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Sample records for kielmeyera cuspidata saddi

  1. Immunostimulating activity of polyhydric alcohol isolated from Taxus cuspidata.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choon Guen; Lee, Jisun; Lee, Da Gyung; Kim, Joo Won; Alnaeeli, Mawadda; Park, Yong Il; Park, Jae Kweon

    2016-04-01

    A polyhydric alcohol (PAL) was isolated from Taxus cuspidata and its immunostimulatory activities were assessed. The primary monosaccharide composition of the PAL was determined to be glucose, where HPAEC analysis showed no significant amount of any other sugars. However, glycerol and xylitol were identified as the main sugar alcohols. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis indicated that the purified PAL is a complex glycitol, which structurally contains significant amount of hydroxyl groups. MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy also demonstrated that PAL is a complex glycitol built in hexose polymerization. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed that the PAL stimulates the release of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with PAL for 24h remarkably increased the phosphorylation levels of ERK, p38 and JNK in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the total protein levels of ERK (t-ERK), p38 (t-p38) and JNK (t-JNK) remained unchanged. These results clearly demonstrate that PAL stimulates the immune response in RAW 264.7 cells through the activation of MAPKs (ERK, p38 and JNK) signaling pathway. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the primary structure and immune-stimulating activities of PAL from the fruit of T. cuspidata.

  2. Assessment of anxiolytic and panicolytic effects of dichloromethane fraction from stems of Kielmeyera coriacea.

    PubMed

    Biesdorf, C; Cortez, D A G; Audi, E A

    2012-02-15

    Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. (Calophyllaceae) is known popularly as "Pau Santo". The hydroethanolic extract (HE) of Kielmeyera coriacea stems and its semi-pure dichloromethane (DCM) constituent produced an antidepressant-like effect in rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of repeated administration (21 days) by gavage of the DCM fraction (5, 10 or 15mg/kg) in rats submitted to the elevated T-maze (ETM), a model of generalized anxiety and panic disorders. The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (15mg/kg) was used as a positive control. Rat locomotion was assessed using the open field test (OFT) following each drug treatment. The 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyxanthone (1), aucuparin (2), swertinin (3), 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone (4) and 1,3,5-trihydroxy-2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone (5) were identified in DCM fraction, and suggest that the xanthone (4) is related with the antidepressant-like profile of this plant. Pharmacological evaluation showed that DCM fraction (10 and 15 mg/kg) decreased the inhibitory avoidance latency from the closed arm and increased the one-way escape latency from the open arm in the ETM, which is indicative of anxiolytic and panicolytic effects, respectively, as occurs with the positive control, imipramine (15 mg/kg), when compared to their control group (vehicle). Locomotor activity was not significantly altered by the different treatments. This study suggests that the DCM fraction from stems of Kielmeyera coriacea can be an important therapeutic alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety and panic disorders.

  3. Establishment of the evergreen broad-leaved tree species Castanopsis cuspidata in an abandoned secondary forest in western Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Kimiko; Kawamura, Shota; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Takahara, Hikaru

    2010-09-01

    Recently, populations of Castanopsis cuspidata have often expanded into secondary forests in western Japan. To determine the establishment processes of this species, we analyzed its spatial distribution in a secondary forest dominated by Quercus variabilis and Quercus serrata that is located adjacent to a stand dominated by C. cuspidata. Saplings, defined as >or=30 cm stem length (SL) and <5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH), were abundant and their size distribution was inversely J-shaped, indicating continuous recruitment. Although seedlings (SL < 30 cm) and small saplings (30 cuspidata were aggregated near flowering trees of this species, some were found >or=40 m from the nearest adults, suggesting that there is animal-aided dispersal of acorns. The distribution of larger-sized individuals (>or=100 cm SL) of C. cuspidata was unrelated to distance from the nearest flowering C. cuspidata or dominant Quercus species (>or=5 cm DBH), but was associated with dead Pinus densiflora trees, which were abundant at the site. Thus, the establishment of C. cuspidata in this forest is controlled mainly by two factors, viz. patterns of acorn dispersal by animals, and forest disturbance regime (i.e., deaths of pine trees).

  4. Chemical Constituents and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Carla de M.; do Nascimento, Evandro A.; de Morais, Sérgio A. L.; de Oliveira, Alberto; Chang, Roberto; Cunha, Luís C. S.; Martins, Mário M.; Martins, Carlos Henrique G.; Moraes, Thaís da S.; Rodrigues, Paulla V.; da Silva, Cláudio V.; de Aquino, Francisco J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Many essential oils (EOs) of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal microorganisms and cytotoxic properties. EOs of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The EO from leaves is rich in sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The three major compounds identified were germacrene-D (24.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.5%), and bicyclogermacrene (11.6%). The inner bark EO is composed mainly of sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and the major components are alpha-copaene (14.9%) and alpha-(E)-bergamotene (13.0%). The outer bark EO is composed mainly of oxygenated sesquiterpenes and long-chain alkanes, and the major components are alpha-eudesmol (4.2%) and nonacosane (5.8%). The wood EO is mainly composed of long-chain alkanes and fatty acids, and the major components are nonacosane (9.7%) and palmitic acid (16.2%). The inner bark EO showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against the anaerobic bacteria Prevotella nigrescens (minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC of 50 µg mL−1). The outer bark and wood EOs showed MICs of 100 µg mL−1 for all aerobic microorganisms tested. The EOs presented low toxicity to Vero cells. These results suggest that K. coriacea, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest. PMID:25960759

  5. Geographic occurrence of intermediate type between Castanopsis sieboldii and C. cuspidata (Fagaceae) based on the structure of leaf epidermis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroo; Miyaura, Tomiyasu

    2003-12-01

    The number of layers of epidermis in the leaves is used as a criterion to distinguish between Castanopsis sieboldii (two layers) and C. cuspidata (one layer). An intermediate type, which has one and two layers within a single leaf, is frequently seen in the field. The origin of the intermediate type has been supposed to be a hybrid between C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata. If the intermediate type is produced by hybridization, we expect that the F(1) seedlings of the intermediate type should occur in the co-occurrence area of those two species. To clarify the geographic occurrence of the intermediate type, we collected nuts of 443 mother trees from throughout the distribution area of the genus Castanopsis in Japan. A total of 7,260 seedlings germinated from these nuts were examined as to their leaf structure. The seedlings of the intermediate type occurred not only in the area where C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata coexisted, but also in the area where only C. sieboldii grows. The leaf structure of intermediate seedlings was independent of the traits of mother trees. These findings suggest that the intermediate seedlings that occurred in the area where only C. sieboldii grows are not hybrid between C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata but are a morphological variation of C. sieboldii. The difference in the structure of leaf epidermis is not always appropriate for the identification of the hybrid.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Endangered Narrow Sawfish Anoxypristis cuspidata (Rajiformes: Pristidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Kyne, Peter M; Pillans, Richard D; Feutry, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we describe the first complete mitochondrial sequence for the Endangered Narrow Sawfish Anoxypristis cuspidata. It is 17,243 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region with the common vertebrate mitogenomic organization. A total of 30 bp overlaps and 28 bp short intergenic spaces are located between all genes. The overall base composition is 32.7% A, 25.7% C, 12.9% G, and 28.6% T. Two start codons (ATG and GTG) and two stop codons (TAG and TAA/T) were used in all protein-coding genes. The origin of L-strand replication (OL) sequence (38 bp) formed a hairpin structure (13 bp stem and 12 bp loop) to initiate the replication of L-strand.

