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Sample records for kinase cdelta signaling

  1. Phospholipase Cdelta3 regulates RhoA/Rho kinase signaling and neurite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Kouchi, Zen; Igarashi, Takahiro; Shibayama, Nami; Inanobe, Shunichi; Sakurai, Kazuyuki; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Fukuda, Toshifumi; Yanagi, Shigeru; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Fukami, Kiyoko

    2011-03-11

    Phospholipase Cδ3 (PLCδ3) is a key enzyme regulating phosphoinositide metabolism; however, its physiological function remains unknown. Because PLCδ3 is highly enriched in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex, we examined the role of PLCδ3 in neuronal migration and outgrowth. PLCδ3 knockdown (KD) inhibits neurite formation of cerebellar granule cells, and application of PLCδ3KD using in utero electroporation in the developing brain results in the retardation of the radial migration of neurons in the cerebral cortex. In addition, PLCδ3KD inhibits axon and dendrite outgrowth in primary cortical neurons. PLCδ3KD also suppresses neurite formation of Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells induced by serum withdrawal or treatment with retinoic acid. This inhibition is released by the reintroduction of wild-type PLCδ3. Interestingly, the H393A mutant lacking phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolyzing activity generates supernumerary protrusions, and a constitutively active mutant promotes extensive neurite outgrowth, indicating that PLC activity is important for normal neurite outgrowth. The introduction of dominant negative RhoA (RhoA-DN) or treatment with Y-27632, a Rho kinase-specific inhibitor, rescues the neurite extension in PLCδ3KD Neuro2a cells. Similar effects were also detected in primary cortical neurons. Furthermore, the RhoA expression level was significantly decreased by serum withdrawal or retinoic acid in control cells, although this decrease was not observed in PLCδ3KD cells. We also found that exogenous expression of PLCδ3 down-regulated RhoA protein, and constitutively active PLCδ3 promotes the RhoA down-regulation more significantly than PLCδ3 upon differentiation. These results indicate that PLCδ3 negatively regulates RhoA expression, inhibits RhoA/Rho kinase signaling, and thereby promotes neurite extension.

  2. Role of protein kinase Cdelta in transmitting hypoxia signal to HSF and HIF-1.

    PubMed

    Baek, S H; Lee, U Y; Park, E M; Han, M Y; Lee, Y S; Park, Y M

    2001-08-01

    An hypoxic microenvironment is an important modulator of gene expression in many pathophysiological conditions. In this study, we show a coordinate activation of heat shock transcription factor (HSF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in RIF tumor cells by hypoxia. Since heat shock protein (hsp) and angiogenic factor genes that are regulated by HSF and HIF-1 are thought to contribute to the malignant progression of hypoxic tumor cells, it was of our major interest to identify the components that are responsible for the activation of both HSF and HIF-1. Our finding that a bioflavonoid quercetin (QCT), a well known inhibitor of hsp gene expression, significantly inhibited the transcriptional activation of HSF and HIF-1 strongly suggests that QCT-sensitive molecule(s) is involved in the transcriptional activation of HSF and HIF-1 by hypoxia. Our results revealed that PCKalpha, delta and epsilon isoforms are expressed in RIF cells, but only PKCdelta was specifically translocated to the membrane by hypoxia. Our results also revealed that the translocation of PKCdelta was completely abrogated by QCT. Moreover, inhibiting the PKCdelta activation, either pharmacologically with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or with bisindolymaleimide II or genetically by transient transfection of a dominant negative PKCdelta, significantly inhibited the transcriptional activation of HSF and HIF-1 by hypoxia. These results strongly substantiate a view that the PKCdelta isozyme is the QCT-sensitive molecule that plays an important role in transmitting hypoxia signals to both HSF and HIF-1. Here we show that the membrane translocation of PKCdelta is dependent on the activation of phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Treatment with PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin or LY294002, abrogated not only PKCdelta translocation but the subsequent transcriptional activation of HSF and HIF-1 by hypoxia. Together, our study shows that the PKCdelta isozyme acts as a shared component in transmitting hypoxia

  3. Vanadium induces dopaminergic neurotoxicity via protein kinase Cdelta dependent oxidative signaling mechanisms: Relevance to etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Afeseh Ngwa, Hilary; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Song, Chunjuan; Witte, Travis; Houk, Robert; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2009-10-15

    Environmental exposure to neurotoxic metals through various sources including exposure to welding fumes has been linked to an increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Welding fumes contain many different metals including vanadium typically present as particulates containing vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}). However, possible neurotoxic effects of this metal oxide on dopaminergic neuronal cells are not well studied. In the present study, we characterized vanadium-induced oxidative stress-dependent cellular events in cell culture models of PD. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} was neurotoxic to dopaminergic neuronal cells including primary nigral dopaminergic neurons and the EC{sub 50} was determined to be 37 {mu}M in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cell model. The neurotoxic effect was accompanied by a time-dependent uptake of vanadium and upregulation of metal transporter proteins Tf and DMT1 in N27 cells. Additionally, vanadium resulted in a threefold increase in reactive oxygen species generation, followed by release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm and subsequent activation of caspase-9 (> fourfold) and caspase-3 (> ninefold). Interestingly, vanadium exposure induced proteolytic cleavage of native protein kinase Cdelta (PKC{delta}, 72-74 kDa) to yield a 41 kDa catalytically active fragment resulting in a persistent increase in PKC{delta} kinase activity. Co-treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK significantly blocked vanadium-induced PKC{delta} proteolytic activation, indicating that caspases mediate PKC{delta} cleavage. Also, co-treatment with Z-VAD-FMK almost completely inhibited V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-induced DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, PKC{delta} knockdown using siRNA protected N27 cells from V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-induced apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these results demonstrate that vanadium can exert neurotoxic effects in dopaminergic neuronal cells via caspase-3-dependent PKC{delta} cleavage, suggesting that metal exposure may promote nigral

  4. Vanadium Induces Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity Via Protein Kinase C-Delta Dependent Oxidative Signaling Mechanisms: Relevance to Etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Afeseh Ngwa, Hilary; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Song, Chunjuan; Witte, Travis; Houk, R. S.; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental exposure to neurotoxic metals through various sources including exposure to welding fumes has been linked to an increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Welding fumes contain many different metals including vanadium typically present as particulates containing vanadium pentoxide (V2O5). However, possible neurotoxic effects of this metal oxide on dopaminergic neuronal cells are not well studied. In the present study, we characterized vanadium-induced oxidative stress-dependent cellular events in cell culture models of PD. V2O5 was neurotoxic to dopaminergic neuronal cells including primary nigral dopaminergic neurons and the EC50 was determined to be 37 μM in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cell model. The neurotoxic effect was accompanied by a time-dependent uptake of vanadium and upregulation of metal transporter proteins Tf and DMT1 in N27 cells. Additionally, vanadium resulted in a threefold increase in reactive oxygen species generation, followed by release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm and subsequent activation of caspase-9 (>fourfold) and caspase-3 (>ninefold). Interestingly, vanadium exposure induced proteolytic cleavage of native protein kinase Cdelta (PKCδ, 72-74 kDa) to yield a 41 kDa catalytically active fragment resulting in a persistent increase in PKCδ kinase activity. Co-treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD-FMK significantly blocked vanadium-induced PKCδ proteolytic activation, indicating that caspases mediate PKCδ cleavage. Also, co-treatment with Z-VAD-FMK almost completely inhibited V2O5-induced DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, PKCδ knockdown using siRNA protected N27 cells from V2O5-induced apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these results demonstrate vanadium can exert neurotoxic effects in dopaminergic neuronal cells via caspase-3-dependent PKCδ cleavage, suggesting that metal exposure may promote nigral dopaminergic degeneration. PMID:19646462

  5. Role of protein kinase C-delta in isoproterenol-induced amylase release in rat parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Sugiya, Hiroshi; Satoh, Keitaro; Matsuki-Fukushima, Miwako; Qi, Bing; Guo, Ming-Yu; Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko

    2009-01-01

    In parotid acinar cells, beta-adrenergic receptor activation results in accumulation of intracellular cAMP. Subsequently, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is activated and consequently amylase release is provoked. In this paper, we investigated involvement of protein kinase C-delta (PKC delta), a novel isoform of PKC, in amylase release induced by beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Amylase release stimulated with the beta-agonist isoproterenol (IPR) was inhibited by rottlerin, an inhibitor of PKC delta. IPR activated PKC delta and the effect of IPR were inhibited by a PKA inhibitor, H89. Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS), a major cellular substrate for PKC, was detected in rat parotid acinar cells, and a MARCKS inhibitor, MARCKS-related peptide, inhibited the IPR-induced amylase release. IPR stimulated MARCKS phosphorylation, which was found to be inhibited by H89 and rottlerin. These observations suggest that PKC delta activation is a downstream pathway of PKA activation and is involved in amylase release via MARCKS phosphorylation in rat parotid acinar cells stimulated with beta-adrenergic agonist.

  6. Epidermal growth factor-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 induction in gliomas requires protein kinase C-delta.

    PubMed

    Xu, K; Chang, C-M; Gao, H; Shu, H-K G

    2009-03-19

    Earlier, we showed that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in human glioma cells increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression through p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent activation of the Sp family of transcription factors. Further mechanistic details of EGFR-dependent induction of COX-2 expression in glioma cells remained elusive. Protein kinase Cs (PKCs) comprise a family of serine-threonine kinases that are major mediators of signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases. Here, we report that PKC-delta, a novel PKC isoform, plays a role in EGF-dependent COX-2 induction in human glioma cells. Pharmacological inhibition and genetic silencing (through siRNA or dominant-negative expression) of PKC-delta confirm a role for this PKC isoform in EGF-dependent COX-2 induction. Overexpression of a functional PKC-delta enhanced COX-2 expression indicating that PKC-delta is not only necessary but also sufficient to regulate COX-2 levels. Inhibition of p38-MAPK pharmacologically or with siRNA further shows that p38-MAPK is required for activation of PKC-delta by EGF while inhibition of PKC-delta had no discernible effects on p38-MAPK activation. Finally, EGF stimulation promotes physical interactions between PKC-delta and Sp1 resulting in phosphorylation and nuclear localization of this transcription factor. These data provide the first evidence that PKC-delta is a critical link between p38-MAPK and Sp1-dependent COX-2 expression in human glioma cells.

  7. Phospholipase C-delta1 and oxytocin receptor signalling: evidence of its role as an effector.

    PubMed

    Park, E S; Won, J H; Han, K J; Suh, P G; Ryu, S H; Lee, H S; Yun, H Y; Kwon, N S; Baek, K J

    1998-04-01

    Although the oxytocin receptor modulates intracellular Ca2+ ion levels in myometrium, the identities of signal molecules have not been clearly clarified. Our previous studies on oxytocin receptor signalling demonstrated that 80 kDa Ghalpha is a signal mediator [Baek, Kwon, Lee, Kim, Muralidhar and Im (1996) Biochem. J. 315, 739-744]. To elucidate the effector in the oxytocin receptor signalling pathway, we evaluated the oxytocin-mediated activation of phospholipase C (PLC) by using solubilized membranes from human myometrium and a three-component preparation containing the oxytocin receptor-Ghalpha-PLC-delta1 complex. PLC-delta1 activity in the three-component preparation, as well as PLC activity in solubilized membranes, was increased by oxytocin in the presence of Ca2+ and activated Ghalpha (GTP-bound Ghalpha). Furthermore the stimulated PLC-delta1 activity resulting from activation of Ghalpha via the oxytocin receptor was significantly attenuated by the selective oxytocin antagonist desGly-NH2d(CH2)5[Tyr(Me)2,Thr4]ornithine vasotocin or GDP. Consistent with these observations, co-immunoprecipitation and co-immunoadsorption of PLC-delta1 in the three-component preparation by anti-Gh7alpha antibody resulted in the PLC-delta1 being tightly coupled to activated Ghalpha on stimulation of the oxytocin receptor. These results indicate that PLC-delta1 is the effector for Ghalpha-mediated oxytocin receptor signalling.

  8. Dieldrin induces apoptosis by promoting caspase-3-dependent proteolytic cleavage of protein kinase Cdelta in dopaminergic cells: relevance to oxidative stress and dopaminergic degeneration.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, M; Anantharam, V; Kanthasamy, A G

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported that dieldrin, one of the potential environmental risk factors for development of Parkinson's disease, induces apoptosis in dopaminergic cells by generating oxidative stress. Here, we demonstrate that the caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation of protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta) mediates as well as regulates the dieldrin-induced apoptotic cascade in dopaminergic cells. Exposure of PC12 cells to dieldrin (100-300 microM) results in the rapid release of cytochrome C, followed by the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The superoxide dismutase mimetic Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin chloride significantly attenuates dieldrin-induced cytochrome C release, indicating that reactive oxygen species may contribute to the activation of pro-apoptotic factors. Interestingly, dieldrin proteolytically cleaves native PKCdelta into a 41 kDa catalytic subunit and a 38 kDa regulatory subunit to activate the kinase. The dieldrin-induced proteolytic cleavage of PKCdelta and induction of kinase activity are completely inhibited by pretreatment with 50-100 microM concentrations of the caspase inhibitors benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK) and benzyloxycarbonyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fluoromethylketone (Z-DEVD-FMK), indicating that the proteolytic activation of PKCdelta is caspase-3-dependent. Additionally, Z-VAD-FMK, Z-DEVD-FMK or the PKCdelta specific inhibitor rottlerin almost completely block dieldrin-induced DNA fragmentation. Because dieldrin dramatically increases (40-80-fold) caspase-3 activity, we examined whether proteolytically activated PKCdelta amplifies caspase-3 via positive feedback activation. The PKCdelta inhibitor rottlerin (3-20 microM) dose-dependently attenuates dieldrin-induced caspase-3 activity, suggesting positive feedback activation of caspase-3 by PKCdelta. Indeed, delivery of catalytically active recombinant PKCdelta via a protein delivery system significantly

  9. Regulation of p53 by activated protein kinase C-delta during nitric oxide-induced dopaminergic cell death.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Jin; Kim, Dong-Chan; Choi, Bo-Hwa; Ha, Hyunjung; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2006-01-27

    Selective cell death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra is the major cause of Parkinson disease. Current evidence suggests that this cell death could be mediated by nitric oxide by-products such as nitrate and peroxynitrite. Because protein kinase C (PKC)-delta is implicated in apoptosis of various cell types, we studied its roles and activation mechanisms in nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis of SN4741 dopaminergic cells. When cells were treated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, endogenous PKC-delta was nitrated and activated. Immunoprecipitation revealed that p53 co-immunoprecipitated with PKC-delta and was phosphorylated at the 15th serine residue in SNP-treated cells. An in vitro kinase assay revealed that p53 was directly phosphorylated by SNP-activated PKC-delta. The p53 Ser-15 phosphorylation was suppressed in SNP-treated cells when the NO-mediated activation of PKC-delta was inhibited by rottlerin or (-)-epigallocatechin gallate. Within 3 h of p53 phosphorylation, its protein levels increased because of decreased ubiquitin-dependent proteosomal proteolysis, whereas the protein levels of MDM2, ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase, were down-regulated in a p53 phosphorylation-dependent fashion. Taken together, these results demonstrate that nitration-mediated activation of PKC-delta induces the phosphorylation of the Ser-15 residue in p53, which increases its protein stability, thereby contributing to the nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis-like cell death pathway. These findings may be expanded to provide new insight into the cellular mechanisms of Parkinson disease.

  10. Protein Kinase C-{delta} mediates down-regulation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein: involvement in apoptosis induction

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Feng-Hou; Wu, Ying-Li; Zhao, Meng; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2009-11-15

    We reported previously that NSC606985, a camptothecin analogue, induces apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells through proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta ({Delta}PKC-{delta}). By subcellular proteome analysis, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) was identified as being significantly down-regulated in NSC606985-treated leukemic NB4 cells. HnRNP K, a docking protein for DNA, RNA, and transcriptional or translational molecules, is implicated in a host of processes involving the regulation of gene expression. However, the molecular mechanisms of hnRNP K reduction and its roles during apoptosis are still not understood. In the present study, we found that, following the appearance of the {Delta}PKC-{delta}, hnRNP K protein was significantly down-regulated in NSC606985, doxorubicin, arsenic trioxide and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. We further provided evidence that {Delta}PKC-{delta} mediated the down-regulation of hnRNP K protein during apoptosis: PKC-{delta} inhibitor could rescue the reduction of hnRNP K; hnRNP K failed to be decreased in PKC-{delta}-deficient apoptotic KG1a cells; conditional induction of {Delta}PKC-{delta} in U937T cells directly down-regulated hnRNP K protein. Moreover, the proteasome inhibitor also inhibited the down-regulation of hnRNP K protein by apoptosis inducer and the conditional expression of {Delta}PKC-{delta}. More intriguingly, the suppression of hnRNP K with siRNA transfection significantly induced apoptosis. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that proteolytically activated PKC-{delta} down-regulates hnRNP K protein in a proteasome-dependent manner, which plays an important role in apoptosis induction.

  11. p34SEI-1 inhibits doxorubicin-induced senescence through a pathway mediated by protein kinase C-delta and c-Jun-NH2-kinase 1 activation in human breast cancer MCF7 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sae Lo Oom; Hong, Seung-Woo; Shin, Jae-Sik; Kim, Jin Sun; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Hong, Nam-Joo; Kim, Dae Jin; Lee, Wang-Jae; Jin, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Myeong-Sok

    2009-11-01

    In this study, we describe a novel function of the p34(SEI-1) protein, which is both an oncogenic protein and a positive regulator of the cell cycle. The p34(SEI-1) protein was found to inhibit doxorubicin-induced senescence. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of p34(SEI-1) on senescence. First, we found that the activation of protein kinase C-delta (PKC-delta), which is cleaved into a 38 kDa active form from a 78 kDa pro-form, induced after doxorubicin treatment, was inhibited by p34(SEI-1). Furthermore, p34(SEI-1) induced the ubiquitination of PKC-delta. Yet, there is no interaction between p34(SEI-1) and PKC-delta. We also found that the phosphorylation of c-Jun-NH(2)-kinase 1 (JNK1) induced after doxorubicin treatment was suppressed by p34(SEI-1), but not in JNK2. Consistently, pharmacologic or genetic inactivation of either PKC-delta or JNK1 was found to inhibit doxorubicin-induced senescence. In addition, the genetic inactivation of PKC-delta by PKC-delta small interfering RNA resulted in an inhibition of JNK1 activation, but PKC-delta expression was not inactivated by JNK1 small interfering RNA, implying that the activation of JNK1 could be dependently induced by PKC-delta. Therefore, p34(SEI-1) inhibits senescence by inducing PKC-delta ubiquitination and preventing PKC-delta-dependent phosphorylation of JNK1.

  12. In Vitro Neutrophil Migration Requires Protein Kinase C-Delta (δ-PKC)-Mediated Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C-Kinase Substrate (MARCKS) Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Sheats, Mary K; Sung, Eui Jae; Adler, Kenneth B; Jones, Samuel L

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated release of neutrophil reactive oxygen species and proteolytic enzymes contributes to both acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, molecular regulators of these processes are potential targets for new anti-inflammatory therapies. We have shown previously that myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS), a well-known actin binding protein and protein kinase C (PKC) substrate, is a key regulator of neutrophil functions. In the current study, we investigate the role of PKC-mediated MARCKS phosphorylation in neutrophil migration and adhesion in vitro. We report that treatment of human neutrophils with the δ-PKC inhibitor rottlerin significantly attenuates f-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF)-induced MARCKS phosphorylation (IC50=5.709 μM), adhesion (IC50=8.4 μM), and migration (IC50=6.7 μM), while α-, β-, and ζ-PKC inhibitors had no significant effect. We conclude that δ-PKC-mediated MARCKS phosphorylation is essential for human neutrophil migration and adhesion in vitro. These results implicate δ-PKC-mediated MARCKS phosphorylation as a key step in the inflammatory response of neutrophils.

  13. In vitro neutrophil migration requires protein kinase c-delta (δ-PKC) mediated MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine Rich C-Kinase Substrate) phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Eui Jae; Adler, Kenneth B.; Jones, Samuel L.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated release of neutrophil reactive oxygen species and proteolytic enzymes contributes to both acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, molecular regulators of these processes are potential targets for new anti-inflammatory therapies. We have shown previously that MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine Rich C-Kinase Substrate), a well-known PKC substrate protein, is a key regulator of neutrophil functions. In the current study we investigate the role of PKC-mediated MARCKS phosphorylation in neutrophil migration and adhesion in vitro. We report that treatment of human neutrophils with the δ-PKC inhibitor rottlerin significantly attenuates fMLF induced MARCKS phosphorylation (IC50 = 5.709 μM), adhesion (IC50 = 8.4 uM) and migration (IC50 = 6.7 uM); while α-, β- and ζ-PKC inhibitors had no significant effect. We conclude that δ-PKC mediated MARCKS phosphorylation is essential for human neutrophil migration and adhesion in vitro. These results implicate δ-PKC mediated MARCKS phosphorylation as a key step in the inflammatory response of neutrophils. PMID:25515270

  14. Potent stimulation of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels by rottlerin, an inhibitor of protein kinase C-delta, in pituitary tumor (GH3) cells and in cortical neuronal (HCN-1A) cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Ya-Jean; Lin, Ming-Wei

    2007-03-01

    The effects of rottlerin, a known inhibitor of protein kinase C-delta activation, on ion currents were investigated in pituitary tumor (GH3) cells. Rottlerin (0.3-100 microM) increased the amplitude of Ca2+-activated K+ current (I K(Ca)) in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 value of 1.7 microM. In intracellular perfusion with rottlerin (1 microM) or staurosporine (10 microM), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced inhibition of I K(Ca) in these cells was abolished. In cell-attached mode, rottlerin applied on the extracellular side of the membrane caused activation of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK(Ca)) channels, and a further application of BAPTA-AM (10 microM) to the bath had no effect on rottlerin-stimulated channel activity. When cells were exposed to rottlerin, the activation curve of these channels was shifted to less positive potential with no change in the slope factor. Rottlerin increased BK(Ca)-channel activity in outside-out patches. Its change in kinetic behavior of BK(Ca) channels is primarily due to an increase in mean open time. With the aid of minimal kinetic scheme, a quantitative description of rottlerin stimulation on BK(Ca) channels in GH3 cells was also provided. Under current-clamp configuration, rottlerin (1 microM) decreased the firing of action potentials. I K(Ca) elicited by simulated action potential waveforms was enhanced by this compound. In human cortical HCN-1A cells, rottlerin (1 microM) could also interact with the BK(Ca) channel to stimulate I K(Ca). Therefore, rottlerin may directly activate BK(Ca) channels in neurons or endocrine cells.

