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Sample records for kidney transplant biopsies

  1. Oxidative stress in kidney transplant biopsies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Avneesh; Hammad, Abdul; Sharma, Ajay K; Mc-Cardle, Frank; Rustom, Rana; Christmas, Steve E

    2015-04-01

    Kidney allograft biopsies are performed after kidney transplant to determine graft dysfunction. We aimed to define and measure the oxidative stress occurring in these biopsies and compared these biopsies with donor pretransplant biopsies. The biopsy procedure was done according to the unit protocol. A core of tissue was taken for research purposes only when it was safe enough to proceed for an extra core. Common indications for biopsy were acute or chronic graft dysfunction, delayed graft function, acute cellular rejection, and calcineurin toxicity. There were 17 pretransplant biopsies taken from deceased-donor kidneys. Biopsy specimens were snap frozen immediately in liquid nitrogen and stored at -70 °C. Samples were processed for Western blot and tested for markers of oxidative stress. There were 61 biopsies analyzed. Oxidative stress enzymes were evaluated by Western blot including catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase, copper zinc superoxide dismutase, thioredoxin reductase, and thioredoxin. Upregulation of most antioxidant enzymes was observed in pretransplant biopsies. Increased expression of manganese superoxide dismutase was observed in donor kidneys and kidneys with acute cellular rejection and calcineurin toxicity. Copper zinc superoxide dismutase and catalase were elevated in donor and acute cellular rejection biopsies. Thioredoxin was elevated in donor biopsies and thioredoxin reductases were elevated in donor biopsies and biopsies with acute cellular rejection and calcineurin toxicity. The kidney allograft biopsies showed that oxidative stress levels were elevated during allograft dysfunction in all biopsies regardless of diagnosis, but not significantly. The levels also were elevated in pretransplant biopsies. The study showed that oxidative stress is involved in various acute injuries occurring within the allograft.

  2. Surveillance biopsies after paediatric kidney transplantation: A review.

    PubMed

    Rose, Edward M; Kennedy, Sean E; Mackie, Fiona E

    2016-09-01

    Kidney transplantation is the most effective means of treating children with end-stage kidney disease, and yet, there continues to be a limited "life span" of transplanted kidneys in paediatric recipients. Early graft monitoring, using the surveillance biopsy, has the potential to extend renal allograft survival in paediatric recipients. The surveillance biopsy provides important and timely information about acute and chronic graft pathology, particularly SCR and calcineurin inhibitor-induced nephrotoxicity, which can subsequently guide management decisions and improve long-term graft survival. The ostensible value of the surveillance biopsy is furthered by the limitations of conventional renal functional studies. However, there is still much debate surrounding the surveillance biopsy in paediatric recipients, particularly in regard to its overall utility, safety and timing. This review discusses the current literature regarding the utility, safety, and potential predictive value of surveillance biopsies for guiding post-transplant management in paediatric renal allograft recipients, as well as the viability of other potentially newer non-invasive strategies for renal allograft monitoring.

  3. [The role of percutaneous renal biopsy in kidney transplant].

    PubMed

    Manfro, R C; Lee, J Y; Lewgoy, J; Edelweiss, M I; Gonçalves, L F; Prompt, C A

    1994-01-01

    Percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) is an useful tool for diagnostic and therapeutic orientation in renal transplantation. PURPOSE--To evaluate the current role of PRB in post-transplant acute renal dysfunction (ARD) of renal allografts. METHODS--Sixty-five renal transplant patients were submitted to 95 valid renal biopsies with no major complications. RESULTS--There was disagreement between the clinical and the pathological diagnosis in 28 occasions (29.5%). In 36 cases (37.9%) the results of the pathological examination led to a modification in patient's management. These modifications were most commonly the avoidance or witholding of a steroid pulse (8 cases); nephrectomy of the renal allograft (8 cases); witholding or decrease of cyclosporine dosage (6 cases); giving a steroid pulse (5 cases) and giving antibiotics to treat acute pyelonephritis in 4 cases. The use of kidneys from cadaveric donors was significantly associated with an increased number of biopsies (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION--These results demonstrate that even though several less invasive procedures are currently employed, renal biopsy is still an indispensable method to the management of ARD in renal transplant patients.

  4. Kidney biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... may require a blood transfusion) Bleeding into the muscle, which might cause soreness Infection (small risk) Alternative Names Renal biopsy; Biopsy - kidney Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Renal biopsy References ...

  5. Clinicopathologic study of kidney biopsies in patients before or after liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Ayşen; Özdemir, Binnaz Handan; Taşlıca, Firdevs Zeynep; Özdemir, Fatma Nurhan; Kırnap, Mahir; Haberal, Mehmet

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the causes of kidney impairment associated with liver transplant in patients who had kidney biopsy before or after liver transplant. In 408 patients who had liver transplant from January 1990 to December 2012, there were 10 patients who had kidney biopsy (total, 19 kidney biopsies) for evaluation of kidney dysfunction. A retrospective review of clinical records and kidney biopsies was performed. There were 7 male and 3 female patients (median age at liver transplant, 43 y; range, 10 to 62 y). The most frequent reason for liver transplant were hepatitis B virus cirrhosis (4 patients). There were 3 patients who had a kidney transplant before or concurrent with liver transplant. Increased serum creatinine level was the most common clinical finding at the time of kidney biopsy. The median interval from liver transplant to kidney biopsy was 495 days (mean, 1025 d; range, 10-4980 d). The most common pathology in the kidney biopsies was immune complex glomerulonephritis (total, 7 patients: IgA nephropathy, 4 patients; lupus nephritis, 2 patients; membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, 1 patient). There were 4 patients who had allergic tubulointerstitial nephritis, 2 patients who had chronic calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity, and 1 patient who had karyomegalic nephropathy. There were 7 patients who died at mean 34 months (range, 1-70 mo) after liver transplant. The other 3 patients were alive at mean 128 months (range, 67-193 mo) after liver transplant and had a functioning liver graft and chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease after liver transplant has a major effect on mortality. The frequency of immune complex glomerulonephritis associated with liver transplant may be greater than previously recognized.

  6. Kidney Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the right diagnosis. What should a person do days before a kidney biopsy? Days before the procedure, ... procedure. What can a person expect on the day of the kidney biopsy? A person should arrive ...

  7. Sixteen Gauge biopsy needles are better and safer than 18 Gauge in native and transplant kidney biopsies.

    PubMed

    Peters, Björn; Mölne, Johan; Hadimeri, Henrik; Hadimeri, Ursula; Stegmayr, Bernd

    2017-02-01

    Background Kidney biopsies are essential for optimal diagnosis and treatment. Purpose To examine if quality and safety aspects differ between types and sizes of biopsy needles in native and transplant kidneys. Material and Methods A total of 1299 consecutive biopsies (1039 native and 260 transplant kidneys) were included. Diagnostic quality, needle size and type, clinical data and complications were registered. Eight-three percent of the data were prospective. Results In native kidney biopsies, 16 Gauge (G) needles compared to 18 G showed more glomeruli per pass (11 vs. 8, P <  0.001) with less complications. Sub-analysis in native kidney biopsies revealed that 18 G 19-mm side-notch needles resulted in more major (11.3% vs. 3%; odds ratio [OR], 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-12.3) and overall complications (12.4% vs. 4.8%; OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-7.1) in women than in men. If the physician had performed less compared to more than four native kidney biopsies per year, minor (3.5% vs. 1.4%; OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-6.2) and overall complications (11.5% vs. 7.4%; OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.5) were more common. In transplant kidney biopsies, 16 G needles compared to 18 G resulted in more glomeruli per pass (12 vs. 8, P <  0.001). No differences existed in frequency of biopsy complications. The localization of performing biopsies was not a risk factor to develop complications. Conclusion Kidney biopsies taken by 16 G needles result in better histological quality and lower frequency of complications compared to 18 G. For native kidney biopsies the performer of the biopsy should do at least four biopsies per year.

  8. Importance of Liver Biopsy Findings on Prognosis of Kidney Transplant Patients.

    PubMed

    Özgün, Gonca; Özdemir, Binnaz Handan; Tunca, Müzeyyen Zeyneb; Börcek, Pelin; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    Chronic hepatitis infection among kidney transplant recipients is not infrequent, with those with hepatitis C virus infection having worse survival. Here, we evaluated liver biopsy changes and its effects on prognosis in kidney transplant recipients. Patients with liver biopsies were selected from 1275 kidney transplant recipients who were treated at Başkent University from January 1990 to December 2012. Demographic and clinical findings were evaluated, including age, sex, liver biopsy findings, amyloid and hemosiderin accumulation, and patient survival. Among 1275 renal transplant patients, only 149 patients had liver biopsies. Of 149 patients, 68 patients (45.3%) had liver biopsy only before and 81 patients had liver biopsy after transplant, with 20 of the 81 patients also having biopsy before transplant. The 81 patients who had a liver biopsy after renal transplant were included in the study. In our patient group, mean follow-up was 166 ± 29 months, female-to-male ratio was 26/55, and mean age was 30.2 ± 9.87 years (range, 15-56 y). Only 2 of 81 liver biopsies (2.4%) were diagnosed as normal or nonspecific. Biopsy findings of the remaining 79 patients (97.6%) showed variable pathologies, including hepatocellular damage and minimal cholestatic changes in 29 patients (35.8%), chronic nonviral hepatitis in 9 (11.1%), and viral hepatitis in 41 (50.6%). The mean time between the first liver biopsy taken before transplant and second biopsy after transplant was 44.5 ± 38.0 months (range, 11-139 mo). Among 81 patients, 6 (7.4%) showed amyloid deposition and 13 (16.0%) showed hemosiderosis. Testing for viral infections is critical in transplant recipients. It is well known that these infections can affect the frequency of rejection episodes and also negatively affect survival in solidorgan transplant recipients. Livers should be evaluated by biopsy even if the variance in liver enzymes or serology is minimal.

  9. Pretransplant and protocol biopsies may help in defining short and mid-term kidney transplant outcome.

    PubMed

    Esposito, C; Migotto, C; Torreggiani, M; Maggi, N; Manini, A; Castoldi, F; Grosjean, F; Mangione, F; Abelli, M; Scaramuzzi, M L; Catucci, D; Dal Canton, A

    2012-09-01

    Although many variables may affect long-term graft survival no biomarker is available to identify donor kidney with poor quality and with inadequate short and long-term outcome. While in marginal donors pre-transplant renal biopsies are commonly performed to establish if donor kidneys are suitable for transplantation they are not performed in standard donors. In this study we assessed the relevance of pre-transplant morphological features on post-transplant renal function and evaluated the association between perioperative parameters with posttransplant histological and clinical findings. Kidney transplant recipients undergone pre-transplant and post transplant protocol biopsies at 1, 6, and 12 months were enrolled in the study. Perioperative and posttransplant clinical and biochemical parameters were recorded. Semiquantitative analysis of PAS stained kidney sections was used to determine the degree of lesions. Glomerular volume was measured by computed morphometry. A strong inverse correlation was found between donor age and renal graft function at 1, 6, and 12 months after transplantation. A prompt functional recovery was associated with a better renal function at 6 months and one year. Kidneys with higher glomerular volume demonstrated a lower serum creatinine at 1 month. Higher tubulo-interstitial grading at protocol biopsies was associated with a poor renal function at 1 month. Our findings confirm the importance of donor age in kidney transplant long-term outcome and demonstrate that pretransplant and protocol biopsies are valid options to determine graft outcome and to define therapeutic strategies and tailor immunosuppressive regimen for each patient.

  10. The Role of Procurement Biopsies in Acceptance Decisions for Kidneys Retrieved for Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Darren E.; Bista, Bipin R.; Salkowski, Nicholas; Snyder, Jon J.; Israni, Ajay K.; Crary, Gretchen S.; Rosendale, John D.; Matas, Arthur J.; Delmonico, Francis L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives There is a shortage of kidneys for transplant, and many patients on the deceased donor kidney transplant waiting list would likely benefit from kidneys that are currently being discarded. In the United States, the most common reason given for discarding kidneys retrieved for transplant is procurement biopsy results. This study aimed to compare biopsy results from discarded kidneys with discard attributed to biopsy findings, with biopsy results from comparable kidneys that were successfully transplanted. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this retrospective, observational, case-control study, biopsy reports were examined from 83 kidneys discarded in 2010 due to biopsy findings (cases), 83 contralateral transplanted kidneys from the same donor (contralateral controls), and 83 deceased donors randomly matched to cases by donor risk profile (randomly matched controls). A second procurement biopsy was obtained in 64 of 332 kidneys (19.3%). Results The quality of biopsy reports was low, with amounts of tubular atrophy, interstitial inflammation, arteriolar hyalinosis, and acute tubular necrosis often not indicated; 69% were wedge biopsies and 94% used frozen tissue. The correlation between first and second procurement biopsies was poor; only 25% of the variability (R2) in glomerulosclerosis was explained by biopsies being from the same kidney. The percentages of glomerulosclerosis overlapped substantially between cases, contralateral controls, and randomly matched controls: 17.1%±15.3%, 9.0%±6.6%, and 5.0%±5.9%, respectively. Of all biopsy findings, only glomerulosclerosis>20% was independently correlated with discard (cases versus contralateral controls; odds ratio, 15.09; 95% confidence interval, 2.47 to 92.41; P=0.003), suggesting that only this biopsy result was used in acceptance decisions. One-year graft survival was 79.5% and 90.7% in contralateral and randomly matched controls, respectively, versus 91.6% among all

  11. Kidney Transplant Rejection and Tissue Injury by Gene Profiling of Biopsies and Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Flechner, Stuart M.; Kurian, Sunil M.; Head, Steven R.; Sharp, Starlette M.; Whisenant, Thomas C.; Zhang, Jie; Chismar, Jeffrey D.; Horvath, Steve; Mondala, Tony; Gilmartin, Timothy; Cook, Daniel J.; Kay, Steven A.; Walker, John R.; Salomon, Daniel R.

    2007-01-01

    A major challenge for kidney transplantation is balancing the need for immunosuppression to prevent rejection, while minimizing drug-induced toxicities. We used DNA microarrays (HG-U95Av2 GeneChips, Affymetrix) to determine gene expression profiles for kidney biopsies and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) in transplant patients including normal donor kidneys, well-functioning transplants without rejection, kidneys undergoing acute rejection, and transplants with renal dysfunction without rejection. We developed a data analysis schema based on expression signal determination, class comparison and prediction, hierarchical clustering, statistical power analysis and real-time quantitative PCR validation. We identified distinct gene expression signatures for both biopsies and PBLs that correlated significantly with each of the different classes of transplant patients. This is the most complete report to date using commercial arrays to identify unique expression signatures in transplant biopsies distinguishing acute rejection, acute dysfunction without rejection and well-functioning transplants with no rejection history. We demonstrate for the first time the successful application of high density DNA chip analysis of PBL as a diagnostic tool for transplantation. The significance of these results, if validated in a multicenter prospective trial, would be the establishment of a metric based on gene expression signatures for monitoring the immune status and immunosuppression of transplanted patients. PMID:15307835

  12. Kidney transplant rejection and tissue injury by gene profiling of biopsies and peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Flechner, Stuart M; Kurian, Sunil M; Head, Steven R; Sharp, Starlette M; Whisenant, Thomas C; Zhang, Jie; Chismar, Jeffrey D; Horvath, Steve; Mondala, Tony; Gilmartin, Timothy; Cook, Daniel J; Kay, Steven A; Walker, John R; Salomon, Daniel R

    2004-09-01

    A major challenge for kidney transplantation is balancing the need for immunosuppression to prevent rejection, while minimizing drug-induced toxicities. We used DNA microarrays (HG-U95Av2 GeneChips, Affymetrix) to determine gene expression profiles for kidney biopsies and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) in transplant patients including normal donor kidneys, well-functioning transplants without rejection, kidneys undergoing acute rejection, and transplants with renal dysfunction without rejection. We developed a data analysis schema based on expression signal determination, class comparison and prediction, hierarchical clustering, statistical power analysis and real-time quantitative PCR validation. We identified distinct gene expression signatures for both biopsies and PBLs that correlated significantly with each of the different classes of transplant patients. This is the most complete report to date using commercial arrays to identify unique expression signatures in transplant biopsies distinguishing acute rejection, acute dysfunction without rejection and well-functioning transplants with no rejection history. We demonstrate for the first time the successful application of high density DNA chip analysis of PBL as a diagnostic tool for transplantation. The significance of these results, if validated in a multicenter prospective trial, would be the establishment of a metric based on gene expression signatures for monitoring the immune status and immunosuppression of transplanted patients.

  13. Kidney Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney transplant Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A kidney transplant is a surgical procedure to place a healthy kidney ... bloodstream via a machine (dialysis) or a kidney transplant to stay alive. Mayo Clinic's approach . Mayo Clinic ...

  14. Outpatient renal needle biopsy of the transplanted kidney: safety profile.

    PubMed

    Petrone, H; Frapiccini, M G; Skare, R; Baran, M

    2011-11-01

    Since May 2005, we began performing renal graft biopsies as outpatient procedures when the patient's condition did not require hospitalization. To evaluate the safety profile of the 137 procedures performed in 111 patients, we performed a retrospective analysis of complications after all biopsies between 4 May 2005 and 6 January 6, 2011. The analysis focused on types of complications as well as needs for hospitalization with length of stay, for blood transfusion or for a further intervention. There were complications in 10.9% of procedures (n = 15) with 8% requiring hospitalization (n = 11). The complications were: gross hematuria (n = 10) including blockage of urinary flow (n = 2) with one subject requiring urologic intervention, and one patient experienced severe pain at the puncture site. Neither renal graft nor patient survival was threatened; there was no hemodynamic decompensation needing blood transfusions. The average hospital stay was 2.27 days (range = 1-8). Outpatient renal biopsies in 111 patients (137 procedures) had an 8% incidence of complications requiring admission and an average length of hospitalization of 2.27 days. Gross hematuria the most frequent problem, in no way compromised patient or graft survival showing it to be a safe outpatient procedure.

  15. Kidney transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Renal transplant; Transplant - kidney ... Barry JM, Conlin MJ. In: Renal transplantation. Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 44. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes ( ...

  16. Clinical and molecular significance of microvascular inflammation in transplant kidney biopsies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anjali; Broin, Pilib Ó; Bao, Yi; Pullman, James; Kamal, Layla; Ajaimy, Maria; Lubetzky, Michelle; Colovai, Adriana; Schwartz, Daniel; de Boccardo, Graciela; Golden, Aaron; Akalin, Enver

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) are continuously evolving. Here we investigated the clinical and molecular significance of different Banff microvascular inflammation (MVI) scores in transplant kidney biopsies. A total of 356 patients with clinically indicated kidney transplant biopsies were classified into three groups based on MVI scores of 0, 1, 2, or more for Groups 1-3, respectively. Gene expression profiles were assessed using arrays on a representative subset of 93 patients. The incidence of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies was increased from 25% in Group 1 to 36% in Group 2 and to 54% in Group 3. Acute and chronic AMR were significantly more frequent in Group 3 (15% and 35%) compared with the Group 2 (3% and 15%) and Group 1 (0% and 5%), respectively. Gene expression profiles showed increased interferon-γ and rejection-induced, cytotoxic and regulatory T-cell, natural killer cell-associated and donor-specific antibody (DSA)-selective transcripts in Group 3 compared with Groups 1 and 2. There was no significant difference in gene expression profiles between the Groups 1 and 2. Increased intragraft expression of DSA-selective transcripts was found in the biopsies of C4d- Group 3 patients. Thus, an MVI score of 2 or more was significantly associated with a histological diagnosis of acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection. Hence, increased intragraft DSA-selective gene transcripts may be used as molecular markers for AMR, especially in C4d- biopsies.

  17. Validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of mycophenolic acid in human kidney transplant biopsies.

    PubMed

    Md Dom, Zaipul I; Noll, Benjamin D; Coller, Janet K; Somogyi, Andrew A; Russ, Graeme R; Hesselink, Dennis A; van Gelder, Teun; Sallustio, Benedetta C

    2014-01-15

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) has a low therapeutic index and large inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability necessitating therapeutic drug monitoring to individualise dosing after transplantation. There is an ongoing discrepancy as to whether plasma MPA concentrations sufficiently predict kidney rejection or toxicity and whether immunosuppressant concentrations within the graft tissue may better predict transplant outcomes. The aim of the study was to develop an LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of MPA concentrations in human kidney biopsies taken as part of routine clinical procedures. A total of 4 surplus human kidney biopsies obtained from 4 different kidney transplant recipients were available to use for this study. MPA was also quantified in 2 kidney samples from rats administered MPA to assess tissue extraction reproducibility. Human kidney biopsies and rat kidneys were homogenised mechanically and underwent liquid-liquid extraction before analysis by LC-MS/MS. MPA-free human kidney tissue was used in calibrators and quality control samples. Analyte detection was achieved from multiple reaction monitoring of the ammonium adducts of both MPA (m/z 321.1→207.3) and N-phthaloyl-l-phenylalanine (PPA, internal standard, m/z 296.2→250.2) using positive electrospray ionisation. The method was linear (calibration curves R(2)>0.99, n=10), precise, and accurate with coefficients of variation and bias less than 15%. Extraction efficiencies for MPA and PPA were approximately 97% and 86%, respectively, and matrix effects were minimal. In 4 kidney transplant recipients, tissue MPA concentrations ranged from 1.3 to 7.7ng/mg of tissue, however, the correlation between blood (C0) and tissue MPA concentrations could not be established. The method was successfully applied to the quantification of MPA in human kidney biopsies without the need to alter current clinical protocols.

  18. The diagnostic yield and complications of open lung biopsies in kidney transplant patients with pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Tomotani, Daniere Yurie Vieira; Pacheco, Eduardo Souza; de Sandes-Freitas, Tainá Veras; Viana, Laila Almeida; de Oliveira Pontes, Edgar Porto; Tamura, Nikkei; Tedesco-Silva, Hélio; Machado, Flavia Ribeiro; Freitas, Flávio Geraldo Rezende

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of open lung biopsy (OLB) in determining the specific diagnosis and the related complications in patients with undiagnosed diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. Methods This single center, retrospective study included adult kidney transplant patients who underwent OLB. The patients had diffuse pulmonary infiltrates without definitive diagnoses and failed to respond to empiric antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the number of specific diagnoses, changes in treatment and the occurrence of complications in these patients. A logistic regression was used to determine which variables were predictors of hospital mortality. Results From April 2010 to April 2014, 87 patients consecutively underwent OLB. A specific diagnosis was reached in 74 (85.1%) patients. In 46 patients (53%), their therapeutic management was changed after the OLB results. Twenty-five (28.7%) patients had complications related to the OLB. The hospital mortality rate was 25.2%. Age, SAPS3 score and complications related to the procedure were independent predictors of all-cause mortality. Conclusions OLB is a high-risk procedure with a high diagnostic yield in kidney transplant patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates who did not have a definitive diagnosis and who failed to respond to empiric antibiotic treatment. Complications related to OLB were common and were independently associated with intra-hospital mortality. PMID:28203420

  19. A Probabilistic Approach to Histologic Diagnosis of Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Kidney Transplant Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Halloran, P F; Famulski, K S; Chang, J

    2017-01-01

    Histologic diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) in kidney transplant biopsies uses lesion score cutoffs such as 0 versus >0 rather than actual scores and requires donor-specific antibody (DSA); however, cutoffs lose information, and DSA is not always reliable. Using microarray-derived molecular ABMR scores as a histology-independent estimate of ABMR in 703 biopsies, we reassessed criteria for ABMR to determine relative importance of various lesions, the utility of equations using actual scores rather than cutoffs, and the potential for diagnosing ABMR when DSA is unknown or negative. We confirmed that the important features for ABMR diagnosis were peritubular capillaritis (ptc), glomerulitis (g), glomerular double contours, DSA and C4d staining, but we questioned some features: arterial fibrosis, vasculitis, acute tubular injury, and sum of ptc+g scores. Regression equations using lesion scores predicted molecular ABMR more accurately than score cutoffs (area under the curve 0.85-0.86 vs. 0.75). DSA positivity improved accuracy, but regression equations predicted ABMR with moderate accuracy when DSA was unknown. Some biopsies without detectable DSA had high probability of ABMR by regression, although most had HLA antibody. We concluded that regression equations using lesion scores plus DSA maximized diagnostic accuracy and can estimate probable ABMR when DSA is unknown or undetectable.

  20. Microarray diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection in kidney transplant biopsies: an international prospective study (INTERCOM).

    PubMed

    Halloran, P F; Pereira, A B; Chang, J; Matas, A; Picton, M; De Freitas, D; Bromberg, J; Serón, D; Sellarés, J; Einecke, G; Reeve, J

    2013-11-01

    In a reference set of 403 kidney transplant biopsies, we recently developed a microarray-based test that diagnoses antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) by assigning an ABMR score. To validate the ABMR score and assess its potential impact on practice, we performed the present prospective INTERCOM study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01299168) in 300 new biopsies (264 patients) from six centers: Baltimore, Barcelona, Edmonton, Hannover, Manchester and Minneapolis. We assigned ABMR scores using the classifier created in the reference set and compared it to conventional assessment as documented in the pathology reports. INTERCOM documented uncertainty in conventional assessment: In 41% of biopsies where ABMR features were noted, the recorded diagnoses did not mention ABMR. The ABMR score correlated with ABMR histologic lesions and donor-specific antibodies, but not with T cell-mediated rejection lesions. The agreement between ABMR scores and conventional assessment was identical to that in the reference set (accuracy 85%). The ABMR score was more strongly associated with failure than conventional assessment, and when the ABMR score and conventional assessment disagreed, only the ABMR score was associated with early progression to failure. INTERCOM confirms the need to reduce uncertainty in the diagnosis of ABMR, and demonstrates the potential of the ABMR score to impact practice.

  1. Laparoscopic Biopsies in Pancreas Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Uva, P D; Odorico, J S; Giunippero, A; Cabrera, I C; Gallo, A; Leon, L R; Minue, E; Toniolo, F; Gonzalez, I; Chuluyan, E; Casadei, D H

    2017-08-01

    As there is no precise laboratory test or imaging study for detection of pancreas allograft rejection, there is increasing interest in obtaining pancreas tissue for diagnosis. Pancreas allograft biopsies are most commonly performed percutaneously, transcystoscopically, or endoscopically, yet pancreas transplant surgeons often lack the skills to perform these types of biopsies. We have performed 160 laparoscopic pancreas biopsies in 95 patients. There were 146 simultaneous kidney-pancreas biopsies and 14 pancreas-only biopsies due to pancreas alone, kidney loss, or extraperitoneal kidney. Biopsies were performed for graft dysfunction (89) or per protocol (71). In 13 cases, an additional laparoscopic procedure was performed at the same operation. The pancreas diagnostic tissue yield was 91.2%; however, the pancreas could not be visualized in eight cases (5%) and in 6 cases the tissue sample was nondiagnostic (3.8%). The kidney tissue yield was 98.6%. There were four patients with intraoperative complications requiring laparotomy (2.5%) with two additional postoperative complications. Half of all these complications were kidney related. There were no episodes of pancreatic enzyme leak and there were no graft losses related to the procedure. We conclude that laparoscopic kidney and pancreas allograft biopsies can be safely performed with very high tissue yields. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  2. Recurrent glomerular disease after kidney transplantation: an update of selected areas and the impact of protocol biopsy.

    PubMed

    Morozumi, Kunio; Takeda, Asami; Otsuka, Yasuhiro; Horike, Keiji; Gotoh, Norihiko; Watarai, Yoshihiko

    2014-06-01

    Recurrence of native kidney disease following kidney transplantation affects between 10% and 20% of patients, and accounts for up to 8% of graft failures. In a considerable number of recipients with transplant glomerulopathy, it is impossible to distinguish between recurrent and de novo types. An accurate estimate of the incidence of recurrence is difficult due to limitations in the diagnosis of recurrent glomerulonephritis. De novo glomerular lesions may be misclassified if histological confirmation of the patient's native kidney disease is lacking. Asymptomatic histological recurrence in renal allografts may be missed if protocol biopsies are not available. Studies based on protocol biopsy are pivotal to accurately estimate the incidence of recurrence. Many factors are known to influence recurrence of kidney disease after transplantation, including the type and severity of the original disease, age at onset, interval from onset to end-stage renal disease, and clinical course of the previous transplantation. Early recognition of recurrence is possible in several glomerular diseases. Factors such as the existence of circulating permeability factors, circulating urokinase receptor and anti-phospholipase A2 receptor antibody, as well as disorders of complement regulatory proteins like factor I mutation and factor H mutation factors are expected to be useful predictors of recurrence. Peculiar clinical course of atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome after kidney transplantation is an informative sign of recurrent glomerular disease. These factors play pivotal roles in the development of recurrence of certain types of glomerulopathies. Understanding the pathogenesis of recurrent glomerulonephritis is critical to optimize prevention as well as treat individual cases of recurrent glomerulonephritis. Subclinical recurrence of IgA nephropathy after kidney transplantation is well recognized. Only protocol biopsies of clinically silent recipient can provide the accurate

  3. Prognostic utility of preimplantation kidney biopsy from deceased older donors in first year post-transplant renal function.

    PubMed

    Amenábar, Juan J; Camacho, Jhon A; Gómez-Larrambe, Nerea; Visus, Teresa; Pijoan, José I; González del Tánago, Jaime; Zárraga, Sofía; García-Olaverri, Jorge; Gaínza, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    Preimplantation renal biopsy provides potentially valuable information about post-transplant renal function. To assess the prognostic value of preimplantation kidney biopsy from older donors in determining 1-year post-transplant estimated glomerular filtration rate MDRD-4 (eGFR). We evaluated a cohort of 124 renal transplant recipients from deceased donors ≥60 years old, performed at our center between March 2008 and May 2012. Biopsies were assessed by applying the score proposed by O'Valle et al. The overall score was stratified into 3 levels: 0-3, 4-5 and 6-8 points. Kidneys scoring > 8 points were discarded. A total of 77% of the donors were ≥70 years. One year post-transplant, mean eGFR (SD) was lower in transplant recipients with 6-8 points (38.5 [14.1] mL/min/1.73m(2)) than in the group scoring 4-5 points (46.3 [15.7] [p=0.03]) and the group scoring 0-3 (49.6 [12.5] [P=.04]). Seven patients (19%) had eGFR <30mL/min/1.73m(2) 1 year post-transplant in group 6-8 vs. 8 (14%) in group 4-5 and none in group 0-3. In the logistic regression, OR (95% IC), to determine patients with 1-year post-transplant eGFR (<30mL/min/1.73m(2)), delayed graft function (6.3 [1.9-21.3]) and acute rejection (5.8 [1.1-31]), were significant. The adjusted OR of biopsy score group 6-8 vs. 0-5, was 2.2 (0.7-7.3). Allografts with higher pathologic score in preimplantation renal biopsy were associated with a worse 1-year post-transplant eGFR. Delayed graft function and acute rejection were significant risk factors for 1-year post-transplant low eGFR. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Raman-based detection of hydroxyethyl starch in kidney allograft biopsies as a potential marker of allograft quality in kidney transplant recipients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuiblet, Vincent; Fere, Michael; Bankole, Ezechiel; Wynckel, Alain; Gobinet, Cyril; Birembaut, Philippe; Piot, Olivier; Rieu, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    In brain-dead donor resuscitation, hydroxyethyl starch (HES) use has been associated with presence of osmotic-nephrosis-like lesions in kidney transplant recipients. Our aim was to determine whether the presence of HES in protocol renal graft biopsies at three months (M3) after transplantation is associated with renal graft quality. According to the HES administered to the donor during the procurement procedure, two groups of patients were defined according graft exposition to HES: HES group, (N = 20) and control group (N = 6). Detection and relative quantification of HES was performed by Raman spectroscopy microimaging on M3 protocol renal graft biopsies. Statistical analyses were used to investigate the association between Raman data and graft characteristics. HES spectral signal was revealed negative in the control group, whereas it was positive in 40% of biopsies from the HES group. In the HES group, a stronger HES signal was associated with a lower risk of graft failure measured by the Kidney Donor Risk Index (KDRI) and was correlated with the allograft kidney function. Thus, HES accumulation in donor kidney, as probed by Raman biophotonic technique, is correlated with the quality of donor kidney and consequently the graft renal function and graft survival.

  5. Raman-based detection of hydroxyethyl starch in kidney allograft biopsies as a potential marker of allograft quality in kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Vuiblet, Vincent; Fere, Michael; Bankole, Ezechiel; Wynckel, Alain; Gobinet, Cyril; Birembaut, Philippe; Piot, Olivier; Rieu, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    In brain-dead donor resuscitation, hydroxyethyl starch (HES) use has been associated with presence of osmotic-nephrosis-like lesions in kidney transplant recipients. Our aim was to determine whether the presence of HES in protocol renal graft biopsies at three months (M3) after transplantation is associated with renal graft quality. According to the HES administered to the donor during the procurement procedure, two groups of patients were defined according graft exposition to HES: HES group, (N = 20) and control group (N = 6). Detection and relative quantification of HES was performed by Raman spectroscopy microimaging on M3 protocol renal graft biopsies. Statistical analyses were used to investigate the association between Raman data and graft characteristics. HES spectral signal was revealed negative in the control group, whereas it was positive in 40% of biopsies from the HES group. In the HES group, a stronger HES signal was associated with a lower risk of graft failure measured by the Kidney Donor Risk Index (KDRI) and was correlated with the allograft kidney function. Thus, HES accumulation in donor kidney, as probed by Raman biophotonic technique, is correlated with the quality of donor kidney and consequently the graft renal function and graft survival. PMID:27608775

  6. Raman-based detection of hydroxyethyl starch in kidney allograft biopsies as a potential marker of allograft quality in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Vuiblet, Vincent; Fere, Michael; Bankole, Ezechiel; Wynckel, Alain; Gobinet, Cyril; Birembaut, Philippe; Piot, Olivier; Rieu, Philippe

    2016-09-09

    In brain-dead donor resuscitation, hydroxyethyl starch (HES) use has been associated with presence of osmotic-nephrosis-like lesions in kidney transplant recipients. Our aim was to determine whether the presence of HES in protocol renal graft biopsies at three months (M3) after transplantation is associated with renal graft quality. According to the HES administered to the donor during the procurement procedure, two groups of patients were defined according graft exposition to HES: HES group, (N = 20) and control group (N = 6). Detection and relative quantification of HES was performed by Raman spectroscopy microimaging on M3 protocol renal graft biopsies. Statistical analyses were used to investigate the association between Raman data and graft characteristics. HES spectral signal was revealed negative in the control group, whereas it was positive in 40% of biopsies from the HES group. In the HES group, a stronger HES signal was associated with a lower risk of graft failure measured by the Kidney Donor Risk Index (KDRI) and was correlated with the allograft kidney function. Thus, HES accumulation in donor kidney, as probed by Raman biophotonic technique, is correlated with the quality of donor kidney and consequently the graft renal function and graft survival.

  7. Systematic kidney biopsies after acute allograft pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Cartery, Claire; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Esposito, Laure; Sallusto, Federico; Guitard, Joelle; Cardeau-Desangles, Isabelle; Cointault, Olivier; Game, Xavier; Rostaing, Lionel; Kamar, Nassim

    2013-06-01

    Scarce data exist regarding the effect of acute graft pyelonephritis on kidney histology after a kidney transplant. This study sought to assess the kidney histology at 1 month, and kidney function at 1 year, after acute graft pyelonephritis in kidney transplant patients. All kidney transplant patients with acute graft pyelonephritis between October 2006, and December 2008, underwent a kidney biopsy 1 month later (n=28). Histologic findings were compared with those observed in a control group (n=28) who underwent a protocol kidney biopsy at 1 year posttransplant and did not present with acute graft pyelonephritis. Patients were matched according to age, sex, and immunosuppressive regimen. Kidney function was impaired by the acute graft pyelonephritis episodes at the time of biopsy. In 40% of patients, the estimated glomerular filtration rate did not return to baseline by 1 month after acute graft pyelonephritis and remained impaired thereafter. Three patients had features of acute rejection. Tubulitis was seen more frequently in the acute graft pyelonephritis group, especially in patients in whom estimated glomerular filtration rate did not completely recover by 1 month after acute graft pyelonephritis. Patients with acute graft pyelonephritis who had inflammatory infiltrate of > 20% 1 month after acute graft pyelonephritis had worse kidney function 1 year later. After transplant, when kidney function remains impaired 1 month after acute graft pyelonephritis, kidney biopsies allowed graft rejection diagnosis and predicted kidney function recovery.

  8. BIOPSY-PROVEN BK VIRUS NEPHROPATHY WITHOUT DETECTABLE BK VIREMIA IN A ONE-YEAR POST-KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT.

    PubMed

    Ruangkanchanasetr, Prajej; Pumchandh, Norawee; Satirapoj, Bancha; Termmathurapoj, Sumeth; Pongthanapisith, Viroj

    2015-07-01

    BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) is an important clinical problem in kidney transplant (KT) recipients. The sequence of disease is usually viruria, viremia and then nephropathy. Diagnosis of BK virus (BKV) infection includes checking BKV DNA in the urine, in the plasma and histology on renal biopsy. This last method is used to diagnose BKVN. We describe a KT patient with BKVN without detectable BK viremia. A 62-year-old female with hypertensive nephropathy underwent renal transplant from a living relative donor in December 2011. Fourteen months after transplantation, her serum creatinine(SCr) rose up from 1.2 to 1.6 mg/dl with biopsy-proven acute antibody-mediated and cellular rejection. After pulse methylprednisolone, plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin, her SCr decreased to baseline but she subsequently developed cytomegalovirus infection with pancytopenia and transaminitis. The SCr rose to 1.9 mg/dl despite ganciclovir treatment. Renal ultrasound and antegrade pyelogram showed partial obstruction of the proximal ureter with moderate hydronephrosis. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for BKV DNA was negative (less than 10 copies/ml). A renal biopsy was performed and the pathology revealed viral cytopathic changes in the tubular epithelium with interstitial inflammation. The renal biopsy also showed BKV nucleic acid sequences by in-situ hybridization confirming BKVN. Immunosuppression regimen was changed to cyclosporine, low-dose prednisolone and leflunomide. A temporary percutaneous nephrostomy was performed. Her renal function improved within one week. The diagnosis of BKVN should be considered in a KT recipient with a rising SCr with or without BK viremia and should be made by renal biopsy.

  9. Hepatitis C and Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Marco; Cockwell, Paul; Neuberger, James

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is relatively common among patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) on dialysis and kidney transplant recipients. HCV infection in hemodialysis patients is associated with an increased mortality due to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The severity of hepatitis C-related liver disease in kidney transplant candidates may predict patient and graft survival after transplant. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard in the assessment of liver fibrosis in this setting. Kidney transplantation, not haemodialysis, seems to be the best treatment for HCV+ve patients with ESKD. Transplantation of kidneys from HCV+ve donors restricted to HCV+ve recipients is safe and associated with a reduction in the waiting time. Simultaneous kidney/liver transplantation (SKL) should be considered for kidney transplant candidates with HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis. Treatment of HCV is more complex in hemodialysis patients, whereas treatment of HCV recurrence in SLK recipients appears effective and safe. PMID:21755059

  10. The Effect of Cortex/Medulla Proportions on Molecular Diagnoses in Kidney Transplant Biopsies: Rejection and Injury Can Be Assessed in Medulla.

    PubMed

    Madill-Thomsen, K S; Wiggins, R C; Eskandary, F; Böhmig, G A; Halloran, P F

    2017-08-01

    Histologic assessment of kidney transplant biopsies relies on cortex rather than medulla, but for microarray studies, the proportion cortex in a biopsy is typically unknown and could affect the molecular readings. The present study aimed to develop a molecular estimate of proportion cortex in biopsies and examine its effect on molecular diagnoses. Microarrays from 26 kidney transplant biopsies divided into cortex and medulla components and processed separately showed that many of the most significant differences were in glomerular genes (e.g. NPHS2, NPHS1, CLIC5, PTPRO, PLA2R1, PLCE1, PODXL, and REN). Using NPHS2 (podocin) to estimate proportion cortex, we examined whether proportion cortex influenced molecular assessment in the molecular microscope diagnostic system. In 1190 unselected kidney transplant indication biopsies (Clinicaltrials.govNCT01299168), only 11% had <50% cortex. Molecular scores for antibody-mediated rejection, T cell-mediated rejection, and injury were independent of proportion cortex. Rejection was diagnosed in many biopsies that were mostly or all medulla. Agreement in molecular diagnoses in paired cortex/medulla samples (23/26) was similar to biological replicates (32/37). We conclude that NPHS2 expression can estimate proportion cortex; that proportion cortex has little influence on molecular diagnosis of rejection; and that, although histology cannot assess medulla, rejection does occur in medulla as well as cortex. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. [Kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Talbot-Wright, R; Alcaraz, A; Carretero, P; Alvarez, R; Vilardell, J; Ictech, S; Quiroga, G

    1990-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 639 Renal Transplants (RT) performed between January 1st 1978 and December 31st 1988, 75 Renal Transplanctectomies (RTX) were carried out. Of those, fifty-seven (76%) were due to immunological causes, 10 (13.3%) to vascular complications, 7 (9.3%) to urological problems and 1 (1.3%) to deep infection. The time elapsed between RTX and RT was as follows: 25 were performed earlier than 6 weeks, 17 between 6 weeks to 6 months, and 33 after 6 months. The higher number of complications did not happened, as it is frequently described, in the first group; on the contrary, it fell in the group that had been transplanted longer. There were 13 immunologically caused renal rhexis, 5 of which were RTX, another 5 were operated on and diagnosed at perioperation, and immediately received the appropriate treatment so they were able to keep their kidney, and finally, 3 patients were diagnosed a rejection with renal rhexis, ecographically confirmed. These patients were given only medical treatment, which was enough to allow jugulation of the picture. RTX techniques used were: extracapsular in 28 cases and intracapsular in 47. Surgical approach, except for 2 cases of simultaneous kidney and pancreas transplantation, was extraperitoneal.

  12. Biopsy transcriptome expression profiling to identify kidney transplants at risk of chronic injury: a multicentre, prospective study

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Philip J; Zhang, Weijia; Menon, Madhav C; Yi, Zhengzi; Schröppel, Bernd; Gallon, Lorenzo; Luan, Yi; Rosales, Ivy A; Ge, Yongchao; Losic, Bojan; Xi, Caixia; Woytovich, Christopher; Keung, Karen L; Wei, Chengguo; Greene, Ilana; Overbey, Jessica; Bagiella, Emilia; Najafian, Nader; Samaniego, Milagros; Djamali, Arjang; Alexander, Stephen I; Nankivell, Brian J; Chapman, Jeremy R; Smith, Rex Neal; Colvin, Robert; Murphy, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Chronic injury in kidney transplants remains a major cause of allograft loss. The aim of this study was to identify a gene set capable of predicting renal allografts at risk of progressive injury due to fibrosis. Methods This Genomics of Chronic Allograft Rejection (GoCAR) study is a prospective, multicentre study. We prospectively collected biopsies from renal allograft recipients (n=204) with stable renal function 3 months after transplantation. We used microarray analysis to investigate gene expression in 159 of these tissue samples. We aimed to identify genes that correlated with the Chronic Allograft Damage Index (CADI) score at 12 months, but not fibrosis at the time of the biopsy. We applied a penalised regression model in combination with permutation-based approach to derive an optimal gene set to predict allograft fibrosis. The GoCAR study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00611702. Findings We identified a set of 13 genes that was independently predictive for the development of fibrosis at 1 year (ie, CADI-12 ≥2). The gene set had high predictive capacity (area under the curve [AUC] 0·967), which was superior to that of baseline clinical variables (AUC 0·706) and clinical and pathological variables (AUC 0·806). Furthermore routine pathological variables were unable to identify which histologically normal allografts would progress to fibrosis (AUC 0·754), whereas the predictive gene set accurately discriminated between transplants at high and low risk of progression (AUC 0·916). The 13 genes also accurately predicted early allograft loss (AUC 0·842 at 2 years and 0·844 at 3 years). We validated the predictive value of this gene set in an independent cohort from the GoCAR study (n=45, AUC 0·866) and two independent, publically available expression datasets (n=282, AUC 0·831 and n=24, AUC 0·972). Interpretation Our results suggest that this set of 13 genes could be used to identify kidney transplant recipients at

  13. The Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) of Marginal Donors Allocated by Standardized Pre-Transplant Donor Biopsy Assessment: Distribution and Association with Graft Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gandolfini, I.; Buzio, C.; Zanelli, P.; Palmisano, A.; Cremaschi, E.; Vaglio, A.; Piotti, G.; Melfa, L.; La Manna, G.; Feliciangeli, G.; Cappuccilli, M.; Scolari, M.P.; Capelli, I.; Panicali, L.; Baraldi, O.; Stefoni, S.; Buscaroli, A.; Ridolfi, L.; D'Errico, A.; Cappelli, G.; Bonucchi, D.; Rubbiani, E.; Albertazzi, A.; Mehrotra, A.; Cravedi, P.; Maggiore, U.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-transplant donor biopsy (PTDB)-based marginal-donor allocation systems to single or dual renal transplantation could increase the use of organs with Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) in the highest range (e.g. >80 or >90), whose discard rate approximates 50% in the US. To test this hypothesis, we retrospectively calculated the KDPI and analyzed the outcomes of 442 marginal kidney transplants (340 single transplants: 278 with a PTDB Remuzzi score <4 [median KDPI:87; interquartile range(IQR):78-94] and 62 with a score =4 [median KDPI:87; IQR:76-93]; 102 dual transplants [median KDPI: 93; IQR:86-96]) and 248 single standard transplant controls [median KDPI:36; IQR:18-51]. PTDB-based allocation of marginal grafts led to a limited discard rate of 15% for kidneys with KDPI of 80-90 and of 37% for kidneys with a KDPI of 91-100. Although 1-year eGFRs were significantly lower in recipients of marginal kidneys (-9.3, -17.9, and -18.8ml/min, for dual transplants, single kidneys with PTDB score <4, and =4, respectively; P<0.001), graft survival (median follow-up 3.3 years) was similar between marginal and standard kidney transplants (hazard ratio: 1.20 [95% confidence interval: 0.80 to 1.79; P=0.38]). In conclusion, PTDB-based allocation allows the safe transplantation of kidneys with KDPI in the highest range that may otherwise be discarded. PMID:25155294

  14. [Automatic ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy of the transplanted kidney. Risks and uses].

    PubMed

    Höppner, W; Zantvoort, F A; Lison, A E; Dreikorn, K

    1994-09-01

    Renal allograft biopsy is very valuable in the assessment of graft dysfunction, but complications are frequent and graft loss has even been described. Between 1991 and 1993, a total of 133 graft biopsies were done. We used an automated biopsy gun with a fine-caliber core needle (diameter 1.2 mm) under ultrasound guidance. Histological diagnosis was possible in 95.5% of the biopsies. On average 5.5 glomerula per specimen were obtained. This method proved to be safe, surgical intervention becoming necessary in 2 cases (1.5%).

  15. Usefulness of Multiparametric Ultrasound for Evaluating Structural Abnormality of Transplanted Kidney: Can We Predict Histologic Abnormality on Renal Biopsy in Advance?

    PubMed

    Yoo, Moon Gyu; Jung, Dae Chul; Oh, Young Taik; Park, Sung Yoon; Han, Kyunghwa

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between microscopic abnormalities of transplanted kidneys and sonography-based imaging biomarkers, including elasticity, venous impedance index, arterial resistive index, and size. Between 2011 and 2015, 159 recipients underwent sonography and biopsy of a transplanted kidney at our institution; 104 adult patients were included in this study. The maximal longitudinal length on gray-scale images, arterial resistive index, and venous impedance index on Doppler images and shear wave velocity on acoustic radiation force impulse imaging or Young modulus on supersonic shear imaging were measured before biopsy. The Banff criteria (2009 update), an international standardized classification and scoring system for renal allograft pathology, were used to evaluate the biopsy samples. Sonography parameters and clinical variables were analyzed with individual and summed Banff scores. Spearman rank correlation coefficients and ordinal logistic regression showed no association between sonography parameters and summed Banff scores. Only the interval between transplant and biopsy was significantly associated with summed Banff scores (p < 0.05). Univariate logistic regression analysis with individual Banff scores showed associations of one Banff feature with arterial resistive index, three with venous impedance index, and six with interval between transplant and biopsy (p < 0.05). Sonoelastography parameters were not associated with any individual Banff score. Neither sonoelastography parameter was associated with any histopathologic change of renal allografts. Although arterial resistive index and venous impedance index were related to a few individual Banff scores, length of time between transplant and biopsy showed stronger correlation than any imaging biomarkers with renal allograft deterioration.

  16. Early changes in scores of chronic damage on transplant kidney protocol biopsies reflect donor characteristics, but not future graft function.

    PubMed

    Caplin, Ben; Veighey, Kristin; Mahenderan, Arundathi; Manook, Miriam; Henry, Joanne; Nitsch, Dorothea; Harber, Mark; Dupont, Peter; Wheeler, David C; Jones, Gareth; Fernando, Bimbi; Howie, Alexander J; Veitch, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The amount of irreversible injury on renal allograft biopsy predicts function, but little is known about the early evolution of this damage. In a single-center cohort, we examined the relationship between donor-, recipient-, and transplantation-associated factors and change in a morphometric index of chronic damage (ICD) between protocol biopsies performed at implantation and at 2-3 months. We then investigated whether early delta ICD predicted subsequent biochemical outcomes. We found little evidence to support differences between the study group, who had undergone serial biopsies, and a contemporaneous control group, who had not. In allografts with serial biopsies (n = 162), there was an increase in ICD between implantation (median: 2%, IQR:0-8) and 2-3 months post-transplant (median 8% IQR:4-15; p < 0.0001). Donation from younger or live donors was independently associated with smaller early post-transplant increases in ICD. There was no evidence for a difference in delta ICD between donation after cardiac death vs. donation after brain death, nor association with length of cold ischemia. After adjustment for GFR at the time of the second biopsy, delta ICD after three months did not predict allograft function at one yr. These findings suggest that graft damage develops shortly after transplantation and reflects donor factors, but does not predict future biochemical outcomes.

  17. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma from a native kidney of a renal transplant patient diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Alastal, Yaseen; Hammad, Tariq A; Rafiq, Ehsan; Nawras, Mohamad; Alaradi, Osama

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) biopsy sampling of enlarged lymph nodes is increasingly used to diagnose metastatic tumors, especially of the gastrointestinal tract and the lungs. Herein, we describe the diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma from a native kidney of a 54 year-old male patient, who had a 5-years history of renal transplant, by EUS-FNA of mediastinal and celiac lymph nodes. Histological and immunohistochemical findings confirmed the origin of metastatic tumor. EUS-FNA with proper cytological evaluation can be useful in the diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma in renal transplant patients. PMID:28326261

  18. Cuba's kidney transplantation program.

    PubMed

    Mármol, Alexander; Pérez, Alexis; Pérez de Prado, Juan C; Fernández-Vega, Silvia; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Arce, Sergio

    2010-10-01

    The first kidney transplant in Cuba was performed on 24 February 1970, using a cadaveric donor. In 1979, living donor kidney transplantation began between first-degree relatives. A total of 2775 patients are enrolled in renal replacement therapy in 47 hospitals across the country, 1440 of whom are awaiting kidney transplantation. Organs for the kidney program are procured in 63 accredited hospitals equipped for multidisciplinary management of brain death. Accordingly, over 90% of transplanted kidneys are from cadaveric donors. Identification of potential recipients is carried out through a national, computerized program that affords all patients the same opportunity regardless of distance from a transplant center, and selection of the most suitable candidate is based primarily on HLA compatibility. KEYWORDS Chronic renal failure, kidney transplantation.

  19. Nutrition in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Veroux, Massimiliano; Corona, Daniela; Sinagra, Nunziata; Tallarita, Tiziano; Ekser, Burcin; Giaquinta, Alessia; Zerbo, Domenico; Veroux, Pierfrancesco

    2013-10-01

    Organ transplantation has progressively established itself as the preferred therapy for many end-stage organ failures. However, many of these chronic diseases and their treatments can negatively affect nutritional status, leading to malnutrition and mineral deficiencies.Nutritional status is an important determinant of the clinical outcome of kidney transplant recipients.Malnutrition and obesity may represent a contraindication to transplantation in many cases and may increase the risk of postoperative complications after the transplantation. Nutritional support in kidney transplant recipients is challenging, since it must take into account the pre-transplant nutritional status, the side effects of immunosuppression, the function of the transplanted graft, the presence of infection, and the general status of the patient at the time of the transplantation.With these considerations in mind, we reviewed current literature on the impact of nutritional status on the outcome of kidney transplantation.

  20. Kidney Transplantation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Start Here Kidney Transplant (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Kidney Transplant (National Kidney Foundation) Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Transplantation (National Institute of Diabetes ...

  1. Unique molecular changes in kidney allografts after simultaneous liver-kidney compared with solitary kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Taner, Timucin; Park, Walter D; Stegall, Mark D

    2017-02-20

    Kidney allografts transplanted simultaneously with liver allografts from the same donor are known to be immunologically privileged. This is especially evident in recipients with high levels of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies. Here we investigated the mechanisms of liver's protective impact using gene expression in the kidney allograft. Select solitary kidney transplant or simultaneous liver-kidney transplant recipients were retrospectively reviewed and separated into four groups: 16 cross-match negative kidney transplants, 15 cross-match positive kidney transplants, 12 cross-match negative simultaneous liver-kidney transplants, and nine cross-match-positive simultaneous liver-kidney transplants. Surveillance biopsies of cross-match-positive kidney transplants had increased expression of genes associated with donor-specific antigens, inflammation, and endothelial cell activation compared to cross-match-negative kidney transplants. These changes were not found in cross-match-positive simultaneous liver-kidney transplant biopsies when compared to cross-match-negative simultaneous liver-kidney transplants. In addition, simultaneously transplanting a liver markedly increased renal expression of genes associated with tissue integrity/metabolism, regardless of the cross-match status. While the expression of inflammatory gene sets in cross-match-positive simultaneous liver-kidney transplants was not completely reduced to the level of cross-match-negative kidney transplants, the downstream effects of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies were blocked. Thus, simultaneous liver-kidney transplants can have a profound impact on the kidney allograft, not only by decreasing inflammation and avoiding endothelial cell activation in cross-match-positive recipients, but also by increasing processes associated with tissue integrity/metabolism by unknown mechanisms.

  2. Obesity and kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Rahul M; Zawada, Edward T

    2004-06-01

    There is a worldwide epidemic of obesity, and an increasing number of patients who are obese are presenting for solid-organ transplantation. Obesity increases the risk for delayed graft function and local wound complications after technically successful kidney transplantation. Obese patients are more likely to have comorbid factors leading to premature death with a functioning kidney transplant. We suggest the use of World Health Organization criteria when reporting the impact of obesity on recipients of solid-organ transplants. Prospective multicenter studies are indicated to evaluate long-term outcomes in obese patients who successfully receive a kidney transplant. Rigorous efforts should be made to optimize weight before and after solid-organ transplantation by a judicious combination of diet, exercise, minimization of steroid therapy, surgery, and psychological therapies.

  3. Antibody-mediated rejection, T cell-mediated rejection, and the injury-repair response: new insights from the Genome Canada studies of kidney transplant biopsies.

    PubMed

    Halloran, Philip F; Reeve, Jeff P; Pereira, Andre B; Hidalgo, Luis G; Famulski, Konrad S

    2014-02-01

    Prospective studies of unselected indication biopsies from kidney transplants, combining conventional assessment with molecular analysis, have created a new understanding of transplant disease states and their outcomes. A large-scale Genome Canada grant permitted us to use conventional and molecular phenotypes to create a new disease classification. T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR), characterized histologically or molecularly, has little effect on outcomes. Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) manifests as microcirculation lesions and transcript changes reflecting endothelial injury, interferon-γ effects, and natural killer cells. ABMR is frequently C4d negative and has been greatly underestimated by conventional criteria. Indeed, ABMR, triggered in some cases by non-adherence, is the major disease causing failure. Progressive dysfunction is usually attributable to specific diseases, and pure calcineurin inhibitor toxicity rarely explains failure. The importance of ABMR argues against immunosuppressive drug minimization and stands as a barrier to tolerance induction. Microarrays also defined the transcripts induced by acute kidney injury (AKI), which correlate with reduced function, whereas histologic changes of acute tubular injury do not. AKI transcripts are induced in kidneys with late dysfunction, and are better predictors of failure than fibrosis and inflammation. Thus progression reflects ongoing parenchymal injury, usually from identifiable diseases such as ABMR, not destructive fibrosis.

  4. Kidney transplant - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100087.htm Kidney transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  5. Th-17 Alloimmune Responses in Renal Allograft Biopsies From Recipients of Kidney Transplants Using Extended Criteria Donors During Acute T Cell-Mediated Rejection.

    PubMed

    Matignon, M; Aissat, A; Canoui-Poitrine, F; Grondin, C; Pilon, C; Desvaux, D; Saadoun, D; Barathon, Q; Garrido, M; Audard, V; Rémy, P; Lang, P; Cohen, J; Grimbert, P

    2015-10-01

    Although renal transplantation using expanded criteria donors has become a common practice, immune responses related to immunosenescence in those kidney allografts have not been studied yet in humans. We performed a retrospective molecular analysis of the T cell immune response in 43 kidney biopsies from patients with acute T cell-mediated rejection including 25 from recipients engrafted with a kidney from expanded criteria donor and 18 from recipients grafted with optimal kidney allograft. The clinical, transplant and acute T cell-mediated rejection characteristics of both groups were similar at baseline. The expression of RORγt, Il-17 and T-bet mRNA was significantly higher in the elderly than in the optimal group (p = 0.02, p = 0.036, and p = 0.01, respectively). Foxp3 mRNA levels were significantly higher in elderly patients experiencing successful acute T cell-mediated rejection reversal (p = 0.03). The presence of IL-17 mRNA was strongly associated with nonsuccessful reversal in elderly patients (p = 0.008). Patients with mRNA IL17 expression detection and low mRNA Foxp3 expression experienced significantly more treatment failure (87.5%) than patients with no mRNA IL17 expression and/or high mRNA Foxp3 expression (26.7%; p = 0.017). Our study suggests that the Th17 pathway is involved in pathogenesis and prognosis of acute T cell-mediated rejection in recipients of expanded criteria allograft.

  6. Clinical role of the renal transplant biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Winfred W.; Taheri, Diana; Tolkoff-Rubin, Nina; Colvin, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Percutaneous needle core biopsy is the definitive procedure by which essential diagnostic and prognostic information on acute and chronic renal allograft dysfunction is obtained. The diagnostic value of the information so obtained has endured for over three decades and has proven crucially important in shaping strategies for therapeutic intervention. This Review provides a broad outline of the utility of performing kidney graft biopsies after transplantation, highlighting the relevance of biopsy findings in the immediate and early post-transplant period (from days to weeks after implantation), the first post-transplant year, and the late period (beyond the first year). We focus on how biopsy findings change over time, and the wide variety of pathological features that characterize the major clinical diagnoses facing the clinician. This article also includes a discussion of acute cellular and humoral rejection, the toxic effects of calcineurin inhibitors, and the widely varying etiologies and characteristics of chronic lesions. Emerging technologies based on gene expression analyses and proteomics, the in situ detection of functionally relevant molecules, and new bioinformatic approaches that hold the promise of improving diagnostic precision and developing new, refined molecular pathways for therapeutic intervention are also presented. PMID:22231130

  7. [Infertility and kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Atallah, David; Salameh, Charbel; El Kassis, Nadine; Safi, Joelle; Lutfallah, Fouad; Bejjani, Lina; Ghaname, Wadih; Moukarzel, Maroun

    2015-01-01

    Renal failure impairs the endocrine system, especially in women, due to hyperprolactinemia, altering fertility, ovulatory cycles, libido and growth in adolescents. Renal transplantation is considered the best solution to the problems of renal failure and and of dialysis, as evidenced by comparing the rate of hyperprolactinemia (100% in chronic renal failure, 60% in patients on dialysis and 35% in post-transplantation). Kidney transplant is less efficient for restoring perfect function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis due in part to the immunosuppressant regimens prescribed. When these drugs are properly managed, transplantation will restore near normal sexual function.

  8. Bioengineering Kidneys for Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Madariaga, Maria Lucia L.; Ott, Harald C.

    2014-01-01

    One in ten Americans suffer from chronic kidney disease, and close to 90,000 people die each year from causes related to kidney failure. Patients with end-stage renal disease are faced with two options: hemodialysis or transplantation. Unfortunately, the reach of transplantation is limited because of the shortage of donor organs and the need for immunosuppression. Bioengineered kidney grafts theoretically present a novel solution to both problems. Herein we discuss the history of bioengineering organs, the current status of bioengineered kidneys, considerations for the future of the field, and challenges to clinical translation. We hope that by integrating principles of tissue engineering, and stem cell and developmental biology, bioengineered kidney grafts will advance the field of regenerative medicine while meeting a critical clinical need. PMID:25217267

  9. [Sexuality after kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Steiner, T; Wunderlich, H; Ott, U

    2009-12-01

    The quality of life of patients after kidney transplantation is of increasing interest. In this connection, issues of sexuality are meaningful too. Many patients with end-stage kidney disease suffer from sexual disorders. More than 50% of the male patients on dialysis and even more females are affected by disturbances such as erectile dysfunction and loss of libido or abnormal menstrual cycles. After successful kidney transplantation most symptoms in women are improved, whereas in men disturbances in erectile function often persist or even deteriorate. In these patients treatment with inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type 5 is a valid option with an effective response. In women with stable graft function pregnancy can be achieved successfully. Nevertheless, pregnant kidney allograft recipients should be considered as high-risk patients needing special care under the supervision of a team of obstetricians and nephrologists.

  10. Pregnancy and kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Josephson, Michelle A; McKay, Dianne B

    2011-01-01

    Despite decades of experience with child bearing in women with kidney transplants, these pregnancies remain high risk with an increased prevalence of hypertension and pre-eclampsia. Infertility, common in women with end-stage renal disease, is rapidly restored after transplant although pregnancy rates appear lower in transplant recipients than the general public. Many unanswered questions exist, some old questions such as what is the optimal timing of pregnancy after transplant, whether breast feeding is safe, the long-term impact if any on the offspring, and whether pregnancy negatively affects the kidney graft; and some new questions such as whether to modify immunosuppression in a patient taking a mycophenolic acid-containing drug, whether kidney donation has a deleterious impact on future pregnancies, whether to use erythropoietin-stimulating agents, and the role of BK virus. Counseling about contraception and pregnancy after transplant should be initiated during the pretransplant evaluation process. It is important because of the rapid restoration of fertility that occurs after transplant as well as the many risks and unanswered questions that remain.

  11. Transplant biopsy beyond light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Adam, Benjamin; Mengel, Michael

    2015-08-07

    Despite its long-standing status as the diagnostic "gold standard", the renal transplant biopsy is limited by a fundamental dependence on descriptive, empirically-derived consensus classification. The recent shift towards personalized medicine has resulted in an increased demand for precise, mechanism-based diagnoses, which is not fully met by the contemporary transplantation pathology standard of care. The expectation is that molecular techniques will provide novel pathogenetic insights that will allow for the identification of more accurate diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic targets. Here we review the current state of molecular renal transplantation pathology. Despite significant research activity and progress within the field, routine adoption of clinical molecular testing has not yet been achieved. The recent development of novel molecular platforms suitable for use with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue will offer potential solution for the major barriers to implementation. The recent incorporation of molecular diagnostic criteria into the 2013 Banff classification is a reflection of progress made and future directions in the area of molecular transplantation pathology. Transcripts related to endothelial injury and NK cell activation have consistently been shown to be associated with antibody-mediated rejection. Prospective multicenter validation and implementation of molecular diagnostics for major entities remains an unmet clinical need in transplantation. It is expected that an integrated system of transplantation pathology diagnosis comprising molecular, morphological, serological, and clinical variables will ultimately provide the greatest diagnostic precision.

  12. Basics of kidney biopsy: A nephrologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, S K; Sethi, S; Dinda, A K

    2013-07-01

    The introduction of the kidney biopsy is one of the major events in the history of nephrology. Primary indications of kidney biopsy are glomerular hematuria/proteinuria with or without renal dysfunction and unexplained renal failure. Kidney biopsy is usually performed in prone position but in certain situations, supine and lateral positions may be required. Biopsy needles have changed with times from Vim-Silverman needle to Tru-cut needle to spring-loaded automatic gun. The procedure has also changed from blind bedside kidney biopsy to ultrasound marking to real-time ultrasound guidance to rarely computerized tomography guidance and laparoscopic and open biopsy. In very specific situations, transjugular kidney biopsy may be required. Most of the centers do kidney biopsy on short 1-day admission, whereas some take it as an outdoor procedure. For critical interpretation of kidney biopsy, adequate sample and clinical information are mandatory. Tissue needs to be stained with multiple stains for delineation of various components of kidney tissue. Many consider that electron microscopy (EM) is a must for all kidney biopsies, but facilities for EM are limited even in big centers. Sophisticated tests such as immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization are useful adjuncts for definitive diagnosis in certain situations.