  7. Three new bicyclic taxane diterpenoids from the needles of Japanese yew, Taxus cuspidata Sieb. et Zucc.

    PubMed

    Shi, Q W; Oritani, T; Sugiyama, T; Murakami, R; Horiguchi, T

    1999-01-01

    Three new bicyclic taxane diterpenes were isolated from the needles of the Japanese yew, Taxus cuspidata Sieb. et Zucc. Their structures were established to be 7,9,10,13-tetraacetoxy-5-cinnamoyloxy-4-hydroxy-methyl-8,12,15,15- tetramethyl-bicyclo[9.3.1] pentadeca-3,8,11-trien-2-ol (2,20-dideacetyl taxuspine X), 7,9,10,13,20-pentaacetoxy-5-cinnamoyloxy-8,12,15,15-tetramethyl bicyclo[9.3.1] pentadeca-3,8,11-trien-2-ol (2-deacetyl taxuspine X), and 9,10,13,20-tetraacetoxy-5-cinnamoyloxy-8,12,15,15-tetramethyl-bicyclo[9.3.1] pentadeca-3,8,11-trien-2,7-diol (2,7-dideacetyl taxuspine X) with the aid of spectroscopic techniques and by comparing with taxuspine X.

  8. Trypanocidal activity of 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone isolated from Kielmeyera coriacea.

    PubMed

    Caleare, Angelo de Oliveira; Lazarin-Bidóia, Danielle; Cortez, Diógenes A Garcia; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias Filho, Benedito P; Silva, Sueli de Oliveira; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2013-10-01

    This work evaluated the activity and ultrastructural and morphological alterations induced by the xanthone 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone (C23) isolated from Kielmeyera coriacea against Trypanosoma cruzi. This xanthone had inhibitory activity against the three forms of this protozoan and did not induce toxicity in mammalian cells. The best activity of this xanthone was against the intracellular amastigote form. Additionally, the mitochondrion was the main target of this compound, reflected by electronic microscopy and rhodamine 123 assays. Our MitoSOX assay results also indicated that C23 increased O2(-) production in mitochondrion. C23 might be a promising chemotherapeutic agent against T. cruzi because its trypanocidal action involves the disruption of mitochondrion, a specific target of Trypanosomatides.

  9. Antitumor Activity of Kielmeyera Coriacea Leaf Constituents in Experimental Melanoma, Tested in Vitro and in Vivo in Syngeneic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Carlos Rogério; Matsuo, Alisson Leonardo; Massaoka, Mariana Hiromi; Girola, Natalia; Azevedo, Ricardo Alexandre; Rabaça, Aline Nogueira; Farias, Camyla Fernandes; Pereira, Felipe Valença; Matias, Natalia Silva; Silva, Luciana Pereira; Rodrigues, Elaine Guadelupe; Lago, João Henrique Guilardi; Travassos, Luiz Rodolpho; Silva, Regildo Márcio Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The antitumor activity of Kielmeyera coriacea (Clusiaceae), a medicinal plant used in the treatment of parasitic, as well as fungal and bacterial infections by the Brazilian Cerrado population, was investigated. Methods: A chloroform extract (CE) of K. coriacea was tested in the murine melanoma cell line (B16F10-Nex2) and a panel of human tumor cell lines. Tumor cell migration was determined by the wound-healing assay and the in vivo antitumor activity of CE was investigated in a melanoma cell metastatic model. 1H NMR and GC/MS were used to determine CE chemical composition. Results: We found that CE exhibited strong cytotoxic activity against murine melanoma cells and a panel of human tumor cell lines in vitro. CE also inhibited growth of B16F10-Nex2 cells at sub lethal concentrations, inducing cell cycle arrest at S phase, and inhibition of tumor cell migration. Most importantly, administration of CE significantly reduced the number of melanoma metastatic nodules in vivo. Chemical analysis of CE indicated the presence of the long chain fatty compounds, 1-eicosanol, 1-docosanol, and 2-nonadecanone as main constituents. Conclusion: These results indicate that K. coriacea is a promising medicinal plant in cancer therapy exhibiting antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo against different tumor cell lines. PMID:25364658

  10. Spatial-temporal distribution of nitric oxide involved in regulation of phenylalanine ammonialyase activation and Taxol production in immobilized Taxus cuspidata cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wen-Hai; Cheng, Jing-sheng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2009-02-05

    The generation of nitric oxide (NO) in Taxus cuspidata in immobilized support matrices and the potential role of NO as signal molecular in regulation of Taxol production were investigated. It was found that the immobilization induced a spatial and temporal-dependent NO burst in immobilized supported matrices. NO level reached the maximum in the central zone of immobilized supported matrices on day 20, which was more than twice compared with that in suspended cells. Further investigations showed that the phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activity and Taxol production of the 20-day-old immobilized T. cuspidata cells increased by onefold and 11% after 4h treatment with 20 microM NO donor (sodium nitroprusside), respectively. NO inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine and NO scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxyde partially blocked PAL activity and Taxol accumulation in immobilized cells. These results suggest that NO plays a signal role in regulation of PAL activity and Taxol production in immobilized T. cuspidata cells.

  11. Jasmonate-responsive expression of paclitaxel biosynthesis genes in Taxus cuspidata cultured cells is negatively regulated by the bHLH transcription factors TcJAMYC1, TcJAMYC2, and TcJAMYC4

    PubMed Central

    Lenka, Sangram K.; Nims, N. Ezekiel; Vongpaseuth, Kham; Boshar, Rosemary A.; Roberts, Susan C.; Walker, Elsbeth L.

    2015-01-01

    Taxus cell suspension culture is a sustainable technology for the industrial production of paclitaxel (Taxol®), a highly modified diterpene anti-cancer agent. The methyl jasmonate (MJ)-mediated paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway is not fully characterized, making metabolic engineering efforts difficult. Here, promoters of seven genes (TASY, T5αH, DBAT, DBBT, PAM, BAPT, and DBTNBT), encoding enzymes of the paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway were isolated and used to drive MJ-inducible expression of a GUS reporter construct in transiently transformed Taxus cells, showing that elicitation of paclitaxel production by MJ is regulated at least in part at the level of transcription. The paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway promoters contained a large number of E-box sites (CANNTG), similar to the binding sites for the key MJ-inducible transcription factor AtMYC2 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Three MJ-inducible MYC transcription factors similar to AtMYC2 (TcJAMYC1, TcJAMYC2, and TcJAMYC4) were identified in Taxus. Transcriptional regulation of paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway promoters by transient over expression of TcJAMYC transcription factors indicated a negative rather than positive regulatory role of TcJAMYCs on paclitaxel biosynthetic gene expression. PMID:25767476

  12. Terrebonne Parish-Wide Forced Drainage System, Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    marshes include: Acnida cuspidata, Bacopa monnieri, Leptochloa facicularis, Paspalum vaginatum and Pluchea camphorata. P~imary productivity of intermediate...intermediate marshes of Terrebonne Parish include: Acnida cuspidata, Bacopa monnieri, Leptochloa fascicularis, Paspalum vaginatum and Pluchea camphorata...intermediate marsh as it does the brackish type, but to a lesser degree. Other common plants are Phragmites communis, Sagittaria falcata, and Bacopa

  13. Preserving spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilatory support: an old yet fascinating story.

    PubMed

    Calzia, Enrico; Dembinski, Rolf

    2013-11-19

    Facilitation of early spontaneous breathing activity is the most important measure to shorten weaning and avoid ventilator-induced lung injury and diaphragmatic injury in mechanically ventilated patients. However, the optimal degree of spontaneous muscle activity and ventilator support remains to be determined. Furthermore, effectiveness in relation to the pathophysiology of respiratory failure is unclear. In this regard the experimental study by Saddy and colleagues reveals interesting insights into the pathophysiology of ventilator-induced injury. More important, their results raise important questions that should be evaluated in further studies.