  15. Characterization of the porcine monocyte-derived cell lines Cdelta2- and Cdelta2+

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cell lines Cdelta2- and Cdelta2+ were developed from monocytes obtained from a 10-month-old, crossbred, female pig at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, NE. These cells have macrophage morphology, stain positively for alpha-naphthyl esterase and negatively for peroxidase. Additiona...

  16. Differential effect of bryostatin 1 and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate on HOP-92 cell proliferation is mediated by down-regulation of protein kinase Cdelta.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Hee; Hyman, Tehila; Blumberg, Peter M

    2006-07-15

    Bryostatin 1 is currently in clinical trials as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent. Although bryostatin 1, like phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), is a potent activator of protein kinase C (PKC), it induces only a subset of those responses induced by PMA and antagonizes others. We report that, in the HOP-92 non-small cell lung cancer line, bryostatin 1 induced a biphasic proliferative response, with maximal proliferation at 1 to 10 nmol/L. This biphasic response mirrored a biphasic suppression of the level of PKCdelta protein, with maximal suppression likewise at 1 to 10 nmol/L bryostatin 1. The typical phorbol ester PMA, in contrast to bryostatin 1, had no effect on the level of PKCdelta and modest suppression of cell proliferation, particularly evident at later treatment times. Flow cytometric analysis revealed changes in the fraction of cells in the G0-G1 and S phases corresponding to the effects on proliferation. Cells overexpressing PKCdelta exhibited a lower rate of cell proliferation compared with control untreated cells and showed neither a proliferative response nor a loss of PKCdelta in response to bryostatin 1. Conversely, treatment with PKCdelta small interfering RNA significantly increased the cellular growth compared with controls. We conclude that the differential effect on cellular proliferation induced by bryostatin 1 compared with PMA reflects the differential suppression of PKCdelta.

  17. Kinase signalling in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Kathryn R; Jones, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in numerous signal transduction pathways and aberrant activity of specific kinases have been identified in multiple cell and mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD), as well as in human HD brain. The balance and integration of a network of kinase signalling pathways is paramount for the regulation of a wide range of cellular and physiological processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, inflammation, neuronal plasticity and apoptosis. Unbalanced activity within these pathways provides a potential mechanism for many of the pathological phenotypes associated with HD, such as transcriptional dysregulation, inflammation and ultimately neurodegeneration. The characterisation of aberrant kinase signalling regulation in HD has been inconsistent and may be a result of failure to consider integration between multiple signalling pathways, as well as alterations that may occur over time with both age and disease progression. Collating the information about the effect of mHTT on signalling pathways demonstrates that it has wide ranging effects on multiple pro- and anti-apoptotic kinases, resulting in the dysregulation of numerous complex interactions within a dynamic network.

  18. TNF and MAP kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sabio, Guadalupe; Davis, Roger J.

    2014-01-01

    The binding of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) to cell surface receptors engages multiple signal transduction pathways, including three groups of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases: extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); the cJun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs); and the p38 MAP kinases. These MAP kinase signalling pathways induce a secondary response by increasing the expression of several inflammatory cytokines (including TNFα) that contribute to the biological activity of TNFα. MAP kinases therefore function both upstream and down-stream of signalling by TNFα receptors. Here we review mechanisms that mediate these actions of MAP kinases during the response to TNFα. PMID:24647229

  19. Pathway illuminated: visualizing protein kinase C signaling.

    PubMed

    Violin, Jonathan D; Newton, Alexandra C

    2003-12-01

    Protein kinase C has been at the center of cell signaling since the discovery 25 years ago that it transduces signals that promote phospholipid hydrolysis. In recent years, the use of genetically encoded fluorescent reporters has enabled studies of the regulation of protein kinase C signaling in living cells. Advances in imaging techniques have unveiled unprecedented detail of the signal processing mechanics of protein kinase C, from the second messengers calcium and diacylglycerol that regulate protein kinase C activity, to the locations and kinetics of different protein kinase C isozymes, to the spatial and temporal dynamics of substrate phosphorylation by this key enzyme. This review discusses how fluorescence imaging studies have illuminated the fidelity with which protein kinase C transduces rapidly changing extracellular information into intracellular phosphorylation signals.

  20. Protein Scaffolds in MAP Kinase Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Matthew D.; Sacks, David B.

    2009-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway allows cells to interpret external signals and respond in an appropriate way. Diverse cellular functions, ranging from differentiation and proliferation to migration and inflammation, are regulated by MAPK signalling. Therefore, cells have developed mechanisms by which this single pathway modulates numerous cellular responses from a wide range of activating factors. This specificity is achieved by several mechanisms, including temporal and spatial control of MAPK signalling components. Key to this control are protein scaffolds, which are multidomain proteins that interact with components of the MAPK cascade in order to assemble signalling complexes. Studies conducted on different scaffolds, in different biological systems, have shown that scaffolds exert substantial control over MAPK signalling, influencing the signal intensity, time course and, importantly, the cellular responses. Protein scaffolds, therefore, are integral elements in the modulation of the MAPK network in fundamental physiological processes. PMID:19091303

  1. Tyr(less) kinase signaling during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Elowe, Sabine

    2017-04-18

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is rare, representing only about 0.5% of phosphorylations in the cell under basal conditions. While mitogenic tyrosine kinase signaling has been extensively explored, the role of phosphotyrosine signaling across the cell cycle and in particular during mitosis is poorly understood. Two recent, independent studies tackled this question from different angles to reveal exciting new insights into the role of this modification during cell division. Caron et al. (1) exploited mitotic phosphoproteomics data sets to determine the extent of mitotic tyrosine phosphorylation, and St-Denis et al. (2) identified protein tyrosine phosphatases from all subfamilies as regulators of mitotic progression or spindle formation. These studied collectively revealed that tyrosine phosphorylation may play a more prominent and active role in mitotic progression than previously appreciated.

  2. Brassinosteroid signal transduction from receptor kinases to transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Wuk; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2010-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are growth-promoting steroid hormones in plants. Genetic studies in Arabidopsis illustrated the essential roles of BRs in a wide range of developmental processes and helped identify many genes involved in BR biosynthesis and signal transduction. Recently, proteomic studies identified missing links. Together, these approaches established the BR signal transduction cascade, which includes BR perception by the BRI1 receptor kinase at the cell surface, activation of BRI1/BAK1 kinase complex by transphosphorylation, subsequent phosphorylation of the BSK kinases, activation of the BSU1 phosphatase, dephosphorylation and inactivation of the BIN2 kinase, and accumulation of unphosphorylated BZR transcription factors in the nucleus. Mass spectrometric analyses are providing detailed information on the phosphorylation events involved in each step of signal relay. Thus, the BR signaling pathway provides a paradigm for understanding receptor kinase-mediated signal transduction as well as tools for the genetic improvement of the productivity of crop plants.

  3. Heart failure-specific changes in protein kinase signalling.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Kristina; Stathopoulou, Konstantina; Schmid, Evelyn; Eder, Petra; Cuello, Friederike

    2014-06-01

    Among the myriad of molecular alterations occurring in heart failure development, aggravation of the disease is often attributed to global or local changes in protein kinase activity, thus making protein kinases attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Since protein kinases do not only have maladaptive roles, but also contribute to the physiological integrity of cells, it is a challenging task to circumvent undesired inhibition of protein kinase activity. Identification of posttranslational modifications and/or protein-protein interactions that are exclusively apparent under pathophysiological conditions provides exciting information for alternative non-kinase inhibitory treatment strategies that eliminate maladaptive functions of a protein kinase, but preserve the beneficial ones. Here, we focus on the disease-specific regulation of a number of protein kinases, namely, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II isoform δ (CaMKIIδ), G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), protein kinase D (PKD) and protein kinase C isoform β2 (PKCβ2), which are embedded in complex signal transduction pathways implicated in heart failure development, and discuss potential avenues for novel treatment strategies to combat heart disease.

  4. Role of Jak kinases and STATs in cytokine signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Leonard, W J

    2001-04-01

    The Janus family tyrosine kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak-STAT) signaling pathway is broadly used by interferons and type I cytokines. These cytokines and interferons activate Janus family tyrosine kinases (Jak kinases), which in turn phosphorylate and thereby activate STAT proteins. Before activation, STAT proteins are cytosolic proteins; after activation, however, they are translocated to the nucleus where they function as transcription factors. This review summarizes salient features of the Jak-STAT pathway and focuses on the functional role of the different Jak kinases and STATs in vivo.

  5. Feedback Regulation of Kinase Signaling Pathways by AREs and GREs

    PubMed Central

    Vlasova-St. Louis, Irina; Bohjanen, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental signals, kinases phosphorylate numerous proteins, including RNA-binding proteins such as the AU-rich element (ARE) binding proteins, and the GU-rich element (GRE) binding proteins. Posttranslational modifications of these proteins lead to a significant changes in the abundance of target mRNAs, and affect gene expression during cellular activation, proliferation, and stress responses. In this review, we summarize the effect of phosphorylation on the function of ARE-binding proteins ZFP36 and ELAVL1 and the GRE-binding protein CELF1. The networks of target mRNAs that these proteins bind and regulate include transcripts encoding kinases and kinase signaling pathways (KSP) components. Thus, kinase signaling pathways are involved in feedback regulation, whereby kinases regulate RNA-binding proteins that subsequently regulate mRNA stability of ARE- or GRE-containing transcripts that encode components of KSP. PMID:26821046

  6. Feedback Regulation of Kinase Signaling Pathways by AREs and GREs.

    PubMed

    Vlasova-St Louis, Irina; Bohjanen, Paul R

    2016-01-25

    In response to environmental signals, kinases phosphorylate numerous proteins, including RNA-binding proteins such as the AU-rich element (ARE) binding proteins, and the GU-rich element (GRE) binding proteins. Posttranslational modifications of these proteins lead to a significant changes in the abundance of target mRNAs, and affect gene expression during cellular activation, proliferation, and stress responses. In this review, we summarize the effect of phosphorylation on the function of ARE-binding proteins ZFP36 and ELAVL1 and the GRE-binding protein CELF1. The networks of target mRNAs that these proteins bind and regulate include transcripts encoding kinases and kinase signaling pathways (KSP) components. Thus, kinase signaling pathways are involved in feedback regulation, whereby kinases regulate RNA-binding proteins that subsequently regulate mRNA stability of ARE- or GRE-containing transcripts that encode components of KSP.

  7. The Roles of NDR Protein Kinases in Hippo Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Hergovich, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo tumour suppressor pathway has emerged as a critical regulator of tissue growth through controlling cellular processes such as cell proliferation, death, differentiation and stemness. Traditionally, the core cassette of the Hippo pathway includes the MST1/2 protein kinases, the LATS1/2 protein kinases, and the MOB1 scaffold signal transducer, which together regulate the transcriptional co-activator functions of the proto-oncoproteins YAP and TAZ through LATS1/2-mediated phosphorylation of YAP/TAZ. Recent research has identified additional kinases, such as NDR1/2 (also known as STK38/STK38L) and MAP4Ks, which should be considered as novel members of the Hippo core cassette. While these efforts helped to expand our understanding of Hippo core signalling, they also began to provide insights into the complexity and redundancy of the Hippo signalling network. Here, we focus on summarising our current knowledge of the regulation and functions of mammalian NDR kinases, discussing parallels between the NDR pathways in Drosophila and mammals. Initially, we provide a general overview of the cellular functions of NDR kinases in cell cycle progression, centrosome biology, apoptosis, autophagy, DNA damage signalling, immunology and neurobiology. Finally, we put particular emphasis on discussing NDR1/2 as YAP kinases downstream of MST1/2 and MOB1 signalling in Hippo signalling. PMID:27213455

  8. Rac-1 and Raf-1 kinases, components of distinct signaling pathways, activate myotonic dystrophy protein kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.; Wang, W.; Walch, E. T.; Dunne, P. W.; Epstein, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) is a serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus on human chromosome 19q13.3. It is a close relative of other kinases that interact with members of the Rho family of small GTPases. We show here that the actin cytoskeleton-linked GTPase Rac-1 binds to DMPK, and coexpression of Rac-1 and DMPK activates its transphosphorylation activity in a GTP-sensitive manner. DMPK can also bind Raf-1 kinase, the Ras-activated molecule of the MAP kinase pathway. Purified Raf-1 kinase phosphorylates and activates DMPK. The interaction of DMPK with these distinct signals suggests that it may play a role as a nexus for cross-talk between their respective pathways and may partially explain the remarkable pleiotropy of DM.

  9. Perspective: Dynamics of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling complexes.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Bruce J

    2012-08-14

    Textbook descriptions of signal transduction complexes provide a static snapshot view of highly dynamic events. Despite enormous strides in identifying the key components of signaling complexes and the underlying mechanisms of signal transduction, our understanding of the dynamic behavior of these complexes has lagged behind. Using the example of receptor tyrosine kinases, this perspective takes a fresh look at the dynamics of the system and their potential impact on signal processing.

  10. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase: the key switch mechanism in insulin signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, P R; Withers, D J; Siddle, K

    1998-01-01

    Insulin plays a key role in regulating a wide range of cellular processes. However, until recently little was known about the signalling pathways that are involved in linking the insulin receptor with downstream responses. It is now apparent that the activation of class 1a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) is necessary and in some cases sufficient to elicit many of insulin's effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. The lipid products of PI 3-kinase act as both membrane anchors and allosteric regulators, serving to localize and activate downstream enzymes and their protein substrates. One of the major ways these lipid products of PI 3-kinase act in insulin signalling is by binding to pleckstrin homology (PH) domains of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase (PDK) and protein kinase B (PKB) and in the process regulating the phosphorylation of PKB by PDK. Using mechanisms such as this, PI 3-kinase is able to act as a molecular switch to regulate the activity of serine/threonine-specific kinase cascades important in mediating insulin's effects on endpoint responses. PMID:9677303

  11. Receptor kinase signaling pathways in plant-microbe interactions.

    PubMed

    Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; Ried, Martina K; Binder, Andreas; Parniske, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) function in diverse signaling pathways, including the responses to microbial signals in symbiosis and defense. This versatility is achieved with a common overall structure: an extracytoplasmic domain (ectodomain) and an intracellular protein kinase domain involved in downstream signal transduction. Various surfaces of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) ectodomain superstructure are utilized for interaction with the cognate ligand in both plant and animal receptors. RLKs with lysin-motif (LysM) ectodomains confer recognitional specificity toward N-acetylglucosamine-containing signaling molecules, such as chitin, peptidoglycan (PGN), and rhizobial nodulation factor (NF), that induce immune or symbiotic responses. Signaling downstream of RLKs does not follow a single pattern; instead, the detailed analysis of brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, innate immunity, and symbiosis revealed at least three largely nonoverlapping pathways. In this review, we focus on RLKs involved in plant-microbe interactions and contrast the signaling pathways leading to symbiosis and defense.

  12. Tyrosine kinase signaling and the emergence of multicellularity

    PubMed Central

    Miller, W. Todd

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is an essential element of signal transduction in multicellular animals. Although tyrosine kinases were originally regarded as specific to the metazoan lineage, it is now clear that they evolved prior to the split between unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes (≈ 600 million years ago). Genome analyses of choanoflagellates and other protists show an abundance of tyrosine kinases that rivals the most complex animals. Some of these kinases are orthologs of metazoan enzymes (e.g., Src), but others display unique domain compositions not seen in any metazoan. Biochemical experiments have highlighted similarities and differences between the unicellular and multicellular tyrosine kinases. In particular, it appears that the complex systems of kinase autoregulation may have evolved later in the metazoan lineage. PMID:22480439

  13. Signal Transduction in Histidine Kinases: Insights from New Structures

    PubMed Central

    Bhate, Manasi P.; Molnar, Kathleen S.; Goulian, Mark; DeGrado, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Histidine kinases (HKs) are major players in bacterial signaling. There has been an explosion of new HK crystal structures in the last five years. We globally analyze the structures of HKs to yield insights into the mechanisms by which signals are transmitted to and across protein structures in this family. We interpret known enzymological data in the context of new structural data to show how asymmetry across the dimer interface is a key feature of signal transduction in HKs, and discuss how different HK domains undergo asymmetric-to-symmetric transitions during signal transduction and catalysis. A thermodynamic framework for signaling that encompasses these various properties is presented and the consequences of weak thermodynamic coupling are discussed. The synthesis of observations from enzymology, structural biology, protein engineering and thermodynamics paves the way for a deeper molecular understanding of histidine kinase signal transduction. PMID:25982528

  14. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Beale, Elmus G

    2008-01-01

    5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been called "the metabolic master switch" because of its central role in regulating fuel homeostasis. AMPK, a heterotrimeric serine/threonine protein kinase composed of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, is activated by upstream kinases and by 5'-AMP in response to various nutritional and stress signals. Downstream effects include regulation of metabolism, protein synthesis, cell growth, and mediation of the actions of a number of hormones, including leptin. However, AMPK research represents a young and growing field; hence, there are many unanswered questions regarding the control and action of AMPK. This review presents evidence for the existence of AMPK signaling pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans, a genetically tractable model organism that has yet to be fully exploited to elucidate AMPK signaling mechanisms.

  15. Protein Tyrosine Kinase Signaling During Oocyte Maturation and Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Lynda K.; Carroll, David J.; Kinsey, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The oocyte is a highly specialized cell capable of accumulating and storing energy supplies as well as maternal transcripts and pre-positioned signal transduction components needed for zygotic development, undergoing meiosis under control of paracrine signals from the follicle, fusing with a single sperm during fertilization, and zygotic development. The oocyte accomplishes this diverse series of events by establishing an array of signal transduction pathway components that include a select collection of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) that are expressed at levels significantly higher than most other cell types. This array of PTKs includes cytosolic kinases such as SRC-family PTKs (FYN and YES), and FAK kinases, as well as FER. These kinases typically exhibit distinct patterns of localization and in some cases are translocated from one subcellular compartment to another during meiosis. Significant differences exist in the extent to which PTK-mediated pathways are used by oocytes from species that fertilize externally versus internally. The PTK activation profiles as well as calcium signaling pattern seems to correlate with the extent to which a rapid block to polyspermy is required by the biology of each species. Suppression of each of the SRC-family PTKs as well as FER kinase results in failure of meiotic maturation or zygote development, indicating that these PTKs are important for oocyte quality and developmental potential. Future studies will hopefully reveal the extent to which these factors impact clinical assisted reproductive techniques in domestic animals and humans. PMID:21681843

  16. Targeting kinase signaling pathways with constrained peptide scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Hanold, Laura E; Fulton, Melody D; Kennedy, Eileen J

    2017-02-07

    Kinases are amongst the largest families in the human proteome and serve as critical mediators of a myriad of cell signaling pathways. Since altered kinase activity is implicated in a variety of pathological diseases, kinases have become a prominent class of proteins for targeted inhibition. Although numerous small molecule and antibody-based inhibitors have already received clinical approval, several challenges may still exist with these strategies including resistance, target selection, inhibitor potency and in vivo activity profiles. Constrained peptide inhibitors have emerged as an alternative strategy for kinase inhibition. Distinct from small molecule inhibitors, peptides can provide a large binding surface area that allows them to bind shallow protein surfaces rather than defined pockets within the target protein structure. By including chemical constraints within the peptide sequence, additional benefits can be bestowed onto the peptide scaffold such as improved target affinity and target selectivity, cell permeability and proteolytic resistance. In this review, we highlight examples of diverse chemistries that are being employed to constrain kinase-targeting peptide scaffolds and highlight their application to modulate kinase signaling as well as their potential clinical implications.

  17. Approaches to identify kinase dependencies in cancer signalling networks.

    PubMed

    Dermit, Maria; Dokal, Arran; Cutillas, Pedro R

    2017-09-01

    Cells integrate extracellular signals into appropriate responses through a complex network of biochemical reactions driven by the activity of protein and lipid kinases, among other proteins. In order to understand this complexity, new approaches, both experimental and computational, have recently been developed with the aim to identify regulatory kinases and infer their activation status in the context of their signalling network. Here, we review such approaches with particular focus on those based on phosphoproteomics. Integration of kinase activity measurements inferred from phosphoproteomics data with other 'omics' datasets is starting to be used to identify regulatory nodes in biochemical networks. These methodologies may in the future be used to identify patient-specific targets and thus advance personalised cancer medicine. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Mnk Kinases in Cytokine Signaling and Regulation of Cytokine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sonali; Platanias, Leonidas C.

    2013-01-01

    The kinases Mnk1 and Mnk2 are activated downstream of the p38 MAPK and MEK/ERK signaling pathways. Extensive work over the years has shown that these kinases control phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and regulate engagement of other effector elements, including hnRNPA1 and PSF. Mnk kinases are ubiquitously expressed and play critical roles in signaling for various cytokine receptors, while there is emerging evidence that they have important functions as mediators of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. In this review the mechanisms of activation of MNK pathways by cytokine receptors are addressed and their roles in diverse cytokine-dependent biological processes are reviewed. The clinical-translational implications of such work and the relevance of future development of specific MNK inhibitors for the treatment of malignancies and auto-immune disorders are discussed. PMID:23710261

  19. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling determines kidney size.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Kang; Nagai, Kojiro; Chen, Jianchun; Plieth, David; Hino, Masayo; Xu, Jinxian; Sha, Feng; Ikizler, T Alp; Quarles, C Chad; Threadgill, David W; Neilson, Eric G; Harris, Raymond C

    2015-06-01

    Kidney size adaptively increases as mammals grow and in response to the loss of 1 kidney. It is not clear how kidneys size themselves or if the processes that adapt kidney mass to lean body mass also mediate renal hypertrophy following unilateral nephrectomy (UNX). Here, we demonstrated that mice harboring a proximal tubule-specific deletion of Pten (Pten(ptKO)) have greatly enlarged kidneys as the result of persistent activation of the class I PI3K/mTORC2/AKT pathway and an increase of the antiproliferative signals p21(Cip1/WAF) and p27(Kip1). Administration of rapamycin to Pten(ptKO) mice diminished hypertrophy. Proximal tubule-specific deletion of Egfr in Pten(ptKO) mice also attenuated class I PI3K/mTORC2/AKT signaling and reduced the size of enlarged kidneys. In Pten(ptKO) mice, UNX further increased mTORC1 activation and hypertrophy in the remaining kidney; however, mTORC2-dependent AKT phosphorylation did not increase further in the remaining kidney of Pten(ptKO) mice, nor was it induced in the remaining kidney of WT mice. After UNX, renal blood flow and amino acid delivery to the remaining kidney rose abruptly, followed by increased amino acid content and activation of a class III PI3K/mTORC1/S6K1 pathway. Thus, our findings demonstrate context-dependent roles for EGFR-modulated class I PI3K/mTORC2/AKT signaling in the normal adaptation of kidney size and PTEN-independent, nutrient-dependent class III PI3K/mTORC1/S6K1 signaling in the compensatory enlargement of the remaining kidney following UNX.

