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Sample records for kinase blocks phorbol

  1. [6]-Gingerol inhibits COX-2 expression by blocking the activation of p38 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB in phorbol ester-stimulated mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sue Ok; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Shin, Young Kee; Park, Jin-Hong; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Tae-Yoon; Surh, Young-Joon

    2005-04-01

    [6]-Gingerol, a pungent ingredient of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae), has a wide array of pharmacologic effects. The present study was aimed at unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying previously reported antitumor promoting effects of [6]-gingerol in mouse skin in vivo. One of the well-recognized molecular targets for chemoprevention is cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) that is abnormally upregulated in many premalignant and malignant tissues and cells. In our present study, topical application of [6]-gingerol inhibited COX-2 expression in mouse skin stimulated with a prototype tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Since the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is known to regulate COX-2 induction, we attempted to determine the effect of [6]-gingerol on TPA-induced activation of NF-kappaB. Pretreatment with [6]-gingerol resulted in a decrease in both TPA-induced DNA binding and transcriptional activities of NF-kappaB through suppression of IkappaBalpha degradation and p65 nuclear translocation. Phosphorylation of both IkappaBalpha and p65 was substantially blocked by [6]-gingerol. In addition, [6]-gingerol inhibited TPA-stimulated interaction of phospho-p65-(Ser-536) with cAMP response element binding protein-binding protein, a transcriptional coactivator of NF-kappaB. Moreover, [6]-gingerol prevented TPA-induced phosphorylation and catalytic activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase that regulates COX-2 expression in mouse skin. The p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580 attenuated NF-kappaB activation and subsequent COX-2 induction in TPA-treated mouse skin. Taken together, our data suggest that [6]-gingerol inhibits TPA-induced COX-2 expression in mouse skin in vivo by blocking the p38 MAP kinase-NF-kappaB signaling pathway. PMID:15735738

  2. Resveratrol inhibits phorbol ester-induced expression of COX-2 and activation of NF-kappaB in mouse skin by blocking IkappaB kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Shin, Young Kee; Kim, Sung Hoon; Surh, Young-Joon

    2006-07-01

    Aberrant expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been implicated in tumor promotion. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin present in grapes, was reported to inhibit multistage mouse skin carcinogenesis. In the present study, we found that topically applied resveratrol significantly inhibited COX-2 expression induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Resveratrol-suppressed phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IkappaBalpha, thereby inhibiting activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in TPA-stimulated mouse skin. Pretreatment with resveratrol also suppressed TPA-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Resveratrol blunted TPA-induced phosphorylation of p65 and its interaction with CBP/p300, rendering NF-kappaB transcriptionally inactive. To get further insights into the molecular basis of NF-kappaB inactivation by resveratrol, we examined the role of IkappaB kinase (IKK) in mediating TPA-induced activation of NF-kappaB and COX-2 expression. TPA treatment led to rapid induction of IKK activity in mouse skin, which was abolished either by resveratrol or an IKK inhibitor Bay 11-7082. Topical application of Bay 11-7082 also abrogated TPA-induced NF-kappaB activation and COX-2 expression, supporting the involvement of IKK in TPA-induced COX-2 expression. Taken together, the above findings suggest that resveratrol targets IKK in blocking TPA-induced NF-kappaB activation and COX-2 expression in mouse skin in vivo.

  3. Phorbol ester-induced activation of protein kinase C leads to increased formation of diacylglycerol in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Faellman, M.; Stendahl, O.; Andersson, T. )

    1989-03-01

    Human neutrophils stimulated with a phorbol ester (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate) responded with an increase in diacylglycerol, considered the natural activator of protein kinase C. The amounts of diacylglycerol formed were considerable, reaching 700-900% of basal after 20 minutes. In contrast, 4-{alpha}-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate did not induce any detectable formation of diacylglycerol. Simultaneously, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate exposure caused increased breakdown of both phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. These results suggest that once activated, protein kinase C can positively modulate its own activity by inducing additional formation of diacylglycerol from at least two different sources.

  4. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate competitively inhibits phorbol ester binding to protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, A.; Cauhan, V.P.S.; Deshmukh, D.S.; Brokerhoff, H. )

    1989-06-13

    Calcium phospholipid dependent protein kinase C (PKC) is activated by diacylglycerol (DG) and by phorbol esters and is recognized to be the phorbol ester receptor of cells; DG displaces phorbol ester competitively from PKC. A phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}), can also activate PKC in the presence of phosphatidylserine (PS) and Ca{sup 2+} with a K{sub PIP{sub 2}} of 0.04 mol %. Preliminary experiments have suggested a common binding site for PIP{sub 2} and DG on PKC. Here, the authors investigate the effect of PIP{sub 2} on phorbol ester binding to PKC in a mixed micellar assay. In the presence of 20 mol % PS, PIP{sub 2} inhibited specific binding of ({sup 3}H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) in a dose-dependent fashion up to 85% at 1 mol %. Inhibition of binding was more pronounced with PIP{sub 2} than with DG. Scatchard analysis indicated that the decrease in binding of PDBu in the presence of PIP{sub 2} is the result of an altered affinity for the phorbol ester rather than of a change in maximal binding. The plot of apparent dissociation constants (K{sub d{prime}}) against PIP{sub 2} concentration was linear over a range of 0.01-1 mol % with a K{sub i} of 0.043 mol % and confirmed the competitive nature of inhibition between PDBu and PIP{sub 2}. Competition between PIP{sub 2} and phorbol ester could be determined in a liposomal assay system also. These results indicate that PIP{sub 2}, DG, and phorbol ester all compete for the same activator-receiving region on the regulatory moiety of protein kinase C, and they lend support to the suggestion that PIP{sub 2} is a primary activator of the enzyme.

  5. Formation of a phorbol ester-binding fragment from protein kinase C by proteolytic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshijima, M.; Kikuchi, A.; Tanimoto, T.; Kaibuchi, K.; Takai, Y.

    1986-06-01

    When washed human platelets were disrupted by sonication in the presence of ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, both the catalytic and (/sup 3/H)phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu)-binding activities of protein kinase C were recovered in the soluble fraction and were not separable from each other upon several column chromatographies. Platelet protein kinase C required diacylglycerol, Ca2+, and phospholipid for its activation and showed a molecular weight of about 87,000 as estimated by gel filtration analysis. However, when platelets were first incubated with 2 microM Ca2+-ionophore A23187 for 5 min at 37 degrees C in the medium containing 3 mM CaCl/sub 2/ and then disrupted under the same conditions, the catalytic and (/sup 3/H)phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate-binding activities were separately recovered in the soluble and particulate fractions, respectively; moreover, the catalytic activity recovered in the soluble fraction became independent of diacylglycerol, Ca2+, and phospholipid, and showed a molecular weight of about 50,000 as estimated by gel filtration analysis. The kinetic properties of this Mr 50,000 enzyme were similar to those of the catalytic fragment of rat brain protein kinase C described previously. In a cell-free system, digestion with trypsin of protein kinase C highly purified from rat brain caused the generation of a fragment which had no catalytic activity but showed full (/sup 3/H)phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate-binding activity. The molecular weight of this fragment was estimated to be about 35,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results indicate that protein kinase C consists of at least two functionally different domains, a hydrophobic phorbol ester- or diacylglycerol-binding and hydrophilic catalytic domains.

  6. Calcium-independent binding to interfacial phorbol esters causes protein kinase C to associate with membranes in the absence of acidic lipids.

    PubMed

    Mosior, M; Newton, A C

    1996-02-01

    The mechanism of interaction of phorbol esters with conventional protein kinase Cs was addressed by examining the direct binding of this class of activators to protein kinase C beta II. Binding measurements reveal that the major role of phorbol esters is to increase the affinity of protein kinase C for membranes by several orders of magnitude. The relative increase depends linearly on the mole fraction of phorbol esters in membranes, with the potency illustrated by the finding that 1 mol% phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increases protein kinase C's membrane association by approximately 4 orders of magnitude. For comparison, diacylglycerol (DG), which also activates protein kinase C by increasing the enzyme's membrane affinity, is 2 orders of magnitude less effective than PMA in altering protein kinase C's membrane affinity. The remarkably high-affinity interaction with phorbol esters allowed us to measure the direct binding of protein kinase C to PMA in neutral membranes and, thus, to evaluate the effect of Ca2+ on the phorbol ester interaction in the absence of Ca2+ effects on the enzyme's interaction with acidic lipids. Changing the Ca2+ concentration over 5 orders of magnitude had no effect on the direct interaction of protein kinase C with PMA immobilized in phosphatidylcholine membranes. Thus, the Ca(2+)-binding site for membrane association and the phorbol ester-binding site do not interact allosterically. Lastly, a method that does not have the limitations of the Scatchard plot for analysis of amphitropic proteins was used to determine the dissociation constant of protein kinase C from phorbol esters: expressed relative to membrane lipids, the dissociation constant is 1.5 x 10(-5) mol %. In summary, our data reveal that (1) the direct binding of protein kinase C to phorbol esters, in the absence of interactions with acidic lipids, provides a major contribution to the free energy change involved in the association of protein kinase C with membranes and

  7. Phorbol Ester Effects on Neurotransmission: Interaction with Neurotransmitters and Calcium in Smooth Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraban, Jay M.; Gould, Robert J.; Peroutka, Stephen J.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1985-01-01

    Stimulation of the phosphatidylinositol cycle by neurotransmitters generates diacylglycerol, an activator of protein kinase C, which may regulate some forms of neurotransmission. Phorbol esters, potent inflammatory and tumorpromoting compounds, also activate protein kinase C. We demonstrate potent and selective effects of phorbol esters on smooth muscle, indicating a role for protein kinase C in neurotransmission. In rat vas deferens and dog basilar artery, phorbol esters synergize with calcium to mimic the contractile effects of neurotransmitters that act through the phosphatidylinositol cycle. In guinea pig ileum and rat uterus, phorbol esters block contractions produced by these neurotransmitters.

  8. Phorbol esters, protein kinase C, and thyroxine 5 prime -deiodinase in brown adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Barge, R.M.; Mills, I.; Silva, J.E.; Larsen, P.R. )

    1988-03-01

    Protein kinase C activity has been identified in the rat brown adipocyte. About 60% of this activity is found in the cytosolic fraction under basal conditions, and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) causes a rapid shift from the cytosol to the particulate fraction. Norepinephrine and phenylephrine causes a similar redistribution that can be blocked by prazosin but not by alprenolol. {alpha}{sub 1}-Adrenergic agonists cause three- to fivefold stimulation of type 2 iodothyronine 5{prime}-deiodinase activity in brown adipocytes. TPA has no effect on basal deiodinase activity and reduces the response of the enzyme to {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenergic agonists. These results suggest that the translocation of protein kinase C from cytosol to particulate fraction is not sufficient to increase deiodinase activity but can modulate the {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenergic agonist-mediated responses in these cells.

  9. Purification and characterization of a calcium-unresponsive, phorbol ester/phospholipid-activated protein kinase from porcine spleen.

    PubMed

    Leibersperger, H; Gschwendt, M; Marks, F

    1990-09-25

    A calcium-unresponsive, phorbol ester/phospholipid-activated protein kinase was purified to apparent homogeneity from a Triton X-100 extract of an EGTA/EDTA-preextracted particulate fraction of porcine spleen by chromatography on S-Sepharose Fast Flow, phenyl-Sepharose Fast Flow, protamine-agarose, and Superdex 200. The enzyme had a Mr of 76,000, as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (p76-kinase). A similar value (78,000) was obtained by gel filtration. The purified p76-kinase proved to be much more stable than the enzyme in crude preparations. Storage in a buffer containing 50 mM mercaptoethanol and 20% glycerol at -20 degrees C for at least 4 months caused less than 20% loss in enzyme activity. The enzyme exhibited a pH optimum of 8.3. The affinity of the novel enzyme for substrates and cofactors differed to some extent from that of conventional alpha, beta, gamma protein kinase C (PKC). p76-kinase did not respond to calcium, had a lower requirement for magnesium, and a higher affinity for histone III-S than PKC. Both the p76-kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of histone III-S and the autophosphorylation of the enzyme could be activated by the phorbol ester TPA (or diacylglycerol) plus phosphatidyl serine, but not by calcium plus phosphatidyl serine. The stoichiometry of autophosphorylation suggested that fully phosphorylated p76-kinase contained two phosphoserine residues and one phosphothreonine residue. Like PKC, p76-kinase bound TPA with high affinity (KD = 9.6 nM). In the absence of TPA, various unsaturated fatty acids, particularly arachidonic acid, were more potent as activators of the enzyme than phosphatidyl serine. The p76-kinase was recognized by an antiserum raised against a delta PKC-specific peptide, but not by an alpha, beta, gamma PKC-specific antiserum. The previously described p82-kinase of mouse epidermis and spleen exhibiting the same properties as the p76-kinase did also react with the p76-kinase

  10. Nitric oxide and nitric oxide-generating agents induce a reversible inactivation of protein kinase C activity and phorbol ester binding.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishna, R; Chen, Z H; Gundimeda, U

    1993-12-25

    Since S-nitrosylation of protein thiols is one of the cellular regulatory mechanisms induced by nitric oxide (NO), and since protein kinase C (PKC) has critical thiol residues which influence its kinase activity, we have determined whether NO could regulate this enzyme. Initial studies were carried out with purified PKC and the NO-generating agent S-nitrosocysteine. This agent decreased phosphotransferase activity of PKC in a Ca(2+)- and oxygen-dependent manner with an IC50 of 75 microM. Phorbol ester binding was affected partially only at higher concentrations (> 100 microM) of S-nitrosocysteine. This inactivation of PKC was blocked by the NO scavenger oxyhemoglobin or reversed by dithiothreitol. It is likely that NO initially induced an S-nitrosylation of vicinal thiols, which were then oxidized to form an intramolecular disulfide. Other NO-generating agents such as S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine and sodium nitroprusside, as well as authentic NO gas, induced similar types of PKC modifications. In intact B16 melanoma cells treated with S-nitrosocysteine a rapid decrease in PKC activity in both cytosol and membrane was observed. Unlike in experiments with purified PKC, in intact cells treated with S-nitrosocysteine the phorbol ester binding also decreased to a rate equal to that of PKC activity. These modifications were readily reversed by treating the homogenates with dithiothreitol in test tubes or by removing the NO-generating source from intact cells. To determine whether the limited amounts of NO generated within the intact cells could induce this type of PKC modification, the macrophage cell line IC-21 was treated with lipopolysacharide and Ca2+ ionophore A23187 to induce the NO production. With an increase in generation of NO (3-12-h period) in these cells, a parallel and irreversible decrease in PKC activity and phorbol ester binding was observed. A specific inhibitor for NO synthase, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, inhibited both the production of NO and PKC

  11. Low affinity binding of phorbol esters to protein kinase C and its recombinant cysteine-rich region in the absence of phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Kazanietz, M G; Barchi, J J; Omichinski, J G; Blumberg, P M

    1995-06-16

    Binding of phorbol esters to protein kinase C (PKC) has been regarded as dependent on phospholipids, with phosphatidylserine being the most effective for reconstituting binding. By using a purified single cysteine-rich region from PKC delta expressed in Escherichia coli we were able to demonstrate that specific binding of [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate to the receptor still takes place in the absence of the phospholipid cofactor. However, [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate bound to the cysteine-rich region with 80-fold lower affinity in the absence than in the presence of 100 micrograms/ml phosphatidylserine. Similar results were observed with the intact recombinant PKC delta isolated from insect cells. When different phorbol derivatives were examined, distinct structure-activity relations for the cysteine-rich region were found in the presence and absence of phospholipid. Our results have potential implications for PKC translocation, for inhibitor design, and for PKC structural determination. PMID:7782331

  12. Dietary lipid varying in corn and coconut oil influences protein kinase C in phorbol ester-treated mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Mouat, M F; Locniskar, M F

    1998-01-01

    An earlier study indicated that increased levels of corn oil in the diet resulted in decreased tumor yield after promotion by the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in Sencar mouse epidermis (J Leyton, ML Lee, M Locniskar, MA Belury, TJ Slaga, et al. Cancer Res 51, 907-915, 1991). In the present study we investigated whether corn oil diets could alter the subcellular distribution and activity of protein kinase C (PKC), which is part of an important signaling pathway in carcinogenesis. We used three 15% (wt/wt) fat semipurified diets containing three ratios of corn oil to coconut oil: 1.0%:14.0% (Diet L), 7.9%:7.1% (Diet M), and 15.0%:0.0% (Diet H). The translocation to the membrane fraction of epidermal PKC by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate was decreased as the corn oil content of the diet was increased, and this correlates with the decrease in tumor yield. The translocation to the membrane fraction of specific isoforms of PKC was affected by increased dietary corn oil: the largest decreases were in cytosolic PKC-alpha and -beta, and the smallest change was in PKC-epsilon. The other isoforms, PKC-delta and -zeta, were unaffected. The major constituent of corn oil is linoleic acid, which did not affect the binding of phorbol ester to PKC, which suggests that inhibition of such binding was not responsible for the effects of increased dietary corn oil. Products of linoleic acid metabolism, i.e., arachidonic acid and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, also did not affect the binding of phorbol ester to PKC. Thus the results of these studies suggest that the subcellular distributions of PKC and its isoforms can be modulated by dietary lipids.

  13. Conformation of the C1 phorbol-ester-binding domain participates in the activating conformational change of protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, C; Slater, S J; Stagliano, B A; Stubbs, C D

    1999-01-01

    The fluorescent phorbol ester 12-N-methylanthraniloylphorbol 13-acetate [sapintoxin D (SAPD)] was used as both the activator and the probe for the activating conformational change of the C1 domain of recombinant protein kinase C (PKC)alpha. Fluorescence emission spectra and steady-state anisotropy measurements of SAPD in fully active membrane-associated PKC show that there is a relatively hydrophobic environment and restricted motional freedom characterizing the phorbol-ester-binding site. SAPD also interacts with the membrane lipids so that it was necessary to resort to time-resolved anisotropy measurements to resolve the signals corresponding to PKC-bound SAPD from that associated with buffer and lipid. In the presence of membrane lipids (unilamellar vesicles of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine, 4:1 molar ratio) and Ca(2+), at a concentration sufficient to activate the enzyme fully, a long correlation time characteristic of highly restricted motion was observed for PKC-associated SAPD. The fraction of SAPD molecules displaying this restricted motion, in comparison with the total SAPD including that in lipids and in buffer, increased with increasing concentrations of Ca(2+) and paralleled the appearance of enzyme activity, whereas the rotational correlation time remained constant. This could be rationalized as an increase in the number of active PKC conformers in the total population of PKC molecules. It therefore seems that there is a distinct conformation of the C1 activator-binding domain associated with the active form of PKC. The addition of SAPD and dioleoyl-sn-glycerol together produced an activity higher than that achievable by either activator alone both at concentrations that alone induced maximal activity for the respective activator; this higher activity was associated with a further restriction in SAPD motion. Increasing the cholesterol concentration, the phosphatidylethanolamine concentration, the sn-2 unsaturation in phosphatidylcholine

  14. Phorbol 12,13-Dibutyrate-Induced, Protein Kinase C-Mediated Contraction of Rabbit Bladder Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tanchun; Kendig, Derek M.; Trappanese, Danielle M.; Smolock, Elaine M.; Moreland, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Contraction of bladder smooth muscle is predominantly initiated by M3 muscarinic receptor-mediated activation of the Gq/11-phospholipase C β-protein kinase C (PKC) and the G12/13-RhoGEF-Rho kinase (ROCK) pathways. However, these pathways and their downstream effectors are not well understood in bladder smooth muscle. We used phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), and 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DOG), activators of PKC, in this investigation. We were interested in dissecting the role(s) of PKC and to clarify the signaling pathways in bladder smooth muscle contraction, especially the potential cross-talk with ROCK and their downstream effectors in regulating myosin light chain phosphatase activity and force. To achieve this goal, the study was performed in the presence or absence of the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide-1 (Bis) or the ROCK inhibitor H-1152. Phosphorylation levels of Thr38-CPI-17 and Thr696/Thr850 myosin phosphatase target subunit (MYPT1) were measured during PDBu or DOG stimulation using site specific antibodies. PDBu-induced contraction in bladder smooth muscle involved both activation of PKC and PKC-dependent activation of ROCK. CPI-17 as a major downstream effector, is phosphorylated by PKC and ROCK during PDBu and DOG stimulation. Our results suggest that Thr696 and Thr850-MYPT1 phosphorylation are not involved in the regulation of a PDBu-induced contraction. The results also demonstrate that bladder smooth muscle contains a constitutively active isoform of ROCK that may play an important role in the regulation of bladder smooth muscle basal tone. Together with the results from our previous study, we developed a working model to describe the complex signaling pathways that regulate contraction of bladder smooth muscle. PMID:22232602

  15. Effects of insulin and phorbol esters on MARCKS (myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate) phosphorylation (and other parameters of protein kinase C activation) in rat adipocytes, rat soleus muscle and BC3H-1 myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, T P; Standaert, M L; Hernandez, H; Watson, J; Mischak, H; Kazanietz, M G; Zhao, L; Cooper, D R; Farese, R V

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the question of whether or not insulin activates protein kinase C (PKC), we compared the effects of insulin and phorbol esters on the phosphorylation of the PKC substrate, i.e. myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS). In rat adipocytes, rat soleus muscle and BC3H-1 myocytes, maximally effective concentrations of insulin and phorbol esters provoked comparable, rapid, 2-fold (on average), non-additive increases in the phosphorylation of immunoprecipitable MARCKS. These effects of insulin and phorbol esters on MARCKS phosphorylation in intact adipocytes and soleus muscles were paralleled by similar increases in the phosphorylation of an exogenous, soluble, 85 kDa PKC substrate (apparently a MARCKS protein) during incubation of post-nuclear membrane fractions in vitro. Increases in the phosphorylation of this 85 kDa PKC substrate in vitro were also observed in assays of both plasma membranes and microsomes obtained from rat adipocytes that had been treated with insulin or phorbol esters. These insulin-induced increases in PKC-dependent phosphorylating activities of adipocyte plasma membrane and microsomes were associated with increases in membrane contents of diacylglycerol, PKC-beta 1 and PKC-beta 2. Our findings suggest that insulin both translocates and activates PKC in rat adipocytes, rat soleus muscles and BC3H-1 myocytes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:8216211

  16. An activator of protein kinase C (phorbol dibutyrate) attenuates atrial-natriuretic-factor-stimulated cyclic GMP accumulation in smooth-muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nambi, P; Whitman, M; Aiyar, N; Stassen, F; Crooke, S T

    1987-01-01

    Rat thoracic aortic smooth-muscle cells (A-10; A.T.C.C. CRL 1476) displays a high density of vasopressin and atrial-natriuretic-factor (ANF) receptors and a low density of beta-adrenergic receptors. ANF stimulates cGMP (cyclic GMP) accumulation in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Pretreatment of these cells with phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu), a known activator of protein kinase C, attenuated ANF-stimulated cGMP accumulation without affecting basal cGMP concentrations. This effect was concentration-dependent and was observed as early as 2 min after treatment. 4 alpha-Phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate (alpha PDD), which does not activate protein kinase C, did not inhibit the cGMP accumulation. PDBu pretreatment did not affect the density and affinity of ANF receptors. These data suggest that PDBu, presumably via activation of protein kinase C, might stimulate phosphorylation of a key regulatory protein in the ANF/cGMP pathway. PMID:2822009

  17. Involvement of Ca/sup 2 +//phospholipid-dependent C-kinase in phorbol ester-mediated activation of normal human T cell

    SciTech Connect

    Dirienzo, W.; Nel, A.E.; Lattanze, G.R.; Galbraith, R.M.

    1986-03-01

    C-kinase appears to be involved in biological responses of T cells, and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) is a direct activator of this enzyme. In this study, reaction of T cells with PMA (0.1-50 ng/ml) showed a dose-dependent increase in /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation; higher concentrations were toxic. C-kinase assays performed in parallel demonstrated sustained translocation of >99% of C-kinase activity from the cytosol to the detergent-soluble membrane fraction. Experiments were done in the presence of cyclosporine (CSA), and of polymyxin B (PMB) which also inhibits C-kinase. Both PMA and CSA caused profound and dose-dependent reduction in proliferation, with maximal inhibition of >70% and >90% respectively. Moreover, addition of PMB showed coordinate inhibition of C-kinase activity (>80% at 10 ..mu..M), whereas at similar concentrations inhibiting cell proliferation CSA had no detectable effect. These results indicate that PMA initiates activation and proliferation by stimulation of at least two distinct pathways, one of which involves C-kinase activation and is inhibited by PMB.

  18. Overexpression of protein kinase C. beta. 1 enhances phospholipase D activity and diacylglycerol formation in phorbol ester-stimulated rat fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, Jinkeon; Pachter, J.A.; Bishop, W.R. ); Weinstein, I.B. )

    1991-01-15

    The authors are using a Rat-6 fibroblast cell line that stably overexpresses the {beta}1 isozyme of protein kinase C (PKC) to study regulation of phospholipid hydrolysis by PKC. Stimulation of control (R6-C1) or overexpressing (R6-PKC3) cells with phorbol ester results in an increase in diacylglycerol (DAG) mass with no increase in inositol phosphates, indicating that DAG is not formed by inositol phospholipid breakdown. A more dramatic DAG increase occurs in R6-PKC3 cells compared to R6-C1 cells. To further define the source of DAG, phosphatidylcholine (PC) pools were labeled with ({sup 3}H)myristic acid or with ({sup 3}H)- or ({sup 32}P)alkyllyso-PC and formation of labeled phosphatidylethanol, an unambiguous marker of phospholipase D activation, was monitored. Phorbol ester-stimulated phosphatidylethanel formation is 5-fold greater in the R6-PKC3 cell line. Formation of radiolabeled phosphatidic acid (PA) is also enhanced by PKC overepression. In cells double-labeled with ({sup 3}H)- and ({sup 32}P)-alkyl-lysoPC, the {sup 3}H/{sup 32}P ratio of PA and PC are identical 15 min after stimulation, suggesting that a phospholipase D mechanism predominates. These results indicate that phospholipase D is regulated by the action of PKC. Enhanced phospholipase D activity may contribute to the growth abnormalities seen in PKC-overexpressing cells.

  19. A requirement for extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) function in the activation of AP-1 by Ha-Ras, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and serum.

    PubMed Central

    Frost, J A; Geppert, T D; Cobb, M H; Feramisco, J R

    1994-01-01

    The role of ERK-1 and ERK-2 in wild-type (wt) Ha-Ras, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and serum-induced AP-1 activity was studied. Microinjection of ERK-specific substrate peptides inhibited the induction of AP-1 activity by all three stimuli, whereas a control peptide had no effect. By using eukaryotic expression constructs encoding wt ERK-1 and kinase-deficient mutants of ERKs 1 and 2, it was found that ERK-1 and ERK-2 activities are required for AP-1 activation stimulated by either wt Ha-Ras, PMA, or serum. Overexpression of ERK-1 augmented wt Ha-Ras stimulation of AP-1, while having no effect upon PMA or serum stimulation. Overexpression of either kinase-deficient ERK-1 or kinase-deficient ERK-2 partially inhibited AP-1 activation by wt Ha-Ras but had no effect on PMA or serum-induced activation. Coexpression of both interfering mutants abolished AP-1 induction by wt Ha-Ras, PMA, or serum. We conclude that ERKs are necessary components in the pathway leading to the activation of AP-1 stimulated by these agents. Images PMID:8170999

  20. Genistein inhibits phorbol ester-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity and COX-2 expression by blocking the phosphorylation of p65/RelA in human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Do-Hee; Na, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Ha-Na; Haegeman, Guy; Surh, Young-Joon

    2014-10-01

    Genistein, an isoflavone present in soy products, has chemopreventive effects on mammary carcinogenesis. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of genistein on phorbol ester-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) that plays an important role in the pathophysiology of inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. Pretreatment of cultured human breast epithelial (MCF10A) cells with genistein reduced COX-2 expression induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). There are multiple lines of evidence supporting that the induction of COX-2 is regulated by the eukaryotic transcription factor NF-κB. Genistein failed to inhibit TPA-induced nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-κB as well as degradation of IκB. However, genistein abrogated the TPA-induced transcriptional activity of NF-κB as determined by the luciferase reporter gene assay. Genistein inhibited phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB and its interaction with cAMP regulatory element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP)/p300 and TATA-binding protein (TBP). TPA-induced NF-κB phosphorylation was abolished by pharmacological inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Likewise, pharmacologic inhibition or dominant negative mutation of ERK suppressed phosphorylation of p65. The above findings, taken together, suggest that genistein inhibits TPA-induced COX-2 expression in MCF10A cells by blocking ERK-mediated phosphorylation of p65 and its subsequent interaction with CBP and TBP.

  1. Phorbol ester stimulates membrane association of protein kinase C and inhibits spontaneous Ca/sup 2 +/ dependent sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca/sup 2 +/ release in rat cardiac cells

    SciTech Connect

    Capogrossi, M.C.; Kaku, T.; Filburn, C.H.; Pelto, D.J.; Hansford, R.G.; Lakatta, E.G.

    1986-03-01

    Spontaneous oscillatory Ca/sup 2 +/ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) occurs in rat cardiac myocytes at hyperpolarized membrane potentials and is manifested as contractile waves (W). W frequency varies with SR functional status and cell Ca/sup 2 +/ loading. In myocyte suspensions (Hepes buffer, 37/sup 0/C (Ca/sup 2 +/) = 1.0mM) phorbol myristate acetate, PMA, (10/sup -7/ M) increased protein kinase C activity in membranes as a fraction of total (PKCAM) fivefold with a t 1/2 of < 30 sec (n = 3) and decreased W frequency in individual myocytes (n = 8). This effect varied directly and linearly with baseline W frequency, r = .94, p < .001). Dioctanoyl glycerol (10 ..mu.. M) had a similar effect on W. The PMA effect to decrease W frequency could be a direct one on SR or result from a reduction in cell Ca/sup 2 +/. The time course of PKCAM change is sufficiently rapid for it to mediate the effect on W. Thus, enhanced PKCAM may exert negative feedback control on Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization during ..cap alpha..-adrenergic stimulation.

  2. Ionic, electrical, and secretory effects of protein kinase C activation in mouse pancreatic B-cells: studies with a phorbol ester

    SciTech Connect

    Bozem, M.; Nenquin, M.; Henquin, J.C.

    1987-09-01

    The phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was used to study the effects of protein kinase C activation on stimulus-secretion coupling in mouse pancreatic B-cells. At a nonstimulatory concentration of glucose (3 mM), 100 nM TPA, but not 10 nM TPA, slightly and slowly increased insulin release and /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux and decreased /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux, but did not affect the membrane potential of B-cells. At a threshold concentration of glucose (7 mM), 100 nM TPA markedly increased insulin release without triggering electrical activity in B-cells. At a stimulatory concentration of glucose (10 mM), TPA caused a dose-dependent irreversible increase in insulin release, /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux, and /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux and slightly augmented islet cAMP levels. Omission of extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ abolished the effects of 10 nM TPA and partially inhibited those of 100 nM TPA on insulin release and /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux. In contrast, their effect on /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux was paradoxically augmented. Glucose-induced electrical activity in B-cells was only marginally affected by TPA; the duration of the slow waves with spikes was not modified, but a small shortening of the polarized intervals raised their frequency and slightly increased the overall activity. This increase was significant only with 10 nM TPA, whereas only 100 nM TPA brought about a minute increase in /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ influx. These results thus show that TPA induces insulin release or potentiates glucose-induced insulin release without mimicking or amplifying the initial ionic and electrical signals triggered by glucose. They suggest that protein kinase C activation affects stimulus-secretion coupling by modulating intracellular and/or nonelectrogenic membrane events.

  3. Activation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle by phospholipase C and phorbol ester. Evaluation of the regulatory roles of protein kinase C and calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, E.J.; Rodnick, K.J.; Holloszy, J.O. )

    1989-12-25

    It has been hypothesized on the basis of studies on BC3H-1 myocytes that diacylglycerol generation with activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in the stimulation of glucose transport in muscle by insulin. In the present study, we used the rat epitrochlearis muscle to evaluate the possibility that PKC activity mediates the stimulation of glucose transport by insulin in mammalian skeletal muscle. Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC-Cp), which generates diacylglycerol from membrane phospholipids, and 4 beta-phorbol 12 beta-myristate 13 alpha-acetate (PMA) induced increases in glucose transport activity (assessed using 3-O-methylglucose transport) that were approximately 80 and approximately 20% as great, respectively, as that induced by a maximal insulin stimulus. PLC-Cp and PMA both caused a approximately 2-fold increase in membrane-associated PKC activity. In contrast, insulin did not affect PKC activity. These findings argue against a role of diacylglycerol-mediated PKC activation in the stimulation of skeletal muscle glucose transport by insulin. They also show that the BC3H-1 myocyte is not a good model for studying regulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle. Neither the submaximal nor maximal effects of PLC-Cp and insulin on glucose transport were additive, suggesting that PLC-Cp interferes with insulin action. The maximal effects of PLC-Cp and hypoxia or muscle contractions were also not additive. However, the submaximal effects of hypoxia and PLC-Cp were completely additive. These findings raise the possibility that PLC-Cp stimulates glucose transport by the exercise/hypoxia-activated, not the insulin-activated, pathway in skeletal muscle.

  4. Cytosolic retention of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and a Rho-associated kinase-mediated signal impair expression of p21(Cip1/Waf1) in phorbol 12-myristate-13- acetate-induced apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jin-Mei; Wu, Sulin; Huang, Duen-Yi; Chang, Zee-Fen

    2002-11-01

    In response to treatment with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), the half-population of erythromyeloblast D2 cells, a cytokine-independent variant of TF-1 cells, displayed adhesion and differentiated into a monocyte/macrophage-like morphology, while the other half-population remained in suspension and underwent apoptosis. Expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21(Cip1/Waf1) was induced after PMA treatment in the adherent cells but not in the proapoptotic cells. We investigated the mechanism responsible for the impairment of p21(Cip1/Waf1) induction in PMA-induced proapoptotic cells. We demonstrated that in PMA-induced adherent cells, upregulation of p21(Cip1/Waf1) requires the activation and nuclear translocation of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (phospho-ERK). Although ERK was phosphorylated to comparable levels in PMA-induced proapoptotic and adherent cells, nuclear distribution of phospho-ERK was seen only in the adherent, not in the proapoptotic cells. We also found that only PMA-induced proapoptotic cells contained the phosphorylated form of myosin light chain, which is dependent on Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) activation, and that expression of a dominant-active form of ROCK suppressed activation of the p21(Cip1/Waf1) promoter during PMA induction. Finally, we demonstrated that inhibition of ROCK restores nuclear distribution of phospho-ERK and activation of p21(Cip1/Waf1) expression. Based on these findings, we propose that a ROCK-mediated signal is involved in interfering with the process of ERK-mediated p21(Cip1/Waf1) induction in PMA-induced proapoptotic TF-1 and D2 cells.

  5. Upregulation of cAMP-specific PDE-4 activity following ligation of the TCR complex on thymocytes is blocked by selective inhibitors of protein kinase C and tyrosyl kinases.

    PubMed

    Michie, A M; Rena, G; Harnett, M M; Houslay, M D

    1998-01-01

    We have previously shown that the major cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoforms present in murine thymocytes are the cGMP-stimulated PDE activity (PDE-2) and the cAMP-specific PDE activity (PDE-4), and that these isoforms are differentially regulated following ligation of the TCR (Michie, A.M., Lobban, M. D., Mueller, T., Harnett, M. M., and Houslay, M.D. [1996] Cell. Signalling 8, 97-110). We show here that the anti-CD3-stimulated elevation in PDE-4 activity in murine thymocytes is dependent on protein tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated signals as the TCR-coupled increase in PDE-4 activity can be abrogated by both the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, and the PKC selective inhibitors chelerythrine and staurosporine. Moreover, the PKC-activating phorbol ester, phorbol-12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA) caused an increase in PDE-4 activity, similar to that observed in cells challenged with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies and which was not additive with cochallenge using anti-CD3 antibodies. Both the PMA- and the anti-CD3 antibody-mediated increases in PDE-4 activity were blocked by treatment with either cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Despite the upregulation of PDE-4 activity consequent to TCR ligation, intracellular cAMP levels increased on challenge of thymocytes with anti-CD3 antibody, indicating that adenylate cyclase activity was also increased by TCR ligation. It is suggested that the anti-CD3-mediated increase in PDE-4 activity was owing to a rapid PKC-dependent induction of PDE-4 activity following crosslinking of the TCR complex. This identifies "crosstalk" occurring between the PKA and PKC signaling pathways initiated by ligation of the antigen receptor in murine thymocytes. That both adenylate cyclase and PDE-4 activities were increased may indicate the presence of compartmentalized cAMP responses present in these cells. PMID:9515165

  6. WISP-2/CCN5 is involved as a novel signaling intermediate in phorbol ester-protein kinase Calpha-mediated breast tumor cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Krishanu; Banerjee, Snigdha; Dhar, Kakali; Saxena, Neela K; Mehta, Smita; Campbell, Donald R; Banerjee, Sushanta K

    2006-09-01

    PMA and active phorbol esters stimulate the proliferation of various tumor cells, including ER-positive human breast tumor cell lines. However, the specific signaling pathways involved in the PMA-induced mitogenic effect on breast tumor cells have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we explored the mechanisms associated with the mitogenic influence of PMA on breast tumor cells. Following an acute exposure (i.e., within 2 to 6 h) to PMA (50 nM), a mitogenic effect was observed on WISP-2/CCN5-positive breast tumor cell lines, including MCF-7, ZR-75-1 and SKBR-3 cells, and induction of WISP-2/CCN5 mRNA expression paralleled the observed mitogenic proliferation. This effect was undetected in WISP-2/CCN5 negative MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells or human mammary epithelial cells with or without ER-alpha transfection. The mitogenic effect of PMA was perturbed by short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated inhibition of WISP-2/CCN5 signaling in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, the upregulation of WISP-2/CCN5 by PMA is not ER dependent but is instead mediated through a complex PKCalpha-MAPK/ERK and SAPK/JNK signaling pathway, which leads to growth stimulation of MCF-7 breast tumor cells. These series of experiments provide the first evidence that WISP-2/CCN5 is a novel signaling molecule that critically participates in the mitogenic action of PMA on noninvasive, WISP-2/CCN5-positive breast tumor cells through PKCalpha-dependent, multiple molecular signal transduction pathways.

  7. Phorbol esters induce death in MCF-7 breast cancer cells with altered expression of protein kinase C isoforms. Role for p53-independent induction of gadd-45 in initiating death.

    PubMed Central

    de Vente, J E; Kukoly, C A; Bryant, W O; Posekany, K J; Chen, J; Fletcher, D J; Parker, P J; Pettit, G J; Lozano, G; Cook, P P

    1995-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) modulates growth, differentiation and apoptosis in a cell-specific fashion. Overexpression of PKC-alpha in MCF-7 breast cancer cells (MCF-7-PKC-alpha cell) leads to expression of a more transformed phenotype. The response of MCF-7 and MCF-7-PKC-alpha cells to phorbol esters (TPA) was examined. TPA-treated MCF-7 cells demonstrated a modest cytostatic response associated with a G1 arrest that was accompanied by Cip1 expression and retinoblastoma hypophosphorylation. While p53 was detected in MCF-7 cells, evidence for TPA-induced stimulation of p53 transcriptional activity was not evident. In contrast, TPA treatment induced death of MCF-7-PKC-alpha cells. Bryostatin 1, another PKC activator, exerted modest cytostatic effects on MCF-7 cells while producing a cytotoxic response at low doses in MCF-7-PKC-alpha cells that waned at higher concentrations. TPA-treated MCF-7-PKC-alpha cells accumulated in G2/M, did not express p53, displayed decreased Cip1 expression, and demonstrated a reduction in retinoblastoma hypophosphorylation. TPA-treated MCF-7-PKC-alpha cells expressed gadd-45 which occurred before the onset of apoptosis. Thus, alterations in the PKC pathway can modulate the decision of a breast cancer cell to undergo death or differentiation. In addition, these data show that PKC activation can induce expression of gadd45 in a p53-independent fashion. Images PMID:7560079

  8. Block by gabapentin of the facilitation of glutamate release from rat trigeminal nucleus following activation of protein kinase C or adenylyl cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Maneuf, Yannick P; McKnight, Alexander T

    2001-01-01

    The effect of activation of protein kinase C (PKC) or adenylyl cyclase on release of glutamate has been investigated in a perfused slice preparation from the rat caudal trigeminal nucleus. Stimulation of PKC by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) produced a concentration-dependent increase in K+-evoked release of [2H]-glutamate (maximum increase 45%, EC50 11.8 nM), but in the presence of gabapentin (30 μM) the facilitation of release was blocked. The adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin (FSK) also induced a concentration-dependent increase in K+-evoked release of [3H]-glutamate (maximum increase 36%, EC50 2.4 μM), and again this facilitatory effect was blocked by gabapentin (30 μM). We suggest that these results may be of relevance to the antihyperalgesic properties of gabapentin, in conditions where concomitant release of substance P and CGRP produces activation of PKC and adenylyl cyclase respectively. PMID:11564640

  9. Insulin Action is Blocked by a Monoclonal Antibody That Inhibits the Insulin Receptor Kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, David O.; Ho, Lisa; Korn, Laurence J.; Roth, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-six monoclonal antibodies to the human insulin receptor were produced. Thirty-four bound the intracellular domain of the receptor β subunit, the domain containing the tyrosine-specific kinase activity. Of these 34 antibodies, 33 recognized the rat receptor and 1 was shown to precipitate the receptors from mice, chickens, and frogs with high affinity. Another of the antibodies inhibited the kinase activities of the human and frog receptors with equal potencies. This antibody inhibited the kinase activities of these receptors by more than 90%, whereas others had no effect on either kinase activity. Microinjection of the inhibiting antibody into Xenopus oocytes blocked the ability of insulin to stimulate oocyte maturation. In contrast, this inhibiting antibody did not block the ability of progesterone to stimulate the same response. Furthermore, control immunoglobulin and a noninhibiting antibody to the receptor β subunit did not block this response to insulin. These results strongly support a role for the tyrosine-specific kinase activity of the insulin receptor in mediating this biological effect of insulin.

  10. Demonstration of calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 activity in membrane preparation of rabbit neutrophils. Absence of activation by fMet-Leu-Phe, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and A-kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, T; Tao, W; Sha'afi, R I

    1988-01-01

    The presence of a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity in rabbit neutrophil membrane preparation that is able to release [1-14C]oleic acid from labelled Escherichia coli has been demonstrated. The activity is critically dependent on the free calcium concentration and marginally stimulated by GTP gamma S. More than 80% of maximal activity is reached at 10 microM-Ca2+. The chemotactic factor, fMet-Leu-Phe, does not stimulate the PLA2 activity in this membrane preparation. Pretreatment of the membrane preparation, under various experimental conditions, or intact cells, before isolation of the membrane with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), does not affect PLA2 activity. Addition of the catalytic unit of cyclic AMP-dependent kinase to membrane preparation has no effect on PLA2 activity. Pretreatment of the intact neutrophil with dibutyryl-cAMP before isolation of the membrane produces a small but consistent increase in PLA2 activity. The activity of PLA2 in membrane isolated from cells treated with the protein kinase inhibitor 1-(5-isoquinolinesulphonyl)-2-methyl piperazine dihydrochloride (H-7) is significantly decreased. Furthermore, although the addition of PMA to intact rabbit neutrophils has no effect on the release of [3H]arachidonic acid from prelabelled cells, it potentiates significantly the release produced by the calcium ionophore A23187. This potentiation is not due to an inhibition of the acyltransferase activity. H-7 inhibits the basal release of arachidonic acid but does not inhibit the potentiation by PMA. These results suggest several points. (1) fMet-Leu-Phe does not stimulate PLA2 directly, and its ability to release arachidonic acid in intact neutrophils is mediated through its action on phospholipase C. (2) The potentiating effect of PMA on A23187-induced arachidonic acid release is most likely due to PMA affecting either the environment of PLA2 and/or altering the organization of membrane phospholipids in such a way as to increase their

  11. Inhibition of Src family kinases with dasatinib blocks migration and invasion of human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Buettner, Ralf; Mesa, Tania; Vultur, Adina; Lee, Frank; Jove, Richard

    2008-11-01

    Src family kinases (SFK) are involved in regulating a multitude of biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and survival, depending on the cellular context. Therefore, although SFKs are currently being investigated as potential targets for treatment strategies in various cancers, the biological responses to inhibition of SFK signaling in any given tumor type are not predictable. Dasatinib (BMS-354825) is a dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor with potent antiproliferative activity against hematologic malignancies harboring activated BCR-ABL. In this study, we show that dasatinib blocks migration and invasion of human melanoma cells without affecting proliferation and survival. Moreover, dasatinib completely inhibits SFK kinase activity at low nanomolar concentrations in all eight human melanoma cell lines investigated. In addition, two known downstream targets of SFKs, focal adhesion kinase and Crk-associated substrate (p130(CAS)), are inhibited with similar concentrations and kinetics. Consistent with inhibition of these signaling pathways and invasion, dasatinib down-regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9. We also provide evidence that dasatinib directly inhibits kinase activity of the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase, which is overexpressed and/or overactive in many solid tumors, including melanoma. Thus, SFKs and downstream signaling are implicated as having key roles in migration and invasion of melanoma cells.

  12. Cytotoxic phorbol esters of Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Long; Wang, Lun; Li, Fu; Yu, Kai; Wang, Ming-Kui

    2013-05-24

    Chemical investigation of the seeds of Croton tiglium afforded eight new phorbol diesters (three phorbol diesters, 1-3, and five 4-deoxy-4α-phorbol diesters, 4-8), together with 11 known phorbol diesters (nine phorbol diesters, 9-17, and two 4-deoxy-4α-phorbol diesters, 18 and 19). The structures of compounds 1-8 were determined by spectroscopic data information and chemical degradation experiments. The cytotoxic activities of the phorbol diesters were evaluated against the SNU387 hepatic tumor cell line, and compound 3 exhibited the most potent activity (IC50 1.2 μM).

  13. Initiation of human astrovirus type 1 infection was blocked by inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Upon initial contact with a virus, host cells activate a series of cellular signaling cascades that facilitate viral entry and viral propagation within the cell. Little is known about how the human astrovirus (HAstV) exploits signaling cascades to establish an infection in host cells. Recent studies showed that activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is important for HAstV infection, though the involvement of other signaling cascades remains unclear. Methods A panel of kinase blockers was used to search for cellular signaling pathways important for HAstV1 infection. To determine their impact on the infectious process, we examined viral gene expression, RNA replication, and viral RNA and capsid protein release from host cells. Results Inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activation interfered with the infection, independent of their effect on ERK 1/2 activation. Activation of the PI3K signaling cascade occurred at an early phase of the infection, judging from the timeframe of Akt phosphorylation. PI3K inhibition at early times, but not at later times, blocked viral gene expression. However, inhibiting the downstream targets of PI3K activation, Akt and Rac1, did not block infection. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) activation was found to block a later phase of HAstV1 production. Conclusions Our results reveal a previously unknown, essential role of PI3K in the life cycle of HAstV1. PI3K participates in the early stage of infection, possibly during the viral entry process. Our results also reveal the role of PKA in viral production. PMID:23680019

  14. Phorbol esters stimulate the phosphorylation of receptors for insulin and somatomedin C.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, S; Sahyoun, N E; Saltiel, A R; Cuatrecasas, P

    1983-01-01

    The effect of phorbol esters on the extent of phosphorylation of receptors for insulin and somatomedin C (insulin-like growth factor I) was studied in intact IM-9 cells that were labeled by incubation with H332PO4. The tumor-promoting phorbol esters phorbol tetradecanoate acetate (TPA) and phorbol dibutyrate, but not the inactive 4 alpha-phorbol, enhanced phosphorylation of the beta subunit of both receptors approximately 4-fold; 70 nM TPA maximally stimulated phosphorylation of both receptors, whereas concentrations less than or equal to 0.7 nM had no observable effect. Insulin also enhanced the phosphorylation of the beta subunit of the insulin receptor, and its effects appeared to be additive to those of TPA. Peptide maps indicated that at least some of the residues phosphorylated by these two agents are distinct. These results suggest a possible role of protein kinase C in regulating insulin and somatomedin C receptors. Images PMID:6312447

  15. Identification of the phorbol ester receptor in human and avian erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.M.; Sando, J.J.; Speizer, L.A.

    1986-05-01

    The ability of phorbol esters to inhibit the uptake of a fluorescent glucose analogue in goose but not human erythrocytes is consistent with earlier reports that the human red blood cell lacks the phorbol ester receptor. However, they have located specific phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate binding sites in both human and goose erythrocytes. Human and goose red blood cells contain 2 classes of phorbol ester receptors with similar affinities, however the human erythrocyte contains 1/3 as many phorbol ester receptors as does the goose red blood cell. An additional contrast in the binding of phorbol esters to human and goose red blood cells is the temperature-induced enhancement of binding to goose, but not human erythrocytes. Equilibrium phorbol ester binding to goose red blood cells at 37/sup 0/C is enhanced 3.3 +/- 0.4 times that amount bound at 4/sup 0/C. Equilibrium binding of phorbol esters to human erythrocytes is identical at both temperatures. In vivo and in vitro phosphorylation profiles of C-kinase substrates also differ between the human and goose erythrocyte.

  16. Phorbol ester-stimulated phosphorylation of basolateral membranes from canine kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerman, M.R.; Rogers, S.; Morrissey, J.J.; Gavin, J.R. III

    1986-06-01

    To determine whether protein kinase C is present in the basolateral membrane of the renal proximal tubular cell, we performed experiments to ascertain whether specific binding of (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate could be demonstrated in basolateral membranes isolated from canine kidney. Specific binding was demonstrable that was half maximal at between 10(-7) and 10(-8) M phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate. Binding was inhibited by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and other tumor-promoting phorbol esters, but not by inactive phorbol esters, including 4 alpha-phorbol. Incubation of basolateral membranes with TPA and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, but not with 4 alpha-phorbol, in the presence of submicromolar concentrations of free calcium, enhanced phosphorylation of several proteins demonstrable in autoradiograms of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels originating from membranes subsequently exposed to (gamma-32P)ATP for 30 s. Dephosphorylation of (/sup 32/P)phosphoproteins was observed in gels from membranes incubated with (gamma-32P)ATP over time. TPA-stimulated phosphorylation of one protein band with Mr 135,000 was quantitated and was found to increase as a function of (TPA). Half-maximal TPA-stimulated phosphorylation of this protein band occurred at slightly less than 10(-9) M TPA. Our findings are consistent with a role for protein kinase C-effected phosphorylation of basolateral membrane proteins in the mediation or modulation of hormonal actions in the proximal tubular cell.

  17. GLAST: gene expression regulation by phorbol esters.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Rojo, M; López-Bayghen, E; Ortega, A

    2000-08-21

    The gene expression regulation of the Na+-dependent high affinity glutamate/aspartate transporter GLAST expressed in cultured Bergmann glia cells from chick cerebellum was studied. A 679 bp fragment of the chick GLAST cDNA was cloned and sequenced. Specific PCR primers were used to quantify chick GLAST mRNA levels. Treatment of the cells with the Ca2+/diacylglycerol dependent protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA) produced a decrease in transporter mRNA levels, without an effect in its mRNA half life, suggesting a transcriptional down regulation. Activation of the cAMP pathway results in a transient decrease in GLAST mRNA levels, in contrast with the TPA effect. These findings suggest that GLAST expression is under control of distinct signaling pathways.

  18. Lithium blocks ethanol-induced modulation of protein kinases in the developing brain

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Goutam; Saito, Mitsuo; Mao, Rui-Fen; Wang, Ray; Vadasz, Csaba; Saito, Mariko

    2008-03-14

    Lithium has been shown to be neuroprotective against various insults including ethanol exposure. We previously reported that ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the postnatal day 7 (P7) mice is associated with decreases in phosphorylation levels of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}), and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and alteration in lipid profiles in the brain. Here, P7 mice were injected with ethanol and lithium, and the effects of lithium on ethanol-induced alterations in phosphorylation levels of protein kinases and lipid profiles in the brain were examined. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses showed that lithium significantly blocked ethanol-induced caspase-3 activation and reduction in phosphorylation levels of Akt, GSK-3{beta}, and AMPK. Further, lithium inhibited accumulation of cholesterol ester (ChE) and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) triggered by ethanol in the brain. These results suggest that Akt, GSK-3{beta}, and AMPK are involved in ethanol-induced neurodegeneration and the neuroprotective effects of lithium by modulating both apoptotic and survival pathways.

  19. Corticosteroids block autophagy protein recruitment in Aspergillus fumigatus phagosomes via targeting Dectin-1/syk kinase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kyrmizi, Irene; Gresnigt, Mark S.; Akoumianaki, Tonia; Samonis, George; Sidiropoulos, Prodromos; Boumpas, Dimitrios; Netea, Mihai G; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Chamilos, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the predominant airborne fungal pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Genetic defects in NADPH oxidase (chronic granulomatous disease; CGD) and corticosteroid-induced immunosupression lead to impaired killing of A. fumigatus and unique susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis via incompletely characterized mechanisms. Recent studies link Toll-like receptor activation with phagosome maturation via the engagement of autophagy proteins. Herein, we found that infection of human monocytes with A. fumigatus spores triggered selective recruitment of the autophagy protein LC3 II in phagosomes upon fungal cell wall swelling. This response was induced by surface exposure of immunostimulatory β-glucans and was mediated by activation of the Dectin-1 receptor. LC3 II recruitment in A. fumigatus-phagosomes required syk kinase-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and was nearly absent in monocytes of patients with CGD. This pathway was important for control of intracellular fungal growth, as silencing of Atg5 resulted in impaired phagosome maturation and killing of A. fumigatus. In-vivo and ex-vivo administration of corticosteroids blocked LC3 II recruitment in A. fumigatus phagosomes via rapid inhibition of syk kinase phosphorylation and downstream production of ROS. Our studies link Dectin-1/syk kinase signaling with maturation of A. fumigatus phagosomes and uncover a mechanism for development of invasive fungal disease. PMID:23817424

  20. Effects of phorbol esters on fluid transport and blood flow in the small intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoeqvist, A.; Henderson, L.S.; Fondacaro, J.D.

    1986-07-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of phorbol esters on intestinal fluid transport and blood flow in the anesthetized cat and enteropooling in the conscious rat. Intraluminal administration of phorbol ester into a segment of isolated small bowel produced a copious intestinal secretion and a concomitant mesenteric hyperemia in the cat. Net fluid movement in the intestine was converted from absorption in the control state to secretion following phorbol ester administration. Intravenous atropine reduced the phorbol ester-induced secretion by 56%; clonidine abolished the remaining secretory response. In the rat, intragastric administration of phorbol ester produced enteropooling comparable to that of other potent intestinal secretagogues. Since phorbol esters are known to activate protein kinase C, these suggest that activation of protein kinase C in the small intestine may lead to a full secretory response. The evidence suggests that this secretion is accompanied by a metabolic hyperemia. These results suggest that protein kinase C plays an important role in the regulation of intestinal fluid transport.

  1. Phorbol myristate acetate and dioctanoylglycerol inhibit transport in rabbit proximal convoluted tubule

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, M.; Hays, S.R. )

    1988-01-01

    The present in vitro microperfusion study examined the effect of protein kinase C activation on transport in the rabbit proximal convoluted tubule (PCT). PCT were perfused with an ultrafiltrate-like solution and were bathed in a serumlike albumin solution. Addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, an activator of protein kinase C, inhibited volume absorption from 1.06 {plus minus} 0.10 to 0.77 {plus minus} 0.07 nl{center dot}mm{sup {minus}1}min{sup {minus}1}, and 0.76 {plus minus} 0.14 to 0.48 {plus minus} 0.08 nl{center dot}mm{sup {minus}1}{center dot}min{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Bath phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate had no effect on volume absorption. In contrast, bath 4{alpha}-phorbol, an inactive phorbol that does not activate protein kinase C, had no effect on J{sub v}. Bath L-{alpha}-dioctanoylglycerol, another known activator of protein kinase C, inhibited volume absorption. A 10-fold lower concentration of L-{alpha}-dioctanoylglycerol had no effect on J{sub v}. Both 5 x 10{sup {minus}8} M phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and 10{sup {minus}4} M L-{alpha}-dioctanoylglycerol inhibited glucose, bicarbonate, and chloride transport in the PCT. These data are consistent with protein kinase C activation playing a role in the modulation of proximal tubular transport.

  2. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein blocks HIV-1 infection in primary human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Stantchev, Tzanko S; Markovic, Ingrid; Telford, William G; Clouse, Kathleen A; Broder, Christopher C

    2007-02-01

    Binding of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) to its cellular receptors elicits a variety of signaling events, including the activation of select tyrosine kinases. To evaluate the potential role of such signaling, we examined the effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, on HIV-1 entry and infection of human macrophages using a variety of assays. Without altering cell viability, cell surface expression of CD4 and CCR5 or their abilities to interact with Env, genistein inhibited infection of macrophages by reporter gene-encoding, beta-lactamase containing, or wild type virions, as well as Env-mediated cell-fusion. The observation that genistein blocked virus infection if applied before, during or immediately after the infection period, but not 24h later; coupled with a more pronounced inhibition of infection in the reporter gene assays as compared to both beta-lactamase and p24 particle entry assays, imply that genistein exerts its inhibitory effects on both entry and early post-entry steps. These findings suggest that other exploitable targets, or steps, of the HIV-1 infection process may exist and could serve as additional opportunities for the development of new therapeutics.

  3. The eEF2 kinase confers resistance to nutrient deprivation by blocking translation elongation.

    PubMed

    Leprivier, Gabriel; Remke, Marc; Rotblat, Barak; Dubuc, Adrian; Mateo, Abigail-Rachele F; Kool, Marcel; Agnihotri, Sameer; El-Naggar, Amal; Yu, Bin; Somasekharan, Syam Prakash; Faubert, Brandon; Bridon, Gaëlle; Tognon, Cristina E; Mathers, Joan; Thomas, Ryan; Li, Amy; Barokas, Adi; Kwok, Brian; Bowden, Mary; Smith, Stephanie; Wu, Xiaochong; Korshunov, Andrey; Hielscher, Thomas; Northcott, Paul A; Galpin, Jason D; Ahern, Christopher A; Wang, Ye; McCabe, Martin G; Collins, V Peter; Jones, Russell G; Pollak, Michael; Delattre, Olivier; Gleave, Martin E; Jan, Eric; Pfister, Stefan M; Proud, Christopher G; Derry, W Brent; Taylor, Michael D; Sorensen, Poul H

    2013-05-23

    Metabolic adaptation is essential for cell survival during nutrient deprivation. We report that eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K), which is activated by AMP-kinase (AMPK), confers cell survival under acute nutrient depletion by blocking translation elongation. Tumor cells exploit this pathway to adapt to nutrient deprivation by reactivating the AMPK-eEF2K axis. Adaptation of transformed cells to nutrient withdrawal is severely compromised in cells lacking eEF2K. Moreover, eEF2K knockdown restored sensitivity to acute nutrient deprivation in highly resistant human tumor cell lines. In vivo, overexpression of eEF2K rendered murine tumors remarkably resistant to caloric restriction. Expression of eEF2K strongly correlated with overall survival in human medulloblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme. Finally, C. elegans strains deficient in efk-1, the eEF2K ortholog, were severely compromised in their response to nutrient depletion. Our data highlight a conserved role for eEF2K in protecting cells from nutrient deprivation and in conferring tumor cell adaptation to metabolic stress. PAPERCLIP:

  4. The eEF2 Kinase Confers Resistance to Nutrient Deprivation by Blocking Translation Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Leprivier, Gabriel; Remke, Marc; Rotblat, Barak; Dubuc, Adrian; Mateo, Abigail-Rachele F.; Kool, Marcel; Agnihotri, Sameer; El-Naggar, Amal; Yu, Bin; Somasekharan, Syam Prakash; Faubert, Brandon; Bridon, Gaëlle; Tognon, Cristina E.; Mathers, Joan; Thomas, Ryan; Li, Amy; Barokas, Adi; Kwok, Brian; Bowden, Mary; Smith, Stephanie; Wu, Xiaochong; Korshunov, Andrey; Hielscher, Thomas; Northcott, Paul A.; Galpin, Jason D.; Ahern, Christopher A.; Wang, Ye; McCabe, Martin G.; Collins, V. Peter; Jones, Russell G.; Pollak, Michael; Delattre, Olivier; Gleave, Martin E.; Jan, Eric; Pfister, Stefan M.; Proud, Christopher G.; Derry, W. Brent; Taylor, Michael D.; Sorensen, Poul H.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Metabolic adaptation is essential for cell survival during nutrient deprivation. We report that eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K), which is activated by AMP-kinase (AMPK), confers cell survival under acute nutrient depletion by blocking translation elongation. Tumor cells exploit this pathway to adapt to nutrient deprivation by reactivating the AMPK-eEF2K axis. Adaptation of transformed cells to nutrient withdrawal is severely compromised in cells lacking eEF2K. Moreover, eEF2K knockdown restored sensitivity to acute nutrient deprivation in highly resistant human tumor cell lines. In vivo, overexpression of eEF2K rendered murine tumors remarkably resistant to caloric restriction. Expression of eEF2K strongly correlated with overall survival in human medulloblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme. Finally, C. elegans strains deficient in efk-1, the eEF2K ortholog, were severely compromised in their response to nutrient depletion. Our data highlight a conserved role for eEF2K in protecting cells from nutrient deprivation and in conferring tumor cell adaptation to metabolic stress. PMID:23706743

  5. Opening/blocking actions of pyruvate kinase antibodies on neuronal and muscular KATP channels.

    PubMed

    Mele, Antonietta; Buttiglione, Maura; Cannone, Gianluigi; Vitiello, Francesco; Camerino, Diana Conte; Tricarico, Domenico

    2012-11-01

    ATP-sensitive-K(+) (KATP) channels couple metabolism to the electrical activity of the cells. This channel is associated with glycolytic enzymes to form complexes regulating the channel activity in various tissues. The pyruvate-kinase (PK) enzyme is an antigen in the Paediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated Streptococcal infection known as PANDAS which is characterized by an abnormal production of auto-antibodies against PK. Here, the effects of the anti-pyruvate kinase antibody (anti-PK-ab) on the muscle and neuronal KATP channels were investigated in native rat skeletal muscle fibres and human neuroblastoma cell-line (SH-SY5Y), respectively. Furthermore, the interaction of PK with the inwardly rectifier potassium channel (Kir6.1/Kir6.2) subunits of the KATP channels was investigated by co-immunoprecipitation experiments in mouse brain using the anti-PK-ab. Patch-clamp experiments showed that the short-term incubation (1h) of the fibres with the anti-PK-ab at the dilutions of 1:500 and 1:300 enhanced the KATP current of 19.6% and 33.5%, respectively. As opposite, the long-term incubation (24h) of the fibres with the anti-PK-ab at the dilutions of 1:500 and 1:300 reduced the KATP current of 16% and 24%, respectively, reducing the diameter with atrophy. The direct application of the anti-PK-ab to the excised patches in the absence of intracellular ATP caused channel block, while in the presence of nucleotide channel opened. In neuronal cell line, in the short-term the anti-PK-ab potentiated KATP currents without affecting survival, while in the long-term the anti-PK-ab reduced KATP currents inducing neuronal death. Opening/blocking actions of the anti-PK antibodies on the KATP channels were observed, the blocking action causes fibre atrophy and neuronal death. We demonstrated that PK and Kir subunits are physically/functionally coupled in neurons. The KATP/PK complex can be proposed a novel target in the autoimmune diseases associated with anti

  6. Phorbol esters induce multidrug resistance in human breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fine, R.L.; Patel, J.; Chabner, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanisms responsible for broad-based resistance to antitumor drugs derived from natural products (multidrug resistance) are incompletely understood. Agents known to reverse the multidrug-resistant phenotype (verapamil and trifluoperazine) can also inhibit the activity of protein kinase C. When the authors assayed human breast cancer cell lines for protein kinase C activity, they found that enzyme activity was 7-fold higher in the multidrug-resistance cancer cells compared with the control, sensitive parent cells. Exposure of drug-sensitive cells to the phorbol ester phorbol 12,13-dibutyate (P(BtO)/sub 2/) led to an increase in protein kinase C activity and induced a drug-resistance phenotype, whereas exposure of drug-resistant cells to P(BtO)/sub 2/ further increased drug resistance. In sensitive cells, this increased resistance was accomplished by a 3.5-fold increased phosphorylation of a 20-kDa particulate protein and a 35-40% decreased intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and vincristine. P(BtO)/sub 2/ induced resistance to agents involved in the multidrug-resistant phenotype (doxorubicin and vincristine) but did not affect sensitivity to an unrelated alkylating agent (melphalan). The increased resistance was partially or fully reversible by the calcium channel blocker verapamil and by the calmodulin-antagonist trifluoperazine. These data suggest that stimulation of protein kinase C playus a role in the drug-transport changes in multidrug-resistant cells. This may occur through modulation of an efflux pump by protein phosphorylation.

  7. ATP-competitive inhibitors block protein kinase recruitment to the Hsp90-Cdc37 system.

    PubMed

    Polier, Sigrun; Samant, Rahul S; Clarke, Paul A; Workman, Paul; Prodromou, Chrisostomos; Pearl, Laurence H

    2013-05-01

    Protein kinase clients are recruited to the Hsp90 molecular chaperone system via Cdc37, which simultaneously binds Hsp90 and kinases and regulates the Hsp90 chaperone cycle. Pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 in vivo results in degradation of kinase clients, with a therapeutic effect in dependent tumors. We show here that Cdc37 directly antagonizes ATP binding to client kinases, suggesting a role for the Hsp90-Cdc37 complex in controlling kinase activity. Unexpectedly, we find that Cdc37 binding to protein kinases is itself antagonized by ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors, including vemurafenib and lapatinib. In cancer cells, these inhibitors deprive oncogenic kinases such as B-Raf and ErbB2 of access to the Hsp90-Cdc37 complex, leading to their degradation. Our results suggest that at least part of the efficacy of ATP-competitive inhibitors of Hsp90-dependent kinases in tumor cells may be due to targeted chaperone deprivation.

  8. The structural requirements for phorbol esters to enhance serotonin and acetylcholine release from rat brain cortex

    PubMed Central

    Iannazzo, L; Kotsonis, P; Majewski, H

    1999-01-01

    The effects of various phorbol-based protein kinase C (PKC) activators on the electrical stimulation-induced (S-I) release of serotonin and acetylcholine was studied in rat brain cortical slices pre-incubated with [3H]-serotonin or [3H]-choline to investigate possible structure-activity relationships. 4β-Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (4βPDB, 0.1–3.0 μM), enhanced S-I release of serotonin in a concentration-dependent manner whereas the structurally related inactive isomer 4α-phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (4αPDB) and phorbol 13-acetate (PA) were without effect. Another group of phorbol esters containing a common 13-ester substituent (phorbol 12,13-diacetate, PDA; phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PMA; phorbol 12-methylaminobenzoate 13-acetate, PMBA) also enhanced S-I serotonin release with PMA being least potent. The deoxyphorbol monoesters, 12-deoxyphorbol 13-acetate (dPA), 12-deoxyphorbol 13-angelate (dPAng), 12-deoxyphorbol 13-phenylacetate (dPPhen) and 12-deoxyphorbol 13-isobutyrate (dPiB) enhanced S-I serotonin release but 12-deoxyphorbol 13-tetradecanoate (dPT) was without effect. The 20-acetate derivatives of dPPhen and dPAng were less effective in enhancing S-I serotonin release compared to the parent compounds. With acetylcholine release all phorbol esters tested had a far lesser effect when compared to their facilitatory action on serotonin release with only 4βPDB, PDA, dPA, dPAng and dPiB having significant effects. The effects of the phorbol esters on serotonin release were not correlated with their reported in vitro affinity and isozyme selectivity for PKC. A comparison across three transmitter systems (noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin) suggests basic similarities in the structural requirements of phorbol esters to enhance transmitter release with short chain substituted mono- and diesters of phorbol being more potent facilitators of release than the long chain esters. Some compounds notably PDA, PMBA, dPPhen, dPPhenA had different potencies across

  9. Effect of phorbol and Bryostatin I on chondrogenic expression of chick limb bud, in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.C.; Pettit, G.R.; Uyeki, E.M.

    1987-10-26

    The present paper describes the effects of PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate) on in vitro chondrogenesis in non-passaged, embryonic limb bud cells, relative to the effects of Bryostatin I. This compound also activates C kinase and binds competitively to the phorbol ester receptor, yet does not affect cell differentiation. Levels of PMA as low as 10/sup -7/ M markedly reduced cartilage formation in 4-day cultures, as indicated by nodule count and Alcian blue staining for chondroitin sulfate. Coadministration of Bryostatin I at equimolar concentration prevented the PMA inhibitory effect on chondrocytic expression. This confirms other findings that phorbol activation of C kinase cannot exclusively account for the activity of phorbol on cell expression. Altering the time of PMA exposure demonstrated that PMA inhibited chondrocyte phenotypic expression, rather than cell commitment: early exposure to PMA had little inhibitor effect on the staining index, whereas, exposure from 49-96 h and 0-96 h had moderate and strong inhibitory effects, respectively, on cartilage synthesis. Further research on the phorbol/Bryostatin I interaction should add to their knowledge of the control processes involved in tumor promotion and cell differentiation. 21 references, 3 figures.

  10. CEP-701 and CEP-751 inhibit constitutively activated RET tyrosine kinase activity and block medullary thyroid carcinoma cell growth.

    PubMed

    Strock, Christopher J; Park, Jong-In; Rosen, Mark; Dionne, Craig; Ruggeri, Bruce; Jones-Bolin, Susan; Denmeade, Samuel R; Ball, Douglas W; Nelkin, Barry D

    2003-09-01

    All of the cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) express the RET receptor tyrosine kinase. In essentially all of the hereditary cases and approximately 40% of the sporadic cases of MTC, the RET kinase is constitutively activated by mutation. This suggests that RET may be an effective therapeutic target for treatment of MTC. We show that the indolocarbazole derivatives, CEP-701 and CEP-751, inhibit RET in MTC cells. These compounds effectively inhibit RET phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations <100 nM in 0.5% serum and at somewhat higher concentrations in the presence of 16% serum. They also blocked the growth of these MTC cells in culture. CEP-751 and its prodrug, CEP-2563, also inhibited tumor growth in MTC cell xenografts. These results show that inhibiting RET can block the growth of MTC cells and may have a therapeutic benefit in MTC.

  11. Mutations within the putative active site of heterodimeric deoxyguanosine kinase block the allosteric activation of the deoxyadenosine kinase subunit.

    PubMed

    Park, Inshik; Ives, David H

    2002-03-31

    Replacement of the Asp-84 residue of the deoxyguanosine kinase subunit of the tandem deoxyadenosine kinase/ deoxyguanosine kinase (dAK/dGK) from Lactobacillus acidophilus R-26 by Ala, Asn, or Glu produced increased Km values for deoxyguanosine on dGK. However, it did not seem to affect the binding of Mg-ATP. The Asp-84 dGK replacements had no apparent effect on the binding of deoxyadenosine by dAK. However, the mutant dGKs were no longer inhibited by dGTP, normally a potent distal endproduct inhibitor of dGK. Moreover, the allosteric activation of dAK activity by dGTP or dGuo was lost in the modified heterodimeric dAK/dGK enzyme. Therefore, it seems very likely that Asp-84 participates in dGuo binding at the active site of the dGK subunit of dAK/dGK from Lactobacillus acidophilus R-26.

  12. Insulin reverses the growth retardation effect of phorbol ester in chicken embryos during organogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Girbau, M.; Bassas, L.; Roth, J.; de Pablo, F. )

    1989-01-01

    The tumor promoting phorbol esters can affect early embryonic development by causing interference with the normal pathways of cellular growth and differentiation. The present study was designed to: (a) define a time in organogenesis when a vertebrate embryo model, the chicken, was sensitive to the phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoil-13-acetate (TPA), and (b) attempt a rescue of the embryos disturbed by TPA with simultaneous addition of insulin. In embryos treated at days 2 and 3 of development, TPA caused dose-dependent mortality. Survivors were biochemically retarded as indicated by their decreased weight, protein, DNA, RNA, total creatine kinase, triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol contents. When intermediated doses of TPA were applied together with insulin the embryonic growth disturbance was largely antagonized. These data, generated with an in vivo whole embryo, support the strong link between the mode of action of insulin and signal transduction mechanisms typical of phorbol esters.

  13. Human brain n-chimaerin cDNA encodes a novel phorbol ester receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S; Kozma, R; Monfries, C; Hall, C; Lim, H H; Smith, P; Lim, L

    1990-01-01

    A human brain-specific cDNA encoding n-chimaerin, a protein of predicted molecular mass 34 kDa, has sequence identity with two different proteins: protein kinase C (PKC) at the N-terminus and BCR protein [product of the breakpoint-cluster-region (BCR) gene, involved in Philadelphia chromosome translocation] at the C-terminus [Hall, Monfries, Smith, Lim, Kozma, Ahmed, Vannaisungham, Leung & Lim (1990) J. Mol. Biol. 211, 11-16]. The sequence identity of n-chimaerin with PKC includes the cysteine-rich motif CX2CX13CX2CX7CX7C, and amino acids upstream of the first cysteine residue, but not the kinase domain. This region of PKC has been implicated in the binding of diacylglycerol and phorbol esters in a phospholipid-dependent fashion. Part of this cysteine-rich motif (CX2CX13CX2C) has the potential of forming a 'Zn-finger' structure. Phorbol esters cause a variety of physiological changes and are among the most potent tumour promoters that have been described. PKC is the only known protein target for these compounds. We now report that n-chimaerin cDNA encodes a novel phospholipid-dependent phorbol ester receptor, with the cysteine-rich region being responsible for this activity. This finding has wide implications for previous studies equating phorbol ester binding with the presence of PKC in the brain. Images Fig. 4. PMID:2268301

  14. Potentiation of specific association of insulin with HepG2 cells by phorbol esters.

    PubMed Central

    Blake, A D; Strader, C D

    1986-01-01

    The effects of tumour-promoting phorbol esters on the receptor-mediated endocytosis of insulin were investigated in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Treatment of these cells with the biologically active phorbol 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), but not with the non-tumour-promoting analogue 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, resulted in dramatic morphological changes, which were accompanied by a 1.5-2.5-fold increase in specific 125I-insulin association with the cells at 37 degrees C. This increase in insulin binding was not observed when the binding reaction was performed at 4 degrees C. The potentiation of 125I-insulin association with TPA-treated cells at 37 degrees C could be completely accounted for by an increase in the intracellular pool of internalized insulin; there was no concomitant increase in cell-surface insulin binding. Dissociation studies showed that the enhanced internalization of insulin by cells after treatment with TPA resulted from a decrease in the rate of intracellular processing of the insulin after receptor-mediated endocytosis. The phorbol-ester-induced enhancement of internalized insulin in HepG2 cells was additive with the potentiation of endocytosed insulin induced by both the lysosomotropic reagent chloroquine and the ionophore monensin; this indicates that TPA affects the intracellular processing of the insulin receptor at a point other than those disrupted by either of these two reagents. The potentiation of insulin receptor internalization by tumour-promoting phorbol esters could be completely mimicked by treatment with phospholipase C, but not with phospholipase A, and partially mimicked by treatment with the synthetic diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol. By these criteria, the effects of phorbol esters on the insulin receptor in HepG2 cells appear to be mediated through protein kinase C. These results support the concept that the activation of protein kinase C by treatment with phorbol esters causes a

  15. Nineteen-Step Total Synthesis of (+)-Phorbol

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Shuhei; Chu, Hang; Felding, Jakob; Baran, Phil S.