  14. Preserving spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilatory support: an old yet fascinating story

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Facilitation of early spontaneous breathing activity is the most important measure to shorten weaning and avoid ventilator-induced lung injury and diaphragmatic injury in mechanically ventilated patients. However, the optimal degree of spontaneous muscle activity and ventilator support remains to be determined. Furthermore, effectiveness in relation to the pathophysiology of respiratory failure is unclear. In this regard the experimental study by Saddy and colleagues reveals interesting insights into the pathophysiology of ventilator-induced injury. More important, their results raise important questions that should be evaluated in further studies. PMID:24245610

  15. 78 FR 48134 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding and Proposed Endangered Listing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... Proposed Endangered Listing of Five Species of Sawfish Under the Endangered Species Act AGENCY: National... five sawfish species: the narrow sawfish (A. cuspidata); dwarf sawfish (P. clavata); largetooth sawfish (collectively P. pristis; formerly P. pristis, P. microdon, and P. perotteti); green sawfish (P. zijsron);...

  16. Sensory systems in sawfishes. 2. The lateral line.

    PubMed

    Wueringer, B E; Peverell, S C; Seymour, J; Squire, L; Collin, S P

    2011-01-01

    The lateral line system allows elasmobranchs to detect hydrodynamic movements in their close surroundings. We examined the distribution of pit organs and lateral line canals in 4 species of sawfish (Anoxypristis cuspidata, Pristis microdon, P. clavata and P. zijsron). Pit organs could only be located in A. cuspidata, which possesses elongated pits that are lined by dermal denticles. In all 4 pristid species, the lateral line canals are well developed and were separated into regions of pored and non-pored canals. In all species the tubules that extend from pored canals form extensive networks. In A. cuspidata, P. microdon and P. clavata, the lateral line canals on both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the rostrum possess extensively branched and pored tubules. Based on this morphological observation, we hypothesized that these 3 species do not use their rostrum to search in the substrate for prey as previously assumed. Other batoids that possess lateral line canals adapted to perceive stimuli produced by infaunal prey possess non-pored lateral line canals, which also prevent the intrusion of substrate particles. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested behaviourally in pristids. Lateral line canals located between the mouth and the nostrils are non-pored in all 4 species of sawfish. Thus this region is hypothesized to perceive stimuli caused by direct contact with prey before ingestion. Lateral line canals that contain neuromasts are longest in P. microdon, but canals containing neuromasts along the rostrum are longest in A. cuspidata.

  17. Populations of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Its Parasitoids in Himalayan Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For a biological control program against olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Rossi, olives were collected in the Himalayan foothills (China, Nepal, India, and Pakistan) to discover new natural enemies. Wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata (Wall ex. G. Don), were sparsely distributed and fly-infes...

  18. Populations of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Its Parasitoids in Himalayan Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For a biological control program against olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Rossi, olives were collected in the Himalayan foothills (China, Nepal, India, and Pakistan) to discover new natural enemies. Wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata (Wall ex. G. Don), were sparsely distributed and fly-infe...

  19. Molecular characterization of genetic diversity, structure, and differentiation in the olive (Olea europaea L.) germplasm collection of the united states department of agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen microsatellite loci were used to genotype 108 accessions of cultivated olive, Olea europaea L. ssp. europaea var. europaea, and eight of O. europaea L. ssp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Ciferri from the germplasm collection of the United States Department of Agriculture in Davis, California. ...

  20. Genetic Differentiation and Genetic Diversity of Castanopsis (Fagaceae), the Dominant Tree Species in Japanese Broadleaved Evergreen Forests, Revealed by Analysis of EST-Associated Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Kyoko; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Kamijo, Takashi; Setoguchi, Hiroaki; Murakami, Noriaki; Kato, Makoto; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    The broadleaved evergreen forests of the East Asian warm temperate zone are characterised by their high biodiversity and endemism, and there is therefore a need to extend our understanding of its genetic diversity and phylogeographic patterns. Castanopsis (Fagaceae) is one of the dominant tree species in the broadleaved evergreen forests of Japan. In this study we investigate the genetic diversity, genetic structure and leaf epidermal morphology of 63 natural populations of C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata, using 32 Expressed Sequence Tag associated microsatellites. The overall genetic differentiation between populations was low (GST = 0.069 in C. sieboldii and GST = 0.057 in C. cuspidata). Neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses revealed that the populations of C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata were genetically clearly differentiated, a result which is consistent with the morphology of their epidermal cell layers. This suggests that C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata should be treated as independent species, although intermediate morphologies are often observed, especially at sites where the two species coexist. The higher level of genetic diversity observed in the Kyushu region (for both species) and the Ryukyu Islands (for C. sieboldii) is consistent with the available fossil pollen data for Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen trees during the Last Glacial Maximum and suggests the existence of refugia for Castanopsis forests in southern Japan. Within the C. sieboldii populations, Bayesian clustering analyses detected three clusters, in the western and eastern parts of the main islands and in the Ryukyu Islands. The west-east genetic differentiation observed for this species in the main islands, a pattern which is also found in several plant and animal species inhabiting Castanopsis forests in Japan, suggests that they have been isolated from each other in the western and eastern populations for an extended period of time, and may imply the

  1. Genetic differentiation and genetic diversity of Castanopsis (Fagaceae), the dominant tree species in Japanese broadleaved evergreen forests, revealed by analysis of EST-associated microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kyoko; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Kamijo, Takashi; Setoguchi, Hiroaki; Murakami, Noriaki; Kato, Makoto; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    The broadleaved evergreen forests of the East Asian warm temperate zone are characterised by their high biodiversity and endemism, and there is therefore a need to extend our understanding of its genetic diversity and phylogeographic patterns. Castanopsis (Fagaceae) is one of the dominant tree species in the broadleaved evergreen forests of Japan. In this study we investigate the genetic diversity, genetic structure and leaf epidermal morphology of 63 natural populations of C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata, using 32 Expressed Sequence Tag associated microsatellites. The overall genetic differentiation between populations was low (GST = 0.069 in C. sieboldii and GST = 0.057 in C. cuspidata). Neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses revealed that the populations of C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata were genetically clearly differentiated, a result which is consistent with the morphology of their epidermal cell layers. This suggests that C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata should be treated as independent species, although intermediate morphologies are often observed, especially at sites where the two species coexist. The higher level of genetic diversity observed in the Kyushu region (for both species) and the Ryukyu Islands (for C. sieboldii) is consistent with the available fossil pollen data for Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen trees during the Last Glacial Maximum and suggests the existence of refugia for Castanopsis forests in southern Japan. Within the C. sieboldii populations, Bayesian clustering analyses detected three clusters, in the western and eastern parts of the main islands and in the Ryukyu Islands. The west-east genetic differentiation observed for this species in the main islands, a pattern which is also found in several plant and animal species inhabiting Castanopsis forests in Japan, suggests that they have been isolated from each other in the western and eastern populations for an extended period of time, and may imply the

