; Noh, Soo Min; Lee, Gyun Min

    2016-08-10

    To investigate the feasibility of glutamine synthetase (GS)-mediated gene amplification in HEK293 cells for the high-level stable production of therapeutic proteins, HEK293E cells were transfected by the GS expression vector containing antibody genes and were selected at various methionine sulfoximine (MSX) concentrations in 96-well plates. For a comparison, CHOK1 cells were transfected by the same GS expression vector and selected at various MSX concentrations. Unlike CHOK1 cells, HEK293E cells producing high levels of antibodies were not selected at all. For HEK293E cells, the number of wells with the cell pool did not decrease with an increase in the concentration of MSX up to 500μM MSX. A q-RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the antibody genes in the HEK293E cells, unlike the CHOK1 cells, were not amplified after increasing the MSX concentration. It was found that the GS activity in HEK293E cells was much higher than that in CHOK1 cells (P<0.05). In a glutamine-free medium, the GS activity of HEK293E cells was approximately 4.8 times higher than that in CHOK1 cells. Accordingly, it is inferred that high GS activity of HEK293E cells results in elevated resistance to MSX and therefore hampers GS-mediated gene amplification by MSX. Thus, in order to apply the GS-mediated gene amplification system to HEK293 cells, the endogenous GS expression level in HEK293 cells needs to be minimized by knock-out or down-regulation methods.

  16. Raman spectroscopic study of a genetically altered kidney cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Joel; Garcia, Francisco; Centeno, Silvia P.; Joshi, N. V.

    2008-02-01

    A Raman spectroscopic investigation of a genetically altered Human Embryonic Kidney Cell (HEK293) along with a pathologically normal cell has been carried out by a conventional method. The genetic alteration was carried out with a standard protocol by using a Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP). Raman spectra show that there are dramatic differences between the spectrum obtained from a genetically altered cell and that obtained from a pathologically normal cell. The former shows three broad bands; meanwhile the latter shows several sharp peaks corresponding to the ring vibrational modes of Phen, GFP and DNA. The present analysis provides an indication that the force field near Phen located at 64, 65 and 66 was altered during the genetic transformation. The Raman spectrum could be a direct experimental evidence for substantial modifications triggered due to the expression of specific genes.

  17. Analysis of intracellular substrates and products of thimet oligopeptidase in human embryonic kidney 293 cells.

    PubMed

    Berti, Denise A; Morano, Cain; Russo, Lilian C; Castro, Leandro M; Cunha, Fernanda M; Zhang, Xin; Sironi, Juan; Klitzke, Clécio F; Ferro, Emer S; Fricker, Lloyd D

    2009-05-22

    Thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15; EP24.15) is an intracellular enzyme that has been proposed to metabolize peptides within cells, thereby affecting antigen presentation and G protein-coupled receptor signal transduction. However, only a small number of intracellular substrates of EP24.15 have been reported previously. Here we have identified over 100 peptides in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells that are derived from intracellular proteins; many but not all of these peptides are substrates or products of EP24.15. First, cellular peptides were extracted from HEK293 cells and incubated in vitro with purified EP24.15. Then the peptides were labeled with isotopic tags and analyzed by mass spectrometry to obtain quantitative data on the extent of cleavage. A related series of experiments tested the effect of overexpression of EP24.15 on the cellular levels of peptides in HEK293 cells. Finally, synthetic peptides that corresponded to 10 of the cellular peptides were incubated with purified EP24.15 in vitro, and the cleavage was monitored by high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Many of the EP24.15 substrates identified by these approaches are 9-11 amino acids in length, supporting the proposal that EP24.15 can function in the degradation of peptides that could be used for antigen presentation. However, EP24.15 also converts some peptides into products that are 8-10 amino acids, thus contributing to the formation of peptides for antigen presentation. In addition, the intracellular peptides described here are potential candidates to regulate protein interactions within cells.

  18. Toxicity study of reclaimed water on human embryonic kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xianghao; Kou, Ying-Ying; Kim, Taeeung; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Ng, How Yong

    2017-08-28

    The importance of evaluating the toxic effects associated with the use of reclaimed water has been increasing. The purpose of this research was to investigate the cytotoxicity and molecular toxicity of reclaimed water on the human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. The culture medium was synthesized using the reclaimed water samples. Wastewater treatment plant influent (WTI) and effluent (WTE), containing micropollutants at the nanogram per liter level, decreased cell proliferation (93.4-98.9% and 91.5-96.6% of the control, respectively) and increased cell damage (103.6-117.5% and 100.7-109% of the control, respectively) at all exposure times, except for a decrease in cell damage observed after an 8-h exposure to WTE. Membrane bioreactor permeate (MBRP) increased cell proliferation (102.1-106.7% of the control) and decreased cell damage at 8 and 12 h (92.4 and 98.4% of the control, respectively), but slightly increased cell damage at 24 h and later time points (101.1-104.9% of the control). All three water samples induced cell apoptosis (120.9-123.4% of the control). They also affected the expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins (p16(INK4a), p27(Kip1), cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4, cyclin D1, and cyclin E) and apoptosis-related regulatory proteins (p-JNK, Bcl-2, caspase-9, and caspase-3). In conclusion, all three water samples showed cytotoxicity and molecular toxicity in the HEK293 cells, and the results of the cell-cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein expression after WTI and WTE treatments were consistent with the results of the cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fenton Reaction-Generated Advanced Oxidation Protein Products Induces Inflammation in Human Embryonic Kidney Cells.

    PubMed

    Bochi, Guilherme Vargas; Torbitz, Vanessa Dorneles; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; Cubillos-Rojas, Monica; López, José Luis Rosa; Siebel, Anna Maria; Gomes, Patrícia; de Oliveira, Jarbas Rodrigues; Moresco, Rafael Noal

    2016-08-01

    Fenton reaction is a new mechanism able to generate advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) by exposing the human serum albumin to the Fenton system. Here, we characterized the effects of Fenton reaction-generated advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP-FR) on the gene transcription of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293). To investigate the effects of AOPP-FR and AOPP-HOCl on transcription of inflammatory genes, the NF-κB, COX-2, and IL-6 luciferase promoter activities were analyzed. AOPP-FR and AOPP-HOCl were able to induce the activation of the gene transcription of NF-κB, COX-2, and IL-6 in HEK 293 cells. However, the effects of AOPP-FR were significantly higher than the effects of AOPP-HOCl in relation to COX-2 and IL-6. AOPP-FR induces the activation of the gene transcription of NF-κB, COX-2, and IL-6 and may represent a novel pathogenic mediator of inflammation in kidney.

  20. Evaluation of cytotoxicity attributed to thimerosal on murine and human kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Kee; Mak, Sally K; Kültz, Dietmar; Hammock, Bruce D

    2007-12-01

    Renal inner medullary collecting duct cells (mIMCD3) and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) were used for cytoscreening of thimerosal and mercury chloride (HgCl2). Thimerosal and HgCl2 acted in a concentration-dependent manner. In mIMCD3 cells the 24-h LC50 values for thimerosal, thiosalicylic acid, 2,2-dithiosalicylic acid, and 2-sulfobenzoic acid were 2.9, 2200, >1000, and >10,000 microM, respectively. The 24-h LC50 value for HgCl2 in mIMCD3 cells was 40 microM. In HEK293 cells, the 24-h LC50 value for thimerosal was 9.5 microM. These data demonstrate that the higher cytotoxicity produced by thimerosal on renal cells with respect to similar compounds without Hg may be related to this metal content. The present study also establishes mIMCD3 cells as a valuable model for evaluation of cytotoxicity of nephrotoxic compounds.

  1. Pathway of 3-MCPD-induced apoptosis in human embryonic kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jian; Zhu, Pei; Sun, Chao; Sun, Jiadi; An, Lu; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2017-01-01

    3-Chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a heat-produced contaminant formed during the preparation of soy sauce worldwide. The present investigation was conducted to determine the molecular aspects of 3-MCPD toxicity on human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed in response to exposure to 3-MCPD using the MTT assay and high-content screening (HCS). DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis-related proteins were evaluated. Genes related with apoptosis were detected by qPCR-array for further understanding the 3-MCPD induced cell apoptosis signaling pathway. Our results clearly showed that 3-MCPD treatment inhibits cell proliferation and reactive oxygen species generation. qPCR-array indicated that nine apoptotic genes were up-regulated more than 2-fold and six down-regulated more than 2-fold. Genes associated with the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, especially BCL2 family genes, changed significantly, indicating that the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway is activated. Death receptor pathway-related genes, TNFRSF11B and TNFRSF1A, changed significantly, indicating that the death receptor pathway is also activated, resulting in the inhibition of cell growth and proliferation as well as induction of apoptosis. To sum up, the experiment results indicated that 3-MCPD induced HEK293 cell toxicity through the death receptor pathway and mitochondrial pathway.

  2. Analysis of Intracellular Substrates and Products of Thimet Oligopeptidase in Human Embryonic Kidney 293 Cells*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Denise A.; Morano, Cain; Russo, Lilian C.; Castro, Leandro M.; Cunha, Fernanda M.; Zhang, Xin; Sironi, Juan; Klitzke, Clécio F.; Ferro, Emer S.; Fricker, Lloyd D.

    2009-01-01

    Thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15; EP24.15) is an intracellular enzyme that has been proposed to metabolize peptides within cells, thereby affecting antigen presentation and G protein-coupled receptor signal transduction. However, only a small number of intracellular substrates of EP24.15 have been reported previously. Here we have identified over 100 peptides in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells that are derived from intracellular proteins; many but not all of these peptides are substrates or products of EP24.15. First, cellular peptides were extracted from HEK293 cells and incubated in vitro with purified EP24.15. Then the peptides were labeled with isotopic tags and analyzed by mass spectrometry to obtain quantitative data on the extent of cleavage. A related series of experiments tested the effect of overexpression of EP24.15 on the cellular levels of peptides in HEK293 cells. Finally, synthetic peptides that corresponded to 10 of the cellular peptides were incubated with purified EP24.15 in vitro, and the cleavage was monitored by high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Many of the EP24.15 substrates identified by these approaches are 9–11 amino acids in length, supporting the proposal that EP24.15 can function in the degradation of peptides that could be used for antigen presentation. However, EP24.15 also converts some peptides into products that are 8–10 amino acids, thus contributing to the formation of peptides for antigen presentation. In addition, the intracellular peptides described here are potential candidates to regulate protein interactions within cells. PMID:19282285

  3. Oxidative stress by monosodium urate crystals promotes renal cell apoptosis through mitochondrial caspase-dependent pathway in human embryonic kidney 293 cells: mechanism for urate-induced nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jung-Yoon; Park, Ki-Yeun; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of oxidative stress on monosodium urate (MSU)-mediated apoptosis of renal cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting for Bcl-2, caspase-9, caspase-3, iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-18, TNF receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF-6), and mitogen-activated protein kinases were performed on human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, which were stimulated by MSU crystals. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was performed using annexin V for assessment of apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured. IL-1β siRNA was used for blocking IL-1β expression. MSU crystals promoted ROS, iNOS, and COX-2 expression and also increased TRAF-6 and IL-1β expression in HEK293 cells, which was inhibited by an antioxidant ascorbic acid. Caspase-dependent renal cell apoptosis was induced through attenuation of Bcl-2 and enhanced caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression by MSU crystals, which was significantly reversed by ascorbic acid and transfection of IL-1β siRNA to HEK293 cells. Ascorbic acid inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Jun N-terminal protein kinase stimulated by MSU crystals. ROS accumulation and iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression by MSU crystals was also suppressed by transfection with IL-1β siRNA. Oxidative stress generated by MSU crystals promotes renal apoptosis through the mitochondrial caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway.

  4. Activation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase in human cells by the mycotoxin patulin

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T.-S.; Yu, F.-Y.; Su, C.-C.; Kan, J.-C.; Chung, C.-P.; Liu, B.-H. . E-mail: bingliu@csmu.edu.tw

    2005-09-01

    Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, is often detectable in moldy fruits and their derivative products. PAT led to a concentration-dependent and time-dependent increase in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Exposure of HEK293 cells to concentrations above 5 {mu}M PAT for 30 min induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation; activation of ERK1/2 was also observed after 24 h incubation with 0.05 {mu}M of PAT. Treatment of human PBMCs for 30 min with 30 {mu}M PAT dramatically increased the phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels. Both MEK1/2 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suppressed ERK1/2 activation in either HEK293 or MDCK cells. In HEK293 cells, U0126-mediated inhibition of PAT-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation resulted in a significant decrease in levels of DNA damage, expressed as tail moment values, in the single cell gel electrophoresis assay. Conversely, U0126 did not affect cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, and the DNA synthesis rate in PAT-treated cultures. Exposure of HEK293 cells for 90 min to 15 {mu}M PAT elevated the levels of early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) mRNA, but not of c-fos, fosB, and junB mRNAs. These results indicate that in human cells, PAT causes a rapid and persistent activation of ERK1/2 and this signaling pathway plays an important role in mediating PAT-induced DNA damage and egr-1 gene expression.

  5. Specificity and sensitivity of a human olfactory receptor functionally expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and Xenopus Laevis oocytes.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, C H; Oles, M; Wellerdieck, C; Kuczkowiak, M; Gisselmann, G; Hatt, H

    1999-09-01

    Here, we provide the first evidence for functional expression of a human olfactory receptor protein (OR17-40) and show that recombinant olfactory receptors can be functionally expressed in heterologous systems. A mixture of 100 different odorants (Henkel 100) elicited a transient increase in intracellular [Ca(2+)] in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells stably or transiently transfected with the plasmid pOR17-40. By subdividing the odorant mixture into progressively smaller groups, we identified a single component that represented the only effective substance: helional. Only the structurally closely related molecule heliotroplyacetone also activated the receptor. Other compounds, including piperonal, safrole, and vanillin, were completely ineffective. Mock-transfected cells and cells transfected with other receptors showed no change in intracellular [Ca(2+)] in response to odor stimulation. We were also able to functionally express OR17-40 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Coexpression of a "reporter" channel allowed measurement of the response of oocytes injected with the cRNA of the human receptor to the odor mixture Henkel 100. The effective substances were the same (helional, heliotropylacetone) as those identified by functionally expressing the receptor in HEK293 cells and were active at the same, lower micromolar concentration. These findings open the possibility of now characterizing the sensitivity and specificity of many, if not all, of the hundreds of different human olfactory receptors.

  6. Molecular mechanisms of epithelial cell-specific expression and regulation of the human anion exchanger (pendrin) gene.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lior; Efrati, Edna; Zelikovic, Israel

    2008-05-01

    Pendrin, a Cl(-)/anion exchanger encoded by the gene PDS, is highly expressed in the kidney, thyroid, and inner ear epithelia and is essential for bicarbonate secretion, iodide accumulation, and endolymph ion balance, respectively. This study aimed to define promoter regulatory elements essential for renal, thyroid, and inner ear epithelial cell-specific expression of human PDS (hPDS) and to explore the effect of ambient pH and aldosterone on hPDS promoter activity. Endogenous pendrin mRNA and protein were detected in renal HEK293, thyroid LA2, and inner ear VOT36 epithelial cell lines, but not in the fibroblast cell line, NIH3T3. A 4.2-kb hPDS 5'-flanking DNA sequence and consecutive 5'-deletion products were cloned into luciferase reporter vectors and transiently transfected into the above cell lines. Distinct differences in expression/activity of deduced positive/negative regulatory elements within the hPDS promoter between HEK293, LA2, and VOT36 cells were demonstrated, with only basal activity in NIH3T3 cells. Acidic pH (7.0-7.1) decreased and alkaline pH (7.6-7.7) increased hPDS promoter activity in transfected HEK293 and VOT36, but not in LA2 cells. Aldosterone (10(-8) M) reduced hPDS promoter activity in HEK293 but had no effect in LA2 and VOT36 cells. These pH and aldosterone-induced effects on the hPDS promoter occurred within 96-bp and 89-bp regions, respectively, which likely contain distinct response elements to these modulators. Acidic pH and aldosterone decreased, and alkaline pH increased, endogenous pendrin mRNA level in HEK293 cells. In conclusion, pendrin-mediated HCO3(-) secretion in the renal tubule and anion transport in the endolymph may be regulated transcriptionally by systemic pH and aldosterone.

  7. Regulated expression of human beta-defensin-2 leads to altered phenotype and growth patterns of cultured human embryonal kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Zhuravel, E; Lytvyn, D; Soldatkina, M; Zeleniy, S; Shestakova, T; Pogrebnoy, P

    2006-12-01

    To create cell line with regulated expression of human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2) and evaluate the influence of expressed peptide on its phenotypic and growth patterns. Using cloning techniques, on the base of human embryonic kidney cells of HEK293T line, stable T-rex HEK-hBD2-m cell subline expressing mature biologically active hBD-2 molecule upon the presence of tetracycline in culture medium was generated. The morphological patterns, growth characteristics and colony forming activity of these cells were studied using routine techniques. T-rex HEK-HBD2-m cell subline was shown to express both mRNA and hBD-2m protein upon the presence of 1 mug/ml tetracycline in culture medium as it was demonstrated by RT-PCR and immunocytochemical approach. Upon prolonged expression of hBD-2, the cells acquired special features: they lost ability to grow in monolayer in vitro and to form colonies in soft agar, characteristic to parental HEK293T cells, but possess higher growth rate and longer survival in FBS-free medium than wild type cells. Expression of hBD-2 in T-rex HEK-HBD2-m cell subline results in specific biological consequences that favor cell survival.

  8. Effects of Biebersteinia multifida hydro-ethanol extract on proliferation and apoptosis of human prostate cancer and human embryonic kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Golshan, Alireza; Hassanzadeh, Samira; Mojdekanloo, Maryam; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Biebersteinia (Geraniaceae) has a history of use in traditional medicine in some countries including Iran. In the present study, cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of hydro-ethanol extract of B. multifidi was investigated on human prostate cancer cell lines (PC3 and DU 145) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Materials and Methods: Cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 10% FBS at 37ºC in a humidified atmosphere of 95% air and 5% CO2. The root of the plant was macerated with EtOH 70%. Cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract of B. multifida was assessed using alamarBlue® assay after 48 hr of treatment. Apoptotic cells were stained with propidium iodide (PI) and detected by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). Results: B. multifidi had cytotoxic effect on malignant cells and normal HEK293 cells in a dose-dependent manner and significantly decreased the cell viability (IC50 values were between 199.2 and 302.9 µg/ml). B. multifida increased the sub-G1 peak in flow cytometry histogram of treated PC3 cells compared to control showing the induction of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. Conclusion: Due to cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of B. multifida, the plant is suggested for further phytochemical analysis and mechanistic evaluation. PMID:28078247

  9. Selenium effects on arsenic cytotoxicity and protein phosphorylation in human kidney cells using chip-based nanoLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Alp, Orkun; Zhang, Yaofang; Merino, Edward J; Caruso, Joseph A

    2011-05-01

    Although arsenic toxicity is well known, little is known of how it exerts its effects at the proteome level. Protein phosphorylation is an important post-translational modification in the regulation of cell signaling. Despite the importance of protein phosphorylation, the identification and characterization of phosphorylated proteins, as influenced by interaction between arsenic and selenium species have not been fully studied. The aim of this study is to identify phosphorylation in arsenic toxified cells, with and without selenium present. Here, we identify the phosphorylated proteins related to post translational modifications (PTMs) after inorganic arsenic (iAs) and selenomethionine (SeMet) were inoculated together with HEK293 human kidney cells. In this study, using TiO(2)-based nanoLC-phosphochip® coupled to ESI-MS we observed phosphorylated peptide enrichment and significant reduction in sample complexity. The identification of phosphorylated proteins in highly complex digests of cell lysate were markedly different with As toxification only, or when in the presence of SeMet. Several phosphorylation sites and proteins are identified using Spectrum Mill and Mascot protein data base search engines. Cytotoxicity studies showed that SeMet significantly reduces the cytotoxic effect of iAs in HEK293 cells, while inorganic selenium did not.

  10. Polycystin-1 expression in fetal, adult and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney.

    PubMed

    Chae, Seoung Wan; Cho, Eun-Yoon; Park, Moon Soo; Lee, Kyu-Beck; Kim, Hyunho; Kim, Unkyung

    2006-06-01

    The mutation of the PKD1 gene causes autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and the PKD1 gene encodes polycystin-1 (PC-1). PC-1 is thought to be a cell-cell/matrix adhesion receptor molecule at the cell surface that is widely expressed in the kidney. However, there are controversies about the role of PC-1 protein and its expression when using different antibodies to detect it. We used two PC-1 antibodies; C-20 (Santa Cruz, sc-10372) as the C-terminal antibody, and P-15 (Santa Cruz, sc-10307) as the N-terminal antibody. We evaluated the PC-1 expression by performing immunoblotting on the human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and the renal proximal tubular epithelial cell (RPTEC) lysates. We characterized the expression of PC-1 in the fetal, adult and polycystic kidneys tissues by performing immunohistochemistry. We confirmed the PC-1 expression in the HEK 293 cells and the RPTEC lysates, but the expression was very low. The PC-1 proteins were diffusely expressed in the tubular epithelial cells cytoplasm in the fetal and adult kidneys, and the PC-1 expression was more prominent in the proximal tubules of the fetal kidney. In the ADPKD kidney, the PC-1 proteins were heterogenously and weakly expressed in the tubular or cyst lining epithelial cells. Our data suggests that the development of the kidney may regulate the expression of PC-1, and an altered PC-1 expression may contribute to cyst formation in ADPKD.

  11. Polycystin-1 Expression in Fetal, Adult and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Seoung Wan; Cho, Eun-Yoon; Park, Moon Soo; Kim, Hyunho; Kim, Unkyung

    2006-01-01

    The mutation of the PKD1 gene causes autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and the PKD1 gene encodes polycystin-1 (PC-1). PC-1 is thought to be a cell-cell/matrix adhesion receptor molecule at the cell surface that is widely expressed in the kidney. However, there are controversies about the role of PC-1 protein and its expression when using different antibodies to detect it. We used two PC-1 antibodies; C-20 (Santa Cruz, sc-10372) as the C-terminal antibody, and P-15 (Santa Cruz, sc-10307) as the N-terminal antibody. We evaluated the PC-1 expression by performing immunoblotting on the human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and the renal proximal tubular epithelial cell (RPTEC) lysates. We characterized the expression of PC-1 in the fetal, adult and polycystic kidneys tissues by performing immunohistochemistry. We confirmed the PC-1 expression in the HEK 293 cells and the RPTEC lysates, but the expression was very low. The PC-1 proteins were diffusely expressed in the tubular epithelial cells cytoplasm in the fetal and adult kidneys, and the PC-1 expression was more prominent in the proximal tubules of the fetal kidney. In the ADPKD kidney, the PC-1 proteins were heterogenously and weakly expressed in the tubular or cyst lining epithelial cells. Our data suggests that the development of the kidney may regulate the expression of PC-1, and an altered PC-1 expression may contribute to cyst formation in ADPKD. PMID:16778383

  12. The Proteins from Sika deer antler as potential modulators on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huihai; Li, Wei; Wang, Lulu; He, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hang; Zhang, Jing

    2017-07-31

    Our study aimed to investigate the protective role of SDAPR on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and its' possible mechanism in HEK293 cells. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Oxidative stress (SOD, GSH, LDH and MDA), inflammatory factors (TNF-α and IL-6) and apoptosis-related proteins (caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2) expression were measured. The apoptotic cells were observed by TUNEL staining. Our study results indicated that non-cytotoxic levels of SDAPR significantly increased viability rate (LD50 value of cisplatin is 20 μM), which improved antioxidant defence, attenuated apoptosis by decreasing expression levels of cleaved-caspase-3 and Bax, increasing Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting apoptotic positive cells in HEK 293 cells. In addition, SDAPR treatment markedly inhibited the levels of TNF-α and IL-6. In conclusion, Sika deer antler protein, a potential modulator, could alleviate cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in HEK 293 cells.

  13. Silencing of TBX20 gene expression in rat myocardial and human embryonic kidney cells leads to cell cycle arrest in G2 phase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peiyan; Sun, Yueling; Qiu, Guangbin; Jiang, Hongkun; Qiu, Guangrong

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) are the most common birth defects due to abnormal cardiac development. The T-box 20 (TBX20) gene is a member of the T-box family of transcription factors and encodes TBX20, which is essential for early heart development. In the present study, reduced TBX20 expression was observed in CHD tissue samples compared with normal tissues, and the function of TBX20 in Rattus norvegicus myocardial cells [H9c2(2-1)] and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) was investigated. TBX20 was silenced in H9c2 and HEK293 cells via transfection of small interfering RNA and short hairpin RNA duplexes, respectively, and TBX20 mRNA and protein levels were subsequently examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was assessed using a cell counting kit and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression was determined by western blotting. Analysis of cell apoptosis was achieved by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining and a fluorometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling system. Cell cycle analysis was achieved using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and, an RT-qPCR array was used to profile the expression of TBX20-related genes. Silencing of TBX20 in H9c2 and HEK293 cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and led to G2/M cell cycle arrest. A reduction in cyclin B1 mRNA levels and an increase in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B mRNA levels was observed, which indicated that cells were arrested in G2 phase. Concurrently, the mRNA levels of GATA binding protein 4 were increased in both cell lines, which may provide an explanation for the abnormal cardiac hypertrophy observed in patients with congenital heart disease. These results suggest that TBX20 is required for heart morphogenesis, and inhibition of TBX20 expression may lead to the suppression of cell proliferation and cell cycle

  14. Dissection of the Mechanical Impedance Components of the Outer Hair Cell Using a Chloride-Channel Blocker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harasztosi, Csaba; Gummer, Anthony W.

    2011-11-01

    The voltage-dependent chloride-channel blocker anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (9AC) has been found to reduce the imaginary but not the real part of the mechanical impedance of the organ of Corti, suggesting that the effective stiffness of outer hair cells (OHCs) is reduced by 9AC. To examine whether 9AC interacts directly with the motor protein prestin to reduce the membrane component of the impedance, the patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration was used to measure the nonlinear capacitance (NLC) of isolated OHCs and, as control, prestin-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Extracellular application of 9AC significantly reduced the NLC of both OHCs and HEK293 cells. Intracellular 9AC did not influence the blocking effect of the extracellular applied drug. These results suggest that 9AC interacts directly with prestin, reducing the effective stiffness of the motor, and that the interaction is extracellular.

  15. NFAT5 Is Activated by Hypoxia: Role in Ischemia and Reperfusion in the Rat Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Sandra; Suazo, Cristian; Santapau, Daniela; Pérez, Francisco; Quiroz, Mariana; Carreño, Juan E.; Illanes, Sebastián; Lavandero, Sergio; Michea, Luis; Irarrazabal, Carlos E.