    2016-01-01

    Phorbol, the flagship member of the tigliane diterpene family, has been known for over 80 years and has attracted attention from scores of chemists and biologists due to its intriguing chemical structure and the medicinal potential of phorbol esters.1 Access to useful quantities of phorbol and related analogs has relied upon isolation from natural sources and semisynthesis. Despite relentless efforts spanning 40 years, chemical synthesis has been unable to compete with these strategies due to its sheer complexity and unusual oxidation pattern. In fact, purely synthetic enantiopure phorbol has remained elusive and efforts on the synthetic biology side have not led to even the simplest members of this terpene family. Recently the chemical syntheses of eudesmanes,2 germacrenes,3 taxanes,4,5 and ingenanes6-8 have all benefited from a strategy inspired by the logic of two-phase terpene biosynthesis where powerful C–C bond constructions and C–H bond oxidations go hand in hand. In this manuscript, we show how a two-phase terpene synthesis strategy can be enlisted to achieve the first enantiospecific total synthesis of (+)-phorbol in only 19 steps from the abundant monoterpene (+)-3-carene. The purpose of this route is not to displace isolation/semisynthesis as a means to generate the natural product per se, but rather to enable access to analogs containing unique oxidation patterns that are otherwise inaccessible. PMID:27007853

  16. Phorbol myristate acetate receptors in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Nishihira, J.; O'Flaherty, J.T.

    1985-11-01

    Resting or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-pretreated neutrophils were disrupted by nitrogen cavitation and were fractionated on Percoll density gradients to identify the subcellular location of PMA receptors. Receptors were found in the cytoplasm of resting cells; neither primary nor secondary granules bound (/sup 3/H)PMA, and the few binding sites located in non-granule membrane fractions appeared to reflect cytosolic contamination. Contrastingly, PMA-pretreated cells lost cytosolic receptors; > 80% of PMA-binding sites were associated with non-granule membranes. Protein kinase C activity similarly shifted from cytosol to membranes after PMA treatment. Indeed, protein kinase C and PMA receptors co-sedimented on Percoll gradients, co-eluted from Ultragel AcA 44 columns loaded with neutrophil cytoplasm, and were identically influenced by various phospholipids. Finally, PMA, mezerein, diacylglycerol, and dialkylglycerol activated protein kinase C with potencies that paralleled their respective abilities to stimulate neutrophil aggregation responses and inhibit (/sup 3/H)PMA binding to whole cells or cytosol. These results fit a model of stimulus-response coupling wherein exogenous PMA or endogenous diacylglycerol solvate in cellular membranes. Cytosolic protein kinase C binds to the intramembranous ligand, forming an active, membrane-associated complex that phosphorylates nearby elements involved in triggering aggregation and other responses.

  17. ROCK mediates phorbol ester-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells via p21Cip1 up-regulation and JNK.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Liqing; Eto, Masumi; Kazanietz, Marcelo G

    2009-10-23

    It is established that androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells undergo apoptosis upon treatment with phorbol esters and related analogs, an effect primarily mediated by PKCdelta. Treatment of LNCaP prostate cancer cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) causes a strong and sustained activation of RhoA and its downstream effector ROCK (Rho kinase) as well as the formation of stress fibers. These effects are impaired in cells subjected to PKCdelta RNA interference depletion. Functional studies revealed that expression of a dominant negative RhoA mutant or treatment with the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 inhibits the apoptotic effect of PMA in LNCaP cells. Remarkably, the cytoskeleton inhibitors cytochalasin B and blebbistatin blocked not only PMA-induced apoptosis but also the activation of JNK, a mediator of the cell death effect by the phorbol ester. In addition, we found that up-regulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21(Cip1) is required for PMA-induced apoptosis and that inhibitors of ROCK or the cytoskeleton organization prevent p21(Cip1) induction. Real time PCR analysis and reporter gene assay revealed that PMA induces p21(Cip1) transcriptionally in a ROCK- and cytoskeleton-dependent manner. p21(Cip1) promoter analysis revealed that PMA induction is dependent on Sp1 elements in the p21(Cip1) promoter but independent of p53. Taken together, our studies implicate ROCK-mediated up-regulation of p21(Cip1) and the cytoskeleton in PKCdelta-dependent apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.

  18. Cefradine blocks solar-ultraviolet induced skin inflammation through direct inhibition of T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Changshu; Zhang, Guiping; Xiao, Juanjuan; Wu, Dan; Zeng, Xiaoyu; Chen, Jingwen; Guo, Jinguang; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Fei; Zhu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Skin inflammation, and skin cancer induced by excessive solar ultraviolet (SUV) is a great threat to human health. SUV induced skin inflammation through activating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and c-Jun N-termeinal kinases (JNKs). T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) plays an important role in this process. Herein, the clinical data showed TOPK, phospho-p38, phospho-JNKs were highly expressed in human solar dermatitis. Ex vivo studies showed that SUV induced the phosphorylation of p38 and JNKs in HaCat and JB6 cells in a dose and time dependent manner. Molecule docking model indicated cefradine, an FDA-approved cephalosporin antibiotic, directly binds with TOPK. The result of in vitro binding assay verified cefradine can directly bind with TOPK. In vitro kinase results showed cefradine can inhibit TOPK activity. Ex vivo studies further showed cefradine inhibited SUV-induced the phosphorylation level of p38, JNKs and H2AX through inhibiting TOPK activity in a dose and time dependent manner, and cefradine inhibited the secretion of IL6 and TNF-α in HaCat and JB6 cells. In vivo studies showed that cefradine down-regulated SUV-induced the phosphorylation of p38, JNKs and H2AX and inhibited the secretion of IL6 and TNF-α in Babl/c mice. These results indicated that cefradine can inhibit SUV-induced skin inflammation by blocking TOPK signaling pathway, and TOPK is an effective target for suppressing inflammation induced by SUV irradiation. PMID:27016423

  19. Novel type of phorbol ester-dependent protein phosphorylation in the particulate fraction of mouse epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Gschwendt, M.; Kittstein, W.; Marks, F.

    1986-06-13

    In a Triton X100-extract from the particulate fraction of mouse epidermis but also of other murine tissues, the phosphorylation of a protein with the relative molecular mass of 82,000 (p82) is found to be dependent on phosphatidyl serine and the tumor promoting phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Unlike protein kinase C-catalyzed phosphorylation, p82 phosphorylation is neither observed in the presence of high concentrations of Ca/sup 2 +/ and phosphatidyl serine alone nor after addition of exogenous protein kinase C. Dioctanoylglycerol and the incomplete promoter 12-O-retinoylphorbol-13-acetate are also capable of stimulating p82 phosphorylation, whereas the non-promoting phorbol ester 4-O-methyl-TPA is at least 100-fold less active in this respect.

  20. Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Inhibits Mixed Lineage Kinase 3 to Block Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Amako, Yutaka; Igloi, Zsofia; Mankouri, Jamel; Kazlauskas, Arunas; Saksela, Kalle; Dallas, Mark; Peers, Chris; Harris, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection results in the activation of numerous stress responses including oxidative stress, with the potential to induce an apoptotic state. Previously we have shown that HCV attenuates the stress-induced, p38MAPK-mediated up-regulation of the K+ channel Kv2.1, to maintain the survival of infected cells in the face of cellular stress. We demonstrated that this effect was mediated by HCV non-structural 5A (NS5A) protein, which impaired p38MAPK activity through a polyproline motif-dependent interaction, resulting in reduction of phosphorylation activation of Kv2.1. In this study, we investigated the host cell proteins targeted by NS5A to mediate Kv2.1 inhibition. We screened a phage-display library expressing the entire complement of human SH3 domains for novel NS5A-host cell interactions. This analysis identified mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) as a putative NS5A interacting partner. MLK3 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is a member of the MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K) family and activates p38MAPK. An NS5A-MLK3 interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis. We further demonstrate a novel role of MLK3 in the modulation of Kv2.1 activity, whereby MLK3 overexpression leads to the up-regulation of channel activity. Accordingly, coexpression of NS5A suppressed this stimulation. Additionally we demonstrate that overexpression of MLK3 induced apoptosis, which was also counteracted by NS5A. We conclude that NS5A targets MLK3 with multiple downstream consequences for both apoptosis and K+ homeostasis. PMID:23857585

  1. Phosphatidylinositol kinase is activated in membranes derived from cells treated with epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D H; Pike, L J

    1987-01-01

    The ability of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to stimulate phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) kinase activity in A431 cells was examined. The incorporation of 32P from [gamma-32P]ATP into PtdIns by A431 membranes was increased in membranes prepared from cells that had been pretreated with EGF. Demonstration of a stimulation of the PtdIns kinase activity by EGF required the use of subconfluent cultures and was dependent on the inclusion of protease inhibitors in the buffers used to prepare the membranes. Stimulation of the PtdIns kinase activity was rapid. The activation peaked 2 min after the addition of EGF and declined slowly thereafter. Half-maximal stimulation of the PtdIns kinase occurred at 7 nM EGF. Kinetic analyses of the reaction indicated that treatment of the cells with EGF resulted in a decrease in the Km for PtdIns with no change in the Vmax. The kinetic parameters for the utilization of ATP were unchanged in the EGF-treated membranes compared to the control membranes. Pretreatment of the cells with the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate blocked the ability of EGF to stimulate PtdIns kinase activity. These findings demonstrate that a PtdIns kinase activity in A431 cells is regulated by EGF and provide a good system for examining the mechanism by which EGF stimulates the activity of this intracellular enzyme. PMID:2823265

  2. Interferon-. alpha. selectively activates the. beta. isoform of protein kinase C through phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeffer, L.M.; Saltiel, A.R. ); Strulovici, B. )

    1990-09-01

    The early events that occur after interferon binds to discrete cell surface receptors remain largely unknown. Human leukocyte interferon (interferon-{alpha}) rapidly increases the binding of ({sup 3}H)phorbol dibutyrate to intact HeLa cells a measure of protein kinase C activation, and induces the selective translocation of the {beta} isoform of protein kinase C from the cytosol to the particulate fraction of HeLa cells. The subcellular distribution of the {alpha} and {epsilon} isoforms is unaffected by interferon-{alpha} treatment. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters mimics the inhibitory action of interferon-{alpha} on HeLa cell proliferation and down-regulation of protein kinase C blocks the induction of antiviral activity by interferon-{alpha} in HeLa cells. Increased phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and phosphorylcholine production is accompanied by diacylglycerol production in response to interferon. However, inositol phospholipid turnover and free intracellular calcium concentration are unaffected. These results suggest that the transient increase in diacylglycerol, resulting from phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis, may selectively activate the {beta} isoform of protein kinase C. Moreover, the activation of protein kinase C is a necessary element in interferon action on cells.

  3. The Escherichia coli effector EspJ blocks Src kinase activity via amidation and ADP ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Young, Joanna C.; Clements, Abigail; Lang, Alexander E.; Garnett, James A.; Munera, Diana; Arbeloa, Ana; Pearson, Jaclyn; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Matthews, Stephen J.; Mousnier, Aurelie; Barry, David J.; Way, Michael; Schlosser, Andreas; Aktories, Klaus; Frankel, Gad

    2014-01-01

    The hallmark of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection is the formation of actin-rich pedestal-like structures, which are generated following phosphorylation of the bacterial effector Tir by cellular Src and Abl family tyrosine kinases. This leads to recruitment of the Nck–WIP–N-WASP complex that triggers Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization in the host cell. The same phosphorylation-mediated signalling network is also assembled downstream of the Vaccinia virus protein A36 and the phagocytic Fc-gamma receptor FcγRIIa. Here we report that the EPEC type-III secretion system effector EspJ inhibits autophosphorylation of Src and phosphorylation of the Src substrates Tir and FcγRIIa. Consistent with this, EspJ inhibits actin polymerization downstream of EPEC, Vaccinia virus and opsonized red blood cells. We identify EspJ as a unique adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ribosyltransferase that directly inhibits Src kinase by simultaneous amidation and ADP ribosylation of the conserved kinase-domain residue, Src E310, resulting in glutamine-ADP ribose. PMID:25523213

  4. The Escherichia coli effector EspJ blocks Src kinase activity via amidation and ADP ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Young, Joanna C; Clements, Abigail; Lang, Alexander E; Garnett, James A; Munera, Diana; Arbeloa, Ana; Pearson, Jaclyn; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Matthews, Stephen J; Mousnier, Aurelie; Barry, David J; Way, Michael; Schlosser, Andreas; Aktories, Klaus; Frankel, Gad

    2014-01-01

    The hallmark of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection is the formation of actin-rich pedestal-like structures, which are generated following phosphorylation of the bacterial effector Tir by cellular Src and Abl family tyrosine kinases. This leads to recruitment of the Nck-WIP-N-WASP complex that triggers Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization in the host cell. The same phosphorylation-mediated signalling network is also assembled downstream of the Vaccinia virus protein A36 and the phagocytic Fc-gamma receptor FcγRIIa. Here we report that the EPEC type-III secretion system effector EspJ inhibits autophosphorylation of Src and phosphorylation of the Src substrates Tir and FcγRIIa. Consistent with this, EspJ inhibits actin polymerization downstream of EPEC, Vaccinia virus and opsonized red blood cells. We identify EspJ as a unique adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ribosyltransferase that directly inhibits Src kinase by simultaneous amidation and ADP ribosylation of the conserved kinase-domain residue, Src E310, resulting in glutamine-ADP ribose.

  5. Tumour-promoting phorbol esters increase basal and inhibit insulin-stimulated lipogenesis in rat adipocytes without decreasing insulin binding.

    PubMed Central

    van de Werve, G; Proietto, J; Jeanrenaud, B

    1985-01-01

    In isolated rat adipocytes, tumour-promoting phorbol esters caused (1) dose-dependent stimulation of lipogenesis in the absence of insulin and (2) inhibition of the lipogenic effect of submaximal concentrations of insulin, but without affecting insulin binding. The possible involvement of protein kinase C in insulin action is discussed. PMID:3883992

  6. Phorbol esters promote alpha 1-adrenergic receptor phosphorylation and receptor uncoupling from inositol phospholipid metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Leeb-Lundberg, L M; Cotecchia, S; Lomasney, J W; DeBernardis, J F; Lefkowitz, R J; Caron, M G

    1985-01-01

    DDT1 MF-2 cells, which are derived from hamster vas deferens smooth muscle, contain alpha 1-adrenergic receptors (54,800 +/- 2700 sites per cell) that are coupled to stimulation of inositol phospholipid metabolism. Incubation of these cells with tumor-promoting phorbol esters, which stimulate calcium- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, leads to a marked attenuation of the ability of alpha 1-receptor agonists such as norepinephrine to stimulate the turnover of inositol phospholipids. This turnover was measured by determining the 32P content of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid after prelabeling of the cellular ATP pool with 32Pi. These phorbol ester-treated cells also displayed a decrease in binding affinity of cellular alpha 1 receptors for agonists with no change in antagonist affinity. By using affinity chromatography on the affinity resin Affi-Gel-A55414, the alpha 1 receptors were purified approximately equal to 300-fold from control and phorbol ester-treated 32Pi-prelabeled cells. As assessed by NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the Mr 80,000 alpha 1-receptor ligand-binding subunit is a phosphopeptide containing 1.2 mol of phosphate per mol of alpha 1 receptor. After phorbol ester treatment this increased to 3.6 mol of phosphate per mol of alpha 1 receptor. The effect of phorbol esters on norepinephrine-stimulated inositol phospholipid turnover and alpha 1-receptor phosphorylation showed the same rapid time course with a t1/2 less than 2 min. These results indicate that calcium- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase may play an important role in regulating the function of receptors that are coupled to the inositol phospholipid cycle by phosphorylating and deactivating them. Images PMID:2994039

  7. Phorbol ester stimulates calcium sequestration in saponized human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, K.; Nachmias, V.T.

    1987-11-25

    When platelets are activated by agonists, calcium (Ca2+) is released from an intracellular storage site. Recent studies using fura-2 show that, after thrombin stimulation, the rise in free calcium is transient and returns to base-line levels in 2-3 min, while the transient following ADP stimulation lasts only 15-20 s. We reported previously that the phorbol ester 12,13-phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), added at nanomolar levels after thrombin, immediately accelerated the rate of return of calcium to the base line severalfold. In the present study, we used both intact and saponized platelets to determine whether this is due to stimulation of calcium sequestration. Using fura-2 and intact platelets, we found 1) that PMA stimulated the restoration of free Ca2+ levels after ADP as well as after thrombin, and 2) that H-7, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent enzyme), slowed the return of Ca2+ to baseline levels. Using saponized platelets, we also found 3) that pretreatment of platelets with PMA before saponin treatment increased the ATP-dependent /sup 45/Ca2+ uptake 2-fold, with a half-maximal effect at 5 nm; 4) that most of the Ca2+ released by ionomycin or by myoinositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate; and 5) that a GTP-binding protein inhibitor, guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate), decreased basal or PMA-stimulated /sup 45/Ca2+ uptake in saponin-treated platelets. Our data suggest that activation of protein kinase C stimulates the sequestration of Ca2+ independently of cAMP or myoinositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate.

  8. Effect of phorbol esters on contractile state and calcium flux in cultured chick heart cells

    SciTech Connect

    Leatherman, G.F.; Kim, D.; Smith, T.W.

    1987-07-01

    Phorbol esters are potent tumor promoters that have been widely used in studies of transmembrane signaling because of their ability to activate protein kinase C. To study the effect of phorbol esters (and indirectly, the role of protein kinase C) on the cardiac muscle contractility, the authors examined the effects of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) on contractile state, transmembrane /sup 45/Ca fluxes, and cytosolic free Ca concentration ((Ca)/sub i/) using spontaneously contracting cultured chick ventricular cells. PMA produced a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in the amplitude of cell motion (half maximum inhibitory concentration) with maximal effect observed at 1 ..mu..M. PMA (1 ..mu..M) reduced /sup 45/Ca uptake rate by 16 /plus minus/ 4% and the size of the rapidly exchangeable Ca pool by 11 /plus minus/ 2%, but did not alter the /sup 45/Ca efflux rate. In fura-2-loaded cells. PMA produced a decrease in (Ca)/sub i/ from 96 /plus minus/ 7 to 72 /plus minus/ 5 nM with a time course similar to that of alteration in contractile amplitude. These results indicate that PMA influences transsarcolemmal Ca uptake, and thus the excitation-contraction process, and suggest that protein kinase C may modulate myocardial Ca homeostassis and contractile state.

  9. Discovery of Novel SPAK Inhibitors That Block WNK Kinase Signaling to Cation Chloride Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Eriko; Mori, Takayasu; Zeniya, Moko; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Ishigami-Yuasa, Mari; Fujii, Shinya; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Tomoaki; Mizushima, Tohru; Sasaki, Sei; Sohara, Eisei; Rai, Tatemitsu

    2015-01-01

    Upon activation by with-no-lysine kinases, STE20/SPS1-related proline–alanine-rich protein kinase (SPAK) phosphorylates and activates SLC12A transporters such as the Na+-Cl− cotransporter (NCC) and Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter type 1 (NKCC1) and type 2 (NKCC2); these transporters have important roles in regulating BP through NaCl reabsorption and vasoconstriction. SPAK knockout mice are viable and display hypotension with decreased activity (phosphorylation) of NCC and NKCC1 in the kidneys and aorta, respectively. Therefore, agents that inhibit SPAK activity could be a new class of antihypertensive drugs with dual actions (i.e., NaCl diuresis and vasodilation). In this study, we developed a new ELISA-based screening system to find novel SPAK inhibitors and screened >20,000 small-molecule compounds. Furthermore, we used a drug repositioning strategy to identify existing drugs that inhibit SPAK activity. As a result, we discovered one small-molecule compound (Stock 1S-14279) and an antiparasitic agent (Closantel) that inhibited SPAK-regulated phosphorylation and activation of NCC and NKCC1 in vitro and in mice. Notably, these compounds had structural similarity and inhibited SPAK in an ATP-insensitive manner. We propose that the two compounds found in this study may have great potential as novel antihypertensive drugs. PMID:25377078

  10. Inhibition of transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase-1 blocks cancer cell adhesion, invasion, and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ray, D M; Myers, P H; Painter, J T; Hoenerhoff, M J; Olden, K; Roberts, J D

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tumour cell metastasis involves cell adhesion and invasion, processes that depend on signal transduction, which can be influenced by the tumour microenvironment. N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, found both in the diet and in response to inflammatory responses, are important components of this microenvironment. Methods: We used short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of TGF-β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1) in human tumour cells to examine its involvement in fatty acid-stimulated cell adhesion and invasion in vitro. An in vivo model of metastasis was developed in which cells, stably expressing firefly luciferase and either a control shRNA or a TAK1-specific shRNA, were injected into the mammary fat pads of mice fed diets, rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Tumour growth and spontaneous metastasis were monitored with in vivo and in situ imaging of bioluminescence. Results: Arachidonic acid activated TAK1 and downstream kinases in MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells and led to increased adhesion and invasion. Knockdown of TAK1 blocked this activation and inhibited both cell adhesion and invasion in vitro. Tumour growth at the site of injection was not affected by TAK1 knockdown, but both the incidence and extent of metastasis to the lung were significantly reduced in mice injected with TAK1 knockdown cells compared with mice carrying control tumour cells. Conclusion: These data demonstrate the importance of TAK1 signalling in tumour metastasis in vivo and suggest an opportunity for antimetastatic therapies. PMID:22644295

  11. Carbamylcholine and phorbol esters desensitize muscarinic receptors by different mechanisms in rat pancreatic acini.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, L M; Paquette, B; Larose, L; Morisset, J

    1990-01-01

    Pretreatment of rat pancreatic acini with phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA), a protein kinase C (PK-C) activator, caused the desensitization of carbamylcholine (CBC)-induced amylase release in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. The less potent phorbol-12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu) also provoked a desensitization, but the inactive 4-alpha-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate had no effect. PMA or PDBu also significantly reduced subsequent amylase release induced by caerulein or secretin in contrast to CBC, which only reduced amylase release induced by CBC or secretin. Preincubation of acini with PMA did not lead to a decrease in PMA or A23187-stimulated amylase release. A 3 h resting period did not restore the desensitization induced by PMA or PDBu. Pretreatment with PMA did not cause changes in muscarinic receptor high- and low-affinity populations as observed with CBC pretreatment. The PK-C inhibitor H-7 completely prevented the desensitization induced by PDBu but not that induced by CBC. TMB-8, another PK-C inhibitor, also completely prevented the desensitization induced by PDBu but only partially that induced by CBC. These results suggest that phorbol esters can induce desensitization of muscarinic receptor-stimulated amylase release by a different mechanism than that involved in muscarinic agonist-induced desensitization.

  12. Herbal therapeutics that block the oncogenic kinase PAK1: a practical approach towards PAK1-dependent diseases and longevity.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Over 35 years research on PAKs, RAC/CDC42(p21)-activated kinases, comes of age, and in particular PAK1 has been well known to be responsible for a variety of diseases such as cancer (mainly solid tumors), Alzheimer's disease, acquired immune deficiency syndrome and other viral/bacterial infections, inflammatory diseases (asthma and arthritis), diabetes (type 2), neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, epilepsy, depression, schizophrenia, learning disability, autism, etc. Although several distinct synthetic PAK1-blockers have been recently developed, no FDA-approved PAK1 blockers are available on the market as yet. Thus, patients suffering from these PAK1-dependent diseases have to rely on solely a variety of herbal therapeutics such as propolis and curcumin that block PAK1 without affecting normal cell growth. Furthermore, several recent studies revealed that some of these herbal therapeutics significantly extend the lifespan of nematodes (C. elegans) and fruit flies (Drosophila), and PAK1-deficient worm lives longer than the wild type. Here, I outline mainly pathological phenotypes of hyper-activated PAK1 and a list of herbal therapeutics that block PAK1, but cause no side (harmful) effect on healthy people or animals.

  13. Herbal therapeutics that block the oncogenic kinase PAK1: a practical approach towards PAK1-dependent diseases and longevity.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Over 35 years research on PAKs, RAC/CDC42(p21)-activated kinases, comes of age, and in particular PAK1 has been well known to be responsible for a variety of diseases such as cancer (mainly solid tumors), Alzheimer's disease, acquired immune deficiency syndrome and other viral/bacterial infections, inflammatory diseases (asthma and arthritis), diabetes (type 2), neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, epilepsy, depression, schizophrenia, learning disability, autism, etc. Although several distinct synthetic PAK1-blockers have been recently developed, no FDA-approved PAK1 blockers are available on the market as yet. Thus, patients suffering from these PAK1-dependent diseases have to rely on solely a variety of herbal therapeutics such as propolis and curcumin that block PAK1 without affecting normal cell growth. Furthermore, several recent studies revealed that some of these herbal therapeutics significantly extend the lifespan of nematodes (C. elegans) and fruit flies (Drosophila), and PAK1-deficient worm lives longer than the wild type. Here, I outline mainly pathological phenotypes of hyper-activated PAK1 and a list of herbal therapeutics that block PAK1, but cause no side (harmful) effect on healthy people or animals. PMID:23943274

  14. Perturbing microtubule integrity blocks AMP-activated protein kinase-induced meiotic resumption in cultured mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ya, Ru; Downs, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important cellular energy sensor that is activated by a low AMP-to-ATP ratio. AMPK is involved in meiotic induction of mouse oocytes and also promotes the completion of maturation, but suppress premature activation. This study was conducted to further examine the activity and localization of AMPK in relation to microtubule (MT) integrity. Immunostaining with tubulin revealed that active AMPK localized with gamma tubulin during metaphase I and II, while it localized at the spindle midzone during anaphase. This discrete localization pattern was dependent on MT integrity. Treatment with nocodazole, which depolymerized spindle MTs, led to disruption of proper spindle pole localization of active AMPK. In contrast, active AMPK was localized at each pole and with small asters when treated with paclitaxel, which induced excessive polymerization of spindle MTs. Disturbing spindle integrity not only influenced active AMPK localization, but also blocked AMPK activity, as both hormone- and AMPK activator- induced oocyte maturation were blocked by MT-disrupting agents. In concert with these data, the treatments inhibited active AMPK germinal vesicle staining as well, which appears before germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) in meiotically induced oocytes. Targeting actin filament polymerization had only a marginal effect on meiotic induction. Although oocytes stimulated by AMPK activator increased the rate of GVB, spindle formation and PB extrusion, blocking AMPK activity did not influence peripheral movement of the spindle. These data suggest that the meiosis-inducing action and localization of AMPK are regulated by MT spindle integrity during mouse oocyte maturation. PMID:23199370

  15. A new family of covalent inhibitors block nucleotide binding to the active site of pyruvate kinase

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Hugh P.; Walsh, Martin J.; Blackburn, Elizabeth A.; Wear, Martin A.; Boxer, Matthew B.; Shen, Min; Mcnae, Iain W.; Nowicki, Matthew W.; Michels, Paul A. M.; Auld, Douglas S.; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A.; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Pyruvate kinase (PYK) plays a central role in the metabolism of many organisms and cell types, but the elucidation of the details of its function in a systems biology context has been hampered by the lack of specific high-affinity small molecule inhibitors. High-throughput screening has been used to identify a family of saccharin derivatives which inhibit Leishmania mexicana PYK (LmPYK) activity in a time- (and dose-) dependent manner; a characteristic of irreversible inhibition. The crystal structure of 4-[(1,1-dioxo-1,2-benzothiazol-3-yl)sulfanyl]benzoic acid (DBS) complexed with LmPYK shows that the saccharin moiety reacts with an active-site lysine residue (Lys335), forming a covalent bond and sterically hindering the binding of ADP/ATP. Mutation of the lysine residue to an arginine residue eliminated the effect of the inhibitor molecule, providing confirmation of the proposed inhibitor mechanism. This lysine residue is conserved in the active sites of the four human PYK isoenzymes, which were also found to be irreversibly inhibited by DBS. X-ray structures of PYK isoforms show structural differences at the DBS binding pocket, and this covalent inhibitor of PYK provides a chemical scaffold for the design of new families of potentially isoform-specific irreversible inhibitors. PMID:22906073

  16. Tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate and regulatory diacylglycerols are substrates for the same carboxylesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Mentlein, R.

    1986-06-15

    Rat liver homogenate or cell fractions deacylate 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) in vitro mainly by conversion to phorbol 13-acetate. The highest specific activity is located in the microsomal fraction. The deacylation is inhibited by bis-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate, a selective inhibitor of nonspecific carboxylesterases. Only two of five purified esterases from rat liver endoplasmic reticulum deacylate TPA. These two esterases have formerly been characterized as acylcarnitine hydrolases and the more active one is also a potent diacylglycerol lipase. Its TPA-hydrolyzing activity is inhibited by other substrates like 1-naphthylacetate, lauroylcarnitine, or dioleoyl glycerol. The results support the view that phorbol esters act like structural analogs of diacylglycerols, not only with respect to their activating effect on protein kinase C, but also as substrates for the same lipases.

  17. Augmentation of CAR T-cell Trafficking and Antitumor Efficacy by Blocking Protein Kinase A Localization.

    PubMed

    Newick, Kheng; O'Brien, Shaun; Sun, Jing; Kapoor, Veena; Maceyko, Steven; Lo, Albert; Puré, Ellen; Moon, Edmund; Albelda, Steven M

    2016-06-01

    Antitumor treatments based on the infusion of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CAR T cells) are still relatively ineffective for solid tumors, due to the presence of immunosuppressive mediators [such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and adenosine] and poor T-cell trafficking. PGE2 and adenosine activate protein kinase A (PKA), which then inhibits T-cell receptor (TCR) activation. This inhibition process requires PKA to localize to the immune synapse via binding to the membrane protein ezrin. We generated CAR T cells that expressed a small peptide called the "regulatory subunit I anchoring disruptor" (RIAD) that inhibits the association of PKA with ezrin, thus blunting the negative effects of PKA on TCR activation. After exposure to PGE2 or adenosine in vitro, CAR-RIAD T cells showed increased TCR signaling, released more cytokines, and showed enhanced killing of tumor cells compared with CAR T cells. When injected into tumor-bearing mice, the antitumor efficacy of murine and human CAR-RIAD T cells was enhanced compared with that of CAR T cells, due to resistance to tumor-induced hypofunction and increased T-cell infiltration of established tumors. Subsequent in vitro assays showed that both mouse and human CAR-RIAD cells migrated more efficiently than CAR cells did in response to the chemokine CXCL10 and also had better adhesion to various matrices. Thus, the intracellular addition of the RIAD peptide to adoptively transferred CAR T cells augments their efficacy by increasing their effector function and by improving trafficking into tumor sites. This treatment strategy, therefore, shows potential clinical application for treating solid tumors. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 541-51. ©2016 AACR.

  18. Augmentation of CAR T-cell Trafficking and Antitumor Efficacy by Blocking Protein Kinase A Localization.

    PubMed

    Newick, Kheng; O'Brien, Shaun; Sun, Jing; Kapoor, Veena; Maceyko, Steven; Lo, Albert; Puré, Ellen; Moon, Edmund; Albelda, Steven M

    2016-06-01

    Antitumor treatments based on the infusion of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CAR T cells) are still relatively ineffective for solid tumors, due to the presence of immunosuppressive mediators [such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and adenosine] and poor T-cell trafficking. PGE2 and adenosine activate protein kinase A (PKA), which then inhibits T-cell receptor (TCR) activation. This inhibition process requires PKA to localize to the immune synapse via binding to the membrane protein ezrin. We generated CAR T cells that expressed a small peptide called the "regulatory subunit I anchoring disruptor" (RIAD) that inhibits the association of PKA with ezrin, thus blunting the negative effects of PKA on TCR activation. After exposure to PGE2 or adenosine in vitro, CAR-RIAD T cells showed increased TCR signaling, released more cytokines, and showed enhanced killing of tumor cells compared with CAR T cells. When injected into tumor-bearing mice, the antitumor efficacy of murine and human CAR-RIAD T cells was enhanced compared with that of CAR T cells, due to resistance to tumor-induced hypofunction and increased T-cell infiltration of established tumors. Subsequent in vitro assays showed that both mouse and human CAR-RIAD cells migrated more efficiently than CAR cells did in response to the chemokine CXCL10 and also had better adhesion to various matrices. Thus, the intracellular addition of the RIAD peptide to adoptively transferred CAR T cells augments their efficacy by increasing their effector function and by improving trafficking into tumor sites. This treatment strategy, therefore, shows potential clinical application for treating solid tumors. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 541-51. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27045023

  19. Effect of phorbol derivatives and staurosporine on gravitropic response of primary root of maize

    SciTech Connect

    Mulkey, T.J.; Kim, S.Y. ); Lee, J.S. )

    1991-05-01

    Time-lapse videography and computer-based, video image digitization were used to examine the effects of phorbol derivatives (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, TPA; phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate 4-O-methyl ether, mTPA) and staurosporine on the kinetics of gravicurvature of primary roots of maize (Zea mays L., Pioneer 3343 and Golden Cross Bantam). Pretreatment of roots with TPA (3 hr, 1 {mu}M) decreases the time lag prior to induction of positive gravicurvature in horizontally-oriented roots by > 60%. The rate of curvature is not significantly different than the rate observed in control roots. Wrongway curvature which is observed in 30-40% of control roots is not observed in TPA-pretreated roots. Oscillatory movements observed in control roots after completion of gravitropic reorientation is completely dampened in TPA-pretreated roots. Pretreatment of roots with mTPA(3hr,1{mu}M), the inactive analog of TPA, does not significantly alter the kinetics of gravicurvature of primary roots of maize. Staurosporine (10{sup {minus}8}M), a microbial alkaloid which has been reported to have antifungal activity and to inhibit phospholipid/Ca{sup ++} dependent protein kinase, completely inhibits TPA-induced alteration of the kinetics of gravitropism. DAG (1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-rac-glycerol), a synthetic diglyceride activator of protein kinase C, exhibits similar activity to TPA. TPA-induced alterations in tissue response to auxin are presented.

  20. The herpes simplex virus 1 US3 protein kinase blocks caspase-dependent double cleavage and activation of the proapoptotic protein BAD.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Luca; Munger, Joshua; Roizman, Bernard

    2003-06-01

    An earlier report showed that the U(S)3 protein kinase blocked the apoptosis induced by the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) d120 mutant at a premitochondrial stage. Further studies revealed that the kinase also blocks programmed cell death induced by the proapoptotic protein BAD. Here we report the effects of the U(S)3 protein kinase on the function and state of a murine BAD protein. Specifically, (i) in uninfected cells, BAD was processed by at least two proteolytic cleavages that were blocked by a general caspase inhibitor. The untreated transduced cells expressed elevated caspase 3 activity. (ii) In cells cotransduced with the U(S)3 protein kinase, the BAD protein was not cleaved and the caspase 3 activity was not elevated. (iii) Inasmuch as the U(S)3 protein kinase blocked the proapoptotic activity and cleavage of a mutant (BAD3S/A) in which the codons for the regulatory serines at positions 112, 136, and 155 were each replaced with alanine codons, the U(S)3 protein kinase does not act by phosphorylation of these sites nor was the phosphorylation of these sites required for the antiapoptotic function of the U(S)3 protein kinase. (iv) The U(S)3 protein kinase did not enable the binding of the BAD3S/A mutant to the antiapoptotic proteins 14-3-3. Finally, (v) whereas cleavage of BAD at ASP56 and ASP61 has been reported and results in the generation of a more effective proapoptotic protein with an M(r) of 15,000, in this report we also show the existence of a second caspase-dependent cleavage site most likely at the ASP156 that is predicted to inactivate the proapoptotic activity of BAD. We conclude that the primary effect of U(S)3 was to block the caspases that cleave BAD at either residue 56 or 61 predicted to render the protein more proapoptotic or at residue 156, which would inactivate the protein.

  1. Roles of phospholipase D in phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated neutrophil respiratory burst.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tianhui; Liu, Zhaoxia; Shen, Xun

    2011-03-01

    The phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulated nutrophil respiratory burst has been considered to simply involve the activation of protein kinase C (PKC). However, the PLD activity was also increased by 10-fold in human neutrophils stimulated with 100 nM PMA. Unexpectedly, U73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C, was found to significantly inhibit PMA-stimulated respiratory burst in human neutrophils. U73122 at the concentrations, which were sufficient to inhibit the respiratory burst completely, caused partial inhibition of the PLD activity but no inhibition on PKC translocation and activation, suggesting that PLD activity is also required in PMA-stimulated respiratory burst. Using 1-butanol, a PLD substrate, to block phosphatidic acid (PA) generation, the PMA-stimulated neutrophil respiratory burst was also partially inhibited, further indicating that PLD activation, possibly its hydrolytic product PA and diacylglycerol (DAG), is involved in PMA-stimulated respiratory burst. Since GF109203X, an inhibitor of PKC that could completely inhibit the respiratory burst in PMA-stimulated neutrophils, also caused certain suppression of PLD activation, it may suggest that PLD activation in PMA-stimulated neutrophils might be, to some extent, PKC dependent. To further study whether PLD contributes to the PMA stimulated respiratory burst through itself or its hydrolytic product, 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol, an analogue of DAG , was used to prime cells at low concentration, and it reversed the inhibition of PMA-stimulated respiratory burst by U73122. The results indicate that U73122 may act as an inhibitor of PLD, and PLD activation is required in PMA-stimulated respiratory burst.

  2. SIRT3 Blocks Aging-Associated Tissue Fibrosis in Mice by Deacetylating and Activating Glycogen Synthase Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Sundaresan, Nagalingam R.; Bindu, Samik; Pillai, Vinodkumar B.; Samant, Sadhana; Pan, Yong; Huang, Jing-Yi; Gupta, Madhu; Nagalingam, Raghu S.; Wolfgeher, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Tissue fibrosis is a major cause of organ dysfunction during chronic diseases and aging. A critical step in this process is transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated transformation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, cells capable of synthesizing extracellular matrix. Here, we show that SIRT3 controls transformation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts via suppressing the profibrotic TGF-β1 signaling. We found that Sirt3 knockout (KO) mice with age develop tissue fibrosis of multiple organs, including heart, liver, kidney, and lungs but not whole-body SIRT3-overexpressing mice. SIRT3 deficiency caused induction of TGF-β1 expression and hyperacetylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) at residue K15, which negatively regulated GSK3β activity to phosphorylate the substrates Smad3 and β-catenin. Reduced phosphorylation led to stabilization and activation of these transcription factors regulating expression of the profibrotic genes. SIRT3 deacetylated and activated GSK3β and thereby blocked TGF-β1 signaling and tissue fibrosis. These data reveal a new role of SIRT3 to negatively regulate aging-associated tissue fibrosis and discloses a novel phosphorylation-independent mechanism controlling the catalytic activity of GSK3β. PMID:26667039

  3. Phorbol ester-induced inhibition of. beta. -adrenergic - and vasopressin-mediated responses in an established smooth muscle cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    A-10 cells which are derived from embryonic rat thoracic aorta contain a high density of vasopressin receptors and relatively fewer ..beta..-adrenergic receptors. The effects of vasopressin binding to these cells are two-fold: a) inhibition of isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP accumulation, and; b) stimulation of phosphatidyl inositol turnover. Incubation of these cells with phorbol dibutyrate leads to an attenuation of the responses mediated by ..beta..-adrenergic agonist as well as vasopressin. This effect of phorbol ester is concentration- and time-dependent and can be observed as early as five minutes. The inactive phorbol ester (4 ..cap alpha.. phorbol 12,13-didecanoate) is ineffective in inhibiting ..beta..-adrenergic agonist and vasopressin-mediated responses. Since present evidence indicates that the enzyme protein kinase C (PK-C) is involved in both short-term and long-term regulatory processes such as secretion, smooth muscle contraction and cell growth, these data suggest that both ..beta..-adrenergic and vasopressin receptors and/or some mediator(s) of ..beta..-adrenergic and/or vasopressin responses may be phosphorylated by protein kinase C resulting in an attenuated response of these two hormones.

  4. Protein kinase C regulates endothelial cell tube formation on basement membrane matrix, Matrigel.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, J L; Grant, D S; Weeks, B S; Kleinman, H K

    1992-03-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells differentiate within 12 h to form capillary-like networks of tube structures when the cells are plated on Matrigel, a mixture of basement membrane proteins. Nothing is known about the intracellular signaling events involved in this differentiation. As a first step to define the process, we investigated the possible role of protein kinase C activation by beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in regulating the formation of the tube structures. In this model, PMA increased tube formation several-fold in a dose-dependent manner with half-maximum stimulation of tube formation at approximately 5 nM PMA. In the absence of serum, essentially little or no tubes were formed on Matrigel unless PMA was added to the medium. Only active phorbol analogs increased tube formation, while the protein kinase C inhibitor, H-7, blocked tube formation. The protein kinase C activators and inhibitors were effective only when added at or just after plating of the cells and did not affect already formed tubes. This study suggests that protein kinase C is involved in the early events of in vitro endothelial cell tube formation on Matrigel.

  5. Regulation of taurine transporter activity in LLC-PK1 cells: role of protein synthesis and protein kinase C activation.

    PubMed

    Jones, D P; Miller, L A; Dowling, C; Chesney, R W

    1991-11-01

    Taurine transporter activity increases after exposure of cultured renal epithelial cells to taurine-free medium for 24 h and decreases after incubation in high (500 microM) taurine. This adaptive response mimics that observed in rat kidney after manipulation of dietary taurine. In order to elucidate potential mechanisms involved in the regulation of beta-amino acid transporter activity, the role of RNA transcription, protein synthesis, and protein import (trafficking), as well as protein kinase C activation, on the control of taurine transport was examined in the continuous proximally derived LLC-PK1 renal cell line. Inhibition of RNA transcription with actinomycin D did not alter the up-regulatory and down-regulatory adaptive responses. Inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide prevented the increased taurine transport in response to taurine-free medium as well as the decrease in taurine transport after exposure to high taurine. Colchicine prevented the response to taurine-free medium but had no effect on the response to high-taurine medium. Exposure of confluent cell monolayers to the active phorbol esters, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate, resulted in a reduction in taurine uptake. The effect was seen within minutes of exposure but was not observed in the presence of the inactive phorbol 4-alpha. This inhibitory action was blocked by staurosporin, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC). Treatment of cells with the diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59022, which results in increased intracellular diacylglycerol, a natural stimulant of PKC, also inhibited taurine uptake, providing further evidence for a specific effect of PKC activation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Inhibition of astroglial cell proliferation by alcohols: interference with the protein kinase C-phospholipase D signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kötter, K; Jin, S; Klein, J

    2000-12-01

    Ethanol inhibits astroglial cell proliferation, an effect that may contribute to the development of alcoholic embryopathy in humans. In the present study, we investigated inhibitory effects of ethanol and butanol isomers (1-, 2- and t-butanol) on astroglial cell proliferation induced by the strongly mitogenic phorbol ester, 4beta-phorbol-12alpha,13beta-dibutyrate (PDB). 4beta-Phorbol-12alpha,13beta-dibutyrate (PDB) induced a 10-fold increase of [3H] thymidine incorporation in cortical astrocytes prepared from newborn rats (EC50: 70 nM) which was blocked by Ro 31-8220, a cell-permeable protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. Ethanol blocked PDB-induced astroglial proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner; significant effects were already seen at 0.1% (v/v). Concomitantly, ethanol caused the formation of phosphatidylethanol (PEth) by phospholipase D (PLD) and reduced PLD-mediated formation of phosphatidic acid (PA). The butanols also inhibited the mitogenic action of phorbol ester; the inhibitory potency of the butanols was 1-butanol > 2-butanol > t-butanol. The same range of potencies was observed for the inhibitory activity of the butanols towards protein kinase C activity measured in vitro. At 0.3% concentration, 1-butanol potently suppressed the PDB-induced formation of phosphatidic acid while 2- and t-butanol were less active. Taken together, our results suggest that ethanol and 1-butanol exert a specific inhibitory effect on PKC-dependent astroglial cell proliferation by synergistically inhibiting PKC activity and the PLD signaling pathway.

  7. Okadaic acid overcomes the blocked cell cycle caused by depleting Cdc2-related kinases in Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Li Ziyin; Tu Xiaoming; Wang, Ching C. . E-mail: ccwang@cgl.ucsf.edu

    2006-11-01

    Mitosis and cytokinesis are highly coordinated in eukaryotic cells. But procyclic-form Trypanosoma brucei under G1 or mitotic arrest is still capable of dividing, resulting in anucleate daughter cells (zoids). Okadaic acid (OKA), an inhibitor of protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A, is known to inhibit kinetoplast replication and cell division yielding multinucleate cells with single kinetoplasts. However, when OKA was applied to cells arrested in G1 or G2/M phase via RNAi knockdown of specific cdc2-related kinases (CRKs), DNA synthesis and nuclear division were resumed without kinetoplast replication or cell division, resulting in multinucleate cells as in the wild type. Cells arrested in G2/M via depleting the mitotic cyclin CycB2 or an aurora B kinase homologue TbAUK1 were, however, not released by OKA treatment. The phenomenon is thus similar to the OKA activation of Cdc2 in Xenopus oocyte by inhibiting PP2A [Maton, et al., Differential regulation of Cdc2 and Aurora-A in Xenopus oocytes: a crucial role of phosphatase 2A. J. Cell Sci. 118 (2005) 2485-2494]. A simultaneous knockdown of the seven PP1s or the PP2A catalytic subunit in T. brucei by RNA interference did not, however, result in multinucleate cells. This could be explained by assuming a negative regulation, either directly or indirectly, of CRK by an OKA-sensitive phosphatase, which could be a PP2A as in the Xenopus oocyte and a positive regulation of kinetoplast replication by an OKA-susceptible protein(s). Test of a PP2A-specific inhibitor, fostriecin, on cells arrested in G2/M via CRK depletion or a knockdown of the PP2A catalytic subunit from the CRK-depleted cells both showed a partial lift of the G2/M block without forming multinucleate cells. These observations support the abovementioned assumption and suggest the presence of a novel OKA-sensitive protein(s) regulating kinetoplast replication that still remains to be identified.

  8. The virion host shutoff RNase plays a key role in blocking the activation of protein kinase R in cells infected with herpes simplex virus 1.

    PubMed

    Sciortino, Maria Teresa; Parisi, Tiziana; Siracusano, Gabriel; Mastino, Antonio; Taddeo, Brunella; Roizman, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    Earlier studies have shown that active MEK blocks the activation of protein kinase R (PKR), a component of antiviral innate immune responses. In this report we show that the herpes simplex virus 1 virion host shutoff (VHS) RNase protein and MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase) act cooperatively in blocking the activation of PKR. This conclusion is based on the following. (i) In contrast to viral gene expression in the parental cell line or a cell line expressing a constitutively active MEK, the replication of a VHS mutant is particularly impaired in cells expressing dominant negative MEK. In this cell line PKR is activated by phosphorylation, and the accumulation of several viral proteins is delayed. (ii) In transfected cells, wild-type VHS blocked the activation of PKR, whereas PKR was activated in cells transfected with a mutant VHS or with plasmids encoding the VHS RNase and VP16 and VP22, the two viral proteins that neutralize the RNase activity of VHS. The results suggest that early in infection the VHS RNase degrades RNAs that activate PKR. Coupled with published data, the results suggest that inhibition of activation of PKR or its effect on viral replication is staged early in infection by VHS, postsynthesis of VP16 and VP22 by the γ(1)34.5 protein, and very late in infection by the U(S)11 protein.

  9. Blocking the tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) receptor inhibits pain behaviour in two rat models of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nwosu, Lilian N; Mapp, Paul I; Chapman, Victoria; Walsh, David A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) mediates nociceptor sensitisation by nerve growth factor (NGF), but it is unknown whether selective TrkA inhibition will be an effective strategy for treating osteoarthritis (OA) pain. We determined the effects of a TrkA inhibitor (AR786) on pain behaviour, synovitis and joint pathology in two rat OA models. Methods Knee OA was induced in rats by intra-articular monosodium-iodoacetate (MIA) injection or meniscal transection (MNX) and compared with saline-injected or sham-operated controls. Pain behaviour was assessed as weight-bearing asymmetry and paw withdrawal threshold to punctate stimulation. Oral doses (30 mg/kg) of AR786 or vehicle were administered twice daily in either preventive (day −1 to –27) or treatment (day 14–28) protocols. Effect maintenance was evaluated for 2 weeks after treatment discontinuation. Alterations in knee structure (cartilage, subchondral bone and synovium) were examined by macroscopic visualisation of articular surfaces and histopathology. Results Preventive AR786 treatment inhibited pain behaviour development and therapeutic treatment attenuated established pain behaviour. Weight-bearing asymmetry increased 1 week after treatment discontinuation, but remained less than in vehicle-treated arthritic rats, whereas paw withdrawal thresholds returned to levels of untreated rats within 5 days of treatment discontinuation. AR786 treatment reduced MIA-induced synovitis and did not significantly affect osteochondral pathology in either model. Conclusions Blocking NGF activity by inhibiting TrkA reduced pain behaviour in two rat models of OA. Analgesia was observed both using preventive and treatment protocols, and was sustained after treatment discontinuation. Selective inhibitors of TrkA therefore hold potential for OA pain relief. PMID:26286016

  10. Inhibition of cytopathic effect of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 by various phorbol derivatives.

    PubMed

    El-Mekkawy, Sahar; Meselhy, Meselhy Ragab; Abdel-Hafez, Atef Abdel-Monem; Nakamura, Norio; Hattori, Masao; Kawahata, Takuya; Otake, Toru

    2002-04-01

    Forty-eight derivatives of phorbol (9) and isophorbol (14) were evaluated for their inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 induced cytopathic effects (CPE) on MT-4 cells, as well as their activation of protein kinase C (PKC), as indices of anti-HIV-1 and tumor promoting activities, respectively. Of these compounds, the most potent inhibition of CPE was observed in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (8) and 12-O-acetylphorbol 13-decanoate (6). The former also showed the strongest PKC activation activity, while the latter showed no activity at 10 ng/ml. Both activities were generally observed in those phorbol derivatives with an A/B trans configuration, but not in the isophorbol derivatives with an A/B cis configuration. Acetylation of 20-OH in the phorbol derivatives significantly reduced the inhibition of CPE, as shown in 12-O-, 20-O-diacetylphorbol 13-decanoate (6a) (IC100=15.6 microg/ml) vs. compound 6 (IC100=0.0076 microg/ml), and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13,20-diacetate (8a) (IC100=15.6 microg/ml) vs. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (8) (IC100=0.00048 microg/ml), except in the case of 12-O-decanoylphorbol 13-(2-methylbutyrate) (4) and phorbol 12,13-diacetate (9c). The reduction of a carbonyl group at C-3 abruptly reduced the inhibition of CPE, as observed in 3beta-hydroxyphorbol 12,13,20-triacetate (9f) (IC100=500 microg/ml) vs. phorbol 12,13,20-triacetate (9d) (IC100=62.5 microg/ml). Although 8 was equipotent in the inhibition of CPE, and activation of PKC, both activities were abruptly decreased by the acetylation of 20-OH and methylation of 4-OH [as in 8a and 4-O-methyl-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13,20-diacetate (8b), respectively]. On the other hand, its positional isomer (12-O-acetylphorbol 13-tetradecanoate (8c) showed neither activities. The removal of a long acyl group in 8 led to a substantial loss of both activities, as shown in phorbol 13-acetate (9b). Of the 12-O-acetyl-13-O-acylphorbol derivatives, the highest inhibition of CPE

  11. Free fatty acids and protein kinase C activation induce GPR120 (free fatty acid receptor 4) phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Reyes, Omar B; Romero-Ávila, M Teresa; Castillo-Badillo, Jean A; Takei, Yoshinori; Hirasawa, Akira; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; García-Sáinz, J Adolfo

    2014-01-15

    GPR120, free fatty acid receptor 4, is a recently deorphanized G protein-coupled receptor that seems to play cardinal roles in the regulation of metabolism and in the pathophysiology of inflammatory and metabolic disorders. In the present work a GPR120-Venus fusion protein was expressed in HEK293 Flp-In T-REx cells and its function (increase in intracellular calcium) and phosphorylation were studied. It was observed that the fusion protein migrated in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels as a band with a mass of ≈70-75kDa, although other bands of higher apparent weight (>130kDa) were also detected. Cell stimulation with docosahexaenoic acid or α-linolenic acid induced concentration-dependent increases in intracellular calcium and GPR120 phosphorylation. Activation of protein kinase C with phorbol esters also induced a marked receptor phosphorylation but did not alter the ability of 1µM docosahexaenoic acid to increase the intracellular calcium concentration. Phorbol ester-induced GPR120 phosphorylation, but not that induced with docosahexaenoic acid, was blocked by protein kinase C inhibitors (bis-indolyl-maleimide I and Gö 6976) suggesting that conventional kinase isoforms mediate this action. The absence of effect of protein kinase C inhibitors on agonist-induced GPR120 phosphorylation indicates that this kinase does not play a major role in agonist-induced receptor phosphorylation. Docosahexaenoic acid action was associated with marked GPR120 internalization whereas that induced with phorbol esters was smaller at early times. PMID:24239485

  12. Tumor-promoting phorbol esters support the in vitro proliferation of murine pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed Central

    Spivak, J L; Hogans, B B; Stuart, R K

    1989-01-01

    The effect of tumor-promoting phorbol esters on the in vitro proliferation of mouse pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (CFU-S) was examined using a short-term in vitro culture system and an 11-d spleen colony assay. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, 10(-7) M), but not the inert compound phorbol, supported the in vitro survival of day 11 CFU-S for 72 h in a manner similar to IL 3. PMA also enhanced the effect of IL 3 on the in vitro survival of day 11 CFU-S and as little as 1 h of exposure to PMA was sufficient for this purpose. The effect of PMA on CFU-S survival in vitro was not mediated by prostaglandins, did not require an established adherent cell population, and was observed at a concentration of 10(-9) M. PMA alone did not enhance the in vitro survival of day 11 CFU-S at very low concentrations of FCS but was still able to potentiate the effect of IL 3 on these cells. PMA also enhanced the in vitro survival of day 11 CFU-S from mice treated with 5-fluorouracil or from marrow cells exposed to merocyanine 540 and light. The interaction of PMA with day 11 CFU-S was not inhibited by a neutralizing antiserum to IL 3 but was inhibited by the protein kinase inhibitor H-7. Together, the data indicate that tumor-promoting phorbol esters interact with pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. Like IL 3, their effect appears to be permissive and involves stem cells with marrow repopulating ability. PMID:2463264

  13. Insulin and phorbol ester stimulate conductive Na/sup +/ transport through a common pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Civan, M.M.; Peterson-Yantorno, K.; O'Brien, T.G.

    1988-02-01

    Insulin stimulates Na/sup +/ transport across frog skin, toad urinary bladder, and the distal renal nephron. This stimulation reflects an increase in apical membrane Na/sup +/ permeability and a stimulation of the basolateral membrane Na,K-exchange pump. Considerable indirect evidence has suggested that the apical natriferic effect of insulin is mediated by activation of protein kinase C. However, no direct information has been available documenting that insulin and protein kinase C indeed share a common pathway in stimulating Na/sup +/ transport across frog skin. In the present work, the authors have studied the interaction of insulin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a documented activator of protein kinase C. Preincubation of skins with 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, another activator of protein kinase C, increases baseline Na/sup +/ transport and reduces the subsequent natriferic response to PMA. Preincubation with PMA markedly reduces the subsequent natriferic action of insulin. This effect does not appear to primarily reflect PMA-induced internalization of insulin receptors. The insulin receptors are localized on the basolateral surface of frog skin, but the application of PMA to this surface is much less effective than mucosal treatment in reducing the response to insulin. The current results provide documentation that insulin and protein kinase C share a common pathway in stimulating Na/sup +/ transport across frog skin. The data are consistent with the concept that the natriferic effect of insulin on frog skin is, at least in part, mediated by activation of protein kinase C.

  14. Activation of p38 and JNK MAPK pathways abrogates requirement for new protein synthesis for phorbol ester mediated induction of select MMP and TIMP genes.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Clara L; Nuttall, Robert K; Young, David A; Goldspink, Deborah; Clark, Ian M; Edwards, Dylan R

    2008-03-01

    The human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene family includes 24 genes whose regulated expression, together with that of four tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), is essential in tissue remodelling and cell signalling. Quantitative real-time-PCR (qPCR) analysis was used to evaluate the shared and unique patterns of control of these two gene families in human MRC-5 and WI-38 fibroblasts in response to the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). The requirement for ongoing translation was analysed using three protein synthesis inhibitors, anisomycin, cycloheximide and emetine. PMA induced MMP1, 3, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14 and TIMP1 and TIMP3 RNAs after 4-8 h, and induction of all except MMP9 and TIMP3 was blocked by all protein synthesis inhibitors. However, even though all inhibitors effectively blocked translation, PMA-induction of MMP9 and TIMP3 was blocked by emetine but was insensitive to cycloheximide and anisomycin. Anisomycin alone induced MMP9 and TIMP3, along with MMP25 and MMP19. The extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs)-1/2 were strongly activated by PMA, while anisomycin activated the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 pathways, and cycloheximide activated p38, but emetine had no effect on the stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. The involvement of the p38 and JNK pathways in the selective effects of anisomycin and cycloheximide on MMP/TIMP expression was supported by use of pharmacological inhibitors. These data confirm that most inducible MMPs and TIMP1 behave as "late" activated, protein synthesis-dependent genes in fibroblasts. However, the requirement of protein synthesis for PMA-induction of MMPs and TIMPs is not universal, since it is abrogated for MMP9 and TIMP3 by stimulation of the stress-activated MAPK pathways. The definition of clusters of co-regulated genes among the two gene families will aid in bioinformatic dissection of control mechanisms.

  15. The effects of phorbol ester activation and reactive oxygen species scavengers on the macrophage-mediated foreign body reaction to polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    McBane, Joanne E; Matheson, Loren A; Santerre, J Paul; Labow, Rosalind S

    2009-12-15

    Phorbol myristate acetate, a protein kinase C activator, inhibited monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM)-mediated degradation of aliphatic (HDI) polycarbonate-based polyurethanes but not degradation of the aromatic polycarbonate-based polyurethane (MDI). The objectives of this study were to determine if reactive oxygen species are involved in the phorbol myristate acetate effect on esterase activity and MDM-mediated polycarbonate-based polyurethane degradation and to find a good marker of material-initiated activation of MDM. The phorbol myristate acetate-dependent effects of the material chemistry on cell activation and degradation were evaluated by adding reactive oxygen species scavengers, catalase plus superoxide dismutase to MDM and assaying possible markers of MDM activation: esterase activity, acid phosphatase activity, and high molecular weight group box 1 protein (HMGB1). All treatments reduced the esterase activity in MDM on HDI but not in MDM on MDI. Acid phosphatase was inhibited in MDM to varying degrees on all surfaces by phorbol myristate acetate or catalase plus superoxide dismutase either alone or together. Secretion of HMGB1 from MDM on HDI431 was higher than MDI; however only secretion from MDM on HDI was inhibited by phorbol myristate acetate. In MDM on HDI, catalase plus superoxide dismutase reduced intracellular HMGB1 levels +/- phorbol myristate acetate; whereas, catalase, superoxide dismutase plus phorbol myristate acetate increased intracellular HMGB1 in MDM on MDI, suggesting that esterase and HMGB1 are more specific markers of activation than acid phosphatase. Manipulation of signaling pathways may provide insight surrounding the mechanism of activation for oxidative and/or hydrolytic degradative pathways in the MDM response to material surface chemistry.

  16. Inhibition of hippocampal Jun N-terminal kinase enhances short-term memory but blocks long-term memory formation and retrieval of an inhibitory avoidance task.

    PubMed

    Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Kerr, Daniel S; Medina, Jorge H; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2003-02-01

    Learning initiates a series of plastic events the occurrence of which are required for the storage of information related to the training experience. Several lines of evidence indicate that, in the rat hippocampus, different members of the family of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) play a key role in the onset of such plastic events. Using SP600125, the newly developed inhibitor of the MAPK c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK), we show a direct involvement of this protein kinase in mnemonic processes. The intra-CA1 infusion of SP600125, at a dose that in naïve animals significantly reduced the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun without affecting the activity of ERK1/2 or p38 MAPK, enhanced short-term memory (STM) but blocked long-term memory (LTM) formation and retrieval of an inhibitory avoidance learning task. No action of this drug on locomotor/exploratory activity or general anxiety state could be detected. The significance of these results is discussed in the context of others describing the independence of LTM from STM.

  17. Structural basis for recognition of Emi2 by Polo-like kinase 1 and development of peptidomimetics blocking oocyte maturation and fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia-Lin; Han, Young-Hyun; Kim, Hak-Cheol; Ahn, Mija; Kwon, Jeong-Woo; Luo, Yibo; Gunasekaran, Pethaiah; Lee, Soo-Jae; Lee, Kyung S.; Kyu Bang, Jeong; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Namgoong, Suk

    2015-01-01

    In a mammalian oocyte, completion of meiosis is suspended until fertilization by a sperm, and the cell cycle is arrested by a biochemical activity called cytostatic factor (CSF). Emi2 is one of the CSFs, and it maintains the protein level of maturation promoting factor (MPF) by inhibiting ubiquitin ligase anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Degradation of Emi2 via ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis after fertilization requires phosphorylation by Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1). Therefore, recognition and phosphorylation of Emi2 by Plk1 are crucial steps for cell cycle resumption, but the binding mode of Emi2 and Plk1 is poorly understood. Using biochemical assays and X-ray crystallography, we found that two phosphorylated threonines (Thr152 and Thr176) in Emi2 are each responsible for the recruitment of one Plk1 molecule by binding to its C-terminal polo box domain (PBD). We also found that meiotic maturation and meiosis resumption via parthenogenetic activation were impaired when Emi2 interaction with Plk1-PBD was blocked by a peptidomimetic called 103-8. Because of the inherent promiscuity of kinase inhibitors, our results suggest that targeting PBD of Plk1 may be an effective strategy for the development of novel and specific contraceptive agents that block oocyte maturation and/or fertilization. PMID:26459104

  18. Protein kinase C translocation in human blood platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hoauyan; Friedman, E. )

    1990-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) activity and translocation in response to the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA), serotonin (5-HT) and thrombin was assessed in human platelets. Stimulation with PMA and 5-HT for 10 minutes or thrombin for 1 minute elicited platelet PKC translocation from cytosol to membrane. The catecholamines, norepinephrine or epinephrine at 10 {mu}M concentrations did not induce redistribution of platelet PKC. Serotonin and the specific 5-HT{sub 2} receptor agonist, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-amino-propane (DOI) but not the 5-HT{sub 1A} or 5-HT{sub 1B} agonists, ({plus minus}) 8-hydroxy-dipropylamino-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) or 5-methoxy-3-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridin) 1H-indole succinate (RU 24969) induced dose-dependent PKC translocations. Serotonin-evoked PKC translocation was blocked by selective 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonists, ketanserin and spiroperidol. These results suggest that, in human platelets, PMA, thrombin and 5-HT can elicit PKC translocation from cytosol to membrane. Serotonin-induced PKC translocation in platelets is mediated via 5-HT{sub 2} receptors.

  19. [Suppressive effect of protein kinase C inhibitors on tumor cell function via phosphorylation of p53 protein in mice].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K; Shinozuka, K; Kunitomo, M

    2000-12-01

    We examined the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the phosphorylation of a p53 protein. Exposure to a protein kinase inhibitor, 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine dihydrochloride (H7), increased the phosphorylation of the wild type p53 protein, whereas exposure to a tumor promoter phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), decreased it in vivo after incubation with mouse epidermal JB6 cells for 3 h. Exposure to a cAMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) activator, forskolin, did not decrease the phosphorylation of p53 protein. In the transient transfection/luciferase reporter transactivation assay, H7 slightly increased the mouse double minute (MDM) 2 reporter transactivation activity of the p53 protein after treatment for 24 h, whereas TPA completely blocked it. Exposure to H7 and a specific PKC inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide (bis), dose-dependently reduced the lung-colonizing potential of highly metastatic B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells in syngeneic mice. These results suggest that the phosphorylation of the wild type p53 protein is inversely related to PKC activation, and also suggest that the phosphorylation of the p53 protein is involved in the function of its transcription factor. The PKC inhibitor may exhibit a potent anti-metastatic effect through the phosphorylation of wild type p53 protein and the activation of its function. PMID:11193387

  20. Ultraviolet B-induced activated protein-1 activation does not require epidermal growth factor receptor but is blocked by a dominant negative PKClambda/iota.

    PubMed

    Huang, C; Ma, W y; Bowden, G T; Dong, Z

    1996-12-01

    The exposure of mammalian cells to UV irradiation leads to the activation of transcription factors such as activated protein-1 (AP-1) and NFkappaB. It is postulated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, but not protein kinase C (PKC), is the major membrane mediator in UV-induced signal transduction. Since UVB is responsible for most of the carcinogenic effects of sun exposure, we investigated the role of EGF receptors and PKC in UVB-induced AP-1 activation. Our results indicated that while the down-regulation of novel PKC (nPKC) and conventional PKC (cPKC) by pretreatment of cells with 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate cannot block UVB-induced AP-1 activity, it can block 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate-induced AP-1 activity. Further, the dominant negative mutant PKClambda/iota blocked UVB-induced AP-1 activity in all doses and time courses studied. In contrast, UVB-induced AP-1 activity from cells devoid of EGF receptor (B82) was not significantly different from that of the stable transfectants with a kinase-deficient EGF receptor (B82M721) or those with a wild-type EGF receptor (B82L) at all UVB irradiation doses and time courses studied. All of this evidence indicated that aPKC, but not EGF receptor, is involved in UVB-induced AP-1 activation. PMID:8940130

  1. Interaction between protein kinase C and protein kinase A can modulate transmitter release at the rat neuromuscular synapse.

    PubMed

    Santafé, M M; Garcia, N; Lanuza, M A; Tomàs, M; Tomàs, J

    2009-02-15

    We used intracellular recording to investigate the functional interaction between protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) signal transduction cascades in the control of transmitter release in the neuromuscular synapses from adult rats. Our results indicate that: 1) PKA and PKC are independently involved in asynchronous release. 2) Evoked acetylcholine (ACh) release is enhanced with the PKA agonist Sp-8-BrcAMP and the PKC agonist phorbol ester (PMA). 3) PKA has a constitutive role in promoting a component of normal evoked transmitter release because, when the kinase is inhibited with H-89, the release diminishes. However, the PKC inhibitor calphostin C (CaC) does not affect ACh release. 4) PKA regulates neurotransmission without PKC involvement because, after PMA or CaC modulation of the PKC activity, coupling to the ACh release of PKA can normally be stimulated with Sp-8-BrcAMP or inhibited with H-89. 5) After PKA inhibition with H-89, PKC stimulation with PMA (or inhibition with CaC) does not lead to any change in evoked ACh release. However, in PKA-stimulated preparations with Sp-8-BrcAMP, PKC becomes tonically active, thus potentiating a component of release that can now be blocked with CaC. In normal conditions, therefore, PKA was able to modulate ACh release independently of PKC activity, whereas PKA stimulation caused the PKC coupling to evoked release. In contrast, PKA inhibition prevent PKC stimulation (with the phorbol ester) and coupling to ACh output. There was therefore some dependence of PKC on PKA activity in the fine control of the neuromuscular synaptic functionalism and ACh release.

  2. Tyrosine Kinase 2-mediated Signal Transduction in T Lymphocytes Is Blocked by Pharmacological Stabilization of Its Pseudokinase Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Tokarski, John S.; Zupa-Fernandez, Adriana; Tredup, Jeffrey A.; Pike, Kristen; Chang, ChiehYing; Xie, Dianlin; Cheng, Lihong; Pedicord, Donna; Muckelbauer, Jodi; Johnson, Stephen R.; Wu, Sophie; Edavettal, Suzanne C.; Hong, Yang; Witmer, Mark R.; Elkin, Lisa L.; Blat, Yuval; Pitts, William J.; Weinstein, David S.; Burke, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of signal transduction downstream of the IL-23 receptor represents an intriguing approach to the treatment of autoimmunity. Using a chemogenomics approach marrying kinome-wide inhibitory profiles of a compound library with the cellular activity against an IL-23-stimulated transcriptional response in T lymphocytes, a class of inhibitors was identified that bind to and stabilize the pseudokinase domain of the Janus kinase tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2), resulting in blockade of receptor-mediated activation of the adjacent catalytic domain. These Tyk2 pseudokinase domain stabilizers were also shown to inhibit Tyk2-dependent signaling through the Type I interferon receptor but not Tyk2-independent signaling and transcriptional cellular assays, including stimulation through the receptors for IL-2 (JAK1- and JAK3-dependent) and thrombopoietin (JAK2-dependent), demonstrating the high functional selectivity of this approach. A crystal structure of the pseudokinase domain liganded with a representative example showed the compound bound to a site analogous to the ATP-binding site in catalytic kinases with features consistent with high ligand selectivity. The results support a model where the pseudokinase domain regulates activation of the catalytic domain by forming receptor-regulated inhibitory interactions. Tyk2 pseudokinase stabilizers, therefore, represent a novel approach to the design of potent and selective agents for the treatment of autoimmunity. PMID:25762719

  3. Identification of an essential signaling cascade for mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by angiotensin II in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Possible requirement of Gq-mediated p21ras activation coupled to a Ca2+/calmodulin-sensitive tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, S; Matsumoto, T; Motley, E D; Utsunomiya, H; Inagami, T

    1996-06-14

    In cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells, angiotensin II (Ang II) induced a rapid increase in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity through the Ang II type 1 receptor, which was insensitive to pertussis toxin but was abolished by the phospholipase C inhibitor, U73122. The Ang II-induced MAPK activation was not affected by the protein kinase C inhibitor, GF109203X, and was only partially impaired by pretreatment with a phorbol ester, whereas both treatments completely prevented MAPK activation by the phorbol ester. Intracellular Ca2+ chelation by TMB-8, but not extracellular Ca2+ chelation or inhibition of Ca2+ influx, abolished Ang II-induced MAPK activation. The calmodulin inhibitor, calmidazolium, and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, completely blocked MAPK activation by Ang II as well as by the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. Ang II caused a rapid increase in the binding of GTP to p21(ras), and this was inhibited by genistein, TMB-8, and calmidazolium but not by pertussis toxin or GF109203X. These data suggest that Ang II-induced MAPK activation through the Ang II type 1 receptor could be mediated by p21(ras)activation through a currently unidentified tyrosine kinase that lies downstream of Gq-coupled Ca2+/calmodulin signals.

  4. Comparative effects of endothelin and phorbol 12-13 dibutyrate in rat aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Auguet, M.; Delaflotte, S.; Chabrier, P.E.; Braquet, P. )

    1989-01-01

    The vasoconstrictive properties of endothelin (ET-1) and the protein kinase C activator, phorbol 12-13 dibutyrate (PDB) were comparatively investigated in isolated rat aorta. ET-1 and PDB induced a slowly developing sustained contraction in endothelium denuded aorta. Maximal contractions induced by ET-1 and PDB were unaffected by diltiazem. Substantial contraction to ET-1 and PDB remained in calcium-free medium. Contractions of ET-1 and PDB in calcium-free medium were unaffected by intracellular calcium depletion induced by phenylephrine. Following the response to ET-1 and PDB in a calcium-free medium, an additional sustained was observed after calcium was added to the bath. The protein kinase C inhibitor, H7 was more potent in inhibiting contractions induced by phenylephrine and KCl than the ones elicited by ET-1 and PDB. The other protein kinase C inhibitors i.e. staurosporine and phloretin inhibited to a similar extent all the agonists tested. These results suggest that protein kinase C may play an important role in mediating the contraction to ET-1 in rat aorta.

  5. FMLP activates Ras and Raf in human neutrophils. Potential role in activation of MAP kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Worthen, G S; Avdi, N; Buhl, A M; Suzuki, N; Johnson, G L

    1994-01-01

    Chemoattractants bind to seven transmembrane-spanning, G-protein-linked receptors on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) and induce a variety of functional responses, including activation of microtubule-associated protein (MAP) kinase. Although the pathways by which MAP kinases are activated in neutrophils are unknown, we hypothesized that activation of the Ras/Raf pathway leading to activation of MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) would be induced by the chemoattractant f-met-leu-phe. Human neutrophils exposed to 10 nM FMLP for 30 s exhibited an MAP kinase kinase activity coeluting with MEK-1. Immunoprecipitation of Raf-1 kinase after stimulation with FMLP revealed an activity that phosphorylated MEK, was detectable at 30 s, and peaked at 2-3 min. Immunoprecipitation of Ras from both intact neutrophils labeled with [32P]orthophosphate and electropermeabilized neutrophils incubated with [32P]GTP was used to determine that FMLP treatment was associated with activation of Ras. Activation of both Ras and Raf was inhibited by treatment of neutrophils with pertussis toxin, indicating predominant linkage to the Gi2 protein. Although phorbol esters activated Raf, activation induced by FMLP appeared independent of protein kinase C, further suggesting that Gi2 was linked to Ras and Raf independent of phospholipase C and protein kinase C. Dibutyryl cAMP, which inhibits many neutrophil functional responses, blocked the activation of Raf by FMLP, suggesting that interruption of the Raf/MAP kinase pathway influences neutrophil responses to chemoattractants. These data suggest that Gi2-mediated receptor regulation of the Ras/Raf/MAP kinase pathway is a primary response to chemoattractants. Images PMID:8040337

  6. MAPKAP Kinase 2 Blocks Tristetraprolin-directed mRNA Decay by Inhibiting CAF1 Deadenylase Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Marchese, Francesco P.; Aubareda, Anna; Tudor, Corina; Saklatvala, Jeremy; Clark, Andrew R.; Dean, Jonathan L. E.