  13. Basics of kidney biopsy: A nephrologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, S. K.; Sethi, S.; Dinda, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the kidney biopsy is one of the major events in the history of nephrology. Primary indications of kidney biopsy are glomerular hematuria/proteinuria with or without renal dysfunction and unexplained renal failure. Kidney biopsy is usually performed in prone position but in certain situations, supine and lateral positions may be required. Biopsy needles have changed with times from Vim–Silverman needle to Tru-cut needle to spring-loaded automatic gun. The procedure has also changed from blind bedside kidney biopsy to ultrasound marking to real-time ultrasound guidance to rarely computerized tomography guidance and laparoscopic and open biopsy. In very specific situations, transjugular kidney biopsy may be required. Most of the centers do kidney biopsy on short 1-day admission, whereas some take it as an outdoor procedure. For critical interpretation of kidney biopsy, adequate sample and clinical information are mandatory. Tissue needs to be stained with multiple stains for delineation of various components of kidney tissue. Many consider that electron microscopy (EM) is a must for all kidney biopsies, but facilities for EM are limited even in big centers. Sophisticated tests such as immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization are useful adjuncts for definitive diagnosis in certain situations. PMID:23960337

  14. Bone Disease after Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bouquegneau, Antoine; Salam, Syrazah; Delanaye, Pierre; Eastell, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Bone and mineral disorders occur frequently in kidney transplant recipients and are associated with a high risk of fracture, morbidity, and mortality. There is a broad spectrum of often overlapping bone diseases seen after transplantation, including osteoporosis as well as persisting high– or low–turnover bone disease. The pathophysiology underlying bone disorders after transplantation results from a complex interplay of factors, including preexisting renal osteodystrophy and bone loss related to a variety of causes, such as immunosuppression and alterations in the parathyroid hormone-vitamin D-fibroblast growth factor 23 axis as well as changes in mineral metabolism. Management is complex, because noninvasive tools, such as imaging and bone biomarkers, do not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity to detect these abnormalities in bone structure and function, whereas bone biopsy is not a widely available diagnostic tool. In this review, we focus on recent data that highlight improvements in our understanding of the prevalence, pathophysiology, and diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of mineral and bone disorders in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:26912549

  15. Yield and complications of kidney biopsy over two decades in a tertiary pediatric center.

    PubMed

    Hod Feins, Roei; Tobar, Anna; Davidovits, Miriam

    2017-04-01

    Kidney biopsy serves as an adjunct for the diagnosis of renal disease, but it is not always productive. This study evaluated the yield and risks of kidney biopsies performed in 1995-2014 at a tertiary pediatric medical center. The medical files of all patients who underwent closed percutaneous biopsy for various indications in native or transplanted kidneys were retrospectively reviewed for patient characteristics, technical and histopathologic findings, biopsy yield, and biopsy complications. Biopsy yield was considered positive if findings confirmed a probable diagnosis or led to a change in clinical diagnosis, disease severity/activity grade, treatment strategy, or prognosis; and negative, if findings were non-informative and in cases of technical failure. During the study period, 216 biopsies were performed on native kidneys and 84 on transplanted kidneys. In the transplanted kidney group, the most common indications for biopsy were decreased glomerular filtration rate and suspected rejection. Rates of positive biopsy yield were 86.6% in the native kidney group and 82.1% in the transplanted kidney group; the difference was not statistically significant. Significant between-group differences were found in various technical and histopathological parameters, patient age at biopsy, and sex distribution. In the native kidney group, positive biopsy yield was associated with the presence of nephrotic-range proteinuria. Post-procedural complications occurred in three patients (1.3%) with native kidneys, and in one patient (1.1%) with a transplanted kidney. Kidney biopsy is an efficient and safe procedure in both native and transplanted kidneys and provides helpful diagnostic information in most cases in which it is deemed necessary. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  16. Transplanting Kidneys from Deceased Donors With Severe Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Heilman, R L; Smith, M L; Kurian, S M; Huskey, J; Batra, R K; Chakkera, H A; Katariya, N N; Khamash, H; Moss, A; Salomon, D R; Reddy, K S

    2015-08-01

    Our aim was to determine outcomes with transplanting kidneys from deceased donors with acute kidney injury, defined as a donor with terminal serum creatinine ≥2.0 mg/dL, or a donor requiring acute renal replacement therapy. We included all patients who received deceased donor kidney transplant from June 2004 to October 2013. There were 162 AKI donor transplant recipients (21% of deceased donor transplants): 139 in the standard criteria donor (SCD) and 23 in the expanded criteria donor (ECD) cohort. 71% of the AKI donors had stage 3 (severe AKI), based on acute kidney injury network (AKIN) staging. Protocol biopsies were done at 1, 4, and 12 months posttransplant. One and four month formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) biopsies from 48 patients (24 AKI donors, 24 non-AKI) underwent global gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays (96 arrays). DGF was more common in the AKI group but eGFR, graft survival at 1 year and proportion with IF/TA>2 at 1 year were similar for the two groups. At 1 month, there were 898 differentially expressed genes in the AKI group (p-value <0.005; FDR <10%), but by 4 months there were no differences. Transplanting selected kidneys from deceased donors with AKI is safe and has excellent outcomes.

  17. Association between Reperfusion Renal Allograft Biopsy Findings and Transplant Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Sumit; Campenot, Eric; Chiles, Mariana C; Santoriello, Dominick; Bland, Eric; Crew, R John; Rosenstiel, Paul; Dube, Geoffrey; Batal, Ibrahim; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Sandoval, P Rodrigo; Guarrera, James; Stokes, M Barry; D'Agati, Vivette; Cohen, David J; Ratner, Lloyd E; Markowitz, Glen

    2017-07-06

    Biopsy findings at the time of procurement of deceased donor kidneys remain the most common reason cited for kidney discard. To determine the value of renal allograft histology in predicting outcomes, we evaluated the significance of histologic findings, read by experienced renal pathologists, in 975 postreperfusion biopsy specimens collected from 2005 to 2009 after living donor (n=427) or deceased donor (n=548) renal transplant. We evaluated specimens for the degree of glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, and vascular disease; specimens with a score of 0 or 1 (scale, 0-3) for each parameter were considered optimal. Overall, 66.3% of living donor kidneys and 50.7% of deceased donor kidneys received an optimal histology score (P<0.001). Irrespective of donor status, suboptimal kidneys came from older donors with a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity and a higher mean kidney donor risk index (all P<0.001). Death-censored outcomes after transplant differed significantly between optimal and suboptimal kidneys only in the deceased donor transplants (P=0.02). Regardless of histologic classification, outcomes with deceased donor kidneys were inferior to outcomes with living donor kidneys. However, 73.2% of deceased donor kidneys with suboptimal histology remained functional at 5 years. Our findings suggest that histologic findings on postreperfusion biopsy associate with outcomes after deceased donor but not living donor renal transplants, thus donor death and organ preservation-related factors may be of greater prognostic importance. Discarding donated kidneys on the basis of histologic factors may be inappropriate and merits further study. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. Kidney Biopsy: An Experience from Tertiary Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Madhav; Pahari, Bishnu; Paudel, Navaraj; Das, Gayatri; Das, Gopal Chandra; Sharma, Sanjib Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Kidney Biopsy is an important diagnostic tool in Nephrology. It is useful in Nephrology in terms of diagnosis, prognosis and management. There is little information on renal biopsy data from central Nepal. We describe our center`s experience in kidney biopsy in term of histological patterns, complications and outcomes. We prospectively analyzed the biopsies data of patients over a period of one and half year. All kinds of kidney disease patients were included for kidney biopsy, irrespective of their clinical syndromes and underlying diagnosis. A total of 75 biopsies were analyzed. Majority of them were females; 42 (56%). Most of the biopsies; 63 (84%) were from younger subjects ≤ 45 years and majority of them fell in the age group 11-20 years. Most common clinical renal syndrome to undergo biopsy was Sub Nephrotic range Proteinuria in 40 (53.3%). Among comorbid conditions, 40 (53.3%) had Hypertension. The most common histological pattern seen was Mesangial proliferative Glomerulonephritis seen in 18 (24%). Among complications associated with the procedure, macroscopic hematuria was seen in 5 (6.7%) cases and clinically significant perinephric hematoma causing pain was seen in 4 (5.3%). There was no mortality associated with biopsy procedure. Sub Nephrotic range Proteinuria was the commonest clinical renal Syndrome observed. In terms of renal histology, Mesangial Proliferative Glomerulonephritis (MesPGN) was the commonest histological pattern observed. Kidney biopsy is a safe procedure without any significant adverse events.

  19. Aging Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Musso, Carlos G; Giordani, María C; Imperiali, Nora

    2016-01-01

    There are several immunological and non-immunological factors related to renal graft deterioration, and histological lesions such as interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy overlap with those observed in aging kidneys. Consequently, it has been proposed that kidney transplant senescence could contribute to graft loss. The process of cell senescence displays characteristics such as an increased expression of specific aging suppressor genes, shortened telomeres, mitochondrial changes, increased expression of negative regulators of the cell cycle, and immunological senescence. Additionally, tubular frailty characterizes the aged kidney, making it more susceptible to ischemia, reperfusion, toxic injury, and consequently, to inflammation. Moreover, renal tissue injury predisposes the older graft not only to progressive deterioration due to glomerular hyperfiltration, but also triggers acute rejection due to increased immunogenicity. In conclusion, renal graft senescence is a complex process, and its better understanding will help the nephrologist in its management in order to achieve a longer graft survival.

  20. ABO-Incompatible Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Morath, Christian; Zeier, Martin; Döhler, Bernd; Opelz, Gerhard; Süsal, Caner

    2017-01-01

    ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation has long been considered a contraindication to successful kidney transplantation. During the last 25 years, increasing organ shortage enforced the development of strategies to overcome the ABO antibody barrier. In the meantime, ABOi kidney transplantation has become a routine procedure with death-censored graft survival rates comparable to the rates in compatible transplantations. Desensitization is usually achieved by apheresis and B cell-depleting therapies that are accompanied by powerful immunosuppression. Anti-A/B antibodies are aimed to be below a certain threshold at the time of ABOi kidney transplantation and during the first 2 weeks after surgery. Thereafter, even a rebound of anti-A/B antibodies does not appear to harm the kidney transplant, a phenomenon that is called accommodation, but is poorly understood. There is still concern, however, that infectious complications such as viral disease, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and severe urinary tract infections are increased after ABOi transplantations. Recent data from the Collaborative Transplant Study show that during the first year after kidney transplantation, one additional patient death from an infectious complication occurs in 100 ABOi kidney transplant recipients. Herein, we review the recent evidence on ABOi kidney transplantation with a focus on desensitization strategies and respective outcomes. PMID:28321223

  1. ABO-Incompatible Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Morath, Christian; Zeier, Martin; Döhler, Bernd; Opelz, Gerhard; Süsal, Caner

    2017-01-01

    ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation has long been considered a contraindication to successful kidney transplantation. During the last 25 years, increasing organ shortage enforced the development of strategies to overcome the ABO antibody barrier. In the meantime, ABOi kidney transplantation has become a routine procedure with death-censored graft survival rates comparable to the rates in compatible transplantations. Desensitization is usually achieved by apheresis and B cell-depleting therapies that are accompanied by powerful immunosuppression. Anti-A/B antibodies are aimed to be below a certain threshold at the time of ABOi kidney transplantation and during the first 2 weeks after surgery. Thereafter, even a rebound of anti-A/B antibodies does not appear to harm the kidney transplant, a phenomenon that is called accommodation, but is poorly understood. There is still concern, however, that infectious complications such as viral disease, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and severe urinary tract infections are increased after ABOi transplantations. Recent data from the Collaborative Transplant Study show that during the first year after kidney transplantation, one additional patient death from an infectious complication occurs in 100 ABOi kidney transplant recipients. Herein, we review the recent evidence on ABOi kidney transplantation with a focus on desensitization strategies and respective outcomes.

  2. [The history of kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Hatzinger, M; Stastny, M; Grützmacher, P; Sohn, M

    2016-10-01

    The history of kidney transplantation is a history of many unsuccessful efforts and setbacks, but also the history of perseverance, pioneering spirit, and steadfast courage. The first successful transplantation of a dog kidney was done by the Austrian Emerich Ullmann (1861-1937) in 1902. The kidney was connected to the carotid artery of the dog and the ureter ended freely. The organ produced urine for a couple of days before it died. In 1909, there were efforts to transplant human kidneys from deceased patients to monkeys and in the following year the first xenotransplantation in humans was completed. Different kinds of donors were tried: dogs, monkeys, goats and lambs, all without success. In 1939, the first transplantation from a deceased human donor was done by the Russion Yurii Voronoy, the patient survived for only a couple of days, and the organ never worked. In 1953, the first temporarily successful transplantation of a human kidney was performed by Jean Hamburger in Paris. A 16-year-old boy received the kidney of his mother as living donor transplantation. Then in 1954, a milestone was made with the first long-term successful kidney transplantation by Joseph Murray: the transplantation was done between monozygotic twins; the organ survived for 8 years. For his efforts in kidney transplantation, Murray was honored with the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1990. In 1962, the first kidney transplantation between genetically nonrelated patients was done using immunosuppression and in 1963 the first kidney transplantation in Germany was done by Reinhard Nagel and Wilhelm Brosig in Berlin. The aim of this article is to present the history of kidney transplantation from the beginning until today.

  3. A simultaneous liver-kidney transplant recipient with IgA nephropathy limited to native kidneys and BK virus nephropathy limited to the transplant kidney.

    PubMed

    Ujire, Manasa P; Curry, Michael P; Stillman, Isaac E; Hanto, Douglas W; Mandelbrot, Didier A

    2013-08-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deposition in the native kidneys of patients with liver disease is well described. Secondary IgA nephropathy usually is thought to be benign, but hematuria, proteinuria, and loss of kidney function have been reported in this context. BK virus nephropathy is an important cause of kidney transplant loss; however, BK virus nephropathy is rare in the native kidneys of patients who underwent transplantation of other organs. We report the case of a patient with alcohol-related end-stage liver disease and chronic kidney disease with hematuria who underwent simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation. His kidney function decreased over the course of several weeks posttransplantation. Biopsy of the transplant kidney showed BK virus nephropathy, but no IgA deposits. In contrast, biopsy of the native kidneys showed IgA deposits, but no BK virus nephropathy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation wherein both the native and transplant kidneys were biopsied posttransplantation and showed exclusively different pathologies. These findings confirm the predilection of BK virus nephropathy for transplant rather than native kidneys. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation from a Liver Transplantation Recipient].

    PubMed

    Koike, Shuhei; Kobayashi, Takashi; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Sakai, Kaoru; Tanaka, Yukari; Akamatsu, Shusuke; Negoro, Hiromitsu; Terada, Naoki; Yamasaki, Toshinari; Matsui, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Takahiro; Kamba, Tomomi; Umeya, Yumi; Kaido, Toshimi; Ogawa, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    We report a 40-year-old man with end-stage renal disease due to IgA nephropathy who underwent deceased donor kidney transplantation. The donor was diagnosed to be brain-dead due to cerebral hemorrhage after her second liver transplantation for non-viral liver cirrhosis. Intraoperative 1-hour biopsy of the graft kidney revealed moderate global glomerular sclerosis (22%) and interstitial fibrosis (40%) consistent with underlying nephrosclerosis or calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity. Although hemodialysis was needed until the graft began functioning several days after the kidney transplantation, the postoperative clinical course thereafter was uneventful and the graft functioned well with stable serum creatinine levels around 2.4 mg/dl at 6 monthspos toperatively.

  5. Colon Biopsy Findings of Renal Transplant Patients.

    PubMed

    Taştepe, Firdevs Zeynep; Özgün, Gonca; Özdemir, Binnaz Handan; Tepeoğlu, Merih; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate colonic pathologies in renal transplant recipients. Patients with colon biopsies were selected from 1816 renal transplant recipients from January 1990 to December 2012 at Baskent University Hospital (Ankara, Turkey). Demographic and clinical findings with colon biopsies were examined. There were 84 patients who had colon biopsies after renal transplant. There were 57 male and 27 female patients (median age at renal transplant was 33 y). Chronic diarrhea was the most common clinical finding at the time of colon biopsy. The median interval from renal transplant to first colon biopsy was 48.1 ± 47.5 months. On microscopic evaluation, there were no pathologic changes in 17 patients. The remaining 67 patients had colitis (38 patients), polyps (17 patients), cytomegalovirus colitis (8 patients), and amyloidosis (4 patients). The mean interval between transplant and the diagnosis of colitis was 49.08 ± 42.6 months, amyloidosis was 47.5 ± 79.28 months, cytomegalovirus colitis was 5 ± 3.5 months, and polyps was 77.65 ± 58.8 months. There was a statistically significant difference between biopsy diagnosis and the time interval between transplant and colon biopsy (P < .01). Among 84 renal transplant recipients with colonic biopsies, 40 patients never had acute rejection episodes and 44 patients had at least 1 acute rejection episode. Seven of 8 patients with cytomegalovirus colitis, 19 of 38 with colitis, 3 of 4 with amyloidosis, and 5 of 17 with polyps had acute rejection episodes. In our report on colonic manifestations in renal transplant recipients, the most common colonic lesion was noninfectious colitis. Cytomegalovirus colitis is an important infection that affects immunosuppressed individuals, such as transplant recipients. Cytomegalovirus must be kept in mind, and thorough sectioning and immunohistochemical sta ining should be used if necessary in the presence of any clinical or histologic suspicion for infective colitis.

  6. microRNA and Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jelencsics, Kíra; Oberbauer, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The kidney serves as the main clearance organ of our body, filtrating and excreting metabolic waste products. Various intrinsic and extrinsic conditions can lead to kidney injury, roughly 0.1% of the population suffer from end stage renal disease. Renal transplantation reinstitutes an almost normal quality of life; again it is cost effective and thus the preferred treatment of terminal renal failure. miRNAs play pivotal roles in immune responses and inflammation, which makes them particularly interesting in the field of transplantation and in understanding the molecular pathways of allograft pathologies such as delayed function or cellular and antibody mediated rejection. As kidney biopsy is part of the routine disease monitoring, the identification of miRNA pattern is feasible in different stages of the injury. Furthermore miRNAs are easy to detect not only in tissue samples but also in body fluids such as blood and urine. Their regulatory capacity of biological processes together with their stability makes them excellent candidates for noninvasive monitoring of kidney pathology. There is an accumulating knowledge about diseases-specific miRNA signatures in distinct kidney injuries. In the following chapter we present the current understanding of miRNAs regulation of intragraft processes after kidney transplantation.

  7. Complications of the percutaneous kidney biopsy.

    PubMed

    Whittier, William L

    2012-05-01

    Percutaneous kidney biopsy is an integral part of a nephrologist's practice. It has helped to define nephrology as a subspecialty. When indicated, it is a necessary procedure to help patients, as it allows for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic information. Although very safe, this procedure can give rise to complications, mainly related to bleeding. Since its development in the 1950s, modifications have been made to the approach and the technique, which have improved the diagnostic yield while keeping it a safe procedure. Alterations to the standard approach may be necessary if risk factors for bleeding are present. In addition, obesity, pregnancy, and solitary kidney biopsy are all special circumstances that change the procedure itself or the risk of the procedure. Today, kidney biopsy is a vital procedure for the nephrologist: clinically relevant, safe, and effective.

  8. De novo use of a generic formulation of tacrolimus versus reference tacrolimus in kidney transplantation: evaluation of the clinical results, histology in protocol biopsies, and immunological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Melilli, Edoardo; Crespo, Elena; Sandoval, Diego; Manonelles, Anna; Sala, Neus; Mast, Richard; Padulles, Ariadna; Grinyo, Josep M; Bestard, Oriol; Cruzado, Josep Maria

    2015-11-01

    The use of generic formulations of immunosuppressive drugs in renal transplantation has been and still is a controversial subject. The lack of clinical studies about safety and efficacy in transplant patients is one of the factors restricting the diffusion of generic drugs in the renal transplant field. Since March 2013, our transplant unit has incorporated generic tacrolimus (Adoport(®) ; Sandoz), replacing the one we were currently using (Prograf(®) ; Astellas). When carrying out our retrospective analysis comparing the two different formulations, we evaluated several clinical results: tacrolimus trough concentrations (C0) at 5-7 days; 1, 3, and 6 months post-transplantation; concentration/dose ratio at 6 months; acute rejection incidence; delayed graft function (DGF); renal function (as CKD-EPI); and proteinuria at 6 months in 120 patients (1:1 ratio of Prograf(®) versus Adoport(®) ), noticing no important differences. We also evaluated the results of protocol biopsies at 6 months in a subgroup of patients, thus verifying the safety and efficacy of this particular generic drug versus the reference product on a histological basis as well. No difference in the development of dnDSA (de novo donor-specific antibody) was found between the two groups. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  9. Relationships among injury, fibrosis, and time in human kidney transplants

    PubMed Central

    Venner, Jeffery M.; Famulski, Konrad S.; Reeve, Jeff; Chang, Jessica; Halloran, Philip F.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Kidney transplant biopsies offer an opportunity to understand the pathogenesis of organ fibrosis. We studied the relationships between the time of biopsy after transplant (TxBx), histologic fibrosis, diseases, and transcript expression. METHODS. Expression microarrays from 681 kidney transplant indication biopsies taken either early (n = 282, <1 year) or late (n = 399, >1 year) after transplant were used to analyze the molecular landscape of fibrosis in relationship to histologic fibrosis and diseases. RESULTS. Fibrosis was absent at transplantation but was present in some early biopsies by 4 months after transplant, apparently as a self-limited response to donation implantation injury not associated with progression to failure. The molecular phenotype of early biopsies represented the time sequence of the response to wounding: immediate expression of acute kidney injury transcripts, followed by fibrillar collagen transcripts after several weeks, then by the appearance of immunoglobulin and mast cell transcripts after several months as fibrosis appeared. Fibrosis in late biopsies correlated with injury, fibrillar collagen, immunoglobulin, and mast cell transcripts, but these were independent of time. Pathway analysis revealed epithelial response-to-wounding pathways such as Wnt/β-catenin. CONCLUSION. Fibrosis in late biopsies had different associations because many kidneys had potentially progressive diseases and subsequently failed. Molecular correlations with fibrosis in late biopsies were independent of time, probably because ongoing injury obscured the response-to-wounding time sequence. The results indicate that fibrosis in kidney transplants is driven by nephron injury and that progression to failure reflects continuing injury, not autonomous fibrogenesis. TRIAL REGISTRATION. INTERCOM study (www.clinicalTrials.gov; NCT01299168). FUNDING. Canada Foundation for Innovation and Genome Canada. PMID:27699214

  10. Recurrence of primary hyperoxaluria after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Malakoutian, Tahereh; Asgari, Mojgan; Houshmand, Massoud; Mohammadi, Ronak; Aryani, Omid; Mohammadi Pargoo, Esmaeel; Ghods, Ahad J

    2011-11-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria is a genetic disorder in glyoxylate metabolism that leads to systemic overproduction of oxalate. Functional deficiency of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase in this disease leads to recurrent nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, systemic oxalosis, and kidney failure. We present a young woman with end-stage renal disease who received a kidney allograft and experienced early graft failure presumed to be an acute rejection. There was no improvement in kidney function, and she was required hemodialysis. Ultimately, biopsy revealed birefringent calcium oxalate crystals, which raised suspicion of primary hyperoxaluria. Further evaluations including genetic study and metabolic assay confirmed the diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria type 1. This suggests a screening method for ruling out primary hyperoxaluria in suspected cases, especially before planning for kidney transplantation in patients with end-stage renal disease who have nephrocalcinosis, calcium oxalate calculi, or a family history of primary hyperoxaluria.

  11. When Your Child Needs a Kidney Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the Internet When Your Child Needs a Kidney Transplant KidsHealth > For Parents > When Your Child Needs ... to monitor their new kidney function. About the Kidneys Kidneys are bean-shaped organs located near the ...

  12. Weight Gain After Kidney Transplant.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Nilgün

    2016-11-01

    Weight gain and obesity are frequent problems for renal transplant patients. The purpose of this review is to show why weight gain is experienced by patients after kidney transplant and the significance of prevention. To investigate this topic, PubMed and Ulakbim databases were searched with the following key words: renal transplant and transplantation, weight gain, and obesity. Weight gain frequently appears in the first year after transplant, and it is reported to be a common problem for patients within the first 6 months. Weight gain varies between 6 and 10 kg, and the change in mean body mass index varies between 2 and 3.8 kg/m2 after transplant. Potential factors causing weight gain after kidney transplant are the use of immunosuppressive medications to protect the newly implanted organ and the changes in life style, such as dietary intake and insufficient physical activity. In addition, weight gain is affected by factors such as age, sex, race, lack of acute rejection, genetics, and psychological factors related to stress. A better understanding of food intake, physical activities, and environmental factors causing weight gain after kidney transplant and the development of dietary intake and physical activity protocols specific to individuals would be helpful for health care professionals.

  13. Kidney transplantation in obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Minh-Ha; Foster, Clarence E; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Ichii, Hirohito

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimated that in 2014, over 600 million people met criteria for obesity. In 2011, over 30% of individuals undergoing kidney transplant had a body mass index (BMI) 35 kg/m2 or greater. A number of recent studies have confirmed the relationship between overweight/obesity and important comorbidities in kidney transplant patients. As with non-transplant surgeries, the rate of wound and soft tissue complications are increased following transplant as is the incidence of delayed graft function. These two issues appear to contribute to longer length of stay compared to normal BMI. New onset diabetes after transplant and cardiac outcomes also appear to be increased in the obese population. The impact of obesity on patient survival after kidney transplantation remains controversial, but appears to mirror the impact of extremes of BMI in non-transplant populations. Early experience with (open and laparoscopic) Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy support excellent weight loss (in the range of 50%-60% excess weight lost at 1 year), but experts have recommended the need for further studies. Long term nutrient deficiencies remain a concern but in general, these procedures do not appear to adversely impact absorption of immunosuppressive medications. In this study, we review the literature to arrive at a better understanding of the risks related to renal transplantation among individuals with obesity. PMID:27011911

  14. [Three cases of de novo multiple myeloma after kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Nieto-Ríos, John Fredy; Zuluaga, Mónica; Serna, Lina María; Aristizábal, Arbey; Ocampo-Kohn, Catalina; Gálvez, Kenny Mauricio; Flórez, Adriana Alejandra; Zuluaga, Gustavo

    2016-12-01

    Light chain-associated kidney compromise is frequent in patients with monoclonal gammopathies; it affects the glomeruli or the tubules, and its most common cause is multiple myeloma. It may develop after a kidney transplant due to recurrence of a preexisting multiple myeloma or it can be a de novo disease manifesting as graft dysfunction and proteinuria. A kidney biopsy is always necessary to confirm the diagnosis.We describe three cases of kidney graft dysfunction due to multiple myeloma in patients without presence of the disease before the transplant.

  15. Kidney Transplant Survival Up Among Babies, Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163937.html Kidney Transplant Survival Up Among Babies, Kids Patients under age ... News) -- Survival rates for children who get kidney transplants have improved significantly over the last half-century, ...

  16. Acute Pancreatitis after Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tabakovic, Mithat; Salkic, Nermin N.; Bosnjic, Jasmina; Alibegovic, Ervin

    2012-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare but life-threatening complication in patients with transplanted kidney. The incidence of acute pancreatitis after kidney transplantation ranges from 2% to 7%, with mortality rate between 50 and 100%. We report a case of a female patient aged 46 years, developing an interstitial acute pancreatitis 8 years following a renal transplantation. The specific aethiological factor was not clearly established, although possibility of biliary pancreatitis with spontaneous stone elimination and/or medication-induced pancreatitis remains the strongest. Every patient after renal transplantation with an acute onset of abdominal pain should be promptly evaluated for presence of pancreatitis with a careful application of the most appropriate diagnostic procedure for each individual patient. PMID:23259142

  17. Management of Minerals and Bone Disorders after Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Molnar, Miklos Z; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Mucsi, Istvan; Bunnapradist, Suphamai

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Mineral and bone disorders (MBD), inherent complications of moderate and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), occur frequently in kidney transplant recipients. However, much confusion exists about clinical application of diagnostic tools and preventive or treatment strategies to correct bone loss or mineral disarrays in transplanted patients. We have reviewed the recent evidence about prevalence and consequences of MBD in kidney transplant recipients and examined diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic options to this end. Recent findings Low turnover bone disease occurs more frequently after kidney transplantation according to bone biopsy studies. The risk of fracture is high, especially in the first several months after kidney transplantation. Alterations in minerals (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) and biomarkers of bone metabolism (PTH, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and FGF-23) are observed with varying impact on post-transplant outcomes. Calcineurin inhibitors are linked to osteoporosis, whereas steroid therapy may lead to both osteoporosis and varying degrees of osteonecrosis. Sirolimus and everolimus might have a bearing on osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation or decreasing osteoclast mediated bone resorption. Selected pharmacologic interventions for treatment of MBD in transplant patients include steroid withdrawal, the use of bisphosphonates, vitamin D derivatives, calcimimetics, teriparatide, calcitonin and denosumab. Summary MBD following kidney transplantation is common and characterized by loss of bone volume and mineralization abnormalities often leading to low turnover bone disease. Although there are no well-established therapeutic approaches for management of MBD in renal transplant recipients, clinicians should continue individualizing therapy as needed. PMID:22614626

  18. A new apparatus for standardized rat kidney biopsy.

    PubMed

    Schirutschke, Holger; Gladrow, Lars; Norkus, Christian; Parmentier, Simon Paul; Hohenstein, Bernd; Hugo, Christian P M

    2014-01-01

    Survival biopsies are frequently applied in rat kidney disease models, but several drawbacks such as surgical kidney trauma, bleeding risk and variable loss of kidney tissue are still unsolved. Therefore, we developed an easy-to-use core biopsy instrument and evaluated whether two consecutive kidney biopsies within the same kidney can be carried out in a standardized manner. On day 0, 18 Lewis rats underwent a right nephrectomy and 9 of these rats a subsequent first biopsy of the left kidney (Bx group). 9 control rats had a sham biopsy of the left kidney (Ctrl group). On day 7, a second kidney biopsy/sham biopsy was performed. On day 42, all animals were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed for histology. Biopsy cylinders contained 57±28 glomeruli per transversal section, representing an adequate sample size. PAS staining showed that the biopsy depth was limited to the renal cortex whereas surgical tissue damage was limited to the area immediately adjacent to the taken biopsy cylinder. On day 42, the reduction of functional renal mass after two biopsies was only 5.2% and no differences of body weight, blood pressure, proteinuria, serum creatinine, glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis or number of ED-1 positive macrophages were found between both groups. In summary, our apparatus offers a safe method to perform repetitive kidney biopsies with minimal trauma and sufficient sample size and quality even in experimental disease models restricted to one single kidney.

  19. Transplantation of horseshoe kidney en bloc.

    PubMed

    Nahas, W C; Hakim, N S; Mazzucchi, E; Antonopoulos, L M; Eltayar, A R; Labruzzo, C; Chocair, P R; Arap, S

    2000-01-01

    Horseshoe kidney is probably the most common renal fusion anomaly. With the continuous donor shortage, transplant surgeons tend to accept donors previously considered unsuitable. We present a successful case of en bloc horseshoe kidney transplant in a single recipient. The literature is reviewed. The use of horseshoe kidneys in transplantation is recommended in selected cases.

  20. Kidney Transplant in Third World Countries.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Nadey; Miner, Elijah; Hakim, David; El Tayyar, Adil

    2016-11-01

    This paper relates to our transplant experiences in Third World countries. Over the years, I have started kidney transplant programs in Aden, Yemen and Abuja, Nigeria and restarted the transplant program in Khartoum, Sudan.

  1. Talking about Kidney Transplants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Joan; Swift, Julia

    1990-01-01

    Described is a project in which information about the moral issues surrounding tissue transplants was obtained and videotaped for classroom use. Moral positions and possible educational strategies are discussed. Examples of student statements are presented. (CW)

  2. Talking about Kidney Transplants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Joan; Swift, Julia

    1990-01-01

    Described is a project in which information about the moral issues surrounding tissue transplants was obtained and videotaped for classroom use. Moral positions and possible educational strategies are discussed. Examples of student statements are presented. (CW)

  3. Cancer mortality in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kiberd, B A; Rose, C; Gill, J S

    2009-08-01

    Immunosuppression is associated with an increased risk of cancer in kidney transplant recipients compared to the general population. It is less clear whether standardized cancer mortality ratios (SMRs) are also increased. This study's hypothesis is that SMRs are not increased because of competing risks of death. During the median follow-up of 5.05 years (Q1-Q3: 2.36-8.62), there were 1937 cancer deaths and 36 619 noncancer deaths among 164 078 first kidney-only transplant recipients captured in the United States Renal Data System between January 1990 and December 2004. The observed cancer death rate was 206 per 100 000 patient-years compared to an expected rate of 215 per 100,000 patient-years in the general population. The overall age- and sex-adjusted SMR was only 0.96 (95% CI 0.92-1.00). However, patients <50 years had SMRs significantly greater than unity while patients >60 had SMRs lower than unity. Up to 25% of cancer-related deaths occurred after allograft failure. These findings challenge the notion that cancer is a major cause of premature death in all kidney transplant recipients and has implications for design of cancer prevention strategies in kidney transplant recipients.

  4. Management of mineral and bone disorder after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Molnar, Miklos Z; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Mucsi, Istvan; Bunnapradist, Suphamai

    2012-07-01

    Mineral and bone disorders (MBDs), inherent complications of moderate and advanced chronic kidney disease, occur frequently in kidney transplant recipients. However, much confusion exists about the clinical application of diagnostic tools and preventive or treatment strategies to correct bone loss or mineral disarrays in transplanted patients. We have reviewed the recent evidence about prevalence and consequences of MBD in kidney transplant recipients and examined diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic options to this end. Low turnover bone disease occurs more frequently after kidney transplantation according to bone biopsy studies. The risk of fracture is high, especially in the first several months after kidney transplantation. Alterations in minerals (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) and biomarkers of bone metabolism (parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and FGF-23) are observed with varying impact on posttransplant outcomes. Calcineurin inhibitors are linked to osteoporosis, whereas steroid therapy may lead to both osteoporosis and varying degrees of osteonecrosis. Sirolimus and everolimus might have a bearing on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation or decreasing osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Selected pharmacologic interventions for the treatment of MBD in transplant patients include steroid withdrawal, and the use of bisphosphonates, vitamin D derivatives, calcimimetics, teriparatide, calcitonin and denosumab. MBD following kidney transplantation is common and characterized by loss of bone volume and mineralization abnormalities, often leading to low turnover bone disease. Although there are no well established therapeutic approaches for management of MBD in renal transplant recipients, clinicians should continue individualizing therapy as needed.

  5. Emphysematous pyelonephritis in a transplanted kidney

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Paula Dalsoglio; Viero, Rosa Marlene

    2016-01-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare infection characterized by necrosis and gas accumulation in the renal parenchyma, adjacent tissues, and/or urinary collecting system. This entity is rarely reported in transplanted kidneys. Computed tomography imaging is necessary for diagnosis and risk classification. The authors described the case of a 58-year-old man who underwent a kidney transplant and presented sepsis from a urinary tract infection. An abdominal tomography showed some characteristics of emphysematous pyelonephritis associated with an abscess. A graft biopsy, performed 45 days after the transplant, failed to show signs of infection, and tubule-interstitial and vascular rejection were ruled out. The patient had a poor outcome, and a nephrectomy was needed, the pathological analysis of which yielded the diagnosis of chronic pyelonephritis with necrotizing papillitis. The patient became hemodynamically unstable and died. The authors highlight the current tomographic criteria for the diagnosis and treatment of emphysematous pyelonephritis and question the validity of accepting the same standards used to guide the treatment of patients without transplants, and call attention to the importance of the clinical status for the indication of nephrectomy in cases of emphysematous pyelonephritis. PMID:28210573

  6. Altitude and arteriolar hyalinosis after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cippà, Pietro E; Grebe, Scott O; Fehr, Thomas; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; Mueller, Thomas F

    2016-09-01

    The kidney is very susceptible to hypoxic injury. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) induce vasoconstriction and might reduce renal tissue oxygenation. We aimed to investigate if the synergistic deleterious effects of CNI-treatment and hypoxia of high altitude living might accelerate the development of arteriolar hyalinosis in kidney allografts. We stratified all patients who received a kidney graft from 2000 to 2010 in our centre (n = 477) in three groups according to the residential elevation (below 400, between 400 to 600 and above 600 m above sea level) and we retrospectively re-evaluated all transplant biopsies performed during follow-up, specifically looking at the degree of arteriolar hyalinosis, the hallmark of chronic CNI nephrotoxicity. Living at high altitude was markedly associated with a higher degree of arteriolar hyalinosis (P < 0.001). Haemoglobin levels confirmed the functional relevance of different arterial oxygenation among the groups (P = 0.01). Thus, patients living at high altitude seem to be more susceptible to the development of arteriolar hyalinosis after kidney transplantation.

  7. [History of kidney transplantation surgery].

    PubMed

    Timsit, M O; Kleinclauss, F; Thuret, R

    2016-11-01

    To perform a state of the art about the history of kidney transplantation. An exhaustive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) using different associations of the following keywords (MESH): kidney transplantation, history, vascular anastomosis. From the first vascular ligations to the discovery of ciclosporin, the history of organ transplantation was made of surgical bets and medical discoveries, such as blood group, HLA-system, immunity, etc. The audacity of some surgeons led to the onset of renal transplantation as the treatment of choice for end stage renal disease. This article aims to describe the first surgical methods for vascular anastomosis and renal transplantation. Through a comprehensive search within the archives of the French National Library, the authors provide a precise description of the first renal transplantations performed, the technique that have been used and their authors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Recurrence of diabetic kidney disease in a type 1 diabetic patient after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nyumura, Izumi; Honda, Kazuho; Babazono, Tetsuya; Horita, Shigeru; Murakami, Toru; Fuchinoue, Shohei; Uchigata, Yasuko

    2015-07-01

    Post-transplant hyperglycaemia of diabetic patients may cause recurrent diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in kidney allografts. We report a patient with slowly progressive DKD with calcineurin inhibitor toxicity (CNI) toxicity after the kidney transplantation. A 28-year-old female with type 1 diabetes mellitus underwent successful kidney transplantation from her mother in April 2003, and the kidney graft survived for more than 10 years. She was treated with combined immunosuppressive therapy consisting of cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. After transplantation, she continued to take insulin injection four times per day, but her glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was above 10%. Protocol allograft kidney biopsies performed 5 and 10 years after transplantation revealed the recurrence of slowly progressive diabetic kidney disease. In addition, arteriolar hyalinosis partly associated with calcineurin inhibitor toxicity (CNI) was detected with progression. Post-transplant hyperglycaemia causes recurrent diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in kidney allografts, but its progression is usually slow. For long-term management, it is important to prevent the progression of the calcineurin inhibitor arteriolopathy, as well as maintain favourable glycaemic control.

  9. Successful Dual Kidney Transplantation After Hypothermic Oxygenated Perfusion of Discarded Human Kidneys.

    PubMed

    Ravaioli, Matteo; De Pace, Vanessa; Comai, Giorgia; Busutti, Marco; Del Gaudio, Massimo; Amaduzzi, Annalisa; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Siniscalchi, Antonio; La Manna, Gaetano; D'Errico, Antonietta A D; Pinna, Antonio Daniele

    2017-09-20

    BACKGROUND The recovery of discarded human kidneys has increased in recent years and impels to use of unconventional organ preservation strategies that improve graft function. We report the first case of human kidneys histologically discarded and transplanted after hypothermic oxygenated perfusion (HOPE). CASE REPORT Marginal kidneys from a 78-year-old woman with brain death were declined by Italian transplant centers due to biopsy score (right kidney: 6; left kidney: 7). We recovered and preserved both kidneys through HOPE and we revaluated their use for transplantation by means of perfusion parameters. The right kidney was perfused for 1 h 20 min and the left kidney for 2 h 30 min. During organ perfusion, the renal flow increased progressively. We observed an increase of 34% for the left kidney (median flow 52 ml/min) and 50% for the right kidney (median flow 24 ml/min). Both kidneys had low perfusate's lactate levels. We used perfusion parameters as important determinants of the organ discard. Based on our previous organ perfusion experience, the increase of renal flow and the low level of lactate following 1 h of HOPE lead us to declare both kidneys as appropriate for dual kidney transplantation (DKT). No complications were reported during the transplant and in the post-transplant hospital stay. The recipient had immediate graft function and serum creatinine value of 0.95 mg/dL at 3 months post-transplant. CONCLUSIONS HOPE provides added information in the organ selection process and may improve graft quality of marginal kidneys.

  10. The Native Kidney Biopsy: Update and Evidence for Best Practice

    PubMed Central

    Mocanu, Michaela; Berns, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    The kidney biopsy is the gold standard in the diagnosis and management of many diseases. Since its introduction in the 1950s, advancements have been made in biopsy technique to improve diagnostic yield while minimizing complications. Here, we review kidney biopsy indications, techniques, and complications in the modern era. We also discuss patient populations in whom special consideration must be given when considering a kidney biopsy and the important role that the kidney biopsy plays in nephrology training. These data are presented to develop best practice strategies for this essential procedure. PMID:26339068

  11. The Native Kidney Biopsy: Update and Evidence for Best Practice.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Jonathan J; Mocanu, Michaela; Berns, Jeffrey S

    2016-02-05

    The kidney biopsy is the gold standard in the diagnosis and management of many diseases. Since its introduction in the 1950s, advancements have been made in biopsy technique to improve diagnostic yield while minimizing complications. Here, we review kidney biopsy indications, techniques, and complications in the modern era. We also discuss patient populations in whom special consideration must be given when considering a kidney biopsy and the important role that the kidney biopsy plays in nephrology training. These data are presented to develop best practice strategies for this essential procedure.

  12. Clinical Significance of Pre- and Post-Transplant BAFF Levels in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Min, Ji Won; Kim, Kyoung Woon; Kim, Bo-Mi; Doh, Kyoung Chan; Choi, Min Seok; Choi, Bum Soon; Park, Cheol Whee; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that pre-transplant B cell activating factor (BAFF) levels are associated with the development of de novo anti-HLA antibodies and antibody mediated rejection post-transplant. However, the clinical significance of BAFF values at allograft rejection has not been determined. In this study, we investigated the clinical significance of pre-transplant BAFF level as well as post-transplant BAFF levels measured when indication biopsy was done. We checked for anti-HLA antibodies in 115 kidney transplant recipients who required allograft biopsy due to an increase in serum creatinine. With the same serum specimen, we measured BAFF levels, and in 78 of these patients, pre-transplant BAFF and anti-HLA antibody levels were detected as well. Patients in each group were divided into tertiles according to BAFF levels. We investigated the relationship between BAFF levels and the occurrence of anti-HLA antibodies. Pre-transplant BAFF levels showed significant association with pre-transplant sensitization, and also with early rejection (Tertile 3, 26.9% vs. Tertile 1, 11.5%; P<0.05). Post-transplant BAFF levels showed significant association with pre-transplant sensitization, but did not show association with anti-HLA antibodies and positive donor-specific antibodies at the time of biopsy. We did not find any association between post-transplant BAFF levels and allograft biopsy results, Banff scores and microvascular inflammation scores. In conclusion, pre-transplant BAFF levels are associated with pre-transplant sensitization and are useful in predicting allograft rejection. But post-transplant BAFF levels measured at the time of indication biopsy are not associated with the appearance of de novo HLA-DSA, allograft rejection, biopsy findings and other allograft outcomes. PMID:27631619

  13. Transplantation of kidneys with tumors.

    PubMed

    Frascà, Giovanni M; D'Errico, Antonia; Malvi, Deborah; Porta, Camillo; Cosmai, Laura; Santoni, Matteo; Sandrini, Silvio; Salviani, Chiara; Gallieni, Maurizio; Balestra, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    The shortage of donors in the face of the increasing number of patients wait-listed for renal transplantation has prompted several strategies including the use of kidneys with a tumor, whether found by chance on harvesting from a deceased donor or intentionally removed from a living donor and transplanted after excision of the lesion. Current evidence suggests that a solitary well-differentiated renal cell carcinoma, Fuhrman nuclear grade I-II, less than 1 cm in diameter and resected before grafting may be considered at minimal risk of recurrence in the recipient who, however, should be informed of the possible risk and consent to receive such a graft.

  14. Laparoscopic kidney biopsy in dogs: Comparison of cup forceps and core needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Hae-Beom; Jeong, Seong Mok

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the feasibility of laparoscopic kidney biopsy with cup biopsy forceps in dogs (CupBF), and to compare to the use of a core biopsy needle (CoreBN). Experimental; randomized, controlled design. Eight healthy, adult Beagle dogs. Dogs were randomized to undergo laparoscopic biopsy of the right kidney using either 5 mm CupBF or a 16 gauge CoreBN. Intraoperative hemorrhage of the biopsy site was monitored. Biopsy quality was evaluated for tissue fragmentation and crushing, presence of renal cortex with or without medulla, and number of glomeruli. Postoperative packed cell volume, urinalysis, and ultrasonographic appearance of the biopsy site were evaluated. Biopsy specimens were obtained by both techniques and reliable hemostasis was achieved with direct compression in all dogs. The histologic score for CupBF biopsies was not significantly different from CoreBN biopsies. One CoreBN biopsy contained both renal cortex and medullar, while all CupBF biopsies contained cortex only. The mean (SD) number of glomeruli was significantly higher in CupBF biopsies [60 (9.1)] than CoreBN biopsies [26 (4.3)]. There was no gross hematuria, perirenal hematoma, or hydronephrosis in any dog postoperative. Laparoscopic kidney biopsy in dogs using 5 mm cup biopsy forceps is feasible with minimal risk and more glomeruli obtained compared to laparoscopic kidney biopsy using 16 gauge core biopsy needles. © 2016 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. Acute Page kidney following renal allograft biopsy: a complication requiring early recognition and treatment.

    PubMed

    Chung, J; Caumartin, Y; Warren, J; Luke, P P W

    2008-06-01

    The acute Page kidney phenomenon occurs as a consequence of external compression of the renal parenchyma leading to renal ischemia and hypertension. Between January 2000 and September 2007, 550 kidney transplants and 518 ultrasound-guided kidney biopsies were performed. During that time, four recipients developed acute oligo-anuria following ultrasound-guided allograft biopsy. Emergent doppler-ultrasounds were performed demonstrating absence of diastolic flow as well as a sub-capsular hematoma of the kidney. Prompt surgical exploration with allograft capsulotomy was performed in all cases. Immediately after capsulotomy, intraoperative Doppler study demonstrated robust return of diastolic flow. Three patients maintained good graft function, and one kidney was lost due to acute antibody-mediated rejection. We conclude that postbiopsy anuria associated with a subcapsular hematoma and acute absence of diastolic flow on doppler ultrasound should be considered pathognomonic of APK. All renal transplant specialists should be able to recognize this complication, because immediate surgical decompression can salvage the allograft.

  16. Utility of protocol kidney biopsies for de novo donor-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Sandesh; Reville, Patrick K; Ellis, Thomas M; Djamali, Arjang; Mandelbrot, Didier A

    2017-08-14

    There is limited information about the role of protocol kidney biopsies for de novo donor-specific antibodies (dnDSA) in kidney transplant recipients, especially in those with stable graft function. We initiated a routine posttransplant DSA monitoring and surveillance biopsy program for dnDSA since 2014. We identified 45 kidney transplant recipients with dnDSA detected between January 2014 and February 2017 who underwent kidney biopsy within 60 days of detection of dnDSA. Twenty-nine (64%) had stable graft function and 16 (36%) had impaired graft function at the time of dnDSA detection. Even in the group with stable graft function, we found a high rate of rejection (53%) on biopsy. Eighty-eight percent of patients with impaired graft function had rejection. Those patients with impaired graft function had significantly lower estimated glomerular filtration rate at 12 months postbiopsy and at last follow-up. Those with impaired graft function had more graft failures; however, this result was not statistically significant. The high rate of asymptomatic rejection, and the fact that outcomes in asymptomatic patients are poor, is in support of the utility of surveillance biopsies in patients with dnDSA. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. Elderly living donor kidney transplantation allows worthwhile outcomes: The Japan Academic Consortium of Kidney Transplantation study.

    PubMed

    Okumi, Masayoshi; Unagami, Kohei; Kakuta, Yoichi; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Takagi, Toshio; Ishida, Hideki; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2017-09-14

    To compare transplant outcomes among elderly (aged ≥60 years) and non-elderly recipients, and to evaluate the acceptability of elderly living donor kidney transplantation in practice after consideration of living donor type. We included 830 adult patients with living donor kidney transplantation between 2000 and 2011 in this retrospective cohort study. We compared death-censored graft survival, patient survival, biopsy-proven rejection, complications, and renal function in elderly (n = 119) and non-elderly recipients (n = 278). There was no significant difference in 10-year death-censored graft survival (P = 0.980). Corresponding patient survival rates in the elderly and non-elderly groups were 84.1% and 98.1%, respectively (hazard ratio 6.15, 95% confidence interval 2.12-17.82, P < 0.001). Elderly patients had more complications and chronic T-cell-mediated rejection. Factors associated with death in elderly recipients with functioning grafts were residual advanced recipient age (hazard ratio 1.39), decreased hemoglobin (hazard ratio 4.10), hepatitis B virus (hazard ratio 7.89), hepatitis C virus (hazard ratio 13.12) and elevated alanine aminotransferase (hazard ratio 1.13). Elderly living donor kidney transplantation seems to provide adequate acceptable outcomes. However, physicians should be cautious when evaluating elderly patients with hepatitis, and further studies are required to improve long-term outcomes. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  18. Kidney Transplantation From a Donor With Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Rossidis, A; Lim, M A; Palmer, M; Levine, M H; Naji, A; Bloom, R D; Abt, P L

    2017-02-01

    In the United States, >100 000 patients are waiting for a kidney transplant. Given the paucity of organs available for transplant, expansion of eligibility criteria for deceased donation is of substantial interest. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is viewed as a contraindication to kidney donation, perhaps because SCD substantially alters renal structure and function and thus has the potential to adversely affect multiple physiological processes of the kidney. To our knowledge, transplantation from a donor with SCD has never been described in the literature. In this paper, we report the successful transplantation of two kidneys from a 37-year-old woman with SCD who died from an intracranial hemorrhage. Nearly 4 mo after transplant, both recipients are doing well and are off dialysis. The extent to which kidneys from donors with SCD can be safely transplanted with acceptable outcomes is unknown; however, this report should provide support for the careful expansion of kidneys from donors with SCD without evidence of renal dysfunction and with normal tissue architecture on preimplantation biopsies.

  19. Four decades of kidney transplantation in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alfonzo, Jorge P

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the background, beginnings, development, evolution and outcomes of kidney transplantation in Cuba. Nephrology as a medical specialty in Cuba began in 1962 and was formalized in 1966. Conditions were created to implement renal replacement therapy (including transplants), bring nephrology care to the entire country and train human resources who would assume this responsibility, making Cuba one of the first countries with a comprehensive program for renal patient care. After three unsuccessful cadaveric-donor kidney transplantations in 1968-69, the ensuing history of kidney transplantation can be summarized in the following three stages. 1970-1975: In January 1970, cadaveric-donor kidney transplantation began at the Nephrology Institute. That year, 17 kidney transplantations were performed; four of these patients lived with functional kidneys for 15-25 years; 10-year graft survival was 23.5% (Kaplan-Meier survival curve); HLA typing began in 1974. By December 1975, 170 grafts had been done in three hospitals. 1976-1985: Seven transplantation centers performed 893 grafts during this period. HLA-DR typing was introduced in 1976 and the National Histocompatibility Laboratory Network was founded in 1978. The first related living-donor kidney transplantation was done in 1979. 1986-2011: The National Kidney Transplantation Coordinating Center and the National Kidney Transplantation Program were created in 1986; the first combined kidney-pancreas transplantation was performed the same year. In 1990, cyclosporine and the Cuban monoclonal antibody IOR-T3 were introduced for immunosuppression to prevent rejection, as were other Cuban products (hepatitis B vaccine and recombinant human erythropoietin) for transplant patients. By December 2011, the cumulative number of transplants was 4636 (384 from related living donors). With over 40 years of experience, kidney transplantation is now well established in Cuba; it is free and universally accessible, on the

  20. [Combined heart-kidney transplantation in Mexic].

    PubMed

    Careaga-Reyna, Guillermo; Zetina-Tun, Hugo Jesús; Lezama-Urtecho, Carlos Alberto; Hernández-Domínguez, José Mariano; Santos-Caballero, Marlene

    In our country, heart and kidney transplantation is a novel option for treatment of combined terminal heart and kidney failure. This program began in 2012 for selected patients with documented terminal heart failure and structural kidney damage with renal failure. Description of cases: Between January 1, 2012 and April 30, 2016, we made 92 orthotopic heart transplantations. In five of these cases the heart transplantation was combined with kidney transplantation. There were three male and two female patients with a mean age 25.6 ± 5.2 years (range, 17-29). The patients improved their renal function and the heart transplantation was successful with an improved quality of life. One patient died from abdominal sepsis. The other patients are doing well. The combined heart-kidney transplantation is a safe and efficient procedure for patients with structural kidney and heart damage as a cause of terminal failure.

  1. Huge abdominal cyst occurred after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, H P; Yu, H C; Park, H S; Song, J S; Kang, K P; Kim, W; Park, S K; Lee, S

    2014-01-01

    This case demonstrates continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis-related endometrial tissue migration and occurrence of huge cystic endometriosis by the recovery of menstrual period after kidney transplantation.

  2. Treating stones in transplanted kidneys.

    PubMed

    Saxena, S; Sadideen, H; Goldsmith, D

    2013-02-01

    The formation of calculi in renal allografts is an uncommon complication in renal transplant recipients, with a reported incidence of 0.2-1.7% according to retrospective studies. Although the majority of these stones appear to form de novo following renal transplantation (RTX), there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that more often than previously thought they may be transplanted with the donor graft itself. The etiology and pathophysiology of renal graft stones is multifactorial. A combination of metabolic and urodynamic factors predispose to stone formation and these are generally found more frequently in allograft rather than native kidneys. In addition tertiary hyperparathyroidism (following RTX) plays an important role. Renal allograft stones can pose significant challenges for the clinician. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and must be prompt, as these patients' reliance on a solitary kidney for their renal function leaves them susceptible to significant morbidity. However, reports in the literature come largely from anecdotal experience and case reports, meaning that there is a limited consensus regarding how best to manage the condition. We suggest that interventional treatment should be guided primarily by stone size and individual patient presentation. Good outcomes have been reported with shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and ureteroscopy, but optimal management of the risk factors leading to calculi formation (i.e., prevention) will remain the most cost-effective management.

  3. The genetics of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pallet, Nicolas; Thervet, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Over the last decade, the search for gene variants with the potential to influence transplant outcomes or predispose individuals to host-recipient-related phenotypes has generated a considerable number of studies with conflicting results. Thousands of genotypes have been associated with complex traits related to transplant medicine, including acute rejection, immunosuppressive drug metabolism and side effects, infections, long-term outcomes, and cardiovascular complications. However, these efforts have given disappointing results, both in terms of gaining understanding of the biological basis of disease and in patient management. The methodological weaknesses that constitute the major limitations of most of these studies have been discussed widely. A new generation of approaches is needed to understand the relationship between gene variants and complex kidney transplantation traits. These approaches should be global, to generate original pathophysiological hypotheses, and should rely on advanced genomic tools, including Genome Wide Association studies and Whole Genome Sequencing technologies. Such enterprises will only be successful with the creation of international consortiums that connect partners in clinical, industrial, and academic transplant medicine.

  4. Screening for cardiovascular disease before kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Palepu, Sneha; Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Pre-kidney transplant cardiac screening has garnered particular attention from guideline committees as an approach to improving post-transplant success. Screening serves two major purposes: To more accurately inform transplant candidates of their risk for a cardiac event before and after the transplant, thereby informing decisions about proceeding with transplantation, and to guide pre-transplant management so that post-transplant success can be maximized. Transplant candidates on dialysis are more likely to be screened for coronary artery disease than those not being considered for transplantation. Thorough history and physical examination taking, resting electrocardiography and echocardiography, exercise stress testing, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, dobutamine stress echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography, cardiac biomarker measurement, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging all play contributory roles towards screening for cardiovascular disease before kidney transplantation. In this review, the importance of each of these screening procedures for both coronary artery disease and other forms of cardiac disease are discussed. PMID:26722655

  5. 42 CFR 409.18 - Services related to kidney transplantations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Services related to kidney transplantations. 409.18... Access Hospital Services § 409.18 Services related to kidney transplantations. (a) Kidney transplants. Medicare pays for kidney transplantation surgery only if performed in a renal transplantation...

  6. 42 CFR 409.18 - Services related to kidney transplantations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Services related to kidney transplantations. 409.18... Access Hospital Services § 409.18 Services related to kidney transplantations. (a) Kidney transplants. Medicare pays for kidney transplantation surgery only if performed in a renal transplantation...

  7. 42 CFR 409.18 - Services related to kidney transplantations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Services related to kidney transplantations. 409.18... Access Hospital Services § 409.18 Services related to kidney transplantations. (a) Kidney transplants. Medicare pays for kidney transplantation surgery only if performed in a renal transplantation...

  8. 42 CFR 409.18 - Services related to kidney transplantations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Services related to kidney transplantations. 409.18... Access Hospital Services § 409.18 Services related to kidney transplantations. (a) Kidney transplants. Medicare pays for kidney transplantation surgery only if performed in a renal transplantation...

  9. 42 CFR 409.18 - Services related to kidney transplantations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Services related to kidney transplantations. 409.18... Access Hospital Services § 409.18 Services related to kidney transplantations. (a) Kidney transplants. Medicare pays for kidney transplantation surgery only if performed in a renal transplantation...

  10. Virtual crossmatch in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Piazza, A; Ozzella, G; Poggi, E; Caputo, D; Manfreda, A; Adorno, D

    2014-09-01

    The Luminex Single-Antigen Beads (LSA) assay allows an accurate detection and characterization of preexisting donor-specific antibodies (DSA) in kidney transplant candidates. But the ability of LSA to detect quite low levels of antibodies makes it hard to correctly predict crossmatch results in donor selection. In this study we retrospectively analyzed the accuracy of our virtual crossmatch (v-XM) protocol, which was used for selection of potential kidney transplant recipients, in predicting the results of actual crossmatch (a-XM) in cadaver-donor renal transplantation. We also investigated correlation between negative a-XM results and strength/specificity of preformed DSA. The correlation between negative v-XMs and a-XMs performed in 2007-2012 at the Regional Transplant Center of the Lazio Region, Italy, was analyzed. In carrying out v-XM, the donor HLA molecules against which patients showed LSA-detected DSA with normalized mean fluorescence intensity (MFI)≥5,000 were considered to be "unacceptable DSA," and LSA-DSA showing MFI<5,000 were defined as "acceptable DSA." All cadaver donors had been typed for HLA-A, -B, -DR, and -DQB molecules by sequence-specific primer methods. On the basis of a negative v-XM, we performed 507 a-XMs between serum samples from 256 renal transplant candidates and T/B lymphocytes from 302 cadaver donors with the use of both complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and flow cytometry (FC) methods. The v-XM negative results showed good correlation with both CDC and FC a-XMs (97% and 90%, respectively). The sensitivity of v-XM was 100%; this high value was related to the lack of false-negative DSA results. The limited specificity with both techniques (CDC-XM, 74%; FC-XM, 79%) was due to the presence of "acceptable" and/or anti-DQA/DPB DSA in some patient sera used to perform the a-XMs. During the study period, 171 (67%) of the 256 sensitized patients received a kidney transplant: 30% of these had "acceptable DSA" and/or anti-DQA/DPB DSA

  11. Kidney Transplantation in the Diabetic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Sáez, María José; Pascual, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In patients with advanced diabetic kidney disease, kidney transplantation (KT) with or without a pancreas transplant is the treatment of choice. We aimed to review current data regarding kidney and pancreas transplant options in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes and the outcomes of different treatment modalities. In general, pancreas transplantation is associated with long-term survival advantages despite an increased short-term morbidity and mortality risk. This applies to simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation or pancreas after KT compared to KT alone (either living donor or deceased). Other factors as living donor availability, comorbidities, and expected waiting time have to be considered whens electing one transplant modality, rather than a clear benefit in survival of one strategy vs. others. In selected type 2 diabetic patients, data support cautious utilization of simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation when a living kidney donor is not an option. Pancreas and kidney transplantation seems to be the treatment of choice for most type 1 diabetic and selected type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:26239558

  12. Red Kidney: Kidney Transplant From a Deceased Donor Who Received Massive Blood Transfusion During Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard; Hanif, Faisal; Prasad, Padmini; Ahmad, Niaz

    2016-06-01

    Here, we present a case of a deceased-donor kidney transplant. The brain-dead donor had received a massive blood transfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass, which lead to hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, acute kidney injury, and renal replacement therapy. The kidney appeared red after in situ flush. Postoperatively, the recipient developed delayed graft function. Protocol biopsy during the postoperative period revealed the widespread deposition of heme pigment in the renal tubules. Massive blood transfusion and cardiopulmonary bypass surgery are associated with hemolysis and heme pigment deposition in the renal tubules, which subsequently lead to acute kidney injury. Kidneys from such donors appear red and, while this does not preclude transplant, are likely to develop delayed graft function.

  13. Optical Coherence Tomography in Kidney Transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Peter M.; Wierwille, Jeremiah; Chen, Yu

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with both high mortality rates and an enormous economic burden [1]. The preferred treatment option for ESRD that can extend patients' lives and improve their quality of life is kidney transplantation. However, organ shortages continue to pose a major problem in kidney transplantation. Most kidneys for transplantation come from heart-beating cadavers. Although non-heart-beating cadavers represent a potentially large pool of donor kidneys, these kidneys are not often used due to the unknown extent of damage to the renal tubules (i.e., acute tubular necrosis or "ATN") induced by ischemia (i.e., lack of blood flow). Also, ischemic insult suffered by kidneys awaiting transplantation frequently causes ATN that leads to varying degrees of delayed graft function (DGF) after transplantation. Finally, ATN represents a significant risk for eventual graft and patient survival [2, 3] and can be difficult to discern from rejection. In present clinical practice, there is no reliable real-time test to determine the viability of donor kidneys and whether or not donor kidneys might exhibit ATN. Therefore, there is a critical need for an objective and reliable real-time test to predict ATN to use these organs safely and utilize the donor pool optimally. In this review, we provided preliminary data indicating that OCT can be used to predict the post-transplant function of kidneys used in transplantation.