    2012-01-01

    The current hypothesis postulates that NFAT5 activation in the kidney's inner medulla is due to hypertonicity, resulting in cell protection. Additionally, the renal medulla is hypoxic (10–18 mmHg); however there is no information about the effect of hypoxia on NFAT5. Using in vivo and in vitro models, we evaluated the effect of reducing the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) on NFAT5 activity. We found that 1) Anoxia increased NFAT5 expression and nuclear translocation in primary cultures of IMCD cells from rat kidney. 2) Anoxia increased transcriptional activity and nuclear translocation of NFAT5 in HEK293 cells. 3) The dose-response curve demonstrated that HIF-1α peaked at 2.5% and NFAT5 at 1% of O2. 4) At 2.5% of O2, the time-course curve of hypoxia demonstrated earlier induction of HIF-1α gene expression than NFAT5. 5) siRNA knockdown of NFAT5 increased the hypoxia-induced cell death. 6) siRNA knockdown of HIF-1α did not affect the NFAT5 induction by hypoxia. Additionally, HIF-1α was still induced by hypoxia even when NFAT5 was knocked down. 7) NFAT5 and HIF-1α expression were increased in kidney (cortex and medulla) from rats subjected to an experimental model of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). 7) Experimental I/R increased the NFAT5-target gene aldose reductase (AR). 8) NFAT5 activators (ATM and PI3K) were induced in vitro (HEK293 cells) and in vivo (I/R kidneys) with the same timing of NFAT5. 8) Wortmannin, which inhibits ATM and PI3K, reduces hypoxia-induced NFAT5 transcriptional activation in HEK293 cells. These results demonstrate for the first time that NFAT5 is induced by hypoxia and could be a protective factor against ischemic damage. PMID:22768306

  16. Transcriptional regulation of the tumor suppressor FHL2 by p53 in human kidney and liver cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiaying; Zhou, Junwei; Li, Man-Shan; Ng, Chor-Fung; Ng, Yuen-Keng; Lai, Paul Bo-San; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing

    2014-01-01

    Four and a Half LIM protein 2 (FHL2) is a LIM domain only protein that is able to form various protein complexes and regulate gene transcription. Recent findings showed that FHL2 is a potential tumor suppressor gene that was down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Moreover, FHL2 can bind to and activate the TP53 promoter in hepatic cells. In this study, the activity of the two promoters of FHL2, 1a and 1b, were determined in the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 and the activation of these two promoters by p53 was investigated. Our results showed that the 1b promoter has a higher activity than the 1a promoter in HEK 293 cells but the 1a promoter is more responsive to the activation by p53 when compared with the 1b promoter. The regulation of FHL2 by p53 was further confirmed in liver cells by the overexpression of p53 in Hep3B cells and the knockdown of p53 in HepG2 cells. Combining promoter activity results of truncated mutants and predictions by bioinformatics tools, a putative p53 binding site was found in the exon 1a of FHL2 from +213 to +232. The binding between the p53 protein and the putative p53 binding site was then validated by the ChIP assay. Furthermore, the expression of FHL2 and TP53 were down-regulated in majority of HCC tumour samples (n = 41) and significantly correlated (P = 0.026). Finally, we found that the somatic mutation 747 (G→T), a hot spot mutation of the TP53 gene, is potentially associated with a higher expression of FHL2 in HCC tumour samples. Taken together, this is the first in-depth study about the transcriptional regulation of FHL2 by p53.

  17. Effect of a novel Omegacoeur®/Doluperine® nutritional combination on human embryonic kidney cell viability.

    PubMed

    Sottejeau, Y; Patel, A M; Gerber, G; Pierre, S V; Maixent, J M

    2010-10-05

    Holistica Laboratories (Eguilles, France) developed the nutritional supplements Omegacoeur® and Doluperine® based on two of the most ancient and unique dietary health traditions. Omegacoeur® is formulated to supply key active components of Mediterranean diet (omega 3,6,9 fatty acids, garlic, and basil) and the formulation of Doluperine® was based on the Ayurvedic tradition (curcuma, pepper, ginger extracts). Interestingly, recent studies suggest that an combination of the ingredients supplied by these two supplements could provide additional and previously unanticipated benefit through synergistic actions of some of their key components. However, the effect of such combination on human cell viability has not been investigated. In this present article, a review of the various effects of the individual compounds of the new combination and the reported active doses, and the result of a study of an combination of Omegacoeur® / Dolupérine® on Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK 293) cells. Incremental doses of 4 Omegacoeur® / Dolupérine® combinations prepared so that the molar ratio DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) in Omegacoeur® / curcumin in Dolupérine® was kept constant, at 2.5 DHA / 1 curcumin, were added to the culture media. After 24h of incubation, cell viability was assessed by the trypan blue exclusion method. The data suggest that the combination of Omegacoeur® with Dolupérine® does not affect HEK 293 cells viability in the range of doses that have demonstrated beneficial effects in earlier studies.

  18. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1979-01-01

    A kidney cell electrophoresis technique is described in four parts: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characteristics of kidney cells.

  19. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1980-01-01

    The following aspects of kidney cell electrophoresis are discussed: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characterization of kidney cells.

  20. Multidrug Resistance Protein-4 Influences Aspirin Toxicity in Human Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Massimi, Isabella; Ciuffetta, Ambra; Temperilli, Flavia; Ferrandino, Francesca; Zicari, Alessandra; Pulcinelli, Fabio M.; Felli, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of efflux transporters, in human cells, is a mechanism of resistance to drug and also to chemotherapy. We found that multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4) overexpression has a role in reducing aspirin action in patients after bypass surgery and, very recently, we found that aspirin enhances platelet MRP4 levels through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα). In the present paper, we verified whether exposure of human embryonic kidney-293 cells (Hek-293) to aspirin modifies MRP4 gene expression and its correlation with drug elimination and cell toxicity. We first investigated the effect of high-dose aspirin in Hek-293 and we showed that aspirin is able to increase cell toxicity dose-dependently. Furthermore, aspirin effects, induced at low dose, already enhance MRP4 gene expression. Based on these findings, we compared cell viability in Hek-293, after high-dose aspirin treatment, in MRP4 overexpressing cells, either after aspirin pretreatment or in MRP4 transfected cells; in both cases, a decrease of selective aspirin cell growth inhibition was observed, in comparison with the control cultures. Altogether, these data suggest that exposing cells to low nontoxic aspirin dosages can induce gene expression alterations that may lead to the efflux transporter protein overexpression, thus increasing cellular detoxification of aspirin. PMID:26491233

  1. Kaempferol increases levels of coenzyme Q in kidney cells and serves as a biosynthetic ring precursor.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Del-Río, Lucía; Nag, Anish; Gutiérrez Casado, Elena; Ariza, Julia; Awad, Agape M; Joseph, Akil I; Kwon, Ohyun; Verdin, Eric; de Cabo, Rafael; Schneider, Claus; Torres, Jorge Z; Burón, María I; Clarke, Catherine F; Villalba, José M

    2017-09-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a lipid-soluble antioxidant essential in cellular physiology. Patients with Q deficiencies, with few exceptions, seldom respond to treatment. Current therapies rely on dietary supplementation with Q10, but due to its highly lipophilic nature, Q10 is difficult to absorb by tissues and cells. Plant polyphenols, present in the human diet, are redox active and modulate numerous cellular pathways. In the present study, we tested whether treatment with polyphenols affected the content or biosynthesis of Q. Mouse kidney proximal tubule epithelial (Tkpts) cells and human embryonic kidney cells 293 (HEK 293) were treated with several types of polyphenols, and kaempferol produced the largest increase in Q levels. Experiments with stable isotope (13)C-labeled kaempferol demonstrated a previously unrecognized role of kaempferol as an aromatic ring precursor in Q biosynthesis. Investigations of the structure-function relationship of related flavonols showed the importance of two hydroxyl groups, located at C3 of the C ring and C4' of the B ring, both present in kaempferol, as important determinants of kaempferol as a Q biosynthetic precursor. Concurrently, through a mechanism not related to the enhancement of Q biosynthesis, kaempferol also augmented mitochondrial localization of Sirt3. The role of kaempferol as a precursor that increases Q levels, combined with its ability to upregulate Sirt3, identify kaempferol as a potential candidate in the design of interventions aimed on increasing endogenous Q biosynthesis, particularly in kidney. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cancer/testis antigen NY-SAR-35 enhances cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.

    PubMed

    Song, Myung-Ha; Kim, Ye-Rin; Lee, Jun-Won; Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Sang-Yull

    2016-02-01

    The cancer/testis antigen NY-SAR-35 is aberrantly expressed in various cancer tissues and cancer cell lines but not in normal tissues except for the testis. A previous study demonstrated that the expression of NY-SAR-35 is activated by hypomethylation in cancer cells. However, the functions of this antigen remain unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the role of NY-SAR‑35 in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells using exogenous expression system of the gene. NY-SAR‑35 was predominantly expressed at the cytoplasm and was mainly observed in spermatogonia and spermatocytes. Expression of NY-SAR-35 in stable HEK293 transfectant clones was 2-fold higher than the control cells promoting cell growth and proliferation. NY-SAR-35 overexpression also enhanced cell migration and invasion ~2-fold and 4-fold more than the control, respectively. In contrast, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of NY-SAR-35 suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in HEK293 stable transfectants. We concluded that NY-SAR-35 as a cancer/testis antigen enhanced cell proliferation and invasion.

  3. Efficient functional coupling of the human D3 dopamine receptor to G(o) subtype of G proteins in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Zaworski, P G; Alberts, G L; Pregenzer, J F; Im, W B; Slightom, J L; Gill, G S

    1999-11-01

    1 The D3 dopamine receptor presumably activates Gi/Go subtypes of G-proteins, like the structurally analogous D2 receptor, but its signalling targets have not been clearly established due to weak functional signals from cloned receptors as heterologously expressed in mostly non-neuronal cell lines. 2 In this study, recombinant human D3 receptors expressed in a human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, produced much greater signals than those expressed in a human embryonic kidney cell line, HEK293. Quinpirole, a prototypic agonist, markedly inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production and Ca2+-channel (N-type) currents in SH-SY5Y cells, and enhanced GTPgamma35S binding in isolated membranes, nearly ten times greater than that observed in HEK293 cell membranes. 3 GTPgamma35S-bound Galpha subunits from quinpirole-activated and solubilized membranes were monitored upon immobilization with various Galpha-specific antibodies. Galphao subunits (not Galphai) were highly labelled with GTPgamma35S in SH-SY5Y, but not in HEK293 cell membranes, despite their abundance in the both cell types, as shown with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blots. N-type Ca2+ channels and adenylyl cyclase V (D3-specific effector), on the other hand, exist only in SH-SY5Y cells. 4 More efficient coupling of the D3 receptor to Go subtypes in SH-SY5Y than HEK293 cells may be attributed, at least in part, to the two D3 neuronal effectors only present in SH-SY5Y cells (N-type Ca2+-channels and adenylyl cyclase V). The abundance of Go subtypes in the both cell lines seems to indicate their availability not a limiting factor.

  4. Efficient functional coupling of the human D3 dopamine receptor to Go subtype of G proteins in SH-SY5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    Zaworski, Phillip G; Alberts, Glen L; Pregenzer, Jeffrey F; Im, Wha Bin; Slightom, Jerry L; Gill, Gurnam S

    1999-01-01

    The D3 dopamine receptor presumably activates Gi/Go subtypes of G-proteins, like the structurally analogous D2 receptor, but its signalling targets have not been clearly established due to weak functional signals from cloned receptors as heterologously expressed in mostly non-neuronal cell lines.In this study, recombinant human D3 receptors expressed in a human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, produced much greater signals than those expressed in a human embryonic kidney cell line, HEK293. Quinpirole, a prototypic agonist, markedly inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production and Ca2+-channel (N-type) currents in SH-SY5Y cells, and enhanced GTPγ35S binding in isolated membranes, nearly ten times greater than that observed in HEK293 cell membranes.GTPγ35S-bound Gα subunits from quinpirole-activated and solubilized membranes were monitored upon immobilization with various Gα-specific antibodies. Gαo subunits (not Gαi) were highly labelled with GTPγ35S in SH-SY5Y, but not in HEK293 cell membranes, despite their abundance in the both cell types, as shown with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blots. N-type Ca2+ channels and adenylyl cyclase V (D3-specific effector), on the other hand, exist only in SH-SY5Y cells.More efficient coupling of the D3 receptor to Go subtypes in SH-SY5Y than HEK293 cells may be attributed, at least in part, to the two D3 neuronal effectors only present in SH-SY5Y cells (N-type Ca2+-channels and adenylyl cyclase V). The abundance of Go subtypes in the both cell lines seems to indicate their availability not a limiting factor. PMID:10578130

  5. Activation of ERK and JNK signaling pathways by mycotoxin citrinin in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.-H.; Yu, F.-Y.; Wang, L.-T.; Lin, Y.-S.; Liu, B.-H.

    2009-06-15

    Mycotoxin citrinin (CTN) is commonly found in foods and feeds that are contaminated/inoculated with Penicillium, Aspergillus and Monascus species. The exposure of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and HeLa cells to CTN resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of two major mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), ERK1/2 and JNK. In HEK293 cultures, the administering of CTN increased both the mRNA and protein levels of egr-1, c-fos and c-jun genes; additionally, the ERK1/2 pathway contributed to the upregulation of Egr-1 and c-Fos protein expression. CTN treatment also induced the transcription activity of Egr-1 and AP-1 proteins, as evidenced by luciferase reporter assays. Bioinformatic analyses indicated two genes Gadd45{beta} and MMP3 have Egr-1 and AP-1 response elements in their promoters, respectively. Furthermore, co-exposure of HEK293 cells to CTN and MAPK pathway inhibitors demonstrated that CTN increased the levels of Gadd45{beta} mRNA through ERK1/2 signaling pathway and up-regulated the MMP3 transcripts majorly via JNK pathway. Finally, CTN-triggered caspase 3 activity was significantly reduced in the presence of MAPK inhibitors. Our results suggest that CTN positively regulates ERK1/2 and JNK pathways as well as their downstream effectors in human cells; activated MAPK pathways are also involved in CTN-induced apoptosis.

  6. Carboxylated nanodiamonds are neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic on liver, kidney, intestine and lung human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Paget, V; Sergent, J A; Grall, R; Altmeyer-Morel, S; Girard, H A; Petit, T; Gesset, C; Mermoux, M; Bergonzo, P; Arnault, J C; Chevillard, S

    2014-08-01

    Although nanodiamonds (NDs) appear as one of the most promising nanocarbon materials available so far for biomedical applications, their risk for human health remains unknown. Our work was aimed at defining the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of two sets of commercial carboxylated NDs with diameters below 20 and 100 nm, on six human cell lines chosen as representative of potential target organs: HepG2 and Hep3B (liver), Caki-1 and Hek-293 (kidney), HT29 (intestine) and A549 (lung). Cytotoxicity of NDs was assessed by measuring cell impedance (xCELLigence® system) and cell survival/death by flow cytometry while genotoxicity was assessed by γ-H2Ax foci detection, which is considered the most sensitive technique for studying DNA double-strand breaks. To validate and check the sensitivity of the techniques, aminated polystyrene nanobeads were used as positive control in all assays. Cell incorporation of NDs was also studied by flow cytometry and luminescent N-V center photoluminescence (confirmed by Raman microscopy), to ensure that nanoparticles entered the cells. Overall, we show that NDs effectively entered the cells but NDs do not induce any significant cytotoxic or genotoxic effects on the six cell lines up to an exposure dose of 250 µg/mL. Taken together these results strongly support the huge potential of NDs for human nanomedicine but also their potential as negative control in nanotoxicology studies.

  7. Development of a Recombinant Cell-Based Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay for the Determination of Autoantibodies against Soluble Liver Antigen in Autoimmune Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Radzimski, Christiane; Probst, Christian; Teegen, Bianca; Rentzsch, Kristin; Blöcker, Inga Madeleine; Dähnrich, Cornelia; Schlumberger, Wolfgang; Stöcker, Winfried; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Komorowski, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Autoantibodies against soluble liver antigen (SLA) are specific markers for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) type 1. In contrast to the determination of other AIH-associated autoantibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), detection of anti-SLA relied up to now on ELISA or immunoblot based on bacterially expressed recombinant protein. In order to develop a complementary IFA substrate, SLA isoform 1 was recombinantly produced in the human cell line HEK293 and controlled by a rabbit hyperimmune serum against SLA. The recombinant cells were used in IFA (RC-IFA) to analyze sera from 20 AIH patients with anti-SLA positivity predetermined by ELISA together with 80 controls (20 anti-SLA negative AIH, 15 primary biliary cirrhosis, 15 HCV, and 30 healthy blood donors). Using RC-IFA, anti-SLA was detected in all ELISA positive AIH sera but in none of the controls. Furthermore, a cytosolic fraction of HEK293 containing SLA was able to neutralize the autoantibodies in all positive sera in a dose-dependent manner. HEK293 cells expressing SLA are a valid substrate for the serodiagnosis of AIH relevant autoantibodies by IFA. In concert with cryosections of primate liver, rat kidney, rat liver, rat stomach, and HEp-2 cells, they enable the parallel determination of all autoantibodies associated with autoimmune liver diseases. PMID:23401700

  8. Development of a recombinant cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assay for the determination of autoantibodies against soluble liver antigen in autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Radzimski, Christiane; Probst, Christian; Teegen, Bianca; Rentzsch, Kristin; Blöcker, Inga Madeleine; Dähnrich, Cornelia; Schlumberger, Wolfgang; Stöcker, Winfried; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Komorowski, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Autoantibodies against soluble liver antigen (SLA) are specific markers for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) type 1. In contrast to the determination of other AIH-associated autoantibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), detection of anti-SLA relied up to now on ELISA or immunoblot based on bacterially expressed recombinant protein. In order to develop a complementary IFA substrate, SLA isoform 1 was recombinantly produced in the human cell line HEK293 and controlled by a rabbit hyperimmune serum against SLA. The recombinant cells were used in IFA (RC-IFA) to analyze sera from 20 AIH patients with anti-SLA positivity predetermined by ELISA together with 80 controls (20 anti-SLA negative AIH, 15 primary biliary cirrhosis, 15 HCV, and 30 healthy blood donors). Using RC-IFA, anti-SLA was detected in all ELISA positive AIH sera but in none of the controls. Furthermore, a cytosolic fraction of HEK293 containing SLA was able to neutralize the autoantibodies in all positive sera in a dose-dependent manner. HEK293 cells expressing SLA are a valid substrate for the serodiagnosis of AIH relevant autoantibodies by IFA. In concert with cryosections of primate liver, rat kidney, rat liver, rat stomach, and HEp-2 cells, they enable the parallel determination of all autoantibodies associated with autoimmune liver diseases.

  9. The regulatory role of nickel on H3K27 demethylase JMJD3 in kidney cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Yanmin; Zhang, Qiang; Fa, Pingping; Gui, Yaoting; Gao, Guoquan; Cai, Zhiming

    2016-07-01

    Nickel compounds are an important class of environmental pollutants and carcinogens. Chronic exposure to nickel compounds has been connected with increased risks of numerous cancers, including lung and kidney cancers. But the precise mechanism by which nickel compounds exert their carcinogenic properties is not completely understood. In this study, kidney cancer cells namely human embryonic kidney 293-containing SV40 large T-antigen (HEK293T) and 786-0 were incubated with various concentrations of nickel chloride for 24 h before analysing the expression of three histone H3K27 methylation-modifying enzymes and H3K27me3 using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Our results showed that incubation of nickel chloride upregulated the expression of H3K27me3 demethylase jumonji domain-containing protein 3 (JMJD3) in kidney cancer cells, which was accompanied by the reduction in the protein level of H3K27me3. Enhanced demethylation of H3K27me3 may represent a novel mechanism underlying the carcinogenicity of nickel compounds. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Deficiency of polycystic kidney disease-1 gene (PKD1) expression increases A(3) adenosine receptors in human renal cells: implications for cAMP-dependent signalling and proliferation of PKD1-mutated cystic cells.

    PubMed

    Aguiari, Gianluca; Varani, Katia; Bogo, Marco; Mangolini, Alessandra; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Durante, Chiara; Gessi, Stefania; Sacchetto, Valeria; Catizone, Luigi; Harris, Peter; Rizzuto, Rosario; Borea, Pier Andrea; Del Senno, Laura

    2009-06-01

    Cyst growth and expansion in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) has been attributed to numerous factors, including ATP, cAMP and adenosine signalling. Although the role of ATP and cAMP has been widely investigated in PKD1-deficient cells, no information is currently available on adenosine-mediated signalling. Here we investigate for the first time the impact of abnormalities of polycystin-1 (PC1) on the expression and functional activity of adenosine receptors, members of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Pharmacological, molecular and biochemical findings show that a siRNA-dependent PC1-depletion in HEK293 cells and a PKD1-nonsense mutation in cyst-derived cell lines result in increased expression of the A(3) adenosine receptor via an NFkB-dependent mechanism. Interestingly, A(3) adenosine receptor levels result higher in ADPKD than in normal renal tissues. Furthermore, the stimulation of this receptor subtype with the selective agonist Cl-IB-MECA causes a reduction in both cytosolic cAMP and cell proliferation in both PC1-deficient HEK293 cells and cystic cells. This reduction is associated with increased expression of p21(waf) and reduced activation not only of ERK1/2, but also of S6 kinase, the main target of mTOR signalling. In the light of these findings, the ability of Cl-IB-MECA to reduce disease progression in ADPKD should be further investigated. Moreover, our results suggest that NFkB, which is markedly activated in PC1-deficient and cystic cells, plays an important role in modulating A(3)AR expression in cystic cells.

  11. Effects of huperzine A on amyloid precursor protein processing and beta-amyloid generation in human embryonic kidney 293 APP Swedish mutant cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ying; Jiang, Liying; Lee, David Y W; Schachter, Steven C; Ma, Zhongze; Lemere, Cynthia A

    2006-09-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is cleaved enzymatically by nonamyloidogenic and amyloidogenic pathways. alpha-Secretase (alpha-secretase), cleaves APP within the beta-amyloid (Abeta) sequence, resulting in the release of a secreted fragment of APP (alphaAPPs) and precluding Abeta generation. In this study, we investigated the effects of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, huperzine A (Hup A), on APP processing and Abeta generation in human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with human APP bearing the Swedish mutation (HEK293 APPsw). Hup A dose dependently (0-10 microM) increased alphaAPPs release and membrane-coupled APP CTF-C83, suggesting increased APP metabolism toward the nonamyloidogenic alpha-secretase pathway. The metalloprotease inhibitor TAPI-2 inhibited the Hup A-induced increase in alphaAPPs release, further suggesting a modulatory effect of Hup A on alpha-secretase activity. The synthesis of full-length APP and cell viability were unchanged after Hup A incubation, whereas the level of Abeta(Total) was significantly decreased, suggesting an inhibitory effect of Hup A on Abeta production. Hup A-induced alphaAPPs release was significantly reduced by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors GF109203X and Calphostin C. These data, together with the finding that the PKCalpha level was enhanced prior to the increase of alphaAPPs secretion, indicate that PKC may be involved in Hup A-induced alphaAPPs secretion by HEK293 APPsw cells. Our data suggest alternative pharmacological mechanisms of Hup A relevant to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Single cell array impedance analysis in a microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altinagac, Emre; Taskin, Selen; Kizil, Huseyin

    2016-10-01

    Impedance analysis of single cells is presented in this paper. Following the separation of a target cell type by dielectrophoresis in our previous work, this paper focuses on capturing the cells as a single array and performing impedance analysis to point out the signature difference between each cell type. Lab-on-a-chip devices having a titanium interdigitated electrode layer on a glass substrate and a PDMS microchannel are fabricated to capture each cell in a single form and perform impedance analysis. HCT116 (homosapiens colon colorectal carcin) and HEK293 (human embryonic kidney) cells are used in our experiments.

  13. Electrophysiological characterization of ionic transport by the retinal exchanger expressed in human embryonic kidney cells.

    PubMed Central

    Navanglone, A; Rispoli, G; Gabellini, N; Carafoli, E

    1997-01-01

    The retinal Na+:Ca2+, K+exchanger cDNA was transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells by transfection with plasmid DNA. The correct targeting of the expressed protein to the plasma membrane was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. The reverse exchange offrent (Ca2+ imported per Na+ extruded) was measured in whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments after intracellular perfusion with Na+ (Na+i, 128 mM) and extracellular perfusion with Ca2+ (Ca2o+, 1 mM) and Ko+ (20 mM). As expected, the exchange current was suppressed by removing Ca2o+. Surprisingly, however, it was also abolished by increasing Na+o to almost abolish the Na+ gradient, and it was almost unaffected by the removal of Ko+. Apparently, then, at variance with the exchanger in the rod outer segment, the retinal exchanger expressed in 293 cells acts essentially as a Na+:Ca2+ exchanger and does not require K+ for its electrogenic activity. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9199770

  14. Cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity in human hepatocyte and embryonic kidney cells exposed to ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Rongfa; Kang, Tianshu; Lu, Fei; Zhang, Zhiguo; Shen, Haitao; Liu, Mingqi

    2012-10-01

    Traces of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) used may be found in the liver and kidney. The aim of this study is to determine the optimal viability assay for using with ZnO NPs and to assess their toxicity to human hepatocyte (L02) and human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Cellular morphology, mitochondrial function (MTT assay), and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were assessed under control and exposed to ZnO NPs conditions for 24 h. The results demonstrated that ZnO NPs lead to cellular morphological modifications, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cause reduction of SOD, depletion of GSH, and oxidative DNA damage. The exact mechanism behind ZnO NPs toxicity suggested that oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation played an important role in ZnO NPs-elicited cell membrane disruption, DNA damage, and subsequent cell death. Our preliminary data suggested that oxidative stress might contribute to ZnO NPs cytotoxicity.

  15. Expression of human oxoguanine glycosylase 1 or formamidopyrimidine glycosylase in human embryonic kidney 293 cells exacerbates methylmercury toxicity in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ondovcik, Stephanie L.; Preston, Thomas J.; McCallum, Gordon P.; Wells, Peter G.

    2013-08-15

    Exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) acutely at high levels, or via chronic low-level dietary exposure from daily fish consumption, can lead to adverse neurological effects in both the adult and developing conceptus. To determine the impact of variable DNA repair capacity, and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidatively damaged DNA in the mechanism of toxicity, transgenic human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells that stably express either human oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (hOgg1) or its bacterial homolog, formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg), which primarily repair the oxidative lesion 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), were used to assess the in vitro effects of MeHg. Western blotting confirmed the expression of hOgg1 or Fpg in both the nuclear and mitochondrial compartments of their respective cell lines. Following acute (1–2 h) incubations with 0–10 μM MeHg, concentration-dependent decreases in clonogenic survival and cell growth accompanied concentration-dependent increases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, ROS formation, 8-oxodG levels and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, consistent with the onset of cytotoxicity. Paradoxically, hOgg1- and Fpg-expressing HEK 293 cells were more sensitive than wild-type cells stably transfected with the empty vector control to MeHg across all cellular and biochemical parameters, exhibiting reduced clonogenic survival and cell growth, and increased LDH release and DNA damage. Accordingly, upregulation of specific components of the base excision repair (BER) pathway may prove deleterious potentially due to the absence of compensatory enhancement of downstream processes to repair toxic intermediary abasic sites. Thus, interindividual variability in DNA repair activity may constitute an important risk factor for environmentally-initiated, oxidatively damaged DNA and its pathological consequences. - Highlights: • hOgg1 and Fpg repair oxidatively damaged DNA. • hOgg1- and Fpg-expressing cells are more

  16. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Tasks were undertaken in support of two objectives. They are: (1) to carry out electrophoresis experiments on cells in microgravity; and (2) assess the feasibility of using purified kidney cells from embryonic kidney cultures as a source of important cell products. Investigations were carried out in the following areas: (1) ground based electrophoresis technology; (2) cell culture technology; (3) electrophoresis of cells; (4) urokinase assay research; (5) zero-g electrophoresis; and (6) flow cytometry.

  17. Towards an integrated device that utilizes adherent cells in a micro-free-flow electrophoresis chip to achieve separation and biosensing.