    2010-01-01

    Tristetraprolin (TTP) directs its target AU-rich element (ARE)-containing mRNAs for degradation by promoting removal of the poly(A) tail. The p38 MAPK pathway regulates mRNA stability via the downstream kinase MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAP kinase 2 or MK2), which phosphorylates and prevents the mRNA-destabilizing function of TTP. We show that deadenylation of endogenous ARE-containing tumor necrosis factor mRNA is inhibited by p38 MAPK. To investigate whether phosphorylation of TTP by MK2 regulates TTP-directed deadenylation of ARE-containing mRNAs, we used a cell-free assay that reconstitutes the mechanism in vitro. We find that phosphorylation of Ser-52 and Ser-178 of TTP by MK2 results in inhibition of TTP-directed deadenylation of ARE-containing RNA. The use of 14-3-3 protein antagonists showed that regulation of TTP-directed deadenylation by MK2 is independent of 14-3-3 binding to TTP. To investigate the mechanism whereby TTP promotes deadenylation, it was necessary to identify the deadenylases involved. The carbon catabolite repressor protein (CCR)4·CCR4-associated factor (CAF)1 complex was identified as the major source of deadenylase activity in HeLa cells responsible for TTP-directed deadenylation. CAF1a and CAF1b were found to interact with TTP in an RNA-independent fashion. We find that MK2 phosphorylation reduces the ability of TTP to promote deadenylation by inhibiting the recruitment of CAF1 deadenylase in a mechanism that does not involve sequestration of TTP by 14-3-3. Cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA stability is increased in CAF1-depleted cells in which it is no longer p38 MAPK/MK2-regulated. PMID:20595389

  7. MAPKAP kinase 2 blocks tristetraprolin-directed mRNA decay by inhibiting CAF1 deadenylase recruitment.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Francesco P; Aubareda, Anna; Tudor, Corina; Saklatvala, Jeremy; Clark, Andrew R; Dean, Jonathan L E

    2010-09-01

    Tristetraprolin (TTP) directs its target AU-rich element (ARE)-containing mRNAs for degradation by promoting removal of the poly(A) tail. The p38 MAPK pathway regulates mRNA stability via the downstream kinase MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAP kinase 2 or MK2), which phosphorylates and prevents the mRNA-destabilizing function of TTP. We show that deadenylation of endogenous ARE-containing tumor necrosis factor mRNA is inhibited by p38 MAPK. To investigate whether phosphorylation of TTP by MK2 regulates TTP-directed deadenylation of ARE-containing mRNAs, we used a cell-free assay that reconstitutes the mechanism in vitro. We find that phosphorylation of Ser-52 and Ser-178 of TTP by MK2 results in inhibition of TTP-directed deadenylation of ARE-containing RNA. The use of 14-3-3 protein antagonists showed that regulation of TTP-directed deadenylation by MK2 is independent of 14-3-3 binding to TTP. To investigate the mechanism whereby TTP promotes deadenylation, it was necessary to identify the deadenylases involved. The carbon catabolite repressor protein (CCR)4.CCR4-associated factor (CAF)1 complex was identified as the major source of deadenylase activity in HeLa cells responsible for TTP-directed deadenylation. CAF1a and CAF1b were found to interact with TTP in an RNA-independent fashion. We find that MK2 phosphorylation reduces the ability of TTP to promote deadenylation by inhibiting the recruitment of CAF1 deadenylase in a mechanism that does not involve sequestration of TTP by 14-3-3. Cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA stability is increased in CAF1-depleted cells in which it is no longer p38 MAPK/MK2-regulated. PMID:20595389

  8. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus LANA protein downregulates nuclear glycogen synthase kinase 3 activity and consequently blocks differentiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianyong; Martin, Heather; Shamay, Meir; Woodard, Crystal; Tang, Qi-Qun; Hayward, S Diane

    2007-05-01

    The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) protein interacts with glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and relocalizes GSK-3 in a manner that leads to stabilization of beta-catenin and upregulation of beta-catenin-responsive cell genes. The LANA-GSK-3 interaction was further examined to determine whether there were additional downstream consequences. In the present study, the nuclear GSK-3 bound to LANA in transfected cells and in BCBL1 primary effusion lymphoma cells was found to be enriched for the inactive serine 9-phosphorylated form of GSK-3. The mechanism of inactivation of nuclear GSK-3 involved LANA recruitment of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and the ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1). ERK1/2 and RSK1 coprecipitated with LANA, and LANA was a substrate for ERK1 in vitro. A model is proposed for the overall inactivation of nuclear GSK-3 that incorporates the previously described GSK-3 phosphorylation of LANA itself. Functional inactivation of nuclear GSK-3 was demonstrated by the ability of LANA to limit phosphorylation of the known GSK-3 substrates C/EBPbeta and C/EBPalpha. The effect of LANA-mediated ablation of C/EBP phosphorylation on differentiation was modeled in the well-characterized 3T3L1 adipogenesis system. LANA-expressing 3T3L1 cells were impaired in their ability to undergo differentiation and adipogenesis. C/EBPbeta induction followed the same time course as that seen in vector-transduced cells, but there was delayed and reduced induction of C/EBPbeta transcriptional targets in LANA-expressing cells. We conclude that LANA inactivates nuclear GSK-3 and modifies the function of proteins that are GSK-3 substrates. In the case of C/EBPs, this translates into LANA-mediated inhibition of differentiation. PMID:17314169

  9. Protein KinaseBlocks Immediate-Early Gene Expression in Senescent Cells by Inactivating Serum Response Factor

    PubMed Central

    Wheaton, Keith; Riabowol, Karl

    2004-01-01

    Fibroblasts lose the ability to replicate in response to growth factors and become unable to express growth-associated immediate-early genes, including c-fos and egr-1, as they become senescent. The serum response factor (SRF), a major transcriptional activator of immediate-early gene promoters, loses the ability to bind to the serum response element (SRE) and becomes hyperphosphorylated in senescent cells. We identify protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) as the kinase responsible for inactivation of SRF both in vitro and endogenously in senescent cells. This is due to a higher level of PKCδ activity as cells age, production of the PKCδ catalytic fragment, and its nuclear localization in senescent but not in low-passage-number cells. The phosphorylation of T160 of SRF by PKCδ in vitro and in vivo led to loss of SRF DNA binding activity. Both the PKCδ inhibitor rottlerin and ectopic expression of a dominant negative form of PKCδ independently restored SRE-dependent transcription and immediate-early gene expression in senescent cells. Modulation of PKCδ activity in vivo with rottlerin or bistratene A altered senescent- and young-cell morphology, respectively. These observations support the idea that the coordinate transcriptional inhibition of several growth-associated genes by PKCδ contributes to the senescent phenotype. PMID:15282327

  10. Plasma application for detoxification of Jatropha phorbol esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongmany, S.; Matsuura, H.; Furuta, M.; Okuda, S.; Imamura, K.; Maeda, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma generated by helium gas at high voltage and input power of about 50 W was first applied to detoxification of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters (J. PEs) as well as standard phorbol ester (4β-12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, TPA) in water and methanol. Plasma irradiation on the solution sample was conducted for 15 min. In aqueous solution, only 16% of TPA was degraded and complete degradation of J. PEs was observed. On the contrary, complete degradation of both TPA and J. PEs in methanol was achieved by the same plasma irradiation condition. Hydroxyl radical (•OH) generated by plasma irradiation of the solution is expected as the main radical inducing the degradation of PEs.

  11. Dual inhibition of Janus and Src family kinases by novel indirubin derivative blocks constitutively-activated Stat3 signaling associated with apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sangkil; Wen, Wei; Schroeder, Anne; Herrmann, Andreas; Yu, Hua; Cheng, Xinlai; Merz, Karl-Heinz; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Li, Hongzhi; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Jove, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Constitutively-activated JAK/Stat3 or Src/Stat3 signaling plays a crucial role in tumor cell survival, proliferation, angiogenesis and immune suppression. Activated JAK/Stat3 or Src/Stat3 has been validated as a promising molecular target for cancer therapy. However, prolonged inhibition of Src family kinases (SFKs) leads to reactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcript 3 (Stat3) and tumor cell survival through altered JAK/Stat3 interaction. This compensatory feedback suggests that dual inhibition of Janus kinases (JAKs) and SFKs might be a promising strategy for targeting downstream Stat3 signaling in the clinic. In this study, we identify that the natural product derivative E738 is a novel dual inhibitor of JAKs and SFKs. The IC(50) values of E738 against recombinant JAKs and SFKs in vitro are in the ranges of 0.7-74.1 nM and 10.7-263.9 nM, respectively. We observed that phosphorylation of both Jak2 and Src was substantially inhibited in the submicromolar range by E738 in cultured human pancreatic tumor cells, followed by blockade of downstream Stat3 activation. E738 down-regulated expression of the Stat3 target proteins Mcl-1 and survivin, associated with induction of apoptosis. Computational models and molecular dynamics simulations of E738/Tyk2 or E738/Src in silico suggest that E738 inhibits both tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2) and Src as an ATP-competitive ligand. Moreover, the planar E738 molecule demonstrates a strong binding affinity in the compact ATP-binding site of Tyk2. In sum, E738 is the first dual inhibitor of JAKs and SFKs, followed by inhibition of Stat3 signaling. Thus, according to in vitro experiments, E738 is a promising new therapeutic agent for human pancreatic cancer treatment by blocking both oncogenic pathways simultaneously.

  12. Inhibition of DNA fragmentation in thymocytes and isolated thymocyte nuclei by agents that stimulate protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    McConkey, D J; Hartzell, P; Jondal, M; Orrenius, S

    1989-08-15

    Glucocorticoid hormones and Ca2+ ionophores stimulate a suicide process in immature thymocytes, known as apoptosis or programmed cell death, that involves extensive DNA fragmentation. We have recently shown that a sustained increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration stimulates DNA fragmentation and cell killing in glucocorticoid- or ionophore-treated thymocytes. However, a sustained increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ level also mediates lymphocyte proliferation, suggesting that apoptosis is blocked in proliferating thymocytes. In this study we report that phorbol esters, which selectively stimulate protein kinase C (PKC), blocked DNA fragmentation and cell death in thymocytes exposed to Ca2+ ionophore or glucocorticoid hormone. The T cell mitogen, concanavalin A, which stimulates thymocytes by a mechanism that involves PKC activation, caused concentration-dependent increases in the cytosolic Ca2+ level that did not result in DNA fragmentation, but incubation with concanavalin A and the PKC inhibitor H-7 (1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine) resulted in both DNA fragmentation and cell death. Phorbol ester directly inhibited Ca2+-dependent DNA fragmentation in isolated thymocyte nuclei. Our results strongly suggest that PKC activation blocks thymocyte apoptosis by preventing Ca2+-stimulated endonuclease activation. PMID:2503500

  13. Okadaic acid: An additional non-phorbol-12-tetradecanoate-13-acetate-type tumor promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Suganuma, Masami; Fujiki, Hirota; Suguri, Hiroko; Yoshizawa, Shigeru; Hirota, Mitsuru; Nakayasu, Michie ); Ojika, Makoto; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Yamada, Kiyoyuki ); Sugimura, Takashi )

    1988-03-01

    Okadaic acid is a polyether compound of a C{sub 38} fatty acid, isolated from a black sponge, Halichondria okadai. Previous studies showed that okadaic acid is a skin irritant and induces ornithine decarboxylase in mouse skin 4 hr after its application to the skin. This induction was strongly inhibited by pretreatment of the skin with 13-cis-retinoic acid. A two-stage carcinogenesis experiment in mouse skin initiated by a single application of 100 {mu}g of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and followed by application of 10 {mu}g of okadaic acid twice a week revealed that okadaic acid is a potent additional tumor promoter: tumors developed in 93% of the mice treated with DMBA and okadaic acid by week 16. In contrast, tumors were found in only one mouse each in the groups treated with DMBA alone or okadaic acid alone. An average of 2.6 tumors per mouse was found in week 30 in the group treated with DMBA and okadaic acid. Unlike phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate (TPA), teleocidin, and aplysiatoxin, okadaic acid did not inhibit the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)TPA to a mouse skin particulate fraction when added up to 100 {mu}M or activate calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) in vitro when added up to 1.2 {mu}M. Therefore, the actions of okadaic acid and phorbol ester may be mediated in different ways. These results show that okadaic acid is a non-TPA-type tumor promoter in mouse skin carcinogenesis.

  14. Combined Inhibition of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (Dinaciclib) and AKT (MK-2206) Blocks Pancreatic Tumor Growth and Metastases in Patient-Derived Xenograft Models.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chaoxin; Dadon, Tikva; Chenna, Venugopal; Yabuuchi, Shinichi; Bannerji, Rajat; Booher, Robert; Strack, Peter; Azad, Nilofer; Nelkin, Barry D; Maitra, Anirban

    2015-07-01

    KRAS is activated by mutation in the vast majority of cases of pancreatic cancer; unfortunately, therapeutic attempts to inhibit KRAS directly have been unsuccessful. Our previous studies showed that inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) reduces pancreatic cancer growth and progression, through blockage of the centrally important RAL effector pathway, downstream of KRAS. In the current study, the therapeutic effects of combining the CDK inhibitor dinaciclib (SCH727965; MK-7965) with the pan-AKT inhibitor MK-2206 were evaluated using orthotopic and subcutaneous patient-derived human pancreatic cancer xenograft models. The combination of dinaciclib (20 mg/kg, i.p., three times a week) and MK-2206 (60 mg/kg, orally, three times a week) dramatically blocked tumor growth and metastasis in all eight pancreatic cancer models examined. Remarkably, several complete responses were induced by the combination treatment of dinaciclib and MK-2206. The striking results obtained in these models demonstrate that the combination of dinaciclib with the pan-AKT inhibitor MK-2206 is promising for therapeutic evaluation in pancreatic cancer, and strongly suggest that blocking RAL in combination with other effector pathways downstream from KRAS may provide increased efficacy in pancreatic cancer. Based on these data, an NCI-CTEP-approved multicenter phase I clinical trial for pancreatic cancer of the combination of dinaciclib and MK-2206 (NCT01783171) has now been opened. PMID:25931518

  15. Cyclic AMP Analog Blocks Kinase Activation by Stabilizing Inactive Conformation: Conformational Selection Highlights a New Concept in Allosteric Inhibitor Design*

    PubMed Central

    Badireddy, Suguna; Yunfeng, Gao; Ritchie, Mark; Akamine, Pearl; Wu, Jian; Kim, Choel W.; Taylor, Susan S.; Qingsong, Lin; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Anand, Ganesh S.

    2011-01-01

    The regulatory (R) subunit of protein kinase A serves to modulate the activity of protein kinase A in a cAMP-dependent manner and exists in two distinct and structurally dissimilar, end point cAMP-bound “B” and C-subunit-bound “H”-conformations. Here we report mechanistic details of cAMP action as yet unknown through a unique approach combining x-ray crystallography with structural proteomics approaches, amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange and ion mobility mass spectrometry, applied to the study of a stereospecific cAMP phosphorothioate analog and antagonist((Rp)-cAMPS). X-ray crystallography shows cAMP-bound R-subunit in the B form but surprisingly the antagonist Rp-cAMPS-bound R-subunit crystallized in the H conformation, which was previously assumed to be induced only by C-subunit-binding. Apo R-subunit crystallized in the B form as well but amide exchange mass spectrometry showed large differences between apo, agonist and antagonist-bound states of the R-subunit. Further ion mobility reveals the apo R-subunit as an ensemble of multiple conformations with collisional cross-sectional areas spanning both the agonist and antagonist-bound states. Thus contrary to earlier studies that explained the basis for cAMP action through “induced fit” alone, we report evidence for conformational selection, where the ligand-free apo form of the R-subunit exists as an ensemble of both B and H conformations. Although cAMP preferentially binds the B conformation, Rp-cAMPS interestingly binds the H conformation. This reveals the unique importance of the equatorial oxygen of the cyclic phosphate in mediating conformational transitions from H to B forms highlighting a novel approach for rational structure-based drug design. Ideal inhibitors such as Rp-cAMPS are those that preferentially “select” inactive conformations of target proteins by satisfying all “binding” constraints alone without inducing conformational changes necessary for activation. PMID:21081668

  16. GM-CSF and phorbol esters modulate GM-CSF receptor expression by independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Brizzi, M F; Arduino, C; Avanzi, G C; Bussolino, F; Pegoraro, L

    1991-07-01

    Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (0.1 nM) down-modulates its receptor in IL-3/GM-CSF dependent M-07e cells, in KG-1 cells and normal granulocytes, whereas phorbol esters 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (2 nM) down-modulates the GM-CSF receptor in M-07e cells and granulocytes but not in KG-1 cells. As data analysis shows by nonlinear regression, the decreased binding ability depends on a reduction of the binding sites with no significant change of their dissociation constant. To gain insight into the mechanisms involved in the GM-CSF receptor regulation, we investigated the role of protein kinase C (PKC). GM-CSF, unlike TPA, was unable to activate PKC in all the cells studied. Moreover, unlike TPA, GM-CSF was still able to down-modulate its receptor in cells where PKC was inhibited by 1-(5-isoquinolonesulphonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7) and staurosporine or in cells where PKC was exhausted by prolonged incubation with 1 microM TPA. Finally, the receptor re-expression rate was accelerated by protein kinases inhibitors. These results, taken together, indicate the presence of a PKC-dependent and -independent down-modulation mechanism and a negative role of the endogeneous protein kinases in GM-CSF receptor re-expression.

  17. Increased phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) receptor function associated with sickle red cell membrane ghosts

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, M.; Nair, C.N.; Abraham, E.C.

    1987-05-01

    The biological receptor for tumor-promoting phorbol esters has been identified as the CaS /phospholipid dependent enzyme, protein kinase C. In the red cell, this enzyme is mainly cytosolic but becomes translocated to the membrane if the cellular CaS is allowed to rise. Since cellular CaS in sickle red cells is high, it was reasoned that this enzyme may become more membrane-bound. In fact, the authors noticed a four-fold increase in the binding of TH-PDBu by membrane ghosts isolated from sickle red cells compared to normal red cells (pmoles PDBu bound/mg protein; normal = 0.3 vs sickle cell = 1.4). Attempts to assay the enzyme directly as phospholipid-activated TSP incorporation into the acid-precipitable membrane proteins also indicated a two-fold increase in the radiolabelling of sickle cell membrane ghosts. Autophosphorylation of membrane proteins and analysis of the phosphorylation profile by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography revealed phosphorylation predominantly of bands 3, 4.1 and 4.9 which are known protein kinase C substrates for the red cell enzyme. The increased membrane-associated protein kinase C in sickle red cells may have a bearing on the altered membrane properties reported in this condition.

  18. SD-208, a Novel Protein Kinase D Inhibitor, Blocks Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation and Tumor Growth In Vivo by Inducing G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Manuj; Salamoun, Joseph M.; Carder, Evan J.; Farber, Elisa; Xu, Shuping; Deng, Fan; Tang, Hua; Wipf, Peter; Wang, Q. Jane

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase D (PKD) has been implicated in many aspects of tumorigenesis and progression, and is an emerging molecular target for the development of anticancer therapy. Despite recent advancement in the development of potent and selective PKD small molecule inhibitors, the availability of in vivo active PKD inhibitors remains sparse. In this study, we describe the discovery of a novel PKD small molecule inhibitor, SD-208, from a targeted kinase inhibitor library screen, and the synthesis of a series of analogs to probe the structure-activity relationship (SAR) vs. PKD1. SD-208 displayed a narrow SAR profile, was an ATP-competitive pan-PKD inhibitor with low nanomolar potency and was cell active. Targeted inhibition of PKD by SD-208 resulted in potent inhibition of cell proliferation, an effect that could be reversed by overexpressed PKD1 or PKD3. SD-208 also blocked prostate cancer cell survival and invasion, and arrested cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Mechanistically, SD-208-induced G2/M arrest was accompanied by an increase in levels of p21 in DU145 and PC3 cells as well as elevated phosphorylation of Cdc2 and Cdc25C in DU145 cells. Most importantly, SD-208 given orally for 24 days significantly abrogated the growth of PC3 subcutaneous tumor xenografts in nude mice, which was accompanied by reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis and decreased expression of PKD biomarkers including survivin and Bcl-xL. Our study has identified SD-208 as a novel efficacious PKD small molecule inhibitor, demonstrating the therapeutic potential of targeted inhibition of PKD for prostate cancer treatment. PMID:25747583

  19. SD-208, a novel protein kinase D inhibitor, blocks prostate cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Manuj; Salamoun, Joseph M; Carder, Evan J; Farber, Elisa; Xu, Shuping; Deng, Fan; Tang, Hua; Wipf, Peter; Wang, Q Jane

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase D (PKD) has been implicated in many aspects of tumorigenesis and progression, and is an emerging molecular target for the development of anticancer therapy. Despite recent advancement in the development of potent and selective PKD small molecule inhibitors, the availability of in vivo active PKD inhibitors remains sparse. In this study, we describe the discovery of a novel PKD small molecule inhibitor, SD-208, from a targeted kinase inhibitor library screen, and the synthesis of a series of analogs to probe the structure-activity relationship (SAR) vs. PKD1. SD-208 displayed a narrow SAR profile, was an ATP-competitive pan-PKD inhibitor with low nanomolar potency and was cell active. Targeted inhibition of PKD by SD-208 resulted in potent inhibition of cell proliferation, an effect that could be reversed by overexpressed PKD1 or PKD3. SD-208 also blocked prostate cancer cell survival and invasion, and arrested cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Mechanistically, SD-208-induced G2/M arrest was accompanied by an increase in levels of p21 in DU145 and PC3 cells as well as elevated phosphorylation of Cdc2 and Cdc25C in DU145 cells. Most importantly, SD-208 given orally for 24 days significantly abrogated the growth of PC3 subcutaneous tumor xenografts in nude mice, which was accompanied by reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis and decreased expression of PKD biomarkers including survivin and Bcl-xL. Our study has identified SD-208 as a novel efficacious PKD small molecule inhibitor, demonstrating the therapeutic potential of targeted inhibition of PKD for prostate cancer treatment. PMID:25747583

  20. Regulation of epidermal-growth-factor-receptor signal transduction by cis-unsaturated fatty acids. Evidence for a protein kinase C-independent mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Casabiell, X; Pandiella, A; Casanueva, F F

    1991-01-01

    The effect of acute treatment with non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) on transmembrane signalling has been investigated in three different cell lines. In EGFR T17 cells, pretreatment with cis-unsaturated (oleic and palmitoleic acids) NEFA, but not with saturated or trans-unsaturated NEFA, inhibited the epidermal-growth-factor (EGF)-induced increases in cytosolic [Ca2+], membrane potential and Ins(1,4,5)P3 generation. The blocking effect was found to be time- and dose-dependent and rapidly reversible after washout. However, oleic acid treatment did not block either binding of 125I-EGF to its receptor or EGF-induced autophosphorylation of the EGF receptor. The mechanism of action of NEFA could not be attributed to protein kinase C activation, since (i) down-regulation of the enzyme by long-term treatment with phorbol esters did not prevent blockade by oleic acid, and (ii) the effects of acutely administered phorbol ester and oleic acid were additive. In this cell line, signalling at bradykinin and bombesin receptors was also impaired by oleic acid. In A431 cells, oleic acid also blocked signal transduction at the EGF and B2 bradykinin receptors. Finally, in PC12 cells, oleic acid blocked the Ca2+ influx mediated by the activation of B2 bradykinin receptors. In conclusion: (1) NEFA block signal transduction by interfering with receptor-phospholipase C or phospholipase C-substrate interaction without preventing ligand binding; (2) NEFA do not act by a protein kinase C-mediated mechanism; (3) the effect of NEFA is dependent on their configuration rather than hydrophobicity or chain length; (4) this effect is evident in several different cell lines and receptor systems. Images Fig. 4. PMID:1898356

  1. Effect of phorbol ester on the release of atrial natriuretic peptide from the hypertrophied rat myocardium.

    PubMed Central

    Kinnunen, P.; Taskinen, T.; Järvinen, M.; Ruskoaho, H.

    1991-01-01

    1. To determine the cellular mechanisms of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release from ventricular cardiomyocytes, the secretory and the cardiac effects of a phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), known to stimulate protein kinase C activity in heart cells, were studied in isolated, perfused heart preparations from 2- and 21-month-old Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. TPA was added to the perfusion fluid for 30 min at a concentration of 46 nM after removal of atrial tissue. Additionally, atrial and ventricular levels of immunoreactive ANP (IR-ANP) and ANP mRNA, the distribution of ANP within ventricles as well as the relative contribution of atria and ventricles in the release of ANP were studied. 2. Ventricular hypertrophy that gradually developed in hypertensive rats resulted in remarkable augmentation of ANP gene expression, as reflected by elevated levels of immunoreactive ANP and ANP mRNA. The total amount of IR-ANP in the ventricles of the SHR rats increased 41 fold and ANP mRNA levels 12.9 fold from the age of 2 to 21 months. At the age of 21 months, levels of IR-ANP and ANP mRNA in the ventricles of SHR rats were 5.4 fold and 3.7 fold higher, respectively, than in the normotensive WKY rats. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated ANP granules within the hypertrophic ventricles of the old SHR rats, but not within normal ventricular tissue. 3. In isolated perfused heart preparations, the severely hypertrophied ventricular tissue of SHR rats after atrialectomy secreted more ANP into the perfusate than did the control hearts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 2 PMID:1826618

  2. Protection against apoptosis in chicken bursa and thymus cells by phorbol ester in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Asakawa, J.; Thorbecke, G.J. )

    1991-03-15

    Programmed suicide or apoptosis, due to activation of endogenous nucleases, occurs in immature CD4{sup {minus}}85{sup {minus}} mammalian thymus cells. Like the thymus, the bursa of Fabricius is a site of massive lymphopoiesis accompanied by cell death in vivo. In the present study the authors have, therefore, examined whether chicken bursa and thymus cells exhibit apoptosis. Bursa and thymus cells from SC chickens, 4-10 weeks of age, were incubated for 8-24 hrs with various reagents. Genomic DNA was isolated, electrophoresed in 3% Nusieve agarose gels, and examined for patterns of DNA fragmentation. A laddering of DNA in multiples of 200 base pairs, indicative of apoptosis, was observed with both bursa and thymus cells. These patterns of DNA fragmentation from bursa cells could be prevented by adding phorbol myristic acetate during culture and, more effectively, by PMA plus ionomycin, but not by ionomycin alone or by anti-{mu}. PMA did not affect the patterns of DNA fragmentation seen with spleen cells. Addition of the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporin inhibited the preventive effect of PMA on apoptosis. PMA also greatly promoted the survival of bursa cells in culture, as assayed by percentage cell death and by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation. It is concluded that bursa and thymus cells from the chicken exhibit apoptosis. The data further suggest that protein kinase C activation protects apoptosis in cultured bursa cells.

  3. Potentiation of phorbol ester-induced coronary vasoconstriction in dogs following endothelium disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.B.; Ku, D.D.

    1986-03-05

    In the present study, the effect of phorbol ester, 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), activation of protein kinase C on coronary vascular reactivity was studied in isolated dog coronary arteries. Addition of TPA (10-100 nM) produced a slow, time- and dose-dependent contraction reaching a maximum at approx 2-3 hrs and was essentially irreversible upon washing. Disruption of the endothelium(EC) greatly accelerated the development as well as increase the magnitude of TPA contraction (50-100%). Prior treatment of vessels with phentolamine (1..mu..M), cyproheptadine (1..mu..H) and ibuprofen (1..mu..g/ml) did not alter the TPA contraction. Furthermore, in contrast to previously reported calcium-dependence of TPA contraction in other vessels, complete removal of extracellular calcium (Ca/sub 0/) or addition of 1..mu..M nimodipine after TPA(30nM) resulted in only 32 +/- 4% and 25 +/- 3% reversal of TPA contraction, respectively. Addition of amiloride (10..mu..M to 1mM), however, resulted in a dose-dependent reversal of TPA contraction. The results of the present study indicate that a similar activation of protein kinase C by TPA leads to potent coronary vasoconstriction, which is not completely dependent on Ca/sub 0/. More importantly, these results further support their hypothesis that EC also functions as an inhibitory barrier to prevent circulating vasoconstrictors from exerting their deleterious constrictory effects.

  4. Inhibition of insulin receptor binding by phorbol esters.

    PubMed

    Thomopoulos, P; Testa, U; Gourdin, M F; Hervy, C; Titeux, M; Vainchenker, W

    1982-12-15

    Phorbol esters inhibit the binding of insulin to its receptors on U-937 monocyte-like and HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia human cell lines. Within 20-30 min, exposure of these cells to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) at 37 degrees C results in a 50% reduction of the specific binding of 125I-insulin. Half-maximal inhibition occurs at 1 nM TPA. Other tumor-promoting phorbol esters also inhibit 125I-insulin binding in a dose-dependent manner which parallels their known promoting activity in vivo. TPA does not alter the degradation of the hormone nor does it induce any shedding of its receptors in the medium. The effect of phorbol esters is dependent on temperature and cell type. It is less prominent at 22 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. It is reversible within 2 h at 37 degrees C. TPA reduces the binding of insulin predominantly by increasing its dissociation rate. This effect results in an accelerated turnover of the hormone on its receptors. PMID:6891320

  5. Inhibition of protein kinase C by calphostin C is light-dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Bruns, R.F.; Miller, F.D.; Merriman, R.L.; Howbert, J.J.; Heath, W.F.; Kobayashi, E.; Takahashi, I.; Tamaoki, T.; Nakano, H. )

    1991-04-15

    Calphostin C, a secondary metabolite of the fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides, inhibits protein kinase C by competing at the binding site for diacylglycerol and phorbol esters. Calphostin C is a polycyclic hydrocarbon with strong absorbance in the visible and ultraviolet ranges. In characterizing the activity of this compound, we unexpectedly found that the inhibition of ({sup 3}H)phorbol dibutyrate binding was dependent on exposure to light. Ordinary fluorescent light was sufficient for full activation. The inhibition of protein kinase C activity in cell-free systems and intact cells also required light. Light-dependent cytotoxicity was seen at concentrations about 5-fold higher than those inhibiting protein kinase C.

  6. Biological responsiveness to the phorbol esters and specific binding of (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a manipulable genetic system

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, K.K.; Chritton, S.; Blumberg, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    Because of its suitability for genetic studies, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was examined for its responsiveness to the phorbol esters. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate had three effects. It inhibited the increase in animal size during growth; it decreased the yield of progeny; and it caused uncoordinated movement of the adult. The effects on nematode size, progeny yield, and movement were quantitated. Concentrations of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate yielding half-maximal responses were 440, 460, and 170 nM, respectively. As was expected from the biological responsiveness of the nematodes, specific, saturable binding of phorbol ester to nematode extracts was found. (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate bound with a dissociation constant of 26.8 +/- 3.9 nM. At saturation, 5.7 +/- 1.4 pmole/mg protein was bound.

  7. The cysteine-rich region of raf-1 kinase contains zinc, translocates to liposomes, and is adjacent to a segment that binds GTP-ras.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Xie, W Q; Quest, A F; Mabrouk, G M; Strum, J C; Bell, R M

    1994-04-01

    Different domains of the serine/threonine kinase, raf-1, were expressed as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli and purified to near homogeneity by affinity chromatography. A cysteine-rich domain of raf-1 was found to contain 2 mol of zinc (molar basis), similar to analogous cysteine-rich domains of protein kinase C. GST-fusion proteins, containing the cysteine-rich domain of raf-1, bound to liposomes in a phosphatidylserine-dependent manner. In contrast to protein kinase C, the translocation of raf-1 was not dependent upon diacylglycerol, phorbol ester, or calcium, nor did raf-1 bind phorbol esters. A GST-fusion protein encoding residues 1-147 of raf-1 bound to normal GTP-ras with high affinity, but not to mutant GTP-Ala35 ras; no binding was detected to GDP-ras. The binding of a smaller fusion protein (residues 1-130 of raf-1) was about 10-fold weaker, inferring that a 17-amino acid sequence represents a critical binding determinant in intact raf-1. These residues are adjacent to the amino-terminal end of, and partially extend into, the cysteine-rich domain (amino acids 139-184). A synthetic peptide corresponding to this 17-amino acid sequence blocked the interaction of raf-1 with ras. The function of the cysteine-rich region of raf-1 homologous to protein kinase C is to promote translocation of raf-1 kinase to membranes and to form part of the high affinity binding site for GTP-ras.

  8. Effects of protein kinase C activators on germinal vesicle breakdown and polar body emission of mouse oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bornslaeger, E.A.; Poueymirou, W.T.; Mattei, P.; Schultz, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation mediated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase is instrumental in maintaining meiotic arrest of mouse oocytes. To assess whether protein phosphorylation mediated by calcium/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) might also inhibit the resumption of meiosis, oocytes were treated with activators of this enzyme. The active phorbol esters 12-O-tetra-decanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and 4..beta..-phorbol, 12,13-didecanoate (4..beta..-PDD) inhibited germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), as did a more natural activator of protein kinase, C, sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol (diC/sub 8/). An inactive phorbol ester, 4a-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4..cap alpha..-PDD), did not inhibit GVBD. TPA did not inhibit the maturation-associated decrease in oocyte cAMP. Microinjected heat-stable protein inhibitor of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase failed to induce GVBD in the presence of TPA. Both TPA and diC/sub 8/ partially inhibited specific changes in oocyte phosphoprotein metabolism that are tightly correlated with resumption of meiosis; these agents also induced the apparent phosphorylation of specific oocyte proteins. These results suggest that protein kinase C activators may inhibit resumption of meiosis by acting distal to a decrease in cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity, but prior to changes in oocyte phosphoprotein metabolism that are presumably required for resumption of meiosis.

  9. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase Kinase α Is Expressed by Monocytic Cells and Regulates the Activation Profile

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Christopher B.; Deszo, Eric L.; Hartman, Matthew E.; York, Jason M.; Kelley, Keith W.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages are capable of assuming numerous phenotypes in order to adapt to endogenous and exogenous challenges but many of the factors that regulate this process are still unknown. We report that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase α (CaMKKα) is expressed in human monocytic cells and demonstrate that its inhibition blocks type-II monocytic cell activation and promotes classical activation. Affinity chromatography with paramagnetic beads isolated an approximately 50 kDa protein from nuclear lysates of U937 human monocytic cells activated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). This protein was identified as CaMKKα by mass spectrometry and Western analysis. The function of CaMKKα in monocyte activation was examined using the CaMKKα inhibitors (STO-609 and forskolin) and siRNA knockdown. Inhibition of CaMKKα, enhanced PMA-dependent CD86 expression and reduced CD11b expression. In addition, inhibition was associated with decreased translocation of CaMKKα to the nucleus. Finally, to further examine monocyte activation profiles, TNFα and IL-10 secretion were studied. CaMKKα inhibition attenuated PMA-dependent IL-10 production and enhanced TNFα production indicating a shift from type-II to classical monocyte activation. Taken together, these findings indicate an important new role for CaMKKα in the differentiation of monocytic cells. PMID:18270593

  10. Ras-dependent and -independent pathways target the mitogen-activated protein kinase network in macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Büscher, D; Hipskind, R A; Krautwald, S; Reimann, T; Baccarini, M

    1995-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are activated upon a variety of extracellular stimuli in different cells. In macrophages, colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) stimulates proliferation, while bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibits cell growth and causes differentiation and activation. Both CSF-1 and LPS rapidly activate the MAPK network and induce the phosphorylation of two distinct ternary complex factors (TCFs), TCF/Elk and TCF/SAP. CSF-1, but not LPS, stimulated the formation of p21ras. GTP complexes. Expression of a dominant negative ras mutant reduced, but did not abolish, CSF-1-mediated stimulation of MEK and MAPK. In contrast, activation of the MEK kinase Raf-1 was Ras independent. Treatment with the phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C inhibitor D609 suppressed LPS-mediated, but not CSF-1-mediated, activation of Raf-1, MEK, and MAPK. Similarly, down-regulation or inhibition of protein kinase C blocked MEK and MAPK induction by LPS but not that by CSF-1. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate pretreatment led to the sustained activation of the Raf-1 kinase but not that of MEK and MAPK. Thus, activated Raf-1 alone does not support MEK/MAPK activation in macrophages. Phosphorylation of TCF/Elk but not that of TCF/SAP was blocked by all treatments that interfered with MAPK activation, implying that TCF/SAP was targeted by a MAPK-independent pathway. Therefore, CSF-1 and LPS target the MAPK network by two alternative pathways, both of which induce Raf-1 activation. The mitogenic pathway depends on Ras activity, while the differentiation signal relies on protein kinase C and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C activation. PMID:7799956

  11. Phorbol esters and A23187 regulate Na/sup +/=K/sup +/-pump activity in pancreatic acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, S.R.; Brown, M.E.; Williams, J.A.

    1987-04-01

    To clarify the subcellular mechanisms that mediate stimulation of Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-pump activity in pancreatic acinar cells by cholinergic agonists, the authors examined the effects of the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and the Ca/sup 2 +/ ionophore A23187 on (/sup 3/H)ouabain binding to dispersed guinea pig pancreatic acinar cells under conditions in which binding reflects the average rate of pump cycling. The phorbol ester more than doubled Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-pump activity as did the diacylglycerol analogue, 1-oleoyl-2-acetolyl-sn-3-glycerol. A23187 increased pump activity by a maximum of 31% at 0.3 ..mu..M but was progressively inhibitory at higher concentrations. The stimulatory effects of TPA and A23187 were additive, although either secretagogue elicited a less than additive response when added together with a maximally effective concentration of the cholinergic agonist, carbachol. Removal of extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ had little effect on the pump response to TPA and did not reduce the maximal effect of A23187 but abolished the inhibitory effect seen at high ionophore concentrations in Ca/sup 2 +/-containing medium. These results indicate that both Ca/sup 2 +/ and protein kinase c are involved in regulating Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-pump activity in the pancreatic acinar cell.

  12. Phorbol myristate acetate inhibits anti-IgM-mediated signaling in resting B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mizuguchi, J; Beaven, M A; Li, J H; Paul, W E

    1986-01-01

    Cross-linking the membrane immunoglobulins of resting B cells leads to activation as judged by increased inositol phospholipid metabolism, intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), and cell volume. Such activated B cells enter S phase in the presence of B-cell stimulatory factor 1. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) is a potent inhibitor of anti-IgM- and anti-IgD-stimulated B-cell responses. In B cells concentrations of PMA ranging from 0.1 to 100 ng/ml completely inhibit anti-IgM-stimulated DNA synthesis and block anti-IgM-stimulated increases in inositol phospholipid metabolism and in [Ca2+]i. Preincubation periods as short as 4 min block these effects although longer preincubations are somewhat more effective in inhibiting increases in [Ca2+]i. Preincubation with PMA for 1.5 hr does not diminish expression of membrane IgM. This strongly suggests that PMA inhibits responses of resting B cells to anti-IgM by interrupting signal transmission rather than by diminishing cross-linking of membrane immunoglobulin on B cells. In contrast to resting B cells, B cells activated in vitro for 29 hr show enhanced responses to anti-IgM in the presence of PMA. PMID:3086884

  13. A Comparison Between Phorbol 12 Myristate 13 Acetate and Phorbol 12, 13 Dibutyrate in Human Melanocyte Culture

    PubMed Central

    Padma, Divya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Melanocyte culture is an integral part of the studies of skin biology and cosmetic applications. After the introduction of selective medium for the culture of human melanocyte using Phorbol 12-myristate13-acetate (PMA) in 1982, a lot of methods of culturing were tried but till date PMA is a preferred mitogen because of its cost effectiveness compared to growth factors. We have tried to preliminarily evaluate the efficacy of another phorbol ester, Phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu) in melanocyte culture because of its less hydrophobic nature compared to PMA. This property minimizes the trace amount of mitogen in cell culture after washing off and hence does not interfere in other biological assays. Aim To evaluate the differences in the melanocyte survival rate, morphology and mitotic index when grown in media supplemented with PMA and PDBu. Materials and Methods Foreskins were collected from children undergoing circumcision. Epidermal cells were isolated from foreskin and cultured using PMA and PDBu. Melanocytes in culture were monitored for the better establishment and documented. In proliferative assay, melanocytes were treated with PMA and PDBu for 24, 48 and 72 hours and proliferation was measured using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay method. Results When cultured, melanocytes acquired proliferative status and bipolar morphology quicker in PDBu medium than in PMA medium. Keratinocytes survived as contamination in PMA medium whereas PDBu medium had minimal keratinocytes. MTT assay showed that PDBu has higher proliferative induction capacity than PMA. In even lower concentration of PDBu in medium, melanocytes survived till 72 hours without significant cell loss in compared to PMA medium. Conclusion PDBu can be a valuable replacement for PMA in human melanocyte culture. Higher proliferation induction, unfavourable to keratinocyte survival and less hydrophobicity make PDBu a promising alternative for quicker

  14. Regulation of chloride secretion in dog tracheal epithelium by protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Barthelson, R.A.; Jacoby, D.B.; Widdicombe, J.H. )

    1987-12-01

    The effects of stimulating protein kinase C on Cl{sup {minus}} secretion across dog tracheal epithelium were investigated. The phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), and the synthetic diacylglycerol, 1-oleolyl-2-acetylglycerol (OAG), which stimulate protein kinase C (PKC), both stimulated short-circuit current (I{sub sc}) with K{sub d} of 10 nM and 1 {mu}M, respectively. In Cl{sup {minus}}-free solution, the increases in I{sub sc} were virtually abolished, suggesting that these compounds stimulate Cl{sup {minus}} secretion, a hypothesis confirmed for TPA by measurement of {sup 36}Cl{sup {minus}} fluxes. The stimulations of Cl{sup {minus}} secretion were not sensitive to indomethacin, nor were cAMP levels elevated during stimulation. In addition to its transient stimulatory effect, TPA at high doses caused the eventual lowering of the base-line I{sub sc} and a block of subsequent stimulation by cAMP-mediated agonists. This was probably not the result of toxicity or an effect on adenylate cyclase or on cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Cell extracts from both cultured and native dog tracheal epithelial cells showed strong PKC activities. These results suggest that PKC may play a role in regulating Cl{sup {minus}} secretion across dog tracheal epithelium.

  15. Neutrophil beta-adrenergic receptor responses are potentiated by acute exposure to phorbol ester without changes in receptor distribution or coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Kilfeather, S.A.; Stein, M.; O'Malley, K. )

    1991-01-01

    Exposure to the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate for 10 minutes enhanced cyclic AMP accumulation in human neutrophils under basal conditions and in response to the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (ISO, 1{mu}M) and the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (FSK, 10mM). Potentiation of responses to ISO by PMA was dose-dependent between 0.1 and 100nM PMA. The diacylglycerol analogue, 1-oleoyl-2-actylgylcerol (OAG) (50 {mu}M) also elevated beta-receptor responses, but 4beta-phorbol (100nM), lacking the capacity to activate PMA, was ineffective. Short-term exposure to the peptide n-formylmethionine leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP, 1 {mu}M) also elevated neutrophil cyclic AMP accumulation. All potentiating effects of PMA on cyclic AMP production were inhibited by the protein kinase inhibitor 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulphonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H{sub 7}). PMA had no apparent effect on beta-receptor agonist-affinity, distribution between cell-surface and internalized compartments, or the capacity of ISO to induce beta-receptor internalization. Responses to FSK or ISO in terms of fold-stimulation of basal cyclic AMP accumulation int he presence of PMA were not elevated by PMA.

  16. Antiallergic Phorbol Ester from the Seeds of Aquilaria malaccensis.

    PubMed

    Korinek, Michal; Wagh, Vitthal D; Lo, I-Wen; Hsu, Yu-Ming; Hsu, Hsue-Yin; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Wu, Yang-Chang; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Chen, Bing-Hung; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2016-01-01

    The Aquilaria malaccensis (Thymelaeaceae) tree is a source of precious fragrant resin, called agarwood, which is widely used in traditional medicines in East Asia against diseases such as asthma. In our continuous search for active natural products, A. malaccensis seeds ethanolic extract demonstrated antiallergic effect with an IC50 value less than 1 µg/mL. Therefore, the present research aimed to purify and identify the antiallergic principle of A. malaccensis through a bioactivity-guided fractionation approach. We found that phorbol ester-rich fraction was responsible for the antiallergic activity of A. malaccensis seeds. One new active phorbol ester, 12-O-(2Z,4E,6E)-tetradeca-2,4,6-trienoylphorbol-13-acetate, aquimavitalin (1) was isolated. The structure of 1 was assigned by means of 1D and 2D NMR data and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). Aquimavitalin (1) showed strong inhibitory activity in A23187- and antigen-induced degranulation assay with IC50 values of 1.7 and 11 nM, respectively, with a therapeutic index up to 71,000. The antiallergic activities of A. malaccensis seeds and aquimavitalin (1) have never been revealed before. The results indicated that A. malaccensis seeds and the pure compound have the potential for use in the treatment of allergy. PMID:27007372

  17. Activities of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters in various bioassays.

    PubMed

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Rajesh, Sanjay K; Kumar, Vikas; Makkar, Harinder P S; Becker, Klaus

    2012-04-01

    Jatropha curcas seeds contain 30-35% oil, which can be converted to high quality biodiesel. However, Jatropha oil is toxic, ascribed to the presence of phorbol esters (PEs). In this study, isolated phorbol ester rich fraction (PEEF) was used to evaluate the activity of PEs using three aquatic species based bioassays (snail (Physa fontinalis), brine shrimp (Artemeia salina), daphnia (Daphnia magna)) and microorganisms. In all the bioassays tested, increase in concentration of PEs increased mortality with an EC(50) (48 h) of 0.33, 26.48 and 0.95 mg L(-1) PEs for snail, artemia and daphnia, respectively. The sensitivity of various microorganisms for PEs was also tested. Among the bacterial species tested, Streptococcus pyogenes and Proteus mirabilis were highly susceptible with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 215 mg L(-1) PEs; and Pseudomonas putida were also sensitive with MIC of 251 mg L(-1) PEs. Similarly, Fusarium species of fungi exhibited EC(50) of 58 mg L(-1) PEs, while Aspergillus niger and Curvularia lunata had EC(50) of 70 mg L(-1). The snail bioassay was most sensitive with 100% snail mortality at 1 μg of PEs mL(-1). In conclusion, snail bioassay could be used to monitor PEs in Jatropha derived products such as oil, biodiesel, fatty acid distillate, kernel meal, cake, glycerol or for contamination in soil or other environmental matrices. In addition, PEs with molluscicidal/antimicrobial activities could be utilized for agricultural and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:22172520

  18. Antiallergic Phorbol Ester from the Seeds of Aquilaria malaccensis

    PubMed Central

    Korinek, Michal; Wagh, Vitthal D.; Lo, I-Wen; Hsu, Yu-Ming; Hsu, Hsue-Yin; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Wu, Yang-Chang; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Chen, Bing-Hung; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2016-01-01

    The Aquilaria malaccensis (Thymelaeaceae) tree is a source of precious fragrant resin, called agarwood, which is widely used in traditional medicines in East Asia against diseases such as asthma. In our continuous search for active natural products, A. malaccensis seeds ethanolic extract demonstrated antiallergic effect with an IC50 value less than 1 µg/mL. Therefore, the present research aimed to purify and identify the antiallergic principle of A. malaccensis through a bioactivity-guided fractionation approach. We found that phorbol ester-rich fraction was responsible for the antiallergic activity of A. malaccensis seeds. One new active phorbol ester, 12-O-(2Z,4E,6E)-tetradeca-2,4,6-trienoylphorbol-13-acetate, aquimavitalin (1) was isolated. The structure of 1 was assigned by means of 1D and 2D NMR data and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). Aquimavitalin (1) showed strong inhibitory activity in A23187- and antigen-induced degranulation assay with IC50 values of 1.7 and 11 nM, respectively, with a therapeutic index up to 71,000. The antiallergic activities of A. malaccensis seeds and aquimavitalin (1) have never been revealed before. The results indicated that A. malaccensis seeds and the pure compound have the potential for use in the treatment of allergy. PMID:27007372

  19. Effect of phorbol esters on guniea pig skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bourin, M C; Delescluse, C; Fürstenberger, G; Marks, F; Schweizer, J; Klein-Szanto, A J; Prunieras, M

    1982-01-01

    When topically applied to guniea pig ear skin the tumor promoting phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced inflammation and epidermal hyperproliferation which could be inhibited by indomethacin. This inhibition could be reversed both by prostaglandins E and F. Five minutes after TPA treatment an increase in the level of prostaglandin E but not of prostaglandin F was observed in the epidermis. The non-promoting phorbol ester 4-O-methyl-TPA also stimulated epidermal cell proliferation but this stimulation was not inhibited by indomethacin. The above results are in agreement with those already reported in the mouse system with these two compounds. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity has been evaluated in the epidermis of guniea pig ear after topical application of 20 nmol of TPA. No increase was noted. This is in contrast with the well documented activation of ODC in mouse skin treated with TPA. Since TPA acts as a promoter in the mouse whereas both croton oil and TPA have no promoting action in the guinea pig, the above result supports the view that ODC activationis related to promotion, and provides a possible explanation for the resistance of this animal species to promotion. This resistance is further documented by the fact that no "dark cells" were found in guinea pig ear skin.

  20. Ras activation in response to phorbol ester proceeds independently of the EGFR via an unconventional nucleotide-exchange factor system in COS-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Ignacio; Rennert, Knut; Wittig, Ute; Beer, Katrin; Dürst, Matthias; Stang, Stacey L; Stone, Jim; Wetzker, Reinhard

    2006-09-01

    Ras is a major mediator of PE (phorbol ester) effects in mammalian cells. Various mechanisms for PE activation of Ras have been reported [Downward, Graves, Warne, Rayter and Cantrell (1990) Nature (London) 346, 719-723; Shu, Wu, Mosteller and Broek (2002) Mol. Cell. Biol. 22, 7758-7768; Roose, Mollenauer, Gupta, Stone and Weiss (2005) Mol. Cell. Biol. 25, 4426-4441; Grosse, Roelle, Herrlich, Höhn and Gudermann (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 12251-12260], including pathways that target GAPs (GTPase-activating proteins) for inactivation and those that result in activation of GEFs (guanine nucleotide-exchange factors) Sos (son of sevenless homologue) or RasGRP (RAS guanyl releasing protein). However, a biochemical link between PE and GAP inactivation is missing and GEF stimulation is hard to reconcile with the observation that dominant-negative S17N-Ras does not compromise Ras-dependent ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) activation by PE. We have addressed this controversy and carried out an in-depth biochemical study of PE-induced Ras activation in COS-7 cells. Using a cell-permeabilization approach to monitor nucleotide exchange on Ras, we demonstrate that PE-induced Ras-GTP accumulation results from GEF stimulation. Nucleotide exchange stimulation by PE is prevented by PKC (protein kinase C) inhibition but not by EGFR [EGF (epidermal growth factor) receptor] blockade, despite the fact that EGFR inhibition aborts basal and PE-induced Shc (Src homology and collagen homology) phosphorylation and Shc-Grb2 (growth-factor-receptor-bound protein 2) association. In fact, EGFR inhibition ablates basal nucleotide exchange on Ras in growth-arrested COS-7 cells. These data disclose the existence of two separate GEF systems that operate independently from each other to accomplish PE-dependent formation of Ras-GTP and to maintain resting Ras-GTP levels respectively. We document that COS-7 cells do not express RasGRP and present evidence that the PE-responsive GEF system

  1. Contraction of rat thoracic aorta strips induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, H.; Lederis, K.

    1987-02-01

    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced a slow and progressive increase in tension of rat thoracic aorta strips in the presence of extracellular CaS . Complete relaxation could not be obtained in CaS -free buffer containing 1 mM ethyleneglycol-bis(US -aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 10 X M PMA. In the absence of extracellular CaS , PMA (10 X M) induced a small but sustained contraction which was not altered by the addition of another 2 mM EGTA and 3 x 10 V M verapamil. Papaverine (10 U M) relaxed the PMA-induced contraction to the base line, but phentolamine (10 V M), cyproheptadine (10 V M), atropine (10 V M) and tetrodotoxine (10 W M) did not change the contraction. CaS -depleted muscle strips, prepared by four repeated applications of 10 X M norepinephrine in CaS -free buffer, were contracted by 10 X M PMA, but at a lower maximum tension than nontreated strips. The action of PMA on rat aorta strips in CaS -free buffer did not require the presence of the adventitial layer or endothelial cells. These results suggest that PMA may induce activation of protein kinase C and smooth muscle contraction in the absence of extracellular CaS , without an increase in myoplasmic CaS .

  2. T-cell response to phorbol ester PMA and calcium ionophore A23187 in Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bertotto, A; Crupi, S; Arcangeli, C; Gerli, R; Scalise, F; Fabietti, G; Agea, E; Vaccaro, R

    1989-11-01

    The proliferative response of purified T cells to anti-CD2 monoclonal antibodies (T112 plus T113) was found to be markedly reduced in 12 subjects with Down's syndrome (DS). The addition of phorbol ester PMA, which activates Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent enzyme protein kinase C, or calcium ionophore A23187, which increases intracytosolic free Ca2+ concentration, enhanced, but did not normalize, the defective anti-CD2-mediated T-cell mitogenesis. In contrast, the proliferation of resting lymphocytes from trisomic patients was comparable to that of the control cells when PMA and A23187 were used as co-blastogenic reagents. Because PMA and A23187 together bypass the early activation pathways and promote T-cell growth through the direct induction of membrane interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor expression and IL-2 synthesis and secretion, it could reasonably be hypothesized that the faulty DS T-cell activation induced by antigen or mitogen is due to a deranged transmembrane signal transduction, rather than a defect in the later intracellular events. PMID:2573952

  3. Identification of a phorbol ester-repressible v-src-inducible gene

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, D.L.; Levy, D.B.; Yannoni, Y.; Erikson, R.L. )

    1989-02-01

    Chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) infected with a temperature-sensitive Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) mutant, tsNY72-4, express a set of pp60{sup v-src}-induced RNAs soon after shift to the permissive temperature. By subtractive and differential screening, the authors have cloned 12 of these sequences, 2 of which were c-fos and krox-24. Serum induced all the v-src-inducible genes tested, suggesting that these genes serve roles in normal cell division and are not specific to transformation per se. Significantly, however, v-src produced prolonged, and in some cases kinetically complex, patterns of induction compared to serum. For most of the clones, phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate (TPA) induced mRNAs with kinetics similar to that of serum. However, one clone (CEF-4) was expressed in a biphasic manner. Another (CEF-10) was repressed by TPA at 1 hr, after which this mRNA was permanently induced. The pattern of repression-induction of CEF-10 mRNA is the inverse of protein kinase C (PKC) activity in the cell, suggesting that PKC actively represses this gene. In vivo expression of CEF-10 mRNA is restricted predominantly to the lung. A full-length CEF-10 cDNA encodes a 41-kDa protein that has an amino-terminal signal peptide for secretion, contains a markedly high number of cysteine residues, and shows no sequence similarity to known proteins.

  4. Myosin light chain phosphorylation in sup 32 P-labeled rabbit aorta stimulated by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate and phenylephrine

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, H.A.; Oren, J.W.; Benscoter, H.A. )

    1989-12-15

    The mechanism(s) of force development in vascular smooth muscle following pharmacological activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters are not known. In this study, we examined the myosin light chain phosphorylation response following stimulation by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB) or phenylephrine in rabbit aorta which had been incubated with 32PO4 in order to label ATP pools. Through tryptic phosphopeptide mapping of myosin light chain from intact tissue and comparison to controls using purified components, we inferred that Ca2+-dependent force stimulated by PDB was associated with small increases in serine-19 phosphorylation, consistent with a contractile mechanism involving indirect activation of myosin light chain kinase. Additional residues, consistent with the in vitro substrate specificity of protein kinase C, were also observed to be phosphorylated in response to PDB and represented proportionately a larger fraction of the total phosphorylated myosin light chain in Ca2+-depleted tissues. Stimulation by an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist (phenylephrine) resulted in phosphorylation of residues which were consistent with an activation mechanism involving myosin light chain kinase only. These results indicate that in rabbit aorta the contractile effects of PDB may be partially mediated by Ca2+-dependent activation of myosin light chain kinase. However, the data do not rule out a component of the PDB-stimulated contractile response which is independent of myosin light chain phosphorylation on the serine-19 residue. In addition, activation by a more physiological stimulus, phenylephrine, does not result in protein kinase C-mediated myosin light chain phosphorylation.

  5. Effects of insulin on diacylglycerol-protein kinase C signaling in rat diaphragm and soleus muscles and relationship to glucose transport.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, T; Cooper, D R; Hernandez, H; Buckley, D; Standaert, M; Farese, R V

    1990-02-01

    Insulin was found to provoke rapid increases in diacylglycerol (DAG) content and [3H]glycerol incorporation into DAG and other lipids during incubations of rat hemidiaphragms and soleus muscles. Insulin also rapidly increased phosphatidic acid and total glycerolipid labeling by [3H]glycerol, suggesting that insulin increases DAG production at least partly through stimulation of the de novo pathway. Increased DAG production may activate protein kinase C (PKC) as reported previously in the rat diaphragm. We also observed apparent insulin-induced translocation of PKC from cytosol to membrane in the rat soleus muscle. The importance of insulin-induced increases in DAG-PKC signaling in the stimulation of glucose transport in rat diaphragm and soleus muscles was suggested by 1) PKC activators phorbol esters and phospholipase C stimulation of [3H]-2-deoxyglucose (DOG) uptake and 2) PKC inhibitors staurosporine and polymixin B inhibition of insulin effects on [3H]-2-DOG uptake. Although phorbol ester was much less effective than insulin in the diaphragm, phospholipase C provoked increases in [3H]-2-DOG uptake that equaled or exceeded those of insulin. In the soleus muscle, phorbol ester, like phospholipase C, was only slightly but not significantly less effective than insulin. Similar variability in effectiveness of phorbol ester has also been noted previously in rat adipocytes (weak) and BC3H1 myocytes (strong), whereas DAG, added exogenously or generated by phospholipase C treatment, stimulates glucose transport to a degree that is quantitatively more comparable to that of insulin in each of the four tissues. Differences in effectiveness of phorbol ester and DAG could not be readily explained by postulating that the latter acts independently of PKC, because DAG provoked the apparent translocation of the enzyme from cytosol to membranes in rat adipocytes, and effects of DAG on [3H]-2-DOG uptake were blocked by inhibitors of PKC in both rat adipocytes and BC3H1 myocytes

  6. The new InsP3Kinase inhibitor BIP-4 is competitive to InsP3 and blocks proliferation and adhesion of lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Dominik; Tödter, Klaus; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Franco-Echevarría, Elsa; Rohaly, Gabor; Blecher, Christine; Lin, Hong-Ying; Mayr, Georg W; Windhorst, Sabine

    2015-07-15

    As ectopic expression of the neuronal inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-3-kinase A (InsP3Kinase) in tumor cells increases the metastatic potential, InsP3Kinase is an interesting target for tumor therapy. Recently, we have identified a membrane-permeable InsP3Kinase inhibitor (BAMB-4) exhibiting an IC50-value of 20 μM. Here we characterized a new InsP3Kinase inhibitor which shows a 130-fold lower IC50 value (157 ± 57 nM) as compared to BAMB-4. We demonstrate that this nitrophenolic compound, BIP-4, is non-competitive to ATP but competitive to InsP3, thus exhibits a high selectivity for inhibition of InsP3Kinase activity. Docking analysis suggested a putative binding mode of this molecule into the InsP3Kinase active site. Determination of cellular uptake in lung cancer cells (H1299) revealed that 6% of extracellular BIP-4 is internalized by non-endosomal uptake, showing that BIP-4 is not trapped inside endo/lysosomes but is available to inhibit cellular InsP3Kinase activity. Interestingly, we found that BIP-4 mediated inhibition of InsP3Kinase activity in the two lung cancer cell lines H1299 and LN4323 inhibited proliferation and adhesion at IC50 values of 3 μM or 2 μM, respectively. InsP3Kinase inhibition did not alter ATP-induced calcium signals but significantly reduced the level of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5. From these data we conclude that the inhibitory effect of BIP-4 on proliferation and adhesion of lung cancer cells does not result from alterations of calcium but from alterations of inositol phosphate signals. In summary, we reveal that inhibition of cellular InsP3Kinase by BIP-4 impairs proliferation and adhesion and therefore BIP-4 might be a promising compound to reduce the metastatic potential of lung carcinoma cells.

  7. Phorbol-ester-induced alterations of free calcium ion transients in single rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, N M; Cuthbertson, K S; Cobbold, P H

    1987-01-01

    The effect of the phorbol esters phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA) and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB) on changes in free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in single rat hepatocytes, microinjected with the photoprotein aequorin, were investigated. [Arg8]vasopressin and phenylephrine induced a series of repetitive [Ca2+]i transients. Phorbol esters inhibited the alpha 1-adrenoceptor-induced response; sub-nanomolar concentrations decreased the transient frequency, and higher concentrations abolished the transients. The inhibitory effect of PDB was readily reversible. Phorbol esters were less effective in decreasing the frequency of [Arg8]-vasopressin-induced transients, and the inhibition could be overcome by high [Arg8]vasopressin concentrations. PMID:3479980

  8. Protein kinase activators alter glial cholesterol esterification

    SciTech Connect

    Jeng, I.; Dills, C.; Klemm, N.; Wu, C.

    1986-05-01

    Similar to nonneural tissues, the activity of glial acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase is controlled by a phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mechanism. Manipulation of cyclic AMP content did not alter the cellular cholesterol esterification, suggesting that cyclic AMP is not a bioregulator in this case. Therefore, the authors tested the effect of phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on cellular cholesterol esterification to determine the involvement of protein kinase C. PMA has a potent effect on cellular cholesterol esterification. PMA depresses cholesterol esterification initially, but cells recover from inhibition and the result was higher cholesterol esterification, suggesting dual effects of protein kinase C. Studies of other phorbol analogues and other protein kinase C activators such as merezein indicate the involvement of protein kinase C. Oleoyl-acetyl glycerol duplicates the effect of PMA. This observation is consistent with a diacyl-glycerol-protein kinase-dependent reaction. Calcium ionophore A23187 was ineffective in promoting the effect of PMA. They concluded that a calcium-independent and protein C-dependent pathway regulated glial cholesterol esterification.

  9. Stimulation of Paramecium phagocytosis by phorbol ester and forskolin.

    PubMed

    Wyroba, E

    1987-09-01

    Phorbol ester (PMA) exerted a dose- and time- dependent stimulating effect on phagocytosis in axenic Paramecium aurelia. When cells were exposed to 200-800 nM PMA in the presence of latex beads, the phagocytic coefficient was enhanced 2.25 to 3.14 times, during 10 min of continuous treatment and then rapidly declined. A similar effect was observed when the cells were exposed to a forskolin treatment, which resulted in nearly a twofold increase in phagocytic activity after a 10 min pulse. Both PMA and forskolin strongly stimulated phagocytosis (i.e. fivefold and threefold, respectively) in cells in which such activity had been completely inhibited by pre-exposure to the beta-receptor antagonist 1-propranolol.

  10. Bioactive compounds of Eriocaulon sieboldianum blocking proliferation and inducing apoptosis of HepG2 cells might be involved in Aurora kinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanhua; Lu, Hongyuan; Ma, Hongda; Feng, Fan; Hu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Qiao; Wang, Jian; Xu, Yongnan; Zhao, Qingchun

    2015-12-01

    Eriocaulon sieboldianum (Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud.) is an edible and medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine. Often in combination with other herbs, it is processed into healthcare beverages for expelling wind-heat, protecting eyes, and reducing blood lipids. Besides, its water decoction together with other herbs has been utilized to treat cancer in China. However, the active ingredients and the precise cellular mechanisms of E. sieboldianum remain to be elucidated. The Aurora kinase family plays critical roles in the regulation of cell division and has attracted great attention to the identification of small-molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors for potential treatment of cancer. A molecular docking study was employed for docking of the most bioactive compounds. Hispidulin (HPDL) and quercetin-3-O-(6''-O-galloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (QGGP) were singled out as potent inhibitors of Aurora kinase. Their inhibitory activity towards Aurora kinase was further confirmed by the obvious decrease in autophosphorylation of Aurora-A (Thr288) and Aurora-B (Thr232). Moreover, the induction of cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells and the suppressed phosphorylation of histone H3 were also consistent with the inhibition of Aurora kinase. The data indicate that the E. sieboldianum extract and its two active compounds, HPDL and QGGP, could effectively induce apoptosis via p53, MAPKs and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. These findings could improve the understanding and enhance the development of drugs based on E. sieboldianum and raise its application value in anticancer therapy or prevention. In addition, our results indicated that Aurora kinase might be a novel target of HPDL and QGGP. PMID:26369427

  11. Bioactive compounds of Eriocaulon sieboldianum blocking proliferation and inducing apoptosis of HepG2 cells might be involved in Aurora kinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanhua; Lu, Hongyuan; Ma, Hongda; Feng, Fan; Hu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Qiao; Wang, Jian; Xu, Yongnan; Zhao, Qingchun

    2015-12-01

    Eriocaulon sieboldianum (Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud.) is an edible and medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine. Often in combination with other herbs, it is processed into healthcare beverages for expelling wind-heat, protecting eyes, and reducing blood lipids. Besides, its water decoction together with other herbs has been utilized to treat cancer in China. However, the active ingredients and the precise cellular mechanisms of E. sieboldianum remain to be elucidated. The Aurora kinase family plays critical roles in the regulation of cell division and has attracted great attention to the identification of small-molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors for potential treatment of cancer. A molecular docking study was employed for docking of the most bioactive compounds. Hispidulin (HPDL) and quercetin-3-O-(6''-O-galloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (QGGP) were singled out as potent inhibitors of Aurora kinase. Their inhibitory activity towards Aurora kinase was further confirmed by the obvious decrease in autophosphorylation of Aurora-A (Thr288) and Aurora-B (Thr232). Moreover, the induction of cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells and the suppressed phosphorylation of histone H3 were also consistent with the inhibition of Aurora kinase. The data indicate that the E. sieboldianum extract and its two active compounds, HPDL and QGGP, could effectively induce apoptosis via p53, MAPKs and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. These findings could improve the understanding and enhance the development of drugs based on E. sieboldianum and raise its application value in anticancer therapy or prevention. In addition, our results indicated that Aurora kinase might be a novel target of HPDL and QGGP.

  12. Characterization of phorbol ester-stimulated serine phosphorylation of the human insulin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Feener, E P; Shiba, T; Hu, K Q; Wilden, P A; White, M F; King, G L

    1994-01-01

    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated phosphorylation of the human insulin receptor (IR) was characterized and compared in two cell types of different lineage: normal rat kidney epithelial (NRK) cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fibroblasts. PMA stimulation increased IR beta-subunit phosphorylation to 252 +/- 43 and 25- +/- 47% (+/- S.D.) of the unstimulated control in NRK and CHO cells respectively. Tryptic phosphopeptide analysis by Tricine/SDS/PAGE revealed significant differences in the PMA-stimulated phosphorylation of the IR in these two cell types. This phosphorylation of the IR was predominantly located in two tryptic phosphopeptides, and these phosphopeptides were absent in an IR mutant truncated by 43 C-terminal amino acids. The major PMA-stimulated tryptic phosphopeptide from in vivo-labelled CHO/IR was immunoprecipitated with an antibody against residues Ser1315 to Lys1329, and this precipitation was blocked with excess unlabelled peptide containing this sequence. Radiosequencing by manual Edman degradation revealed that this tryptic phosphopeptide was phosphorylated at Ser1315. This PMA-stimulated phosphorylation did not inhibit autophosphorylation of the IR in vivo. These results demonstrate that PMA-stimulated phosphorylation of the IR can exhibit significant differences when expressed in different cell types, and that Ser1315 is a major PMA-stimulated phosphorylation site on the human IR. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7945263

  13. Silver nanoparticles impede phorbol myristate acetate-induced monocyte-macrophage differentiation and autophagy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yingying; Wang, Liming; Bai, Ru; Zhang, Tianlu; Chen, Chunying

    2015-09-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are important constituents of the innate immune system. Monocyte-macrophage differentiation is not only crucial for innate immune responses, but is also related to some cardiovascular diseases. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most widely used nanomaterials because of their broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties. However, the effect of AgNPs on the functions of blood monocytes is scarcely reported. Here, we report the impedance effect of AgNPs on THP-1 monocyte differentiation, and that this effect was mediated by autophagy blockade and lysosomal impairment. Firstly, AgNPs inhibit phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced monocyte differentiation by down-regulating both expression of surface marker CD11b and response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Secondly, autophagy is activated during PMA-induced THP-1 monocyte differentiation, and the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) can inhibit this process. Thirdly, AgNPs block the degradation of the autophagy substrate p62 and induce autophagosome accumulation, which demonstrates the blockade of autophagic flux. Fourthly, lysosomal impairments including alkalization and decrease of lysosomal membrane stability were observed in AgNP-treated THP-1 cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the impedance of monocyte-macrophage differentiation by AgNPs is mediated by autophagy blockade and lysosomal dysfunction. Our results suggest that crosstalk exists in different biological effects induced by AgNPs.

  14. Silver nanoparticles impede phorbol myristate acetate-induced monocyte-macrophage differentiation and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingying; Wang, Liming; Bai, Ru; Zhang, Tianlu; Chen, Chunying

    2015-10-14

    Monocytes/macrophages are important constituents of the innate immune system. Monocyte-macrophage differentiation is not only crucial for innate immune responses, but is also related to some cardiovascular diseases. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most widely used nanomaterials because of their broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties. However, the effect of AgNPs on the functions of blood monocytes is scarcely reported. Here, we report the impedance effect of AgNPs on THP-1 monocyte differentiation, and that this effect was mediated by autophagy blockade and lysosomal impairment. Firstly, AgNPs inhibit phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced monocyte differentiation by down-regulating both expression of surface marker CD11b and response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Secondly, autophagy is activated during PMA-induced THP-1 monocyte differentiation, and the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) can inhibit this process. Thirdly, AgNPs block the degradation of the autophagy substrate p62 and induce autophagosome accumulation, which demonstrates the blockade of autophagic flux. Fourthly, lysosomal impairments including alkalization and decrease of lysosomal membrane stability were observed in AgNP-treated THP-1 cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the impedance of monocyte-macrophage differentiation by AgNPs is mediated by autophagy blockade and lysosomal dysfunction. Our results suggest that crosstalk exists in different biological effects induced by AgNPs. PMID:26372376

  15. Synthesis of diacylglycerol de novo is responsible for permanent activation and down-regulation of protein kinase C in transformed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarugi, V.; Bruni, P.; Pasquali, F.; Magnelli, L.; Basi, G.; Ruggiero, M.; Farnararo, M. )

    1989-10-31

    We measured the synthesis of diacylglycerol de novo in normal NIH/3T3 fibroblasts and in cells transformed by ras, src, sis and abl oncogenes. Analysis of the incorporation of glucose-derived {sup 14}C into diacylglycerol indicated that neosynthesis of diacylglycerol was constitutively active in the transformed cell lines. Elevated levels of diacylglycerol and persistent activation/down-regulation of protein kinase C reduced the binding of phorbol dibutyrate to transformed cells. This phenomenon could be reversed by blocking the glycolytic pathway, thus indicating that neosynthesized diacylglycerol was responsible for persistent activation and down-regulation of protein kinase C. In transformed cells, protein kinase C activity could not be stimulated by the addition of diolein; however, inhibition of glycolysis restored the ability of transformed cells to respond to diolein. Taken together these data indicate that constitutive synthesis of diacylglycerol de novo is responsible for activation and down-regulation of protein kinase C in transformed cells, and it may play a role in altered mitogenic signalling.

  16. T cell antigen receptor engagement stimulates c-raf phosphorylation and induces c-raf-associated kinase activity via a protein kinase C-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J N; Klausner, R D; Rapp, U R; Samelson, L E

    1990-10-25

    The c-raf kinase has been shown to be activated following stimulation of several tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors. We examined changes in c-raf following engagement of the T cell receptor for antigen (TCR), a stimulus which activates both a non-receptor tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C (PKC). We found that activation of the T-cell receptor on the T cell hybridoma 2B4 causes a rapid and stoichiometric hyperphosphorylation of c-raf and an increase in c-raf-associated kinase activity. Phosphoamino acid analysis showed that the phosphorylation was entirely on serine residues. High-resolution phosphopeptide mapping showed the appearance of a single major new phosphopeptide with TCR stimulation. That phosphopeptide was shown to comigrate with the major new phosphopeptide induced in response to phorbol ester. When cells were depleted of PKC by pretreatment with high concentrations of phorbol ester, TCR stimulation was no longer capable of inducing c-raf-associated kinase activity. To determine whether activation of the tyrosine kinase alone would activate c-raf, we examined the 2B4 variant cell line FL.8. In response to Thy-1 stimulation, these cells activate the tyrosine kinase but not protein kinase C due to a deficiency in TCR eta chain expression. We found that in contrast to Thy-1 stimulation of 2B4 cells, stimulation of FL.8 cells does not lead to the induction of c-raf-associated kinase activity, although phorbol ester activates the kinase to an equivalent degree in both cells. We conclude that T cell receptor activation of c-raf occurs via phosphorylation by the serine/threonine kinase PKC. Activation of c-raf through PKC represents a mechanism distinct from that reported for tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors.

  17. Regulation of endothelial protein C receptor shedding by cytokines is mediated through differential activation of MAP kinase signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Menschikowski, Mario; Hagelgans, Albert; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Siegert, Gabriele

    2009-09-10

    The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) plays a pivotal role in coagulation, inflammation, cell proliferation, and cancer, but its activity is markedly changed by ectodomain cleavage and release as the soluble protein (sEPCR). In this study we examined the mechanisms involved in the regulation of EPCR shedding in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}) and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), but not interferon-{gamma} and interleukin-6, suppressed EPCR mRNA transcription and cell-associated EPCR expression in HUVEC. The release of sEPCR induced by IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} correlated with activation of p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). EPCR shedding was also induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, ionomycin, anisomycin, thiol oxidants or alkylators, thrombin, and disruptors of lipid rafts. Both basal and induced shedding of EPCR was blocked by the metalloproteinase inhibitors, TAPI-0 and GM6001, and by the reduced non-protein thiols, glutathione, dihydrolipoic acid, dithiothreitol, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Because other antioxidants and scavengers of reactive oxygen species failed to block the cleavage of EPCR, a direct suppression of metalloproteinase activity seems responsible for the observed effects of reduced thiols. In summary, the shedding of EPCR in HUVEC is effectively regulated by IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha}, and downstream by MAP kinase signaling pathways and metalloproteinases.

  18. Inhibiting the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK5 blocks pancreatic cancer formation and progression through the suppression of Ras-Ral signaling.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, Georg; Mishra, Anjali; Hong, Seung-Mo; Bisht, Savita; Strock, Christopher J; Ball, Douglas W; Goggins, Michael; Maitra, Anirban; Nelkin, Barry D

    2010-06-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a neuronal kinase that functions in migration, has been found to be activated in some human cancers in which it has been implicated in promoting metastasis. In this study, we investigated the role of CDK5 in pancreatic cancers in which metastatic disease is most common at diagnosis. CDK5 was widely active in pancreatic cancer cells. Functional ablation significantly inhibited invasion, migration, and anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and orthotopic tumor formation and systemic metastases in vivo. CDK5 blockade resulted in the profound inhibition of Ras signaling through its critical effectors RalA and RalB. Conversely, restoring Ral function rescued the effects of CDK5 inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells. Our findings identify CDK5 as a pharmacologically tractable target to degrade Ras signaling in pancreatic cancer.

  19. Inhibiting the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK5 blocks pancreatic cancer formation and progression via suppression of Ras-Ral signaling

    PubMed Central

    Feldmann, Georg; Mishra, Anjali; Hong, Seung-Mo; Bisht, Savita; Strock, Christopher J.; Ball, Douglas W.; Goggins, Michael; Maitra, Anirban; Nelkin, Barry D.

    2011-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a neuronal kinase that functions in migration, has been found to be activated in some human cancers where it has been implicated in promoting metastasis. In this study, we investigated the role of CDK5 in pancreatic cancers where metastatic disease is most common at diagnosis. CDK5 was widely active in pancreatic cancer cells. Functional ablation significantly inhibited invasion, migration and anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and orthotopic tumor formation and systemic metastases in vivo. CDK5 blockade resulted in profound inhibition of Ras signaling through its critical effectors RalA and RalB. Conversely, restoring Ral function rescued the effects of CDK5 inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells. Our findings identify CDK5 as a pharmacologically tractable target to degrade Ras signaling in pancreatic cancer. PMID:20484029

  20. Activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase blocks cumulus cell expansion through inhibition of protein synthesis during in vitro maturation in Swine.