  20. Primary cilia and coordination of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Søren T; Clement, Christian A; Satir, Peter; Pedersen, Lotte B

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles that coordinate signalling pathways in cell-cycle control, migration, differentiation and other cellular processes critical during development and for tissue homeostasis. Accordingly, defects in assembly or function of primary cilia lead to a plethora of developmental disorders and pathological conditions now known as ciliopathies. In this review, we summarize the current status of the role of primary cilia in coordinating receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling pathways. Further, we present potential mechanisms of signalling crosstalk and networking in the primary cilium and discuss how defects in ciliary RTK signalling are linked to human diseases and disorders. PMID:21956154

  1. Neuronal and intestinal protein kinase d isoforms mediate Na+ (salt taste)-induced learning.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ya; Ren, Min; Feng, Hui; Chen, Lu; Altun, Zeynep F; Rubin, Charles S

    2009-08-11

    Ubiquitously expressed protein kinase D (PKD) isoforms are poised to disseminate signals carried by diacylglycerol (DAG). However, the in vivo regulation and functions of PKDs are poorly understood. We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans gene, dkf-2, encodes not just DKF-2A, but also a second previously unknown isoform, DKF-2B. Whereas DKF-2A is present mainly in intestine, we show that DKF-2B is found in neurons. Characterization of dkf-2 null mutants and transgenic animals expressing DKF-2B, DKF-2A, or both isoforms revealed that PKDs couple DAG signals to regulation of sodium ion (Na+)-induced learning. EGL-8 (a phospholipase Cbeta4 homolog) and TPA-1 (a protein kinase Cdelta homolog) are upstream regulators of DKF-2 isoforms in vivo. Thus, pathways containing EGL-8-TPA-1-DKF-2 enable learning and behavioral plasticity by receiving, transmitting, and cooperatively integrating environmental signals targeted to both neurons and intestine.

  2. Adenylate Kinase and AMP Signaling Networks: Metabolic Monitoring, Signal Communication and Body Energy Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Dzeja, Petras; Terzic, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Adenylate kinase and downstream AMP signaling is an integrated metabolic monitoring system which reads the cellular energy state in order to tune and report signals to metabolic sensors. A network of adenylate kinase isoforms (AK1-AK7) are distributed throughout intracellular compartments, interstitial space and body fluids to regulate energetic and metabolic signaling circuits, securing efficient cell energy economy, signal communication and stress response. The dynamics of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer regulates multiple intracellular and extracellular energy-dependent and nucleotide signaling processes, including excitation-contraction coupling, hormone secretion, cell and ciliary motility, nuclear transport, energetics of cell cycle, DNA synthesis and repair, and developmental programming. Metabolomic analyses indicate that cellular, interstitial and blood AMP levels are potential metabolic signals associated with vital functions including body energy sensing, sleep, hibernation and food intake. Either low or excess AMP signaling has been linked to human disease such as diabetes, obesity and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies indicate that derangements in adenylate kinase-mediated energetic signaling due to mutations in AK1, AK2 or AK7 isoforms are associated with hemolytic anemia, reticular dysgenesis and ciliary dyskinesia. Moreover, hormonal, food and antidiabetic drug actions are frequently coupled to alterations of cellular AMP levels and associated signaling. Thus, by monitoring energy state and generating and distributing AMP metabolic signals adenylate kinase represents a unique hub within the cellular homeostatic network. PMID:19468337

  3. Receptor tyrosine kinase signaling: a view from quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Dengjel, Joern; Kratchmarova, Irina; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2009-10-01

    Growth factor receptor signaling via receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is one of the basic cellular communication principals found in all metazoans. Extracellular signals are transferred via membrane spanning receptors into the cytoplasm, reversible tyrosine phosphorylation being the hallmark of all RTKs. In recent years proteomic approaches have yielded detailed descriptions of cellular signaling events. Quantitative proteomics is able to characterize the exact position and strength of post-translational modifications (PTMs) providing essential information for understanding the molecular basis of signal transduction. Numerous new post-translational modification sites have been identified by quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. In addition, plentiful new players in signal transduction have been identified underlining the complexity and the modular architecture of most signaling networks. In this review, we outline the principles of signal transduction via RTKs and highlight some of the new insights obtained from proteomic approaches such as protein microarrays and quantitative mass spectrometry.

  4. Cdk5: An Emerging Kinase in Pain Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Tej Kumar; Zipp, Lisa; Letterio, John J

    2015-01-01

    Pain is an important survival mechanism for an organism. It can turn into severe mental and physical disorder however, if the molecular and/or cellular pathways involved in pain signaling are altered. Chronic pain is characterized by an altered pain perception that includes allodynia (a response to a normally non-noxious stimulus) and hyperalgesia (an exaggerated response to a normally noxious stimulus). Past few years of pain research has been mainly focused on precise understanding of the molecular and cellular nociceptive signatures altered during chronic pain, so that more effective pain relievers can be developed. The importance of protein kinases in normal cellular homeostasis and disease pathogenesis has evolved rapidly in the past few decades. The recent advancement defining the role of multiple protein kinases in regulating neuronal plasticity and pain sensitization has gained enough attention of pharmaceutical industry to develop specific and selective kinase inhibitors as analgesics. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is one such emerging kinase in pain biology. We will discuss here the recent advancement and therapeutic potential of Cdk5 in pain signaling.

  5. Implications of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in glioma.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vimal; Bhaskara, Vasantha Kumar; Babu, Phanithi Prakash

    2016-02-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system tumors. Gliomas originate from astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neural stem cells or their precursors. According to WHO classification, gliomas are classified into four different malignant grades ranging from grade I to grade IV based on histopathological features and related molecular aberrations. The induction and maintenance of these tumors can be attributed largely to aberrant signaling networks. In this regard, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) network has been widely studied and is reported to be severely altered in glial tumors. Mutations in MAPK pathways most frequently affect RAS and B-RAF in the ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 pathways leading to malignant transformation. Also, it is linked to both inherited and sequential accumulations of mutations that control receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-activated signal transduction pathways, cell cycle growth arrest pathways, and nonresponsive cell death pathways. Genetic alterations that modulate RTK signaling can also alter several downstream pathways, including RAS-mediated MAP kinases along with JNK pathways, which ultimately regulate cell proliferation and cell death. The present review focuses on recent literature regarding important deregulations in the RTK-activated MAPK pathway during gliomagenesis and progression.

  6. Novel links in the plant TOR kinase signaling network

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yan; Sheen, Jen

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient and energy sensing and signaling mechanisms constitute the most ancient and fundamental regulatory networks to control growth and development in all life forms. The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase is modulated by diverse nutrient, energy, hormone and stress inputs and plays a central role in regulating cell proliferation, growth, metabolism and stress responses from yeasts to plants and animals. Recent chemical, genetic, genomic and metabolomic analyses have enabled significant progress toward molecular understanding of the TOR signaling network in multicellular plants. This review discusses the applications of new chemical tools to probe plant TOR functions and highlights recent findings and predictions on TOR-mediate biological processes. Special focus is placed on novel and evolutionarily conserved TOR kinase effectors as positive and negative signaling regulators that control transcription, translation and metabolism to support cell proliferation, growth and maintenance from embryogenesis to senescence in the plant system. PMID:26476687

  7. Novel links in the plant TOR kinase signaling network.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yan; Sheen, Jen

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient and energy sensing and signaling mechanisms constitute the most ancient and fundamental regulatory networks to control growth and development in all life forms. The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase is modulated by diverse nutrient, energy, hormone and stress inputs and plays a central role in regulating cell proliferation, growth, metabolism and stress responses from yeasts to plants and animals. Recent chemical, genetic, genomic and metabolomic analyses have enabled significant progress toward molecular understanding of the TOR signaling network in multicellular plants. This review discusses the applications of new chemical tools to probe plant TOR functions and highlights recent findings and predictions on TOR-mediate biological processes. Special focus is placed on novel and evolutionarily conserved TOR kinase effectors as positive and negative signaling regulators that control transcription, translation and metabolism to support cell proliferation, growth and maintenance from embryogenesis to senescence in the plant system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic variation in insulin-induced kinase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Isabel Xiaorong; Ramrattan, Girish; Cheung, Vivian G

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in sensitivity to insulin contribute to disease susceptibility including diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Cellular responses to insulin are well studied. However, which steps in these response pathways differ across individuals remains largely unknown. Such knowledge is needed to guide more precise therapeutic interventions. Here, we studied insulin response and found extensive individual variation in the activation of key signaling factors, including ERK whose induction differs by more than 20-fold among our subjects. This variation in kinase activity is propagated to differences in downstream gene expression response to insulin. By genetic analysis, we identified cis-acting DNA variants that influence signaling response, which in turn affects downstream changes in gene expression and cellular phenotypes, such as protein translation and cell proliferation. These findings show that polymorphic differences in signal transduction contribute to individual variation in insulin response, and suggest kinase modulators as promising therapeutics for diseases characterized by insulin resistance. PMID:26202599

  9. p21-activated kinase signaling in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gururaj, Anupama E; Rayala, Suresh K; Kumar, Rakesh

    2005-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases signal through a number of cellular pathways fundamental to growth, differentiation and apoptosis. A wealth of information has accumulated at an impressive pace in the recent past, both with regard to previously identified targets for p21-activated kinases that regulate the actin cytoskeleton and cellular stress pathways and with regard to newly identified targets and their role in cancer. Emerging data also provide new clues towards a previously unappreciated link between these various cellular processes. The present review attempts to provide a quick tutorial to the reader about the evolving significance of p21-activated kinases and small GTPases in breast cancer, using information from mouse models, tissue culture studies, and human materials. PMID:15642175

  10. Structure, Regulation, Signaling, and Targeting of Abl Kinases in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abl kinases are prototypic cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases and are involved in a variety of chromosomal aberrations in different cancers. This causes the expression of Abl fusion proteins, such as Bcr-Abl, that are constitutively activated and drivers of tumorigenesis. Over the past decades, biochemical and functional studies on the molecular mechanisms of Abl regulation have gone hand in hand with progression of our structural understanding of autoinhibited and active Abl conformations. In parallel, Abl oncoproteins have become prime molecular targets for cancer therapy, using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)–competitive kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib. Abl-targeting drugs serve as a paradigm for our understanding of kinase inhibitor action, specificity, and resistance development. In this review article, I will review the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the regulation of Abl kinase activity and how oncogenic Abl fusions signal. Furthermore, past and ongoing efforts to target Abl oncoproteins using ATP-competitive and allosteric inhibitors, as well as future possibilities using combination therapy, will be discussed. PMID:23226581

  11. Sphingosine kinase-mediated calcium signaling by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    van Koppen, C J; Meyer zu Heringdorf, D; Alemany, R; Jakobs, K H

    2001-04-27

    Based on the finding that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can induce Ca2+ mobilization, apparently independent of the phospholipase C (PLC)/inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) pathway, we investigated whether sphingosine kinase, which generates sphingosine-1-phosphate (SPP), is involved in calcium signaling by mAChR and other GPCRs. Inhibition of sphingosine kinase by DL-threo-dihydrosphingosine and N,/N-dimethylsphingosine markedly inhibited [Ca2+]i increases elicited by M2 and M3 mAChRs in HEK-293 cells without affecting PLC activation. Activation of M2 and M3 mAChR rapidly and transiently stimulated production of SPP. Furthermore, microinjection of SPP into HEK-293 cells induced rapid and transient Ca2+ mobilization. Pretreatment of HEK-293 cells with the calcium chelator BAPTA/AM fully blocked mAChR-induced SPP production. On the other hand, incubation of HEK-293 cells with calcium ionophores activated SPP production. Similar findings were obtained for formyl peptide and P2Y2 purinergic receptors in HL-60 cells. On the basis of these studies we propose, that following initial IP3 production by receptor-mediated PLC activation, a local discrete increase in [Ca2+]i induces sphingosine kinase stimulation, which ultimately leads to full calcium mobilization. Thus, sphingosine kinase activation most likely represents an amplification system for calcium signaling by mAChRs and other GPCRs.

  12. Receptor tyrosine kinases: mechanisms of activation and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Stevan R.; Miller, W. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are essential components of signal transduction pathways that mediate cell-to-cell communication. These single-pass transmembrane receptors, which bind polypeptide ligands — mainly growth factors — play key roles in processes such as cellular growth, differentiation, metabolism and motility. Recent progress has been achieved towards an understanding of the precise (and varied) mechanisms by which RTKs are activated by ligand binding and by which signals are propagated from the activated receptors to downstream targets in the cell. PMID:17306972

  13. Protein kinase A signaling as an anti-aging target.

    PubMed

    Enns, Linda C; Ladiges, Warren

    2010-07-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) is a multi-unit protein kinase that mediates signal transduction of G-protein-coupled receptors through its activation by adenyl cyclase (AC)-mediated cAMP. The vital importance of PKA signaling to cellular function is reflected in the widespread expression of PKA subunit genes. As one of its many functions, PKA plays a key role in the regulation of metabolism and triglyceride storage. The PKA pathway has become of great interest to the study of aging, since mutations that cause a reduction in PKA signaling have been shown to extend lifespan in yeast, and to both delay the incidence and severity of age-related disease, and to promote leanness and longevity, in mice. There is increasing interest in the potential for the inhibition or redistribution of adiposity to attenuate aging, since obesity is associated with impaired function of most organ systems, and is a strong risk factor for shortened life span. Its association with coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cancer, sleep apnea and osteoarthritis is leading to its accession as a major cause of global ill health. Therefore, gene signaling pathways such as PKA that promote adiposity are potential inhibitory targets for aging intervention. Since numerous plant compounds have been found that both prevent adipogenesis and inhibit PKA signaling, a focused investigation into their effects on biological systems and the corresponding molecular mechanisms would be of high relevance to the discovery of novel and non-toxic compounds that promote healthy aging.

  14. Ghrelin augments murine T-cell proliferation by activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase C signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Ho; Patel, Kalpesh; Tae, Hyun Jin; Lustig, Ana; Kim, Jie Wan; Mattson, Mark P.; Taub, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Thymic atrophy occurs during normal aging, and is accelerated by exposure to chronic stressors that elevate glucocorticoid levelsand impair the naïve T cell output. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin was recently shown to attenuate age-associated thymic atrophy. Here, we report that ghrelin enhances the proliferation of murine CD4+ primary T cells and a CD4+ T-cell line. Ghrelin induced activation of the ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways, via upstream activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and protein kinase C, to enhance T-cell proliferation. Moreover, ghrelin induced expression of the cell cycle proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and retinoblastoma phosphorylation. Finally, ghrelin activated the above-mentioned signaling pathways and stimulated thymocyte proliferation in young and older mice in vivo. PMID:25447526

  15. Primary cilia and coordination of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Søren T; Clement, Christian A; Satir, Peter; Pedersen, Lotte B

    2012-01-01

    Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles that coordinate signalling pathways in cell-cycle control, migration, differentiation and other cellular processes critical during development and for tissue homeostasis. Accordingly, defects in assembly or function of primary cilia lead to a plethora of developmental disorders and pathological conditions now known as ciliopathies. In this review, we summarize the current status of the role of primary cilia in coordinating receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling pathways. Further, we present potential mechanisms of signalling crosstalk and networking in the primary cilium and discuss how defects in ciliary RTK signalling are linked to human diseases and disorders. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Targeted inhibition of Src kinase signaling attenuates pancreatic tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Nagathihalli S.; Smith, J. Joshua; Revetta, Frank; Washington, M. Kay; Merchant, Nipun B.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated Src expression correlates with malignant potential and metastatic disease in many tumors including pancreas cancer. We sought to characterize the molecular effects of Src kinase inhibition with dasatinib (BMS-354825) a novel, multi-targeted kinase inhibitor that targets Src family kinases, in pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). We identified sensitive and resistant PDA cell lines to dasatinib treatment and tested the molecular effects of Src inhibition in vitro and in vivo. We show for the first time that cellular localization of Src expression impacts survival in patients with PDA. Pancreas tumors with increased membranous expression of Src result in decreased survival compared with tumors that have increased cytoplasmic Src expression. Src kinase inhibition with dasatinib markedly inhibits cell proliferation, migration, invasion, cell cycle progression and anchorage independent growth and stimulates apoptosis. This is accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of Src, FAK, paxillin, AKT, STAT3, ERK, JNK and MAPK, as well as decreased cyclinD1 expression in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, siRNA to Src results in significant decrease in cell proliferation, invasion and migration of pancreas cancer cells. Dasatinib treatment also inhibits in vivo pancreas tumor growth. Mechanisms of resistance to Src inhibition appear to be related to a lack of inhibition of STAT3 and MAPK signaling. These results establish a mechanistic rationale for Src inhibition with dasatinib as a therapeutic target in the treatment of pancreas cancer and identify potential biomarkers of resistance to Src inhibition. PMID:20682659

  17. Mitochondrial kinases in cell signaling: Facts and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Antico Arciuch, Valeria G; Alippe, Yael; Carreras, María Cecilia; Poderoso, Juan José

    2009-11-30

    Phylogenetic studies had shown that evolution of mitochondria occurred in parallel with the maturation of kinases implicated in growth and final size of modern organisms. In the last years, different reports confirmed that MAPKs, Akt, PKA and PKC are present in mitochondria, particularly in the intermembrane space and inner membrane where they meet mitochondrial constitutive upstream activators. Although a priori phosphorylation is the apparent aim of translocation, new perspectives indicate that kinase activation depends on redox status as determined by the mitochondrial production of oxygen species. We observed that the degree of mitochondrial oxidation of ERK Cys(38) and Cys(214) discriminates the kinase to be phosphorylated and determines translocation to the nuclear compartment and proliferation, or accumulation in mitochondria and arrest. Otherwise, transcriptional gene regulation by Akt depends on Cys(60) and Cys(310) oxidation to sulfenic and sulfonic acids. It is concluded that the interactions between kinases and mitochondria control cell signaling pathways and participate in the modulation of cell proliferation and arrest, tissue protection, tumorigenesis and cancer progression.

  18. Analysis of CaM-kinase signaling in cells.

    PubMed

    Wayman, Gary A; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi; Davare, Monika A; Soderling, Thomas R

    2011-07-01

    A change in intracellular free calcium is a common signaling mechanism that modulates a wide array of physiological processes in most cells. Responses to increased intracellular Ca(2+) are often mediated by the ubiquitous protein calmodulin (CaM) that upon binding Ca(2+) can interact with and alter the functionality of numerous proteins including a family of protein kinases referred to as CaM-kinases (CaMKs). Of particular interest are multifunctional CaMKs, such as CaMKI, CaMKII, CaMKIV and CaMKK, that can phosphorylate multiple downstream targets. This review will outline several protocols we have used to identify which members and/or isoforms of this CaMK family mediate specific cellular responses with a focus on studies in neurons. Many previous studies have relied on a single approach such as pharmacological inhibitors or transfected dominant-negative kinase constructs. Since each of these protocols has its limitations, that will be discussed, we emphasize the necessity to use multiple, independent approaches in mapping out cellular signaling pathways. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd.

  19. Spatial regulation of Raf kinase signaling by RKTG

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lin; Xie, Xiaoduo; Ding, Qiurong; Luo, Xiaolin; He, Jing; Fan, Fengjuan; Liu, Weizhong; Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yan

    2007-01-01

    Subcellular compartmentalization has become an important theme in cell signaling such as spatial regulation of Ras by RasGRP1 and MEK/ERK by Sef. Here, we report spatial regulation of Raf kinase by RKTG (Raf kinase trapping to Golgi). RKTG is a seven-transmembrane protein localized at the Golgi apparatus. RKTG expression inhibits EGF-stimulated ERK and RSK phosphorylation, blocks NGF-mediated PC12 cell differentiation, and antagonizes Ras- and Raf-1-stimulated Elk-1 transactivation. Through interaction with Raf-1, RKTG changes the localization of Raf-1 from cytoplasm to the Golgi apparatus, blocks EGF-stimulated Raf-1 membrane translocation, and reduces the interaction of Raf-1 with Ras and MEK1. In RKTG-null mice, the basal ERK phosphorylation level is increased in the brain and liver. In RKTG-deleted mouse embryonic fibroblasts, EGF-induced ERK phosphorylation is enhanced. Collectively, our results reveal a paradigm of spatial regulation of Raf kinase by RKTG via sequestrating Raf-1 to the Golgi apparatus and thereby inhibiting the ERK signaling pathway. PMID:17724343

  20. Mitogen Activated Protein kinase signal transduction pathways in the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Maroni, Paul D; Koul, Sweaty; Meacham, Randall B; Koul, Hari K

    2004-01-01

    The biochemistry of the mitogen activated protein kinases ERK, JNK, and p38 have been studied in prostate physiology in an attempt to elucidate novel mechanisms and pathways for the treatment of prostatic disease. We reviewed articles examining mitogen-activated protein kinases using prostate tissue or cell lines. As with other tissue types, these signaling modules are links/transmitters for important pathways in prostate cells that can result in cellular survival or apoptosis. While the activation of the ERK pathway appears to primarily result in survival, the roles of JNK and p38 are less clear. Manipulation of these pathways could have important implications for the treatment of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy. PMID:15219238

  1. Oscillatory Dynamics of the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Shankaran, Harish; Wiley, H. S.

    2010-12-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is a central signaling pathway in development and disease and is regulated by multiple negative and positive feedback loops. Recent studies have shown negative feedback from ERK to upstream regulators can give rise to biochemical oscillations with a periodicity of between 15-30 minutes. Feedback due to the stimulated transcription of negative regulators of the ERK pathway can also give rise to transcriptional oscillations with a periodicity of 1-2h. The biological significance of these oscillations is not clear, but recent evidence suggests that transcriptional oscillations participate in developmental processes, such as somite formation. Biochemical oscillations are more enigmatic, but could provide a mechanism for encoding different types of inputs into a common signaling pathway.