  14. Endomyocardial biopsy in heart transplantation: schedule or event?

    PubMed

    Chi, N-H; Chou, N-K; Tsao, C-I; Huang, S-C; Wu, I-H; Yu, H-Y; Chen, Y-S; Wang, S-S

    2012-05-01

    Endomyocardial biopsy is the gold standard to identify rejection after heart transplantation. Due to its invasiveness, discomfort, and difficult vascular access, some patients are not willing to accept routine scheduled biopsies years after heart transplantation. The purpose of this study was to identify whether there was a difference in outcomes among the scheduled versus event biopsy groups. We studied 411 patients who underwent heart transplantation from 1987 to 2011, reviewing biopsy results and pathology reports. There were 363 patients who followed the scheduled biopsy protocol, and 48 patients who were assigned to the event biopsy group. We extracted data on biopsy results, rejection episodes, rejection types, and survival time. The 2481 reviewed biopsies over 24 years, showed most rejection episodes (86.4%) to occur within 2 years after heart transplantation. The rejection incidence was low (2.1%) at 3 years after transplantation. The major reason for an event biopsy was poor vascular access, such as tiny central vein or congenital disease without a suitable central vein. Event biopsy group patients were younger than schedule biopsy patients (19.7 years old vs 47.6 years old; P < .05). The 10-year survival rates were 64% among the event versus 53% among the scheduled biopsy group (P = .029). The 10-year rates of freedom from rejection were similar. The rejection rate was low after 3 years; episodes occurred within 2 years. Although the long-term survival in the event group was better, they had a younger man age. The rejection and freedom from rejection rates were similar. As the rejection rate was low at 3 years after transplantation, we suggest that the event principle could be applied for biopsy at 3 years after heart transplantation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Health literacy and kidney transplant outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kazley, Abby S; Hund, Jessica Jordan; Simpson, Kit N; Chavin, Ken; Baliga, Prabhakar

    2015-03-01

    Kidney disease is a common disease that is best treated through kidney transplant. The kidney transplant process is complex and can be difficult to navigate and most likely requires an adequate amount of health literacy. To assess the relationship between health literacy and transplant outcomes, including whether a patient was listed for or received a transplant. A cross-sectional study measuring patients' health literacy and transplant outcomes. Participants from a single transplant center were invited to participate if they were referred to the center for transplant and spoke English. Of the 92 patients, 30 (33%) were in the vascular access clinic, 31 (34%) were posttransplant, and 31 (34%) were pretransplant. Health literacy was measured by using 3 tools: Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy of Medicine-Transplant (REALM-T), Newest Vital Sign (NVS), and Decision-Making Capacity Assessment Tool (DMCAT). Two dichotomous variables: whether the patient was listed for transplant and/or received a transplant. Descriptive and univariate statistics were calculated. Six logistic regression models were used to test for a correlation between each of the tools and patients' likelihood to be listed for and/or receive a transplant. Fifty-three patients (58%) were formally listed for a transplant, and 36 (39%) received a transplant. The REALM-T, NVS, and DMCAT each significantly predicted whether or not a patient was listed for transplant (odds ratios, 1.044, 1.672, and 1.408). The NVS and DMCAT significantly predicted whether a patient received a transplant (odds ratios, 1.667 and 1.256). Health literacy is a positive and significant predictor of transplant outcomes. Clinicians should take assessments of health literacy into account when speaking to patients about kidney transplant.

  16. Interpreting CD56+ and CD163+ infiltrates in early versus late renal transplant biopsies.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sung; Kim, Young Hoon; Cho, Yong Mee; Park, Yangsoon; Han, Seungbong; Choi, Byung Hyun; Choi, Ji Yoon; Han, Duck Jong

    2015-01-01

    CD56+ and CD163+ cell infiltration in human kidney transplant biopsies have not been fully evaluated. We investigated the association of CD56+ and CD163+ cell infiltration with human kidney transplant biopsies with antibody- or T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) and other histologic lesions. One hundred and seventy four clinically indicated transplant biopsies were included in this analysis. Immunohistochemical staining for C4d, CD56 and CD163 was performed. One hundred and seventy four indication biopsies were divided into early (≤1 year posttransplant; n = 49) and late (>1 year posttransplant; n = 125) biopsies. High numbers of CD56+ cells were uncommon in early biopsies except for those with antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) only. On the other hand, high numbers of CD56+ cells were observed in late biopsies diagnosed as TCMR only, AMR only, and TCMR combined with AMR. In early biopsies, both CD56+ and CD163+ infiltrates correlated strongly with interstitial inflammation, tubulitis, and peritubular capillaritis (ptc) scores. The ci and ct scores, however, were correlated only with the number of CD56+ cells. In late biopsies, on the other hand, the number of CD56+ infiltrates was correlated only with ptc, while the number of CD163+ infiltrates was weakly correlated with any histologic lesion. Multivariable analyses showed that chronic active AMR and the number of CD56+ cells/10 HPF were independently associated with death-censored graft failure post-biopsy. The number of CD163+ cells was not correlated with any pathologic lesion and post-biopsy graft failure. CD56+ infiltrates were also associated with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Intragraft CD56+ cell infiltrates were significantly associated with AMR and subsequent poor clinical outcomes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Residence location and likelihood of kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Marcello; Klarenbach, Scott; Manns, Braden; Culleton, Bruce; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Bertazzon, Stefania; Wiebe, Natasha; Gill, John S.

    2006-01-01

    Background In a universal, public health care system, access to kidney transplantation should not be influenced by residence location. We determined the likelihood of kidney transplantation from deceased donors among Canadian dialysis patients living in 7 geographic regions. Within each region we also determined whether distance from the closest transplant centre was associated with the likelihood of transplantation. Methods A random sample of 7034 subjects initiating dialysis in Canada between 1996 and 2000 was studied. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the relation between residence location and the likelihood of kidney transplantation from deceased donors over a median period of 2.4 years. Results There were significant differences in the likelihood of kidney transplantation from deceased donors and predicted waiting times between the different geographic regions. For example, the adjusted relative likelihood of transplantation in Alberta was 3.74 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.95–4.76) compared with the likelihood in Ontario (p < 0.001). These differences persisted after further adjustment for differences in the rate of deceased organ donation. Within regions, patients who resided 50.1–150 km, 150.1–300 km and more than 300 km from the closest transplant centre had a similar adjusted likelihood of receiving a kidney transplant as those who lived less than 50 km away. Interpretation The adjusted likelihood of undergoing a kidney transplant from a deceased donor varied substantially between geographic regions in Canada. In contrast, the likelihood of transplantation within regions was not affected by distance from the closest transplant centre. PMID:16940265

  18. Pediatric renal transplant biopsy with ultrasound guidance: the 'core' essentials.

    PubMed

    Oates, Aris; Ahuja, Saveen; Lee, Marsha M; Phelps, Andrew S; Mackenzie, John D; Courtier, Jesse L

    2017-06-01

    This review provides a comprehensive and practical approach to pediatric percutaneous renal transplant biopsies, highlighting techniques and strategies to optimize adequate sample yield and ensure patient safety. In children with end-stage renal disease, transplantation is the preferred choice of therapy, providing for overall lower long-term morbidity and mortality compared with dialysis. In the ongoing management of renal transplant patients, core tissue sampling via a percutaneous renal biopsy remains the gold standard when transplant dysfunction is suspected. Indications for renal transplant biopsy and techniques/tools for adequate sample yield are discussed. Strategies for common challenges such as poor visualization and renal transplant mobility are addressed. We discuss the clinical signs, techniques and imaging findings for common complications including hematomas, arteriovenous fistulas and pseudoaneurysms. Although the percutaneous renal transplant biopsy procedure is generally safe with rare complications, care must be taken to ensure major complications are promptly recognized and treated. Adequate tissue samples obtained via renal biopsy are imperative to promptly identify transplant rejection to provide valuable information for patient diagnosis, treatment and outcomes. Radiologist and nephrologist attention to proper ultrasound techniques and optimal biopsy tools are critical to ensure tissue adequacy and minimize complications.

  19. Baseline donor chronic renal injury confers the same transplant survival disadvantage for DCD and DBD kidneys.

    PubMed

    Kosmoliaptsis, V; Salji, M; Bardsley, V; Chen, Y; Thiru, S; Griffiths, M H; Copley, H C; Saeb-Parsy, K; Bradley, J A; Torpey, N; Pettigrew, G J

    2015-03-01

    Histological assessment of baseline chronic kidney injury may discriminate kidneys that are suitable for transplantation, but has not been validated for appraisal of donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidneys. 'Time-zero' biopsies for 371 consecutive, solitary, deceased-donor kidneys transplanted at our center between 2006 and 2010 (65.5% DCD, 34.5% donation after brain death [DBD]) were reviewed and baseline chronic degenerative injury scored using Remuzzi's classification. High scores correlated with donor age and extended criteria donors (42% of donors), but the spectrum of scores was similar for DCD and DBD kidneys. Transplant outcomes for kidneys scoring from 0 to 4 were comparable (1 and 3 year graft survival 95% and 92%), but were much poorer for kidneys scoring ≥5, with 1 year graft survival only 73%, and 12.5% suffering primary nonfunction. Critically, high Remuzzi scores conferred the same survival disadvantage for DCD and DBD kidneys. On multi-variable regression analysis, time-zero biopsy score was the only independent predictor for graft survival, whereas one-year graft estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) correlated with donor age and biopsy score. In conclusion, the relationship between severity of chronic kidney injury and transplant outcome is similar for DCD and DBD kidneys. Kidneys with Remuzzi scores of ≤4 can be implanted singly with acceptable results.

  20. Pulmonary Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Phaeoacremonium in a Kidney Transplant Recipient: Successful Treatment with Posaconazole

    PubMed Central

    Monaganti, Saivaralaxmi; Santos, Carlos A. Q.; Markwardt, Andrea; Pence, Morgan A.; Brennan, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of pulmonary phaeohyphomycosis in a 49-year-old woman 6 years after kidney transplantation. She presented with dyspnea, cough, and fatigue. Her chest CT scan revealed nodular opacities in the right upper lung. A fine needle aspirate biopsy culture yielded Phaeoacremonium and surgical pathology of the biopsy showed chronic inflammation. We successfully treated her with posaconazole and managed drug interactions between posaconazole and tacrolimus. This is the second reported case of biopsy-proven pulmonary infection by Phaeoacremonium in a kidney transplant recipient and successfully treated with posaconazole. PMID:24959182

  1. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    PubMed

    Pourmand, Gholamreza; Dehghani, Sanaz; Rahmati, Mohamad Reza; Mehrsai, Abdolrasoul; Gooran, Shahram; Alizadeh, Farimah; Khaki, Siavash; Mortazavi, Seyede Hamideh; Pourmand, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN) in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61%) patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8%) the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%). A total of 166 (41.5%) patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5%) had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2%) developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8%) remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45%) patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55%) didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  2. Kidney Exchange to Overcome Financial Barriers to Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rees, M A; Dunn, T B; Kuhr, C S; Marsh, C L; Rogers, J; Rees, S E; Cicero, A; Reece, L J; Roth, A E; Ekwenna, O; Fumo, D E; Krawiec, K D; Kopke, J E; Jain, S; Tan, M; Paloyo, S R

    2017-03-01

    Organ shortage is the major limitation to kidney transplantation in the developed world. Conversely, millions of patients in the developing world with end-stage renal disease die because they cannot afford renal replacement therapy-even when willing living kidney donors exist. This juxtaposition between countries with funds but no available kidneys and those with available kidneys but no funds prompts us to propose an exchange program using each nation's unique assets. Our proposal leverages the cost savings achieved through earlier transplantation over dialysis to fund the cost of kidney exchange between developed-world patient-donor pairs with immunological barriers and developing-world patient-donor pairs with financial barriers. By making developed-world health care available to impoverished patients in the developing world, we replace unethical transplant tourism with global kidney exchange-a modality equally benefitting rich and poor. We report the 1-year experience of an initial Filipino pair, whose recipient was transplanted in the United states with an American donor's kidney at no cost to him. The Filipino donor donated to an American in the United States through a kidney exchange chain. Follow-up care and medications in the Philippines were supported by funds from the United States. We show that the logistical obstacles in this approach, although considerable, are surmountable.

  3. Cryo-preserved porcine kidneys are feasible for teaching and training renal biopsy: “the bento kidney”

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of patients as the primary teaching modality for learning procedures is being questioned. While there have been advancements in the technology used for performing needle biopsies in both native and transplanted kidneys, there has been little advancement in teaching and training tools. We have developed a portable ex-vivo kidney, the Bento Kidney, using cryo-preserved porcine kidneys for teaching this procedure. Methods The kidney is thawed, perfused by a pump, covered with skin for realistic haptic feedback, and then used with existing biopsy technology to teach the technique. Results Thirty porcine kidneys were used in this pilot research, and nine were shipped to physicians at a distant facility. Renal biopsy was then performed using a core biopsy needle and ultrasound guidance. There was some leakage of fluid from all kidneys noted. All trainees felt that the model was realistic, and judged at a mean score of 8.7 (SD 0.8) on a scale of 1 (not useful) to 10 (very useful). Conclusions This feasibility study demonstrates that cryo-preserved porcine kidneys can be successfully used to teach and train renal biopsy techniques, and provides haptic feedback as well as realistic real-time ultrasound images. Further large scale studies are needed to demonstrate value from the educational point of view for nephrology and transplantation. PMID:23369318

  4. The global role of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Guillermo G; Harden, Paul; Chapman, Jeremy

    2012-05-01

    World Kidney Day on 8 March 2012 provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end-stage kidney disease that surpasses dialysis treatments both for the quality and quantity of life that it provides and for its cost-effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better, but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatment by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end-stage kidney disease include the economic limitations which in some countries place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation, and vaccination. Even in high-income countries, the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited medical, surgical, and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions which involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental, and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to deliver transplantation therapy to the one million people a year who have a right to benefit.

  5. The global role of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Guillermo Garcia; Harden, Paul; Chapman, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    World Kidney Day on March 8th 2012 provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end stage kidney disease that surpasses dialysis treatments both for the quality and quantity of life that it provides and for its cost effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better, but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatment by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end stage kidney disease include the economic limitations which, in some countries place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation and vaccination. Even in high income countries the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited medical, surgical and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions which involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to deliver transplantation therapy to the one million people a year who have a right to benefit. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The global role of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Guillermo Garcia; Harden, Paul; Chapman, Jeremy

    2012-03-01

    World Kidney Day on March 8th 2012 provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end stage kidney disease that surpasses dialysis treatments both for the quality and quantity of life that it provides and for its cost effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better, but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatment by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end stage kidney disease include the economic limitations which, in some countries place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation and vaccination. Even in high income countries the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited medical, surgical and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions which involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to deliver transplantation therapy to the one million people a year who have a right to benefit.

  7. The global role of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Guillermo G; Harden, Paul; Chapman, Jeremy

    2012-08-01

    World Kidney Day on March 8th 2012 provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end-stage kidney disease that surpasses dialysis treatments both for the quality and quantity of life that it provides and for its cost-effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better, but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatment by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end-stage kidney disease include the economic limitations that in some countries place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation and vaccination. Even in high-income countries, the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited medical, surgical and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions that involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to deliver transplantation therapy to the one million people a year who have a right to benefit.

  8. The Global role of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Guillermo Garcia; Harden, Paul; Chapman, Jeremy

    2012-07-01

    World Kidney Day on March 8th 2012 provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end stage kidney disease that surpasses dialysis treatments both for the quality and quantity of life that it provides and for its cost effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better, but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatment by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end stage kidney disease include the economic limitations which, in some countries place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation and vaccination. Even in high income countries the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited medical, surgical and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions which involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to deliver transplantation therapy to the one million people a year who have a right to benefit.

  9. The global role of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Garcia Garcia, Guillermo; Harden, Paul; Chapman, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    World Kidney Day on March 8th 2012 provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end stage kidney disease that surpasses dialysis treatments both for the quality and quantity of life that it provides and for its cost effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better, but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatment by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end stage kidney disease include the economic limitations which, in some countries place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation and vaccination. Even in high income countries the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited medical, surgical and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions which involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to deliver transplantation therapy to the one million people a year who have a right to benefit.

  10. The global role of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Guillermo Garcia; Harden, Paul; Chapman, Jeremy

    2012-02-27

    World Kidney Day on March 8, 2012, provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end-stage kidney disease that surpasses dialysis treatments both for the quality and quantity of life that it provides and for its cost-effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better, but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatment by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end-stage kidney disease include the economic limitations which in some countries place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation, and vaccination. Even in high-income countries, the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited medical, surgical, and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions which involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental, and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to deliver transplantation therapy to the 1 million people a year who have a right to benefit.

  11. The global role of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Garcia Garcia, Guillermo; Harden, Paul; Chapman, Jeremy

    2012-03-01

    World Kidney Day on March 8th 2012 provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end-stage kidney disease that surpasses dialysis treatments both for the quality and quantity of life that it provides and for its cost effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better, but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatment by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end-stage kidney disease include the economic limitations which, in some countries place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation, and vaccination. Even in high-income countries, the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited medical, surgical, and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions which involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental, and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to deliver transplantation therapy to the one million people a year who have a right to benefit.

  12. The global role of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Garcia Garcia, Guillermo; Harden, Paul; Chapman, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    World Kidney Day on March 8, 2012, provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end-stage kidney disease, which surpasses dialysis treatments both for the quality and quantity of life it provides and for its cost effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatment by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end-stage kidney disease include the economic limitations, which in some countries, place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation and vaccination. Even in high-income countries, the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited medical, surgical and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions which involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to deliver transplantation therapy to the 1 million people a year who have a right to benefit from it.

  13. The global role of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Guillermo Garcia; Harden, Paul; Chapman, Jeremy

    2012-03-01

    World Kidney Day on March 8 th 2012 provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end stage kidney disease that surpasses dialysis treatments both for the quality and quantity of life that it provides and for its cost effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better, but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatment by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end stage kidney disease include the economic limitations which, in some countries place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation and vaccination. Even in high income countries the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited medical, surgical and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions which involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to deliver transplantation therapy to the one million people a year who have a right to benefit.

  14. The global role of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    García-García, Guillermo; Harden, Paul; Chapman, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    World Kidney Day on March 8th 2012 provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end stage kidney disease that surpasses dialysis treatments both for the quality and quantity of life that it provides and for its cost effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better, but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatment by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end stage kidney disease include the economic limitations which, in some countries place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation and vaccination. Even in high income countries the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited  medical, surgical and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions which involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to  deliver transplantation therapy to the one million people a year who have a right to benefit.

  15. The global role of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcia, G; Harden, P; Chapman, J

    2012-03-01

    World Kidney Day on 8 March 2012 provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end-stage kidney disease that surpasses dialysis treatments both for the quality and quantity of life that it provides and for its cost effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better, but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatments by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end-stage kidney disease include the economic limitations which, in some countries, place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation, and vaccination. Even in high-income countries, the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited medical, surgical, and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions which involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental, and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to deliver transplantation therapy to the 1 million people a year who have a right to benefit.

  16. The global role of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Garcia Garcia, Guillermo; Harden, Paul; Chapman, Jeremy

    2012-04-01

    World Kidney Day on March 8th 2012 provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end stage kidney disease that surpasses dialysis treatments both for the quality and quantity of life that it provides and for its cost effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better, but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatment by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end stage kidney disease include the economic limitations which, in some countries place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation and vaccination. Even in high income countries the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited medical, surgical and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions which involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to deliver transplantation therapy to the one million people a year who have a right to benefit.

  17. The global role of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Garcia Garcia, Guillermo; Harden, Paul; Chapman, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    World Kidney Day on March 8th, 2012 provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end stage kidney disease that surpasses dialysis treatments both for the quality and quantity of life that it provides and for its cost effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better, but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatment by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end stage kidney disease include the economic limitations which, in some countries place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation and vaccination. Even in high income countries the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited medical, surgical and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions which involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to deliver transplantation therapy to the one million people a year who have a right to benefit.

  18. The global role of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Guillermo Garcia; Harden, Paul; Chapman, Jeremy

    2013-08-01

    World Kidney Day on March 8(th) 2012 provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end-stage kidney disease that surpasses dialysis treatments both for the quality and quantity of life that it provides and for its cost effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better, but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatment by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end-stage kidney disease include the economic limitations which, in some countries, place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation and vaccination. Even in high-income countries, the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited medical, surgical and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions which involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to deliver transplantation therapy to the one million people a year who have a right to benefit.

  19. Kidney transplant tourism: cases from Canada.

    PubMed

    Wright, L; Zaltzman, J S; Gill, J; Prasad, G V R

    2013-11-01

    Canada has a marked shortfall between the supply and demand for kidneys for transplantation. Median wait times for deceased donor kidney transplantation vary from 5.8 years in British Columbia, 5.2 years in Manitoba and 4.5 years in Ontario to a little over 2 years in Quebec and Nova Scotia. Living donation provides a viable option for some, but not all people. Consequently, a small number of people travel abroad to undergo kidney transplantation by commercial means. The extent to which they are aware of the potential risks to their health and the health of the kidney vendors is unclear. Travel abroad to obtain a kidney commercially i.e. transplant tourism (TT), raises ethical issues which include the exploitation of the poor, uncertainty of donor informed consent to nephrectomy, poor clinical care and lack of follow up for the donor, commodification of the body and inequity of access to medical care for donors. Also, TT widens socioeconomic disparities in access to transplantation, differing from the Canadian system of universal coverage for healthcare. The Canadian transplant community has discussed how to respond to patients who plan to travel abroad for TT or return with a purchased kidney. Unease rests in the tension between the duty to care for legitimate Canadian residents and the unwillingness to enable TT. This paper discusses three anonymized cases and the Canadian responses to TT as recorded in academic literature and a formal statement by relevant professional bodies.

  20. Robotic Kidney Transplantation-an Update.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, V; Sinha, S

    2017-06-01

    Over the last decade, there have been advances in kidney transplantation with introduction of minimally invasive surgery. Robotic surgery is becoming increasingly common across the specialities. There is now increasing experience in robotic kidney transplantation, though it remains a niche procedure. Initial reports suggest that this is a safe, feasible operation when performed by teams familiar with robotic surgery. There have been a few modifications to the initially described procedure, as a result of increasing experience. There is no significant difference in graft and patient survival when compared with open surgery and laparoscopic kidney transplantation. It is a safe procedure and therefore represents a viable alternative to open surgery in selected patients particularly the obese. The advantages include less postoperative pain and fewer wound complications such as surgical site infections and hernia, which could be particularly advantageous in the obese. Robotic kidney transplantation is procedure that has been developed over the last decade and could have applicability in kidney transplantation in the obese. Its main benefit is in enabling surgery in less accessible spaces due to body habitus, combined with those of using a smaller incision with less associated morbidity, with no inferiority in the reported primary outcomes of graft and patient survival. There are capital costs associated with this procedure, but further studies on the cost-effectiveness of robotic kidney transplantation are needed before it can be adopted widely.

  1. The Global role of kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Guillermo Garcia; Harden, Paul; Chapman, Jeremy; For the World Kidney Day Steering Committee 2012

    2012-01-01

    World Kidney Day on March 8th 2012 provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end stage kidney disease that surpasses dialysis treatments both for the quality and quantity of life that it provides and for its cost effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better, but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatment by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end stage kidney disease include the economic limitations which, in some countries place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation and vaccination. Even in high income countries the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited medical, surgical and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions which involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to deliver transplantation therapy to the one million people a year who have a right to benefit. PMID:24475391

  2. The global role of kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, G.; Harden, P.; Chapman, J.

    2012-01-01

    World Kidney Day on 8 March 2012 provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end-stage kidney disease that surpasses dialysis treatments both for the quality and quantity of life that it provides and for its cost effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better, but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatments by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end-stage kidney disease include the economic limitations which, in some countries, place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation, and vaccination. Even in high-income countries, the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited medical, surgical, and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions which involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental, and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to deliver transplantation therapy to the 1 million people a year who have a right to benefit. PMID:22787305

  3. Skin and kidney histological changes in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pintar, Tadeja; Alessiani, Mario; Pleskovič, Alojz; Pleskovič, Aleš; Zorc-Pleskovič, Ruda; Milutinović, Aleksandra

    2011-05-01

    Kidney transplantation (Ktx) is generally performed during end stage renal disease due to a loss of the kidneys' ability to filter wastes from the circulatory system. Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after Ktx is a life-threatening complication that progresses to organ failure, systemic complications, and death. The current study evaluated the significance of histologic findings of GVHD as obtained from skin biopsies following Ktx in swine. A swine model of Ktx with tacrolimus-based immunosuppression was used to assess possible correlations between acute-graft-cellular rejection and skin histological findings for prediction of GVHD. Animals were divided into a Ktx treatment group or a control group with no Ktx and skin and kidney biopsies were histologically assessed at postoperative days 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60. Skin samples were analyzed and classified from grade 1 to 4 of skin GVHD and the major histopathological changes of kidney acute cellular rejection were described using Banff's score system. We observed a significant linear correlation between the histological grading values of skin biopsy changes and the histological grading values of kidney biopsies (Kendall's tau_b=0.993) in the Ktx experimental group. No histological changes were observed in controls. Our findings demonstrate the diagnostic value of staging skin GVHD after Ktx and suggest it's future utility for monitoring long term Ktx-induced changes.

  4. Belatacept and mediastinal histoplasmosis in a kidney transplant patient

    PubMed Central

    Trimarchi, Hernán; Rengel, Tatiana; Andrews, José; Paulero, Matías; Iotti, Alejandro; Forastiero, Agustina; Lombi, Fernando; Pomeranz, Vanesa; Forrester, Mariano; Iriarte, Romina; Agorio, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Background: In transplantation immunosuppression enhances the appearance of opportunist infections. An ideal balance between the prevention of rejection, the lowest risk of infections and the highest rates of graft survival is a continuous challenge. Lower doses of immunosuppression may diminish the risk of infections, metabolic and hemodynamic complications or even of malignancy, but may expose patients to episodes of acute rejection. New drugs are being developed to improve graft survival at the lowest risk of side effects. Belatacept has recently been introduced in kidney transplantation to inhibit the co-ligand signal of T cell stimulation. It is a drug with a safe profile, is well-tolerated and appears to improve long-term survival of kidney grafts. However, there may be an increase in opportunistic infections which may be facilitated by T cell depression, as Aspergillus sp., Cryptococcus neoformans or tuberculosis. Case Presentation: We describe a 59-year-old female who developed fever, clinical wasting and a mediastinal mass 31 months after receiving a living non-related kidney transplant while on belatacept therapy. A mediastinal node biopsy disclosed the presence of Histoplasma capsulatum. Infection successfully resolved after appropriate antifungal treatment. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Histoplasma capsulatum in a kidney transplanted patient on belatacept therapy PMID:27152295

  5. Proteinuria in kidney transplant recipients: prevalence, prognosis, and evidence-based management.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Greg A

    2009-12-01

    Proteinuria is highly prevalent after kidney transplant, occurring in up to 45% of patients, depending on the definition. In addition to glomerulonephritis, proteinuria in kidney transplant recipients is associated commonly with such transplant-specific diagnoses on biopsy as allograft nephropathy, transplant glomerulopathy, and acute rejection. Proteinuria is associated with decreased patient and allograft survival, as well as an increased risk of cardiovascular events. In proteinuric chronic kidney disease in the nontransplant setting, randomized trials have confirmed that blockade of the renin-angiotensin system is associated with improved clinical outcomes. In proteinuric transplant recipients, treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker can decrease proteinuria, but there is no evidence from randomized trials that this strategy improves patient or graft survival. This review focuses on the measurement, prevalence, pathological findings, prognostic significance, and evidence-based management of proteinuria in kidney transplant recipients.

  6. [Current status and development of kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Kirste, G

    1993-01-01

    Since the first successful procedure in 1954 kidney transplantation has become a standard therapy of end stage renal disease. The knowledge of immunoregulation and immune response of the body has enabled people to recognize acute rejection of organs. HLA-testing and organ exchange on basis of HLA-compatibility are extremely important for a successful kidney transplantation. A shortage of organs is limiting the further increase of transplantations. Chronic rejection is in most cases the reason for late graft failure. Further investigations to develop new immunosuppressive drugs and to clarify immunological processes underlying chronic rejections are necessary in the future.

  7. Kidney Transplant Outcomes After Primary, Repeat and Kidney After Nonrenal Solid Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Puneet; Gao, Xiaotian; Mehta, Rajil; Landsittel, Douglas; Wu, Christine; Nusrat, Rabeeya; Puttarajappa, Chethan; Tevar, Amit D.; Hariharan, Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    Background Improvements in renal allograft outcomes have permitted kidney transplantation after prior kidney allograft failure as well as after nonrenal solid organ transplantation. This study compares renal allograft outcomes in the 3 groups, that is, primary, repeat, and kidney after nonrenal solid organ transplantation, where transplant group was coded as a time-dependent variable. Methods We retrospectively reviewed registry data for kidney transplant recipients at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center from January 2000 to December 2011. We compared overall graft survival between the 3 groups using Cox regression modeling. We calculated 1-, 3-, and 5-year graft survival and half-lives for each group where feasible. Results The study cohort (N = 2014) consisted of group A (primary kidney transplant, n = 1578, with 7923.2 years of follow-up time), group B (repeat kidney transplant, n = 314, with 1566.7 years of follow-up time) and group C (kidney post-nonrenal solid organ transplant, n = 176, with 844.8 years of follow-up time). Of the 1578 patients in the primary kidney transplant group, 74 later received a repeat transplant and thus also have follow-up counted in the repeat kidney transplant group. The median follow-up was 56, 53, and 55 months, respectively. The 5-year actuarial and death-censored graft survival was 68.69%, 68.79%, and 66.48% and 65.53%, 67.68%, and 62.92%, respectively (P = 0.70). There was no difference in overall graft survival in the Cox-adjusted analysis (group B: odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.26; P = 0.79; group C: odds ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.23; P = 0.76). Conclusions The adjusted kidney graft survivals in the 3 groups were similar. PMID:27500265

  8. Outcomes of shipped live donor kidney transplants compared with traditional living donor kidney transplants.

    PubMed

    Treat, Eric G; Miller, Eric T; Kwan, Lorna; Connor, Sarah E; Maliski, Sally L; Hicks, Elisabeth M; Williams, Kristen C; Whitted, Lauren A; Gritsch, Hans A; McGuire, Suzanne M; Mone, Thomas D; Veale, Jeffrey L

    2014-11-01

    The disparity between kidney transplant candidates and donors necessitates innovations to increase organ availability. Transporting kidneys allows for living donors and recipients to undergo surgery with a familiar transplant team, city, friends, and family. The effect of shipping kidneys and prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) with living donor transplantation outcomes is not clearly known. This retrospective matched (age, gender, race, and year of procedure) cohort study compared allograft outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants and nonshipped living donor kidney transplants. Fifty-seven shipped live donor kidneys were transplanted from 31 institutions in 26 cities. The mean shipping distance was 1634 miles (range 123-2811) with mean CIT of 12.1 ± 2.8 h. The incidence of delayed graft function in the shipped cohort was 1.8% (1/57) compared to 0% (0/57) in the nonshipped cohort. The 1-year allograft survival was 98% in both cohorts. There were no significant differences between the mean serum creatinine values or the rates of serum creatinine decline in the immediate postoperative period even after adjusted for gender and differences in recipient and donor BMI. Despite prolonged CITs, outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants were similar when compared to matched nonshipped living donor kidney transplants.

  9. Adverse perinatal outcome and later kidney biopsy in the mother.

    PubMed

    Vikse, Bjørn Egil; Irgens, Lorentz M; Bostad, Leif; Iversen, Bjarne M

    2006-03-01

    Strong associations of adverse perinatal outcomes have been identified with later cardiovascular disease in the mother. Few studies have addressed associations with kidney disease. This study investigated whether perinatal outcomes are associated with later clinical kidney disease as diagnosed by kidney biopsy. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway contains data on all childbirths in Norway since 1967. The Norwegian Kidney Biopsy Registry contains data on all kidney biopsies in Norway since 1988. All women with a first singleton delivery from 1967 to 1998 were included. Pregnancy-related predictors of later kidney biopsy were analyzed by Cox regression analyses. A total of 756,420 women were included, and after a mean period of 15.9+/-9.4 yr, 588 had a kidney biopsy. Compared with women without preeclampsia and with offspring with birth weight of >or=2.5 kg, women with no preeclampsia and with offspring with birth weight of 1.5 to 2.5 kg had a relative risk (RR) for a later kidney biopsy of 1.7, women with no preeclampsia and with offspring with birth weight of <1.5 kg had an RR of 2.9, women with preeclampsia and with offspring with a birth weight of >or=2.5 kg had an RR of 2.5, women with preeclampsia and with offspring with a birth weight of 1.5 to 2.5 kg had an RR of 4.5, and women with preeclampsia and with offspring with a birth weight of <1.5 kg had an RR of 17. Similar results were found in adjusted analyses and after exclusion of women with diabetes, kidney disease, or rheumatic disease before pregnancy. The same risk patterns applied to any of the specific categories of kidney disease as well as specific kidney diseases investigated. Women who have preeclampsia and give birth to offspring with low birth weight and short gestation have a substantially increased risk for having a later kidney biopsy.

  10. Automatic spring-loaded biopsy gun with ultrasonic control for renal transplant biopsy.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M W; Sosnowski, J T; Mahin, E J; Willard, D A; Lamm, D L

    1993-11-01

    The automatic spring-loaded biopsy gun with 18-gauge needle was used to perform 20 renal transplant biopsies. A total of 35 needle passes were used during the 20 biopsies to obtain 31 cores of renal tissue (ratio of successful cores to passes 0.88). Nineteen of 20 biopsies (95%) resulted in renal tissue sufficient for diagnosis. One patient experienced gross hematuria that required blood transfusion and resulted in temporary ureteral clot obstruction. We believe the automatic spring-loaded biopsy gun with ultrasonic control allows rapid, accurate, and safe histologic assessment of the renal allograft, and we recommend this system for routine use.

  11. Reversibility of 'secondary hypercalcitoninemia' after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Borchhardt, Kyra A; Hörl, Walter H; Sunder-Plassmann, Gere

    2005-07-01

    Whether the increase of calcitonin (CT) concentration in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is reversible or not after kidney transplantation is not known. We examined the effect of kidney transplantation on basal and pentagastrin-stimulated CT in CKD patients with elevated screening CT levels. Before transplantation, the median basal CT concentration of 17 patients was 31 pg/mL (13-76), and decreased to 8 pg/mL (4-28) at 23 months (2-34) after kidney transplantation (p < 0.00005). The maximum concentration of pentagastrin-stimulated CT was 63 pg/mL (25-110) before transplantation and decreased to 20 pg/mL (8-91) (p < 0.00005) thereafter. There was a linear association between CT and calcium as well as between phosphorus and parathyroid hormone at the time of screening. After transplantation, CT correlated with serum creatinine. Therefore, the increase of CT concentration in patients with impaired kidney function presumably reflects 'secondary hypercalcitoninemia' due to C-cell hyperactivity.

  12. Defining high risk in adult kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    2009-09-01

    Because identifiable factors contribute to allograft loss, and because no consensus has been reached on the definition of high risk, an interdisciplinary group of nurses, physicians, pharmacists, and social workers was convened in May 2008. Participants sought to reach consensus about the current state of science and best practices related to the definition and management of high-risk kidney transplant recipients. An expert facilitator with extensive experience in leading consensus teams guided consensus-building activities, which included discussion and small-group work. This consensus group conceptualized the definition of the "high-risk" kidney transplant recipient and provided information to guide the multidisciplinary team in their assessment of these patients before and after transplant. Three key areas, which were conceptualized as independent scales, had a substantial impact on outcomes: (1) transplant recipient medical factors, (2) donor and recipient immunological factors, and (3) transplant recipient psychosocial factors. Though depicted separately, alteration of a specific risk on one scale could influence some risk factors on another scale. In addition, the kidney allograft itself must be considered in the assessment of high risk. The continuum of risk described here should be useful to transplant clinicians in their assessment of high-risk adult kidney transplant patients, may aid centers in developing a more complete definition of high risk, and may lead to risk-reduction efforts.

  13. Allograft biopsy findings in patients with small bowel transplantation.

    PubMed

    Koo, Jamie; Dawson, David W; Dry, Sarah; French, Samuel W; Naini, Bita V; Wang, Hanlin L

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we sought to determine the incidence of post-transplant complications including acute cellular rejection (ACR), infection, and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) in mucosal allograft biopsies in patients with small bowel transplant at our institution. We retrospectively reviewed pathology reports from 5675 small bowel allograft biopsies from 99 patients and analyzed the following: indications for biopsy, frequency and grade of ACR, the presence of infectious agents, results of workup for potential PTLD, results of C4d immunohistochemistry (IHC), features of chronic mucosal injury, and findings in concurrent native bowel biopsies. Findings from 42 allograft resection specimens were also correlated with prior biopsy findings. Indeterminate, mild, moderate, and severe ACR were seen in 276 (4.9%), 409 (7.2%), 100 (1.8%), and 207 (3.6%) of biopsies, respectively. Although ACR may show histologic overlap with mycophenolate mofetil toxicity, we found the analysis of concurrent native bowel biopsies to be helpful in this distinction. Adenovirus was the most common infectious agent seen (11%), and we routinely performed adenovirus IHC on biopsies. Eighteen patients (18%) developed PTLD, 83% of which were EBV associated, but only 28% of PTLD cases were diagnosed on mucosal allograft biopsies. C4d IHC did not correlate with the presence of donor-specific antibodies in limited cases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Metallothionein in rabbit kidneys preserved for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Elinder, C G; Lundgren, G; Nordberg, M; Palm, B; Piscator, M

    1984-03-01

    Thirteen rabbits were given repeated cadmium injections to achieve cadmium concentrations in kidney cortex ranging from 0.05 to 1 mmole Cd/kg wet weight. Another four animals served as controls. One kidney from each animal was frozen directly to -70 degrees C whereas the other kidney was kept for 24 hr at +4 degrees C in a preservative (Sachs' solution) to simulate conditions for preservation of human donor kidneys before transplantation. Protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper in kidney homogenates and the concentration of metallothionein (MT) were measured in the kidney that was frozen directly and in the kidney that had been preserved. No gross differences in either the protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper or in the MT content were seen between the directly frozen and preserved kidneys from the same animal. This indicates that MT is not rapidly broken down in rabbit kidneys which have been preserved similarly to human donor kidneys for 24 hr in a standard preservative solution prior to a transplantation.

  15. Impact of simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplant and timing of transplant on kidney allograft survival.

    PubMed

    Israni, Ajay K; Feldman, Harold I; Propert, Kathleen J; Leonard, Mary; Mange, Kevin C

    2005-02-01

    Since 1988 over 10 000 simultaneous cadaveric pancreas-kidney transplants (SPK) have been performed in the United States among patients with end-stage renal disease due to Type 1 diabetes (T1DM). The two aims of this study were to assess the impact on kidney allograft survival of (i) SPK versus transplantation of a kidney alone (KA), and (ii) SPK prior to versus after initiation of chronic dialysis. This retrospective, non-concurrent cohort study examined registry data collected from 8323 patients waitlisted in the United States for an SPK and transplanted with either an SPK or a KA during January 1, 1990 - October 31, 2002. SPK recipients had an adjusted hazard ratio for kidney allograft loss of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.51-0.77, p < 0.001) compared to transplantation without pancreas allograft. SPK recipients who received their allografts prior to beginning chronic dialysis had a lower rate of kidney allograft loss than SPK recipients who received their transplant after initiation of chronic dialysis (adjusted hazard rates (HR) = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.69-0.99, p = 0.042). Simultaneous transplantation of pancreas-kidney compared to kidney transplantation alone and SPK prior to the initiation of chronic dialysis compared to SPK after initiation of dialysis were both associated with longer kidney allograft survival.

  16. Incidence of kidney stones in kidney transplant recipients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Thongprayoon, Charat; Mao, Michael A; Kittanamongkolchai, Wonngarm; Jaffer Sathick, Insara J; Dhondup, Tsering; Erickson, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the incidence and characteristics of kidney stones in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from the inception of the databases through March 2016. Studies assessing the incidence of kidney stones in kidney transplant recipients were included. We applied a random-effects model to estimate the incidence of kidney stones. RESULTS Twenty one studies with 64416 kidney transplant patients were included in the analyses to assess the incidence of kidney stones after kidney transplantation. The estimated incidence of kidney stones was 1.0% (95%CI: 0.6%-1.4%). The mean duration to diagnosis of kidney stones after kidney transplantation was 28 ± 22 mo. The mean age of patients with kidney stones was 42 ± 7 years. Within reported studies, approximately 50% of kidney transplant recipients with kidney stones were males. 67% of kidney stones were calcium-based stones (30% mixed CaOx/CaP, 27%CaOx and 10%CaP), followed by struvite stones (20%) and uric acid stones (13%). CONCLUSION The estimated incidence of kidney stones in patients after kidney transplantation is 1.0%. Although calcium based stones are the most common kidney stones after transplantation, struvite stones (also known as “infection stones”) are not uncommon in kidney transplant recipients. These findings may impact the prevention and clinical management of kidney stones after kidney transplantation. PMID:28058231

  17. Expression of decoy receptor 3 in kidneys is associated with allograft survival after kidney transplant rejection.

    PubMed

    Weng, Shuo-Chun; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Wu, Ming-Ju; Wen, Mei-Chin; Hsieh, Shie-Liang; Chen, Nien-Jung; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2015-09-03

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) expression in kidneys has been shown to predict progression of chronic kidney disease. We prospectively investigated a cohort comprising 96 renal transplant recipients (RTRs) undergoing graft kidney biopsies. Computer-assisted quantitative immunohistochemical staining value of DcR3 in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) was used to determine the predictive role of DcR3 in kidney disease progression. The primary end point was doubling of serum creatinine and/or graft failure. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the risk of DcR3 expression in rejected kidney grafts toward the renal end point. In total, RTRs with kidney allograft rejection were evaluated and the median follow-up was 30.9 months. The greater expression of DcR3 immunoreactivity in RTECs was correlated with a higher rate of the histopathological concordance of acute T cell-mediated rejection. Compared with 65 non-progressors, 31 progressors had higher DcR3 expression (HDE) regardless of the traditional risk factors. Cox regression analysis showed HDE was significantly associated with the risk of renal end point with a hazard ratio of 3.19 (95% confidence interval, 1.40 to 7.27; P = 0.006) after adjusting for other variables. In repetitive biopsies, HDE in tissue showed rapid kidney disease progression due to persistent inflammation.

  18. Kidney biopsy in AA amyloidosis: impact of histopathology on prognosis.

    PubMed

    Kendi Celebi, Zeynep; Kiremitci, Saba; Ozturk, Bengi; Akturk, Serkan; Erdogmus, Siyar; Duman, Neval; Ates, Kenan; Erturk, Sehsuvar; Nergizoglu, Gokhan; Kutlay, Sim; Sengul, Sule; Ensari, Arzu; Keven, Kenan

    2017-09-01

    In AA amyloidosis, while kidney biopsy is widely considered for diagnosis by clinicians, there is no evidence that the detailed investigation of renal histopathology can be utilized for the prognosis and clinical outcomes. In this study, we aimed to obtain whether histopathologic findings in kidney biopsy of AA amyloidosis might have prognostic and clinical value. This is a retrospective cohort study that included 38 patients who were diagnosed with AA amyloidosis by kidney biopsy between 2005 and 2013.The kidney biopsy specimens of patients were evaluated and graded for several characteristics of histopathological lesions and their relationship with renal outcomes. Segmental amyloid deposition in the kidney biopsy was seen in 29%, global amyloid deposition in 71, diffuse involvement of glomeruli in 84.2%, focal involvement in 7%, glomerular enlargement in 53%, tubular atrophy in 75% and interstitial fibrosis in 78% of patients. Histopathologically, glomerular enlargement, interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, interstitial inflammation and global amyloid deposition were significantly associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (p = .02, p < .001, p = .001, p = .009, p = .002, respectively) in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, tubular atrophy was the only predictor of eGFR (p = .019 B = -20.573). In the follow-up at an average of 27 months, 18 patients developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Among them, global amyloid deposition was the only risk factor for the development of ESRD (p = .01, OR = 18.750, %95 CI= 2.021-173.942). This is the first study showing that the histopathological findings in kidney biopsy of AA amyloidosis might have a prognostic and clinical value for renal outcomes.

  19. [Kidney donors and kidney transplantation in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Giessing, M; Conrad, S; Schönberger, B; Huland, H; Budde, K; Neumayer, H-H; Loening, S A

    2004-08-01

    The likelihood of terminal renal insufficiency escalates with age, increasing the risk of dying as a patient requiring dialysis. In 1999, Eurotransplant initiated the Eurotransplant Senior Programm (ESP), in which the kidneys of old donors (>64 years) are allocated to recipients 64 years and older. Allocation does not take HLA-matching into account and is performed regionally only according to blood-group-compatibility to keep the storage time short. As a consequence of the short ischemic time, and thus reduced non-immunological damage to the anyways susceptible old kidney, graft-function and graft-survival in the ESP are very good. The results of the initial 5 years of this program show that it successfully utilizes more kidneys from old donors and that more old recipients are being transplanted, with a satisfactory graft-function. Increased donor- and/or recipient age require a thorough evaluation to exclude malignant and other diseases. Furthermore, short term controls on the waiting list and following kidney transplantation are prerequisites for successful transplantation in the aged recipient. If this is guaranteed, kidney transplantation in the old recipient-even with old donor organs-is a good alternative to the morbidity of a prolonged dialysis. Nevertheless, the role of HLA-matching should be reconsidered to reduce rejections.

  20. Myoglobin cast nephropathy in a kidney transplant patient with normal creatine kinase.

    PubMed

    Oliveira da Fonseca, Elissa; Jittirat, Arksarapuk; Birdwell, Kelly A; Fogo, Agnes B

    2015-04-01

    Delayed graft function in kidney transplant recipients is a known complication associated with increased risk of acute rejection and reduced transplant survival after 1 year. There are multiple risk factors, including prolonged cold ischemia time, donor age, and cause of donor's death. Major causes of delayed graft function are acute kidney injury in the donor, often from prolonged terminal ischemia, reflected by acute tubular injury in the recipient. However, the differential diagnosis of delayed graft function includes acute rejection, recurrence of the primary glomerular diseases, and other less commonly encountered conditions. A transplant kidney biopsy usually is required to elucidate the correct cause and initiate the right treatment, which is crucial for transplant survival. We report a case of a transplant recipient who developed delayed graft function due to an uncommon cause. After correct diagnosis, the patient's transplant function improved.

  1. Transplant tourism among kidney transplant patients in Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okafor, U H

    2017-07-05

    Transplant tourism entails movement of recipient, donor or both to a transplant centre outside their country of residence. This has been reported in many countries; and has variously been associated with organ trade. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency and pattern of transplant tourism among transplant patients in Eastern Nigeria. This is a non randomized cross sectional study. All kidney transplant patients who presented at Enugu State University Teaching Hospital Parklane Enugu and Hilton Clinics Port Harcourt in Nigeria were recruited. The clinical parameters including the transplant details of all the patients were documented. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS package. A total of one hundred and twenty six patients were studied, 76.2% were males with M:F ratio of 3.2:1 and mean age of 46.9 ± 13.3 years. Fifty four and 58.7% of the patients were managed in a tertiary hospital and by a nephrologist respectively before referral for kidney transplant. Only 15.8% of the patients had their kidney transplant without delay: finance, lack of donor, logistics including delay in obtaining travelling documents were the common causes of the delay. Ninety percent of the patients had their transplant in India with majority of them using commercial donors. India was also the country with cheapest cost ($18,000.00). 69.8% were unrelated donors, 68.2% were commercial donors and 1.6% of the donors were spouse. All the commercial donors received financial incentives and each commercial donor received mean of 7580 ± 1280 dollars. Also 30.2% of the related donors demanded financial incentive. Transplant tourism is prevalent in eastern Nigeria.

  2. Luminex and antibody detection in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Picascia, Antonietta; Infante, Teresa; Napoli, Claudio

    2012-06-01

    Preformed anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies have a negative effect on kidney transplantation outcome with an increased rejection rate and reduction in survival. Posttransplantation production of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies is indicative of an active immune response and risk of transplantation rejection. For many years the primary technique for anti-HLA antibody detection was complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), which has been integrated by solid-phase assays as HLA antigen-coated bead methods (Luminex). This new technological approach has allowed identification of anti-HLA antibodies, not detectable using conventional CDC method, in patients awaiting kidney transplantation. Moreover, use of Luminex technology has enabled better definition of acceptable or unacceptable antigens favoring transplantation in highly immunized patients. However, there are still many unresolved issues, including the clinical relevance of antibodies detected with this system.

  3. Health Literacy and Access to Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Grubbs, Vanessa; Gregorich, Steven E.; Perez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Hsu, Chi-yuan

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Few studies have examined health literacy in patients with end stage kidney disease. We hypothesized that inadequate health literacy in a hemodialysis population is common and is associated with poorer access to kidney transplant wait-lists. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We enrolled 62 Black and White maintenance hemodialysis patients aged 18 to 75. We measured health literacy using the short form Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Our primary outcomes were (1) time from dialysis start date to referral date for kidney transplant evaluation and (2) time from referral date to date placed on kidney transplant wait-list. We used Cox proportional hazard models to examine the association between health literacy (adequate versus inadequate) and our outcomes after controlling for demographics and co-morbid conditions. Results: Roughly one third (32.3%) of participants had inadequate health literacy. Forty-seven (75.8%) of participants were referred for transplant evaluation. Among those referred, 40 (85.1%) were wait-listed. Participants with inadequate health literacy had 78% lower hazard of referral for transplant evaluation than those with adequate health literacy (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 0.22; 95% confidence interval 0.08, 0.60; P = 0.003). The hazard ratio of being wait-listed by health literacy was not statistically different (AHR 0.80, 95% CI, 0.39, 1.61), P = 0.5). Conclusions: Inadequate health literacy is common in our hemodialysis patient population and is associated with a lower hazard of referral for transplant evaluation. Strategies to reduce the impact of health literacy on the kidney transplant process should be explored. PMID:19056617

  4. Delayed allograft inflammation following alemtuzumab induction for kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Heilman, Raymond L; Khamash, Hasan A; Smith, Maxwell L; Chakkera, Harini A; Moss, Adyr A; Reddy, Kunam S

    2013-01-01

    In a recent clinical trial in kidney transplant recipients, induction with alemtuzumab and rabbit-antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG) was equally effective in preventing rejection during the first post-transplant year; however, this study did not include protocol biopsies. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of alemtuzumab induction on rejection and subclinical inflammation during the first post-transplant year compared with a historic control group receiving induction with r-ATG. All patients received tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). There were 361 in the alemtuzumab group and 478 in the r-ATG groups. Rejection (excluding Banff borderline), during the first year, occurred in 14% of the alemtuzumab group and 9% of the r-ATG group (p = 0.03). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (chronic kidney disease (CKD)-EPI formula) at one yr and graft survival at three yr were similar. On the protocol biopsies, interstitial inflammation (Banff i scores) and tubulitis (Banff t scores) were more likely in the r-ATG group at one month, but at four and 12 months, both inflammation and tubulitis were more likely in the alemtuzumab group. We conclude that alemtuzumab induction is associated with delayed inflammation at four and 12 months, but this inflammation did not appear to negatively impact the GFR or graft survival. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Pregnancy management of women with kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Dávid Ágoston; Szabó, László; Jenei, Katalin; Fedor, Roland; Zádori, Gergely; Zsom, Lajos; Kabai, Krisztina; Záhonyi, Anita; Asztalos, László; Nemes, Balázs

    2015-12-01

    Women with renal disease, besides many dysfunctions, face increasing infertility and high-risk pregnancy due to uremia and changes of the hormonal functions. After renal transplantation, sexual dysfunction improves, providing the possibility of successful pregnancy for women of childbearing age. However, kidney transplanted patients are high-risk pregnant patients with increased maternal and fetal risks, and the graft also may be compromised during pregnancy; most studies report on several successive deliveries due to multidisciplinary team management. In clinical practice, the graft is rarely affected during the period of gestation. Fetal development disorders are also rare although preterm delivery and intrauterine growth retardation are common. For now, several studies and clinical investigations proved that, under multidisciplinary control, kidney transplanted female patients are also possible to have safe pregnancy and successful delivery. There are conflicting data in the literature about the prevention of complications and the timing of pregnancy. Herein, we would like to present some experience of our centre. A total of 847 kidney transplantations have been performed between June 1993 and December 2013 with 163 childbearing aged females (18-45 years) in our center. We report on three kidney transplanted patients who have given birth to healthy newborns. In our practice, severe complications have not been observed.

  6. Pregnancy management of women with kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Dávid ágoston; Szabó, László; Jenei, Katalin; Fedor, Roland; Zádori, Gergely; Zsom, Lajos; Kabai, Krisztina; Záhonyi, Anita; Asztalos, László; Nemes, Balázs

    2015-01-01

    Women with renal disease, besides many dysfunctions, face increasing infertility and high-risk pregnancy due to uremia and changes of the hormonal functions. After renal transplantation, sexual dysfunction improves, providing the possibility of successful pregnancy for women of childbearing age. However, kidney transplanted patients are high-risk pregnant patients with increased maternal and fetal risks, and the graft also may be compromised during pregnancy; most studies report on several successive deliveries due to multidisciplinary team management. In clinical practice, the graft is rarely affected during the period of gestation. Fetal development disorders are also rare although preterm delivery and intrauterine growth retardation are common. For now, several studies and clinical investigations proved that, under multidisciplinary control, kidney transplanted female patients are also possible to have safe pregnancy and successful delivery. There are conflicting data in the literature about the prevention of complications and the timing of pregnancy. Herein, we would like to present some experience of our centre. A total of 847 kidney transplantations have been performed between June 1993 and December 2013 with 163 childbearing aged females (18–45 years) in our center. We report on three kidney transplanted patients who have given birth to healthy newborns. In our practice, severe complications have not been observed. PMID:26767122

  7. Trends in kidney transplantation rates and disparities.

    PubMed Central

    Stolzmann, Kelly L.; Bautista, Leonelo E.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; McElroy, Jane A.; Becker, Bryan N.; Remington, Patrick L.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the likelihood of transplantation and trends over time among persons with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Wisconsin. METHODS: We examined the influence of patient- and community-level characteristics on the rate of kidney transplantation in Wisconsin among 22,387 patients diagnosed with ESRD between January 1, 1982 and October 30, 2005. We grouped patients by the year of ESRD onset in order to model the change in transplantation rates over time. RESULTS: After multivariate adjustment, all other racial groups were significantly less likely to be transplanted compared with whites, and the racial disparity increased over calendar time. Older patients were less likely to be transplanted in all periods. Higher community income and education level and a greater distance from patients' residence to the nearest dialysis center significantly increased the likelihood of transplantation. Males also had a significantly higher rate of transplantation than females. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate a growing disparity in transplantation rates by demographic characteristics and a consistent disparity in transplantation by socioeconomic characteristics. Future studies should focus on identifying specific barriers to transplantation among different subpopulations in order to target effective interventions. PMID:17722672

  8. [The kidney transplantation from the ABO-incompatible donors].

    PubMed

    Goriaĭnov, V A; Kaabak, M M; Babenko, N N; Shishlo, L A; Morozova, M M; Ragimov, A A; Dashkova, N G; Salimov, É L

    2012-01-01

    The experience of 28 allotransplantations of ABO-incompatible kidneys was compared with the treatment results of 38 ABO-compatible renal transplantations. The transplanted kidney function, morphological changes of the transplanted kidney and the comparative analysis of actuary survival in both groups showed no significant difference. The results of the study prove the validity of the kidney transplantation from the ABO-incompatible donors.

  9. Emphysematous Pyelonephritis in a Transplant Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Salehipour, M.; Roozbeh, J.; Rasekhi, A. R.; Afrasiabi, M. A.; Rezaee, H.; Izadpanah, K.; Malek-Hosseini, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a severe necrotizing infection of the kidney and its surrounding tissues. It is characterized by the production of gas within the kidney and perinephric structures. EPN often affects diabetic women but can also occur in nondiabetic patients who have ureteral obstruction and in immunocompromised patients. Herein, we report EPN in a 23-year-old woman who had a renal transplantation. PMID:25013564

  10. Cancer risk with alemtuzumab following kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Puttarajappa, C; Yabes, J; Bei, L; Shah, N; Bernardo, J; McCauley, J; Basu, A; Tan, H; Shapiro, R; Unruh, M; Wu, C

    2013-01-01

    Alemtuzumab has been employed for induction therapy in kidney transplantation with low rates of acute rejection and excellent graft and patient survival. Antibody induction therapy has been linked to increased vulnerability to cancer. Data regarding malignancy rates with alemtuzumab are limited. We studied 1350 kidney transplant recipients (between 2001 and 2009) at the University of Pittsburgh Starzl Transplant Institute, for post-transplant de novo and recurrent malignancy, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, among patients receiving alemtuzumab, thymoglobulin, and no induction therapies. Of the 1350 patients, 1002 (74.2%) received alemtuzumab, 205 (15.2%) received thymoglobulin, and 122 (9%) received no induction therapy. After excluding cancers occurring within 60 d post-transplantation, 43 (3.25%) malignancies were observed during a median follow-up time of 4.0 yr. The incidence of malignancy was 5.4% (1.09 per 100 patient-years [PY]) with thymoglobulin, 2.8% (0.74 per 100 PY) with alemtuzumab, and 3.3% (0.66 per 100 PY) with no induction (across all groups; p = 0.2342, thymoglobulin vs. alemtuzumab; p = 0.008). Thus, with the exception of non-melanoma skin cancer which we did not evaluate, alemtuzumab induction was not associated with increased cancer incidence post-kidney transplantation when compared to no induction therapy and was associated with lower cancer incidence when compared to thymoglobulin. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Robotic kidney implantation for kidney transplantation: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Monika E; Pugin, Francois; Bucher, Pascal; Fasel, Jean; Markar, Sheraz; Morel, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    Despite improvements in minimally invasive techniques over recent decades, kidney implantation into the iliac fossa has remained a domain of open surgery. However, it was hypothesized that it would be feasible to perform robotic transplant kidney implantation as a means of reducing surgical trauma. Two robotic kidney transplantations into the iliac fossa were attempted in human cadavers. In the first cadaver, a 5 cm incision was placed in the right lower abdomen, the peritoneum was mobilized in a cranial direction, the iliac vessels were identified, and the kidney placed in the pre-peritoneal space. The incision was sealed with a gel port through which the Vinci(©) Surgical System was installed. In the second cadaver, a robotic kidney implantation with robotically sutured vascular and ureteric anastomoses was performed trans-abdominally. Open incision, identification, placement of gel port, and robotic docking were feasible. Robotic performance of vascular anastomosis was not possible in the first cadaver because of advanced decay and excess fat in the surgical field. Robotic kidney positioning was feasible and anastomoses were performed successfully in the second cadaver within 35, 25, and 20 min (arterial, venous, and ureteric, respectively). Robotic kidney transplantation seems feasible in human cadavers if tissue condition is suitable, but is very technically challenging. Because of the delicacy of anatomical structures, the cadaveric model with the risk of advanced decay and the absence of circulation sets limits on the exploration of this complex procedure. Hence, further research and animal work in this area is critical to improve understanding of the benefits and limitations of robotic kidney implantation.

  12. Distinguishing age-related from disease-related glomerulosclerosis on kidney biopsy: the Aging Kidney Anatomy study.

    PubMed

    Kremers, Walter K; Denic, Aleksandar; Lieske, John C; Alexander, Mariam P; Kaushik, Vidhu; Elsherbiny, Hisham E; Chakkera, Harini A; Poggio, Emilio D; Rule, Andrew D

    2015-12-01

    Global glomerulosclerosis is characteristic of chronic kidney disease and also occurs with normal aging. Our goal was to determine the upper limit of normal for number of globally sclerotic glomeruli. Core-needle biopsies of the renal cortex were obtained at the time of living kidney transplantation at three centers between 1998 and 2011. The number of globally sclerotic glomeruli was averaged across two biopsy sections. Quantile regression was used to estimate the 95th percentile for globally sclerotic glomeruli as the upper reference limit. There were 2052 donors (mean age 43 years, 41% male, 10% hypertensive), with a mean (SD) of 16.0 (9.7) glomeruli and 0.47 (0.99) globally sclerotic glomeruli on biopsy; only 2.6% had >5% fibrosis. In a multivariable model excluding hypertensive donors, independent predictors of the number of globally sclerotic glomeruli were age, total number of glomeruli and cortex area. A simplified model was used to estimate the 95th percentile for number of globally sclerotic glomeruli by total number of glomeruli and age. For a biopsy section with 17-32 total glomeruli, the 95th percentile ranged from 1 for a 20-year old to 5.5 for a 70-year old donor. Hypertensive donors were more likely to have an abnormal number of globally sclerotic glomeruli (OR = 1.79, P = 0.035). We have derived the 95% reference limit for number of globally sclerotic glomeruli in ostensibly healthy individuals accounting for age and the biopsy characteristics. Numbers of globally sclerotic glomeruli in a kidney biopsy that exceed these thresholds suggest chronic pathological injury in excess of that expected with normal aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  13. Distinguishing age-related from disease-related glomerulosclerosis on kidney biopsy: the Aging Kidney Anatomy study

    PubMed Central

    Kremers, Walter K.; Denic, Aleksandar; Lieske, John C.; Alexander, Mariam P.; Kaushik, Vidhu; Elsherbiny, Hisham E.; Chakkera, Harini A.; Poggio, Emilio D.; Rule, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Global glomerulosclerosis is characteristic of chronic kidney disease and also occurs with normal aging. Our goal was to determine the upper limit of normal for number of globally sclerotic glomeruli. Methods Core-needle biopsies of the renal cortex were obtained at the time of living kidney transplantation at three centers between 1998 and 2011. The number of globally sclerotic glomeruli was averaged across two biopsy sections. Quantile regression was used to estimate the 95th percentile for globally sclerotic glomeruli as the upper reference limit. There were 2052 donors (mean age 43 years, 41% male, 10% hypertensive), with a mean (SD) of 16.0 (9.7) glomeruli and 0.47 (0.99) globally sclerotic glomeruli on biopsy; only 2.6% had >5% fibrosis. Results In a multivariable model excluding hypertensive donors, independent predictors of the number of globally sclerotic glomeruli were age, total number of glomeruli and cortex area. A simplified model was used to estimate the 95th percentile for number of globally sclerotic glomeruli by total number of glomeruli and age. For a biopsy section with 17–32 total glomeruli, the 95th percentile ranged from 1 for a 20-year old to 5.5 for a 70-year old donor. Hypertensive donors were more likely to have an abnormal number of globally sclerotic glomeruli (OR = 1.79, P = 0.035). Conclusions We have derived the 95% reference limit for number of globally sclerotic glomeruli in ostensibly healthy individuals accounting for age and the biopsy characteristics. Numbers of globally sclerotic glomeruli in a kidney biopsy that exceed these thresholds suggest chronic pathological injury in excess of that expected with normal aging. PMID:25888387

  14. Urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Mora, Natalia; Pachón Díaz, Jerónimo; Cordero Matía, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    Infectious complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality among transplant recipients. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infectious complication in kidney transplant recipients with a reported incidence from 25% to 75%, varies widely likely due to differences in definition, diagnostic criteria, study design, and length of observation. We sought reviews the incidence and importance of urinary tract infection on graft survival, the microbiology with special emphasis on multidrug resistant microorganisms, the therapeutic management of UTI and the prophylaxis of recurrent UTI among solid organ transplant recipients, highlighting the need for prospective clinical trials to unify the clinical management in this population.

  15. [Effects of the statins in kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Trimarchi, H M; Brennan, S; González, J M; Suki, W N

    2000-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed to assess the immunosuppressive activity of statins in kidney transplantation, determining their effects on serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels post-transplantation, on the incidence of acute rejection episodes and on renal function. A total of 97 patients who underwent a kidney transplant in a three-year period, had more than one-month graft survival, and a minimum of one year of follow-up, were included. Group A consisted of 38 patients who received statins; this group was subsequently divided into four subgroups, according to the time post-transplant when statins were prescribed. Group B consisted of 59 patients (control Group). Initial and final serum total cholesterol levels in Group A were not different (218 +/- 7.8 mg/dl vs 222 +/- 7.5 mg/dl); however, final levels were higher than initial values in Group B (216 +/- 6.0 mg/dl vs 189 +/- 6.4 mg/dl, P = 0.0021). Initial serum triglyceride levels were higher than final levels in Group A (305 +/- 25.5 mg/dl vs 188 +/- 10.6 mg/dl, P < 0.0001). Group A showed a better allograft survival (P = 0.0350), a reduction in the incidence of acute rejection episodes (1 vs 38 events, P < 0.0001) and a lower serum creatinine level (1.96 +/- 0.21 mg/dl vs 2.77 +/- 0.27 mg/dl, P = 0.0374). In Group A subgroups, kidney function was significantly better in patients who received statins early after transplantation. These data suggest that in kidney transplantation statins exert additional immunosuppressive effects, reduce the number of acute rejection episodes, improve allograft survival and kidney function and are effective in preventing serum cholesterol from rising; these effects correlate with a significant decrease in serum triglyceride but are independent of a hypocholesterolemic action.