    PubMed

    Santiquet, Nicolas; Sasseville, Maxime; Laforest, Martin; Guillemette, Christine; Gilchrist, Robert B; Richard, François J

    2014-08-01

    The serine/threonine kinase 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a heterotrimeric protein known as a metabolic switch, is involved in oocyte nuclear maturation in mice, cattle, and swine. The present study analyzed AMPK activation in cumulus cell expansion during in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC). 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) is a well-known activator of AMPK. It inhibited oocyte meiotic resumption in COC. Moreover, cumulus cell expansion did not occur in the presence of AICAR, demonstrating its marked impact on cumulus cells. Activation of AMPK was supported by AICAR-mediated phosphorylation of alpha AMPK subunits. Furthermore, the presence of AICAR increased glucose uptake, a classical response to activation of this metabolic switch in response to depleted cellular energy levels. Neither nuclear maturation nor cumulus expansion was reversed by glucosamine, an alternative substrate in hyaluronic acid synthesis, through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, which ruled out possible depletion of substrates. Both increased gap junction communication and phosphodiesterase activity in COC are dependent on protein synthesis during the initial hours of IVM; however, both were inhibited in the presence of AICAR, which supports the finding that activation of AMPK by AICAR mediated inhibition of protein synthesis. Moreover, this protein synthesis inhibition was equivalent to that of the well-known protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, as observed on cumulus expansion and protein concentration. Finally, the phosphorylation level of selected kinases was investigated. The pattern of raptor phosphorylation is supportive of activation of AMPK-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis. In conclusion, AICAR-mediated AMPK activation in porcine COC inhibited cumulus cell expansion and protein synthesis. These results bring new considerations to the importance of this kinase in ovarian

  1. Effect of wortmannin and phorbol ester on Paramecium fluid-phase uptake in the presence of transferrin.

    PubMed

    Wiejak, J; Surmacz, L; Wyroba, E

    2001-01-01

    The kinetics of the uptake of the fluid phase marker Lucifer Yellow (LY), and its alteration by wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K), and the PKC modulators: GF 109203 X, an inhibitor, and phorbol ester, an activator was studied in eukaryotic model Paramecium aurelia. Spectrophotometric quantification of LY accumulation was performed in the presence or absence of transferrin, a marker of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Internalization of LY showed a curvilinear kinetics: the high initial rate of LY uptake (575 ng LY/mg protein/hr) decreased almost 5-fold within 15 min, reaching plateau at 126 ng/mg protein/hr. Transferrin induced a small increase (7.5%) in the fluid phase uptake rate (after 5 min) followed by a small decrease at longer incubation times. Lucifer Yellow and transferrin (visualized by streptavidin-FITC) were localized in Paramecium by 3-D reconstruction by confocal microscopy. LY showed a scattered, diffuse fluorescence typical of fluid phase uptake whereas transferrin accumulated in membrane-surrounded endosomes. Wortmannin did not affect LY accumulation but decreased it when transferrin was present in the incubation medium. This suggests an effect on the transferrin uptake pathway, presumably on the stage of internalization in "mixing" endosomes to which transferrin and LY were targeted. Phorbol ester diminished LY accumulation by 22% and this effect persisted up to 25 min of incubation. PKC inhibitor did not affect LY uptake. However, in the presence of transferrin, the LY uptake increased within the first 15 minutes followed by a rapid 20% decrease in comparison to the control. Such an effect of PKC modulators suggests that PMA action on fluid phase uptake is not directly mediated by PKC.

  2. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate prevents isoproterenol-induced morphological change in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nabika, Toru; Chaldakov, G.N.; Nara, Yasuo; Endo, Jiro; Yamori, Yukio )

    1988-10-01

    The effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on isoproterenol (ISO)- and dibutyryl cAMP (dBcAMP)-induced morphological change and cytoskeletal reorganization was studied in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) using the fluorescence staining of actin and microtubules. The treatment of VSMC with 1.0 {mu}M of ISO or with 1.0 mM of dBcAMP for 90 min induced the disruption of actin-containing stress fibers followed by cytoplasmic arborization. The addition of 100 nM of PMA prevented both the destruction of actin fibers and cell arborization induced either by ISO or by dBcAMP. These results indicated that the inhibition of arborization by PMA was mediated through the activation of protein kinase C. Colchicine at 5.0 {mu}M also had an inhibitory effect on ISO- and dBcAMP-induced cell arborization. However, immunofluorescence studies revealed that colchicine but not PMA elicited the reorganization of microtubules, suggesting that the effect of PMA was mediated through a mechanism different from that of colchicine. The observations indicated that the morphology of VSMC was regulated through the alteration of cytoskeletal organization induced by cAMP-mediated and by protein kinase C-dependent systems.

  3. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate and 1-oleyl-2-acetyldiacylglycerol stimulate inositol trisphosphate dephosphorylation in human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Molina y Vedia, L.M.; Lapetina, E.G.

    1986-08-15

    Inositol trisphosphate (IP3) is formed in response to specific agonists that cause activation of phospholipase C and degradation of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate. IP3 is a second messenger that releases Ca/sup 2 +/ from the dense tubular system to the cytosol in stimulated platelets. Our present information indicates that (/sup 3/H)IP3 is dephosphorylated to (/sup 3/H)inositol bisphosphate (IP2) and (/sup 3/H)inositol monophosphate (IP) by human platelets treated with 0.05-0.10% Triton X-100. This dephosphorylation of (/sup 3/H)IP3 to (/sup 3/H)IP2 and (/sup 3/H)IP is also observed when platelets are permeabilized by electrical stimulation or by 20 micrograms/ml saponin. These detergents or electropermeabilization allow IP3 to access cytosolic IP3 phosphatase. Pretreatment of intact platelets with phorbol dibutyrate and 1-oleyl-2-acetyldiacylglycerol for 30 s, at concentrations that maximally activate protein kinase C, stimulates the conversion of IP3 to IP2 and IP. This suggests a role for protein kinase C in the regulation of IP3 degradation.

  4. Phorbol esters modulate cyclic AMP accumulation in porcine thyroid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Emoto, T.; Kasai, K.; Hiraiwa, M.; Shimoda, S.

    1988-01-01

    In cultured porcine thyroid cells, during 60 min incubation phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) had no effect on basal cyclic AMP accumulation and slightly stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or forskolin. Cholera toxin-induced cyclic AMP accumulation was significantly stimulated by PMA. On the other hand, cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by prostaglandin E/sub 1/ or E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 1/ and PGE/sub 2/) was markedly depressed by simultaneous addition of PMA. These opposing effects of PMA on cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by PGE and cholera toxin were observed in a dose-related fashion, with half-maximal effect of around 10/sup -9/ M in either case. The almost same effects of PMA on cyclic AMP accumulation in basal and stimulated conditions were also observed in freshly prepared thyroid cells. The present study was performed in the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-iso-butyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), indicating that PMA affected adenylate cyclase activity. Therefore, it is suggested that PMA may modulate the production of cyclic AMP in response to different stimuli, possibly by affecting several sites in the adenylate cyclase complex in thyroid cells.

  5. Phorbol ester and spontaneous activity in SHR aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Moisey, D.M.; Cox, R.H.

    1986-03-01

    Thoracic aortas (TA) were excised from 6-week old SHR and WKY. 2mm rings were mounted isometrically at optimum preload. Spontaneous rhythmical activity developed in TA from SHR and had a frequency of 3-4/min with varying periods of quiescence between bursts of activity. The spontaneous activity often produced an increase in tension development which was associated with increased frequency of oscillations. Verapamil (10/sup -7/ M) or Ca/sup + +/-free solution added during the contractile phase resulted in an immediate loss of tension and spontaneous activity. Addition of ouabain (10/sup -4/ M) during the contractile phase of spontaneous activity, increased the frequency of oscillations which appeared to fuse into a tetanus. Spontaneous rhythmical activity was infrequently observed in TA from WKY. However, addition of phorbol 12-myristate-13 acetate (TPA), frequently induced spontaneous rhythmic oscillations associated with tension development in TA from WKY. TPA contracted the SHR TA and increased the frequency of oscillations. SHR TA were more sensitive to TPA than WKY. This study demonstrates (1) spontaneous rhythmical activity, independent of agonist stimulation in TA from 6-week old SHR and (2) TPA induced spontaneous oscillatory activity. The mechanism underlying the spontaneous oscillatory activity may involve membrane coupling events and Na-pump difference between SHR and WKY.

  6. Tumor promoting phorbol diesters: substrates for diacylglycerol lipase

    SciTech Connect

    Cabot, M.C.

    1984-08-30

    Enzyme activity in rat serum was examined utilizing the potent tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and various glycerolipids as substrates. The serum activity was specific for hydrolysis of the long chain tetradecanoate moiety of TPA, hydrolyzed mono- and diacylglycerols, but was not effective against triacylglycerols, cholesterylesters, or phospholipids. Heating the enzyme preparation at 56/sup 0/C for 1 min was dually effective in reducing the hydrolysis of both TPA and dioleoylglycerol by 83-86% of control levels. The potent diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor, RHC 80267, inhibited the hydrolysis of TPA in the 0.2-1.0 ..mu..M range and was also a potent blocker of monoacyl- and diacylglycerol hydrolysis. In substrate competition studies, exogenous unlabeled TPA was added to the (/sup 14/C)dioleoylglycerol-containing reaction mixture, however, this produced an approximate 3-fold stimulation of (/sup 14/)dioleoylglycerol hydrolysis. Although we have not established whether the hydrolysis of TPA and diacylglycerol is the work of one enzyme, the effectiveness of the specific lipase inhibitor, RHC 80267, demonstrates that diacylglycerol lipase can utilize TPA as substrate, a finding never before documented. This point is of interest in light of the theory that phorbol esters act by mimicry of the natural lipid mediator, diacylglycerols. 44 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  7. Inhibition of Rho-associated kinase blocks agonist-induced Ca2+ sensitization of myosin phosphorylation and force in guinea-pig ileum

    PubMed Central

    Swärd, Karl; Dreja, Karl; Susnjar, Marija; Hellstrand, Per; Hartshorne, David J; Walsh, Michael P

    2000-01-01

    Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle contraction involves the small GTPase RhoA, inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) and enhanced myosin regulatory light chain (LC20) phosphorylation. A potential effector of RhoA is Rho-associated kinase (ROK).The role of ROK in Ca2+ sensitization was investigated in guinea-pig ileum.Contraction of permeabilized muscle strips induced by GTPγS at pCa 6.5 was inhibited by the kinase inhibitors Y-27632, HA1077 and H-7 with IC50 values that correlated with the known Ki values for inhibition of ROK. GTPγS also increased LC20 phosphorylation and this was prevented by HA1077. Contraction and LC20 phosphorylation elicited at pCa 5.75 were, however, unaffected by HA1077.Pre-treatment of intact tissue strips with HA1077 abolished the tonic component of carbachol-induced contraction and the sustained elevation of LC20 phosphorylation, but had no effect on the transient or sustained increase in [Ca2+]i induced by carbachol.LC20 phosphorylation and contraction dynamics suggest that the ROK-mediated increase in LC20 phosphorylation is due to MLCP inhibition, not myosin light chain kinase activation.In the absence of Ca2+, GTPγS stimulated 35S incorporation from [35S]ATPγS into the myosin targeting subunit of MLCP (MYPT). The enhanced thiophosphorylation was inhibited by HA1077. No thiophosphorylation of LC20 was detected.These results indicate that ROK mediates agonist-induced increases in myosin phosphorylation and force by inhibiting MLCP activity through phosphorylation of MYPT. Under Ca2+-free conditions, ROK does not appear to phosphorylate LC20in situ, in contrast to its ability to phosphorylate myosin in vitro. In particular, ROK activation is essential for the tonic phase of agonist-induced contraction. PMID:10618150

  8. Protein kinase C directly phosphorylates the insulin receptor in vitro and reduces its protein-tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bollag, G E; Roth, R A; Beaudoin, J; Mochly-Rosen, D; Koshland, D E

    1986-01-01

    The beta subunit of purified insulin receptor is phosphorylated on a serine residue by purified preparations of protein kinase C (ATP: protein phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.37). This phosphorylation is inhibited by antibodies to protein kinase C and stimulated by phospholipids, diacylglycerol, and Ca2+. The phosphorylation of the receptor by protein kinase C does not affect its insulin-binding activity but does inhibit by 65% the receptor's intrinsic tyrosine-specific protein kinase activity (ATP: protein-tyrosine O-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.112). These results indicate that activators of protein kinase C, such as phorbol esters, desensitize cells to insulin by direct protein kinase C action on the insulin receptor. Images PMID:3526339

  9. Blocking Protein kinase C signaling pathway: mechanistic insights into the anti-leishmanial activity of prospective herbal drugs from Withania somnifera

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is caused by several species of leishmania protozoan and is one of the major vector-born diseases after malaria and sleeping sickness. Toxicity of available drugs and drug resistance development by protozoa in recent years has made Leishmaniasis cure difficult and challenging. This urges the need to discover new antileishmanial-drug targets and antileishmanial-drug development. Results Tertiary structure of leishmanial protein kinase C was predicted and found stable with a RMSD of 5.8Å during MD simulations. Natural compound withaferin A inhibited the predicted protein at its active site with -28.47 kcal/mol binding free energy. Withanone was also found to inhibit LPKC with good binding affinity of -22.57 kcal/mol. Both withaferin A and withanone were found stable within the binding pocket of predicted protein when MD simulations of ligand-bound protein complexes were carried out to examine the consistency of interactions between the two. Conclusions Leishmanial protein kinase C (LPKC) has been identified as a potential target to develop drugs against Leishmaniasis. We modelled and refined the tertiary structure of LPKC using computational methods such as homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations. This structure of LPKC was used to reveal mode of inhibition of two previous experimentally reported natural compounds from Withania somnifera - withaferin A and withanone. PMID:23281834

  10. Bacterial AvrRpt2-Like Cysteine Proteases Block Activation of the Arabidopsis Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, MPK4 and MPK111[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Jiang, Xiyuan; Elmore, James Mitch; Mackey, David; Shan, Libo

    2016-01-01

    To establish infection, pathogens deliver effectors into host cells to target immune signaling components, including elements of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) cascades. The virulence function of AvrRpt2, one of the first identified Pseudomonas syringae effectors, involves cleavage of the plant defense regulator, RPM1-INTERACTING PROTEIN4 (RIN4), and interference with plant auxin signaling. We show now that AvrRpt2 specifically suppresses the flagellin-induced phosphorylation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MPK4 and MPK11 but not MPK3 or MPK6. This inhibition requires the proteolytic activity of AvrRpt2, is associated with reduced expression of some plant defense genes, and correlates with enhanced pathogen infection in AvrRpt2-expressing transgenic plants. Diverse AvrRpt2-like homologs can be found in some phytopathogens, plant-associated and soil bacteria. Employing these putative bacterial AvrRpt2 homologs and inactive AvrRpt2 variants, we can uncouple the inhibition of MPK4/MPK11 activation from the cleavage of RIN4 and related members from the so-called nitrate-induced family as well as from auxin signaling. Thus, this selective suppression of specific mitogen-activated protein kinases is independent of the previously known AvrRpt2 targets and potentially represents a novel virulence function of AvrRpt2. PMID:27208280

  11. Role for zinc in a cellular response mediated by protein kinase C in human B lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, I.J.; Zalewski, P.D.; Giannakis, C. )

    1991-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested a role for Zn{sup 2+}, distinct from that of CA{sup 2+}, in the subcellular distribution and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Here the author show that Zn{sup 2+} is required for a cellular response mediated by PKC, the rapid loss of expression of a human B cell receptor MER, detected by resetting with mouse erythrocytes. Zn{sup 2+}, in the presence of the Zn{sup 2+} ionophore pyrithione, caused rapid inhibition of MER rosetting at concentrations which induce the translocation and activation of PKC. This required cellular uptake of Zn{sup 2+} and was blocked by 1,10-phenanthroline and TPEN which chelate Zn{sup 2+} but not Ca{sup 2+}. Gold, a metal with similar properties, also induced translocation of PKC and inhibition of MER. Phenanthroline and TPEN also blocked the inhibition of MER induced by the PKC activators phorbol ester and sodium fluoride, suggesting that endogenous cellular Zn{sup 2+} is required. They propose that some cellular actions of PKC require a Zn{sup 2+}-dependent event and that these may be a target for gold during chrysotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis.

  12. Regulation of conjunctival goblet cell secretion by Ca(2+)and protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Dartt, D A; Rios, J D; Kanno, H; Rawe, I M; Zieske, J D; Ralda, N; Hodges, R R; Zoukhri, D; Rios, J R

    2000-12-01

    Conjunctival goblet cells secrete mucus in response to cholinergic (muscarinic) agonists, but the underlying signaling pathways activated in this tissue are not well understood. Cholinergic agonists usually activate phospholipase C to produce inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. Inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate increases the intracellular Ca(2+)concentration ([Ca2(+)](i)) while diacylglycerol activates protein kinase C (PKC). PKC and Ca(2+), either by itself or with calmodulin, activate cellular functions. Goblet cell glycoprotein secretion, our index of mucin secretion, was measured from pieces of rat conjunctiva with an enzyme-linked lectin assay using the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I). UEA-I selectively recognizes high molecular weight glycoproteins secreted by the goblet cells. Increasing the [Ca(+)](i)with the Ca(2+)ionophore ionomycin stimulated glycoprotein secretion from conjunctival goblet cells. Cholinergic agonist-induced secretion was completely blocked by chelation of extracellular Ca(2+)and by the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase inhibitors KN93 and W7 as well as their inactive analogs KN92 and W5. Activation of classical and novel PKC isozymes by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate stimulated goblet cell glycoprotein secretion. When ionomycin and PMA were added simultaneously, secretion was additive. PKC isozymes were identified by Western blotting analyses with antibodies specific to nine of the 11 PKC isozymes (PKCgamma and zeta were not tested). All nine PKC isozymes were identified in the conjunctival epithelium. The cellular location of the PKC isozymes was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy. Goblet cells contained the classical PKC isozymes PKCalpha, -betaI and -betaII, the novel PKC isozymes PKCepsilon, -theta;, and - mu, and the atypical PKC isozyme PKCzeta. We were unable to determine if PKC activation is required for cholinergic-agonist induced secretion because the PKC

  13. Five new phorbol esters with cytotoxic and selective anti-inflammatory activities from Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Feng; Yang, Sheng-Hui; Liu, Yan-Qun; Li, Din-Xiang; He, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Yong-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Five new phorbol esters, (four phorbol diesters, 1-4, and one 4-deoxy-4α-phorbol diester, 5), as well as four known phorbol esters analogues (6-9) were isolated and identified from the branches and leaves of Croton tiglium. Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive NMR spectroscopic, and mass spectrometric analysis. Among them, compound (1) was the first example of a naturally occurring phorbol ester with the 20-aldehyde group. Compounds 2-5, and 7-9 showed potent cytotoxicity against the K562, A549, DU145, H1975, MCF-7, U937, SGC-7901, HL60, Hela, and MOLT-4 cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 1.0 to 43 μM, while none of the compounds exhibited cytotoxic effects on normal human cell lines 293T and LX-2, respectively. In addition, compound 3 exhibited moderate COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition, with IC50 values of 0.14 and 8.5 μM, respectively.

  14. Specific binding and biological effects of tumor promoting phorbol esters on sponges.

    PubMed

    Mazzorana, M; Garrone, R; Martel, N; Yamasaki, H

    1984-01-01

    Sponges grown in the presence of 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) show deep alterations of their structure and development. Their aquiferous system (flagellated cells and canals) is largely altered and the tissues show an unusually high cell density. This focalized effect of TPA on the aquiferous system seems specific and is reversible at low concentrations (100 ng/ml). A toxic, non-specific effect is also noted, particularly at high concentrations (5000 ng/ml). Using 3H-phorbol-12, 13-dibutyrate (3H-PDBu), we demonstrate a class of specific binding sites for phorbol esters in the homogenates of sponges. These binding sites have high affinity (Kd = 26.0 nM) for PDBu and at saturation about 20 pmoles of 3H-PDBu is bound per mg protein of sponge homogenates. The binding of 3H-PDBu was inhibited by other phorbol esters and their congeners, and there was a good correlation between their potency in binding inhibition and their tumor promoting activity. It is concluded that sponges have a class of specific saturable and high affinity receptors for phorbol esters and that there is a very high conservation of these receptors during evolution. Such specific binding may be responsible for subsequent biological effect of TPA on sponges.

  15. Inhibition of transferring binding and iron uptake of hematopoietic cell lines by phorbol esters.

    PubMed

    Pelicci, P G; Testa, U; Thomopoulos, P; Tabilio, A; Vainchenker, W; Titeux, M; Gourdin, M F; Rochant, H

    1984-01-01

    Phorbol esters inhibit cell growth and the binding of transferrin to receptors on K 562, HL 60 and U 937 human leukemic cell lines. Exposure of these cells to 12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) at 37 degrees C results in a 40% reduction of the specific binding of 125I-transferrin, which is apparent within 15 min. Half-maximal inhibition occurs at about 1 nM. Other tumor promoting phorbol esters also inhibit 125I-transferrin binding in a dose-dependent manner which parallels their known promoting activity in vivo. TPA reduces the number of transferrin receptors, and does not alter the degradation or the internalization of transferrin. In addition, TPA inhibits iron uptake by these cell lines. These effects are specific, since phorbol esters do not affect either cell growth or the binding of transferrin to Friend erythroleukemia cells and Raji cell line. On the basis of these findings it is suggested that the inhibition of transferrin binding may represent one of the mechanisms by which phorbol esters affect the growth and the differentiation of hematopoietic cell lines. PMID:6088899

  16. Serum Glucocorticoid-Regulated Kinase 1 Blocks CKD-Induced Muscle Wasting Via Inactivation of FoxO3a and Smad2/3.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinlong; Liang, Anlin; Liang, Ming; Xia, Ruohan; Rizvi, Yasmeen; Wang, Yun; Cheng, Jizhong

    2016-09-01

    Muscle proteolysis in CKD is stimulated when the ubiquitin-proteasome system is activated. Serum glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK-1) is involved in skeletal muscle homeostasis, but the role of this protein in CKD-induced muscle wasting is unknown. We found that, compared with muscles from healthy controls, muscles from patients and mice with CKD express low levels of SGK-1. In mice, SGK-1-knockout (SGK-1-KO) induced muscle loss that correlated with increased expression of ubiquitin E3 ligases known to facilitate protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome, and CKD substantially aggravated this response. SGK-1-KO also altered the phosphorylation levels of transcription factors FoxO3a and Smad2/3. In C2C12 muscle cells, expression of dominant negative FoxO3a or knockdown of Smad2/3 suppressed the upregulation of E3 ligases induced by loss of SGK-1. Additionally, SGK-1 overexpression increased the level of phosphorylated N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein, which directly interacted with and suppressed the phosphorylation of Smad2/3. Overexpression of SGK-1 in wild-type mice with CKD had similar effects on the phosphorylation of FoxO3a and Smad2/3 and prevented CKD-induced muscle atrophy. Finally, mechanical stretch of C2C12 muscle cells or treadmill running of wild-type mice with CKD stimulated SGK-1 production, and treadmill running inhibited proteolysis in muscle. These protective responses were absent in SGK-1-KO mice. Thus, SGK-1 could be a mechanical sensor that mediates exercise-induced improvement in muscle wasting stimulated by CKD. PMID:26880799

  17. Preclinical model in HCC: the SGK1 kinase inhibitor SI113 blocks tumor progression in vitro and in vivo and synergizes with radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Scumaci, Domenica; Barone, Agnese; Gigliotti, Francesco; Vincenza Fiumara, Claudia; Dattilo, Vincenzo; Gallo, Enzo; Visca, Paolo; Ortuso, Francesco; Abbruzzese, Claudia; Botta, Lorenzo; Schenone, Silvia; Cuda, Giovanni; Alcaro, Stefano; Bianco, Cataldo; Lavia, Patrizia; Paggi, Marco G.

    2015-01-01

    The SGK1 kinase is pivotal in signal transduction pathways operating in cell transformation and tumor progression. Here, we characterize in depth a novel potent and selective pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-based SGK1 inhibitor. This compound, named SI113, active in vitro in the sub-micromolar range, inhibits SGK1-dependent signaling in cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We recently showed that SI113 slows down tumor growth and induces cell death in colon carcinoma cells, when used in monotherapy or in combination with paclitaxel. We now demonstrate for the first time that SI113 inhibits tumour growth in hepatocarcinoma models in vitro and in vivo. SI113-dependent tumor inhibition is dose- and time-dependent. In vitro and in vivo SI113-dependent SGK1 inhibition determined a dramatic increase in apotosis/necrosis, inhibited cell proliferation and altered the cell cycle profile of treated cells. Proteome-wide biochemical studies confirmed that SI113 down-regulates the abundance of proteins downstream of SGK1 with established roles in neoplastic transformation, e.g. MDM2, NDRG1 and RAN network members. Consistent with knock-down and over-expressing cellular models for SGK1, SI113 potentiated and synergized with radiotherapy in tumor killing. No short-term toxicity was observed in treated animals during in vivo SI113 administration. These data show that direct SGK1 inhibition can be effective in hepatic cancer therapy, either alone or in combination with radiotherapy. PMID:26462020

  18. Receptor-mediated Modulation of Human Monocyte, Neutrophil, Lymphocyte, and Platelet Function by Phorbol Diesters

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Bonnie J.; Weinberg, J. Brice

    1982-01-01

    The tumor promoting phorbol diesters elicit a variety of responses from normal and leukemic blood cells in vitro by apparently interacting with cellular receptors. The biologically active ligand [20-3H] phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate ([3H]PDBu) bound specifically to intact human lymphocytes, monocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and platelets, but not to erythrocytes. Binding, which was comparable for all four blood cell types, occurred rapidly at 23° and 37°C, reaching a maximum by 20-30 min usually followed by a 30-40% decrease in cell associated radioactivity over the next 30-60 min. The time course for binding was temperature dependent with equilibrium binding occurring after 120-150 min at 4°C, with no subsequent loss of cell-associated radioactivity at this temperature. Bound [3H]PDBu could be eluted by addition of unlabeled PDBu. Scatchard analysis of data from 4°C binding studies revealed linear plots with high affinity receptors in these cell types with dissociation constants and receptors per cell of 60 nM and 7.8 × 105/cell for lymphocytes, 51 nM and 15.5 × 105/cell for monocytes, 38 nM and 4.0 × 105/cell for PMN, and 19 nM and 2.9 × 104/cell for platelets. Structure-activity studies using unlabeled phorbol-related compounds demonstrated a close correlation between their abilities to inhibit binding of [3H]PDBu to cells and their abilities to induce cellular responses (monocyte and PMN H2O2 secretion, lymphocyte 3HTdR incorporation, and platelet tritiated serotonin release); phorbol and 4-alpha phorbol were inactive while phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), PDBu, mezerein, and phorbol 12,13-diacetate (in decreasing order of potency) inhibited [3H]PDBu binding and elicited the various responses. Thus, these high affinity, specific receptors for the phorbol diesters, present on monocytes, lymphocytes, PMN, and platelets, mediate the pleiotypic effects induced by these ligands. PMID:6956584

  19. Treatment of mouse melanoma cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate counteracts mannosylerythritol lipid-induced growth arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X; Geltinger, C; Kishikawa, S; Ohshima, K; Murata, T; Nomura, N; Nakahara, T; Yokoyama, K K

    2000-07-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL), an extracellularglycolipid from yeast, induces the differentiation ofHL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells towardsgranulocytes. We show here that MEL is also a potentinhibitor of the proliferation of mouse melanoma B16cells. Flow-cytometric analysis of the cell cycle ofMEL-treated B16 cells revealed the accumulation ofcells in the sub-G(0)/G(1) phase, which is a hallmark ofcells undergoing apoptosis. Treatment of B16 cellsfor 24 h with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA),an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), did notinterfere with the growth and survival of the cells,but it effectively counteracted the MEL-induced growtharrest and apoptosis. The activity of PKC was reducedin B16 cells treated with MEL at a concentration atwhich MEL induced apoptosis. However, incubation withPMA in addition to MEL reversed this reduction in theactivity of PKC. These results suggest thatconverging signaling pathways are triggeredindependently by MEL and PMA and that the signalsmight both be mediated by PKC. PMID:19002819

  20. Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... Block Explore Heart Block What Is... Electrical System & EKG Results Types Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & ... heart block. Doctors use a test called an EKG (electrocardiogram) to help diagnose heart block. This test ...

  1. Coordinateendonucleolytic 5' and 3' trimming of terminally blocked blunt DNA double-strand break ends by Artemis nuclease and DNA-dependent protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Povirk, Lawrence; Yannone, Steven M.; Khan, Imran S.; Zhou, Rui-Zhe; Zhou, Tong; Valerie, Kristoffer; F., Lawrence

    2008-02-18

    Previous work showed that, in the presence of DNA-PK, Artemis slowly trims 3'-phosphoglycolate-terminated blunt ends. To examine the trimming reaction in more detail, long internally labeled DNA substrates were treated with Artemis. In the absence of DNA-PK, Artemis catalyzed extensive 5' {yields} 3' exonucleolytic resection of double-stranded DNA. This resection required a 5'-phosphate but did not require ATP, and was accompanied by endonucleolytic cleavage of the resulting 3' overhang. In the presence of DNA-PK, Artemis-mediated trimming was more limited, was ATP-dependent, and did not require a 5'-phosphate. For a blunt end with either a 3'-phosphoglycolate or 3'-hydroxyl terminus, endonucleolytic trimming of 2-4 nucleotides from the 3'-terminal strand was accompanied by trimming of 6 nucleotides from the 5'-terminal strand. The results suggest that autophosphorylated DNA-PK suppresses the exonuclease activity of Artemis toward blunt-ended DNA, and promotes slow and limited endonucleolytic trimming of the 5'-terminal strand, resulting in short 3' overhangs that are trimmed endonucleolytically. Thus, Artemis and DNA-PK can convert terminally blocked DNA ends of diverse geometry and chemical structure to a form suitable for polymerase mediated patching and ligation, with minimal loss of terminal sequence. Such processing could account for the very small deletions often found at DNA double-strand break repair sites.

  2. Negative regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 targets by protein kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Bogachan; Hawasli, Ammar H.; Greene, Robert W.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Bibb, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed protein serine/threonine kinase essential for brain development and implicated in synaptic plasticity, dopaminergic neurotransmission, drug addiction, and neurodegenerative disorders. Relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate the activity of Cdk5 in vivo. In order to determine whether protein kinase C (PKC) regulates Cdk5 activity in the central nervous system, the phosphorylation levels of two Cdk5 substrates were evaluated under conditions of altered PKC activity in vivo. Treatment of acute striatal slices with a PKC-activating phorbol ester caused a time- and dose-dependent decrease in the levels of phospho-Ser6 inhibitor-1, phospho-Ser67 inhibitor-1, and phospho-Thr75 dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32,000 (DARPP-32). This effect was reversed by the PKC inhibitor, Ro-32-0432. Moreover, phospho-Ser6 inhibitor-1, phospho-Ser67 inhibitor-1, and phospho-Thr75 DARPP-32 levels were elevated in brain tissue from mice lacking the gene for PKC-α. PKC did not phosphorylate Cdk5 or its cofactor, p25, in vitro. Striatal levels of the Cdk5 cofactor, p35, did not change in response to phorbol ester treatment. Furthermore, Cdk5 immunoprecipitated from striatal slices treated with phorbol ester had unaltered activity toward a control substrate in vitro. These results suggest that PKC exerts its effects on the phosphorylation state of Cdk5 substrates through an indirect mechanism that may involve the regulatory binding partners of Cdk5 other than its neuronal cofactors. PMID:18190909

  3. Negative regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 targets by protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Bogachan; Hawasli, Ammar H; Greene, Robert W; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Bibb, James A

    2008-03-10

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed protein serine/threonine kinase essential for brain development and implicated in synaptic plasticity, dopaminergic neurotransmission, drug addiction, and neurodegenerative disorders. Relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate the activity of Cdk5 in vivo. In order to determine whether protein kinase C (PKC) regulates Cdk5 activity in the central nervous system, the phosphorylation levels of two Cdk5 substrates were evaluated under conditions of altered PKC activity in vivo. Treatment of acute striatal slices with a PKC-activating phorbol ester caused a time- and dose-dependent decrease in the levels of phospho-Ser6 inhibitor-1, phospho-Ser67 inhibitor-1, and phospho-Thr75 dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32,000 (DARPP-32). This effect was reversed by the PKC inhibitor, Ro-32-0432. Moreover, phospho-Ser6 inhibitor-1, phospho-Ser67 inhibitor-1, and phospho-Thr75 DARPP-32 levels were elevated in brain tissue from mice lacking the gene for PKC-alpha. PKC did not phosphorylate Cdk5 or its cofactor, p25, in vitro. Striatal levels of the Cdk5 cofactor, p35, did not change in response to phorbol ester treatment. Furthermore, Cdk5 immunoprecipitated from striatal slices treated with phorbol ester had unaltered activity toward a control substrate in vitro. These results suggest that PKC exerts its effects on the phosphorylation state of Cdk5 substrates through an indirect mechanism that may involve the regulatory binding partners of Cdk5 other than its neuronal cofactors.

  4. Luteolin is a novel p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) inhibitor that suppresses Notch4 signaling by blocking the activation of Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1).

    PubMed

    Reipas, Kristen M; Law, Jennifer H; Couto, Nicole; Islam, Sumaiya; Li, Yvonne; Li, Huifang; Cherkasov, Artem; Jung, Karen; Cheema, Amarpal S; Jones, Steven J M; Hassell, John A; Dunn, Sandra E

    2013-02-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are notoriously difficult to treat because they lack hormone receptors and have limited targeted therapies. Recently, we demonstrated that p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) is essential for TNBC growth and survival indicating it as a target for therapeutic development. RSK phosphorylates Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1), an oncogenic transcription/translation factor, highly expressed in TNBC (~70% of cases) and associated with poor prognosis, drug resistance and tumor initiation. YB-1 regulates the tumor-initiating cell markers, CD44 and CD49f however its role in Notch signaling has not been explored. We sought to identify novel chemical entities with RSK inhibitory activity. The Prestwick Chemical Library of 1120 off-patent drugs was screened for RSK inhibitors using both in vitro kinase assays and molecular docking. The lead candidate, luteolin, inhibited RSK1 and RSK2 kinase activity and suppressed growth in TNBC, including TIC-enriched populations. Combining luteolin with paclitaxel increased cell death and unlike chemotherapy alone, did not enrich for CD44(+) cells. Luteolin's efficacy against drug-resistant cells was further indicated in the primary x43 cell line, where it suppressed monolayer growth and mammosphere formation. We next endeavored to understand how the inhibition of RSK/YB-1 signaling by luteolin elicited an effect on TIC-enriched populations. ChIP-on-ChIP experiments in SUM149 cells revealed a 12-fold enrichment of YB-1 binding to the Notch4 promoter. We chose to pursue this because there are several reports indicating that Notch4 maintains cells in an undifferentiated, TIC state. Herein we report that silencing YB-1 with siRNA decreased Notch4 mRNA. Conversely, transient expression of Flag:YB-1(WT) or the constitutively active mutant Flag:YB-1(D102) increased Notch4 mRNA. The levels of Notch4 transcript and the abundance of the Notch4 intracellular domain (N4ICD) correlated with activation of P-RSK(S221/7) and

  5. Tyrosine hydroxylase is activated and phosphorylated at different sites in rat pheochromocytoma PC 12 cells treated with phorbol ester and forskolin

    SciTech Connect

    Tachikawa, E.; Tank, A.W.; Weiner, D.H.; Mosimann, W.F.; Yanagihara, N.; Weiner, N.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of phorbol ester (4..beta..-phorbol, 12..beta..-myristate, 13..cap alpha..-acetate; TPA), an activator of Ca/sup + +//phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (PK-C), and forskolin, which stimulates adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAMP-PK), on the activation and phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells were examined. Incubation of the cells with TPA (0.01-1 ..mu..M) or forskolin (0.01-0.1 ..mu..M) produces increases in activation and phosphorylation of TH in a concentration-dependent manner. The stimulatory effects of TPA are dependent on extracellular Ca/sup + +/ and are inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with trifluoperazine (TFP). The effects of forskolin are independent of Ca/sup + +/ and are not inhibited by TFP. In cells treated with forskolin, the time course of the increase in cAMP correlates with the increases in TH activity and phosphorylation. cAMP levels do not increase in cells treated with TPA. There is an increase in the phosphorylation of only one tryptic phosphopeptide derived from TH in cells treated with either forskolin or TPA. The peptide phosphorylated in TPA-treated cells exhibits different elution characteristics on HPLC from that in forskolin-treated cells. The authors conclude that TH in PC 12 cells is phosphorylated on different sites by cAMP-PK and PK-C. Phosphorylation of either of these sites is associated with enzyme activation.

  6. Rat neuropeptide Y precursor gene expression. mRNA structure, tissue distribution, and regulation by glucocorticoids, cyclic AMP, and phorbol ester.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, H; Yang, H Y; Sabol, S L

    1988-05-01

    Rat brain neuropeptide Y precursor (prepro-NPY) cDNA clones were isolated and sequenced in order to study regulation of the prepro-NPY gene. Rat prepro-NPY (98 amino acid residues) contains a 36-residue NPY sequence, followed by a proteolysis/amidation site Gly-Lys-Arg, followed by a 30-residue COOH-terminal sequence. The strong evolutionary conservation of rat and human sequences of NPY (100%) and COOH-terminal peptide (93%) suggests that both peptides have important biological functions. In the rat central nervous system, prepro-NPY mRNA (800 bases) is most abundant in the striatum and cortex and moderately abundant in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and spinal cord. The rat adrenal, spleen, heart, and lung have significant levels of prepro-NPY mRNA. Regulation of the prepro-NPY mRNA abundance was studied in several rodent neural cell lines. PC12 rat pheochromocytoma and N18TG-2 mouse neuroblastoma cells possess low basal levels of prepro-NPY mRNA, while NG108-15 hybrid cells possess high levels. Treatment of PC12 cells with a glucocorticoid such as dexamethasone or elevation of cAMP by forskolin increased the prepro-NPY mRNA level 2-3-fold or 3-10-fold, respectively. In N18TG-2 cells dexamethasone and forskolin synergistically increased prepro-NPY mRNA 7-fold. Treatment of PC12 cells with the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate alone elevated prepro-NPY mRNA marginally, but the phorbol ester plus forskolin elicited 20-70-fold increases, which were further enhanced to over 200-fold by dexamethasone and the calcium ionophore A23187. These results indicate that NPY gene expression can be positively regulated by synergistic actions of glucocorticoids, cAMP elevation, and protein kinase C activation.

  7. Modulation of phorbol ester-elicited events in mouse epidermis by dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Belury, M A; Leyton, J; Patrick, K E; Cumberland, A G; Locniskar, M; Fischer, S M

    1991-09-01

    Because arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids are potent modulators of hyperproliferation and inflammation during skin tumor promotion with the phorbol ester, 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (17, 18), it was hypothesized that dietary modification of epidermal fatty acids might modulate TPA-induced biochemical events in mouse skin. Semipurified diets containing 10% total fat composed of corn oil (CO) or a combination of CO and menhaden oil (MO) or coconut oil (CT) were fed to SENCAR mice for 4 weeks. Fatty acid composition of epidermal phospholipids generally reflected fatty acid composition of dietary oils fed to the mice. Since fatty acid-derived eicosanoids are thought to be essential in tumorigenesis, we compared the effects of dietary fats on prostaglandin E (PGE) production in epidermis treated with a single dose of TPA. TPA-induced PGE production in mouse epidermis from mice fed the MO diet was significantly reduced compared to PGE production in epidermal homogenates from mice fed the CO or CT diets. Type of dietary fats did not appear to modulate TPA-induced vascular permeability, however hyperplasia was slightly elevated in skins of mice fed MO. The subcellular distribution of protein kinase C, the plasma membrane receptor for TPA predominantly located in the cytosol (80%), was altered in epidermis from mice fed the MO diet compared to preparations from mice fed CO or CT diets which exhibited normal protein kinase C distribution. Our results suggest that n-3 rich dietary lipids modulate TPA-elicited events in mouse skin to a greater extent than diets containing higher proportions of saturated or n-6 fatty acids.

  8. Analysis of protein kinase C requirement for exocytosis in permeabilized rat basophilic leukaemia RBL-2H3 cells: a GTP-binding protein(s) as a potential target for protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Buccione, R; Di Tullio, G; Caretta, M; Marinetti, M R; Bizzarri, C; Francavilla, S; Luini, A; De Matteis, M A

    1994-01-01

    The role of protein kinase C in calcium-dependent exocytosis was investigated in permeabilized rat basophilic leukaemia cells. When protein kinase C was down-regulated by phorbol myristate acetate (1 microM for 3-6 h) or inhibited by pharmacological agents such as calphostin C (1 microM) or a protein kinase C-specific pseudo-substrate peptide inhibitor (100-200 microM), cells lost the ability to secrete in response to 10 microM free Ca2+. In contrast, a short treatment (15 min) with phorbol myristate acetate, which maximally activates protein kinase C, potentiated the effects of calcium. Biochemical analysis of protein kinase C-deprived cells indicated that loss of the Ca(2+)-induced secretory response correlated with disappearance of protein kinase C-alpha. In addition, at the concentrations effective for exocytosis, calcium caused translocation of protein kinase C-alpha to the membrane fraction and stimulated phospholipase C, suggesting that, in permeabilized cells, protein kinase C can be activated by calcium through generation of the phospholipase C metabolite diacylglycerol. The delta, epsilon and zeta Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase C isoenzymes were insensitive to phorbol myristate acetate-induced down-regulation and did not, as expected, translocate to the particulate fraction in response to calcium. Interestingly, secretory competence was restored in cells depleted of protein kinase C or in which protein kinase C itself was inhibited by non-hydrolysable GTP analogues, but not by GTP, suggesting that protein kinase C might regulate the ability of a G protein(s) directly controlling the exocytotic machinery to be activated by endogenous GTP. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8129713

  9. Method of phorbol ester degradation in Jatropha curcas L. seed cake using rice bran lipase.

    PubMed

    Hidayat, Chusnul; Hastuti, Pudji; Wardhani, Avita Kusuma; Nadia, Lana Santika

    2014-03-01

    A novel enzymatic degradation of phorbol esters (PE) in the jatropha seed cake was developed using lipase. Cihera rice bran lipase had the highest ability to hydrolyze PE, and reduced PE to a safe level after 8 h of incubation. Enzymatic degradation may be a promising method for PE degradation.

  10. Chromatographic resolution of altered forms of protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Ashendel, C.L.; Minor, P.L.; Baudoin, P.A.; Carlos, M.

    1987-05-01

    Rapid chromatographic resolution of protein kinase C (PKC) in extracts of rat brain on DEAE-cellulose yielded two major peaks of activity. These fractions bound phorbol esters with identical affinity and specificity and had similar ratios of PKC to phorbol ester-binding activities. Chicken egg yolk antibodies raised to PKC in the first fraction reacted with 74 to 76 kilodalton peptides in the second fraction. Chromatography of each fraction on hydroxylapatite yielded similar distributions of three PKC isozymes. Rechromatography of the DEAE-cellulose fractions on DEAE-cellulose confirmed that these forms of PKC were not rapidly interconvertible. Results of experiments in which extracts or fractions were incubated with MgATP and phosphatase inhibitors were consistent with elution of dephospho-PKC in the first fraction while the second fraction contained phospho-PKC. If confirmed, this suggests that a substantial fraction of PKC in rat and mouse tissues exists in the phosphorylated form.

  11. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) promotes phosphorylation at threonine-654 of the EGF receptor: possible role of protein kinase C in homologous regulation of the EGF receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteley, B.; Glaser, L.

    1986-10-01

    Treatment of cells with tumor-promoting phorbol diesters, which causes activation of protein kinase C, leads to phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor at threonine-654. Addition of phorbol diesters to intact cells causes inhibition of the EGF-induced tyrosine-protein kinase activity of the EGF receptor and it has been suggested that this effect of phorbol diesters is mediated by the phosphorylation of the receptor by protein kinase C. The authors measured the activity of protein kinase C in A431 cells by determining the incorporation of (/sup 32/P)phosphate into peptides containing threonine-654 obtained by trypsin digestion of EGF receptors. After 3 h of exposure to serum-free medium, A431 cells had no detectable protein kinase C activity. Addition of EGF to these cells resulted in (/sup 32/P) incorporation into threonine-654 as well as into tyrosine residues. This indicates that EGF promotes the activation of protein kinase C in A431 cells. The phophorylation of threonine-654 induced by EGF was maximal after only 5 min of EGF addition and the (/sup 32/P) incorporation into threonine-654 reached 50% of the (/sup 32/P) in a tyrosine-containing peptide. This indicates that a significant percentage of the total EGF receptors are phosphorylated by protein kinase C. A variety of external stimuli activate Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange, including EGF, phorbol diesters, and hypertonicity. To ascertain whether activation of protein kinase C is an intracellular common effector of all of these systems, the authors measured the activity of protein kinase C after exposure of A431 cells to hyperosmotic conditions and observed no effect on phosphorylation of threonine-654, therefore, activation of Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange by hypertonic medium is independent of protein kinase C activity.

  12. beta. -Endorphin and related peptides suppress phorbol myristate acetate-induced respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Diamant, M.; Henricks, P.A.J.; Nijkamp, F.P.; de Wied, D. )

    1989-01-01

    In the present study, the immunomodulatory effect of {beta}-endorphin ({beta}-E) and shorter pro-opiomelancortin (POMC) fragments was evaluated by assessing their influence on respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). The effect of the peptides on phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated production of reactive oxygen metabolites was measured in a lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) assay. Both POMC peptides with opiate-like activity and their non-opioid derivatives were tested. With the exception of {alpha}-E, PMA-stimulated respiratory burst was suppressed by all POMC fragments tested. A U-shaped dose-response relation was observed. Doses lower than 10{sup {minus}17}M and higher than 10{sup {minus}8}M were without effect. {beta}-E and dT{beta}E both suppressed PMA-induced oxidative burst in human PMN at physiological concentrations. {gamma}-E and dT{gamma}E proved to be less potent inhibitors, reaching maximal effect at higher concentrations. DE{gamma}E exerted an even less pronounced but still significant suppressive effect at the concentration of 10{sup {minus}10}M. None of the endorphins tested was shown to affect resting oxidative metabolism in the PMN. The modulatory effects of the opioid peptides could not be blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone.

  13. The role of protein kinase C in cell surface signal transduction and tumour promotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizuka, Yasutomi

    1984-04-01

    Protein kinase C has a crucial role in signal transduction for a variety of biologically active substances which activate cellular functions and proliferation. When cells are stimulated, protein kinase C is transiently activated by diacylglycerol which is produced in the membrane during the signal-induced turnover of inositol phospholipids. Tumour-promoting phorbol esters, when intercalated into the cell membrane, may substitute for diacylglycerol and permanently activate protein kinase C. The enzyme probably serves as a receptor for the tumour promoters. Further exploration of the roles of this enzyme may provide clues for understanding the mechanism of cell growth and differentiation.

  14. Degradation of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters derived from Jatropha oil cake and their tumor-promoting activity.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Motoyuki; Hasegawa, Go; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Ishihara, Yoko

    2015-04-01

    Large amount of oil cake is generated during biodiesel production from Jatropha seeds. Although Jatropha oil cake is rich in plant nutrients, presence of toxic phorbol esters restricts the usage of oil cake as a fertilizer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the components and tumor promoting activity of phorbol esters in Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil and plants grown in the treated soil. Contents and their biological activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in soil and plants were sequentially analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and in vitro cell transformation assay, respectively. Disappearance of Jatropha phorbol-ester-specific peaks were followed with HPLC during incubation of Jatropha oil cake with soil for five weeks. Along with the degradation of Jatropha phorbol ester in soil, tumor-promoting activity in the sample was also attenuated and ultimately disappeared. Jatropha phorbol esters and tumor promoting activity were not detected from mustard spinach grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil. In addition, the esterase KM109 degrades DHPB (see definition below; Jatropha phorbol ester) and reduced its tumor-promoting activity. From these data, we conclude: (1) components and tumor promoting activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in the oil cake disappeared completely by incubation with soil for five-week, (2) Jatropha phorbol esters did not transfer into plants grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil, and (3) DHPB can be degraded by esterase from soil bacterium. These observations are useful for utilization of Jatropha oil cake as a fertilizer. PMID:25066610

  15. Degradation of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters derived from Jatropha oil cake and their tumor-promoting activity.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Motoyuki; Hasegawa, Go; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Ishihara, Yoko

    2015-04-01

    Large amount of oil cake is generated during biodiesel production from Jatropha seeds. Although Jatropha oil cake is rich in plant nutrients, presence of toxic phorbol esters restricts the usage of oil cake as a fertilizer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the components and tumor promoting activity of phorbol esters in Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil and plants grown in the treated soil. Contents and their biological activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in soil and plants were sequentially analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and in vitro cell transformation assay, respectively. Disappearance of Jatropha phorbol-ester-specific peaks were followed with HPLC during incubation of Jatropha oil cake with soil for five weeks. Along with the degradation of Jatropha phorbol ester in soil, tumor-promoting activity in the sample was also attenuated and ultimately disappeared. Jatropha phorbol esters and tumor promoting activity were not detected from mustard spinach grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil. In addition, the esterase KM109 degrades DHPB (see definition below; Jatropha phorbol ester) and reduced its tumor-promoting activity. From these data, we conclude: (1) components and tumor promoting activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in the oil cake disappeared completely by incubation with soil for five-week, (2) Jatropha phorbol esters did not transfer into plants grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil, and (3) DHPB can be degraded by esterase from soil bacterium. These observations are useful for utilization of Jatropha oil cake as a fertilizer.

  16. Atractylodin Inhibits Interleukin-6 by Blocking NPM-ALK Activation and MAPKs in HMC-1.

    PubMed

    Chae, Hee-Sung; Kim, Young-Mi; Chin, Young-Won

    2016-09-02

    Atractylodin is one of the major constituents of the rhizome of Atractylodes lancea, which is widely used in Korean traditional medicine as a remedy for the treatment of gastritis and gastric ulcers. Despite of a major constituent of widely used botanical to treat inflammatory responses little is known about anti-inflammatory effect of atractylodin in the human mast cell (HMC-1). Hence, we evaluated the effect of atractylodin on the release of IL-6, the involvement of nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and A23187-induced HMC-1. In addition, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), phospholipase C (PLC) gamma 1, and AKT phosphorylation relevant to NPM-ALK signal pathway were assessed. IL-6 levels in the HMC-1 stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and A23187 were apparently decreased by the treatment of atractylodin. Concurrently, atractylodin not only inhibited the phosphorylation of NPM-ALK, but also suppressed the phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3, PLC gamma 1, and AKT. Furthermore, the activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and A23187 were inhibited by atractylodin. These results suggested that atractylodin might have a potential regulatory effect on inflammatory mediator expression through blockade of both the phosphorylation of MAPKs and the NPM-ALK signaling pathway.

  17. Atractylodin Inhibits Interleukin-6 by Blocking NPM-ALK Activation and MAPKs in HMC-1.

    PubMed

    Chae, Hee-Sung; Kim, Young-Mi; Chin, Young-Won

    2016-01-01

    Atractylodin is one of the major constituents of the rhizome of Atractylodes lancea, which is widely used in Korean traditional medicine as a remedy for the treatment of gastritis and gastric ulcers. Despite of a major constituent of widely used botanical to treat inflammatory responses little is known about anti-inflammatory effect of atractylodin in the human mast cell (HMC-1). Hence, we evaluated the effect of atractylodin on the release of IL-6, the involvement of nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and A23187-induced HMC-1. In addition, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), phospholipase C (PLC) gamma 1, and AKT phosphorylation relevant to NPM-ALK signal pathway were assessed. IL-6 levels in the HMC-1 stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and A23187 were apparently decreased by the treatment of atractylodin. Concurrently, atractylodin not only inhibited the phosphorylation of NPM-ALK, but also suppressed the phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3, PLC gamma 1, and AKT. Furthermore, the activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and A23187 were inhibited by atractylodin. These results suggested that atractylodin might have a potential regulatory effect on inflammatory mediator expression through blockade of both the phosphorylation of MAPKs and the NPM-ALK signaling pathway. PMID:27598116

  18. Regulation of cholesterol esterification by protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Jeng, I.; Dills, C.; Klemm, N.; Wu, C.

    1986-03-05

    They have recently identified acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase as the key enzyme for cholesterol esterification in the central nervous system. They found that the activity of glial acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase could be controlled by a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation mechanism. However, repeated attempts to identify cyclic AMP as the bioregulator for this reaction failed. Recently, they have studied the possible involvement of protein kinase C in the regulation of glial cholesterol esterification. Phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) can activate cellular cholesterol esterification in a complex, time-dependent manner. Phorbol analogues inactive toward protein kinase C are also ineffective in this assay. Furthermore, oleoyl-acetyl-glycerol mimics the effect of PMA, confirming the proposal that protein kinase C mediates the effect of these compounds and that the natural bioregulator is probably diacylglycerol. Receptor-mediated polyphosphatidyl-inositol cleavage often produces diacylglycerol and inositol triphosphate. The synergic effects of these two compounds are known to be necessary to elicit other biological responses. Their preliminary studies using calcium ionophore A23187 indicates that Ca/sup + +/ is not required for cellular cholesterol esterification. In sum, glial cholesterol esterification is probably regulated by a calcium-independent and protein kinase C-dependent reaction.

  19. Phorbol ester stimulates ethanolamine release from the metastatic basal prostate cancer cell line PC3 but not from prostate epithelial cell lines LNCaP and P4E6

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, J; Noble, A; Otsuka, M; Berry, P; Maitland, N J; Rumsby, M G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malignancy alters cellular complex lipid metabolism and membrane lipid composition and turnover. Here, we investigated whether tumorigenesis in cancer-derived prostate epithelial cell lines influences protein kinase C-linked turnover of ethanolamine phosphoglycerides (EtnPGs) and alters the pattern of ethanolamine (Etn) metabolites released to the medium. Methods: Prostate epithelial cell lines P4E6, LNCaP and PC3 were models of prostate cancer (PCa). PNT2C2 and PNT1A were models of benign prostate epithelia. Cellular EtnPGs were labelled with [1-3H]-Etn hydrochloride. PKC was activated with phorbol ester (TPA) and inhibited with Ro31-8220 and GF109203X. D609 was used to inhibit PLD (phospholipase D). [3H]-labelled Etn metabolites were resolved by ion-exchange chromatography. Sodium oleate and mastoparan were tested as activators of PLD2. Phospholipase D activity was measured by a transphosphatidylation reaction. Cells were treated with ionomycin to raise intracellular Ca2+ levels. Results: Unstimulated cell lines release mainly Etn and glycerylphosphorylEtn (GPEtn) to the medium. Phorbol ester treatment over 3h increased Etn metabolite release from the metastatic PC3 cell line and the benign cell lines PNT2C2 and PNT1A but not from the tumour-derived cell lines P4E6 and LNCaP; this effect was blocked by Ro31-8220 and GF109203X as well as by D609, which inhibited PLD in a transphosphatidylation reaction. Only metastatic PC3 cells specifically upregulated Etn release in response to TPA treatment. Oleate and mastoparan increased GPEtn release from all cell lines at the expense of Etn. Ionomycin stimulated GPEtn release from benign PNT2C2 cells but not from cancer-derived cell lines P4E6 or PC3. Ethanolamine did not stimulate the proliferation of LNCaP or PC3 cell lines but decreased the uptake of choline (Cho). Conclusions: Only the metastatic basal PC3 cell line specifically increased the release of Etn on TPA treatment most probably by PKC activation of

  20. Role of Protein Kinase C, PI3-kinase and Tyrosine Kinase in Activation of MAP Kinase by Glucose and Agonists of G-protein Coupled Receptors in INS-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Böcker, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase (also called Erk 1/2) plays a crucial role in cell proliferation and differentiation. Its impact on secretory events is less well established. The interplay of protein kinase C (PKC), PI3-kinase nd cellular tyrosine kinase with MAP kinase activity using inhibitors and compounds such as glucose, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and agonists of G-protein coupled receptors like gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), oxytocin (OT) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) was investigated in INS-1 cells, an insulin secreting cell line. MAP kinase activity was determined by using a peptide derived from the EGF receptor as a MAP kinase substrate and [ P 32 ]ATP. Glucose as well as GRP, OT and GIP exhibited a time-dependent increase in MAP kinase activity with a maximum at time point 2.5 min. All further experiments were performed using 2.5 min incubations. The flavone PD 098059 is known to bind to the inactive forms of MEK1 (MAPK/ERK-Kinase) thus preventing activation by upstream activators. 20 μM PD 098059 ( IC 50 =51 μM) inhibited MAP kinase stimulated by either glucose, GRP, OT, GIP or PMA. Inhibiton (“downregulation”) of PKC by a long term (22h) pretreatment with 1 μM PMA did not influence MAP kinase activity when augmented by either of the above mentioned compound. To investigate whether PI3-kinase and cellular tyrosine kinase are involved in G-protein mediated effects on MAP kinase, inhibitors were used: 100 nM wortmannin (PI3-kinase inhibitor) reduced the effects of GRP, OT and GIP but not that of PMA; 100 μM genistein (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) inhibited the stimulatory effect of either above mentioned compound on MAP kinase activation. Inhibition of MAP kinase by 20 μM PD 098059 did not influence insulin secretion modulated by either compound (glucose, GRP, OT or GIP). [ H 3 ]Thymidine incorporation, however, was severely inhibited by PD 098059. Thus MAP kinase is important for INS-1 cell proliferation but

  1. Dissection of signals controlling T cell function and activation: H7, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, blocks induction of primary T cell proliferation by suppressing interleukin (IL)2 receptor expression without affecting IL2 production.

    PubMed

    Hengel, H; Allig, B; Wagner, H; Heeg, K

    1991-07-01

    T cell activation induced via cross-linking of the T cell receptor (TcR) stimulates hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol to the second messengers diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3). DAG is necessary for the activation and function of protein kinase C (PKC) which is suggested to play a key role in the cascade of signal transduction when translocated from the cytosol to the cell membrane. In this report, we investigated responses of resting vs. activated Ly-2+ and L3T4+ T lymphocytes in the presence of the PKC inhibitor H7 [1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine]. H7 inhibited the induction of primary T cell proliferation, while interleukin 2 (IL 2) production was fully retained. The effect of the PKC inhibitor on primary T cells depended on the type of ligand interacting with the TcR: increasing doses of concanavalin A or of immobilized anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb), but not of anti-V beta 8 or of anti-TcR alpha/beta mAb, partly overcame the blockade, indicating a differential signaling compared to the former stimuli. The blockade of T cell proliferation by H7 was not due to an inhibition of PKC translocation, but occurred even 4-8 h after T cell induction and correlated with a significant reduction of IL 2 receptor (IL 2R) expression. In contrast, the mRNA levels of IL 2R and the cellular proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-myc were not affected. On activated T cells, H7 neither blocked proliferation nor IL2R expression. Consequently, H7 dissects the signal resulting in T cell proliferation from those governing the triggering of other T cell functions, i.e. IL 2 production, during primary responses of Ly-2+ or L3T4+ murine T lymphocytes.

  2. Monoclonal antibodies against type II rat brain protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Nakabayashi, C.H.; Huang, K.P.

    1987-05-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (8/1, 10/10, and 25/3) against rat brain type II protein kinase C (PKC) were used to carry out the immunochemical characterization of this kinase. These antibodies immunoprecipitated the type II PKC in a dose-dependent manner but did neither to type I nor type III isozyme. Purified type II PKC has a molecular weight of 82,000 and consists of heterogeneous isoelectric point species, all of which are cross reactive with these antibodies. Immunoblot analysis of the tryptic fragments from PKC revealed that all three antibodies recognized the 33-38-KDa fragments, the phospholipid/phorbol ester-binding domain, but not the 45-48-KDa fragments, the kinase catalytic domain. The immune complexes of the kinase and the antibodies retained the kinase activity which was dependent on Ca/sup 2 +/ and phosphatidylserine (PS) and further activated by diacylglycerol. With antibody 8/1, the apparent Km values of the kinase for Ca/sup 2 +/ and PS were not influenced. The initial rate and final extent of autophosphorylation were reduced. The concentration of PS required for half-maximal (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) binding was increased and the total PDBu binding was reduced. In the presence of optimum concentrations of Ca/sup 2 +/ and PS, the Kd of PDBu was unaffected by the antibody but the total binding was reduced. These results demonstrate that the PS/PDBu-binding domain contains the major epitope for the antibodies and the antibody mainly influences the PS/PDBu binding to the kinase.

  3. Role of protein kinase A in collagenase-1 gene regulation by prostaglandin E1: studies in a rabbit synoviocyte cell line, HIG-82.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Rapuano, B E; Bockman, R S

    1997-04-01

    Gene expression of the matrix-degrading enzyme collagenase-1 in rabbit synoviocytes and human fibroblasts is down-regulated by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) through a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent pathway. In the current study, we examined the role of protein kinase A (PKA) in the PGE1-mediated effect on collagenase-1 gene expression. Collagenase-1 gene expression was rapidly induced several-fold above control both by a phorbol ester, 12-o-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13 acetate, and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) in HIG-82 synoviocytes. Treatment with PGE1 and forskolin increased PKA activity in the HIG-82 cells within 15 minutes of adding the stimulating agents. Two inhibitors of PKA, the isoquinoline-sulfonamide derivative, H-89 and a cAMP analog, RpcAMP, blocked the ability of PGE1 to down-regulate collagenase-1 gene expression. However, if PGE1 was added from 6 h to 30 minutes before the PKA inhibitor H-89, collagenase-1 gene expression was inhibited. Constitutive PKA activity was increased in HIG-82 synoviocytes stably transfected with an expression vector pCMV.C alpha that caused the HIG-82 cells to overexpress an active catalytic subunit of PKA. Cells stably transfected with an inactive, mutated C-alpha-variant showed no change in PKA activity. Collagenase-1 mRNA levels in TPA-stimulated cells were reduced to baseline levels in the pCMV.C alpha but not in the mutated C-alpha-transfected cells. These data show the importance of PKA in regulating collagenase-1 gene expression in a synoviocyte cell line.

  4. Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of COX-2, and induces expression of cytoprotective enzymes in mouse skin in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Liu, Lijia; Shin, Jun-Wan; Surh, Young-Joon

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced COX-2 expression in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone attenuates phosphorylation of IκBα and DNA binding of NF-κB in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone inhibits phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, JNK and Akt in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone induces the expression of cytoprotective proteins in mouse skin. -- Abstract: Thymoquinone (TQ), the active ingredient of Nigella sativa, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. The present study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of thymoquinone in mouse skin. Pretreatment of female HR-1 hairless mouse skin with TQ attenuated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). TQ diminished nuclear translocation and the DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) via the blockade of phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IκBα in TPA-treated mouse skin. Pretreatment with TQ attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2. Moreover, topical application of TQ induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H-quinoneoxidoreductase-1, glutathione-S-transferase and glutamate cysteine ligase in mouse skin. Taken together, the inhibitory effects of TQ on TPA-induced COX-2 expression and NF-κB activation, and its ability to induce the expression of cytoprotective proteins provide a mechanistic basis of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of TQ in hairless mouse skin.

  5. Inhibition of hormone-sensitive lipase gene expression by cAMP and phorbol esters in 3T3-F442A and BFC-1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Plée-Gautier, E; Grober, J; Duplus, E; Langin, D; Forest, C

    1996-09-15

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) catalyses the rate-limiting step in adipocyte lipolysis. Short-term hormonal regulation of HSL activity is well characterized, whereas little is known about the control of HSL gene expression. We have measured HSL mRNA content of 3T3-F442A and BFC-1 adipocytes in response to the cAMP analogue 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (8-CPT-cAMP) and to the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) by Northern blot, using a specific mouse cDNA fragment. Treatment of the cells for 12 or 6 h with, respectively, 0.5 mM 8-CPT-cAMP or 1 microM PMA produced a maximal decrease of about 60% in HSL mRNA. These effects were unaffected by the protein-synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, suggesting that cAMP and PMA actions were direct. The reduction in HSL mRNA was accompanied by a reduction in HSL total activity. The intracellular routes that cAMP and PMA follow for inducing such an effect seemed clearly independent. (i) After desensitization of the protein kinase C regulation pathway by a 24 h treatment of the cells with 1 microM PMA, PMA action was abolished whereas cAMP was still fully active. (ii) Treatment with saturating concentrations of both agents produced an additive effect. (iii) The synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone had no proper effect on HSL gene expression but potentiated cAMP action without affecting PMA action. cAMP inhibitory action on HSL is unexpected. Indeed, the second messenger of catecholamines is the main activator of HSL by phosphorylation. We envision that a long-term cAMP treatment of adipocytes induces a counter-regulatory process that reduces HSL content and, ultimately, limits fatty acid depletion from stored triacylglycerols.

  6. Phorbol ester phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate promotes anchorage-independent growth and survival of melanomas through MEK-independent activation of ERK1/2

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Kjersti; Skrede, Martina; Cruciani, Veronique; Mikalsen, Svein-Ole; Slipicevic, Ana; Florenes, Vivi Ann . E-mail: v.a.florenes@labmed.uio.no

    2005-04-01

    The phorbol ester, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), an activator of PKCs, is known to stimulate the in vitro growth of monolayer cultures of normal human melanocytes whereas it inhibits the growth of most malignant melanoma cell lines. We examined the effect of PMA on proliferation and survival of melanoma cells grown as multicellular aggregates in suspension (spheroids), and aimed to elucidate downstream targets of PKC signaling. In contrast to monolayer cultures, PMA increased cell proliferation as well as protected melanoma cells from suspension-mediated apoptosis (anoikis). Supporting the importance of PKC in anchorage-independent growth, treatment of anoikis-resistant melanoma cell lines with antisense oligonucleotides against PKC-{alpha}, or the PKC inhibitor Goe6976, strongly induced anoikis. PMA induced activation of ERK1/2, but this effect was not prevented by the MEK inhibitors PD98059 or by U0126. Whereas PD98059 treatment alone led to marked activation of the pro-apoptotic Bim and Bad proteins and significantly increased anoikis, these effects were clearly reversed by PMA. In conclusion, our results indicate that the protective effect of PMA on anchorage-independent survival of melanoma cells at least partly is mediated by MEK-independent activation of ERK1/2 and inactivation of downstream pro-apoptotic effector proteins.

  7. Leishmania amazonensis: PKC-like protein kinase modulates the (Na++K+)ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo de; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Lara, Lucienne Silva; Pinheiro, Carla Mônica; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2007-08-01

    The present study aimed to identify the presence of protein kinase C-like (PKC-like) in Leishmania amazonensis and to elucidate its possible role in the modulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity. Immunoblotting experiments using antibody against a consensus sequence (Ac 543-549) of rabbit protein kinase C (PKC) revealed the presence of a protein kinase of 80 kDa in L. amazonensis. Measurements of protein kinase activity showed the presence of both (Ca(2+)-dependent) and (Ca(2+)-independent) protein kinase activity in plasma membrane and cytosol. Phorbol ester (PMA) activation of the Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase stimulated the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity, while activation of the Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase was inhibitory. Both effects of protein kinase on the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase of the plasma membrane were lower than that observed in intact cells. PMA induced the translocation of protein kinase from cytosol to plasma membrane, indicating that the maximal effect of protein kinase on the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity depends on the synergistic action of protein kinases from both plasma membrane and cytosol. This is the first demonstration of a protein kinase activated by PMA in L. amazonensis and the first evidence for a possible role in the regulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity in this trypanosomatid. Modulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase by protein kinase in a trypanosomatid opens up new possibilities to understand the regulation of ion homeostasis in this parasite. PMID:17475255

  8. Expression of mammalian protein kinase C in Schizosaccharomyces pombe: isotype-specific induction of growth arrest, vesicle formation, and endocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Goode, N T; Hajibagheri, M A; Warren, G; Parker, P J

    1994-01-01

    Mammalian protein kinase C (PKC) isotypes elicit a number of effects on expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A small decrease in growth rate results from PKC-gamma expression, and treatment of these cells with phorbol esters leads to marked growth inhibition and vesicle formation. PKC-delta and -eta expression causes growth inhibition and vesiculation, and the magnitude of both of these effects is increased by phorbol esters. In contrast, PKC-epsilon expression produces growth inhibition but no vesicle accumulation, and this effect is not responsive to phorbol ester. Finally, PKC-zeta has no observable effect. Thus, isotype-specific biological effects are observed. The accumulation of vesicles correlates with phorbol ester-dependent growth inhibition and occurs only with expression of those isotypes that down-regulate in response to phorbol esters in these cells. Antibodies against mammalian clathrin light chain 1a identified clathrin-coated vesicles and up-regulation of clathrin expression in those cells where vesicles accumulate; the increased vesicular traffic includes an element of endocytosis. Thus expression of specific mammalian PKC isotypes up-regulates endocytosis in S. pombe, providing a likely explanation for PKC-mediated receptor internalization in higher eukaryotes. Images PMID:7803858

  9. Phorbol esters enhance attachment of NIH/3T3 cells to laminin and type IV collagen substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Shigemi; Ben, T.L.; De Luca, L.M. )

    1988-11-01

    The effect of phorbol esters on the adhesive properties of NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts was investigated using plastic substrates precoated with the extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, collagen, and laminin. Treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) enhanced NIH/3T3 cell attachment to laminin and type IV collagen substrates but had little or no effect on attachment to fibronectin and type I collagen substrates. The effect of PMA in enhancing cell attachment to laminin and type IV collagen substrates was dose dependent between 10{sup {minus}9} and 10{sup {minus}7} M. PMA was effective as early as 30 min; the effect reached a maximum at 2 h and decreased gradually. Phorbol 12, 13-dibenzoate and phorbol 12, 13-diacetate were effective but to a lesser extent and phorbol 12-myristate and phorbol 13-acetate showed little or no effect. These results suggest that PMA may enhance NIH/3T3 cell adhesion through effects on laminin and type IV collagen receptors. Retinoic acid, which itself requires at least 6 h to show an effect on attachment, did not have any effect on cell attachment in 2 h and, if anything, slightly inhibited PMA-enhanced cell attachment to laminin and type IV collagen substrates.

  10. Protein kinase C modulation of recombinant ATP-sensitive K(+) channels composed of Kir6.1 and/or Kir6.2 expressed with SUR2B.

    PubMed

    Thorneloe, Kevin S; Maruyama, Yoshiaki; Malcolm, A Todd; Light, Peter E; Walsh, Michael P; Cole, William C

    2002-05-15

    The molecular identity of smooth muscle ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (K(ATP)) is not established with certainty. Patch clamp methods were employed to determine if recombinant K(ATP) channels composed of Kir6.1 and SUR2B subunits expressed by human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells share an identical modulation by protein kinase C (PKC) with the vascular K(NDP) subtype of K(ATP) channel. The open probability of Kir6.1/SUR2B channels was determined before and after sequential exposure to pinacidil (50 microM) and the combination of pinacidil and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PdBu; 50 nM). Treatment with PdBu caused a decline in channel activity, but this was not seen with an inactive phorbol ester, 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (PdDe; 50 nM). Angiotensin II (0.1 microM) induced a similar inhibition of Kir6.1/SUR2B channels in cells expressing angiotensin AT(1) receptors. The effects of PdBu and angiotensin II were blocked by the PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine (3 microM). Purified PKC inhibited Kir6.1/SUR2B activity (in 0.5 mM ATP/ 0.5 mM ADP), and the inhibition was blocked by a specific peptide inhibitor of PKC, PKC(19-31). In contrast, PdBu increased the activity of recombinant K(ATP) channels composed of Kir6.2 and SUR2B, or the combination of Kir6.1, Kir6.2 and SUR2B subunits. The results indicate that the modulation by PKC of Kir6.1/SUR2B, but not Kir6.2/SUR2B or Kir6.1-Kir6.2/SUR2B channel gating mimics that of native vascular K(NDP) channels. Physiological inhibition of vascular K(ATP) current by vasoconstrictors which utilize intracellular signalling cascades involving PKC is concluded to involve the modulation of K(NDP) channel complexes composed of four Kir6.1 and their associated SUR2B subunits.

  11. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B initiates protein kinase C translocation and eicosanoid metabolism while inhibiting thrombin-induced aggregation in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Tran, Uyen; Boyle, Thomas; Shupp, Jeffrey W; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti

    2006-08-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) B, a heat-stable toxin secreted by Staphylococcus aureus, has been implicated in the pathogenesis and exacerbation of several critical illnesses. It has been hypothesized that enterotoxins may interact with blood products such as platelets, in addition to T-lymphocytes and renal proximal tubule cells. The aim of this present study was to elucidate whether SEB directly alters human platelet function. Human platelet rich plasma (PRP) was pre-incubated with SEA, SEB, SEC or TSST-1, (at various concentrations and incubation times). After incubation, PRP was exposed to thrombin and aggregation was assessed. Incubation with all toxins tested resulted in decreased aggregation, specifically; exposure to 10mu g/ml of SEB for 30 min caused a 20% decrease and a 49% decrease at 90 min. A similar reduction in aggregation was seen in samples incubated with phorbol myristate acetate, a known stimulator of protein kinase C (PKC). Further, platelets exposed to SEB exhibited an increased plasma membrane PKC activity. Sphingosine, an inhibitor of PKC proved to block the SEB-induced reduction in aggregation. SEB effects on platelet metabolism were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography showing up to a 2-fold increase of active metabolites lipoxin A4 and 12-HETE, as compared to control. These data indicate that SEB is able to induce platelet dysfunction, and these effects may be mediated through activation of PKC.

  12. Rapid activation of protein kinase C in isolated rat liver nuclei by prolactin, a known hepatic mitogen.

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, A R; Crowe, P D; Russell, D H

    1988-01-01

    Rat liver nuclei pure by enzymatic and electron microscope criteria contain protein kinase C (PKC) that can be activated several hundredfold within 3 min of addition of prolactin or phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate. Rat prolactin stimulated PKC maximally at 10(-12) M, whereas ovine prolactin was maximally stimulatory at 10(-10) M. Activation was time and dose dependent, exhibited a biphasic pattern, and was blocked by anti-prolactin antiserum, by PKC inhibitors such as 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7) and sphingosine, and by cyclosporine. Moreover, the ability of prolactin to activate nuclear PKC was inhibited totally by a monoclonal antibody to the rat liver prolactin receptor, implicating a prolactin receptor-mediated activation process. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a liver mitogen, caused a lesser but significant activation of nuclear PKC. However, EGF and suboptimal prolactin were synergistic. Human growth hormone, which has lactogenic properties, stimulated PKC activity, whereas nonlactogenic substances such as ovine growth hormone, insulin, dexamethasone, and 8-bromo-cAMP were inactive. That this may be a general mechanism for prolactin is suggested by the ability of prolactin to stimulate PKC 140-fold in rat splenocyte nuclei. Prolactin has comitogenic properties in lymphocytes. Images PMID:3186750

  13. Serotonin and protein kinase C modulation of a rat brain inwardly rectifying K+ channel expressed in xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    DiMagno, L; Dascal, N; Davidson, N; Lester, H A; Schreibmayer, W

    1996-01-01

    In Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with rat brain poly(A)+ RNA, perfusion with a high-K+ solution (96 mM KCl) generated an inward current (IHK) which was absent in water-injected oocytes. Part of IHK was blocked by low concentrations of Ba2+ (half-maximal inhibitory concentration, IC50: 4.2 +/- 0.5 microM). When serotonin (5-HT) was applied to these oocytes a transient inward oscillating Cl- current arising from activation of Ca2+ -dependent Cl- channels, ICl (Ca), was observed. When this response decayed, a 30% reduction of IHK could be detected. Electrophysiological characterization of the K+ channel down-modulated by 5-HT revealed that it is an inward rectifier. Anti-sense suppression experiments revealed that the 5-HT2C receptor mediates the down-modulatory effect of 5-HT. The nature of the modulatory pathway was investigated by application of phorbol esters and intracellular injection of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, ethylenebis (oxonitrilo)tetraacetate (EGTA) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The results demonstrate that PKC is responsible for the down-modulatory effect.