  2. Experimental investigation of submicron and ultrafine soot particle removal by tree leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hee-Jae; Yook, Se-Jin; Ahn, Kang-Ho

    2011-12-01

    Soot particles emitted from vehicles are one of the major sources of air pollution in urban areas. In this study, five kinds of trees were selected as Pinus densiflora, Taxus cuspidata, Platanus occidentalis, Zelkova serrata, and Ginkgo biloba, and the removal of submicron (<1 μm) and ultrafine (<0.1 μm) soot particles by tree leaves was quantitatively compared in terms of deposition velocity. Soot particles were produced by a diffusion flame burner using acetylene as the fuel. The sizes of monodisperse soot particles classified with the Differential Mobility Analyzers (DMA) were 30, 55, 90, 150, 250, 400, and 600 nm. A deposition chamber was designed to simulate the omni-directional flow condition around the tree leaves. Deposition velocities onto the needle-leaf trees were higher than those onto the broadleaf trees. P. densiflora showed the greatest deposition velocity, followed by T. cuspidata, Platanus occidentalis, Zelkova serrata, and Ginkgo biloba. In addition, from the comparison of deposition velocity between two groups of Platanus occidentalis leaves, i.e. one group of leaves with front sides only and the other with back sides only, it was supposed in case of the broadleaf trees that the removal of airborne soot particles of submicron and ultrafine sizes could be affected by the surface roughness of tree leaves, i.e. the veins and other structures on the leaves.

  3. Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach dynamics and succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (east Africa): implications for water quality and biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Gichuki, John; Omondi, Reuben; Boera, Priscillar; Okorut, Tom; Matano, Ally Said; Jembe, Tsuma; Ofulla, Ayub

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities.

  4. A simple and rapid method for isolation of high quality genomic DNA from fruit trees and conifers using PVP.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, C S; Lee, C H; Shin, J S; Chung, Y S; Hyung, N I

    1997-01-01

    Because DNA degradation is mediated by secondary plant products such as phenolic terpenoids, the isolation of high quality DNA from plants containing a high content of polyphenolics has been a difficult problem. We demonstrate an easy extraction process by modifying several existing ones. Using this process we have found it possible to isolate DNAs from four fruit trees, grape (Vitis spp.), apple (Malus spp.), pear (Pyrus spp.) and persimmon (Diospyros spp.) and four species of conifer, Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis,Taxus cuspidata and Juniperus chinensis within a few hours. Compared with the existing method, we have isolated high quality intact DNAs (260/280 = 1.8-2.0) routinely yielding 250-500 ng/microl (total 7.5-15 microg DNA from four to five tissue discs). PMID:9023124

  5. Evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sandra S; de Jesus, Aline M; dos Anjos, Charlene S; da Silva, Thanany B; Santos, Alan D C; de Jesus, Jemmyson R; Andrade, Moacir S; Sampaio, Tais S; Gomes, Wesley F; Alves, Péricles B; Carvalho, Adriana A; Pessoa, Claudia; de Moraes, Manoel O; Pinheiro, Maria L B; Prata, Ana Paula N; Blank, Arie F; Silva-Mann, Renata; Moraes, Valeria R S; Costa, Emmanoel V; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar L; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2012-09-01

    Plants are promising sources of new bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic potential of nine plants found in Brazil. The species studied were: Annona pickelii Diels (Annonaceae), Annona salzmannii A. DC. (Annonaceae), Guatteria blepharophylla Mart. (Annonaceae), Guatteria hispida (R. E. Fr.) Erkens & Maas (Annonaceae), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae), Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae), Kielmeyera rugosa Choisy (Clusiaceae), Lippia gracilis Schauer (Verbenaceae), and Hyptis calida Mart. Ex Benth (Lamiaceae). Different types of extractions from several parts of plants resulted in 43 extracts. Their cytotoxicity was tested against HCT-8 (colon carcinoma), MDA-MB-435 (melanoma), SF-295 (glioblastoma), and HL-60 (promielocitic leukemia) human tumor cell lines, using the thiazolyl blue test (MTT) assay. The active extracts were those obtained from G. blepharophylla, G. hispida, J. curcas, K. rugosa, and L. gracilis. In addition, seven compounds isolated from the active extracts were tested; among them, β-pinene found in G. hispida and one coumarin isolated from K. rugora showed weak cytotoxic activity. In summary, this manuscript contributes to the understanding of the potentialities of Brazilian plants as sources of new anticancer drugs.

  6. Antiproliferative Constituents of Geopropolis from the Bee Melipona scutellaris

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Marcos Guilherme; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Franchin, Marcelo; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Ransom, Tanya; Beutler, John Albert

    2016-01-01

    Fractionation of geopropolis from Melipona scutellaris, guided by antiproliferative activity against two colon cancer cell lines (COLO205 and KM12), led to the isolation of two new cinnamic acid esters, mammea-type coumarins 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(4-cinnamoyl-3-methyl-1-oxobutyl)-4-propyl-coumarin (1) and 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(4-cinnamoyl-3-methyl-1-oxobutyl)-4-phenylcoumarin (2), along with five known coumarins, mammeigin (3), hydroxymammeigin (4), mammeisin (5), cinnamoyloxy-mammeisin (6), and mammein (7), and the prenylated benzophenone ent-nemorosone (8). Among the isolated compounds, 5 and 7 showed the highest cell growth inhibition against COLO205 (GI50 9.7 and 10.7 μM, respectively) and KM12 (GI50 12.0 and 10.9 μM, respectively). The presence of these compounds suggests that plants of Clusiaceae family, especially the genera Kielmeyera and Clusia, are likely to be major sources of geopropolis produced by M. scutellaris. PMID:26544117

  7. Antiproliferative Constituents of Geopropolis from the Bee Melipona scutellaris.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Marcos Guilherme; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Franchin, Marcelo; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Ransom, Tanya; Beutler, John Albert

    2016-02-01

    Fractionation of geopropolis from Melipona scutellaris, guided by antiproliferative activity against two colon cancer cell lines (COLO205 and KM12), led to the isolation of two new cinnamic acid esters, mammea-type coumarins 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(4-cinnamoyl-3-methyl-1-oxobutyl)-4-propyl-coumarin (1) and 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(4-cinnamoyl-3-methyl-1-oxobutyl)-4-phenylcoumarin (2), along with five known coumarins, mammeigin (3), hydroxymammeigin (4), mammeisin (5), cinnamoyloxy-mammeisin (6), and mammein (7), and the prenylated benzophenone ent-nemorosone (8). Among the isolated compounds, 5 and 7 showed the highest cell growth inhibition against COLO205 (GI50 9.7 and 10.7 µM, respectively) and KM12 (GI50 12.0 and 10.9 µM, respectively). The presence of these compounds suggests that plants of Clusiaceae family, especially the genera Kielmeyera and Clusia, are likely to be major sources of geopropolis produced by M. scutellaris.