  2. Signals fly when kinases meet Rho-of-plants (ROP) small G-proteins.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Attila; Lajkó, Dézi Bianka

    2015-08-01

    Rho-type small GTP-binding plant proteins function as two-state molecular switches in cellular signalling. There is accumulating evidence that Rho-of-plants (ROP) signalling is positively controlled by plant receptor kinases, through the ROP guanine nucleotide exchange factor proteins. These signalling modules regulate cell polarity, cell shape, hormone responses, and pathogen defence, among other things. Other ROP-regulatory proteins might also be subjected to protein phosphorylation by cellular kinases (e.g., mitogen-activated protein kinases or calcium-dependent protein kinases), in order to integrate various cellular signalling pathways with ROP GTPase-dependent processes. In contrast to the role of kinases in upstream ROP regulation, much less is known about the potential link between ROP GTPases and downstream kinase signalling. In other eukaryotes, Rho-type G-protein-activated kinases are widespread and have a key role in many cellular processes. Recent data indicate the existence of structurally different ROP-activated kinases in plants, but their ROP-dependent biological functions still need to be validated. In addition to these direct interactions, ROPs may also indirectly control the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases or calcium-dependent protein kinases. These kinases may therefore function as upstream as well as downstream kinases in ROP-mediated signalling pathways, such as the phosphatidylinositol monophosphate kinases involved in cell polarity establishment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibition of Tyrosine Kinase Signaling After Trauma-Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jarrar, Doraid; Wang, Ping; Song, Grace Y.; Cioffi, William G.; Bland, Kirby I.; Chaudry, Irshad H.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine whether administration of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor after trauma-hemorrhage has any beneficial effects on cardiovascular parameters and hepatocellular function and on survival rate after subsequent sepsis. Background Increased inflammatory cytokine release and concomitant activation of intracellular signaling pathways contributes to multiple organ dysfunction and increased susceptibility to subsequent sepsis after severe hemorrhagic shock. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a midline laparotomy (i.e., soft-tissue trauma induced) and were then bled to and maintained at a mean arterial pressure of 40 mmHg until 40% of the maximal shed blood volume was returned in the form of Ringer’s lactate. The rats were then resuscitated with four times the shed blood volume in the form of Ringer’s lactate during a 60-minute period. A tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG 556 (7.5 mg/kg), or vehicle was administered intraperitoneally at the middle of resuscitation. At 24 hours after resuscitation, various in vivo parameters such as heart performance, cardiac index, and hepatocellular function (i.e., the maximum velocity and the overall efficiency of indocyanine green clearance) were determined. Phosphorylation state of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p44/42 and p38 in the liver was assessed by Western blot analysis. In additional groups of rats, sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture at 20 hours after hemorrhage. The necrotic cecum was excised 10 hours thereafter, and the survival rate was monitored for a period of 10 days. Results AG 556 treatment restored the depressed cardiovascular and hepatocellular functions after trauma-hemorrhage and resuscitation, which was associated with reduced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases p44/42 and p38. Moreover, treatment with AG 556 significantly increased the survival rate of rats after trauma-hemorrhage and induction of subsequent sepsis compared with vehicle-treated rats

  4. Prostaglandin E2 negatively regulates AMP-activated protein kinase via protein kinase A signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Koji; Cao, Xia; Yamauchi, Masako; Kozaki, Yasuko; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kambe, Fukushi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated possible involvement of prostaglandin (PG) E2 in regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). When osteoblastic MG63 cells were cultured in serum-deprived media, Thr-172 phosphorylation of AMPK alpha-subunit was markedly increased. Treatment of the cells with PGE2 significantly reduced the phosphorylation. Ser-79 phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a direct target for AMPK, was also reduced by PGE2. On the other hand, PGE2 reciprocally increased Ser-485 phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit that could be associated with inhibition of AMPK activity. These effects of PGE2 were mimicked by PGE2 receptor EP2 and EP4 agonists and forskolin, but not by EP1 and EP3 agonists, and the effects were suppressed by an adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 and a protein kinase A inhibitor H89. Additionally, the PGE2 effects were duplicated in primary calvarial osteoblasts. Together, the present study demonstrates that PGE2 negatively regulates AMPK activity via activation of protein kinase A signaling pathway.

  5. Integration of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1-Mediated Stress Signaling with the Akt/Protein Kinase B-IκB Kinase Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Puckett, Mary C.; Goldman, Erinn H.; Cockrell, Lisa M.; Huang, Bei; Kasinski, Andrea L.; Du, Yuhong; Wang, Cun-Yu; Lin, Anning; Ichijo, Hidenori; Khuri, Fadlo

    2013-01-01

    Cellular processes are tightly controlled through well-coordinated signaling networks that respond to conflicting cues, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signals, and survival factors to ensure proper cell function. We report here a direct interaction between inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), unveiling a critical node at the junction of survival, inflammation, and stress signaling networks. IKK can be activated by growth factor stimulation or tumor necrosis factor alpha engagement. IKK forms a complex with and phosphorylates ASK1 at a sensor site, Ser967, leading to the recruitment of 14-3-3, counteracts stress signal-triggered ASK1 activation, and suppresses ASK1-mediated functions. An inhibitory role of IKK in JNK signaling has been previously reported to depend on NF-κB-mediated gene expression. Our data suggest that IKK has a dual role: a transcription-dependent and a transcription-independent action in controlling the ASK1-JNK axis, coupling IKK to ROS and ER stress response. Direct phosphorylation of ASK1 by IKK also defines a novel IKK phosphorylation motif. Because of the intimate involvement of ASK1 in diverse diseases, the IKK/ASK1 interface offers a promising target for therapeutic development. PMID:23530055

  6. Plant cell wall signalling and receptor-like kinases.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Sebastian

    2017-02-15

    Communication between the extracellular matrix and the cell interior is essential for all organisms as intrinsic and extrinsic cues have to be integrated to co-ordinate development, growth, and behaviour. This applies in particular to plants, the growth and shape of which is governed by deposition and remodelling of the cell wall, a rigid, yet dynamic, extracellular network. It is thus generally assumed that cell wall surveillance pathways exist to monitor the state of the wall and, if needed, elicit compensatory responses such as altered expression of cell wall remodelling and biosynthesis genes. Here, I highlight recent advances in the field of cell wall signalling in plants, with emphasis on the role of plasma membrane receptor-like kinase complexes. In addition, possible roles for cell wall-mediated signalling beyond the maintenance of cell wall integrity are discussed. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. Phosphoinositide kinase signaling controls ER-PM cross-talk

    PubMed Central

    Omnus, Deike J.; Manford, Andrew G.; Bader, Jakob M.; Emr, Scott D.; Stefan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane lipid dynamics must be precisely regulated for normal cellular function, and disruptions in lipid homeostasis are linked to the progression of several diseases. However, little is known about the sensory mechanisms for detecting membrane composition and how lipid metabolism is regulated in response to membrane stress. We find that phosphoinositide (PI) kinase signaling controls a conserved PDK-TORC2-Akt signaling cascade as part of a homeostasis network that allows the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to modulate essential responses, including Ca2+-regulated lipid biogenesis, upon plasma membrane (PM) stress. Furthermore, loss of ER-PM junctions impairs this protective response, leading to PM integrity defects upon heat stress. Thus PI kinase–mediated ER-PM cross-talk comprises a regulatory system that ensures cellular integrity under membrane stress conditions. PMID:26864629

  8. Proteomic discovery of host kinase signaling in bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Erik; Mostertz, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases acts as a reversible molecular switch in signal transduction, providing a mechanism for the control of protein function in cellular processes. During microbial infection, cellular signaling essentially contributes to immune control to restrict the dissemination of invading pathogens within the host organism. However, pathogenic microbes compete for the control of host signaling to create a beneficial environment for successful invasion and infection. Although efforts to achieve a better understanding of the host–pathogen interaction and its molecular consequences have been made, there is urgent need for a comprehensive characterization of infection‐related host signaling processes. System‐wide and hypothesis‐free analysis of phosphorylation‐mediated host signaling during host–microbe interactions by mass spectrometry (MS)‐based methods is not only promising in view of a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of the infection but also may result in the identification of novel host targets for preventive or therapeutic intervention. Here, we review state‐of‐the‐art MS‐based techniques for the system‐wide identification and quantitation of protein phosphorylation and compare them to array‐based phosphoprotein analyses. We also provide an overview of how phosphoproteomics and kinomics have contributed to our understanding of protein kinase‐driven phosphorylation networks that operate during host–microbe interactions. PMID:27440122

  9. Signal transduction in podocytes—spotlight on receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, Jochen; Sever, Sanja; Faul, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian kidney filtration barrier is a complex multicellular, multicomponent structure that maintains homeostasis by regulating electrolytes, acid–base balance, and blood pressure (via maintenance of salt and water balance). To perform these multiple functions, podocytes—an important component of the filtration apparatus—must process a series of intercellular signals. Integrating these signals with diverse cellular responses enables a coordinated response to various conditions. Although mature podocytes are terminally differentiated and cannot proliferate, they are able to respond to growth factors. It is possible that the initial response of podocytes to growth factors is beneficial and protective, and might include the induction of hypertrophic cell growth. However, extended and/or uncontrolled growth factor signalling might be maladaptive and could result in the induction of apoptosis and podocyte loss. Growth factors signal via the activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) on their target cells and around a quarter of the 58 RTK family members that are encoded in the human genome have been identified in podocytes. Pharmacological inhibitors of many RTKs exist and are currently used in experimental and clinical cancer therapy. The identification of pathological RTK-mediated signal transduction pathways in podocytes could provide a starting point for the development of novel therapies for glomerular disorders. PMID:24394191

  10. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase mediated signaling in lobster olfactory receptor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Elizabeth A.; Bobkov, Yuriy; Pezier, Adeline; Ache, Barry W.

    2010-01-01

    In vertebrates and some invertebrates, odorant molecules bind to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to initiate signal transduction. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity has been implicated physiologically in olfactory signal transduction, suggesting a potential role for a GPCR-activated class I PI3K. Using isoform-specific antibodies, we identified a protein in the olfactory signal transduction compartment of lobster ORNs that is antigenically similar to mammalian PI3Kγ and cloned a gene for a PI3K with amino acid homology with PI3Kβ. The lobster olfactory PI3K co-immunoprecipitates with the G protein α and β subunits, and an odorant-evoked increase in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate can be detected in the signal transduction compartment of the ORNs. PI3Kγ and β isoform-specific inhibitors reduce the odorant-evoked output of lobster ORNs in vivo. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that PI3K is indeed activated by odorant receptors in lobster ORNs and further support the potential involvement of G protein activated PI3K signaling in olfactory transduction. PMID:20132480

  11. Phosphorylation of the Kinase Interaction Motif in Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Phosphatase-4 Mediates Cross-talk between Protein Kinase A and MAP Kinase Signaling Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Robin J.; Delavaine, Laurent; Cejudo-Marín, Rocío; Stewart, Graeme; Staples, Christopher J.; Didmon, Mark P.; Trinidad, Antonio Garcia; Alonso, Andrés; Pulido, Rafael; Keyse, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    MAP kinase phosphatase 4 (DUSP9/MKP-4) plays an essential role during placental development and is one of a subfamily of three closely related cytoplasmic dual-specificity MAPK phosphatases, which includes the ERK-specific enzymes DUSP6/MKP-3 and DUSP7/MKP-X. However, unlike DUSP6/MKP-3, DUSP9/MKP-4 also inactivates the p38α MAP kinase both in vitro and in vivo. Here we demonstrate that inactivation of both ERK1/2 and p38α by DUSP9/MKP-4 is mediated by a conserved arginine-rich kinase interaction motif located within the amino-terminal non-catalytic domain of the protein. Furthermore, DUSP9/MKP-4 is unique among these cytoplasmic MKPs in containing a conserved PKA consensus phosphorylation site 55RRXSer-58 immediately adjacent to the kinase interaction motif. DUSP9/MKP-4 is phosphorylated on Ser-58 by PKA in vitro, and phosphorylation abrogates the binding of DUSP9/MKP-4 to both ERK2 and p38α MAP kinases. In addition, although mutation of Ser-58 to either alanine or glutamic acid does not affect the intrinsic catalytic activity of DUSP9/MKP-4, phospho-mimetic (Ser-58 to Glu) substitution inhibits both the interaction of DUSP9/MKP-4 with ERK2 and p38α in vivo and its ability to dephosphorylate and inactivate these MAP kinases. Finally, the use of a phospho-specific antibody demonstrates that endogenous DUSP9/MKP-4 is phosphorylated on Ser-58 in response to the PKA agonist forskolin and is also modified in placental tissue. We conclude that DUSP9/MKP-4 is a bona fide target of PKA signaling and that attenuation of DUSP9/MKP-4 function can mediate cross-talk between the PKA pathway and MAPK signaling through both ERK1/2 and p38α in vivo. PMID:21908610

  12. Corneal Wound Healing Requires IKB kinase β Signaling in Keratocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Mongan, Maureen; Meng, Qinghang; Wang, Qin; Kao, Winston; Xia, Ying

    2016-01-01

    IkB kinase β (IKKβ) is a key signaling kinase for inflammatory responses, but it also plays diverse cell type-specific roles that are not yet fully understood. Here we investigated the role of IKKβ in the cornea using IkkβΔCS mice in which the Ikkβ gene was specifically deleted in the corneal stromal keratocytes. The IkkβΔCS corneas had normal morphology, transparency and thickness; however, they did not heal well from mild alkali burn injury. In contrast to the IkkβF/F corneas that restored transparency in 2 weeks after injury, over 50% of the IkkβΔCS corneas failed to fully recover. They instead developed recurrent haze with increased stromal thickness, severe inflammation and apoptosis. This pathogenesis correlated with sustained myofibroblast transformation with increased α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression, higher levels of senescence β-Gal activity and scar tissue formation at the late stage of wound healing. In addition, the IkkβΔCS corneas displayed elevated expression of hemo-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a marker of oxidative stress, and activation of stress signaling pathways with increased JNK, c-Jun and SMAD2/3 phosphorylation. These data suggest that IKKβ in keratocytes is required to repress oxidative stress and attenuate fibrogenesis and senescence in corneal wound healing. PMID:26987064

  13. Protein tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways contribute to differences in heterophil-mediated innate immune responsiveness between two lines of broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation mediates signal transduction of cellular processes, with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulating virtually all signaling events. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) super-family consists of three conserved pathways that convert receptor activation into ce...

  14. Janus kinase-2 signaling mediates apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Mascareno, Eduardo; Beckles, Daniel L; Siddiqui, M A Q

    2005-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that activation Jak2, which is prominently involved in the up-regulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), constitutes a focal point in relaying signals triggered by a Angiotensin II (Ang II) and hypoxia/reoxygenation separately to cause an enhanced susceptibility of cardiac myocyte to apoptotic cell death. Ang II-treated adult cardiomyocytes in culture exhibited an increased level of apoptosis that accompanied activation of pro-apoptotic as well as anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. We observed increased phosphorylation of Jak2 kinase, Stat1, JNK, with increased expression of Bax protein, followed by an increase in caspase-1 and caspase-3 activity. Activation of these pro-apoptotic pathways was blocked by the Jak2 pharmacological inhibitor, Tyrphostin AG490. We also observed an increase in phosphorylation of cardioprotective pathway components, namely S6 ribosomal protein, and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27). Likewise, the oxidative stress, via the hypoxia/reoxygenation treatment of rat adult cardiomyocytes, produced apoptosis that was dependent upon activation of Jak2. The apoptotic response was not only reduced by Losartan, an inverse agonist of the AT1, receptor, but by treatment with AG490 as well. Taken together, these observations provide clear evidence in favor of Jak2 signaling as mediator of the apoptotic response in cardiomyocytes. However, there was a concomitant induction of cytoprotective signaling that presumably provides a negative feed-back to the deleterious effects of the agonist.

  15. Endosomal Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Is Essential for Canonical GPCR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yasunori; Rutaganira, Florentine U; Jullié, Damien; Shokat, Kevan M; von Zastrow, Mark

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the largest family of signaling receptors, are critically regulated by endosomal trafficking, suggesting that endosomes might provide new strategies for manipulating GPCR signaling. Here we test this hypothesis by focusing on class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (Vps34), which is an essential regulator of endosomal trafficking. We verify that Vps34 is required for recycling of the β2-adrenoceptor (β2AR), a prototypical GPCR, and then investigate the effects of Vps34 inhibition on the canonical cAMP response elicited by β2AR activation. Vps34 inhibition impairs the ability of cells to recover this response after prolonged activation, which is in accord with the established role of recycling in GPCR resensitization. In addition, Vps34 inhibition also attenuates the short-term cAMP response, and its effect begins several minutes after initial agonist application. These results establish Vps34 as an essential determinant of both short-term and long-term canonical GPCR signaling, and support the potential utility of the endosomal system as a druggable target for signaling.

  16. Temporal quantitation of mutant Kit tyrosine kinase signaling attenuated by a novel thiophene kinase inhibitor OSI-930.

    PubMed

    Petti, Filippo; Thelemann, April; Kahler, Jen; McCormack, Siobhan; Castaldo, Linda; Hunt, Tony; Nuwaysir, Lydia; Zeiske, Lynn; Haack, Herbert; Sullivan, Laura; Garton, Andrew; Haley, John D

    2005-08-01

    OSI-930, a potent thiophene inhibitor of the Kit, KDR, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, was used to selectively inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation downstream of juxtamembrane mutant Kit in the mast cell leukemia line HMC-1. Inhibition of Kit kinase activity resulted in a rapid dephosphorylation of Kit and inhibition of the downstream signaling pathways. Attenuation of Ras-Raf-Erk (phospho-Erk, phospho-p38), phosphatidyl inositol-3' kinase (phospho-p85, phospho-Akt, phospho-S6), and signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling pathways (phospho-STAT3/5/6) were measured by affinity liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, by immunoblot, and by tissue microarrays of fixed cell pellets. To more globally define additional components of Kit signaling temporally altered by kinase inhibition, a novel multiplex quantitative isobaric peptide labeling approach was used. This approach allowed clustering of proteins by temporal expression patterns. Kit kinase, which dephosphorylates rapidly upon kinase inhibition, was shown to regulate both Shp-1 and BDP-1 tyrosine phosphatases and the phosphatase-interacting protein PSTPIP2. Interactions with SH2 domain adapters [growth factor receptor binding protein 2 (Grb2), Cbl, Slp-76] and SH3 domain adapters (HS1, cortactin, CD2BP3) were attenuated by inhibition of Kit kinase activity. Functional crosstalk between Kit and the non-receptor tyrosine kinases Fes/Fps, Fer, Btk, and Syk was observed. Inhibition of Kit modulated phosphorylation-dependent interactions with pathways controlling focal adhesion (paxillin, leupaxin, p130CAS, FAK1, the Src family kinase Lyn, Wasp, Fhl-3, G25K, Ack-1, Nap1, SH3P12/ponsin) and septin-actin complexes (NEDD5, cdc11, actin). The combined use of isobaric protein quantitation and expression clustering, immunoblot, and tissue microarray strategies allowed temporal measurement signaling pathways modulated by mutant Kit inhibition in a model of mast cell

  17. Insulin receptor kinase-independent signaling via tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphatase PHLPP1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Manchao; Riedel, Heimo

    2009-05-01

    Most insulin responses correlate well with insulin receptor (IR) Tyr kinase activation; however, critical exceptions to this concept have been presented. Specific IR mutants and stimulatory IR antibodies demonstrate a lack of correlation between IR kinase activity and specific insulin responses in numerous independent studies. IR conformation changes in response to insulin observed with various IR antibodies define an IR kinase-independent signal that alters the C-terminus. IR-related receptors in lower eukaryotes that lack a Tyr kinase point to an alternative mechanism of IR signaling earlier in evolution. However, the implied IR kinase-independent signaling mechanism remained obscure at the molecular level. Here we begin to define the molecular basis of an IR-dependent but IR kinase-independent insulin signal that is equally transmitted by a kinase-inactive mutant IR. This insulin signal results in Tyr phosphorylation and catalytic activation of phosphatase PHLPP1 via a PI 3-kinase-independent, wortmannin-insensitive signaling pathway. Dimerized SH2B1/PSM is a critical activator of the IR kinase and the resulting established insulin signal. In contrast it is an inhibitor of the IR kinase-independent insulin signal and disruption of SH2B1/PSM dimer binding to IR potentiates this signal. Dephosphorylation of Akt2 by PHLPP1 provides an alternative, SH2B1/PSM-regulated insulin-signaling pathway from IR to Akt2 of opposite polarity and distinct from the established PI 3-kinase-dependent signaling pathway via IRS proteins. In combination, both pathways should allow the opposing regulation of Akt2 activity at two phosphorylation sites to specifically define the insulin signal in the background of interfering Akt-regulating signals, such as those controlling cell proliferation and survival.

  18. Signalling to cancer cell invasion through PAK family kinases.

    PubMed

    Whale, Andrew; Hashim, Fariesha Nur; Fram, Sally; Jones, Gareth E; Wells, Claire M

    2011-01-01

    Cancer cell metastasis involves a series of changes in cell behaviour, driven by oncogenic transformation, that leads to local tissue invasion, migration through extracellular matrix, entry into the vascular or lymphatic system and colonisation of distant sites. It is well established that the Rho family GTPases Rho, Rac and Cdc42 orchestrate many of the processes required during metastasis. The Rho family GTPases regulate cellular behaviour through their interaction with downstream effector proteins. The p-21 activated kinases (PAKs), effector proteins for Rac and Cdc42, are known to be important regulators of cell migration and invasion. There are six mammalian PAKs which can be divided into two groups: group I PAKs (PAK1-3) and group II PAKs (PAK4-6). Although the two PAK groups are architecturally similar there are differences in their mode of regulation suggesting their cellular functions are likely to be different. This review will focus on the latest evidence relating to the role of PAK family kinases in the cell signalling pathways that drive cancer cell migration and invasion.

  19. Brassinosteroid regulated kinases (BRKs) that mediate brassinosteroid signal transduction and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhi-Yong; Tang, Wenqiang

    2013-09-24

    The present invention identifies a novel family of kinases regulated by brassinosteroids, referred to as BRKs (brassinosteroid regulated kinases) or BSKs (brassinosteroid signaling kinases). The present invention provides methods for modulating the response of a plant cell to a brassinosteroid using BRKs.