  14. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B initiates protein kinase C translocation and eicosanoid metabolism while inhibiting thrombin-induced aggregation in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Tran, Uyen; Boyle, Thomas; Shupp, Jeffrey W; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti

    2006-08-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) B, a heat-stable toxin secreted by Staphylococcus aureus, has been implicated in the pathogenesis and exacerbation of several critical illnesses. It has been hypothesized that enterotoxins may interact with blood products such as platelets, in addition to T-lymphocytes and renal proximal tubule cells. The aim of this present study was to elucidate whether SEB directly alters human platelet function. Human platelet rich plasma (PRP) was pre-incubated with SEA, SEB, SEC or TSST-1, (at various concentrations and incubation times). After incubation, PRP was exposed to thrombin and aggregation was assessed. Incubation with all toxins tested resulted in decreased aggregation, specifically; exposure to 10mu g/ml of SEB for 30 min caused a 20% decrease and a 49% decrease at 90 min. A similar reduction in aggregation was seen in samples incubated with phorbol myristate acetate, a known stimulator of protein kinase C (PKC). Further, platelets exposed to SEB exhibited an increased plasma membrane PKC activity. Sphingosine, an inhibitor of PKC proved to block the SEB-induced reduction in aggregation. SEB effects on platelet metabolism were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography showing up to a 2-fold increase of active metabolites lipoxin A4 and 12-HETE, as compared to control. These data indicate that SEB is able to induce platelet dysfunction, and these effects may be mediated through activation of PKC. PMID:16550298

  15. Sangivamycin, a nucleoside analogue, is a potent inhibitor of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Loomis, C R; Bell, R M

    1988-02-01

    Protein kinase C functions prominently in cell regulation via its pleiotropic role in signal transduction processes. Certain oncogene products resemble elements involved in transmembrane signaling, elevate cellular sn-1,2-diacylglycerol second messenger levels, and activate protein kinase C. Sangivamycin was unique among the nucleoside compounds tested in its ability to potently inhibit protein kinase C activity. Inhibition was competitive with respect to ATP for both protein kinase C and the catalytic fragment of protein kinase C prepared by trypsin digestion. Sangivamycin was a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to histone and lipid cofactors (phosphatidylserine and diacylglycerol). Sangivamycin inhibited native protein kinase C and the catalytic fragment identically, with apparent Ki values of 11 and 15 microM, respectively. Sangivamycin was an effective an inhibitor of protein kinase C as H-7, an isoquinolinsulfonamide. Sangivamycin did not inhibit [3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate binding to protein kinase C. Sangivamycin did not exert its action through the lipid binding/regulatory domain; inhibition was not affected by the presence of lipid or detergent. Unlike H-7, sangivamycin selectively inhibited protein kinase C compared to cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The discovery that protein kinase C is inhibited by sangivamycin and other antitumor agents suggests that protein kinase C may be a target for rational design of antitumor compounds. PMID:3338987

  16. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  17. Mouse Sphingosine Kinase 1a Is Negatively Regulated through Conventional PKC-Dependent Phosphorylation at S373 Residue

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yong-Seok; Bae, Sun Sik; Park, Jong Bae; Ha, Sang Hoon; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine kinase is a lipid kinase that converts sphingosine into sphingosine-1-phosphate, an important signaling molecule with intracellular and extracellular functions. Although diverse extracellular stimuli influence cellular sphingosine kinase activity, the molecular mechanisms underlying its regulation remain to be clarified. In this study, we investigated the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of mouse sphingosine kinase (mSK) isoforms 1 and 2. mSK1a was robustly phosphorylated in response to extracellular stimuli such as phorbol ester, whereas mSK2 exhibited a high basal level of phosphorylation in quiescent cells regardless of agonist stimulation. Interestingly, phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation of mSK1a correlated with suppression of its activity. Chemical inhibition of conventional PKCs (cPKCs) abolished mSK1a phosphorylation, while overexpression of PKCα, a cPKC isoform, potentiated the phosphorylation, in response to phorbol ester. Furthermore, an in vitro kinase assay showed that PKCα directly phosphorylated mSK1a. In addition, phosphopeptide mapping analysis determined that the S373 residue of mSK1a was the only site phosphorylated by cPKC. Interestingly, alanine substitution of S373 made mSK1a refractory to the inhibitory effect of phorbol esters, whereas glutamate substitution of the same residue resulted in a significant reduction in mSK1a activity, suggesting the significant role of this phosphorylation event. Taken together, we propose that mSK1a is negatively regulated through cPKC-dependent phosphorylation at S373 residue. PMID:26642194

  18. Manassantin B isolated from Saururus chinensis inhibits cyclooxygenase-2-dependent prostaglandin D2 generation by blocking Fyn-mediated nuclear factor-kappaB and mitogen activated protein kinase pathways in bone marrow derived-mast cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yue; Hwang, Seung-Lark; Son, Jong Keun; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of manassantin B (Man B) isolated from Saururus chinensis (S. chinensis) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-dependent prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) generation in mouse bone marrow derived-mast cells (BMMCs). Man B inhibited the generation of PGD2 dose-dependently by inhibiting COX-2 expression in immunoglobulin E (IgE)/Ag-stimulated BMMCs. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for the inhibition of COX-2 expression by Man B, the effects of Man B on the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), a transcription factor essential and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) for COX-2 induction, were examined. Man B attenuated the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and its DNA-binding activity by inhibiting inhibitors of kappa Bα (IκBα) degradation and concomitantly suppressing IκB kinase (IKK) phosphorylation. In addition, Man B suppressed phosphorylation of MAPKs including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. It was also found that Man B suppressed Fyn kinase activation and consequent downstream signaling processes, including those involving Syk, Gab2, and Akt. Taken together, the present results suggest that Man B suppresses COX-2 dependent PGD2 generation by primarily inhibiting Fyn kinase in FcεRI-mediated mast cells.

  19. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta is required for the differentiation of THP-1 monocytic cells by phorbol ester.

    PubMed

    Vosper, Helen; Khoudoli, Guennadi A; Palmer, Colin NA

    2003-12-11

    BACKGROUND: PPARdelta (NR1C2) promotes lipid accumulation in human macrophages in vitro and has been implicated in the response of macrophages to vLDL. We have investigated the role of PPARdelta in PMA-stimulated macrophage differentiation.The THP-1 monocytic cell line which displays macrophage like differentiation in response to phorbol esters was used as a model system. We manipulated the response to PMA using a potent synthetic agonist of PPARdelta, compound F. THP-1 sub-lines that either over-expressed PPARdelta protein, or expressed PPARdelta anti-sense RNA were generated. We then explored the effects of these genetic modulations on the differentiation process. RESULTS: The PPARdelta agonist, compound F, stimulated differentiation in the presence of sub-nanomolar concentrations of phorbol ester. Several markers of differentiation were induced by compound F in a synergistic fashion with phorbol ester, including CD68 and IL8. Over-expression of PPARdelta also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARdelta by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. CONCLUSIONS: These data collectively demonstrate that PPARdelta plays a fundamental role in mediating a subset of cellular effects of phorbol ester and supports observations from mouse knockout models that PPARdelta is involved in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses.

  20. Phorbol diesters and transferrin modulate lymphoblastoid cell transferrin receptor expression by two different mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Alcantara, O.; Phillips, J.L.; Boldt, D.H.

    1986-12-01

    Expression of transferrin receptors (TfR) by activated lymphocytes is necessary for lymphocyte DNA synthesis and proliferation. Regulation of TfR expression, therefore, is a mechanism by which the lymphocyte's proliferative potential may be directed and controlled. The authors studied mechanisms by which lymphoblastoid cells modulate TfR expression during treatment with phorbol diesters or iron transferrin (FeTf), agents which cause downregulation of cell surface TfR. Phorbol diester-induced TfR downregulation occurred rapidly, being detectable at 2 min and reaching maximal decreases of 50% by 15 min. It was inhibited by cold but not by agents that destabilize cytoskeletal elements. Furthermore, this downregulation was reversed rapidly by washing or by treatment with the membrane interactive agent, chlorpromazine. In contrast, FeTf-induced TfR downregulation occurred slowly. Decreased expression of TfR was detectable only after 15 min and maximal downregulation was achieved after 60 min. Although FeTf-induced downregulation also was inhibited by cold, it was inhibited in addition by a group of microtubule destabilizing agents (colchicine, vinblastine, podophyllotoxin) or cytochalasin B, a microfilament inhibitor. Furthermore, FeTf-induced downregulation was not reversed readily by washing or by treatment with chlorpromazine. Phorbol diesters cause TfR downregulation by a cytoskeleton-independent mechanism. These data indicate that TfR expression is regulated by two independent mechanisms in lymphoblastoid cells, and they provide the possibility that downregulation of TfR by different mechanisms may result in different effects in these cells.

  1. Screening for toxic phorbol esters in jerky pet treat products using LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Nishshanka, Upul; Jayasuriya, Hiranthi; Chattopadhaya, Chaitali; Kijak, Philip J; Chu, Pak-Sin; Reimschuessel, Renate; Tkachenko, Andriy; Ceric, Olgica; De Alwis, Hemakanthi G

    2016-05-01

    Since 2007, the U.S. FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) has been investigating reports of pets becoming ill after consuming jerky pet treats. Jerky used in pet treats contains glycerin, which can be made from vegetable oil or as a byproduct of biodiesel production. Because some biodiesel is produced using oil from Jatropha curcas, a plant that contains toxic compounds including phorbol esters, CVM developed a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) screening method to evaluate investigational jerky samples for the presence of these toxins. Results indicated that the samples analyzed with the new method did not contain Jatropha toxins at or above the lowest concentration tested. PMID:27038400

  2. The insulin-like effects of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in the isolated fat cell

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, S.S.; Palazzolo, M. )

    1989-01-01

    Recent data from many laboratories suggest that insulin stimulates diacylglycerol formation. Data presented in this manuscript demonstrate an insulin-like effect of PMA, a tumor promoting agent that mimics the action of diacylglycerol, in isolated adipocytes on; (a) glucose oxidation using uniformly labelled, C-1-labelled and C-6-labelled glucose, (b) epinephrine-induced lipolysis and (c) low Km cAMP phosphodiesterase activity. Additionally, a lipolytic effect of PMA is identified when unopposed by epinephrine. These data not only demonstrate an insulin-like effect of phorbol esters in adipose tissue but they lend support to the concept of diacylglycerol involvement in the mechanism of insulin action.

  3. Tec family kinases in inflammation and disease.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Nicole J; Urbaniak, Ania M; Danks, Lynett

    2012-04-01

    Over the last decade, the Tec family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (Btk, Tec, Bmx, Itk, and Rlk) have been shown to play a key role in inflammation and bone destruction. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) has been the most widely studied due to the critical role of this kinase in B-cell development and recent evidence showing that blocking Btk signaling is effective in ameliorating lymphoma progression and experimental arthritis. This review will examine the role of TFK in myeloid cell function and the potential of targeting these kinases as a therapeutic intervention in autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:22449071

  4. Luminol-dependent photoemission from single neutrophil stimulated by phorbol ester and calcium ionophore--role of degranulation and myeloperoxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Suematsu, M.; Oshio, C.; Miura, S.; Suzuki, M.; Houzawa, S.; Tsuchiya, M.

    1988-08-30

    Luminol-dependent photonic burst from phorbol ester-treated single neutrophil was visually investigated by using an ultrasensitive photonic image intensifier microscope. Neutrophils stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate (0.1 microgram/ml) alone produced a negligible level of photonic activities in the presence of luminol (10 micrograms/ml). The additional application of 0.1 microM Ca2+ ionophore A23187 induced explosive changes of photonic burst corresponding to the distribution of neutrophils, and these photonic activities were gradually spread to extracellular space. Sodium azide, which prevents myeloperoxidase activity, inhibited Ca2+ ionophore-induced photonic burst from phorbol ester-treated neutrophil. These findings suggest a prerequisite role of degranulation and myeloperoxidase release in luminol-dependent photoemission from stimulated neutrophils.

  5. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged cysteine-rich domains from protein kinase C as fluorescent indicators for diacylglycerol signaling in living cells.

    PubMed

    Oancea, E; Teruel, M N; Quest, A F; Meyer, T

    1998-02-01

    Cysteine-rich domains (Cys-domains) are approximately 50-amino acid-long protein domains that complex two zinc ions and include a consensus sequence with six cysteine and two histidine residues. In vitro studies have shown that Cys-domains from several protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and a number of other signaling proteins bind lipid membranes in the presence of diacylglycerol or phorbol ester. Here we examine the second messenger functions of diacylglycerol in living cells by monitoring the membrane translocation of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged first Cys-domain of PKC-gamma (Cys1-GFP). Strikingly, stimulation of G-protein or tyrosine kinase-coupled receptors induced a transient translocation of cytosolic Cys1-GFP to the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane translocation was mimicked by addition of the diacylglycerol analogue DiC8 or the phorbol ester, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Photobleaching recovery studies showed that PMA nearly immobilized Cys1-GFP in the membrane, whereas DiC8 left Cys1-GFP diffusible within the membrane. Addition of a smaller and more hydrophilic phorbol ester, phorbol dibuterate (PDBu), localized Cys1-GFP preferentially to the plasma and nuclear membranes. This selective membrane localization was lost in the presence of arachidonic acid. GFP-tagged Cys1Cys2-domains and full-length PKC-gamma also translocated from the cytosol to the plasma membrane in response to receptor or PMA stimuli, whereas significant plasma membrane translocation of Cys2-GFP was only observed in response to PMA addition. These studies introduce GFP-tagged Cys-domains as fluorescent diacylglycerol indicators and show that in living cells the individual Cys-domains can trigger a diacylglycerol or phorbol ester-mediated translocation of proteins to selective lipid membranes.

  6. Phorbol esters and adenosine affect the readily releasable neurotransmitter pool by different mechanisms at amphibian motor nerve endings.

    PubMed

    Searl, T J; Silinsky, E M

    2003-12-01

    Phorbol esters and adenosine have been proposed to interact at common sites downstream of calcium entry at amphibian motor nerve endings. We thus studied the actions and interactions of phorbol esters and adenosine using electrophysiological recording techniques in conjunction with both binomial statistical analysis and high-frequency stimulation at the amphibian neuromuscular junction. To begin this study, we confirmed previous observations that synchronous evoked acetylcholine (ACh) release (reflected as endplate potentials, EPPs) is well described by a simple binomial distribution. We then used binomial analysis to study the effects of the phorbol ester phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu, 100 nM) and adenosine (50 microM) on the binomial parameters n (the number of calcium charged ACh quanta available for release) and p (the average probability of release), where the mean level of evoked ACh release (m) = np. We found that PDBu increased m by increasing the parameter n whilst adenosine reduced m by reducing n; neither agent affected the parameter p. PDBu had no effect on either the potency or efficacy of the inhibition produced by adenosine. Subtle differences between these two agents were revealed by the patterns of EPPs evoked by high-frequency trains of stimuli. Phorbol esters increased ACh release during the early phase of stimulation but not during the subsequent plateau phase. The inhibitory effect of adenosine was maximal at the beginning of the train and was still present with reduced efficacy during the plateau phase. When taken together with previous findings, these present results suggest that phorbol esters increase the immediately available store of synaptic vesicles by increasing the number of primed vesicles whilst adenosine acts at a later stage of the secretory process to decrease the number of calcium-charged primed vesicles.

  7. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

  8. Tumor-promoting phorbol ester stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation in U-937 monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Grunberger, G; Zick, Y; Taylor, S I; Gorden, P

    1984-01-01

    Solubilized lectin-purified extracts from human monocyte-like cells (U-937) and freshly isolated human mononuclear cells preincubated in the presence of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulated phosphorylation of synthetic tyrosine-containing polymers and of casein. Tyrosine phosphorylation was confirmed by phospho amino acid analysis. PMA stimulated phosphorylation of exogenous substrates in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. This phosphorylation reaction did not require addition of phospholipid, diolein, or calcium. Biologically inactive phorbol compounds did not stimulate phosphorylation in this system. In addition, PMA enhanced phosphorylation of a Mr approximately equal to 140,000 protein as well as several other endogenous proteins in the U-937 extracts. PMA treatment stimulated predominantly phosphorylation on tyrosine residues of the Mr 140,000 protein. Tyrosine phosphorylation, typical of growth-promoting peptides such as insulin or epidermal growth factor, is believed to play a role in regulating normal and disordered cellular growth and proliferation. The demonstration of PMA-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation might provide a clue to the mechanism of cellular differentiation and proliferation induced by the tumor promoter. Images PMID:6201862

  9. Oncogene transcription in normal human IMR-90 fibroblasts: induction by serum and tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, E.A.; Kaji, H.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report studies of oncogene transcription induced by the addition of serum to quiescent cultures of human IMR-90 fibroblasts. Oncogene messenger RNAs for c-myc, c-erbB and c-ras were increased in a specific temporal sequence after the addition of serum. Compounds that are proposed to exert their actions by the stimulation of cell growth were tested for their effect on oncogene transcription in IMR-90 fibroblasts. The tumor promoter tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA) was found to selectively induce the transcription of c-myc without observable effect on the transcription of the other oncogenes studied, and without inducing cell division. The inactive analog, phorbol didecanoate (PDD), and two complete carcinogens dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and 4-nitro quinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) were without effect on the transcription of the genes studied. These results suggest that the complete ordered sequence of gene transcription is necessary to achieve the physiologic response of cell division, and that classical promoters and complete carcinogens achieve their effects through different pathways.

  10. Degradation of phorbol 12,13-diacetate in aqueous solution by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongmany, Santi; Furuta, Masakazu; Matsuura, Hiroto; Okuda, Shuichi; Imamura, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Yasuaki

    2014-12-01

    Phorbol esters (PEs) are highly toxic compounds that cause skin irritation, inflammation, and tumor promotion upon contact with humans or animals. These compounds are naturally present in Jatropha curcas L. To promote the use of J. curcas seed oil in bio-diesel production industries and reduce environmental concerns, it is necessary to find methods of degrading PEs. In this study, the degradation of phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA), as a representative PE, in aqueous solution at a concentration of 10 mg/L by 60Co-γ-irradiation was investigated. The results demonstrate that PDA was effectively degraded by this treatment and the degradation efficiency increased with the absorbed dose within the range of 0.5-3 kGy. Complete degradation of PDA was achieved at a dose of 3 kGy. In the presence of radical scavengers (i.e., methanol, tert-butanol, 2-propanol), reactive species from water radiolysis were scavenged, and significant inhibition of PDA degradation was observed at absorbed doses less than 1 kGy. In the presence of nitrous oxide, the generation of hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) was promoted during gamma irradiation and PDA degradation was drastically enhanced.

  11. Protein kinase C does not phosphorylate the externalized form of the transferrin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Adam, M A; Johnstone, R M

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated the phosphorylation of transferrin receptors both in intact sheep reticulocytes and in isolated plasma membranes. Phosphorylation of the receptor in intact cells or isolated plasma membranes is stimulated by phorbol diesters, suggesting that protein kinase C may be involved. Identical [32P] phosphopeptide tryptic maps are formed in the presence and absence of phorbol diesters. Using heat-treated membranes (which are devoid of endogenous kinase activity) exogenous protein kinase C phosphorylates the same peptides as the endogenous kinase(s). During maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes, the transferrin receptor is released to the medium in vesicular form. In cells labelled with [32P]Pi, the released receptor is not labelled with 32P and the exocytosed vesicles do not phosphorylate receptor with [gamma-32P]ATP. The absence of 32P in the released receptor appears to be due to a change in the receptor, since, even in the presence of exogenous protein kinase C, the exocytosed receptor is phosphorylated to approximately 8% of the level obtained with receptors from the plasma membrane. These data suggest that during maturation and externalization the receptor is altered so that it loses its capacity to act as a substrate for exogenous protein kinase C as well as the endogenous kinase(s). This change may be a signal which segregates the receptor for externalization from the receptor pool remaining for transferrin recycling during the final stages of red cell maturation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3593234

  12. p23/Tmp21 associates with protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta) and modulates its apoptotic function.

    PubMed

    Wang, HongBin; Xiao, Liqing; Kazanietz, Marcelo G

    2011-05-01

    There is emerging evidence that C1 domains, motifs originally identified in PKC isozymes and responsible for binding of phorbol esters and diacylglycerol, interact with the Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum protein p23 (Tmp21). In this study, we investigated whether PKCδ, a kinase widely implicated in apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle progression, associates with p23 and determined the potential functional implications of this interaction. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we found that the PKCδ C1b domain associates with p23 and identified two key residues (Asp(245) and Met(266)) implicated in this interaction. Interestingly, silencing p23 from LNCaP prostate cancer cells using RNAi markedly enhanced PKCδ-dependent apoptosis and activation of PKCδ downstream effectors ROCK and JNK by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Moreover, translocation of PKCδ to the plasma membrane by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate was enhanced in p23-depleted LNCaP cells. Notably, a PKCδ mutant that failed to interact with p23 triggered a strong apoptotic response when expressed in LNCaP cells. In summary, our data compellingly support the concept that C1 domains have dual roles both in lipid and protein associations and provide strong evidence that p23 acts as an anchoring protein that retains PKCδ at the perinuclear region, thus limiting the availability of this kinase for activation in response to stimuli.

  13. Amplification of insulin secretion by acetylcholine or phorbol ester is independent of β-cell microfilaments and distinct from metabolic amplification.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Nizar I; Nenquin, Myriam; Henquin, Jean-Claude

    2013-03-10

    Insulin secretion (IS) triggered by β-cell [Ca(2+)](c) is amplified by metabolic and receptor-generated signals. Diacylglycerol largely mediates acetylcholine (ACh) effects through protein-kinase C and other effectors, which can be directly activated by phorbol-ester (PMA). Using mouse islets, we investigated the possible role of microfilaments in ACh/PMA-mediated amplification of IS. PMA had no steady-state impact on actin microfilaments. Although ACh slightly augmented and PMA diminished glucose- and tolbutamide-induced increases in β-cell [Ca(2+)](c), both amplified IS in control islets and after microfilament disruption (latrunculin) or stabilization (jasplakinolide). Both phases of IS were larger in response to glucose than tolbutamide, although [Ca(2+)](c) was lower. This difference in secretion, which reflects metabolic amplification, persisted in presence of ACh/PMA and was independent of microfilaments. Amplification of IS by ACh/PMA is thus distinct from metabolic amplification, but both pathways promote acquisition of release competence by insulin granules, which can access exocytotic sites without intervention of microfilaments.

  14. An AP-2 element acts synergistically with the cyclic AMP- and Phorbol ester-inducible enhancer of the human proenkephalin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, S.E.; Comb, M.; Pearlberg, J.; Goodman, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    An enhancer with two DNA elements, one containing the sequence CGTCA, is required for cyclic AMP-and phorbol ester-inducible transcription of the human proenkephalin gene. The authors report that an AP-2 element located adjacent to the enhancer acts synergistically with it to confer maximal response to cyclic AMP and phorbol esters.

  15. Intermolecular and Intramolecular Interactions Regulate Catalytic Activity of Myotonic Dystrophy Kinase-Related Cdc42-Binding Kinase α

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ivan; Seow, Kah Tong; Lim, Louis; Leung, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy kinase-related Cdc42-binding kinase (MRCK) is a Cdc42-binding serine/threonine kinase with multiple functional domains. We had previously shown MRCKα to be implicated in Cdc42-mediated peripheral actin formation and neurite outgrowth in HeLa and PC12 cells, respectively. Here we demonstrate that native MRCK exists in high-molecular-weight complexes. We further show that the three independent coiled-coil (CC) domains and the N-terminal region preceding the kinase domain are responsible for intermolecular interactions leading to MRCKα multimerization. N terminus-mediated dimerization and consequent transautophosphorylation are critical processes regulating MRCKα catalytic activities. A region containing the two distal CC domains (CC2 and CC3; residues 658 to 930) was found to interact intramolecularly with the kinase domain and negatively regulates its activity. Its deletion also resulted in an active kinase, confirming a negative autoregulatory role. We provide evidence that the N terminus-mediated dimerization and activation of MRCK and the negative autoregulatory kinase–distal CC interaction are two mutually exclusive events that tightly regulate the catalytic state of the kinase. Disruption of this interaction by a mutant kinase domain resulted in increased kinase activity. MRCK kinase activity was also elevated when cells were treated with phorbol ester, which can interact directly with a cysteine-rich domain next to the distal CC domain. We therefore suggest that binding of phorbol ester to MRCK releases its autoinhibition, allowing N-terminal dimerization and subsequent kinase activation. PMID:11283256

  16. Relationship between apoptosis and the cell cycle in lymphocytes: roles of protein kinase C, tyrosine phosphorylation, and AP1.

    PubMed

    Walker, P R; Kwast-Welfeld, J; Gourdeau, H; Leblanc, J; Neugebauer, W; Sikorska, M

    1993-07-01

    The mechanism of switching between the cell cycle and active cell death (apoptosis) was investigated in cytokine-dependent CTLL cells. These cells proliferate in the presence of interleukin 2 (IL2), but accumulate in early G1 and undergo apoptosis in its absence. In the absence of IL2 the cells also become sensitive to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. Using specific inhibitors of protein kinase C and tyrosine kinases we established that two signals are required to fully repress cell death and stimulate G1 progression. One of these signals activates protein kinase C (PKC) which represses cell death and the other activates a tyrosine kinase which confers glucocorticoid resistance and permits cell cycle progression. Thus, phorbol esters can activate PKC and maintain cell viability in the absence of IL2, but the cells cannot proliferate. Moreover, the cells remain sensitive to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis unless the tyrosine kinase-mediated signal is also given. There is a correlation between the presence of AP1 DNA-binding activity and the repression of the cell death pathway. The c-jun gene is expressed constitutively and both IL2 and phorbol esters induce the expression of c-fos to generate a functional AP1 capable of repressing cell death. However, only interleukin 2 can initiate the tyrosine kinase-mediated modification that confers dexamethasone resistance and permits G1 progression. In the absence of IL2 glucocorticoids stimulate AP1 degradation and induce apoptosis.

  17. Coordinate regulation of IkappaB kinases by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 and NF-kappaB-inducing kinase.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, S; DiDonato, J A; Lin, A

    1998-12-01

    IkappaB kinases (IKKalpha and IKKbeta) are key components of the IKK complex that mediates activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB in response to extracellular stimuli such as inflammatory cytokines, viral and bacterial infection, and UV irradiation. Although NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) interacts with and activates the IKKs, the upstream kinases for the IKKs still remain obscure. We identified mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) as an immediate upstream kinase of the IKK complex. MEKK1 is activated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 and can potentiate the stimulatory effect of TNF-alpha on IKK and NF-kappaB activation. The dominant negative mutant of MEKK1, on the other hand, partially blocks activation of IKK by TNF-alpha. MEKK1 interacts with and stimulates the activities of both IKKalpha and IKKbeta in transfected HeLa and COS-1 cells and directly phosphorylates the IKKs in vitro. Furthermore, MEKK1 appears to act in parallel to NIK, leading to synergistic activation of the IKK complex. The formation of the MEKK1-IKK complex versus the NIK-IKK complex may provide a molecular basis for regulation of the IKK complex by various extracellular signals.

  18. Oncoprotein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2001-02-27

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  19. Effect of phorbol esters on iron uptake in human hematopoietic cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, U.; Titeux, M.; Louache, F.; Thomopoulos, P.; Rochant, H.

    1984-11-01

    We have investigated the effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on iron uptake into human hematopoietic cell lines K562, U937, and HL-60. TPA inhibited both cell growth and iron uptake by these cell lines. This effect was rapid, which is typical of phorbol esters which are biologically active, and it occurred at very low concentrations of TPA. This effect of TPA was dependent upon an inhibition of the transferrin-binding capacity as estimated on intact cells. However, experiments with transferrin binding on cell samples dissolved in 1% Triton X-100 showed that TPA-treated cells exhibited a transferrin-binding capacity similar to that of control cells. On the basis of this result, it is suggested that TPA modified a part of transferrin receptors present in the cells; as a result of this modification, these receptors became unavailable for binding transferrin, but they remained physically present in the cell. Other compounds capable of inducing the differentiation of leukemic cells, such as dimethyl sulfoxide, butyrate, retinoic acid, and 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3, did not acutely inhibit iron uptake. We also investigated the effect of TPA on transferrin receptors in a cellular system in which phorbol esters stimulate cell proliferation. At 16 X 10(-9) M, TPA markedly stimulated the proliferation of T-lymphocytes. However, in spite of this marked stimulation of cell proliferation, TPA-stimulated lymphocytes exhibited a transferrin-binding capacity much inferior to cells stimulated by other mitogens, such as phytohemagglutinin.

  20. Regulation of osteosarcoma EGF receptor affinity by phorbol ester and cyclic AMP

    SciTech Connect

    Borst, S.E.; Catherwood, B.D. )

    1989-04-01

    We studied the binding and degradation of 125I-labeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) by UMR-106 osteosarcoma cells and the regulation of EGF receptor affinity for EGF by the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and by treatments that raise intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. Cell surface binding of (125I)EGF to A431 cells reached a plateau after a 30 minute incubation at 37 degrees C but was undetectable in UMR-106 cells. Degradation of (125I)EGF proceeded at a 50-fold higher rate in A431 cells on a per cell basis, but receptor-bound (125I)EGF was internalized and degraded at a 3.5-fold higher rate by UMR-106 cells on a per receptor basis. At 4 degrees C, (125I)EGF labeled a single class of surface binding sites in the UMR-106 cell. Treatment with TPA at 37 degrees C reduced subsequent cell surface binding of (125I)EGF at 4 degrees C a maximum of 80% with an IC50 of 1.25 ng/ml. Maximal TPA reduction of (125I)EGF binding was observed within 5-15 minutes and was due to a reduction in the affinity of cell surface receptors of (125I)EGF without a change in receptor density. Pretreatment of the cells for 4 h with 30 microM forskolin, 1 mM isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) plus 30 microM forskolin, or 1 mM IBMX plus 100 ng/ml parathyroid hormone (PTH) attenuated the loss in (125I)EGF binding caused by a subsequent dose of 10 ng/ml of TPA by 17% (p less than 0.0005), 39% (p less than 0.0002), and 35% (p less than 0.002), respectively.

  1. Redundant kinase activation and resistance of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Min; Fu, Li-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown dramatic effects against that tumors harboring EGFR activating mutations in the EGFR intracytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain and resulted in cell apoptosis. Unfortunately, a number of patients ultimately developed resistance by multiple mechanisms. Thus, elucidation of the mechanism of resistance to EGFR-TKIs can provide strategies for blocking or reversing the situation. Recent studies suggested that redundant kinase activation plays pivotal roles in escaping from the effects of EGFR-TKIs. Herein, we aimed to characterize several molecular events involved in the resistance to EGFR-TKIs mediated by redundant kinase activation. PMID:25520855

  2. Neuromuscular block

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, W C

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them especially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are especially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of especial interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors. PMID:16402115

  3. Protein kinase C sensitizes olfactory adenylate cyclase

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Effects of neurotransmitters on cAMP-mediated signal transduction in frog olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) were studied using in situ spike recordings and radioimmunoassays. Carbachol, applied to the mucosal side of olfactory epithelium, amplified the electrical response of ORCs to cAMP-generating odorants, but did not affect unstimulated cells. A similar augmentation of odorant response was observed in the presence of phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC). The electrical response to forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase (AC), was also enhanced by PDBu, and it was attenuated by the PKC inhibitor Goe 6983. Forskolin-induced accumulation of cAMP in olfactory tissue was potentiated by carbachol, serotonin, and PDBu to a similar extent. Potentiation was completely suppressed by the PKC inhibitors Goe 6983, staurosporine, and polymyxin B, suggesting that the sensitivity of olfactory AC to stimulation by odorants and forskolin was increased by PKC. Experiments with deciliated olfactory tissue indicated that sensitization of AC was restricted to sensory cilia of ORCs. To study the effects of cell Ca2+ on these mechanisms, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration of olfactory tissue was either increased by ionomycin or decreased by BAPTA/AM. Increasing cell Ca2+ had two effects on cAMP production: (a) the basal cAMP production was enhanced by a mechanism sensitive to inhibitors of calmodulin; and (b) similar to phorbol ester, cell Ca2+ caused sensitization of AC to stimulation by forskolin, an effect sensitive to Goe 6983. Decreasing cell Ca2+ below basal levels rendered AC unresponsive to stimulation by forskolin. These data suggest that a crosstalk mechanism is functional in frog ORCs, linking the sensitivity of AC to the activity of PKC. At increased activity of PKC, olfactory AC becomes more responsive to stimulation by odorants, forskolin, and cell Ca2+. Neurotransmitters appear to use this crosstalk mechanism to regulate olfactory

  4. Influence of hyaluronic acid or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate on the migration capacity of a murine lymphoma cell line (Eb) and its metastatic variant (ESb).

    PubMed

    Kubens, B S; Nikolai, G; Zänker, K S

    1997-10-14

    The in vitro migration of two murine T cell lymphoma cell lines (Eb and ESb) was studied employing a three-dimensional collagen matrix and time-lapse video recording. In the highly metastatic cell line ESb, which had a low spontaneous locomoting activity, migration could clearly be stimulated by hyaluronic acid (HA) whereas only a small increase was found after incubation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The observed stimulation could be attributed to an increase in recruitment of locomoting cells and not to changes in migration parameters of motile individual cells such as percentage of time locomoting, velocity or distance migrated. Incubation of the low metastatic cell line Eb with HA led to a decrease in migration but blocking of CD44, the principle ligand for HA, by preincubation with an anti-CD44 mAb (KM114), followed by HA exposure increased the locomoting activity significantly. The effect was based on both an increase in recruitment as well as in all migration parameters regarding motile individual Eb cells.

  5. Block People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Rayma

    1999-01-01

    Discusses an activity in which students in an after-school art class drew one another on pieces of 2-by-4 scrap lumber in order to create a class portrait in three dimensions. Stresses that the portraits on the wood blocks were done in-the-round, or each side was covered. (CMK)

  6. Potential treatments to reduce phorbol esters levels in jatropha seed cake for improving the value added product.

    PubMed

    Sadubthummarak, Umapron; Parkpian, Preeda; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Kongchum, Manoch; Delaune, R D

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha seed cake contains high amounts of protein and other nutrients, however it has a drawback due to toxic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the methods applied to detoxify the main toxin, phorbol esters in jatropha seed cake, to a safe and acceptable level by maintaining the nutritional values. Phorbol esters are tetracyclic diterpenoids-polycyclic compounds that are known as tumor promoters and hence exhibited the toxicity within a broad range of species. Mismanagement of the jatropha waste from jatropha oil industries would lead to contamination of the environment, affecting living organisms and human health through the food chain, so several methods were tested for reducing the toxicity of the seed cake. The results from this investigation showed that heat treatments at either 120°C or 220°C for 1 hour and then mixing with adsorbing bentonite (10%), nanoparticles of zinc oxide (100 μg/g) plus NaHCO3 at 4%, followed by a 4-week incubation period yielded the best final product. The remaining phorbol esters concentration (0.05-0.04 mg/g) from this treatment was less than that reported for the nontoxic jatropha varieties (0.11-0.27 mg/g). Nutritional values of the seed cake after treatment remained at the same levels found in the control group and these values were crude protein (20.47-21.40 + 0.17-0.25%), crude lipid (14.27-14.68 + 0.13-0.14%) and crude fiber (27.33-29.67 + 0.58%). A cytotoxicity test conducted using L929 and normal human dermal fibroblast cell lines confirmed that most of the toxic compounds, especially phorbol esters, were shown as completely eliminated. The results suggested that the detoxification of phorbol esters residues in the jatropha seed cake was possible while it also retained nutritional values. Therefore, the methods to detoxify phorbol esters are necessary to minimize the toxicity of jatropha seed cake. Further, it is essential to reduce the possible environmental impacts that may be generated

  7. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 activates Raf kinase and Raf perinuclear translocation via a protein kinase C-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Lissoos, T W; Beno, D W; Davis, B H

    1993-11-25

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3's (D3) potential mitogenic mechanism of action was pursued in cultured rat hepatic Ito cells, a fibrogenic effector cell which proliferates in vivo during liver injury and fibrogenesis. D3 stimulated Ito cell DNA synthesis and potentiated platelet-derived growth factor-induced mitogenesis. D3's enhancement of [3H]thymidine incorporation was associated with nuclear Egr expression. Recent studies have causally linked the activated proto-oncogene c-Raf with downstream Egr induction. The serine-threonine kinase Raf protein is phosphorylation-activated by a large array of agonists including plasma membrane and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases but has not previously been associated with the steroid superfamily of mediators. To consider potential prenuclear acute pathways of D3-induced stimulation, the activation of Raf was examined following D3 exposure. D3 induced Raf activation as assessed via (a) enhanced Raf phosphorylation following in vivo 32P labeling, (b) enhanced kinase function utilizing exogenous histone 1 protein as substrate, and (c) the shift in Raf physical localization changing from a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution to a perinuclear domain. A similar activation of Raf kinase was found in 3T3 cells exposed to D3 with enhanced histone phosphorylation detectable within 1 min following stimulation. The proximal cascade leading to Raf kinase activation may involve a protein kinase activity was severely attenuated by stimulated kinase activity was severely attenuated by previous phorbol ester treatment for 20 h or staurosporine pretreatment.

  8. Activation of protein kinase C in permeabilized human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Larsson, C; Saermark, T; Mau, S; Simonsson, P

    1992-08-01

    The activation of protein kinase C was investigated in digitonin-permeabilized human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells by measuring the phosphorylation of the specific protein kinase C substrate myelin basic protein4-14. The phosphorylation was inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitory peptide PKC19-36 and was associated to a translocation of the enzyme to the membrane fractions of the SH-SY5Y cells. 1,2-Dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol had no effect on protein kinase C activity unless the calcium concentration was raised to concentrations found in stimulated cells (above 100 nM). Calcium in the absence of other activators did not stimulate protein kinase C. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate was not dependent on calcium for the activation or the translocation of protein kinase C. The induced activation was sustained for 10 min, and thereafter only a small net phosphorylation of the substrate could be detected. Calcium or dioctanoylglycerol, when applied alone, only caused a minor translocation, whereas in combination a marked translocation was observed. Arachidonic acid (10 microM) enhanced protein kinase C activity in the presence of submaximal concentrations of calcium and dioctanoylglycerol. Quinacrine and p-bromophenacyl bromide did not inhibit calcium- and dioctanoylglycerol-induced protein kinase C activity at concentrations which are considered to be sufficient for phospholipase A2 inhibition.

  9. Inhibition of growth of established human glioma cell lines by modulators of the protein kinase-C system

    SciTech Connect

    Couldwell, W.T.; Antel, J.P.; Apuzzo, M.L.; Yong, V.W. )

    1990-10-01

    The protein kinase-C (PKC) second messenger system contributes to regulation of cell growth and differentiation. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of modulators of the PKC enzyme system on the state of differentiation and proliferation rates of human gliomas in vitro. The administration of the PKC-activating phorbol esters 4-beta-phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDB) and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) resulted in a dose-related inhibition of growth of human glioma cell lines in vitro as measured by 3H-thymidine uptake. The synthetic nonphorbol PKC activator (SC-9) produced an even more pronounced decrease of 3H-thymidine uptake. Diacylglycerol, an endogenous activator of the system, applied externally, transiently decreased the proliferation, in concordance with its short-lived existence in vivo. Conversely, the administration of 4-alpha-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate (alpha-PDD), a phorbol ester that binds but does not activate the enzyme, had no effect on the proliferation rate. At the dosages that maximally decreased proliferation, there was no evidence of direct glioma cell lysis induced by these agents as measured by a chromium-release assay. Immunocytochemical analysis and cytofluorometric measurement of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining in the treated cultures revealed an increase in GFAP staining over control cultures. In contrast to the response of glioma cells, nonmalignant human adult astrocytes treated with the PKC activators responded by increasing their proliferation rate. The authors postulate that the diametrically opposed effects of PKC activators on nonmalignant astrocytes versus glioma growth may be due to a high intrinsic PKC activity in glioma cells, with resultant down-regulation of enzyme activity following the administration of the pharmacological activators.

  10. Zinc release from protein kinase C as the common event during activation by lipid second messenger or reactive oxygen.

    PubMed

    Korichneva, Irina; Hoyos, Beatrice; Chua, Ramon; Levi, Ester; Hammerling, Ulrich

    2002-11-15

    Zinc is a structural component of many regulatory molecules including transcription factors and signaling molecules. We report that two alternate signaling pathways of protein kinase C (PKC) activation involving either the lipid second messengers (diacylglycerol and its mimetics, the phorbol esters) or reactive oxygen converge at the zinc finger of the regulatory domain. They all trigger the release of zinc ions. An increase in intracellular free Zn(2+) was observed by confocal microscopy in intact cells treated with phorbol ester or by mild oxidation. The source of liberated Zn(2+) was traced to PKC and particularly the zinc finger domains. The activated form of native PKCalpha contained significantly less Zn(2+) than the resting form. Furthermore, purified recombinant PKC protein fragments shed stoichiometric amounts of Zn(2+) upon reaction with diacylglycerol, phorbol ester, or reactive oxygen in vitro. Our results offer new insight into the regulation of PKC. Far from cementing rigid structures, zinc actually is the linchpin that orchestrates dynamic changes in response to specific signals, allowing kinase activity to be turned on or off.

  11. The distribution of protein kinase C in human leukocytes is altered in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, D A; Hatton, J P; Emond, C; Chaput, D; Paris, H; Levade, T; Cazenave, J P; Schaffar, L

    1996-12-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is an ubiquitous enzyme that mediates intracellular signal transduction in eukaryotes. Jurkat and U937 cells were exposed to microgravity during a Space Shuttle flight and stimulated with a radiolabeled phorbol ester (3H-PDBu) that specifically activates and labels several PKC isoforms. Both the total amount of 3H-PDBu labeling per cell and the relative distribution of labeling between subcellular compartments were altered in microgravity compared to onboard and ground 1 g control samples. The amount of total phorbol ester labeling per cell was increased approximately twofold in microgravity samples when compared with onboard 1 g samples for both cell lines. The subcellular distribution of PKC in the cytosol and nuclear fractions appeared to be correlated with the applied acceleration. In both cell types the relative amount of phorbol ester labeling in the nuclear fraction decreased with applied acceleration, whereas the labeling in cytosolic fraction increased with g level. No significant differences were observed between labeling levels in the membrane fraction in both cell types. Interleukin-1beta synthesis by U937 cells was markedly decreased in microgravity when compared to the onboard 1 g control, suggesting that the observed alterations in PKC distribution may have functional consequences. The results may have important implications for the effect of gravity on cellular signal transduction.

  12. Special type of morphological reorganization induced by phorbol ester: reversible partition of cell into motile and stable domains

    SciTech Connect

    Dugina, V.B.; Svitkina, T.M.; Vasiliev, J.M.; Gelfand, I.M.

    1987-06-01

    The phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced reversible alteration of the shape of fibroblastic cells of certain transformed lines-namely, partition of the cells into two types of domains: motile body actively extending large lamellas and stable narrow cytoplasmic processes. Dynamic observations have shown that stable processes are formed from partially retracted lamellas and from contracted tail parts of cell bodies. Immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy of platinum replicas of cytoskeleton have shown that PMA-induced narrow processes are rich in microtubules and intermediate filaments but relatively poor in actin microfilaments; in contrast, lamellas and cell bodies contained numerous microfilaments. Colcemid-induced depolymerization of microtubules led to contraction of PMA-induced processes; cytochalasin B prevented this contraction. It is suggested that PMA-induced separation of cell into motile and stable parts is due to directional movement of actin structures along the microtubular framework. Similar movements may play an important role in various normal morphogenetic processes.

  13. Protein kinase D activity controls endothelial nitric oxide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Aicart-Ramos, Clara; Sánchez-Ruiloba, Lucía; Gómez-Parrizas, Mónica; Zaragoza, Carlos; Iglesias, Teresa; Rodríguez-Crespo, Ignacio

    2014-08-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulates key functions of the endothelium, such as angiogenesis or vessel repair in processes involving endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation. One of the effector kinases that become activated in endothelial cells upon VEGF treatment is protein kinase D (PKD). Here, we show that PKD phosphorylates eNOS, leading to its activation and a concomitant increase in NO synthesis. Using mass spectrometry, we show that the purified active kinase specifically phosphorylates recombinant eNOS on Ser1179. Treatment of endothelial cells with VEGF or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) activates PKD and increases eNOS Ser1179 phosphorylation. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of PKD and gene silencing of both PKD1 and PKD2 abrogate VEGF signaling, resulting in a clear diminished migration of endothelial cells in a wound healing assay. Finally, inhibition of PKD in mice results in an almost complete disappearance of the VEGF-induced vasodilatation, as monitored through determination of the diameter of the carotid artery. Hence, our data indicate that PKD is a new regulatory kinase of eNOS in endothelial cells whose activity orchestrates mammalian vascular tone. PMID:24928905

  14. “Slow” Voltage-Dependent Inactivation of CaV2.2 Calcium Channels Is Modulated by the PKC Activator Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; McDavid, Sarah; Currie, Kevin P. M.

    2015-01-01

    CaV2.2 (N-type) voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca2+ channels) play key roles in neurons and neuroendocrine cells including the control of cellular excitability, neurotransmitter / hormone secretion, and gene expression. Calcium entry is precisely controlled by channel gating properties including multiple forms of inactivation. “Fast” voltage-dependent inactivation is relatively well-characterized and occurs over the tens-to- hundreds of milliseconds timeframe. Superimposed on this is the molecularly distinct, but poorly understood process of “slow” voltage-dependent inactivation, which develops / recovers over seconds-to-minutes. Protein kinases can modulate “slow” inactivation of sodium channels, but little is known about if/how second messengers control “slow” inactivation of Ca2+ channels. We investigated this using recombinant CaV2.2 channels expressed in HEK293 cells and native CaV2 channels endogenously expressed in adrenal chromaffin cells. The PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) dramatically prolonged recovery from “slow” inactivation, but an inactive control (4α-PMA) had no effect. This effect of PMA was prevented by calphostin C, which targets the C1-domain on PKC, but only partially reduced by inhibitors that target the catalytic domain of PKC. The subtype of the channel β-subunit altered the kinetics of inactivation but not the magnitude of slowing produced by PMA. Intracellular GDP-β-S reduced the effect of PMA suggesting a role for G proteins in modulating “slow” inactivation. We postulate that the kinetics of recovery from “slow” inactivation could provide a molecular memory of recent cellular activity and help control CaV2 channel availability, electrical excitability, and neurotransmission in the seconds-to-minutes timeframe. PMID:26222492

  15. Phorbol ester attenuates the KCl-induced increase in (Ca/sup 2 +/) and inhibits spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca/sup 2 +/ release, in rat cardiac myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hansford, R.G.; Capogrossi, M.C.; Kaku, T.; Pelto, D.J.; Filburn, C.H.; Lakatta, E.G.

    1986-03-01

    Partial membrane depolarization induced by increasing the KCl concentration of the medium bathing cardiac myocytes leads to an increase in cell (Ca/sup 2 +/), and accelerates the frequency of spontaneous contractile waves (W) caused by periodic sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca/sup 2 +/ release. In suspensions of myocytes bathed in 1.0mM Ca/sup 2 +/ at 37 (pH 7.4) and loaded with the fluorescent Ca/sup 2 +/ - indicator Fura-2, by incubation with 2 ..mu..M acetoxymethyl ester for 30 min, the addition of KCl to raise (K/sup +/) from 5 to 30 mM is associated with a rapid (< 10 sec) increase in fluorescence, corresponding to an increased cell (Ca/sup 2 +/). Prior exposure (3 min) to 10/sup -7/ M phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) diminishes this response to 44 +/- 10% of that in control suspensions (n = 9). Under the same conditions W frequency (min/sup -1/) in individual cells in 30 mM KCl averaged 8.3 +/- 0.6. Addition of PMA abolished W within 1 min. Diacylglycerol (10 ..mu..M L..cap alpha..-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, di C8) had a similar effect on W frequency. The thesis is that PMA attenuates cell Ca/sup 2 +/ overload and its associated potentiation of spontaneous SR Ca/sup 2 +/ oscillations. In view of the efficacy of PMA and di C8, it is suggested that the effect is mediated by protein kinase c, and it may involve an alteration in the intracellular distribution of this enzyme.

  16. Alterations in polyamine levels induced by phorbol diesters and other agents that promote differentiation in human promyelocytic leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huberman, E.; Weeks, C.; Herrmann, A.; Callaham, M.; Slaga, T.

    1981-02-01

    Polyamine levels were evaluated in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells after treatment with inducers of terminal differentiation. Differentiation in these cells was determined by increases in the percentage of morphologically mature cells and in lysozyme activity. Treatment of the HL-60 cells with phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), phorbol 12,13-didecanoate or other inducers of terminal differentiation such as dimethylsulfoxide and retinoic acid resulted in increased levels of putrescine. However, no increase in putrescine could be detected after PMA treatment of a HL-60 cell variant that exhibited a decreased susceptibility to PMA-induced terminal differentiation. Similarly, no increase in putrescine was observed with two nontumor-promoters (phorbol 12,13-diacetate and 4-O-methyl-PMA) or with anthralin, a non-phorbol tumor promoter. In addition to enhancing putrescine levels, PMA also increased the amount of spermidine and decreased the amount of spermine. The increase in putrescine and spermidine preceded the expression of the various differentiation markers. Unlike the changes observed in the polyamine levels after PMA treatment, the activities of ornithine and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylases, which are polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, did not significantly change. ..cap alpha..-Methylornithine and ..cap alpha..-difluoromethylornithine and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), which are inhibitors of the polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, did not affect differentiation in control or PMA-treated cells. Because of these observations, we suggest that the change in polyamine levels involve biochemical pathways other than the known biosynthetic ones. By-products of these pathways may perhaps be the controlling factors involved in the induction of terminal differentiation in the HL-60 and other cell types as well.

  17. A role for protein kinase C in the regulation of membrane fluidity and Ca²(+) flux at the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes of HEK293 and Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihong; Meng, Qingli; Jing, Xian; Xu, Pingxiang; Luo, Dali

    2011-02-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) plays a prominent role in the regulation of a variety of cellular functions, including Ca²(+) signalling. In HEK293 and Jurkat cells, the Ca²(+) release and Ca²(+) uptake stimulated by several different activators were attenuated by activation of PKC with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) and potentiated by PKC inhibition with Gö6983 or knockdown of PKCα or PKCβ using shRNA. Immunostaining and Western blotting analyses revealed that PKCα and PKCβII accumulated at the plasma membrane (PM) and that these isoforms, along with PKCβI, also translocated to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) upon activation with PMA. Measurements of membrane fluidity showed that, like the cell membrane stabilizers bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ursodeoxycholate (UDCA), PMA and OAG significantly reduced the fluidity of both the PM and ER membranes; these effects were blocked in PKC-knockdown cells. Interestingly, both BSA and UDCA inhibited the Ca²(+) responses to agonists to the same extent as PMA, whereas Tween 20, which increases membrane fluidity, raised the internal Ca²(+) concentration. Thus, activation of PKC induces both translocation of PKC to the PM and ER membranes and downregulation of membrane fluidity, thereby negatively modulating Ca²(+) flux.

  18. PIM kinases: an overview in tumors and recent advances in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianwei; Zhang, Taiping; Wang, Tianxiao; You, Lei; Zhao, Yupei

    2014-04-01

    The PIM kinases represent a family of serine/threonine kinases, which is composed of three different members (PIM1, PIM2 and PIM3). Aberrant expression of PIM kinases is observed in variety of tumors, including pancreatic cancer. The PIM kinases play pivotal roles in the regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis, properties of stem cells, metabolism, autophagy, drug resistance and targeted therapy. The roles of PIM kinases in pancreatic cancer include the regulation of proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, formation, angiogenesis and prediction prognosis. Blocking the activities of PIM kinases could prevent pancreatic cancer development. PIM kinases may be a novel target for cancer therapy. PMID:24799066

  19. Rapid isolation and purification of phorbol esters from Jatropha curcas by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hua, Wan; Hu, Huiling; Chen, Fang; Tang, Lin; Peng, Tong; Wang, Zhanguo

    2015-03-18

    In this work, a high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) method was established for the preparation of phorbol esters (PEs) from Jatropha curcas. n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1.5:1.5:1.2:0.5, v/v) was selected as the optimum two-phase solvent system to separate and purify jatropha factor C1 (JC1) with a purity of 85.2%, as determined by HPLC, and to obtain a mixture containing four or five PEs. Subsequently, continuous semipreparative HPLC was applied to further purify JC1 (99.8% as determined by HPLC). In addition, UPLC-PDA and UPLC-MS were established and successfully used to evaluate the isolated JC1 and PE-rich crude extract. The purity of JC1 was only 87.8% by UPLC-UV. A peak (a compound highly similar to JC1) was indentified as the isomer of JC1 by comparing the characteristic UV absorption and MS spectra. Meanwhile, this strategy was also applied to analyze the PE-rich crude extract from J. curcas. It is interesting that there may be more than 15 PEs according to the same quasi-molecular ion peaks, highly similar sequence-specific fragment ions, and similar UV absorption spectrum. PMID:25686848

  20. The effect of phorbol myristate acetate on the metabolism and ultrastructure of human alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Hoidal, J. R.; Repine, J. E.; Beall, G. D.; Rasp, F. L.; White, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    In the present investigation we examined the influence of the surface-active agent phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and opsonized heat-killed bacteria (HKB) on oxygen consumption, superoxide release, and glucose oxidation of human alveolar macrophages (AM). Both PMA and HKB produced a surge in oxygen consumption, superoxide release, and oxidation of 1-14C-glucose and 6-14C-glucose by human AM. Examination of AM by electron microscopy following stimulation by these two agents demonstrated membrane ruffling, loss of microvilli, and increased vacuolization in PMA-treated cells and phagocytic vacuoles containing bacteria in HKB-treated cells. The vacuolization produced by PMA-treated AM was much less striking than the vacuolization produced in PMA-treated leukocytes. The similarity in the metabolic and some of the physical responses of AM stimulated by PMA and HKB suggest that PMA may be a useful agent for evaluating cell-membrane-related events of phagocytosis in AM. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figures 9 and 10 Figures 11 and 12 PMID:207188

  1. Rapid isolation and purification of phorbol esters from Jatropha curcas by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hua, Wan; Hu, Huiling; Chen, Fang; Tang, Lin; Peng, Tong; Wang, Zhanguo

    2015-03-18

    In this work, a high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) method was established for the preparation of phorbol esters (PEs) from Jatropha curcas. n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1.5:1.5:1.2:0.5, v/v) was selected as the optimum two-phase solvent system to separate and purify jatropha factor C1 (JC1) with a purity of 85.2%, as determined by HPLC, and to obtain a mixture containing four or five PEs. Subsequently, continuous semipreparative HPLC was applied to further purify JC1 (99.8% as determined by HPLC). In addition, UPLC-PDA and UPLC-MS were established and successfully used to evaluate the isolated JC1 and PE-rich crude extract. The purity of JC1 was only 87.8% by UPLC-UV. A peak (a compound highly similar to JC1) was indentified as the isomer of JC1 by comparing the characteristic UV absorption and MS spectra. Meanwhile, this strategy was also applied to analyze the PE-rich crude extract from J. curcas. It is interesting that there may be more than 15 PEs according to the same quasi-molecular ion peaks, highly similar sequence-specific fragment ions, and similar UV absorption spectrum.

  2. Multianalyte Microphysiometry of Macrophage Responses to Phorbol Myristate Acetate, Lipopolysaccharide, and Lipoarabinomannan

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Danielle W.; Meschievitz, Mika E.; Hiatt, Leslie A.; Cliffel, David E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that mycobacterial antigens generate different metabolic responses in macrophages as compared to gram-negative effectors and macrophage activators. The metabolic activation of macrophages by PMA is a useful tool for studying virulent agents and can be compared to other effectors. While phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) is commonly used to study macrophage activation, the concentration used to create this physiological response varies. The response of RAW-264.7 macrophages is concentration-dependent, where the metabolic response to high concentrations of PMA decreases suggesting deactivation. The gram-negative effector, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was seen to promote glucose and oxygen production which were used to produce a delayed onset of oxidative burst. Pre-incubation with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) increased the effect on cell metabolism, where the synergistic effects of IFN-γ and LPS immediately initiated oxidative burst. These studies exhibited a stark contrast with lipoarabinomannan (LAM), an antigenic glycolipid component associated with the bacterial genus Mycobacterium. The presence of LAM effectively inhibits any metabolic response preventing consumption of glucose and oxygen for the promotion of oxidative burst and to ensure pathogenic proliferation. This study demonstrates for the first time the immediate inhibitory metabolic effects LAM has on macrophages, suggesting implications for future intervention studies with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:25798034

  3. Study of protein modifications induced by phorbol ester tumor promoters in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, K.G.

    1981-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the phorbol ester tumor promoter 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced any specific changes in mouse epidermal proteins using the high resolution technique of two-dimensional electrophoresis. To accomplish this goal of determining the specificity and possibly the stage in promotion with which these protein changes were associated, epidermal proteins were analyzed (1) after treatment of adult mouse epidermis with several weakly promoting hyperplasiogenic agents, (2) following treatment with TPA in combination with various inhibitors of tumor promotion, (3) in basal kerotinocytes isolated from adult epidermis following treatment with TPA or several weakly promoting agents, and (4) during an initiation-promotion experiment. Evidence was found which indicated that the potent tumor promoter TPA as well as the weakly promoting hyperplasiogenic agents, mezerein, ethylphenylpropiolate (EPP), and mechanical abrasion, induced similar modifications of epidermal proteins, particularly among the keratins. These keratin modifications progressed with time following treatment resulting in a keratin pattern which resembled that of newborn epidermis.

  4. Microgravity modifies protein kinase C isoform translocation in the human monocytic cell line U937 and human peripheral blood T-cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Jason P.; Gaubert, Francois; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Schmitt, Didier; Hashemi, B. B. (Principal Investigator); Hughes-Fulford, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Individual protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms fulfill distinct roles in the regulation of the commitment to differentiation, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in both monocytes and T-cells. The human monocyte like cell line U937 and T-cells were exposed to microgravity, during spaceflight and the translocation (a critical step in PKC signaling) of individual isoforms to cell particulate fraction examined. PKC activating phorbol esters induced a rapid translocation of several PKC isoforms to the particulate fraction of U937 monocytes under terrestrial gravity (1 g) conditions in the laboratory. In microgravity, the translocation of PKC beta II, delta, and epsilon in response to phorbol esters was reduced in microgravity compared to 1 g, but was enhanced in weak hypergravity (1.4 g). All isoforms showed a net increase in particulate PKC following phorbol ester stimulation, except PKC delta which showed a net decrease in microgravity. In T-cells, phorbol ester induced translocation of PKC delta was reduced in microgravity, compared to 1 g, while PKC beta II translocation was not significantly different at the two g-levels. These data show that microgravity differentially alters the translocation of individual PKC isoforms in monocytes and T-cells, thus providing a partial explanation for the modifications previously observed in the activation of these cell types under microgravity.

  5. Liganded thyroid hormone receptor inhibits phorbol 12-O-tetradecanoate-13-acetate-induced enhancer activity via firefly luciferase cDNA.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Hiroko; Sasaki, Shigekazu; Matsushita, Akio; Ohba, Kenji; Iwaki, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Shingo; Ishizuka, Keiko; Oki, Yutaka; Nakamura, Hirotoshi

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptor (TR) belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily and regulates the transcription of its target genes in a thyroid hormone (T3)-dependent manner. While the detail of transcriptional activation by T3 (positive regulation) has been clarified, the mechanism of T3-dependent repression (negative regulation) remains to be determined. In addition to naturally occurring negative regulations typically found for the thyrotropin β gene, T3-bound TR (T3/TR) is known to cause artificial negative regulation in reporter assays with cultured cells. For example, T3/TR inhibits the transcriptional activity of the reporter plasmids harboring AP-1 site derived from pUC/pBR322-related plasmid (pUC/AP-1). Artificial negative regulation has also been suggested in the reporter assay with firefly luciferase (FFL) gene. However, identification of the DNA sequence of the FFL gene using deletion analysis was not performed because negative regulation was evaluated by measuring the enzymatic activity of FFL protein. Thus, there remains the possibility that the inhibition by T3 is mediated via a DNA sequence other than FFL cDNA, for instance, pUC/AP-1 site in plasmid backbone. To investigate the function of FFL cDNA as a transcriptional regulatory sequence, we generated pBL-FFL-CAT5 by ligating FFL cDNA in the 5' upstream region to heterologous thymidine kinase promoter in pBL-CAT5, a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT)-based reporter gene, which lacks pUC/AP-1 site. In kidney-derived CV1 and choriocarcinoma-derived JEG3 cells, pBL-FFL-CAT5, but not pBL-CAT5, was strongly activated by a protein kinase C activator, phorbol 12-O-tetradecanoate-13-acetate (TPA). TPA-induced activity of pBL-FFL-CAT5 was negatively regulated by T3/TR. Mutation of nt. 626/640 in FFL cDNA attenuated the TPA-induced activation and concomitantly abolished the T3-dependent repression. Our data demonstrate that FFL cDNA sequence mediates the TPA-induced transcriptional activity

  6. Pharmacologic inhibition of MLK3 kinase activity blocks the in vitro migratory capacity of breast cancer cells but has no effect on breast cancer brain metastasis in a mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Rhoo, Kun Hyoe; Granger, Megan; Sur, Joynita; Feng, Changyong; Gelbard, Harris A; Dewhurst, Stephen; Polesskaya, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    Brain metastasis of breast cancer is an important clinical problem, with few therapeutic options and a poor prognosis. Recent data have implicated mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) in controlling the in vitro migratory capacity of breast cancer cells, as well as the metastasis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells from the mammary fat pad to distant lymph nodes in a mouse xenograft model. We therefore set out to test whether MLK3 plays a role in brain metastasis of breast cancer cells. To address this question, we used a novel, brain penetrant, MLK3 inhibitor, URMC099. URMC099 efficiently inhibited the migration of breast cancer cells in an in vitro cell monolayer wounding assay, and an in vitro transwell migration assay, but had no effect on in vitro cell growth. We also tested the effect of URMC099 on tumor formation in a mouse xenograft model of breast cancer brain metastasis. This analysis showed that URMC099 had no effect on the either the frequency or size of breast cancer brain metastases. We conclude that pharmacologic inhibition of MLK3 by URMC099 can reduce the in vitro migratory capacity of breast cancer cells, but that it has no effect on either the frequency or size of breast cancer brain metastases, in a mouse xenograft model.

  7. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2-driven glioma progression is prevented by blocking a clinically significant integrin, integrin-linked kinase, and NF-κB network

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Kristen M.; Annala, Matti; Chua, Corrine Y. X.; Dunlap, Sarah M.; Liu, Yuexin; Hugen, Niek; Moore, Lynette M.; Cogdell, David; Hu, Limei; Nykter, Matti; Hess, Kenneth; Fuller, Gregory N.; Zhang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) is increasingly recognized as a glioma oncogene, emerging as a target for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we used an integrative approach to characterizing the IGFBP2 network, combining transcriptional profiling of human glioma with validation in glial cells and the replication-competent ASLV long terminal repeat with a splice acceptor/tv-a glioma mouse system. We demonstrated that IGFBP2 expression is closely linked to genes in the integrin and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) pathways and that these genes are associated with prognosis. We further showed that IGFBP2 activates integrin β1 and downstream invasion pathways, requires ILK to induce cell motility, and activates NF-κB. Most significantly, the IGFBP2/integrin/ILK/NF-κB network functions as a physiologically active signaling pathway in vivo by driving glioma progression; interfering with any point in the pathway markedly inhibits progression. The results of this study reveal a signaling pathway that is both targetable and highly relevant to improving the survival of glioma patients. PMID:22345562

  8. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase B and ribosomal S6 kinases in the stimulation of thyroid epithelial cell proliferation by cAMP and growth factors in the presence of insulin.

    PubMed

    Coulonval, K; Vandeput, F; Stein, R C; Kozma, S C; Lamy, F; Dumont, J E

    2000-06-01

    The proliferation of most normal cells depends on the co-operation of several growth factors and hormones, each with a specific role, but the key events involved in the action of each necessary stimulant remain largely uncharacterized. In the present study, the pathways involved in the mechanism(s) of co-operation have been investigated in primary cultures of dog thyroid epithelial cells. In this physiologically relevant system, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) acting through cAMP, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and phorbol esters (such as PMA) induce DNA synthesis. Their effect requires stimulation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor by either IGF-1 or insulin, which are not themselves mitogenic agents. In contrast, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is itself fully mitogenic. The results of the study demonstrate that cAMP, EGF, HGF and PMA stimulate p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70 S6 kinase). However, insulin/IGF-1 also stimulate p70 S6 kinase. Thus stimulation of p70 S6 kinase might be necessary, but is certainly not sufficient, for the induction of DNA synthesis and is not specific for any stimulated pathway. In contrast, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and protein kinase B (PKB) activation by insulin and HGF is strong and sustained, whereas it is weak and transient with EGF and absent in the presence of TSH or PMA. These findings suggest that: (i) stimulation of PI 3-kinases and/or PKB is not involved in the cAMP-dependent pathways leading to thyrocyte proliferation, or in the action of PMA, (ii) the stimulation of the PI 3-kinase/PKB pathway may account for the permissive action of insulin/IGF-1 in the proliferation of these cells, and (iii) the stimulation of this pathway by HGF may explain why this agent does not require insulin or IGF-1 for its mitogenic action. PMID:10816429

  9. Indole-3-carbinol enhances the resolution of rat liver fibrosis and stimulates hepatic stellate cell apoptosis by blocking the inhibitor of κB kinase α/inhibitor of κB-α/nuclear factor-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Ping, Jie; Gao, Ai-mei; Qin, Hai-quan; Wei, Xiao-ning; Bai, Jing; Liu, Lian; Li, Xiao-hai; Li, Rui-wen; Ao, Ying; Wang, Hui

    2011-11-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a pivotal role in liver fibrosis, and the clearance of activated HSC by apoptosis is associated with the resolution of liver fibrosis. The development of strategies that promote this process in a selective way is therefore important. We evaluated the effects of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a nutritional component derived from vegetables from the Brassica family, on liver fibrosis and HSC apoptosis. The in vivo therapeutic effects of I3C were monitored in three rat models of liver fibrosis induced by porcine serum, bile duct ligation, or multiple hepatotoxic factors, and its proapoptotic effect and molecular mechanism were studied in vitro in HSC-T6, a rat HSC line. The results showed that I3C treatment significantly reduced the number of activated HSC in the livers of rats with liver fibrosis. In histopathology, I3C reduced hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis, accelerated collagen degradation, and promoted the reversal of liver fibrosis. I3C prescribed to HSC-T6 resulted in morphologic alterations typical of apoptosis and DNA cleavage to a nucleosomal ladder. Moreover, I3C significantly increased the HSC-T6 apoptosis rate and the expression ratio of Bax to Bcl-2. High-throughput protein array analysis indicated that the tumor necrosis factor-α/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signal pathway participated in I3C-induced HSC-T6 apoptosis. Western blot and electrophoretic mobility-shift assay confirmed that I3C inhibited the phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB kinase α and inhibitor of κB-α and NF-κB DNA binding activity. In conclusion, I3C could promote the reverse process of liver fibrosis in vivo and induce apoptosis of activated HSC in vitro, which indicates the use of I3C as a potential therapeutic agent in liver fibrosis treatment.

  10. Activation of the rat follicle-stimulating hormone receptor promoter by steroidogenic factor 1 is blocked by protein kinase a and requires upstream stimulatory factor binding to a proximal E box element.

    PubMed

    Heckert, L L

    2001-05-01

    The receptor for the pituitary glycoprotein hormone FSH (FSHR) and the nuclear hormone receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) play important roles in control of the hypothalamic-pituitary- gonadal axis. FSHR is essential for integrating the pituitary FSH signal to gonadal response, while SF-1 is an important transcriptional regulator of many genes that function within this axis and is essential for the development of gonads and adrenal glands. Given the critical role of SF-1 in regulation of the gonads and the coexpression of FSHR and SF-1 in Sertoli and granulosa cells, we examined the ability of SF-1 to regulate transcription of the FSHR gene. We found that SF-1 stimulated rat FSHR promoter activity in a dose-dependent and promoter-specific manner. Examination of various promoter deletion mutants indicated that SF-1 acts through the proximal promoter region and upstream promoter sequences. An E box element within the proximal promoter is essential for activation of the FSHR promoter by SF-1. This element binds the transcriptional regulators USF1 and USF2 (upstream stimulatory factors 1 and 2) but not SF-1, as shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In addition, functional studies identified a requirement for the USF proteins in SF-1 activation of FSHR and mapped an important regulatory domain within exons 4 and 5 of USF2. Cotransfection studies revealed that activation of protein kinase A leads to inhibition of SF-1-stimulated transcription of FSHR, while it synergized with SF-1 to activate the equine LH beta-promoter (ebeta). Thus, stimulation of the cAMP pathway differentially regulates SF-1 activation of the FSHR and ebeta-promoters.

  11. Bactericidal capacity of phorbol myristate acetate-treated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Wang-Iverson, P; Pryzwansky, K B; Spitznagel, J K; Cooney, M H

    1978-01-01

    Thus far, the functional capacity of phorbol myristate acetate- (PMA)-treated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes has been undefined. PMA induced exocytosis of lactoferrin, the specific granule marker, but not of myeloperoxidase, the azurophil granule marker. This phenomenon was demonstrated both biochemically and with fluorescent antibody conjugates. PMA-treated neutrophils contained virtually no specific granules when viewed by electron microscopy. Separation of the granule classes by linear sucrose density gradient centrifugation revealed the loss, from PMA-treated neutrophils, of lactoferrin and the specific granule (D20(20) = 1.89) band usually resolved from normal neutrophils. Cells treated with PMA appeared to retain those functions normally associated with intraleukocytic microbicidal action. The hexose monophosphate shunt activated by phagocytic challenge was present in PMA-treated neutrophils. As demonstrated by electron microscopy, the azurophil granules of these cells appeared intact, and they retained the capacity for degranulation with translocation of myeloperoxidase to the site of phagocytized Escherichia coli. The PMA-treated neutrophils also remained capable of degrading the ingested microorganisms. PMA-treated neutrophils exhibited a decrease in phagocytic ability at all levels of bacterial challenge. In the presence of a high multiplicity of bacteria they demonstrated an impairment in killing. These same cells were able to kill low multiplicities of E. coli as well as control cells. It thus appeared that the loss of the specific granules, plus other undefined PMA-induced alterations, impaired neither the viability of these neutrophils nor their killing ability in the presence of a modest phagocytic challenge. Images PMID:730386

  12. Phorbol myristate acetate and catechol as skin cocarcinogens in SENCAR mice

    SciTech Connect

    Van Duuren, B.L.; Melchionne, S.; Seidman, I.

    1986-09-01

    The enhancement of the carcinogenicity of benzo(a) pyrene (B(a)P) and ..beta..-propiolactone (BPL) by the mouse skin cocarcinogens phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and catechol were examined in female SENCAR mice, 30 per group. The carcinogen and cocarcinogen were applied simultaneously, three times weekly for 490-560 days. B(a)P and BPL were used at constant doses of 5 and 50 ..mu..g, respectively, in all experiments. PMA was used at three doses, 2.5, 1.0, and 0.5 ..mu..g per application, and catechol was used at one dose, 2 mg per application. Control groups included animals that received carcinogen only, cocarcinogen only, acetone only, and no treatment. The carcinogenicity of B(a)P and BPL were enhanced by the cocarcinogens, particularly in terms of tumor multiplicity. For both carcinogens, the most marked cocarcinogenic effects were observed at the lowest dose of PMA used (0.5 ..mu..g per application). This observation applied for days to first tumor, animals with tumors, tumor multiplicity, and incidence of malignant skin tumors. Catechol applied alone did not induce any tumors; with PMA alone there were significant incidences of benign and malignant tumors, e.g., at a dose of only 0.5 ..mu..g per application, 15 of 30 animals had 28 tumors, 5 of which were squamous carcinomas. In two-stage carcinogenesis experiments with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) as initiator and PMA as promoter, SENCAR mice showed a greater susceptibility to tumor induction when compared to ICR/Ha mice used in earlier work. This susceptibility was most notable in terms of rate of tumor appearance and tumor multiplicity.

  13. Increased intestinal protein permeability in a model of lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate.

    PubMed

    St John, R C; Mizer, L A; Weisbrode, S E; Dorinsky, P M

    1991-11-01

    Multiple nonpulmonary organ failure is a frequent complication of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and contributes significantly to the high mortality rate associated with this disorder. Although previous studies suggest that systemic organ injury may be an integral component of ARDS, little is known about the specific functional alterations that occur in these target organs. The present study was designed, therefore, to test the hypothesis that endothelial damage, as assessed by microvascular permeability changes, develops in systemic organs in a model of acute lung injury. To test this postulate, the microvascular permeability for total protein was estimated using the steady-state relationship between the lymph (CL) to plasma (Cp) protein concentration ratio (i.e., CL/Cp) and lymph flow in autoperfused cat ileum preparations. Specifically, CL/Cp was measured in five cats, 2 h after acute lung injury was induced by intravenously administered phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), 15 micrograms/kg, and the results were compared with those of seven time-matched control animals. Prior to PMA infusion, the PaO2/FIO2 ratio was 451 +/- 28 in both groups and remained unchanged (486 +/- 26) in the control group. By contrast, the PaO2/FIO2 ratio fell to 275 +/- 95 after PMA infusion (p less than 0.05). In addition, whereas CL/Cp was 0.099 +/- 0.008 in the control animals, it increased to 0.36 +/- 0.06 in the PMA-injured animals (p less than 0.01). In summary, this study demonstrated that in this model of acute lung injury produced by PMA-induced activation of circulating inflammatory cells, both acute lung injury and systemic organ injury (i.e., morphologic and permeability alterations) occurred.

  14. The benzene metabolite para-benzoquinone is genotoxic in human, phorbol-12-acetate-13-myristate induced, peripheral blood mononuclear cells at low concentrations.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Götz Alexander; Bünger, Jürgen; Lichey, Nadine; Taeger, Dirk; Mönnich, Angelika; Hallier, Ernst

    2009-07-01

    Benzene is one of the most prominent occupational and environmental pollutants. The substance is a proven human carcinogen that induces hematologic malignancies in humans, probably at even low doses. Yet knowledge of the mechanisms leading to benzene-induced carcinogenesis is still incomplete. Benzene itself is not genotoxic. The generation of carcinogenic metabolites involves the production of oxidized intermediates such as catechol, hydroquinone and para-benzoquinone (p-BQ) in the liver. Further activation to the ultimate carcinogenic intermediates is most probably catalyzed by myeloperoxidase (MPO). Yet the products of the MPO pathway have not been identified. If an oxidized benzene metabolite such as p-BQ was actually the precursor for the ultimate carcinogenic benzene metabolite and further activation proceeds via MPO mediated reactions, it should be possible to activate p-BQ to a genotoxic compound in vitro. We tested this hypothesis with phorbol-12-acetate-13-myristate (PMA) activated peripheral blood cells exposed to p-BQ, using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test. Addition of 20-28 ng/ml PMA caused a significant increase of micronuclei at low and non-cytotoxic p-BQ concentrations between 0.04 and 0.2 microg/ml (0.37-1.85 microM). Thus with PMA or p-BQ alone no reproducible elevation of micronuclei was seen up to toxic concentrations. PMA and p-BQ induce micronuclei when administered jointly. Our results add further support to the hypothesis that MPO is a key enzyme in the activation of benzene. PMID:19212761

  15. Differential effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on phorbol ester- and TGF-beta1 induced murine tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Young, David A; Billingham, Olivia; Sampieri, Clara L; Edwards, Dylan R; Clark, Ian M

    2005-04-01

    Expression of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (Timp-1) gene can be induced by either phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), although the signalling pathways involved are not clearly defined. Canonically, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) such as trichostatin A (TSA) or sodium butyrate (NaB) increase total cellular histone acetylation and activate expression of susceptible genes. Remarkably, PMA and TGF-beta1 stimulation of Timp-1 show a differential response to TSA or NaB. TSA or NaB potentiate PMA-induced Timp-1 expression but repress TGF-beta1-induced Timp-1 expression. The repression of TGF-beta1-induced Timp-1 by TSA was maximal at 5 ng.mL(-1), while for the superinduction of PMA-induced Timp-1 expression, the maximal dose is > 500 ng x mL(-1) TSA. A further HDACi, valproic acid, did not block TGF-beta1-induced Timp-1 expression, demonstrating that different HDACs impact on the induction of Timp-1. For either PMA or TGF-beta1 to induce Timp-1 expression, new protein synthesis is required, and the induction of AP-1 factors closely precedes that of Timp-1. The effects of the HDACi can be reiterated in transient transfection using Timp-1 promoter constructs. Mutation or deletion of the AP-1 motif (-59/-53) in the Timp-1 promoter diminishes PMA-induction of reporter constructs, however, the further addition of TSA still superinduces the reporter. In c-Jun-/- cells, PMA still stimulates Timp-1 expression, but TSA superinduction is lost. Transfection of a series of Timp-1 promoter constructs identified three regions through which TSA superinduces PMA-induced Timp-1 and we have demonstrated specific protein binding to two of these regions which contain either an avian erythroblastosis virus E26 (v-ets) oncogene homologue (Ets) or Sp1 binding motif.