    PubMed

    Jezierski, Stefan; Klein, Anke S; Benz, Christian; Schaefer, Michael; Nagl, Stefan; Belder, Detlev

    2013-06-01

    We immobilized adherent human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells--which are able to trace adenosine triphosphate (ATP)--inside a microfluidic free-flow electrophoresis (μFFE) chip in order to develop an integrated device combining separation and biosensing capabilities. HEK 293 cells loaded with fluorescent calcium indicators were used as a model system to enable the spatially and temporally resolved detection of ATP. The local position of a 20 μM ATP stream was successfully visualized by these cells during free-flow electrophoresis, demonstrating the on-line detection capability of this technique towards native, unlabeled compounds.

  18. Mislocalization of prelamin A Tyr646Phe mutant to the nuclear pore complex in human embryonic kidney 293 cells

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yong; Garg, Abhimanyu; Agarwal, Anil K.

    2007-01-01

    Mature lamin A is formed after post-translational processing of prelamin A, which includes prenylation and carboxymethylation of cysteine 661 in the CAAX motif, followed by two proteolytic cleavages by zinc metalloprotease (ZMPSTE24). We expressed several prelamin A mutants, C661S (defective in prenylation), Y646F (designed to undergo prenylation but not second proteolytic cleavage), double mutant, Y646F/C661S and Y646X (mature lamin A), and the wild type construct in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Only the Y646F mutant co-localized with nuclear pore complex proteins, including Nup53 and Nup98, whereas the other mutants localized to the nuclear envelope rim. The cells expressing Y646F mutant also revealed abnormal nuclear morphology which was partially rescued with the farnesyl transferase inhibitors. These data suggest that the unprenylated prelamin A is not toxic to the cells. The toxicity of prenylated prelamin A may be due to its association and/or accumulation at the nuclear pore complex which could be partially reversed by farnesyl transferase inhibitors. PMID:17291448

  19. Mislocalization of prelamin A Tyr646Phe mutant to the nuclear pore complex in human embryonic kidney 293 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Yong; Garg, Abhimanyu; Agarwal, Anil K. . E-mail: anil.agarwal@utsouthwestern.edu

    2007-03-30

    Mature lamin A is formed after post-translational processing of prelamin A, which includes prenylation and carboxymethylation of cysteine 661 in the CaaX motif, followed by two proteolytic cleavages by zinc metalloprotease (ZMPSTE24). We expressed several prelamin A mutants, C661S (defective in prenylation), Y646F (designed to undergo prenylation but not second proteolytic cleavage), double mutant, Y646F/C661S and Y646X (mature lamin A), and the wild-type construct in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells. Only the Y646F mutant co-localized with nuclear pore complex proteins, including Nup53 and Nup98, whereas the other mutants localized to the nuclear envelope rim. The cells expressing Y646F mutant also revealed abnormal nuclear morphology which was partially rescued with the farnesyl transferase inhibitors. These data suggest that the unprenylated prelamin A is not toxic to the cells. The toxicity of prenylated prelamin A may be due to its association and/or accumulation at the nuclear pore complex which could be partially reversed by farnesyl transferase inhibitors.

  20. Melamine activates NFκB/COX-2/PGE2 pathway and increases NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages and human embryonic kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Fu-Chen; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Wu, Sing-Ru; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lo, Yi-Ching

    2013-09-01

    Melamine is a wildly used compound in manufactures of plastics and resins. A variety of toxic effects from melamine, including nephrolithiasis, chronic kidney inflammation, and bladder carcinoma, have been mentioned. Oxidative stress is considered to be an important pathogenic mechanism of kidney disease which may develop from an increasing free radical production through inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate melamine-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in macrophage-like cell line RAW 264.7 and human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293. Results indicated melamine activated nuclear factor (NF)-κB through increasing IκB-α degradation and NF-κB p65/p50 DNA-binding activity. In addition, melamine significantly increased COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Moreover, melamine activated NADPH oxidase (NOX), including NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4, accompanied with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, melamine-induced ROS production could be attenuated by apocynin, a NOX inhibitor. In conclusion, our findings suggest melamine increased inflammation and oxidative stress via activation of NF-κB/COX-2 and NOX/ROS pathway, and first revealed the critical role of NOX in melamine-induced ROS production, suggesting the potential of NOX inhibitor against melamine toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IN VITRO RADIOACTIVE IODIDE UPTAKE ASSAY (RAIU) WITH HUMAN NIS-EXPRESSING HEK293T-EPA CELL LINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many high-throughput screening (HTPS) assays are available in the US EPA ToxCast program for estrogen and androgen pathways; only a limited number of assays exist for thyroid pathways. One potential target of thyroid-disrupting chemicals is the active uptake of iodide into the t...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IN VITRO RADIOACTIVE IODIDE UPTAKE ASSAY (RAIU) WITH HUMAN NIS-EXPRESSING HEK293T-EPA CELL LINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many high-throughput screening (HTPS) assays are available in the US EPA ToxCast program for estrogen and androgen pathways; only a limited number of assays exist for thyroid pathways. One potential target of thyroid-disrupting chemicals is the active uptake of iodide into the t...

  3. Down-regulation of PKHD1 induces cell apoptosis through PI3K and NF-{kappa}B pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Liping; Wang, Shixuan; Hu, Chaofeng; Zhang, Xinzhou

    2011-04-15

    Mutations in PKHD1 (polycystic kidney and hepatic disease gene 1) gene cause the autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). Fibrocystin/polyductin (FPC), encoded by PKHD1, is a membrane-associated receptor-like protein. Although it is widely accepted that cystogenesis is mostly due to aberrant cell proliferation and apoptosis, it is still unclear how apoptosis is regulated. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship among apoptosis, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) in FPC knockdown kidney cells. We show that PKHD1-silenced HEK293 cells demonstrate a higher PI3K/Akt activity. Selective inhibition of PI3K/Akt using LY294002 or wortmannin in these cells increases serum starvation-induced HEK293 cell apoptosis with a concomitant decrease in cell proliferation and higher caspase-3 activity. PI3K/Akt inhibition also leads to increased NF-{kappa}B activity in these cells. We conclude that the PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in apoptotic function in PKHD1-silenced cells, and PI3K/Akt inhibition correlates with upregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. These observations provide a potential platform for determining FPC function and therapeutic investigation of ARPKD.

  4. IND2, a pyrimido[1”,2”:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline derivative, circumvents multi-drug resistance and causes apoptosis in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Lee, Crystal; Moore, Joshua; Mittal, Roopali; Suswam, Esther A.; Abbott, Kodye L; Pondugula, Satyanarayana R.; Manne, Upender; Narayanan, Narayanan K.; Trivedi, Piyush; Tiwari, Amit K.

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring condensed quinolines have anticancer properties. In efforts to find active analogues, we designed and synthesized eight polycyclic heterocycles with a pyrimido[1”,2”:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline framework (IND series). The compounds were evaluated for activity against colon (HCT-116 and S1-MI-80), prostate (PC3 and DU-145), breast (MCF-7 and MDAMB-231), ovarian (ov2008 and A2780), and hepatocellular (HepG2) cancer cells and against non-cancerous Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK), mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3), and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). IND-2, a 4-chloro-2-methyl pyrimido[1”,2”:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline, exhibited more than tenfold selectivity and potent cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells relative to the other cancer and non-cancer cells. With five additional colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, LS-180, LS-174, and LoVo), IND-2 had similar cytotoxicity and selectivity, and submicromolar concentrations caused changes in the morphology of HCT-116 and HCT-15 cells. IND-2 did not activate the transactivating function of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), indicating that it does not induce PXR-regulated ABCB1 or ABCG2 transporters. Indeed, IND-2 was not a substrate of ABCB1 or ABCG2, and it induced cytotoxicity in HEK293 cells overexpressing ABCB1 or ABCG2 to the same extent as in normal HEK293 cells. IND-2 was cytotoxic to resistant colon carcinoma S1-MI-80 cells, approximately three- and fivefold more than SN-38 and topotecan, respectively. In HCT-116 colon cancer cells, IND-2 produced concentration-dependent changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to apoptosis, and sub-micromolar concentrations caused chromosomal DNA fragmentation. These findings suggest that, by increasing apoptosis, IND-2 has potential therapeutic efficacy for colorectal cancer. PMID:25537531

  5. IND-2, a pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline derivative, circumvents multi-drug resistance and causes apoptosis in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Lee, Crystal; Moore, Joshua; Mittal, Roopali; Suswam, Esther A; Abbott, Kodye L; Pondugula, Satyanarayana R; Manne, Upender; Narayanan, Narayanan K; Trivedi, Piyush; Tiwari, Amit K

    2015-02-01

    Naturally occurring condensed quinolines have anticancer properties. In efforts to find active analogues, we designed and synthesized eight polycyclic heterocycles with a pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline framework (IND series). The compounds were evaluated for activity against colon (HCT-116 and S1-MI-80), prostate (PC3 and DU-145), breast (MCF-7 and MDAMB-231), ovarian (ov2008 and A2780), and hepatocellular (HepG2) cancer cells and against non-cancerous Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK), mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3), and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). IND-2, a 4-chloro-2-methyl pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline, exhibited more than ten-fold selectivity and potent cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells relative to the other cancer and non-cancer cells. With five additional colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, LS-180, LS-174, and LoVo), IND-2 had similar cytotoxicity and selectivity, and sub-micromolar concentrations caused changes in the morphology of HCT-116 and HCT-15 cells. IND-2 did not activate the transactivating function of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), indicating that it does not induce PXR-regulated ABCB1 or ABCG2 transporters. Indeed, IND-2 was not a substrate of ABCB1 or ABCG2, and it induced cytotoxicity in HEK293 cells overexpressing ABCB1 or ABCG2 to the same extent as in normal HEK293 cells. IND-2 was cytotoxic to resistant colon carcinoma S1-MI-80 cells, approximately three- and five-fold more than SN-38 and topotecan, respectively. In HCT-116 colon cancer cells, IND-2 produced concentration-dependent changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to apoptosis, and sub-micromolar concentrations caused chromosomal DNA fragmentation. These findings suggest that, by increasing apoptosis, IND-2 has potential therapeutic efficacy for colorectal cancer.

  6. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4) Controls Efflux Transport of Hesperetin Sulfates in Sulfotransferase 1A3-Overexpressing Human Embryonic Kidney 293 Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua; Wang, Xiao; Zhou, Xiaotong; Lu, Danyi; Ma, Zhiguo; Wu, Baojian

    2015-10-01

    Sulfonation is an important metabolic pathway for hesperetin. However, the mechanisms for the cellular disposition of hesperetin and its sulfate metabolites are not fully established. In this study, disposition of hesperetin via the sulfonation pathway was investigated using human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells overexpressing sulfotransferase 1A3. Two monosulfates, hesperetin-3'-O-sulfate (H-3'-S) and hesperetin-7-O-sulfate (H-7-S), were rapidly generated and excreted into the extracellular compartment upon incubation of the cells with hesperetin. Regiospecific sulfonation of hesperetin by the cell lysate followed the substrate inhibition kinetics (Vmax = 0.66 nmol/min per mg, Km = 12.9 μM, and Ksi= 58.1 μM for H-3'-S; Vmax = 0.29 nmol/min per mg, Km = 14.8 μM, and Ksi= 49.1 μM for H-7-S). The pan-multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) inhibitor MK-571 at 20 μM essentially abolished cellular excretion of both H-3'-S and H-7-S (the excretion activities were only 6% of the control), whereas the breast cancer resistance protein-selective inhibitor Ko143 had no effects on sulfate excretion. In addition, knockdown of MRP4 led to a substantial reduction (>47.1%; P < 0.01) in sulfate excretion. Further, H-3'-S and H-7-S were good substrates for transport by MRP4 according to the vesicular transport assay. Moreover, sulfonation of hesperetin and excretion of its metabolites were well characterized by a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model that integrated drug uptake and sulfonation with MRP4-mediated sulfate excretion. In conclusion, the exporter MRP4 controlled efflux transport of hesperetin sulfates in HEK293 cells. Due to significant expression in various organs/tissues (including the liver and kidney), MRP4 should be a determining factor for the elimination and body distribution of hesperetin sulfates. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. The first recombinant human coagulation factor VIII of human origin: human cell line and manufacturing characteristics.

    PubMed

    Casademunt, Elisabeth; Martinelle, Kristina; Jernberg, Mats; Winge, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Maya; Biesert, Lothar; Knaub, Sigurd; Walter, Olaf; Schröder, Carola

    2012-08-01

    Since the early 1990s, recombinant human clotting factor VIII (rhFVIII) produced in hamster cells has been available for haemophilia A treatment. However, the post-translational modifications of these proteins are not identical to those of native human FVIII, which may lead to immunogenic reactions and the development of inhibitors against rhFVIII. For the first time, rhFVIII produced in a human host cell line is available. We describe here the establishment of the first human production cell line for rhFVIII and the manufacturing process of this novel product. A human cell line expressing rhFVIII was derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 F cells transfected with an FVIII expression plasmid. No virus or virus-like particles could be detected following extensive testing. The stringently controlled production process is completely free from added materials of animal or human origin. Multistep purification employing a combination of filtration and chromatography steps ensures the efficient removal of impurities. Solvent/detergent treatment and a 20 nm pore size nanofiltration step, used for the first time in rhFVIII manufacturing, efficiently eliminate any hypothetically present viruses. In contrast to hamster cell-derived products, this rhFVIII product does not contain hamster-like epitopes, which might be expected to be immunogenic. HEK 293 F cells, whose parental cell line HEK 293 has been used by researchers for decades, are a suitable production cell line for rhFVIII and will help avoid immunogenic epitopes. A modern manufacturing process has been developed to ensure the highest level of purity and pathogen safety. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Toxicological impact of JWH-018 and its phase I metabolite N-(3-hydroxypentyl) on human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Couceiro, Joana; Bandarra, Susana; Sultan, Haider; Bell, Suzanne; Constantino, Susana; Quintas, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    The emergence and abuse of synthetic cannabinoids has been increasing as an alternative to cannabis, mainly among youth. As their appearance on the drug market has been recent, the pharmacological and toxicological profiles of these psychoactive substances are poorly understood. Current studies suggest that they have stronger effects compared to their natural alternatives and their metabolites retain affinity towards CB1 receptors in CNS. Since studies on its toxicological properties are scarce, the effects of the drug in human derived cell lines were investigated. The present study was designed to explore the toxicological impact of parent drug versus phase I metabolites of synthetic cannabinoids on human cells with and without CB1 receptor. The human cell line of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and human kidney cell line HEK-293T were exposed to JWH-018 and to its N-(3-hydroxypentyl) metabolite. Cell toxicity was evaluated using the MTT and LDH assay. Additionally, a dual staining methodology with fluorescent Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide was performed to address the question of whether JWH-018 N-(3-hydroxypentyl) metabolite is inducing cell death through apoptosis or necrosis, in HEK293T and SH-SY5Y cell lines. The obtained results show that JWH-018 does not cause a statistically significant decrease in cell viability, in contrast to its N-(3-hydroxypentyl) metabolite, which at ≥25μM causes a significant decrease in cell viability. Both cell lines are affected by JWH-018 metabolite. Our results point to higher toxicity of JWH-018 metabolite when compared to its parent drug, suggesting a non-CB1 receptor mediated toxicological mechanism. Comparing the results from Annexin V/PI with MTT and LDH assays of SH-SY5Y and HEK293T in the presence of the synthetic cannabinoid metabolite, emerges the picture that cellular viability decreases and associated death is occurring through necrosis.

  9. Camelid reporter gene imaging: a generic method for in vivo cell tracking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To combine the sensitivity of bioluminescent imaging (BLI) with the 3D and quantitative properties of pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/micro-computed tomography (CT) (phSPECT/micro-CT), we generated stable cell lines that express a yellow-fluorescent protein (YFP) and Gaussia luciferase (GLuc) fusion protein (YFP/GLuc). For in vivo phSPECT detection of this YFP/GLuc protein, a nanobody, targeted against yellow and green fluorescent proteins (anti-YFP-Nb), was site specifically labelled with 99mTc. Methods Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T) were cultured and passaged every 3 days. 10E5 cells were transduced with YFP/GLuc-containing vector: both membrane-targeted (MT-YFP/GLuc) and non-targeted (YFP/GLuc) fusion proteins were developed. These vectors were compared against a SKOV-3 cell line stably expressing green fluorescent-firefly luciferase (GFP/Fluc) and HEK293T cells expressing red fluorescent protein in combination with a Gaussia luciferase (Red/GLuc). Transduction efficiencies were scored by fluorescence microscopy, and transduced cells were enriched by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). GLuc and FLuc functionality was tested in vitro by list-mode BLI. Subsequently, cells were transplanted subcutaneously in athymic (nu/nu) mice (MT-YFP/GLuc: n = 4, YFP/GLuc: n = 6, GFP/FLuc: n = 6, Red/GLuc: n = 4). Labelling efficiency of anti-YFP-Nb was measured using instant thin layer chromatography. One week after transplantation, 99mTc-labelled anti-YFP-Nb was injected intravenously and pinhole (ph) SPECT/micro-CT was performed, followed by in vivo BLI. Results Cells showed high levels of fluorescence after transduction. The cells containing the MT-YFP/GLuc were positive on fluorescence microscopy, with the fluorescent signal confined to the cell membrane. After cell sorting, transduced cells were assayed by BLI and showed a significantly higher light output both in vitro and in vivo compared with non

  10. The cytoplasmic C-terminus of polycystin-1 increases cell proliferation in kidney epithelial cells through serum-activated and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent pathway(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Manzati, Elisa; Aguiari, Gianluca; Banzi, Manuela; Manzati, Michele; Selvatici, Rita; Falzarano, Sofia; Maestri, Iva; Pinton, Paolo; Rizzuto, Rosario; Senno, Laura del . E-mail: sen@unife.it

    2005-04-01

    Polycystin-1 (PC1) is a large transmembrane protein important in renal differentiation and defective in most cases of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a common cause of renal failure in adults. Although the genetic basis of ADPKD has been elucidated, molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for the dysregulation of epithelial cell growth in ADPKD cysts are still not well defined. We approached this issue by investigating the role of the carboxyl cytoplasmic domain of PC1 involved in signal transduction on the control of kidney cell proliferation. Therefore, we generated human HEK293 cells stably expressing the PC1 cytoplasmic tail as a membrane targeted TrkA-PC1 chimeric receptor protein (TrkPC1). We found that TrkPC1 increased cell proliferation through an increase in cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} levels and activation of PKC{alpha}, thereby upregulating D1 and D3 cyclin, downregulating p21{sup waf1} and p27{sup kip1} cyclin inhibitors, and thus inducing cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to the S phase. Interestingly, TrkPC1-dependent Ca{sup 2+} increase and PKC{alpha} activation are not constitutive, but require serum factor(s) as parallel component. In agreement with this observation, a significant increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed. Consistently, inhibitors specifically blocking either PKC{alpha} or ERK1/2 prevented the TrkPC1-dependent proliferation increase. NGF, the TrkA ligand, blocked this increase. We propose that in kidney epithelial cells the overexpression of PC1 C-terminus upregulates serum-evoked intracellular Ca{sup 2+} by counteracting the growth-suppression activity of endogenous PC1 and leading to an increase in cell proliferation.

  11. Heat shock proteins HSP70 and MRJ cooperatively regulate cell adhesion and migration through urokinase receptor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuli; Peng, Nana; Zhuang, Hongqin; Zhang, Di; Wang, Yao; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2014-08-30

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is an important regulator of ECM proteolysis, cell-ECM interactions and cell signaling. uPAR and heat shock proteins HSP70 and MRJ (DNAJB6) have been implicated in tumor growth and metastasis. We have reported recently that MRJ (DNAJB6, a heat shock protein) can interact with uPAR and enhance cell adhesion. Here, we identified another heat shock protein HSP70 as a novel uPAR-interacting protein. We performed co-immunoprecipitation in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 and colon cancer HCT116 cells as well as immunofluorence assays in HEK293 cells stably transfected with uPAR to investigate the association of suPAR with HSP70/MRJ. To understand the biological functions of the triple complex of suPAR/HSP70/MRJ, we determined whether HSP70 and/or MRJ regulated uPAR-mediated cell invasion, migration, adhesion to vitronectin and MAPK pathway in two pair of human tumor cells (uPAR negative HEK293 cells vs HEK293 cells stably transfected with uPAR and HCT116 cells stably transfected with antisense-uPAR vs HCT116 mock cells transfected with vector only) using transwell assay, wound healing assay, quantitative RT-PCR analyzing mmp2 and mmp9 transcription levels, cell adhesion assay and Western blotting assay. HSP70 and MRJ formed a triple complex with uPAR and over-expression of MRJ enhanced the interaction between HSP70 and uPAR, while knockdown of MRJ decreased soluble uPAR in HCT116 cells (P < 0.05) and reduced the formation of the triple complex, suggesting that MRJ may act as an uPAR-specific adaptor protein to link uPAR to HSP70. Further experiments showed that knockdown of HSP70 and/or MRJ by siRNA inhibited uPAR-mediated cell adhesion to vitronectin as well as suppressed cell invasion and migration. Knockdown of HSP70 and/or MRJ inhibited expression of invasion related genes mmp2 and mmp9. Finally, HSP70 and/or MRJ up-regulated phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and FAK suggesting MAPK pathway was involved

  12. Microfluidic immunomagnetic cell separation using integrated permanent micromagnets.

    PubMed

    Osman, O; Toru, S; Dumas-Bouchiat, F; Dempsey, N M; Haddour, N; Zanini, L-F; Buret, F; Reyne, G; Frénéa-Robin, M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to trap and sort labeled cells under flow conditions using a microfluidic device with an integrated flat micro-patterned hard magnetic film. The proposed technique is illustrated using a cell suspension containing a mixture of Jurkat cells and HEK (Human Embryonic Kidney) 293 cells. Prior to sorting experiments, the Jurkat cells were specifically labeled with immunomagnetic nanoparticles, while the HEK 293 cells were unlabeled. Droplet-based experiments demonstrated that the Jurkat cells were attracted to regions of maximum stray field flux density while the HEK 293 cells settled in random positions. When the mixture was passed through a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel containing integrated micromagnets, the labeled Jurkat cells were selectively trapped under fluid flow, while the HEK cells were eluted towards the device outlet. Increasing the flow rate produced a second eluate much enriched in Jurkat cells, as revealed by flow cytometry. The separation efficiency of this biocompatible, compact micro-fluidic separation chamber was compared with that obtained using two commercial magnetic cell separation kits.

  13. Microfluidic immunomagnetic cell separation using integrated permanent micromagnets

    PubMed Central

    Osman, O.; Toru, S.; Dumas-Bouchiat, F.; Dempsey, N. M.; Haddour, N.; Zanini, L.-F.; Buret, F.; Reyne, G.; Frénéa-Robin, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to trap and sort labeled cells under flow conditions using a microfluidic device with an integrated flat micro-patterned hard magnetic film. The proposed technique is illustrated using a cell suspension containing a mixture of Jurkat cells and HEK (Human Embryonic Kidney) 293 cells. Prior to sorting experiments, the Jurkat cells were specifically labeled with immunomagnetic nanoparticles, while the HEK 293 cells were unlabeled. Droplet-based experiments demonstrated that the Jurkat cells were attracted to regions of maximum stray field flux density while the HEK 293 cells settled in random positions. When the mixture was passed through a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel containing integrated micromagnets, the labeled Jurkat cells were selectively trapped under fluid flow, while the HEK cells were eluted towards the device outlet. Increasing the flow rate produced a second eluate much enriched in Jurkat cells, as revealed by flow cytometry. The separation efficiency of this biocompatible, compact micro-fluidic separation chamber was compared with that obtained using two commercial magnetic cell separation kits. PMID:24396526

  14. Kidney Cell Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated, ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry was provided and cells returned from space flight were analyzed. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. The protocol established and utilized is given.

  15. Acepromazine inhibits hERG potassium ion channels expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Young Shin; Lee, Hong Joon; Choi, Jin-Sung

    2017-01-01

    The effects of acepromazine on human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channels were investigated using whole-cell voltage-clamp technique in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells transfected with hERG. The hERG currents were recorded with or without acepromazine, and the steady-state and peak tail currents were analyzed for the evaluating the drug effects. Acepromazine inhibited the hERG currents in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 1.5 µM and Hill coefficient of 1.1. Acepromazine blocked hERG currents in a voltage-dependent manner between –40 and +10 mV. Before and after application of acepromazine, the half activation potentials of hERG currents changed to hyperpolarizing direction. Acepromazine blocked both the steady-state hERG currents by depolarizing pulse and the peak tail currents by repolarizing pulse; however, the extent of blocking by acepromazine in the repolarizing pulse was more profound than that in the depolarizing pulse, indicating that acepromazine has a high affinity for the open state of the channels, with a relatively lower affinity for the closed state of hERG channels. A fast application of acepromazine during the tail currents inhibited the open state of hERG channels in a concentration-dependent. The steady-state inactivation of hERG currents shifted to the hyperpolarized direction by acepromazine. These results suggest that acepromazine inhibits the hERG channels probably by an open- and inactivated-channel blocking mechanism. Regarding to the fact that the hERG channels are the potential target of drug-induced long QT syndrome, our results suggest that acepromazine can possibly induce a cardiac arrhythmia through the inhibition of hERG channels. PMID:28066143

  16. Functionomics of NCC mutations in Gitelman syndrome using a novel mammalian cell-based activity assay.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Flores, Marco A; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa; Verkaart, Sjoerd; Tutakhel, Omar A Z; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Blanchard, Anne; Treard, Cyrielle; Hoenderop, Joost G J; Bindels, René J M; Jeleń, Sabina

    2016-12-01

    Gitelman syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive salt-wasting tubular disorder resulting from loss-of-function mutations in the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC). Functional analysis of these mutations has been limited to the use of Xenopus laevis oocytes. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to analyze the functional consequences of NCC mutations in a mammalian cell-based assay, followed by analysis of mutated NCC protein expression as well as glycosylation and phosphorylation profiles using human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. NCC activity was assessed with a novel assay based on thiazide-sensitive iodide uptake in HEK293 cells expressing wild-type or mutant NCC (N59I, R83W, I360T, C421Y, G463R, G731R, L859P, or R861C). All mutations caused a significantly lower NCC activity. Immunoblot analysis of the HEK293 cells revealed that 1) all NCC mutants have decreased NCC protein expression; 2) mutant N59I, R83W, I360T, C421Y, G463R, and L859P have decreased NCC abundance at the plasma membrane; 3) mutants C421Y and L859P display impaired NCC glycosylation; and 4) mutants N59I, R83W, C421Y, C731R, and L859P show affected NCC phosphorylation. In conclusion, we developed a mammalian cell-based assay in which NCC activity assessment together with a profiling of mutated protein processing aid our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of the NCC mutations. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Mycoplasma Removal from Cell Culture Using Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hasebe, Akira; Ishikawa, Isao; Shamsul, Haque M.; Ohtani, Makoto; Segawa, Taku; Saeki, Ayumi; Tanizume, Naoho; Oouchi, Manabu; Okagami, Yoshihide; Okano, Teruo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the removal of mycoplasmas from contaminated cells. Background data: Mycoplasmas often contaminate cell cultures. The cell-contaminating mycoplasmas are removed by antibiotics, but the use of antibiotics usually induces antibiotic-resistant bacteria. aPDT is expected to be a possible alternative to antibiotic treatments for suppressing infections. Materials and Methods: Mycoplasma salivarium (Ms)-infected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells were irradiated using a red light-emitting diode (LED) in the presence of methylene blue (MB) as a photosensitizer. The Ms viable count was determined using culture on agar plates or using a mycoplasma detection kit. Results: aPDT performed using red LED irradiation was effective in decreasing live Ms in the presence of MB without damaging the HEK293 cells. aPDT removed live Ms from the infected cells after washing the cells with sterilized phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) to decrease the initial number of live Ms before aPDT. Conclusions: This study suggests that aPDT could remove mycoplasmas from contaminated cells. PMID:23402393

  18. Microcystin-LR induces anoikis resistance to the hepatocyte uptake transporter OATP1B3-expressing cell lines.

    PubMed

    Takano, Hiroyuki; Takumi, Shota; Ikema, Satoshi; Mizoue, Nozomi; Hotta, Yuki; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Komatsu, Masaharu

    2014-12-04

    Microcystin-LR is a cyclic peptide released by several bloom-forming cyanobacteria. Understanding the mechanism of microcystin-LR toxicity is important, because of the both potencies of its acute cytotoxicity and tumor-promoting activity in hepatocytes of animals and humans. Recently, we have reported that the expression of human hepatocyte uptake transporter OATP1B3 was critical for the selective uptake of microcystin-LR into hepatocytes and for induction of its fatal cytotoxicity. In this study, we demonstrated a novel function of microcystin-LR which induced bipotential changes including anoikis resistance and cytoskeleton reorganization to OATP1B3-transfected HEK293 cells (HEK293-OATP1B3). After exposure to microcystin-LR, HEK293-OATP1B3 cells were divided to the floating cells and remaining adherent cells. After collection and reseeding the floating cells into a fresh flask, cells were confluently proliferated (HEK293-OATP1B3-FL) under the microcystin-LR-free condition. Both the proliferated HEK293-OATP1B3-FL and remaining adherent HEK293-OATP1B3-AD cells changed the character with down- and up-regulation of E-cadherin, respectively. Additionally, these cells acquired resistance to microcystin-LR. These results suggest that microcystin-LR could be associated with not only tumor promotion, but also epithelial-mesenchymal transition-mediated cancer metastasis. Furthermore, microcystin-LR might induce the cytoskeleton reorganization be accompanied epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  19. Substrates and inhibitors display different sensitivity to expression level of the dopamine transporter in heterologously expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nianhang; Reith, Maarten E A

    2007-04-01

    The use of heterologous expression systems for studying dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) function has provided important information corroborating and complementing in situ obtained knowledge. Preliminary experiments with human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) heterologously expressing varying amounts of DAT suggested fluctuations in the potency of cocaine in inhibiting DA uptake and led to the present systematic assessment of the impact of the density of DAT on its function. Transiently expressing intact HEK293 cells, transfected with increasing amounts of DAT cDNA, displayed increasing levels of surface DAT, binding of the cocaine analog [(3)H]2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane ([(3)H]CFT), and uptake of [(3)H]DA, [(3)H]N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ([(3)H]MPP(+)), [(3)H]norepinephrine, and [(3)H]serotonin. However, the amount of DAT cDNA and the DAT expression level required to produce 50% of maximal activity was threefold higher for CFT binding than for DA uptake. Increased DAT expression was accompanied by weakened potency in inhibiting [(3)H]DA uptake for cocaine, CFT, benztropine, and its analog JHW025, GBR 12909 and mazindol; their potency in inhibiting [(3)H]CFT binding was unaffected. Inhibition of uptake by the substrates DA, m-tyramine, d-amphetamine, or MPP(+) was also unaffected. Increasing DAT in stably expressing HEK293 cells by stimulation of gene expression with sodium butyrate also decreased the uptake inhibitory potency of a number of the above blockers without affecting the interaction between substrates and DAT. The present results prompt discussion of models explaining how factors regulating DAT expression at the plasma membrane can regulate DAT function and pharmacology.