  16. Effect of kidney transplantation on bone.

    PubMed

    Kodras, K; Haas, M

    2006-08-01

    A broad range of different factors aggravates renal osteodystrophy, which is present in virtually all patients with chronic kidney disease and after successful kidney transplantation. Altered hormonal status, including sex hormones and parathyroid hormone (PTH), a deficit of 1,25(OH)(2) vitamin D(3) (calcitriol), immunosuppressive therapy and post-operative immobilization contribute to a progressive loss of bone density and structure. The decrease of bone mass is particularly prominent during the first 6 months after kidney transplantation and is associated with an increased number of fractures, both compared with the normal population as well as with dialysis patients. At particular risk are patients with a history of diabetes, long duration of haemodialysis and post-menopausal women. To prevent post-transplant bone loss prescription of steroids should be minimized and withdrawn as early as possible. Additional intake of alpha-calcidol [25(OH) vitamin D(3)] or calcitriol, despite normal serum levels, reduces persistent hyperparathyroidism after kidney transplantation, improves intestinal calcium absorption and activates osteoblasts. Inhibition of osteoclasts by biphosphonate therapy seems to effectively reverse bone loss during the early and late course of kidney transplantation. However, as the majority of transplant recipients have a low-turnover bone disease, inhibition of osteoclasts, through which bone turnover is impaired, might further reduce osteoblast activity and promote osteoid synthesis. Most investigations were small-scale studies with 10-100 participants and a follow up of only 12 months. This makes conclusions on the effect of any intervention on the fracture rate impossible. Larger, randomized multicentre studies investigating bone-sparing therapy on hard end points are therefore advocated.

  17. Kidney transplantation in the Hispanic population.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Lea; Alicuben, Evan; Woo, Karen; Cao, Shu; Groshen, Susan; Qazi, Yasir; Smogorzewski, Miroslaw; Selby, Rick; Alexopoulos, Sophoclis

    2016-02-01

    Hispanic race and low socioeconomic status are established predictors of disparity in access to kidney transplantation. This single-center retrospective review was undertaken to determine whether Hispanic race predicted kidney transplant outcomes. A total of 720 patients underwent kidney transplantation from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013, including 398 Hispanic patients and 322 non-Hispanic patients. Hispanic patients were significantly younger (p < 0.0001), on hemodialysis for longer (p = 0.0018), had a greater percentage with public insurance (p < 0.0001), more commonly had diabetes as the cause of end-stage renal disease (p = 0.0167), and had a lower percentage of living donors (p = 0.0013) compared to non-Hispanic patients. There was no difference in one-, five-, and 10-yr graft (97%, 81%, and 61% vs. 95%, 76%, and 42% p = 0.18) or patient survival (98%, 90%, and 84% vs. 97%, 87%, and 69% p = 0.11) between the Hispanic and non-Hispanic recipients. Multivariate analysis identified increased recipient age and kidney donor profile index to be predictive of lower graft survival and increasing recipient age to be predictive of lower patient survival. In the largest single-center study on kidney transplantation outcomes in Hispanic patients, there is no difference in graft and recipient survival between Hispanic and non-Hispanic kidney transplant patients, and in multivariate analysis, Hispanic race is not a risk factor for graft or patient survival. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cardiac toxoplasmosis after heart transplantation diagnosed by endomyocardial biopsy.

    PubMed

    Petty, L A; Qamar, S; Ananthanarayanan, V; Husain, A N; Murks, C; Potter, L; Kim, G; Pursell, K; Fedson, S

    2015-10-01

    We describe a case of cardiac toxoplasmosis diagnosed by routine endomyocardial biopsy in a patient with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) intolerance on atovaquone prophylaxis. Data are not available on the efficacy of atovaquone as Toxoplasma gondii prophylaxis after heart transplantation. In heart transplant patients in whom TMP-SMX is not an option, other strategies may be considered, including the addition of pyrimethamine to atovaquone.

  19. New Solutions to Reduce Discard of Kidneys Donated for Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Reese, Peter P; Harhay, Meera N; Abt, Peter L; Levine, Matthew H; Halpern, Scott D

    2016-04-01

    Kidney transplantation is a cost-saving treatment that extends the lives of patients with ESRD. Unfortunately, the kidney transplant waiting list has ballooned to over 100,000 Americans. Across large areas of the United States, many kidney transplant candidates spend over 5 years waiting and often die before undergoing transplantation. However, more than 2500 kidneys (>17% of the total recovered from deceased donors) were discarded in 2013, despite evidence that many of these kidneys would provide a survival benefit to wait-listed patients. Transplant leaders have focused attention on transplant center report cards as a likely cause for this discard problem, although that focus is too narrow. In this review, we examine the risks associated with accepting various categories of donated kidneys, including discarded kidneys, compared with the risk of remaining on dialysis. With the goal of improving access to kidney transplant, we describe feasible proposals to increase acceptance of currently discarded organs.

  20. Systematic review of kidney transplantation functional predictors.

    PubMed

    Miret Alomar, E; Trilla Herrera, E; Lorente Garcia, D; Regis Placido, L; López Del Campo, R; Cuadras Solé, M; Pont Castellana, T; Moreso Mateos, F; Serón Micas, D; Morote Robles, J

    2017-08-10

    Kidney transplantation from donors with expanded criteria has increased the pool of kidneys at the cost of a higher risk of short and long-term graft dysfunction. The main issue lies in determining which kidneys will offer acceptable function and survival compared with the risk represented by surgery and subsequent immunosuppression. The objective of our article is to review the current evidence on the tools for predicting the functionality of kidney transplantation from cadaveric donors with expanded criteria and determining the validity for their use in standard practice. We conducted a systematic literature review according to the PRISM criteria, through Medline (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and using the keywords (in isolation or in conjunction) "cadaveric renal transplantation; kidney graft function appraisal, graft function predictors". We selected prospective and retrospective series and review articles. A total of 375 articles were analysed, 39 of which were ultimately selected for review. The predictors of functionality include the following: The donor risk indices; the calculation of the renal functional weight or the assessment of the nephronic mass; the measurement of vascular resistances during perfusion in hypothermia; the measurement of the donor's biomarkers in urine and in the perfusion liquid; the measurement of functional and reperfusion parameters in normothermia; and the measurement of morphological parameters (microscopic and macroscopic) of the target organ. In this article, we present an explanatory summary of each of these parameters, as well as their most recent evidence on this issue. None of the reviewed parameters in isolation could reliably predict renal function and graft survival. There is a significant void in terms of the macroscopic assessment of kidney transplantation. We need to continue developing predictors of renal functionality to accurately define the distribution of each currently available donor kidney. Copyright © 2017

  1. Kidney transplantation in patients with Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Cybulla, Markus; Walter, Kerstin Nanette; Schwarting, Andreas; Divito, Raffaelle; Feriozzi, Sandro; Sunder-Plassmann, Gere

    2009-04-01

    Little is known about the effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in kidney transplant recipients with Fabry disease. Clinical characteristics of transplant recipients in the Fabry Outcome Survey (FOS) were therefore examined in patients with Fabry disease with or without ERT. Of the 837 European patients in FOS (March 2006), 34 male patients and two female patients had received kidney transplants. Mean age at transplantation was 37.6 +/- 10.9 years, mean time since transplantation was 7.7 +/- 6.4 years, median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 44.4 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and median proteinuria was 296 mg/24 h. Of 27 patients with baseline data, 59% had hypertension, 74% had left ventricular hypertrophy, 22% had cardiac valve disease, 30% had arrhythmia, and 22% had transient ischaemic attacks and 15% stroke. Twenty patients (74%; two female patients, 18 male patients) were receiving ERT with agalsidase alfa. At enrollment or at the start of ERT, median eGFRs were 59 and 35 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (P = 0.05) and median proteinuria levels were 240 and 420 mg/24 h (not significant) in treated and untreated patients respectively. Renal function remained stable in patients receiving ERT. In conclusion, agalsidase alfa is well tolerated in patients with Fabry disease who have undergone renal transplantation.

  2. Paired kidney exchange transplantation: Maximizing the donor pool

    PubMed Central

    Jha, P. K.; Sethi, S.; Bansal, S. B.; Jain, M.; Sharma, R.; Phanish, M. K.; Duggal, R.; Ahlawat, R.; Kher, V.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, paired kidney exchange (PKE) transplantation has gained popularity worldwide as a viable alternative for end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients who have incompatible or sensitized donors. This study presents our experience with PKE transplantation and compares outcome between PKE and non-PKE renal transplant recipients. Between February 2010 and November 2013, 742 transplants were performed, of which 26 (3.5%) were PKE transplantations. All were two-way exchanges. PKE recipients were significantly older than non-PKE (46.73 ± 9.71 vs. 40.08 ± 13.36 years; P = 0.012) while donor ages were comparable. PKE patients had significantly higher number of HLA mismatches (5.03 ± 1.14 vs. 3.49 ± 1.57; P < 0.0001). After a median follow-up of 20 months (range: 3–47 months), there was no significant difference in patient survival (PKE 96.16% vs. non-PKE 96.65%; P = 0.596) and death censored graft survival (PKE 96.16% vs. non-PKE 96.37%; P = 1). Mean serum creatinine at 1 month and at last follow-up was lower in PKE versus non-PKE group (0.98 ± 0.33 vs. 1.3 ± 0.61 mg/dl; P = 0.008 and 0.96 ± 0.30 vs. 1.27 ± 0.57 mg/dl, P = 0.006, respectively). Biopsy proven acute rejection rate was 11.5% in PKE group and 16.89% in non-PKE patients (P = 0.6). To conclude, paired kidney donation is an excellent way of increasing the donor pool and needs to be promoted to overcome the shortage of suitable kidney in our country. PMID:26664210

  3. Isobaric (gasless) laparoscopic liver and kidney biopsy in standing steers.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, O Alberto; von Bredow, Jurgen; Li, Hui; Smith, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the suitability of an isobaric laparoscopic procedure, using a single port, for obtaining serial kidney and liver biopsy samples from standing steers. The samples were used in support of a pharmacokinetic tissue-fluid correlation study. Laparoscopic access was performed 3 times in each of 8 healthy Holstein steers, alternating from the right side to the left side and then to the right side again. The surgery was performed in standing stocks after the animals were given 3 doses of sulfadimethoxine sulfate intravenously and fasted for at least 18 h. Sedation and analgesia were achieved with acepromazine and xylazine. Lidocaine 2% was injected at the center of the paralumbar fossa (left or right), and an incision was made for introduction of a trocar-cannula assembly. Room air was allowed to enter the abdomen through the cannula at the time of insertion. Once the peritoneal cavity was reached, an operating endoscope was inserted. No pressurized insufflation was performed. A biopsy forceps was introduced into the operating channel of the endoscope to obtain a 100-mg kidney or liver sample. No complications were encountered. The 24 laparoscopic procedures provided 24 kidney and 16 liver samples. The results suggest that the isobaric (gasless) single-port laparoscopic technique is feasible for kidney and liver biopsy on standing steers. The procedure can be performed in a reliable and efficient manner in the sedated standing bovine.

  4. Simultaneous pancreas kidney transplant versus other kidney transplant options in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Alexander C; Gralla, Jane

    2012-04-01

    Current organ allocation policy prioritizes placement of kidneys (with pancreas) to patients listed for simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK). Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may undergo SPK, but it is unknown whether these patients enjoy a survival advantage with SPK versus deceased-donor kidney transplantation alone (DDKA) or living-donor kidney transplantation alone (LDKA). Using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database, patients with T2DM, age 18-59 years, body mass index 18-30 kg/m(2), who underwent SPK, DDKA, or LDKA from 2000 through 2008 were identified. Five-year patient and kidney graft survival rates were compared, and multivariable analysis was performed to determine donor, recipient, and transplant factors influencing these outcomes. Of 6416 patients identified, 4005, 1987, and 424 underwent DDKA, LDKA, and SPK, respectively. On unadjusted analysis, patient and kidney graft survival rates were superior for LDKA versus SPK, whereas patient but not graft survival was higher for SPK versus DDKA. On multivariable analysis, survival advantage for SPK versus DDKA was related not to pancreas transplantation but younger donor and recipient ages in the SPK cohort. Good outcomes can occur with SPK in selected patients with T2DM, but no patient or graft survival advantage is provided by added pancreas transplantation compared with DDKA; outcomes were superior with LDKA. These results support cautious use of SPK in T2DM when LDKA is not an option, with close oversight of the effect of kidney (with pancreas) allocation priority over other transplant candidates.

  5. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder following kidney transplantation: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Maksten, Eva Futtrup; Vase, Maja Ølholm; Kampmann, Jan; d'Amore, Francesco; Møller, Michael Boe; Strandhave, Charlotte; Bendix, Knud; Bistrup, Claus; Thiesson, Helle Charlotte; Søndergaard, Esben; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Jespersen, Bente

    2016-04-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) incidence is difficult to determine, mainly because both early and other lesions may go unrecognized and unregistered. Few studies have included systematic pathology review to maximize case identification and decide more accurately PTLD frequency after long-term post-transplantation follow-up. A retrospective population-based cohort study including all kidney transplant recipients at two Danish centres (1990-2011; population covered 3.1 million; 2175 transplantations in 1906 patients). Pathology reports were reviewed for all patient biopsies to identify possible PTLDs. Candidate PTLDs underwent histopathological review and classification. Seventy PTLD cases were identified in 2175 transplantations (3.2%). The incidence rate (IR) after first transplantation was 5.4 cases per 1000 patient-years (95% CI: 4.0-7.3). Most PTLDs were monomorphic (58.5%), or early lesions (21.5%). Excluding early lesions and patients <18 years, IR was 3.7 (95% CI: 2.9-5.5). Ten patients with PTLD were retransplanted, 2 developing further PTLDs. Post-transplant patient survival was inferior in patients with PTLD, while death-censored graft survival was not. Using registry data together with extensive pathological review and long follow-up, a rather high incidence of PTLD was found.

  6. Evaluation of kidney transplantation programmes using system simulation.

    PubMed

    Devi, S Prasanna; Kumar, S Saravana; Rao, K Suryaprakasa

    2012-06-01

    In the case of kidney transplantations, there is always a serious imbalance between the number of kidneys donated for transplantation and the number of persons wishing to receive a transplant. This not only affects the quality of life of those unable to obtain a transplant, but it also has important repercussions on the treatment of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) by transplantation and dialysis. Also there are a number of ways in which the kidney transplantation can be achieved, such as the cadaveric kidney transplantation, live donor kidney transplantation, kidney paired donation and list exchange. A simulation study of all the referred programmes is performed using simulation models developed for each programme to obtain the better estimate of the average waiting time of a patient per year. With the estimates given by the simulation models, the best serving programme for each blood type patient is selected, declared and recommended.

  7. Thoracic radiology in kidney and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Joel E; Rabkin, John M

    2002-04-01

    Renal transplantation accounts for more than half of all solid organ transplants performed in the U.S., and the liver is the second most commonly transplanted solid organ. Although abdominal imaging procedures are commonplace in these patients, there has been relatively little attention paid to thoracic imaging applications. Preoperative imaging is crucial to aid in the exclusion of infectious or malignant disease. In the perioperative time period, thoracic imaging focuses both on standard intensive care unit care, including monitoring devices and their complications, and on the early infections that can occur. Postoperative management is divided into three time periods, and the principles governing the occurrence of infections and malignancies are reviewed. Anatomic and pathologic aspects unique to kidney and liver transplantation patients are also discussed.

  8. Kidney transplantation in Canada, 1981-84.

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, J R; Hutchinson, T A; Arbus, G S; Posen, G A

    1986-01-01

    The Canadian Renal Failure Register was established in 1980. Data have been collected annually for all Canadian patients in whom irreversible kidney failure developed and who required dialysis or transplantation. The authors present actuarial patient and graft survival rates for 1981-84. In 1984, patients with a functioning renal graft accounted for 43.9% of the patients with end-stage renal disease. The number of transplants performed increased from 482 in 1981 to 662 in 1984; however, 1,022 patients undergoing dialysis (25.2%) were on an active waiting list for a transplant at the end of 1984. Greater effort is needed to increase the transplantation rate. PMID:3530420

  9. [Cadaveric kidney transplantation: a model with limitations].

    PubMed

    Vilardell Bergadà, Jordi

    2005-01-01

    The first successful kidney transplant in Spain was performed in 1965. It's been forty years already and currently Spain is the country with the highest cadaver donation rates worldwide. The so-called Spanish model of transplantation is well known for its organization and excellent results. These results are the consequence of a perfect network organization. Furthermore, the organ procurement organization--Organización Nacional de Trasplantes--, regional coordinators, national health system hospital network, hospital transplant coordinators, and all professionals involved in the process of donation and transplantation have perfectly well defined functions and work with the common objective of optimizing resources and making the most of the opportunities. Provided that one of the main characteristics of the Spanish model is the possibility of adaptation to the moments necessities, we proceed to review and evaluate it from its beginning to current days.

  10. Outcomes after combined liver-kidney transplant vs. kidney transplant followed by liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Chan, Edie Y; Bhattacharya, Renuka; Eswaran, Sheila; Hertl, Martin; Shah, Nikunj; Fayek, Sameh; Cohen, Eric B; Hollinger, Edward F; Olaitan, Oyedolamu; Jensik, Stephen C; Perkins, James D

    2015-01-01

    The decision for isolated kidney transplant (KT) vs. combined liver-kidney transplant (CLKT) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with compensated cirrhosis remains controversial. We sought to determine outcomes of patients requiring listing for a liver transplant (LT) following either a cadaveric or living donor KT and compare these outcomes to similar patients receiving a CLKT. Our dataset included the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS)/Standard Transplant and Analysis and Research (STAR) kidney files from 1987 to 2012 after being joined with the liver files from 2002 to 2012. Outcomes of patients who received a CLKT with an international normalized ratio (INR) ≤1 and total bilirubin ≤1 were compared to patients who received a primary KT and subsequently required listing for LT between zero and five yr or after five yr. For the three groups, 244 patients had a CLKT, 216 were wait-listed for LT between zero and five yr after KT (0-5 WL), and 320 were wait-listed five yr after KT (+5 WL). From the time of KT, the 0-5 WL group had significantly worse survival than the CLKT group and the +5 WL group. The +5 WL had the best survival of all groups. For the 0-5 WL group, 45% underwent LT and 40% died while waiting compared to the +5 WL group with 53% having LT and 26% died while waiting. At the time of LT, the 0-5 WL group had a higher model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, higher incidence of being in the ICU at the time of transplant, and higher incidence of requiring life support. From the time of LT, the CLKT trended toward better survival (p = 0.0549) than both the 0-5 WL and +5 WL groups, which had equivalent survival. The 0-5 WL group is a higher risk group with poorer survival due to a higher incidence of dying on the waitlist. Better identification of patients with a high risk for hepatic decompensation following KT and agreement for regional exception for LT in the event of decompensation may improve utilization of organs and

  11. Follicular T helper cells and humoral reactivity in kidney transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    de Graav, G N; Dieterich, M; Hesselink, D A; Boer, K; Clahsen-van Groningen, M C; Kraaijeveld, R; Litjens, N H R; Bouamar, R; Vanderlocht, J; Tilanus, M; Houba, I; Boonstra, A; Roelen, D L; Claas, F H J; Betjes, M G H; Weimar, W; Baan, C C

    2015-01-01

    Memory B cells play a pivotal role in alloreactivity in kidney transplantation. Follicular T helper (Tfh) cells play an important role in the differentiation of B cells into immunoglobulin-producing plasmablasts [through interleukin (IL)-21]. It is unclear to what extent this T cell subset regulates humoral alloreactivity in kidney transplant patients, therefore we investigated the absolute numbers and function of peripheral Tfh cells (CD4POSCXCR5POS T cells) in patients before and after transplantation. In addition, we studied their relationship with the presence of donor-specific anti-human leucocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies (DSA), and the presence of Tfh cells in rejection biopsies. After transplantation peripheral Tfh cell numbers remained stable, while their IL-21-producing capacity decreased under immunosuppression. When isolated after transplantation, peripheral Tfh cells still had the capacity to induce B cell differentiation and immunoglobulin production, which could be inhibited by an IL-21-receptor-antagonist. After transplantation the quantity of Tfh cells was the highest in patients with pre-existent DSA. In kidney biopsies taken during rejection, Tfh cells co-localized with B cells and immunoglobulins in follicular-like structures. Our data on Tfh cells in kidney transplantation demonstrate that Tfh cells may mediate humoral alloreactivity, which is also seen in the immunosuppressed milieu. PMID:25557528

  12. Renal cancer in kidney transplanted patients.

    PubMed

    Frascà, Giovanni M; Sandrini, Silvio; Cosmai, Laura; Porta, Camillo; Asch, William; Santoni, Matteo; Salviani, Chiara; D'Errico, Antonia; Malvi, Deborah; Balestra, Emilio; Gallieni, Maurizio

    2015-12-01

    Renal cancer occurs more frequently in renal transplanted patients than in the general population, affecting native kidneys in 90% of cases and the graft in 10 %. In addition to general risk factors, malignancy susceptibility may be influenced by immunosuppressive therapy, the use of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) as compared with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, and the length of dialysis treatment. Acquired cystic kidney disease may increase the risk for renal cancer after transplantation, while autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease does not seem to predispose to cancer development. Annual ultrasound evaluation seems appropriate in patients with congenital or acquired cystic disease or even a single cyst in native kidneys, and every 2 years in patients older than 60 years if they were on dialysis for more than 5 years before transplantation. Immunosuppression should be lowered in patients who develop renal cancer, by reduction or withdrawal of CNI. Although more evidence is still needed, it seems reasonable to shift patients from CNI to everolimus or sirolimus if not already treated with one of these drugs, with due caution in subjects with chronic allograft nephropathy.

  13. Kidney transplantation in the older adult.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Greg A

    2013-05-01

    The end-stage renal disease population is aging. Nearly half of all new patients are older than 65 years and one third are older than 70 years. Assessing the possibility of transplantation for older patients with end-stage renal disease often involves contemplating more complex issues, including cognitive impairment, decreased functional status, and frailty, which makes selecting appropriate candidates more difficult. Older transplant recipients have decreased patient and transplant survival compared with younger recipients. For example, 75% of deceased donor transplant recipients aged 30-49 years are alive after 5 years compared to only 61% for those older than 65 years. Despite poorer outcomes compared with younger recipients, older transplant recipients have a significant improvement in survival compared with similar patients who remain on the wait list, with decreases in mortality of 41%-61% depending on the study. Use of living donors, even older living donors, provides significantly better outcomes for elderly recipients compared with the use of deceased donors. However, in the absence of a living donor, survival is improved significantly by accepting an expanded criteria donor organ rather than waiting for a standard criteria deceased donor. Older transplant recipients experience more infectious complications and less acute rejection, but the risk of transplant loss from rejection is increased compared with younger patients. These immunologic issues, along with the fact that older patients often are excluded from transplant trials, have made selecting an ideal immunosuppressive regimen challenging. Prospective comparative trials of different agents in the elderly population are warranted to better define the risk-benefit profile. This review discusses transplantation outcomes, including patient and transplant survival, different donor types, quality of life, and immunosuppression for older dialysis patients. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc

  14. [Calcification in nonfunctioning transplanted kidneys].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; Sánchez, R J; Fernández, E J; Peces, C

    2007-01-01

    Failed renal allografts often are left in situ in patients who revert to chronic dialysis therapy or who undergo retransplantation. These organs may be the site of massive calcification despite their lack of physiological function. Calcification of an endstage renal allograft is sometimes found incidentally. We report here two patients who developed extensive calcification of the renal graft, one was on chronic hemodialysis and the other had a second renal transplantation with normal renal function. The precise pathogenesis of calcification and the factors which determine its tissue localization are unclear. Factors postulated to promote the development of metastatic calcification include an elevated calcium phosphate product, severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, aluminium toxicity and duration of dialytic therapy. In some cases local factors related with the chronic inflammatory rejection process are probably involved as well. However, the exact relative contribution of these factors remains unresolved. Unless specific clinical indications are present, transplant nephrectomy is not necessary for calcified end-stage renal allografts.

  15. Failure of isolated kidney transplantation in a pediatric patient with primary hyperoxaluria type 2.

    PubMed

    Naderi, GholamHossein; Latif, AmirHossein; Tabassomi, Firouzeh; Esfahani, Seyed Taher

    2014-05-01

    PH type 2 is caused by decreased activity of GRHPR enzyme that eventually leads to ESRD and systemic oxalosis. Here, we describe an Iranian pediatric patient with PH2 and early ESRD development who received recommended treatment by undergoing isolated kidney transplantation. Diagnosis criteria included a history of reoccurring calcium oxalate renal stones and elevated oxalate levels combined with liver biopsy and decreased enzymatic activity at age five. ESRD prompted transplantation and was performed at age nine. On Day 12 post-op, his serum creatinine level increased. A graft biopsy showed calcium oxalate crystal deposits in renal tubes with no evidence of acute rejection, which resolved with intensive hydration and administration of a potassium citrate solution. Subsequent biopsies confirmed results found in first biopsy. Despite the immunosuppressive therapy, his serum creatinine level increased again after 11 months. Renal tubular obstruction then led to graft nephrectomy. Pathological analysis of tissue confirmed findings of past biopsies. This was a very rare case of early ESRD in PH2 resulting in a failed isolated kidney transplant. As the GRHPR enzyme is predominantly expressed in liver, we suggest a combined liver-kidney transplant may be beneficial in patients with PH2.

  16. The case for pancreas after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fridell, Jonathan A; Mangus, Richard S; Hollinger, Edward F; Taber, Tim E; Goble, Michelle L; Mohler, Elaine; Milgrom, Martin L; Powelson, John A

    2009-01-01

    Pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplantation has historically demonstrated inferior pancreas allograft survival compared to simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplantation. Under our current immunosuppression protocol, we have noted excellent outcomes and rare immunological graft loss. The goal of this study was to compare pancreas allograft survival in PAK and SPK recipients using this regimen. This was a single center retrospective review of all SPK and PAK transplants performed between January 2003 and November 2007. All transplants were performed with systemic venous drainage and enteric exocrine drainage. Immunosuppression included induction with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (thymoglobulin), early steroid withdrawal, and maintenance with tacrolimus and sirolimus or mycophenolate mofetil. Study end points included graft and patient survival and immunosuppression related complications. Transplants included PAK 61 (30%) and SPK 142 (70%). One-yr patient survival was PAK 98% and SPK 95% (p = 0.44) and pancreas graft survival was PAK 95% and SPK 90% (p = 0.28). Acute cellular rejection was uncommon with 2% requiring treatment in each group. Survival for PAK using thymoglobulin induction, early steroid withdrawal and tacrolimus-based immunosuppression is at least comparable to SPK and should be pursued in the recipient with a potential living donor.

  17. Cancer incidence before and after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vajdic, Claire M; McDonald, Stephen P; McCredie, Margaret R E; van Leeuwen, Marina T; Stewart, John H; Law, Matthew; Chapman, Jeremy R; Webster, Angela C; Kaldor, John M; Grulich, Andrew E

    2006-12-20

    Immune suppression after organ transplantation is associated with a markedly increased risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer and a few virus-associated cancers. Although it is generally accepted that other cancers do not occur at increased rates, there have been few long-term population-based cohort studies performed. To compare the incidence of cancer in patients receiving immune suppression after kidney transplantation with incidence in the same population in 2 periods before receipt of immune suppression: during dialysis and during end-stage kidney disease before renal replacement therapy (RRT). A population-based cohort study of 28,855 patients with end-stage kidney disease who received RRT, with 273,407 person-years of follow-up. Incident cancers (1982-2003) were ascertained by record linkage between the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry and the Australian National Cancer Statistics Clearing House. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancer, using age-specific, sex-specific, calendar year-specific, and state/territory-specific population cancer incidence rates. The overall incidence of cancer, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer and those cancers known to frequently cause end-stage kidney disease, was markedly increased after transplantation (n = 1236; SIR, 3.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.09-3.46). In contrast, cancer incidence was only slightly increased during dialysis (n = 870; SIR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.27-1.45) and before RRT (n = 689; SIR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.08-1.25). After transplantation, cancer occurred at significantly increased incidence at 25 sites, and risk exceeded 3-fold at 18 of these sites. Most of these cancers were of known or suspected viral etiology. Kidney transplantation is associated with a marked increase in cancer risk at a wide variety of sites. Because SIRs for most types of cancer were not increased before transplantation, immune suppression may be responsible for the increased risk. These data suggest a broader

  18. Simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation for liver transplant recipients with diabetes and uremia.

    PubMed

    Tam, Ngalei; Zhang, Chuanzhao; Lin, Jianwei; Wu, Chenglin; Deng, Ronghai; Liao, Bing; Hu, Shuiqing; Wang, Dongping; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Wu, Linwei; He, Xiaoshun

    2015-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a critical problem due to immunosuppressant related nephrotoxicity in liver transplant (LTx) recipients, especially in patients with pre-transplant risk factors. LTx recipients with uraemia and diabetes have poor prognosis even when treated with dialysis and insulin. Simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK) has been proven to be an effective treatment for patients with diabetic uraemia, but rarely performed in patients after LTx. Two cases of SPK after LTx were performed in our centre and we present our experience here. Two patients received LTx because of HBV related liver cirrhosis; both of them had pre-transplant diabetes mellitus (DM), which worsened after the administration of immunosuppressive drugs. These two patients suffered from CKD and developed uraemia due to diabetic nephropathy and immunosuppressive drugs induced renal toxicity years after LTx. They relied on dialysis and insulin injection. SPK were performed years after LTx and the clinical data was retrospectively analyzed. SPK was successfully performed in these two patients. Pancreatic fluid drainage was achieved via a side-to-side duodenojejunostomy into the proximal jejunum. No serious surgical complications, including pancreatitis or pancreatic fistula were observed postoperatively. In both cases, kidney and pancreatic grafts were functioning well as evidenced by euglycemia without the need for insulin injections and normal serum-creatinine level 7days after the operation. One of the patients presented with renal graft impairment 1week after the operation. FK506 was tapered and rapamycin was used when the renal graft biopsy indicated drug toxicity. The patient's kidney graft function recovered gradually after the adjustment. Both patients have good function of liver, kidney and pancreas grafts during a 60-month and 30-month period of follow up. SPK could serve as an effective option for patients with diabetes and uremia after LTx

  19. BK Virus in Recipients of Kidney Transplants.

    PubMed

    Hendrix, Kelly M

    2014-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1971, the BK virus, a human polyomavirus, has emerged as a significant cause of renal dysfunction and transplant graft loss in kidney transplant recipients. Improved screening methods have been effective in assisting in the early identification of the virus, and thus, prompt intervention to prevent the progression of the disease. Treatment options for the virus are limited; therefore, lowering immunosuppressive medications should be considered the first line of treatment. Current adjunctive therapies are not guaranteed to control the viral activity and may have limited therapeutic value.

  20. Emerging functions of autophagy in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pallet, N; Livingston, M; Dong, Z

    2014-01-01

    In response to ischemic, toxic or immunological insults, the more frequent injuries encountered by the kidney, cells must adapt to maintain vital metabolic functions and avoid cell death. Among the adaptive responses activated, autophagy emerges as an important integrator of various extracellular and intracellular triggers (often related to nutrients availability or immunological stimuli), which, as a consequence,may regulate cell viability, and also immune functions,both innate or adaptive. The aim of this review is to make the synthesis of the recent literature on the implications of autophagy in the kidney transplantation field and to discuss the future directions for research.

  1. Delayed Graft Function 5 Months After Living Donor Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Tim; Pries, Alexandra; Kapischke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 59 Final Diagnosis: Delayed kidney graft function Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Living donor kidney transplantation Specialty: Transplantology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Delayed graft function is a clinical term to describe the failure of the transplanted kidney to function immediately after transplantation. Case Report: A 59-year-old woman suffered from a rare case of delayed graft function lasting 148 days after unrelated living donor kidney transplantation. Until now, 15 years after transplantation, organ function is still good, with serum creatinine levels about 1.4 to 2.0 mg/dl. Conclusions: Even after prolonged graft dysfunction, good graft function can be achieved. PMID:26915643

  2. Assessment of Kidney Function After Allograft Transplantation by Texture Analysis.

    PubMed

    Abbasian Ardakani, Ali; Mohammadi, Afshin; Khalili Najafabad, Bahareh; Abolghasemi, Jamileh

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasonography is the preferable imaging technique for monitoring and assessing complications in kidney allograft transplants. Computer-aided diagnostic system based on texture analysis in ultrasonographic imaging is recommended to identify changes in kidney function after allograft transplantation. A total of 61 biopsy-proven kidney allograft recipients (11 rejected and 50 unrejected) were assessed by a computer-aided diagnostic system. Up to 270 statistical texture features were extracted as descriptors for each region of interest in each recipient. Correlations of texture features with serum creatinine level and differences between rejected and unrejected allografts were analyzed. An area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated for each significant texture feature. Linear discriminant analysis was employed to analyze significant features and increase discriminative power. Recipients were classified by the first nearest neighbor classifier. Fourteen texture features had a significant correlation with serum creatinine level and 16 were significantly different between the rejected and unrejected allografts, for which an area under the curve values were in the range of 0.575 for difference entropy S(4,0) to 0.676 for kurtosis. Using all 16 features, linear discriminant analysis indicated higher performance for classification of the two groups with an area under the curve of 0.975, which corresponded to a sensitivity of 90.9%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 98.0%. Texture analysis was a reliable method, with the potential for characterization, and can help physicians to diagnose kidney failure after transplantation on ultrasonographic imaging.

  3. Chronic Disease and Childhood Development: Kidney Disease and Transplantation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Susan D.; Simmons, Roberta G.

    As part of a larger study of transplantation and chronic disease and the family, 124 children (10-18 years old) who were chronically ill with kidney disease (n=72) or were a year or more post-transplant (n=52) were included in a study focusing on the effects of chronic kidney disease and transplantation on children's psychosocial development. Ss…

  4. [Antibiotic prophylaxis before kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Robles, N R; Gallego, E; Anaya, F; Franco, A; Valderrábano, F

    1990-02-01

    The effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis was evaluated in the immediate postoperative period of renal transplantation (RT). Before RT, the patients were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: 1) cefotaxime (intravenous infusion of 1 g one hour before the operation). 2) Ceftriaxone (1 g i.v. given in a similar way). 3) Control (without antibiotics). Patients who required antibiotic therapy during the first 3 postoperative weeks were excluded. 20 recipients of cadaveric renal grafts were included in each group. There were 39 males and 21 females with a mean age of 39.9 years. One patient from the cefotaxime group (5%), 2 from the ceftriaxone group (10%) and 2 from the control group (10%) developed infection of the surgical wound, all due to grampositive organisms. 19 patients had urinary tract infections: 7 from the control group (35%), 7 from the cefotaxime group (35%), and 5 from the ceftriaxone group (25%). The development of wound infection was not correlated with urea, creatinine, hemoglobin or total protein levels, or with urinary tract infection or fistula, diabetes or fever. The mean packed red cell volume of the patients who developed wound infection was 24.7 +/- 1.2 vs 28.6 +/- 6.6 in those who did not (p less than 0.01). All patients with visible hematoma and 3 of 10 with perirenal blood collection had wound infection. It was concluded that antibiotic prophylaxis for renal transplantation was useless in our patients.

  5. Surveillance renal transplant biopsies and subclinical rejection at three months post-transplant in pediatric recipients.

    PubMed

    Hymes, Leonard C; Greenbaum, Laurence; Amaral, Sandra G; Warshaw, Barry L

    2007-08-01

    Subclinical acute rejection (SCR) has been increasingly recognized in adult renal transplant recipients with the advent of surveillance biopsies. However, in children, surveillance biopsies are not routinely performed at most centers. Therefore, the incidence, predisposing factors, treatment, and clinical outcomes of SCR remain unclear in children. From August 2004 to December 2005, we performed 36 protocol biopsies at three months post-transplantation. All patients had received induction therapy with basiliximab and were maintained on prednisone, MMF, and tacrolimus. Sixteen cases of SCR were detected by biopsy (44%). Age, gender, race, donor source, or serum creatinine did not discriminate between children with SCR and those with normal biopsies. All cases of SCR were treated with high doses of methylprednisolone. At one yr post-transplant, renal function was similar in children with SCR to those with normal surveillance biopsies (p = 0.62). Because of the high incidence of SCR, the maintenance dose of MMF was increased by 50% in 20 children transplanted after December 2005. This resulted in a significant decline in the incidence of SCR from 44 to 15% (p < 0.05). However, the incidence of polyomavirus (BK) viremia also increased significantly in these children (p < 0.005). A high incidence of SCR was found on surveillance biopsies at three months post-transplant and could not be predicted by age, gender, race, donor source, or serum creatinine. The occurrence of SCR declined significantly by increasing the dose of MMF, but resulted in an increase in BK viremia. We conclude that surveillance biopsies provide valuable information in the management of pediatric renal transplant recipients. Increasing immunosuppression to avoid SCR should be weighed against the risk for infection.

  6. Living unrelated donor kidney transplantation between spouses.

    PubMed

    Haberal, M; Gulay, H; Tokyay, R; Oner, Z; Enunlu, T; Bilgin, N

    1992-01-01

    From November 3, 1975 to November 3, 1990, 874 kidney transplants were performed at out centers. Of these, 675 (77.2%) were from living donors and 199 (22.8%) were from cadaver donors. Five hundred eighty (66.4%) of the living donors were first degree related while 99 (11.3%) were unrelated or second degree related donors, 29 of which were spouses. All donor recipient pairs were ABO-compatible, with the exception of one pair. Donor recipient relations were wife to husband in 25 cases and husband to wife in 4 cases. All were first grafts and started functioning during surgery. In this series, the follow-up for the recipients was 4 to 64 months (mean 33.5 +/- 4.5 months). One-year patient survival and graft survival rates were 92.4% and 81.9%, respectively. Two-year patient survival and graft survival rates were 92.4% and 78.2%, respectively. The single ABO-incompatible case is also doing well, 21 months postoperatively. This study demonstrates that the interspouse kidney transplantation may be used when cadaver organ shortage is a problem. While providing the couple with a better quality of life, interspouse kidney transplantation also enables the couple to share the joy of giving and receiving the "gift of life" from one another.

  7. [The duration of action of vecuronium in five patients after kidney transplantation--comparison with that during kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Takita, K; Mashio, H; Goda, Y; Kawahigashi, H; Kemmotsu, O

    1995-06-01

    We compared the duration of vecuronium action in five patients after the kidney transplantation with that during kidney transplantation. After the transplantation, three patients required no hemodialysis therapy but two patients underwent hemodialysis therapy again. In all these five patients, including patients who were back to hemodialysis therapy, the durations of vecuronium action after receiving transplanted kidney were shorter than those during kidney transplantation. These shortened durations are speculated to be mainly due to excretion of vecuronium by the transplanted kidney and the effect of long term steroid therapy. However in this study the durations of vecuronium action in patients who required further hemodialysis therapy were also shorter than those during kidney transplantation. To determine whether this is a common or exceptional phenomenon, further evaluation should be needed.

  8. Fatal cutaneous mucormycosis after kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Davuodi, Setareh; Manshadi, Seyed Ali Dehghan; Salehi, Mohammad Reza; Yazdi, Farhad; Khazravi, Mona; Fazli, Jafar Taghizade

    2015-02-01

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon opportunistic infection that is caused by Mucorales from the Zygomycetes class. Patients with severe immunodeficiency admitted to the hospital are at greatest risk for developing this infection. Mucormycosis usually is transmitted in humans by inhalation or inoculation of spores in the skin or mucous membranes. A 66-year-old man developed a surgical wound infection at 1 week after kidney transplant that did not improve despite broad-spectrum antibiotics and debridement. He was transferred to our hospital 45 days after transplant and had fever and a large purulent wound that was surrounded by a black necrotizing margin. Immunosuppressive drugs were discontinued and the dosage of prednisolone was decreased. Massive debridement was performed but was incomplete because he had full-thickness abdominal wall necrosis. Histopathology showed broad fungal hyphae without septation, consistent with the diagnosis of mucormycosis. Despite antifungal therapy with amphotericin B and additional debridement, the patient died of septic shock at 52 days after kidney transplant. Cutaneous fungal infections should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any nonhealing infected wound that does not respond to broad-spectrum antibiotics, especially in patients with predisposing risk factors such as transplant.

  9. The transcriptome of the implant biopsy identifies donor kidneys at increased risk of delayed graft function.

    PubMed

    Mueller, T F; Reeve, J; Jhangri, G S; Mengel, M; Jacaj, Z; Cairo, L; Obeidat, M; Todd, G; Moore, R; Famulski, K S; Cruz, J; Wishart, D; Meng, C; Sis, B; Solez, K; Kaplan, B; Halloran, P F

    2008-01-01

    Improved assessment of donor organ quality at time of transplantation would help in management of potentially usable organs. The transcriptome might correlate with risk of delayed graft function (DGF) better than conventional risk factors. Microarray results of 87 consecutive implantation biopsies taken postreperfusion in 42 deceased (DD) and 45 living (LD) donor kidneys were compared to clinical and histopathology-based scores. Unsupervised analysis separated the 87 kidneys into three groups: LD, DD1 and DD2. Kidneys in DD2 had a greater incidence of DGF (38.1 vs. 9.5%, p < 0.05) than those in DD1. Clinical and histopathological risk scores did not discriminate DD1 from DD2. A total of 1051 transcripts were differentially expressed between DD1 and DD2, but no transcripts separated DGF from immediate graft function (adjusted p < 0.01). Principal components analysis revealed a continuum from LD to DD1 to DD2, i.e. from best to poorest functioning kidneys. Within DD kidneys, the odds ratio for DGF was significantly increased with a transcriptome-based score and recipient age (p < 0.03) but not with clinical or histopathologic scores. The transcriptome reflects kidney quality and susceptibility to DGF better than available clinical and histopathological scoring systems.

  10. Human skin carcinoma arising from kidney transplant-derived tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Verneuil, Laurence; Varna, Mariana; Ratajczak, Philippe; Leboeuf, Christophe; Plassa, Louis-François; Elbouchtaoui, Morad; Schneider, Pierre; Sandid, Wissam; Lebbé, Celeste; Peraldi, Marie-Noelle; Sigaux, François; de Thé, Hugues; Janin, Anne

    2013-09-01

    Tumor cells with donor genotype have been identified in human skin cancer after allogeneic transplantation; however, the donor contribution to the malignant epithelium has not been established. Kidney transplant recipients have an increased risk of invasive skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which is associated with accumulation of the tumor suppressor p53 and TP53 mutations. In 21 skin SCCs from kidney transplant recipients, we systematically assessed p53 expression and donor/recipient origin in laser-microdissected p53+ tumor cells. In one patient, molecular analyses demonstrated that skin tumor cells had the donor genotype and harbored a TP53 mutation in codon 175. In a kidney graft biopsy performed 7 years before the skin SCC diagnosis, we found p53+ cells in the renal tubules. We identified the same TP53 mutation in these p53+ epithelial cells from the kidney transplant. These findings provide evidence for a donor epithelial cell contribution to the malignant skin epithelium in the recipient in the setting of allogeneic kidney transplantation. This finding has theoretical implications for cancer initiation and progression and clinical implications in the context of prolonged immunosuppression and longer survival of kidney transplant patients.

  11. Incidence and Risk Factors of Persistent Hyperparathyroidism After Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nakai, K; Fujii, H; Ishimura, T; Fujisawa, M; Nishi, S

    Persistent hyperparathyroidism after kidney transplantation is related to graft function, but pre-transplantation risk factors of persistent hyperparathyroidism have not been evaluated in detail. We enrolled 86 patients who had undergone kidney transplantation between 2008 and 2014. Nine patients showed persistent hyperparathyroidism characterized by the following: 1) serum parathyroid hormone levels >65 pg/mL and serum calcium levels >10.5 mg/dL at 1 year after kidney transplantation; 2) parathyroidectomy after kidney transplantation; and 3) reintroduction of cinacalcet after kidney transplantation. Compared with other patients, these 9 patients had significantly longer duration of dialysis therapy (186 ± 74 mo vs 57 ± 78 mo) and more frequent treatment with cinacalcet during dialysis (89% vs 12%). Multivariate analysis showed that dialysis vintage, calcium phosphate products, and cinacalcet use before kidney transplantation were independent risk factors of persistent hyperparathyroidism after kidney transplantation. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed 72 months as the cutoff value of dialysis vintage and 55 as the cutoff value of calcium phosphate products. In conclusion, dialysis vintage >6 years, calcium phosphate products >55 (mg/dL)(2), and cinacalcet use before kidney transplantation are strong predictors of persistent hyperparathyroidism. High-risk patients should be evaluated for parathyroid enlargement, and parathyroidectomy must be considered before kidney transplantation.

  12. En bloc transplantation of horseshoe kidney in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Jun Bae; Lee, Jae Myeong; Oh, Chang-Kwon; Lee, Kyo Won; Park, Jae Berm; Kim, Sung Joo

    2017-01-01

    Transplantation of the horseshoe kidney can be performed en bloc or split into 2 grafts according to the vascular anomaly and the existence of the urinary collecting system in isthmus. From 2011 to 2014, there were 3 horseshoe kidney transplantations in Korea and transplantations were performed at 2 different centers. The transplantations were carried out successfully for all recipients without complications. All recipients have shown good graft kidney function after transplantation. No severe complication was revealed during follow-up period. We described the surgical technique used in the en bloc method to overcome various vascular anomalies and difficulties in choosing cannulation site and postoperative complications. En bloc transplantation of a horseshoe kidney is a useful strategy for patients with end-stage renal disease, and can provide favorable outcomes compared to the transplantation of a normal kidney. PMID:28289672

  13. En bloc transplantation of horseshoe kidney in Korea.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jun Bae; Lee, Jae Myeong; Oh, Chang-Kwon; Lee, Kyo Won; Park, Jae Berm; Kim, Sung Joo; Lee, Su Hyung

    2017-03-01

    Transplantation of the horseshoe kidney can be performed en bloc or split into 2 grafts according to the vascular anomaly and the existence of the urinary collecting system in isthmus. From 2011 to 2014, there were 3 horseshoe kidney transplantations in Korea and transplantations were performed at 2 different centers. The transplantations were carried out successfully for all recipients without complications. All recipients have shown good graft kidney function after transplantation. No severe complication was revealed during follow-up period. We described the surgical technique used in the en bloc method to overcome various vascular anomalies and difficulties in choosing cannulation site and postoperative complications. En bloc transplantation of a horseshoe kidney is a useful strategy for patients with end-stage renal disease, and can provide favorable outcomes compared to the transplantation of a normal kidney.

  14. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Measurement in Renal Transplantation: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study With Protocol Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juhan; Oh, Young Taik; Joo, Dong Jin; Ma, Bo Gyoung; Lee, A-lan; Lee, Jae Geun; Song, Seung Hwan; Kim, Seung Up; Jung, Dae Chul; Chung, Yong Eun; Kim, Yu Seun

    2015-09-01

    Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) is a common cause of kidney allograft loss. Several noninvasive techniques developed to assess tissue fibrosis are widely used to examine the liver. However, relatively few studies have investigated the use of elastographic methods to assess transplanted kidneys. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical implications of the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technique in renal transplant patients. A total of 91 patients who underwent living donor renal transplantation between September 2010 and January 2013 were included in this prospective study. Shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured by ARFI at baseline and predetermined time points (1 week and 6 and 12 months after transplantation). Protocol biopsies were performed at 12 months. Instead of reflecting IF/TA, SWVs were found to be related to time elapsed after transplantation. Mean SWV increased continuously during the first postoperative year (P < 0.001). In addition, mixed model analysis showed no correlation existed between SWV and serum creatinine (r = -0.2426, P = 0.0771). There was also no evidence of a relationship between IF/TA and serum creatinine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.220, P = 0.7648). Furthermore, SWV temporal patterns were dependent on the kidney weight to body weight ratio (KW/BW). In patients with a KW/BW < 3.5 g/kg, mean SWV continuously increased for 12 months, whereas it decreased after 6 months in those with a KW/BW ≥ 3.5 g/kg.No significant correlation was observed between SWV and IF/TA or renal dysfunction. However, SWV was found to be related to the time after transplantation. Renal hemodynamics influenced by KW/BW might impact SWV values.

  15. Understanding Medication Nonadherence after Kidney Transplant.

    PubMed

    Nevins, Thomas E; Nickerson, Peter W; Dew, Mary Amanda

    2017-08-01

    Alloimmunity remains a barrier to long-term graft survival that necessitates lifelong immunosuppressive therapy after renal transplant. Medication nonadherence has been increasingly recognized as a major impediment to achieving effective immunosuppression. Electronic medication monitoring further reveals that nonadherence manifests early after transplant, although the effect is delayed. The etiology of nonadherence is multifactorial, with the strongest risk factors including past nonadherence and being an adolescent or young adult. Other risk factors with smaller but consistently important effects include minority race/ethnicity, poor social supports, and poor perceived health. In children, risk factors related to parental and child psychologic and behavioral functioning and parental distress and burden are also important. Qualitative systematic reviews highlight the need to tailor interventions to each transplant recipient's unique needs, motivations, and barriers rather than offer a one size fits all approach. To date, relatively few interventions have been studied, and most studies conducted were underpowered to allow definitive conclusions. If the kidney transplant community's goal of "one transplant for life" is to become a reality, then solutions for medication nonadherence must be found and implemented. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. Transitional cell carcinoma involving graft kidney in a kidney transplant recipient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yu Ah; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Sul, Hae Joung; Kim, Suk Young; Chang, Yoon Kyung

    2017-09-21

    Kidney transplantation (KT) is the treatment option for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) to prolong survival and improve quality of life. Although the use of potent immunosuppressive agents increases graft survival in kidney transplantation recipients (KTRs), it may lead to the development of malignancy, including transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). TCC developing in the pelvis of graft kidney is very rare in KTRs. A 40-year-old male visited hospital with complaints of nausea, vomiting and gross hematuria. Eleven years ago, he was diagnosed ESRD of unknown origin, and received a living related KT from his father 1 year later. Radiologic findings showed a huge polypoid mass in the pelvis of graft kidney with pelvo-calyceal dilation and a 3.3 cm-sized nodule in aortocaval chain and a 2.5 cm-sized nodule in right iliac chain as TCC stage IV. Sonography-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of pelvis mass in the graft kidney revealed a low grade urothelial cell carcinoma. Radical graft nephroureterectomy was performed and histopathological diagnosis confirmed as a low grade urothelial carcinoma of graft pelvis and ureter lumen, which invaded to perirenal fat and renal parenchyma with lymphovascular presence (T3Nx). The patient started with adjuvant concurrent chemo-radiation therapy and returned to regular hemodialysis. We report a rare case of TCC in the pelvis of graft kidney with already advanced disease at diagnosis in a young KTR. For the early diagnosis of TCC in KTRs, exposure history to Chinese herb or analgesics should be investigated before KT and high risk population in KTRs should be tightly performed regular postoperative surveillance for TCC and considered of less calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppressant protocol.

  17. Bronchoscopic procedures and lung biopsies in pediatric lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jackson Y; Westall, Glen P; Snell, Gregory I

    2015-12-01

    Bronchoscopy remains a pivotal diagnostic and therapeutic intervention in pediatric patients undergoing lung transplantation (LTx). Whether performed as part of a surveillance protocol or if clinically indicated, fibre-optic bronchoscopy allows direct visualization of the transplanted allograft, and in particular, an assessment of the patency of the bronchial anastomosis (or tracheal anastomosis following heart-lung transplantation). Additionally, bronchoscopy facilitates differentiation of infective processes from rejection episodes through collection and subsequent assessment of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsy (TBBx) samples. Indeed, the diagnostic criteria for the grading of acute cellular rejection is dependent upon the histopathological assessment of biopsy samples collected at the time of bronchoscopy. Typically, performed in an out-patient setting, bronchoscopy is generally a safe procedure, although complications related to hemorrhage and pneumothorax are occasionally seen. Airway complications, including stenosis, malacia, and dehiscence are diagnosed at bronchoscopy, and subsequent management including balloon dilatation, laser therapy and stent insertion can also be performed bronchoscopically. Finally, bronchoscopy has been and continues to be an important research tool allowing a better understanding of the immuno-biology of the lung allograft through the collection and analysis of collected BAL and TBBx samples. Whilst new investigational tools continue to evolve, the simple visualization and collection of samples within the lung allograft by bronchoscopy remains the gold standard in the evaluation of the lung allograft. This review describes the use and experience of bronchoscopy following lung transplantation in the pediatric setting.

  18. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Transplant Recipients After Kidney Transplantation: A Single-center Experience.

    PubMed

    Illesy, L; Kovács, D Á; Szabó, R P; Asztalos, A B L; Nemes, B

    2017-09-01

    Kidney transplantation is indicated for end-stage renal disease. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) causes structural degeneration of the kidney and eventually becomes end-stage renal disease. ADPKD patients usually have several renal and nonrenal complications. We analyzed our kidney transplantation activities between 1991 and 2010 regarding ADPKD. We followed up with patients to December 31, 2016. Data were collected as patient and graft survival rates, the prevalence of polycystic manifestation of the gastrointestinal tract and other organs, and the attendance of urinary tract infection. Among the 734 kidney transplantations, 10.9% (n = 80) had an ADPKD. Four patients (5%) had diverticulum perforation. The prevalence of post-transplantation urinary tract infection was higher in ADPKD patients (55.9%) compared to non-ADPKD patients (44.1%). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates in ADPKD recipients versus non-ADPKD patients are 77.5%, 70.0%, and 67.5% versus 86.4%, 83.0%, and 80.1%, respectively. Patients with ADPKD were transplanted at an elder age compared to others (median: 47.5 years vs. 39.9 years). Female patients had longer graft survival times than males. ADPKD implies multiple cystic degeneration of the kidneys; however, it can cause structural degeneration in other organs. It is typical for ADPKD patients to have an acute abdominal-like syndrome. Immunosuppressive drugs can hide the clinical picture, which makes early diagnosis difficult. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. TRANSPLANTATION IN MASS OF THE KIDNEYS

    PubMed Central

    Carrel, Alexis

    1908-01-01

    Among so many etiological factors, it is impossible to discriminate which are responsible for the complications which took place in our experiments. An attempt to explain the occurrence of nephritis, cedema or calcification of the arterial system, for instance, will not be made, but the technique of the operations will be modified in order to suppress as much as possible the causes which may originate these secondary changes. The purpose of this article was not to analyze minutely the physiological or pathological character of the functions of transplanted kidneys, but merely to ascertain whether these functions are efficiently reëstablished. It is to be concluded that an animal which has undergone a double nephrectomy and the grafting of both kidneys from another animal can secrete almost normal urine with his new organs, and live in good health at least for a few weeks. This demonstrates that it is possible to reëstablish efficiently the functions of transplanted kidneys. PMID:19867126

  20. Advanced characterization of microscopic kidney biopsies utilizing image analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Goudas, Theodosios; Doukas, Charalampos; Chatziioannou, Aristotle; Maglogiannis, Ilias

    2012-01-01

    Correct annotation and identification of salient regions in Kidney biopsy images can provide an estimation of pathogenesis in obstructive nephropathy. This paper presents a tool for the automatic or manual segmentation of such regions along with methodology for their characterization in terms of the exhibited pathology. The proposed implementation is based on custom code written in Java and the utilization of open source tools (i.e. RapidMiner, ImageJ). The corresponding implementation details along with the initial evaluation of the proposed integrated system are also presented in the paper.

  1. Comparative safety and efficiency of five percutaneous kidney biopsy approaches of native kidneys: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Stanislas; Jourde, Noémie; Daniel, Laurent; Mondain, Jean-René; Faure, Magali; Gobert, Pierre; Alcheikh-Hassan, Zarih; Lankester, Michel; Giaime, Philippe; Gaudart, Jean; Dussol, Bertrand; Berland, Yvon; Burtey, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Renal biopsy (RB) is necessary for the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy guidance of native kidney diseases. Few studies have compared outcomes of RB procedures. We retrospectively compared the safety and efficiency of five biopsy procedures. The number of glomeruli on light microscopy (LM) and on immunofluorescence (IF) and serious adverse events following RB performed in five nephrology units (C1-C5) were collected. C1 performed ultrasound (US) assessment before RB and used a 14-gauge core-cutting needle biopsy gun, C2 US guidance and a 14-gauge needle, C3 tomodensitometry guidance and a 14-gauge needle, C4 US guidance and a 16-gauge needle, and C5 tomodensitometry guidance and a 16-gauge needle. RB was performed in 943 adults between January 2006 and July 2010. Serious adverse events occurred in 1.5% of biopsies. The complication rate was not different between nephrology units. The mean number of glomeruli on biopsy was 14.2 ± 8.6 with LM and 4.4 ± 3.3 on IF. It was different according to the nephrology unit for LM (p = 0.01) and for IF (p < 0.001). The number of failed biopsies was influenced by the nephrology unit and radiological guidance technique, favoring real-time US guidance. Failed biopsies using US or tomodensitometry assessment before RB was certainly due to kidney imprecise localization since it was often non-renal tissue sampling. At least 10 glomeruli were found in 69% of biopsies on LM. This rate varied according to the nephrology unit (p = 0.004) and was higher when 14-gauge needles were used in comparison with 16-gauge needles. RB is safe regardless of the technical procedure, but radiological guidance and needle size influence the efficiency of biopsies. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. 42 CFR 482.104 - Condition of participation: Additional requirements for kidney transplant centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for kidney transplant centers. 482.104 Section 482.104 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID....104 Condition of participation: Additional requirements for kidney transplant centers. (a) Standard: End stage renal disease (ESRD) services. Kidney transplant centers must directly...

  3. Diabetes mellitus after kidney transplantation in Japanese patients: The Japan Academic Consortium of Kidney Transplantation study.

    PubMed

    Okumi, Masayoshi; Unagami, Kohei; Hirai, Toshihito; Shimizu, Tomokazu; Ishida, Hideki; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2017-03-01

    To clarify the incidence rate of post-transplant diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors in Japanese kidney transplant recipients, and to explore which treatment components are most effective in reducing post-transplant diabetes mellitus. We analyzed 849 Japanese non-diabetic adult recipients who had undergone living kidney transplantation and had received tacrolimus-based immunosuppression from 1996 to 2013 with a median follow-up of 5 years. In all, 127 patients developed post-transplant diabetes mellitus during the follow-up period. The incidence rate of post-transplant diabetes mellitus was 15.1% (95% confidence interval 12.7-17.5) at 5 years. Recipient age (hazard ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.06, P < 0.001 for every 5-year increase), obesity (hazard ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.06-2.73, P = 0.028), tacrolimus trough level at 2 weeks post-transplantation (hazard ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.09, P < 0.001 for a 1-ng/mL increase) and mycophenolate mofetil use (hazard ratio 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.28-0.77, P = 0.003) were significant predictors of post-transplant diabetes mellitus. Estimated 5-year predicted incidence rate after adjusting for age and obesity was 9.4% for recipients with a low tacrolimus trough level, and receiving mycophenolate mofetil and 38.4% for recipients with a high tacrolimus trough level and not receiving mycophenolate mofetil. Post-transplant diabetes mellitus is a common complication in Japan, similar to that in other Western countries. The present results show that an appropriate immunosuppressive regimen with a combination of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil can reduce the likelihood of developing post-transplant diabetes mellitus. Clinical trials are required to confirm these findings. © 2016 The Japanese Urological Association.

  4. Acute oxalate nephropathy following kidney transplantation: Report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Diana; Gheissari, Alaleh; Shaabani, Pooria; Tabibian, Seyed Reza; Mortazavi, Mojgan; Seirafian, Shiva; Merrikhi, Alireza; Fesharakizadeh, Mehdi; Dolatkhah, Shahaboddin

    2015-01-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal deposition is a common finding immediately after kidney transplantation. However, small depositions of CaOx could be benign while extensive depositions lead to poor graft outcome. Here we report three cases with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), bilateral nephrolithiasis, and unknown diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria (PH) who underwent a renal transplant and experienced an early-onset graft failure. Although an acute rejection was suspected, renal allograft biopsies and subsequent allograft nephrectomies showed extensive CaOx deposition, which raised a suspicion of PH. Even though increased urinary excretion of CaOx was found in all patients, this diagnosis could be confirmed with further tests including genetic study and metabolic assay. In conclusion, massive CaOx deposition in kidney allograft is an important cause of poor allograft survival and needs special management. Furthermore, our cases suggest patients with ESRD and a history of nephrolithiasis should be screened for elevated urinary oxalate excretion and rule out of PH. PMID:26664431

  5. Acute Kidney Disease After Liver and Heart Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Ana P; Vella, John P

    2016-03-01

    After transplantation of nonrenal solid organs, an acute decline in kidney function develops in the majority of patients. In addition, a significant number of nonrenal solid organ transplant recipients develop chronic kidney disease, and some develop end-stage renal disease, requiring renal replacement therapy. The incidence varies depending on the transplanted organ. Acute kidney injury after nonrenal solid organ transplantation is associated with prolonged length of stay, cost, increased risk of death, de novo chronic kidney disease, and end-stage renal disease. This overview focuses on the risk factors for posttransplant acute kidney injury after liver and heart transplantation, integrating discussion of proteinuria and chronic kidney disease with emphasis on pathogenesis, histopathology, and management including the use of mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibition and costimulatory blockade.

  6. Renal Ultrasound, Dialysis Catheter Placement, and Kidney Biopsy Experience of US Nephrology Fellows.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Mala; Ross, Daniel W; Shah, Hitesh H

    2016-08-01

    Procedures are a key component to the practice of nephrology. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires nephrology fellows to acquire skills and demonstrate competency in the performance of several procedures during fellowship training, including temporary hemodialysis catheter placement, biopsy of native and transplanted kidneys, and various dialytic therapies. It is also required that fellows acquire competency in the interpretation of renal imaging, including renal ultrasound, during their training. To gain a more recent perspective of nephrology fellows' experiences regarding renal ultrasonography, dialysis catheter placement, and kidney biopsies, we carried out a national survey of nephrology fellows in May 2014. A majority of the programs did not offer formal clinical training in renal ultrasonography. In addition, a significant percentage of fellows in adult nephrology may not be acquiring the required procedural skills and competency during fellowship training. In this perspective, we explore some of the reasons for this occurrence and propose some measures that the nephrology training community can take to enhance procedural skills and competency of fellows. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Kidney transplantation in Ghana: Is the public ready?

    PubMed

    Boima, Vincent; Ganu, Vincent; Dey, Dzifa; Yorke, Ernest; Yawson, Alfred; Otchere, Yvonne; Nartey, Stella; Gyaban-Mensah, Anna; Lartey, Margaret; Mate-Kole, Charles C

    2017-10-01

    The burden of end stage renal disease (ESRD) is reported to be higher among people of African ancestry. The majority do not have access to kidney transplantation. Africans, in general, are less likely to donate a kidney or receive a transplant. This study surveyed public perceptions of kidney transplantation in an inner city and suburban communities in Ghana. It examined people's willingness to either accept or donate a kidney to save a life. In addition, it evaluated factors that influenced their opinion on the issue. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in five purposively selected communities in the Greater Accra region in Ghana. Structured questionnaires and standardized instruments were administered to assess participants' socio-demographic characteristics, religiosity and spirituality, and perception of kidney transplantation. Of the 480 participants, 233 (48.5%) were willing to donate a kidney; 71.6% would only do so after death. Religion, loss of body part, and cultural values influenced participants' willingness to donate a kidney. Uncertainty of health status post-transplantation and uneasiness with the concept of transplantation influenced the participants' willingness to accept a kidney transplant. The study revealed that almost half of the participants hold positive views toward kidney transplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Barriers to kidney transplants in Indonesia: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Bennett, P N; Hany, A

    2009-03-01

    People living with chronic kidney disease will require renal dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain life. Although Indonesia has a developing healthcare industry, Indonesia's kidney transplant rates are lower than comparable nations. To explore the healthcare literature to identify barriers to kidney transplants in particular in relation to Indonesia. Healthcare databases were searched (CINAHL, Medline, EBSCOhostEJS, Blackwell Synergy, Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar and Proquest 5000) using the search terms: transplant, kidney disease, renal, dialysis, haemodialysis, Indonesia and nursing. The search was limited to English and Indonesian language data sources from 1997 to 2007. Reference lists of salient academic articles were hand searched. The results of our search identified six articles that met our criteria. Costs are the major barrier to kidney transplant in Indonesia, followed by cultural beliefs, perception of the law, lack of information and lack of infrastructure. In addition, kidney disease prevention strategies are required. There are many complex socio-economic, geographical, legal, cultural and religious factors that contribute to low kidney transplant rates in Indonesia. Although an increase in transplantation rates will require strategies from various agencies, healthcare professionals, including nurses, can play a role in overcoming some barriers. Community education programmes, improving their own education levels and by increasing empowerment in nursing we may contribute to improved kidney transplant rates in Indonesia.