  16. Focal adhesion kinase

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Rebecca L; Baggerly, Keith A; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N; Kang, Yu; Sanguino, Angela M; Thanapprapasr, Duangmani; Dalton, Heather J; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Zand, Behrouz; Akbani, Rehan; Diao, Lixia; Nick, Alpa M; DeGeest, Koen; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Coleman, Robert L; Lutgendorf, Susan; Sood, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    This investigation describes the clinical significance of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at the major activating tyrosine site (Y397) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells. FAK gene amplification as a mechanism for FAK overexpression and the effects of FAK tyrosine kinase inhibitor VS-6062 on tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis were examined. FAK and phospho-FAKY397 were quantified in tumor (FAK-T; pFAK-T) and tumor-associated endothelial (FAK-endo; pFAK-endo) cell compartments of EOCs using immunostaining and qRT-PCR. Associations between expression levels and clinical variables were evaluated. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas were used to correlate FAK gene copy number and expression levels in EOC specimens. The in vitro and in vivo effects of VS-6062 were assayed in preclinical models. FAK-T and pFAK-T overexpression was significantly associated with advanced stage disease and increased microvessel density (MVD). High MVD was observed in tumors with elevated endothelial cell FAK (59%) and pFAK (44%). Survival was adversely affected by FAK-T overexpression (3.03 vs 2.06 y, P = 0.004), pFAK-T (2.83 vs 1.78 y, P < 0.001), and pFAK-endo (2.33 vs 2.17 y, P = 0.005). FAK gene copy number was increased in 34% of tumors and correlated with expression levels (P < 0.001). VS-6062 significantly blocked EOC and endothelial cell migration as well as endothelial cell tube formation in vitro. VS-6062 reduced mean tumor weight by 56% (P = 0.005), tumor MVD by 40% (P = 0.0001), and extraovarian metastasis (P < 0.01) in orthotopic EOC mouse models. FAK may be a unique therapeutic target in EOC given the dual anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic potential of FAK inhibitors. PMID:24755674

  17. Trichostatin A induces a unique set of microRNAs including miR-129-5p that blocks cyclin-dependent kinase 6 expression and proliferation in H9c2 cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Gipsy; Raghow, Rajendra

    2016-04-01

    The pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI), trichostatin A (TSA), was shown to normalize interleukin-18-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro; evidently, this occurred via epigenetic mechanisms that profoundly altered cardiac gene expression (Majumdar et al. in, Physiol Genom, 43: 1392, 2011; BMC Genom, 13: 709, 2012). Here, we tested the hypothesis that TSA-induced changes in chromatin architecture also led to altered expression of microRNAs that in turn, contributed to the unique transcriptome of cardiac myocytes exposed to the HDACI. Using miRCURY LNA™ Universal microRNA PCR system, we demonstrate that H9c2 cells exposed to TSA for 6 and 24 h elicited differential expression of 19 and 16 microRNAs, respectively. H9c2 cells incubated in medium-containing 100 nM of TSA elicited a rapid and robust induction of miR-129-5p. Enhanced expression of miR-129-5p was also observed in the hearts of TSA-treated mice. Induction of miR-129-5p in H9c2 cells was accompanied by reduced expression of its direct target, cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) that is a key regulator of cell cycle. Using cell division-dependent dilution of Cell Trace™ violet measurements we showed that concomitant induction of miR-129-5p and reduced CDK6 expression were mechanistically involved in TSA-induced inhibition of proliferation of H9c2 cells. Consistent with this scenario, cells expressing an antagomiR of miR-129-5p were resistant to the anti-proliferative actions of TSA. These data indicate that although TSA treatment led to altered expression of several microRNAs, the overarching action of TSA (i.e., inhibition of cell division) in H9c2 cells was achieved via miR-129-5p.

  18. Trichostatin A induces a unique set of microRNAs including miR-129-5p that blocks cyclin-dependent kinase 6 expression and proliferation in H9c2 cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Gipsy; Raghow, Rajendra

    2016-04-01

    The pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI), trichostatin A (TSA), was shown to normalize interleukin-18-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro; evidently, this occurred via epigenetic mechanisms that profoundly altered cardiac gene expression (Majumdar et al. in, Physiol Genom, 43: 1392, 2011; BMC Genom, 13: 709, 2012). Here, we tested the hypothesis that TSA-induced changes in chromatin architecture also led to altered expression of microRNAs that in turn, contributed to the unique transcriptome of cardiac myocytes exposed to the HDACI. Using miRCURY LNA™ Universal microRNA PCR system, we demonstrate that H9c2 cells exposed to TSA for 6 and 24 h elicited differential expression of 19 and 16 microRNAs, respectively. H9c2 cells incubated in medium-containing 100 nM of TSA elicited a rapid and robust induction of miR-129-5p. Enhanced expression of miR-129-5p was also observed in the hearts of TSA-treated mice. Induction of miR-129-5p in H9c2 cells was accompanied by reduced expression of its direct target, cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) that is a key regulator of cell cycle. Using cell division-dependent dilution of Cell Trace™ violet measurements we showed that concomitant induction of miR-129-5p and reduced CDK6 expression were mechanistically involved in TSA-induced inhibition of proliferation of H9c2 cells. Consistent with this scenario, cells expressing an antagomiR of miR-129-5p were resistant to the anti-proliferative actions of TSA. These data indicate that although TSA treatment led to altered expression of several microRNAs, the overarching action of TSA (i.e., inhibition of cell division) in H9c2 cells was achieved via miR-129-5p. PMID:26946427

  19. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition: An Approach to Drug Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitzki, Alexander; Gazit, Aviv

    1995-03-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulate cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and signaling processes in the cells of the immune system. Uncontrolled signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases and intracellular tyrosine kinases can lead to inflammatory responses and to diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and psoriasis. Thus, inhibitors that block the activity of tyrosine kinases and the signaling pathways they activate may provide a useful basis for drug development. This article summarizes recent progress in the development of PTK inhibitors and demonstrates their potential use in the treatment of disease.

  20. Protein kinase C, arachidonate metabolism, and tracheal smooth muscle - effects of temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.; Baraban, J.; Menkes, H.

    1986-03-01

    Cooling causes airway obstruction in asthma. Contractions of airway smooth muscle may be produced through the phosphatidylinositol cycle and the activation of protein kinase C. Protein kinase C can be activated directly with phorbol esters. The authors studied the effects of temperature on responses to phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA) in guinea pig tracheal rings bathed in Krebs-Henseleit solution. At 37/sup 0/C, 1 ..mu..M PDA relaxed the tissue (tension fell 0.60 +/- S.E. 0.04 g). At 27/sub 0/C, 1 ..mu..M PDA contracted the tissue (tension rose 0.050 +/- 0.05 g). In comparison, near maximum contractions produced by 4 ..mu..M carbachol were 2.00 +/- 0.09 g at 37/sub 0/C and 1.90 +/- 0.09 g at 27/sup 0/C. Butler-Gralla et al. showed that phorbol esters may stimulate the release of arachidonic acid from cultured cells. In order to determine whether arachidonate metabolites play a role in responses observed in guinea pig trachea, the authors used indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), FPL 55712 (a leukotriene receptor antagonist) and Na arachidonate. At 37/sup 0/C, 3 ..mu..M indomethacin pretreatment abolished relaxationby 1 uM PDA. At 27/sup 0/C, 10 uM FPL 55712 pretreatment abolished contractions by 1 ..mu..M PDA. Like PDA, 1 ..mu..M Na arachidonate produced relaxation at 37/sup 0/C and contraction at 27/sup 0/C. The authors conclude that the effects of PDA at different temperatures parallel the effects of Na arachidonate. These results suggest that the effects of PDA in the guinea pig trachea are related to the release of endogenous arachidonic acid and that the cyclooxygenase pathway predominates at high temperature and the lipoxygenase pathway predominates at low temperature.

  1. The Phorbol Ester Fraction from Jatropha curcas Seed Oil: Potential and Limits for Crop Protection against Insect Pests

    PubMed Central

    Ratnadass, Alain; Wink, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The physic nut shrub, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), has been considered as a “miracle tree”, particularly as a source of alternate fuel. Various extracts of the plant have been reported to have insecticidal/acaricidal or molluscicidal/anthelminthic activities on vectors of medical or veterinary interest or on agricultural or non-agricultural pests. Among those extracts, the phorbol ester fraction from seed oil has been reported as a promising candidate for use as a plant-derived protectant of a variety of crops, from a range of pre-harvest and post-harvest insect pests. However, such extracts have not been widely used, despite the “boom” in the development of the crop in the tropics during recent years, and societal concerns about overuse of systemic chemical pesticides. There are many potential explanations to such a lack of use of Jatropha insecticidal extracts. On the one hand, the application of extracts potentially harmful to human health on stored food grain, might not be relevant. The problem of decomposition of phorbol esters and other compounds toxic to crop pests in the field needing further evaluation before such extracts can be widely used, may also be a partial explanation. High variability of phorbol ester content and hence of insecticidal activity among physic nut cultivars/ecotypes may be another. Phytotoxicity to crops may be further limitation. Apparent obstacles to a wider application of such extracts are the costs and problems involved with registration and legal approval. On the other hand, more studies should be conducted on molluscicidal activity on slugs and land snails which are major pests of crops, particularly in conservation agriculture systems. Further evaluation of toxicity to natural enemies of insect pests and studies on other beneficial insects such as pollinators are also needed. PMID:23203190

  2. Schistosoma mansoni: possible involvement of protein kinase C in linoleic acid-induced proteolytic enzyme release from cercariae.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, K; Mitsui, Y; Sato, K; Sakamoto, M; Aoki, Y

    1991-04-01

    The possible involvement of protein kinase C and Ca2+ metabolism in the proteolytic enzyme release from schistosome cercariae was studied. Cercariae were placed in dechlorinated tap water containing 0.37 mM calcium in the small glass petri dish and exposed to the stimuli (linoleic acid, phorbol esters, and Ca2+ ionophore) with or without inhibitors of protein kinase C or Ca2+ metabolism. The proteolytic activity of incubation medium of cercariae thus treated was measured by the azocoll assay. The penetration response of cercariae induced by linoleic acid, a physiological stimulus, was mimicked by phorbol esters. When exposed to phorbol esters, 0.02 to 2 microM of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and 0.2 to 2 microM of phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), cercariae ceased the swimming movement, began a rhythmic thrusting of the anterior tip of the parasite, and released the proteolytic enzyme, but they did not shed the tails. Lowering Ca2+ in water by addition of 5 mM ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether) N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), phorbol ester-induced release of enzyme was completely inhibited. Phorbol ester-induced release of enzyme was partially inhibited by 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), an inhibitor of protein kinase C, at a concentration of 100 microM. H-7 alone, at a concentration of 100 microM, did not affect the swimming movement of cercariae. The cercariae were stimulated to release the enzyme by high concentrations (10 and 100 microM) of the Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, but enzyme was not released by low concentrations (0.5 and 1 microM) of this drug. Cercariae exposed to A23187 behaved differently from those exposed to phorbol esters. They ceased swimming, showed strong muscle contraction, and shed their tail. A23187 stimulated cercariae to release the enzyme in the water containing 5 mM EGTA. A23187-induced enzyme release was not inhibited by N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7), a calmodulin

  3. Regulation of plasminogen activator in 3T3 cells: effect of phorbol myristate acetate on subcellular distribution and molecular weight

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    The tumor promoter, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), stimulates plasminogen activator production and extracellular release in confluent Swiss 3T3 cells. Coordinated with the increased extracellular release is a redistribution of the activity into plasma membrane-enriched fractions and a shift in the predominant molecular weight species from 75,000 to 49,000 daltons. The evidence suggests that PMA induces the formation of the 49,000 dalton species which is preferentially located in plasma membrane-enriched fractions. PMID:7197280

  4. Association of phorbol ester-induced hyperphosphorylation and reversible regulation of transferrin membrane receptors in HL60 cells.

    PubMed Central

    May, W S; Jacobs, S; Cuatrecasas, P

    1984-01-01

    Phorbol diesters are tumor-promoting agents that cause differentiation of HL60 human leukemic cells and concomitantly alter surface transferrin-receptor expression [Rovera, G., Ferreo, D., Pagliardi, G. L., Vartikar, J., Pessano, S., Bottero, L., Abraham, S. & Lebman, D. (1982) Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 397, 211-220]. Transferrin-receptor regulation is shown here to result from a rapid and reversible internalization process that is temporally associated with reversible increased phosphorylation (hyperphosphorylation) of the transferrin receptor. Such a reversible mechanism involving regulation of these surface proteins could result in the rapid generation of an early signal for HL60 cellular differentiation. Images PMID:6326098

  5. Mitochondrial APE1/Ref-1 suppressed protein kinase C-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Yu Ran; Park, Myoung Soo; Choi, Sunga; Park, Kyoungsook; Lee, Sang Ki; Kim, Cuk-Seong; Park, Jin Bong; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2014-07-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) induces mitochondrial dysfunction, which is an important pathological factor in cardiovascular diseases. The role of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) on PKC-induced mitochondrial dysfunction has not been variously investigated. In this study, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase C, induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization and reactive oxygen species generation and also increased mitochondrial translocation of APE1/Ref-1. APE1/Ref-1 overexpression suppressed PMA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. In contrast, gene silencing of APE1/Ref-1 increased the sensitivity of mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS)-fused APE1/Ref-1 more effectively suppressed PMA-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions. These results suggest that mitochondrial APE1/Ref-1 is contributed to the protective role to protein kinase C-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in endothelial cells.

  6. Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade.

    PubMed Central

    Enslen, H; Tokumitsu, H; Stork, P J; Davis, R J; Soderling, T R

    1996-01-01

    Membrane depolarization of NG108 cells gives rapid (< 5 min) activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaM-KIV), as well as activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). To investigate whether the Ca2+-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, JNK, and p38) might be mediated by the CaM kinase cascade, we have transfected PC12 cells, which lack CaM-KIV, with constitutively active mutants of CaM kinase kinase and/or CaM-KIV (CaM-KKc and CaM-KIVc, respectively). In the absence of depolarization, CaM-KKc transfection had no effect on Elk-dependent transcription of a luciferase reporter gene, whereas CaM-KIVc alone or in combination with CaM-KKc gave 7- to 10-fold and 60- to 80-fold stimulations, respectively, which were blocked by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphatase cotransfection. When epitope-tagged constructs of MAP kinases were co-transfected with CaM-KKc plus CaM-KIVc, the immunoprecipitated MAP kinases were activated 2-fold (ERK-2) and 7- to 10-fold (JNK-1 and p38). The JNK and p38 pathways were further investigated using specific c-Jun or ATF2-dependent transcriptional assays. We found that c-Jun/ATF2-dependent transcriptions were enhanced 7- to 10-fold by CaM-KIVc and 20- to 30-fold by CaM-KKc plus CaM-KIVc. In the case of the Jun-dependent transcription, this effect was not due to direct phosphorylation of c-Jun by activated CaM-KIV, since transcription was blocked by a dominant-negative JNK and by two MAP kinase phosphatases. Mutation of the phosphorylation site (Thr196) in CaM-KIV, which mediates its activation by CaM-KIV kinase, prevented activation of Elk-1, c-Jun, and ATF2 by the CaM kinase cascade. These results establish a new Ca2+-dependent mechanism for regulating MAP kinase pathways and resultant transcription. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8855261

  7. Role of arachidonic acid and protein kinase C during maturation-inducing hormone-dependent meiotic resumption and ovulation in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Yoshizaki, G.; Bolamba, D.; Thomas, P.

    2003-01-01

    The roles of arachidonic acid (AA) and protein kinase C (PKC) during in vitro maturation-inducing hormone (MIH)-dependent meiotic resumption (maturation) and ovulation were studied in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus). The requirement for cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolites of AA was examined using a nonspecific COX inhibitor, indomethacin (IM), as well as two COX products, prostaglandin (PG) F2?? and PGE2, whereas the role of lipoxygenase (LOX) was investigated using a specific LOX inhibitor, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA). The involvement of PKC was examined using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, as well as GF109203X (GF), a specific inhibitor of PKC and 1-(5-isoquin- olinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), nonspecific inhibitor of protein kinases. Genomic mechanisms were examined with the transcription-inhibitor actinomycin D (ActD) and the functionality of heterologous (oocyte-granulosa) gap junctions (GJ) with a dye transfer assay. The AA (100 ??M) and PGF2?? (5 ??M) did not induce maturation, and NDGA (10 ??M) did not affect MIH-dependent maturation. However, IM (100 ??M) partially inhibited MIH-dependent maturation. Conversely, AA and both PGs induced, and IM and NDGA inhibited, MIH-dependent ovulation in matured follicles. The PMA (1 ??g/ml) did not induce maturation but caused ovulation in matured follicles, whereas PKC inhibitors (GF, 5 ??M; H7, 50??M) did not affect MIH-dependent maturation but inhibited MIH- and PMA-dependent ovulation. The PMA-dependent ovulation was inhibited by IM but not by NDGA. In addition, ActD (5 ??M) blocked MIH-dependent, but not PMA-dependent, ovulation, and PGF2?? restored MIH-dependent ovulation in ActD-blocked follicles. The AA and PGs did not induce, and GF did not inhibit, MIH-dependent heterologous GJ uncoupling. In conclusion, AA and PKC mediate MIH-dependent ovulation but not meiotic resumption or heterologous GJ uncoupling in croaker follicles, but a permissive role

  8. Ionic responses rapidly elicited by activation of protein kinase C in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vara, F.; Schneider, J.A.; Rozengurt, E.

    1985-04-01

    Diacylglycerol and phorbol esters activate protein kinase C in intact cells. The authors report here that addition of the synthetic diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol (OAG) to quiescent cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells caused a marked increase in the rate of ouabain-sensitive YWRb uptake, a measure of the activity of the Na /K pump. The effect was dose-dependent and could be detected after 1 min of exposure to the diacylglycerol. OAG stimulated Na influx via an amiloride-sensitive pathway and increased intracellular pH by 0.15 pH unit. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PBt2) also enhanced ouabain sensitive YWRb uptake and amiloride-sensitive SSNa influx. Prolonged treatment (40 hr) of 3T3 cells with PBt2 at a saturating dose, which reduces the number of PBt2 binding sites and protein kinase C activity, abolished the ionic response of the cells to a subsequent addition of either OAG or PBt2. They suggest that activation of protein kinase C elicits, either directly or indirectly, enhanced Na /H antiport activity, which, in turn, leads to Na influx, intracellular pH modulation, and stimulation of the Na /K pump.

  9. Regulation of ATP-sensitive K sup + channels in insulinoma cells: Activation by somatostatin and protein kinase C and the role of cAMP

    SciTech Connect

    De Weille, J.R.; Schmid-Antomarchi, H.; Fosset, M.; Lazdunski, M. )

    1989-04-01

    The actions of somatostatin and of the phorbol ester 4{beta}-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) were studied in rat insulinoma (RINm5F) cells by electrophysiological and {sup 86}Rb{sup +} flux techniques. Both PMA and somatostatin hyperpolarize insulinoma cells by activating ATP-sensitive K{sup +} channels. The presence of intracellular GTP is required for the somatostatin effects. PMA- and somatostatin-induced hyperpolarization and channel activity are inhibited by the sulfonylurea glibenclamide. Glibenclamide-sensitive {sup 86}Rb{sup +} efflux from insulinoma cells is stimulated by somatostatin in a dose-dependent manner (half maximal effect at 0.7 nM) and abolished by pertussis toxin pretreatment. Mutual roles of a GTP-binding protein, of protein kinase C, and of cAMP in the regulation of ATP-sensitive K{sup +} channels are discussed.

  10. Two Kinase Family Dramas

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Thomas A.; Hurley, James H.

    2007-01-01

    In this issue, Lietha and colleagues (2007) report the structure of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and reveal how FAK maintains an autoinhibited state. Together with the structure of another tyrosine kinase, ZAP-70 (Deindl et al., 2007), this work highlights the diversity of mechanisms that nature has evolved within the kinase superfamily to regulate their activity through autoinhibition. PMID:17574014

  11. Insulin and phorbol myristic acetate induce ornithine decarboxylase in Reuber H35 rat hepatoma cells by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Goodman, S A; Esau, B; Koontz, J W

    1988-11-01

    Reuber H35 rat hepatoma cells respond to insulin or to tumor promoting phorbol esters with an increase in ornithine decarboxylase enzyme activity. This occurs in a time- and dose-dependent manner with both types of agonist. We report here that the increase in ornithine decarboxylase activity with optimal concentrations of both agonists is additive. Furthermore, the initial increase is dependent on continued RNA and protein synthesis. We also find that both of these agonists cause an increase in mRNA coding for ornithine decarboxylase in a time- and dose-dependent manner which suggests that the increase in enzyme activity can be accounted for by the increase in transcript levels. The difference in the time course of induction by the agonists, the additivity of induction by the two agonists, the differential sensitivity of induction to cycloheximide and RNA synthesis inhibitors, and the observation that phorbol myristic acetate causes a further increase in ornithine decarboxylase activity and transcript levels in cells already maximally induced by insulin suggest that these two agonists act through separate mechanisms.

  12. Regulatory elements involved in constitutive and phorbol ester-inducible expression of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Cousin, E; Medcalf, R L; Bergonzelli, G E; Kruithof, E K

    1991-01-01

    Gene transcription rates and mRNA levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2) are markedly induced by the tumor promoting agent phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. To identify promoter elements required for basal-, and phorbol ester-inducible expression, deletion mutants of the PAI-1 promoter fused to the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene, were transiently expressed in HT1080 cells. Constitutive CAT activity was expressed from constructs containing more than 215 bp of promoter sequence, whereas deletion to position -91 bp abolished CAT gene expression. Treatment of transfected cells with PMA resulted in a three- to ten-fold increase in CAT expression from all constructs except from the construct shortened to position -91. DNAse1 protection analysis of the promoter region between -215 and the transcription initiation site revealed numerous protected regions, including two AP1-like binding sites (AP1a and AP1b) and one CRE-like element. Site-directed mutagenesis of the AP1a site or of the CRE-like site resulted in the loss of basal CAT activity and abolished the PMA effect, whereas mutagenesis of AP1b only partially inhibited basal and PMA-mediated expression. Our results suggest that the PAI-2 promoter contains at least two elements required for basal gene transcription and PMA-mediated induction. Images PMID:1650454

  13. RAF protein-serine/threonine kinases: Structure and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors block MEK activation in cells containing oncogenic B-RAF. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors can lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity. -- Abstract: A-RAF, B-RAF, and C-RAF are a family of three protein-serine/threonine kinases that participate in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade. This cascade participates in the regulation of a large variety of processes including apoptosis, cell cycle progression, differentiation, proliferation, and transformation to the cancerous state. RAS mutations occur in 15-30% of all human cancers, and B-RAF mutations occur in 30-60% of melanomas, 30-50% of thyroid cancers, and 5-20% of colorectal cancers. Activation of the RAF kinases requires their interaction with RAS-GTP along with dephosphorylation and also phosphorylation by SRC family protein-tyrosine kinases and other protein-serine/threonine kinases. The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. RAF kinase inhibitors are effective in blocking MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation in cells containing the oncogenic B-RAF Val600Glu activating mutation. RAF kinase inhibitors lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity in cells containing wild-type B-RAF and wild-type or activated mutant RAS. C-RAF plays a key role in this paradoxical increase in downstream MEK-ERK activation.

  14. Bladder instillation of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide alters the muscle contractions in rat urinary bladder via a protein kinase C-related pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, T.I.; Chen, W.J.; Liu, S.H. . E-mail: shliu@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2005-10-15

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli is a common cause of urinary tract infection. We determined the effects of intravesical instillation of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) on muscle contractions, protein kinase C (PKC) translocation, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in rat urinary bladder. The contractions of the isolated rat detrusor muscle evoked by electrical field stimulations were measured short-term (1 h) or long-term (24 h) after intravesical instillation of LPS. One hour after LPS intravesical instillation, bladder PKC-{alpha} translocation from cytosolic fraction to membrane fraction and endothelial (e)NOS protein was elevated, and detrusor muscle contractions were significantly increased. PKC inhibitors chelerythrine and Ro32-0432 inhibited this LPS-enhanced contractile response. Application of PKC activator {beta}-phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate enhanced the muscle contractions. Three hours after intravesical instillation of LPS, iNOS mRNA was detected in the bladder. Immunoblotting study also demonstrated that the induction of iNOS proteins is detected in bladder in which LPS was instilled. 24 h after intravesical instillation of LPS, PKC-{alpha} translocation was impaired in the bladder; LPS did not affect PKC-{delta} translocation. Muscle contractions were also decreased 24 h after LPS intravesical instillation. Aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor, blocked the decrease in PKC-{alpha} translocation and detrusor contractions induced by LPS. These results indicate that there are different mechanisms involved in the alteration of urinary bladder contractions after short-term and long-term treatment of LPS; an iNOS-regulated PKC signaling may participate in causing the inhibition of muscle contractions in urinary bladder induced by long-term LPS treatment.

  15. Protein kinase C activates non-capacitative calcium entry in human platelets

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Juan A; Sage, Stewart O

    2000-01-01

    In many non-excitable cells Ca2+ influx is mainly controlled by the filling state of the intracellular Ca2+ stores. It has been suggested that this store-mediated or capacitative Ca2+ entry is brought about by a physical and reversible coupling of the endoplasmic reticulum with the plasma membrane. Here we provide evidence for an additional, non-capacitative Ca2+ entry mechanism in human platelets. Changes in cytosolic Ca2+ and Sr2+ were measured in human platelets loaded with the fluorescent indicator fura-2. Depletion of the internal Ca2+ stores with thapsigargin plus a low concentration of ionomycin stimulated store-mediated cation entry, as demonstrated upon Ca2+ or Sr2+ addition. Subsequent treatment with thrombin stimulated further divalent cation entry in a concentration-dependent manner. Direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol also stimulated divalent cation entry, without evoking the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Cation entry evoked by thrombin or activators of PKC was abolished by the PKC inhibitor Ro-31-8220. Unlike store-mediated Ca2+ entry, jasplakinolide, which reorganises actin filaments into a tight cortical layer adjacent to the plasma membrane, did not inhibit divalent cation influx evoked by thrombin when applied after Ca2+ store depletion, or by activators of PKC. Thrombin also activated Ca2+ entry in platelets in which the release from intracellular stores and store-mediated Ca2+ entry were blocked by xestospongin C. These results indicate that the non-capacitative divalent cation entry pathway is regulated independently of store-mediated entry and does not require coupling of the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. These results support the existence of a mechanism for receptor-evoked Ca2+ entry in human platelets that is independent of Ca2+ store depletion. This Ca2+ entry mechanism may be activated by occupation of G-protein-coupled receptors

  16. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... Block Explore Heart Block What Is... Electrical System & EKG Results Types Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & ... the P and the R waves on the EKG (electrocardiogram). First-degree heart block may not cause ...

  17. Evidence for protein kinase C-dependent and -independent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in T cells: potential role of additional diacylglycerol binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Puente, L G; Stone, J C; Ostergaard, H L

    2000-12-15

    Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) is a critical signal transduction event for CTL activation, but the signaling mechanisms responsible are not fully characterized. Protein kinase C (PKC) is thought to contribute to MAPK activation following TCR stimulation. We have found that dependence on PKC varies with the method used to stimulate the T cells. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in CTL stimulated with soluble cross-linked anti-CD3 is completely inhibited by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide (BIM). In contrast, only the later time points in the course of ERK activation are sensitive to BIM when CTL are stimulated with immobilized anti-CD3, a condition that stimulates CTL degranulation. Surprisingly, MAPK activation in response to immobilized anti-CD3 is strongly inhibited at all time points by the diacylglycerol (DAG)-binding domain inhibitor calphostin C implicating the contribution of a DAG-dependent but PKC-independent pathway in the activation of ERK in CTL clones. Chronic exposure to phorbol ester down-regulates the expression of DAG-responsive PKC isoforms; however, this treatment of CTL clones does not inhibit anti-CD3-induced activation of MAPK. Phorbol ester-treated cells have reduced expression of several isoforms of PKC but still express the recently described DAG-binding Ras guanylnucleotide-releasing protein. These results indicate that the late phase of MAPK activation in CTL clones in response to immobilized anti-CD3 stimulation requires PKC while the early phase requires a DAG-dependent, BIM-resistant component.

  18. Active Oxygen Metabolites and Thromboxane in Phorbol Myristate Acetate Toxicity to the Isolated, Perfused Rat Lung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Laurie Jean

    When administered intravenously or intratracheally to rats, rabbits and sheep, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) produces changes in lung morphology and function are similar to those seen in humans with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Therefore, it is thought that information about the mechanism of ARDS development can be gained from experiments using PMA-treated animals. Currently, the mechanisms by which PMA causes pneumotoxicity are unknown. Results from other studies in rabbits and in isolated, perfused rabbit lungs suggest that PMA-induced lung injury is mediated by active oxygen species from neutrophils (PMN), whereas studies in sheep and rats suggest that PMN are not required for the toxic response. The role of PMN, active oxygen metabolites and thromboxane (TxA_2) in PMA-induced injury to isolated, perfused rat lungs (IPLs) was examined in this thesis. To determine whether PMN were required for PMA to produce toxicity to the IPL, lungs were perfused for 30 min with buffer containing various concentrations of PMA (in the presence or absence of PMN). When concentrations >=q57 ng/ml were added to medium devoid of added PMN, perfusion pressure and lung weight increased. When a concentration of PMA (14-28 ng/ml) that did not by itself cause lungs to accumulate fluid was added to the perfusion medium containing PMN (1 x 10 ^8), perfusion pressure increased, and lungs accumulated fluid. These results indicate that high concentrations of PMA produce lung injury which is independent of PMN, whereas injury induced by lower concentrations is PMN-dependent. To examine whether active oxygen species were involved in mediating lung injury induced by PMA and PMN, lungs were coperfused with the oxygen radical scavengers SOD and/or catalase. Coperfusion with either or both of these enzymes totally protected lungs against injury caused by PMN and PMA. These results suggest that active oxygen species (the hydroxyl radical in particular), mediate lung injury in

  19. Prokaryotic Diacylglycerol Kinase and Undecaprenol Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, Wade D.; Sanders, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Prokaryotic diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) and undecaprenol kinase (UDPK) are the lone members of a family of multispan membrane enzymes that are very small, lack relationships to any other family of proteins—including water soluble kinases, and that exhibit an unusual structure and active site architecture. Escherichia coli DAGK plays an important role in recycling diacylglycerol produced as a byproduct of biosynthesis of molecules located in the periplasmic space. UDPK seems to play an analogous role in Gram-positive bacteria, where its importance is evident by the fact that UDPK is essential for biofilm formation by the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans. DAGK has also long served as a model system for studies of membrane protein biocatalysis, folding, stability, and structure. This review explores our current understanding of the microbial physiology, enzymology, structural biology, and folding of the prokaryotic diacylglycerol kinase family, which is based on over 40 years of studies. PMID:22224599

  20. The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on whole blood oxidative response as assessed by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence in dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The differences between lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on whole blood oxidative response using luminol-amplified chemiluminescence (CL) are currently unknown in cattle. Luminol-dependent CL measures the amount of reactive oxygen species released from leukocytes a...

  1. Protein kinase A signalling in Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and schistosomules.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Natasha L; Lawton, Scott P; Walker, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A regulates multiple processes in eukaryotes by phosphorylating diverse cellular substrates, including metabolic and signalling enzymes, ion channels and transcription factors. Here we provide insight into protein kinase A signalling in cercariae and 24h in vitro cultured somules of the blood parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, which causes human intestinal schistosomiasis. Functional mapping of activated protein kinase A using anti-phospho protein kinase A antibodies and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed activated protein kinase A in the central and peripheral nervous system, oral-tip sensory papillae, oesophagus and excretory system of intact cercariae. Cultured 24h somules, which biologically represent the skin-resident stage of the parasite, exhibited similar activation patterns in oesophageal and nerve tissues but also displayed striking activation at the tegument and activation in a region resembling the germinal 'stem' cell cluster. The adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, stimulated somule protein kinase A activation and produced a hyperkinesia phenotype. The biogenic amines, serotonin and dopamine known to be present in skin also induced protein kinase A activation in somules, whereas neuropeptide Y or [Leu(31),Pro(34)]-neuropeptide Y attenuated protein kinase A activation. However, neuropeptide Y did not block the forskolin-induced somule hyperkinesia. Bioinformatic investigation of potential protein associations revealed 193 medium confidence and 59 high confidence protein kinase A interacting partners in S. mansoni, many of which possess putative protein kinase A phosphorylation sites. These data provide valuable insight into the intricacies of protein kinase A signalling in S. mansoni and a framework for further physiological investigations into the roles of protein kinase A in schistosomes, particularly in the context of interactions between the parasite and the host. PMID:26777870

  2. Stimulation of MAP-2 kinase activity in T lymphocytes by anti-CD3 or anti-Ti monoclonal antibody is partially dependent on protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Nel, A E; Hanekom, C; Rheeder, A; Williams, K; Pollack, S; Katz, R; Landreth, G E

    1990-04-01

    Signaling via the alpha-beta T cell Ag receptor (Ti)-CD3 complex is a complicated event that implicates several protein kinases, most notably protein kinase C (PKC). We have recently identified a serine kinase in T lymphocytes with the following characteristics: molecular mass 43 kDa, in vitro substrate affinity for microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2) with a preference for Mn2+ during the catalytic reaction, and elution from DEAE resin over a salt range 100 to 200 mM NaCl. This kinase is activated in a rapidly reversible fashion during ligation of CD3/Ti by a process which involves prior phosphorylation; in vitro exposure of activated 43-kDa MAP-2 kinase (MAP-K) to an immobilized phosphatase abrogated its kinase activity. We now show that a MAP-2K response could also be obtained during treatment with mAb to Ti and the specific PKC agonist, PMA. Although the kinetics of the former response was rapidly reversible, PMA elicited a more prolonged response. The dose responsiveness for PMA was similar to the requirements for PKC activation in intact lymphocytes. Moreover, as with PKC, we found that the CD3-induced MAP-2K response could be further enhanced by using a second layer cross-linking antibody. The specificity of CD3/Ti in the Jurkat cell response is demonstrated by the fact that OKT-11(CD2) and anti-CD4 mAb did not stimulate a MAP-2K response. It was also not possible to elicit a response in a Jurkat cell mutant that lacks surface expression of CD3 and Ti. The specificity of PKC in these events was further explored with the cell permeant diacylglycerol, 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol, and the nonagonist phorbol ester, 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate: whereas the former was an effective inducer of the MAP-2K response, the latter failed to yield any stimulation. Prior exposure of Jurkat cells to 100 mM PMA for 24 h eliminated greater than 60% of the MAP-2K response during anti-CD3 treatment. This response could also be inhibited in dose-dependent fashion by prior

  3. Creative Construction: Unit Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes the use of unit blocks with young children in early childhood education (ECE) settings to expand all areas of the curriculum. Discusses the origin of blocks in ECE programs, presents developmental stages of block play, describes children's building styles, and makes recommendations for getting started in block play for children of…

  4. Renal scarring is enhanced by phorbol myristate acetate following infection with bacteria with mannose-sensitive pili.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, T; Haraoka, M; Mizunoe, Y; Kubo, S; Takahashi, K; Tanaka, M; Kumazawa, J

    1993-01-01

    Renal scarring is considered to develop in the later stages of chronic pyelonephritis. In our experimental model of pyelonephritis, bacteria with mannose-sensitive (MS) pili on their surface promoted renal scarring following inoculation into the renal parenchyma. The administration of cyclophosphamide to induce leukopenia and of superoxide dismutase to inactivate superoxide released from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) at the infection site suppressed any renal scarring following the infection. Conversely, the administration of phorbol myristate acetate at an early stage of infection significantly enhanced the renal scarring. These findings suggest that the PMNs which infiltrate the infection site and the superoxide they release play an important role in any renal scarring following infection with MS-piliated bacteria.

  5. Effects of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine and phorbol ester on differentiation of human K562 erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Mitchell, T; Sariban, E; Sabbath, K; Griffin, J; Kufe, D

    1985-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) induces hemoglobin synthesis in human K562 erythroleukemia cells. The present study extends these findings by demonstrating that ara-C treatment of K562 cells results in both increased heme synthesis and accumulation of alpha-, gamma-, epsilon-, and zeta-globin RNA. The results also demonstrate that ara-C enhances K562 cell surface expression of glycophorin. Furthermore, we demonstrate that phorbol ester (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate; TPA) inhibits the effects of ara-C on heme production, accumulation of globin RNA, and glycophorin expression. The inhibitory effect occurs maximally when K562 cells are treated with TPA before undergoing ara-C-induced commitment to erythroid differentiation. These findings suggest that TPA inhibits an early step in the process required for ara-C to enhance expression of genes involved in the erythroid program.

  6. Detoxification of toxic phorbol esters from Malaysian Jatropha curcas Linn. kernel by Trichoderma spp. and endophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Najjar, Azhar; Abdullah, Norhani; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Ahmad, Syahida; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abas, Faridah; Gherbawy, Youssuf

    2014-01-01

    The presence of phorbol esters (PEs) with toxic properties limits the use of Jatropha curcas kernel in the animal feed industry. Therefore, suitable methods to detoxify PEs have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. In the present study, the biological treatment of the extracted PEs-rich fraction with non-pathogenic fungi (Trichoderma harzianum JQ350879.1, T. harzianum JQ517493.1, Paecilomyces sinensis JQ350881.1, Cladosporium cladosporioides JQ517491.1, Fusarium chlamydosporum JQ350882.1, F. chlamydosporum JQ517492.1 and F. chlamydosporum JQ350880.1) was conducted by fermentation in broth cultures. The PEs were detected by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESIMS) and quantitatively monitored by HPLC using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate as the standard. At day 30 of incubation, two T. harzianum spp., P. sinensis and C. cladosporioides significantly (p < 0.05) removed PEs with percentage losses of 96.9%-99.7%, while F. chlamydosporum strains showed percentage losses of 88.9%-92.2%. All fungal strains could utilize the PEs-rich fraction for growth. In the cytotoxicity assay, cell viabilities of Chang liver and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines were less than 1% with the untreated PEs-rich fraction, but 84.3%-96.5% with the fungal treated PEs-rich fraction. There was no inhibition on cell viability for normal fungal growth supernatants. To conclude, Trichoderma spp., Paecilomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. are potential microbes for the detoxification of PEs.

  7. Detoxification of Toxic Phorbol Esters from Malaysian Jatropha curcas Linn. Kernel by Trichoderma spp. and Endophytic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Najjar, Azhar; Abdullah, Norhani; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Ahmad, Syahida; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abas, Faridah; Gherbawy, Youssuf

    2014-01-01

    The presence of phorbol esters (PEs) with toxic properties limits the use of Jatropha curcas kernel in the animal feed industry. Therefore, suitable methods to detoxify PEs have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. In the present study, the biological treatment of the extracted PEs-rich fraction with non-pathogenic fungi (Trichoderma harzianum JQ350879.1, T. harzianum JQ517493.1, Paecilomyces sinensis JQ350881.1, Cladosporium cladosporioides JQ517491.1, Fusarium chlamydosporum JQ350882.1, F. chlamydosporum JQ517492.1 and F. chlamydosporum JQ350880.1) was conducted by fermentation in broth cultures. The PEs were detected by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESIMS) and quantitatively monitored by HPLC using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate as the standard. At day 30 of incubation, two T. harzianum spp., P. sinensis and C. cladosporioides significantly (p < 0.05) removed PEs with percentage losses of 96.9%–99.7%, while F. chlamydosporum strains showed percentage losses of 88.9%–92.2%. All fungal strains could utilize the PEs-rich fraction for growth. In the cytotoxicity assay, cell viabilities of Chang liver and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines were less than 1% with the untreated PEs-rich fraction, but 84.3%–96.5% with the fungal treated PEs-rich fraction. There was no inhibition on cell viability for normal fungal growth supernatants. To conclude, Trichoderma spp., Paecilomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. are potential microbes for the detoxification of PEs. PMID:24504029

  8. Detoxification of toxic phorbol esters from Malaysian Jatropha curcas Linn. kernel by Trichoderma spp. and endophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Najjar, Azhar; Abdullah, Norhani; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Ahmad, Syahida; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abas, Faridah; Gherbawy, Youssuf

    2014-01-01

    The presence of phorbol esters (PEs) with toxic properties limits the use of Jatropha curcas kernel in the animal feed industry. Therefore, suitable methods to detoxify PEs have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. In the present study, the biological treatment of the extracted PEs-rich fraction with non-pathogenic fungi (Trichoderma harzianum JQ350879.1, T. harzianum JQ517493.1, Paecilomyces sinensis JQ350881.1, Cladosporium cladosporioides JQ517491.1, Fusarium chlamydosporum JQ350882.1, F. chlamydosporum JQ517492.1 and F. chlamydosporum JQ350880.1) was conducted by fermentation in broth cultures. The PEs were detected by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESIMS) and quantitatively monitored by HPLC using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate as the standard. At day 30 of incubation, two T. harzianum spp., P. sinensis and C. cladosporioides significantly (p < 0.05) removed PEs with percentage losses of 96.9%-99.7%, while F. chlamydosporum strains showed percentage losses of 88.9%-92.2%. All fungal strains could utilize the PEs-rich fraction for growth. In the cytotoxicity assay, cell viabilities of Chang liver and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines were less than 1% with the untreated PEs-rich fraction, but 84.3%-96.5% with the fungal treated PEs-rich fraction. There was no inhibition on cell viability for normal fungal growth supernatants. To conclude, Trichoderma spp., Paecilomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. are potential microbes for the detoxification of PEs. PMID:24504029

  9. Expression of herpes virus thymidine kinase in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, M S; Selker, E U; Lin, B; Roberts, C J; Luo, Z; Vaught-Alexander, D; Margolin, B S

    1997-01-01

    The expression of thymidine kinase in fungi, which normally lack this enzyme, will greatly aid the study of DNA metabolism and provide useful drug-sensitive phenotypes. The herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase gene ( tk ) was expressed in Neurospora crassa. tk was expressed as a fusion to N.crassa arg-2 regulatory sequences and as a hygromycin phosphotransferase-thymidine kinase fusion gene under the control of cytomegalovirus and SV40 sequences. Only strains containing tk showed thymidine kinase enzyme activity. In strains containing the arg-2 - tk gene, both the level of enzyme activity and the level of mRNA were reduced by growth in arginine medium, consistent with control through arg-2 regulatory sequences. Expression of thymidine kinase in N.crassa facilitated radioactive labeling of replicating DNA following addition of [3H]thymidine or [14C]thymidine to the growth medium. Thymidine labeling of DNA enabled demonstration that hydroxyurea can be used to block replication and synchronize the N.crassa mitotic cycle. Strains expressing thymidine kinase were also more sensitive than strains lacking thymidine kinase to anticancer and antiviral nucleoside drugs that are activated by thymidine kinase, including 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine, 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouridine and trifluorothymidine. Finally, expression of thymidine kinase in N. crassa enabled incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into DNA at levels sufficient to separate newly replicated DNA from old DNA using equilibrium centrifugation. PMID:9171090

  10. The Secretory Pathway Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Sreelatha, Anju; Kinch, Lisa N.; Tagliabracci, Vincent S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a nearly universal post-translation modification involved in a plethora of cellular events. Even though phosphorylation of extracellular proteins had been observed, the identity of the kinases that phosphorylate secreted proteins remained a mystery until recently. Advances in genome sequencing and genetic studies have paved the way for the discovery of a new class of kinases that localize within the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and the extracellular space. These novel kinases phosphorylate proteins and proteoglycans in the secretory pathway and appear to regulate various extracellular processes. Mutations in these kinases cause human disease, thus underscoring the biological importance of phosphorylation within the secretory pathway. PMID:25862977

  11. Protein kinase Czeta mediated Raf-1/extracellular-regulated kinase activation by daunorubicin.

    PubMed

    Mas, Véronique Mansat-De; Hernandez, Hélène; Plo, Isabelle; Bezombes, Christine; Maestre, Nicolas; Quillet-Mary, Anne; Filomenko, Rodolphe; Demur, Cécile; Jaffrézou, Jean-Pierre; Laurent, Guy

    2003-02-15

    In light of the emerging concept of a protective function of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway under stress conditions, we investigated the influence of the anthracycline daunorubicin (DNR) on MAPK signaling and its possible contribution to DNR-induced cytotoxicity. We show that DNR increased phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinases (ERKs) and stimulated activities of both Raf-1 and extracellular-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) within 10 to 30 minutes in U937 cells. ERK1 stimulation was completely blocked by either the mitogen-induced extracellular kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD98059 or the Raf-1 inhibitor 8-bromo-cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate). However, only partial inhibition of Raf-1 and ERK1 stimulation was observed with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (N-Ac). Moreover, the xanthogenate compound D609 that inhibits DNR-induced phosphatidylcholine (PC) hydrolysis and subsequent diacylglycerol (DAG) production, as well as wortmannin that blocks phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) stimulation, only partially inhibited Raf-1 and ERK1 stimulation. We also observed that DNR stimulated protein kinase C zeta (PKCzeta), an atypical PKC isoform, and that both D609 and wortmannin significantly inhibited DNR-triggered PKCzeta activation. Finally, we found that the expression of PKCzeta kinase-defective mutant resulted in the abrogation of DNR-induced ERK phosphorylation. Altogether, these results demonstrate that DNR activates the classical Raf-1/MEK/ERK pathway and that Raf-1 activation is mediated through complex signaling pathways that involve at least 2 contributors: PC-derived DAG and PI3K products that converge toward PKCzeta. Moreover, we show that both Raf-1 and MEK inhibitors, as well as PKCzeta inhibition, sensitized cells to DNR-induced cytotoxicity.

  12. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  13. Human cervical cancer cells use Ca2+ signalling, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and MAP kinase in regulatory volume decrease.

    PubMed

    Shen, M R; Chou, C Y; Browning, J A; Wilkins, R J; Ellory, J C

    2001-12-01

    1. This study was aimed at identifying the signalling pathways involved in the activation of volume-regulatory mechanisms of human cervical cancer cells. 2. Osmotic swelling of human cervical cancer cells induced a substantial increase in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) by the activation of Ca2+ entry across the cell membrane, as well as Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. This Ca2+ signalling was critical for the normal regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response. 3. The activation of swelling-activated ion and taurine transport was significantly inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein and tyrphostin AG 1478) and potentiated by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor Na3VO4. However, the Src family of tyrosine kinases was not involved in regulation of the swelling-activated Cl- channel. 4. Cell swelling triggered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades leading to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/ERK2) and p38 kinase. The volume-responsive ERK1/ERK2 signalling pathway linked with the activation of K+ and Cl- channels, and taurine transport. However, the volume-regulatory mechanism was independent of the activation of p38 MAP kinase. 5. The phosphorylated ERK1/ERK2 expression following a hypotonic shock was up-regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and down-regulated by PKC inhibitor staurosporine. The response of ERK activation to hypotonicity also required Ca2+ entry and depended on tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated/ERK-activating kinase (MEK) activity. 6. Considering the results overall, osmotic swelling promotes the activation of tyrosine kinase and ERK1/ERK2 and raises intracellular Ca2+, all of which play a crucial role in the volume-regulatory mechanism of human cervical cancer cells. PMID:11731569

  14. Serine protease inhibitors block priming of monocytes for enhanced release of superoxide.

    PubMed Central

    Megyeri, P; Pabst, K M; Pabst, M J

    1995-01-01

    Monocytes freshly isolated from human blood produced large amounts of superoxide when triggered by phorbol ester. After monocytes were cultured for 18-24 hr in endotoxin-free, non-adherent conditions, they produced low amounts of superoxide. Addition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), or platelet-activating factor (PAF) at the beginning of culture 'primed' the monocytes, causing them to maintain a high superoxide response for at least 96 hr. Also, in response to LPS, monocytes secreted TNF-alpha. The ability of LPS, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha or PAF to maintain the high superoxide response was blocked by addition of inhibitors of serine proteases, either 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulphonyl fluoride (AEBSF) or 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin. AEBSF was most effective at 200 microns, and required 6 hr for maximum effect. AEBSF did not affect phorbol-triggered superoxide release by unprimed monocytes. AEBSF did not affect cell viability, nor did it interfere with the TNF-alpha secretion in response to LPS. An analogue of AEBSF that lacked ability to inhibit proteases did not affect monocyte responses. 3,4-Dichloroisocoumarin blocked priming at a low concentration, 1 microM. We conclude that activity of a monocyte serine protease is required to maintain the high superoxide response in monocytes primed with LPS, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, or PAF. PMID:8567031

  15. Andrographolide suppresses thymic stromal lymphopoietin in phorbol myristate acetate/calcium ionophore A23187-activated mast cells and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like mice model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-xiao; Li, Hua-guo; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Ru-hong; Li, Ming; Liang, Jian-ying; Gu, Yan; Ling, Bo; Yao, Zhi-rong; Yu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common inflammatory cutaneous diseases. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has been demonstrated to be an important immunologic factor in the pathogenesis of AD. The production of TSLP can be induced by a high level of intracellular calcium concentration and activation of the receptor-interacting protein 2/caspase-1/NF-κB pathway. Andrographolide (ANDRO), a natural bicyclic diterpenoid lactone, has been found to exert anti-inflammatory effects in gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders through suppressing the NF-κB pathway. Objective To explore the effect of ANDRO on the production of TSLP in human mast cells and AD mice model. Methods We utilized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence staining assay to investigate the effects of ANDRO on AD. Results ANDRO ameliorated the increase in the intracellular calcium, protein, and messenger RNA levels of TSLP induced by phorbol myristate acetate/calcium ionophore A23187, through the blocking of the receptor-interacting protein 2/caspase-1/NF-κB pathway in human mast cell line 1 cells. ANDRO, via oral or local administration, also attenuated clinical symptoms in 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced AD mice model and suppressed the levels of TSLP in lesional skin. Conclusion Taken together, ANDRO may be a potential therapeutic agent for AD through suppressing the expression of TSLP. PMID:26929603

  16. Interferon-γ enhances phorbol myristate acetate-induced cell attachment and tumor necrosis factor production via the NF-κB pathway in THP-1 human monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Yuichi; Furue, Masutaka

    2013-06-01

    During inflammation, activated macrophages express adhesion molecules and produce cytokines that interact with other hematopoietic and stromal cells. THP-1 non-adherent human monocytic cells differentiate into plastic-adherent macrophages via αVβ3 integrin, by ERK activation in the presence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). This has proven to be a valuable model for investigating functional monocyte/macrophage diversity. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is a Th1-cytokine that is crucial in macrophage activation. In this study, we investigated the effects of IFN-γ on adhesion and the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by PMA-stimulated THP-1 cells. IFN-γ is incapable of inducing cell attachment and TNF production; however, it cumulatively upregulated PMA-induced basal adhesion and TNF production. IFN-γ increased αV integrin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression and among these PMA-induced cell surface adhesion molecules, the blocking antibody for αV integrin suppressed adhesion and TNF production. Furthermore, IFN-γ enhanced PMA-induced NF-κB phosphorylation and not ERK phosphorylation. Accordingly, the NF-κB pathway inhibitor (BAY 11-7082) inhibited the enhancing effect of IFN-γ on adhesion and TNF production. By contrast, the MEK inhibitor (U0126) almost completely eliminated PMA-induced basal adhesion and TNF production. In conclusion, IFN-γ regulates macrophage activation by mediating the NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:23589028

  17. Interferon-γ enhances phorbol myristate acetate-induced cell attachment and tumor necrosis factor production via the NF-κB pathway in THP-1 human monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Yuichi; Furue, Masutaka

    2013-06-01

    During inflammation, activated macrophages express adhesion molecules and produce cytokines that interact with other hematopoietic and stromal cells. THP-1 non-adherent human monocytic cells differentiate into plastic-adherent macrophages via αVβ3 integrin, by ERK activation in the presence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). This has proven to be a valuable model for investigating functional monocyte/macrophage diversity. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is a Th1-cytokine that is crucial in macrophage activation. In this study, we investigated the effects of IFN-γ on adhesion and the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by PMA-stimulated THP-1 cells. IFN-γ is incapable of inducing cell attachment and TNF production; however, it cumulatively upregulated PMA-induced basal adhesion and TNF production. IFN-γ increased αV integrin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression and among these PMA-induced cell surface adhesion molecules, the blocking antibody for αV integrin suppressed adhesion and TNF production. Furthermore, IFN-γ enhanced PMA-induced NF-κB phosphorylation and not ERK phosphorylation. Accordingly, the NF-κB pathway inhibitor (BAY 11-7082) inhibited the enhancing effect of IFN-γ on adhesion and TNF production. By contrast, the MEK inhibitor (U0126) almost completely eliminated PMA-induced basal adhesion and TNF production. In conclusion, IFN-γ regulates macrophage activation by mediating the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  18. Adenosine (ADO) prevents phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) injury in rabbit lungs: Role of leukotrienes (LT)

    SciTech Connect

    Zanaboni, P.; Bradley, J.; Webster, R.; Baudendistel. L.; Dahms, T. )

    1991-03-11

    Pretreatment with ADO prevents the PMA-induced increase in the fluid filtration coefficient (K{sub f}) in isolated perfused rabbit lungs. ADO can block the synthesis of LTs. This study determined whether the protective effect of ADO in PMA induced injury was due to decreased LT production. Isolated rabbit lungs were perfused with a 1:1 mixture of blood and 6% albumin in Krebs-Henseleit buffer. K{sub f} was measured after hemodynamic and weight stabilization and then 30 min after PMA. Perfusate samples were collected after each K{sub f} measurement for determination of LTC{sub 4} and LTD{sub 4} by RIA. The specific role of LT was studied by pretreating with MK-886, a LT synthesis inhibitor. In the vehicle pretreatment group, PMA caused a significant increase in K{sub f} and LTC{sub 4} + LTD{sub 4}. ADO inhibited both the increase in K{sub f} and in LTC{sub 4} + LTD{sub 4}. Pretreatment with MK-886 blocked the PMA-induced increase in LT but did not inhibit the K{sub f} increase. ADO alters the production of LTC{sub 4} + LTD{sub 4} following PMA; but it is probably not the mechanism by which ADO prevents the increase in microvascular permeability.

  19. Suppressed PHA Activation of T Lymphocytes in Simulated Microgravity is Restored by Direct Activation of Protein Kinase C with Phorbol Ester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, David; Pellis, Neal R.

    1997-01-01

    Various aspects of spaceflight, including microgravity, cosmic radiation, and physiological stress, may perturb immune function. We sought to understand the impact of microgravity alone on the cellular mechanisms critical to immunity. We utilized clinostatic RWV bioreactors that simulate aspects of microgravity to analyze the response of human PBMC to polyclonal activation. PHA responsiveness in the RWV was almost completely diminished. IL-2 and IFN-gamma secretion was reduced whereas IL- 1 beta and IL-6 secretion was increased, suggesting that monocytes may not be as adversely affected by simulated microgravity as T cells. Activation marker expression (CD25, CD69, CD71) was significantly reduced in RWV cultures. Furthermore, addition of exogenous IL-2 to these cultures did not restore proliferation. Reduced cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions may play a role in the loss of PHA responsiveness. However, PHA activation in Teflon culture bags that limit cell-substratum interactions did not suppress PHA activation. Furthermore, increasing cell density and, therefore, cell-cell interactions in the RWV cultures did not help restore PHA activation. However, placing PBMC within small collagen beads did partially restore PHA responsiveness. Activation of both PBMC and purified T cells with PMA and ionomycin was unaffected by RWV culture, indicating that signaling mechanisms downstream of PKC activation and calcium flux are not sensitive to simulated microgravity. Furthermore, submitogenic doses of PMA alone but not ionomycin alone restored PHA responsiveness of PBMC in RWV culture. Thus, our data indicate that during polyclonal activation the signaling pathways upstream of PKC activation are sensitive to simulated microgravity.

  20. Inhibitory effect of dihydroartemisinin against phorbol ester-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Gyun; Yang, Ji Hye; Han, Eun Hee; Choi, Jae Ho; Khanal, Tilak; Jeong, Myung Ho; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2013-06-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua L., has recently been shown to possess antitumor activity in various cancer cells. However, the effect of anti-inflammatory potentials of DHA in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells has not been studied. The present study investigated the effect of COX-2 and molecular mechanisms by DHA in PMA stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. DHA dose-dependently decreased PMA-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production, as well as COX-2 promoter-driven luciferase activity. Additionally, DHA decreased luciferase activity of COX-2 regulation-related transcription factors including NF-κB, AP-1, C/EBP and CREB. DHA also remarkably reduced PMA-induced p65, C/EBPβ, c-jun and CREB nuclear translocation. Furthermore, DHA evidently inhibited PMA-induced phosphorylation of AKT and the MAP Kinases, such as ERK, JNK and p38. Taken together, our data indicated that DHA effectively attenuates COX-2 production via down-regulation of AKT and MAPK pathway, revealing partial molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory properties of DHA. PMID:23429041

  1. Protein kinase D regulates RhoA activity via rhotekin phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Pusapati, Ganesh V; Eiseler, Tim; Rykx, An; Vandoninck, Sandy; Derua, Rita; Waelkens, Etienne; Van Lint, Johan; von Wichert, Götz; Seufferlein, Thomas

    2012-03-16

    The members of the protein kinase D (PKD) family of serine/threonine kinases are major targets for tumor-promoting phorbol esters, G protein-coupled receptors, and activated protein kinase C isoforms (PKCs). The expanding list of cellular processes in which PKDs exert their function via phosphorylation of various substrates include proliferation, apoptosis, migration, angiogenesis, and vesicle trafficking. Therefore, identification of novel PKD substrates is necessary to understand the profound role of this kinase family in signal transduction. Here, we show that rhotekin, an effector of RhoA GTPase, is a novel substrate of PKD. We identified Ser-435 in rhotekin as the potential site targeted by PKD in vivo. Expression of a phosphomimetic S435E rhotekin mutant resulted in an increase of endogenous active RhoA GTPase levels. Phosphorylation of rhotekin by PKD2 modulates the anchoring of the RhoA in the plasma membrane. Consequently, the S435E rhotekin mutant displayed enhanced stress fiber formation when expressed in serum-starved fibroblasts. Our data thus identify a novel role of PKD as a regulator of RhoA activity and actin stress fiber formation through phosphorylation of rhotekin. PMID:22228765

  2. Protein Kinase C Activity and Light Sensitivity of Single Amphibian Rods

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, W.-H.; Nakatani, K.; Ye, B.; Yau, K.-W.

    1997-01-01

    Biochemical experiments by others have indicated that protein kinase C activity is present in the rod outer segment, with potential or demonstrated targets including rhodopsin, transducin, cGMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE), guanylate cyclase, and arrestin, all of which are components of the phototransduction cascade. In particular, PKC phosphorylations of rhodopsin and the inhibitory subunit of PDE (PDE γ) have been studied in some detail, and suggested to have roles in downregulating the sensitivity of rod photoreceptors to light during illumination. We have examined this question under physiological conditions by recording from a single, dissociated salamander rod with a suction pipette while exposing its outer segment to the PKC activators phorbol-12-myristate,13-acetate (PMA) or phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), or to the PKC-inhibitor GF109203X. No significant effect of any of these agents on rod sensitivity was detected, whether in the absence or presence of a background light, or after a low bleach. These results suggest that PKC probably does not produce any acute downregulation of rod sensitivity as a mechanism of light adaptation, at least for isolated amphibian rods. PMID:9379174

  3. Microspectroscopic imaging tracks the intracellular processing of a signal transduction protein: fluorescent-labeled protein kinase C beta I.

    PubMed Central

    Bastiaens, P I; Jovin, T M

    1996-01-01

    We have devised a microspectroscopic strategy for assessing the intracellular (re)distribution and the integrity of the primary structure of proteins involved in signal transduction. The purified proteins are fluorescent-labeled in vitro and reintroduced into the living cell. The localization and molecular state of fluorescent-labeled protein kinase C beta I isozyme were assessed by a combination of quantitative confocal laser scanning microscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, and novel determinations of fluorescence resonance energy transfer based on photobleaching digital imaging microscopy. The intensity and fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency images demonstrate the rapid nuclear translocation and ensuing fragmentation of protein kinase C beta I in BALB/c3T3 fibroblasts upon phorbol ester stimulation, and suggest distinct, compartmentalized roles for the regulatory and catalytic fragments. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8710884

  4. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mirshafiey, Abbas; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Asghari, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are essential components of signal transduction pathways that mediate cell-to-cell communication and their function as relay points for signaling pathways. They have a key role in numerous processes that control cellular proliferation and differentiation, regulate cell growth and cellular metabolism, and promote cell survival and apoptosis. Recently, the role of RTKs including TCR, FLT-3, c-Kit, c-Fms, PDGFR, ephrin, neurotrophin receptor, and TAM receptor in autoimmune disorder, especially rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis has been suggested. In multiple sclerosis pathogenesis, RTKs and their tyrosine kinase enzymes are selective important targets for tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) agents. TKIs, compete with the ATP binding site of the catalytic domain of several tyrosine kinases, and act as small molecules that have a favorable safety profile in disease treatment. Up to now, the efficacy of TKIs in numerous animal models of MS has been demonstrated, but application of these drugs in human diseases should be tested in future clinical trials. PMID:25337443

  5. Learning with Large Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Sally

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how large hollow blocks can meet many preschool children's learning needs through creative dramatic play, and also gives some guidelines on how these blocks can be constructed by parents and teachers. (BB)

  6. Block That Pain!

    MedlinePlus

    ... combination produces a unique effect, blocking pain-sensing neurons without impairing signals from other cells. In contrast, ... surgical procedures block activity in all types of neurons. This can cause numbness, paralysis, and other nervous ...

  7. Yeast phenotype classifies mammalian protein kinase C cDNA mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, H; Su, L; Hansen, H

    1993-01-01

    The phorbol ester receptor protein kinase C (PKC) gene family encodes essential mediators of eukaryotic cellular signals. Molecular dissection of their mechanisms of action has been limited in part by the lack of random mutagenesis approaches and by the complexity of signaling pathways in mammalian cells which involve multiple PKC isoforms. Here we present a rapid screen which permits the quantification of mammalian PKC activity phenotypically in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bovine PKC alpha cDNA is functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae. This results in a phorbol ester response: a fourfold increase in the cell doubling time and a substantial decrease in yeast colony size on agar plates. We have expressed pools of bovine PKC alpha cDNAs mutagenized by Bal 31 deletion of internal, amino-terminal, or carboxyl-terminal sequences and have identified three classes of mutants on the basis of their distinct yeast phenotypes. Representatives of each class were analyzed. An internal deletion of amino acids (aa) 172 to 225 displayed ligand-dependent but reduced catalytic activity, an amino-terminal truncation of aa 1 to 153 displayed elevated and ligand-independent activity, and a carboxyl-terminal 26-aa truncation (aa 647 to 672) lacked activity under any conditions. Additional mutations confirmed the distinct functional characteristics of these classes. Our data show that deletion of the V1 and C1 regions results in elevated basal catalytic activity which is still Ca2+ responsive. Internal deletions in the V2 and C2 regions do not abolish phorbol ester or Ca2+ regulation of PKC activity, suggesting that most of the C2 domain is not essential for phorbol ester stimulation and most of the regulatory domain is dispensable for Ca2+ regulation of PKC activity. These distinct activities od the PKC mutants correlate with a specific and proportional yeast phenotype and are quantified on agar plates by yeast colony size. This provides a phenotypic screen which is suitable

  8. Protein kinase C activation and alpha 2-autoreceptor-modulated release of noradrenaline.

    PubMed Central

    Allgaier, C.; Hertting, G.; Huang, H. Y.; Jackisch, R.

    1987-01-01

    1 Effects of phorbol esters on the evoked noradrenaline release were studied in slices of the rabbit hippocampus, labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline, superfused continuously with a medium containing the reuptake inhibitor cocaine and stimulated electrically for 2 min (stimulation parameters: 2 ms, 24 mA, 5 V cm-1, 3 or 0.3 Hz). 2 The electrically-evoked overflow of [3H]-noradrenaline in the slices was increased in a concentration-dependent manner by the protein kinase C (PKC) activators 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) and 4 beta-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (4 beta-PDB). Phorbol esters, which do not activate PKC, 4-O-methyl-TPA and 4 alpha-PDB, showed no effect on neurotransmitter release. The effect of 4 beta-PDB was abolished in the presence of tetrodotoxin and in the absence of calcium. The PKC inhibitor polymyxin B inhibited the evoked noradrenaline release. 3 In the presence of 4 beta-PDB the inhibitory effects of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine or the facilitatory effects of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine seemed to be modified only by changes in the concentration of noradrenaline in the synaptic region. At a stimulation frequency of 3 Hz the inhibitory action of clonidine was reduced whereas the facilitatory effect of the yohimbine was even slightly enhanced by the phorbol ester. At 0.3 Hz and in the presence of 4 beta-PDB the effect of clonidine remained and that of yohimbine was strongly enhanced. 4 Pretreatment of the slices with islet-activating protein or N-ethylmaleimide significantly reduced the enhancement of noradrenaline release caused by 4 beta-PDB. It is possible that a regulatory N-protein is involved in steps following PKC activation. 5 These results suggest that PKC participates in the mechanism of action-potential-induced noradrenaline release from noradrenergic nerve terminals of the rabbit hippocampus and that effects on the autoinhibitory feedback system were not responsible for the 4 beta-PDB-induced increase

  9. Phosphorylation of synaptosomal cytoplasmic proteins: Inhibition of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase c) by bay k 8644.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P J; Lovenberg, W

    1988-01-01

    IC(50) for P63 was 290 ?M. No inhibitory effects of another dihydropyridine, nifedipine, or of verapamil were detected in this concentration range. BAY K 8644 did not displace [(3)H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate binding, nor was the inhibition decreased by increasing phosphatidylserine concentrations. BAY K 8644 had no effect on the rate of dephosphorylation of any phosphoprotein, indicating that it is unlikely to inhibit a protein phosphatase. BAY K 8644 may, therefore, prove to be a valuable tool for discriminating protein kinase C activity from the activity of other protein kinases. We conclude that BAY K 8644 interacts either with a specific subgroup of protein kinase C substrata or with one of two putative forms of protein kinase C.

  10. The Sensitivity of Memory Consolidation and Reconsolidation to Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis and Kinases: Computational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yili; Smolen, Paul; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Memory consolidation and reconsolidation require kinase activation and protein synthesis. Blocking either process during or shortly after training or recall disrupts memory stabilization, which suggests the existence of a critical time window during which these processes are necessary. Using a computational model of kinase synthesis and…

  11. Differential expression of five protein kinase C isoenzymes in FAO and HepG2 hepatoma cell lines compared with normal rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ducher, L; Croquet, F; Gil, S; Davy, J; Féger, J; Bréhier, A

    1995-12-14

    We analyzed the expression of five protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in cytosolic and membrane fractions from normal rat hepatocytes compared with those of two tumorigenic cell lines FAO and HepG2. Western blots with PKC-specific isoenzymes polyclonal antibodies provide evidences for the presence of the five isoforms alpha, beta II, delta, epsilon and zeta in normal rat hepatocytes. In hepatoma cells, we show differences in the level of expression, the molecular sizes and the responses to Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA).

  12. Phosphorylation of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter by protein kinase C: localization of the site of in vivo and in vitro phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Deziel, M R; Lippes, H A; Rampal, A L; Jung, C Y

    1989-01-01

    1. The human erythrocyte glucose transporter was phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase C. 2. Tryptic cleavage of phosphorylated native transporter produced two major unphosphorylated membrane-embedded fragments weighing 23 and 19 kDa and released numerous water-soluble peptides. 3. Ion-exchange FPLC of the soluble tryptic peptides resolved the mixture into two phosphopeptide peaks. 4. Tryptic digestion of glucose transporter that was phosphorylated in vivo in response to phorbol esters produced soluble phosphopeptides that eluted at identical salt concentrations. 5. Proteolytic digestion and peptide mapping of the transporter revealed that the site(s) of phosphorylation lie within the large cytoplasmic domain that bisects the molecule.

  13. Block Scheduling. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2003-01-01

    What are the effects of block scheduling? Results of transitioning from traditional to block scheduling are mixed. Some studies indicate no change in achievement results, nor change in teachers' opinions about instructional strategies. Other studies show that block scheduling doesn't work well for Advanced Placement or Music courses, that "hard to…

  14. Blocking and associability change.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter M; Haselgrove, Mark

    2013-07-01

    Blocking of learning about a conditioned stimulus (the "blocked" cue) occurs when it is trained alongside an additional stimulus (the "blocking" cue) that has been previously presented with the outcome. A number of theories (e.g., N. J. Mackintosh. 1975a. A Theory of Attention: Variations in the Associability of Stimuli With Reinforcement. Psychological Review, 82, 276-298; J. M. Pearce & G. Hall. 1980. A Model for Pavlovian Learning: Variation in the Effectiveness of Conditioned But Not Unconditioned Stimuli. Psychological Review, 87, 532-552) account for this attenuation in learning by proposing that attention paid to the blocked cue is restricted. In three experiments, we examined the associability of both blocked and blocking cues. In Experiment 1, rats were trained with a blocking protocol before being given a test discrimination composed of two components; one of these components required the use of the previously blocked cue as a discriminative stimulus, and the other component was soluble by using the blocking cue. To our surprise, the component that depended on the blocked cue was more readily solved than the component dependent on the blocking cue. The results of Experiments 2 and 3 suggest that this is due to the quantity of exposure that each stimulus received during initial training. Implications for theories of blocking, and more widely associative learning, are discussed.

  15. Protein kinase C modulates the release of [3H]5-hydroxytryptamine in the spinal cord of the rat: the role of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, V C; Jones, D J

    1992-11-01

    The present studies examined the relationship between protein kinase C (PKC) and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels in modulating the release of neurotransmitter from K(+)-depolarized rat spinal cord synaptosomes. Activators of PKC, such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), mezerein and oleoyl acetylglycerol produced a concentration-dependent potentiation of K(+)-induced release of [3H]5-hydroxytryptamine ([3H]5-HT). Enhanced release was dependent on the concentration of both Ca2+ and K+ in the superfusion medium. Calcium-independent release of [3H]5-HT or release induced by the Ca2+ ionophore were unaffected by PKC activators. Calcium-dependent release of [3H]5-HT, evoked by K+, was enhanced under similar conditions by the L-type Ca2+ channel agonists Bay K 8644 and (+)-SDZ 202-791. Nimodipine, an L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist, while having no independent effect on K(+)-induced release of [3H]5-HT, abolished the potentiative effects of Bay K 8644 and PMA. Similarly, the PKC inhibitors, polymyxin B and staurosporine, blocked effects of both PMA and Bay K 8644 on K(+)-stimulated release of [3H]5-HT. Neither PMA nor Bay K 8644 altered the uptake of [3H]5-HT. These results suggest that PKC-dependent mechanisms utilize calcium influx, via the L-type calcium channel, to modulate release of neurotransmitter and indicate a possible functional link between PKC and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels in the spinal cord.

  16. Breast tumor kinase (protein tyrosine kinase 6) regulates heregulin-induced activation of ERK5 and p38 MAP kinases in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ostrander, Julie Hanson; Daniel, Andrea R; Lofgren, Kristopher; Kleer, Celina G; Lange, Carol A

    2007-05-01

    Total tyrosine kinase activity is often elevated in both cytosolic and membrane fractions of malignant breast tissue and correlates with a decrease in disease-free survival. Breast tumor kinase (Brk; protein tyrosine kinase 6) is a soluble tyrosine kinase that was cloned from a metastatic breast tumor and found to be overexpressed in a majority of breast tumors. Herein, we show that Brk is overexpressed in 86% of invasive ductal breast tumors and coexpressed with ErbB family members in breast cancer cell lines. Additionally, the ErbB ligand, heregulin, activates Brk kinase activity. Knockdown of Brk by stable expression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in T47D breast cancer cells decreases proliferation and blocks epidermal growth factor (EGF)- and heregulin-induced activation of Rac GTPase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 5, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but not Akt, ERK1/2, or c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Furthermore, EGF- and heregulin-induced cyclin D1 expression is dependent on p38 signaling and inhibited by Brk shRNA knockdown. The myocyte enhancer factor 2 transcription factor target of p38 MAPK and ERK5 signaling is also sensitive to altered Brk expression. Finally, heregulin-induced migration of T47D cells requires p38 MAPK activity and is blocked by Brk knockdown. These results place Brk in a novel signaling pathway downstream of ErbB receptors and upstream of Rac, p38 MAPK, and ERK5 and establish the ErbB-Brk-Rac-p38 MAPK pathway as a critical mediator of breast cancer cell migration.

  17. Choline phosphate potentiates sphingosine-1-phosphate-induced Raf-1 kinase activation dependent of Ras--phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael; Han, Sang Seop

    2002-04-01

    In NIH3T3 cells, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) caused a significant increase of Raf-1 kinase activity as early as 2 min. Interestingly, choline phosphate (ChoP) produced synergistic increase of S1P-stimulated Raf-1 kinase activation in the presence of ATP while showing additive effect in the absence of ATP. However, Raf-1 kinase activation induced by S1P decreased in the presence of ATP when applied alone. The overexpression of N-terminal fragment of Raf-1 (RfI) to inhibit Raf--Ras interaction caused the inhibition of S1P-induced Raf-1 kinase activation. Also, wortmannin, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, exhibited inhibitory effects on S1P-induced activation of Raf-1 kinase. In addition, we demonstrated that the chemical antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine attenuated Raf-1 activation induced by S1P, suggesting that H(2)O(2) may be required for the signalling pathway leading to Raf-1 activation. This H(2)O(2)-induced Raf-1 kinase activation was also blocked by inhibition of Ras--PI3K signalling pathway using alpha-hydroxyfarnesylphosphonic acid and wortmannin. Taken together, these results indicate that S1P-induced Raf-1 kinase activation is mediated by H(2)O(2) stimulation of Ras--PI3K pathway, and is enhanced by ChoP in the presence of ATP.

  18. Oxidant-dependent metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by phorbol ester-stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: possible link between inflammation and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Trush, M.A.; Seed, J.L.; Kensler, T.W.

    1985-08-01

    Oxidants, such as those generated by metabolically activated phagocytes in inflammation, have been implicated in the metabolic activation of carcinogens, and in this study the authors demonstrate that the interaction of (+/-)-trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo(a)pyrene (BP 7,8-dihydrodiol) with phorbol ester-stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) results in the generation of both a chemiluminescent intermediate and one that covalently binds to DNA. Concordant with the formation of a carcinogen-DNA adduct, the admixture of BP 7,8-dihydrodiol and phorbol ester-stimulated PMNs elicited mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100. These results demonstrate that oxidants generated by metabolically stimulated PMNs can activate penultimate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to a genotoxic metabolite and further defines a role for inflammation in carcinogenesis.

  19. Oscillations in cytosolic free Ca2+ induced by ADP and ATP in single rat hepatocytes display differential sensitivity to application of phorbol ester.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, C J; Cobbold, P H; Green, A K

    1995-01-01

    We have previously described differences in the oscillatory responses of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in hepatocytes to ADP and ATP, which we have interpreted as evidence that these two nucleotides are acting at distinct receptors. We show here that ADP- and ATP-induced oscillations are differentially sensitive to application of the phorbol ester 4 beta-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB). ADP-induced [Ca2+]i oscillations are abolished by low concentrations of PDB (5-10 nM), whereas ATP-induced oscillations of long duration are refractory to PDB, even at greatly elevated concentrations (100 nM). The data illustrate a further difference in the actions of ADP and ATP, strengthening the argument that these agonists are not acting at the same receptor on rat hepatocytes. PMID:7619050

  20. Differential effect of 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} on Hsp28 and PKC{beta} gene expression in the phorbol ester-resistant human myeloid HL-525 leukemic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yong J.; Galoforo, S.S.; Berns, C.M.