  20. Comparison of serum sensitivities of pseudotype retroviruses produced from newly established packaging cell lines of human and feline origins.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Rie; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Matsuura, Yoshiharu

    2004-01-01

    To apply retrovirus vectors for in vivo gene therapy in cats, it is necessary to develop vector systems that are not inactivated by cat serum. In this study, the retrovirus packaging cell lines 2SC-1 and AHCeB7 were newly established from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 and feline fibroblastic AH927 cells, respectively. Then the sensitivities of pseudotype viruses released from these cell lines to fresh sera from humans and cats were compared. Pseudotype viruses from the 2SC-1 cells were inactivated efficiently by cat serum but not by human serum. Pseudotype viruses from the AHCeB7 cells were also inactivated efficiently by human serum, however they were rather resistant to cat serum. When the xenoantigenicity of the cell lines was examined by flow cytometry, AH927 cells reacted with human serum, however, HEK293 cells did not react with cat serum. These results suggested that pseudotype viruses from 2SC-1 cells were inactivated by the fresh cat serum in an antibody-independent manner. Chelating experiments revealed that certain temperature-sensitive factor(s) other than complements might be involved in the inactivation. The usage of feline cells as packaging cells is suitable for in vivo gene therapy in cats.

  1. Cytotoxicity, intracellular localization and exocytosis of citrate capped and PEG functionalized gold nanoparticles in human hepatocyte and kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Tlotleng, Nonhlanhla; Vetten, Melissa A; Keter, Frankline K; Skepu, Amanda; Tshikhudo, Robert; Gulumian, Mary

    2016-08-01

    Surface-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are nanomaterials that hold promise in drug delivery applications. In this study, the cytotoxicity, uptake, intracellular localization, and the exocytosis of citrate-stabilized (Cit-AuNP) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified gold nanoparticles with the carboxyl (COOH) terminal functional group were assessed in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) and the human caucasian hepatocytes carcinoma (Hep G2) cell systems, representing two major accumulation sites for AuNPs. The zeta (ζ)-potential measurements confirmed the negative surface charge of the AuNPs in water and in cell growth medium. The transmission electron microscopy confirmed the size and morphology of the AuNPs. Both types of AuNPs were shown to induce cytotoxic effects in cells. The Hep G2 cells were more sensitive cell type, with the COOH-PEG-AuNPs inducing the highest toxicity at higher concentrations. Dark field microscopy and TEM images revealed that the AuNPs were internalized in cells, mostly as agglomerates. TEM micrographs further revealed that the AuNPs were confined as agglomerates inside vesicle-like compartments, likely to be endosomal and lysosomal structures as well as in the cytosol, mostly as individual particles. The AuNPs were shown to remain in cellular compartments for up to 3 weeks, but thereafter, clearance of the gold nanoparticles from the cells by exocytosis was evident. The results presented in this study may therefore give an indication on the fate of AuNPs on long-term exposure to cells and may also assist in safety evaluation of AuNPs.

  2. Proinflammatory response induced by Newcastle disease virus in tumor and normal cells

    PubMed Central

    Ginting, Teridah Ernala; Suryatenggara, Jeremiah; Christian, Salomo; Mathew, George

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the specific role of immune responses induced by lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) for its antitumor effect. Materials and methods NDV LaSota strain was used to infect the following human cells: non-small cell lung carcinoma (A549), glioblastoma (U87MG and T98G), mammary gland adenocarcinoma (MCF7 and MDA-MB-453), hepatocellular carcinoma (Huh7), transformed embryonic kidney cells (HEK293), primary monocytes, lung fibroblast (HF19), skin fibroblast (NB1RGB) and rat astroglia (RCR-1) at 0.001 multiplicity of infection. NDV-induced cytotoxicity and expression of proinflammatory cytokines were analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Results Tumor cells (A549, U87MG, T98G, Huh7, MDA-MB-453, and MCF7) showed viability of <44%, while normal cell lines HEK293, NB1RGB, and RCR-1 showed 84%, 73%, and 69% viability at 72 hours postinfection, respectively. Proinflammatory cytokine profiling showed that NDV mainly induced the secretion of interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-β, and IFN-λ in tumor cells and only IFN-λ in normal cells. In addition, NDV infection induced the production of interleukin (IL)-6 in most cells. Conclusion Our findings suggest a new perspective regarding the role of IFN-λ and IL-6 in the mechanism of tumor selectivity and oncolysis of NDV. PMID:28293547

  3. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A).

    PubMed

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita; Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga; Sukomon, Nattakan; Ungsupravate, Duangporn; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn; Noisakran, Sansanee; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-Thai

    2010-10-08

    Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl⁻) and bicarbonate (HCO₃⁻) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney α-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻ exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H+) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease--distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXØ motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1 trafficking of kidney α-intercalated cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gentiana asclepiadea protects human cells against oxidation DNA lesions.

    PubMed

    Hudecová, Alexandra; Hašplová, Katarína; Miadoková, Eva; Magdolenová, Zuzana; Rinna, Alessandra; Collins, Andrew R; Gálová, Eliška; Vaculčíková, Dagmar; Gregáň, Fridrich; Dušinská, Mária

    2012-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine whether the methanolic and aqueous extracts from the haulm and flower of Gentiana asclepiadea exhibited free radical scavenging and protective (antigenotoxic) effect against DNA oxidation induced by H(2)O(2) in human lymphocytes and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293). All four extracts exhibited high scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals at concentrations 2.5 and 25 mg ml(-1). The level of DNA damage was measured using the alkaline version of single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Challenge with H(2)O(2) shows that the pre-treatment of the cells with non-genotoxic doses of Gentiana extracts protected human DNA-either eliminated or significantly reduced H(2)O(2) induced DNA damage. The genotoxic activity of H(2)O(2) was most effectively decreased after 30 min of pre-incubation with 0.05 mg ml(-1) (range, 93.5%-96.3% of reduction in lymphocytes) and 0.25 mg ml(-1) (range, 59.5%-71.4% and 52.7%-66.4% of reduction in lymphocytes and HEK 293 cells, respectively) of G. asclepiadea extracts. These results suggest that the tested G. asclepiadea extracts could be considered as an effective natural antioxidant source.

  5. Regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2) deficiency accelerates the progression of kidney fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hee-Seong; Kim, Jee In; Noh, Mira; Rhee, Man Hee; Park, Kwon Moo

    2014-09-01

    The regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2) is a potent negative regulator of Gq protein signals including the angiotensin II (AngII)/AngII receptor signal, which plays a critical role in the progression of fibrosis. However, the role of RGS2 on the progression of kidney fibrosis has not been assessed. Here, we investigated the role of RGS2 in kidney fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in mice. UUO resulted in increased expression of RGS2 mRNA and protein in the kidney along with increases of AngII and its type 1 receptor (AT1R) signaling and fibrosis. Furthermore, UUO increased the levels of F4/80, Ly6G, myeloperoxidase, and CXCR4 in the kidneys. RGS2 deficiency significantly enhanced these changes in the kidney. RGS2 deletion in the bone marrow-derived cells by transplanting the bone marrow of RGS2 knock-out mice into wild type mice enhanced UUO-induced kidney fibrosis. Overexpression of RGS2 in HEK293 cells, a human embryonic kidney cell line, and RAW264.7 cells, a monocyte/macrophage line, inhibited the AngII-induced activation of ERK and increase of CXCR4 expression. These findings provide the first evidence that RGS2 negatively regulates the progression of kidney fibrosis following UUO, likely by suppressing fibrogenic and inflammatory responses through the inhibition of AngII/AT1R signaling.

  6. 1H HR-MAS NMR Based Metabolic Profiling of Cells in Response to Treatment with a Hexacationic Ruthenium Metallaprism as Potential Anticancer Drug

    PubMed Central

    Vermathen, Martina; Paul, Lydia E. H.; Diserens, Gaëlle

    2015-01-01

    1H high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy was applied in combination with multivariate statistical analyses to study the metabolic response of whole cells to the treatment with a hexacationic ruthenium metallaprism [1]6+ as potential anticancer drug. Human ovarian cancer cells (A2780), the corresponding cisplatin resistant cells (A2780cisR), and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) were each incubated for 24 h and 72 h with [1]6+ and compared to untreated cells. Different responses were obtained depending on the cell type and incubation time. Most pronounced changes were found for lipids, choline containing compounds, glutamate and glutathione, nucleotide sugars, lactate, and some amino acids. Possible contributions of these metabolites to physiologic processes are discussed. The time-dependent metabolic response patterns suggest that A2780 cells on one hand and HEK-293 cells and A2780cisR cells on the other hand may follow different cell death pathways and exist in different temporal stages thereof. PMID:26024484

  7. Imaging of nuclear factor κB activation induced by ionizing radiation in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells.

    PubMed

    Chishti, Arif Ali; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Hellweg, Christine E; Reitz, Günther

    2014-08-01

    Ionizing radiation modulates several signaling pathways resulting in transcription factor activation. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is one of the most important transcription factors that respond to changes in the environment of a mammalian cell. NF-κB plays a key role not only in inflammation and immune regulation but also in cellular radiation response. In response to DNA damage, NF-κB might inhibit apoptosis and promote carcinogenesis. Our previous studies showed that ionizing radiation is very effective in inducing biological damages. Therefore, it is important to understand the radiation-induced NF-κB signaling cascade. The current study aims to improve existing mammalian cell-based reporter assays for NF-κB activation by the use of DD-tdTomato which is a destabilized variant of red fluorescent protein tdTomato. It is demonstrated that exposure of recombinant human embryonic kidney cells (HEK/293 transfected with a reporter constructs containing NF-κB binding sites in its promoter) to ionizing radiation induces NF-κB-dependent DD-tdTomato expression. Using this reporter assays, NF-κB signaling in mammalian cells was monitored by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Activation of NF-κB by the canonical pathway was found to be quicker than by the genotoxin- and stress-induced pathway. X-rays activate NF-κB in HEK cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the extent of NF-κB activation is higher as compared to camptothecin.

  8. MDR1 transporter protects against paraquat-induced toxicity in human and mouse proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xia; Gibson, Christopher J; Yang, Ill; Buckley, Brian; Goedken, Michael J; Richardson, Jason R; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2014-10-01

    Paraquat is a herbicide that is highly toxic to the lungs and kidneys following acute exposures. Prior studies have demonstrated that the organic cation transporter 2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 contribute to the urinary secretion of paraquat in the kidneys. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1/Mdr1, ABCB1, or P-glycoprotein) also participates in the removal of paraquat from the kidneys and protects against renal injury. Paraquat transport and toxicity were quantified in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) that endogenously express MDR1, HEK293 cells overexpressing MDR1, and Mdr1a/1b knockout mice. In RPTEC cells, reduction of MDR1 activity using the antagonist PSC833 or siRNA transfection increased the cellular accumulation of paraquat by 50%. Reduced efflux of paraquat corresponded with enhanced cytotoxicity in PSC833-treated cells. Likewise, stable overexpression of the human MDR1 gene in HEK293 cells reduced intracellular levels of paraquat by 50%. In vivo studies assessed the renal accumulation and subsequent nephrotoxicity of paraquat (10 or 30 mg/kg ip) in wild-type and Mdr1a/1b knockout mice. At 4 h after paraquat treatment, renal concentrations of paraquat in the kidneys of Mdr1a/1b knockout mice were 750% higher than wild-type mice. By 72 h, paraquat-treated Mdr1a/1b knockout mice had more extensive tubular degeneration and significantly greater mRNA expression of kidney injury-responsive genes, including kidney injury molecule-1, lipocalin-2, and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, MDR1/Mdr1 participates in the elimination of paraquat from the kidneys and protects against subsequent toxicity.

  9. MDR1 Transporter Protects Against Paraquat-Induced Toxicity in Human and Mouse Proximal Tubule Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xia; Gibson, Christopher J.; Yang, Ill; Buckley, Brian; Goedken, Michael J.; Richardson, Jason R.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat is a herbicide that is highly toxic to the lungs and kidneys following acute exposures. Prior studies have demonstrated that the organic cation transporter 2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 contribute to the urinary secretion of paraquat in the kidneys. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1/Mdr1, ABCB1, or P-glycoprotein) also participates in the removal of paraquat from the kidneys and protects against renal injury. Paraquat transport and toxicity were quantified in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) that endogenously express MDR1, HEK293 cells overexpressing MDR1, and Mdr1a/1b knockout mice. In RPTEC cells, reduction of MDR1 activity using the antagonist PSC833 or siRNA transfection increased the cellular accumulation of paraquat by 50%. Reduced efflux of paraquat corresponded with enhanced cytotoxicity in PSC833-treated cells. Likewise, stable overexpression of the human MDR1 gene in HEK293 cells reduced intracellular levels of paraquat by 50%. In vivo studies assessed the renal accumulation and subsequent nephrotoxicity of paraquat (10 or 30 mg/kg ip) in wild-type and Mdr1a/1b knockout mice. At 4 h after paraquat treatment, renal concentrations of paraquat in the kidneys of Mdr1a/1b knockout mice were 750% higher than wild-type mice. By 72 h, paraquat-treated Mdr1a/1b knockout mice had more extensive tubular degeneration and significantly greater mRNA expression of kidney injury-responsive genes, including kidney injury molecule-1, lipocalin-2, and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, MDR1/Mdr1 participates in the elimination of paraquat from the kidneys and protects against subsequent toxicity. PMID:25015657

  10. Cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of the edible halophyte Sarcocornia perennis L. (swampfire) against lead-induced toxicity in renal cells.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Manel; Magné, Christian; Dauvergne, Xavier; Ksouri, Riadh; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Metges, Marie-Agnès Giroux; Talarmin, Hélène

    2013-09-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure is considered as a risk factor responsible for renal impairment in humans. On the other hand, the halophyte Sarcocornia perennis is a fresh vegetable crop suitable for leafy vegetable production. This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro protective activity of S. perennis against lead-induced damages in HEK293 kidney cells. Morphological and biochemical indicators were used to assess cytotoxicity and oxidative damages caused by Pb treatment on the cells. Our results showed that lead induced (1) a decrease in cell viability (MTT), (2) cell distortion and cohesion loss, (3) superoxide anion production and lipid peroxidation. Conversely, addition of S. perennis extract to the lead-containing medium alleviated every above syndrome. Thus, cell survival was increased and the production of reactive oxygen species caused by Pb treatment was inhibited. Taken together, our study revealed that S. perennis has potent cytoprotective effect against Pb-induced toxicity in HEK 293 cell. Such action would proceed through the decrease in ROS levels and resulting oxidative stress, which suggests a potential interest of this halophyte in the treatment of oxidative-stress related diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cell cycle regulatory effects of retinoic Acid and forskolin are mediated by the cyclin C gene.

    PubMed

    Makkonen, Katri M; Malinen, Marjo; Ropponen, Antti; Väisänen, Sami; Carlberg, Carsten

    2009-10-23

    As a partner of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 3, Cyclin C controls cellular proliferation and, together with CDK8, represses gene transcription. In this study, we showed that the highly expressed Cyclin C gene is a direct target of the nuclear hormone all-trans retinoic acid (RA) in HEK293 human embryonal kidney cells. The RA receptor (RAR) gamma associates with a Cyclin C promoter region containing two RAR binding sites. The Cyclin C gene also directly responds to the cAMP activator Forskolin via the transcription factor CREB1 (cAMP response element-binding protein 1), for which we identified four binding sites within the first 2250 bp of its promoter. RARgamma and CREB1 show functional convergence via the corepressor NCoR1, which controls in particular the Forskolin response of Cyclin C. The histone deacetylases 1, 5, 6, 7 and 11 are involved in the basal expression of Cyclin C, but in HEK293 and MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells the antiproliferative effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid) are not mediated by Cyclin C. However, cell cycle progressing effects of all-trans RA and Forskolin are dependent on Cyclin C expression levels. This suggests that the primary regulation of Cyclin C by all-trans RA and Forskolin mediates some of the cell cycle control actions of these compounds.

  12. Photostability of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots in living cells: the effect of photo-oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Chen, Ji-Yao; Guo, J.; Wang, C. C.; Yang, W. L.; Xu, L.; Wang, P. N.

    2006-05-01

    The photostability of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) in Euglena gracilis (EG 277) and human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells was studied. The photobleaching for the cellular QDs is dependent both on the irradiation power density and the QD local concentration. The photostability of cellular QDs is better than that of chlorophyll in EG 277 cells and of green fluorescence protein (GFP) in HEK 293 cells, and is much better than that of FITC when the local concentration of QDs is not too low. The photobleaching of cellular QDs was remarkably reduced in the nitrogen treated EG 277 cells, indicating that photobleaching in living cells mainly results from photo-oxidation. The effect of photo-oxidation on QD photobleaching was further confirmed by comparing the situations in oxygen treated and nitrogen treated QD aqueous solutions. The photobleaching rate is related to the irradiation power density and the local density of QDs. The higher irradiation power density and oxygen abundance and lower QD concentration will result in a higher photobleaching rate.

  13. Raman Spectroscopic Signature Markers of Dopamine-Human Dopamine Transporter Interaction in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Silwal, Achut Prasad; Yadav, Rajeev; Sprague, Jon E; Lu, H Peter

    2017-04-04

    Dopamine (DA) controls many psychological and behavioral activities in the central nervous system (CNS) through interactions with the human dopamine transporter (hDAT) and dopamine receptors. The roles of DA in the function of the CNS are affected by the targeted binding of drugs to hDAT; thus, hDAT plays a critical role in neurophysiology and neuropathophysiology. An effective experimental method is necessary to study the DA-hDAT interaction and effects of variety of drugs like psychostimulants and anti-depressants that are dependent on this interaction. In searching for obtaining and identifying the Raman spectral signatures, we have used surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to record SERS spectrum from DA, Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells (HEK293), hDAT-HEK293, DA-HEK293, and DA-hDAT-HEK293. We have demonstrated a specific 2D-distribution SERS spectral analytical approach to analyze DA-hDAT interaction. Our study shows that the Raman modes at 807, 839, 1076, 1090, 1538, and 1665 cm-1 are related to DA-hDAT interaction, where Raman shift at 807 and 1076 cm-1 are the signature marker for bound state of DA to probe DA-hDAT interaction. On the basis of density function theory (DFT) calculation, Raman shift of bound state of DA at 807 cm-1 is related to combination of bending modes α(C3-O10-H21), α(C2-O11-H22), α(C7-C8-H18), α(C6-C4-H13), α(C7-C8-H19), α(C7-C8-N9), and Raman shift at 1076 cm-1 is related to combination of bending modes α(H19-N9-C8), γ(N9-H19), γ(C8-H19), γ(N9-H20), γ(C8-H18), and α(C7-C8-H18). These findings demonstrate that protein-ligand interactions can be confirmed by probing change in Raman shift of ligand molecules, which could be crucial to understanding molecular interactions between neurotransmitters and their receptors or transporters.

  14. Spilanthol from Acmella Oleracea Lowers the Intracellular Levels of cAMP Impairing NKCC2 Phosphorylation and Water Channel AQP2 Membrane Expression in Mouse Kidney.

    PubMed

    Gerbino, Andrea; Schena, Giorgia; Milano, Serena; Milella, Luigi; Barbosa, Alan Franco; Armentano, Francesca; Procino, Giuseppe; Svelto, Maria; Carmosino, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Acmella oleracea is well recognized in Brazilian traditional medicine as diuretic, although few scientific data have been published to support this effect. Aim of this study was to determine the molecular effect of Acmella oleracea extract and its main alkylamide spilanthol on two major processes involved in the urine concentrating mechanism: Na-K-2Cl symporter (NKCC2) activity in the thick ascending limb and water channel aquaporin 2 accumulation at the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct cells. Phosphorylation of NKCC2 was evaluated as index of its activation by Western blotting. Rate of aquaporin 2 apical expression was analyzed by confocal laser microscopy. Spilanthol-induced intracellular signalling events were dissected by video-imaging experiments. Exposure to spilanthol reduced the basal phosphorylation level of NKCC2 both in freshly isolated mouse kidney slices and in NKCC2-expresing HEK293 cells. In addition, exposure to spilanthol strongly reduced both desmopressin and low Cl--dependent increase in NKCC2 phosphorylation in mouse kidney slices and NKCC2-expressing HEK293 cells, respectively. Similarly, spilanthol reduced both desmopressin- and forskolin-stimulated aquaporin 2 accumulation at the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct in mouse kidney slice and MCD4 cells, respectively. Of note, when orally administered, spilanthol induced a significant increase in both urine output and salt urinary excretion associated with a markedly reduced urine osmolality compared with control mice. Finally, at cellular level, spilanthol rapidly reduced or reversed basal and agonist-increased cAMP levels through a mechanism involving increases in intracellular [Ca2+]. In conclusion, spilanthol-induced inhibition of cAMP production negatively modulates urine-concentrating mechanisms thus holding great promise for its use as diuretic.

  15. Spilanthol from Acmella Oleracea Lowers the Intracellular Levels of cAMP Impairing NKCC2 Phosphorylation and Water Channel AQP2 Membrane Expression in Mouse Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Gerbino, Andrea; Schena, Giorgia; Milano, Serena; Milella, Luigi; Barbosa, Alan Franco; Armentano, Francesca; Procino, Giuseppe; Svelto, Maria; Carmosino, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Acmella oleracea is well recognized in Brazilian traditional medicine as diuretic, although few scientific data have been published to support this effect. Aim of this study was to determine the molecular effect of Acmella oleracea extract and its main alkylamide spilanthol on two major processes involved in the urine concentrating mechanism: Na-K-2Cl symporter (NKCC2) activity in the thick ascending limb and water channel aquaporin 2 accumulation at the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct cells. Phosphorylation of NKCC2 was evaluated as index of its activation by Western blotting. Rate of aquaporin 2 apical expression was analyzed by confocal laser microscopy. Spilanthol-induced intracellular signalling events were dissected by video-imaging experiments. Exposure to spilanthol reduced the basal phosphorylation level of NKCC2 both in freshly isolated mouse kidney slices and in NKCC2-expresing HEK293 cells. In addition, exposure to spilanthol strongly reduced both desmopressin and low Cl−-dependent increase in NKCC2 phosphorylation in mouse kidney slices and NKCC2-expressing HEK293 cells, respectively. Similarly, spilanthol reduced both desmopressin- and forskolin-stimulated aquaporin 2 accumulation at the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct in mouse kidney slice and MCD4 cells, respectively. Of note, when orally administered, spilanthol induced a significant increase in both urine output and salt urinary excretion associated with a markedly reduced urine osmolality compared with control mice. Finally, at cellular level, spilanthol rapidly reduced or reversed basal and agonist-increased cAMP levels through a mechanism involving increases in intracellular [Ca2+]. In conclusion, spilanthol-induced inhibition of cAMP production negatively modulates urine-concentrating mechanisms thus holding great promise for its use as diuretic. PMID:27213818

  16. Optimization of a quantitative PCR based method for plasmid copy number determination in human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fliedl, Lukas; Kast, Florian; Grillari, Johannes; Wieser, Matthias; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina

    2015-12-25

    Transient gene expression (TGE) is an essential tool for the production of recombinant proteins, especially in early drug discovery and development phases of biopharmaceuticals. The need for fast production of sufficient recombinant protein for initial tests has dramatically increased with increase in the identification of potential novel pharmaceutical targets. One of the critical factors for transient transfection is plasmid copy number (PCN), for which we here provide an optimized qPCR based protocol. Thereby, we show the loss of PCN during a typical batch process of HEK293 cells after transfection from 606,000 to 4560 copies per cell within 5 days. Finally two novel human kidney cell lines, RS and RPTEC/TERT1 were compared to HEK293 and proved competitive in terms of PCN and specific productivity. In conclusion, since trafficking and degradation of plasmid DNA is not fully understood yet, improved methods for analysis of PCN may contribute to design specific and more stable plasmids for high yield transient gene expression systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Number and brightness image analysis reveals ATF-induced dimerization kinetics of uPAR in the cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Hellriegel, Christian; Caiolfa, Valeria R; Corti, Valeria; Sidenius, Nicolai; Zamai, Moreno

    2011-09-01

    We studied the molecular forms of the GPI-anchored urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR-mEGFP) in the human embryo kidney (HEK293) cell membrane and demonstrated that the binding of the amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator is sufficient to induce the dimerization of the receptor. We followed the association kinetics and determined precisely the dimeric stoichiometry of uPAR-mEGFP complexes by applying number and brightness (N&B) image analysis. N&B is a novel fluctuation-based approach for measuring the molecular brightness of fluorophores in an image time sequence in live cells. Because N&B is very sensitive to long-term temporal fluctuations and photobleaching, we have introduced a filtering protocol that corrects for these important sources of error. Critical experimental parameters in N&B analysis are illustrated and analyzed by simulation studies. Control experiments are based on mEGFP-GPI, mEGFP-mEGFP-GPI, and mCherry-GPI, expressed in HEK293. This work provides a first direct demonstration of the dimerization of uPAR in live cells. We also provide the first methodological guide on N&B to discern minor changes in molecular composition such as those due to dimerization events, which are involved in fundamental cell signaling mechanisms.