  9. Complement related kidney diseases: Recurrence after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Salvadori, Maurizio; Bertoni, Elisabetta

    2016-12-24

    The recurrence of renal disease after renal transplantation is becoming one of the main causes of graft loss after kidney transplantation. This principally concerns some of the original diseases as the atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), the membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), in particular the MPGN now called C3 glomerulopathy. Both this groups of renal diseases are characterized by congenital (genetic) or acquired (auto-antibodies) modifications of the alternative pathway of complement. These abnormalities often remain after transplantation because they are constitutional and poorly influenced by the immunosuppression. This fact justifies the high recurrence rate of these diseases. Early diagnosis of recurrence is essential for an optimal therapeutically approach, whenever possible. Patients affected by end stage renal disease due to C3 glomerulopathies or to atypical HUS, may be transplanted with extreme caution. Living donor donation from relatives is not recommended because members of the same family may be affected by the same gene mutation. Different therapeutically approaches have been attempted either for recurrence prevention and treatment. The most promising approach is represented by complement inhibitors. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody against C5 convertase is the most promising drug, even if to date is not known how long the therapy should be continued and which are the best dosing. These facts face the high costs of the treatment. Eculizumab resistant patients have been described. They could benefit by a C3 convertase inhibitor, but this class of drugs is by now the object of randomized controlled trials.

  10. Complement related kidney diseases: Recurrence after transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Salvadori, Maurizio; Bertoni, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    The recurrence of renal disease after renal transplantation is becoming one of the main causes of graft loss after kidney transplantation. This principally concerns some of the original diseases as the atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), the membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), in particular the MPGN now called C3 glomerulopathy. Both this groups of renal diseases are characterized by congenital (genetic) or acquired (auto-antibodies) modifications of the alternative pathway of complement. These abnormalities often remain after transplantation because they are constitutional and poorly influenced by the immunosuppression. This fact justifies the high recurrence rate of these diseases. Early diagnosis of recurrence is essential for an optimal therapeutically approach, whenever possible. Patients affected by end stage renal disease due to C3 glomerulopathies or to atypical HUS, may be transplanted with extreme caution. Living donor donation from relatives is not recommended because members of the same family may be affected by the same gene mutation. Different therapeutically approaches have been attempted either for recurrence prevention and treatment. The most promising approach is represented by complement inhibitors. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody against C5 convertase is the most promising drug, even if to date is not known how long the therapy should be continued and which are the best dosing. These facts face the high costs of the treatment. Eculizumab resistant patients have been described. They could benefit by a C3 convertase inhibitor, but this class of drugs is by now the object of randomized controlled trials. PMID:28058212

  11. [Renal transplantation without maintenance immunosuppression. Identical twins and kidney transplantation following a successful bone marrow graft].

    PubMed

    Hadi, Riad Abdel; Thomé, Gustavo Gomes; Ribeiro, Adriana Reginato; Manfro, Roberto Ceratti

    2015-01-01

    Renal transplantation without maintenance immunosuppression has been sporadically reported in the literature. The cases include non-adherent patients who discontinued their immunosuppressive medications, transplantation between identical twins, kidney transplantation after a successful bone marrow graft from the same donor and simultaneous bone marrow and kidney transplantation for the treatment of multiple myeloma with associated renal failure. There are also ongoing clinical trials designed to induce donor specific transplant tolerance with infusion of hematopoietic cells from the same kidney donor. Here we describe two cases of renal transplantation without immunosuppression as examples of situations described above.

  12. Kidney Transplantation for Kidney Failure Due to Multiple Myeloma: Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Le, Thuy X; Wolf, Jeffrey L; Peralta, Carmen A; Webber, Allison B

    2017-03-17

    Transplantation centers have historically considered a history of multiple myeloma as a contraindication to kidney transplantation due to high recurrence rates and poor transplant survival. However, there have been significant advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma, with improved patient survival, which may allow for successful kidney transplantation in these patients. We report on 4 patients who underwent kidney transplantation at our institution between 2009 and 2015 after having achieved a very good partial response or better with chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. All 4 patients received kidneys from living donors; 2 underwent induction therapy with basiliximab, and 2, with thymoglobulin. One patient had progression of myeloma, which responded well to therapy. All had functioning transplants at 1 year after kidney transplantation. No patients experienced a rejection episode or infections with BK polyomavirus or cytomegalovirus, with follow-up ranging from 16 to 58 months after kidney transplantation. Our experience suggests that kidney transplantation is feasible in a subset of patients with multiple myeloma. Future studies are necessary to compare outcomes in these patients with other high-risk patients undergoing kidney transplantation.

  13. Chronic diarrhea due to duodenal candidiasis in a patient with a history of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nouri-Majalan, Nader; Moghaddasi, Sarasadat; Qane, Mohammad Davud; Shefaie, Farzane; Masoumi Dehshiri, Roghayyeh; Amirbaigy, Mohammad Kassem; Baghbanian, Mahmoud

    2014-11-01

    Candida infection in the small intestine is uncommon. We report an unusual case of duodenal candidiasis that presented as chronic diarrhea in a patient who had previously undergone kidney transplantation. A 60-year-old man presented with profuse watery diarrhea that had lasted 6 months 13 years after kidney transplantation. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy results indicated candidiasis within the esophagus and duodenum. Biopsy results revealed active duodenitis with hyphal and yeast forms of Candida overlying the duodenal epithelium in periodic acid Schiff staining. The patient was successfully treated with fluconazole. After 6 months of follow-up, the patient had no complaint of diarrhea. Duodenal candidiasis may be the result of chronic diarrhea in patients with a history of kidney transplantation.

  14. Four-Way Kidney Exchange Transplant With Desensitization Increases Access to Living-Donor Kidney Transplant: First Report From India.

    PubMed

    Kute, Vivek B; Patel, Himanshu V; Shah, Pankaj R; Modi, Pranjal R; Shah, Veena R; Kasat, Govind S; Patil, Mayur V; Patel, Jaydeep C; Kumar, Deepak P; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2017-09-26

    This study reports our experience of the first 4-way kidney exchange transplant combined with desensitization in India, which allows increased access to living-donor kidney transplant for sensitized patients. Four-way kidney exchange transplant procedures were approved by the ethics committee of our institution and the Organ Transplantation Authorization Committee of state governments of India (as per the Transplantation of Human Organs Act of India). The protocols conformed to Declaration of Istanbul principles and the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Helsinki Declaration. Written informed consent was obtained from patients, donors, and their guardians. In April 2016, our transplant team completed simultaneous 4-way kidney exchange transplant procedures without any medical (rejection and infections) or surgical complications. Reasons for being included for kidney exchange transplant were ABO incom-patible (2 recipients) and sensitization (2 recipients). All 4 recipients had stable graft function with no proteinuria and donor-specific antibody at 11-month follow-up on standard triple immunosup-pression. Patient and graft survival rates were both 100%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first single-center report of 4-way kidney exchange transplant combined with desensitization from India. This procedure has the potential to expand living-donor kidney transplant in disadvantaged groups (eg, sensitized patients). Recipients who are hard to match due to high panel reactive antibody and difficult to desensitize due to strong donor-specific antibodies can receive a transplant with a combination of kidney exchange and desensitization. Our study suggests that 4-way kidney exchange transplant can be performed in developing countries (India) similar to that shown in programs in developed countries with team work, kidney exchange registry, and counseling.

  15. Excellent outcomes in combined liver-kidney transplantation: Impact of KDPI and delayed kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ekser, Burcin; Mangus, Richard S; Kubal, Chandrashekhar A; Powelson, John A; Fridell, Jonathan A; Goggins, William C

    2017-09-19

    The positive impact of delayed kidney transplantation (KT) on patient survival for combined liver-KT (CLKT) has already been demonstrated by our group. The purpose of this study is to identify whether the quality of the kidneys (based on KDPI) or the delayed approach KT contributes to improved patient survival. 130 CLKT were performed between 2002-2015; 69 with simultaneous KT (Group S) and 61 with delayed KT (Group D) (performed as a second operation with a mean cold ischemia time [CIT] of 50±15h). All patients were categorized according to the KDPI score; 1-33%, 34-66%, and 67-99%. Recipient and donor characteristics were comparable within Groups S and D. Transplant outcomes were comparable within Groups S and D, including liver and kidney CIT, warm ischemia time, and delayed graft function. Lower KDPI kidneys (<34%) were associated with increased patient survival in both groups. Combination of delayed KT and KDPI 1-33% resulted in 100% patient survival at 3-years. These results support that delayed KT in CLKT improves patient survival. The combination of delayed KT and low KDPI offers excellent patient survival up to 3-years. Improved outcomes in the delayed KT group including high KDPI kidneys supports expansion of the donor pool with the use of more ECD and DCD kidneys. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  16. Case mix, quality and high-cost kidney transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Englesbe, M J; Dimick, J B; Fan, Z; Baser, O; Birkmeyer, J D

    2009-05-01

    A better understanding of high-cost kidney transplant patients would be useful for informing value-based purchasing strategies by payers. This retrospective cohort study was based on the Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) files from 2003 to 2006. The focus of this analysis was high-cost kidney transplant patients (patients that qualified for Medicare outlier payments and 30-day readmission payments). Using regression techniques, we explored relationships between high-cost kidney transplant patients, center-specific case mix, and center quality. Among 43 393 kidney transplants in Medicare recipients, 35.2% were categorized as high-cost patients. These payments represented 20% of total Medicare payments for kidney transplantation and exceeded $200 million over the study period. Case mix was associated with these payments and was an important factor underlying variation in hospital payments high-cost patients. Hospital quality was also a strong determinant of future Medicare payments for high-cost patients. Compared to high-quality centers, low-quality centers cost Medicare an additional $1185 per kidney transplant. Payments for high-cost patients represent a significant proportion of the total costs of kidney transplant surgical care. Quality improvement may be an important strategy for reducing the costs of kidney transplantation.

  17. DNA damage in kidney transplant patients. Role of organ origin.

    PubMed

    Corredor, Zuray; Rodríguez-Ribera, Lara; Coll, Elisabet; Silva, Irene; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Ballarín, José; Marcos, Ricard; Pastor, Susana

    2017-08-19

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are characterized by elevated levels of genomic damage. This damage increases when kidney function decreases being maximum in hemodialysis patients. As kidney transplantation improves renal function, and it is related with better survival, the aim of our study was to evaluate potential changes in DNA damage levels after kidney transplantation, and comparing living donor recipients with cadaveric donor recipients. The alkaline comet assay was used to determine DNA breaks and oxidative damaged DNA; and the micronucleus assay was used to determine chromosomal breakage and/or aneuploidy. Fifty CKD patients were followed up after 6 and 12 months of their kidney transplantation. All patients increased their genomic damage levels after 6 and 12 months of renal transplantation, compared with those observed before transplantation, despite of the improvement of their metabolic functions. Donor advanced age correlated positively with higher DNA damage. Genomic damage was lower in living donor transplants with respect to cadaveric donor transplants. Our conclusion is that DNA damage increased in kidney transplantation patients, whereas their renal function improved. Higher levels of DNA damage were found in cadaveric donor transplants when compared to living donor transplants. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Angiosarcoma Developing in an Arteriovenous Fistula after Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Constantino Fernández; Rodríguez, Maria Calvo; Romero, Teresa Hermida; Muñiz, Andrés López; Hermida, Tamara Ferreiro; Lista, Felipe Sacristán; Díaz, Pilar Iglesias; Hernández, Ángel Alonso

    2017-01-01

    After transplantation, the main concerns involve immunosuppression, the prevention and treatment of infections and graft rejection, and tumor prevention. Sometimes the complications that may appear in the arteriovenous fistula are neglected following kidney transplantation. This is the reason why we are presenting the case of an angiosarcoma developing in an arteriovenous fistula after kidney transplantation. It is a very rare case and our goal is to create an alarm so that after kidney transplantation clinicians do not lose sight of the patients' previous history. PMID:28845318

  19. Angiosarcoma Developing in an Arteriovenous Fistula after Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Costa, Bruna Natacha Leite; Rivera, Constantino Fernández; Rodríguez, Maria Calvo; Romero, Teresa Hermida; Muñiz, Andrés López; Hermida, Tamara Ferreiro; Lista, Felipe Sacristán; Díaz, Pilar Iglesias; Hernández, Ángel Alonso

    2017-01-01

    After transplantation, the main concerns involve immunosuppression, the prevention and treatment of infections and graft rejection, and tumor prevention. Sometimes the complications that may appear in the arteriovenous fistula are neglected following kidney transplantation. This is the reason why we are presenting the case of an angiosarcoma developing in an arteriovenous fistula after kidney transplantation. It is a very rare case and our goal is to create an alarm so that after kidney transplantation clinicians do not lose sight of the patients' previous history.

  20. Dual kidney transplant techniques: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cocco, Annelise; Shahrestani, Sara; Cocco, Nicholas; Hameed, Ahmer; Yuen, Lawrence; Ryan, Brendan; Hawthorne, Wayne; Lam, Vincent; Pleass, Henry

    2017-08-01

    Dual kidney transplantation (DKT) was developed to improve outcomes from transplantation of extended criteria donors (ECD). This study examined which surgical techniques have been reported for DKT and whether any technique had superior patient and graft survival. Electronic databases were searched for published studies mapping to MESH terms: "kidney or renal" AND "transplan*" AND "dual or double." Single case reports, studies of patients less than 18 years old, studies which did not describe the surgical technique, and studies that did not report patient or graft survival were excluded. Fifteen reports of 434 DKT recipients were identified. Three techniques were described: bilateral placement; unilateral placement with separate anastomoses; and unilateral placement with patch anastomoses. Patient survival across all three techniques was over 95% at 1 year, and graft survival was also similar at over 90%. Rates of delayed graft function were between 20% and 30% across all techniques. The three techniques have equivalent delayed graft function as well as patient and graft survival rates. This is an encouraging result as it means that the surgeon can choose to use the technique which is most appropriate for their own skills and for the patient. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Protocol of the KTFT-TALK study to reduce racial disparities in kidney transplant evaluation and living donor kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bornemann, Kellee; Croswell, Emilee; Abaye, Menna; Bryce, Cindy L; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Good, Deborah S; Freehling Heiles, Cathleen A; Dew, Mary Amanda; Boulware, L Ebony; Tevar, Amit D; Myaskovsky, Larissa

    2017-02-01

    Living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) is the optimal treatment for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The evaluation process for a kidney transplant is complex, time consuming, and burdensome to the ESKD patient. Also, race disparities exist in rates of transplant evaluation completion, transplantation, and LDKT. In December 2012 our transplant center implemented a streamlined, one-day evaluation process, dubbed Kidney Transplant Fast Track (KTFT). This paper describes the protocol of a two-part study to evaluate the effectiveness of KTFT at increasing transplant rates (compared to historical controls) and the TALK intervention (Talking About Live Kidney Donation) at increasing LDKT during KTFT. All participants will receive the KTFT evaluation as part of their usual care. Participants will be randomly assigned to TALK versus no-TALK conditions. Patients will undergo interviews at pre-transplant work-up and transplant evaluation. Transplant status will be tracked via medical records. Our aims are to: (1) test the efficacy and cost effectiveness of the KTFT in reducing time to complete kidney transplant evaluation, and increasing kidney transplant rates relative to standard evaluation practices; (2) test whether TALK increases rates of LDKT during KTFT; and (3) determine whether engaging in a streamlined and coordinated-care evaluation experience within the transplant center reduces negative perceptions of the healthcare system. The results of this two-pronged approach will help pave the way for other transplant centers to implement a fast-track system at their sites, improve quality of care by transplanting a larger number of vulnerable patients, and address stark race/ethnic disparities in rates of LDKT.

  2. Similar results with solitary pancreas transplantation compared with simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Stratta, R J; Farney, A C; Orlando, G; Farooq, U; Al-Shraideh, Y; Rogers, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze our single-center outcomes according to pancreas transplant (PT) category in the new millennium by using standardized management protocols. We retrospectively studied 202 consecutive PTs (179 with portal-enteric drainage) in 192 patients; all received either rabbit antithymocyte globulin or alemtuzumab induction in combination with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and tapered corticosteroids or early steroid withdrawal. Unlike simultaneous pancreas/kidney (SPK) transplant, solitary PT (SPT) recipients were managed with routine perioperative anticoagulation and surveillance pancreas biopsies. From November 2001 to March 2013, we performed 162 SPK transplants, 35 pancreas after kidney transplants, and 5 pancreas-alone transplants (40 SPTs). Demographic characteristics were mostly comparable; however, the SPT group had younger donors, shorter waiting time, fewer HLA mismatches, and fewer African-American recipients but more retransplants (all, P < .05). With a mean follow-up of 5.5 versus 7.5 years, overall patient (86.4% SPK vs 86.8% SPT), kidney graft (74% SPK vs 80% SPT), and pancreas graft (both 65%) survival rates were comparable. Although mortality rates were similar, mortality patterns differed because no SPT recipients died early, whereas the 1-, 3-, and 5-year mortality rates after SPK transplant were 4%, 9% and 12%, respectively (P < .05). The most common causes of pancreas graft loss were death with functioning grafts in SPK recipients and acute/chronic rejection in SPT recipients. Rates of early thrombosis were 8.6% in SPK patients and 5% in SPT patients. Cumulative clinical acute rejection rates were similar between groups (SPK 29% vs SPT 27.5%; P = NS). In the setting of depleting antibody induction and tacrolimus-based therapy, HLA matching, careful donor and recipient selection, portal-enteric drainage, selective perioperative anticoagulation, and surveillance SPT biopsy monitoring, similar medium

  3. Bilateral native nephrectomy for refractory hypertension in kidney transplant and kidney pancreas transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Mark J.; Hinton, Sandra; Aronoff, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is common in renal transplant patients and sometimes very difficult to control. Refractory hypertension can adversely affect renal graft and patient survival. Many antihypertensive medications are not well tolerated or can have important drug interactions with immunosuppressive medications. These drugs can cause significant side effects including fluid depletion, azotemia, electrolyte imbalance, and anemia. Bilateral native nephrectomy in renal transplant patients has been reported to be beneficial in controlling severe hypertension. We report five patients with severe hypertension despite as many as 9 different antihypertensive medications. All patients had previous kidney or simultaneous kidney pancreas transplantation. Each of our patients underwent laparoscopic bilateral native nephrectomy. Renal function varied from creatinine of 1.4–2.4, and the number of antihypertensive medications from 3 to 9 at the time of nephrectomy surgery. Mean arterial blood pressure improved in all five patients at 3–6 months post nephrectomy, the number of antihypertensive medications decreased in 4, but renal function remained stable at 3–6 months in only 3 patients. We found laparoscopic bilateral native nephrectomy to be beneficial in renal and simultaneous kidney pancreas transplant patients with severe and refractory hypertension. Our patients with better baseline renal allograft function at time of nephrectomy received the most benefit. No decrease in allograft function could be attributed to acute rejection. PMID:26348394

  4. Fish oil for kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Lim, Andy K H; Manley, Karen J; Roberts, Matthew A; Fraenkel, Margaret B

    2016-08-18

    Calcineurin inhibitors used in kidney transplantation for immunosuppression have adverse effects that may contribute to nephrotoxicity and increased cardiovascular risk profile. Fish oils are rich in very long chain omega-3 fatty acids, which may reduce nephrotoxicity by improving endothelial function and reduce rejection rates through their immuno-modulatory effects. They may also modify the cardiovascular risk profile. Hence, fish oils may potentially prolong graft survival and reduce cardiovascular mortality. This review aimed to look at the benefits and harms of fish oil treatment in ameliorating the kidney and cardiovascular adverse effects of CNI-based immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplant recipients. We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register (up to 17 March 2016) through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of fish oils in kidney transplant recipients on a calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppressive regimen. RCTs of fish oil versus statins were included. Data was extracted and the quality of studies assessed by two authors, with differences resolved by discussion with a third independent author. Dichotomous outcomes were reported as risk ratio (RR) and continuous outcome measures were reported as the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals using the random effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using a Chi(2) test on n-1 degrees of freedom and the I(2) statistic. Data not suitable for pooling were tabulated and described. Fifteen studies (733 patients) were suitable for analysis. All studies were small and had variable methodology. Fish oil did not significantly affect patient or graft survival, acute rejection rates, or calcineurin inhibitor toxicity when compared to placebo. Overall SCr was significantly lower in the fish oil group compared to placebo (5 studies, 237 participants: MD -30.63 µmol/L, 95% CI

  5. The Kidney as a Reservoir for HIV-1 after Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Avettand-Fenoël, Véronique; Viard, Jean-Paul; Anglicheau, Dany; Bienaimé, Frank; Muorah, Mordi; Galmiche, Louise; Gribouval, Olivier; Noël, Laure-Helene; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Martinez, Frank; Sberro-Soussan, Rebecca; Scemla, Anne; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Friedlander, Gérard; Antignac, Corinne; Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Onetti Muda, Andrea; Terzi, Fabiola; Rouzioux, Christine; Legendre, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Since the recent publication of data showing favorable outcomes for patients with HIV-1 and ESRD, kidney transplantation has become a therapeutic option in this population. However, reports have documented unexplained reduced allograft survival in these patients. We hypothesized that the unrecognized infection of the transplanted kidney by HIV-1 can compromise long-term allograft function. Using electron microscopy and molecular biology, we examined protocol renal transplant biopsies from 19 recipients with HIV-1 who did not have detectable levels of plasma HIV-1 RNA at transplantation. We found that HIV-1 infected the kidney allograft in 68% of these patients. Notably, HIV-1 infection was detected in either podocytes predominately (38% of recipients) or tubular cells only (62% of recipients). Podocyte infection associated with podocyte apoptosis and loss of differentiation markers as well as a faster decline in allograft function compared with tubular cell infection. In allografts with tubular cell infection, epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubules frequently contained abnormal mitochondria, and both patients who developed features of subclinical acute cellular rejection had allografts with tubular cell infection. Finally, we provide a novel noninvasive test for determining HIV-1 infection of the kidney allograft by measuring HIV-1 DNA and RNA levels in patients’ urine. In conclusion, HIV-1 can infect kidney allografts after transplantation despite undetectable viremia, and this infection might influence graft outcome. PMID:24309185

  6. The kidney as a reservoir for HIV-1 after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Canaud, Guillaume; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Avettand-Fenoël, Véronique; Viard, Jean-Paul; Anglicheau, Dany; Bienaimé, Frank; Muorah, Mordi; Galmiche, Louise; Gribouval, Olivier; Noël, Laure-Helene; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Martinez, Frank; Sberro-Soussan, Rebecca; Scemla, Anne; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Friedlander, Gérard; Antignac, Corinne; Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Onetti Muda, Andrea; Terzi, Fabiola; Rouzioux, Christine; Legendre, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    Since the recent publication of data showing favorable outcomes for patients with HIV-1 and ESRD, kidney transplantation has become a therapeutic option in this population. However, reports have documented unexplained reduced allograft survival in these patients. We hypothesized that the unrecognized infection of the transplanted kidney by HIV-1 can compromise long-term allograft function. Using electron microscopy and molecular biology, we examined protocol renal transplant biopsies from 19 recipients with HIV-1 who did not have detectable levels of plasma HIV-1 RNA at transplantation. We found that HIV-1 infected the kidney allograft in 68% of these patients. Notably, HIV-1 infection was detected in either podocytes predominately (38% of recipients) or tubular cells only (62% of recipients). Podocyte infection associated with podocyte apoptosis and loss of differentiation markers as well as a faster decline in allograft function compared with tubular cell infection. In allografts with tubular cell infection, epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubules frequently contained abnormal mitochondria, and both patients who developed features of subclinical acute cellular rejection had allografts with tubular cell infection. Finally, we provide a novel noninvasive test for determining HIV-1 infection of the kidney allograft by measuring HIV-1 DNA and RNA levels in patients' urine. In conclusion, HIV-1 can infect kidney allografts after transplantation despite undetectable viremia, and this infection might influence graft outcome.

  7. AB32. Sexuality after kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for persons with ESRD, and in general, KTx recipients have increased survival rates and enjoy overall better QOL than those on dialysis However, one thing of QOL that does not seem to improve post-transplant is sexuality. In fact, one study found that sexuality was the only aspect of QOL that did not improve after transplantation. Roughly, 50% of males and at least the same percent of females. Sexuality is important to QOL and is considered a basic human right and an important component of general health by WHO. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life. Encompassing Related causes, difficulties with sexuality and sexual functioning are most likely a result of both psychological and physiological factors, side effects of required medications, weight gain, hirsutism, and loss of sexually attractive following KTx, post-transplant complications and/or comorbid conditions. Hypertension and depression require medications. Almost all transplant recipients have or will eventually develop one or more comorbid conditions (diabetes) or experience side effects from treatments (pretransplant dialysis) or medications that can have a negative effect on their sexuality or sexual functioning Publications The first studies that examined sexuality among persons with ESRD were done in the 1970s. Retrospectively compare their sexual functioning levels. One of the largest of these early studies, conducted by Levy, was a nationwide survey of 519 persons belonging to the National Association of Patients on Hemodialysis and Transplantation. Three sexual functioning questions. There are 48% of men and 26% of women reported the development of or worsening of a sexual dysfunction as their ESRD progressed. And 35% of males and 25% of females reported a worsening of sexual function at the start of HD. 59% of all male HD patients and 43% of all male KTx recipients considered themselves to be partially or totally

  8. Donor-associated malignancy in kidney transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Cai-Bin; Gerber, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer cells with donor genotype have been identified in allogeneic transplant patients; however, the donor contribution to the recipient’s epithelial malignancy remains to be established. In this issue of the JCI, Verneuil et al. provide the first evidence for donor contribution to the malignant epithelium of skin squamous cell carcinoma in a kidney transplant recipient. This case report may have important implications for cancer research and clinical care of long-surviving kidney transplant patients. PMID:23979157

  9. Assessment of allograft function using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in kidney transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Anupma; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Lal, Hira; Yadav, Abhishek; Bhadhuria, Dharmendra; Prasad, Narayan; Gupta, Amit

    2014-11-01

    Developing a non-invasive method such as diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI) could be used as a feasible and reproducible modality in the differential diagnosis of allograft dysfunction. We assessed the functional status of the renal allograft by DWMRI and its applicability in assessment of graft dysfunction on all end-stage renal transplant patients who attained normal renal function on the 7th day post-transplantation. Follow-up imaging of the recipient allograft was performed at the end of 90 and 180 days and in case of graft dysfunction. Kidney biopsies were performed to correlate with the corresponding MRI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps of the cortex and medulla were obtained by studying the DWMRI. The ADC values were significantly lower in the medulla compared with the cortex in normal donor kidneys and normally functioning transplanted kidneys, while they decreased significantly when rejection occurred. The reduction in ADC values occurred both in the cortex and in the medulla, and correlated with the degree of rejection on the kidney biopsies. The ADC values increased significantly during the recovery from rejection. We conclude that DWMRI can be beneficial in the diagnosis and follow-up of transplant patients during acute rejection.

  10. In patients with type 1 diabetes simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation preserves long-term kidney graft ultrastructure and function better than transplantation of kidney alone.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Jørn P; Reinholt, Finn P; Eide, Ivar A; Hartmann, Anders; Midtvedt, Karsten; Holdaas, Hallvard; Dorg, Linda T; Reine, Trine M; Kolset, Svein O; Horneland, Rune; Øyen, Ole; Brabrand, Knut; Jenssen, Trond

    2014-11-01

    In patients with type 1 diabetes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) we aimed to determine whether long-term normoglycaemia, as achieved by successful simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplantation, would preserve kidney graft structure and function better than live donor kidney (LDK) transplantation alone. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was calculated in SPK (n = 25) and LDK (n = 17) recipients in a stable phase 3 months after transplantation and annually during follow-up. Kidney graft biopsies were obtained at follow-up for measurement of glomerular volume (light microscopy), glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and podocyte foot process widths and mesangial volume fraction (electron microscopy). SPK and LDK recipients were similar in age and diabetes duration at engraftment. Donor age was higher in the LDK group. Median follow-up time was 10.1 years. Mean HbA1c levels during follow-up were 5.5 ± 0.4% (37 ± 5 mmol/mol) and 8.3 ± 1.5% (68 ± 16 mmol/mol) in the SPK and LDK group, respectively (p < 0.001). Compared with SPK recipients, LDK recipients had wider GBM (369 ± 109 nm vs 281 ± 57 nm; p = 0.008) and increased mesangial volume fraction (median 0.23 [range 0.13-0.59] vs 0.16 [0.10-0.41]; p = 0.007) at follow-up. Absolute eGFR change from baseline was -11 ± 21 and -23 ± 15 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) (p = 0.060), whereas eGFR slope was -1.1 (95% CI -1.7, -0.5) and -2.6 (95% CI -3.1, -2.1) ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) per year in the SPK and LDK group, respectively (p = 0.001). In patients with type 1 diabetes and long-term normoglycaemia after successful SPK transplantation, kidney graft ultrastructure and function were better preserved compared with LDK transplantation alone.

  11. [Towards the development of living donor kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Macher, Marie-Alice

    2016-12-01

    Living donor kidney transplantation has been increasing since 2008. Living donors represent a significant potential for organ transplants, in a context where the needs outstrip the availability of organs from deceased donors. However, patients are still poorly informed regarding the conditions in which these transplants are possible.

  12. Causes of failure to harvest cadaver kidneys for transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, A M

    1976-01-01

    Fifty-two possible donors of cadaver kidneys were referred to the Nuffield Transplantation Surgery Unit, Edinburgh, in 12 months. Only 12 (23%) yielded kidneys, while a further 12 were medically unsuitable as donors. Refusal by relatives to allow cadaver nephrectomy was the largest avoidable loss of potentially transplantable kidneys. A similar but unavoidable loss occurred through sudden death of the possible donor. PMID:769904

  13. Decreased chronic cellular and antibody-mediated injury in the kidney following simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Taner, Timucin; Heimbach, Julie K; Rosen, Charles B; Nyberg, Scott L; Park, Walter D; Stegall, Mark D

    2016-04-01

    In simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation (SLK), the liver can protect the kidney from hyperacute rejection and may also decrease acute cellular rejection rates. Whether the liver protects against chronic injury is unknown. To answer this we studied renal allograft surveillance biopsies in 68 consecutive SLK recipients (14 with donor-specific alloantibodies at transplantation [DSA+], 54 with low or no DSA, [DSA-]). These were compared with biopsies of a matched cohort of kidney transplant alone (KTA) recipients (28 DSA+, 108 DSA-). Overall 5-year patient and graft survival was not different: 93.8% and 91.2% in SLK, and 91.9% and 77.1% in KTA. In DSA+ recipients, KTA had a significantly higher incidence of acute antibody-mediated rejection (46.4% vs. 7.1%) and chronic transplant glomerulopathy (53.6% vs. 0%). In DSA- recipients at 5 years, KTA had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of T cell-mediated rejection (clinical plus subclinical, 30.6% vs. 7.4%). By 5 years, DSA+ KTA had a 44% decline in mean GFR while DSA+SLK had stable GFR. In DSA- KTA, the incidence of a combined endpoint of renal allograft loss or over a 50% decline in GFR was significantly higher (20.4% vs. 7.4%). Simultaneously transplanted liver allograft was the most predictive factor for a significantly lower incidence of cellular (odds ratio 0.13, 95% confidence interval 0.06-0.27) and antibody-mediated injury (odds ratio 0.11, confidence interval 0.03-0.32), as well as graft functional decline (odds ratio 0.22, confidence interval 0.06-0.59). Thus, SLK is associated with reduced chronic cellular and antibody-mediated alloimmune injury in the kidney allograft.

  14. Early post-transplant complications following ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Naciri Bennani, Hamza; Abdulrahman, Zhyiar; Allal, Asma; Sallusto, Federico; Delarche, Antoine; Game, Xavier; Esposito, Laure; Doumerc, Nicolas; Debiol, Bénédicte; Kamar, Nassim; Rostaing, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Living-kidney transplantation is increasing because of the scarcity of kidneys from deceased donors and the increasing numbers of patients on waiting lists for a kidney transplant. Living-kidney transplantation is now associated with increased long-term patient- and allograft-survival rates. Objectives: The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify, in a cohort of 44 ABO-incompatible (ABOi) live-kidney transplant patients, the main complications that occurred within 6 months post-transplantation, and to compare these findings with those from 44 matched ABO-compatible (ABOc) live-kidney transplant patients who were also from our center. Patients and Methods: This single-center retrospective study assessed post-transplantation complications in 44 ABO-i versus 44 matched ABO-c patients. All patients were comparable at baseline except that ABO-i patients had greater immunological risks. Results: During the 6-month post-transplant period, more ABO-i patients presented with postoperative bleeds, thus requiring significantly more blood transfusions. Bleeds were associated with significantly lower values of fibrinogen, platelets, prothrombin time, and hemoglobin levels. Surgical complications, patient- and graft-survival rates, and kidney-function statuses were similar between both groups at 6 months post-transplantation. Conclusions: We conclude that impairment of hemostatic factors at pre-transplant explained the increased risk of a post-transplant bleed in ABO-i patients. PMID:27047806

  15. Regulatory T cells in kidney disease and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Wang, Yuan Min; Wang, Yiping; Zhang, Geoff Y; Zheng, Guoping; Yi, Shounan; O'Connell, Philip J; Harris, David C H; Alexander, Stephen I

    2016-09-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to be important in maintaining immune homeostasis and preventing autoimmune disease, including autoimmune kidney disease. It is also likely that they play a role in limiting kidney transplant rejection and potentially in promoting transplant tolerance. Although other subsets of Tregs exist, the most potent and well-defined Tregs are the Foxp3 expressing CD4(+) Tregs derived from the thymus or generated peripherally. These CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs limit autoimmune renal disease in animal models, especially chronic kidney disease, and kidney transplantation. Furthermore, other subsets of Tregs, including CD8 Tregs, may play a role in immunosuppression in kidney disease. The development and protective mechanisms of Tregs in kidney disease and kidney transplantation involve multiple mechanisms of suppression. Here we review the development and function of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs. We discuss the specific application of Tregs as a therapeutic strategy to prevent kidney disease and to limit kidney transplant rejection and detail clinical trials in this area of transplantation.

  16. Pro: urine proteomics as a liquid kidney biopsy: no more kidney punctures!

    PubMed

    Mischak, Harald

    2015-04-01

    In this article, the benefits of urinary proteomics in comparison with kidney biopsy are discussed. The majority of urinary proteins are generated by the kidney, hence the urinary proteome holds substantial information on the kidney, and assessment of the urinary proteome could be considered a 'liquid biopsy'. The main question is how well the information contained in the urinary proteome can be assessed today, if it is ready to be routinely used, and what are the advantages and possible disadvantages in comparison with current standards. Since chronic kidney disease (CKD) is by far the largest area in nephrology based on the number of patients affected, the focus of this article is on CKD. Substantial progress was made in the last decade in urinary proteomics, and today we have comparable urinary proteome datasets of tens of thousands of subjects available. Clinical proteomics studies in CKD including close to, or even exceeding, 1000 subjects have recently been published, demonstrating a benefit over the current state-of-the-art in diagnosis and especially prognosis. The first large multicentric randomized controlled intervention trial aiming at preventing CKD by employing urinary proteomics-guided intervention has been initiated recently. These data provide ample evidence for the utility and value of urinary proteomics in nephrology. A further consideration is that the purpose of the biopsy, be it 'liquid' or 'solid', is to guide intervention. However, essentially all drug targets are proteins, not microscopic structures. Therefore, obtaining information on the proteome to guide intervention appears to be the most appropriate approach. Presenting more detailed evidence, I argue that urinary proteome analysis can, in most cases, be employed to guide therapeutic intervention, can be repeated multiple times as it is without any direct risk or discomfort and can be considered as a liquid biopsy.

  17. A new method of kidney biopsy using low dose CT-guidance with coaxial trocar and bard biopsy gun.

    PubMed

    Pi, Xiao-Ling; Tang, Zhen; Fu, Li-Qian; Guo, Mei-Hua; Shi, Mei-Hua; Chen, Lan; Wan, Zheng-Ying

    2013-01-07

    To explore a new method of kidney biopsy with coaxial trocar and bard biopsy gun under low dose computed tomography (CT)-guidance and evaluate its accuracy, safety, and efficacy. Sixty patients underwent renal biopsy under CT-guidance. They were randomly divided into two groups: group I, low dose CT-guided (120 kV and 25 or 50 mAs) and group II, standard dose CT-guided (120 kV and 250 mAs). For group I, the coaxial trocar was accurately placed adjacent to the renal capsule of the lower pole, the needle core was removed, and samples were obtained with a bard biopsy gun. For group II, the coaxial trocar was not used. Total number of passes, mean biopsy diameter, mean glomeruli per specimen, mean operation time, mean scanning time, and mean radiation dose were noted. Dose-length product (DLP) was used to calculate the radiation doses. After 24 hours of the biopsy, ultrasound was repeated to identify any subcapsular hematoma. Success rate of biopsy in group I was 100% while using low dose CT-guidance along with coaxial trocar renal. There was no statistic differences bewteen group I and II in the total number of passes, mean biopsy diameter, mean glomeruli per specimen and mean time of operation and CT scanning. The average DLP of group I was lower as compared to the value of group II (p <0.05). Kidney biopsy using coaxial trocar and bard biopsy gun under low dose CT was an accurate, simple and safe method for diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases. It can be used for repeat and multiple biopsies, particularly suitable for obese and renal atrophy patients in whom the kidneys are difficult to image.

  18. Combined liver-kidney transplantation in a child with primary hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Polinsky, M S; Dunn, S; Kaiser, B A; Schulman, S L; Wolfson, B J; Elfenbein, I B; Baluarte, H J

    1991-05-01

    A 3.5-year-old boy presented with end-stage renal disease and bilateral nephrocalcinosis. Renal biopsy demonstrated marked parenchymal calcium oxalate deposition and a diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria (PH) was made. Following 2 years of hemodialysis he received two renal allografts which were lost at 7 and 11 months, respectively, due to biopsy-proven recurrent oxalosis. Combined liver-kidney transplantation was then performed, after which renal and hepatic function initially stabilized. The patient died on the 28th postoperative day, of infectious complications and progressive respiratory insufficiency. However, comparisons between the patterns of urinary oxalate excretion noted after the isolated renal and liver-kidney transplants indicated that, following the latter, successful biochemical correction of the enzyme defect responsible for type 1 PH had occurred.

  19. [The diagnosis of hypertension (research on kidney biopsies and microalbuminuria].

    PubMed

    Arabidze, G G; Sokolova, R I; Titov, V N; Tarasov, A V

    1989-01-01

    Patients with essential hypertension, hypertonic glomerulonephritis and Conn's syndrome were examined for excretion of albumin, immunoglobulin G and beta 2-microglobulin. The results obtained were correlated with pathological changes in liver parenchyma according to biopsies withdrawn from the patients. Essential hypertension running a benign course was not characterized by pronounced changes in excretion of the above proteins. Injury to the glomerular apparatus of the kidneys in glomerulonephritis was attended by considerable rise of albumin and immunoglobulin excretion whereas injury to the tubular structures by the increase of beta 2-microglobulin excretion. It is suggested that analysis of microalbuminuria can be used in the differential diagnosis of arterial hypertension running its course in association with the minor urinary syndrome.

  20. Changes in Frailty After Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A.; Isaacs, Kyra; Darko, Louisa; Salter, Megan L.; Gupta, Natasha; King, Elizabeth A.; Walston, Jeremy; Segev, Dorry L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To understand the natural history of frailty after an aggressive surgical intervention, kidney transplantation (KT). DESIGN Prospective cohort study (December 2008–March 2014). SETTING Baltimore, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS Kidney transplantation recipients (N = 349). MEASUREMENTS The Fried frailty score was measured at the time of KT and during routine clinical follow-up. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, factors associated with improvements in frailty score after KT were identified. Using a longitudinal analysis, predictors of frailty score changes after KT were identified using a multilevel mixed-effects Poisson model. RESULTS At KT, 19.8% of recipients were frail; 1 month after KT, 33.3% were frail; at 2 months, 27.7% were frail; and at 3 months, 17.2% were frail. On average, frailty scores had worsened by 1 month (mean change 0.4, P < .001), returned to baseline by 2 months (mean change 0.2, P = .07), and improved by 3 months (mean change −0.3, P = .04) after KT. The only recipient or transplant factor associated with improvement in frailty score after KT was pre-KT frailty (hazard ratio = 2.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.71–3.82, P < .001). Pre-KT frailty status (relative risk (RR) = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.29–1.72, P < .001), recipient diabetes mellitus (RR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.08–1.46, P = .003), and delayed graft function (RR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.04–1.43, P = .02) were independently associated with long-term changes in frailty score. CONCLUSION After KT, in adult recipients of all ages, frailty initially worsens but then improves by 3 months. Although KT recipients who were frail at KT had higher frailty scores over the long term, they were most likely to show improvements in their physiological reserve after KT, supporting the transplantation in these individuals and suggesting that pretransplant frailty is not an irreversible state of low physiological reserve. PMID:26416770

  1. [Color-Doppler semiology in transplanted kidney].

    PubMed

    Rivolta, R; Castagnone, D; Burdick, L; Mandelli, C; Mangiarotti, R

    1993-05-01

    Color-encoded duplex ultrasonography (CEDU) makes a more accurate technique in kidney graft monitoring by combining real-time US with pulsed Doppler studies of renal vasculature. It is a non-invasive and easy technique. Suitable to study the whole renal artery and vein, CEDU also allows the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the intrarenal vasculature and therefore the easy diagnosis of such vessel dysfunctions as arteriovenous fistulas following biopsy. Moreover, Doppler spectral analysis can be used to distinguish among different causes of renal allograft dysfunction--i.e. rejection, cyclosporine nephrotoxicity or acute tubular necrosis. The value of the resistive index for the differential diagnosis is discussed. CEDU allows a more reliable measurement of renal blood flow thanks to the more precise evaluation of renal artery diameter and mean flow velocity.

  2. Histopathological analysis of infiltrating T cell subsets in acute T cell-mediated rejection in the kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Salcido-Ochoa, Francisco; Hue, Susan Swee-Shan; Peng, Siyu; Fan, Zhaoxiang; Li, Reiko Lixiang; Iqbal, Jabed; Allen, John Carson; Loh, Alwin Hwai Liang

    2017-08-24

    To compare the differential immune T cell subset composition in patients with acute T cell-mediated rejection in the kidney transplant with subset composition in the absence of rejection, and to explore the association of their respective immune profiles with kidney transplant outcomes. A pilot cross-sectional histopathological analysis of the immune infiltrate was performed using immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 14 patients with acute T cell-mediated rejection in the kidney transplant and 7 kidney transplant patients with no rejection subjected to biopsy to investigate acute kidney transplant dysfunction. All patients were recruited consecutively from 2012 to 2014 at the Singapore General Hospital. Association of the immune infiltrates with kidney transplant outcomes at up to 54 mo of follow up was also explored prospectively. In comparison to the absence of rejection, acute T cell-mediated rejection in the kidney transplant was characterised by numerical dominance of cytotoxic T lymphocytes over Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells, but did not reach statistical significance owing to the small sample size in our pilot study. There was no obvious difference in absolute numbers of infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes, Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and Th17 cells between the two patient groups when quantified separately. Our exploratory analysis on associations of T cell subset quantifications with kidney transplant outcomes revealed that the degree of Th17 cell infiltration was significantly associated with shorter time to doubling of creatinine and shorter time to transplant loss. Although this was a small pilot study, results support our suspicion that in kidney transplant patients the immune balance in acute T cell-mediated rejection is tilted towards the pro-rejection forces and prompt larger and more sophisticated studies.

  3. Commercial kidney transplantation is an important risk factor in long-term kidney allograft survival.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G V Ramesh; Ananth, Sailesh; Palepu, Sneha; Huang, Michael; Nash, Michelle M; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S

    2016-05-01

    Transplant tourism, a form of transplant commercialization, has resulted in serious short-term adverse outcomes that explain reduced short-term kidney allograft survival. However, the nature of longer-term outcomes in commercial kidney transplant recipients is less clear. To study this further, we identified 69 Canadian commercial transplant recipients of 72 kidney allografts transplanted during 1998 to 2013 who reported to our transplant center for follow-up care. Their outcomes to 8 years post-transplant were compared with 702 domestic living donor and 827 deceased donor transplant recipients during this period using Kaplan-Meier survival plots and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Among many complications, notable specific events included hepatitis B or C seroconversion (7 patients), active hepatitis and/or fulminant hepatic failure (4 patients), pulmonary tuberculosis (2 patients), and a type A dissecting aortic aneurysm. Commercial transplantation was independently associated with significantly reduced death-censored kidney allograft survival (hazard ratio 3.69, 95% confidence interval 1.88-7.25) along with significantly delayed graft function and eGFR 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or less at 3 months post-transplant. Thus, commercial transplantation represents an important risk factor for long-term kidney allograft loss. Concerted arguments and efforts using adverse recipient outcomes among the main premises are still required in order to eradicate transplant commercialization.

  4. Urgency priority in kidney transplantation in Rio Grande do Sul.

    PubMed

    Costa, M G; Garcia, V D; Leirias, M M; Santos, S R; Oliveira, D M S

    2007-03-01

    In 2002, it was established a system of urgency priority for kidney transplantations in cases with no vascular or peritoneal access for dialysis. The aims of this article are to describe the system in the organ donation and procurement agency (CNCDO) as well as to show the results to date. We reviewed cases of urgency priority request for kidney transplantation addressed to the CNCDO from May 2002 to August 2005. Within this period the CNCDO received 35 urgency priority requests for kidney transplantation (mean, 1 every 1.2 months). Thirty-one (88%) were accepted as urgent, and only 4 (11%) were refused. Among the 31 accepted, 26 (83%) had the transplantation performed in an average time of 19.6 days (range, 1-90), representing only 3.2% of all cadaveric kidney transplantations during that period.

  5. How can a vascular surgeon help in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lejay, Anne; Thaveau, Fabien; Caillard, Sophie; Georg, Yannick; Moulin, Bruno; Wolf, Philippe; Geny, Bernard; Chakfe, Nabil

    2017-04-01

    Kidney transplantation is a surgical procedure involving both vascular and ureteric anastomoses. As a matter of fact, it can be performed either by urologists or vascular surgeons. However, vascular surgeon's expertise can be helpful at different times. In the present paper we describe how can vascular surgeons help at the different stages of kidney transplantation process in modern care: 1) before kidney transplantation for recipient preparation in order to allow subsequent graft implantation, either by performing percutaneous embolization of renal arteries in the setting of polycystic kidney disease or treatment of aneurysmal or occlusive lesions that would contra-indicate graft implantation; 2) at the time of surgery graft back table preparation and repair; and 3) after surgery for long-term follow-up, including transplant renal artery stenosis treatment or transplant nephrectomy.

  6. Light chain crystalline kidney disease: diagnostic urine microscopy as the "liquid kidney biopsy".

    PubMed

    Luciano, Randy L; Castano, Ekaterina; Fogazzi, Giovanni B; Perazella, Mark A

    2014-12-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell disorder, which often causes parenchymal kidney disease. Light chain (LC) cast nephropathy represents the most common renal lesion. In some instances, LC crystals precipitate within renal tubular lumens and deposit within proximal tubular cell cytoplasms. Importantly, urine microscopy in such patients can provide insight into the underlying LC-related lesion. Here we present two patients with MM complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI) where LC crystalline casts were observed on urinary sediment analysis. Kidney biopsy revealed acute tubular injury with LC crystal casts within both tubular lumens and renal tubular epithelial cell cytoplasms. These findings suggest that the urinary sediment may be a non-invasive way to diagnose LC crystalline-induced AKI in patients with MM.

  7. Improvements in kidney transplantation from donors after cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Hoogland, E R Pieter; Snoeijs, Maarten G J; Habets, Margot A W; Brandsma, D Steven; Peutz-Kootstra, Carine J; Christiaans, Maarten H L; van Heurn, L W Ernest

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the growing waiting list for kidney transplantation, we explored the limits of kidney transplantation from donors after cardiac death by liberally accepting marginal donor kidneys for transplantation. As the percentage of primary non-function (PNF) increased, we evaluated our transplantation program and implemented changes to reduce the high percentage of PNF in 2005, followed by a second evaluation over the period 2006-2009. Recipients of a kidney from a donor after cardiac death between 1998 and 2005 were analyzed, with PNF as outcome measure. During the period 2002-2005, the percentage of PNF increased and crossed the upper control limits of 12% which was considered as unacceptably high. After implementation of changes, this percentage was reduced to 5%, without changing the number of kidney transplantations from donors after cardiac death. Continuous monitoring of the quality of care is essential as the boundaries of organ donation and transplantation are sought. Meticulous donor, preservation, and recipient management make extension of the donor potential possible, with good results for the individual recipient. Liberal use of kidneys from donors after cardiac death may contribute to a reduction in the waiting list for kidney transplantation and dialysis associated mortality.

  8. Evaluation of native kidney recovery after simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Francis, Jean M; Palmer, Matthew R; Donohoe, Kevin; Curry, Michael; Johnson, Scott R; Karp, Seth J; Evenson, Amy R; Pavlakis, Martha; Hanto, Douglas W; Mandelbrot, Didier A

    2012-03-15

    Debate continues about which liver transplantation candidates with impaired renal function should undergo liver transplant alone versus simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation (SLK). Identifying predictors of native kidney function recovery after SLK requires an accurate measure of the relative function of all three kidneys in patients with SLK. The distance of a transplanted kidney from the renal scan camera can be substantially different from that of native kidneys. We developed a technique to correct attenuation of counts of all three kidneys based on their depth. In our series of 13 SLK recipients, attenuation correction increased the measured renal function of native kidneys by up to 40%, demonstrating the importance of this procedure for accurately measuring kidney function. Eight patients met the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS)-proposed criteria for receiving a SLK, but four of these still had significant native kidney function (>40% of total function) after transplant. Five patients did not meet the UNOS-proposed criteria for SLK, yet only one of these had native kidney function recovery. The criteria proposed by UNOS to determine that SLK is indicated, and thus that native kidney recovery is not expected, are not always accurate. Further study of factors associated with native kidney recovery after SLK is required.

  9. The interaction of the international society concerning kidney transplants--a consideration of diseased kidney transplants in Japan and transplant tourism over the world.

    PubMed

    Kokubo, Asako

    2009-04-01

    In November 2006 in Japan, it was detected that there were 41 cases that diseased kidneys were harvested from patients and then were transplanted to other renal failure patients. This "Diseased kidney transplant" was prohibited in Japan since 2007 because of a lot of problems. On the other hand, in Japan, although there are about 12,000 patients on a waiting list for a transplant, only 10% of those get a transplant. Recently it appears that some patients have gone overseas for kidney transplants (transplant tourism). Concerning the background of transplant tourism, the issues are three points following. First, globalization caused recipients to go abroad easier and faster. Second, transnational law is difficult to institutionalize. Third, there is economical gap in not only international but also domestic. We should discuss again diseased kidney transplant in not only professionals but also in Japanese civilized society.

  10. Repeat Kidney Transplantation After Failed First Transplant in Childhood: Past Performance Informs Future Performance

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Meera; Wood, Alexander; Mitra, Nandita; Furth, Susan L.; Abt, Peter L.; Levine, Matthew H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Kidney transplant graft survival is almost uniformly superior for initial transplants compared to repeat transplants. We investigate the association between first and second kidney transplant graft survival in patients who underwent initial transplant during their pediatric years and whether age at second transplant is associated with outcome. Design, Setting, Participants, and Measurements This is a retrospective analysis of Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)data from October 1987 to May 2009 examining second kidney graft survival in 2281 patients who received their first transplant at <18 years of age using Kaplan-Meier statistics. Factors associated with second graft survival were identified using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Results Patients with first kidney graft survival of >5 years had better second graft survival compared to patients with first graft survival of 30 days-5 years (p<0.01). Patients with first kidney graft survival less than 30 days had similar second kidney graft outcomes(p=0.50) as those with >5 year first kidney graft survival, demonstrating that very early first graft loss is not associated with poor second transplant outcome. Patients 15-20 years of age at second transplant have lower second graft survival compared to other age groups; p<0.01, regardless of other recipient/donor characteristics and recurrent disease. Conclusions Poor second transplant outcomes are identified among patients with previous pediatric kidney transplant with first graft survival >30 days, but < 5 years, and those receiving second transplants at a high risk age category (15-20 years). These groups may benefit from increased attention both pre- and post-transplant. PMID:25803500

  11. Impact of transplant nephrectomy on peak PRA levels and outcome after kidney re-transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tittelbach-Helmrich, Dietlind; Pisarski, Przemyslaw; Offermann, Gerd; Geyer, Marcel; Thomusch, Oliver; Hopt, Ulrich Theodor; Drognitz, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the impact of transplant nephrectomy on peak panel reactive antibody (PRA) levels, patient and graft survival in kidney re-transplants. METHODS: From 1969 to 2006, a total of 609 kidney re-transplantations were performed at the University of Freiburg and the Campus Benjamin Franklin of the University of Berlin. Patients with PRA levels above (5%) before first kidney transplantation were excluded from further analysis (n = 304). Patients with graft nephrectomy (n = 245, NE+) were retrospectively compared to 60 kidney re-transplants without prior graft nephrectomy (NE-). RESULTS: Peak PRA levels between the first and the second transplantation were higher in patients undergoing graft nephrectomy (P = 0.098), whereas the last PRA levels before the second kidney transplantation did not differ between the groups. Age adjusted survival for the second kidney graft, censored for death with functioning graft, were comparable in both groups. Waiting time between first and second transplantation did not influence the graft survival significantly in the group that underwent nephrectomy. In contrast, patients without nephrectomy experienced better graft survival rates when re-transplantation was performed within one year after graft loss (P = 0.033). Age adjusted patient survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 94.1% and 86.3% vs 83.1% and 75.4% group NE+ and NE-, respectively (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Transplant nephrectomy leads to a temporary increase in PRA levels that normalize before kidney re-transplantation. In patients without nephrectomy of a non-viable kidney graft timing of re-transplantation significantly influences graft survival after a second transplantation. Most importantly, transplant nephrectomy is associated with a significantly longer patient survival. PMID:25032103

  12. Allograft loss from acute Page kidney secondary to trauma after kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Prashar, Rohini; Putchakayala, Krishna G; Kane, William J; Denny, Jason E; Kim, Dean Y; Malinzak, Lauren E

    2017-01-01

    We report a rare case of allograft loss from acute Page kidney secondary to trauma that occurred 12 years after kidney transplantation. A 67-year-old Caucasian male with a past surgical history of kidney transplant presented to the emergency department at a local hospital with left lower abdominal tenderness. He recalled that his cat, which weighs 15 lbs, jumped on his abdomen 7 d prior. On physical examination, a small tender mass was noticed at the incisional site of the kidney transplant. He was producing a normal amount of urine without hematuria. His serum creatinine level was slightly elevated from his baseline. Computer tomography revealed a large subscapular hematoma around the transplant kidney. The patient was observed to have renal trauma grade II at the hospital over a period of three days, and he was finally transferred to a transplant center after his urine output significantly decreased. Doppler ultrasound demonstrated an extensive peri-allograft hypoechoic area and abnormal waveforms with absent arterial diastolic flow and a patent renal vein. Despite surgical decompression, the allograft failed to respond appropriately due to the delay in surgical intervention. This is the third reported case of allograft loss from acute Page kidney following kidney transplantation. This case reinforces that kidney care differs if the kidney is solitary or a transplant. Early recognition and aggressive treatments are mandatory, especially in a case with Doppler signs that are suggestive of compression. PMID:28280700

  13. Allograft loss from acute Page kidney secondary to trauma after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Prashar, Rohini; Putchakayala, Krishna G; Kane, William J; Denny, Jason E; Kim, Dean Y; Malinzak, Lauren E

    2017-02-24

    We report a rare case of allograft loss from acute Page kidney secondary to trauma that occurred 12 years after kidney transplantation. A 67-year-old Caucasian male with a past surgical history of kidney transplant presented to the emergency department at a local hospital with left lower abdominal tenderness. He recalled that his cat, which weighs 15 lbs, jumped on his abdomen 7 d prior. On physical examination, a small tender mass was noticed at the incisional site of the kidney transplant. He was producing a normal amount of urine without hematuria. His serum creatinine level was slightly elevated from his baseline. Computer tomography revealed a large subscapular hematoma around the transplant kidney. The patient was observed to have renal trauma grade II at the hospital over a period of three days, and he was finally transferred to a transplant center after his urine output significantly decreased. Doppler ultrasound demonstrated an extensive peri-allograft hypoechoic area and abnormal waveforms with absent arterial diastolic flow and a patent renal vein. Despite surgical decompression, the allograft failed to respond appropriately due to the delay in surgical intervention. This is the third reported case of allograft loss from acute Page kidney following kidney transplantation. This case reinforces that kidney care differs if the kidney is solitary or a transplant. Early recognition and aggressive treatments are mandatory, especially in a case with Doppler signs that are suggestive of compression.

  14. Donor phosphorus levels and recipient outcomes in living-donor kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Peter C; Saha, Sharmeela; Gomes, Amanda M; Padiyar, Aparna; Bodziak, Kenneth A; Poggio, Emilio D; Hricik, Donald E; Augustine, Joshua J

    2011-05-01

    In living-donor kidney transplantation, various donor factors, including gender, age, and baseline kidney function, predict allograft function and recipient outcomes after transplantation. Because higher phosphorus is predictive of vascular injury in healthy adults, the effect of donor phosphorus levels on recipient renal function after transplantation was investigated. Phosphorus levels in 241 living donors were analyzed from a 7-year period, and recipient renal function and acute rejection at 1 year posttransplantation were examined controlling for other influencing factors, including multiple donor variables, HLA matching, and acute rejection. Female and African-American donors had significantly higher phosphorus levels predonation. By multivariable analysis, higher donor phosphorus correlated with higher recipient serum creatinine (slope=0.087, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.004 to 0.169, P=0.041) and lower recipient estimated GFR (slope=-4.321, 95% CI: -8.165 to -0.476, P=0.028) at 12 months. Higher donor phosphorus also displayed an independent correlation with biopsy-proven acute rejection and delayed or slow graft function after transplantation. In a cohort of living kidney donors, higher donor phosphorus correlated with female gender and African-American ethnicity and was an independent risk factor for early allograft dysfunction after living-donor kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology

  15. Costimulation Blockade in Kidney Transplantation: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Malvezzi, Paolo; Jouve, Thomas; Rostaing, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the setting of solid-organ transplantation, calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based therapy remains the cornerstone of immunosuppression. However, long-term use of CNIs is associated with some degree of nephrotoxicity. This has led to exploring the blockade of some costimulation pathways as an efficient immunosuppressive tool instead of using CNIs. The only agent already in clinical use and approved by the health authorities for kidney transplant patients is belatacept (Nulojix), a fusion protein that interferes with cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4. Belatacept has been demonstrated to be as efficient as cyclosporine-based immunosuppression and is associated with significantly better renal function, that is, no nephrotoxicity. However, in the immediate posttransplant period, significantly more mild/moderate episodes of acute rejection have been reported, favored by the fact that cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein pathway has an inhibitory effect on the alloimmune response; thereby its inhibition is detrimental in this regard. This has led to the development of antibodies that target CD28. The most advanced is FR104, it has shown promise in nonhuman primate models of autoimmune diseases and allotransplantation. In addition, research into blocking the CD40-CD154 pathway is underway. A phase II study testing ASK1240, that is, anti-CD40 antibody has been completed, and the results are pending. PMID:27472094

  16. Impact of ABO incompatible kidney transplantation on living donor transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background ABO incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi-KT) is an important approach for overcoming donor shortages. We evaluated the effect of ABOi-KT on living donor KT. Methods Two nationwide transplantation databases were used. We evaluated the impact of ABOi-KT on overall living donor transplant activity and spousal donation as subgroup analysis. In addition, we compared the clinical outcome between ABOi-KT and ABO compatible KT (ABOc-KT) from spousal donor, and performed a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to define the risk factors affecting the allograft outcomes. Result The introduction of ABOi-KT increased overall living donor KT by 12.2% and its portion was increased from 0.3% to 21.7% during study period. The ABOi-KT in living unrelated KT was two times higher than that of living related donor KT (17.8 vs.9.8%). Spousal donor was a major portion of living unrelated KT (77.6%) and ABOi-KT increased spousal donation from 10% to 31.5% in living donor KT. In addition, increasing rate ABOi-KT from spousal donor was 10 times higher than that of living related donor. The clinical outcome (incidence of acute rejection, allograft function, and allograft and patient survival rates) of ABOi-KT from spousal donor was comparable to that of ABOc-KT. Neither ABO incompatibility nor spousal donor was associated with acute rejection or allograft failure on multivariate analysis. Conclusions ABOi-KT increased overall living donor KT, and ABOi-KT from spousal donor is rapidly increasing with favorable clinical outcomes. PMID:28323892

  17. Respiratory Tract Infection Caused by Fonsecaea monophora After Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cleinman, Isabella Barbosa; Gonçalves, Sarah Santos; Nucci, Marcio; Quintella, Danielle Carvalho; Halpern, Márcia; Akiti, Tiyomi; Barreiros, Glória; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Santoro-Lopes, Guilherme

    2017-06-28

    Fonsecaea spp. are melanized fungi which cause most cases of chromoblastomycosis. The taxonomy of this genus has been revised, now encompassing four species, with different pathogenic potential: F. pedrosoi, F. nubica, F. pugnacius, and F. monophora. The latter two species present wider clinical spectrum and have been associated with cases of visceral infection, most often affecting the brain. To our knowledge, this is the first report of proven case of F. monophora respiratory tract infection. A Brazilian 57-year-old-female patient underwent kidney transplantation on January 12, 2013. On the fourth postoperative month, the patient presented with fever, productive cough, and pleuritic pain in the right hemithorax. A thoracic CT scan showed a subpleural 2.2-cm nodular lesion in the right lung lower lobe, with other smaller nodules (0.5-0.7 cm) scattered in both lungs. Bronchoscopy revealed a grayish plaque on the right bronchus which was biopsied. Microscopic examination demonstrated invasion of bronchial mucosa by pigmented hyphae. Culture from the bronchial biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage samples yielded a melanized mold, which was eventually identified as F. monophora. She started treatment with voriconazole (400 mg q.12h on the first day, followed by 200 mg q.12h). After 4 weeks of therapy, voriconazole dose was escalated to 200 mg q.8h and associated with amphotericin B (deoxycolate 1 mg/kg/day) because of a suspected dissemination to the brain. The patient eventually died of sepsis 8 weeks after the start of antifungal therapy. In conclusion, F. monophora may cause respiratory tract infection in solid organ transplant recipients.

  18. Identifying Subphenotypes of Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Kidney Transplants.

    PubMed

    Halloran, P F; Merino Lopez, M; Barreto Pereira, A

    2016-03-01

    The key lesions in antibody-mediated kidney transplant rejection (ABMR) are microcirculation inflammation (peritubular capillaritis and/or glomerulitis lesions, abbreviated "pg") and glomerular double contours (cg lesions). We used these features to explore subphenotypes in 164 indication biopsies with ABMR-related diagnoses: 137 ABMR (109 pure and 28 mixed with T cell-mediated rejection [TCMR]) and 27 transplant glomerulopathy (TG), identified from prospective multicenter studies. The lesions indicated three ABMR subphenotypes: pgABMR, cgABMR, and pgcgABMR. Principal component analysis confirmed these subphenotypes and showed that TG can be reclassified as pgcgABMR (n = 17) or cgABMR (n = 10). ABMR-related biopsies included 45 pgABMR, 90 pgcgABMR, and 25 cgABMR, with four unclassifiable. Dominating all time intervals was the subphenotype pgcgABMR. The pgABMR subphenotype presented earliest (median <2 years), frequently mixed with TCMR, and was most associated with nonadherence. The cgABMR subphenotype presented late (median 9 years). Subphenotypes differed in their molecular changes, with pgABMR having the most histologic-molecular discrepancies (i.e. potential errors). Donor-specific antibody (DSA) was not identified in 29% of pgcgABMR and 46% of cgABMR, but failure rates and molecular findings were similar to cases where DSA was known to be positive. Thus, ABMR presents distinct subphenotypes, early pg-dominant, late cg-dominant, and combined pgcg phenotype, differing in time, molecular features, accompanying TCMR, HLA antibody, and probability of nonadherence.

  19. Recurrence of granulomatous interstitial nephritis in transplanted kidney.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Federico; Gedalia, Abraham; Craver, Randall D; Matti Vehaskari, V

    2010-08-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease of unknown etiology. Minor renal involvement is not rare but kidney failure is uncommon and only rare cases of recurrent disease in a kidney transplant have been published. We report a patient who at age 10 yr developed ESRD secondary to renal sarcoidosis with GIN. Her disease subsequently recurred in the transplanted kidney despite standard immunosuppression with prednisone, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. The recurrent disease appeared to respond to increased immunosuppression, which included infliximab. However, the patient died of disseminated histoplasmosis three yr post-transplant.