    1997-08-01

    We investigated the effect of 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} [1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}] on the expression of the 28-kDa heat shock protein gene (hsp28) and the protein kinase C beta gene (PKC{beta}) in the human myeloid HL-60 leukemic cell variant HL-525, which is resistance to phorbol ester-induced macrophage differentiation. Northern and Western blot analysis showed little or no hsp28 gene expression in the HL-60 cell variant, HL-205, which is susceptible to such differentiation, while a relatively high basal level of hps28 gene expression was observed in the HL-525 cells. However, both cell lines demonstrated heat shock-induced expression of this gene. During treatment with 50-300 nM 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}, a marked reduction of hsp28 gene expression was not associated with heat shock transcription factor-heat shock element (HSF-HSE) binding activity. Our results suggest that the differential effect of 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} on hsp28 and PKC{beta} gene expression is due to the different sequence composition of the vitamin D response element in the in the promoter region as well as an accessory factor for each gene or that 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} increases PKC{beta} gene expression, which in turn negatively regulates the expression of the hsp28 gene, or vice versa.

  1. Block LU factorization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demmel, James W.; Higham, Nicholas J.; Schreiber, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    Many of the currently popular 'block algorithms' are scalar algorithms in which the operations have been grouped and reordered into matrix operations. One genuine block algorithm in practical use is block LU factorization, and this has recently been shown by Demmel and Higham to be unstable in general. It is shown here that block LU factorization is stable if A is block diagonally dominant by columns. Moreover, for a general matrix the level of instability in block LU factorization can be founded in terms of the condition number kappa(A) and the growth factor for Gaussian elimination without pivoting. A consequence is that block LU factorization is stable for a matrix A that is symmetric positive definite or point diagonally dominant by rows or columns as long as A is well-conditioned.

  2. Ab initio MO studies of interaction mechanisms of Protein Kinase C with cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Ken-ichiro; Kaneko, Hiroki; Shimada, Jiro; Takada, Toshikazu

    2001-12-01

    Protein Kinase C (PKC) is a family of regulatory enzymes. It is considered that binding with phorbol ester which are PKC activators, increases affinity of PKC for the membranes and consequently induces its conformation change. Electrostatic interactions between PKC and the membrane is assumed to be important, and performed ab initio MO calculations of one domain of PKC consisting of 50 amino acids and its complex with the ester is performed to investigate how the electrostatic potential of PKC changes through docking with the substrate. From the calculation, it is shown that the electrostatic potential of PKC near the binding site is dramatically affected through the binding, suggesting attractive interactions with the cell membrane.

  3. Regulation of Chloride Channels by Protein Kinase C in Normal and Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; McCann, John D.; Anderson, Matthew P.; Clancy, John P.; Liedtke, Carole M.; Nairn, Angus C.; Greengard, Paul; Welsh, Michael J.

    1989-06-01

    Apical membrane chloride channels control chloride secretion by airway epithelial cells. Defective regulation of these channels is a prominent characteristic of cystic fibrosis. In normal intact cells, activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol ester either stimulated or inhibited chloride secretion, depending on the physiological status of the cell. In cell-free membrane patches, PKC also had a dual effect: at a high calcium concentration, PKC inactivated chloride channels; at a low calcium concentration, PKC activated chloride channels. In cystic fibrosis cells, PKC-dependent channel inactivation was normal, but activation was defective. Thus it appears that PKC phosphorylates and regulates two different sites on the channel or on an associated membrane protein, one of which is defective in cystic fibrosis.

  4. Enhancement of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte adherence to plastic and endothelium by phorbol myristate acetate. Comparison with human C5a.

    PubMed Central

    Webster, R. O.; Wysolmerski, R. B.; Lagunoff, D.

    1986-01-01

    The adherence of circulating neutrophils to vascular endothelium represents a necessary step in the chemotactic emigration of neutrophils to extravascular inflammatory sites. Studies of neutrophil adherence induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) were undertaken to determine the ability of a nonchemotactic neutrophil stimulus to provoke increased adherence. The authors found that the adherence of human neutrophils to plastic surfaces or confluent monolayers of endothelial cells is enhanced in a concentration-dependent fashion by exposure of neutrophils to PMA. The effect of PMA concentration (0.1-5.0 ng/ml) on increased neutrophil adherence parallels that observed for superoxide anion generation and release of lysosomal enzymes from specific granules. Whereas complement C5a-treated neutrophils exhibited a fourfold to fivefold increase in adherence to endothelial cells, PMA-treated neutrophils showed a 10-fold to 20-fold increase. The ability of PMA to cause increased neutrophil adherence to endothelium appeared to be directed primarily at the neutrophil. Pretreatment of neutrophils with PMA was as effective as coincubation in causing increased adherence to plastic surfaces or confluent cultured endothelial cells, but pretreatment of endothelial cells with PMA failed to promote neutrophil adherence. Alteration of neutrophil cytoskeletal structures by cytochalasin B treatment did not prevent subsequent PMA-stimulated neutrophil adherence. These results demonstrate that increased neutrophil adherence to surfaces can be induced by a nonchemotactic stimulus and that neutrophil adherence is independent of organized microfilaments. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:3789092

  5. Smad2 transduces common signals from receptor serine-threonine and tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    de Caestecker, M P; Parks, W T; Frank, C J; Castagnino, P; Bottaro, D P; Roberts, A B; Lechleider, R J

    1998-06-01

    SMAD proteins mediate signals from receptor serine-threonine kinases (RSKs) of the TGF-beta superfamily. We demonstrate here that HGF and EGF, which signal through RTKs, can also mediate SMAD-dependent reporter gene activation and induce rapid phosphorylation of endogenous SMAD proteins by kinase(s) downstream of MEK1. HGF induces phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of epitope-tagged Smad2 and a mutation that blocks TGF-beta signaling also blocks HGF signal transduction. Smad2 may thus act as a common positive effector of TGF-beta- and HGF-induced signals and serve to modulate cross talk between RTK and RSK signaling pathways.

  6. Inhibitors of cellular kinases with broad-spectrum antiviral activity for hemorrhagic fever viruses.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Emma L; McMullan, Laura K; Lo, Michael K; Spengler, Jessica R; Bergeron, Éric; Albariño, César G; Shrivastava-Ranjan, Punya; Chiang, Cheng-Feng; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Flint, Mike

    2015-08-01

    Host cell kinases are important for the replication of a number of hemorrhagic fever viruses. We tested a panel of kinase inhibitors for their ability to block the replication of multiple hemorrhagic fever viruses. OSU-03012 inhibited the replication of Lassa, Ebola, Marburg and Nipah viruses, whereas BIBX 1382 dihydrochloride inhibited Lassa, Ebola and Marburg viruses. BIBX 1382 blocked both Lassa and Ebola virus glycoprotein-dependent cell entry. These compounds may be used as tools to understand conserved virus-host interactions, and implicate host cell kinases that may be targets for broad spectrum therapeutic intervention.

  7. Mechanism of membrane redistribution of protein kinase C by its ATP-competitive inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Namiki, Hideo

    2007-07-15

    ATP-competitive inhibitors of PKC (protein kinase C) such as the bisindolylmaleimide GF 109203X, which interact with the ATP-binding site in the PKC molecule, have also been shown to affect several redistribution events of PKC. However, the reason why these inhibitors affect the redistribution is still controversial. In the present study, using immunoblot analysis and GFP (green fluorescent protein)-tagged PKC, we showed that, at commonly used concentrations, these ATP-competitive inhibitors alone induced redistribution of DAG (diacylglycerol)-sensitive PKCalpha, PKCbetaII, PKCdelta and PKCepsilon, but not atypical PKCzeta, to the endomembrane or the plasma membrane. Studies with deletion and point mutants showed that the DAG-sensitive C1 domain of PKC was required for membrane redistribution by these inhibitors. Furthermore, membrane redistribution was prevented by the aminosteroid PLC (phospholipase C) inhibitor U-73122, although an ATP-competitive inhibitor had no significant effect on acute DAG generation. Immunoblot analysis showed that an ATP-competitive inhibitor enhanced cell-permeable DAG analogue- or phorbol-ester-induced translocation of endogenous PKC. Furthermore, these inhibitors also enhanced [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate binding to the cytosolic fractions from PKCalpha-GFP-overexpressing cells. These results clearly demonstrate that ATP-competitive inhibitors cause redistribution of DAG-sensitive PKCs to membranes containing endogenous DAG by altering the DAG sensitivity of PKC and support the idea that the inhibitors destabilize the closed conformation of PKC and make the C1 domain accessible to DAG. Most importantly, our findings provide novel insights for the interpretation of studies using ATP-competitive inhibitors, and, especially, suggest caution about the interpretation of the relationship between the redistribution and kinase activity of PKC.

  8. Effects of protein phosphatase and kinase inhibitors on the cardiac L- type Ca current suggest two sites are phosphorylated by protein kinase A and another protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    We previously showed (Frace, A.M. and H.C. Hartzell. 1993. Journal of Physiology. 472:305-326) that internal perfusion of frog atrial myocytes with the nonselective protein phosphatase inhibitors microcystin or okadaic acid produced an increase in the L-type Ca current (ICa) and a decrease in the delayed rectifier K current (IK). We hypothesized that microcystin revealed the activity of a protein kinase (PKX) that was basally active in the cardiac myocyte that could phosphorylate the Ca and K channels or regulators of the channels. The present studies were aimed at determining the nature of PKX and its phosphorylation target. The effect of internal perfusion with microcystin on ICa or IK was not attenuated by inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA). However, the effect of microcystin on ICa was largely blocked by the nonselective protein kinase inhibitors staurosporine (10- 30 nM), K252a (250 nM), and H-7 (10 microM). Staurosporine and H-7 also decreased the stimulation of ICa by isoproterenol, but K252a was more selective and blocked the ability of microcystin to stimulate ICa without significantly reducing isoproterenol-stimulated current. Internal perfusion with selective inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), including the autoinhibitory pseudosubstrate PKC peptide (PKC(19-31)) and a myristoylated derivative of this peptide had no effect. External application of several PKC inhibitors had negative side effects that prevented their use as selective PKC inhibitors. Nevertheless, we conclude that PKX is not PKC. PKA and PKX phosphorylate sites with different sensitivities to the phosphatase inhibitors calyculin A and microcystin. In contrast to the results with ICa, the effect of microcystin on IK was not blocked by any of the kinase inhibitors tested, suggesting that the effect of microcystin on IK may not be mediated by a protein kinase but may be due to a direct effect of microcystin on the IK channel. PMID:8786340

  9. Altered regulation of Src tyrosine kinase by transforming growth factor beta1 in a human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, K; Kawata, S; Tamura, S; Matsuda, Y; Inui, Y; Igura, T; Inoue, S; Kudara, T; Matsuzawa, Y

    1998-09-01

    Transforming growth factor betas (TGF-betas) are the potent growth inhibitors for various cell types. Certain transformed cells, however, show poor response to TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition, which contributes to their uncontrolled proliferation. Recently, we have reported that TGF-beta1 induces degradation of activated Src tyrosine kinase in rat fibroblasts. To elucidate the alteration in TGF-beta signaling pathway in tumor cells that cannot respond to the cytokine, we compared the effects of TGF-beta1 on Src kinase in two human hepatoma cell lines, TGF-beta1-insensitive Mahlavu cells and TGF-beta1-sensitive HepG2 cells. TGF-beta1 decreased Src kinase activity in HepG2 cells, but increased cellular Src levels and Src kinase activity in Mahlavu cells. Co-incubation of Mahlavu cells with TGF-beta1 and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) decreased Src protein levels and Src kinase activity, inducing TGF-beta1 sensitivity. TGF-beta1 induced tyrosine dephosphorylation of Ras guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein (Ras-GAP) and Ras inactivation in HepG2 cells, but induced Ras-GAP phosphorylation and Ras activation in Mahlavu cells. The Src kinase inhibitor abolished the increase of Src kinase activity in TGF-beta1-treated Mahlavu cells, and induced TGF-beta1 sensitivity. These findings suggest that regulation of Src kinase by TGF-beta1 is altered in Mahlavu cells. The altered regulation of Src may contribute to TGF-beta1 insensitivity in this cell line, at least in part through activation of Ras.

  10. The molecular basis of targeting protein kinases in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Nussinov, Ruth

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of targeted anticancer therapies with small molecule kinase inhibitors. First, we discuss why a single constitutively active kinase emanating from a variety of aberrant genetic alterations is capable of transforming a normal cell, leading it to acquire the hallmarks of a cancer cell. To draw attention to the fact that kinase inhibition in targeted cancer therapeutics differs from conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, we exploit a conceptual framework explaining why suppressed kinase activity will selectively kill only the so-called oncogene 'addicted' cancer cell, while sparing the healthy cell. Second, we introduce the protein kinase superfamily in light of its common active conformation with precisely positioned structural elements, and the diversified auto-inhibitory conformations among the kinase families. Understanding the detailed activation mechanism of individual kinases is essential to relate the observed oncogenic alterations to the elevated constitutively active state, to identify the mechanism of consequent drug resistance, and to guide the development of the next-generation inhibitors. To clarify the vital importance of structural guidelines in studies of oncogenesis, we explain how somatic mutations in EGFR result in kinase constitutive activation. Third, in addition to the common theme of secondary (acquired) mutations that prevent drug binding from blocking a signaling pathway which is hijacked by the aberrant activated kinase, we discuss scenarios of drug resistance and relapse by compensating lesions that bypass the inactivated pathway in a vertical or horizontal fashion. Collectively, these suggest that the future challenge of cancer therapy with small molecule kinase inhibitors will rely on the discovery of distinct combinations of optimized drugs to target individual subtypes of different cancers.

  11. Dual concentration-dependent effects of phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate on spontaneous and acetylcholine-induced electrical responses recorded from isolated circular smooth muscle of the guinea-pig stomach antrum.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Eri; Suzuki, Hikaru

    2004-12-01

    Intracellular recordings of electrical activity were made from circular smooth muscle cells in small segments of tissue isolated from the guinea-pig stomach antrum. Every cell that was impaled exhibited a rhythmic generation of slow potentials. Experiments were carried out to test the effects of three different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 nM) of phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu) on these slow potentials and on the responses produced by acetylcholine (ACh), in the presence of nifedipine and N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (nitroarginine), known inhibitors of L-type Ca-channels and nitric oxide synthase, respectively. The resting membrane potential was -62 +/- 7 mV, while the frequency and amplitude of the slow potentials were 1.6 +/- 0.1 cycle per min (cpm) and 33 +/- 1 mV, respectively. Application of 1 nM PDBu increased the frequency of slow potentials, with no significant change in the membrane potential and amplitude of slow potentials. At a concentration of 100 nM, PDBu depolarized the membrane by about 6 mV, and either decreased the amplitude and frequency of the slow potentials or abolished them. The amplitude and frequency of the slow potentials were not significantly changed in the presence of 10 nM PDBu. In the presence of chelerythrine (1-2 microM), a known inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), the increase in frequency of slow potentials by 1 nM PDBu and depolarization produced by 100 nM PDBu were not elicited. The increase in frequency of slow potentials by 100 nM ACh was inhibited by PDBu, in a concentration-dependent manner, and ACh-responses were abolished in the presence of 100 nM PDBu. These results indicate that PDBu has dual actions on the spontaneous activity of antral circular muscle, with low concentrations increasing and high concentrations inhibiting the frequency of the slow potentials. The former may be produced by activation of protein kinase C (PKC). As the ACh-induced excitation of slow potentials is inhibited by PDBu, a possible causal

  12. Island custom blocking technique

    SciTech Connect

    Carabetta, R.J. )

    1988-03-01

    The technique of Island blocking is being used more frequently since the advent of our new head and neck blocking techniques and the implementation of a newly devised lung protocol. The system presented affords the mould room personnel a quick and accurate means of island block fabrication without the constant remeasuring or subtle shifting to approximate correct placement. The cookie cutter is easily implemented into any department's existing block cutting techniques. The device is easily and inexpensively made either in a machine shop or acquired by contacting the author.

  13. Protein based Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

  14. [Perioperative alterations in polymorphonuclear leukocyte function mediated by protein kinase C].

    PubMed

    Yokota, K; Nishihira, T; Shineha, R; Ueda, H; Mori, S

    1994-03-01

    To characterize the perioperative alterations in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) function mediated by protein kinase C, we studied twenty six patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. Seventeen patients with thoracic esophageal cancer were underwent total thoracic esophagectomy through a right thoracotomy (severe surgical stress group). Nine patients underwent cholecystectomy (slight surgical stress group). Measurement of O2- production capacity was used as a reflection of the activity of NADPH oxidase, and the activity of myeloperoxidase-H2O2-halide system was evaluated using luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. O2- production stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was suppressed, reaching a minimum on POD 3. On the other hand, luminol dependent chemiluminescence increased significantly after surgery, reached a maximum on POD 3. These alterations were more remarkable in the severely stressed patients. These results suggest that postoperative PMN signal transduction mechanisms, mediated by protein kinase C, may activate myeloperoxidase-H2-O2-halide system but suppress NADPH oxidase system dependently of the degree of surgical stress, revealing a differential effect of protein kinase C activation on PMN microbicidal activity.

  15. Protein kinase C mediates cholinergically regulated protein phosphorylation in a Cl(-)-secreting epithelium.

    PubMed

    Cohn, J A

    1990-02-01

    T84 cell monolayers were used to study the cholinergic regulation of protein phosphorylation in epithelial cells. When T84 cell monolayers are labeled with 32Pi and stimulated with carbachol, six proteins exhibit altered phosphorylation. The most prominent response is a fivefold increase in labeling of p83, an acidic protein of Mr 83,000. Increasing labeling of p83 parallels stimulated secretion with respect to the onset of agonist action, agonist potency, and antagonism by atropine. However, the p83 and secretory responses differ in that the p83 response is more sustained. When T84 cell fractions are incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP, Ca2(+)-phospholipid stimulates p83 labeling. Phosphorylation of p83 also occurs when a T84 cell extract is incubated with purified protein kinase C and when intact cells are exposed to phorbol myristate acetate. p83 does not become phosphorylated in cell fractions incubated with adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) or in monolayers stimulated with agonists acting via cAMP. Thus carbachol stimulates the phosphorylation of an endogenous substrate for protein kinase C in T84 cells. The duration of this phosphorylation response suggests that protein kinase C may mediate a sustained response to carbachol, possibly acting to limit the duration of stimulated secretion.

  16. Abrogation of TNF-mediated cytotoxicity by space flight involves protein kinase C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, K. M.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Experiments conducted on STS-50 indicated that space flight significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated killing of LM929 cells compared to ground controls. In ground-based studies, activation of protein kinase C (PKC) with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) also inhibited TNF-mediated killing of LM929 cells. Therefore, we used PKC inhibitors to determine if the inhibitory effects of spaceflight on TNF-mediated cytotoxicity involved the activation of PKC. In experiments conducted onboard space shuttle mission STS-54, we saw that in the presence of the protein kinase C inhibitors H7 and H8, TNF-mediated cytotoxicity was restored to levels of those observed in the ground controls. Subsequent experiments done during the STS-57 mission tested the dose response of two protein kinase inhibitors, H7 and HA1004. We again saw that killing was restored in a dose-dependent manner, with inhibitor concentrations known to inhibit PKC being most effective. These data suggest that space flight ameliorates the action of TNF by affecting PKC in target cells.

  17. Abrogation of TNF-mediated cytotoxicity by space flight involves protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Woods, K M; Chapes, S K

    1994-03-01

    Experiments conducted on STS-50 indicated that space flight significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated killing of LM929 cells compared to ground controls. In ground-based studies, activation of protein kinase C (PKC) with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) also inhibited TNF-mediated killing of LM929 cells. Therefore, we used PKC inhibitors to determine if the inhibitory effects of spaceflight on TNF-mediated cytotoxicity involved the activation of PKC. In experiments conducted onboard space shuttle mission STS-54, we saw that in the presence of the protein kinase C inhibitors H7 and H8, TNF-mediated cytotoxicity was restored to levels of those observed in the ground controls. Subsequent experiments done during the STS-57 mission tested the dose response of two protein kinase inhibitors, H7 and HA1004. We again saw that killing was restored in a dose-dependent manner, with inhibitor concentrations known to inhibit PKC being most effective. These data suggest that space flight ameliorates the action of TNF by affecting PKC in target cells.

  18. Parallel regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3) and MKK6 in Gq-signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, J; Tsujimoto, G; Kaziro, Y; Itoh, H

    2001-06-29

    Heterotrimeric G protein G(q) stimulates the activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in mammalian cells. To investigate the signaling mechanism whereby alpha and betagamma subunits of G(q) activate p38 MAPK, we introduced kinase-deficient mutants of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3), MKK4, and MKK6 into human embryonal kidney 293 cells. The activation of p38 MAPK by Galpha(q) and Gbetagamma was blocked by kinase-deficient MKK3 and MKK6 but not by kinase-deficient MKK4. In addition, Galpha(q) and Gbetagamma stimulated MKK3 and MKK6 activities. The MKK3 and MKK6 activations by Galpha(q), but not by Gbetagamma, were dependent on phospholipase C and c-Src. Galpha(q) stimulated MKK3 in a Rac- and Cdc42-dependent manner and MKK6 in a Rho-dependent manner. On the other hand, Gbetagamma activated MKK3 in a Rac- and Cdc42-dependent manner and MKK6 in a Rho-, Rac-, and Cdc42-dependent manner. Gbetagamma-induced MKK3 and MKK6 activations were dependent on a tyrosine kinase other than c-Src. These results suggest that Galpha(q) and Gbetagamma stimulate the activity of p38 MAPK by regulating MKK3 and MKK6 through parallel signaling pathways.

  19. VEGF activates protein kinase C-dependent, but Ras-independent Raf-MEK-MAP kinase pathway for DNA synthesis in primary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Ueno, H; Shibuya, M

    1999-04-01

    KDR/FIk-1 tyrosine kinase, one of the two VEGF receptors induces mitogenesis and differentiation of vascular endothelial cells. We have previously reported that a major target molecule of KDR/Flk-1 kinase is PLC-gamma, and that VEGF induces activation of MAP kinase, mainly mediated by protein kinase C (PKC) in the NIH3T3 cells overexpressing KDR/FIk-1 (Takahashi and Shibuya, 1997). However, the signal transduction initiated from VEGF in endothelial cells remains to be elucidated. In primary sinusoidal endothelial cells which showed strictly VEGF-dependent growth, we found that VEGF stimulated the activation of Raf-1-MEK-MAP kinase cascade. To our surprise, an important regulator, Ras was not efficiently activated to a significant level in response to VEGF. Consistent with this, dominant-negative Ras did not block the VEGF-induced phosphorylation of MAP kinase. On the other hand, PKC-specific inhibitors severely reduced VEGF-dependent phosphorylation of MEK, activation of MAP kinase and subsequent DNA synthesis. A potent PI3 kinase inhibitor, Wortmannin, could not inhibit either of them. These results suggest that in primary endothelial cells, VEGF-induced activation of Raf-MEK-MAP kinase and DNA synthesis are mainly mediated by PKC-dependent pathway, much more than by Ras-dependent or PI3 kinase-dependent pathway.

  20. Congenital complete atrioventricular block.

    PubMed Central

    Kertesz, N J; Fenrich, A L; Friedman, R A

    1997-01-01

    Congenital complete atrioventricular block is found in 1 of 22,000 live births. Over time, it has become apparent that these patients represent not a single distinct disease process, but several processes with the common manifestation of atrioventricular block. The evaluation of these patients to determine their risk of sudden death and need for pacing is not well defined. Images PMID:9456483

  1. High Relief Block Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Explains a method of block printing using styrofoam shapes to make high relief. Describes the creation of the block design as well as the actual printing process. Uses a range of paper types for printing so children can see the results of using different media. (LS)

  2. Surviving Block Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Marjorie

    A discussion of block scheduling for second language instruction looks at the advantages and disadvantages and offers some suggestions for classroom management and course organization. It is argued that block scheduling may offer a potential solution to large classes, insufficient time for labs, too little individualized instruction; few…

  3. Thermally actuated wedge block

    DOEpatents

    Queen, Jr., Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

  4. Electron microscopic examination of podosomes induced by phorbol 12, 13 dibutyrate on the surface of A7r5 cells.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hideyuki; Wang, Hong-Hui; Thatcher, Sean E; Hagiwara, Haruo; Takano-Ohmuro, Hiromi; Kohama, Kazuhiro

    2015-06-01

    The role of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in inducing podosomes was examined by confocal and electron microscopy. Removal of myosin from the actin core of podosomes using blebbistatin, a myosin inhibitor, resulted in the formation of smaller podosomes. Downregulation of MLCK by the transfection of MLCK small interfering RNA (siRNA) led to the failure of podosome formation. However, ML-7, an inhibitor of the kinase activity of MLCK, failed to inhibit podosome formation. Based on our previous report (Thatcher et al. J.Pharm.Sci. 116 116-127, 2011), we outlined the important role of the actin-binding activity of MLCK in producing smaller podosomes.

  5. Evidence for protein kinase C in bovine adrenocortical membrane preparations using (/sup 35/S) gamma-thio-ATP as a phosphate donor

    SciTech Connect

    Coyne, M.D.; Luszczynska, H.M.; Kunzi, M.

    1987-01-01

    Thio-substituted ATP is a sensitive probe for detecting protein kinase C activity as demonstrated in bovine adrenocortical cell membrane preparations. A single endogenous protein substrate with a molecular weight of approximately 47 Kd was rapidly phosphorylated with (/sup 35/S) gamma-thio-ATP as phosphate donor. Phosphorylation was significantly increased in 30 seconds and reached a plateau by 3 minutes. The activity of the endogenous membrane kinase was unaffected by ACTH, cAMP, calmodulin or trifluoperazine but was responsive to combinations of calcium (Ca), diolein and phosphatidyl serine (PS). In addition, the kinase was activated by the tumor promoting phorbol ester, 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, indicating that the membrane contains a protein kinase C and a single 47 Kd phosphorylatable protein substrate. The same substrate is phosphorylated by Ca/diolein/PS activated kinase in membrane preparations from a broad range of rat tissues. Attempts to identify the substrate indicate that it is neither the type I regulatory subunit of cAMP dependent protein kinase nor mitochondrial cytochrome P450.

  6. Activation of resting T cells: distinct roles of intact accessory cells, phorbol myristate acetate and interleukin 1

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.; Lipsky, P.E.

    1986-03-05

    The accessory cell (AC) signals involved in the activation of resting guinea pig T lymphocytes stimulated with mitogen (PHA), or the calcium ionophore, ionomycin (Ion) were examined. Activation of T cells was assessed by cell cycle analysis after acridine orange staining and /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. PHA-stimulated T cells depleted of all AC were unable to respond in the presence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and/or interleukin 1 (IL 1). With suboptimal numbers of AC, PMA greatly augmented the number of T cells activated by PHA to enter and progress through the cell cycle, but only when present during the first few hours of culture. By contrast, IL 1 had little effect on the number of cells entering the cell cycle, although it enhanced S phase entry of the activated cells. IL 1 augmented DNA synthesis when added initially or later in culture. In contrast to the effects noted with PHA, PMA promoted activation and DNA synthesis of the majority of Ion stimulated cells in the complete absence of AC. IL 1 alone could not support Ion induced T cell activation although it enhanced T cell DNA synthesis in cultures stimulated by PMA and Ion. These studies indicate that intact AC, IL 1 and PMA-like signals play distinct roles in the progression of T cells through the initial cell cycle. Stimulation by Ion requires only PMA whereas PHA responses require intact AC and can be amplified by PMA. The major effect of IL 1 is to promote S phase entry of activated T cells.

  7. 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-induced differentiation of myelomonocytic leukemic cells unresponsive to colony stimulating factors and phorbol esters

    SciTech Connect

    Bettens, F.; Schlick, E.; Farrar, W.; Ruscetti, F.

    1986-12-01

    The murine myelomonocytic leukemia cell line WEHI-3B D/sup +/, which differentiates in response to granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), can also be induced to differentiate into monocyte-macrophages by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) treatment, whereas the WEHI-3B D/sup -/ subline, which is unresponsive to G-CSF and PMA, can be induced to differentiate to granulocytes as well as monocytes by 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)/sub 2/ D3), the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D3. A newly developed variant of the WEHI-3B D/sup +/ line, named WEHI-3B D/sup +/G, which was responsive to G-CSF but not to PMA, was also differentiated to granulocytes by 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/ D3. Although vitamin D3 has been reported to induce macrophage differentiation in responsive tumor cells, this is the first demonstration that 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/ D3 can induce granulocyte differentiation. In both differentiation pathways, cessation of cellular proliferation accompanies changes in morphologic and cytochemical properties of the cells. This suggests that leukemic cell lines unresponsive to differentiation agents acting at the cell surface retain their ability to differentiate in response to agents that do not act via the plasma membrane such as 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/ D3, which has cytosolic/nuclear receptors. These results suggest that low doses of 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/ D3 may be useful in combination with hemopoietic growth factors (CSFs) as therapeutic agent to induce leukemic cell differentiation in vivo.

  8. Phosphatidylinositol kinase from rabbit reticulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Tuazon, P.T.; Heng, A.B.W.; Traugh, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase was isolated from the postribosomal supernatant of rabbit reticulocytes. This activity was identified by the formation of a product that comigrated with phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP) when purified PI was phosphorylated in the presence of (/sup 32/P)ATP and Mg/sup 2 +/. Three major peaks of PI kinase activity were resolved by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The first peak eluted at 50-100 mM NaCl together with several serine protein kinases, casein kinase (CK) I and protease activated kinase (PAK) I and II. The PI kinase was subsequently separated from the protein kinases by chromatography on phosphocellulose. The second peak eluted at 125-160 mM NaCl and contained another lipid kinase activity that produced a product which comigrated with phosphatidic acid on thin layer chromatography. The third peak, which eluted at 165-200 mM NaCl, partly comigrated with casein kinase (CK) II and an active protein kinase(s) which phosphorylated mixed histone and histone I. CK II and the histone kinase activities were also separated by chromatography on phosphocelluslose. The different forms of PI kinase were characterized and compared with respect to substrate and salt requirements.

  9. Microbial Protein-tyrosine Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Joseph D.; Wong, Dennis; Av-Gay, Yossef

    2014-01-01

    Microbial ester kinases identified in the past 3 decades came as a surprise, as protein phosphorylation on Ser, Thr, and Tyr amino acids was thought to be unique to eukaryotes. Current analysis of available microbial genomes reveals that “eukaryote-like” protein kinases are prevalent in prokaryotes and can converge in the same signaling pathway with the classical microbial “two-component” systems. Most microbial tyrosine kinases lack the “eukaryotic” Hanks domain signature and are designated tyrosine kinases based upon their biochemical activity. These include the tyrosine kinases termed bacterial tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases), which are responsible for the majority of known bacterial tyrosine phosphorylation events. Although termed generally as bacterial tyrosine kinases, BY-kinases can be considered as one family belonging to the superfamily of prokaryotic protein-tyrosine kinases in bacteria. Other members of this superfamily include atypical “odd” tyrosine kinases with diverse mechanisms of protein phosphorylation and the “eukaryote-like” Hanks-type tyrosine kinases. Here, we discuss the distribution, phylogeny, and function of the various prokaryotic protein-tyrosine kinases, focusing on the recently discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis PtkA and its relationship with other members of this diverse family of proteins. PMID:24554699

  10. Inhibition of protein kinase C catalytic activity by additional regions within the human protein kinase Calpha-regulatory domain lying outside of the pseudosubstrate sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Kirwan, Angie F; Bibby, Ashley C; Mvilongo, Thierry; Riedel, Heimo; Burke, Thomas; Millis, Sherri Z; Parissenti, Amadeo M

    2003-01-01

    The N-terminal pseudosubstrate site within the protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha)-regulatory domain has long been regarded as the major determinant for autoinhibition of catalytic domain activity. Previously, we observed that the PKC-inhibitory capacity of the human PKCalpha-regulatory domain was only reduced partially on removal of the pseudosubstrate sequence [Parissenti, Kirwan, Kim, Colantonio and Schimmer (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 8940-8945]. This finding suggested that one or more additional region(s) contributes to the inhibition of catalytic domain activity. To assess this hypothesis, we first examined the PKC-inhibitory capacity of a smaller fragment of the PKCalpha-regulatory domain consisting of the C1a, C1b and V2 regions [GST-Ralpha(39-177): this protein contained the full regulatory domain of human PKCalpha fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST), but lacked amino acids 1-38 (including the pseudosubstrate sequence) and amino acids 178-270 (including the C2 region)]. GST-Ralpha(39-177) significantly inhibited PKC in a phorbol-independent manner and could not bind the peptide substrate used in our assays. These results suggested that a region within C1/V2 directly inhibits catalytic domain activity. Providing further in vivo support for this hypothesis, we found that expression of N-terminally truncated pseudosubstrate-less bovine PKCalpha holoenzymes in yeast was capable of inhibiting cell growth in a phorbol-dependent manner. This suggested that additional autoinhibitory force(s) remained within the truncated holoenzymes that could be relieved by phorbol ester. Using tandem PCR-mediated mutagenesis, we observed that mutation of amino acids 33-86 within GST-Ralpha(39-177) dramatically reduced its PKC-inhibitory capacity when protamine was used as substrate. Mutagenesis of a broad range of sequences within C2 (amino acids 159-242) also significantly reduced PKC-inhibitory capacity. Taken together, these observations support strongly the existence of

  11. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C of the 20,000-dalton light chain of myosin in intact and chemically skinned vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Sutton, T A; Haeberle, J R

    1990-02-15

    In the present study we tested the hypothesis that phosphorylation of the 20,000-dalton light chain subunit of smooth muscle myosin (LC20) by the calcium-activated and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C regulates contraction of chemically-permeabilized (glycerinated) porcine carotid artery smooth muscle. Purified protein kinase C and oleic acid were used to phosphorylate LC20 in glycerinated muscles in the presence of a CaEGTA/EGTA buffer system (pCa 8) to prevent activation of myosin light chain kinase. Phosphorylation of the light chain to 1.3 mol of PO4/mol of LC20 did not stimulate contraction. Tryptic digests of glycerinated carotid artery LC20 contained two major phosphopeptides which contained phosphoserine but not phosphothreonine. Incubation of glycerinated muscles with calcium (20 microM) and calmodulin (10 microM) resulted in contraction and LC20 phosphorylation to 1.1 mol of PO4/mol of LC20; tryptic digests of LC20 from these muscles contained a single phosphopeptide which could be distinguished by phosphopeptide mapping from the two phosphopeptides derived from muscles phosphorylated with protein kinase C. Further phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-activated muscles to 2.0 mol of PO4/mol of LC20, by incubation with protein kinase C, had no effect on either the level of isometric force or the lightly-loaded shortening velocity (after-load = 0.1 peak active force); removal of Ca2+ and calmodulin, but not protein kinase C and oleic acid, resulted in normal relaxation in spite of maintained phosphorylation to 1.2 mol of PO4/mol of LC20. Comparison of LC20 phosphopeptide maps from glycerinated muscles incubated with protein kinase C plus Ca2+/calmodulin (2.0 mol of PO4/mol of LC20) to maps from intact muscles stimulated with 10(-6) M phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (0.05 mol of PO4/mol of LC20) showed that the same three phosphopeptides were present in both the intact and glycerinated muscles. These findings show that phosphorylation of LC20 by protein kinase

  12. Conformation-selective ATP-competitive inhibitors control regulatory interactions and noncatalytic functions of mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Hari, Sanjay B; Merritt, Ethan A; Maly, Dustin J

    2014-05-22

    Most potent protein kinase inhibitors act by competing with ATP to block the phosphotransferase activity of their targets. However, emerging evidence demonstrates that ATP-competitive inhibitors can affect kinase interactions and functions in ways beyond blocking catalytic activity. Here, we show that stabilizing alternative ATP-binding site conformations of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38α and Erk2 with ATP-competitive inhibitors differentially, and in some cases divergently, modulates the abilities of these kinases to interact with upstream activators and deactivating phosphatases. Conformation-selective ligands are also able to modulate Erk2's ability to allosterically activate the MAPK phosphatase DUSP6, highlighting how ATP-competitive ligands can control noncatalytic kinase functions. Overall, these studies underscore the relationship between the ATP-binding and regulatory sites of MAPKs and provide insight into how ATP-competitive ligands can be designed to confer graded control over protein kinase function.

  13. Visualizing autophosphorylation in histidine kinases.

    PubMed

    Casino, Patricia; Miguel-Romero, Laura; Marina, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is the most widespread regulatory mechanism in signal transduction. Autophosphorylation in a dimeric sensor histidine kinase is the first step in two-component signalling, the predominant signal-transduction device in bacteria. Despite being the most abundant sensor kinases in nature, the molecular bases of the histidine kinase autophosphorylation mechanism are still unknown. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that autophosphorylation can occur in two directions, cis (intrasubunit) or trans (intersubunit) within the dimeric histidine kinase. Here, we present the crystal structure of the complete catalytic machinery of a chimeric histidine kinase. The structure shows an asymmetric histidine kinase dimer where one subunit is caught performing the autophosphorylation reaction. A structure-guided functional analysis on HK853 and EnvZ, two prototypical cis- and trans-phosphorylating histidine kinases, has allowed us to decipher the catalytic mechanism of histidine kinase autophosphorylation, which seems to be common independently of the reaction directionality.

  14. Novel Mechanism of Impaired Function of Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptide 1B3 in Human Hepatocytes: Post-Translational Regulation of OATP1B3 by Protein Kinase C Activation

    PubMed Central

    Powell, John; Farasyn, Taleah; Köck, Kathleen; Meng, Xiaojie; Pahwa, Sonia; Brouwer, Kim L. R.

    2014-01-01

    The organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B3 is a membrane transport protein that mediates hepatic uptake of many drugs and endogenous compounds. Currently, determination of OATP-mediated drug-drug interactions in vitro is focused primarily on direct substrate inhibition. Indirect inhibition of OATP1B3 activity is under-appreciated. OATP1B3 has putative protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation sites. Studies were designed to determine the effect of PKC activation on OATP1B3-mediated transport in human hepatocytes using cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8), a specific OATP1B3 substrate, as the probe. A PKC activator, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), did not directly inhibit [3H]CCK-8 accumulation in human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH). However, pretreatment with PMA for as little as 10 minutes rapidly decreased [3H]CCK-8 accumulation. Treatment with a PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide (BIM) I prior to PMA treatment blocked the inhibitory effect of PMA, indicating PKC activation is essential for downregulating OATP1B3 activity. PMA pretreatment did not affect OATP1B3 mRNA or total protein levels. To determine the mechanism(s) underlying the indirect inhibition of OATP1B3 activity upon PKC activation, adenoviral vectors expressing FLAG-Myc-tagged OATP1B3 (Ad-OATP1B3) were transduced into human hepatocytes; surface expression and phosphorylation of OATP1B3 were determined by biotinylation and by an anti–phosphor-Ser/Thr/Tyr antibody, respectively. PMA pretreatment markedly increased OATP1B3 phosphorylation without affecting surface or total OATP1B3 protein levels. In conclusion, PKC activation rapidly decreases OATP1B3 transport activity by post-translational regulation of OATP1B3. These studies elucidate a novel indirect inhibitory mechanism affecting hepatic uptake mediated by OATP1B3, and provide new insights into predicting OATP-mediated drug interactions between OATP substrates and kinase modulator drugs/endogenous compounds. PMID:25200870

  15. Modulation of maturation and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation in Xenopus oocytes by microinjection of oncogenic ras protein and protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Kamata, T; Kung, H F

    1990-01-01

    Using Xenopus oocytes as a model system, we investigated the possible involvement of ras proteins in the pathway leading to phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6. Our results indicate that microinjection of oncogenic T24 H-ras protein (which contains valine at position 12) markedly stimulated S6 phosphorylation on serine residues in oocytes, whereas normal ras protein (which contains glycine at position 12) was without effect. The S6 phosphorylation activity in the cell extract from T24 ras protein-injected oocytes was increased significantly. In addition, injection of protein kinase C potentiated the induction of maturation and S6 phosphorylation by the oncogenic ras protein. A similar potentiation was detected when T24 ras protein-injected oocytes were incubated with active phorbol ester. These findings suggest that ras proteins activate the pathway linked to S6 phosphorylation and that protein kinase C has a synergistic effect on the ras-mediated pathway. Images PMID:2406569

  16. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Linn, Anning

    1996-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK.

  17. Plant 5-Methylthioribose Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Guranowski, Andrzej

    1983-01-01

    Activity of 5-methylthioribose kinase, the enzyme which catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of 1-phospho-5-methylthioribose, has been revealed in the extracts from various higher plant species. Almost 2,000-fold-purified enzyme has been obtained from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. cv Topaz) seed extract. Molecular weight of the native enzyme is 70,000 as judged by gel filtration. The lupin 5-methylthioribose kinase exhibits a strict requirement for divalent metal ions. Among the ions tested, only Mg2+ and Mn2+ acted as cofactors. The curve of kinase initial velocity versus pH reaches plateau at pH 10 to 10.5. The Km values calculated for 5-methylthioribose and ATP are 4.3 and 8.3 micromolar, respectively. Among nucleoside triphosphates tested as potential phosphate donors, only dATP could substitute in the reaction for ATP. 5-Isobutylthioribose, an analog of 5-methylthioribose, proved to be the γ-ATP-phosphate acceptor, too. The compound inhibits competitively synthesis of 1-phospho-5-methylthioribose (Ki = 1.4 micromolar). Lupin 5-methylthioribose kinase is completely and irreversibly inhibited by the antisulfhydryl reagent, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. As in bacteria (Ferro, Barrett, Shapiro 1978 J Biol Chem 253: 6021-6025), the enzyme may be involved in a new, alternative pathway of methionine synthesis in plant tissues. PMID:16662931

  18. Characterization of blocked isocyanates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirčeva, A.; Janežič, M.; Žigon, M.; Malavašič, T.

    1992-03-01

    An ionomer crosslinker on the basis of partly blocked hexamethylene isocyanurate was synthesized and characterized by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy and by gel permeation chromatography. To determine the selectivity of the blocking reaction. model compounds were also prepared. Deblocking and curing courses were studied by FTIR thermal methods. The selectivity of the blocking reaction was found to be poor and therefore the obtained ionomer crosslinker consisted of different monomer and oligomer components. Deblocking and curing were highly temperature dependent. Curing was more efficient in one-pack systems consisting of the ionomer crosslinker and of an OH groups rich ionomer polyurethane resin.

  19. Thrombin produces phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 by a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-independent mechanism in the human astrocytoma cell line 1321N1.

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, M; Bayón, Y; Sánchez Crespo, M; Nieto, M L

    1997-01-01

    The release of [3H]arachidonic acid was studied in the 1321N1 astrocytoma cell line upon stimulation with thrombin. The effect of thrombin was antagonized by hirudin only when both compounds were added simultaneously, which suggests activation of thrombin receptor. Evidence that the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) takes part in thrombin-induced arachidonate release was provided by the finding that thrombin induced retardation of the mobility of cPLA2 in SDS/polyacrylamide gels, which is a feature of the activation of cPLA2 by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Thrombin induced activation of two members of the MAP kinase family whose consensus primary sequence appears in cPLA2, namely p42-MAP kinase and c-Jun kinase. However, the activation of c-Jun kinase preceded the phosphorylation of cPLA2 more clearly than the activation of p42-MAK kinase did. Both cPLA2 and c-Jun kinase activation were not affected by PD-98059, a specific inhibitor of MAP kinase kinases, which indeed completely blocked p42-MAP kinase shift. Heat shock, a well-known activator of c-Jun kinase, also phosphorylated cPLA2 but not p42-MAP kinase. These data indicate the existence in astrocytoma cells of a signalling pathway triggered by thrombin receptor stimulation that activates a kinase cascade acting on the Pro-Leu-Ser-Pro consensus primary sequence, activates cPLA2, and associates the release of arachidonate with nuclear signalling pathways. PMID:9359863

  20. Identification of a selective thieno[2,3-c]pyridine inhibitor of COT kinase and TNF-alpha production.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Kevin; Allen, Hamish; Bischoff, Agnieszka; Clabbers, Anca; Dixon, Richard; Fix-Stenzel, Shannon; Friedman, Michael; Gaumont, Yvette; George, Dawn; Gordon, Thomas; Grongsaard, Pintipa; Janssen, Bernd; Jia, Yong; Moskey, Maria; Quinn, Christopher; Salmeron, Andres; Thomas, Christine; Wallace, Grier; Wishart, Neil; Yu, Zhengtian

    2009-03-15

    COT (Tpl2 in mice) is a serine/threonine MAP3 kinase that regulates production of TNF-alpha and other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta via the ERK/MAP kinase pathway. As TNF-alpha and IL-1beta are clinically validated targets for therapeutic intervention in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), blocking COT provides a potential avenue for amelioration of disease. Herein we describe identification of a cellular active selective small molecule inhibitor of COT kinase.

  1. Optoelectronics using block copolymers.

    SciTech Connect

    Botiz, I.; Darling, S. B.; Center for Nanoscale Materials

    2010-05-01

    Block copolymers, either as semiconductors themselves or as structure directors, are emerging as a promising class of materials for understanding and controlling processes associated with both photovoltaic energy conversion and light emitting devices.

  2. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

  3. Resolving writer's block.

    PubMed Central

    Huston, P.

    1998-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Writer's block, or a distinctly uncomfortable inability to write, can interfere with professional productivity. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To identify writer's block and to outline suggestions for its early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: Once the diagnosis has been established, a stepwise approach to care is recommended. Mild blockage can be resolved by evaluating and revising expectations, conducting a task analysis, and giving oneself positive feedback. Moderate blockage can be addressed by creative exercises, such as brainstorming and role-playing. Recalcitrant blockage can be resolved with therapy. Writer's block can be prevented by taking opportunities to write at the beginning of projects, working with a supportive group of people, and cultivating an ongoing interest in writing. CONCLUSIONS: Writer's block is a highly treatable condition. A systematic approach can help to alleviate anxiety, build confidence, and give people the information they need to work productively. PMID:9481467

  4. Blocked tear duct

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby may have an eye infection called conjunctivitis . ... increase the chance of other infections, such as conjunctivitis. ... be prevented. Proper treatment of nasal infections and conjunctivitis may reduce the risk of having a blocked ...

  5. Block copolymer battery separator

    DOEpatents

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  6. Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from cell block two into the "Death Row" exercise yard - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and southwest guard tower, looking from cell block eight roof - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Kinase-dependent activation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels by ET-1 in pulmonary arterial myocytes during chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Luke, Trevor; Maylor, Julie; Undem, Clark; Sylvester, J T; Shimoda, Larissa A

    2012-05-15

    Exposure to chronic hypoxia (CH) causes pulmonary hypertension. The vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) is thought to play a role in the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. In pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from chronically hypoxic rats, ET-1 signaling is altered, with the ET-1-induced change in intracellular calcium concentration (Δ[Ca(2+)](i)) occurring through activation of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCC) even though ET-1-induced depolarization via inhibition of K(+) channels is lost. The mechanism underlying this response is unclear. We hypothesized that activation of VDCCs by ET-1 following CH might be mediated by protein kinase C (PKC) and/or Rho kinase, both of which have been shown to phosphorylate and activate VDCCs. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of PKC and Rho kinase inhibitors on the ET-1-induced Δ[Ca(2+)](i) in PASMCs from rats exposed to CH (10% O(2), 3 wk) using the Ca(2+)-sensitive dye fura 2-AM and fluorescent microscopy techniques. We found that staurosporine and GF109203X, inhibitors of PKC, and Y-27632 and HA 1077, Rho kinase inhibitors, reduced the ET-1-induced Δ[Ca(2+)](i) by >70%. Inhibition of tyrosine kinases (TKs) with genistein or tyrphostin A23, or combined inhibition of PKC, TKs, and Rho kinase, reduced the Δ[Ca(2+)](i) to a similar extent as inhibition of either PKC or Rho kinase alone. The ability of PKC or Rho kinase to activate VDCCs in our cells was verified using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and GTP-γ-S. These results suggest that following CH, the ET-1-induced Δ[Ca(2+)](i) in PASMCs occurs via Ca(2+) influx through VDCCs mediated primarily by PKC, TKs, and Rho kinase.

  9. DNA damage control: regulation and functions of checkpoint kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Smits, Veronique A J; Gillespie, David A

    2015-10-01

    Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is a master regulator of the DNA damage and replication checkpoints in vertebrate cells. When activated via phosphorylation by its upstream regulatory kinase, ATR, Chk1 prevents cells with damaged or incompletely replicated DNA from entering mitosis, and acts to stabilize stalled replication forks and suppress replication origin firing when DNA synthesis is inhibited. Chk1 blocks mitosis by maintaining high levels of inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation of the mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase 1; however, the mechanisms that underlie replication fork stabilization and suppression of origin firing are less well defined. Although Chk1 function is evidently acutely regulated during these responses, how this occurs at the molecular level is incompletely understood. Recent evidence that Chk1 contains a 'kinase-associated 1' domain within its regulatory C-terminal region promises new insights. Additional modifications catalysed by other protein kinases, such as cyclin-dependent kinase 1, Akt, and RSK, can combine with ubiquitylation to regulate Chk1 subcellular localization and protein stability. Interestingly, it is clear that Chk1 has less well-defined functions in homologous recombination, chromatin modification, gene expression, spindle checkpoint proficiency, and cytokinesis. Here, we provide an overview of Chk1 regulation and functions, with an emphasis on unresolved questions that merit further research. PMID:26216057

  10. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Nathal, M. V.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kraus, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    In their simplest form, lattice block panels are produced by direct casting and result in lightweight, fully triangulated truss-like configurations which provide strength and stiffness [2]. The earliest realizations of lattice block were made from A1 and steels, primarily under funding from the US Navy [3]. This work also showed that the mechanical efficiency (eg., specific stiffness) of lattice block structures approached that of honeycomb structures [2]. The lattice architectures are also less anisotropic, and the investment casting route should provide a large advantage in cost and temperature capability over honeycombs which are limited to alloys that can be processed into foils. Based on this early work, a program was initiated to determine the feasibility of extending the high temperature superalloy lattice block [3]. The objective of this effort was to provide an alternative to intermetallics and composites in achieving a lightweight high temperature structure without sacrificing the damage tolerance and moderate cost inherent in superalloys. To establish the feasibility of the superalloy lattice block concept, work was performed in conjunction with JAMCORP, Inc. Billerica, MA, to produce a number of lattice block panels from both IN71 8 and Mar-M247.

  11. Endothelial Src kinase regulates membrane recycling from the lateral border recycling compartment during leukocyte transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Bidisha; Muller, William A

    2008-12-01

    When leukocytes cross endothelial cells during the inflammatory response, membrane from the recently described lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC) is selectively targeted around diapedesing leukocytes. This "targeted recycling" is critical for leukocyte transendothelial migration. Blocking homophilic PECAM interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells blocks targeted recycling from the LBRC and blocks diapedesis. However, the cellular signaling pathways that trigger targeted recycling are not known. We show that targeted recycling from the LBRC is dependent on Src kinase. The selective Src kinase inhibitor PP2 blocked targeted recycling and blocked diapedesis by over 70%. However, Src kinase inhibition did not affect the structure or normal constitutive recycling of membrane from the LBRC in the absence of leukocytes. PECAM, a Src kinase substrate, traffics between the LBRC and the endothelial surface at the cell border. However, virtually all of the PECAM in the cell that was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues was found in the LBRC. These findings demonstrate that Src kinase activity is critical for the targeted recycling of membrane from the LBRC to the site of transendothelial migration and that the PECAM in the LBRC is qualitatively different from the PECAM on the surface of endothelial cells. PMID:18991269

  12. Small molecule glutaminase inhibitors block glutamate release from stimulated microglia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ajit G; O'Driscoll, Cliona M; Bressler, Joseph; Kaufmann, Walter; Rojas, Camilo J; Slusher, Barbara S

    2014-01-01

    Glutaminase plays a critical role in the generation of glutamate, a key excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS. Excess glutamate release from activated macrophages and microglia correlates with upregulated glutaminase suggesting a pathogenic role for glutaminase. Both glutaminase siRNA and small molecule inhibitors have been shown to decrease excess glutamate and provide neuroprotection in multiple models of disease, including HIV-associated dementia (HAD), multiple sclerosis and ischemia. Consequently, inhibition of glutaminase could be of interest for treatment of these diseases. Bis-2-(5-phenylacetimido-1,2,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide (BPTES) and 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON), two most commonly used glutaminase inhibitors, are either poorly soluble or non-specific. Recently, several new BPTES analogs with improved physicochemical properties were reported. To evaluate these new inhibitors, we established a cell-based microglial activation assay measuring glutamate release. Microglia-mediated glutamate levels were significantly augmented by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands coincident with increased glutaminase activity. While several potent glutaminase inhibitors abrogated the increase in glutamate, a structurally related analog devoid of glutaminase activity was unable to block the increase. In the absence of glutamine, glutamate levels were significantly attenuated. These data suggest that the in vitro microglia assay may be a useful tool in developing glutaminase inhibitors of therapeutic interest. PMID:24269238

  13. Phospholipase A(2) and Lipids as Potential Modulators of c-Raf-1 Kinase.

    PubMed

    Bonventre, Joseph V.; Kyriakis, John M.; Spech, Richard; Witzgall, Ralph; Force, Thomas

    1996-04-01

    c-Raf-1 is a proximal serine/threonine kinase in the signaling cascade of many mitogens. The cellular mechanisms responsible for regulation of this kinase remain ill-defined. Although c-Raf-1-associated proteins have been identified, including Ras, none of these have been found to activate c-Raf-1 kinase in vitro. To evaluate whether arachidonic acid or one of its products is implicated in c-Raf-1 activation, c-Raf-1 activity was measured in LLC-PK(1) kidney epithelial cells overexpressing the 100 kDa phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)). As compared to control neomycin plasmid transfected cells, the cells overexpressing PLA(2) had a greater activation of c-Raf-1 in response to A23187 and phorbol ester stimulation. To explore the possibility that c-Raf-1 activity may be modulated directly by lipids, the enzymatic characteristics of c-Raf-1 were determined, and the effects of various possible lipid modulators on c-Raf-1 activity were examined. The K(m) of c-Raf-1 for ATP and mitogen-activiated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK), the only known physiologic substrate of c-Raf-1, were 11.6 &mgr;M and 0.8 &mgr;M, respectively. Of 13 lipids or combinations of lipids tested, including arachidonic acid and several eicosanoids, only phosphatidylserine and diacylglycerol in the presence of CA(2+) (2.5 mM) increased c-Raf-1 kinase activity significantly. The increase (1.5-fold) was approximately two orders of magnitude less than the stimulation of protein kinase C by these lipids. c-Raf-1 kinase activity and immunoreactivity eluted on gel filtration at a predicted molecular mass of greater than 150 kDa, suggesting that active c-Raf-1 is part of a multimeric complex. The absence of immunoreactive Ras in the active fractions confirms that the interaction is not necessary to maintain c-Raf-1 in an active state. In conclusion, a product of PLA(2) may play a role, together with Ras and another unidentified cofactor, in activating c-Raf-1. This lipid mediator(s) may directly or indirectly

  14. Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is required for transcriptional activity of F-type 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase: assessment of the role of protein kinase B and p70 S6 kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández de Mattos , S; de los Pinos E, E; Joaquin, M; Tauler, A

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the F isoform of6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase(6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase) is transcriptionally regulated by growth factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) pathway in the regulation of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene expression. We have completed studies using chemical inhibitors and expression vectors for the proteins involved in this signalling cascade. Treatment of cells with LY 294002, an inhibitor of PI 3-kinase, blocked the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent stimulation of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene transcription. Transient transfection of a constitutively active PI 3-kinase was sufficient to activate transcription from the F-type 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase promoter. In contrast, co-transfection with a dominant-negative form of PI 3-kinase completely abrogated the stimulation by EGF, and down-regulated the basal promoter activity. In an attempt to determine downstream proteins that lie between PI 3-kinase and 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene expression, the overexpression of a constitutively active form of protein kinase B (PKB) was sufficient to activate 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene expression, even in the presence of either a dominant-negative form of PI 3-kinase or LY 294002. The over-expression of p70/p85 ribosomal S6 kinase or the treatment with its inhibitor rapamycin did not affect 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase transcription. We conclude that PI 3-kinase is necessary for the transcriptional activity of F-type 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase, and that PKB is a downstream effector of PI 3-kinase directly involved in the regulation of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene expression. PMID:10861211

  15. Growing Up with Their Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winarski, Diana L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes one teacher's use of traditional wooden blocks in fifth-grade curriculum. Notes that use of blocks can teach communication, teamwork, precision, and arithmetic concepts. Also describes four easy classroom block projects. (TM)

  16. Identification and characterization of the role of c-terminal Src kinase in dengue virus replication.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rinki; Agrawal, Tanvi; Khan, Naseem Ahmed; Nakayama, Yuji; Medigeshi, Guruprasad R

    2016-01-01

    We screened a siRNA library targeting human tyrosine kinases in Huh-7 cells and identified c-terminal Src kinase (Csk) as one of the kinases involved in dengue virus replication. Knock-down of Csk expression by siRNAs or inhibition of Csk by an inhibitor reduced dengue virus RNA levels but did not affect viral entry. Csk partially colocalized with viral replication compartments. Dengue infection was drastically reduced in cells lacking the three ubiquitous src family kinases, Src, Fyn and Yes. Csk knock-down in these cells failed to block dengue virus replication suggesting that the effect of Csk is via regulation of Src family kinases. Csk was found to be hyper-phosphorylated during dengue infection and inhibition of protein kinase A led to a block in Csk phosphorylation and dengue virus replication. Overexpression studies suggest an important role for the kinase and SH3 domains in this process. Our results identified a novel role for Csk as a host tyrosine kinase involved in dengue virus replication and provide further insights into the role of host factors in dengue replication. PMID:27457684

  17. Identification and characterization of the role of c-terminal Src kinase in dengue virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rinki; Agrawal, Tanvi; Khan, Naseem Ahmed; Nakayama, Yuji; Medigeshi, Guruprasad R.

    2016-01-01

    We screened a siRNA library targeting human tyrosine kinases in Huh-7 cells and identified c-terminal Src kinase (Csk) as one of the kinases involved in dengue virus replication. Knock-down of Csk expression by siRNAs or inhibition of Csk by an inhibitor reduced dengue virus RNA levels but did not affect viral entry. Csk partially colocalized with viral replication compartments. Dengue infection was drastically reduced in cells lacking the three ubiquitous src family kinases, Src, Fyn and Yes. Csk knock-down in these cells failed to block dengue virus replication suggesting that the effect of Csk is via regulation of Src family kinases. Csk was found to be hyper-phosphorylated during dengue infection and inhibition of protein kinase A led to a block in Csk phosphorylation and dengue virus replication. Overexpression studies suggest an important role for the kinase and SH3 domains in this process. Our results identified a novel role for Csk as a host tyrosine kinase involved in dengue virus replication and provide further insights into the role of host factors in dengue replication. PMID:27457684

  18. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, M.; Hibi, M.; Lin, A.

    1997-02-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE is disclosed. The polypeptide has serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences. The method of detection of JNK is also provided. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites. 44 figs.

  19. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2004-03-16

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  20. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2003-02-04

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  1. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1998-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  2. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1999-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  3. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2005-03-08

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  4. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  5. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  6. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit; Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2005-01-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  7. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Lin, Anning

    1999-11-30

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  8. Cyclin-dependent kinases.

    PubMed

    Malumbres, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are protein kinases characterized by needing a separate subunit - a cyclin - that provides domains essential for enzymatic activity. CDKs play important roles in the control of cell division and modulate transcription in response to several extra- and intracellular cues. The evolutionary expansion of the CDK family in mammals led to the division of CDKs into three cell-cycle-related subfamilies (Cdk1, Cdk4 and Cdk5) and five transcriptional subfamilies (Cdk7, Cdk8, Cdk9, Cdk11 and Cdk20). Unlike the prototypical Cdc28 kinase of budding yeast, most of these CDKs bind one or a few cyclins, consistent with functional specialization during evolution. This review summarizes how, although CDKs are traditionally separated into cell-cycle or transcriptional CDKs, these activities are frequently combined in many family members. Not surprisingly, deregulation of this family of proteins is a hallmark of several diseases, including cancer, and drug-targeted inhibition of specific members has generated very encouraging results in clinical trials. PMID:25180339

  9. Phenotypic modulation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by phorbol ester: induction of IgM secretion and changes in the expression of B cell-associated surface antigens.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J; Mellstedt, H; Aman, P; Biberfeld, P; Klein, G

    1984-01-01

    Freshly explanted neoplastic populations from 22 cases of phenotypically well-characterized chronic type B lymphocytic leukemia were studied for their capacity to respond to the phorbol ester TPA in vitro. In all but four cases the secretion of IgM was either induced or increased, often to a high level. In contrast, the export of free immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains, an almost consistent feature of the B lymphocytic leukemias, remained relatively constant after TPA treatment. Parallel changes in leukemic cell surface phenotype were probed with both "conventional" and monoclonal antibodies, revealing some modulation of markers in every case investigated. A diminution in the level of surface Ig (preferentially IgD) and the accumulation of cytoplasmic Ig observed after phorbol ester treatment were accompanied by a corresponding reduction or loss of the B1 antigen and usually of B2 when present. The most consistent change induced by TPA was the appearance of BB-1, a marker of activated B lymphocytes, which was rarely expressed on fresh leukemic cells. Another marker of activated lymphocytes, LB-1, was also often induced or increased in its expression after exposure of the cells to TPA. The magnitude of the TPA response appeared to relate to the stage of maturation arrest of the individual leukemic clones rather than to any clinical parameter explored. The significance of the findings to normal B cell differentiation and their potential clinical utility are discussed.

  10. Factor recruitment and TIF2/GRIP1 corepressor activity at a collagenase-3 response element that mediates regulation by phorbol esters and hormones

    PubMed Central

    Rogatsky, Inez; Zarember, Kol A.; Yamamoto, Keith R.

    2001-01-01

    To investigate determinants of specific transcriptional regulation, we measured factor occupancy and function at a response element, col3A, associated with the collagenase-3 gene in human U2OS osteosarcoma cells; col3A confers activation by phorbol esters, and repression by glucocorticoid and thyroid hormones. The subunit composition and activity of AP-1, which binds col3A, paralleled the intracellular level of cFos, which is modulated by phorbol esters and glucocorticoids. In contrast, a similar AP-1 site at the collagenase-1 gene, not inducible in U2OS cells, was not bound by AP-1. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) associated with col3A through protein–protein interactions with AP-1, regardless of AP-1 subunit composition, and repressed transcription. TIF2/GRIP1, reportedly a coactivator for GR and the thyroid hormone receptor (TR), was recruited to col3A and potentiated GR-mediated repression in the presence of a GR agonist but not antagonist. GRIP1 mutants deficient in GR binding and coactivator functions were also defective for corepression, and a GRIP1 fragment containing the GR-interacting region functioned as a dominant-negative for repression. In contrast, repression by TR was unaffected by GRIP1. Thus, the composition of regulatory complexes, and the biological activities of the bound factors, are dynamic and dependent on cell and response element contexts. Cofactors such as GRIP1 probably contain distinct surfaces for activation and repression that function in a context-dependent manner. PMID:11689447

  11. Factor recruitment and TIF2/GRIP1 corepressor activity at a collagenase-3 response element that mediates regulation by phorbol esters and hormones.

    PubMed

    Rogatsky, I; Zarember, K A; Yamamoto, K R

    2001-11-01

    To investigate determinants of specific transcriptional regulation, we measured factor occupancy and function at a response element, col3A, associated with the collagenase-3 gene in human U2OS osteosarcoma cells; col3A confers activation by phorbol esters, and repression by glucocorticoid and thyroid hormones. The subunit composition and activity of AP-1, which binds col3A, paralleled the intracellular level of cFos, which is modulated by phorbol esters and glucocorticoids. In contrast, a similar AP-1 site at the collagenase-1 gene, not inducible in U2OS cells, was not bound by AP-1. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) associated with col3A through protein-protein interactions with AP-1, regardless of AP-1 subunit composition, and repressed transcription. TIF2/GRIP1, reportedly a coactivator for GR and the thyroid hormone receptor (TR), was recruited to col3A and potentiated GR-mediated repression in the presence of a GR agonist but not antagonist. GRIP1 mutants deficient in GR binding and coactivator functions were also defective for corepression, and a GRIP1 fragment containing the GR-interacting region functioned as a dominant-negative for repression. In contrast, repression by TR was unaffected by GRIP1. Thus, the composition of regulatory complexes, and the biological activities of the bound factors, are dynamic and dependent on cell and response element contexts. Cofactors such as GRIP1 probably contain distinct surfaces for activation and repression that function in a context-dependent manner. PMID:11689447

  12. Protein kinase C modulates cytosolic free calcium by stimulating calcium pump activity in Jurkat T cells.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanyam, M; Gardner, J P

    1995-12-01

    Although protein kinase C (PKC) activation has been shown to inhibit Ca2+ influx in T lymphocytes, the role of PKC on Ca2+ sequestration or extrusion processes has not been fully explored. We examined the effect of CD3 stimulation and PKC activators on cytosolic Ca2+ (Ca2+i) extrusion and 45Ca2+ efflux in human leukemic Jurkat T cells. Treatment of Fura-2 loaded cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or thymeleatoxin (THYM) resulted in a decrease in Ca2+i both in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca2+, whereas inactive phorbol esters had no effect. PKC activators added at the peak of a Ca2+i transient induced by anti-CD3 mAb, ionomycin or thapsigargin (TG) stimulated the rate and extent of return of Ca2+i to basal levels by 17-53%. PKC stimulation of the Ca2+i decline was not enhanced by the presence of Na+, indicating that PKC activators increase Ca2+ pump activity rather than a Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism. As CD3 receptor activation enhanced the Ca2+i decline in TG-treated cells, antigen-mediated activation of phospholipase C (PLC) signaling includes enhanced Ca2+ extrusion at the plasma membrane. The effect of PKC activators on parameters of Ca2+i extrusion were further explored. PMA significantly increased the rate of Ca2+ extrusion in TG-treated cells from 0.28 +/- 0.02 to 0.35 +/- 0.03 s-1 (mean +/- SEM) and stimulated the initial rate of 45Ca2+ efflux by 69% compared to inactive phorbol ester treated cells. The effects of PKC activation on the Ca2+i decline were eliminated by PKC inhibitors, PKC down regulation (24 h PMA pretreatment), ATP-depletion and conditions that inhibited the Ca2+ pump. In contrast, pretreatment of cells with okadaic acid enhanced the PMA-stimulated response. We suggest that Jurkat T cells contain a PKC-sensitive Ca2+ extrusion mechanism likely to be the Ca2+ pump. In lymphocytes, receptor/PLC-linked PKC activation modulates Ca2+i not only by inhibiting Ca2+ influx but also by stimulating plasma membrane Ca2+i

  13. Feature-similarity kinase classifier as a ligand engineering tool

    PubMed Central

    Maddipati, Sridhar; Fernández, Ariel

    2006-01-01

    Kinases have been often targeted in drug therapy aimed at blocking signaling pathways. However, the conservation of protein structure across homologs often leads to uncontrolled cross reactivity. On the other hand, sticky packing defects in proteins are typically not conserved across homologs, making them ligand-anchoring sites potentially important to enhance selectivity. Thus, we introduce a hierarchical clustering of PDB-reported kinases according to packing differences. This kinome partitioning is highly correlated with proximity relations arising from the pharmacological profiling of kinases. A variable packing sensitivity is observed for individual drugs, with highly promiscuous ligands being the most insensitive to packing differences. Our classifier enables a strategy to design selective inhibitors. PMID:17110166

  14. Sphingosine kinase-1 mediates androgen-induced osteoblast cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Claire; Lafosse, Jean-Michel; Malavaud, Bernard; Cuvillier, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Herein we report that the lipid kinase sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) is instrumental in mediating androgen-induced cell proliferation in osteoblasts. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) triggered cell growth in steroid-deprived MC3T3 cells, which was associated with a rapid stimulation of SphK1 and activation of both Akt and ERK signaling pathways. This mechanism relied on functional androgen receptor/PI3K/Akt nongenotropic signaling as pharmacological antagonists could block SphK1 stimulation by DHT and its consequences. Finally, SphK1 inhibition not only abrogated DHT-induced ERK activation but also blocked cell proliferation, while ERK inhibition had no impact, suggesting that SphK1 was critical for DHT signaling yet independently of the ERK.

  15. Protein kinase C (PKC) role in bovine oocyte maturation and early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Mondadori, R G; Neves, J P; Gonçalves, P B D

    2008-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine the role of protein kinase C (PKC) on meiotic resumption and its effects on pronuclear formation and cleavage in the bovine. Oocytes were matured in the presence of 0, 1, 10 and 100 nM of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), to evaluate the percentage of germinal vesicle breakdown. To study pronuclear formation and cleavage, oocytes were randomly distributed in four groups and matured in modified TCM-199 with LH and FSH (negative control); 10% of estrous cow serum (positive control); 100 nM of PMA (treatment); 100 nM of 4alpha-PDD (phorbol ester control). Oocytes were also matured in positive control medium, fertilized and transferred to KSOM with increasing concentrations of a PKC inhibitor. The protein profile and the presence of PKC at the end of maturation period were determined by SDS-PAGE followed by Silver Stain and Western blot, respectively. PMA stimulated meiotic resumption in a concentration-dependent manner. PKC stimulation during oocyte maturation caused an increase in pronuclear formation and did not cause parthenogenetic activation. Inhibitor of PKC (MyrPKC) inhibited cleavage in a dose-dependent and irreversible manner. A protein band around 74 kDa was not detected in PMA-treated oocytes and PKC was not detected by Western blot at the end of the maturation period. In conclusion, meiotic resumption was accelerated and the rate of oocytes with two pronuclei was increased when PKC was activated during oocyte maturation. Moreover, cleavage was inhibited in the presence of PMA. PMID:17646065

  16. Inhibition of T-cell antigen receptor-mediated transmembrane signaling by protein kinase C activation.

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, R T; Ho, S N; Barna, T J; Rusovick, K M; McKean, D J

    1988-01-01

    The murine T-lymphoma cell line LBRM-33 is known to require synergistic signals delivered through the antigen receptor (Ti-CD3) complex, together with interleukin 1 (IL-1), for activation of IL-2 gene expression and IL-2 production. Although 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was capable of replacing IL-1 as an activating stimulus under certain conditions, biologic studies indicated that TPA failed to synergize with Ti-CD3-dependent stimuli under conditions in which IL-1 was clearly active. Acute exposure to TPA and other active phorbol esters resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of the increases in phosphoinositide hydrolysis and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration stimulated by phytohemagglutinin or anti-Ti antibodies. TPA treatment induced no direct alteration of phospholipase C enzymatic activities in LBRM-33 cells. In contrast, both Ti-CD3 cross-linkage and TPA rapidly stimulated the phosphorylation of identical CD3 complex polypeptides, presumably via activation of protein kinase C. Exposure of LBRM-33 cells to TPA resulted in a time-dependent, partial down-regulation of surface Ti-CD3 expression. Thus, TPA treatment inhibited the responsiveness of LBRM-33 cells to Ti-CD3-dependent stimuli by inducing an early desensitization of Ti-CD3 receptors, followed by a decrease in membrane receptor expression. These studies indicate that phorbol esters deliver bidirectional signals that both inhibit Ti-CD3-dependent phosphoinositide hydrolysis and augment IL-2 production in LBRM-33 cells. Images PMID:2977423

  17. Mechanism of protein kinase C activation by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myungho; Bell, R.M. )

    1991-01-29

    The mechanism of protein kinase C (PKC) activation by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}), phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate (PIP), and phosphatidylinositol (PI) was investigated by using Triton X-100 mixed micellar methods. The activation of PKC by PIP{sub 2}, for which maximal activity was 60% of that elicited by sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), was similar to activation by DAG in several respects: (1) activation by PIP{sub 2} and DAG required phosphatidylserine (PS) as a phospholipid cofactor, (2) PIP{sub 2} and DAG reduced the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} and PS required for activation, (3) the concentration dependences of activation by PIP{sub 2} and DAG depended on the concentration of PS, and (4) PIP{sub 2} and DAG complemented one another to achieve maximal activation. On the other hand, PIP{sub 2} activation of the PKC differed from activation by DAG in several respects. With increasing concentrations of PIP{sub 2}, (1) the optimal concentration of PS required was constant at 12 mol%, (2) the maximal activity at 12 mol% PS increased, and (3) the cooperativity for PS decreased. PIP{sub 2} did not inhibit ({sup 3}H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) binding of PKC at saturating levels of PS; however, at subsaturating levels of PS, PIP{sub 2} enhanced ({sup 3}H)PDBu binding by acting as a phospholipid cofactor. PIP did not function as an activator but served as a phospholipid cofactor in the presence of PS. These data establish that PIP{sub 2}, PIP, and PI can function to spare, in part, the PS phospholipid cofactor requirement of PKC, and they demonstrate that PIP{sub 2} but not PIP and PI can function as a lipid activator of PKC by mechanisms distinct from those of DAG and phorbol esters.