  20. Extracellular signal regulated kinase 5 mediates signals triggered by the novel tumor promoter palytoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Charlson, Aaron T.; Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2009-12-01

    Palytoxin is classified as a non-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-type skin tumor because it does not bind to or activate protein kinase C. Palytoxin is thus a novel tool for investigating alternative signaling pathways that may affect carcinogenesis. We previously showed that palytoxin activates three major members of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, extracellular signal regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. Here we report that palytoxin also activates another MAPK family member, called ERK5, in HeLa cells and in keratinocytes derived from initiated mouse skin (308 cells). By contrast, TPA does not activate ERK5 in these cell lines. The major cell surface receptor for palytoxin is the Na+,K+-ATPase. Accordingly, ouabain blocked the ability of palytoxin to activate ERK5. Ouabain alone did not activate ERK5. ERK5 thus represents a divergence in the signaling pathways activated by these two agents that bind to the Na+,K+-ATPase. Cycloheximide, okadaic acid, and sodium orthovanadate did not mimic the effect of palytoxin on ERK5. These results indicate that the stimulation of ERK5 by palytoxin is not simply due to inhibition of protein synthesis or inhibition of serine/threonine or tyrosine phosphatases. Therefore, the mechanism by which palytoxin activates ERK5 differs from that by which it activates ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Finally, studies that used pharmacological inhibitors and shRNA to block ERK5 action indicate that ERK5 contributes to palytoxin-stimulated c-Fos gene expression. These results suggest that ERK5 can act as an alternative mediator for transmitting diverse tumor promoter-stimulated signals.

  1. Commitment to the CD4 lineage mediated by extracellular signal-related kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase and lck signaling.

    PubMed

    Sharp, L L; Hedrick, S M

    1999-12-15

    The development of T cells results in a concordance between the specificity of the TCR for MHC class I and class II molecules and the expression of CD8 and CD4 coreceptors. Based on analogy to simple metazoan models of organ development and lineage commitment, we sought to determine whether extracellular signal-related kinase (Erk) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway signaling acts as an inductive signal for the CD4 lineage. Here, we show that, by altering the intracellular signaling involving the Erk/MAP kinase pathway, T cells with specificity for MHC class I can be diverted to express CD4, and, conversely, T cells with specificity for MHC class II can be diverted to express CD8. Furthermore, we find that activation of the src-family tyrosine kinase, p56lck is an upstream mediator of lineage commitment. These results suggest a simple mechanism for lineage commitment in T cell development.

  2. Kinase Signaling in Apoptosis Induced by Saturated Fatty Acids in Pancreatic β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Šrámek, Jan; Němcová-Fürstová, Vlasta; Kovář, Jan

    2016-09-12

    Pancreatic β-cell failure and death is considered to be one of the main factors responsible for type 2 diabetes. It is caused by, in addition to hyperglycemia, chronic exposure to increased concentrations of fatty acids, mainly saturated fatty acids. Molecular mechanisms of apoptosis induction by saturated fatty acids in β-cells are not completely clear. It has been proposed that kinase signaling could be involved, particularly, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), protein kinase C (PKC), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and Akt kinases and their pathways. In this review, we discuss these kinases and their signaling pathways with respect to their possible role in apoptosis induction by saturated fatty acids in pancreatic β-cells.

  3. Novel protein kinase signaling systems regulating lifespan identified by small molecule library screening using Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Spindler, Stephen R; Li, Rui; Dhahbi, Joseph M; Yamakawa, Amy; Sauer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinase signaling cascades control most aspects of cellular function. The ATP binding domains of signaling protein kinases are the targets of most available inhibitors. These domains are highly conserved from mammals to flies. Herein we describe screening of a library of small molecule inhibitors of protein kinases for their ability to increase Drosophila lifespan. We developed an assay system which allowed screening using the small amounts of materials normally present in commercial chemical libraries. The studies identified 17 inhibitors, the majority of which targeted tyrosine kinases associated with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), the insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGFI) receptors. Comparison of the protein kinase signaling effects of the inhibitors in vitro defined a consensus intracellular signaling profile which included decreased signaling by p38MAPK (p38), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and protein kinase C (PKC). If confirmed, many of these kinases will be novel additions to the signaling cascades known to regulate metazoan longevity.

  4. AGCVIII Kinases: at the crossroads of cellular signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    AGCVIII kinases regulate diverse developmental and cellular processes in plants. As putative mediators of secondary messengers, AGCVIII kinases potentially integrate developmental and environmental cues into specific cellular responses through substrate phosphorylation. Here we discuss the functiona...

  5. Structural assembly of the signaling competent ERK2-RSK1 heterodimeric protein kinase complex.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Anita; Gógl, Gergő; Glatz, Gábor; Garai, Ágnes; Zeke, András; Varga, János; Dudás, Erika; Jeszenői, Norbert; Bodor, Andrea; Hetényi, Csaba; Reményi, Attila

    2015-03-03

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) bind and activate their downstream kinase substrates, MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Notably, extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylates ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1), which promotes cellular growth. Here, we determined the crystal structure of an RSK1 construct in complex with its activator kinase. The structure captures the kinase-kinase complex in a precatalytic state where the activation loop of the downstream kinase (RSK1) faces the enzyme's (ERK2) catalytic site. Molecular dynamics simulation was used to show how this heterodimer could shift into a signaling-competent state. This structural analysis combined with biochemical and cellular studies on MAPK→MAPKAPK signaling showed that the interaction between the MAPK binding linear motif (residing in a disordered kinase domain extension) and the ERK2 "docking" groove plays the major role in making an encounter complex. This interaction holds kinase domains proximal as they "readjust," whereas generic kinase domain surface contacts bring them into a catalytically competent state.

  6. Targeting B-cell receptor signaling kinases in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: the promise of entospletinib

    PubMed Central

    Sharman, Jeff; Di Paolo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The B-cell receptor signaling pathway has emerged as an important therapeutic target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell malignancies. Novel agents have been developed targeting the signaling enzymes spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta. This review discusses the rationale for targeting these enzymes, as well as the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting their role as therapeutic targets, with a particular focus on SYK inhibition with entospletinib. PMID:27247756

  7. Schizosaccharomyces pombe AGC family kinase Gad8p forms a conserved signaling module with TOR and PDK1-like kinases

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Tomohiko; Kubo, Yoshiya; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2003-01-01

    The TOR protein is a phosphoinositide kinase-related kinase widely conserved among eukaryotes. Fission yeast tor1 encodes an ortholog of TOR, which is required for sexual development and growth under stressed conditions. We isolated gad8, which encodes a Ser/Thr kinase of the AGC family, as a high-copy suppressor of the sterility of a tor1 mutant. Disruption of gad8 caused phenotypes similar to those of tor1 disruption. Gad8p was less phosphorylated and its kinase activity was undetectable in tor1Δ cells. Three amino acid residues corresponding to conserved phosphorylation sites in the AGC family kinases, namely Thr387 in the activation loop, Ser527 in the turn motif and Ser546 in the hydrophobic motif, were important for the kinase activity of Gad8p. Tor1p was responsible for the phosphorylation of Ser527 and Ser546, whereas Ksg1p, a PDK1-like kinase, appeared to phosphorylate Thr387 directly. Altogether, Tor1p, Ksg1p and Gad8p appear to constitute a signaling module for sexual development and growth under stressed conditions in fission yeast, which resembles the mTOR–PDK1–S6K1 system in mammals and may represent a basic signaling module ubiquitous in eukaryotes. PMID:12805221

  8. Structural assembly of the signaling competent ERK2–RSK1 heterodimeric protein kinase complex

    PubMed Central

    Alexa, Anita; Gógl, Gergő; Glatz, Gábor; Garai, Ágnes; Zeke, András; Varga, János; Dudás, Erika; Jeszenői, Norbert; Bodor, Andrea; Hetényi, Csaba; Reményi, Attila

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) bind and activate their downstream kinase substrates, MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Notably, extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylates ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1), which promotes cellular growth. Here, we determined the crystal structure of an RSK1 construct in complex with its activator kinase. The structure captures the kinase–kinase complex in a precatalytic state where the activation loop of the downstream kinase (RSK1) faces the enzyme's (ERK2) catalytic site. Molecular dynamics simulation was used to show how this heterodimer could shift into a signaling-competent state. This structural analysis combined with biochemical and cellular studies on MAPK→MAPKAPK signaling showed that the interaction between the MAPK binding linear motif (residing in a disordered kinase domain extension) and the ERK2 “docking” groove plays the major role in making an encounter complex. This interaction holds kinase domains proximal as they “readjust,” whereas generic kinase domain surface contacts bring them into a catalytically competent state. PMID:25730857

  9. CaM Kinase II-dependent pathophysiological signalling in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hua; Liu, Depei; Garcia, Joe G N

    2008-01-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM Kinase II) is a known modulator of cardiac pathophysiology. The present review uniquely focuses on novel CaM Kinase II-mediated endothelial cell signalling which, under pathophysiological conditions, may indirectly modulate cardiac functions via alterations in endothelial or endocardial responses. CaM Kinase II has four different isoforms and various splicing variants for each isoform. The endothelial cell CaM Kinase II isoforms are sensitive to KN93 and a threonine 286-mutated inhibitory peptide. In macrovascular endothelial cells derived from aortas, CaM Kinase II mediates redox-sensitive upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and oscillatory shear stress, and a rapid activation of eNOS in response to bradykinin. In endothelial cells derived from lung microvessels, CaM Kinase II mediates barrier dysfunction, particularly when activated by thrombin. In brain capillary endothelial cells, CaM Kinase II lies upstream of voltage-gated potassium channels and hypoxia-induced cell swelling. In both macrovascular and microvascular endothelial cells, CaM Kinase II mediates actin cytoskeleton reorganization via distinct p38 MAPK/HSP27 and ERK1/2/MLCK signalling pathways, respectively. Although understanding of endothelium-specific CaM Kinase II signalling is nascent, data accumulated so far have demonstrated a potentially significant role of CaM Kinase II in endothelial cell pathophysiology.

  10. c-Jun controls the efficiency of MAP kinase signaling by transcriptional repression of MAP kinase phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Sprowles, Amy; Wu Yimi; Kung, H.-J.; Wisdom, Ron . E-mail: ronald.wisdom@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu

    2005-08-15

    The mammalian JNK signaling pathway regulates the transcriptional response of cells to environmental stress, including UV irradiation. This signaling pathway is composed of a classical MAP kinase cascade; activation results in phosphorylation of the transcription factor substrates c-Jun and ATF2, and leads to changes in gene expression. The defining components of this pathway are conserved in the fission yeast S. pombe, where the genetic studies have shown that the ability of the JNK homolog Spc1 to be activated in response to UV irradiation is dependent on the presence of the transcription factor substrate Atf1. We have used genetic analysis to define the role of c-Jun in activation of the mammalian JNK signaling pathway. Our results show that optimal activation of JNK requires the presence of its transcription factor substrate c-Jun. Mutational analysis shows that the ability of c-Jun to support efficient activation of JNK requires the ability of Jun to bind DNA, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism. Consistent with this, we show that c-Jun represses the expression of several MAP kinase phosphatases. In the absence of c-Jun, the increased expression of MAP kinase phosphatases leads to impaired activation of the ERK, JNK, and p38 MAP kinases after pathway activation. The results show that one function of c-Jun is to regulate the efficiency of signaling by the ERK, p38, and JNK MAP kinases, a function that is likely to affect cellular responses to many different stimuli.

  11. Jun N-terminal kinase signaling makes a face

    PubMed Central

    Hursh, Deborah A.; Stultz, Brian G.; Park, Sung Yeon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT decapentaplegic (dpp), the Drosophila ortholog of BMP 2/4, directs ventral adult head morphogenesis through expression in the peripodial epithelium of the eye-antennal disc. This dpp expressing domain exerts effects both on the peripodial epithelium, and the underlying disc proper epithelium. We have uncovered a role for the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in dpp-mediated ventral head development. JNK activity is required for dpp's action on the disc proper, but in the absence of dpp expression, excessive JNK activity is produced, leading to specific loss of maxillary palps. In this review we outline our hypotheses on how dpp acts by both short range and longer range mechanisms to direct head morphogenesis and speculate on the dual role of JNK signaling in this process. Finally, we describe the regulatory control of dpp expression in the eye-antennal disc, and pose the problem of how the various expression domains of a secreted protein can be targeted to their specific functions. PMID:27384866

  12. Tec kinase signaling in T cells is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the Tec pleckstrin homology domain.

    PubMed

    Yang, W C; Ching, K A; Tsoukas, C D; Berg, L J

    2001-01-01

    Tec, the prototypical member of the Tec family of tyrosine kinases, is abundantly expressed in T cells and other hemopoietic cell types. Although the functions of Itk and Txk have recently been investigated, little is known about the role of Tec in T cells. Using antisense oligonucleotide treatment to deplete Tec protein from primary T cells, we demonstrate that Tec plays a role in TCR signaling leading to IL-2 gene induction. Interestingly, Tec kinases are the only known family of tyrosine kinases containing a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Using several PH domain mutants overexpressed in Jurkat T cells, we show that the Tec PH domain is required for Tec-mediated IL-2 gene induction and TCR-mediated Tec tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, we show that Tec colocalizes with the TCR after TCR cross-linking, and that both the Tec PH and Src homology (SH) 2 domains play a role in this association. Wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, abolishes Tec-mediated IL-2 gene induction and Tec tyrosine phosphorylation, and partially suppresses Tec colocalization with the activated TCR. Thus, our data implicate the Tec kinase PH domain and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in Tec signaling downstream of the TCR.

  13. PSM/SH2-B distributes selected mitogenic receptor signals to distinct components in the PI3-kinase and MAP kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Deng, Youping; Xu, Hu; Riedel, Heimo

    2007-02-15

    The Pro-rich, PH, and SH2 domain containing mitogenic signaling adapter PSM/SH2-B has been implicated as a cellular partner of various mitogenic receptor tyrosine kinases and related signaling mechanisms. Here, we report in a direct comparison of three peptide hormones, that PSM participates in the assembly of distinct mitogenic signaling complexes in response to insulin or IGF-I when compared to PDGF in cultured normal fibroblasts. The complex formed in response to insulin or IGF-I involves the respective peptide hormone receptor and presumably the established components leading to MAP kinase activation. However, our data suggest an alternative link from the PDGF receptor via PSM directly to MEK1/2 and consequently also to p44/42 activation, possibly through a scaffold protein. At least two PSM domains participate, the SH2 domain anticipated to link PSM to the respective receptor and the Pro-rich region in an association with an unidentified downstream component resulting in direct MEK1/2 and p44/42 regulation. The PDGF receptor signaling complex formed in response to PDGF involves PI 3-kinase in addition to the same components and interactions as described for insulin or IGF-I. PSM associates with PI 3-kinase via p85 and in addition the PSM PH domain participates in the regulation of PI 3-kinase activity, presumably through membrane interaction. In contrast, the PSM Pro-rich region appears to participate only in the MAP kinase signal. Both pathways contribute to the mitogenic response as shown by cell proliferation, survival, and focus formation. PSM regulates p38 MAP kinase activity in a pathway unrelated to the mitogenic response.

  14. Targeting Bruton's tyrosine kinase signaling as an emerging therapeutic agent of B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Xia, Bing; Qu, Fulian; Yuan, Tian; Zhang, Yizhuo

    2015-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is central to the development and function of B cells. BCR signaling has emerged as a pivotal pathway and a key driver of numerous B-cell lymphomas. Disruption of BCR signaling can be lethal to malignant B cells. Recently, kinase inhibitors that target BCR signaling have induced notable clinical responses. These inhibitors include spleen tyrosine kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, phosphoinositide 3'-kinase and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). Ibrutinib, an oral irreversible BTK inhibitor, has emerged as a promising targeted therapy for patients with B-cell malignancies. The present review discusses the current understanding of BTK-mediated BCR signaling in the biology and pathobiology of normal and malignant B cells, and the cellular interaction with the tumor microenvironment. The data on ibrutinib in the preclinical and clinical settings is also discussed, and perspectives for the future use of ibrutinib are outlined.

  15. Targeting Bruton's tyrosine kinase signaling as an emerging therapeutic agent of B-cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    XIA, BING; QU, FULIAN; YUAN, TIAN; ZHANG, YIZHUO

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is central to the development and function of B cells. BCR signaling has emerged as a pivotal pathway and a key driver of numerous B-cell lymphomas. Disruption of BCR signaling can be lethal to malignant B cells. Recently, kinase inhibitors that target BCR signaling have induced notable clinical responses. These inhibitors include spleen tyrosine kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, phosphoinositide 3′-kinase and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). Ibrutinib, an oral irreversible BTK inhibitor, has emerged as a promising targeted therapy for patients with B-cell malignancies. The present review discusses the current understanding of BTK-mediated BCR signaling in the biology and pathobiology of normal and malignant B cells, and the cellular interaction with the tumor microenvironment. The data on ibrutinib in the preclinical and clinical settings is also discussed, and perspectives for the future use of ibrutinib are outlined. PMID:26788133

  16. Crosstalk between integrin and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in breast carcinoma progression.

    PubMed

    Soung, Young Hwa; Clifford, John L; Chung, Jun

    2010-05-01

    This review explored the mechanism of breast carcinoma progression by focusing on integrins and receptor tyrosine kinases (or growth factor receptors). While the primary role of integrins was previously thought to be solely as mediators of adhesive interactions between cells and extracellular matrices, it is now believed that integrins also regulate signaling pathways that control cancer cell growth, survival, and invasion. A large body of evidence suggests that the cooperation between integrin and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling regulates certain signaling functions that are important for cancer progression. Recent developments on the crosstalk between integrins and receptor tyrosine kinases, and its implication in mammary tumor progression, are discussed.

  17. The Role of Specific Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Cascades in the Regulation of Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Pulak R.; Stocco, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) comprise a family of serine/threonine kinases that are activated by a large variety of extracellular stimuli and play integral roles in controlling many cellular processes, from the cell surface to the nucleus. The MAPK family includes four distinct MAPK cascades, that is, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase or stress-activated protein kinase, and ERK5. These MAPKs are essentially operated through three-tiered consecutive phosphorylation events catalyzed by a MAPK kinase kinase, a MAPK kinase, and a MAPK. MAPKs lie in protein kinase cascades. The MAPK signaling pathways have been demonstrated to be associated with events regulating the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and steroidogenesis in steroidogenic tissues. However, it has become clear that the regulation of MAPK-dependent StAR expression and steroid synthesis is a complex process and is context dependent. This paper summarizes the current level of understanding concerning the roles of the MAPK signaling cascades in the regulation of StAR expression and steroidogenesis in different steroidogenic cell models. PMID:21637381

  18. Apelin Increases Cardiac Contractility via Protein Kinase Cε- and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase-Dependent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Perjés, Ábel; Skoumal, Réka; Tenhunen, Olli; Kónyi, Attila; Simon, Mihály; Horváth, Iván G.; Kerkelä, Risto; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Szokodi, István

    2014-01-01

    Background Apelin, the endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled apelin receptor, is an important regulator of the cardiovascular homoeostasis. We previously demonstrated that apelin is one of the most potent endogenous stimulators of cardiac contractility; however, its underlying signaling mechanisms remain largely elusive. In this study we characterized the contribution of protein kinase C (PKC), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) to the positive inotropic effect of apelin. Methods and Results In isolated perfused rat hearts, apelin increased contractility in association with activation of prosurvival kinases PKC and ERK1/2. Apelin induced a transient increase in the translocation of PKCε, but not PKCα, from the cytosol to the particulate fraction, and a sustained increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the left ventricle. Suppression of ERK1/2 activation diminished the apelin-induced increase in contractility. Although pharmacological inhibition of PKC attenuated the inotropic response to apelin, it had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Moreover, the apelin-induced positive inotropic effect was significantly decreased by inhibition of MLCK, a kinase that increases myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. Conclusions Apelin increases cardiac contractility through parallel and independent activation of PKCε and ERK1/2 signaling in the adult rat heart. Additionally MLCK activation represents a downstream mechanism in apelin signaling. Our data suggest that, in addition to their role in cytoprotection, modest activation of PKCε and ERK1/2 signaling improve contractile function, therefore these pathways represent attractive possible targets in the treatment of heart failure. PMID:24695532

  19. Src kinases and ERK activate distinct responses to Stitcher receptor tyrosine kinase signaling during wound healing in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Tsarouhas, Vasilios; Yao, Liqun; Samakovlis, Christos

    2014-04-15

    Metazoans have evolved efficient mechanisms for epidermal repair and survival following injury. Several cellular responses and key signaling molecules that are involved in wound healing have been identified in Drosophila, but the coordination of cytoskeletal rearrangements and the activation of gene expression during barrier repair are poorly understood. The Ret-like receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Stitcher (Stit, also known as Cad96Ca) regulates both re-epithelialization and transcriptional activation by Grainy head (Grh) to induce restoration of the extracellular barrier. Here, we describe the immediate downstream effectors of Stit signaling in vivo. Drk (Downstream of receptor kinase) and Src family tyrosine kinases bind to the same docking site in the Stit intracellular domain. Drk is required for the full activation of transcriptional responses but is dispensable for re-epithelialization. By contrast, Src family kinases (SFKs) control both the assembly of a contractile actin ring at the wound periphery and Grh-dependent activation of barrier-repair genes. Our analysis identifies distinct pathways mediating injury responses and reveals an RTK-dependent activation mode for Src kinases and their central functions during epidermal wound healing in vivo.

  20. The Discovery of a Reciprocal Relationship between Tyrosine-Kinase Signaling and Cullin Neddylation

    PubMed Central

    Friend, Samantha F.; Peterson, Lisa K.; Treacy, Eric; Stefanski, Adrianne L.; Sosinowski, Tomasz; Pennock, Nathan D.; Berger, Allison J.; Winn, Virginia D.; Dragone, Leonard L.

    2013-01-01

    While neddylation is known to activate cullin (CUL)-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs), its role in regulating T cell signaling is poorly understood. Using the investigational NEDD8 activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitor, MLN4924, we found that neddylation negatively regulates T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, as its inhibition increases IL-2 production, T cell proliferation and Treg development in vitro. We also discovered that loss of CUL neddylation occurs upon TCR signaling, and CRLs negatively regulate IL-2 production. Additionally, we found that tyrosine kinase signaling leads to CUL deneddylation in multiple cell types. These studies indicate that CUL neddylation is a global regulatory mechanism for tyrosine kinase signaling. PMID:24124476

  1. PAR2 exerts local protection against acute pancreatitis via modulation of MAP kinase and MAP kinase phosphatase signaling.