  18. Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) induced calcium signals and cytotoxicity in two human cell lines: SY-5Y neuroblastoma and 293 embryonic kidney (HEK)

    SciTech Connect

    Florea, Ana-Maria; Splettstoesser, Frank; Buesselberg, Dietrich . E-mail: Dietrich.Buesselberg@uni-due.de

    2007-05-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has anticancer properties; however, its use also leads to neuro-, hepato- or nephro-toxicity, and therefore, it is important to understand the mechanism of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} toxicity. We studied As{sub 2}O{sub 3} influence on intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) homeostasis of human neuroblastoma SY-5Y and embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293).We also relate the As{sub 2}O{sub 3} induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} modifications with cytotoxicity. We used Ca{sup 2+} sensitive dyes (fluo-4 and rhod-2) combined with laser scanning microscopy or fluorescence activated cell sorting to measure Ca{sup 2+} changes during the application of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} and we approach evaluation of cytotoxicity. As{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1 {mu}M) increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in SY-5Y and HEK 293 cells. Three forms of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-elevations were found: (1) steady-state increases (2) transient [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-elevations and (3) Ca{sup 2+}-spikes. [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} modifications were independent from extracellular Ca{sup 2+} but dependent on internal calcium stores. The effect was not reversible. Inositol triphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and ryanodine (Ry) receptors are involved in regulation of signals induced by As{sub 2}O{sub 3}. 2-APB and dantrolene significantly reduced the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-rise (p < 0.001, t-test) but did not completely abolish [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-elevation or spiking. This indicates that other Ca{sup 2+} regulating mechanisms are involved. In cytotoxicity tests As{sub 2}O{sub 3} significantly reduced cell viability in both cell types. Staining with Hoechst 33342 showed occurrence of apoptosis and DNA damage. Our data suggest that [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} is an important messenger in As{sub 2}O{sub 3} induced cell death.

  19. Light-induced rapid Ca²⁺ response and MAPK phosphorylation in the cells heterologously expressing human OPN5.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takashi; Suzuki, Hirobumi; Takahashi, Takeo

    2014-06-19

    Molecular imaging is a powerful tool for investigating intracellular signalling, but it is difficult to acquire conventional fluorescence imaging from photoreceptive cells. Here we demonstrated that human opsin5 (OPN5) photoreceptor mediates light-induced Ca(2+) response in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro2a) cell lines using a luminescence imaging system with a fluorescent indicator and a newly synthesized bioluminescent indicator. Weak light fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging revealed rapid and transient light-stimulated Ca(2+) release from thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+) stores, whereas long-lasting Ca(2+) elevation was observed using a conventional fluorescence imaging system. Bioluminescence imaging also demonstrated that OPN5 activation in HEK293 cells induced a decrease in pertussis toxin-sensitive cAMP, confirming previous reports. In addition, ultraviolet radiation induced the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases when OPN5 was stimulated in Neuro2a cells. These findings suggest that the combination of these imaging approaches may provide a new means to investigate the physiological characteristics of photoreceptors.

  20. Magnetically driven spinning nanowires as effective materials for eradicating living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Daniel S.; Hopkins, Xiaoping; Kringel, Rosemarie; Park, Jungrae; Jeon, In Tak; Keun Kim, Young

    2012-04-01

    We present a method to inflame cells, in vitro, by applying an alternating current (ac) magnetic field to ferromagnetic nanowires (NWs) internalized by living cells. Nickel (Ni) NWs were internalized by human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293). The application of ac magnetic field to the cells induced spinning of the cells via the motion of internalized NWs. This resulted in cell death by physically causing damage. A study of the response of cytokine to cells with spinning NWs shows increased interleukin-6 effects when compared with responses from non-spinning cells. The spinning effect of cells caused by the application of magnetic field can be used to target and inflame the cells. Such experiments suggest the possibility of inflaming cells for the treatment of cancer.

  1. SET overexpression decreases cell detoxification efficiency: ALDH2 and GSTP1 are downregulated, DDR is impaired and DNA damage accumulates.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luciana O; Goto, Renata N; Pestana, Cezar R; Uyemura, Sérgio A; Gutkind, Silvio; Curti, Carlos; Leopoldino, Andréia M

    2012-12-01

    Alcohol and tobacco consumption are risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1) are important enzymes for cellular detoxification and low efficiencies are implicated in cancer. We assessed the potential role of SET protein overexpression, a histone acetylation modulator accumulated in HNSCC, in gene regulation and protein activity of ALDH2 and GSTP1. SET was knocked down in HN13, HN12 and Cal27, and overexpressed in HEK293 cells; ethanol and cisplatin were the chemical agents. Cells with SET overexpression (HEK293/SET, HN13 and HN12) showed lower ALDH2 and GSTP1 mRNA levels and trichostatin A increased them (real-time PCR). Ethanol upregulated GSTP1 and ALDH2 mRNAs, whereas cisplatin upregulated GSTP1 in HEK293 cells. SET-chromatin binding revealed SET interaction with ALDH2 and GSTP1 promoters, specifically via SET NAP domain; ethanol and cisplatin abolished SET binding. ALDH2 and GSTP1 efficiency was assessed by enzymatic and comet assay. A lower ALDH2 activity was associated with greater DNA damage (tail intensity) in HEK293/SET compared with HEK293 cells, whereas HN13/siSET showed ALDH2 activity higher than HN13 cells. HN13/siSET cells showed increased tail intensity. Cisplatin-induced DNA damage response showed negative relationship between SET overexpression and BRCA2 recruitment. SET downregulated repair genes ATM, BRCA1 and CHEK2 and upregulated TP53. Cisplatin-induced cell-cycle arrest occurred in G(0) /G(1) and S in HEK293 cells, whereas HEK293/SET showed G(2) /M stalling. Overall, cisplatin was more cytotoxic for HN13 than HN13/siSET cells. Our data suggest a role for SET in cellular detoxification, DNA damage response and genome integrity.

  2. A novel recombinant cell fluorescence biosensor based on toxicity of pathway for rapid and simple evaluation of DON and ZEN

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jian; Gu, Wenshu; Sun, Chao; Sun, Jiadi; Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2016-01-01

    During an exposure, humans and animals are most often exposed to a mixture rather than individual mycotoxins. In this study, a Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cell (HEK-293) fluorescence sensor was developed to detect and evaluate mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) compounds, produced by Fusarium culmorum that are common food contaminants. TRE-copGFP (green fluorescent protein) and ERE-TagRFP (red fluorescent protein) plasmids were constructed and cotransfected into HEK-293 cells through a highly efficient, lipid-mediated, DNA-transfection procedure. Results show that fluorescence intensity was proportional to DON and ZEN concentrations, ranging from 2 to 40 ng/mL and 10 to 100 ng/mL respectively, with a detection limit of 0.75 ng/mL and 3.2 ng/mL respectively. The EC50 of DON and ZEN are 30.13 ng/mL and 76.63 ng/mL respectively. Additionally, ZEN may have a synergistic effect on enhancing AP-1 activity of the toxicity pathway of DON. These data indicate the high sensitivity and effectiveness of our biosensor system in the evaluation of the combined toxicity of ZEN, DON and their derivatives. In addition, this approach is suitable for an early warning method for the detection of ZEN and DON family mycotoxins contamination without higher-priced, conventional analytical chemistry methods. PMID:27498557

  3. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B).

    PubMed

    Duangtum, Natapol; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-09-16

    Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of α-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange and the failure of proton (H(+)) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney α-intercalated cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genomic integration occurs in the packaging cell via unexported lentiviral precursors.

    PubMed

    Mosabbir, Abdullah Al; Truong, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    To use HIV-1 based lentivirus components to produce gene integration and the formation of a stable cell line in the packaging cell line without viral infection. A co-transfection of a Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) 293 packaging cell line with Gag-pol (GP) and a transfer vector, without the envelope vector, produces a stable cell line after 2 weeks of selection. Furthermore, a matrix protein deficient GP in the packaging vector enhances this integration. This supports that, in theory, unexported lentiviral cores produced within the packaging cell can infect itself without requiring the release of any lentiviral particles. If the packaging cell is also the target cell, then gene integration leading to a stable cell line can be accomplished without viral particle infection.

  5. P2X7 receptor activates multiple selective dye-permeation pathways in RAW 264.7 and human embryonic kidney 293 cells.

    PubMed

    Cankurtaran-Sayar, Serife; Sayar, Kemal; Ugur, Mehmet

    2009-12-01

    P2X7 receptor has gained an increasing importance as a drug target. One important response to P2X7 receptor stimulation is the uptake of large molecular weight tracers into cells. However, mechanism for this response is not understood clearly, but it is generally believed that a nonselective large pore protein forms this P2X7 receptor-activated permeability pathway. We examined human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells transfected with rat P2X7 receptors (HEK-rP2X7) and a macrophage derived cell line, RAW 264.7, that expresses an endogenous P2X7 receptor. We used confocal microscopy to investigate uptake of different types of dyes into these cells after ATP application. Stimulation of P2X7 receptors in HEK-rP2X7 cells activated two different dye uptake pathways. The first was permeable to the cationic fluorescent dyes YO-PRO-1 and TO-TO-1 but not to the anionic dyes lucifer yellow and calcein and did not require intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+](i)) increase to be activated. The second pathway permeated only lucifer yellow and was completely dependent on [Ca2+](i) for activation. In RAW 264.7 cells, P2X7 receptor stimulation activated uptake of ethidium, YO-PRO-1, TO-TO-1, lucifer yellow, and calcein. Again, two different permeation pathways were discerned in RAW 264.7 cells: one permeated only ethidium and the other one, only lucifer yellow. We did observed no clear [Ca2+](i) dependence for these permeation pathways. Our results demonstrate that instead of a single nonselective pore, P2X7 receptor seems to activate at least two permeation pathways, one for cationic and one for anionic dyes with different activation properties.

  6. Transient transfection of mammalian cells using a violet diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Mapa, Maria Leilani; Angus, Liselotte; Ploschner, Martin; Dholakia, Kishan; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate the first use of the violet diode laser for transient mammalian cell transfection. In contrast to previous studies, which showed the generation of stable cell lines over a few weeks, we develop a methodology to transiently transfect cells with an efficiency of up to ~40%. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells are exposed to a tightly focused 405-nm laser in the presence of plasmid DNA encoding for a mitochondrial targeted red fluorescent protein. We report transfection efficiencies as a function of laser power and exposure time for our system. We also show, for the first time, that a continuous wave laser source can be successfully applied to selective gene silencing experiments using small interfering RNA. This work is a major step towards an inexpensive and portable phototransfection system.

  7. STAT3 Potentiates SIAH-1 Mediated Proteasomal Degradation of β-Catenin in Human Embryonic Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Minkyung; Yi, Eun Hee; Kim, Byung-Hak; Shin, Jae-Cheon; Park, Jung Youl; Cho, Chung-Hyun; Park, Jong-Wan; Choi, Kang-Yell; Ye, Sang-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The β-catenin functions as an adhesion molecule and a component of the Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of the Wnt ligand, β-catenin is constantly phosphorylated, which designates it for degradation by the APC complex. This process is one of the key regulatory mechanisms of β-catenin. The level of β-catenin is also controlled by the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase SIAH-1 via a phosphorylation-independent degradation pathway. Similar to β-catenin, STAT3 is responsible for various cellular processes, such as survival, proliferation, and differentiation. However, little is known about how these molecules work together to regulate diverse cellular processes. In this study, we investigated the regulatory relationship between STAT3 and β-catenin in HEK293T cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that β-catenin-TCF-4 transcriptional activity was suppressed by phosphorylated STAT3; furthermore, STAT3 inactivation abolished this effect and elevated activated β-catenin levels. STAT3 also showed a strong interaction with SIAH-1, a regulator of active β-catenin via degradation, which stabilized SIAH-1 and increased its interaction with β-catenin. These results suggest that activated STAT3 regulates active β-catenin protein levels via stabilization of SIAH-1 and the subsequent ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of β-catenin in HEK293T cells. PMID:27871173

  8. Assessment of 0.5 T Static Field Exposure Effect on Yeast and HEK Cells Using Electrorotation

    PubMed Central

    El-Gaddar, Amal; Frénéa-Robin, M.; Voyer, D.; Aka, H.; Haddour, N.; Krähenbühl, L.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of a 0.5 T static magnetic field (SMF) on yeast and human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cell using electrorotation (ROT). Following 48 h exposition to the SMF, no difference was noted between ROT spectra of unexposed and exposed yeast cells, which extend previous reports on the absence of SMF effects on yeast. We also compared the ROT spectrum and the extracted electrical characteristics of HEK cells exposed during 72 h to a 0.5 T uniform static magnetic field with those of unexposed cells. SMF potential effects on HEK proliferation kinetics and cell morphology were also assessed by using the trypan blue exclusion method and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. At last, no significant differences were observed between control and exposed HEK cells concerning electrical properties, growth, and morphology. PMID:23601327

  9. Microfluidic chip-based synthesis of alginate microspheres for encapsulation of immortalized human cells

    PubMed Central

    Workman, V. L.; Dunnett, S. B.; Kille, P.; Palmer, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    Cellular transplantation is a promising technology with great clinical potential in regenerative medicine and disease management. However, effective control over patient immunological response is essential. The encapsulation of cells within hydrogel microspheres is an increasingly prevalent method for the protection of cellular grafts from immune rejection. Microfluidic “chip” reactors present elegant solutions to several capsule generation issues, including the requirement for intercapsule uniformity, high reproducibility, and sterile, good manufacturing practice compliance. This study presents a novel method for the on-chip production of stable, highly monodisperse alginate microspheres and demonstrates its utility in the encapsulation of an immortalized human-derived cell line. Four populations of immortalized human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) were encapsulated on chip within monodisperse alginate capsules. Cell viability measurements were recorded for each of the four encapsulated populations for 90 days. PMID:19693354

  10. A high-throughput three-dimensional cell migration assay for toxicity screening with mobile device-based macroscopic image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, David M.; Chen, Jianbo; Sing, David; Gage, Jacob A.; Haisler, William L.; Neeley, Shane K.; Raphael, Robert M.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Killian, T. C.; Tseng, Hubert; Souza, Glauco R.

    2013-10-01

    There is a growing demand for in vitro assays for toxicity screening in three-dimensional (3D) environments. In this study, 3D cell culture using magnetic levitation was used to create an assay in which cells were patterned into 3D rings that close over time. The rate of closure was determined from time-lapse images taken with a mobile device and related to drug concentration. Rings of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and tracheal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were tested with ibuprofen and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Ring closure correlated with the viability and migration of cells in two dimensions (2D). Images taken using a mobile device were similar in analysis to images taken with a microscope. Ring closure may serve as a promising label-free and quantitative assay for high-throughput in vivo toxicity in 3D cultures.

  11. A high-throughput three-dimensional cell migration assay for toxicity screening with mobile device-based macroscopic image analysis

    PubMed Central

    Timm, David M.; Chen, Jianbo; Sing, David; Gage, Jacob A.; Haisler, William L.; Neeley, Shane K.; Raphael, Robert M.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Killian, T. C.; Tseng, Hubert; Souza, Glauco R.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing demand for in vitro assays for toxicity screening in three-dimensional (3D) environments. In this study, 3D cell culture using magnetic levitation was used to create an assay in which cells were patterned into 3D rings that close over time. The rate of closure was determined from time-lapse images taken with a mobile device and related to drug concentration. Rings of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and tracheal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were tested with ibuprofen and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Ring closure correlated with the viability and migration of cells in two dimensions (2D). Images taken using a mobile device were similar in analysis to images taken with a microscope. Ring closure may serve as a promising label-free and quantitative assay for high-throughput in vivo toxicity in 3D cultures. PMID:24141454

  12. Polycystic kidney disease protein fibrocystin localizes to the mitotic spindle and regulates spindle bipolarity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Wu, Maoqing; Wang, Shixuan; Shah, Jagesh V; Wilson, Patricia D; Zhou, Jing

    2010-09-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a significant hereditary renal disease occurring in infancy and childhood, which presents with greatly enlarged echogenic kidneys, ultimately leading to renal insufficiency and end-stage renal disease. ARPKD is caused by mutations in a single gene PKHD1, which encodes fibrocystin/polyductin (FPC), a large single transmembrane protein generally known to be on the primary cilium, basal body and plasma membrane. Here, using our newly generated antibody raised against the entire C-terminal intracellular cytoplasmic domain (ICD) of FPC, as well as our previously well-characterized antibody against a peptide of ICD, we report for the first time that at least one isoform of FPC is localized to the centrosome and mitotic spindle of dividing cells in multiple cell lines, including MDCK, mIMCD3, LLC-PK1, HEK293, RCTEC and HFCT cells. Using short-hairpin-mediated RNA interference, we show that the inhibition of FPC function in MDCK and mIMCD3 cells leads to centrosome amplification, chromosome lagging and multipolar spindle formation. Consistent with our in vitro findings, we also observed centrosome amplification in the kidneys from human ARPKD patients. These findings demonstrate a novel function of FPC in centrosome duplication and mitotic spindle assembly during cell division. We propose that mitotic defects due to FPC dysfunction contribute to cystogenesis in ARPKD.

  13. Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer This page lists cancer drugs ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Afinitor (Everolimus) Aldesleukin Avastin (Bevacizumab) ...

  14. An efficient platform for screening expression and crystallization of glycoproteins produced in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeffrey E.; Fusco, Marnie L.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2010-01-01

    Glycoproteins mediate multiple, diverse and critical cellular functions, that are desirable to explore by structural analysis. However, structure determination of these molecules has been hindered by difficulties expressing milligram quantities of stable, homogeneous protein and in determining, which modifications will yield samples amenable to structural studies. We describe a platform proven effective for rapidly screening expression and crystallization of challenging glycoprotein targets produced in mammalian cells. Here, multiple glycoprotein constructs are produced in parallel by transient expression of adherent human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells and subsequently screened in small quantities for crystallization by microfluidic free interface diffusion. As a result, recombinant proteins are produced and processed in a native, mammalian environment and crystallization screening can be accomplished with as little as 65 μg of protein. Moreover, large numbers of constructs can be screened for expression and crystallization and scaled up for structural studies in a matter of five weeks. PMID:19373230

  15. Effect of Host Cells on Low- and Medium-Pressure UV Inactivation of Adenoviruses ▿

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huiling; Chu, Xiaona; Hu, Jiangyong

    2010-01-01

    UV disinfection is highly effective against most pathogens, with the exception of the adenoviruses (AD). To date, many studies have focused on low-pressure (LP) UV inactivation of AD, but little is known about the effect of medium-pressure (MP) UV inactivation of AD. Despite numerous studies of LP UV inactivation of AD, extreme variabilities in the LP UV dose requirements of AD had been observed because of differing experimental conditions used, such as the types of cell lines used for AD enumeration. This study therefore investigates the effect of three different host cell lines (PLC/PRF/5, human embryonic kidney 293 [HEK293], and XP17BE) on the LP and MP UV dose requirements of AD serotype 5 (AD5), AD40, and AD41 under similar experimental settings. Results showed that for 4-log inactivation of AD, LP UV and MP UV doses needed to be in the ranges of 123 to 182 mJ/cm2 and 65 to 90 mJ/cm2, respectively, when HEK293 and PLC/PRF/5 cells were used for enumeration. The UV doses required for MP UV inactivation of AD were significantly lower than those required for LP UV inactivation (P value < 0.05). When different cell lines were used for enumeration, UV dose requirements for AD differed. AD were portrayed to be most susceptible to UV (LP UV doses of <57 mJ/cm2 and MP UV doses of <42 mJ/cm2 for 4-log AD inactivation) when the XP17BE cells were used as the host cell. The use of different cell lines for AD enumeration affected LP UV dose results more significantly than MP UV dose results (P value < 0.05). Cell line variability factors for LP UV disinfection (CLLP) and MP UV disinfection (CLMP) for AD5, AD40, and AD41 enumerated with HEK293, PLC/PRF/5, and XP17BE cells were in the ranges of 1.0 to 3.2 and 1.0 to 2.5, respectively. PMID:20851976

  16. Clozapine protects PC-12 cells from death due to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide via a cell-type specific mechanism involving inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Magliaro, Brian C; Saldanha, Colin J

    2009-08-04

    Recent evidence suggests that some atypical antipsychotic drugs may protect against oxidative stress and consequent neurodegeneration by mechanisms that remain unclear. Using the neuron-like rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cell line, Clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine were tested for their ability to protect against cell death due to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). These drugs demonstrated significant protection of PC-12 cells, as measured by both the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrasodium bromide (MTT) and Alamar Blue cell viability assays. However, neither viability assay detected a protective effect of Clozapine on human embryonic kidney (HEK293), rat primary cortical neurons, or human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) exposed to H(2)O(2) treatment. The mechanism of protection involves a PC-12 cell-specific differential response to H(2)O(2) treatment vs. the other cell lines. Pre-treatment with 250 microM or 125 microM diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC), a superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor, unexpectedly showed protection of the PC-12 cells from H(2)O(2) treatment. Western blots revealed that Clozapine, N-desmethylclozapine, and DETC reduce the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) that is caused by H(2)O(2) exposure in PC-12 cells. In both HEK293 and SH-SY5Y cells, H(2)O(2) exposure did not increase ERK phosphorylation over control, demonstrating a different response to H(2)O(2) vs. PC-12 cells, and explaining why Clozapine could not protect these cells. Also, U0126, a specific MEK inhibitor, was able to protect PC-12 cells from H(2)O(2) exposure, showing that inhibiting ERK phosphorylation is sufficient to provide protection. Cumulatively, these results indicate that Clozapine, N-desmethylclozapine, DETC, and U0126 protect PC-12 cells by blocking the cell-type specific H(2)O(2) induced increase in ERK phosphorylation.

  17. Podocin localizes in the kidney to the slit diaphragm area.

    PubMed

    Roselli, Séverine; Gribouval, Olivier; Boute, Nicolas; Sich, Mireille; Benessy, France; Attié, Tania; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Antignac, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    We recently cloned a novel gene, NPHS2, involved in autosomal recessive steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. This gene encodes a novel podocyte protein, podocin. Given its similarity with the stomatin family proteins, podocin is predicted to be an integral membrane protein with a single membrane domain forming a hairpin-like structure placing both N- and C-termini in the cytosol. Here, we show by in situ hybridization, that during development, the NPHS2 transcript is first expressed in mesonephric podocytes from the S-shaped body and, later, in the metanephric kidney, in the future podocytes at the late S-shaped body stage. In the mature kidney, NPHS2 is exclusively expressed in the podocytes of mature glomeruli. We generated rabbit polyclonal antibodies against fusion proteins derived from the N- and the C-terminal regions of podocin which detected a single band of 49-kd in transfected HEK293 cell lysates by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. By immunohistology, podocin was detected in podocytes from the early capillary loop stage in the developing nephrons, and at the basal pole, along the GBM, in mature glomeruli. By electron microscopy, we demonstrate that podocin is facing the slit diaphragm with its two ends in the cytoplasm of the foot processes, in agreement with its predicted structure. Our results suggest that podocin could serve to anchor directly or indirectly components of the slit diaphragm to the cytoskeleton.

  18. Quercetin induces apoptosis by inhibiting MAPKs and TRPM7 channels in AGS cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Hee Jung; Lim, Bora; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Sung Young; So, Insuk; Kim, Byung Joo

    2014-06-01

    The worldwide incidence and mortality rate of gastric cancer remain high, and thus, novel treatment concepts are required. Quercetin, a bioflavonoid, has been proposed to have anti-cancer properties. The aim of this study was to determine the nature of the apoptotic mechanisms responsible for the effects of quercetin on AGS cells (a commonly used human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line). AGS cell viability was assessed by MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis, mitochondrial membrane depolarization was assessed, and caspase-3 was used to determine the involvement of apoptosis. Whole-cell configuration patch-clamp experiments were used to regulate the transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM)7 channels. To investigate the signaling pathway of quercetin-induced apoptosis in the AGS cells, western blot analysis and MTT assay were performed. Quercetin was found to induce the apoptosis of these cells, and this apoptosis was inhibited by SB203580 (a p38 kinase inhibitor), SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and PD98059 (an ERK inhibitor). In addition, quercetin inhibited TRPM7 currents in the AGS cells and in human embryo kidney (HEK)293 cells which overexpress TRPM7 channels. Furthermore, treatment with quercetin increased the apoptosis of HEK293 cells, which overexpress TRPM7, indicating that the upregulation of TRPM7 channels underlies quercetin-induced cell death. These results suggest that quercetin plays an important pathophysiological role in AGS cells through mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and TRPM7 channels, and that quercetin has potential as a pharmacological agent for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  19. Stem cells in kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Soler, María José; José Tomas, Ortiz-Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Circulating bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) seem to play a crucial role in both vasculogenesis and vascular homeostasis. Chronic kidney disease is a state of endothelial dysfunction, accelerated progression of atherosclerosis and high cardiovascular risk. As a consequence, cardiovascular disorders are the main cause of death in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It has been shown that patients with advanced renal failure have decreased number of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells and impaired EPCs function. Moreover, in kidney transplant patients, renal graft function significantly correlated with EPC number. The reduced number of EPCs in patients with ESRD has been ascribed to the uremia. Therefore, therapies that improve the uremic status in dialysis patients such as nocturnal hemodialysis are associated with restoration of impaired EPCs number and migratory function. In fact, some of the common treatments for patients with chronic kidney disease such as erythropoietin, statins and angiotensin II receptor antagonist increase the number of EPCs. Nowadays, there is growing evidence indicating that, under pathophysiological conditions, stem cells (SCs) derived from bone marrow are able to migrate in the injured kidney, and they seem to play a role in glomerular and tubular regeneration. After acute tubular renal injury, surviving tubular epithelial cells and putative renal stem cells proliferate and differentiate into tubular epithelial cells to promote structural and functional repair. Moreover, bone marrow stem cells, including hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells can also participate in the repair process by proliferation and differentiation into renal lineages. For instance, mesenchymal SCs have been shown to decrease inflammation and enhance renal regeneration. The administration of ex vivo expanded bone marrow-derived mesenchymal SCs have been proved to be beneficial in various experimental models of acute

  20. Kidney cell electrophoresis, continuing task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated to provide ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. Cells were prepared in suspension prior to flight in electrophoresis buffer and 10% calf serum. Electrophoretic separation proceeded in electrophoresis buffer without serum in the Continuous Flow Electrophoretic Separator, and fractions were collected into sample bags containing culture medium and concentrated serum. Fractions that yielded enough progeny cells were analyzed for morphology and electrophoretic mobility distributions. It is noted that the lowest mobility fraction studied produced higher mobility progeny while the other fractions produced progeny cells with mobilities related to the fractions from which they were collected.