  18. Role of protein kinase C in light adaptation of molluscan microvillar photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Piccoli, Giuseppe; del Pilar Gomez, Maria; Nasi, Enrico

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms by which Ca2+ regulates light adaptation in microvillar photoreceptors remain poorly understood. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a likely candidate, both because some sub-types are activated by Ca2+ and because of its association with the macromolecular ‘light-transduction complex’ in Drosophila. We investigated the possible role of PKC in the modulation of the light response in molluscan photoreceptors. Western blot analysis with isoform-specific antibodies revealed the presence of PKCα in retinal homogenates. Immunocytochemistry in isolated cell preparations confirmed PKCα localization in microvillar photoreceptors, preferentially confined to the light-sensing lobe. Light stimulation induced translocation of PKCα immunofluorescence to the photosensitive membrane, an effect that provides independent evidence for PKC activation by illumination; a similar outcome was observed after incubation with the phorbol ester PMA. Several chemically distinct activators of PKC, such as phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), (-)indolactam V and 1,2,-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DOG) inhibited the light response of voltage-clamped microvillar photoreceptors, but were ineffective in ciliary photoreceptors, in which light does not activate the Gq/PLC cascade, nor elevates intracellular Ca2+. Pharmacological inhibition of PKC antagonized the desensitization produced by adapting lights and also caused a small, but consistent enhancement of basal sensitivity. These results strongly support the involvement of PKC activation in the light-dependent regulation of response sensitivity. However, unlike adapting background light or elevation of [Ca2+]i, PKC activators did not speed up the photoresponse, nor did PKC inhibitors antagonize the accelerating effects of background adaptation, suggesting that modulation of photoresponse time course may involve a separate Ca2+-dependent signal. PMID:12205183

  19. Effects of ethanol on protein kinase C alpha activity induced by association with Rho GTPases.

    PubMed

    Slater, Simon J; Cook, Anthony C; Seiz, Jodie L; Malinowski, Steve A; Stagliano, Brigid A; Stubbs, Christopher D

    2003-10-21

    Previous studies have shown that n-alkanols have biphasic chain length-dependent effects on protein kinase C (PKC) activity induced by association with membranes or with filamentous actin [Slater, S. J., et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 6167-6173; Slater, S. J., et al. (2001) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1544, 207-216]. Recently, we showed that PKCalpha is also activated by a direct membrane lipid-independent interaction with Rho GTPases. Here, the effects of ethanol and 1-hexanol on Rho GTPase-induced activity were investigated using an in vitro assay system to provide further insight into the mechanism of the effects of n-alkanols on PKC activity. Both ethanol and 1-hexanol were found to have two competing concentration-dependent effects on the Ca(2+)- and phorbol ester- or diacylglycerol-dependent activities of PKCalpha associated with either RhoA or Cdc42, consisting of a potentiation at low alcohol levels and an attenuation of activity at higher levels. Measurements of the Ca(2+), phorbol ester, and diacylglycerol concentration-response curves for Cdc42-induced activation indicated that the activating effect corresponded to a shift in the midpoints of each of the curves to lower activator concentrations, while the attenuating effect corresponded to a decrease in the level of activity induced by maximal activator levels. The presence of ethanol enhanced the interaction of PKCalpha with Cdc42 within a concentration range corresponding to the potentiating effect, whereas the level of binding was unaffected by higher ethanol levels that were found to attenuate activity. Thus, ethanol may either enhance activation of PKCalpha by Rho GTPases by enhancing the interaction between the two proteins or attenuate the level of activity of Rho GTPase-associated PKCalpha by inhibiting the ensuing activating conformational change. The results also suggest that the effects of ethanol on Rho GTPase-induced activity may switch between an activation and inhibition depending on the

  20. Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

  1. ARF1-regulated coatomer directs the steady-state localization of protein kinase C epsilon at the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Tabitha A; Stamnes, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) contributes to multiple signaling pathways affecting human disease. The function of PKCε requires it to undergo changes in subcellular distribution in response to signaling events. While the mechanisms underlying this translocation are incompletely understood, it involves the receptor for activated C kinase protein (RACK2/β'-COP). This receptor also functions as a vesicle coat protein in the secretory pathway where it is regulated by the small GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor, ARF1. We inhibited ARF1 activation to test the requirement for RACK2/β'-COP in PKCε localization in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. We found that steady-state localization of PKCε at the Golgi complex requires ARF1-regulated RACK2/β'-COP function. By contrast, we did not observe any defects in phorbol ester-induced translocation when ARF1 was inhibited. We also found that PKCε bound to isolated membranes through two distinct mechanisms. One mechanism was dependent upon RACK2/β'-COP while a second was RACK2/β'-COP-independent and stimulated by phorbol esters. Finally, we show that RACK2/β'-COP affects the subcellular distribution of a constitutively active form of PKCε, in a manner similar to what we observed for wild-type PKCε. Together, our data support a role for RACK2/β'-COP in the steady-state localization of PKCε at the Golgi apparatus, which may be independent of its role during PKCε translocation to the cell surface.

  2. Activation of l-arginine transport by protein kinase C in rabbit, rat and mouse alveolar macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Racké, Kurt; Hey, Claudia; Mössner, Jutta; Hammermann, Rainer; Stichnote, Christina; Wessler, Ignaz

    1998-01-01

    The role of protein kinase C in controlling L-arginine transport in alveolar macrophages was investigated. L-[3H]Arginine uptake in rabbit alveolar macrophages declined by 80 % after 20 h in culture. 4β-Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), but not 4α-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (α-PMA), present during 20 h culture, enhanced L-[3H]arginine uptake more than 10-fold. Staurosporine and chelerythrine opposed this effect. L-[3H]Arginine uptake was saturable and blockable by L-lysine. After PMA treatment Vmax was increased more than 5-fold and Km was reduced from 0.65 to 0.32 mM. Time course experiments showed that PMA increased L-[3H]arginine uptake almost maximally within 2 h. This short-term effect was not affected by cycloheximide or actinomycin D. L-[3H]Arginine uptake and its stimulation by PMA was also observed in sodium-free medium. L-Leucine (0.1 mM) inhibited L-[3H]arginine uptake by 50 % in sodium-containing medium, but not in sodium-free medium. At 1 mM, L-leucine caused significant inhibition in sodium-free medium also. L-Leucine showed similar effects on PMA-treated cells. N-Ethylmaleimide (200 μm, 10 min) reduced L-[3H]arginine uptake by 70 % in control cells, but had no effect on PMA-treated (20 or 2 h) cells. In alveolar macrophages, multiple transport systems are involved in L-arginine uptake, which is markedly stimulated by protein kinase C, probably by modulation of the activity of already expressed cationic amino acid transporters. PMID:9714862

  3. Kinases as Novel Therapeutic Targets in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    Multiple kinases play a critical role in orchestrating the chronic inflammation and structural changes in the respiratory tract of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Kinases activate signaling pathways that lead to contraction of airway smooth muscle and release of inflammatory mediators (such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors) as well as cell migration, activation, and proliferation. For this reason there has been great interest in the development of kinase inhibitors as anti-inflammatory therapies, particular where corticosteroids are less effective, as in severe asthma and COPD. However, it has proven difficult to develop selective kinase inhibitors that are both effective and safe after oral administration and this has led to a search for inhaled kinase inhibitors, which would reduce systemic exposure. Although many kinases have been implicated in inflammation and remodeling of airway disease, very few classes of drug have reached the stage of clinical studies in these diseases. The most promising drugs are p38 MAP kinases, isoenzyme-selective PI3-kinases, Janus-activated kinases, and Syk-kinases, and inhaled formulations of these drugs are now in development. There has also been interest in developing inhibitors that block more than one kinase, because these drugs may be more effective and with less risk of losing efficacy with time. No kinase inhibitors are yet on the market for the treatment of airway diseases, but as kinase inhibitors are improved from other therapeutic areas there is hope that these drugs may eventually prove useful in treating refractory asthma and COPD. PMID:27363440

  4. Glutamate-induced protein phosphorylation in cerebellar granule cells: role of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Eboli, M L; Mercanti, D; Ciotti, M T; Aquino, A; Castellani, L

    1994-10-01

    Protein phosphorylation in response to toxic doses of glutamate has been investigated in cerebellar granule cells. 32P-labelled cells have been stimulated with 100 microM glutamate for up to 20 min and analysed by one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis. A progressive incorporation of label is observed in two molecular species of about 80 and 43 kDa (PP80 and PP43) and acidic isoelectric point. Glutamate-stimulated phosphorylation is greatly reduced by antagonists of NMDA and non-NMDA glutamate receptors. The effect of glutamate is mimicked by phorbol esters and is markedly reduced by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) such as staurosporine and calphostin C. PP80 has been identified by Western blot analysis as the PKC substrate MARCKS (myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate), while antibody to GAP-43 (growth associated protein-43), the nervous tissue-specific substrate of PKC, failed to recognize PP43. Our results suggest that PKC is responsible for the early phosphorylative events induced by toxic doses of glutamate in cerebellar granule cells. PMID:7891841

  5. Protein kinase C is involved in regulation of Ca2+ channels in plasmalemma of Nitella syncarpa.

    PubMed

    Zherelova, O M

    1989-01-01

    Ca2+ current recordings have been made on Nitella syncarpa cells using the intracellular perfusion and the voltage-clamp technique. TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), a substance capable of activating protein kinase C from plasmalemma of Nitella cells, modulates voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. Polymixin B, inhibitor of protein kinase C, blocks the Nitella plasmalemma Ca2+ channels; the rate of channel blockage depends on the concentration and exposure time of the substance. PMID:2536617

  6. A Place for Block Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of block play--including its contributions to perceptual, fine motor, and cognitive development--and components of a good preschool block play area. Recommends unit blocks complemented by stacking blocks, toys, beads, cubes, and Brio wooden toys. Makes recommendations for space, size, locations and connections to other…

  7. Modulation of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 peripheral nerve sodium channels by protein kinase A and protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Vijayaragavan, Kausalia; Boutjdir, Mohamed; Chahine, Mohamed

    2004-04-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSC) are transmembrane proteins that are essential for the initiation and propagation of action potentials in neuronal excitability. Because neurons express a mixture of Na+ channel isoforms and protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes, the nature of which channel is being regulated by which PKC isozyme is not known. We showed that DRG VGSC Nav1.7 (TTX-sensitive) and Nav1.8 (TTX-resistant), expressed in Xenopus oocytes were differentially regulated by protein kinase A (PKA) and PKC isozymes using the two-electrode voltage-clamp method. PKA activation resulted in a dose-dependent potentiation of Nav1.8 currents and an attenuation of Nav1.7 currents. PKA-induced increases (Nav1.8) and decreases (Nav1.7) in peak currents were not associated with shifts in voltage-dependent activation or inactivation. The PKA-mediated increase in Nav1.8 current amplitude was prevented by chloroquine, suggesting that cell trafficking may contribute to the changes in Nav1.8 current amplitudes. A dose-dependent decrease in Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 currents was observed with the PKC activators phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA) and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate. PMA induced shifts in the steady-state activation of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 channels by 6.5 and 14 mV, respectively, in the depolarizing direction. The role of individual PKC isozymes in the regulation of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 was determined using PKC-isozyme-specific peptide activators and inhibitors. The decrease in the Nav1.8 peak current induced by PMA was prevented by a specific epsilonPKC isozyme peptide antagonist, whereas the PMA effect on Nav1.7 was prevented by epsilonPKC and betaIIPKC peptide inhibitors. The data showed that Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 were differentially modulated by PKA and PKC. This is the first report demonstrating a functional role for epsilonPKC and betaIIPKC in the regulation of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 Na+ channels. Identification of the particular PKC isozymes(s) that mediate the regulation of Na+ channels is

  8. Map kinases in fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Xu, J R

    2000-12-01

    MAP kinases in eukaryotic cells are well known for transducing a variety of extracellular signals to regulate cell growth and differentiation. Recently, MAP kinases homologous to the yeast Fus3/Kss1 MAP kinases have been identified in several fungal pathogens and found to be important for appressorium formation, invasive hyphal growth, and fungal pathogenesis. This MAP kinase pathway also controls diverse growth or differentiation processes, including conidiation, conidial germination, and female fertility. MAP kinases homologous to yeast Slt2 and Hog1 have also been characterized in Candida albicans and Magnaporthe grisea. Mutants disrupted of the Slt2 homologues have weak cell walls, altered hyphal growth, and reduced virulence. The Hog1 homologues are dispensable for growth but are essential for regulating responses to hyperosmotic stress in C. albicans and M. grisea. Overall, recent studies have indicated that MAP kinase pathways may play important roles in regulating growth, differentiation, survival, and pathogenesis in fungal pathogens. PMID:11273677

  9. Induction of Central Host Signaling Kinases during Pneumococcal Infection of Human THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Thomas P.; Scholz, Annemarie; Kiachludis, Delia; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a widespread colonizer of the mucosal epithelia of the upper respiratory tract of human. However, pneumococci are also responsible for numerous local as well as severe systemic infections, especially in children under the age of five and the elderly. Under certain conditions, pneumococci are able to conquer the epithelial barrier, which can lead to a dissemination of the bacteria into underlying tissues and the bloodstream. Here, specialized macrophages represent an essential part of the innate immune system against bacterial intruders. Recognition of the bacteria through different receptors on the surface of macrophages leads thereby to an uptake and elimination of bacteria. Accompanied cytokine release triggers the migration of leukocytes from peripheral blood to the site of infection, where monocytes differentiate into mature macrophages. The rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton during phagocytosis, resulting in the engulfment of bacteria, is thereby tightly regulated by receptor-mediated phosphorylation cascades of different protein kinases. The molecular cellular processes including the modulation of central protein kinases are only partially solved. In this study, the human monocytic THP-1 cell line was used as a model system to examine the activation of Fcγ and complement receptor-independent signal cascades during infection with S. pneumoniae. Pneumococci cultured either in chemically defined or complex medium showed no significant differences in pneumococcal phagocytosis by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) differentiated THP-1 cells. Double immuno-fluorescence microscopy and antibiotic protection assays demonstrated a time-dependent uptake and killing of S. pneumoniae 35A inside of macrophages. Infections of THP-1 cells in the presence of specific pharmacological inhibitors revealed a crucial role of actin polymerization and importance of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Protein kinase B (Akt) as well during

  10. A Fluid Block Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubben, Gerald C.

    1976-01-01

    Achieving flexibility without losing student accountability is a challenge that faces every school. With a fluid block schedule, as described here, accountability is maintained without inhibiting flexibility. An additional advantage is that three levels of schedule decision making take some of the pressure off the principal. (Editor)

  11. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  12. Flattening basic blocks.

    SciTech Connect

    Utke, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2006-01-01

    The application of cross country elimination strategies requires access to the computational graph or at least subgraphs for certain scopes, e.g. a basic block. Under the presence of aliased variables the construction of these (sub)graphs encounters ambiguities. We propose an algorithm to construct ambiguity free subgraphs.

  13. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  14. What's behind Block Scheduling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierke, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of block scheduling in secondary schools focuses on its impact on the school library media center. Discusses increased demand for library services, scheduling classes, the impact on librarians' time, teaching information technology, local area networks, and the increased pace of activity. (LRW)

  15. Matrix adhesion and Ras transformation both activate a phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase and protein kinase B/Akt cellular survival pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Khwaja, A; Rodriguez-Viciana, P; Wennström, S; Warne, P H; Downward, J

    1997-01-01

    Upon detachment from the extracellular matrix, epithelial cells enter into programmed cell death, a phenomenon known as anoikis, ensuring that they are unable to survive in an inappropriate location. Activated ras oncogenes protect cells from this form of apoptosis. The nature of the survival signals activated by integrin engagement and usurped by oncogenic Ras are unknown: here we show that in both cases phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI 3-kinase), but not Raf, mediates this protection, acting through protein kinase B/Akt (PKB/Akt). Constitutively activated PI 3-kinase or PKB/Akt block anoikis, while inhibition of PI 3-kinase abrogates protection by Ras, but not PKB/Akt. Inhibition of either PI 3-kinase or PKB/Akt induces apoptosis in adherent epithelial cells. Attachment of cells to matrix leads to rapid elevation of the levels of PI 3-kinase lipid products and PKB/Akt activity, both of which remain high in Ras-transformed cells even in suspension. PI 3-kinase acting through PKB/Akt is therefore implicated as a key mediator of the aberrant survival of Ras-transformed epithelial cells in the absence of attachment, and mediates matrix-induced survival of normal epithelial cells. PMID:9184223

  16. Rational design and validation of an anti-protein kinase C active-state specific antibody based on conformational changes

    PubMed Central

    Pena, Darlene Aparecida; Andrade, Victor Piana de; Silva, Gabriela Ávila Fernandes; Neves, José Ivanildo; Oliveira, Paulo Sergio Lopes de; Alves, Maria Julia Manso; Devi, Lakshmi A.; Schechtman, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) plays a regulatory role in key pathways in cancer. However, since phosphorylation is a step for classical PKC (cPKC) maturation and does not correlate with activation, there is a lack of tools to detect active PKC in tissue samples. Here, a structure-based rational approach was used to select a peptide to generate an antibody that distinguishes active from inactive cPKC. A peptide conserved in all cPKCs, C2Cat, was chosen since modeling studies based on a crystal structure of PKCβ showed that it is localized at the interface between the C2 and catalytic domains of cPKCs in an inactive kinase. Anti-C2Cat recognizes active cPKCs at least two-fold better than inactive kinase in ELISA and immunoprecipitation assays, and detects the temporal dynamics of cPKC activation upon receptor or phorbol stimulation. Furthermore, the antibody is able to detect active PKC in human tissue. Higher levels of active cPKC were observed in the more aggressive triple negative breast cancer tumors as compared to the less aggressive estrogen receptor positive tumors. Thus, this antibody represents a reliable, hitherto unavailable and a valuable tool to study PKC activation in cells and tissues. Similar structure-based rational design strategies can be broadly applied to obtain active-state specific antibodies for other signal transduction molecules. PMID:26911897

  17. Rational design and validation of an anti-protein kinase C active-state specific antibody based on conformational changes.

    PubMed

    Pena, Darlene Aparecida; Andrade, Victor Piana de; Silva, Gabriela Ávila Fernandes; Neves, José Ivanildo; Oliveira, Paulo Sergio Lopes de; Alves, Maria Julia Manso; Devi, Lakshmi A; Schechtman, Deborah

    2016-02-25

    Protein kinase C (PKC) plays a regulatory role in key pathways in cancer. However, since phosphorylation is a step for classical PKC (cPKC) maturation and does not correlate with activation, there is a lack of tools to detect active PKC in tissue samples. Here, a structure-based rational approach was used to select a peptide to generate an antibody that distinguishes active from inactive cPKC. A peptide conserved in all cPKCs, C2Cat, was chosen since modeling studies based on a crystal structure of PKCβ showed that it is localized at the interface between the C2 and catalytic domains of cPKCs in an inactive kinase. Anti-C2Cat recognizes active cPKCs at least two-fold better than inactive kinase in ELISA and immunoprecipitation assays, and detects the temporal dynamics of cPKC activation upon receptor or phorbol stimulation. Furthermore, the antibody is able to detect active PKC in human tissue. Higher levels of active cPKC were observed in the more aggressive triple negative breast cancer tumors as compared to the less aggressive estrogen receptor positive tumors. Thus, this antibody represents a reliable, hitherto unavailable and a valuable tool to study PKC activation in cells and tissues. Similar structure-based rational design strategies can be broadly applied to obtain active-state specific antibodies for other signal transduction molecules.

  18. Differential effects of vasopressin and phenylephrine on protein kinase C-mediated protein phosphorylations in isolated hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.H.; Johanson, R.A.; Wiliamson, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    Receptor-mediated breakdown of inositol lipids produces two intracellular signals, diacylglycerol, which activates protein kinase C, and inositol trisphosphate, which causes release of intracellular vesicular Ca/sup 2 +/. This study examined the effects of Ca/sup 2 +/-ionophores, vasopressin, phenylephrine, and phorbol ester (PMA) on hepatocyte protein phosphorylations. (/sup 32/P) Phosphoproteins from hepatocytes prelabeled with /sup 32/P were resolved by 2-dimensional SDS-PAGE and corresponding autoradiographs were quantitated by densitometric analysis. The phosphorylation of five proteins, a plasma membrane bound 16 kDa protein with pI 6.4, a cytosolic 16 kDa protein with pI 5.8, and proteins with Mr's of 36 kDa, 52 kDa, and 68 kDa, could be attributed to phosphorylation by protein kinase C since the phosphorylation was stimulated by PMA. When the vasopressin concentration was varied, low vasopressin stimulated the phosphorylation of only the membrane bound 16 kDa protein of the above set of proteins, while higher vasopressin concentrations were required to stimulate the phosphorylation of all five proteins. Phenylephrine, even at supramaximal concentrations, stimulated the phosphorylation of only the membrane bound 16 kDa protein. These results suggest that phenylephrine is a less potent activator of protein kinase C than vasopressin by virtue of limited or localized diacylglycerol production.

  19. Rho-kinase-dependent F-actin rearrangement is involved in the inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt during ischemia–reperfusion-induced endothelial cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Versteilen, Amanda M. G.; Sipkema, Pieter; van Nieuw Amerongen, Geerten P.; Musters, Rene J. P.; Groeneveld, A. B. Johan

    2007-01-01

    Activation of cytoskeleton regulator Rho-kinase during ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) plays a major role in I/R injury and apoptosis. Since Rho-kinase is a negative regulator of the pro-survival phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)/Akt pathway, we hypothesized that inhibition of Rho-kinase can prevent I/R-induced endothelial cell apoptosis by maintaining PI3-kinase/Akt activity and that protective effects of Rho-kinase inhibition are facilitated by prevention of F-actin rearrangement. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were subjected to 1 h of simulated ischemia and 1 or 24 h of simulated reperfusion after treatment with Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632, PI3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin, F-actin depolymerizers cytochalasinD and latrunculinA and F-actin stabilizer jasplakinolide. Intracellular ATP levels decreased following I/R. Y-27632 treatment reduced I/R-induced apoptosis by 31% (P < 0.01) and maintained Akt activity. Both effects were blocked by co-treatment with wortmannin. Y-27632 treatment prevented the formation of F-actin bundles during I/R. Similar results were observed with cytochalasinD treatment. In contrast, latrunculinA and jasplakinolide treatment did not prevent the formation of F-actin bundles during I/R and had no effect on I/R-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis and Akt activity were inversely correlated (R2 = 0.68, P < 0.05). In conclusion, prevention of F-actin rearrangement by Rho-kinase inhibition or by cytochalasinD treatment attenuated I/R-induced endothelial cell apoptosis by maintaining PI3-kinase and Akt activity. PMID:18165899

  20. p21-Activated Kinase 1 Plays a Critical Role in Cellular Activation by Nef

    PubMed Central

    Fackler, Oliver T.; Lu, Xiaobin; Frost, Jeffrey A.; Geyer, Matthias; Jiang, Bing; Luo, Wen; Abo, Arie; Alberts, Arthur S.; Peterlin, B. Matija

    2000-01-01

    The activation of Nef-associated kinase (NAK) by Nef from human and simian immunodeficiency viruses is critical for efficient viral replication and pathogenesis. This induction occurs via the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav and the small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42. In this study, we identified NAK as p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). PAK1 bound to Nef in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the induction of cytoskeletal rearrangements such as the formation of trichopodia, the activation of Jun N-terminal kinase, and the increase of viral production were blocked by an inhibitory peptide that targets the kinase activity of PAK1 (PAK1 83-149). These results identify NAK as PAK1 and emphasize the central role its kinase activity plays in cytoskeletal rearrangements and cellular signaling by Nef. PMID:10713183

  1. Insulin accelerates inter-endosomal GLUT4 traffic via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase B.

    PubMed

    Foster, L J; Li, D; Randhawa, V K; Klip, A

    2001-11-23

    Insulin enhances plasmalemmal-directed traffic of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4), but it is unknown whether insulin regulates GLUT4 traffic through endosomal compartments. In L6 myoblasts expressing Myc-tagged GLUT4, insulin markedly stimulated the rate of GLUT4myc recycling. In myoblasts stimulated with insulin to maximize surface GLUT4myc levels, we followed the rates of surface-labeled GLUT4myc endocytosis and chased its intracellular distribution in space and time using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Surface-labeled GLUT4myc internalized rapidly (t(12) 3 min), reaching the early endosome by 2 min and the transferrin receptor-rich, perinuclear recycling endosome by 20 min. Upon re-addition of insulin, the t(12) of GLUT4 disappearance from the plasma membrane was unchanged (3 min), but strikingly, GLUT4myc reached the recycling endosome by 10 and left by 20 min. This effect of insulin was blocked by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 or by transiently transfected dominant-negative phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase B mutants. In contrast, insulin did not alter the rate of arrival of rhodamine-labeled transferrin at the recycling endosome. These results reveal a heretofore unknown effect of insulin to accelerate inter-endosomal travel rates of GLUT4 and identify the recycling endosome as an obligatory stage in insulin-dependent GLUT4 recycling.

  2. RIP Kinase-Mediated Necrosis as an Alternative Mechanism of Photoreceptor Death

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Yusuke; Miller, Joan W.; Vavvas, Demetrios G.

    2011-01-01

    Photoreceptor cell death is the terminal event in a variety of retinal disorders including age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, and retinal detachment. Apoptosis has been thought to be the major form of cell death in these diseases, however accumulating evidence suggests that another pathway, programmed necrosis is also important. Recent studies have shown that, when caspase pathways are blocked, receptor interacting protein (RIP) kinases promote necrosis and overcome apoptosis inhibition. Therefore, targeting of both caspase and RIP kinase pathways are required for effective photoreceptor protection. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of RIP kinase-mediated necrotic signaling and its contribution to photoreceptor death. PMID:21670490

  3. Selective loss of PMA-stimulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 1 in HaCaT keratinocytes is correlated with the inability to induce mitogen-activated protein family kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Sudbeck, B D; Baumann, P; Ryan, G J; Breitkopf, K; Nischt, R; Krieg, T; Mauch, C

    1999-01-01

    Many cell types, including fibroblasts and primary keratinocytes, increase matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) production in response to agonists such as growth factors and phorbol esters. However, the spontaneously transformed human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT, although it increases MMP-1 production in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF), does not respond similarly to stimulation with PMA. This phenomenon occurs even though HaCaT cells remain proliferatively responsive to both agonists, suggesting a HaCaT-specific defect in a PMA-mediated signal transduction pathway. Using an inside-out approach to elucidate the source of this defect, we found that EGF, but not PMA, stimulated MMP-1 promoter activity in transiently transfected HaCaT keratinocytes. In addition, an assessment of fibroblast and HaCaT c-fos and c-jun gene expression after exposure to EGF and PMA showed that although both agonists increased the expression of c-fos and c-jun mRNA in fibroblasts, only EGF did so in HaCaT keratinocytes. Finally, we looked at the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) family kinases after stimulation with EGF or PMA and found that both agonists increased the phosphorylation and activation of fibroblast extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, but only EGF activated the same kinase activities in HaCaT cells. Further, the EGF-mediated increase in MMP-1 gene expression was inhibited by the MAP kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)-specific inhibitor PD98059 and the p38 kinase-specific inhibitor SB203580. Our evidence indicates that although HaCaT MAP kinases are functional, they are not properly regulated in response to the activation of protein kinase C, and that the defect that bars HaCaT MMP-1 expression in response to stimulation with PMA lies before MAP kinase activation. PMID:10085241

  4. Phosphorylation of connexin 32, a hepatocyte gap-junction protein, by cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

    PubMed

    Sáez, J C; Nairn, A C; Czernik, A J; Spray, D C; Hertzberg, E L; Greengard, P; Bennett, M V

    1990-09-11

    Phosphorylation of connexin 32, the major liver gap-junction protein, was studied in purified liver gap junctions and in hepatocytes. In isolated gap junctions, connexin 32 was phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAMP-PK), by protein kinase C (PKC) and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (Ca2+/CaM-PK II). Connexin 26 was not phosphorylated by these three protein kinases. Phosphopeptide mapping of connexin 32 demonstrated that cAMP-PK and PKC primarily phosphorylated a seryl residue in a peptide termed peptide 1. PKC also phosphorylated seryl residues in additional peptides. CA2+/CaM-PK II phosphorylated serine and to a lesser extent, threonine, at sites different from those phosphorylated by the other two protein kinases. A synthetic peptide PSRKGSGFGHRL-amine (residues 228-239 based on the deduced amino acid sequence of rat connexin 32) was phosphorylated by cAMP-PK and by PKC, with kinetic properties being similar to those for other physiological substrates phosphorylated by these enzymes. Ca2+/CaM-PK II did not phosphorylate the peptide. Phosphopeptide mapping and amino acid sequencing of the phosphorylated synthetic peptide indicated that Ser233 of connexin 32 was present in peptide 1 and was phosphorylated by cAMP-PK or by PKC. In hepatocytes labeled with [32P]orthophosphoric acid, treatment with forskolin or 20-deoxy-20-oxophorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBt) resulted in increased 32P-incorporation into connexin 32. Phosphopeptide mapping and phosphoamino acid analysis showed that a seryl residue in peptide 1 was most prominently phosphorylated under basal conditions. Treatment with forskolin or PDBt stimulated the phosphorylation of peptide 1. PDBt treatment also increased the phosphorylation of seryl residues in several other peptides. PDBt did not affect the cAMP-PK activity in hepatocytes. It has previously been shown that phorbol ester reduces dye coupling in several cell types, however in rat hepatocytes, dye coupling was not reduced

  5. Adenylate kinase complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency in nucleotide metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Q; Inouye, M

    1996-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is a ubiquitous nonspecific enzyme that evidently is designed to catalyze in vivo ATP-dependent synthesis of ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates from the corresponding diphosphates. Because Escherichia coli contains only one copy of ndk, the structural gene for this enzyme, we were surprised to find that ndk disruption yields bacteria that are still viable. These mutant cells contain a protein with a small amount NDP kinase activity. The protein responsible for this activity was purified and identified as adenylate kinase. This enzyme, also called myokinase, catalyzes the reversible ATP-dependent synthesis of ADP from AMP. We found that this enzyme from E. coli as well as from higher eukaryotes has a broad substrate specificity displaying dual enzymatic functions. Among the nucleoside monophosphate kinases tested, only adenylate kinase was found to have NDP kinase activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of NDP kinase activity associated with adenylate kinase. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8650159

  6. Glucagon receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 via cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Youwei; Cypess, Aaron M.; Muse, Evan D.; Wu, Cui-Rong; Unson, Cecilia G.; Merrifield, R. B.; Sakmar, Thomas P.

    2001-01-01

    We prepared a stable cell line expressing the glucagon receptor to characterize the effect of Gs-coupled receptor stimulation on extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity. Glucagon treatment of the cell line caused a dose-dependent increase in cAMP concentration, activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and transient release of intracellular calcium. Glucagon treatment also caused rapid dose-dependent phosphorylation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK kinase (MEK1/2) and ERK1/2. Inhibition of either PKA or MEK1/2 blocked ERK1/2 activation by glucagon. However, no significant activation of several upstream activators of MEK, including Ras, Rap1, and Raf, was observed in response to glucagon treatment. In addition, chelation of intracellular calcium reduced glucagon-mediated ERK1/2 activation. In transient transfection experiments, glucagon receptor mutants that bound glucagon but failed to increase intracellular cAMP and calcium concentrations showed no glucagon-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation. We conclude that glucagon-induced MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation is mediated by PKA and that an increase in intracellular calcium concentration is required for maximal ERK activation. PMID:11517300

  7. mTOR regulates skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo through kinase-dependent and kinase-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yejing; Wu, Ai-Luen; Warnes, Christine; Liu, Jianming; Zhang, Chongben; Kawasome, Hideki; Terada, Naohiro; Boppart, Marni D; Schoenherr, Christopher J; Chen, Jie

    2009-12-01

    Rapamycin-sensitive signaling is required for skeletal muscle differentiation and remodeling. In cultured myoblasts, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been reported to regulate differentiation at different stages through distinct mechanisms, including one that is independent of mTOR kinase activity. However, the kinase-independent function of mTOR remains controversial, and no in vivo studies have examined those mTOR myogenic mechanisms previously identified in vitro. In this study, we find that rapamycin impairs injury-induced muscle regeneration. To validate the role of mTOR with genetic evidence and to probe the mechanism of mTOR function, we have generated and characterized transgenic mice expressing two mutants of mTOR under the control of human skeletal actin (HSA) promoter: rapamycin-resistant (RR) and RR/kinase-inactive (RR/KI). Our results show that muscle regeneration in rapamycin-administered mice is restored by RR-mTOR expression. In the RR/KI-mTOR mice, nascent myofiber formation during the early phase of regeneration proceeds in the presence of rapamycin, but growth of the regenerating myofibers is blocked by rapamycin. Igf2 mRNA levels increase drastically during early regeneration, which is sensitive to rapamycin in wild-type muscles but partially resistant to rapamycin in both RR- and RR/KI-mTOR muscles, consistent with mTOR regulation of Igf2 expression in a kinase-independent manner. Furthermore, systemic ablation of S6K1, a target of mTOR kinase, results in impaired muscle growth but normal nascent myofiber formation during regeneration. Therefore, mTOR regulates muscle regeneration through kinase-independent and kinase-dependent mechanisms at the stages of nascent myofiber formation and myofiber growth, respectively.

  8. Managing access block.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Peter; Scown, Paul; Campbell, Donald

    2002-01-01

    There is pessimism regarding the ability of the Acute Health Sector to manage access block for emergency and elective patients. Melbourne Health suffered an acute bed crisis in 2001 resulting in record ambulance diversions and emergency department (ED) delays. We conducted an observational study to reduce access block for emergency patients whilst maintaining elective throughput at Melbourne Health. This involved a clinician-led taskforce using previously proven principles for organisational change to implement 51 actions to improve patient access over a three-month period. The primary outcome measures were ambulance diversion, emergency patients waiting more than 12 hours for an inpatient bed, elective throughput and theatre cancellations. Despite a reduction in multi-day bed numbers all primary objectives were met, ambulance diversion decreased to minimal levels, 12-hour waits decreased by 40% and elective throughput was maintained. Theatre cancellations were also minimised. We conclude that access block can be improved by clinician-led implementation of proven process improvements over a short time frame. The ability to sustain change over the longer term requires further study.

  9. System-wide analysis of the transcriptional network of human myelomonocytic leukemia cells predicts attractor structure and phorbol-ester-induced differentiation and dedifferentiation transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Katsumi; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Sato, Shinji; Nobori, Hiroya; Hayashi, Akiko; Ishii, Hideshi; Daub, Carsten O.; Kawai, Jun; Suzuki, Harukazu; Saito, Toshiyuki

    2015-02-01

    We present a system-wide transcriptional network structure that controls cell types in the context of expression pattern transitions that correspond to cell type transitions. Co-expression based analyses uncovered a system-wide, ladder-like transcription factor cluster structure composed of nearly 1,600 transcription factors in a human transcriptional network. Computer simulations based on a transcriptional regulatory model deduced from the system-wide, ladder-like transcription factor cluster structure reproduced expression pattern transitions when human THP-1 myelomonocytic leukaemia cells cease proliferation and differentiate under phorbol myristate acetate stimulation. The behaviour of MYC, a reprogramming Yamanaka factor that was suggested to be essential for induced pluripotent stem cells during dedifferentiation, could be interpreted based on the transcriptional regulation predicted by the system-wide, ladder-like transcription factor cluster structure. This study introduces a novel system-wide structure to transcriptional networks that provides new insights into network topology.

  10. System-wide analysis of the transcriptional network of human myelomonocytic leukemia cells predicts attractor structure and phorbol-ester-induced differentiation and dedifferentiation transitions.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Katsumi; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Sato, Shinji; Nobori, Hiroya; Hayashi, Akiko; Ishii, Hideshi; Daub, Carsten O; Kawai, Jun; Suzuki, Harukazu; Saito, Toshiyuki

    2015-02-06

    We present a system-wide transcriptional network structure that controls cell types in the context of expression pattern transitions that correspond to cell type transitions. Co-expression based analyses uncovered a system-wide, ladder-like transcription factor cluster structure composed of nearly 1,600 transcription factors in a human transcriptional network. Computer simulations based on a transcriptional regulatory model deduced from the system-wide, ladder-like transcription factor cluster structure reproduced expression pattern transitions when human THP-1 myelomonocytic leukaemia cells cease proliferation and differentiate under phorbol myristate acetate stimulation. The behaviour of MYC, a reprogramming Yamanaka factor that was suggested to be essential for induced pluripotent stem cells during dedifferentiation, could be interpreted based on the transcriptional regulation predicted by the system-wide, ladder-like transcription factor cluster structure. This study introduces a novel system-wide structure to transcriptional networks that provides new insights into network topology.

  11. Signals involved in T cell activation. II. Distinct roles of intact accessory cells, phorbol esters, and interleukin 1 in activation and cell cycle progression of resting T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.; Lipsky, P.E.

    1986-05-15

    The signals involved in the initiation of mitogen-induced activation of resting guinea pig T cells were examined. The combination of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and 4..beta..-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulated DNA synthesis by accessory cell (AC)-depleted T cells cultured at high density, but the use of low density cultures indicated that intact AC were absolutely necessary for PHA-stimulated T cell DNA synthesis even in the presence of PMA, interleukin 1 (IL 1), or interleukin 2 (IL 2). In contrast, AC-depleted T cells were able to respond to the combination of the calcium ionophore, ionomycin, and PMA regardless of the cell density at which they were cultured. Results of cell cycle analysis support the conclusion that intact AC, IL 1, and a PMA-like signal play distinct roles in the progression of mitogen stimulated T cells through the first round of the cell cycle.

  12. Block 3. This photograph depicts the northern view of Block ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Block 3. This photograph depicts the northern view of Block 2 towards the May D & F Tower from the main path along the western facades - Skyline Park, 1500-1800 Arapaho Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  13. The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel alpha-subunit is transcriptionally down-regulated in rat parotid cells by the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Zentner, M D; Lin, H H; Wen, X; Kim, K J; Ann, D K

    1998-11-13

    Previous studies have shown that an inducible Raf-1 kinase protein, DeltaRaf-1:ER, activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)-signaling pathway, which is required for the transformation of the rat salivary epithelial cell line, Pa-4. Differential display polymerase chain reaction was employed to search for mRNAs repressed by DeltaRaf-1:ER activation. Through this approach, the gene encoding the alpha-subunit of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (alpha-ENaC) was identified as a target of activated Raf-1 kinases. alpha-ENaC down-regulation could also be seen in cells treated with 12-O-tetradecanoyl-1-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), indicating that the repression of steady-state alpha-ENaC mRNA level was dependent upon the activity of protein kinase C, the target of TPA, as well. Pretreatment of cells with a specific inhibitor of the ERK kinase pathway, PD 98059, markedly abolished the down-regulation of alpha-ENaC expression, consistent with the hypothesis that the ERK kinase-signaling pathway is involved in TPA-mediated repression. Moreover, through the use of transient transfection assays with alpha-ENaC-reporter and activated Raf expression construct(s), we provide the first evidence that activation of the ERK pathway down-regulates alpha-ENaC expression at the transcriptional level. Elucidating the molecular programming that modulates the expression of the alpha-subunit may provide new insights into the modulation of sodium reabsorption across epithelia. PMID:9804854

  14. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Inhibits Human Colorectal Cancer Cells RKO Migration via Downregulating Myosin Light Chain Kinase Expression through MAPK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Li; Yang, Xiaoping; Lu, Man; Hu, Ruolei; Zhu, Huaqing; Zhang, Sumei; Zhou, Qing; Chen, Feihu; Gui, Shuyu; Wang, Yuan

    2016-10-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) inhibits the invasive and metastatic potentials of various cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that ATRA inhibited colorectal cancer cells RKO (human colon adenocarcinoma cell) migration by downregulating cell movement and increasing cell adhesion. ATRA inhibited the expression and activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in RKO cells, while the expression level of MLC phosphatase (MLCP) had no change in RKO cells treated with or without ATRA. The expression and activity of MLC was also inhibited in RKO cells exposed to ATRA. Intriguingly, ATRA increased the expression of occludin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein and its localization on cell membrane. However, ATRA did not change the expression of zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), but increased the accumulation of ZO-1 on RKO cells membrane. ML-7, an inhibitor of MLCK, significantly inhibited RKO cell migration. Furthermore, knockdown of endogenous MLCK expression inhibited RKO migration. Mechanistically, we showed that MAPK-specific inhibitor PD98059 enhanced the inhibitory effect of ATRA on RKO migration. In contrast, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) attenuated the effects of ATRA in RKO cells. Moreover, knocking down endogenous extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression inhibited MLCK expression in the RKO cells. In conclusion, ATRA inhibits RKO migration by reducing MLCK expression via extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/Mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/MAPK) signaling pathway. PMID:27564600

  15. Regulation of glucose transport by insulin, bombesin, and bradykinin in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts: Involvement of protein kinase C-dependent and -independent mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Dettori, C.; Meldolesi, J. )

    1989-05-01

    Glucose transport stimulation by insulin, bombesin, and bradykinin in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts was compared with the phosphoinositide hydrolysis effects of the same stimulants in a variety of experimental paradigms known to affect generation and/or functioning of intracellular second messengers: short- and long-term treatments with phorbol dibutyrate, that cause activation and down-regulation of protein kinase C, respectively; cell loading with high (quin2), that causes clamping of (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} near the resting level; poisoning with pertussis toxin, that affects the GTP binding proteins of the Go/Gi class; treatment with Ca{sup 2+} ionophores. ({sup 14}C) glucose transport stimulation by maximal (insulin) was affected by neither pertussis toxin nor protein kinase C down-regulation. This result correlates with the lack of effect of insulin on phosphoinositide hydrolysis. In contrast, part of the glucose transport responses induced by bombesin and bradykinin appeared to be mediated by protein kinase C in proportion with the stimulation induced by these peptides on the phosphoinositide hydrolysis. The protein kinase C-independent portion of the response to bradykinin was found to be inhibitable by pertussis toxin. This latter result might suggest an interaction between the bradykinin receptor and a glucose transporter, mediated by a protein of the Go/Gi class.

  16. Block Transfer Handbook: Constructing and Negotiating Block Transfer Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Finola

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide resources for institutions or articulation committees who are engaged in the task of investigating the feasibility of block transfer agreements. Block transfer is the process whereby a block of credits is granted to students who have successfully completed a certificate, diploma, or cluster of courses…

  17. View southeast of caps for blocks for JFK; blocks are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast of caps for blocks for JFK; blocks are used to support ship when it is repositioned to paint inaccessible areas masked by original support blocks. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Carpentry Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Protein kinase C activators selectively inhibit insulin-stimulated system A transport activity in skeletal muscle at a post-receptor level.

    PubMed Central

    Gumà, A; Camps, M; Palacín, M; Testar, X; Zorzano, A

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the role of phorbol esters on different biological effects induced by insulin in muscle, such as activation of system A transport activity, glucose utilization and insulin receptor function. System A transport activity was measured by monitoring the uptake of the system A-specific analogue alpha-(methyl)aminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB), by intact rat extensor digitorum longus muscle. The addition of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA, 0.5 microM) for 60 or 180 min did not modify basal MeAIB uptake by muscle, suggesting that insulin signalling required to stimulate MeAIB transport does not involve protein kinase C activation. However, TPA added 30 min before insulin (100 nM) markedly inhibited insulin-stimulated MeAIB uptake. The addition of polymyxin B (0.1 mM) or H-7 (1 mM), protein kinase C inhibitors, alone or in combination with TPA leads to impairment of insulin-stimulated MeAIB uptake. This paradoxical pattern is incompatible with a unique action of Polymyxin B or H-7 on protein kinase C activity. Therefore these agents are not suitable tools with which to investigate whether a certain insulin effect is mediated by protein kinase C. TPA did not cause a generalized inhibition of insulin action. Thus both TPA and insulin increased 3-O-methylglucose uptake by muscle, and their effects were not additive. Furthermore, TPA did not modify insulin-stimulated lactate production by muscle. In keeping with this selective modification of insulin action, treatment of muscles with TPA did not modify insulin receptor binding or kinase activities. In conclusion, phorbol esters do not mimic insulin action on system A transport activity; however, they markedly inhibit insulin-stimulated amino acid transport, with no modification of insulin receptor function in rat skeletal muscle. It is suggested that protein kinase C activation causes a selective post-receptor modification on the biochemical pathway by which insulin activates system A amino acid

  19. Roles of protein kinase C on the mechanical activity of vascular smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Itoh, T; Fujiwara, T; Kubota, Y; Nishiye, E; Kuriyama, H

    1990-08-01

    We investigated the role of protein kinase C in the mechanical responses evoked by high K or by acetylcholine (ACh) in intact vascular smooth muscle tissues, and by Ca in skinned vascular smooth muscle tissues. To activate protein kinase C, the phorbol ester 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a potent tumor promoter, or 1,2-diolein, plus phosphatidylserine (PS) was used. TPA enhanced or reduced the amplitude of the contraction evoked by increased concentrations of K below 39 mmol/L or over 90 mmol/L, respectively, but consistently enhanced the resting tension at any given concentration of high K. Similar effects of TPA were observed on the Ca-induced contraction in saponin skinned muscle tissues. The enhancing action of TPA on the K-induced contraction was not related to activation of either the voltage-dependent Ca channel or the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and did not occur in the case of Ca-independent contraction in skinned muscle tissues. During the enhancement of the contraction induced by TPA, the phosphorylation of myosin light chain and the shortening velocity of contraction as measured using the slack test, were enhanced with no remarkable change in the free Ca concentration in the cytosol. TPA consistently inhibited the ACH-induced contraction accompanied by a marked reduction in free Ca due to inhibition of the hydrolysis of phosphatidyl inositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Under the assumption that TPA possesses the same action as DG, activation of protein kinase C increased the Ca sensitivity of contractile proteins in vascular smooth muscles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Transduction proteins of olfactory receptor cells: identification of guanine nucleotide binding proteins and protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Anholt, R.R.H.; Mumby, S.M.; Stoffers, D.A.; Girard, P.R.; Kuo, J.F.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-02-10

    The authors have analyzed guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) in the olfactory epithelium of Rana catesbeiana using subunit-specific antisera. The olfactory epithelium contained the ..cap alpha.. subunits of three G-proteins, migrating on polyacrylamide gels in SDS with apparent molecular weights of 45,000, 42,000, and 40,000, corresponding to G/sub s/, G/sub i/, and G/sub o/, respectively. A single ..beta.. subunit with an apparent molecular weight of 36,000 was detected. An antiserum against the ..cap alpha.. subunit of retinal transducin failed to detect immunoreactive proteins in olfactory cilia detached from the epithelium. The olfactory cilia appeared to be enriched in immunoreactive G/sub s..cap alpha../ relative to G/sub ichemically bond/ and G/sub ochemically bond/ when compared to membranes prepared from the olfactory epithelium after detachment of the cilia. Bound antibody was detected by autoradiography after incubation with (/sup 125/I)protein. Immunohistochemical studies using an antiserum against the ..beta.. subunit of G-proteins revealed intense staining of the ciliary surface of the olfactory epithelium and of the axon bundles in the lamina propria. In contrast, an antiserum against a common sequence of the ..cap alpha.. subunits preferentially stained the cell membranes of the olfactory receptor cells and the acinar cells of Bowman's glands and the deep submucosal glands. In addition to G-proteins, they have identified protein kinase C in olfactory cilia via a protein kinase C specific antiserum and via phorbol ester binding. However, in contrast to the G-proteins, protein kinase C occurred also in cilia isolated from respiratory epithelium.

  1. The poor man's cell block

    PubMed Central

    Darlington, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe a simple method for making formalin or isopropyl alcohol vapour fixed cell blocks from fine needle aspiration cytology specimens that we refer to as ‘The Poor Man's Cell Block.’ PMID:20671053

  2. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermionfermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. In addition, conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  3. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold

    2016-08-09

    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  4. CORE SATURATION BLOCKING OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Spinrad, R.J.

    1961-10-17

    A blocking oscillator which relies on core saturation regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a saturable portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the saturation portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a saturation point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)

  5. Identification of “Preferred” Human Kinase Inhibitors for Sleeping Sickness Lead Discovery. Are Some Kinases Better than Others for Inhibitor Repurposing?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A kinase-targeting cell-based high-throughput screen (HTS) against Trypanosoma brucei was recently reported, and this screening set included the Published Kinase Inhibitor Set (PKIS). From the PKIS was identified 53 compounds with pEC50 ≥ 6. Utilizing the published data available for the PKIS, a statistical analysis of these active antiparasitic compounds was performed, allowing identification of a set of human kinases having inhibitors that show a high likelihood for blocking T. brucei cellular proliferation in vitro. This observation was confirmed by testing other established inhibitors of these human kinases and by mining past screening campaigns at GlaxoSmithKline. Overall, although the parasite targets of action are not known, inhibitors of this set of human kinases displayed an enhanced hit rate relative to a random kinase-targeting HTS campaign, suggesting that repurposing efforts should focus primarily on inhibitors of these specific human kinases. We therefore term this statistical analysis-driven approach “preferred lead repurposing”. PMID:26998514

  6. Multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase is necessary for nuclear envelope breakdown

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The role of multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) in nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB) was investigated in sea urchin eggs. The eggs contain a 56-kD polypeptide which appears to be a homologue of neuronal CaM kinase. For example, it undergoes Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent autophosphorylation that converts it to a Ca2(+)-independent species, a hallmark of multifunctional CaM kinase. It is homologous to the alpha subunit of rat brain CaM kinase. Autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation by the sea urchin egg kinase are inhibited in vitro by CaMK(273-302), a synthetic peptide corresponding to the autoinhibitory domain of the neuronal CaM kinase. This peptide inhibited NEB when microinjected into sea urchin eggs. Only one mAb to the neuronal enzyme immunoprecipitated the 56-kD polypeptide. Only this antibody blocked or significantly delayed NEB when microinjected into sea urchin eggs. These results suggest that sea urchin eggs contain multifunctional CaM kinase, and that this enzyme is involved in the control of NEB during mitotic division. PMID:2229172

  7. Abscisic Acid Induces Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation in Barley Aleurone Protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Knetsch, MLW.; Wang, M.; Snaar-Jagalska, B. E.; Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S.

    1996-06-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) induces a rapid and transient mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation in barley aleurone protoplasts. MAP kinase activity, measured as myelin basic protein phosphorylation by MAP kinase immunoprecipitates, increased after 1 min, peaked after 3 min, and decreased to basal levels after ~5 min of ABA treatment in vivo. Antibodies recognizing phosphorylated tyrosine residues precipitate with myelin basic protein kinase activity that has identical ABA activation characteristics and demonstrate that tyrosine phosphorylation of MAP kinase occurs during activation. The half-maximal concentration of ABA required for MAP kinase activation, 3 x 10-7 M, is very similar to that required for ABA-induced rab16 gene expression. The tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor phenylarsine oxide can completely block ABA-induced MAP kinase activation and rab16 gene expression. These results lead us to conclude that ABA activates MAP kinase via a tyrosine phosphatase and that these steps are a prerequisite for ABA induction of rab16 gene expression.

  8. Abscisic Acid Induces Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation in Barley Aleurone Protoplasts.

    PubMed Central

    Knetsch, MLW.; Wang, M.; Snaar-Jagalska, B. E.; Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S.

    1996-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) induces a rapid and transient mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation in barley aleurone protoplasts. MAP kinase activity, measured as myelin basic protein phosphorylation by MAP kinase immunoprecipitates, increased after 1 min, peaked after 3 min, and decreased to basal levels after ~5 min of ABA treatment in vivo. Antibodies recognizing phosphorylated tyrosine residues precipitate with myelin basic protein kinase activity that has identical ABA activation characteristics and demonstrate that tyrosine phosphorylation of MAP kinase occurs during activation. The half-maximal concentration of ABA required for MAP kinase activation, 3 x 10-7 M, is very similar to that required for ABA-induced rab16 gene expression. The tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor phenylarsine oxide can completely block ABA-induced MAP kinase activation and rab16 gene expression. These results lead us to conclude that ABA activates MAP kinase via a tyrosine phosphatase and that these steps are a prerequisite for ABA induction of rab16 gene expression. PMID:12239411

  9. Property Blocks: Games and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Alan, Ed.; Dailey, Jean, Ed.

    This pamphlet describes the property blocks produced by MINNEMAST, and discusses their use in the development of thinking processes. Classification systems, including block diagrams and tree diagrams, are discussed. Sixteen classroom activities and eleven games which use the blocks are described. Suggestions to the teacher for further reading are…

  10. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  11. Activation of the Ras/Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway by Kinase-Defective Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors Results in Cell Survival but Not Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Francesca; Kato, Akiko; Gonez, L. Jorge; Hibbs, Margaret L.; Pouliot, Normand; Levitzki, Alexander; Burgess, Antony W.

    1998-01-01

    Signalling by the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) has been studied intensively, but for most cell types the analysis is complicated by the fact that EGFR not only homodimerizes but can also form heterodimers with other EGFR family members. Heterodimerization is a particular problem in the study of EGFR mutants, where the true phenotype of the mutants is confounded by the contribution of the heterodimer partner to signal transduction. We have made use of the murine hemopoietic cell line BaF/3, which does not express EGFR family members, to express wild-type (WT) EGFR, three kinase-defective EGFR mutants (V741G, Y740F, and K721R), or a C-terminally truncated EGFR (CT957) and have measured their responses to EGF. We found that under the appropriate conditions EGF can stimulate cell proliferation of BaF/3 cells expressing WT or CT957 EGFRs but not that of cells expressing the kinase-defective mutants. However, EGF promotes the survival of BaF/3 cells expressing either of the kinase-defective receptors (V741G and Y740F), indicating that these receptors can still transmit a survival signal. Analysis of the early signalling events by the WT, V741G, and Y740F mutant EGF receptors indicated that EGF stimulates comparable levels of Shc phosphorylation, Shc–GRB-2 association, and activation of Ras, B-Raf, and Erk-1. Blocking the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway with the specific inhibitor PD98059 abrogates completely the EGF-dependent survival of cells expressing the kinase-defective EGFR mutants but has no effect on the EGF-dependent proliferation mediated by WT and CT957 EGFRs. Similarly, the Src family kinase inhibitor PP1 abrogates EGF-dependent survival without affecting proliferation. However blocking phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase or JAK-2 kinase with specific inhibitors does arrest growth factor-dependent cell proliferation. Thus, EGFR-mediated mitogenic signalling in BaF/3 cells requires an intact EGFR tyrosine kinase activity

  12. Bivalent Inhibitors of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gower, Carrie M.; Chang, Matthew E. K.; Maly, Dustin J.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases are key players in a large number of cellular signaling pathways. Dysregulated kinase activity has been implicated in a number of diseases, and members of this enzyme family are of therapeutic interest. However, due to the fact that most inhibitors interact with the highly conserved ATP-binding sites of kinases, it is a significant challenge to develop pharmacological agents that target only one of the greater than 500 kinases present in humans. A potential solution to this problem is the development of bisubstrate and bivalent kinase inhibitors, in which an active site-directed moiety is tethered to another ligand that targets a location outside of the ATP-binding cleft. Because kinase signaling specificity is modulated by regions outside of the ATP-binding site, strategies that exploit these interactions have the potential to provide reagents with high target selectivity. This review highlights examples of kinase interaction sites that can potentially be exploited by bisubstrate and bivalent inhibitors. Furthermore, an overview of efforts to target these interactions with bisubstrate and bivalent inhibitors is provided. Finally, several examples of the successful application of these reagents in a cellular setting are described. PMID:24564382

  13. Comparison of ability of protein kinase C inhibitors to arrest cell growth and to alter cellular protein kinase C localisation.

    PubMed Central

    Courage, C.; Budworth, J.; Gescher, A.

    1995-01-01

    Inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) such as the staurosporine analogues UCN-01 and CGP 41251 possess antineoplastic properties, but the mechanism of their cytostatic action is not understood. We tested the hypothesis that the ability of these compounds to arrest growth is intrinsically linked with their propensity to inhibit PKC. Compounds with varying degrees of potency and specificity for PKC were investigated in A549 and MCF-7 carcinoma cells. When the log values of drug concentration which arrested cell growth by 50% (IC50) were plotted against the logs of the IC50 values for inhibition of cytosolic PKC activity, two groups of compound could be distinguished. The group which comprised the more potent inhibitors of enzyme activity (calphostin C, staurosporine and its analogues UCN-01, RO 31-8220, CGP 41251) were the stronger growth inhibitors, whereas the weaker enzyme inhibitors (trimethylsphingosine, miltefosine, NPC-15437, H-7, H-7I) affected proliferation less potently. GF 109203X was exceptional in that it inhibited PKC with an IC50 in the 10(-8) M range, yet was only weakly cytostatic. To substantiate the role of PKC in the growth inhibition caused by these agents, cells were depleted of PKC by incubation with bryostatin 1 (1 microM). The susceptibility of these enzyme-depleted cells towards growth arrest induced by staurosporine, RO 31-8220, UCN-01 or H-7 was studied. The drug concentrations which inhibited incorporation of [3H]thymidine into PKC-depleted A549 cells by 50% were slightly, but not significantly, lower than significantly, lower than those observed in control cells. These results suggest that PKC is unlikely to play a direct role in the arrest of the growth of A549 and MCF-7 cells mediated by these agents. Staurosporine is not only a strong inhibitor of PKC but also mimics activators of this enzyme in that it elicits the cellular redistribution of certain PKC isoenzymes. The ability of kinase inhibitors other than staurosporine to exert a

  14. RhoA/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling after growth arrest-specific protein 6/mer receptor tyrosine kinase engagement promotes epithelial cell growth and wound repair via upregulation of hepatocyte growth factor in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ye-Ji; Park, Hyun-Jung; Woo, So-Youn; Park, Eun-Mi; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6)/Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mer) signaling modulates cytokine secretion and helps to regulate the immune response and apoptotic cell clearance. Signaling pathways that activate an epithelial growth program in macrophages are still poorly defined. We report that Gas6/Mer/RhoA signaling can induce the production of epithelial growth factor hepatic growth factor (HGF) in macrophages, which ultimately promotes epithelial cell proliferation and wound repair. The RhoA/protein kinase B (Akt)/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, including p38 MAP kinase, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, and Jun NH2-terminal kinase axis in RAW 264.7 cells, was identified as Gas6/Mer downstream signaling pathway for the upregulation of HGF mRNA and protein. Conditioned medium from RAW 264.7 cells that had been exposed to Gas6 or apoptotic cells enhanced epithelial cell proliferation of the epithelial cell line LA-4 and wound closure. Cotreatment with an HGF receptor-blocking antibody or c-Met antagonist downregulated this enhancement. Inhibition of Mer with small interfering RNA (siRNA) or the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway by RhoA siRNA or Rho kinase pharmacologic inhibitor suppressed Gas6-induced HGF mRNA and protein expression in macrophages and blocked epithelial cell proliferation and wound closure induced by the conditioned medium. Our data provide evidence that macrophages can be reprogrammed by Gas6 to promote epithelial proliferation and wound repair via HGF, which is induced by the Mer/RhoA/Akt/MAP kinase pathway. Thus, defects in Gas6/Mer/RhoA signaling in macrophages may delay tissue repair after injury to the alveolar epithelium.

  15. Signalling pathway leading to an activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by stimulating M3 muscarinic receptor.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Y; Yang, M S; Oh, C D; Kim, K T; Ha, M J; Kang, S S; Chun, J S

    1999-01-15

    The signalling pathway leading to an activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase subtypes Erk-1 and -2 upon stimulation of muscarinic receptor with carbachol in human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2(C) cells was investigated. Carbachol activated Erk-1/-2 by stimulating M3 muscarinic receptor, as determined by specific antagonists for individual muscarinic receptors. The activation of Erk-1/-2 by carbachol was blocked by the inhibition or down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC). Among the multiple PKC isoforms expressed in SK-N-BE2(C) cells, only PKCepsilon was activated by the treatment of carbachol, and selective down-regulation of PKCepsilon was sufficient to block Erk-1/-2 activation. Carbachol treatment induced activation of the serine/threonine protein kinase Raf, and an inhibition of Raf blocked Erk-1/-2 activation. Ectopic expression of inhibitory small GTPase Ras, RasN17, blocked the carbachol-induced Raf activation without affecting the activation of PKCepsilon, while the inhibition of PKC blocked the Raf activation. Thus, these results suggest that carbachol-induced activation of PKCepsilon mediates Erk-1/-2 activation by a sequential activation of Ras, Raf and MAP kinase kinase.

  16. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T] also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.

  17. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T]ℓ also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock spacemore » exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.« less

  18. Two kinase activities are sufficient for sea urchin sperm chromatin decondensation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Stephens, S; Beyer, B; Balthazar-Stablein, U; Duncan, R; Kostacos, M; Lukoma, M; Green, G R; Poccia, D

    2002-08-01

    Decondensation of compact and inactive sperm chromatin by egg cytoplasm at fertilization is necessary to convert the male germ cell chromatin to an active somatic form. We studied decondensation of sea urchin sperm nuclei in a cell-free extract of sea urchin eggs to define conditions promoting decondensation. We find that egg cytosol specifically phosphorylates two sperm-specific (Sp) histones in vitro in the same regions as in vivo. This activity is blocked by olomoucine, an inhibitor of cdc2-like kinases, but not by chelerythrine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC). PKC phosphorylates and solubilizes the sperm nuclear lamina, one requirement for decondensation. Olomoucine, which does not inhibit lamina removal, blocks sperm nuclear decondensation in the same concentration range over which it is effective in blocking Sp histone phosphorylation. In a system free of other soluble proteins, neither PKC nor cdc2 alone elicit sperm chromatin decondensation, but the two act synergistically to decondense sperm nuclei. We conclude that two kinases activities are sufficient for sea urchin male pronuclear decondensation in vitro, a lamin kinase (PKC) and a cdc2-like Sp histone kinase.

  19. Activation of Raf-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase in murine macrophages partially mimics lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling events

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a highly conserved component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, stimulates macrophages to release various cytokine and eicosanoid mediators of the immune response. The mechanism by which LPS stimulates these cells is poorly characterized. One of the most rapid LPS-stimulated events is the phosphorylation and activation of the p42 and p44 isoforms of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. We wished to examine the role of MAP kinase in LPS- induced signaling in murine macrophages by activating MAP kinase independently of LPS. An expression vector encoding a Raf-1:estrogen receptor (ER) chimeric protein was transfected into the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Activation of this chimeric protein (delta Raf-1:ER) by estradiol resulted in rapid and prolonged activation of MAP kinase, as expected from previous results implicating Raf-1 as an upstream activator of this signaling cascade. LPS stimulation induced accumulation of MAP kinase phosphatase 1 messenger RNA, whereas delta Raf-1:ER activation did not, perhaps accounting for the more prolonged activation of MAP kinase seen in response to delta Raf-1:ER activation. Similarly, activation of DNA binding by the transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF) kappa B, as assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, occurred in response to LPS stimulation but not in response to delta Raf-1:ER activation or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for murine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), we found that LPS and PMA stimulation and delta Raf-1:ER activation induced secretion of TNF-alpha, although the amount of TNF-alpha secreted in response to delta Raf-1:ER activation and PMA stimulation was approximately 20-fold less than that secreted in response to LPS. Correspondingly, accumulation of TNF-alpha messenger RNA was weakly induced by delta Raf-1:ER activation or PMA stimulation, whereas strong induction was noted in

  20. Activation of Raf-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase in murine macrophages partially mimics lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling events.

    PubMed

    Hambleton, J; McMahon, M; DeFranco, A L

    1995-07-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a highly conserved component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, stimulates macrophages to release various cytokine and eicosanoid mediators of the immune response. The mechanism by which LPS stimulates these cells is poorly characterized. One of the most rapid LPS-stimulated events is the phosphorylation and activation of the p42 and p44 isoforms of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. We wished to examine the role of MAP kinase in LPS-induced signaling in murine macrophages by activating MAP kinase independently of LPS. An expression vector encoding a Raf-1:estrogen receptor (ER) chimeric protein was transfected into the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Activation of this chimeric protein (delta Raf-1:ER) by estradiol resulted in rapid and prolonged activation of MAP kinase, as expected from previous results implicating Raf-1 as an upstream activator of this signaling cascade. LPS stimulation induced accumulation of MAP kinase phosphatase 1 messenger RNA, whereas delta Raf-1:ER activation did not, perhaps accounting for the more prolonged activation of MAP kinase seen in response to delta Raf-1:ER activation. Similarly, activation of DNA binding by the transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF) kappa B, as assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, occurred in response to LPS stimulation but not in response to delta Raf-1:ER activation or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for murine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), we found that LPS and PMA stimulation and delta Raf-1:ER activation induced secretion of TNF-alpha, although the amount of TNF-alpha secreted in response to delta Raf-1:ER activation and PMA stimulation was approximately 20-fold less than that secreted in response to LPS. Correspondingly, accumulation of TNF-alpha messenger RNA was weakly induced by delta Raf-1:ER activation or PMA stimulation, whereas strong induction was noted in

  1. Effect of the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) upon membrane ionic exchanges in sea urchin eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Ciapa, B.; Payan, P. ); Allemand, D. )

    1989-12-01

    The effect of TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) upon ionic exchanges was investigated in eggs of the sea urchin Arbacia lixula. Ouabain-sensitive {sup 86}Rb uptake and amiloride-sensitive {sup 24}Na influx were dramatically stimulated after TPA addition, indicating an enhancement of total ionic permeabilities. Stimulation by TPA of both Na{sup +}/H{sup +} and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} exchanges was canceled by amiloride, suggesting that activation of protein kinase C elicits, via Na{sup +}/H{sup +} activity, stimulation of the sodium pump. However, TPA did not stimulate sodium pump activity and Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchange at the same rate as fertilization, probably because of an absence of calcium-dependent events. Further fertilization of TPA pretreated eggs triggered an enhancement of sodium pump activity when the TPA treatment duration did not exceed 10 minutes. It is suggested that TPA activates preexisting transporting mechanisms in plasma membranes of unfertilized eggs (Na{sup +} stat, pH stat).

  2. Modulation of muscarinic and micotinic cholinergic receptor mediated catecholamine secretion in guinea pig chromaffin cells by phorbol esters

    SciTech Connect

    Figueiredo, J.C.; Fisher, S.K.; Horowitz, M.I.

    1986-05-01

    Isolated guinea pig chromaffin cells possess both nicotinic (nAChR) and muscarinic (mAChR) cholinergic receptors that are positively coupled to catecholamine (CA) release. Sixty to 70% of CA release is mediated by nAChRs and 30-40% by mAChRs. In the absence of added calcium, nAChR mediated CA release was reduced by 65% whereas the muscarinic response was unaffected. The addition of 100nM 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), also resulted in an increased CA release. Temporally and quantitatively, this response resembled that of mAChR activation. Addition of optimal concentrations of nicotine (50..mu..M) and TPA (100nM) induced a synergistic increase in CA release. Addition of muscarine (1mM) and TPA resulted in an additive response despite a 40-60% inhibition of mAChR mediated inositol phosphate release by TPA. Thus, in guinea pig chromaffin cells, it appears that PKC activation alone is a sufficient stimulus for CA release and that activation of both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors may further increase this enzyme's activity.

  3. Iron depletion results in Src kinase inhibition with associated cell cycle arrest in neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardana, Gamini; Seligman, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Iron is required for cellular proliferation. Recently, using systematic time studies of neuroblastoma cell growth, we better defined the G1 arrest caused by iron chelation to a point in mid-G1, where cyclin E protein is present, but the cyclin E/CDK2 complex kinase activity is inhibited. In this study, we again used the neuroblastoma SKNSH cells lines to pinpoint the mechanism responsible for this G1 block. Initial studies showed in the presence of DFO, these cells have high levels of p27 and after reversal of iron chelation p27 is degraded allowing for CDK2 kinase activity. The initial activation of CDK2 kinase allows cells to exit G1 and enter S phase. Furthermore, we found that inhibition of p27 degradation by DFO is directly associated with inhibition of Src kinase activity measured by lack of phosphorylation of Src at the 416 residue. Activation of Src kinase occurs very early after reversal from the DFO G1 block and is temporally associated with initiation of cellular proliferation associated with entry into S phase. For the first time therefore we show that iron chelation inhibits Src kinase activity and this activity is a requirement for cellular proliferation. PMID:25825542

  4. Iron depletion results in Src kinase inhibition with associated cell cycle arrest in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Siriwardana, Gamini; Seligman, Paul A

    2015-03-01

    Iron is required for cellular proliferation. Recently, using systematic time studies of neuroblastoma cell growth, we better defined the G1 arrest caused by iron chelation to a point in mid-G1, where cyclin E protein is present, but the cyclin E/CDK2 complex kinase activity is inhibited. In this study, we again used the neuroblastoma SKNSH cells lines to pinpoint the mechanism responsible for this G1 block. Initial studies showed in the presence of DFO, these cells have high levels of p27 and after reversal of iron chelation p27 is degraded allowing for CDK2 kinase activity. The initial activation of CDK2 kinase allows cells to exit G1 and enter S phase. Furthermore, we found that inhibition of p27 degradation by DFO is directly associated with inhibition of Src kinase activity measured by lack of phosphorylation of Src at the 416 residue. Activation of Src kinase occurs very early after reversal from the DFO G1 block and is temporally associated with initiation of cellular proliferation associated with entry into S phase. For the first time therefore we show that iron chelation inhibits Src kinase activity and this activity is a requirement for cellular proliferation.

  5. CSK negatively regulates nerve growth factor induced neural differentiation and augments AKT kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Nandini . E-mail: Don_Durden@oz.ped.emory.edu

    2005-07-01

    Src family kinases are involved in transducing growth factor signals for cellular differentiation and proliferation in a variety of cell types. The activity of all Src family kinases (SFKs) is controlled by phosphorylation at their C-terminal 527-tyrosine residue by C-terminal SRC kinase, CSK. There is a paucity of information regarding the role of CSK and/or specific Src family kinases in neuronal differentiation. Pretreatment of PC12 cells with the Src family kinase inhibitor, PP1, blocked NGF-induced activation of SFKs and obliterated neurite outgrowth. To confirm a role for CSK and specific isoforms of SFKs in neuronal differentiation, we overexpressed active and catalytically dead CSK in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12. CSK overexpression caused a profound inhibition of NGF-induced activation of FYN, YES, RAS, and ERK and inhibited neurite outgrowth, NGF-stimulated integrin-directed migration and blocked the NGF-induced conversion of GDP-RAC to its GTP-bound active state. CSK overexpression markedly augmented the activation state of AKT following NGF stimulation. In contrast, kinase-dead CSK augmented the activation of FYN, RAS, and ERK and increased neurite outgrowth. These data suggest a distinct requirement for CSK in the regulation of NGF/TrkA activation of RAS, RAC, ERK, and AKT via the differential control of SFKs in the orchestration of neuronal differentiation.

  6. Protein Kinase Cδ Mediates Neurogenic but Not Mitogenic Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Corbit, Kevin C.; Foster, David A.; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    1999-01-01

    In several neuronal cell systems, fibroblast-derived growth factor (FGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) act as neurogenic agents, whereas epidermal growth factor (EGF) acts as a mitogen. The mechanisms responsible for these different cellular fates are unclear. We report here that although FGF, NGF, and EGF all activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (extracellular signal-related kinase [ERK]) in rat hippocampal (H19-7) and pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, the activation of ERK by the neurogenic agents FGF and NGF is dependent upon protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), whereas ERK activation in response to the mitogenic EGF is independent of PKCδ. Antisense PKCδ oligonucleotides or the PKCδ-specific inhibitor rottlerin inhibited FGF- and NGF-induced, but not EGF-induced, ERK activation. In contrast, EGF-induced ERK activation was inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin, which had no effect upon FGF-induced ERK activation. Rottlerin also inhibited the activation of MAP kinase kinase (MEK) in response to activated Raf, but had no effect upon c-Raf activity or ERK activation by activated MEK. These results indicate that PKCδ functions either downstream from or in parallel with c-Raf, but upstream of MEK. Inhibition of PKCδ also blocked neurite outgrowth induced by FGF and NGF in PC12 cells and by activated Raf in H19-7 cells, indicating a role for PKCδ in the neurogenic effects of FGF, NGF, and Raf. Interestingly, the PKCδ requirement is apparently cell type specific, since FGF-induced ERK activation was independent of PKCδ in NIH 3T3 murine fibroblasts, in which FGF is a mitogen. These data demonstrate that PKCδ contributes to growth factor specificity and response in neuronal cells and may also promote cell-type-specific differences in growth factor signaling. PMID:10330161

  7. Regulation of Extrasynaptic GABAA α4 Receptors by Ethanol-Induced Protein Kinase A, but Not Protein Kinase C Activation in Cultured Rat Cerebral Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Stephen L; Bohnsack, J Peyton; Patel, Vraj; Morrow, A Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol produces changes in GABAA receptor trafficking and function that contribute to ethanol dependence symptomatology. Extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors (GABAA-R) mediate inhibitory tonic current and are of particular interest because they are potentiated by physiologically relevant doses of ethanol. Here, we isolate GABAA α4δ receptors by western blotting in subsynaptic fractions to investigate protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) modulation of ethanol-induced receptor trafficking, while extrasynaptic receptor function is determined by measurement of tonic inhibition and responses evoked by 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP). Rat cerebral cortical neurons were grown for 18 days in vitro and exposed to ethanol and/or PKA/PKC modulators. Ethanol exposure (1 hour) did not alter GABAA α4 receptor abundance, but it increased tonic current amplitude, an effect that was prevented by inhibiting PKA, but not PKC. Direct activation of PKA, but not PKC, increased the abundance and tonic current of extrasynaptic α4δ receptors. In contrast, prolonged ethanol exposure (4 hours) reduced α4δ receptor abundance as well as tonic current, and this effect was also PKA dependent. Finally, PKC activation by ethanol or phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PdBu) had no effect on extrasynaptic α4δ subunit abundance or activity. We conclude that ethanol alters extrasynaptic α4δ receptor function and expression in cortical neurons in a PKA-dependent manner, but ethanol activation of PKC does not influence these receptors. These results could have clinical relevance for therapeutic strategies to restore normal GABAergic functioning for the treatment of alcohol use disorders.

  8. Block copolymer investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yufa, Nataliya A.

    The research presented in this thesis deals with various aspects of block copolymers on the nanoscale: their behavior at a range of temperatures, their use as scaffolds, or for creation of chemically striped surfaces, as well as the behavior of metals on block copolymers under the influence of UV light, and the healing behavior of copolymers. Invented around the time of World War II, copolymers have been used for decades due to their macroscopic properties, such as their ability to be molded without vulcanization, and the fact that, unlike rubber, they can be recycled. In recent years, block copolymers (BCPs) have been used for lithography, as scaffolds for nano-objects, to create a magnetic hard drive, as well as in photonic and other applications. In this work we used primarily atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), described in Chapter II, to conduct our studies. In Chapter III we demonstrate a new and general method for positioning nanoparticles within nanoscale grooves. This technique is suitable for nanodots, nanocrystals, as well as DNA. We use AFM and TEM to demonstrate selective decoration. In Chapters IV and V we use AFM and TEM to study the structure of polymer surfaces coated with metals and self-assembled monolayers. We describe how the surfaces were created, exhibit their structure on the nanoscale, and prove that their macroscopic wetting properties have been altered compared to the original polymer structures. Finally, Chapters VI and VII report out in-situ AFM studies of BCP at high temperatures, made possible only recently with the invention of air-tight high-temperature AFM imaging cells. We locate the transition between disordered films and cylinders during initial ordering. Fluctuations of existing domains leading to domain coarsening are also described, and are shown to be consistent with reptation and curvature minimization. Chapter VII deals with the healing of PS-b-PMMA following AFM-tip lithography or

  9. Isolation of chloroplastic phosphoglycerate kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Macioszek, J.; Anderson, L.E. ); Anderson, J.B. )

    1990-09-01

    We report here a method for the isolation of high specific activity phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) from chloroplasts. The enzyme has been purified over 200-fold from pea (Pisum sativum L.) stromal extracts to apparent homogeneity with 23% recovery. Negative cooperativity is observed with the two enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase/glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13) couple restored from the purified enzymes when NADPH is the reducing pyridine nucleotide, consistent with earlier results obtained with crude chloroplastic extracts. Michaelis Menten kinetics are observed when 3-phosphoglycerate is held constant and phosphoglycerate kinase is varied, which suggests that phosphoglycerate kinase-bound 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate may be the preferred substrate for glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase in the chloroplast.

  10. Protein Crystals of Raf Kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This image shows crystals of the protein raf kinase grown on Earth (photo a) and on USML-2 (photo b). The space-grown crystals are an order of magnitude larger. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter of New Century Pharmaceuticals

  11. Molecular Systems Pharmacology: Isoelectric Focusing Signature of Protein Kinase Cδ Provides an Integrated Measure of Its Modulation in Response to Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC), a validated therapeutic target for cancer chemotherapy, provides a paradigm for assessing structure–activity relations, where ligand binding has multiple consequences for a target. For PKC, ligand binding controls not only PKC activation and multiple phosphorylations but also subcellular localization, affecting subsequent signaling. Using a capillary isoelectric focusing immunoassay system, we could visualize a high resolution isoelectric focusing signature of PKCδ upon stimulation by ligands of the phorbol ester and bryostatin classes. Derivatives that possessed different physicochemical characteristics and induced different patterns of biological response generated different signatures. Consistent with different patterns of PKCδ localization as one factor linked to these different signatures, we found different signatures for activated PKCδ from the nuclear and non-nuclear fractions. We conclude that the capillary isoelectric focusing immunoassay system may provide a window into the integrated consequences of ligand binding and thus afford a powerful platform for compound development. PMID:24906106

  12. Modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activity in response to different immune stimuli in haemocytes of the common periwinkle Littorina littorea.

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, Nadya V; Gorbushin, Alexander M; Storey, Kenneth B

    2006-09-01

    The modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity in haemocytes of the common periwinkle (Littorina littorea) in response to immune challenges by lipopolysaccharide from Echerichia coli (LPS), mannan from baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and secretory-excret