  8. Comparative morphology of the bursal nozzles in acoels (Acoela, Acoelomorpha).

    PubMed

    Petrov, Anatoly; Hooge, Matthew; Tyler, Seth

    2006-05-01

    Systematics of the Acoela is particularly difficult because of the paucity of readily discernible morphological features. In other soft-bodied worms, sclerotized structures, such as copulatory stylets, provide important characters that can be seen in whole mounts, but acoels generally lack such features. Among the few sclerotized structures in acoels are bursal nozzles-tubiform outlets on the seminal bursae that are believed to be conduits (spermatic ducts) through which allosperm are transported to the oocytes. Early classifications of the Acoela used features of the female reproductive system, including bursal nozzles, for distinguishing major groups, but the current system essentially ignores them as too plastic to provide higher-level distinctions. We used confocal and electron microscopy to further characterize bursal nozzles in five acoel species, and found all composed of actin-reinforced extensions of stacked, flat mesenchymal cells. In Notocelis gullmarensis, Aphanostoma bruscai, and Daku woorimensis, the nozzle is a stiffened region of the same cells forming the wall of the bursa. By contrast, in Wulguru cuspidata cells forming the nozzle are distinct from those of the bursa. The so-called bursal cap of A. bruscai and D. woorimensis has small sclerotized disjunct units within it, also composed of stacked, flat, actin-reinforced cells. The nozzle of W. cuspidata, prominent like that of other convolutid acoels, is relatively complex, its actin-reinforced cells sandwiched with secretory cells and its base bearing a "sorting apparatus" of egg-shaped cells that send narrow processes inside the spermatic duct. Cases of sperm inside the nozzle corroborate its assumed role in reproduction. Whereas most nozzles sit at the end of the bursa facing the ovary, in species of Pseudmecynostomum and purportedly in a few other acoels, they sit between the female pore and the bursa, constituting what we call a vaginal nozzle. All bursal nozzles of acoels show a common

  9. Nutrient stoichiometry in Sphagnum along a nitrogen deposition gradient in highly polluted region of Central-East Europe.

    PubMed

    Jiroušek, Martin; Hájek, Michal; Bragazza, Luca

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the variation of N:P and N:K ratio in ombrotrophic Sphagnum plants along a gradient of atmospheric N deposition from 1 to 2.5 g m(-2) year(-1) in Central-East Europe. The N:P and N:K ratio in Sphagnum capitula increased significantly along the N deposition gradient. Sphagnum species from the Cuspidata section were characterised by significantly lower ratios at low N deposition. When we compared the observed N:P ratios in Sphagnum plants with the values reported in a previous European-wide study, we found a correspondence in nutrient stoichiometry only for a few bogs: higher P concentration in Sphagnum capitula caused a lower N:P ratio in most of the study bogs so that Sphagnum plants still seem N-limited despite their N saturation. Interaction between summer water table decrease and aerial liming of surrounding forests is proposed as an explanation for this discrepancy. Local forestry practice interacting with climate thus alter N:P stoichiometry of Sphagnum along the N deposition gradient.

  10. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Mana Angetu District, southeastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lulekal, Ermias; Kelbessa, Ensermu; Bekele, Tamrat; Yineger, Haile

    2008-01-01

    This study documents indigenous medicinal plant utilization, management and the threats affecting them. The study was carried out in Mana Angetu district between January 2003 and December 2004. Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi structured interviews, field observations, preference and direct matrix ranking with traditional medicine practitioners. The ethnomedicinal use of 230 plant species was documented in the study area. Most of the plants (78.7%) were reportedly used to treat human diseases. The most frequently used plant part were roots (33.9%), followed by leaves (25.6%). Most of the medicinal species (90.4%) were collected from the wild. Direct matrix analysis showed that Olea europaea L. Subsp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) was the most important species followed by Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne (120) indicating high utility value of these species for the local community. The principal threatening factors reported were deforestation (90%), agricultural expansion (85%) and fire (53%). Documenting the eroding plants and associated indigenous knowledge can be used as a basis for developing management plans for conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in the area. PMID:18442379

  11. Induction of the sexual stage of Pestalotiopsis microspora, a taxol-producing fungus.

    PubMed

    Metz, A M; Haddad, A; Worapong, J; Long, D M; Ford, E J; Hess, W M; Strobel, G A

    2000-08-01

    Pestalotiopsis microspora, isolate NE-32, is an endophyte of the Himalayan yew (Taxus wallichiana) that produces taxol, an important chemotherapeutic drug used in the treatment of breast and ovarian cancers. Conditions were determined to induce the perfect stage (teleomorph) of this organism in the laboratory as a critical first step to study inheritance of taxol biosynthetic genes. The perfect stage of Pestalotiopsis microspora NE-32 forms in a period of 3-6 weeks on water agarose with dried yew needles at 16-20 degrees C with 12 h of light per day. Morphological analysis of the teleomorph and sequencing of the 18S rDNA indicates that Pestalosphaeria hansenii is the perfect stage of Pestalotiopsis microspora. Only certain plants (e.g. yews, some pines, pecan, oat and some barley cultivars) allow the production of perithecia. Exhaustive methylene chloride extraction of yew (Taxus cuspidata) needles removes their capacity to induce production of perithecia. The methylene chloride extract is able to induce formation of perithecia by strain NE-32 in a bioassay system utilizing the sterilized sheaths of the Cholla cactus (Opuntia bigelovii) spine, indicating that a chemical compound(s) in yew stimulates the formation of the perfect stage. This hydrophobic plant compound(s) has been designated the perithecial-stimulating factor (PSF). The data suggest that plant products may play a role in regulating the biology of endophytic microbes.

  12. Prospecting for potentially new pharmaceuticals from natural sources.

    PubMed

    Pandey, R C

    1998-09-01

    Many new natural product-derived pharmaceutically active compounds and compositions, each effective in treating an array of diseases and maladies including various tumors and HIV, have been reportedly isolated from different sources of vegetation, including the bark of yew trees, needles, leaves, fungi, and cell culture of many different species; vegetables such as West African yams; and Chinese and Indian herbs. Other sources include vegetation from South American rainforests. Many of the sources of such natural products are historical in nature and/or are known from folklore. Recent studies have provided potentially new biodiverse pharmaceutical compounds such as paclitaxel, which is obtainable from several species, including various portions of T. brevifolia, the Western yew tree, and other yew species such as T. baccata, T. cuspidata, T. wallichiana, T. media, T. canadensis, T. chinensis and T. yunnanensis as well as from T. wardii, T. capitata, T. brownii, T. gem, T. globosa, T. floridana, T. hicksii, T. densiformis, and T. darkgreen spreader, in addition to cultured plant cells and fungi. The novel compounds and their semisynthetic brominated and chlorinated analogs prepared from T. yunnanensis extract show strong activity against several types of tumors.

  13. Desiccation tolerance of Sphagnum revisited: a puzzle resolved.

    PubMed

    Hájek, T; Vicherová, E

    2014-07-01

    As ecosystem engineers, Sphagnum mosses control their surroundings through water retention, acidification and peat accumulation. Because water retention avoids desiccation, sphagna are generally intolerant to drought; however, the literature on Sphagnum desiccation tolerance (DT) provides puzzling results, indicating the inducible nature of their DT. To test this, various Sphagnum species and other mesic bryophytes were hardened to drought by (i) slow drying; (ii) ABA application and (iii) chilling or frost. DT tolerance was assessed as recovery of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters after severe desiccation. We monitored the seasonal course of DT in bog bryophytes. Under laboratory conditions, following initial de-hardening, untreated Sphagnum shoots lacked DT; however, DT was induced by all hardening treatments except chilling, notably by slow drying, and in Sphagnum species of the section Cuspidata. In the field, sphagna in hollows and lawns developed DT several times during the growing season, responding to reduced precipitation and a lowered water table. Hummock and aquatic species developed DT only in late autumn, probably as a response to frost. Sphagnum protonemata failed to develop DT; hence, desiccation may limit Sphagnum establishment in drier habitats with suitable substrate chemistry. Desiccation avoiders among sphagna form compact hummocks or live submerged; thus, they do not develop DT in the field, lacking the initial desiccation experience, which is frequent in hollow and lawn habitats. We confirmed the morpho-physiological trade-off: in contrast to typical hollow sphagna, hummock species invest more resources in water retention (desiccation avoidance), while they have a lower ability to develop physiological DT.