  1. Kidney cell electrophoresis, continuing task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated to provide ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. Cells were prepared in suspension prior to flight in electrophoresis buffer and 10% calf serum. Electrophoretic separation proceeded in electrophoresis buffer without serum in the Continuous Flow Electrophoretic Separator, and fractions were collected into sample bags containing culture medium and concentrated serum. Fractions that yielded enough progeny cells were analyzed for morphology and electrophoretic mobility distributions. It is noted that the lowest mobility fraction studied produced higher mobility progeny while the other fractions produced progeny cells with mobilities related to the fractions from which they were collected.

  2. Anticancer Effects of Extracts from the Fruit of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) in Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K; Pachauri, S D; Khandelwal, K; Ahmad, H; Arya, A; Biala, P; Agrawal, S; Pandey, R R; Srivastava, A; Srivastav, A; Saxena, J K; Dwivedi, A K

    2016-03-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. (NONI) fruits have been used for thousands of years for the treatment of many health problems including cancer, cold, diabetes, flu, hypertension, and pain. Plant extracts have reported several therapeutic benefits, but extraction of individual compound from the extract often exhibits limited clinical utility as the synergistic effect of various natural ingredients gets lost. They generally constitute polyphenols and flavonoids. Studies have suggested that these phytochemicals, especially polyphenols, display high antioxidant properties, which help to reduce the risk of degenerative diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Several in-vitro and in-vivo studies have shown that Noni fruits have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-dementia, liver-protective, anticancer, analgesic, and immunomodulatory effects. Till date about 7 in vitro cancer studies have been done, but a detailed in vitro study including cell cycle and caspase activation assay on breast cancer cell line has not been done. In the present study different Noni fruit fractions have tested on cancer cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 (breast adenocarcinoma) and one non-cancer cell line HEK-293 (Human embryonic kidney). Out of which ethylacetate extract showed a higher order of in vitro anticancer activity profile. The ethylacetate extract strongly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and HEK-293 cell lines with IC50 values of 25, 35, 60 µg/ml respectively. The extract showed increase in apoptotic cells in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and arrested the cell cycle in the G1/S phase in MCF-7 and G0/G1 phase in MDA-MB-231 cells. Noni extract also decreases the intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Scalable recombinant adeno-associated virus production using recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 coinfection of suspension-adapted mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Darby L; Wang, Lijun; Niamke, Justine; Liu, Jilin; Kang, Wen; Scotti, Marina M; Ye, Guo-jie; Veres, Gabor; Knop, David R

    2009-08-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) production systems capable of meeting clinical or anticipated commercial-scale manufacturing needs have received relatively little scrutiny compared with the intense research activity afforded the in vivo and in vitro evaluation of rAAV for gene transfer. Previously we have reported a highly efficient recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (rHSV) complementation system for rAAV production in multiple adherent cell lines; however, production in a scalable format was not demonstrated. Here we report rAAV production by rHSV coinfection of baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells grown in suspension (sBHK cells), using two ICP27-deficient rHSV vectors, one harboring a transgene flanked by the AAV2 inverted terminal repeats and a second bearing the AAV rep2 and capX genes (where X is any rAAV serotype). The rHSV coinfection of sBHK cells produced similar rAAV1/AAT-specific yields (85,400 DNase-resistant particles [DRP]/cell) compared with coinfection of adherent HEK-293 cells (74,600 DRP/cell); however, sBHK cells permitted a 3-fold reduction in the rHSV-rep2/capX vector multiplicity of infection, grew faster than HEK-293 cells, retained specific yields (DRP/cell) at higher cell densities, and had a decreased virus production cycle. Furthermore, sBHK cells were able to produce AAV serotypes 1, 2, 5, and 8 at similar specific yields, using multiple therapeutic genes. rAAV1/AAT production in sBHK cells was scaled to 10-liter disposable bioreactors, using optimized spinner flask infection conditions, and resulted in average volumetric productivities as high as 2.4 x 10(14) DRP/liter.

  4. Single-Cell Analyses Reveal That KISS1R-Expressing Cells Undergo Sustained Kisspeptin-Induced Signaling That Is Dependent upon An Influx of Extracellular Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    Pampillo, Macarena; Min, Le; Kaiser, Ursula B.; Bhattacharya, Moshmi

    2012-01-01

    The kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) is a Gαq/11-coupled seven-transmembrane receptor activated by a group of peptides referred to as kisspeptins (Kps). The Kp/KISS1R signaling system is a powerful regulator of GnRH secretion, and inactivating mutations in this system are associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. A recent study revealed that Kp triggers prolonged signaling; not from the inability of the receptor to undergo rapid desensitization, but instead from the maintenance of a dynamic and active pool of KISS1R at the cell surface. To investigate this further, we hypothesized that if a dynamic pool of receptor is maintained at the cell surface for a protracted period, chronic Kp-10 treatment would trigger the sustained activation of Gαq/11 as evidenced through the prolonged activation of phospholipase C, protein kinase C, and prolonged mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. Through single-cell analyses, we tested our hypothesis in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and found that was indeed the case. We subsequently determined that prolonged KISS1R signaling was not a phenomenon specific to HEK 293 cells but is likely a conserved property of KISS1R-expressing cells because evidence of sustained KISS1R signaling was also observed in the GT1–7 GnRH neuronal and Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. While exploring the regulation of prolonged KISS1R signaling, we identified a critical role for extracellular Ca2+. We found that although free intracellular Ca2+, primarily derived from intracellular stores, was sufficient to trigger the acute activation of a major KISS1R secondary effector, protein kinase C, it was insufficient to sustain chronic KISS1R signaling; instead extracellular Ca2+ was absolutely required for this. PMID:23070548

  5. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A)

    SciTech Connect

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita; Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga; Sukomon, Nattakan; Ungsupravate, Duangporn; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn; Noisakran, Sansanee; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Trafficking defect of kAE1 is a cause of dRTA but trafficking pathway of kAE1 has not been clearly described. {yields} Adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) was firstly reported to interact with kAE1. {yields} The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. {yields} AP-1 mu1A knockdown showed a marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane and its accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum. {yields} AP-1 mu1A has a critical role in kAE1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl{sup -}) and bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1

  6. Medaka osmotic stress transcription factor 1b (Ostf1b/TSC22D3-2) triggers hyperosmotic responses of different ion transporters in medaka gill and human embryonic kidney cells via the JNK signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tse, William K F; Lai, K P; Takei, Y

    2011-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells undergo rapid regulatory processes to maintain cellular homeostasis upon osmotic stress. In fishes, gill epithelial cells play main roles in these processes. Although osmoregulatory functions of fish gills have been well studied, little is known about the underlying mechanisms, particularly the hypertonic-induced signalling pathways during osmotic stress. This study reports for the first time on the osmo-sensing signal cascade that related to the medaka osmotic stress transcription factor 1 (Ostf1), a hypertonic induced immediate early gene, under hypertonic stress. Quantitative real-time PCR showed the rapid increase of Ostf1 in gill after transfer of medaka from fresh water to 50% seawater; particularly Ostf1b whose mRNA expression increased to 4 folds at 0.5h and reached to 10 folds at 6h after the transfer. The in vivo knockdown of Ostf1b profoundly inhibited SEK and JNK phosphorylation, but not p38 and ERK phosphorylation in the medaka gill tissue. To further investigate the possible role of Ostf1b in the JNK pathway, Ostf1b was ectopically expressed in HEK293 cells. Results indicated that Ostf1b is a downstream target of SEK and JNK and exerts a positive feedback loop on the JNK signalling pathway via activation of GCK and/or MLK3 proteins. Additionally, MAPK inhibitors experiments suggested that activation of the JNK pathway by hypertonicity is involved in the maintenance of Ostf1b stability, which in turn provides continuous stimulation of GCK for JNK phosphorylation. Lastly, changes in transcription levels of different water/ion transporters were found in knockdown or ecoptic over-expression of Ostf1b in medaka gills and human embryonic kidney cells, suggesting the role of Ostf1b in modulation of critical water channel/ion transporters during osmotic stress.

  7. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)

    SciTech Connect

    Duangtum, Natapol; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). {yields} The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. {yields} The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. {yields} A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. {yields} KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of {alpha}-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange and the failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells.

  8. T cells and autoimmune kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Fueyo, Abel; Bradley, Sean J; Klatzmann, David; Tsokos, George C

    2017-03-13

    Glomerulonephritis is traditionally considered to result from the invasion of the kidney by autoantibodies and immune complexes from the circulation or following their formation in situ, and by cells of the innate and the adaptive immune system. The inflammatory response leads to the proliferation and dysfunction of cells of the glomerulus, and invasion of the interstitial space with immune cells, resulting in tubular cell malfunction and fibrosis. T cells are critical drivers of autoimmunity and related organ damage, by supporting B-cell differentiation and antibody production or by directly promoting inflammation and cytotoxicity against kidney resident cells. T cells might become activated by autoantigens in the periphery and become polarized to secrete inflammatory cytokines before entering the kidney where they have the opportunity to expand owing to the presence of costimulatory molecules and activating cytokines. Alternatively, naive T cells could enter the kidney where they become activated after encountering autoantigen and expand locally. As not all individuals with a peripheral autoimmune response to kidney antigens develop glomerulonephritis, the contribution of local kidney factors expressed or produced by kidney cells is probably of crucial importance. Improved understanding of the biochemistry and molecular biology of T cells in patients with glomerulonephritis offers unique opportunities for the recognition of treatment targets for autoimmune kidney disease.

  9. Number and brightness image analysis reveals ATF-induced dimerization kinetics of uPAR in the cell membrane

    PubMed Central

    Hellriegel, Christian; Caiolfa, Valeria R.; Corti, Valeria; Sidenius, Nicolai; Zamai, Moreno

    2011-01-01

    We studied the molecular forms of the GPI-anchored urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR-mEGFP) in the human embryo kidney (HEK293) cell membrane and demonstrated that the binding of the amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator is sufficient to induce the dimerization of the receptor. We followed the association kinetics and determined precisely the dimeric stoichiometry of uPAR-mEGFP complexes by applying number and brightness (N&B) image analysis. N&B is a novel fluctuation-based approach for measuring the molecular brightness of fluorophores in an image time sequence in live cells. Because N&B is very sensitive to long-term temporal fluctuations and photobleaching, we have introduced a filtering protocol that corrects for these important sources of error. Critical experimental parameters in N&B analysis are illustrated and analyzed by simulation studies. Control experiments are based on mEGFP-GPI, mEGFP-mEGFP-GPI, and mCherry-GPI, expressed in HEK293. This work provides a first direct demonstration of the dimerization of uPAR in live cells. We also provide the first methodological guide on N&B to discern minor changes in molecular composition such as those due to dimerization events, which are involved in fundamental cell signaling mechanisms.—Hellriegel, C., Caiolfa, V. R., Corti, V., Sidenius, N., Zamai, M. Number and brightness image analysis reveals ATF-induced dimerization kinetics of uPAR in the cell membrane. PMID:21602447

  10. Atrial fibrillation down-regulates renal neutral endopeptidase expression and induces profibrotic pathways in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Bukowska, Alicja; Lendeckel, Uwe; Krohn, Alexander; Keilhoff, Gerburg; ten Have, Sara; Neumann, Klaus Hinrich; Goette, Andreas

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that atrial fibrillation (AF) substantially influences microvascular flow in ventricular myocardium. This process may contribute to the occurrence of heart failure in AF. In general, development of heart failure and renal dysfunction go hand-in-hand causing systemic fluid overload and oedema. So far, it is unknown whether AF itself influences renal function. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of AF on renal gene expression in a closed chest rapid atrial pacing model. A total of 14 pigs were studied. In five pigs, rapid atrial pacing (AT) was performed for 7 h (600 bpm); in five additional animals, rapid atrial pacing was performed in the presence of irbesartan infusion (irbesartan group). Four pigs were instrumented without interventions (sham). After the pacing period, renal expression of collagen I alpha 1 and I alpha 3, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), neutral endopeptidase (NEP; the main enzyme involved in natriuretic protein metabolism), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) were determined by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. Functional in vitro experiments were performed using HEK-293 kidney cells. Renal mRNA expression of NEP was substantially down-regulated during AT (AT: 12.7 +/- 9.3% vs. sham: 100 +/- 43.4%; P < 0.01). Results at the mRNA level were confirmed at the protein level. Irbesartan therapy did not prevent down-regulation of NEP. In contrast, TGF-beta1 mRNA expression was up-regulated (AT: 208.5 +/- 79.3% vs. sham: 100 +/- 34.6% P< 0.05). Collagen and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression were not significantly altered by AT. HEK-293 cells were used to determine the potential humoral factors involved in down-regulation of NEP. Application of aldosterone, ANP, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and angiotensin peptides failed to cause down-regulation of renal NEP expression in vitro. AT reduces NEP expression and stimulates TGF-beta1 signalling in the kidneys. Thus, even brief episodes of

  11. Rapid Method To Determine Intracellular Drug Concentrations in Cellular Uptake Assays: Application to Metformin in Organic Cation Transporter 1-Transfected Human Embryonic Kidney 293 Cells.

    PubMed

    Chien, Huan-Chieh; Zur, Arik A; Maurer, Tristan S; Yee, Sook Wah; Tolsma, John; Jasper, Paul; Scott, Dennis O; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2016-03-01

    Because of the importance of intracellular unbound drug concentrations in the prediction of in vivo concentrations that are determinants of drug efficacy and toxicity, a number of assays have been developed to assess in vitro unbound concentrations of drugs. Here we present a rapid method to determine the intracellular unbound drug concentrations in cultured cells, and we apply the method along with a mechanistic model to predict concentrations of metformin in subcellular compartments of stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Intracellular space (ICS) was calculated by subtracting the [(3)H]-inulin distribution volume (extracellular space, ECS) from the [(14)C]-urea distribution volume (total water space, TWS). Values obtained for intracellular space (mean ± S.E.M.; μl/10(6) cells) of monolayers of HEK cells (HEK-empty vector [EV]) and cells overexpressing human organic cation transporter 1 (HEK-OCT1), 1.21± 0.07 and 1.25±0.06, respectively, were used to determine the intracellular metformin concentrations. After incubation of the cells with 5 µM metformin, the intracellular concentrations were 26.4 ± 7.8 μM and 268 ± 11.0 μM, respectively, in HEK-EV and HEK-OCT1. In addition, intracellular metformin concentrations were lower in high K(+) buffer (140 mM KCl) compared with normal K(+) buffer (5.4 mM KCl) in HEK-OCT1 cells (54.8 ± 3.8 μM and 198.1 ± 11.2 μM, respectively; P < 0.05). Our mechanistic model suggests that, depending on the credible range of assumed physiologic values, the positively charged metformin accumulates to particularly high levels in endoplasmic reticulum and/or mitochondria. This method together with the computational model can be used to determine intracellular unbound concentrations and to predict subcellular accumulation of drugs in other complex systems such as primary cells.

  12. Pharmacological regulation of insulin secretion in MIN6 cells through the fatty acid receptor GPR40: identification of agonist and antagonist small molecules.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Celia P; Peat, Andrew J; McKeown, Stephen C; Corbett, David F; Goetz, Aaron S; Littleton, Thomas R; McCoy, David C; Kenakin, Terry P; Andrews, John L; Ammala, Carina; Fornwald, James A; Ignar, Diane M; Jenkinson, Stephen

    2006-07-01

    1. Long chain fatty acids have recently been identified as agonists for the G protein-coupled receptors GPR40 and GPR120. Here, we present the first description of GW9508, a small-molecule agonist of the fatty acid receptors GPR40 and GPR120. In addition, we also describe the pharmacology of GW1100, a selective GPR40 antagonist. These molecules were used to further investigate the role of GPR40 in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the MIN6 mouse pancreatic beta-cell line. 2. GW9508 and linoleic acid both stimulated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells expressing GPR40 (pEC50 values of 7.32+/-0.03 and 5.65+/-0.06, respectively) or GPR120 (pEC50 values of 5.46+/-0.09 and 5.89+/-0.04, respectively), but not in the parent HEK-293 cell line. 3. GW1100 dose dependently inhibited GPR40-mediated Ca2+ elevations stimulated by GW9508 and linoleic acid (pIC50 values of 5.99+/-0.03 and 5.99+/-0.06, respectively). GW1100 had no effect on the GPR120-mediated stimulation of intracellular Ca2+ release produced by either GW9508 or linoleic acid. 4. GW9508 dose dependently potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in MIN6 cells, but not in primary rat or mouse islets. Furthermore, GW9508 was able to potentiate the KCl-mediated increase in insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. The effects of GW9508 on insulin secretion were reversed by GW1100, while linoleic acid-stimulated insulin secretion was partially attenuated by GW1100. 5. These results add further evidence to a link between GPR40 and the ability of fatty acids to acutely potentiate insulin secretion and demonstrate that small-molecule GPR40 agonists are glucose-sensitive insulin secretagogues.

  13. Prostaglandin H2 induces the migration of human eosinophils through the chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule of Th2 cells, CRTH2.

    PubMed

    Schuligoi, Rufina; Sedej, Miriam; Waldhoer, Maria; Vukoja, Anela; Sturm, Eva M; Lippe, Irmgard T; Peskar, Bernhard A; Heinemann, Akos

    2009-01-01

    The major mast cell product PGD2 is released during the allergic response and stimulates the chemotaxis of eosinophils, basophils, and Th2-type T lymphocytes. The chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule of Th2 cells (CRTH2) has been shown to mediate the chemotactic effect of PGD2. PGH2 is the common precursor of all PGs and is produced by several cells that express cyclooxygenases. In this study, we show that PGH2 selectively stimulates human peripheral blood eosinophils and basophils but not neutrophils, and this effect is prevented by the CRTH2 receptor antagonist (+)-3-[[(4-fluorophenyl)sulfonyl] methyl amino]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9H-carbazole-9-acetic acid (Cay10471) but not by the hematopoietic PGD synthase inhibitor 4-benzhydryloxy-1-[3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-propyl]piperidine (HQL79). In chemotaxis assays, eosinophils showed a pronounced migratory response toward PGH2, but eosinophil degranulation was inhibited by PGH2. Moreover, collagen-induced platelet aggregation was inhibited by PGH2 in platelet-rich plasma, which was abrogated in the presence of the D-type prostanoid (DP) receptor antagonist 3-[(2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-2,5-dioxo-1-(phenylmethyl)-4-imidazolidine-heptanoic acid (BWA868c). Each of these effects of PGH2 was enhanced in the presence of plasma and/or albumin. In eosinophils, PGH2-induced calcium ion (Ca2+) flux was subject to homologous desensitization with PGD2. Human embryo kidney (HEK)293 cells transfected with human CRTH2 or DP likewise responded with Ca2+ flux, and untransfected HEK293 cells showed no response. These data indicate that PGH2 causes activation of the PGD2 receptors CRTH2 and DP via a dual mechanism: by interacting directly with the receptors and/or by giving rise to PGD2 after catalytic conversion by plasma proteins.

  14. Peptide cotransporter 1 in intestine and organic anion transporters in kidney are targets of interaction between JBP485 and lisinopril in rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xinjin; Meng, Qiang; Liu, Qi; Wang, Changyuan; Mao, Qi; Sun, Huijun; Peng, Jinyong; Kaku, Taiichi; Liu, Kexin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the pharmacokinetic mechanism of interaction between JBP485 (cyclo-trans-4-L-hydroxyprolyl-L-serine, a dipeptide with antihepatitis activity) and lisinopril (an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) in vitro and in vivo. When JBP485 and lisinopril were administered orally simultaneously, the plasma concentrations of the two drugs were decreased significantly, but few changes were observed after simultaneous intravenous administration of the two drugs. The uptake of JBP485 and lisinopril in everted intestinal sacs and in HeLa cells transfected with human peptide cotransporter 1 (PEPT1), as well as absorption of JBP485 and lisinopril after jejunal perfusion were reduced after simultaneous drug administration, which suggested that the first target of drug interaction was PEPT1 in the intestine during the absorption process. The cumulative urinary excretions and renal clearance of the two drugs were decreased after intravenous co-administration, while uptakes of the two drugs in kidney slices and hOAT1/hOAT3-transfected HEK293 cells were decreased. These results indicated that the second target of drug-drug interaction was located in the kidney. These findings confirmed that the pharmacokinetic mechanism of interaction between JBP485 and lisinopril could be explained by their inhibition of the same transporters in the intestinal mucosa (PEPT1) and kidneys (OATs).

  15. De Novo Kidney Regeneration with Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yokote, Shinya; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Yokoo, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have reported on techniques to mobilize and activate endogenous stem-cells in injured kidneys or to introduce exogenous stem cells for tissue repair. Despite many recent advantages in renal regenerative therapy, chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality and the number of CKD patients has been increasing. When the sophisticated structure of the kidneys is totally disrupted by end stage renal disease (ESRD), traditional stem cell-based therapy is unable to completely regenerate the damaged tissue. This suggests that whole organ regeneration may be a promising therapeutic approach to alleviate patients with uncured CKD. We summarize here the potential of stem-cell-based therapy for injured tissue repair and de novo whole kidney regeneration. In addition, we describe the hurdles that must be overcome and possible applications of this approach in kidney regeneration. PMID:23251079

  16. Formation of newly synthesized adeno-associated virus capsids in the cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Bell, Peter; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Wilson, James M

    2014-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) particles inside the nucleus of a HEK 293 cell are shown by electron microscopy. Cells have been triple-transfected for vector production and were analyzed for capsid formation three days later. Newly assembled particle are visible as seemingly unstructured conglomerates or crystal-like arrays.

  17. Lysine biotinylation and methionine oxidation in the heat shock protein HSP60 synergize in the elimination of reactive oxygen species in human cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Malkaram, Sridhar A; Zhou, Jie; Zempleni, Janos

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that the number of proteins containing covalently bound biotin is larger than previously thought. Here, we report the identity of some of these proteins. Using mass spectrometry, we discovered 108 novel biotinylation sites in the human embryonic kidney HEK293 cell proteome; members of the heat shock protein (HSP) superfamily were overrepresented among the novel biotinylated proteins. About half of the biotinylated proteins also displayed various degrees of methionine oxidation, which is known to play an important role in the defense against reactive oxygen species; for biotinylated HSPs, the percent of methionine sulfoxidation approached 100%. Protein structure analysis suggests that methionine sulfoxides localize in close physical proximity to the biotinylated lysines on the protein surface. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that between one and five of the methionine residues in the C-terminal KEEKDPGMGAMGGMGGGMGGGMF motif are oxidized in HSP60. The likelihood of methionine sulfoxidation is higher if one of the adjacent lysine residues is biotinylated. Knockdown of HSP60 caused a 60% increase in the level of reactive oxygen species in fibroblasts cultured in biotin-sufficient medium. When HEK293 cells were transferred from biotin-sufficient medium to biotin-free medium, the level of reactive oxygen species increased by >9 times compared with baseline controls and a time-response relationship was evident. High levels of methionine sulfoxidation coincided with cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 and S phases in biotin-depleted cells. We conclude that biotinylation of lysines synergizes with sulfoxidation of methionines in heat shock proteins such as HSP60 in the defense against reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A DDB2 mutant protein unable to interact with PCNA promotes cell cycle progression of human transformed embryonic kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Perucca, Paola; Sommatis, Sabrina; Mocchi, Roberto; Prosperi, Ennio; Stivala, Lucia Anna; Cazzalini, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage binding protein 2 (DDB2) is a protein involved in the early step of DNA damage recognition of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) process. Recently, it has been suggested that DDB2 may play a role in DNA replication, based on its ability to promote cell proliferation. We have previously shown that DDB2 binds PCNA during NER, but also in the absence of DNA damage; however, whether and how this interaction influences cell proliferation is not known. In this study, we have addressed this question by using HEK293 cell clones stably expressing DDB2(Wt) protein, or a mutant form (DDB2(Mut)) unable to interact with PCNA. We report that overexpression of the DDB2(Mut) protein provides a proliferative advantage over the wild type form, by influencing cell cycle progression. In particular, an increase in the number of S-phase cells, together with a reduction in p21(CDKN1A) protein level, and a shorter cell cycle length, has been observed in the DDB2(Mut) cells. These results suggest that DDB2 influences cell cycle progression thanks to its interaction with PCNA.

  19. Stable transduction of bovine TLR4 and bovine MD-2 into LPS-nonresponsive cells and soluble CD14 promote the ability to respond to LPS.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Kay-Sara; Brcic, Marija; Franchini, Marco; Jungi, Thomas W

    2007-07-15

    The interaction of bovine cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was explored using human embryo kidney (HEK) 293 cell line stably transduced with bovine toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) alone or in combination with bovine MD-2. These lines and mock-transduced HEK293 cells were tested by flow cytometry for LPS-fluorescein isothiocyanate (LPS-FITC) binding, nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) activation, interleukin-8 (IL-8) production and interferon-beta mRNA expression/interferon (IFN) type I production. Whereas bovine TLR4 was sufficient to promote binding of high concentrations of LPS-FITC, both bovine TLR4 and MD-2 were required for activation by LPS, as assessed by NFkappaB activation and IL-8 production. Induction of IFN bioactivity was not observed in doubly transduced HEK293 cells, and no evidence for IFN-beta mRNA induction in response to LPS was obtained, although cells responded by IFN-beta mRNA expression to stimulation by Sendai virus and poly-inosinic acid-poly-cytidylic acid (poly(I:C)). Cells stably transduced with both bovine TLR4 and bovine MD-2 responded to LPS by IL-8 production, in decreasing order, in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FCS), of human serum, and of human serum albumin (HSA). The reduced activity in the presence of HSA could be restored by the addition of soluble CD14 (sCD14) but not of LPS binding protein (LBP). This is in contrast to macrophages which show a superior response to LPS in the presence of HSA when compared with macrophages stimulated by LPS in the presence of FCS. This suggests that macrophages but not HEK293 cells express factors rendering LPS stimulation serum-independent. Stably double-transduced cells reacted, in decreasing order, to LPS from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, to LPS from Escherichia coli, to synthetic lipd-IVa (compound 406), to diphosphoryl-lipid-A (S. minnesota) and to monophosphoryl-lipid-A (S. minnesota). They failed to react to the murine MD-2/TLR4 ligand taxol. This resembles the reactivity of bovine

  20. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from living cells: from differentiating healthy and cancerous cell to cytotoxicity assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuku, Gamze; Sarıçam, Melike; Mert, Sevda; ćulha, Mustafa

    2015-05-01

    There is an ongoing effort to obtain molecular level information from living cells using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) not only to understand changes of cellular processes upon exposure to external stimuli but also to decide the status of cells; whether they are healthy or abnormal. In our research effort, we investigate how much information can be obtained from living cells to use for decision making about the cellular processes using SERS. The undertaken studies include cytotoxicity assessment of the nanomaterials and differentiation of the healthy and cancer cells. In the first case, A549 (lung cancer) and HDF (human dermal fibroblast) cells were incubated with 50 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and exposed to three different nanoparticles (Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)) to perform SERS analysis and track the cellular response to these nanomaterials (NMs). After the principal component analysis on the spectral data, it was shown that the NPs exposed samples could be differentiated through SERS. In the second case, SERS spectra obtained from human kidney adenocarcinoma (ACHN), human kidney carcinoma (A-498) and non-cancerous human kidney embryonic cells (HEK 293) were used to diagnose metastatic, primary and non-cancerous cell lines. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based on principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to collected multidimensional SERS spectral data set to differentiate three different cell lines.