  20. Living donor kidney transplantation: medical, legal, and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Paramesh, Anil S; Killackey, Mary T; Zhang, Rubin; Alper, Brent; Slakey, Douglas P; Florman, Sander S

    2007-12-01

    The use of living donor kidneys has dramatically increased the number and success of kidney transplants across the world. But questions remain regarding the subjection of a healthy individual to surgery for the benefit of another. Donors do have medical and financial risks. The stigma of organ brokering remains today, with evidence of commercial transplantation in other countries. Here in the US, we are exposed to advertising for donors using the media. In the hope of increasing living donations, we run the risk of stretching altruism too far. In this manuscript, we highlight and discuss some of the current controversies surrounding living donor kidney transplantation across the world.

  1. Changes in Pre- and Post-Exercise Gene Expression among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Coletta, Dawn K.; Campbell, Latoya E.; Weil, Jennifer; Kaplan, Bruce; Clarkson, Marie; Finlayson, Jean; Mandarino, Lawrence J.; Chakkera, Harini A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Decreased insulin sensitivity blunts the normal increase in gene expression from skeletal muscle after exercise. In addition, chronic inflammation decreases insulin sensitivity. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an inflammatory state. How CKD and, subsequently, kidney transplantation affects skeletal muscle gene expression after exercise are unknown. Methods Study cohort: non-diabetic male/female 4/1, age 52±2 years, with end-stage CKD who underwent successful kidney transplantation. The following were measured both pre-transplant and post-transplant and compared to normals: Inflammatory markers, euglycemic insulin clamp studies determine insulin sensitivity, and skeletal muscle biopsies performed before and within 30 minutes after an acute exercise protocol. Microarray analyses were performed on the skeletal muscle using the 4x44K Whole Human Genome Microarrays. Since nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) plays an important role in T cell activation and calcineurin inhibitors are mainstay immunosuppression, calcineurin/NFAT pathway gene expression was compared at rest and after exercise. Log transformation was performed to prevent skewing of data and regression analyses comparing measures pre- and post-transplant performed. Result Markers of inflammation significantly improved post-transplantation. Insulin infusion raised glucose disposal slightly lower post-transplant compared to pre-transplant, but not significantly, thus concluding differences in insulin sensitivity were similar. The overall pattern of gene expression in response to exercise was reduced both pre-and post-transplant compared to healthy volunteers. Although significant changes were observed among NFAT/Calcineurin gene at rest and after exercise in normal cohort, there were no significant differences comparing NFAT/calcineurin pathway gene expression pre- and post-transplant. Conclusions Despite an improvement in serum inflammatory markers, no significant differences in glucose

  2. Gastrointestinal surgical emergencies following kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bardaxoglou, E; Maddern, G; Ruso, L; Siriser, F; Campion, J P; Le Pogamp, P; Catheline, J M; Launois, B

    1993-05-01

    This study reports major gastrointestinal complications in a group of 416 patients following kidney transplantation. Three hundred and ninety-nine patients received a cadaveric kidney while the other 17 received a living related organ. The immunosuppressive regimen changed somewhat during the course of the study but included azathioprine, prednisolone, antilymphocyte globulin, and cyclosporin. Perforations occurred in the colon (n = 6), small bowel (n = 4), duodenum (n = 2), stomach (n = 1), and esophagus (n = 1). There were five cases of acute pancreatitis, four of upper gastrointestinal and two of lower intestinal hemorrhage, two of acute appendicitis, one of acute cholecystitis, one postoperative mesenteric infarction, and two small bowel obstructions. Fifty percent of the complications occurred while patients were being given high-dose immunosuppression to manage either the early postoperative period or episodes of acute rejection. Ten percent of the complications had an iatrogenic cause. Of the 31 patients affected, 10 (30%) died as a direct result of their gastrointestinal complication. This high mortality appears to be related to the effects of the immunosuppression and the associated response to sepsis. Reduction of these complications can be achieved by improved surgical management, preventive measures, prompt diagnosis, and a reduced immunosuppressive protocol.

  3. [BK virus infections in kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Lanot, Antoine; Bouvier, Nicolas; Chatelet, Valérie; Dina, Julia; Béchade, Clémence; Ficheux, Maxence; Henri, Patrick; Lobbedez, Thierry; Hurault de Ligny, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    BK virus is near ubiquitous, with a seroprevalence of around 80% in the general population. Subsequent to an asymptomatic primary infection, BK virus then remains dormant in healthy subjects. Reactivation occurs in immunocompromised people. BKv is pathogenic mainly among patients who have received a kidney transplant, in whom the virus can cause specific tubulo-interstitial nephritis and even result in graft failure among approximately 20 to 30% of nephritic cases. Since the mid 90 s, incidence has increased with the use of new powerful immunosuppressor treatments. The cornerstone of BK virus infection or BK virus-associated nephropathy treatment is a decrease of the immunosuppressive regimen, which must then be offset with the risk of rejection. The use of several adjuvant therapies has been submitted (fluoroquinolones, leflunomide, intravenous immunoglobulins, cidofovir), with no sufficient proof enabling the recommendation of first-line prescription. The high frequency of this infection and its potential harmfulness argue for the use of prevention strategies, at least among patients presenting risk factors. Retransplantation is safe after a first kidney allograft loss caused by BK-virus nephropathy, on condition that a screening for viremia is frequently conducted. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Ruptured Hemangioma of a Native Kidney: An Unusual Cause of Postoperative Hemorrhage in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Poznańska, Grażyna; Wlazlak, Michał; Hogendorf, Piotr; Szymański, Dariusz; Strzelczyk, Janusz; Durczyński, Adam

    2017-03-14

    BACKGROUND Retroperitoneal bleeding as a consequence of non-traumatic kidney or allograft rupture is well known, but there are no reports on hemorrhagia from a native kidney after allogeneic renal transplantation. Therefore, we present the first such case to be published and highlight the possibility of this complication after renal transplantation. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 28-year-old male patient who developed early post-transplant hemorrhagia from a ruptured native kidney. The patient underwent left-sided nephrectomy. Histopathological examination revealed ruptured hemangioma of the patient's native left kidney. The further postoperative period was not complicated. The patient was discharged on the 18th postoperative day, with good transplant function. CONCLUSIONS Transplantologists should be aware of the fact that in patients with uncontrolled blood pressure, native kidney hemangioma may rupture in the early post-transplant period, and it can be a life-threating and difficult to diagnose complication.

  5. Cytomegalovirus infection of the graft duodenum and urinary bladder after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jang, H J; Kim, S C; Cho, Y P; Kim, Y H; Han, M S; Han, D J

    2004-09-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of morbidity after solid organ transplantation. We report a case of CMV infection involving the transplanted duodenum that developed after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. The patient, a 30-year-old woman with insulin-dependent diabetes undergoing hemodialysis due to chronic renal failure, received a simultaneous cadaveric pancreas-kidney transplantation. The exocrine secretion was diverted using bladder drainage. Immunosuppression was maintained by a combination of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids together with OKT3 induction. Both the donor and the recipient were serologically positive for CMV IgG CMV prophylaxis consisted of a short course of parenteral gancyclovir. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 39 with normal pancreas and kidney function. She presented 2 months after transplantation with hematuria. Cystoscopic pancreas allograft biopsy specimens showed evidence of tissue invasive CMV infection in the graft duodenum and bladder. The CMV antigenemia test was positive. At 4 months after transplantation, the patient underwent surgery with the diagnosis of acute abdomen. The surgical findings consisted of a diffuse acute purulent peritonitis due to perforation of the duodenal graft. We sutured the perforation with nonreabsorbable material. The CMV antigenemia test was negative. Eight days later, the patient developed massive hematuria. At surgery, the graft was removed. The patient was discharged from the hospital with normal renal function. Pathological study of the removed graft showed the duodenal segment to have multiple wide ulcers with CMV inclusions in epithelial cells.

  6. Successful ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation with antibody removal and standard immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Flint, S M; Walker, R G; Hogan, C; Haeusler, M N; Robertson, A; Francis, D M A; Millar, R; Finlay, M; Landgren, A; Cohney, S J

    2011-05-01

    ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation is an established therapy, though its implementation to date has been in part limited by the requirement for additional immunosuppression. Here, we describe the outcomes of 37 patients undergoing ABOi kidney transplantation utilizing perioperative antibody depletion and receiving an identical tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive regimen to contemporaneous ABO-compatible (ABOc) recipients, with the exception that mycophenolate was commenced earlier (7-14 days pretransplant). Antibody depletion was scheduled according to baseline anti-ABO antibody titer (tube IAT method: median 1:128, range 1:8 to 1:4096). Patient and graft survival for the 37 ABOi recipients was 100% after a median 26 months (interquartile range [IQR] 18-32). Eight rejection episodes (two antibody-mediated and six cellular) in ABOi recipients were successfully treated with biopsy-proven resolution. Latest median eGFR is 50 mL/min × 1.73 m² (IQR 40-64) for ABOi patients and 54 mL/min × 1.73 m² (IQR 44-66) in the ABOc patients (p = 0.25). We conclude that ABOi transplantation can be performed successfully with perioperative antibody removal and conventional immunosuppression. This suggests that access to ABOi transplantation can include a broader range of end-stage kidney disease patients. ©2011 The Authors Journal compilation©2011 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  7. Alemtuzumab induction and antibody-mediated rejection in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Noureldeen, T; Albekioni, Z; Machado, L; Muddana, N; Marcus, R J; Hussain, S M; Sureshkumar, K K

    2014-12-01

    Induction therapy improves graft outcomes in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). We aimed to compare the incidences of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and acute cellular rejection (ACR) as well as graft and patient outcomes in KTRs who underwent induction with alemtuzumab versus rabbit-antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG). This was a single-center retrospective study involving patients who underwent kidney transplantation between January 2009 and December 2011 after receiving induction therapy with either alemtuzumab or r-ATG. Maintenance immunosuppression included tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil with early steroid withdrawal. Acute rejection was diagnosed using allograft biopsy. Among the 108 study patients, 68 received alemtuzumab and 40 got r-ATG. There was a significantly higher incidence of AMR (15% vs 2.5%; P = .008) and similar incidence of ACR (4.4% vs 10%; P = .69) for alemtuzumab versus r-ATG groups. One-year serum creatinine levels (l.68 ± 0.8 mg/dL vs 1.79 ± 1.8 mg/dL; P = .66) as well as graft (91.1 ± 3.5% vs 94.5 ± 3.8%; P = .48) and patient (93.8 ± 3.0% vs 96.4 ± 3.5%; P = .92) survivals were similar for the alemtuzumab versus the r-ATG groups. Our study showed a higher incidence of AMR and similar incidence of ACR in KTRs who underwent induction with alemtuzumab compared with those who received r-ATG and were maintained on tacrolimus and MMF. This was despite a lower HLA mismatch in the alemtuzumab group. One-year graft survival, patient survival, and allograft function were similar. Inadequate B-cell suppression by alemtuzumab as well as altered phenotypic and functional properties of repopulating B cells could be contributing to heightened risk of AMR in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Successful Management of Calciphylaxis in a Kidney Transplant Patient: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Welte, Thomas; Arnold, Frederic; Technau-Hafsi, Kristin; Neumann-Haefelin, Elke; Wobser, Rika; Zschiedrich, Stefan; Walz, Gerd; Kramer-Zucker, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Calciphylaxis is a rare and often fatal condition mostly associated with end-stage renal disease. The pathophysiology remains elusive and treatment options are scarce. We present a rare case of severe calciphylaxis after kidney transplantation in a patient with persistent hyperparathyroidism. Case description A 78-year-old man with a history of end-stage renal disease developed edema and ulcerations on both lower limbs 14 months after kidney transplantation while receiving an mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor to manage polyoma virus-associated nephropathy. Skin biopsies taken from the ulcerations confirmed calciphylaxis. A multimodal treatment regimen combining medical (calcium-free phosphate binders, cinacalcet, paricalcitol, sodium thiosulfate, antibiotic treatment) and surgical treatments (debridement and autologous skin transplantation) ultimately resulted in successful wound healing. Discussion We describe a case of severe calciphylaxis in a nonuremic patient after kidney transplantation. Rapid diagnosis by skin biopsy and an aggressive multimodal therapy regimen followed by long-term oral sodium thiosulfate treatment were crucial factors for a favorable outcome. PMID:27500261

  9. External Iliac Artery Dissection During Kidney Transplant for Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Caveat for Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Karusseit, Victor O L O L

    2017-08-11

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a common cause of end-stage renal failure and an indication for transplant. The genetic mutation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease also causes vascular abnormalities, mainly aneurysms but also medial dissection. Here, a case of dissection of the recipient artery during a kidney transplant procedure in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is described. Dissection caused occlusion of both the external iliac artery and the donor renal artery. Occlusion was recognized intraoperatively, and the kidney was salvaged by in situ reperfusion of the kidney with cold preservation solution, excision of the affected recipient arterial segment, and reanastomosis of the donor artery to the internal iliac artery. The external iliac artery defect was replaced with a saphenous vein interposition graft. The transplanted kidney achieved good function. This is the first description of a case of recognition of recipient arterial dissection during a kidney transplant procedure for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Surgeons should be aware of the phenomenon of arterial dissection in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and should be vigilant while anastomosing the artery during kidney transplant in these patients.

  10. [Membranous aspects of kidney transplantation and reasons of transplant antioxidant defense].

    PubMed

    Berdichevskiĭ, B A; Tsvettskikh, V E; Zhmurov, V A; Kononov, S L; Berdichevskaia, E B; Zhuravleva, T D; Kiianiuk, N S; Razumiak, T V; Nedorezoniuk, S V

    2000-01-01

    Special membranological studies of the role of antioxidant emoxipine in combined pharmacological support of stable function of the transplanted kidney in 30 patients have shown that this drug restores phospholipid pool of red cell membranes and improves their physical properties. No significant fluctuations of cyclosporin A blood concentrations were registered. Emoxipine addition to combined therapy of patients with transplanted kidney is recommended.

  11. Non-English Speakers Less Likely to Be on Kidney Transplant List

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationship, the researchers found the link between not speaking English and not being on a kidney transplant waiting ... English proficiency and need a kidney transplant use English-speaking patient advocates and interpreters during transplant clinic visits. " ...

  12. Kidney transplant in Nigeria: a single centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, Umezurike Hughes

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Kidney transplant is the preferred renal replacement therapy for patients with end stage kidney disease. However management of patients with kidney transplant in resource poor countries is evolving and groaning under several mental, financial and infrastructural challenges. The objective of the study is to evaluate the management of patients with kidney transplant in a kidney care Centre in Nigeria. Methods This was a non-randomized prospective study. The study population were post-transplant patients presenting between 1st August 2010 and 31st December 2014.The biodata, pre and post-transplant details of these patients were documented. The data was analysed using SPSS Vs 17. Results A total of 47 patients were studied with M: F ratio of 4:1, the mean age was 45.4 ± 13.6 years. Chronic glomerulonephritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and HIV related kidney disease were the commonest cause of CKD. Financial constraint delayed transplant in 66% and non-availability of donor in 17.2%. About 90% of the transplants were in India and 81% either financed the transplant either directly or through a relation. There was no cadaveric transplant and about 70% of the donors were not related. Tacrolimus, mycophenolate and prednisolone were most frequently used immunosuppressive combination. The one and three years graft survival were 95.3% and 67.6% respectively while corresponding patients survival were 97.7% and 82.4% respectively. Septicaemia, acute rejection and urinary tract infection were most common complications. Conclusion Management of patients with kidney transplant has good prospect despite the challenges. PMID:28292075

  13. Acute Kidney Injury Associated With Vancomycin When Laxity Leads to Injury and Findings on Kidney Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Katikaneni, Madhavi; Lwin, Lin; Villanueva, Hugo; Yoo, Jinil

    2016-01-01

    The issue of vancomycin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) has resurged with the use of intravenous vancomycin as a first-line antibiotic, often for prolonged periods of time for the management of serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, and with a higher recommended trough level (15-20 μg/mL). We have observed 3 patients on intravenous vancomycin who developed very high trough levels (>40 μg/mL) and severe (stage 3) AKI. Those 3 patients underwent kidney biopsy for unresolving AKI, which revealed findings compatible with acute tubular necrosis. The first patient initially developed asymptomatic acute interstitial nephritis because of a concomitant antibiotic that caused worsening of kidney function, and the dose of vancomycin was not properly adjusted while staying at the nursing home. The second was an emaciated patient (BMI, 14) whose serum creatinine level was a deceptive marker of kidney function for the proper dosing of vancomycin, resulting in a toxic level. The third patient developed vancomycin-related AKI on an initially high therapeutic level, which then contributed to further rising in vancomycin level and subsequently causing severe AKI. One patient required hemodialysis, but all 3 patients ultimately recovered their kidney function significantly. A regular monitoring (preferably twice weekly) of serum creatinine and vancomycin trough level is advisable to minimize vancomycin-associated AKI, primarily acute tubular necrosis, for patients requiring prolonged administration of vancomycin (>2 weeks) on the currently recommended higher therapeutic trough levels (>15 μg/mL).

  14. [Rare diagnostics of infective endocarditis after kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Dedinská, Ivana; Skalová, Petra; Mokáň, Michal; Martiaková, Katarína; Osinová, Denisa; Pindura, Miroslav; Palkoci, Blažej; Vojtko, Marián; Hubová, Janka; Kadlecová, Denisa; Lendová, Ivona; Zacharovský, Radovan; Pekar, Filip; Kaliská, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Infective endocarditis in a patient after kidney transplantation is a serious infective complication which increases the risk of loss of the graft and also the mortality of patients. The most important predisposing factor is the immunosuppressive therapy - mainly induction immunosuppression.Material and case description: 250 patients underwent kidney transplantation throughout the period of 12 years in the Transplant Center Martin. This set of patients included 5 patients (2 %) after heart valve replacement. We present the case of a patient after kidney transplantation with development of endocarditis of the bioprosthesis of the aortic valve one month after successful kidney transplantation. Diagnostics of endocarditis by standard procedures (examination by transthoracic echocardiogram, transesophageal echocardiography, hemocultures) was unsuccessful. We rarely diagnosed endocarditis only by PET-CT examination with a consequent change of the antibiotic treatment and successful managing of this post-transplant complication. Endocarditis after kidney transplantation is a serious complication which significantly worsens the mortality of patients. The risk of development of infective endocarditis after transplantation is also increased by induction, mainly by antithymocyte globulin. Diagnostics only by PET-CT examination is rare; however, in this case it fundamentally changed the approach to the patient and led to a successful treatment.

  15. Trends in Kidney Transplant Outcomes in Older Adults Running Header: Kidney Transplant Outcomes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A.; James, Nathan; Salter, Megan L.; Walston, Jeremy; Segev, Dorry L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Age limits for kidney transplantation (KT) have expanded significantly in recent years, yet outcomes in older recipients remain poorly understood. The goal of this study was to estimate relative mortality and death-censored graft loss by year of KT between 1990–2011. Design Cohort study. Setting All KT recipients in the United States as reported to the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR). Participants 30,207 KT recipients aged ≥65 at the time of transplantation. Measurements Mortality and death-censored graft loss ascertained through center report, linkage to Social Security Death Master File, and linkage to Medicare. Results Older adults currently represent 18.4% of KT recipients, a 5-fold rise from 3.4% in 1990; similar increases were noted for both deceased (5.4-fold) and live donor (9.1-fold) transplants. Current recipients are not only older, but also more likely to be female, African American, have lengthier pre-transplant dialysis, have diabetes or hypertension, and receive marginal kidneys. Mortality for older deceased donor recipients between 2009–2011 was 57% lower (HR=0.43, 95%CI:0.33–0.56, P<0.001) than in 1990–1993; mortality for older live donor recipients was 50% lower (HR=0.50, 95%CI:0.36–0.68, P<0.001). Death-censored graft loss for older deceased donor recipients between 2009–2011 was 65% lower (HR=0.35, 95% CI:0.29–0.42, P<0.001) than in 1990–1993; death-censored graft loss for older live donor KT recipients was 59% lower (HR=0.41, 95%CI:0.24–0.70, P<0.001). Conclusion Despite a major increase in number of older adults transplanted, and an expanding window of transplant eligibility, mortality and graft loss have decreased substantially for this recipient population. These trends are important to understand, both for patient counseling as well as transplant referral. PMID:25439325

  16. Disparities, race/ethnicity and access to pediatric kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Sandra; Patzer, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Kidney transplantation remains the optimal treatment for children with end-stage renal disease; yet, in the United States, profound differences in access to transplant persist, with black children experiencing significantly reduced access to transplant compared with white children. The reasons for these disparities remain poorly understood. Several recent studies provide new insights into the interplay of socioeconomic status, racial/ethnic disparities and access to pediatric kidney transplantation. Recent findings New evidence suggests that disparities are more pronounced in access to living vs. deceased donors. National allocation policies have mitigated racial differences in pediatric deceased donor kidney transplant (DDKT) access after waitlisting. However, disparities in access to DDKT are stark for minority emerging adults, who lose pediatric priority allocation. Although absence of health insurance poses an important barrier to transplant, even after adjustment for insurance status and neighborhood poverty, disparities persist. Differential access to care and unjust social structures are posited as important modifiable barriers to achieving equity in pediatric transplant access. Summary Future approaches to overcome disparities in pediatric kidney transplant access must focus on the continuum of the transplant process, including equitable health care access. Public health advocacy efforts to promote national policies that address disparate multilevel socioeconomic factors are essential. PMID:23508056

  17. A Study on the Directed Living Non-Related Donor Kidney Transplantation Submitted to the Hospital Transplant Ethics Committee at the National Kidney and Transplant Institute.

    PubMed

    Suguitan, G; Arakama, M-H I; Danguilan, R

    2017-03-01

    In the latter part of 2009, the Department of Health of the Philippines prohibited kidney transplantation with non-related kidney donors. Hence, the National Kidney and Transplant Institute created a Hospital Transplant Ethics Committee. This study describes directed non-related kidney donation at the National Kidney and Transplant Institute. This retrospective study reviewed the profiles of recipients and directed living non-related kidney transplant donors submitted to the Hospital Transplant Ethics Committee. A total 74 recipients and donors were reviewed by the Hospital Transplant Ethics Committee in 2014. Donors initiated the talks about being a donor (75%) to repay the good deeds that were done by the recipient for them or their families; examples of which are: sometime in their lives they needed financial assistance for hospitalization for their relatives and it was the patient who paid the hospital bill; or because they pitied the recipient, whom they found to be a good person, thus they would want to give one of their kidneys. Seventy-four (100%) said that they were not expecting anything in return for this act but wanted to be of help to the recipient. Of these 74 cases, 70 cases (95%) were approved and the others were disapproved. With a Hospital Transplant Ethics Committee in place, directed kidney donation is a valuable tool as an additional source of kidney donor without violating any ethical issues. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Prevalence of hepatitis G virus infection in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Dussol, B; Charrel, R; De Lamballerie, X; Berthezene, P; Brunet, P; De Micco, P; Raoult, D; Berland, Y

    1997-08-15

    We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and consequences of hepatitis G virus (HGV) infection in 87 kidney transplant recipients. Infection was diagnosed with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using primers in the NS3 region of the viral genoma. Twenty-four patients (27.5%) were HGV RNA positive (HGV+ group) and 63 patients (72.5%) were HGV RNA negative (HGV- group). No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups for age, sex, transplantation and hemodialysis duration, number of kidney transplantations, serum creatinine, history of transfusions, hepatitis B and C virus infections, and percentage of patients having suffered from acute rejection. Acute and chronic hepatitis were not more prevalent in the HGV+ group than in the HGV- group. HGV infection is highly prevalent in kidney transplant recipients but does not alter liver or kidney functions. HGV contamination may be linked to nosocomial transmission during long-term hemodialysis.

  19. Scintigraphic evaluation of parenchymal malakoplakia in a transplanted kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Melloul, M.M.; Shmueli, D.; Mechlis-Frish, S.; Shapira, Z.; Baniel, J.; Rousso, I.; Cohen, M.; Lubin, E.

    1988-07-01

    The scintigraphic evaluation of a rare case of parenchymal malakoplakia in a transplanted kidney is presented. Uptake of Tc-99m DMSA in the involved area was reduced and the Ga-67 uptake was increased.

  20. Wait List Death and Survival Benefit of Kidney Transplantation among Non-renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Cassuto, James R.; Reese, Peter P.; Sonnad, Seema; Bloom, Roy D.; Levine, Matthew H.; Naji, Ali; Abt, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The disparity between the number of patients waiting for kidney transplantation and the limited supply of kidney allografts has renewed interest in the benefit from kidney transplantation experienced by different groups. This study evaluated kidney transplant survival benefit in prior non-renal transplant recipients (kidney after liver, KALi; lung, KALu; heart, KAH) compared to primary isolated (KA1) or repeat isolated kidney (KA2) transplant. Multivariable Cox regression models were fit using UNOS data for patients wait listed and transplanted from 1995–2008. Compared to KA1, the risk of death on the wait list was lower for KA2 (p<0.001;HR=0.84;CI=0.81–0.88), but substantially higher for KALu (p<0.001;HR=3.80;CI=3.08–4.69), KAH (p<0.001;HR=1.92;CI=1.66–2.22), and KALi (p<0.001;HR=2.69;CI=2.46–2.95). Following kidney transplant, patient survival was greatest for KA1, similar among KA2, KALi, KAH, and inferior for KALu. Compared to the entire wait list, renal transplantation was associated with a survival benefit among all groups except KALu (p=0.017;HR=1.61;CI=1.09–2.38), where post-transplant survival was inferior to the wait list population. Recipients of KA1 kidney transplantation have the greatest post-transplant survival and compared to the overall kidney wait list, the greatest survival benefit. PMID:20977641

  1. Preemptive kidney transplantation--a team experience in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    González-Martínez, F; Curi, L; González-Carballido, G; Núñez, N; Manzo, L; Kurdián, M; Larre Borges, P; Nin, M; Orihuela, S

    2014-11-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best treatment for end-stage chronic renal disease. In Uruguay, the prevalence of patients on dialysis is 757 patients per millon inhabitants, plus 316 alive with a functioning renal graft. We install a preemptive renal transplantation program. Twenty-five patients received grafts without dialysis from 2004 to 2013, 5 receiving their 2nd transplantation and 17 from cadaveric donors, with 7.4 ± 7.7 months in the waiting list. At 24 months, patients' survival rate was 100% and the grafts' 97%, with a serum creatinine of 1.4 ± 0.6 mg%. The developed programs of dialysis and renal health care contributed install our preemptive kidney transplantation. Kidney transplantation should be proposed to selected patients with chronic renal failure as primary therapy of substitution of renal function.

  2. National Kidney Registry: 213 transplants in three years.

    PubMed

    Veale, Jeffrey; Hil, Garet

    2010-01-01

    Since its establishment in 2008, the National Kidney Registry has facilitated 213 kidney transplants between unrelated living donors and recipients at 28 transplant centers. Rapid innovations in matching strategies, advanced computer technologies, good communication and an evolving understanding of the processes at participating transplant centers and histocompatibility laboratories are among the factors driving the success of the NKR. Virtual cross match accuracy has improved from 43% to 91% as a result of changes to the HLA typing requirements for potential donors and improved mechanisms to list unacceptable HLA antigens for sensitized patients. A uniform financial agreement among participating centers eliminated a major roadblock to facilitate unbalanced donor kidney exchanges among centers. The NKR transplanted 64% of the patients registered since 2008 and the average waiting time for those transplanted in 2010 was 11 months.

  3. Successful transplantation of kidneys from elderly circulatory death donors by using microscopic and macroscopic characteristics to guide single or dual implantation.

    PubMed

    Mallon, D H; Riddiough, G E; Summers, D M; Butler, A J; Callaghan, C J; Bradbury, L L; Bardsley, V; Broecker, V; Saeb-Parsy, K; Torpey, N; Bradley, J A; Pettigrew, G J

    2015-11-01

    Most kidneys from potential elderly circulatory death (DCD) donors are declined. We report single center outcomes for kidneys transplanted from DCD donors over 70 years old, using preimplantation biopsy Remuzzi grading to inform implantation as single or dual transplants. Between 2009 and 2012, 43 single transplants and 12 dual transplants were performed from elderly DCD donors. Remuzzi scores were higher for dual than single implants (4.4 vs. 3.4, p < 0.001), indicating more severe baseline injury. Donor and recipient characteristics for both groups were otherwise similar. Early graft loss from renal vein thrombosis occurred in two singly implanted kidneys, and in one dual-implanted kidney; its pair continued to function satisfactorily. Death-censored graft survival at 3 years was comparable for the two groups (single 94%; dual 100%), as was 1 year eGFR. Delayed graft function occurred less frequently in the dual-implant group (25% vs. 65%, p = 0.010). Using this approach, we performed proportionally more kidney transplants from elderly DCD donors (23.4%) than the rest of the United Kingdom (7.3%, p < 0.001), with graft outcomes comparable to those achieved nationally for all deceased-donor kidney transplants. Preimplantation biopsy analysis is associated with acceptable transplant outcomes for elderly DCD kidneys and may increase transplant numbers from an underutilized donor pool.

  4. Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacteremia in a kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Falci, D R; Rigatto, M H; Cantarelli, V V; Zavascki, A P

    2015-08-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a rare clinical pathogen. A case of bacteremia caused by L. rhamnosus in a kidney transplant recipient is described. Once considered only as a contaminant or a low-virulence organism, L. rhamnosus might be an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of primary bloodstream infection caused by L. rhamnosus in a kidney transplant recipient. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Combined heart-kidney transplantation after total artificial heart insertion.

    PubMed

    Ruzza, A; Czer, L S C; Ihnken, K A; Sasevich, M; Trento, A; Ramzy, D; Esmailian, F; Moriguchi, J; Kobashigawa, J; Arabia, F

    2015-01-01

    We present the first single-center report of 2 consecutive cases of combined heart and kidney transplantation after insertion of a total artificial heart (TAH). Both patients had advanced heart failure and developed dialysis-dependent renal failure after implantation of the TAH. The 2 patients underwent successful heart and kidney transplantation, with restoration of normal heart and kidney function. On the basis of this limited experience, we consider TAH a safe and feasible option for bridging carefully selected patients with heart and kidney failure to combined heart and kidney transplantation. Recent FDA approval of the Freedom driver may allow outpatient management at substantial cost savings. The TAH, by virtue of its capability of providing pulsatile flow at 6 to 10 L/min, may be the mechanical circulatory support device most likely to recover patients with marginal renal function and advanced heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Halloran, Philip F; Chang, Jessica; Famulski, Konrad; Hidalgo, Luis G; Salazar, Israel D R; Merino Lopez, Maribel; Matas, Arthur; Picton, Michael; de Freitas, Declan; Bromberg, Jonathan; Serón, Daniel; Sellarés, Joana; Einecke, Gunilla; Reeve, Jeff

    2015-07-01

    The prevalent renal transplant population presents an opportunity to observe the adaptive changes in the alloimmune response over time, but such studies have been limited by uncertainties in the conventional biopsy diagnosis of T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) and antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). To circumvent these limitations, we used microarrays and conventional methods to investigate rejection in 703 unselected biopsies taken 3 days to 35 years post-transplant from North American and European centers. Using conventional methods, we diagnosed rejection in 205 biopsy specimens (28%): 67 pure TCMR, 110 pure ABMR, and 28 mixed (89 designated borderline). Using microarrays, we diagnosed rejection in 228 biopsy specimens (32%): 76 pure TCMR, 124 pure ABMR, and 28 mixed (no borderline). Molecular assessment confirmed most conventional diagnoses (agreement was 90% for TCMR and 83% for ABMR) but revealed some errors, particularly in mixed rejection, and improved prediction of failure. ABMR was strongly associated with increased graft loss, but TCMR was not. ABMR became common in biopsy specimens obtained >1 year post-transplant and continued to appear in all subsequent intervals. TCMR was common early but progressively disappeared over time. In 108 biopsy specimens obtained 10.2-35 years post-transplant, TCMR defined by molecular and conventional features was never observed. We conclude that the main cause of kidney transplant failure is ABMR, which can present even decades after transplantation. In contrast, TCMR disappears by 10 years post-transplant, implying that a state of partial adaptive tolerance emerges over time in the kidney transplant population.

  7. Lower frequency routine surveillance endomyocardial biopsies after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Weckbach, Ludwig T; Maurer, Ulrich; Schramm, Rene; Huber, Bruno C; Lackermair, Korbinian; Weiss, Max; Meiser, Bruno; Hagl, Christian; Massberg, Steffen; Eifert, Sandra; Grabmaier, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    In heart transplantation (HTx) patients, routine surveillance endomyocardial biopsies (rsEMB) are recommended for the detection of early cardiac allograft rejection. However, there is no consensus on the optimal frequency of rsEMB. Frequent rsEMB have shown a low diagnostic yield in the new era of potent immunosuppressive regimen. Efficacy and safety of lower frequency rsEMB have not been investigated so far. In this retrospective, single centre, observational study we evaluated 282 patients transplanted between 2004 and 2014. 218 of these patients were investigated by rsEMB and symptom-triggered EMB (stEMB). We evaluated EMB results, complications, risk factors for rejection, survival 1 and 5 years as well as incidence of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) 3 years after HTx. A mean of 7.1 ± 2.5 rsEMB were conducted per patient within the first year after HTx identifying 7 patients with asymptomatic and 9 patients with symptomatic acute rejection requiring glucocorticoide pulse therapy. Despite this relatively low frequency of rsEMB, only 6 unscheduled stEMB were required in the first year after HTx leading to 2 additional treatments. In 6 deaths among all 282 patients (2.1%), acute rejection could not be ruled out as a potential underlying cause. Overall survival at 1 year was 78.7% and 5-year survival was 74%. Incidence of CAV was 17% at 3-year follow-up. Morbidity and mortality of lower frequency rsEMB are comparable with data from the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) registry. Consensus is needed on the optimal frequency of EMB.

  8. [Kidney procurement and transplantation from a surgical perspective].

    PubMed

    Heuer, M; Frühauf, N R; Treckmann, J; Witzke, O; Paul, A; Kaiser, G M

    2009-02-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best therapeutic option in many patients with end-stage renal disease, because it significantly increases lifespan over that of patients who remain on dialysis. Because of organ shortage the average waiting time for a suitable kidney in Germany is about four years after the onset of dialysis treatment. Currently about 80% of all transplanted kidneys are obtained from brain-dead patients. The possibility for kidney transplantation after living donation reduces the minimum waiting time to a few weeks. An optimized organizational strategy as well as donor and recipient preparation are possible in living donation, resulting in excellent transplant quality and a short cold-ischemia time. Pre-emptive kidney transplantation after living donation is an attractive treatment option without the need for previous dialysis and is also an option for children. The excellent long-term results after kidney transplantation have been caused by improvement of operative technique, organizational strategy, donor preparation, postoperative care and, in particular, immunosuppression.

  9. Elevated incidence of posttransplant erythrocytosis after simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Guerra, G; Indahyung, R; Bucci, C M; Schold, J D; Magliocca, J F; Meier-Kriesche, H-U

    2010-04-01

    Posttransplant erythrocytosis (PTE) poses a potential risk of thrombosis in kidney transplantation. Clinical observation of our systemically drained simultaneous kidney pancreas transplant (S-SPK) patients showed a higher incidence of PTE and need for phlebotomies. To evaluate the incidence of PTE we analyzed hematocrit (Hct) levels and frequency of phlebotomies in 94 SPK as compared to 174 living donor (LD) recipients and 53 type-I diabetic with kidney transplant only. For study purposes we defined PTE as Hct >50% or the necessity for phlebotomies. Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association between the transplant type and PTE. We found an increased incidence of PTE in SPK compared to LD (p < 0.001). In the multivariate model, SPK had a 5-fold risk for the development of PTE (AHR 5.3, 95% CI 1.8, 15.9). The incidence of therapeutic phlebotomy was 13% among SPK patients and 4% in LD kidney recipients; 19 patients altogether. A total of 64 units were phlebotomized (48-SPK and 16-LD). Type I diabetic patients with a kidney transplant showed a 0% incidence of PTE. We observed a greater incidence of PTE and phlebotomies in S-SPK compared to LD with kidney only transplant recipients.

  10. Tregs and kidney: From diabetic nephropathy to renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Dousdampanis, Periklis; Trigka, Kostantina; Mouzaki, Athanasia

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is recognised as the most effective treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Kidney transplantation continues to face several challenges including long-term graft and patient survival, and the side effects of immunosuppressive therapy. The tendency in kidney transplantation is to avoid the side effects of immunosuppresants and induce immune tolerance. Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) contribute to self-tolerance, tolerance to alloantigen and transplant tolerance, mainly by suppressing the activation and function of reactive effector T-cells. Additionally, Tregs are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes, which is the leading cause of ESRD, suggesting that these cells play a role both in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease and the induction of transplant tolerance. Several strategies to achieve immunological tolerance to grafts have been tested experimentally, and include combinations of co-stimulatory blockade pathways, T-cell depletion, in vivo Treg-induction and/or infusion of ex-vivo expanded Tregs. However, a successful regimen that induces transplant tolerance is not yet available for clinical application. This review brings together certain key studies on the role of Tregs in ESRD, diabetes and kidney transplantation, only to emphasize that many more studies are needed to elucidate the clinical significance and the therapeutic applications of Tregs. PMID:27683634

  11. Geographic Determinants of Access to Pediatric Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hojun; Potluri, Vishnu; Abt, Peter L.; Shults, Justine; Amaral, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Children receive priority in the allocation of deceased donor kidneys for transplantation in the United States, but because allocation begins locally, geographic differences in population and organ supply may enable variation in pediatric access to transplantation. We assembled a cohort of 3764 individual listings for pediatric kidney transplantation in 2005–2010. For each donor service area, we assigned a category of short (<180 days), medium (181–270 days), or long (>270 days) median waiting time and calculated the ratio of pediatric-quality kidneys to pediatric candidates and the percentage of these kidneys locally diverted to adults. We used multivariable Cox regression analyses to examine the association between donor service area characteristics and time to deceased donor kidney transplantation. The Kaplan–Meier estimate of median waiting time to transplantation was 284 days (95% confidence interval, 263 to 300 days) and varied from 14 to 1313 days across donor service areas. Overall, 29% of pediatric-quality kidneys were locally diverted to adults. Compared with areas with short waiting times, areas with long waiting times had a lower ratio of pediatric-quality kidneys to candidates (3.1 versus 5.9; P<0.001) and more diversions to adults (31% versus 27%; P<0.001). In multivariable regression, a lower kidney to candidate ratio remained associated with longer waiting time (hazard ratio, 0.56 for areas with <2:1 versus reference areas with ≥5:1 kidneys/candidates; P<0.01). Large geographic variation in waiting time for pediatric deceased donor kidney transplantation exists and is highly associated with local supply and demand factors. Future organ allocation policy should address this geographic inequity. PMID:24436470

  12. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney versus deceased donor kidney transplant: can a fair comparison be made?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Andrew S; Smits, Gerard; Wiseman, Alexander C

    2009-05-15

    Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK) may provide superior patient and kidney graft survival compared with deceased donor kidney transplant alone (DD KA), not because of the addition of a pancreas transplant but because of differences in organ donor, recipient, and transplant characteristics. We performed a retrospective analysis from the scientific registry of transplant recipients database comparing patient and kidney graft survival of SPK and DD KA recipients from 1997 to 2005, segregating the DD KA recipients into (a) recipients of KA from pancreas donors (KA, P+) and (b) recipients of KA from non-pancreas donors to control for donor differences. Of 8453 SPK waitlisted patients, 7952 received SPK, 101 received KA, P+, and 401 received KA from non-pancreas donors (KA, P-). Five-year kidney graft survival was not different in the SPK and KA, P+ groups (76.2% vs. 81.9%, P=0.15) and was significantly better than the KA, P- group (64.3%, SPK vs. KA, P-, P=0.002; KA, P+ vs. KA, P-, P=0.01). When controlling for recipient and transplant differences by multivariate analysis, KA, P+ transplant was associated with a 50% reduction in risk for kidney graft loss compared with SPK. Donor, recipient, and transplant differences exist when comparing SPK to DD KA that bias outcomes in favor of SPK and limit conclusions regarding superior graft and patient survival.

  13. Three types of simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Gruessner, A C; Wakai, T; Sutherland, D E R

    2014-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to study and compare clinical and functional outcomes after simultaneous deceased donor pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK DD), simultaneous deceased donor pancreas and living donor kidney transplantation (SPK DL), and simultaneous living donor pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK LL). From January 1, 1996 to September 1, 2005, 8918 primary, simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK) procedures were reported to the International Pancreas Transplant Registry. Of these, 8764 (98.3%) were SPK DD, 115 (1.3%) were SPK DL, and 39 (0.4%) were SPK LL. We compared these 3 groups with regard to several endpoints including patient and pancreas and kidney graft survival rates. The 1-year and 3-year patient survival rates for SPK DD were 95% and 90%, 97% and 95% for SPK DL, and 100% and 100% for SPK LL recipients, respectively (P ≥ .07). The 1-year and 3-year pancreas graft survival rates for SPK DD were 84% and 77%, 83% and 71% for SPK DL, and 90% and 84% for SPK LL recipients, respectively (P ≥ .16). The 1-year and 3-year kidney graft survival rates for SPK DD were 92% and 84%, 94% and 86% for SPK DL, and 100% and 89% for SPK LL recipients, respectively (P ≥ .37). Patient survival rates and graft survival rates for pancreas and kidney were similar among the 3 groups evaluated in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidemiology of infections in kidney transplant recipients - data miner's approach.

    PubMed

    Wojciuk, Bartosz; Myślak, Marek; Pabisiak, Krzysztof; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz; Giedrys-Kalemba, Stefania

    2015-06-01

    Infections remain a frequent complication following organ transplantation. Agents present within the general population remain common in recurrent infections among renal transplant recipients. Data mining methodology has become a promising source of information about patterns in the organ transplant recipient population. The aim of the study was to use data mining to describe the factors influencing single and recurrent infections in kidney transplant recipients. A group of 159 recipients who underwent kidney transplantation between 2005 and 2008 was analysed. RapidMiner and Statistica softwares were used to create decision tree models based on CART Quinlan and C&RT algorithms. There were 171 microbiologically confirmed episodes among 67 recipients (41%), and 191 separate species isolations were performed. Over 50% of the infected patients underwent two or more infectious episodes. Two classification decision tree models were created. The following features were enabled to differentiate the groups with single or recurrent infections: the duration of cold ischaemia, the post-transplant hospitalization period, the cause of chronic kidney disease and pathogens. The post-transplant hospitalization period and the length of cold ischaemia appear to be the principal parameters differentiating the subpopulations analysed. These coexisting factors, connected with recurrent infections in kidney transplant recipients, resemble a network which requires an advanced analysis to support the traditional statistics.

  15. The effect of cytomegalovirus infection on acute rejection in kidney transplanted patients

    PubMed Central

    Hasanzamani, Boshra; Hami, Maryam; Zolfaghari, Vajihe; Torkamani, Mahtab; Ghorban Sabagh, Mahin; Ahmadi Simab, Saiideh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: It is known that cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common problem among kidney transplant patients. This infection can be increased morbidity and decreased graft survival. This problem has been associated with acute rejection too. Patients and Methods: One hundred and thirty renal transplant patients were included in a prospective, case-control study. The renal transplant patients were divided into two groups; patients group with CMV infection and control group without CMV infection. Serum CMV-IgG in all patients was positive (donor and recipients). None of patients had received anti-thymocyte-globulin and thymoglobulin. CMV infection was diagnosed by quantitative CMV-PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test (more than 500 copies/μg). Rejection episode was defined by kidney isotope scan or biopsy. Results: In the group of 66 CMV infection patients (41 male [62.1%] and 25 female [37.9%]) the incidence of graft rejection was 36%, however in the group of 64 control patients the incidence of graft rejection was 9.4 % (P < 0.005). Conclusion: CMV infection is important predisposing factor for acute allograft rejection after kidney transplantation. The results of this study suggests that the control of CMV infection could decrease episodes of acute kidney rejection. PMID:27471740

  16. Increasing access to kidney transplantation in countries with limited resources: the Indian experience with kidney paired donation.

    PubMed

    Kute, Vivek B; Vanikar, Aruna V; Shah, Pankaj R; Gumber, Manoj R; Patel, Himanshu V; Engineer, Divyesh P; Modi, Pranjal R; Shah, Veena R; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2014-10-01

    According to the Indian chronic kidney disease registry, in 2010 only 2% of end stage kidney disease patients were managed with kidney transplantation, 37% were managed with dialysis and 61% were treated conservatively without renal replacement therapy. In countries like India, where a well-organized deceased donor kidney transplantation program is not available, living donor kidney transplantation is the major source of organs for kidney transplantation. The most common reason to decline a donor for directed living donation is ABO incompatibility, which eliminates up to one third of the potential living donor pool. Because access to transplantation with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-desensitization protocols and ABO incompatible transplantation is very limited due to high costs and increased risk of infections from more intense immunosuppression, kidney paired donation (KPD) promises hope to a growing number of end stage kidney disease patients. KPD is a rapidly growing and cost-effective living donor kidney transplantation strategy for patients who are incompatible with their healthy, willing living donor. In principle, KPD is feasible for any centre that performs living donor kidney transplantation. In transplant centres with a large living donor kidney transplantation program KPD does not require extra infrastructure, decreases waiting time, avoids transplant tourism and prevents commercial trafficking. Although KPD is still underutilized in India, it has been performed more frequently in recent times. To substantially increase donor pool and transplant rates, transplant centres should work together towards a national KPD program and frame a uniform acceptable allocation policy. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  17. Giardia lamblia infection after pancreas-kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Ann Abkjaer; Horneland, Rune; Birn, Henrik; Svensson, My

    2016-01-18

    Infection is a common complication of solid organ transplantation. It is associated with an increased risk of acute cellular rejection and loss of graft function. The most common infections are due to bacteria and viruses, including transmission of cytomegalovirus from donor to recipient. In the past years, an increasing number of parasitic infections have been documented in transplant recipients. We describe the first reported case of intestinal Giardia lamblia transmission following simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation.

  18. [Rare case giant cancerous tumor forgotten after kidney heterotopic transplantation].

    PubMed

    Tyapochkin, Y A; Zubarev, V F; Golikov, A V; Afanasyeva, T V; S Klimkin, A

    2016-08-01

    The annual number of cases of kidney transplantation in the Russian Federation varies from 900 to 1000. The generally accepted method of operation is the heterotopic allotransplantation into one of the iliac region. Proper kidney recipient are psychologically "forgotten", often completely lost sight of postoperative monitoring, especially in the long term, but may remind of itself in extraordinary cases like ours.

  19. Corticosteroid and calcineurin inhibitor sparing regimens in kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Cortazar, Frank; Diaz-Wong, Roque; Roth, David; Isakova, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem that is associated with increased risks of kidney disease progression, cardiovascular disease and death. Kidney transplantation remains the renal replacement therapy of choice for patients with end-stage kidney disease. Despite impressive strides in short-term allograft survival, there has been little improvement in long-term kidney graft survival, and rates of death with a functioning allograft remain high. Long-term safety profiles of existing immunosuppressive regimens point to a need for continued search for alternative agents. This overview discusses emerging evidence on a few promising therapeutic approaches, juxtaposes conflicting findings and highlights remaining knowledge gaps. PMID:23825102

  20. Corticosteroid and calcineurin inhibitor sparing regimens in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cortazar, Frank; Diaz-Wong, Roque; Roth, David; Isakova, Tamara

    2013-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem that is associated with increased risks of kidney disease progression, cardiovascular disease and death. Kidney transplantation remains the renal replacement therapy of choice for patients with end-stage kidney disease. Despite impressive strides in short-term allograft survival, there has been little improvement in long-term kidney graft survival, and rates of death with a functioning allograft remain high. Long-term safety profiles of existing immunosuppressive regimens point to a need for continued search for alternative agents. This overview discusses emerging evidence on a few promising therapeutic approaches, juxtaposes conflicting findings and highlights remaining knowledge gaps.

  1. Early graft loss after kidney transplantation: risk factors and consequences.

    PubMed

    Hamed, M O; Chen, Y; Pasea, L; Watson, C J; Torpey, N; Bradley, J A; Pettigrew, G; Saeb-Parsy, K

    2015-06-01

    Early graft loss (EGL) after kidney transplantation is a catastrophic outcome that is assumed to be more likely after the use of kidneys from suboptimal donors. We therefore examined its incidence, risk factors and consequences in our center in relation to different donor types. Of 801 recipients who received a kidney-only transplant from deceased donors, 50 (6.2%) suffered EGL within 30 days of transplantation. Significant risks factors for EGL were donation after circulatory death (DCD) (odds ratio [OR] 2.88; p = 0.006), expanded criteria donor (ECD) transplantation (OR 4.22; p = 0.010), donor age (OR 1.03; p = 0.044) and recipient past history of thrombosis (OR 4.91; p = 0.001). Recipients with EGL had 12.28 times increased risk of death within the first year, but long-term survival was worse for patients remaining on the waiting list. In comparison with patients on the waiting list but not transplanted, and with all patients on the waiting list, the risk of death after EGL decreased to baseline 4 and 23 months after transplantation, respectively. Our findings suggest that DCD and ECD transplantation are significant risk factors for EGL, which is a major risk factor for recipient death. However, long-term mortality is even greater for those remaining on the waiting list. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  2. Urinary Obstruction of Transplanted Kidney Caused by Uterine Adenomyosis and 2-Year Posthysterectomy Psoas Abscess in Conjunction with Transplanted Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Takezawa, Yuta; Nohara, Takahiro; Mizokami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Urinary obstruction of the transplanted kidney caused by uterine leiomyoma is an extremely rare condition. To the best of our knowledge, there are only two reports in English literature. Psoas abscess secondary to renal graft pyelonephritis is also uncommon. We present this unusual case and its treatment course. A 43-year-old female presented with renal dysfunction. She was started on peritoneal dialysis from the age of 26 years and received kidney transplantation from her mother (living donor) at the age of 27 years. Computed tomography (CT) revealed right hydronephrosis and a large uterine mass compressing the distal ureter of the transplanted kidney. After a simple total hysterectomy, her renal function improved. Two years following the hysterectomy, she experienced painful urination, fever, right abdominal pain, and right lower limb pain. CT and T2-weighed magnetic resonance imaging of her pelvis demonstrated right psoas abscess in conjunction with transplanted kidney. She was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics alone, which resulted in a good response. Urinary obstruction of the transplanted kidney caused by uterine leiomyoma is an extremely rare condition. Psoas abscess secondary to transplanted kidney pyelonephritis is also rare. We should keep these rare diseases in mind when treating such cases. PMID:28097036

  3. Outcomes of Pediatric Kidney Transplantation in Recipients of a Previous Non-Renal Solid Organ Transplant.

    PubMed

    Hamdani, G; Zhang, B; Liu, C; Goebel, J; Zhang, Y; Nehus, E

    2017-03-07

    Children who receive a non-renal solid organ transplant may develop secondary renal failure requiring kidney transplantation. We investigated outcomes of 165 pediatric kidney transplant recipients who previously received a heart, lung, or liver transplant using data from 1988 to 2012 reported to the United Network for Organ Sharing. Patient and allograft survival were compared with 330 matched primary kidney transplant (PKT) recipients. Kidney transplantation after solid organ transplant (KASOT) recipients experienced similar allograft survival: 5- and 10-year graft survival was 78% and 60% in KASOT recipients, compared to 80% and 61% in PKT recipients (p = 0.69). However, KASOT recipients demonstrated worse 10-year patient survival (75% KASOT vs. 97% PKT, p < 0.001). Competing risks analysis indicated that KASOT recipients more often experienced graft loss due to patient death (p < 0.001), whereas allograft failure per se was more common in PKT recipients (p = 0.01). To study more recent outcomes, kidney transplants performed from 2006 to 2012 were separately investigated. Since 2006, KASOT and PKT recipients had similar 5-year graft survival (82% KASOT vs. 83% PKT, p = 0.48), although 5-year patient survival of KASOT recipients remained inferior (90% KASOT vs. 98% PKT, p < 0.001). We conclude that despite decreased patient survival, kidney allograft outcomes in pediatric KASOT recipients are comparable to those of PKT recipients.

  4. [Advantages of living donor kidney transplantation; possibilities in the national transplantation program].

    PubMed

    Petrányi, Gyozo; Gyódi, Eva; Padányi, Agnes; Rajczy, Katalin

    2004-12-05

    The review paper summarizes the advantages of the living donor kidney transplantation aiming that this kind of activity should get more support in Hungary. It is a general phenomenon overall the world, that there is no more possibility to increase the number of cadaver transplantations, and the outcome of them is also worsening because of the accumulation of aged patients with long time period of dialysis treatment. The paper points out the better results of living donor kidney transplantation underlining that the kidney long term survival, in general, is 10% over the cadaver kidney survival with significant less complication. The indication of living related and unrelated donor kidney transplantation is reported and the harmless of donor kidney removal demonstrated. An important part of the review contains the ethical, legal and social issue of the living donation, moreover, its economical benefit. It shows that in certain countries the living donation becomes in the forefront of the transplantation activity, which demonstrates from statistical point of view the overall benefit in comparison to cadaver transplantation. Based on the experience of those countries, which are performing this type of transplantation for a long time ago recommendation is given what should be the methodology to increase the activity in this field of transplantation.

  5. [The combined transplantation of the pancreatoduodenal complex and kidney].

    PubMed

    Kaabak, M M; Zokoev, A K; Babenko, N N

    2013-01-01

    Patients with diabetic nephropathy comprise up to 30% of dialisis population. The treatment optimum for these patients remains the transplantation of pancreas and kidney. There were no successful attempts in Russia so long ago as the end of the previous century. The issue analyses the experience of the SCS (where the first successful transplantation of kidney-pancreas complex was conducted) and other Russian institutes, where the problem is elaborated. Flaws and advantages of the used operative methods of pancreas and Β-cells transplantation; early and long-term results are thoroughly discussed.

  6. Relevance of Flow Cytometric Auto-Crossmatch to the Post-transplant Course of Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Demir, E; Yeğit, O; Erol, A; Akgül, S U; Çalışkan, B; Bayraktar, A; Çalışkan, Y; Türkmen, A; Savran, F O; Sever, M S

    2017-04-01

    The crossmatch test is essential prior to kidney transplantation (tx) to confirm compatibility between the donor and the recipient. However, its results can be misleading due to "undetectable antibodies" in the recipient's serum. To establish if undetectable autoantibodies are responsible for a positive result, an auto-crossmatch test can be performed. In this study, we aim to determine the long-term prognostic value of auto-flow cytometric auto-crossmatch (FCXM) test on kidney survival in kidney tx recipients. The primary outcome variable was reduced renal function. Secondary endpoints were incidence of biopsy-confirmed chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) and recurrent glomerulonephritis (GN). There were no differences regarding initial serum creatinine levels between the study and control groups (P = .441). Patients who had positive auto-B FCXM had a significantly reduced renal function compared with the control group (P = .016). Four patients developed biopsy-confirmed CAMR in the study group and 1 patient in the control group (P = .047). Five patients had biopsy-confirmed recurrent GN in the GN study group, and only 1 patient had recurrent GN in the GN control group (P = .026). Kidney transplant recipients with positive auto-FCXM test had significantly reduced renal function and a higher incidence of recurrent GN and CAMR compared with the control group. The findings of this study suggest a potential role of auto-antibody causing positive auto-FCXM test result, meanwhile increasing the risk of CAMR, recurrent GN, and new-onset diabetes after tx. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Recommendations for donation after circulatory death kidney transplantation in Europe.

    PubMed

    van Heurn, L W Ernest; Talbot, David; Nicholson, Michael L; Akhtar, Mohammed Z; Sanchez-Fructuoso, Ana I; Weekers, Laurent; Barrou, Benoit

    2016-07-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors provides an invaluable source for kidneys for transplantation. Over the last decade, we have observed a substantial increase in the number of DCD kidneys, particularly within Europe. We provide an overview of risk factors associated with DCD kidney function and survival and formulate recommendations from the sixth international conference on organ donation in Paris, for best-practice guidelines. A systematic review of the literature was performed using Ovid Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Topics are discussed, including donor selection, organ procurement, organ preservation, recipient selection and transplant management.

  8. Pregnancy and contraceptive counseling of women with chronic kidney disease and kidney transplants.

    PubMed

    Watnick, Suzanne

    2007-04-01

    Women with kidney disease of childbearing age should expect proactive counseling regarding pregnancy and contraception. Discussions should include the impact of pregnancy on their kidney disease and the impact of kidney disease on maternal and fetal outcomes. However, nephrologists rarely discuss sexual dysfunction, infertility, menstrual irregularities, and contraception with their premenopausal women patients. This review will consider pregnancy-related issues to discuss when counseling women with all stages of chronic kidney disease. Issues related to contraception in women on dialysis, women with functioning kidney transplants, and those with chronic kidney disease will also be reviewed.

  9. Graft and Patient Survival Outcomes of a Third Kidney Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Redfield, Robert R.; Gupta, Meera; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Wood, Alexander; Abt, Peter L.; Levine, Matthew H.

    2014-01-01

    Background The waiting time for deceased donor renal transplantation in the United States continues to grow. Retransplant candidates make up a small but growing percentage of the overall transplant waiting list and raise questions about the stewardship of scarce resources. The utility of renal transplantation among individuals with two prior renal transplants is not described in the literature and we thus sought to determine the survival benefit associated with a third kidney transplant (3KT). Methods Multivariable Cox regression models were created to determine characteristics associated with 3KT outcomes and the survival benefit of 3KT among recipients wait listed and transplanted within the United States between 1995 and 2009. Results 4,334 patients were waitlisted for a 3KT and 2,492 patients received a 3KT. In a multivariate analysis, 3KT demonstrated an overall patient survival benefit compared to the wait list (HR-0.379, CI=0.302-0.475 p<0.001) for those awaiting their first, second or third kidney transplants, although an inferior graft outcome compared to first kidney transplants. The time to survival benefit did not accrue until 8-months after transplant. Additionally we found that the duration of second graft survival was predictive of third graft survival, such that second graft survival beyond 5 years is associated with superior 3KT graft survival. Second graft loss in 30 days or less was not associated with inferior 3KT graft survival. Conclusion 3KT achieves a survival benefit over remaining on the wait list, although is associated with inferior graft outcomes compared to first kidney transplants. Graft survival of the second transplant beyond 5 years is associated with superior 3KT graft survival. PMID:25121473

  10. Parainfluenza 3 Infections Early After Kidney or Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Helanterä, I; Anttila, V-J; Loginov, R; Lempinen, M

    2017-03-01

    Parainfluenza virus (PIV) can cause serious infections after hematopoietic stem cell or lung transplantation. Limited data exist about PIV infections after kidney transplantation. We describe an outbreak of PIV-3 in a transplant unit. During the outbreak, 45 patients were treated on the ward for postoperative care after kidney or simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation. Overall, 29 patients were tested for respiratory viruses (12 patients with respiratory symptoms, 17 asymptomatic exposed patients) from nasopharyngeal swabs using polymerase chain reaction. PIV-3 infection was confirmed in 12 patients. One patient remained asymptomatic. In others, symptoms were mostly mild upper respiratory tract symptoms and subsided within a few days with symptomatic treatment. Two patients suffered from lower respiratory tract symptoms (dyspnea, hypoxemia, pulmonary infiltrates in chest computed tomography) and required supplemental oxygen. Four of six SPK patients and eight of 39 of kidney transplant patients were infected with PIV (p = 0.04). In patients with follow-up tests, PIV-3 shedding was still detected 11-16 days after diagnosis. Despite rapid isolation of symptomatic patients, PIV-3 findings were diagnosed within 24 days, and the outbreak ceased only after closing the transplant ward temporarily. In conclusion, PIV-3 infections early after kidney or SPK transplantation were mostly mild. PIV-3 easily infected immunosuppressed transplant recipients, with prolonged viral shedding.

  11. Origin of enriched regulatory t cells in patients receiving combined kidney/bone marrow transplantation to induce transplantation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sprangers, Ben; DeWolf, Susan; Savage, Thomas M; Morokata, Tatsuaki; Obradovic, Aleksandar; LoCascio, Samuel A; Shonts, Brittany; Zuber, Julien; Lau, Sai Ping; Shah, Ravi; Morris, Heather; Steshenko, Valeria; Zorn, Emmanuel; Preffer, Frederic I; Olek, Sven; Dombkowski, David M; Turka, Laurence A; Colvin, Robert; Winchester, Robert; Kawai, Tatsuo; Sykes, Megan

    2017-03-01

    We examined tolerance mechanisms in patients receiving HLA-mismatched combined kidney and bone marrow transplantation (CKBMT) that led to transient chimerism under a previously-published non-myeloablative conditioning regimen (Immune Tolerance Network study ITN036). Polychromatic flow cytometry (FCM) and high throughput sequencing of TCRβ hypervariable regions of DNA from peripheral blood T regulatory cells (Tregs) and CD4 non-Tregs revealed marked early enrichment of regulatory T cells (CD3(+) CD4(+) CD25(high) CD127(low) Foxp3(+) ) in blood that resulted from peripheral proliferation (Ki67(+) ), possibly new thymic emigration (CD31(+) ) and, in one tolerant subject, conversion from non-Tregs. Among recovering conventional T cells, central memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells predominated. A large fraction of the T cell clones detected in post-transplant biopsy specimens by TCR sequencing were detected in the peripheral blood and were not donor-reactive. Our results suggest that enrichment of Tregs by new thymic emigration and lymphopenia-driven peripheral proliferation in the early post-transplant period may contribute to tolerance following CKBMT. Furthermore, most conventional T cell clones detected in immunologically quiescent post-transplant biopsies appear to be circulating cells in the microvasculature rather than infiltrating T cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Kidney transplantation in the context of renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Todd E

    2009-12-01

    Kidney transplantation has dramatically evolved from a life-saving yet unproven therapy for patients with renal failure to a mature field that is the preferred treatment for those suffering from ESRD. Patients who receive a transplant experience a 68% lower risk of death compared with those waiting on dialysis for a transplant. This benefit is afforded to all patient subgroups including the elderly (> or =70 yr), and diabetics, who can gain 11 yr of extra life with transplantation. Prolonged transplant wait times result in a higher risk of death but this can be ameliorated with preemptive transplantation. Future challenges will focus on appropriate organ allocation and addressing long-term renal function and comorbid conditions so patients can enjoy the full benefits of transplantation.

  13. [Need and demand of kidneys for transplantation in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Milanés, C L; Bellorín-Font, E; Weisinger, J; Pernalete, N; Urbina, D; Paz-Martínez, V

    1993-01-01

    The number of cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation has become insufficient around the world. Despite concerted efforts, we have been unsuccessful in greatly improve the supply of organ donors, and consequently the number of end stage renal failure patients awaiting for kidney transplantation continues to increase. The primary objective of this paper is to quantify the need and supply of kidneys for transplant in Venezuela. An overview of the current level of kidney transplant activity in Venezuela is presented, observing that the activity with cadaveric donors had been predominant since 1983, although not to an optimal level. The annual activity in kidney transplant between 1989-1991 remained stable in 6 transplants/million people, but went sharply down to 4.6 in 1992. An estimate of the current need is around 10 donors/million people. This is in contrast with an effective donation rate of only 2.01 and 1.92 donors/million achieved in 1990 and 1991 respectively. The most frequent cause for no donation was the lack of familiar consent. Based on an analysis of the factors involved in the shortage of donor supply in Venezuela, we present some recommendations to increase the availability of cadaveric organ donors in the country. These measures include an improvement of education and legal regulation in the field of organ donation and transplantation, and following the Spanish model, the creation of a program of hospital transplant coordinators that can detect and evaluate potential organ donors as well as coordinate the logistical aspects of transplantation.