  14. The cost of reinforcement: selection on flower color in allopatric populations of Phlox drummondii.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Robin; Rausher, Mark D

    2014-05-01

    Reinforcement is the process by which increased reproductive isolation between incipient species evolves due to selection against maladaptive hybrids or costly hybrid mating. Reinforcement is predicted to create a pattern of greater prezygotic reproductive isolation in regions where the two species co-occur, sympatry, than in allopatry. Although most research on reinforcement focuses on understanding the evolutionary forces acting in sympatry, here we consider what prevents the alleles conferring greater reproductive isolation from spreading into allopatry. We investigate flower color divergence in the wildflower Phlox drummondii, which is caused by reinforcement in the regions sympatric with its congener Phlox cuspidata. Specifically, we performed common garden field experiments and pollinator observations to estimate selection acting on flower color variation in allopatry. We combine our estimates of maternal and paternal fitness using simulations and predict how flower color alleles migrating from sympatry will evolve in allopatry. Our results suggest that strong pollinator preference for the ancestral flower color in allopatry can maintain divergence between allopatric and sympatric populations.

  15. Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal

    PubMed Central

    Botsaris, Alexandros S

    2007-01-01

    The archives of Flora Medicinal, an ancient pharmaceutical laboratory that supported ethnomedical research in Brazil for more than 30 years, were searched for plants with antimalarial use. Forty plant species indicated to treat malaria were described by Dr. J. Monteiro da Silva (Flora Medicinal leader) and his co-workers. Eight species, Bathysa cuspidata, Cosmos sulphureus, Cecropia hololeuca, Erisma calcaratum, Gomphrena arborescens, Musa paradisiaca, Ocotea odorifera, and Pradosia lactescens, are related as antimalarial for the first time in ethnobotanical studies. Some species, including Mikania glomerata, Melampodium divaricatum, Galipea multiflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron, and Coutarea hexandra, were reported to have activity in malaria patients under clinical observation. In the information obtained, also, there were many details about the appropriate indication of each plant. For example, some plants are indicated to increase others' potency. There are also plants that are traditionally employed for specific symptoms or conditions that often accompany malaria, such as weakness, renal failure or cerebral malaria. Many plants that have been considered to lack activity against malaria due to absence of in vitro activity against Plasmodium can have other mechanisms of action. Thus researchers should observe ethnomedical information before deciding which kind of screening should be used in the search of antimalarial drugs. PMID:17472740

  16. Taxane recovery from cells of Taxus in micro- and hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durzan, D. J.; Ventimiglia, F.; Havel, L.

    1998-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures of Taxus cuspidata produce taxanes that are released from the outer surface of cells into the culture medium as free and bound alkaloids. Paclitaxel (Taxol (TM)), is an anti-cancer drug in short supply. It has a taxane ring derived from baccatin III and a C-13 phenylisoserine side-chain. This drug is produced over a wide range of gravitational forces. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to paclitaxel, baccatin III, and the C-13 phenylisoserine side chain were combined in multiple-labeling studies to localize taxanes and paclitaxel on cell surfaces or on particles released into the culture medium. Bioreactor vessel design altered the composition of taxanes recovered from cells in simulated microgravity. At 10(-2) and 2x10(-4)g, taxane recovery was reduced but biomass growth and percent paclitaxel was significantly increased. At 1 to 24g, growth was reduced with a significant recovery of total taxanes with low percent paclitaxel. Bound paclitaxel was also localized in endonuclease-rich fragmenting nuclei of individual apoptotic cells. A model is presented comprising TCH (touch) genes encoding enzymes that modify taxane-bearing xylan residues in cell walls, the calcium-sensing of gravitational forces by the cytoplasm, and the predisposition of nuclei to apoptosis. This integrates the adaptive physiological and biochemical responses of drug-producing genomes with gravitational forces.

  17. Unearthing microbial diversity of Taxus rhizosphere via MiSeq high-throughput amplicon sequencing and isolate characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Da Cheng; Song, Si Meng; Mu, Jun; Hu, Wen Li; Xiao, Pei Gen

    2016-04-01

    The species variability and potential environmental functions of Taxus rhizosphere microbial community were studied by comparative analyses of 15 16S rRNA and 15 ITS MiSeq sequencing libraries from Taxus rhizospheres in subtropical and temperate regions of China, as well as by isolating laccase-producing strains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading strains. Total reads could be assigned to 2,141 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) belonging to 31 bacteria phyla and 2,904 OTUs of at least seven fungi phyla. The abundance of Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi was higher in T. cuspidata var. nana and T. × media rhizospheres than in T. mairei rhizosphere (NF), while Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, and unclassified bacteria were more abundant in the latter. Ascomycota and Zygomycota were predominant in NF, while two temperate Taxus rhizospheres had more unclassified fungi, Basidiomycota, and Chytridiomycota. The bacterial/fungal community richness and diversity were lower in NF than in other two. Three dye decolorizing fungal isolates were shown to be highly efficient in removing three classes of reactive dye, while two PAH-degrading fungi were able to degrade recalcitrant benzo[a]pyrene. The present studies extend the knowledge pedigree of the microbial diversity populating rhizospheres, and exemplify the method shift in research and development of resource plant rhizosphere.

  18. Unearthing microbial diversity of Taxus rhizosphere via MiSeq high-throughput amplicon sequencing and isolate characterization

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Da Cheng; Song, Si Meng; Mu, Jun; Hu, Wen Li; Xiao, Pei Gen

    2016-01-01

    The species variability and potential environmental functions of Taxus rhizosphere microbial community were studied by comparative analyses of 15 16S rRNA and 15 ITS MiSeq sequencing libraries from Taxus rhizospheres in subtropical and temperate regions of China, as well as by isolating laccase-producing strains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading strains. Total reads could be assigned to 2,141 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) belonging to 31 bacteria phyla and 2,904 OTUs of at least seven fungi phyla. The abundance of Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi was higher in T. cuspidata var. nana and T. × media rhizospheres than in T. mairei rhizosphere (NF), while Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, and unclassified bacteria were more abundant in the latter. Ascomycota and Zygomycota were predominant in NF, while two temperate Taxus rhizospheres had more unclassified fungi, Basidiomycota, and Chytridiomycota. The bacterial/fungal community richness and diversity were lower in NF than in other two. Three dye decolorizing fungal isolates were shown to be highly efficient in removing three classes of reactive dye, while two PAH-degrading fungi were able to degrade recalcitrant benzo[a]pyrene. The present studies extend the knowledge pedigree of the microbial diversity populating rhizospheres, and exemplify the method shift in research and development of resource plant rhizosphere. PMID:27080869