  1. Paraoxonase 2 Serves a Proapopotic Function in Mouse and Human Cells in Response to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum-sensing Molecule N-(3-Oxododecanoyl)-homoserine Lactone*

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzer, Christian; Fu, Zhu; Morita, Takeshi; Whitt, Aaron G.; Neely, Aaron M.; Li, Chi; Machen, Terry E.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa use quorum-sensing molecules, including N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12), for intercellular communication. C12 activated apoptosis in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) from both wild type (WT) and Bax/Bak double knock-out mice (WT MEF and DKO MEF that were responsive to C12, DKOR MEF): nuclei fragmented; mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψmito) depolarized; Ca2+ was released from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), increasing cytosolic [Ca2+] (Cacyto); and caspase 3/7 was activated. DKOR MEF had been isolated from a nonclonal pool of DKO MEF that were non-responsive to C12 (DKONR MEF). RNAseq analysis, quantitative PCR, and Western blots showed that WT and DKOR MEF both expressed genes associated with cancer, including paraoxonase 2 (PON2), whereas DKONR MEF expressed little PON2. Adenovirus-mediated expression of human PON2 in DKONR MEF rendered them responsive to C12: Δψmito depolarized, Cacyto increased, and caspase 3/7 activated. Human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells expressed low levels of endogenous PON2, and these cells were also less responsive to C12. Overexpression of PON2, but not PON2-H114Q (no lactonase activity) in HEK293T cells caused them to become sensitive to C12. Because [C12] may reach high levels in biofilms in lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, PON2 lactonase activity may control Δψmito, Ca2+ release from the ER, and apoptosis in CF airway epithelia. Coupled with previous data, these results also indicate that PON2 uses its lactonase activity to prevent Bax- and Bak-dependent apoptosis in response to common proapoptotic drugs like doxorubicin and staurosporine, but activates Bax- and Bak-independent apoptosis in response to C12. PMID:25627690

  2. Planar cell polarity of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Ulrike; Carroll, Thomas J

    2016-05-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) or tissue polarity refers to the polarization of tissues perpendicular to the apical-basal axis. Most epithelia, including the vertebrate kidney, show signs of planar polarity. In the kidney, defects in planar polarity are attributed to several disease states including multiple forms of cystic kidney disease. Indeed, planar cell polarity has been shown to be essential for several cellular processes that appear to be necessary for establishing and maintaining tubule diameter. However, uncovering the genetic mechanisms underlying PCP in the kidney has been complicated as the roles of many of the main players are not conserved in flies and vice versa. Here, we review a number of cellular and molecular processes that can affect PCP of the kidney with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms that do not appear to be conserved in flies or that are not part of canonical determinants.

  3. The novel putative bile acid transporter SLC10A5 is highly expressed in liver and kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Carla F.; Godoy, Jose R.; Doering, Barbara; Cavalcanti, Marcia C.O.; Bergmann, Martin; Petzinger, Ernst; Geyer, Joachim . E-mail: Joachim.M.Geyer@vetmed.uni-giessen.de

    2007-09-14

    Here we report the identification, cloning, and characterization of SLC10A5, which is a new member of Solute Carrier Family 10 (SLC10), also known as the 'sodium/bile acid cotransporter family'. Expression of SLC10A5/Slc10a5 was examined by quantitative real-time PCR and revealed its highest expression levels in liver and kidney in humans, rat and mouse. In rat liver and kidney, Slc10a5 expression was localized by in situ hybridization to hepatocytes and proximal tubules, respectively. A SLC10A5-FLAG fusion protein was expressed in HEK293 cells and showed an apparent molecular weight of 42 kDa after immunoprecipitation. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, the SLC10A5-FLAG protein was detected in the oocyte's plasma membrane but showed no transport activity for taurocholate, cholate, estrone-3-sulfate, or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. As bile acid carriers are the most related carriers to SLC10A5 though, we strongly suppose that SLC10A5 is an orphan carrier with yet non-identified substrates.

  4. Interaction between Tbx1 and Hoxd10 and connection with TGFβ-BMP signal pathway during kidney development.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yu; Li, Fei; Zhao, Diana Yue; Zhang, Jing-Shu; Lv, Yuan; Li-Ling, Jesse

    2014-02-15

    Renal malformations are commonly found among patients carrying a 22q11 deletion which renders loss of Tbx1 gene, an important transcriptional factor implicated in a number of developmental processes. Smad1 is known to interact with Tbx1, but the exact mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we have measured the expression of Tbx1 in both murine and human tissues using RT-PCR, and analyzed its protein product and protein-protein interactions with Western blotting and immunoprecipitation assays. Precipitated proteins were verified with mass spectrometry. As discovered, Tbx1 binds with Hoxd10. Tbx1 and Hoxd10 genes also have similar expression profiles during murine kidney development. Based on homology between mouse and human, we hypothesized that such interaction also exists in human. Through a RNA interference experiment using a human embryonic kidney HEK293 cell line, we demonstrated that TBX1 can alter TGF-β/BMP, an important signaling pathway, through interacting with HOXD10. Above findings may shed light on the mechanism of TBX1 mutations leading to renal malformations found in patients carrying a 22q11 deletion.

  5. Planar cell polarity and the kidney.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Helen

    2009-10-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is a form of spatial organization in tissue that was first described in Drosophila melanogaster. PCP plays a critical conserved role in several aspects of mammalian development. Exciting data implicate PCP in normal kidney development and suggest the loss of oriented cell division and convergent extension downstream of defective PCP signaling lead to cystic kidney disease in mouse models. In this review, I first cover the current knowledge of PCP signaling in invertebrate and vertebrate models and then explore how loss of PCP might underlie some forms of cystic kidney disease.

  6. Directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells to kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Lam, Albert Q; Freedman, Benjamin S; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2014-07-01

    Regenerative medicine affords a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease. Nephron progenitor cell populations exist only during embryonic kidney development. Understanding the mechanisms by which these populations arise and differentiate is integral to the challenge of generating new nephrons for therapeutic purposes. Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), comprising embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from adults, have the potential to generate functional kidney cells and tissue. Studies in mouse and human PSCs have identified specific approaches to the addition of growth factors, including Wnt and fibroblast growth factor, that can induce PSC differentiation into cells with phenotypic characteristics of nephron progenitor populations with the capacity to form kidney-like structures. Although significant progress has been made, further studies are necessary to confirm the production of functional kidney cells and to promote their three-dimensional organization into bona fide kidney tissue. Human PSCs have been generated from patients with kidney diseases, including polycystic kidney disease, Alport syndrome, and Wilms tumor, and may be used to better understand phenotypic consequences of naturally occurring genetic mutations and to conduct "clinical trials in a dish". The capability to generate human kidney cells from PSCs has significant translational applications, including the bioengineering of functional kidney tissue, use in drug development to test compounds for efficacy and toxicity, and in vitro disease modeling.

  7. What Is Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment? Kidney Cancer About Kidney Cancer What Is Kidney Cancer? Kidney cancer is a cancer that starts ... and spread, see What Is Cancer? About the kidneys To understand more about kidney cancer, it helps ...

  8. HER2/Leptin Crosstalk in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    in human embryonic kidney HEK 293T cells engineered to coexpress HER2 and ObRs or ObRl suggested that leptin , acting through either ObR isoform, can...obtained in HEK 293T kidney cells engineered to overexpress ObR and HER2 suggested that leptin can transactivate HER2 [22]. Thus, we examined whether...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-07-1-0603 TITLE: HER2/ Leptin Crosstalk in Breast Cancer

  9. Planar cell polarity and the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Papakrivopoulou, Eugenia; Dean, Charlotte H.; Copp, Andrew J.; Long, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is the uniform orientation and alignment of a group of cells orthogonal to the apical–basal axis within a tissue. Originally described in insects, it is now known that PCP is required for many processes in vertebrates, including directional cell movement, polarized cell division, ciliary orientation, neural tube closure, heart development and lung branching. In this review, we outline the evidence implicating PCP in kidney development and disease focusing initially on the function of PCP in ureteric bud branching and elongation. We then describe how defects in PCP may lead to polycystic kidney disease and discuss a newly identified role for PCP in the kidney filtration barrier. PMID:24293657

  10. MiR-9-5p Down-Regulates PiT2, but not PiT1 in Human Embryonic Kidney 293 Cells.

    PubMed

    Paiva, D P; Keasey, M; Oliveira, J R M

    2017-03-16

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an essential component for structure and metabolism. PiT1 (SLC20A1) and PiT2 (SLC20A2) are members of the mammalian type-III inorganic phosphate transporters. SLC20A2 missense variants are associated with primary brain calcification. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous noncoding regulatory RNAs, which play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. MicroRNA-9 (miR-9) acts at different stages of neurogenesis, is deeply rooted in gene networks controlling the regulation of neural progenitor proliferation, and is also linked with cancers outside the nervous system. We evaluated possible interactions between miR-9 and the phosphate transporters (PiT1 and PiT2). SLC20A2, platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) and Fibrillin-2 (FBN2) showed binding sites with high affinity for mir-9, in silico. miR-9 mimic was transfected into HEK293 cells and expression confirmed by RT-qPCR. Overexpression of miR-9 in these cells caused a significant reduction in PiT2 and FBN2. PDGFRB appeared to be decreased, but was not significantly down-regulated in our hands. PiT1 showed no significant difference relative to controls. The down-regulation of PiT2 protein by miR-9 was confirmed by western blotting. In conclusion, we showed miR-9 can down-regulate PiT2, in HEK293 cells.

  11. Purification of kidney epithelial cell growth inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Holley, R W; Böhlen, P; Fava, R; Baldwin, J H; Kleeman, G; Armour, R

    1980-01-01

    Two high molecular weight growth inhibitors have been isolated from the culture medium of BSC-1 cells, epithelial cells of African green monkey kidney. The purified kidney epithelial cell growth inhibitors, at ng/ml concentrations, reversibly arrest the growth of BSC-1 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Their action is selective; they are most active on BSC-1 cells, are less active as inhibitors of the growth of rat lung and human breast epithelial cells, and do not inhibit the growth of 3T3 mouse embryo fibroblasts ad human skin fibroblasts in culture. Their growth inhibitory action on BSC-1 cell cultures is counteracted by epidermal growth factor or calf serum. PMID:6969400

  12. Overexpression of Selenoprotein SelK in BGC-823 Cells Inhibits Cell Adhesion and Migration.

    PubMed

    Ben, S B; Peng, B; Wang, G C; Li, C; Gu, H F; Jiang, H; Meng, X L; Lee, B J; Chen, C L

    2015-10-01

    Effects of human selenoprotein SelK on the adhesion and migration ability of human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells using Matrigel adhesion and transwell migration assays, respectively, were investigated in this study. The Matrigel adhesion ability of BGC-823 cells that overexpressed SelK declined extremely significantly (p < 0.01) compared with that of the cells not expressing the protein. The migration ability of BGC-823 cells that overexpressed SelK also declined extremely significantly (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the Matrigel adhesion ability and migration ability of the cells that overexpressed C-terminally truncated SelK did not decline significantly. The Matrigel adhesion ability and migration ability of human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells that overexpressed SelK did not show significant change (p > 0.05) with the cells that overexpressed the C-terminally truncated protein. In addition to the effect on Matrigel adhesion and migration, the overexpression of SelK also caused a loss in cell viability (as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay) and induced apoptosis as shown by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The cytosolic free Ca2+ level of these cells was significantly increased as detected by flow cytometry. But the overexpression of SelK in HEK-293 cells caused neither significant loss in cell viability nor apoptosis induction. Only the elevation of cytosolic free Ca2+ level in these cells was significant. Taken together, the results suggest that the overexpression of SelK can inhibit human cancer cell Matrigel adhesion and migration and cause both the loss in cell viability and induction of apoptosis. The release of intracellular Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum might be a mechanism whereby the protein exerted its impact. Furthermore, only the full-length protein, but not C-terminally truncated form, was capable of producing such impact. The embryonic cells were not influenced by the

  13. Transport of ipratropium, an anti-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease drug, is mediated by organic cation/carnitine transporters in human bronchial epithelial cells: implications for carrier-mediated pulmonary absorption.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toshimichi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Haruta, Tsunemitsu; Shirasaka, Yoshiyuki; Keogh, John P; Tamai, Ikumi

    2010-02-01

    Ipratropium bromide, an anticholinergic drug used for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, has low oral bioavailability, but systemic exposure, superior to oral administration, can be achieved by inhalation. Therefore, we investigated the pulmonary absorption mechanism of ipratropium using human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. [3H]Ipratropium uptake by BEAS-2B cells was temperature-dependent and saturable, with a K(m) value of 78.0 microM, suggesting involvement of carrier-mediated uptake. An RT-PCR study showed that organic cation/carnitine transporters OCTN1 and OCTN2 are expressed in BEAS-2B cells, but organic cation transporters (OCTs) are not. Uptake of [3H]ipratropium by HEK293 cells expressing OCTN1 (HEK293/OCTN1) and OCTN2 (HEK293/OCTN2) was significantly increased, compared with mock-transfected cells, and the estimated K(m) values were 444 microM and 53.0 microM, respectively. Finally, the contributions of OCTN1 and OCTN2 to ipratropium uptake were evaluated by measuring [3H]ipratropium uptake by BEAS-2B cells in which OCTN1 or OCTN2 gene expression had been silenced. Knock-down of OCTN1 or OCTN2 suppressed the uptake of [3H]ipratropium to 78.2% and 14.8% of that by control BEAS-2B cells, respectively. In addition, another anticholinergic, tiotropium, was also taken up by both HEK293/OCTN1 and HEK293/OCTN2 cells. Therefore, ipratropium and tiotropium are taken up primarily by OCTN2, and to a lesser extent by OCTN1, in bronchial epithelial cells. These findings are consistent with the pharmacological activity of the drugs after administration via inhalation.

  14. Trafficking defect of mutant kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) proteins associated with distal renal tubular acidosis and Southeast Asian ovalocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Udomchaiprasertkul, Wandee; Noisakran, Sansanee; Rungroj, Nanyawan; Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2006-11-24

    Compound heterozygous anion exchanger 1 (AE1) SAO/G701D mutations result in distal renal tubular acidosis with Southeast Asian ovalocytosis. Interaction, trafficking and localization of wild-type and mutant (SAO and G701D) kAE1 proteins fused with hemagglutinin, six-histidine, Myc, or green fluorescence protein (GFP) were examined in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. When individually expressed, wild-type kAE1 was localized at cell surface while mutant kAE1 SAO and G701D were intracellularly retained. When co-expressed, wild-type kAE1 could form heterodimer with kAE1 SAO or kAE1 G701D and could rescue mutant kAE1 proteins to express on the cell surface. Co-expression of kAE1 SAO and kAE1 G701D also resulted in heterodimer formation but intracellular retention without cell surface expression, suggesting their trafficking defect and failure to rescue each other to the plasma membrane, most likely the molecular mechanism of the disease in the compound heterozygous condition.

  15. Shock Wave-Induced Damage and Poration in Eukaryotic Cell Membranes.

    PubMed

    López-Marín, Luz M; Millán-Chiu, Blanca E; Castaño-González, Karen; Aceves, Carmen; Fernández, Francisco; Varela-Echavarría, Alfredo; Loske, Achim M

    2017-02-01

    Shock waves are known to permeabilize eukaryotic cell membranes, which may be a powerful tool for a variety of drug delivery applications. However, the mechanisms involved in shock wave-mediated membrane permeabilization are still poorly understood. In this study, the effects on both the permeability and the ultrastructural features of two human cell lineages were investigated after the application of underwater shock waves in vitro. Scanning Electron Microscopy of cells derived from a human embryo kidney (HEK)-293 and Michigan Cancer Foundation (MCF)-7 cells, an immortalized culture derived from human breast adenocarcinoma, showed a small amount of microvilli (as compared to control cells), the presence of hole-like structures, and a decrease in cell size after shock wave exposure. Interestingly, these effects were accompanied by the permeabilization of acid and macromolecular dyes and gene transfection. Trypan blue exclusion assays indicated that cell membranes were porated during shock wave treatment but resealed after a few seconds. Deformations of the cell membrane lasted for at least 5 min, allowing their observation in fixed cells. For each cell line, different shock wave parameters were needed to achieve cell membrane poration. This difference was correlated to successful gene transfection by shock waves. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that shock waves induce transient micro- and submicrosized deformations at the cell membrane, leading to cell transfection and cell survival. They also indicate that ultrastructural analyses of cell surfaces may constitute a useful way to match the use of shock waves to different cells and settings.

  16. Concise Review: Kidney Generation with Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Morizane, Ryuji; Miyoshi, Tomoya; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2017-09-04

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a world-wide healthcare problem, resulting in increased cardiovascular mortality and often leading to end-stage kidney disease, where patients require kidney replacement therapies such as hemodialysis or kidney transplantation. Loss of functional nephrons contributes to the progression of CKD, which can be attenuated but not reversed due to inability to generate new nephrons in human adult kidneys. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), by virtue of their unlimited self-renewal and ability to differentiate into cells of all three embryonic germ layers, are attractive sources for kidney regenerative therapies. Recent advances in stem cell biology have identified key signals necessary to maintain stemness of human nephron progenitor cells (NPCs) in vitro, and led to establishment of protocols to generate NPCs and nephron epithelial cells from human fetal kidneys and hPSCs. Effective production of large amounts of human NPCs and kidney organoids will facilitate elucidation of developmental and pathobiological pathways, kidney disease modeling and drug screening as well as kidney regenerative therapies. We summarize the recent studies to induce NPCs and kidney cells from hPSCs, studies of NPC expansion from mouse and human embryonic kidneys, and discuss possible approaches in vivo to regenerate kidneys with cell therapies and the development of bioengineered kidneys. Stem Cells 2017. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  17. The extracellular electrical resistivity in cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Gleixner, Raimund; Fromherz, Peter

    2006-04-01

    The interaction of cells in a tissue depends on the nature of the extracellular matrix. The electrical properties of the narrow extracellular space are unknown. Here we consider cell adhesion mediated by extracellular matrix protein on a solid substrate as a model system. We culture human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells on silica coated with fibronectin and determine the electrical resistivity in the cell-solid junction rhoJ=rJdJ by combining measurements of the sheet resistance rJ and of the distance dJ between membrane and substrate. The sheet resistance is obtained from phase fluorometry of the voltage-sensitive dye ANNINE-5 by alternating-current stimulation from the substrate. The distance is measured by fluorescence interference contrast microscopy. We change the resistivity of the bath in a range from 66 Omega cm to 750 Omega cm and find that the sheet resistance rJ is proportionally enhanced, but that the distance is invariant around dJ=75 nm. In all cases, the resulting resistivity rhoJ is indistinguishable from the resistivity of the bath. A similar result is obtained for rat neurons cultured on polylysine. On that basis, we propose a "bulk resistivity in cell adhesion" model for cell-solid junctions. The observations suggest that the electrical interaction between cells in a tissue is determined by an extracellular space with the electrical properties of bulk electrolyte.

  18. Kidney abnormalities in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    López Revuelta, K; Ricard Andrés, M P

    2011-01-01

    Patients with sickle cell disease exhibits numerous kidney structural and functional abnormalities, changes that are seen along the entire length of the nephron. Changes are most marked in patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia, but are also seen in those with compound heterozygous states and the sickle cell trait. The renal features of sickle cell disease include some of the most common reasons for referral to nephrologists, such as hematuria, proteinuria, tubular disturbances and chronic kidney disease. Therapy of these conditions requires specialized knowledge of their distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Spanish Haemathology and Hemotherapy Association has recently publicated their Clinical Practice Guidelines of SCD management. Renal chapter is reproduced in this article for Nefrología difussion.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of a C-6 alkylated pyrimidine derivative for the in vivo imaging of HSV1-TK gene expression.

    PubMed

    Müller, Ursina; Martić, Miljen; Kraljević, Tatjana Gazivoda; Krištafor, Svjetlana; Ross, Tobias L; Ranadheera, Charlene; Müller, Adrienne; Born, Mariana; Krämer, Stefanie D; Raić-Malić, Silvana; Ametamey, Simon M

    2012-02-01

    We report on the synthesis, radiolabeling, in vitro and in vivo characterization of N-Me-[(18)F]FHBT (6-(3-[(18)F]fluoro-2-(hydroxymethyl)propyl)-1,5-dimethylpyrimidin-2,4(1H,3H)-dione), a C-6-substituted N-1-methylated pyrimidine derivative as a reporter probe for imaging herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK) expression. N-Me-[(18)F]FHBT was synthesized via a standard nucleophilic substitution reaction followed by acidic cleavage of the methoxytrityl protecting group. Cell uptake was studied in vitro with control HEK293 (human embryonic kidney cells) and HEK293 cells stably transfected with nonmutant HSV1-tk (HEK293TK+ cells). Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies of N-Me-[(18)F]FHBT or [(18)F]FHBG were performed in nude mice bearing xenografts of HEK293 control and TK+ cells. N-Me-[(18)F]FHBT was obtained in a two-step reaction in an overall maximal radiochemical yield (decay-corrected) of 5% and a radiochemical purity >96%. The tracer uptake in HSV1-TK containing HEK293TK+ cells was 14.5 times (at 30 min) and 55.4 times (at 240 min) higher than in control HEK293 cells. In mice, N-Me-[(18)F]FHBT and [(18)F]FHBG accumulated significantly and exhibited similar radioactivity levels in the HEK293TK+ xenografts; however, standardized uptake values ratios between HEK293TK+ and HEK293 control xenografts were higher for [(18)F]FHBG than for N-Me-[(18)F]FHBT. Both tracers showed high gall bladder and abdominal activity. The biological evaluations demonstrated the feasibility of using N-methylated C-6-substituted pyrimidine derivative N-Me-[(18)F]FHBT as a PET radiotracer for monitoring HSV1-TK expression in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Inefficiency in macromolecular transport of SCS-based microcapsules affects viability of primary human mesenchymal stem cells but not of immortalized cells.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Nogués, Clara; Horan, Jason; Thompson, Kerry; Howard, Linda; Ryan, Gerard; Kassem, Moustapha; O'Brien, Timothy

    2015-11-01

    Microcapsules made of sodium cellulose sulphate (SCS) and poly-diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride (pDADMAC) have been employed to encapsulate a wide range of established cell lines for several applications. However, little is known about the encapsulation of primary cells including human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Human MSCs are of interest in regenerative medicine applications due to pro-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, which result from paracrine effects of this cell type. In the present work we have encapsulated primary hMSCs and hMSC-TERT immortalized cells and compared their behavior and in vitro angiogenic potential. We found that, although both cell types were able to secret angiogenic factors such as VEGF, there was a marked reduction of primary hMSC viability compared to hMSC-TERT cells when cultured in these microcapsules. Moreover, this applied to other primary cell cultures such as primary human fibroblasts but not to other cell lines such as human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We found that the microcapsule membrane had a molecular weight cut-off below a critical size, which caused impairment in the diffusion of essential nutrients and had a more detrimental effect on the viability of primary cell cultures compared to cell lines and immortalized cells.

  1. Triiodothyronine regulates cell growth and survival in renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Matak, Damian; Szymanski, Lukasz; Czarnecka, Karolina H; Lewicki, Slawomir; Zdanowski, Robert; Brzezianska-Lasota, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-10-01

    Triiodothyronine plays an important role in the regulation of kidney cell growth, differentiation and metabolism. Patients with renal cell cancer who develop hypothyreosis during tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment have statistically longer survival. In this study, we developed cell based model of triiodothyronine (T3) analysis in RCC and we show the different effects of T3 on renal cell cancer (RCC) cell growth response and expression of the thyroid hormone receptor in human renal cell cancer cell lines from primary and metastatic tumors along with human kidney cancer stem cells. Wild-type thyroid hormone receptor is ubiquitously expressed in human renal cancer cell lines, but normalized against healthy renal proximal tube cell expression its level is upregulated in Caki-2, RCC6, SKRC-42, SKRC-45 cell lines. On the contrary the mRNA level in the 769-P, ACHN, HKCSC, and HEK293 cells is significantly decreased. The TRβ protein was abundant in the cytoplasm of the 786-O, Caki-2, RCC6, and SKRC-45 cells and in the nucleus of SKRC-42, ACHN, 769-P and cancer stem cells. T3 has promoting effect on the cell proliferation of HKCSC, Caki-2, ASE, ACHN, SK-RC-42, SMKT-R2, Caki-1, 786-0, and SK-RC-45 cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, directly inhibits proliferation of RCC cells, while thyroid hormone receptor antagonist 1-850 (CAS 251310‑57-3) has less significant inhibitory impact. T3 stimulation does not abrogate inhibitory effect of sunitinib. Renal cancer tumor cells hypostimulated with T3 may be more responsive to tyrosine kinase inhibition. Moreover, some tumors may be considered as T3-independent and present aggressive phenotype with thyroid hormone receptor activated independently from the ligand. On the contrary proliferation induced by deregulated VHL and or c-Met pathways may transgress normal T3 mediated regulation of the cell cycle.

  2. Expression profiles of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and disposition in human renal tissues and renal cell models.

    PubMed

    Van der Hauwaert, Cynthia; Savary, Grégoire; Buob, David; Leroy, Xavier; Aubert, Sébastien; Flamand, Vincent; Hennino, Marie-Flore; Perrais, Michaël; Lo-Guidice, Jean-Marc; Broly, Franck; Cauffiez, Christelle; Glowacki, François

    2014-09-15

    Numerous xenobiotics have been shown to be harmful for the kidney. Thus, to improve our knowledge of the cellular processing of these nephrotoxic compounds, we evaluated, by real-time PCR, the mRNA expression level of 377 genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs), transporters, as well as nuclear receptors and transcription factors that coordinate their expression in eight normal human renal cortical tissues. Additionally, since several renal in vitro models are commonly used in pharmacological and toxicological studies, we investigated their metabolic capacities and compared them with those of renal tissues. The same set of genes was thus investigated in HEK293 and HK2 immortalized cell lines in commercial primary cultures of epithelial renal cells and in proximal tubular cell primary cultures. Altogether, our data offers a comprehensive description of kidney ability to process xenobiotics. Moreover, by hierarchical clustering, we observed large variations in gene expression profiles between renal cell lines and renal tissues. Primary cultures of proximal tubular epithelial cells exhibited the highest similarities with renal tissue in terms of transcript profiling. Moreover, compared to other renal cell models, Tacrolimus dose dependent toxic effects were lower in proximal tubular cell primary cultures that display the highest metabolism and disposition capacity. Therefore, primary cultures appear to be the most relevant in vitro model for investigating the metabolism and bioactivation of nephrotoxic compounds and for toxicological and pharmacological studies.

  3. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α transactivates the mitochondrial alanine aminotransferase gene in the kidney of Sparus aurata.

    PubMed

    Salgado, María C; Metón, Isidoro; Anemaet, Ida G; González, J Diego; Fernández, Felipe; Baanante, Isabel V

    2012-02-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) plays an important role in amino acid metabolism and gluconeogenesis. The preference of carnivorous fish for protein amino acids instead of carbohydrates as a source of energy lead us to study the transcriptional regulation of the mitochondrial ALT (mALT) gene and to characterize the enzyme kinetics and modulation of mALT expression in the kidney of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) under different nutritional and hormonal conditions. 5'-Deletion analysis of mALT promoter in transiently transfected HEK293 cells, site-directed mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays allowed us to identify HNF4α as a new factor involved in the transcriptional regulation of mALT expression. Quantitative RT-PCR assays showed that starvation and the administration of streptozotocin (STZ) decreased HNF4α levels in the kidney of S. aurata, leading to the downregulation of mALT transcription. Analysis of the tissue distribution showed that kidney, liver, and intestine were the tissues with higher mALT and HNF4α expression. Kinetic analysis indicates that mALT enzyme is more efficient in catalyzing the conversion of L: -alanine to pyruvate than the reverse reaction. From these results, we conclude that HNF4α transactivates the mALT promoter and that the low levels of mALT expression found in the kidney of starved and STZ-treated fish result from a decreased expression of HNF4α. Our findings suggest that the mALT isoenzyme plays a major role in oxidazing dietary amino acids, and points to ALT as a target for a biotechnological action to spare protein and optimize the use of dietary nutrients for fish culture.