    PubMed

    Namkung, Wan; Yoon, Jae Seok; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Min Goo

    2008-11-01

    During acute pancreatitis, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) can be activated by interstitially released trypsin. In the mild form of pancreatitis, PAR2 activation exerts local protection against intrapancreatic damage, whereas, in the severe form of pancreatitis, PAR2 activation mediates some systemic complications. This study aimed to identify the molecular mechanisms of PAR2-mediated protective effects against intrapancreatic damage. A mild form of acute pancreatitis was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of caerulein (40 microg/kg) in rats. Effects of PAR2 activation on intrapancreatic damage and on mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling were assessed. Caerulein treatment activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) within 15 min and maintained phosphorylation of ERK and JNK for 2 h in the rat pancreas. Although PAR2 activation by the pretreatment with PAR2-activating peptide (AP) itself increased ERK phosphorylation in rat pancreas, the same treatment remarkably decreased caerulein-induced activation of ERK and JNK principally by accelerating their dephosphorylation. Inhibition of ERK and JNK phosphorylation by the pretreatment with MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) or JNK inhibitors decreased caerulein-induced pancreatic damage that was similar to the effect induced by PAR2-AP. Notably, in caerulein-treated rats, PAR2-AP cotreatment highly increased the expression of a group of MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs) that deactivate ERK and JNK. The above results imply that downregulation of MAP kinase signaling by MKP induction is a key mechanism involved in the protective effects of PAR2 activation on caerulein-induced intrapancreatic damage.

  2. Expressional Analysis and Role of Calcium Regulated Kinases in Abiotic Stress Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ritika; Pandey, Girdhar K

    2010-01-01

    Perception of stimuli and activation of a signaling cascade is an intrinsic characteristic feature of all living organisms. Till date, several signaling pathways have been elucidated that are involved in multiple facets of growth and development of an organism. Exposure to unfavorable stimuli or stress condition activates different signaling cascades in both plants and animal. Being sessile, plants cannot move away from an unfavorable condition, and hence activate the molecular machinery to cope up or adjust against that particular stress condition. In plants, role of calcium as second messenger has been studied in detail in both abiotic and biotic stress signaling. Several calcium sensor proteins such as calmodulin (CaM), calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPK) and calcinuerin B-like (CBL) were discovered to play a crucial role in abiotic stress signaling in plants. Unlike CDPK, CBL and CaM are calcium-binding proteins, which do not have any protein kinase enzyme activity and interact with a target protein kinase termed as CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) and CaM kinases respectively. Genome sequence analysis of Arabidopsis and rice has led to the identification of multigene familes of these calcium signaling protein kinases. Individual and global gene expression analysis of these protein kinase family members has been analyzed under several developmental and different abiotic stress conditions. In this review, we are trying to overview and emphasize the expressional analysis of calcium signaling protein kinases under different abiotic stress and developmental stages, and linking the expression to possible function for these kinases. PMID:20808518

  3. The Drosophila rolled locus encodes a MAP kinase required in the sevenless signal transduction pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, W H; Zavitz, K H; Dickson, B; van der Straten, A; Brunner, D; Hafen, E; Zipursky, S L

    1994-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases have been proposed to play a critical role in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated signal transduction pathways. Although genetic and biochemical studies of RTK pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and mammals have revealed remarkable similarities, a genetic requirement for MAP kinases in RTK signaling has not been established. During retinal development in Drosophila, the sevenless (Sev) RTK is required for development of the R7 photoreceptor cell. Components of the signal transduction pathway activated by Sev in the R7 precursor include proteins encoded by the gap1, drk, Sos, ras1 and raf loci. In this report we present evidence that a Drosophila MAP kinase, ERK-A, is encoded by the rolled locus and is required downstream of raf in the Sev signal transduction pathway. Images PMID:8157002

  4. Receptor kinase signalling in plants and animals: distinct molecular systems with mechanistic similarities.

    PubMed

    Cock, J Mark; Vanoosthuyse, Vincent; Gaude, Thierry

    2002-04-01

    Plant genomes encode large numbers of receptor kinases that are structurally related to the tyrosine and serine/threonine families of receptor kinase found in animals. Here, we describe recent advances in the characterisation of several of these plant receptor kinases at the molecular level, including the identification of receptor complexes, small polypeptide ligands and cytosolic proteins involved in signal transduction and receptor downregulation. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that plant receptor kinases have evolved independently of the receptor kinase families found in animals. This hypothesis is supported by functional studies that have revealed differences between receptor kinase signalling in plants and animals, particularly concerning their interactions with cytosolic proteins. Despite these dissimilarities, however, plant and animal receptor kinases share many common features, such as their single membrane-pass structure, their inclusion in membrane-associated complexes, the involvement of dimerisation and trans autophosphorylation in receptor activation, and the existence of inhibitors and phosphatases that downregulate receptor activity. These points of convergence may represent features that are essential for a functional receptor-kinase signalling system.

  5. STRUBBELIG defines a receptor kinase-mediated signaling pathway regulating organ development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, David; Batoux, Martine; Fulton, Lynette; Pfister, Karen; Yadav, Ram Kishor; Schellenberg, Maja; Schneitz, Kay

    2005-01-01

    An open question remains as to what coordinates cell behavior during organogenesis, permitting organs to reach their appropriate size and shape. The Arabidopsis gene STRUBBELIG (SUB) defines a receptor-mediated signaling pathway in plants. SUB encodes a putative leucine-rich repeat transmembrane receptor-like kinase. The mutant sub phenotype suggests that SUB affects the formation and shape of several organs by influencing cell morphogenesis, the orientation of the division plane, and cell proliferation. Mutational analysis suggests that the kinase domain is important for SUB function. Biochemical assays using bacterially expressed fusion proteins indicate that the SUB kinase domain lacks enzymatic phosphotransfer activity. Furthermore, transgenes encoding WT and different mutant variants of SUB were tested for their ability to rescue the mutant sub phenotype. These genetic data also indicate that SUB carries a catalytically inactive kinase domain. The SUB receptor-like kinase may therefore signal in an atypical fashion. PMID:15951420

  6. N-Acetylcysteine and alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid alter protein kinase C (PKC)-delta and PKC-zeta and diminish dysmorphogenesis in rat embryos cultured with high glucose in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gäreskog, Mattias; Wentzel, Parri

    2007-01-01

    Malformations and growth disturbances are two- to threefold more common in infants of diabetic mothers than in offspring of non-diabetic pregnancy. Several suggestions have emerged to explain the reasons for diabetic embryopathy, including enhanced mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species leading to altered activation of protein kinase C. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHC) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) addition on morphology and activity of protein kinase C-delta and protein kinase C-zeta in rat embryos exposed to a high glucose concentration in vitro. Day 9 embryos from normal rats were cultured in 10 or 30 mM glucose concentrations with or without supplementation of CHC, NAC, or protein kinase C inhibitors specific for protein kinase C-delta and protein kinase C-zeta. Embryos were evaluated for malformations, crown rump length, and somite number. Protein kinase C-delta and protein kinase C-zeta activities were estimated by western blot by separating membranous and cytosolic fractions of the embryo. We found increased malformations and growth retardation in embryos cultured in high versus low glucose concentrations. These abnormalities were diminished when CHC and NAC or specific protein kinase C-inhibitors were added to the culture medium. The activities of embryonic protein kinase C-delta and protein kinase C-zeta were increased in the high glucose environment after 24-h culture, but were normalized by the addition of CHC and NAC as well as respective inhibitor to the culture medium. These findings suggest that mitochondrial overproduction of reactive oxygen species is involved in diabetic embryopathy. Furthermore, such overproduction may affect embryonic development, at least partly, by enhancing the activities of protein kinase C-delta and protein kinase C-zeta.

  7. Protein Kinase N2 Regulates AMP-Kinase Signaling and Insulin Responsiveness of Glucose Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Maxwell A; Riedl, Isabelle; Massart, Julie; Åhlin, Marcus; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-07-18

    Insulin resistance is central to the development of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders. As skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of whole body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, regulation of glucose metabolism in this tissue is of particular importance. While Rho GTPases and many of their affecters influence skeletal muscle metabolism, there is a paucity of information on the protein kinase N (PKN) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. We investigated the impact of PKN2 on insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in primary human skeletal muscle cells in vitro and mouse tibialis anterior muscle in vivo. PKN2 knockdown in vitro decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, incorporation into glycogen, and oxidation. PKN2 siRNA increased 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, while stimulating fatty acid oxidation and incorporation into triglycerides, and decreasing protein synthesis. At the transcriptional level, PKN2 knockdown increased expression of PGC1α and SREBP1c and their target genes. In mature skeletal muscle, in vivo PKN2 knockdown decreased glucose uptake and increased AMPK phosphorylation. Thus, PKN2 alters key signaling pathways and transcriptional networks to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Identification of PKN2 as a novel regulator of insulin and AMPK signaling may provide an avenue for manipulation of skeletal muscle metabolism. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism.

  8. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in the vertebrate retina

    PubMed Central

    Rajala, Raju V. S.

    2010-01-01

    The phosphoinositide (PI) cycle, discovered over 50 years ago by Mabel and Lowell Hokin, describes a series of biochemical reactions that occur on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane of cells in response to receptor activation by extracellular stimuli. Studies from our laboratory have shown that the retina and rod outer segments (ROSs) have active PI metabolism. Biochemical studies revealed that the ROSs contain the enzymes necessary for phosphorylation of phosphoinositides. We showed that light stimulates various components of the PI cycle in the vertebrate ROS, including diacylglycerol kinase, PI synthetase, phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase, phospholipase C, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). This article describes recent studies on the PI3K-generated PI lipid second messengers in the control and regulation of PI-binding proteins in the vertebrate retina. PMID:19638643

  9. Endothelial thrombomodulin induces Ca2+ signals and nitric oxide synthesis through epidermal growth factor receptor kinase and calmodulin kinase II.

    PubMed

    David-Dufilho, Monique; Millanvoye-Van Brussel, Elisabeth; Topal, Gokce; Walch, Laurence; Brunet, Annie; Rendu, Francine

    2005-10-28

    Endothelial membrane-bound thrombomodulin is a high affinity receptor for thrombin to inhibit coagulation. We previously demonstrated that the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex restrains cell proliferation mediated through protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1. We have now tested the hypothesis that thrombomodulin transduces a signal to activate the endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (NOS3) and to modulate G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells were stimulated with thrombin or a mutant of thrombin that binds to thrombomodulin and has no catalytic activity on PAR-1. Thrombin and its mutant dose dependently activated NO release at cell surface. Pretreatment with anti-thrombomodulin antibody suppressed NO response to the mutant and to low thrombin concentration and reduced by half response to high concentration. Thrombin receptor-activating peptide that only activates PAR-1 and high thrombin concentration induced marked biphasic Ca2+ signals with rapid phosphorylation of PLC(beta3) and NOS3 at both serine 1177 and threonine 495. The mutant thrombin evoked a Ca2+ spark and progressive phosphorylation of Src family kinases at tyrosine 416 and NOS3 only at threonine 495. It activated rapid phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-dependent NO synthesis and phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and calmodulin kinase II. Complete epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition only partly reduced the activation of phospholipase Cgamma1 and NOS3. Prestimulation of thrombomodulin did not affect NO release but reduced Ca2+ responses to thrombin and histamine, suggesting cross-talks between thrombomodulin and G protein-coupled receptors. This is the first demonstration of an outside-in signal mediated by the cell surface thrombomodulin receptor to activate NOS3 through tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway. This signaling may contribute to thrombomodulin function in thrombosis, inflammation, and atherosclerosis.

  10. A Requirement for ZAK Kinase Activity in Canonical TGF-β Signaling.

    PubMed

    Nyati, Shyam; Chator, Areeb; Schinske, Katerina; Gregg, Brandon S; Ross, Brian Dale; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2016-12-01

    The sterile alpha motif and leucine zipper containing kinase ZAK (AZK, MLT, MLK7), is a MAPK-kinase kinase (MKKK). Like most MAPKKKs which are known to activate the c-Jun. amino-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, ZAK has been shown to participate in the transduction of Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-mediated non-canonical signaling. A role for ZAK in SMAD-dependent, canonical TGF-β signaling has not been previously appreciated. Using a combination of functional genomics and biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that ZAK regulates canonical TGFβRI/II signaling in lung and breast cancer cell lines and may serve as a key node in the regulation of TGFBR kinase activity. Remarkably, we demonstrate that siRNA mediated depletion of ZAK strongly inhibited TGF-β dependent SMAD2/3 activation and subsequent promoter activation (SMAD binding element driven luciferase expression; SBE4-Luc). A ZAK specific inhibitor (DHP-2), dose-dependently activated the bioluminescent TGFBR-kinase activity reporter (BTR), blocked TGF-β induced SMAD2/3 phosphorylation and SBE4-Luc activation and cancer cell-invasion. In aggregate, these findings identify a novel role for the ZAK kinase in canonical TGF-β signaling and an invasive cancer cell phenotype thus providing a novel target for TGF-β inhibition.

  11. Glucagon receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 via cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Youwei; Cypess, Aaron M.; Muse, Evan D.; Wu, Cui-Rong; Unson, Cecilia G.; Merrifield, R. B.; Sakmar, Thomas P.

    2001-01-01

    We prepared a stable cell line expressing the glucagon receptor to characterize the effect of Gs-coupled receptor stimulation on extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity. Glucagon treatment of the cell line caused a dose-dependent increase in cAMP concentration, activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and transient release of intracellular calcium. Glucagon treatment also caused rapid dose-dependent phosphorylation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK kinase (MEK1/2) and ERK1/2. Inhibition of either PKA or MEK1/2 blocked ERK1/2 activation by glucagon. However, no significant activation of several upstream activators of MEK, including Ras, Rap1, and Raf, was observed in response to glucagon treatment. In addition, chelation of intracellular calcium reduced glucagon-mediated ERK1/2 activation. In transient transfection experiments, glucagon receptor mutants that bound glucagon but failed to increase intracellular cAMP and calcium concentrations showed no glucagon-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation. We conclude that glucagon-induced MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation is mediated by PKA and that an increase in intracellular calcium concentration is required for maximal ERK activation. PMID:11517300

  12. Protein kinase CK2 triggers cytosolic zinc signaling pathways by phosphorylation of zinc channel ZIP7.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kathryn M; Hiscox, Stephen; Nicholson, Robert I; Hogstrand, Christer; Kille, Peter

    2012-02-07

    The transition element zinc, which has recently been identified as an intracellular second messenger, has been implicated in various signaling pathways, including those leading to cell proliferation. Zinc channels of the ZIP (ZRT1- and IRT1-like protein) family [also known as solute carrier family 39A (SLC39A)] transiently increase the cytosolic free zinc (Zn(2+)) concentration in response to extracellular signals. We show that phosphorylation of evolutionarily conserved residues in endoplasmic reticulum zinc channel ZIP7 is associated with the gated release of Zn(2+) from intracellular stores, leading to activation of tyrosine kinases and the phosphorylation of AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. Through pharmacological manipulation, proximity ligation assay, and mutagenesis, we identified protein kinase CK2 as the kinase responsible for ZIP7 activation. Together, the present results show that transition element channels in eukaryotes can be activated posttranslationally by phosphorylation, as part of a cell signaling cascade. Our study links the regulated release of zinc from intracellular stores to phosphorylation of kinases involved in proliferative responses and cell migration, suggesting a functional role for ZIP7 and zinc signals in these events. The connection with proliferation and migration, as well as the activation of ZIP7 by CK2, a kinase that is antiapoptotic and promotes cell division, suggests that ZIP7 may provide a target for anticancer drug development.

  13. The mobility of two kinase domains in the Escherichia coli chemoreceptor array varies with signaling state

    PubMed Central

    Briegel, Ariane; Ames, Peter; Gumbart, James C.; Oikonomou, Catherine M.; Parkinson, John S.; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Motile bacteria sense their physical and chemical environment through highly cooperative, ordered arrays of chemoreceptors. These signaling complexes phosphorylate a response regulator which in turn governs flagellar motor reversals, driving cells towards favorable environments. The structural changes that translate chemoeffector binding into the appropriate kinase output are not known. Here, we apply high-resolution electron cryotomography to visualize mutant chemoreceptor signaling arrays in well-defined kinase activity states. The arrays were well ordered in all signaling states, with no discernible differences in receptor conformation at 2-3 nm resolution. Differences were observed, however, in a keel-like density that we identify here as CheA kinase domains P1 and P2, which are the phosphorylation site domain and the binding domain for response regulator target proteins, respectively. Mutant receptor arrays with high kinase activities all exhibited small keels and high proteolysis susceptibility, indicative of mobile P1 and P2 domains. In contrast, arrays in kinase-off signaling states exhibited a range of keel sizes. These findings confirm that chemoreceptor arrays do not undergo large structural changes during signaling, and suggest instead that kinase activity is modulated at least in part by changes in the mobility of key domains. PMID:23802570

  14. Structural basis of autoregulatory scaffolding by apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1

    PubMed Central

    Weijman, Johannes F.; Kumar, Abhishek; Jamieson, Sam A.; King, Chontelle M.; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Ledgerwood, Elizabeth C.; Murphy, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinases (ASK1–3) are apical kinases of the p38 and JNK MAP kinase pathways. They are activated by diverse stress stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, cytokines, and osmotic stress; however, a molecular understanding of how ASK proteins are controlled remains obscure. Here, we report a biochemical analysis of the ASK1 kinase domain in conjunction with its N-terminal thioredoxin-binding domain, along with a central regulatory region that links the two. We show that in solution the central regulatory region mediates a compact arrangement of the kinase and thioredoxin-binding domains and the central regulatory region actively primes MKK6, a key ASK1 substrate, for phosphorylation. The crystal structure of the central regulatory region reveals an unusually compact tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) region capped by a cryptic pleckstrin homology domain. Biochemical assays show that both a conserved surface on the pleckstrin homology domain and an intact TPR region are required for ASK1 activity. We propose a model in which the central regulatory region promotes ASK1 activity via its pleckstrin homology domain but also facilitates ASK1 autoinhibition by bringing the thioredoxin-binding and kinase domains into close proximity. Such an architecture provides a mechanism for control of ASK-type kinases by diverse activators and inhibitors and demonstrates an unexpected level of autoregulatory scaffolding in mammalian stress-activated MAP kinase signaling. PMID:28242696

  15. Focal adhesion kinase: targeting adhesion signaling pathways for therapeutic intervention.

    PubMed

    Parsons, J Thomas; Slack-Davis, Jill; Tilghman, Robert; Roberts, W Gregory

    2008-02-01

    The tumor microenvironment plays a central role in cancer progression and metastasis. Within this environment, cancer cells respond to a host of signals including growth factors and chemotactic factors, as well as signals from adjacent cells, cells in the surrounding stroma, and signals from the extracellular matrix. Targeting the pathways that mediate many of these signals has been a major goal in the effort to develop therapeutics.

  16. Phosphoinositide-3-kinase and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathways mediate acute NGF sensitization of TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Weiguo; Oxford, Gerry S.

    2009-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces an acute sensitization of nociceptive DRG neurons, in part, through sensitization of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 via the high affinity trkA receptor. The mechanisms linking trkA and TRPV1 remain controversial with several candidate signaling pathways proposed. Utilizing adult rat and mouse DRG neurons and CHO cells coexpressing trkA and TRPV1, we have investigated the signaling events underlying acute TRPV1 sensitization by NGF combining biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, mutational and genetic knockout approaches. Pharmacological interference with p42/p44 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) or phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), but not PLC abrogated sensitization of capsaicin responses. Co-expression of TRPV1 with wildtype or Y785F (PLC signal deficient) mutant human trkA reconstituted NGF sensitization. In contrast, TRPV1 coexpressed with MAPK signaling deficient Y490A or PI3K signaling deficient Y751F trkA mutants exhibited weaker sensitization. Biochemical analysis of p42/p44 and Akt phosphorylation confirmed the specificity of pharmacological agents and trkA mutants. Finally, NGF sensitization of capsaicin responses was greatly reduced in neurons from p85α (regulatory subunit of PI3K) null mice. These data strongly suggest that PI3K and MAPK pathways, but not the PLC pathway underlie the acute sensitization of TRPV1 by NGF. PMID:17324588

  17. Phosphoinositide-3-kinase and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathways mediate acute NGF sensitization of TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weiguo; Oxford, Gerry S

    2007-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces an acute sensitization of nociceptive DRG neurons, in part, through sensitization of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 via the high affinity trkA receptor. The mechanisms linking trkA and TRPV1 remain controversial with several candidate signaling pathways proposed. Utilizing adult rat and mouse DRG neurons and CHO cells co-expressing trkA and TRPV1, we have investigated the signaling events underlying acute TRPV1 sensitization by NGF combining biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, mutational and genetic knockout approaches. Pharmacological interference with p42/p44 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) or phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), but not PLC abrogated sensitization of capsaicin responses. Co-expression of TRPV1 with wild-type or Y785F (PLC signal deficient) mutant human trkA reconstituted NGF sensitization. In contrast, TRPV1 co-expressed with MAPK signaling deficient Y490A or PI3K signaling deficient Y751F trkA mutants exhibited weaker sensitization. Biochemical analysis of p42/p44 and Akt phosphorylation confirmed the specificity of pharmacological agents and trkA mutants. Finally, NGF sensitization of capsaicin responses was greatly reduced in neurons from p85alpha (regulatory subunit of PI3K) null mice. These data strongly suggest that PI3K and MAPK pathways, but not the PLC pathway underlie the acute sensitization of TRPV1 by NGF.

  18. Treponema denticola activates mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathways through Toll-like receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Ruby, John; Rehani, Kunal; Martin, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Treponema denticola, a spirochete indigenous to the oral cavity, is associated with host inflammatory responses to anaerobic polymicrobial infections of the root canal, periodontium, and alveolar bone. However, the cellular mechanisms responsible for the recognition of T. denticola by the innate immune system and the underlying cell signaling pathways that regulate the inflammatory response to T. denticola are currently unresolved. In this study, we demonstrate that T. denticola induces innate immune responses via the utilization of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) but not TLR4. Assessment of TLR2/1 and TLR2/6 heterodimers revealed that T. denticola predominantly utilizes TLR2/6 for the induction of cellular responses. Analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in T. denticola-stimulated monocytes identified a prolonged up-regulation of the MAPK extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38, while no discernible increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) levels was observed. With the aid of pharmacological inhibitors selectively targeting ERK1/2 via the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 kinase and p38, we further demonstrate that ERK1/2 and p38 play a major role in T. denticola-mediated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production.