  19. Strong reinforcing selection in a Texas wildflower.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Robin; Guerrero, Rafael F; Rausher, Mark D; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2014-09-08

    Reinforcement, the process of increased reproductive isolation due to selection against hybrids, is an important mechanism by which natural selection contributes to speciation [1]. Empirical studies suggest that reinforcement has generated reproductive isolation in many taxa (reviewed in [2-4]), and theoretical work shows it can act under broad selective conditions [5-11]. However, the strength of selection driving reinforcement has never been measured in nature. Here, we quantify the strength of reinforcing selection in the Texas wildflower Phlox drummondii using a strategy that weds a population genetic model with field data. Reinforcement in this system is caused by variation in two loci that affect flower color [12]. We quantify sharp clines in flower color where this species comes into contact with its congener, Phlox cuspidata. We develop a spatially explicit population genetic model for these clines based on the known genetics of flower color. We fit our model to the data using likelihood, and we searched parameter space using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. We find that selection on flower color genes generated by reinforcement is exceptionally strong. Our findings demonstrate that natural selection can play a decisive role in the evolution of reproductive isolation through the process of reinforcement.

  20. Fungus symbionts colonizing the galleries of the ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus.

    PubMed

    Endoh, Rikiya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Okada, Gen; Takeuchi, Yuko; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2011-07-01

    Isolations were made to determine the fungal symbionts colonizing Platypus quercivorus beetle galleries of dead or dying Quercus laurifolia, Castanopsis cuspidata, Quercus serrata, Quercus crispula, and Quercus robur. For these studies, logs from oak wilt-killed trees were collected from Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Fungi were isolated from the: (1) entrances of beetle galleries, (2) vertical galleries, (3) lateral galleries, and (4) the larval cradle of P. quercivorus in each host tree. Among the fungus colonies which appeared on YM agar plates, 1,219 were isolated as the representative isolates for fungus species inhabiting in the galleries based on their cultural characteristics. The validity of the visual classification of the fungus colonies was checked and if necessary properly corrected using microsatellite-primed PCR fingerprints. The nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit nuclear rRNA gene detected 38 fungus species (104 strains) of which three species, i.e., Candida sp. 3, Candida kashinagacola (both yeasts), and the filamentous fungus Raffaelea quercivora were isolated from all the tree species. The two yeasts were most prevalent in the interior of galleries, regardless of host tree species, suggesting their close association with the beetle. A culture-independent method, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was also used to characterize the fungus flora of beetle galleries. T-RFLP patterns showed that yeast species belonging to the genus Ambrosiozyma frequently occurred on the gallery walls along with the two Candida species. Ours is the first report showing the specific fungi inhabiting the galleries of a platypodid ambrosia beetle.

  1. Seasonal fluctuations and temperature dependence of leaf gas exchange parameters of co-occurring evergreen and deciduous trees in a temperate broad-leaved forest.

    PubMed

    Kosugi, Yoshiko; Matsuo, Naoko

    2006-09-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in leaf gas exchange parameters were investigated in three evergreen (Quercus glauca Thunb., Cinnamomum camphora Sieb. and Castanopsis cuspidata Schottky) and one deciduous (Quercus serrata Thunb.) co-occurring, dominant tree species in a temperate broad-leaved forest. Dark respiration rate (Rn), maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and stomatal coefficient (m), the ratio of stomatal conductance to net assimilation rate after adjustment to the vapor pressure deficit and internal carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, were derived inversely from instantaneous field gas exchange data (one-point method). The normalized values of Rn and Vcmax at the reference temperature of 25 degrees C (Rn25, Vcmax25) and their temperature dependencies (Delta Ha(Rn), Delta Ha(Vcmax)) were analyzed. Parameter Vcmax25 ranged from 24.0-40.3 micromol m(-2) s(-1) and Delta Ha(Vcmax) ranged from 29.1- 67.0 kJ mol(-1). Parameter Rn25 ranged from 0.6-1.4 micromol m(-2) s(-1) and Delta Ha(Rn) ranged from 47.4-95.4 kJ mol(-1). The stomatal coefficient ranged from 7.2-8.2. For the three evergreen trees, a single set of Vcmax25 and Rn25 parameters and temperature dependence curves produced satisfactory estimates of carbon uptake throughout the year, except during the period of simultaneous leaf fall and leaf expansion, which occurs in April and May. In the deciduous oak, declines in Vcmax25 were observed after summer, along with changes in Vcmax25 and Rn25 during the leaf expansion period. In all species, variation in m during periods of leaf expansion and drought should be considered in modeling studies. We conclude that the changes in normalized gas exchange parameters during periods of leaf expansion and drought need to be considered when modeling carbon uptake of evergreen broad-leaved species.

  2. Species composition and bathymetric distribution of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) on the Southern Mexican Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Abeytia, Rosalinda; Guzmán, Hector M; Breedy, Odalisca

    2013-09-01

    Gorgonians are important components of coastal ecosystems, as they provide niches, natural compounds with medical applications and are used as bioindicators. Species composition and assemblage structure of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) were studied along a bathymetric profile in the Southern Mexican Pacific coast. Species composition was based on specimens collected within a depth range of 0-70 m in 15 sites. The relative abundance of species was determined in six sites at four depths (5, 10, 20 and 25 m) using three 10 m2 transects at each depth level. Twenty-seven species of gorgonians belonging to six genera and three families were registered. The species composition varied with depth: 11 species were distributed between 0-25m depth, while 17 species were found between 40-70 m depth interval. The shallow zone is characterized by a relatively large abundance of gorgonians, dominated by colonies of Leptogorgia cuspidata and L. ena. In contrast, the deepest zone was characterized by relatively low abundance of gorgonians, dominated by L. alba, the only species observed in both depth intervals. The similarity analysis showed differences in the composition and abundance of species by depth and site, suggesting that the main factor in determining the assemblage structure is depth. Results of this study suggest that the highest richness of gorgonian species in the study area may be located at depths of 40-70 m, whereas the highest abundances are found between 5 and 10 m depth. This study represents a contribution to the poorly known eastern Pacific gorgonian biota.

  3. Floriparicapitus, a new genus of lecanicephalidean tapeworm (Cestoda) from sawfishes (Pristidae) and guitarfishes (Rhinobatidae) in the Indo-West Pacific.

    PubMed

    Cielocha, Joanna J; Jensen, Kirsten; Caira, Janine N

    2014-08-01

    Floriparicapitus n. gen. (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea), with Floriparicapitus euzeti n. gen., n. sp. as its type, is erected to house 3 new tapeworm species and 2 known species that are transferred to the new genus, all parasitizing sawfishes and guitarfishes (order Rhinopristiformes) in Indo-Pacific waters. The new genus differs from the 21 valid lecanicephalidean genera in its possession of a large scolex bearing a laterally expanded apical organ in the form of a rugose sheet in combination with a cirrus conspicuously armed with spinitriches and 3 pairs of excretory vessels. It most closely resembles Lecanicephalum, but differs conspicuously in its possession of 3, rather than 1, pair of excretory vessels. Two new species are described from sawfishes: Floriparicapitus euzeti n. sp., from Pristis clavata and Floriparicapitus juliani n. sp. from Pristis pristis, both from Australia. Floriparicapitus plicatilis n. sp. is described from the guitarfish Glaucostegus typus in Australia and the guitarfish Glaucostegus thouin in Malaysian Borneo. Two species formerly assigned to Cephalobothrium are transferred to the new genus; Floriparicapitus variabilis ( Southwell, 1911 ) n. comb. from the sawfish Anoxypristis cuspidata in Sri Lanka and Floriparicapitus rhinobatidis ( Subhapradha, 1955 ) n. comb. from the guitarfish Glaucostegus granulatus in India. The species from guitarfish differ conspicuously from those parasitizing sawfish in their possession of only 4 ( F. plicatilis n. sp.) or 5 (F. rhinobatidis n. comb.) testes per proglottid versus 9 or more in the 3 sawfish-parasitizing species. The latter 3 species differ from one another in scolex width, acetabular size, number of proglottids, and cirrus sac size. As it stands, the new genus appears to be restricted to a subclade of the Rhinopristiformes consisting of the sawfishes and species of Glaucostegus.