  14. Functional Status, Time to Transplantation, and Survival Benefit of Kidney Transplantation Among Wait-Listed Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Peter P.; Shults, Justine; Bloom, Roy D.; Mussell, Adam; Harhay, Meera N.; Abt, Peter; Levine, Matthew; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Karlawish, Jason T.; Feldman, Harold I.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the context of an aging end-stage renal disease population with multiple comorbidities, transplantation professionals face challenges in evaluating the global health of patients awaiting kidney transplantation. Functional status might be useful for identifying which patients will derive a survival benefit from transplantation versus dialysis. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of wait-listed patients using data on functional status from a national dialysis provider linked to United Network for Organ Sharing registry data. Setting & Participants Adult kidney transplant candidates added to the waiting list between the years 2000 and 2006. Predictor Physical function scale of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Healthy Survey, analyzed as a time-varying covariate. Outcomes Kidney transplantation; Survival benefit of transplantation versus remaining wait-listed. Measurements We used multivariable Cox regression to assess the association between physical function with study outcomes. In survival benefit analyses, transplant status was modeled as a time-varying covariate. Results The cohort comprised 19,242 kidney transplant candidates (median age, 51 years; 36% black race) receiving maintenance dialysis. Candidates in the lowest baseline physical function quartile were more likely to be inactivated (adjusted HR vs. highest quartile, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.21-1.39) and less likely to undergo transplantation (adjusted HR vs. highest quartile, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.61-0.68). After transplantation, worse physical function was associated with shorter 3-year survival (84% vs. 92% for the lowest vs. highest function quartiles). However, compared to dialysis, transplantation was associated with a statistically significant survival benefit by 9 months for patients in every function quartile. Limitations Functional status is self-reported. Conclusions Even patients with low function appear to live longer with kidney transplantation versus dialysis. For waitlisted

  15. The influence of warm ischemia elimination on kidney injury during transplantation – clinical and molecular study

    PubMed Central

    Kamińska, Dorota; Kościelska-Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Chudoba, Paweł; Hałoń, Agnieszka; Mazanowska, Oktawia; Gomółkiewicz, Agnieszka; Dzięgiel, Piotr; Drulis-Fajdasz, Dominika; Myszka, Marta; Lepiesza, Agnieszka; Polak, Wojciech; Boratyńska, Maria; Klinger, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Kidney surface cooling was used during implantation to assess the effect of warm ischemia elimination on allograft function, histological changes and immune-related gene expression. 23 recipients were randomly assigned to a group operated on with kidney surface cooling during implantation (ice bag technique, IBT group), and the other 23 recipients receiving the contralateral kidney from the same donor were operated on with a standard technique. Three consecutive kidney core biopsies were obtained during the transplantation procedure: after organ recovery, after cold ischemia and after reperfusion. Gene expression levels were determined using low-density arrays (Format 32, TaqMan). The IBT group showed a significantly lower rate of detrimental events (delayed graft function and/or acute rejection, p = 0.015) as well as higher glomerular filtration rate on day 14 (p = 0.026). A greater decrease of MMP9 and LCN2 gene expression was seen in the IBT group during total ischemia (p = 0.003 and p = 0.018). Elimination of second warm ischemia reduced the number of detrimental events after kidney transplantation, and thus had influence on the short-term but not long-term allograft function. Surface cooling of the kidney during vascular anastomosis may reduce some detrimental effects of immune activation resulting from both brain death and ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:27808277

  16. [Diabetes following kidney transplantation. Report of 35 cases].

    PubMed

    Kaaroud, Hayet; Khiari, Karima; Beji, Soumaya; Cherif, Lotfi; Ben Abdallah, Nejib; Ben Moussa, Fatma; Ayed, Khaled; Ben Abdallah, Taieb; Ben Maïz, Hedi

    2004-02-01

    Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a frequent complication of renal transplantation. It has a prevalence rate ranging from 3 to 46%. We undertook a retrospective study of 175 nondiabetic renal transplant recipients to determine the prevalence rate, clinical characteristics, and risk factors of PTDM in kidney transplant recipients in our region. Thirty five patients (20%) developed PTDM, 50% were diagnosed by 3 months post transplantation. Eight patients (22.8%) were insulin recurrent. PTDM was independent of kidney source, family history of diabetes, age, sex, incidence of acute rejection, body weight gain, steroid or cyclosporine dose, use of beta-blockers and cytomegalovirus infection. Acturial 5 years survival was 79.4% in the diabetic compared to 80.5% in the control group. Patient survival was similar in the two groups. We conclude that PTDM is frequent in our patients. No significant risk factors of PTDM were identified in this study.

  17. Liver and kidney transplantation in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Tan-Tam, Clara C; Frassetto, Lynda A; Stock, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    HIV infection has evolved into a chronic condition as a result of improvements in therapeutic options. Chronic exposure with HIV and associated co-pathogens as well as toxicities from prolonged therapy with antiviral medications has resulted in increased morbidity and mortality rates from end-stage liver and kidney disease in the HIV-infected population. Since the definitive treatment for end-stage organ failure is transplantation, demand has increased among HIV-infected patients. Although the transplant community has been slow to recognize HIV as a chronic condition, many transplant centers have eliminated HIV infection as a contraindication to transplantation as a result of better patient management and demand. This review examines the current clinical strategies and issues surrounding liver and kidney transplantation in HIV-infected patients.

  18. Update on kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus infected recipients

    PubMed Central

    Nashar, Khaled; Sureshkumar, Kalathil K

    2016-01-01

    Improved survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients with chronic kidney disease following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy resulted in the need to revisit the topic of kidney transplantation in these patients. Large cohort studies have demonstrated favorable outcomes and proved that transplantation is a viable therapeutic option. However, HIV-infected recipients had higher rates of rejection. Immunosuppressive therapy did not negatively impact the course of HIV infection. Some of the immunosuppressive drugs used following transplantation exhibit antiretroviral effects. A close collaboration between infectious disease specialists and transplant professionals is mandatory in order to optimize transplantation outcomes in these patients. Transplantation from HIV+ donors to HIV+ recipients has been a subject of intense debate. The HIV Organ Policy Equity act provided a platform to research this area further and to develop guidelines. The first HIV+ to HIV+ kidney transplant in the United States and the first HIV+ to HIV+ liver transplant in the world were recently performed at the Johns Hopkins University Medical Center. PMID:27458559

  19. [New possibilities in kidney transplantation from live unrelated donors].

    PubMed

    Bosković, S

    1990-01-01

    The kidney transplantation, as a method of medical treatment, could not be developed faster in our country for many years. A number of demands for transplantation grows much faster than our modest capability. The similar, but in a rather smaller degree, this problem occurs in some other countries in the world. The main cause is: the organization of corpse collecting and the conservatism of doctors. The latter problem, in the countries of western hemisphere, is surpassed more easily by a doctor codex and a legal obligation that involves doctors actively in this process, which is not the case in our country. The organization of corpse collecting in some states of the USA is highly developed, but however it does not give sufficient number of organs for the cadaveric transplantation. New, additional possibilities are found: the taking of even organs (kidneys) from alive unrelated donors, spouses, which excludes the possibility of greed and gives, only in the USA, about 1.500 additional alive transplantations per year. The complementary medical attitude towards the increasing of number of cadaveric transplantations is: considerably freely taking of kidneys from cadavers without tissue compatibility, only with the compatibility of blood groups of ABO system. Since the immunological criteria, in our country, are very intensified by the Zagreb immunology group, e.g. from 75-100% for alive transplantation, or the minimum of 50% tissue compatibility for cadaveric transplantation, this old-fashioned attitude has considerably lowered the number of transplantations in our country.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Kidney transplantation at the University of Pennsylvania: 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Porrett, Paige M; Kamoun, Malek; Parsons, Ron; Bloom, Roy; Goral, Simin; Reese, Peter; Grossman, Robert; Baluarte, Jorge; Bleicher, Melissa; Doyle, Alden; Markmann, James F; Levine, Matt; Barker, Clyde; Olthoff, Kim; Naji, Ali; Shaked, Abraham; Abt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Kidney transplantation at the University of Pennsylvania has grown substantially over the past 11 years. Although our transplant volume has increased primarily as a consequence of multiorgan transplants as well as the utilization of historically "marginal" allografts, our post-transplantation outcomes remain excellent in both children and adults. We attribute these outcomes to technical improvements in tissue typing and donor-recipient crossmatching, modification of immunosuppression protocols, and rigorous donor and recipient selection. In the next decade, we hope to substantially expand our living donor program and refine our overall donor and recipient selection process such that we maintain excellent post-transplant outcomes in the face of aging and increasingly comorbid donors and recipients. We further predict significant changes in post-transplant management of kidney recipients with respect to immunosuppression regimens. In particular, we anticipate the modulation of immunosuppression regimens in recipients with high titers of donor-specific antibody and the integration of B-cell specific immunosuppression into post-transplant patient care. Only time will tell whether such therapies will 1) improve long-term outcomes, 2) allow us to diminish the degree of non-specific pharmacologic immunosuppression currently in use, 3) or even promote donor-specific tolerance in kidney transplant recipients.

  1. Trends in kidney transplantation outcome: the Andalusian Kidney Transplant Registry, 1984-2007.

    PubMed

    Gentil Govantes, M A; Rodriguez-Benot, A; Sola, E; Osuna, A; Mazuecos, A; Bedoya, R; Borrego, J; Muñoz-Terol, J M; Castro, P; Alonso, M

    2009-06-01

    Herein we have presented the first report from the Andalusian Kidney Transplant Registry, a Public Health Service Regional Registry in Andalusia, Spain (general population, 8 million). The current analysis was limited to 5599 kidney-alone transplants from deceased donors, grouped into 4 time periods: 1984-1989 (n = 846); 1990-1995 (n = 1172); 1996-2001 (n = 1801); and 2002-2007 (n = 2060). The age of the transplant patients rose over time to 21.7% of recipients of ages >or=60 years in 2002-2007. In the later years we observed an increased incidence of vascular and diabetic causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Patients who underwent retransplantation increased from 2.7% in 1984-1989 to 8.1% in 2002-2007. Time on previous renal replacement therapy (RRT) increased from 33.1 +/- 29 to 48 +/- 53 months. Patient survivals at 1, 5, 10, and 20 years were 96%, 91%, 83%, and 63%, respectively. Censoring for death, graft survivals were 90%, 80%, 67%, and 45%, respectively. Compared with the 1984-1989 period, patient survival improved by about 10% (P < .001) since 1990, remaining stable to 2007. Censored 5-year graft survivals progressively improved from 72% to 77%, 82%, and 85% (P < .001). Upon multivariate analysis, gender, age >39 years, diabetes, and RRT duration were independent predictors of patient survival. Age <18 years, retransplantation, and positive hepatitis C virus serology were independent predictors of lower graft survival. Considering 1984-1989 as the reference time period, both patient and graft mortality risks continuously decreased over the following 3 periods (relative risk [RR] = 0.5-0.4-0.3 for patient mortality; RR = 0.8-0.6-0.5 for graft mortality). In summary, despite an increased number of adverse risk factors, both patient and graft survivals have improved from 1984 to date.

  2. International kidney paired donation transplantations to increase kidney transplant of O group and highly sensitized patient: First report from India

    PubMed Central

    Kute, Vivek B; Patel, Himanshu V; Shah, Pankaj R; Modi, Pranjal R; Shah, Veena R; Rizvi, Sayyed J; Pal, Bipin C; Shah, Priya S; Wakhare, Pavan S; Shinde, Saiprasad G; Ghodela, Vijay A; Varyani, Umesh T; Patel, Minaxi H; Trivedi, Varsha B; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2017-01-01

    AIM To report the first international living related two way kidney paired donation (KPD) transplantation from India which occurred on 17th February 2015 after legal permission from authorization committee. METHODS Donor recipient pairs were from Portugal and India who were highly sensitized and ABO incompatible with their spouse respectively. The two donor recipient pairs had negative lymphocyte cross-matching, flow cross-match and donor specific antibody in two way kidney exchange with the intended KPD donor. Local KPD options were fully explored for Indian patient prior to embarking on international KPD. RESULTS Both pairs underwent simultaneous uneventful kidney transplant surgeries and creatinine was 1 mg/dL on tacrolimus based immunosuppression at 11 mo follow up. The uniqueness of these transplantations was that they are first international KPD transplantations in our center. CONCLUSION International KPD will increases quality and quantity of living donor kidney transplantation. This could be an important step to solving the kidney shortage with additional benefit of reduced costs, improved quality and increased access for difficult to match incompatible pairs like O blood group patient with non-O donor and sensitized patient. To the best of our knowledge this is first international KPD transplantation from India. PMID:28280697

  3. Recurrent atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome post kidney transplant due to a CD46 mutation in the setting of SMARCAL1-mediated inherited kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chan, Samuel; Mallett, Andrew J; Patel, Chirag; Francis, Ross S; Johnson, David W; Mudge, David W; Isbel, Nicole M

    2017-02-01

    Disorders in the regulation of the alternate complement pathway often result in complement-mediated damage to the microvascular endothelium and can be associated with both glomerulonephritis and atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Inherited defects in complement regulatory genes or autoantibodies against complement regulatory proteins are predictive of the severity of the disease and the risk of recurrence post kidney transplantation. Heterozygous mutations in CD46, which codes for a transmembrane cofactor glycoprotein membrane cofactor protein, usually have a lower incidence of end-stage kidney disease and decreased risk of recurrent disease post transplant, as wild-type membrane cofactor protein is present in the transplanted kidney. However, some patients with CD46 mutations have a second variant in other complement regulatory genes increasing the severity of disease. The following case report illustrates the course of a young adult patient with end-stage kidney disease initially ascribed to seronegative systemic lupus erythematosus, who presented with biopsy-proven thrombotic microangiopathy following kidney transplantation. It highlights the complexity associated with disorders of complement regulation and the need for a high index of suspicion and genetic testing in patients who present with thrombotic microangiopathy post-transplant.

  4. Racial/ethnic differences in cancer risk after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hall, E C; Segev, D L; Engels, E A

    2013-03-01

    Transplant recipients have elevated cancer risk, but it is unknown if cancer risk differs across race and ethnicity as in the general population. US kidney recipients (N = 87,895) in the Transplant Cancer Match Study between 1992 and 2008 were evaluated for racial/ethnic differences in risk for six common cancers after transplantation. Compared to white recipients, black recipients had lower incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 0.60, p<0.001) and higher incidence of kidney (aIRR 2.09, p<0.001) and prostate cancer (aIRR 2.14, p<0.001); Hispanic recipients had lower incidence of NHL (aIRR 0.64, p = 0.001), lung (aIRR 0.41, p < 0.001), breast (aIRR 0.53, p = 0.003) and prostate cancer (aIRR 0.72, p = 0.05). Colorectal cancer incidence was similar across groups. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) measured the effect of transplantation on cancer risk and were similar for most cancers (p≥0.1). However, black and Hispanic recipients had larger increases in kidney cancer risk with transplantation (SIRs: 8.96 in blacks, 5.95 in Hispanics vs. 4.44 in whites), and only blacks had elevated prostate cancer risk following transplantation (SIR: 1.21). Racial/ethnic differences in cancer risk after transplantation mirror general population patterns, except for kidney and prostate cancers where differences reflect the effects of end-stage renal disease or transplantation. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. Development of an Information Model for Kidney Transplant Wait List.

    PubMed

    Bircan, Hüseyin Yüce; Özçelik, Ümit; Uysal, Nida; Demirağ, Alp; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    Deceased-donor kidney transplant is unique among surgical procedures that are an urgent procedure performed in an elective population. It has not been possible to accurately determine when a given patient will be called for transplant. Patients on the active transplant list can be called for a transplant at any time. As a result, every effort must be made to optimize their health according to best practices and published clinical practice guidelines. Once the patient is placed on the transplant wait list after undergoing an initial extensive evaluation, continued surveillance is required. Therefore, we developed a kidney transplant wait list surveillance software program that alerts organ transplant coordinator on time regarding which patients need a work-up. The new designed software has a database of our waiting patients with their completed and pending controls. The software also has built-in functions to warn the responsible staff with an E-mail. If one of the controls of a recipient delayed, the software sends an automated E-mail to the staff regarding the patients delayed controls. The software is a Web application that works on any platform with a Web browser and Internet connection and allows access by multiple users. The software has been developed with NET platform. The database is SQL server. The software has the following functions: patient communication info, search, alert list, alert E-mail, control entry, and system management. As of January 2014, a total of 21 000 patients were registered on the National Kidney Transplant wait list in Turkey and the kidney transplant wait list had been expanding by 2000 to 3000 patients each year. Therefore computerized wait list programs are crucial to help to transplant centers to keep their patients up-to-date on time.

  6. Outcomes of preemptive kidney with or without subsequent pancreas transplant compared with preemptive simultaneous pancreas/kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Edmund; Wiseman, Alexander; Okumura, Sean; Kuo, Hung-Tien; Bunnapradist, Suphamai

    2011-11-27

    Prior studies have indicated that type 1 diabetic (T1DM) recipients of a simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplant have greater short-term mortality compared with living donor kidney (LDK) transplantation. Whether this association remains and how outcomes compare to deceased donor kidney (DDK) transplantation in the preemptive setting are unknown. Using data on recipients transplanted between 2000 and 2010 from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/United Network of Organ Sharing, patient and graft survival (calculated from the time of kidney transplant) of pancreas after preemptive LDK (PALK, n=389), preemptive LDK not receiving a pancreas transplant (LDK/noP, n=289), preemptive DDK (n=112), and preemptive SPK transplantations (n=1402) were compared. At 6 years, patient survival was excellent (PALK=89.4%, LDK/noP=84.9%, DDK=81.2%, and SPK=91.1%) and not different between PALK, LDK/noP, and SPK (P value vs. PALK: LDK/noP=0.08; SPK=0.85) but was lower with preemptive DDK versus preemptive PALK (P=0.03). When both LDK groups were considered together, there was higher mortality in the first 180 days after transplant with preemptive DDK (3.7% vs. 1.1%; P=0.03) and similar mortality with preemptive SPK (2.3%; P=0.07). After multivariate adjustment, there was a trend toward increased risk of death with preemptive DDK compared with preemptive PALK (hazard ratio: 1.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.95-3.84). Patient survival associated with preemptive transplantation among T1DM recipients was excellent at 6 years, with the greatest survival favoring PALK, LDK/noP, and SPK rather than DDK. In contrast with prior studies reporting greater short-term mortality with SPK among the general T1DM population, short-term mortality after preemptive transplant is similar between LDK and SPK.

  7. Diminishing Use of Liver Biopsy among Liver Transplant Recipients for Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Aby, Elizabeth; Jimenez, Melissa A; Grotts, Jonathan F; Agopian, Vatche; French, Samuel W; Busuttil, Ronald W; Saab, Sammy

    2017-09-28

    Background and Aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis is the leading indication for liver transplantation in the United States and recurrent HCV following liver transplantation is a major cause of allograft loss and mortality. Liver biopsies are commonly used to identify recurrent HCV and determine the need for antiviral therapy. The introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has changed the management of recurrent HCV infection. This study aimed to describe the role of liver biopsies in liver transplant recipients with HCV after the introduction of DAAs. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed looking at the rate of liver biopsies post-liver transplantation for HCV. The analysis included 475 adult liver transplants for hepatitis C performed at the University of California, Los Angeles from January 1, 2006 to October 1, 2015. Patients were divided into two eras, pre- and post-introduction of DAAs on December 1, 2013. Results: In the era before the introduction of DAAs, the percentage of patients biopsied was significantly higher compared to the era after the introduction of DAAs (56.1% vs. 26.9%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The introduction of DAAs has changed the management of liver biopsy following liver transplantation and the management of recurrent HCV. Given that DAAs are well tolerated and have high efficacy, liver biopsies are no longer routinely used to justify the use antiviral therapy following liver transplantation.

  8. Diminishing Use of Liver Biopsy among Liver Transplant Recipients for Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Aby, Elizabeth; Jimenez, Melissa A.; Grotts, Jonathan F.; Agopian, Vatche; French, Samuel W.; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Saab, Sammy

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis is the leading indication for liver transplantation in the United States and recurrent HCV following liver transplantation is a major cause of allograft loss and mortality. Liver biopsies are commonly used to identify recurrent HCV and determine the need for antiviral therapy. The introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has changed the management of recurrent HCV infection. This study aimed to describe the role of liver biopsies in liver transplant recipients with HCV after the introduction of DAAs. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed looking at the rate of liver biopsies post-liver transplantation for HCV. The analysis included 475 adult liver transplants for hepatitis C performed at the University of California, Los Angeles from January 1, 2006 to October 1, 2015. Patients were divided into two eras, pre- and post-introduction of DAAs on December 1, 2013. Results: In the era before the introduction of DAAs, the percentage of patients biopsied was significantly higher compared to the era after the introduction of DAAs (56.1% vs. 26.9%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The introduction of DAAs has changed the management of liver biopsy following liver transplantation and the management of recurrent HCV. Given that DAAs are well tolerated and have high efficacy, liver biopsies are no longer routinely used to justify the use antiviral therapy following liver transplantation. PMID:28936400

  9. Safety of Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Kidney Biopsy in Patients with AA Amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Altindal, Mahmut; Yildirim, Tolga; Turkmen, Ercan; Unal, Mucahit; Boga, Ilker; Yilmaz, Rahmi; Arici, Mustafa; Altun, Bulent; Erdem, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    Bleeding is the most frequent complication of kidney biopsy. Although bleeding risk in patients with AA amyloidosis after kidney biopsy has not been studied in a large population, AA amyloidosis has long been perceived as a risk factor for bleeding. The aim of the present study was to evaluate post-biopsy bleeding risk in patients with AA amyloidosis. We retrospectively analyzed bleeding complications in 88 patients with AA amyloidosis and 202 controls after percutaneous kidney biopsy. All the kidney biopsies were performed under the guidance of real-time ultrasound with the use of an automated core biopsy system after a standard pre-biopsy screening protocol. Bleeding events were classified as major when transfusion of blood products or surgical or radiological intervention was required, or if the bleeding caused hypovolemic shock or death. Bleeding events that did not meet these criteria were accepted as minor. The incidence of post-biopsy bleeding was comparable between AA amyloidosis and control groups (5.7 vs. 5.0%, p = 0.796). Major bleeding events were observed in 3 patients from each group (p = 0.372). Selective renal angiography and embolization were applied to 2 patients from the AA amyloidosis group. One of these patients underwent colectomy and died because of infectious complications. Bleeding events were minor in 2.3% of the patients with AA amyloidosis and 3.5% of the controls (p = 0.728). AA amyloidosis was not associated with increased post-biopsy bleeding risk. Kidney biopsy is safe in AA amyloidosis when standard pre-biopsy screening is applied. Further data are needed to confirm these findings. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Simultaneous Scalp, Skull, Kidney, and Pancreas Transplant from a Single Donor.

    PubMed

    Selber, Jesse C; Chang, Edward I; Clemens, Mark W; Gaber, Lilian; Hanasono, Matthew M; Klebuc, Michael; Skoracki, Roman J; Trask, Todd; Yu, Peirong; Gaber, A Osama

    2016-06-01

    Vascularized composite allotransplantation is an emerging field, but the complications of lifelong immunosuppression limit indications. Vascularized composite allotransplantation in solid organ recipients represents a unique opportunity because immunosuppression has already been accepted. This report of a simultaneous scalp, skull, kidney, and pancreas transplant represents both the first skull-scalp transplant and combination of a vascularized composite allotransplantation with double organ transplantation. A previous recipient of a kidney-pancreas transplant presented with osteoradionecrosis of the calvaria and a large area of unstable scalp following successful, curative treatment of a scalp tumor. His kidney and pancreas functions were also critically poor. A multidisciplinary, multi-institutional plan was developed to perform a simultaneous scalp, skull, and repeated kidney and pancreas transplantation, all from a single donor. Eighteen months after the patient was listed with the United Network for Organ Sharing, a donor was identified and the multiorgan vascularized composite allotransplantation was performed. Twenty physicians and 15 hours were required to perform donor and recipient procedures. The patient recovered well and was discharged on postoperative day 15. He has had one episode of scalp rejection confirmed by biopsy and treated successfully. His creatinine value is currently 0.8 mg/dl, from 5.0 mg/dl, and his blood glucose levels are normal without supplemental insulin. Aesthetic outcome is very satisfactory. The patient is now 1 year post-transplantation and doing well. Vascularized composite allotransplantation in solid organ recipients is an expansion of current indications to already immunosuppressed patients. Rejection of the vascularized composite allotransplant without solid organ rejection can occur and is treatable. Methodical planning, an interdisciplinary approach, and careful management of all organs are critical to success

  11. Molecular diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection in human kidney transplants.

    PubMed

    Sellarés, J; Reeve, J; Loupy, A; Mengel, M; Sis, B; Skene, A; de Freitas, D G; Kreepala, C; Hidalgo, L G; Famulski, K S; Halloran, P F

    2013-04-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection is the major cause of kidney transplant failure, but the histology-based diagnostic system misses most cases due to its requirement for C4d positivity. We hypothesized that gene expression data could be used to test biopsies for the presence of antibody-mediated rejection. To develop a molecular test, we prospectively assigned diagnoses, including C4d-negative antibody-mediated rejection, to 403 indication biopsies from 315 patients, based on histology (microcirculation lesions) and donor-specific HLA antibody. We then used microarray data to develop classifiers that assigned antibody-mediated rejection scores to each biopsy. The transcripts distinguishing antibody-mediated rejection from other conditions were mostly expressed in endothelial cells or NK cells, or were IFNG-inducible. The scores correlated with the presence of microcirculation lesions and donor-specific antibody. Of 45 biopsies with scores>0.5, 39 had been diagnosed as antibody-mediated rejection on the basis of histology and donor-specific antibody. High scores were also associated with unanimity among pathologists that antibody-mediated rejection was present. The molecular score also strongly predicted future graft loss in Cox regression analysis. We conclude that microarray assessment of gene expression can assign a probability of ABMR to transplant biopsies without knowledge of HLA antibody status, histology, or C4d staining, and predicts future failure.

  12. Severe antibody-mediated rejection following IVIG infusion in a kidney transplant recipient with BK-virus nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Mainra, R; Xu, Q; Chibbar, R; Hassan, A; Shoker, A

    2013-06-01

    Intravenous immune-globulin (IVIG) use in renal transplantation has increased, with common uses including desensitization, treatment of antibody mediated rejection and adjunctive therapy for BK virus nephropathy. Although considered generally safe, potential side effects can occur in up to 23% of patients including acute kidney injury. We present a case of an unexpected cause of acute kidney injury in a renal transplant recipient following IVIG infusion. A 48-year-old nonsensitized female with end stage renal disease secondary to polycystic kidney disease received a deceased donor kidney transplant. The initial post-transplant period was unremarkable however at three years post-transplant the patient develops BK virus nephropathy. Despite a reduction in immunosuppression, graft function worsened and IVIG infusion was commenced. Immediately following the IVIG infusion, the patient develops anuric acute kidney injury necessitating hemodialysis. Renal transplant biopsy performed before and after the IVIG infusion revealed the de novo development of acute antibody mediated rejection and donor specific antibodies in the serum. Anti-HLA and donor-specific antibodies were also confirmed in a diluted sample of the IVIG preparation. We argue that the anti-HLA antibodies present in the IVIG caused an acute antibody mediated rejection in this previously nonsensitized female.

  13. The global role of kidney transplantation for the world kidney day steering committee 2012.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcia, G; Harden, P; Chapman, J

    2012-01-01

    World Kidney Day on March 8th, 2012, provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end-stage kidney disease that surpasses dialysis treatments, both for the quality and quantity of life, that it provides and for its cost effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better, but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatment by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end-stage kidney disease include the economic limitations which, in some countries place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation and vaccination. Even in high-income countries the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited medical, surgical and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions which involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to deliver transplantation therapy to the one million people a year who have a right to benefit.

  14. The Global Role of Kidney Transplantation for the World Kidney Day Steering Committee 2012

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, G.; Harden, P.; Chapman, J.

    2012-01-01

    World Kidney Day on March 8th, 2012, provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end-stage kidney disease that surpasses dialysis treatments, both for the quality and quantity of life, that it provides and for its cost effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better, but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatment by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end-stage kidney disease include the economic limitations which, in some countries place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation and vaccination. Even in high-income countries the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited medical, surgical and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions which involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to deliver transplantation therapy to the one million people a year who have a right to benefit. PMID:25013617

  15. ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation: long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Kazunari; Ishida, Hideki; Inui, Masashi; Okumi, Masayoshi; Shirakawa, Hiroki; Shimizu, Tomokazu; Omoto, Kazuya; Kondo, Tsunenori

    2013-01-01

    In the past 20 years, over 2,000 cases of ABO-incompatible living kidney transplantation (ABO-ILKT) have been performed in Japan, expanding the donor pool and overcoming the serious shortage of organ donors. Overall long-term outcomes (>20 years) have been excellent and almost identical to the outcomes of ABO-compatible living kidney transplantation (ABO-CLKT). In the last decade, ABO-ILKT has become accepted as a therapeutic alternative for end-stage renal failure. Recently, approximately 30% of all living donor kidney transplantations in Japan have been ABO-ILKT. In the 1990s, desensitization included preoperative plasmapheresis, splenectomy, and heavy immunosuppression that caused surgical and medical stress on patients and a higher cost than that needed for ABO-CLKT for the preoperative conditioning. However, since 2000, rituximab has replaced splenectomy making ABO-ILKT much easier. It is also less stressful for patients. In the last decade, outcomes have improved significantly and 5- and 10-year graft survival have reached 95% and 90%, respectively-identical to, or even better than outcomes of ABO-CLKT. Our current preconditioning includes plasmapheresis 0-2 times, rituximab injection, and regular immunosuppression. Neither intravenous immunoglobulin nor prophylactic plasmapheresis is used after transplantation. ABO-ILKT is a standard option for kidney transplantation requiring minimal preconditioning and regular immunosuppression after transplantation. It now provides an excellent long-term (>20 years) outcome.

  16. Adverse Outcomes of Tacrolimus Withdrawal in Immune-Quiescent Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Hricik, Donald E; Formica, Richard N; Nickerson, Peter; Rush, David; Fairchild, Robert L; Poggio, Emilio D; Gibson, Ian W; Wiebe, Chris; Tinckam, Kathryn; Bunnapradist, Suphamai; Samaniego-Picota, Milagros; Brennan, Daniel C; Schröppel, Bernd; Gaber, Osama; Armstrong, Brian; Ikle, David; Diop, Helena; Bridges, Nancy D; Heeger, Peter S

    2015-12-01

    Concerns about adverse effects of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) have prompted development of protocols that minimize their use. Whereas previous CNI withdrawal trials in heterogeneous cohorts showed unacceptable rates of acute rejection (AR), we hypothesized that we could identify individuals capable of tolerating CNI withdrawal by targeting immunologically quiescent kidney transplant recipients. The Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-09 Trial was a randomized, prospective study of nonsensitized primary recipients of living donor kidney transplants. Subjects received rabbit antithymocyte globulin, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. Six months post-transplantation, subjects without de novo donor-specific antibodies (DSAs), AR, or inflammation at protocol biopsy were randomized to wean off or remain on tacrolimus. The intended primary end point was the change in interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy score between implantation and 24-month protocol biopsies. Serially collected urine CXCL9 ELISA results were correlated with outcomes. The study was terminated prematurely because of unacceptable rates of AR (4 of 14) and/or de novo DSAs (5 of 14) in the tacrolimus withdrawal arm. Positive urinary CXCL9 predated clinical detection of AR by a median of 15 days. Analyses showed that >16 HLA-DQ epitope mismatches and pretransplant, peripheral blood, donor-reactive IFN-γ ELISPOT assay results correlated with development of DSAs and/or AR on tacrolimus withdrawal. Although data indicate that urinary CXCL9 monitoring, epitope mismatches, and ELISPOT assays are potentially informative, complete CNI withdrawal must be strongly discouraged in kidney transplant recipients who are receiving standard-of-care immunosuppression, including those who are deemed to be immunologically quiescent on the basis of current clinical and laboratory criteria.

  17. Molecular Classifiers for Acute Kidney Transplant Rejection in Peripheral Blood by Whole Genome Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, S. M.; Williams, A. N.; Gelbart, T.; Campbell, D.; Mondala, T. S.; Head, S. R.; Horvath, S.; Gaber, L.; Thompson, R.; Whisenant, T.; Lin, W.; Langfelder, P.; Robison, E. H.; Schaffer, R. L.; Fisher, J. S.; Friedewald, J.; Flechner, S. M.; Chan, L. K.; Wiseman, A. C.; Shidban, H.; Mendez, R.; Heilman, R.; Abecassis, M. M.; Marsh, C. L.; Salomon, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    There are no minimally invasive diagnostic metrics for acute kidney transplant rejection (AR), especially in the setting of the common confounding diagnosis, acute dysfunction with no rejection (ADNR). Thus, though kidney transplant biopsies remain the gold standard, they are invasive, have substantial risks, sampling error issues and significant costs and are not suitable for serial monitoring. Global gene expression profiles of 148 peripheral blood samples from transplant patients with excellent function and normal histology (TX; n = 46), AR (n = 63) and ADNR (n = 39), from two independent cohorts were analyzed with DNA microarrays. We applied a new normalization tool, frozen robust multi-array analysis, particularly suitable for clinical diagnostics, multiple prediction tools to discover, refine and validate robust molecular classifiers and we tested a novel one-by-one analysis strategy to model the real clinical application of this test. Multiple three-way classifier tools identified 200 highest value probesets with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and area under the curve for the validation cohort ranging from 82% to 100%, 76% to 95%, 76% to 95%, 79% to 100%, 84% to 100% and 0.817 to 0.968, respectively. We conclude that peripheral blood gene expression profiling can be used as a minimally invasive tool to accurately reveal TX, AR and ADNR in the setting of acute kidney transplant dysfunction. PMID:24725967

  18. Changing Paradigms in the Management of Rejection in Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Mirela; Takano, Tomoko; Sapir-Pichhadze, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: P4 medicine denotes an evolving field of medicine encompassing predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory medicine. Using the example of kidney allograft rejection because of donor-recipient incompatibility in human leukocyte antigens, this review outlines P4 medicine’s relevance to the various stages of the kidney transplant cycle. Sources of information: A search for English articles was conducted in Medline via OvidSP (up to August 18, 2016) using a combination of subject headings (MeSH) and free text in titles, abstracts, and author keywords for the concepts kidney transplantation and P4 medicine. The electronic database search was expanded further on particular subject headings. Findings: Available histocompatibility methods exemplify current applications of the predictive and preventive domains of P4 medicine in kidney transplant recipients’ care. Pharmacogenomics are discussed as means to facilitate personalized immunosuppression regimens and promotion of active patient participation as a means to improve adherence. Limitations: For simplicity, this review focuses on rejection. P4 medicine, however, should more broadly address health concerns in kidney transplant recipients, including competing outcomes such as infections, malignancies, and cardiovascular disease. This review highlights how biomarkers to evaluate these competing outcomes warrant validation and standardization prior to their incorporation into clinical practice. Implications: Consideration of all 4 domains of the P4 medicine framework when caring for and/or studying kidney transplant recipients has the potential of increasing therapeutic efficiency, minimizing adverse effects, decreasing health care costs, and maximizing wellness. Technologies to gauge immune competency, immunosuppression requirements, and early/reversible immune-mediated injuries are required to optimize kidney transplant care. PMID:28270929

  19. Past, present and future of kidney paired donation transplantation in India

    PubMed Central

    Kute, Vivek B; Patel, Himanshu V; Shah, Pankaj R; Modi, Pranjal R; Shah, Veena R; Rizvi, Sayyed J; Pal, Bipin C; Modi, Manisha P; Shah, Priya S; Varyani, Umesh T; Wakhare, Pavan S; Shinde, Saiprasad G; Ghodela, Vijay A; Patel, Minaxi H; Trivedi, Varsha B; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2017-01-01

    One third of healthy willing living kidney donors are rejected due to ABO blood group incompatibility and donor specific antibody. This increases pre-transplant dialysis duration leading to increased morbidity and mortality on the kidney transplantation waiting list. Over the last decade kidney paired donation is most rapidly increased source of living kidney donors. In a kidney transplantation program dominated by living donor kidney transplantation, kidney paired donation is a legal and valid alternative strategy to increase living donor kidney transplantation. This is more useful in countries with limited resources where ABO incompatible kidney transplantation or desensitization protocol is not feasible because of costs/infectious complications and deceased donor kidney transplantation is in initial stages. The matching allocation, ABO blood type imbalance, reciprocity, simultaneity, geography were the limitation for the expansion of kidney paired donation. Here we describe different successful ways to increase living donor kidney transplantation through kidney paired donation. Compatible pairs, domino chain, combination of kidney paired donation with desensitization or ABO incompatible transplantation, international kidney paired donation, non-simultaneous, extended, altruistic donor chain and list exchange are different ways to expand the donor pool. In absence of national kidney paired donation program, a dedicated kidney paired donation team will increase access to living donor kidney transplantation in individual centres with team work. Use of social networking sites to expand donor pool, HLA based national kidney paired donation program will increase quality and quantity of kidney paired donation transplantation. Transplant centres should remove the barriers to a broader implementation of multicentre, national kidney paired donation program to further optimize potential of kidney paired donation to increase transplantation of O group and sensitized

  20. Health Literacy, Knowledge, and Patient Satisfaction Before Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jones, J; Rosaasen, N; Taylor, J; Mainra, R; Shoker, A; Blackburn, D; Wilson, J; Mansell, H

    2016-10-01

    Poor health literacy is associated with inferior outcomes in kidney transplant recipients, and knowledge remains suboptimal in this population. The goal of this study was to characterize the health literacy, kidney transplant knowledge, medication beliefs, and education satisfaction in a cohort of patients waiting to undergo kidney transplantation. All patients on the wait-list in 1 Canadian center were invited to participate in the study. A research assistant administered the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults and its numeracy section, the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, the Kidney Transplant Understanding Tool, and questions regarding satisfaction. Descriptive and univariate statistics were calculated between demographic variables and the assessments. Thirty-nine percent of patients (41 of 106) patients participated in the study. Overall, 95% and 86% were defined as having adequate health literacy and numeracy, respectively. The mean score on the Kidney Transplant Understanding Tool was 79%, and the majority (97.4%) had strong beliefs regarding the necessity of medication and little concern about adverse effects (73.8%). Participants with higher literacy scores had increased knowledge (r = 0.52; P = .05), understanding of why antirejection pills are necessary (r = 0.38; P = .05), and confidence about taking posttransplant medications (r = 0.32; P = .05). Overall, 30.7% were unsatisfied with their education regarding medications, and 22.5% were unsatisfied with what to expect after the transplant. Before transplantation, health literacy, transplant knowledge, and scores on the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire were high in this cohort of patients. However, patient satisfaction regarding educational content remained suboptimal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Coronary risk assessment and management options in chronic kidney disease patients prior to kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Vanji; Ananthasubramaniam, Karthik

    2009-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the most important cause of morbidity and mortality among kidney transplant recipients. Nearly half the deaths in transplanted patients are attributed to cardiac causes and almost 5% of these deaths occur within the first year after transplantation. The ideal strategies to screen for coronary artery disease (CAD) in chronic kidney disease patients who are evaluated for kidney transplantation (KT) remain controversial. The American Society of Transplantation recommends that patients with diabetes, prior history of ischemic heart disease or an abnormal ECG, or age >/=50 years should be considered as high-risk for CAD and referred for a cardiac stress test and only those with a positive stress test, for coronary angiography. Despite these recommendations, vast variations exist in the way these patients are screened for CAD at different transplant centers. The sensitivity and specificity of noninvasive cardiac tests in CKD patients is much lower than that in the general population. This has prompted the use of direct diagnostic cardiac catheterization in high-risk patients in several transplant centers despite the risks associated with this invasive procedure. No large randomized controlled trials exist to date that address these issues. In this article, we review the existing literature with regards to the available data on cardiovascular risk screening and management options in CKD patients presenting for kidney transplantation and outline a strategy for approach to these patients.

  2. Biopsies

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Biopsies - Overview A biopsy is the removal of tissue ... What are the limitations of biopsies? What are biopsies? A biopsy is the removal of tissue in ...

  3. Understanding Trends in Kidney Function 1 Year after Kidney Transplant in the United States.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yihung; Tilea, Anca; Gillespie, Brenda; Shahinian, Vahakn; Banerjee, Tanushree; Grubbs, Vanessa; Powe, Neil; Rios-Burrows, Nilka; Pavkov, Meda; Saran, Rajiv

    2017-03-07

    Lower eGFR 1 year after kidney transplant is associated with shorter allograft and patient survival. We examined how practice changes in the past decade correlated with time trends in average eGFR at 1 year after kidney transplant in the United States in a cohort of 189,944 patients who received a kidney transplant between 2001 and 2013. We calculated the average eGFR at 1 year after transplant for the recipient cohort of each year using the appropriate Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation depending on the prevailing methodology of creatinine measurement, and used linear regression to model the effects of practice changes on the national post-transplant eGFR trend. Between the 2001-2005 period and the 2011-2013 period, average 1-year post-transplant eGFR remained essentially unchanged, with differences of 1.34 (95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.65) ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and 0.66 (95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 1.01) ml/min per 1.73 m(2) among deceased and living donor kidney transplant recipients, respectively. Over time, the mean age of recipients increased and more marginal organs were used; adjusting for these trends unmasked a larger temporal improvement in post-transplant eGFR. However, changes in immunosuppression practice had a positive effect on average post-transplant eGFR and balanced out the negative effect of recipient/donor characteristics. In conclusion, average 1-year post-transplant eGFR remained stable, despite increasingly unfavorable attributes in recipients and donors. With an aging ESRD population and continued organ shortage, preservation of average post-transplant eGFR will require sustained improvement in immunosuppression and other aspects of post-transplant care.

  4. Donor cancer transmission in kidney transplantation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xiao, D; Craig, J C; Chapman, J R; Dominguez-Gil, B; Tong, A; Wong, G

    2013-10-01

    Transplantation of any biological material from a donor to a host will carry some inherent risk of disease transmission. Our aims were to summarize the totality of the published evidence about donor cancer transmission among kidney transplant recipients and to determine the cancer-specific survival of these patients. We systematically reviewed all case reports, case series and registry studies that described the outcomes of kidney transplant recipients with donor cancer transmission published to December 2012. A total of 69 studies with 104 donor-transmitted cancer cases were identified. The most common transmitted cancer types were renal cancer (n = 20, 19%), followed by melanoma (n = 18, 17%), lymphoma (n = 15, 14%) and lung cancer (n = 9, 9%). Patients with melanoma and lung cancers had the worst prognosis, with less than 50% of recipients surviving after 24 months from transplantation. Recipients with transmitted renal cancers had the best outcomes, with over 70% of recipients surviving for at least 24 months after transplantation. Overall, the risk of donor transmission of cancer appears low, but there is a high likelihood of reporting bias. Our findings support the current recommendations for rejecting organs from donors with a history of melanoma and lung cancer, but suggest that the use of donor kidneys with a history of small, incidental renal cell cancer may be reasonable. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. [METHODS FOR DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES TO HLA ANTIGENS IN PATIENTS AWAITING KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION AND COMBINED PANCREAS-KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION].

    PubMed

    Ančić, Mirela; Maravić, Blaženko; Radman, Maja; Kovačić, Vedran

    2014-12-01

    The best possibility to treat chronic renal disease is renal transplantation. Especially important fact in transplantation is the percentage of so-called panel reactive antibody (PRA) that is focused on the human leukocyte antigen. There are several methods to determine the percentage of PRA in sensitized patients awaiting kidney transplants. The most important is the complement-dependent cytotoxicity. A higher value of PRA implies greater likelihood of positive cross-match with random donor and lower probability of receiving a transplant. Comparing the sensitivity of laboratory tests for determination of PRA percentage in patient serum, it is concluded that ELISA and flow cytometry proved to be more sensitive and specific.

  6. The transplant team's support of kidney transplant recipients to take their prescribed medications: a collective responsibility.

    PubMed

    Williams, Allison; Low, Jac Kee; Manias, Elizabeth; Crawford, Kimberley

    2016-08-01

    To obtain an understanding of how health professionals support the kidney transplant patient to take their medications as prescribed long term. Kidney transplantation requires stringent adherence to complex medication regimens to prevent graft rejection and to maintain general well-being. Medication nonadherence is common in kidney transplantation, emerging in the first few months post-transplantation, leading to poor patient outcomes. Exploratory qualitative design. Five focus groups were conducted with a total of seven renal nurse transplant coordinators, two renal transplant nurse unit managers, seven nephrologists, seven pharmacists, four social workers, and one consumer representative representing all five hospitals offering adult kidney transplantation in Victoria, Australia in 2014. The views of two general practitioners who were unable to attend the focus groups were incorporated into the data set. All data underwent thematic analysis. Analysis revealed that adherence was a collective responsibility involving the whole of the transplant team and the patient via education blitz in hospital, identifying and managing nonadherence, promotion of self-advocacy, and the partnership between the patient and health professional. Patients were directed how to take their complex medications to be self-empowered, yet the partnership between the patient and health professional limited the patient's voice. Although medication adherence was a collective responsibility, communication was often one-way chiefly as a result of staffing and time constraints, hindering effective partnerships necessary for medication adherence. Expert skills in communication and adherence counselling are necessary to identify barriers affecting medication adherence. Patients need to be systematically screened, prepared and supported long-term within an accommodating healthcare system for the reality of caring for their transplanted kidney. Kidney transplant recipients require systematic

  7. Transplant tourism: Outcomes of United States residents who undergo kidney transplantation overseas.

    PubMed

    Canales, Muna T; Kasiske, Bertram L; Rosenberg, Mark E

    2006-12-27

    Although international commerce in kidney transplantation is a reality, little is known about U.S. residents who travel abroad for kidney transplantation. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes of patients who were evaluated at the University of Minnesota Medical Center or Hennepin County Medical Center, but then surreptitiously underwent kidney transplantation overseas. We identified 10 patients who underwent kidney transplantation outside the United States between September 16, 2002 and June 30, 2006 and then returned for care in our programs. Eight were transplanted in Pakistan (all Somali), one was transplanted in China (Chinese), and one was transplanted in Iran (Iranian). All but one had a living donor. Mean age was 36.8+/-12.5 years with median follow-up of 2.0 years (range 0.4-3.7). Three patients communicated their intent to travel abroad before transplantation. Induction immunosuppressive therapy (if any) was available in 3/10, and initial maintenance immunosuppression was known in 5/10. Complications were primarily infectious, with six potentially life-threatening infections in four patients. At last follow-up, mean serum creatinine was 1.13+/-0.34 mg/dL, acute rejection occurred in 2/10, 1/10 grafts failed due to acute rejection, and 9/10 patients were alive. Kidney function and graft survival were generally good after surreptitious overseas kidney transplantation. Major problems included incomplete perioperative information communicated to the posttransplant care facility and a high incidence of posttransplant infections. Longer follow-up and detailed cost analysis are needed to better understand the implications of the growing phenomenon of transplant tourism.

  8. Living Donor Kidney Transplantation: Improving Education Outside of Transplant Centers about Live Donor Transplantation--Recommendations from a Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Amy D; Morgievich, Marie; Cohen, David J; Butt, Zeeshan; Chakkera, Harini A; Lindower, Carrie; Hays, Rebecca E; Hiller, Janet M; Lentine, Krista L; Matas, Arthur J; Poggio, Emilio D; Rees, Michael A; Rodrigue, James R; LaPointe Rudow, Dianne

    2015-09-04

    Living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) offers better quality of life and clinical outcomes, including patient survival, compared with remaining on dialysis or receiving a deceased donor kidney transplant. Although LDKT education within transplant centers for both potential recipients and living donors is very important, outreach and education to kidney patients in settings other than transplant centers and to the general public is also critical to increase access to this highly beneficial treatment. In June 2014, the American Society of Transplantation's Live Donor Community of Practice, with the support of 10 additional sponsors, convened a consensus conference to determine best practices in LDKT, including a workgroup focused on developing a set of recommendations for optimizing outreach and LDKT education outside of transplant centers. Members of this workgroup performed a structured literature review, conducted teleconference meetings, and met in person at the 2-day conference. Their efforts resulted in consensus around the following recommendations. First, preemptive transplantation should be promoted through increased LDKT education by primary care physicians and community nephrologists. Second, dialysis providers should be trained to educate their own patients about LDKT and deceased donor kidney transplantation. Third, partnerships between community organizations, organ procurement organizations, religious organizations, and transplant centers should be fostered to support transplantation. Fourth, use of technology should be improved or expanded to better educate kidney patients and their support networks. Fifth, LDKT education and outreach should be improved for kidney patients in rural areas. Finally, a consensus-driven, evidence-based public message about LDKT should be developed. Discussion of the effect and potential for implementation around each recommendation is featured, particularly regarding reducing racial and socioeconomic disparities in

  9. Role of Bone Biopsy in Stages 3 to 4 Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gal-Moscovici, Anca; Sprague, Stuart M.

    2008-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism develops relatively early in chronic kidney disease as a consequence of impaired phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D homeostasis. The disease state in chronic kidney disease, which includes the histologic features of bone disease, defined as renal osteodystrophy, and the hormonal and biochemical disturbances, have recently been redefined as a disease syndrome and is referred to as “chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder.” As chronic kidney disease progresses, specific histologic disturbances in the bone develop, which may or may not be predictable from the biochemical and hormonal changes that are associated with chronic kidney disease. In addition, patients may have had underlying bone disease before developing kidney failure or may have been treated with agents that will alter the classical pathologic findings of the bones in chronic kidney disease and their relation to parathyroid hormone. Thus, in stage 5 chronic kidney disease, bone biopsy with quantitative histomorphometric analysis is considered the gold standard in the diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy. In contrast to stage 5 chronic kidney disease, there are very few data on the histologic changes in bone in earlier stages of chronic kidney disease. There also is no adequate information on the etiopathogenesis of bone disease in stages 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease. Thus, because biochemical data cannot predict bone pathology in stages 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease, bone biopsy should be used to define these bone changes and to allow appropriate therapeutic approaches. PMID:18988703

  10. Postoperative acute kidney injury in living donor liver transplantation recipients.

    PubMed

    Atalan, Hakan K; Gucyetmez, Bulent; Aslan, Serdar; Yazar, Serafettin; Polat, Kamil Y

    2017-09-05

    There are many risk factors for postoperative acute kidney injury in liver transplantation. The aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors for postoperative acute kidney injury in living donor liver transplantation recipients. 220 living donor liver transplantation recipients were retrospectively evaluated in the study. According to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes Guidelines, acute kidney injury in postoperative day 7 was investigated for all patients. The patient's demographic data, preoperative and intraoperative parameters, and outcomes were recorded. Acute kidney injury was found in 27 (12.3%) recipients. In recipients with acute kidney injury, female population, model for end-stage liver disease score, norepinephrine requirement, duration of mean arterial pressure less than 60 mmHg, the usage of gelatin and erythrocyte suspension and blood loss were significantly higher than recipients with nonacute kidney injury (for all p<0.05). In multivariate analyses, the likelihood of acute kidney injury on postoperative day 7 were increased 2.8-fold (1.1-7.0), 2.7-fold (1.02-7.3), 3.4-fold (1.2-9.9) and 5.1-fold (1.7-15.0) by postoperative day 7, serum tacrolimus level ≥10.2 ng dL-1, intraoperative blood loss ≥14.5 mL kg-1, the usage of gelatin >5 mL kg-1 and duration of MAP less than 60 mmHg ≥5.5 minutes respectively (for all p<0.05). In living donor liver transplantation recipients, serum tacrolimus levels, intraoperative blood loss, hypotension period and the usage of gelatin may be risk factors for acute kidney injury in the early postoperative period.

  11. Optimising expanded donor organs through dual kidney transplantation: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Frutos, Miguel Á; Mansilla, Juan J; Cabello, Mercedes; Soler, Jorge; Ruiz, Pilar; Lebron, Miguel; Baena, Víctor; Hernández, Domingo

    2012-05-14

    In order to take full advantage of ECD kidneys, which may not provide sufficient renal mass if used individually, it has been suggested that such organs be used in dual or bilateral kidney transplantation (DTx). We analysed the experience in a single hospital between May 2007 and March 2011 in a case-control study. Criteria for determining whether to perform single or dual Tx were defined in a protocol in which the biopsy score was important, but not the only factor. Donor's age, medical history, kidney size and creatinine clearance were also considered. During this time period, 80 kidneys from donors over age 65 were transplanted. Single transplants (STx) accounted for 40 of the organs, and another 40 were used in DTx. Mean donor age for STx was 68.7 ± 3.0 years; for DTx, it was 74.2 ± 4.3 years (P<.001), with more female donors for DTx (75%) than for STx (40%) (P<.001). There were no differences between groups with regard to glomerular filtration rate or proteinuria. Kidneys assigned to DTx received higher biopsy scores than those assigned to STx (2.95 ± 1.01 vs 1.8 ± 1.04; P<.001). DTx recipients were older than STx recipients. There were no differences between the groups regarding cold ischaemia time, delayed graft function, haemorrhagic complications or re-surgeries. However, DTx recipients achieved better creatinine clearance at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, although the difference was only statistically significant at 6 months (53.4 ± 19.5ml/min vs 44.5 ± 15.6ml/min; P<.05). Renal artery thrombosis appeared in 2 STx patients and in both kidneys of 1 DTx patient. Another 2 patients in the DTx group each lost 1 kidney due to thrombosis and ureteral necrosis respectively, but were able to remain dialysis-free. Graft survival at 3 years was 90% for both groups. During the study period 3 patients died (2 in the STx group and 1 in the DTx group). Our preliminary experience indicates that DTx provides good results in terms of survival and renal function data

  12. Histopathology of post-transplant liver biopsies, the first report from iran.

    PubMed

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Motevalli, Dorna; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Malek Hosseini, Seyed Ali

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of a transplanted liver by Imaging techniques and enzyme changes is sensitive to hepatocellular or biliary problems, but in most instances liver allograft biopsies are performed in order to find out the final reason for these changes. It's been about 17 years (with more than 1326 cases) since the first liver transplantation in the Namazi Hospital of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences while during the last five years the number of post liver transplant biopsies have increased. Until now there has been no report of the pathological results of post liver transplant needle biopsies from Iran. During the last 5 years, there have been 382 post liver transplant biopsies. We studied the clinical charts and pathological results of all needle biopsies. A total of 382 needle biopsies were performed on 287 patients aged between 1 and 64 years old. The earliest specimen was obtained within the first few hours following transplantation, and the last was gathered 3209 days (261 ± 523) post-transplantation. Acute rejection was the most common diagnosis, which occurred in 180 (47%) of specimens. Among other complications were vascular problems (8.6%), preservation/reperfusion (I/R) injury (7%), chronic rejection (5.2%), biliary injury/obstruction (3.4%), recurrence of primary disease (2.6%), drug-induced hepatic injury (1.8%), cirrhosis (1.6%), sepsis (1.4%), cytomegalovirus hepatitis (1.4%), post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease (1%) and Venous outflow obstruction (0.5%). The most common pathological diagnosis of post-transplant liver needle biopsies has been acute rejection, followed by ischemia due to hepatic artery thrombosis, preservation/reperfusion injury, and chronic rejection.

  13. Pilot feasibility research of Chinese version of kidney transplant questionnaire in recipients of living donor kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yujian; Zhang, Wenxin; Mao, Sha; Gao, Yanhong; Wang, Jianli; Li, Jun; Wang, Letian; Guan, Zhaojie; Shen, Zhongyang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of the Chinese version of Kidney Transplant Questionnaire (KTQ) by evaluating the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese recipients of living donor kidney transplantation. Methods: The English version of KTQ was translated into Chinese and underwent cultural adaptation to obtain the Chinese version of KTQ. HRQoL of 136 Chinese recipients of living donor kidney transplantation that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated to assess the validity and reliability of the questionnaire. Results: One hundred and thirty-six recipients (98 males and 38 females) of living donor kidney transplantation were included. The mean age of the recipients was 43.91 years. For each dimension of the questionnaire, the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.7-0.9, test-retest reliability coefficient ≥0.7, goodness of fit index (GFI) >0.9, and comparative fitness index (CFI) >0.9. Conclusion: The validity and reliability of the Chinese version of KTQ is similar to the English version, suggesting that the Chinese version of KTQ could be applied as a disease-specific questionnaire to evaluate the HRQoL of the recipients of living donor kidney transplantation in China. PMID:26885244

  14. Pilot feasibility research of Chinese version of kidney transplant questionnaire in recipients of living donor kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yujian; Zhang, Wenxin; Mao, Sha; Gao, Yanhong; Wang, Jianli; Li, Jun; Wang, Letian; Guan, Zhaojie; Shen, Zhongyang

    2015-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of the Chinese version of Kidney Transplant Questionnaire (KTQ) by evaluating the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese recipients of living donor kidney transplantation. The English version of KTQ was translated into Chinese and underwent cultural adaptation to obtain the Chinese version of KTQ. HRQoL of 136 Chinese recipients of living donor kidney transplantation that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated to assess the validity and reliability of the questionnaire. One hundred and thirty-six recipients (98 males and 38 females) of living donor kidney transplantation were included. The mean age of the recipients was 43.91 years. For each dimension of the questionnaire, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.7-0.9, test-retest reliability coefficient ≥0.7, goodness of fit index (GFI) >0.9, and comparative fitness index (CFI) >0.9. The validity and reliability of the Chinese version of KTQ is similar to the English version, suggesting that the Chinese version of KTQ could be applied as a disease-specific questionnaire to evaluate the HRQoL of the recipients of living donor kidney transplantation in China.

  15. Pre-transplant immune state defined by serum markers and alloreactivity predicts acute rejection after living donor kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vondran, Florian W R; Timrott, Kai; Kollrich, Sonja; Steinhoff, Ann-Kristin; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Schrem, Harald; Klempnauer, Juergen; Lehner, Frank; Schwinzer, Reinhard

    2014-09-01

    Acute rejection (AR) remains a major cause for long-term kidney allograft failure. Reliable immunological parameters suitable to define the pre-transplant immune state and hence the individual risk of graft rejection are highly desired to preferably adapt the immunosuppressive regimen in advance. Donor and third party alloreactivities were determined by mixed lymphocyte cultures. Soluble forms of CD25, CD30, and CD44 were detected in patients' serum by ELISA. Various lymphocyte subpopulations were measured using flow cytometry. All patients received triple immunosuppression (tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil/steroids) and were grouped according to biopsy results within the first year: rejection-free (RF, n = 13), borderline (BL, n = 5), or acute rejection (AR, n = 7). Patients with AR showed the highest pre-transplant alloreactivities and serum levels (sCD25/sCD30/sCD44) according to the pattern RF < BL < AR. Relying on serum analysis only, multivariate logistic regression (logit link function) yielded a prognostic score for prediction of rejection with 75.0% sensitivity and 69.2% specificity. Patients with rejection showed markedly higher pre-transplant frequencies of CD4(+) /CD8(+) T cells lacking CD28, but lower numbers of CD8(+) CD161(bright) T cells and NK cells than RF individuals. Pre-transplant immune state defined by alloreactivity, serum markers, and particular lymphocyte subsets seems to correlate with occurrence of graft rejection after kidney transplantation. A prognostic score based on pre-transplant serum levels has shown great potential for prediction of rejection episodes and should be further evaluated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Impact of Repeated Mismatches in Kidney Transplantations Performed After Non-Renal Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Côté, J M; Zhang, X; Dahhou, M; Sapir-Picchadze, R; Foster, B; Cardinal, H

    2017-09-11

    The aim of this study was to determine whether kidney transplantations performed after previous non-renal solid organ transplants are associated with worse graft survival when there are repeated HLA mismatches (RMM) with the previous donor(s). We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. Our cohort comprised 6, 624 kidney transplantations performed between January 1(st) 1990 and January 1(st) , 2015. All patients had previously received one or more non-renal solid organ transplants. RMM were observed in 35.3% of kidney transplantations and 3, 012 grafts were lost over a median follow-up of 5.4 years. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, we found no association between overall graft survival and either RMM in class 1 (hazard ratio (HR): 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-1.07) or class 2 (HR: 0.95, 95% CI 0.85- 1.06). Results were similar for the associations between RMM, death-censored graft survival and patient survival. Our results suggest that the presence of RMM with previous donor(s) does not have an important impact on allograft survival in kidney transplant recipients who have previously received a non-renal solid organ transplant. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of pre-transplant dialysis on simultaneous pancreas-kidney versus living donor kidney transplant outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Alexander C; Huang, Edmund; Kamgar, Mandana; Bunnapradist, Suphamai

    2013-04-01

    Pre-transplant dialysis is known to affect kidney graft survival. Here, we report the impact of pre-transplant dialysis on patient and graft survival of type 1 diabetic recipients of either a simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) or living donor kidney (LDK) transplant. Using the Organ Procurement Transplant Network/United Network for Organ Sharing (OPTN/UNOS) database, 6822 adult type 1 diabetic recipients transplanted through 2000-2011 were identified. Patients were categorized based on pre-transplant dialysis time (DT): preemptive recipients (P-LDK, n = 498; P-SPK, n = 1529), recipients with <1 year of DT (0-1 year DT; LDK n = 582, SPK n = 1700), and those with 1-2 years DT (1-2 year DT; LDK n = 301, SPK n = 2212). Seven-year patient and kidney survival were examined. Compared with the P-SPK group, both 0-1 year DT and 1-2 year DT SPK recipients had lower 7-year patient survival (89, 84 & 84% respectively; log-rank P-value versus P-SPK = 0.01 & <0.001). For LDK groups, DT > 1 year was associated with inferior patient survival (7-year survival 76% versus 87% for P-LDK, P-value versus P-LDK = 0.009). Comparing P-LDK to all other SPK groups, there was no significant difference in 7-year patient or kidney survival. Preemptive transplantation is associated with the highest patient survival in both LDK and SPK. Compared with the P-LDK group, DT > 1 year is associated with lower patient survival among LDK recipients, but there is no difference in survival with dialysis up to 2 years with SPK. These results highlight the differential impact of DT on LDK and SPK transplantation.

  18. Effect of transient post-transplantation hyperglycemia on the development of diabetes mellitus and transplantation outcomes in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Park, S-C; Yoon, Y-D; Jung, H-Y; Kim, K-H; Choi, J-Y; Park, S-H; Kim, C-D; Kim, Y-L; Kim, H-K; Huh, S; Cho, J-H

    2015-04-01

    Hyperglycemia occurs frequently after kidney transplantation and may be reversed when the dosage of the immunosuppressive agents is tapered. However, the effect of transient post-transplantation hyperglycemia (PTH) on transplantation outcomes is not well described. Kidney transplant recipients without diabetes who underwent kidney transplantation between 2001 and 2012 were enrolled in the study. Transient PTH was defined as recovery from PTH without further antidiabetic therapy and the maintenance of glycated hemoglobin levels <6.5% at 1 year after transplantation. Persistent PTH until 1 year after transplantation was considered to be new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). The factors associated with increased risk of PTH were analyzed. We compared the development of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and other transplantation outcomes among patients with no PTH, transient PTH, and NODAT. Among 176 kidney transplant recipients, 106 (60.2%) developed PTH and 58 (54.7%) of 106 patients with PTH had transient PTH. Older age, high body mass index (BMI), and female gender were independent risk factors for transient PTH. The incidence of diabetes was not significantly different between patients with no PTH and those with transient PTH. The incidence of cardiovascular disease was significantly increased in NODAT group compared with that in no PTH and transient PTH groups. However, the incidences of acute rejection, allograft loss, and patient death were comparable among the three groups. Transient hyperglycemia after kidney transplantation was found to be associated with older age, high body mass index, and female gender. Transient elevation of blood glucose level did not affect post-transplantation outcomes, including diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. However, patients with NODAT should be carefully monitored for the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 42 CFR 482.104 - Condition of participation: Additional requirements for kidney transplant centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...' local dialysis facilities. (b) Standard: Dialysis services. Kidney transplant centers must furnish inpatient dialysis services directly or under arrangement. (c) Standard: Participation in network activities. Kidney transplant centers must cooperate with the ESRD Network designated for their geographic area,...

  20. 42 CFR 482.104 - Condition of participation: Additional requirements for kidney transplant centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...' local dialysis facilities. (b) Standard: Dialysis services. Kidney transplant centers must furnish inpatient dialysis services directly or under arrangement. (c) Standard: Participation in network activities. Kidney transplant centers must cooperate with the ESRD Network designated for their geographic area,...

  1. 42 CFR 482.104 - Condition of participation: Additional requirements for kidney transplant centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...' local dialysis facilities. (b) Standard: Dialysis services. Kidney transplant centers must furnish inpatient dialysis services directly or under arrangement. (c) Standard: Participation in network activities. Kidney transplant centers must cooperate with the ESRD Network designated for their geographic area,...

  2. 42 CFR 482.104 - Condition of participation: Additional requirements for kidney transplant centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...' local dialysis facilities. (b) Standard: Dialysis services. Kidney transplant centers must furnish inpatient dialysis services directly or under arrangement. (c) Standard: Participation in network activities. Kidney transplant centers must cooperate with the ESRD Network designated for their geographic area,...