  19. Signal Transduction by BvgS Sensor Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Dupré, Elian; Lesne, Elodie; Guérin, Jérémy; Lensink, Marc F.; Verger, Alexis; de Ruyck, Jérôme; Brysbaert, Guillaume; Vezin, Hervé; Locht, Camille; Antoine, Rudy; Jacob-Dubuisson, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    The two-component sensory transduction system BvgAS controls the virulence regulon of the whooping-cough agent Bordetella pertussis. The periplasmic moiety of the homodimeric sensor kinase BvgS is composed of four bilobed Venus flytrap (VFT) perception domains followed by α helices that extend into the cytoplasmic membrane. In the virulent phase, the default state of B. pertussis, the cytoplasmic enzymatic moiety of BvgS acts as kinase by autophosphorylating and transferring the phosphoryl group to the response regulator BvgA. Under laboratory conditions, BvgS shifts to phosphatase activity in response to modulators, notably nicotinate ions. Here we characterized the effects of nicotinate and related modulators on the BvgS periplasmic moiety by using site-directed mutagenesis and in silico and biophysical approaches. Modulators bind with low affinity to BvgS in the VFT2 cavity. Electron paramagnetic resonance shows that their binding globally affects the conformation and dynamics of the periplasmic moiety. Specific amino acid substitutions designed to slacken interactions within and between the VFT lobes prevent BvgS from responding to nicotinate, showing that BvgS shifts from kinase to phosphatase activity in response to this modulator via a tense transition state that involves a large periplasmic structural block. We propose that this transition enables the transmembrane helices to adopt a distinct conformation that sets the cytoplasmic enzymatic moiety in the phosphatase mode. The bona fide, in vivo VFT ligands that remain to be identified are likely to trigger similar effects on the transmembrane and cytoplasmic moieties. This mechanism may be relevant to the other VFT-containing sensor kinases homologous to BvgS. PMID:26203186

  20. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase: signalling in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Ruth H.; Vernersson, Emma; Grabbe, Caroline; Hallberg, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    RTKs (receptor tyrosine kinases) play important roles in cellular proliferation and differentiation. In addition, RTKs reveal oncogenic potential when their kinase activities are constitutively enhanced by point mutation, amplification or rearrangement of the corresponding genes. The ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) RTK was originally identified as a member of the insulin receptor subfamily of RTKs that acquires transforming capability when truncated and fused to NPM (nucleophosmin) in the t(2;5) chromosomal rearrangement associated with ALCL (anaplastic large cell lymphoma). To date, many chromosomal rearrangements leading to enhanced ALK activity have been described and are implicated in a number of cancer types. Recent reports of the EML4 (echinoderm microtubule-associated protein like 4)–ALK oncoprotein in NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer), together with the identification of activating point mutations in neuroblastoma, have highlighted ALK as a significant player and target for drug development in cancer. In the present review we address the role of ALK in development and disease and discuss implications for the future. PMID:19459784

  1. Spatially coordinated kinase signaling regulates local axon degeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mark; Maloney, Janice A; Kallop, Dara Y; Atwal, Jasvinder K; Tam, Stephen J; Baer, Kristin; Kissel, Holger; Kaminker, Joshua S; Lewcock, Joseph W; Weimer, Robby M; Watts, Ryan J

    2012-09-26

    In addition to being a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease, axon degeneration is used during development of the nervous system to prune unwanted connections. In development, axon degeneration is tightly regulated both temporally and spatially. Here, we provide evidence that degeneration cues are transduced through various kinase pathways functioning in spatially distinct compartments to regulate axon degeneration. Intriguingly, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) acts centrally, likely modulating gene expression in the cell body to regulate distally restricted axon degeneration. Through a combination of genetic and pharmacological manipulations, including the generation of an analog-sensitive kinase allele mutant mouse for GSK3β, we show that the β isoform of GSK3, not the α isoform, is essential for developmental axon pruning in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, we identify the dleu2/mir15a/16-1 cluster, previously characterized as a regulator of B-cell proliferation, and the transcription factor tbx6, as likely downstream effectors of GSK3β in axon degeneration.

  2. The Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Signaling Pathway as a Discovery Target in Stroke.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Nan, Guangxian

    2016-05-01

    Protein kinases are critical modulators of a variety of intracellular and extracellular signal transduction pathways, and abnormal phosphorylation events can contribute to disease progression in a variety of diseases. As a result, protein kinases have emerged as important new drug targets for small molecule therapeutics. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway transmits signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus in response to a variety of different stimuli. Because this pathway controls a broad spectrum of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and stress responses, it is accepted as a therapeutic target for cancer and peripheral inflammatory disorders. There is also increasing evidence that MAPK is an important regulator of ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebral vascular disease, raising the possibility that it might be a drug discovery target for stroke. In this review, we discuss the MAPK signaling pathway in association with its activation in stroke-induced brain injury.

  3. The Arabidopsis MAP kinase kinase 7: A crosstalk point between Auxin signaling and defense responses?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant-pathogen interaction induces a complex host response that coordinates various signaling pathways through multiple signal molecules. Besides the well-documented signal molecules salicylic acid (SA), ethylene and jasmonic acid, auxin is emerging as an important player in this response. We recent...

  4. Molecular mimicry regulates ABA signaling by SnRK2 kinases and PP2C phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X Edward; West, Graham M; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M H Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

    2012-01-06

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  5. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M. H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites. PMID:22116026

  6. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M.H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  7. Venus Kinase Receptors: Prospects in Signaling and Biological Functions of These Invertebrate Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel. PMID:24860549

  8. Venus kinase receptors: prospects in signaling and biological functions of these invertebrate kinases.

    PubMed

    Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel.

  9. Distinct and Overlapping Functions of TEC Kinase and BTK in B Cell Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Marjolein J W; Rip, Jasper; van der Ploeg, Esmee K; van Greuningen, Lars W; Ta, Van T B; Kil, Laurens P; Langerak, Anton W; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Ellmeier, Wilfried; Hendriks, Rudi W; Corneth, Odilia B J

    2017-04-15

    The Tec tyrosine kinase is expressed in many cell types, including hematopoietic cells, and is a member of the Tec kinase family that also includes Btk. Although the role of Btk in B cells has been extensively studied, the role of Tec kinase in B cells remains largely unclear. It was previously shown that Tec kinase has the ability to partly compensate for loss of Btk activity in B cell differentiation, although the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we confirm that Tec kinase is not essential for normal B cell development when Btk is present, but we also found that Tec-deficient mature B cells showed increased activation, proliferation, and survival upon BCR stimulation, even in the presence of Btk. Whereas Tec deficiency did not affect phosphorylation of phospholipase Cγ or Ca(2+) influx, it was associated with significantly increased activation of the intracellular Akt/S6 kinase signaling pathway upon BCR and CD40 stimulation. The increased S6 kinase phosphorylation in Tec-deficient B cells was dependent on Btk kinase activity, as ibrutinib treatment restored pS6 to wild-type levels, although Btk protein and phosphorylation levels were comparable to controls. In Tec-deficient mice in vivo, B cell responses to model Ags and humoral immunity upon influenza infection were enhanced. Moreover, aged mice lacking Tec kinase developed a mild autoimmune phenotype. Taken together, these data indicate that in mature B cells, Tec and Btk may compete for activation of the Akt signaling pathway, whereby the activating capacity of Btk is limited by the presence of Tec kinase.

  10. Protein kinase CK2 triggers cytosolic zinc signaling pathways by phosphorylation of zinc channel ZIP7

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Kathryn M.; Hiscox, Stephen; Nicholson, Robert I.; Hogstrand, Christer; Kille, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The transition element zinc, which has recently been identified as an intracellular second messenger, has been implicated in various signaling pathways, including those leading to cell proliferation. Zinc channels of the ZIP protein family (Solute Carrier Family 39A, SLC39A) transiently increase the cytosolic free zinc (Zn2+) concentration in response to extracellular signals. Here, we show that phosphorylation of evolutionarily conserved residues in zinc transporter ZIP7 is associated with the gated release of Zn2+ from intracellular stores, leading to activation of tyrosine kinases and the phosphorylation of AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Through pharmacological manipulation, proximity assay, and mutagenesis, we identified CK2 as the kinase responsible for ZIP7 activation. Together, the present results show that eukaryotic transition element channels can be activated post-translationally by phosphorylation eliciting a cell signaling cascade. Our study links the regulated release of zinc from intracellular stores to phosphorylation of kinases involved in proliferative responses and cell migration, suggesting a functional role for ZIP7 and zinc signals for these events which are characteristic of cancerous cells. Furthermore, the interaction of ZIP7 with CK2, a kinase that is antiapoptotoc and promotes cell division, highlights the potential for ZIP7 as a target for anti-cancer drug development. PMID:22317921

  11. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) Signaling via Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (Gsk-3) Regulates DNA Methylation of Imprinted Loci*

    PubMed Central

    Popkie, Anthony P.; Zeidner, Leigh C.; Albrecht, Ashley M.; D'Ippolito, Anthony; Eckardt, Sigrid; Newsom, David E.; Groden, Joanna; Doble, Bradley W.; Aronow, Bruce; McLaughlin, K. John; White, Peter; Phiel, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (Gsk-3) isoforms, Gsk-3α and Gsk-3β, are constitutively active, largely inhibitory kinases involved in signal transduction. Underscoring their biological significance, altered Gsk-3 activity has been implicated in diabetes, Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of both Gsk-3α and Gsk-3β in mouse embryonic stem cells results in reduced expression of the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a2, causing misexpression of the imprinted genes Igf2, H19, and Igf2r and hypomethylation of their corresponding imprinted control regions. Treatment of wild-type embryonic stem cells and neural stem cells with the Gsk-3 inhibitor, lithium, phenocopies the DNA hypomethylation at these imprinted loci. We show that inhibition of Gsk-3 by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated activation of Akt also results in reduced DNA methylation at these imprinted loci. Finally, we find that N-Myc is a potent Gsk-3-dependent regulator of Dnmt3a2 expression. In summary, we have identified a signal transduction pathway that is capable of altering the DNA methylation of imprinted loci. PMID:21047779

  12. Regulation of N-Formyl Peptide Receptor Signaling and Trafficking by Arrestin-Src Kinase Interaction.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Brant M; Marjon, Nicole A; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    Arrestins were originally described as proteins recruited to ligand-activated, phosphorylated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to attenuate G protein-mediated signaling. It was later revealed that arrestins also mediate GPCR internalization and recruit a number of signaling proteins including, but not limited to, Src family kinases, ERK1/2, and JNK3. GPCR-arrestin binding and trafficking control the spatial and temporal activity of these multi-protein complexes. In previous reports, we concluded that N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR)-mediated apoptosis, which occurs upon receptor stimulation in the absence of arrestins, is associated with FPR accumulation in perinuclear recycling endosomes. Under these conditions, inhibition of Src kinase and ERK1/2 prevented FPR-mediated apoptosis. To better understand the role of Src kinase in this process, in the current study we employed a previously described arrestin-2 (arr2) mutant deficient in Src kinase binding (arr2-P91G/P121E). Unlike wild type arrestin, arr2-P91G/P121E did not inhibit FPR-mediated apoptosis, suggesting that Src binding to arrestin-2 prevents apoptotic signaling. However, in cells expressing this mutant, FPR-mediated apoptosis was still blocked by inhibition of Src kinase activity, suggesting that activation of Src independent of arrestin-2 binding is involved in FPR-mediated apoptosis. Finally, while Src kinase inhibition prevented FPR-mediated-apoptosis in the presence of arr2-P91G/P121E, it did not prevent FPR-arr2-P91G/P121E accumulation in the perinuclear recycling endosome. On the contrary, inhibition of Src kinase activity mediated the accumulation of activated FPR-wild type arrestin-2 in recycling endosomes without initiating FPR-mediated apoptosis. Based on these observations, we conclude that Src kinase has two independent roles following FPR activation that regulate both FPR-arrestin-2 signaling and trafficking.

  13. Protein kinase C in the immune system: from signalling to chromatin regulation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Pek Siew; Sutton, Christopher Ray; Rao, Sudha

    2015-12-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) form a key family of enzymes involved in signalling pathways that specifically phosphorylates substrates at serine/threonine residues. Phosphorylation by PKC is important in regulating a variety of cellular events such as cell proliferation and the regulation of gene expression. In the immune system, PKCs are involved in regulating signal transduction pathways important for both innate and adaptive immunity, ultimately resulting in the expression of key immune genes. PKCs act as mediators during immune cell signalling through the immunological synapse. PKCs are traditionally known to be cytoplasmic signal transducers and are well embedded in the signalling pathways of cells to mediate the cells' response to a stimulus from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. PKCs are also found to transduce signals within the nucleus, a process that is distinct from the cytoplasmic signalling pathway. There is now growing evidence suggesting that PKC can directly regulate gene expression programmes through a non-traditional role as nuclear kinases. In this review, we will focus on the role of PKCs as key cytoplasmic signal transducers in immune cell signalling, as well as its role in nuclear signal transduction. We will also highlight recent evidence for its newly discovered regulatory role in the nucleus as a chromatin-associated kinase.

  14. Microbial Degradation of Cellular Kinases Impairs Innate Immune Signaling and Paracrine TNFα Responses

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Kenneth; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2016-01-01

    The NFκB and MAPK signaling pathways are critical components of innate immunity that orchestrate appropriate immune responses to control and eradicate pathogens. Their activation results in the induction of proinflammatory mediators, such as TNFα a potent bioactive molecule commonly secreted by recruited inflammatory cells, allowing for paracrine signaling at the site of an infection. In this study we identified a novel mechanism by which the opportunistic pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis dampens innate immune responses by disruption of kinase signaling and degradation of inflammatory mediators. The intracellular immune kinases RIPK1, TAK1, and AKT were selectively degraded by the P. gingivalis lysine-specific gingipain (Kgp) in human endothelial cells, which correlated with dysregulated innate immune signaling. Kgp was also observed to attenuate endothelial responsiveness to TNFα, resulting in a reduction in signal flux through AKT, ERK and NFκB pathways, as well as a decrease in downstream proinflammatory mRNA induction of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. A deficiency in Kgp activity negated decreases to host cell kinase protein levels and responsiveness to TNFα. Given the essential role of kinase signaling in immune responses, these findings highlight a unique mechanism of pathogen-induced immune dysregulation through inhibition of cell activation, paracrine signaling, and dampened cellular proinflammatory responses. PMID:27698456

  15. Microbial Degradation of Cellular Kinases Impairs Innate Immune Signaling and Paracrine TNFα Responses.

    PubMed

    Barth, Kenneth; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2016-10-04

    The NFκB and MAPK signaling pathways are critical components of innate immunity that orchestrate appropriate immune responses to control and eradicate pathogens. Their activation results in the induction of proinflammatory mediators, such as TNFα a potent bioactive molecule commonly secreted by recruited inflammatory cells, allowing for paracrine signaling at the site of an infection. In this study we identified a novel mechanism by which the opportunistic pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis dampens innate immune responses by disruption of kinase signaling and degradation of inflammatory mediators. The intracellular immune kinases RIPK1, TAK1, and AKT were selectively degraded by the P. gingivalis lysine-specific gingipain (Kgp) in human endothelial cells, which correlated with dysregulated innate immune signaling. Kgp was also observed to attenuate endothelial responsiveness to TNFα, resulting in a reduction in signal flux through AKT, ERK and NFκB pathways, as well as a decrease in downstream proinflammatory mRNA induction of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. A deficiency in Kgp activity negated decreases to host cell kinase protein levels and responsiveness to TNFα. Given the essential role of kinase signaling in immune responses, these findings highlight a unique mechanism of pathogen-induced immune dysregulation through inhibition of cell activation, paracrine signaling, and dampened cellular proinflammatory responses.

  16. Fusion tyrosine kinase mediated signalling pathways in the transformation of haematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Turner, S D; Alexander, D R

    2006-04-01

    The fusion tyrosine kinases (FTKs) are generated by chromosomal translocations creating bipartite proteins in which the kinase is hyperactivated by an adjoining oligomerization domain. Autophosphorylation of the FTK generates a 'signalosome', an ensemble of signalling proteins that transduce signals to downstream pathways. At the earliest stages of oncogenesis, FTKs can mimic mitogenic cytokine signalling pathways involving the GAB-2 adaptor protein and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) factors, generating replicative stress and thereby promoting a mutator phenotype. In parallel, FTKs couple to survival pathways that upregulate prosurvival proteins such as Bcl-xL, so preventing DNA-damage-induced apoptosis. Following transformation, FTKs induce resistance to genotoxic attack by upregulating DNA repair mechanisms such as STAT5-dependent RAD51 transcription. The phenomenon of 'oncogene addiction' reflects the continued requirement of an active FTK 'signalosome' to mediate survival and mitogenic signals involving the PI 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein stress-activated protein kinase pathways, and the nuclear factor-kappa B, activator protein 1 and STAT transcription factors. The available data so far suggest that FTKs, with some possible exceptions, induce and maintain the transformed state using similar panoplies of signals, a finding with important therapeutic implications. The FTK signalling field has matured to an exciting phase in which rapid advances are facilitating rational drug design.

  17. Screening of cell cycle fusion proteins to identify kinase signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Trojanowsky, Michelle; Vidovic, Dusica; Simanski, Scott; Penas, Clara; Schurer, Stephan; Ayad, Nagi G

    2015-01-01

    Kinase signaling networks are well-established mediators of cell cycle transitions. However, how kinases interact with the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) to elicit protein turnover is not fully understood. We sought a means of identifying kinase-substrate interactions to better understand signaling pathways controlling protein degradation. Our prior studies used a luciferase fusion protein to uncover kinase networks controlling protein turnover. In this study, we utilized a similar approach to identify pathways controlling the cell cycle protein p27(Kip1). We generated a p27(Kip1)-luciferase fusion and expressed it in cells incubated with compounds from a library of pharmacologically active compounds. We then compared the relative effects of the compounds on p27(Kip1)-luciferase fusion stabilization. This was combined with in silico kinome profiling to identify potential kinases inhibited by each compound. This approach effectively uncovered known kinases regulating p27(Kip1) turnover. Collectively, our studies suggest that this parallel screening approach is robust and can be applied to fully understand kinase-ubiquitin pathway interactions.

  18. Spatio-temporal regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling by protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, M; Mandl, M; Keyse, S M

    2006-11-01

    ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) is a MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), which regulates diverse physiological functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, transformation and survival. It is now clear that in addition to the duration and magnitude of signalling through this MAPK pathway, the spatial restriction of MAPK activity plays a key role in determining the physiological outcome of signalling. Recent work has led to the discovery of MAPK-binding proteins, which contain either nuclear localization signals or nuclear export signals. These include MAPK activators and specific protein phosphatases, which may act to both regulate MAPK activity and the subcellular localization of their substrate. This represents a mechanism by which signalling in response to extracellular stimuli may be modulated in terms of both magnitude/duration and spatial restriction thus allowing differential access of the activated MAPK to target proteins and the interpretation of this information by cells to determine an appropriate physiological response.

  19. How do pleiotropic kinase hubs mediate specific signaling by TNFR superfamily members?

    PubMed Central

    Schröfelbauer, Bärbel; Hoffmann, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Summary Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily members mediate the cellular response to a wide variety of biological inputs. The responses range from cell death, survival, differentiation, proliferation, to the regulation of immunity. All these physiological responses are regulated by a limited number of highly pleiotropic kinases. The fact that the same signaling molecules are involved in transducing signals from TNFR superfamily members that regulate different and even opposing processes raises the question of how their specificity is determined. Regulatory strategies that can contribute to signaling specificity include scaffolding to control kinase specificity, combinatorial use of several signal transducers, and temporal control of signaling. In this review, we discuss these strategies in the context of TNFR superfamily member signaling. PMID:22017429

  20. Recent Progress on Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1): Expression, Regulation, Downstream Signaling and Cancer Suppressive Function

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Ren-You; Li, Hua-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Liver kinase B1 (LKB1), known as a serine/threonine kinase, has been identified as a critical cancer suppressor in many cancer cells. It is a master upstream kinase of 13 AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related protein kinases, and possesses versatile biological functions. LKB1 gene is mutated in many cancers, and its protein can form different protein complexes with different cellular localizations in various cell types. The expression of LKB1 can be regulated through epigenetic modification, transcriptional regulation and post-translational modification. LKB1 dowcnstream pathways mainly include AMPK, microtubule affinity regulating kinase (MARK), salt-inducible kinase (SIK), sucrose non-fermenting protein-related kinase (SNRK) and brain selective kinase (BRSK) signalings, etc. This review, therefore, mainly discusses recent studies about the expression, regulation, downstream signaling and cancer suppressive function of LKB1, which can be helpful for better understanding of this molecular and its significance in cancers. PMID:25244018

  1. Protein Kinase PKN1 Represses Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Human Melanoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    James, Richard G.; Bosch, Katherine A.; Kulikauskas, Rima M.; Yang, Peitzu T.; Robin, Nick C.; Toroni, Rachel A.; Biechele, Travis L.; Berndt, Jason D.; von Haller, Priska D.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Chien, Andy J.; Moon, Randall T.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in phosphoproteomics have made it possible to monitor changes in protein phosphorylation that occur at different steps in signal transduction and have aided the identification of new pathway components. In the present study, we applied this technology to advance our understanding of the responses of melanoma cells to signaling initiated by the secreted ligand WNT3A. We started by comparing the phosphopeptide patterns of cells treated with WNT3A for different periods of time. Next, we integrated these data sets with the results from a siRNA screen that targeted protein kinases. This integration of siRNA screening and proteomics enabled us to identify four kinases that exhibit altered phosphorylation in response to WNT3A and that regulate a luciferase reporter of β-catenin-responsive transcription (β-catenin-activated reporter). We focused on one of these kinases, an atypical PKC kinase, protein kinase N1 (PKN1). Reducing the levels of PKN1 with siRNAs significantly enhances activation of β-catenin-activated reporter and increases apoptosis in melanoma cell lines. Using affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry, we then found that PKN1 is present in a protein complex with a WNT3A receptor, Frizzled 7, as well as with proteins that co-purify with Frizzled 7. These data establish that the protein kinase PKN1 inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and sensitizes melanoma cells to cell death stimulated by WNT3A. PMID:24114839

  2. Protein kinase PKN1 represses Wnt/β-catenin signaling in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    James, Richard G; Bosch, Katherine A; Kulikauskas, Rima M; Yang, Peitzu T; Robin, Nick C; Toroni, Rachel A; Biechele, Travis L; Berndt, Jason D; von Haller, Priska D; Eng, Jimmy K; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Chien, Andy J; Moon, Randall T

    2013-11-29

    Advances in phosphoproteomics have made it possible to monitor changes in protein phosphorylation that occur at different steps in signal transduction and have aided the identification of new pathway components. In the present study, we applied this technology to advance our understanding of the responses of melanoma cells to signaling initiated by the secreted ligand WNT3A. We started by comparing the phosphopeptide patterns of cells treated with WNT3A for different periods of time. Next, we integrated these data sets with the results from a siRNA screen that targeted protein kinases. This integration of siRNA screening and proteomics enabled us to identify four kinases that exhibit altered phosphorylation in response to WNT3A and that regulate a luciferase reporter of β-catenin-responsive transcription (β-catenin-activated reporter). We focused on one of these kinases, an atypical PKC kinase, protein kinase N1 (PKN1). Reducing the levels of PKN1 with siRNAs significantly enhances activation of β-catenin-activated reporter and increases apoptosis in melanoma cell lines. Using affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry, we then found that PKN1 is present in a protein complex with a WNT3A receptor, Frizzled 7, as well as with proteins that co-purify with Frizzled 7. These data establish that the protein kinase PKN1 inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and sensitizes melanoma cells to cell death stimulated by WNT3A.