  4. Negative regulation of p21 by beta-catenin/TCF signaling: a novel mechanism by which cell adhesion molecules regulate cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Junko; Toyofuku, Toshihiko; Hori, Masatsugu

    2003-12-12

    Cell proliferation is regulated in part by cell-cell interactions mediated by cadherin and connexin. Here we present evidence that these two molecules act synergistically to suppress HEK293 cell proliferation by prolonging the G2/M phase. This event was accompanied by expression of p21, a potent Cdc2 kinase inhibitor. Not surprisingly, there was a concomitant decline in Cdc2 kinase activity. beta-Catenin/TCF signaling, which was downregulated by overexpression of N-cadherin, was found to inhibit transactivation of p21 gene expression. The effect of N-cadherin on cell proliferation and p21 expression was augmented by co-expression of connexin-43. Moreover, the magnitude of the connexin's effect was dependent on its ability to mediate intercellular communication. We conclude, therefore, that two major components of cell-cell interaction synergistically regulate cell cycle progression in HEK293 cells by regulating p21 expression in a beta-catenin/TCF-dependent manner.

  5. Cell senescence in the aging kidney.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haichun; Fogo, Agnes B

    2010-09-01

    Pedigree genetics and environment modulate the biological process of aging. The permanent and irreversible growth arrest of cell senescence is a central paradigm of aging. Various pathophysiologic pressures such as oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury can also induce senescence. Senescent cells secrete altered levels of growth factors, show increased susceptibility to apoptosis, and associate with delayed repair and regeneration in the aging kidney. Here we discuss new progress in understanding renal aging, focusing on mechanisms of cell senescence and possible interventions to modulate age-related organ damage.

  6. Allelic Variants in Arhgef11 via the Rho-Rock Pathway Are Linked to Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Contributes to Kidney Injury in the Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rat.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhen; Johnson, Ashley C; Wang, Xuexiang; Guo, Zibiao; Dreisbach, Albert W; Lewin, Jack R; Kyle, Patrick B; Garrett, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Previously, genetic analyses identified that variants in Arhgef11 may influence kidney injury in the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat, a model of hypertensive chronic kidney disease. To understand the potential mechanism by which altered expression and/or protein differences in Arhgef11 could play a role in kidney injury, stably transduced Arhgef11 knockdown cell lines as well as primary cultures of proximal tubule cells were studied. Genetic knockdown of Arhgef11 in HEK293 and NRK resulted in reduced RhoA activity, decreased activation of Rho-ROCK pathway, and less stress fiber formation versus control, similar to what was observed by pharmacological inhibition (fasudil). Primary proximal tubule cells (PTC) cultured from the S exhibited increased expression of Arhgef11, increased RhoA activity, and up regulation of Rho-ROCK signaling compared to control (small congenic). The cells were also more prone (versus control) to TGFβ-1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a hallmark feature of the development of renal interstitial fibrosis, and characterized by development of spindle shape morphology, gene expression changes in EMT markers (Col1a3, Mmp9, Bmp7, and Ocln) and increased expression of N-Cadherin and Vimentin. S derived PTC demonstrated a decreased ability to uptake FITC-albumin compared to the small congenic in vitro, which was confirmed by assessment of albumin re-uptake in vivo by infusion of FITC-albumin and immunofluorescence imaging. In summary, these studies suggest that genetic variants in the S form of Arhgef11 via increased expression and/or protein activity play a role in promoting kidney injury in the S rat through changes in cell morphology (Rho-Rock and/or EMT) that impact the function of tubule cells.

  7. Functional Interaction between Angiotensin II Receptor Type 1 and Chemokine (C-C Motif) Receptor 2 with Implications for Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Robyn S.; See, Heng B.; Johnstone, Elizabeth K. M.; McCall, Elizabeth A.; Williams, James H.; Kelly, Darren J.; Pfleger, Kevin D. G.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding functional interactions between G protein-coupled receptors is of great physiological and pathophysiological importance. Heteromerization provides one important potential mechanism for such interaction between different signalling pathways via macromolecular complex formation. Previous studies suggested a functional interplay between angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) and Chemokine (C-C motif) Receptor 2 (CCR2). However the molecular mechanisms are not understood. We investigated AT1-CCR2 functional interaction in vitro using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer in HEK293 cells and in vivo using subtotal-nephrectomized rats as a well-established model for chronic kidney disease. Our data revealed functional heteromers of these receptors resulting in CCR2-Gαi1 coupling being sensitive to AT1 activation, as well as apparent enhanced β-arrestin2 recruitment with agonist co-stimulation that is synergistically reversed by combined antagonist treatment. Moreover, we present in vivo findings where combined treatment with AT1- and CCR2-selective inhibitors was synergistically beneficial in terms of decreasing proteinuria, reducing podocyte loss and preventing renal injury independent of blood pressure in the subtotal-nephrectomized rat model. Our findings further support a role for G protein-coupled receptor functional heteromerization in pathophysiology and provide insights into previous observations indicating the importance of AT1-CCR2 functional interaction in inflammation, renal and hypertensive disorders. PMID:25807547

  8. AC Electrothermal Circulatory Pumping Chip for Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Lang, Qi; Wu, Yanshuang; Ren, Yukun; Tao, Ye; Lei, Lei; Jiang, Hongyuan

    2015-12-09

    Herein we describe a novel AC electrothermal (ACET) fluidic circulatory pumping chip to overcome the challenge of fluid-to-tissue ratio for "human-on-a-chip" cell culture systems. To avoid the deleterious effects of Joule heating and electric current on sample cells, a rectangular microchannel was designed with distantly separated regions for pumping and cell culture. Temperature variations were examined using a commercial thermocouple sensor to detect temperature values in both pumping and culture regions. To generate a sufficient ACET circulatory pumping rate, 30 pairs of asymmetrical electrodes were employed in the pumping region; generated ACET velocity was measured by fluorescent microparticle image velocimetry. The benefits of our pumping chip were demonstrated by culturing human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T) and human colon carcinoma cells (SW620) for 72 h with an energized voltage of 3 V and 10 MHz. Cells grew and proliferated well, implying our ACET circulatory pumping chip has great potential for cell culture and tissue engineering applications.

  9. Investigation of the mechanism and apoptotic pathway induced by 4β cinnamido linked podophyllotoxins against human lung cancer cells A549.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ahmed; Nayak, V Lakshma; Bagul, Chandrakant; Vishnuvardhan, M V P S; Mallareddy, Adla

    2015-11-01

    Apoptosis is essential for normal development and the maintenance of homeostasis. It plays a necessary role to protect against carcinogenesis by eliminating damaged cells. Many studies have demonstrated that the dysregulation of apoptosis results in cancer and this provides an approach to develop therapeutic agents via inducing apoptosis. In our previous studies 4β-cinnamido linked podophyllotoxin conjugates were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity in a panel of five human cancer cell lines and the new molecules like 17a and 17f were considered as potential leads. The cytotoxic activity was comparable to etoposide. These observations prompted us to investigate the mechanism underplaying the cytotoxic activity and apoptotic pathway induced by these compounds in human lung cancer cells A459. The results of the present study revealed that these compounds exhibited DNA topoisomerase IIα inhibition and induced mitochondrial mediated apoptosis. It was further confirmed by Mitochondrial membrane potential, Cytochrome c release, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, regulation of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and pro apoptotic protein Bax studied by Western blot analysis. Annexin V-FITC assay also suggested that these compounds induced cell death by apoptosis. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) prevented the generation of ROS. Further, pretreatment with NAC significantly inhibited 17a and 17f induced apoptosis, suggesting that ROS are the key mediators for 17a and 17f induced apoptosis. These data indicate that these compounds might induce apoptosis in A549 cells through a ROS mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway. Moreover, these compounds did not significantly inhibit the noncancerous human embryonic kidney cells, HEK-293. Docking studies also elucidate the potential of these molecules to bind to the DNA topoisomerase II. Podophyllotoxin analogs were investigated for their mechanism and

  10. Mechanisms of kidney cell injury from metals.

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, B A

    1993-01-01

    The most environmentally abundant toxic metals/metalloids (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) are each known to produce cell injury in the kidney but the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are now being elucidated. It is clear that the nephrotoxicity of these agents is due, in part, to the fact that urinary elimination is a major route of excretion from the body. The role(s) of molecular factors such as metal-binding proteins, inclusion bodies, and cell-specific receptorlike proteins that appear to influence renal tubule cell expression, have attracted increased interest as determinants that modulate cell populations as special risk for toxicity and renal cancer. The future of mechanistic toxicology studies with regard to how and why only certain renal cell populations become targets for toxicity from these metals/metalloids and other less common inorganic nephrotoxicants must focus on the molecular handling of these agents by target cell populations. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 3. PMID:8354182

  11. Mechanisms of kidney cell injury from metals

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, B.A. )

    1993-04-01

    The most environmentally abundant toxic metals/metalloids (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) are each known to produce cell injury in the kidney but the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are now being elucidated. It is clear that the nephrotoxicity of these agents is due, in part, to the fact that urinary elimination is a major route of excretion from the body. The role(s) of molecular factors such as metal-binding proteins, inclusion bodies, and cell-specific receptorlike proteins that appear to influence renal tubule cell expression, have attracted increased interest as determinants that modulate cell populations as special risk for toxicity and renal cancer. The future of mechanistic toxicology studies with regard to how and why only certain renal cell populations become targets for toxicity from these metals/metalloids and other less common inorganic nephrotoxicants must focus on the molecular handling of these agents by target cell populations. 90 refs.

  12. LRRC50, a Conserved Ciliary Protein Implicated in Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    van Rooijen, Ellen; Giles, Rachel H.; Voest, Emile E.; van Rooijen, Carina; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; van Eeden, Freek J.

    2008-01-01

    Cilia perform essential motile and sensory functions central to many developmental and physiological processes. Disruption of their structure or function can have profound phenotypic consequences, and has been linked to left-right patterning and polycystic kidney disease. In a forward genetic screen for mutations affecting ciliary motility, we isolated zebrafish mutant hu255H. The mutation was found to disrupt an ortholog of the uncharacterized highly conserved human SDS22-like leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing protein LRRC50 (16q24.1) and Chlamydomonas Oda7p. Zebrafish lrrc50 is specifically expressed in all ciliated tissues. lrrc50hu255H mutants develop pronephric cysts with an increased proliferative index, severely reduced brush border, and disorganized pronephric cilia manifesting impaired localized fluid flow consistent with ciliary dysfunction. Electron microscopy analysis revealed ultrastructural irregularities of the dynein arms and misalignments of the outer-doublet microtubules on the ciliary axonemes, suggesting instability of the ciliary architecture in lrrc50hu255H mutants. The SDS22-like leucine-rich repeats present in Lrrc50 are necessary for proper protein function, since injection of a deletion construct of the first LRR did not rescue the zebrafish mutant phenotype. Subcellular distribution of human LRRC50-EGFP in MDCK and HEK293T cells is diffusely cytoplasmic and concentrated at the mitotic spindle poles and cilium. LRRC50 RNAi knock-down in human proximal tubule HK-2 cells thoroughly recapitulated the zebrafish brush border and cilia phenotype, suggesting conservation of LRRC50 function between both species. In summary, we present the first genetic vertebrate model for lrrc50 function and propose LRRC50 to be a novel candidate gene for human cystic kidney disease, involved in regulation of microtubule-based cilia and actin-based brush border microvilli. PMID:18385425

  13. TRPM2-mediated intracellular Zn2+ release triggers pancreatic β-cell death.

    PubMed

    Manna, Paul T; Munsey, Tim S; Abuarab, Nada; Li, Fangfang; Asipu, Aruna; Howell, Gareth; Sedo, Alicia; Yang, Wei; Naylor, Jacqui; Beech, David J; Jiang, Lin-Hua; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu

    2015-03-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause pancreatic β-cell death by activating transient receptor potential (melastatin) 2 (TRPM2) channels. Cell death has been attributed to the ability of these channels to raise cytosolic Ca2+. Recent studies however revealed that TRPM2 channels can also conduct Zn2+, but the physiological relevance of this property is enigmatic. Given that Zn2+ is cytotoxic, we asked whether TRPM2 channels can permeate sufficient Zn2+ to affect cell viability. To address this, we used the insulin secreting (INS1) β-cell line, human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells transfected with TRPM2 and pancreatic islets. H2O2 activation of TRPM2 channels increases the cytosolic levels of both Ca2+ and Zn2+ and causes apoptotic cell death. Interestingly, chelation of Zn2+ alone was sufficient to prevent β-cell death. The source of the cytotoxic Zn2+ is intracellular, found largely sequestered in lysosomes. Lysosomes express TRPM2 channels, providing a potential route for Zn2+ release. Zn2+ release is potentiated by extracellular Ca2+ entry, indicating that Ca2+-induced Zn2+ release leads to apoptosis. Knockout of TRPM2 channels protects mice from β-cell death and hyperglycaemia induced by multiple low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; MLDS) administration. These results argue that TRPM2-mediated, Ca2+-potentiated Zn2+ release underlies ROS-induced β-cell death and Zn2+, rather than Ca2+, plays a primary role in apoptosis.

  14. Annona squamosa Linn: cytotoxic activity found in leaf extract against human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Shen; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Guo, Huiqin; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ahmed, Maryam; Hassan, Syed Zeeshan; Hassan, Amir; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a common cause of death in human populations. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy still remain the corner stone of treatment. However, herbal medicines are gaining popularity on account of their lesser harmful side effects on non-targeted human cells and biological environment. Annona squamosa Linn is a common delicious edible fruit and its leaf have been used for the treatment in various types of diseases. The objective of present study is to determine the anticancer potential of the organic and aqueous extracts of leaf of Annona squamosa L. MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7404, lung cancer line H460, human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1, prostatic cancer cell line DU145, breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435, and colon cancer cell line HCT-116 Human primary embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 as control were used for the study. The crude extract (Zcd) and Ethyl acetate extract (ZE) were found significant anticancer activity only on human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1 and colon cancer cell line HCT-116.

  15. Contribution of aquaporins to cellular water transport observed by a microfluidic cell volume sensor.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinseok; Meng, Fanjie; Hua, Susan Z

    2008-09-15

    Here we demonstrate that an impedance-based microfluidic cell volume sensor can be used to study the roles of aquaporin (AQP) in cellular water permeability and screen AQP-specific drugs. Human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells were transiently transfected with AQP3- or AQP4-encoding genes to express AQPs in plasma membranes. The swelling of cells in response to hypotonic stimulation was traced in real time using the sensor. Two time constants were obtained by fitting the swelling curves with a two-exponential function, a fast time constant associated with osmotic water permeability of AQP-expressing cells and a slow phase time constant associated mainly with water diffusion through lipid bilayers in the nontransfected cells. The AQP-expressing cells showed at least 10x faster osmotic water transport than control cells. Using the volume sensor, we examined the effects of Hg (2+) and Ni (2+) on the water transport via AQPs. Hg (2+) inhibited the water flux in AQP3-expressing cells irreversibly, while Ni (2+) blocked the AQP3 channels reversibly. Neither of the two ions blocked the AQP4 channels. The microfluidic volume sensor can sense changes in cell volume in real time, which enables perfusion of various reagents sequentially. It provides a convenient tool for studying the effect of reagents on the function and regulation mechanism of AQPs.

  16. Human Kidney-Derived Cells Ameliorate Acute Kidney Injury Without Engrafting into Renal Tissue.

    PubMed

    Santeramo, Ilaria; Herrera Perez, Zeneida; Illera, Ana; Taylor, Arthur; Kenny, Simon; Murray, Patricia; Wilm, Bettina; Gretz, Norbert

    2017-04-04

    Previous studies have suggested that CD133(+) cells isolated from human kidney biopsies have the potential to ameliorate injury following intravenous (IV) administration in rodent models of kidney disease by integrating into damaged renal tissue and generating specialized renal cells. However, whether renal engraftment of CD133(+) cells is a prerequisite for ameliorating injury has not yet been unequivocally resolved. Here, we have established a cisplatin-induced nephropathy model in immunodeficient rats to assess the efficacy of CD133(+) human kidney cells in restoring renal health, and to determine the fate of these cells after systemic administration. Specifically, following IV administration, we evaluated the impact of the CD133(+) cells on renal function by undertaking longitudinal measurements of the glomerular filtration rate using a novel transcutaneous device. Using histological assays, we assessed whether the human kidney cells could promote renal regeneration, and if this was related to their ability to integrate into the damaged kidneys. Our results show that both CD133(+) and CD133(-) cells improve renal function and promote renal regeneration to a similar degree. However, this was not associated with engraftment of the cells into the kidneys. Instead, after IV administration, both cell types were exclusively located in the lungs, and had disappeared by 24 hours. Our data therefore indicate that renal repair is not mediated by CD133(+) cells homing to the kidneys and generating specialized renal cells. Instead, renal repair is likely to be mediated by paracrine or endocrine factors. © Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017.

  17. A developmentally plastic adult mouse kidney cell line spontaneously generates multiple adult kidney structures

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Carol F.; Ratliff, Michelle L.; Powell, Rebecca; Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R.; Lakiza, Olga; Obara, Tomoko

    2015-08-07

    Despite exciting new possibilities for regenerative therapy posed by the ability to induce pluripotent stem cells, recapitulation of three-dimensional kidneys for repair or replacement has not been possible. ARID3a-deficient mouse tissues generated multipotent, developmentally plastic cells. Therefore, we assessed the adult mouse ARID3a−/− kidney cell line, KKPS5, which expresses renal progenitor surface markers as an alternative cell source for modeling kidney development. Remarkably, these cells spontaneously developed into multicellular nephron-like structures in vitro, and engrafted into immunocompromised medaka mesonephros, where they formed mouse nephron structures. These data implicate KKPS5 cells as a new model system for studying kidney development. - Highlights: • An ARID3a-deficient mouse kidney cell line expresses multiple progenitor markers. • This cell line spontaneously forms multiple nephron-like structures in vitro. • This cell line formed mouse kidney structures in immunocompromised medaka fish kidneys. • Our data identify a novel model system for studying kidney development.

  18. Generation of kidney tubular organoids from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Morizane, Ryuji; Homma, Koichiro; Monkawa, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Sayuri; Fujii, Shizuka; Koda, Muneaki; Hiratsuka, Ken; Yamashita, Maho; Yoshida, Tadashi; Wakino, Shu; Hayashi, Koichi; Sasaki, Junichi; Hori, Shingo; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in stem cell research have resulted in methods to generate kidney organoids from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), which contain cells of multiple lineages including nephron epithelial cells. Methods to purify specific types of cells from differentiated hPSCs, however, have not been established well. For bioengineering, cell transplantation, and disease modeling, it would be useful to establish those methods to obtain pure populations of specific types of kidney cells. Here, we report a simple two-step differentiation protocol to generate kidney tubular organoids from hPSCs with direct purification of KSP (kidney specific protein)-positive cells using anti-KSP antibody. We first differentiated hPSCs into mesoderm cells using a glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitor for 3 days, then cultured cells in renal epithelial growth medium to induce KSP+ cells. We purified KSP+ cells using flow cytometry with anti-KSP antibody, which exhibited characteristics of all segments of kidney tubular cells and cultured KSP+ cells in 3D Matrigel, which formed tubular organoids in vitro. The formation of tubular organoids by KSP+ cells induced the acquisition of functional kidney tubules. KSP+ cells also allowed for the generation of chimeric kidney cultures in which human cells self-assembled into 3D tubular structures in combination with mouse embryonic kidney cells. PMID:27982115

  19. Screening of cell-penetrating peptides using mRNA display.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hun; Song, Hyun Seok; Park, Tai Hyun; Park, Tae Hyun; Lee, Sun-Gu; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2012-03-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are attractive vectors for in vivo and in vitro cellular uptake. Their use is, however, limited by insufficient understanding of their preference for a target cell. Here, a new CPP screening method is presented that uses mRNA display. After incubating the target cell lines, such as human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) and HeLa cells, with an mRNA display library for 3 h at 37°C, the CPP-mRNA nucleotide conjugates were harvested. These were amplified with PCR and subsequently sequenced. The screened CPPs for each cell line were identified after four rounds of selection. Among them, two peptides, MAMPGEPRRANVMAHKLEPASLQLR NSCA (CPPK) and MAPQRDTVGGRTTPPSWGPAKAQLRNSCA (CPPL) were selected, and the FITC-labeled peptides were evaluated for their ability to penetrate cells. The screened CPPs were superior to polyarginine (R(11) ), which is widely used as a standard peptide and shows good cell penetration efficiency. Our method can be applied to other target cells for which CPPs have not yet been elucidated.

  20. Decellularized Human Kidney Cortex Hydrogels Enhance Kidney Microvascular Endothelial Cell Maturation and Quiescence.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Ryan J; Xu, Jin; Luo, Ping; Xue, Jun; Wang, Yi; Kotha, Surya; Zeng, Wen; Fu, Xiaoyun; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Zheng, Ying

    2016-10-01

    The kidney peritubular microvasculature is highly susceptible to injury from drugs and toxins, often resulting in acute kidney injury and progressive chronic kidney disease. Little is known about the process of injury and regeneration of human kidney microvasculature, resulting from the lack of appropriate kidney microvascular models that can incorporate the proper cells, extracellular matrices (ECMs), and architectures needed to understand the response and contribution of individual vascular components in these processes. In this study, we present methods to recreate the human kidney ECM (kECM) microenvironment by fabricating kECM hydrogels derived from decellularized human kidney cortex. The majority of native matrix proteins, such as collagen-IV, laminin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and their isoforms were preserved in similar proportions as found in normal kidneys. Human kidney peritubular microvascular endothelial cells (HKMECs) became more quiescent when cultured on this kECM gel compared with culture on collagen-I-assessed using phenotypic, genotypic, and functional assays; whereas human umbilical vein endothelial cells became stimulated on kECM gels. We demonstrate for the first time that human kidney cortex can form a hydrogel suitable for use in flow-directed microphysiological systems. Our findings strongly suggest that selecting the proper ECM is a critical consideration in the development of vascularized organs on a chip and carries important implications for tissue engineering of all vascularized organs.

  1. Molecular delivery into live cells using gold nanoparticle coated substrates fabricated by pulsed laser annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Xiao, Fan; Teitell, Michael A.; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2010-02-01

    A massively-parallel molecular delivery system for mammalian cells is demonstrated by pulsed-laser irradiation of a gold-nanoparticles-coated substrate situated below a cell monolayer. This system is capable of high throughput and spatially-targeted delivery into desired areas of a cell culture by designing the laser irradiation pattern. Large area, rapid fabrication of the gold-nanoparticle-coated substrate is achieved by pulsed laser annealing of a continuous gold thin film. Randomly distributed gold nanoparticles and periodic gold nanoparticle arrays were obtained by pulsed laser flood exposure and by polymer mold guided laser annealing respectively. Optical image patterned molecular delivery into adherent cells were demonstrated in HeLa and HEK 293T cells. Delivery efficiencies of fluorescent dye, calcein, were as high as >90% with high cell viability (>90%) in HEK 293T using this device.

  2. Monitoring change in refractive index of cytosol of animal cells on affinity surface under osmotic stimulus for label-free measurement of viability.

    PubMed

    Park, Jina; Jin, Sung Il; Kim, Hyung Min; Ahn, Junhyoung; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Lee, Eun Gyo; Kim, Min-Gon; Shin, Yong-Beom

    2015-02-15

    We demonstrated that a metal-clad waveguide (MCW)-based biosensor can be applied to label-free measurements of viability of adherent animal cells with osmotic stimulation in real time. After Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney cell 293 (HEK293) cells were attached to a Concanavalin A (Con A)-modified sensor surface, the magnitudes of cell responses to non-isotonic stimulation were compared between live and dead cells. The live cells exhibited a change in the refractive index (RI) of the cytosol caused by a redistribution of water through the cell membrane, which was induced by the osmotic stimulus, but the dead cells did not. Moreover, the normalized change in the RI measured via the MCW sensor was linearly proportional to the viability of attached cells and the resolution in monitoring cell viability was about 0.079%. Therefore, the viability of attached animal cells can be measured without labels by observing the relative differences in the RI of cytosol in isotonic and non-isotonic buffers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Methadone but not morphine inhibits lubiprostone-stimulated Cl- currents in T84 intestinal cells and recombinant human ClC-2, but not CFTR Cl- currents.

    PubMed

    Cuppoletti, John; Chakrabarti, Jayati; Tewari, Kirti; Malinowska, Danuta H

    2013-05-01

    In clinical trials, methadone, but not morphine, appeared to prevent beneficial effects of lubiprostone, a ClC-2 Cl(-) channel activator, on opioid-induced constipation. Effects of methadone and morphine on lubiprostone-stimulated Cl(-) currents were measured by short circuit current (Isc) across T84 cells. Whole cell patch clamp of human ClC-2 (hClC-2) stably expressed in HEK293 cells and in a high expression cell line (HEK293EBNA) as well as human CFTR (hCFTR) stably expressed in HEK293 cells was used to study methadone and morphine effects on recombinant hClC-2 and hCFTR Cl(-) currents. Methadone but not morphine inhibited lubiprostone-stimulated Isc in T84 cells with half-maximal inhibition at 100 nM. Naloxone did not affect lubiprostone stimulation or methadone inhibition of Isc. Lubiprostone-stimulated Cl(-) currents in hClC-2/HEK293 cells, but not forskolin/IBMX-stimulated Cl(-) currents in hCFTR/HEK293 cells, were inhibited by methadone, but not morphine. HEK293EBNA cells expressing hClC-2 showed time-dependent, voltage-activated, CdCl2-inhibited Cl(-) currents in the absence (control) and the presence of lubiprostone. Methadone, but not morphine, inhibited control and lubiprostone-stimulated hClC-2 Cl(-) currents with half-maximal inhibition at 100 and 200-230 nM, respectively. Forskolin/IBMX-stimulated hClC-2 Cl(-) currents were also inhibited by methadone. Myristoylated protein kinase inhibitor (a specific PKA inhibitor) inhibited forskolin/IBMX- but not lubiprostone-stimulated hClC-2 Cl(-) currents. Methadone caused greater inhibition of lubiprostone-stimulated currents added before patching (66.1 %) compared with after patching (28.7 %). Methadone caused inhibition of lubiprostone-stimulated Cl(-) currents in T84 cells and control; lubiprostone- and forskolin/IBMX-stimulated recombinant hClC-2 Cl(-) currents may be the basis for reduced efficacy of lubiprostone in methadone-treated patients.

  4. Alphavirus production is inhibited in neurofibromin 1-deficient cells through activated RAS signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Kolokoltsova, Olga A. Domina, Aaron M. Kolokoltsov, Andrey A. Davey, Robert A. | Weaver, Scott C. || Watowich, Stanley J. ||

    2008-07-20

    Virus-host interactions essential for alphavirus pathogenesis are poorly understood. To address this shortcoming, we coupled retrovirus insertional mutagenesis and a cell survival selection strategy to generate clonal cell lines broadly resistant to Sindbis virus (SINV) and other alphaviruses. Resistant cells had significantly impaired SINV production relative to wild-type (WT) cells, although virus binding and fusion events were similar in both sets of cells. Analysis of the retroviral integration sites identified the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene as disrupted in alphavirus-resistant