  3. Effective use of kidneys for transplantation from asystolic donors.

    PubMed

    Gerstenkorn, Clemens; Papalois, Vassilios E; Hakim, Nadey

    2005-01-01

    Severe organ shortage for transplantation is an increasing problem because the number of traditional heart-beating cadaveric donors is declining. Ways need to be found to expand the donor pool without commercializing organ transplantation, especially from unrelated live donors, and to maintain high medical standards of these procedures and their follow-up. Kidneys from asystolic or nonheart-beating donors (NHBDs) are a valuable source of organs, which can be of excellent quality, with good long-term function after transplantation. This organ source is widely underused at the moment; even so, there is increased popularity during the last few years in different countries. In addition, the rate of discarding viable kidneys from these NHBDs is still too high. Logistical and legal aspects are other important issues that need to be addressed to promote these NHBD programs more effectively. Waiting lists for renal transplantation could be significantly reduced in the future.

  4. The bioethics and utility of selling kidneys for renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Berman, E; Lipschutz, J M; Bloom, R D; Lipschutz, J H

    2008-06-01

    In the 53 years since kidney transplantation was first performed, this procedure has evolved from a highly speculative biomedical endeavor to a medically viable and often standard course of therapy. Long-term survival is markedly improved among patients who receive a kidney compared with patients who remain on the waiting list for such an organ. As outcomes have improved and more clinical indications have emerged, the number of people awaiting transplantation has grown significantly. In stark contrast to the robust expansion of the waiting list, the number of available deceased donors has remained relatively constant over the last several years. The current mechanism for procuring kidneys relies on voluntary donations by the general public, with the primary motivation being altruism. However, in light of the ever-increasing waiting list, it is the researchers' belief that the current system needs to be revised if supply is ever going to meet demand. In response to this critical organ shortage, different programs have been developed in an attempt to increase organ donation. At present, however, no solution to the problem has emerged. This report begins by outlining the scope of the problem and current legislation governing the procurement of transplantable organs/tissues in the United States. It continues with an overview of different proposals to increase supply. It concludes by exploring some of the controversy surrounding the proposal to increase donation using financial incentives. Though the following discussion certainly has implications for other transplantable organs, this report focuses on kidney transplantation because the waiting list for kidneys is by far the longest of all waiting lists for solid organs; and, as kidney transplant carries the smallest risk to living donors, it is the least ethically problematic.

  5. Kidney transplant complications from undiagnosed benign prostatic hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Lubetzky, Michelle; Ajaimy, Maria; Kamal, Layla; de Boccardo, Graciela; Akalin, Enver; Kayler, Liise

    2015-06-01

    It is estimated that approximately 50% of males over 50 have benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). BPH is underappreciated in anuric patients with end stage renal disease, and failure of diagnosis in this population can lead to complications after kidney transplantation. A single-center retrospective review of male patients over 50 yr of age transplanted from January 1, 2010, until September 30, 2013, was performed. Outcomes assessed were as follows: graft survival, urinary retention, discharge with Foley catheter, and urinary tract infection (UTI). Of 147 patients, 17.0% were diagnosed with BPH before transplant, 19.0% received a BPH diagnosis after transplant, and 64% did not have BPH. Compared to those without BPH, a post-transplant BPH diagnosis was associated with urinary retention during the transplant admission (0% vs. 46.4%, p < 0.01), discharge with Foley catheter (0% vs. 21.4%, p < 0.01), readmission related to urinary retention (0% vs. 46.4%, p < 0.01), and UTI (18.0% vs. 64.3%, p < 0.01). Patients with prior diagnosis of BPH and on therapy had similar outcomes to those without BPH. Following kidney transplant, urinary tract complications are more common in patients with BPH; however, being on medical therapy prior to transplantation diminishes the incidence of these complications significantly. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Of Kin and Kidneys: Do Kinship Networks Contribute to Racial Disparities in Living Donor Kidney Transplantation?

    PubMed Central

    Daw, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in kidney transplantation are large and especially stark for living donor transplants. Medical researchers frequently attribute this to the availability of medically compatible living kidney donors, who are usually kin. This paper evaluates this hypothesis by testing whether African American transplant candidates likely have lesser access to suitable living donors in their kinship networks than white candidates. This paper evaluates this hypothesis using a simulation design. Contrary to prior research on this topic, this simulation analysis concludes that black-white disparities in living donor kidney transplantation are unlikely to be the result of group differences in the availability of suitable donors. Although individual white kin are individually more likely to be suitable donors, African Americans' larger average kinship networks compensate for this difference. PMID:24581060

  7. Of kin and kidneys: do kinship networks contribute to racial disparities in living donor kidney transplantation?

    PubMed

    Daw, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in kidney transplantation are large and especially stark for living donor transplants. Medical researchers frequently attribute this to the availability of medically compatible living kidney donors, who are usually kin. This paper evaluates this hypothesis by testing whether African American transplant candidates likely have lesser access to suitable living donors in their kinship networks than white candidates. This paper evaluates this hypothesis using a simulation design. Contrary to prior research on this topic, this simulation analysis concludes that black-white disparities in living donor kidney transplantation are unlikely to be the result of group differences in the availability of suitable donors. Although individual white kin are individually more likely to be suitable donors, African Americans' larger average kinship networks compensate for this difference.

  8. Comparing Three Data Mining Methods to Predict Kidney Transplant Survival

    PubMed Central

    Shahmoradi, Leila; Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Pourmand, Gholamreza; fard, Ziba Aghsaei; Borhani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: One of the most important complications of post-transplant is rejection. Analyzing survival is one of the areas of medical prognosis and data mining, as an effective approach, has the capacity of analyzing and estimating outcomes in advance through discovering appropriate models among data. The present study aims at comparing the effectiveness of C5.0 algorithms, neural network and C&RTree to predict kidney transplant survival before transplant. Method: To detect factors effective in predicting transplant survival, information needs analysis was performed via a researcher-made questionnaire. A checklist was prepared and data of 513 kidney disease patient files were extracted from Sina Urology Research Center. Following CRISP methodology for data mining, IBM SPSS Modeler 14.2, C5.0, C&RTree algorithms and neural network were used. Results: Body Mass Index (BMI), cause of renal dysfunction and duration of dialysis were evaluated in all three models as the most effective factors in transplant survival. C5.0 algorithm with the highest validity (96.77%) was the first in estimating kidney transplant survival in patients followed by C&RTree (83.7%) and neural network (79.5%) models. Conclusion: Among the three models, C5.0 algorithm was the top model with high validity that confirms its strength in predicting survival. The most effective kidney transplant survival factors were detected in this study; therefore, duration of transplant survival (year) can be determined considering the regulations set for a new sample with specific characteristics. PMID:28163356

  9. Antidiabetic therapy in post kidney transplantation diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Werzowa, Johannes; Säemann, Marcus; Haidinger, Michael; Krebs, Michael; Hecking, Manfred

    2015-07-01

    Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common complication after kidney transplantation that affects up to 40% of kidney transplant recipients. By pathogenesis, PTDM is a diabetes form of its own, and may be characterised by a sudden, drug-induced deficiency in insulin secretion rather than worsening of insulin resistance over time. In the context of deteriorating allograft function leading to a re-occurrence of chronic kidney disease after transplantation, pharmacological interventions in PTDM patients deserve special attention. In the present review, we aim at presenting the current evidence regarding efficacy and safety of the modern antidiabetic armamentarium. Specifically, we focus on incretin-based therapies and insulin treatment, besides metformin and glitazones, and discuss their respective advantages and pitfalls. Although recent pilot trials are available in both prediabetes and PTDM, further studies are warranted to elucidate the ideal timing of various antidiabetics as well as its long-term impact on safety, glucose metabolism and cardiovascular outcomes in kidney transplant recipients.

  10. Type 4 renal tubular acidosis in a kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Manjunath

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of a 66-year-old diabetic patient who presented with muscle weakness 2 weeks after kidney transplantation. Her immunosuppressive regimen included tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. She was found to have hyperkalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Tacrolimus levels were in therapeutic range. All other drugs such as beta blockers and trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole were stopped. She did not respond to routine antikalemic measures. Further evaluation revealed type 4 renal tubular acidosis. Serum potassium levels returned to normal after starting sodium bicarbonate and fludrocortisone therapy. Though hyperkalemia is common in kidney transplant recipients, determining exact cause can guide specific treatment.

  11. Local Expansion of Donation After Circulatory Death Kidney Transplant Activity Improves Waitlisted Outcomes and Addresses Inequities of Access to Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mirshekar-Syahkal, B; Summers, D; Bradbury, L L; Aly, M; Bardsley, V; Berry, M; Norris, J M; Torpey, N; Clatworthy, M R; Bradley, J A; Pettigrew, G J

    2017-02-01

    In the United Kingdom, donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidney transplant activity has increased rapidly, but marked regional variation persists. We report how increased DCD kidney transplant activity influenced waitlisted outcomes for a single center. Between 2002-2003 and 2011-2012, 430 (54%) DCD and 361 (46%) donation after brain death (DBD) kidney-only transplants were performed at the Cambridge Transplant Centre, with a higher proportion of DCD donors fulfilling expanded criteria status (41% DCD vs. 32% DBD; p = 0.01). Compared with U.K. outcomes, for which the proportion of DCD:DBD kidney transplants performed is lower (25%; p < 0.0001), listed patients at our center waited less time for transplantation (645 vs. 1045 days; p < 0.0001), and our center had higher transplantation rates and lower numbers of waiting list deaths. This was most apparent for older patients (aged >65 years; waiting time 730 vs. 1357 days nationally; p < 0.001), who received predominantly DCD kidneys from older donors (mean donor age 64 years), whereas younger recipients received equal proportions of living donor, DBD and DCD kidney transplants. Death-censored kidney graft survival was nevertheless comparable for younger and older recipients, although transplantation conferred a survival benefit from listing for only younger recipients. Local expansion in DCD kidney transplant activity improves survival outcomes for younger patients and addresses inequity of access to transplantation for older recipients. © Copyright 2016 The American Journal of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  12. Kidney biopsy findings in primary Sjögren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kidder, Dana; Rutherford, Elaine; Kipgen, David; Fleming, Stewart; Geddes, Colin; Stewart, Graham A

    2015-08-01

    Renal involvement is rare in primary Sjögren syndrome (PSS). In this study, we examined renal biopsy findings in patients with PSS and correlated them with their clinical and renal findings. Twenty-five patients with PSS who underwent renal biopsies from two renal units in Scotland between 1978 and 2013 were identified from renal biopsy database. We examined the renal morphologic, clinical and renal findings at the time of renal biopsy, renal and patient outcomes. The diagnosis of PSS preceded renal biopsy in 18/25 patients. In this group, the median duration of the disease was 5.5 years. Significant proteinuria, combined microscopic haematuria and proteinuria and reduced renal excretory function were found in 76, 56 and 84% of patients, respectively. The 3-year actuarial patient survival was significantly lower in patients with glomerulonephritis as compared with tubulointerstitial nephritis (66 versus 100%, P = 0.02). There was no difference in 3-year actuarial renal survival between these two groups (92 versus 92%, P = 1.0). Renal biopsy is rare in PSS and often reveals diverse pathological findings. Glomerulonephritis, as compared with tubulointerstitial nephritis, is associated with higher early mortality. Further studies are needed to evaluate the utility of renal biopsy and its impact on disease management. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  13. Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Lisinopril in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Trachtman, Howard; Frymoyer, Adam; Lewandowski, Andrew; Greenbaum, Larry A.; Feig, Daniel I.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Warady, Bradley A.; Goebel, Jens W.; Schwartz, George J.; Lewis, Kenneth; Anand, Ravinder; Patel, Uptal D.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension in pediatric kidney transplant recipients contributes to long-term graft loss, yet treatment options—including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors—are poorly characterized in this vulnerable population. We conducted a multicenter, open-label pharmacokinetic (PK) study of daily oral lisinopril in 22 children (ages 7–17 years) with stable kidney transplant function. Standard non-compartmental PK analyses were performed at steady state. Effects on blood pressure were examined in lisinopril-naïve patients (n=13). Oral clearance declined in proportion to underlying kidney function; however, in patients with low estimated glomerular filtration rate (30–59 ml/min per 1.73m2), exposure (standardized to 0.1 mg/kg/day dose) was within the range reported previously in children without a kidney transplant. In lisinopril-naïve patients, 85% and 77% had a ≥6 mmHg reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Lisinopril was well tolerated. Our study provides initial insight on lisinopril use in children with a kidney transplant, including starting dose considerations. PMID:25807932

  14. Maternal compared with paternal donor kidneys are associated with poorer graft outcomes after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wai H; McDonald, Stephen P; Coates, Patrick T; Chapman, Jeremy R; Russ, Graeme R; Wong, Germaine

    2016-03-01

    Noninherited maternal human leukocyte antigens may be less detrimental on allograft outcomes after kidney transplantation compared with noninherited paternal antigens, but this association in the era of modern immunosuppression remains unknown. Here we determine the association between parental donor kidneys, acute rejection, and graft failure in primary live-donor parental kidney transplant recipients using data from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry between 1997 and 2012. Of the 1139 recipients followed for a median of 7.2 years (8588 person-years), 652 received kidneys from maternal donors. Compared with paternal donor kidneys, maternal donor kidneys were associated with a significantly increased risk of acute rejection (adjusted odds ratio 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-2.07) and significant overall graft loss. The latter was confined to recipients who have experienced acute rejection (adjusted hazard ratio 1.60; 95%CI, 1.05-2.43) but not in those who did not experience acute rejection. Thus, our study suggests that recipients of maternal donor kidneys have a greater risk of rejection and graft loss. Hence, clinicians and patients should be cognizant of this association when determining which of the 2 parental donors is most suitable for transplantation.

  15. Histological spectrum of pulmonary manifestations in kidney transplant recipients on sirolimus inclusive immunosuppressive regimens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background After the introduction of novel effective immunosuppressive therapies, kidney transplantation became the treatment of choice for end stage renal disease. While these new therapies lead to better graft survival, they can also cause a variety of complications. Only small series or case reports describe pulmonary pathology in renal allograft recipients on mTOR inhibitor inclusive therapies. The goal of this study was to provide a systematic review of thoracic biopsies in kidney transplant recipients for possible association between a type of immunosuppressive regimen and pulmonary complications. Methods A laboratory database search revealed 28 of 2140 renal allograft recipients (18 males and 10 females, 25 to 77 years old, mean age 53 years) who required a biopsy for respiratory symptoms. The histological features were correlated with clinical findings including immunosuppressive medications. Results The incidence of neoplasia on lung biopsy was 0.4% (9 cases), which included 3 squamous cell carcinomas, 2 adenocarcinomas, 1 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 1 lymphomatoid granulomatosis, and 2 post transplant B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease was identified in 0.4% (9 cases), and included 5 cases of pulmonary hemorrhage, 3 cases of organizing pneumonia and 1 case of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Five (0.2%) cases showed histological features indicative of a localized infectious process. Patients on sirolimus had neoplasia less frequently than patients on other immunosuppressive combinations (12.5% vs. 58.3%, p = 0.03). Lung biopsies in 4 of 5 patients with clinically suspected sirolimus toxicity revealed pulmonary hemorrhage as the sole histological finding or in combination with other patterns. Conclusions Our study documents a spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions in renal allograft recipients on current immunosuppressive therapies. Sirolimus inclusive regimens are associated with increased risk of pulmonary

  16. Scintigraphic detection of urinary leakage after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    DeLange, E E; Pauwels, E K; Lobatto, S; Tjon Pian Gi-van Loon, C E; van Hooff, J P

    1982-01-01

    Urinary leakage after kidney transplantation is a serious complication. In a retrospective study we analyzed 8 relevant cases of 14 patients with urinary leakage. In these eight patients kidney scintigraphy indicated the presence of urinary extravasation. Compared with other imaging modalities such as IV urography, cystography and ultrasound, scintigraphy seems to be an easy and safe method to detect urinary leakage. Moreover scintigraphic examination may suggest leakage, while this may not be clinically evident or suspected.

  17. Long-term outcomes after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Wai, Philip Y; Sollinger, Hans W

    2011-02-01

    Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation represents the only proven long-term therapeutic approach for type 1 diabetic, dialysis-dependent patients. This procedure potentially liberates these patients from dialysis and the need for exogenous insulin replacement. For the first time, data on the long-term natural history of patients receiving SPK have recently been analyzed. In this review, we discuss the outcomes and complications for patients receiving SPK in the context of the current literature. In our analysis of 1000 SPKs performed at our center, we demonstrated that SPK increases patient survival compared with live-donor kidney alone or deceased donor kidney alone transplantation. The 5-year, 10-year, and 20-year patient survival for SPK recipients was 89, 80, and 58%, respectively. Enteric drainage improves quality of life, but not allograft survival, when compared with bladder drainage. After transplantation, approximately 50% of bladder-drained transplants undergo enteric conversion and late conversion after transplantation is associated with a higher complication rate. Surgical complications are higher in enteric-drained compared with bladder-drained pancreas transplants. Selecting the appropriate therapy for a type 1 diabetic recipient with renal failure continues to be a critical decision for programs offering pancreas transplantation. The principles and guidelines at our center are driven by the potential benefit of the SPK transplant needing to outweigh the increased morbidity of the surgical procedure and the use of lifelong immunosuppression. Results from long-term studies demonstrating improved patient survival suggest that the treatment of choice for an appropriate type 1 diabetic recipient is an SPK transplant.

  18. Functional status and survival after kidney transplantation1–12

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Peter P.; Bloom, Roy D.; Shults, Justine; Thomasson, Arwin; Mussell, Adam; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Abt, Peter; Levine, Matthew; Caplan, Arthur; Feldman, Harold I.; Karlawish, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Background Older patients constitute a growing proportion of U.S. kidney transplant recipients and often have a high burden of comorbidities. A summary measure of health such as functional status might enable transplant professionals to better evaluate and counsel these patients about their prognosis after transplant. Methods We linked UNOS registry data about post-transplant survival with pre-transplant functional status data (physical function [PF] scale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36) among individuals undergoing kidney transplant from 6/1/2000 – 5/31/2006. We examined the relationship between survival and functional status with multivariable Cox regression, adjusted for age. Using logistic regression models for three-year survival, we also estimated the reduction in deaths in the hypothetical scenario that recipients with poor functional status in this cohort experienced modest improvements in function. Results The cohort comprised 10,875 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with a mean age of 50 years; 14% were ≥65. Differences in three-year mortality between highest and lowest PF groups ranged from 3% among recipients <35 years to 14% among recipients ≥65 years. In multivariable Cox regression, worse PF was associated with higher mortality (HR 1.66 for lowest versus highest PF quartiles; p<0.001). Interactions between PF and age were non-significant. We estimated that 11% fewer deaths would occur if KTRs with the lowest functional status experienced modest improvements in function. Conclusions Across a wide age range, functional status was an independent predictor of post-transplant survival. Functional status assessment may be a useful tool with which to counsel patients about post-transplant outcomes. PMID:24113514

  19. Impact of antiretroviral therapy on clinical outcomes in HIV + kidney transplant recipients: Review of 58 cases

    PubMed Central

    Lorio, Marco A.; Morris, Michele I.; Abbo, Lilian M.; Simkins, Jacques; Guerra, Giselle; Roth, David; Kupin, Warren L.; Mattiazzi, Adela; Ciancio, Gaetano; Chen, Linda J.; Burke, George W.; Figueiro, Jose M.; Ruiz, Phillip; Camargo, Jose F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) poses challenging drug-drug interactions with immunosuppressant agents in transplant recipients.  We aimed to determine the impact of specific antiretroviral regimens in clinical outcomes of HIV + kidney transplant recipients.  Methods: A single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted at a large academic center. Subjects included 58 HIV - to HIV + adult, first-time kidney transplant patients. The main intervention was ART regimen used after transplantation.  The main outcomes assessed at one- and three-years were: patient survival, death-censored graft survival, and biopsy-proven acute rejection; we also assessed serious infections within the first six months post-transplant.  Results: Patient and graft survival at three years were both 90% for the entire cohort. Patients receiving protease inhibitor (PI)-containing regimens had lower patient survival at one and three years than patients receiving PI-sparing regimens: 85% vs. 100% ( p=0.06) and 82% vs. 100% ( p=0.03), respectively. Patients who received PI-containing regimens had twelve times higher odds of death at 3 years compared to patients who were not exposed to PIs (odds ratio, 12.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-1602; p=0.02).  Three-year death-censored graft survival was lower in patients receiving PI vs. patients on PI-sparing regimens (82 vs 100%, p=0.03). Patients receiving integrase strand transfer inhibitors-containing regimens had higher 3-year graft survival. There were no differences in the incidence of acute rejection by ART regimen. Individuals receiving PIs had a higher incidence of serious infections compared to those on PI-sparing regimens (39 vs. 8%, p=0.01).  Conclusions: PI-containing ART regimens are associated with adverse outcomes in HIV + kidney transplant recipients. PMID:28299182

  20. Impact of antiretroviral therapy on clinical outcomes in HIV (+) kidney transplant recipients: Review of 58 cases.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Rossana; Suarez, Jose F; Lorio, Marco A; Morris, Michele I; Abbo, Lilian M; Simkins, Jacques; Guerra, Giselle; Roth, David; Kupin, Warren L; Mattiazzi, Adela; Ciancio, Gaetano; Chen, Linda J; Burke, George W; Figueiro, Jose M; Ruiz, Phillip; Camargo, Jose F

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) poses challenging drug-drug interactions with immunosuppressant agents in transplant recipients.  We aimed to determine the impact of specific antiretroviral regimens in clinical outcomes of HIV (+) kidney transplant recipients.  Methods: A single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted at a large academic center. Subjects included 58 HIV (-) to HIV (+) adult, first-time kidney transplant patients. The main intervention was ART regimen used after transplantation.  The main outcomes assessed at one- and three-years were: patient survival, death-censored graft survival, and biopsy-proven acute rejection; we also assessed serious infections within the first six months post-transplant.  Results: Patient and graft survival at three years were both 90% for the entire cohort. Patients receiving protease inhibitor (PI)-containing regimens had lower patient survival at one and three years than patients receiving PI-sparing regimens: 85% vs. 100% ( p=0.06) and 82% vs. 100% ( p=0.03), respectively. Patients who received PI-containing regimens had twelve times higher odds of death at 3 years compared to patients who were not exposed to PIs (odds ratio, 12.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-1602; p=0.02).  Three-year death-censored graft survival was lower in patients receiving PI vs. patients on PI-sparing regimens (82 vs 100%, p=0.03). Patients receiving integrase strand transfer inhibitors-containing regimens had higher 3-year graft survival. There were no differences in the incidence of acute rejection by ART regimen. Individuals receiving PIs had a higher incidence of serious infections compared to those on PI-sparing regimens (39 vs. 8%, p=0.01).  Conclusions: PI-containing ART regimens are associated with adverse outcomes in HIV (+) kidney transplant recipients.

  1. 77 FR 49447 - Endpoints for Clinical Trials in Kidney Transplantation; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Endpoints for Clinical Trials in Kidney Transplantation... trials of drugs and therapeutic biologics in kidney transplantation. This public workshop is intended to... evaluate patient and allograft outcome in clinical trials of kidney transplantation. The meeting will...

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection following Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Boubaker, Karima; Gargah, Tahar; Abderrahim, Ezzedine; Ben Abdallah, Taieb; Kheder, Adel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Aims. Post-transplant tuberculosis (TB) is a problem in successful long-term outcome of renal transplantation recipients. Our objective was to describe the pattern and risk factors of TB infection and the prognosis in our transplant recipients. Patients and Methods. This study was a retrospective review of the records of 491 renal transplant recipients in our hospital during the period from January 1986 to December 2009. The demographic data, transplant characteristics, clinical manifestations, diagnostic criteria, treatment protocol, and long-term outcome of this cohort of patients were analyzed. Results. 16 patients (3,2%) developed post-transplant TB with a mean age of 32,5 ± 12,7 (range: 13–60) years and a mean post-transplant period of 36,6months (range: 12,3 months–15,9 years). The forms of the diseases were pulmonary in 10/16 (62,6%), disseminated in 3/16 (18,7%), and extrapulmonary in 3/16 (18,7%). Graft dysfunction was observed in 7 cases (43,7%) with tissue-proof acute rejection in 3 cases and loss of the graft in 4 cases. Hepatotoxicity developed in 3 patients (18,7%) during treatment. Recurrences were observed in 4 cases after early stop of treatment. Two patients (12.5%) died. Conclusion. Extra pulmonary and disseminated tuberculosis were observed in third of our patients. More than 9months of treatment may be necessary to prevent recurrence. PMID:24222903

  3. The clinical course of IgA nephropathy after kidney transplantation and its management.

    PubMed

    Lionaki, Sophia; Panagiotellis, Konstantinos; Melexopoulou, Christine; Boletis, John N

    2017-02-02

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) A nephropathy is one of the most common primary glomerulonephritides worldwide causing end stage renal disease in up to 20-40% of affected patients, nearly two decades post diagnosis. Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with renal failure, secondary to glomerular diseases. However, IgA nephropathy has a strong tendency to recur in the graft, and although initially thought to be a benign condition, several reports of graft loss, due to recurrent IgA nephropathy, there have been over the last three decades. Overall graft survival has been significantly improved in kidney transplantation, as a result of reduced incidence of acute rejection, as more potent and more specific immunosuppressive agents are now available in clinical practice. Thus, the rates of IgA nephropathy and other glomerulonephritides recurrence are expected to increase, since graft survival has been improved. However, the reported incidence of IgA nephropathy recurrence in the graft varies substantially across centers, as a consequence of different levels of interest, diverse biopsy policies and differing durations of follow up, of the published studies. Notably, recurrence rates of patients receiving graft biopsies by clinical indication only, ranges from 13% to 50% with graft loss being between 1.3% and 16%. The aim of this review is to underline important pathogenetic insights of IgA nephropathy, describe the clinical course of the disease after kidney transplantation, with emphasis on the incidence of recurrence and the associated risk factors, and finally provide all available options for its management in transplant recipients.

  4. Kidney and liver transplantation in children with fibrocystic liver-kidney disease: data from the US Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients: 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jessica W; Furth, Susan L; Ruebner, Rebecca L

    2014-11-01

    The natural history and survival of children with fibrocystic liver-kidney disease undergoing solid organ transplantation have infrequently been described. We report outcomes in a cohort of US children with fibrocystic liver-kidney disease receiving solid organ transplants over 20 yr. Retrospective cohort study of pediatric transplant recipients with diagnoses of fibrocystic liver-kidney disease from 1/1990 to 3/2010, using data from the SRTR. Subjects were categorized by the first transplanted organ: LT, KT, or SLK. Primary outcomes were death, re-transplant, transplant of the alternate organ, or initiation of dialysis. Seven hundred and sixteen subjects were transplanted in this period. Median age at first transplant was 9.7 yr. Of the LT, 14 (19%) required a second liver transplant at median of 0.2 yr, and five (7%) required kidney transplant or dialysis at a median of 9.0 yr. Of the KT, 188 (31%) required a second kidney transplant or dialysis at a median of 5.9 yr. Twenty-nine (5%) subsequently received liver transplant at a median of 6.0 yr. Among patients in this registry, far more children underwent kidney than liver transplants. The risk of subsequently needing transplantation of an alternate organ was low.

  5. [Donations after cardiac death kidney transplantation in northwest China].

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoming; Xue, Wujun; Liu, Linjuan; Xiang, Heli; Ding, Chenguang; He, Shuqin; Ren, Li; Tian, Puxun; Ding, Xiaoming

    2014-03-01

    To explore the effect of donations after cardiac death (DCD) kidney transplant performed in northwest China and the measures for management of delayed graft function (DGF). In the period of 2011-2013, a total of 51 families of DCD donor gave their consent to organ donation by signing the informed consent with the help by a Red Cross Organization (ROC) coordinator, and 102 kidneys were retrieved by organ procurement organization (OPO) teams. Ninety-four operations of renal transplantation were carried out in our hospital. All the patients were followed-up and based on the occurrence of DGF after transplantation, they were divided into DGF group and non-DGF group for comparative studies. The success rate of donation after cardiac death was 29.3%, and the incidence of post-transplantation DGF was 27.7%. The 1-year human/kidney survival rate was 98.9%/95.7%. Within six months after the transplant, the values of eGFR in DGF group were significantly lower and serum creatinine significantly higher than those in non-DGF group (P<0.05), but no significant differences were found between the two groups thereafter (P>0.05). The occurrence of DGF in LifePort mechanical perfusion cohorts was significantly lower than that in the simple cold preservation group (21.5% vs. 41.4%, P<0.05). The overall effect of DCD kidney transplant is good despite a high incidence of early DGF, and we recommend the use of low-temperature mechanical perfusion for storage and transportation of DCD donor kidney.

  6. Successful kidney transplantation in a patient with congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (Upshaw-Schulman syndrome).

    PubMed

    Fattah, Hasan; Kumar, Dhiren; George, James N; Massey, H Davis; King, Anne L; Friedman, Kenneth D; Gupta, Gaurav

    2017-09-20

    Congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) may not be recognized until organ failure related to the microvascular thrombosis occurs. Kidney failure may be the initial presenting clinical feature. Kidney transplantation has been contraindicated because of the assumption that the continuing microvascular thrombosis will cause inevitable graft failure. We report a 48-year-old nulliparous woman who presented with end-stage kidney disease that was attributed to hypertension. Her past history included a thromboembolic stroke at age 32, for which she was placed on permanent anticoagulation. Immediately after living unrelated-donor kidney transplant, she developed severe hemolysis and acute decline in urine output for which she received red blood cell and platelet transfusions and an infusion of eculizumab (1200 mg). She promptly responded and was discharged on her fifth postoperative day with a serum creatinine level of 1.0 mg/dL. Two weeks later, thrombocytopenia and hemolysis recurred. By this time, undetectable ADAMTS13 activity (<5%) with no demonstrable inhibitor had been reported. She responded rapidly to plasma infusions. Genetic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of congenital TTP, documenting known pathogenic mutations in each of the ADAMTS13 genes. She continued to receive twice-monthly infusions for 4 months. Surveillance kidney biopsies at 6 and 12 months posttransplant demonstrated no evidence of thrombotic microangiopathy or graft rejection. After 2 years of follow-up her creatinine remains stable at 1.0 mg/dL (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 65 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ). Our experience suggests that kidney transplantation may be an appropriate management for carefully selected patients with congenital TTP who develop end-stage renal disease. © 2017 AABB.

  7. Pretransplant Numbers of CD16(+) Monocytes as a Novel Biomarker to Predict Acute Rejection After Kidney Transplantation: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, T P P; Hilbrands, L B; Kraaijeveld, R; Litjens, N H R; Rezaee, F; Nieboer, D; Steyerberg, E W; van Gestel, J A; Roelen, D L; Clahsen-van Groningen, M C; Baan, C C; Rowshani, A T

    2017-10-01

    Acute rejection is one of the major immunological determinants of kidney graft function and survival. Early biomarkers to predict rejection are lacking. Emerging evidence reveals a crucial role for the monocyte/macrophage lineage cells in the pathogenesis of rejection. We hypothesized that higher pretransplant numbers of proinflammatory CD16+ monocytes can predict rejection. The study cohort consisted of 104 kidney transplant recipients (58 with no rejection and 46 with biopsy-proven rejection) and 33 healthy persons. Posttransplant median follow-up time was 14.7 mo (interquartile range 0.3-34 mo). Pretransplantation blood samples were analyzed by flow cytometry for monocyte immunophenotypes. Groups were compared by Cox regression models for the occurrence of acute rejection. We documented a significantly increased absolute number of pretransplant CD16+ monocytes in patients who developed biopsy-proven rejection after transplantation compared with those with no rejection (hazard ratio [HR] 1.60, 95% CI 1.28-2.00, p < 0.001) and healthy persons (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.18-1.82, p < 0.001). In parallel, significantly fewer absolute numbers of CD16- monocytes were observed at pretransplant time points in rejectors versus nonrejectors (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.94, p < 0,014). A higher pretransplant number of CD16+ monocytes is significantly associated with a higher risk of acute rejection after kidney transplantation. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  8. Simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation: current trends and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Redfield, Robert R.; Scalea, Joseph R.; Odorico, Jon S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Important trends are being observed in pancreas transplantation in the USA. We will describe recent trends in simultaneous pancreas kidney (SPK) transplantation related to immunosuppression, treatment of rejection, and transplantation for patients of advanced age and C-peptide positive diabetes. Recent findings Rates of pancreas transplantation have declined, despite improved pancreatic graft outcomes. Regarding immunosuppression, trends in SPK transplantation include T-cell depletion induction therapy, waning mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor use and steroid use in greater than 50% of pancreas transplant recipients with few patients undergoing late steroid weaning. Rejection of the pancreas may be discordant with the kidney after SPK and there is a greater appreciation of antibody-mediated rejection of the pancreas allograft. De-novo donor-specific antibody without graft dysfunction remains an active area of study, and the treatment for this condition is unclear. SPKs are being performed with greater frequency in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and in patients of advanced age, with exemplary results. Summary The current state of the art in SPK transplantation is yielding superb and improving results. PMID:25565444

  9. Kidney transplant chains amplify benefit of nondirected donors.

    PubMed

    Melcher, Marc L; Veale, Jeffrey L; Javaid, Basit; Leeser, David B; Davis, Connie L; Hil, Garet; Milner, John E

    2013-02-01

    Despite the potential for altruistic nondirected donors (NDDs) to trigger multiple transplants through nonsimultaneous transplant chains, concerns exist that these chains siphon NDDs from the deceased donor wait list and that donors within chains might not donate after their partner receives a transplant. To determine the number of transplantations NDDs trigger through chains. Retrospective review of large, multicenter living donor-recipient database. Fifty-seven US transplant centers contributing donor-recipient pairs to the database. The NDDs initiating chain transplantation. Number of transplants per NDD. Seventy-seven NDDs enabled 373 transplantations during 46 months starting February 2008. Mean chain length initiated by NDDs was 4.8 transplants (median, 3; range, 1-30). The 40 blood type O NDDs triggered a mean chain length of 6.0 (median, 4; range, 2-30). During the interval, 66 of 77 chains were closed to the wait list, 4 of 77 were ongoing, and 7 of 77 were broken because bridge donors became unavailable. No chains were broken in the last 15 months, and every recipient whose incompatible donor donated received a kidney. One hundred thirty-three blood type O recipients were transplanted. This large series demonstrates that NDDs trigger almost 5 transplants on average, more if the NDD is blood type O. There were more blood type O recipients than blood type O NDDs participating. The benefits of transplanting 373 patients and enabling others without living donors to advance outweigh the risk of broken chains that is decreasing with experience. Even 66 patients on the wait list without living donors underwent transplantation with living-donor grafts at the end of these chains.

  10. [Recent experiences with kidney explantation outside transplantation centers].

    PubMed

    Geister, H; Simon, S

    1982-09-01

    The ever-increasing negative balance between the offer of an demand for organs with regard to transplantation surgery is very problematic. The transplantation centres are confronted with an insolvable problem and for this reason the co-operation of hospitals, other than the transplantation centres, is of vital importance where the explantation of kidneys, under specified conditions, is concerned. There are reports of new experiences in the removal of organs through in-situ-perfusion and en-bloc-removals as well as combined consignments of organs and typing material. The favourable results personally achieved during the past 6 years have given cause to believe that other clinics or hospitals, other than the transplantation centres, will participate in the explantation or organs for the purpose of transplantation.

  11. [Kidney and pancreas transplantation: initial experience at a single transplant center in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Hyon, S H; Groppa, R; Pekolj, J; Giúdice, C; Domenech, A; Litwak, L; Barcán, L; Grosembacher, L; Algranati, S; Argibay, P

    1999-01-01

    After more than 10,000 cases reported all over the world until 1998, simultaneous kidney and pancreas transplantation has become a safe clinical practice, and it may probably represent the best treatment available for diabetic patients in end-stage renal disease. Here we present our results after 12 cadaveric pancreas transplants (8 whole organ, and 4 islet transplants), performed on insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Eleven of these patients received a kidney simultaneously, and one of them required a kidney retransplantation. All vascularised pancreatic grafts were positioned intraperitoneally, anastomosed to the iliac vessels, and bladder drained. One year patient, whole pancreas, and kidney survival rates were 86%, 86% and 71%, respectively. All of these patients remain insulin and dialysis-free, the longest for 37 months. Islets for transplantation were obtained from single cadaveric donors. Fresh, unpurified cells were transplanted intraperitoneally by laparoscopy (equivalent islet yields: 3 x 10(5), 4 x 10(5), 1 x 10(6) and 5 x 10(5)). None of the islet recipients resulted insulin-independent but they all reduced daily requirements in about 40%, with better metabolic control (mean HbA1c pretransplant 9.4 +/- 1.8, vs 7.9 +/- 1.6 posttransplant). One kidney graft was lost due to venous thrombosis. Simultaneous kidney and pancreas transplantation offers the diabetic patient in end-stage renal disease a chance of independence both from dialysis and exogenous insulin. Whole pancreas transplantation has better functional outcome than islet transplantation. Nevertheless, for those diabetic patients who do not meet the criteria to receive a vascularised graft, pancreatic cells may still improve carbohydrate metabolism with minor surgical risk.

  12. Novel Procedure Improves Kidney Transplant Success

    MedlinePlus

    ... the new research suggests a simple approach -- an infusion of a particular enzyme hours before the transplant -- ... is quite different, Ingelfinger said. Patients receive one infusion of an enzyme called IdeS four to six ...

  13. Coagulopathy as a complication of kidney biopsies in paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus patients with antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Hiroko; Sato, Mai; Ogura, Masao; Yoshikawa, Takahisa; Yamamoto, Kazuna; Matsumura, Sohshi; Kano, Yuji; Saida, Ken; Sako, Mayumi; Kamei, Koichi; Yoshioka, Takako; Ogata, Kentaro; Ito, Shuichi; Ishikura, Kenji

    2017-10-04

    Children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) generally undergo a pretreatment kidney biopsy. However, some of these patients, especially those with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), may experience serious coagulopathic complications. We report herein two cases of paediatric SLE with APS in which, despite normal blood test results, the disparate coagulopathic complications of haemorrhage and embolism developed following a kidney biopsy. Case 1 was, an 8-year-old male in whom, primary APS was initially diagnosed. Fourteen months later SLE was diagnosed. Based on a percutaneous kidney biopsy, International Society of Nephrology and the Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) class III-A lupus nephritis was histologically diagnosed. On post biopsy Day 9, a giant haematoma in the fascia of the left kidney developed and was accompanied by changes in the vital signs. Case 2, a 13-year-old male, initially received the diagnosis of SLE with APS and underwent two courses of pulse methylprednisolone therapy. His coagulation abnormalities improved, and a percutaneous needle kidney biopsy was performed, leading to the histological diagnosis of ISN/RPS class III-A lupus nephritis. Furthermore, thrombotic microangiopathy was also detected in the renal histopathology. On post biopsy Day 6, the patient experienced right leg pain. A contrast CT and lower extremity ultrasonography detected a massive deep vein thrombosis and partial left pulmonary artery thrombosis. A kidney biopsy in children with SLE and APS can cause lethal coagulopathic complications, and the risks to such patients should be weighed carefully before the procedure is performed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. [Ethics and kidney transplants with living donors].

    PubMed

    Mamzer Bruneel, Marie-France

    2016-12-01

    The ethical debate surrounding transplant practices questions our societies. International recommendations set out numerous precautions which must be taken to ensure that donors act with their free will. While in most countries, including France, organ donation is a voluntary and non-commercial act, a black market exists in the world resulting in the trafficking of organs and tragic transplant tourism. Copyright © 2016. Publié par Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Physical Activity and Kidney Injury in Pediatric and Young Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Mattie F; George, Roshan P; Warshaw, Barry; Wang, Elizabeth; Greenbaum, Larry A

    2016-12-01

    To quantify physical activity and grip strength in pediatric kidney transplant recipients and describe attitudes about exercise and exercise counseling given concerns about allograft injury. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 101 kidney transplant recipients (7-21 years old) >6 months post-transplant. Patients completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Grip strength was measured with a dynamometer. We asked about activity limitations and provider counseling. Univariate analysis and multiple linear regression were used to determine independent predictors of PAQ score and grip strength z score. We enrolled 101 of 122 eligible patients. Median PAQ score was 2.2 (range 0-5) and was lower compared with controls (P < .001). The average grip strength z score was -1.1 and -0.7 in the right and left hand, respectively. Predictors of lower grip strength were younger age (P = .036), non-African American race (P = .029), lower height z score (P = .010), and longer percentage of lifetime with kidney disease (P = .029). Although 49% and 67% limited exercise before and after transplant, respectively, 67% reported increased activity after transplant. By parent report, provider counseling included limiting certain activities (71%) and encouraging regular exercise (45%). Physical activity and grip strength are low after kidney transplant. Patients perceive an emphasis on exercise limitations rather than the benefits of regular exercise. Interventions that encourage physical activity may be beneficial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of hypercalcemia on allograft calcification after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Çeltik, Aygül; Şen, Sait; Yılmaz, Mümtaz; Demirci, Meltem Seziş; Aşçı, Gülay; Tamer, Abdülkerim Furkan; Sarsık, Banu; Hoşcoşkun, Cüneyt; Töz, Hüseyin; Ok, Ercan

    2016-11-01

    Persistent hypercalcemia after kidney transplantation (KTx) may cause nephrocalcinosis and graft dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients with hypercalcemia and assess its effect on tubulointerstitial calcification. A total of 247 recipients were enrolled. Transient and persistent hypercalcemia was defined as hypercalcemia (corrected serum calcium >10.2 mg/dL) persisting for 6 and 12 months after KTx, respectively. The severity of calcification in the 0-h, 6- and 12-month protocol biopsies of patients with transient (n = 8) and persistent hypercalcemia (n = 20) was compared with a matched control group (n = 28). Twenty-eight patients were hypercalcemic at 6 months posttransplantation. Serum calcium levels were normalized in eight of them at the end of the first year. Dialysis duration was a positive predictor of persistent hypercalcemia. Tubulointerstitial calcification was detected in 70.6 and 90 % of patients with persistent hypercalcemia at 6 and 12 months posttransplantation, respectively. In 20 % of patients with transient hypercalcemia, severity of calcification regressed at 12 months posttransplantation along with normalization of serum calcium levels. Graft functions and histopathological findings (ci, ct, ci + ct, cv, ah, percentage of sclerotic glomeruli) were not different at 6 and 12 months posttransplantation. Hypercalcemia and persistent hyperparathyroidism are not rare after KTx. Tubulointerstitial calcification is more common and progressive among patients with persistent hypercalcemia. Normalization of calcium levels may contribute to regression of calcification in some patients.

  17. Pancreas-after-kidney versus synchronous pancreas-kidney transplantation: comparison of intermediate-term results.

    PubMed

    Bazerbachi, Fateh; Selzner, Markus; Marquez, Max A; Norgate, Andrea; McGilvray, Ian D; Schiff, Jeffrey; Cattral, Mark S

    2013-02-15

    Controversy persists over the safety and efficacy of pancreas transplantation in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who have received a prior kidney transplant. We compared the outcomes of recipients who received either Synchronous-Pancreas Kidney-Transplantation (SPK, n=123) or Pancreas-After-Kidney-Transplants(n=49)at our institution between August 2002 to January 2010. Donor and recipient demographics were similar. Time interval between kidney and pancreas transplantation was 5.9 ± 3.8 (4.8 [1.6-12.2]) years. The majority of kidney-recipients in PAK group were transplanted at outside institutions and referred to us for PAK. Most patients received thymoglobulin induction and were maintained on tacrolimus, MMF, and prednisone. For SPK versus PAK recipients, there was no difference in median of length of hospital stay or incidence of overall complications. All PAK recipients are alive with functioning kidney grafts, whereas the 1-, 3-, and 5-year SPK patient survival rates were 98%,96%,and 94%, P=0.09. The 1-,3-, and 5-yr uncensored pancreas survival rates for SPK versus PAK were 93% vs. 90%, 90% vs. 90%, and 82% versus 85%, respectively (P=0.4). Glycemic control and intermediate survival outcomes were similar in both groups. Pancreas-graft outcomes in SPK and PAK were equivalent in our study, but our specific population entailed among other factors a long K to PAK time interval; PAK could be a comparable option to SPK for patients with access to kidney grafts.

  18. Dialysis Facility Transplant Philosophy and Access to Kidney Transplantation in the Southeast.

    PubMed

    Gander, Jennifer; Browne, Teri; Plantinga, Laura; Pastan, Stephen O; Sauls, Leighann; Krisher, Jenna; Patzer, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of dialysis facility treatment philosophy on access to transplant. The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between the dialysis facility transplant philosophy and facility-level access to kidney transplant waitlisting. A 25-item questionnaire administered to Southeastern dialysis facilities (n = 509) in 2012 captured the facility transplant philosophy (categorized as 'transplant is our first choice', 'transplant is a great option for some', and 'transplant is a good option, if the patient is interested'). Facility-level waitlisting and facility characteristics were obtained from the 2008-2011 Dialysis Facility Report. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between the dialysis facility transplant philosophy and facility waitlisting performance (dichotomized using the national median), where low performance was defined as fewer than 21.7% of dialysis patients waitlisted within a facility. Fewer than 25% (n = 124) of dialysis facilities reported 'transplant is our first option'. A total of 131 (31.4%) dialysis facilities in the Southeast were high-performing facilities with respect to waitlisting. Adjusted analysis showed that facilities who reported 'transplant is our first option' were twice (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.0-3.9) as likely to have high waitlisting performance compared to facilities who reported that 'transplant is a good option, if the patient is interested'. Facilities with staff who had a more positive transplant philosophy were more likely to have better facility waitlisting performance. Future prospective studies are needed to further investigate if improving the kidney transplant philosophy in dialysis facilities improves access to transplantation.

  19. Long-term successful outcomes from kidney transplantation after lung and heart-lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Otani, Shinji; Levvey, Bronwyn J; Westall, Glen P; Paraskeva, Miranda; Whitford, Helen; Williams, Trevor; McGiffin, David C; Walker, Rowan; Menahem, Solomon; Snell, Gregory I

    2015-03-01

    Renal dysfunction is common after lung and heart-lung transplantation (Tx), and it limits the recipient's survival and quality of life. This study analyzed the outcomes of simultaneous and late kidney Tx following lung and heart-lung Tx. From a single-center retrospective chart review of 1031 lung and heart-lung Tx recipients, we identified 13 simultaneous or late kidney Tx cases in 12 patients. Three patients underwent simultaneous deceased donor lung and kidney Tx. Eight patients underwent lung and heart-lung Tx, followed by nine living donor kidney Tx (including one ABO-incompatible Tx). One additional patient underwent a late deceased donor kidney Tx following heart-lung Tx. The median time from lung and heart-lung Tx to later kidney Tx was 127 (interquartile range [IQR], 23 to 263) months. Three patients died, 1 of sepsis, 1 of multiple organ failure, and 1 of transplant coronary disease. At a median follow-up of 33 (IQR, 10 to 51) months, 9 patients are alive and well. Eight patients required dialysis before kidney Tx for a median time of 14 months (IQR, 5 to 49). Kidney graft loss occurred in 1 patient at 51 months. After kidney Tx, dialysis was necessary in association with acute allograft dysfunction in 2 patients. No acute kidney rejection has been detected in any patient. Treatable acute lung rejection was seen in 1 patient. Well-preserved pulmonary function was noted in recipients of late kidney Tx. Simultaneous kidney Tx and late deceased donor kidney Tx have challenges in the setting of lung Tx. By contrast, late living related kidney Tx after lung Tx is associated with excellent long-term survival and acceptable kidney and lung allograft function. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cystatin C and renal function in pediatric kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Franco, M C P; Nagasako, S S; Machado, P G; Nogueira, P C K; Pestana, J O M; Sesso, R

    2009-12-01

    In clinical practice, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is often determined with serum creatinine. However, studies have shown cystatin C to be a better parameter for the diagnosis of impaired renal function. We compared GFR estimated by plasma cystatin C with GFR estimated by serum creatinine in a sample of 50 pediatric renal transplant recipients and 24 healthy children. The correlation between GFR estimated by serum creatinine and by cystatin C was significant (r = 0.75; P < 0.001, Person's correlation); however, in pediatric kidney transplant recipients, the GFR was 6.7 mL/min lower when determined using cystatin C rather than serum creatinine. Moreover, using GFR estimated by cystatin C we found that 42% of the pediatric kidney transplant recipients had an estimated GFR <60 mL.min-1.1.73 (m(2))-1, whereas when GFR was estimated by the serum creatinine formula only 16% of the children had values below this cutoff point indicative of chronic kidney disease (P < 0.001). We conclude that, in pediatric kidney transplant recipients, estimation of GFR yields lower values when cystatin C is used rather than serum creatinine.

  1. Adjustment Experience of Kidney Transplantation Recipients in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ju, M K; Son, S; Kim, S

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the adjustment process after kidney transplantation. The research method followed grounded theory methodology of Strauss and Corbin. Twelve recipients after kidney transplantation were selected. The data were collected through in-depth, face-to-face interviews or e-mailing or phone-interviews and analyzed by means of a constant comparative method. Through the category analysis, "struggling for independence" was verified as the central phenomenon of recipients, and the causal conditions that influence this phenomenon were "unpredictable physical status," "the difficulty of self-care," "apathy of families and friends," and "emotional instability." The contextual conditions were "social prejudice" and "difficulty in returning to society," and the intervening conditions were "significant others support" and "religious support." The action/interaction strategies were "inner reviewing strategies," "interactive strategies," and "active self-maintaining strategies." From this observation, "establishing guidelines for living" was derived as the result. The results of this study provided deep understanding on the adjustment process after kidney transplantation, and this would help to provide a frame for individualized medical and nursing intervention strategies in assisting the psychosocial adaptation of the kidney transplantation recipient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutritional status and intrarenal resistive indices after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kolonko, A; Chudek, J; Kujawa-Szewieczek, A; Wiȩcek, A

    2013-05-01

    Obesity predicts vascular stiffness, which is prevalent among kidney transplant patients. However, the influence of obesity has not been established on parameters of renal vascular resistance variation. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of nutritional status on intrarenal resistive parameters as measured in the early period after successful kidney transplantation by Doppler ultrasound. Both pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) in the kidney graft were measured by Doppler sonography twice: at 2 to 4 days and before hospital discharge (mean 22 days; 95% confidence interval 21-23) after transplantation. Nutritional status was scored according to World Health Organization criteria. Among 513 patients, 29 were underweight; 280, normal; 166, overweight; and 38, obese. Both PI and RI values were significantly increased consistent with recipient nutritional status (analysis of variance: P < .001). Post hoc analysis showed significant differences in PI and RI measurements for obese versus underweight or normal weight groups. Multivariate analysis revealed an influence of body mass index on PI and RI measurements before hospital discharge to be independent of other variables, including recipient age, prior delayed graft function and cold ischemia time. Excessive nutritional status was associated with increased renal vascular resistance among kidney transplant patients. Nutritional status should be considered for the proper interpretation of intrarenal Doppler measurements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Recurrence of Acute Page Kidney in a Renal Transplant Allograft

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, Carlos; Mulloy, Laura; Jagadeesan, Muralidharan

    2016-01-01

    Acute Page Kidney (APK) phenomenon is a rare cause of secondary hypertension, mediated by activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Timely intervention is of great importance to prevent any end organ damage from hypertension. We present a unique case of three episodes of APK in the same renal transplant allograft. PMID:27725836

  4. Recurrence of Acute Page Kidney in a Renal Transplant Allograft.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Rajan; Zayas, Carlos; Mulloy, Laura; Jagadeesan, Muralidharan

    2016-01-01

    Acute Page Kidney (APK) phenomenon is a rare cause of secondary hypertension, mediated by activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Timely intervention is of great importance to prevent any end organ damage from hypertension. We present a unique case of three episodes of APK in the same renal transplant allograft.

  5. BK nephropathy in the native kidneys of patients with organ transplants: Clinical spectrum of BK infection.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Darlene; Konstantinov, Nikifor K; Barry, Marc; Harford, Antonia M; Servilla, Karen S; Kim, Young Ho; Sun, Yijuan; Ganta, Kavitha; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2016-09-24

    Nephropathy secondary to BK virus, a member of the Papoviridae family of viruses, has been recognized for some time as an important cause of allograft dysfunction in renal transplant recipients. In recent times, BK nephropathy (BKN) of the native kidneys has being increasingly recognized as a cause of chronic kidney disease in patients with solid organ transplants, bone marrow transplants and in patients with other clinical entities associated with immunosuppression. In such patients renal dysfunction is often attributed to other factors including nephrotoxicity of medications used to prevent rejection of the transplanted organs. Renal biopsy is required for the diagnosis of BKN. Quantitation of the BK viral load in blood and urine are surrogate diagnostic methods. The treatment of BKN is based on reduction of the immunosuppressive medications. Several compounds have shown antiviral activity, but have not consistently shown to have beneficial effects in BKN. In addition to BKN, BK viral infection can cause severe urinary bladder cystitis, ureteritis and urinary tract obstruction as well as manifestations in other organ systems including the central nervous system, the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal system and the hematopoietic system. BK viral infection has also been implicated in tumorigenesis. The spectrum of clinical manifestations from BK infection and infection from other members of the Papoviridae family is widening. Prevention and treatment of BK infection and infections from other Papovaviruses are subjects of intense research.

  6. BK nephropathy in the native kidneys of patients with organ transplants: Clinical spectrum of BK infection

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Darlene; Konstantinov, Nikifor K; Barry, Marc; Harford, Antonia M; Servilla, Karen S; Kim, Young Ho; Sun, Yijuan; Ganta, Kavitha; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2016-01-01

    Nephropathy secondary to BK virus, a member of the Papoviridae family of viruses, has been recognized for some time as an important cause of allograft dysfunction in renal transplant recipients. In recent times, BK nephropathy (BKN) of the native kidneys has being increasingly recognized as a cause of chronic kidney disease in patients with solid organ transplants, bone marrow transplants and in patients with other clinical entities associated with immunosuppression. In such patients renal dysfunction is often attributed to other factors including nephrotoxicity of medications used to prevent rejection of the transplanted organs. Renal biopsy is required for the diagnosis of BKN. Quantitation of the BK viral load in blood and urine are surrogate diagnostic methods. The treatment of BKN is based on reduction of the immunosuppressive medications. Several compounds have shown antiviral activity, but have not consistently shown to have beneficial effects in BKN. In addition to BKN, BK viral infection can cause severe urinary bladder cystitis, ureteritis and urinary tract obstruction as well as manifestations in other organ systems including the central nervous system, the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal system and the hematopoietic system. BK viral infection has also been implicated in tumorigenesis. The spectrum of clinical manifestations from BK infection and infection from other members of the Papoviridae family is widening. Prevention and treatment of BK infection and infections from other Papovaviruses are subjects of intense research. PMID:27683628

  7. Brincidofovir Use after Foscarnet Crystal Nephropathy in a Kidney Transplant Recipient with Multiresistant Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Romain; Zandotti, Christine; Alain, Sophie; Decourt, Alexandre; Purgus, Raj; Bornet, Charleric; Daniel, Laurent; Moal, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Background. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) antiviral drug resistance constitutes an increasing challenge in transplantation. Foscarnet is usually proposed when resistance for ganciclovir is suspected, but its use is limited by its nephrotoxicity. Case Presentation. We report a case of multiresistant CMV disease in a kidney transplant recipient. Foscarnet was prescribed after ganciclovir treatment failure in a patient with two mutations in the UL97 viral gene. Foscarnet induced biopsy-proven kidney crystal precipitation that resulted in severe acute transplant failure and nephrotic syndrome. Despite a large decrease in immunosuppression, CMV disease was not controlled and a salvage therapy with Brincidofovir (BCV), which is an oral lipid conjugate of cidofovir with limited nephrotoxicity, was attempted. Clinical and virological remission was observed after a 21-day course of BCV, despite mild and reversible liver toxicity. However, a new relapse could not be effectively cured by BCV due to a new mutation in the UL54 gene, which is known to confer resistance to cidofovir. A new course of foscarnet finally resulted in prolonged CMV remission. Herein, we present a review of foscarnet nephropathy cases in solid-organ transplanted patients. Conclusions. This unique case highlights the potential benefit of BCV use during resistant CMV infection, although mutations in the UL54 gene may limit its therapeutic efficacy. These findings need to be confirmed in clinical trials. PMID:28348914

  8. Eculizumab to treat antibody-mediated rejection in a 7-year-old kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Chehade, Hassib; Rotman, Samuel; Matter, Maurice; Girardin, Eric; Aubert, Vincent; Pascual, Manuel

    2015-02-01

    We report on successful early eculizumab administration to treat acute antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) in a highly sensitized kidney transplant recipient. The recipient is a 7-year-old boy who received, 6 months after a desensitization protocol with monthly intravenous immunoglobulin infusion, a second kidney transplant in the presence of low donor-specific antibodies (DSAs). Both pretransplant lymphocytotoxic and flow cytometric crossmatch were negative. Allograft function recovered promptly, with excellent initial function. On postoperative day (POD) 4, the child developed significant proteinuria with an acute rise in serum creatinine. Allograft biopsy showed severe acute ABMR. Intravenous eculizumab (600 mg), preceded by a single session of plasmapheresis, was administered on POD 5 and 12 along with a 4-day thymoglobulin course. After the first dose of eculizumab, a strikingly rapid normalization of allograft function with a decrease in proteinuria occurred. However, because circulating DSA levels remained elevated, the child received 3 doses of intravenous immunoglobulin (POD 15, 16, and 17), with a significant subsequent decrease in DSA levels. At 9 months after transplant, the child continues to maintain excellent allograft function with undetectable circulating DSA levels. This unique case highlights the potential efficacy of using early eculizumab to rapidly reverse severe ABMR in pediatric transplantation, and therefore it suggests a novel therapeutic approach to treat acute ABMR.

  9. Male microchimerism at high levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from women with end stage renal disease before kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Albano, Laetitia; Rak, Justyna M; Azzouz, Doua F; Cassuto-Viguier, Elisabeth; Gugenheim, Jean; Lambert, Nathalie C

    2012-01-01

    Patients with end stage renal diseases (ESRD) are generally tested for donor chimerism after kidney transplantation for tolerance mechanism purposes. But, to our knowledge, no data are available on natural and/or iatrogenic microchimerism (Mc), deriving from pregnancy and/or blood transfusion, acquired prior to transplantation. In this context, we tested the prevalence of male Mc using a real time PCR assay for DYS14, a Y-chromosome specific sequence, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 55 women with ESRD, prior to their first kidney transplantation, and compared them with results from 82 healthy women. Male Mc was also quantified in 5 native kidney biopsies obtained two to four years prior to blood testing and in PBMC from 8 women collected after female kidney transplantation, several years after the initial blood testing. Women with ESRD showed statistically higher frequencies (62%) and quantities (98 genome equivalent cells per million of host cells, gEq/M) of male Mc in their PBMC than healthy women (16% and 0.3 gEq/M, p<0.00001 and p = 0.0005 respectively). Male Mc was increased in women with ESRD whether they had or not a history of male pregnancy and/or of blood transfusion. Three out of five renal biopsies obtained a few years prior to the blood test also contained Mc, but no correlation could be established between earlier Mc in a kidney and later presence in PBMC. Finally, several years after female kidney transplantation, male Mc was totally cleared from PBMC in all women tested but one. This intriguing and striking initial result of natural and iatrogenic male Mc persistence in peripheral blood from women with ESRD raises several hypotheses for the possible role of these cells in renal diseases. Further studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms of recruitment and persistence of Mc in women with ESRD.

  10. [Non-sparing surgery of a transplanted kidney].

    PubMed

    Monllau Font, Vanesa; Rosales Bordes, Antonio; Rodríguez Escovar, Fernando; Esquena Fernández, Salvador; Villavicencio Mavrich, Humberto

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasement on the incidence of tumours within the population of renal transplanted, from three to five times over general population. Related to urological tumours, it emphasizes an increase in the incidence of the renal carcinoma, around 4,7% against 3% on general population. In this case, we present a 56-year-old patient, who suffered a renal transplant 8 years ago. Incidentally, it is diagnosed a 3 cm mass at the back face of the transplanted kidney, suggestive of renal neoplasm. Given the characteristics of the mass, of the patient and because of the good graft function, we propose the non-sparing surgery of the transplanted kidney as treatment. The patient went back home 6 days after the surgery, with a creatinine value of 106 micromol/L. The pathology of the piece was a papilar carcinoma, type II, pT1aG3, free margins of tumour. The non-sparing techniques like the partial nephrectomy, the criotherapy and the radiofrequency ablation, can be useful and must be considered when it is tried to preserve the renal function, overall in case of bilateral tumours or solitary kidney, and in small and/or eccentric tumours. Renal neoplasms necessarily does not imply the loss of the graft and allows a similar handling to transplanted patient, applying conservative techniques in selected cases.

  11. Kidney transplantation procedures in rats: assessments, complications, and management.

    PubMed

    Pahlavan, Payam S; Smallegange, Corry; Adams, Michael A; Schumacher, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Kidney transplantation in rats is an experimental model often used for the development of general microsurgical or transplantation techniques, for immunologic studies, and for analyzing transplant-associated long-term arterial blood-pressure changes. The aim of the present study was to analyze different surgical techniques of kidney transplantation in rats, with emphasis on minimizing surgical complications and establishing guidelines for their prevention and management. Complications were categorized into general (e.g., core body temperature drop, ischemic time) and surgically related vascular and urinary tract complications. In conclusion, a significant reduction of the complication rate in renal transplantation in rats can be achieved by placing the animal on a heating pad at an appropriate temperature. To reduce the risk of vascular thrombosis, ice-cold saline with heparin and careful flushing of the donor kidneys are recommended. Vascular complications can be avoided by performing "end-to-end" anastomosis techniques. The use of stents and cannulas in the urinary tract is associated with a high risk of urinary tract obstruction, and therefore is not recommended.

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Kidney Preservation Solutions Prior to Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Abdurrahman; Baykal, Ahmet Tarik; Kazan, Dilek; Akgoz, Muslum; Senal, Merve Oztug; Berber, Ibrahim; Titiz, Izzet; Bilsel, Gokhan; Kilercik, Hakan; Karaosmanoglu, Kubra; Cicek, Muslum; Yurtsever, Ilknur; Yazıcı, Cevat

    2016-01-01

    One of the main issues in kidney transplantation is the optimal functional preservation of the organ until its transplantation into the appropriate recipient. Despite intensive efforts, the functional preservation period remains limited to hours. During this time, as a result of cellular injury, various proteins, peptides, and other molecules are released by the organ into the preservation medium. In this study, we used proteomic techniques to analyze the protein profiles of preservation solutions in which organs had been preserved prior to their transplantation. Samples were obtained from the preservation solutions of 25 deceased donor kidneys scheduled for transplantation. The protein profiles of the solutions were analyzed using 2D gel electrophoresis/MALDI-TOF and LC-MS/MS. We identified and quantified 206 proteins and peptides belonging to 139 different groups. Of these, 111 proteins groups were belonging to kidney tissues. This study used proteomic techniques to analyze the protein profiles of organ preservation solutions. These findings will contribute to the development of improved preservation solutions to effectively protect organs for transplantation. PMID:28036361

  13. Cinacalcet improves bone density in post-kidney transplant hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Cho, M E; Duan, Z; Chamberlain, C E; Reynolds, J C; Ring, M S; Mannon, R B

    2010-11-01

    The recent availability of cinacalcet has provided a possible alternative to parathyroidectomy in kidney transplant patients with persistent hyperparathyroidism, but its effect on bone mass density (BMD) is unknown. From our database containing 163 kidney transplants performed at our center from 1999 to 2007, we compared recipients who received cinacalcet for persistent hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism following renal transplantation (n = 8) with up to two other posttransplant patients matched for age, sex, race, and graft function (n = 15). The outcome of the study was BMD changes from baseline to 12, 24, and 36 months post-renal transplantation. Repeated-measures mixed model was used to assess the difference of BMD change between two groups. Cinacalcet therapy was started at a median of 9 (range = 1 to 24) months posttransplant with a mean dose 56 ± 29 mg/d (mean duration = 1.6; range = 1 to 2.1 years). Cinacalcet therapy was associated with significant reduction of serum calcium compared to control. Cinacalcet therapy was associated with greater BMD increase at the hip over the 36-month posttransplant period. Cinacalcet was well tolerated. Our results suggest that cinacalcet may have a small but favorable effect on bone density following kidney transplantation.