  4. Recovery kinetics of photochemical efficiency in winter stressed conifers: the effects of growth light environment, extent of the season and species.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Amy S

    2013-02-01

    Evergreens undergo reductions in maximal photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) during winter due to increases in sustained thermal energy dissipation. Upon removing winter stressed leaves to room temperature and low light, F(v)/F(m) recovers and can include both a rapid and a slow phase. The goal of this study was to determine whether the rapid component to recovery exists in winter stressed conifers at any point during the season in a seasonally extreme environment. Additional goals were to compare the effects of species, growth light environment and the extent of the winter season on recovery kinetics in conifers. Four species (sun and shade needle) were monitored during the winter of 2007/2008: eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), Taxus cuspidata and white spruce (Picea glauca). F(v)/F(m) was measured in the field, and then monitored indoors at room temperature and low light for 6 days. The results showed that all species showed a rapid component to recovery in early winter that disappeared later in the season in sun needles but was present in shade needles on most days monitored during winter. There were differences among species in the recovery kinetics across the season, with pine recovering the most slowly and spruce the most quickly. The results suggest an important role for the rapidly reversible form of energy dissipation in early winter, as well as important differences between species in their rate of recovery in late winter/early spring which may have implications for spring onset of photosynthesis.

  5. Ethnomedicinal study of plants used for human ailments in Ankober District, North Shewa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ankober District has long been inhabited by people who have a long tradition of using medicinal plants to treat human ailments. Overexploitation of medicinal plants coupled with an ever-increasing population growth, deforestation and agricultural land expansion threatens plants in the area. Hence, this study aimed at documenting and analyzing the plant-based ethnomedicinal knowledge of the people in order to preserve the dwindling indigenous knowledge. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, participant observation and walk-in-the-woods. Quantitative approaches were used to determine Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) and Fidelity level (FL) values. Statistical tests were used to compare the indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants among different informant categories. Results A total of 135 medicinal plant species belonging to 128 genera and 71 botanical families were reported to treat human diseases in the District. Families Asteraceae (12 species, 9%) and Fabaceae (10, 7.4%) were found to be best represented in the area. About 44% of preparations were reported to be obtained from roots. Significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed on the mean number of medicinal plants reported by groups of respondents compared within age, literacy level and experience parameters. Highest ICF values were recorded for gastro-intestinal & parasitic and dermatological disease categories (0.70 each) indicating best agreement among informants knowledge on medicinal plants used to treat aliments in these categories. Highest fidelity level values were recorded for Zehneria scabra (95%) and Hagenia abyssinica (93.75%) showing conformity of knowledge on species of best healing potential. Podocarpus falcatus was ranked first in a direct matrix ranking exercise of multipurpose medicinal plants. The output of preference ranking exercise indicated that Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata was the most preferred species to

  6. Phylogenetic or environmental control on the organo-chemical composition of Sphagnum mosses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limpens, Juul; Nilsson, Mats

    2014-05-01

    Decomposition of organic material is one of the key processes that determines the size of the soil-feedback to global warming, but it is also a process surrounded with one of the largest uncertainties, making understanding its mechanistic drivers of crucial importance. In organic soils decomposition is closely determined by the organo-chemical composition of the litter entering the soil. But what, in turn drives the organo-chemical composition? Is it an emergent feature of the environment the species producing the litter grow in, or is it an evolutionary trait that can be tracked through the species' phylogeny? We set out to answer this question for one of the most import peat-forming plants on earth: the genus Sphagnum. We sampled 18 Sphagnum species, about equally distributed over 6 sites spanning a wide range of environmental conditions: most species were collected at multiple sites. For all species we characterised the chemical composition, focussing on three functional chemistry groups: (i) mineral elements, (ii) carbohydrate polymers (iii) non-carbohydrate polymers (aromatic and aliphatic compounds) . For each group of compounds we used multivariate statistical techniques to derive the degree of variation explained by environment: (site, position within site) and phylogeny (sections within genus Sphagnum). We found that the variation in mineral element concentrations was mostly explained by environment, with the biggest differences in the concentrations of basic cat-ions calcium and magnesium. In contrast, the variation in carbohydrates was mostly explained by phylogeny, with clear associations between sections and monosaccharides. The monosaccharide rhamnose was associated with species from the Acutifolia section known for their poor degradability, whereas xylose and galactose were closely associated with degradable species from the Cuspidata section. The composition non-carbohydrate polymers took an intermediate position: both environment and phylogeny

  7. Diversity and toxicity of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia Peragallo in the Gulf of Maine, Northwestern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Luciano F.; Hubbard, Katherine A.; Richlen, Mindy L.; Smith, Juliette; Bates, Stephen S.; Ehrman, James; Léger, Claude; Mafra, Luiz L.; Kulis, David; Quilliam, Michael; Libera, Katie; McCauley, Linda; Anderson, Donald M.

    2014-05-01

    Multiple species in the toxic marine diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia have been identified in the Northwestern Atlantic region encompassing the Gulf of Maine (GOM), including the Bay of Fundy (BOF). To gain further knowledge of the taxonomic composition and toxicity of species in this region, Pseudo-nitzschia isolates (n=146) were cultured from samples collected during research cruises that provided broad spatial coverage across the GOM and the southern New England shelf, herein referred to as the GOM region, during 2007-2008. Isolates, and cells in field material collected at 28 stations, were identified using electron microscopy (EM). Eight species (P. americana, P. fraudulenta, P. subpacifica, P. heimii, P. pungens, P. seriata, P. delicatissima and P. turgidula), and a novel form, P. sp. GOM, were identified. Species identity was confirmed by sequencing the large subunit of the ribosomal rDNA (28S) and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) for six species (36 isolates). Phylogenetic analyses (including neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood estimates and ITS2 secondary structure analysis) and morphometric data supported the placement of P. sp. GOM in a novel clade that includes morphologically and genetically similar isolates from Australia and Spain and is genetically most similar to P. pseudodelicatissima and P. cuspidata. Seven species (46 isolates) were grown in nutrient-replete batch culture and aliquots consisting of cells and growth medium were screened by Biosense ASP ELISA to measure total domoic acid (DA) produced (intracellular+extracellular); P. americana and P. heimii were excluded from all toxin analyses as they did not persist in culture long enough for testing. All 46 isolates screened produced DA in culture and total DA varied among species (e.g., 0.04-320 ng ml-1 for P. pungens and P. sp. GOM isolates) and among isolates of the same species (e.g., 0.24-320 ng ml-1 for P. sp. GOM). The 15 most toxic isolates corresponded to