  3. Role of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling in Renal Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Zhuang, Shougang

    2016-01-01

    Renal fibrosis can be induced in different renal diseases, but ultimately progresses to end stage renal disease. Although the pathophysiologic process of renal fibrosis have not been fully elucidated, it is characterized by glomerulosclerosis and/or tubular interstitial fibrosis, and is believed to be caused by the proliferation of renal inherent cells, including glomerular epithelial cells, mesangial cells, and endothelial cells, along with defective kidney repair, renal interstitial fibroblasts activation, and extracellular matrix deposition. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulate a variety of cell physiological processes, including metabolism, growth, differentiation, and survival. Many studies from in vitro and animal models have provided evidence that RTKs play important roles in the pathogenic process of renal fibrosis. It is also showed that tyrosine kinases inhibitors (TKIs) have anti-fibrotic effects in basic research and clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the evidence for involvement of specific RTKs in renal fibrosis process and the employment of TKIs as a therapeutic approach for renal fibrosis. PMID:27331812

  4. Inhibition of a signaling pathway in cardiac muscle cells by active mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, J; Carlson, M; Mansour, S J; Chien, K R; Ahn, N G; Thorburn, A

    1995-01-01

    Signaling via the Ras pathway involves sequential activation of Ras, Raf-1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK), and the extracellular signal-regulated (ERK) group of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Expression from the c-Fos, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), and myosin light chain-2 (MLC-2) promoters during phenylephrine-induced cardiac muscle cell hypertrophy requires activation of this pathway. Furthermore, constitutively active Ras or Raf-1 can mimic the action of phenylephrine in inducing expression from these promoters. In this study, we tested whether constitutively active MKK, the molecule immediately downstream of Raf, was sufficient to induce expression. Expression of constitutively active MKK induce ERK2 kinase activity and caused expression from the c-Fos promoter, but did not significantly activate expression of reporter genes under the control of either the ANF or MLC-2 promoters. Expression of CL100, a phosphatase that inactivates ERKs, prevented expression from all of the promoters. Taken together, these data suggest that ERK activation is required for expression from the Fos, ANF, and MLC-2 promoters but MKK and ERK activation is sufficient for expression only from the Fos promoter. Constitutively active MKK synergized with phenylephrine to increase expression from a c-Fos- or an AP1-driven reporter. However, active MKK inhibited phenylephrine- and Raf-1-induced expression from the ANF and MLC-2 promoters. A DNA sequence in the MLC-2 promoter that is a target for inhibition by active MKK, but not CL100, was mapped to a previously characterized DNA element (HF1) that is responsible for cardiac specificity. Thus, activation of cardiac gene expression during phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy requires ERK activation but constitutive activation by MKK can inhibit expression by targeting a DNA element that controls the cardiac specificity of gene expression. PMID:8589450

  5. Regulation of Hippo signaling by Jun kinase signaling during compensatory cell proliferation and regeneration, and in neoplastic tumors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gongping; Irvine, Kenneth D

    2011-02-01

    When cells undergo apoptosis, they can stimulate the proliferation of nearby cells, a process referred to as compensatory cell proliferation. The stimulation of proliferation in response to tissue damage or removal is also central to epimorphic regeneration. The Hippo signaling pathway has emerged as an important regulator of growth during normal development and oncogenesis from Drosophila to humans. Here we show that induction of apoptosis in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc stimulates activation of the Hippo pathway transcription factor Yorkie in surviving and nearby cells, and that Yorkie is required for the ability of the wing to regenerate after genetic ablation of the wing primordia. Induction of apoptosis activates Yorkie through the Jun kinase pathway, and direct activation of Jun kinase signaling also promotes Yorkie activation in the wing disc. We also show that depletion of neoplastic tumor suppressor genes, including lethal giant larvae and discs large, or activation of aPKC, activates Yorkie through Jun kinase signaling, and that Jun kinase activation is necessary, but not sufficient, for the disruption of apical-basal polarity associated with loss of lethal giant larvae. Our observations identify Jnk signaling as a modulator of Hippo pathway activity in wing imaginal discs, and implicate Yorkie activation in compensatory cell proliferation and disc regeneration.

  6. Signaling, Regulation, and Specificity of the Type II p21-activated Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Byung Hak; Morse, Elizabeth M.; Turk, Benjamin E.; Boggon, Titus J.

    2015-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of six serine/threonine kinases that act as key effectors of RHO family GTPases in mammalian cells. PAKs are subdivided into two groups: type I PAKs (PAK1, PAK2, and PAK3) and type II PAKs (PAK4, PAK5, and PAK6). Although these groups are involved in common signaling pathways, recent work indicates that the two groups have distinct modes of regulation and have both unique and common substrates. Here, we review recent insights into the molecular level details that govern regulation of type II PAK signaling. We also consider mechanisms by which signal transduction is regulated at the level of substrate specificity. Finally, we discuss the implications of these studies for clinical targeting of these kinases. PMID:25855792

  7. Tyrosine kinase signalling in breast cancer: ErbB family receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Stern, David F

    2000-01-01

    ERBB family receptor tyrosine kinases are overexpressed in a significant subset of breast cancers. One of these receptors, HER2/neu, or ErbB-2, is the target for a new rational therapeutic antibody, Herceptin. Other inhibitors that target this receptor, and another family member, the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, are moving into clinical trials. Both of these receptors are sometimes overexpressed in breast cancer, and still subject to regulation by hormones and other physiological regulators. Optimal use of therapeutics targeting these receptors will require consideration of the several modes of regulation of these receptors and their interactions with steroid receptors. PMID:11250707

  8. p70S6 kinase is a critical node that integrates HER-family and PI3 kinase signaling networks

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Mark J.; Gordon, Vicki; Mendez, Rolando E.; Leimgruber, Stephanie S.; Conaway, Mark R.; Sharlow, Elizabeth R.; Jameson, MarkJ.; Gioeli, Daniel G.; Weber, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Therapies targeting oncogenic drivers rapidly induce compensatory adaptive responses that blunt drug effectiveness, contributing to therapeutic resistance. Adaptive responses are characteristic of robust cell signaling networks, and thus there is increasing interest in drug combinations that co-target the driver and the adaptive response. An alternative approach to co-inhibiting oncogenic and adaptive targets is to identify a critical node where the activities of these targets converge. Nodes of convergence between signaling modules represent potential therapeutic vulnerabilities because their inhibition could result in collapse of the network, leading to enhanced cytotoxicity. In this report we demonstrate that p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) can function as a critical node linking HER-family and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway signaling. We used high-throughput combinatorial drug screening to identify adaptive survival responses to targeted therapies, and found that HER-family and PI3K represented compensatory signaling pathways. Co-targeting these pathways with drug combinations caused synergistic cytotoxicity in cases where inhibition of neither target was effective as a monotherapy. We utilized Reverse Phase Protein Arrays and determined that phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 was synergistically down-regulated upon HER-family and PI3K/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) co-inhibition. Expression of constitutively active p70S6K protected against apoptosis induced by combined HER-family and PI3K/mTOR inhibition. Direct inhibition of p70S6K with small molecule inhibitors phenocopied HER-family and PI3K/mTOR co-inhibition. These data implicate p70S6K as a critical node in the HER-family/PI3K signaling network. The ability of direct inhibitors of p70S6K to phenocopy co-inhibition of two upstream signaling targets indicates that identification and targeting of critical nodes can overcome adaptive resistance to targeted therapies. PMID:24662264

  9. Calcium-Oxidant Signaling Network Regulates AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation upon Matrix Deprivation*

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaman, Ananthalakshmy; Amirtham, Usha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has recently been implicated in anoikis resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms that activate AMPK upon matrix detachment remain unexplored. In this study, we show that AMPK activation is a rapid and sustained phenomenon upon matrix deprivation, whereas re-attachment to the matrix leads to its dephosphorylation and inactivation. Because matrix detachment leads to loss of integrin signaling, we investigated whether integrin signaling negatively regulates AMPK activation. However, modulation of focal adhesion kinase or Src, the major downstream components of integrin signaling, failed to cause a corresponding change in AMPK signaling. Further investigations revealed that the upstream AMPK kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) contribute to AMPK activation upon detachment. In LKB1-deficient cells, we found AMPK activation to be predominantly dependent on CaMKKβ. We observed no change in ATP levels under detached conditions at early time points suggesting that rapid AMPK activation upon detachment was not triggered by energy stress. We demonstrate that matrix deprivation leads to a spike in intracellular calcium as well as oxidant signaling, and both these intracellular messengers contribute to rapid AMPK activation upon detachment. We further show that endoplasmic reticulum calcium release-induced store-operated calcium entry contributes to intracellular calcium increase, leading to reactive oxygen species production, and AMPK activation. We additionally show that the LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK axis and intracellular calcium levels play a critical role in anchorage-independent cancer sphere formation. Thus, the Ca2+/reactive oxygen species-triggered LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK signaling cascade may provide a quick, adaptable switch to promote survival of metastasizing cancer cells. PMID:27226623

  10. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Promote Wound Healing through Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAP Kinases) Signaling Pathway in Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Hee; Yang, Dong Joo; Kulkarni, Atul; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ki Woo

    2015-11-26

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are secondary metabolites found in diverse marine, freshwater, and terrestrial organisms. Evidence suggests that MAAs have several beneficial effects on skin homeostasis such as protection against UV radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, MAAs are also involved in the modulation of skin fibroblasts proliferation. However, the regulatory function of MAAs on wound repair in human skin is not yet clearly elucidated. To investigate the roles of MAAs on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes, three MAAs, Shinorine (SH), Mycosporine-glycine (M-Gly), and Porphyra (P334) were purified from Chlamydomonas hedlyei and Porphyra yezoensis. We found that SH, M-Gly, and P334 have significant effects on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes and these effects were mediated by activation of focal adhesion kinases (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK). These results suggest that MAAs accelerate wound repair by activating the FAK-MAPK signaling pathways. This study also indicates that MAAs can act as a new wound healing agent and further suggests that MAAs might be a novel biomaterial for wound healing therapies.

  11. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Promote Wound Healing through Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAP Kinases) Signaling Pathway in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Hee; Yang, Dong Joo; Kulkarni, Atul; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ki Woo

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are secondary metabolites found in diverse marine, freshwater, and terrestrial organisms. Evidence suggests that MAAs have several beneficial effects on skin homeostasis such as protection against UV radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, MAAs are also involved in the modulation of skin fibroblasts proliferation. However, the regulatory function of MAAs on wound repair in human skin is not yet clearly elucidated. To investigate the roles of MAAs on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes, three MAAs, Shinorine (SH), Mycosporine-glycine (M-Gly), and Porphyra (P334) were purified from Chlamydomonas hedlyei and Porphyra yezoensis. We found that SH, M-Gly, and P334 have significant effects on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes and these effects were mediated by activation of focal adhesion kinases (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK). These results suggest that MAAs accelerate wound repair by activating the FAK-MAPK signaling pathways. This study also indicates that MAAs can act as a new wound healing agent and further suggests that MAAs might be a novel biomaterial for wound healing therapies. PMID:26703626

  12. Oncogenic signaling by Kit tyrosine kinase occurs selectively on the Golgi apparatus in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Obata, Y; Horikawa, K; Takahashi, T; Akieda, Y; Tsujimoto, M; Fletcher, J A; Esumi, H; Nishida, T; Abe, R

    2017-02-13

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are caused by gain-of-function mutations in the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase. Most primary GIST patients respond to the Kit inhibitor imatinib, but this drug often becomes ineffective because of secondary mutations in the Kit kinase domain. The characteristic intracellular accumulation of imatinib-sensitive and -resistant Kit protein is well documented, but its relationship to oncogenic signaling remains unknown. Here, we show that in cancer tissue from primary GIST patients as well as in cell lines, mutant Kit accumulates on the Golgi apparatus, whereas normal Kit localizes to the plasma membrane (PM). In imatinib-resistant GIST with a secondary Kit mutation, Kit localizes predominantly on the Golgi apparatus. Both imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant Kit (Kit(mut)) become fully auto-phosphorylated only on the Golgi and only if in a complex-glycosylated form. Kit(mut) accumulates on the Golgi during the early secretory pathway, but not after endocytosis. The aberrant kinase activity of Kit(mut) prevents its export from the Golgi to the PM. Furthermore, Kit(mut) on the Golgi signals and activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K-Akt) pathway, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), and the Mek-Erk pathway. Blocking the biosynthetic transport of Kit(mut) to the Golgi from the endoplasmic reticulum inhibits oncogenic signaling. PM localization of Kit(mut) is not required for its signaling. Activation of Src-family tyrosine kinases on the Golgi is essential for oncogenic Kit signaling. These results suggest that the Golgi apparatus serves as a platform for oncogenic Kit signaling. Our study demonstrates that Kit(mut)'s pathogenicity is related to its mis-localization, and may offer a new strategy for treating imatinib-resistant GISTs.Oncogene advance online publication, 13 February 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.519.

  13. Janus kinases and signal transducers and activators of transcription: their roles in cytokine signaling, development and immunoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Ortmann, Robert A; Cheng, Tammy; Visconti, Roberta; Frucht , David M; O'Shea, John J

    2000-01-01

    Cytokines play a critical role in the normal development and function of the immune system. On the other hand, many rheumatologic diseases are characterized by poorly controlled responses to or dysregulated production of these mediators. Over the past decade tremendous strides have been made in clarifying how cytokines transmit signals via pathways using the Janus kinase (Jak) protein tyrosine kinases and the Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) proteins. More recently, research has focused on several distinct proteins responsible for inhibiting these pathways. It is hoped that further elucidation of cytokine signaling through these pathways will not only allow for a better comprehension of the etiopathogenesis of rheumatologic illnesses, but may also direct future treatment options. PMID:11094415

  14. Beta-parvin inhibits integrin-linked kinase signaling and is downregulated in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mongroo, Perry S; Johnstone, Cameron N; Naruszewicz, Izabela; Leung-Hagesteijn, Chungyee; Sung, Raphael K; Carnio, Leanne; Rustgi, Anil K; Hannigan, Gregory E

    2004-11-25

    We analysed breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines for the expression of beta-parvin (ParvB), an adaptor protein that binds to the integrin-linked kinase (ILK). Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that ParvB mRNA was downregulated, by at least 60%, in four of nine breast tumors, relative to patient-matched normal mammary gland tissue. We also found that ParvB protein levels were reduced by > or =90% in five of seven advanced tumors, relative to matched normal breast tissue. Conversely, ILK protein and kinase activity levels were elevated in these tumors, suggesting that downregulation of ParvB stimulates ILK signaling. Western blot analyses indicated very low levels of ParvB protein in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 breast cancer cells, facilitating functional studies of the effects of ParvB on ILK signaling. Expression of ParvB in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells increased cell adhesion to collagen. ParvB inhibited ILK kinase activity, anchorage-independent cell growth and in vitro matrigel invasion by MDA-MB-231 cells. EGF-induced phosphorylation of two ILK targets, PKB (Ser473) and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (Ser9), was also inhibited by ParvB. These results indicated that ParvB inhibits ILK signaling downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases. Our results suggest that loss of ParvB expression is a novel mechanism for upregulating ILK activity in tumors.

  15. PI-3 kinase-PTEN signaling node: an intercept point for the control of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Castellino, R C; Muh, C R; Durden, D L

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis is tightly regulated by opposing mechanisms in mammalian cells and is controlled by the angiogenic switch. Other review articles have described a central role for the PTEN/PI-3 kinase/AKT signaling node in the coordinate control of cell division, tumor growth, apoptosis, invasion and cellular metabolism [1, 2]. In this review, we focus on literature that supports the PTEN/PI-3 kinase/AKT signaling node as a major control point for the angiogenic switch in both the on and off positions. We also discuss the rationale for designing small molecule drugs that target the PTEN/PI-3 kinase/AKT signaling node for therapeutic intervention. Our hypothesis is that, instead of inhibiting one cell surface receptor, such as VEGFR2 with bevacizumab (Avastin), thereby leaving a significant number of receptors free to pulse angiogenic signals, a more effective strategy may be to regulate signaling through an intercept node where redundant cell surface receptor signals converge to transmit important signaling events within the cell. This therapeutic configuration brings coordinate control over multiple cell surface receptors in concert with a physiologic response which may combine arrest of cell cycle progression with growth inhibition and the induction of genes involved in specialized functions such as movement, which are all required for the complex process of angiogenesis to occur in a temporal-spatial paradigm.

  16. β-Adrenergic stimulation activates protein kinase Cε and induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Cai, Hongyan; Liu, Hua; Guo, Tao

    2015-06-01

    The cardiac adrenergic signaling pathway is important in the induction of cardiac hypertrophy. The cardiac adrenergic pathway involves two main branches, phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) and the adenylate cyclase (cAMPase)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways. It is hypothesized that PLC/PKC and cAMPase/PKA are activated by the α‑adrenergic receptor (αAR) and the β‑adrenergic receptor (βAR), respectively. Previous studies have demonstrated that exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), a guanine exchange factor, activates phospholipase Cε. It is possible that there are βAR‑activated PKC pathways mediated by Epac and PLC. In the present study, the role of Epac and PLC in βAR activated PKC pathways in cardiomyocytes was investigated. It was found that PKCε activation and translocation were induced by the βAR agonist, isoproterenol (Iso). Epac agonist 8‑CPT‑2'OMe‑cAMP also enhanced PKCε activation. βAR stimulation activated PKCε in the cardiomyocytes and was regulated by Epac. Iso‑induced change in PKCε was not affected in the cardiomyocytes, which were infected with adenovirus coding rabbit muscle cAMP‑dependent protein kinase inhibitor. However, Iso‑induced PKCε activation was inhibited by the PLC inhibitor, U73122. The results suggested that Iso‑induced PKCε activation was independent of PKA, but was regulated by PLC. To further investigate the downstream signal target of PKCε activation, the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (pERK)1/2 and the levels of ERK phosphorylation was analyzed. The results revealed that Iso‑induced PKCε activation led to an increase in the expression of pERK1/2. ERK phosphorylation was inhibited by the PKCε inhibitor peptide. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the βAR is able to activate PKCε dependent on Epac and PLC, but independent of PKA.

  17. Production of recombinant human apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Volynets, Galyna P; Gorbatiuk, Oksana B; Kukharenko, Oleksandr P; Usenko, Mariya O; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M

    2016-10-01

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mediator of the MAPK signaling cascade, which regulates different cellular processes including apoptosis, cell survival, and differentiation. The increased activity of ASK1 is associated with a number of human diseases and this protein kinase is considered as promising therapeutic target. In the present study, the kinase domain of human ASK1 was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) in soluble form. The expression level of ASK1 was around 0.3-0.47 g per 1 L after using auto-induction protocol or IPTG induction. A one-step on column method for the efficient purification of recombinant ASK1 was performed. Our approach yields sufficient amount of recombinant ASK1, which can be used for inhibitor screening assays and different crystallographic studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Receptor kinase complex transmits RALF peptide signal to inhibit root growth in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Changqing; Li, Xiushan; Chen, Jia; Chen, Weijun; Li, Bin; Li, Chiyu; Wang, Long; Li, Jianglin; Zhao, Xiaoying; Lin, Jianzhong; Liu, Xuanming; Luan, Sheng; Yu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A number of hormones work together to control plant cell growth. Rapid Alkalinization Factor 1 (RALF1), a plant-derived small regulatory peptide, inhibits cell elongation through suppression of rhizosphere acidification in plants. Although a receptor-like kinase, FERONIA (FER), has been shown to act as a receptor for RALF1, the signaling mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we identified a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase (RPM1-induced protein kinase, RIPK), a plasma membrane-associated member of the RLCK-VII subfamily, that is recruited to the receptor complex through interacting with FER in response to RALF1. RALF1 triggers the phosphorylation of both FER and RIPK in a mutually dependent manner. Genetic analysis of the fer-4 and ripk mutants reveals RIPK, as well as FER, to be required for RALF1 response in roots. The RALF1–FER–RIPK interactions may thus represent a mechanism for peptide signaling in plants. PMID:27930296

  19. The secret life of kinases: insights into non-catalytic signalling functions from pseudokinases.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Annette V; Murphy, James M

    2017-06-15

    Over the past decade, our understanding of the mechanisms by which pseudokinases, which comprise ∼10% of the human and mouse kinomes, mediate signal transduction has advanced rapidly with increasing structural, biochemical, cellular and genetic studies. Pseudokinases are the catalytically defective counterparts of conventional, active protein kinases and have been attributed functions as protein interaction domains acting variously as allosteric modulators of conventional protein kinases and other enzymes, as regulators of protein trafficking or localisation, as hubs to nucleate assembly of signalling complexes, and as transmembrane effectors of such functions. Here, by categorising mammalian pseudokinases based on their known functions, we illustrate the mechanistic diversity among these proteins, which can be viewed as a window into understanding the non-catalytic functions that can be exerted by conventional protein kinases. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. Emerging roles of protein kinase CK2 in abscisic acid signaling

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Belmiro; Pagès, Montserrat; Riera, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many aspects of plant growth and development as well as responses to multiple stresses. Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation or ubiquitination have pivotal roles in the regulation of ABA signaling. In addition to the positive regulator sucrose non-fermenting-1 related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2), the relevance of the role of other protein kinases, such as CK2, has been recently highlighted. We have recently established that CK2 phosphorylates the maize ortholog of open stomata 1 OST1, ZmOST1, suggesting a role of CK2 phosphorylation in the control of ZmOST1 protein degradation (Vilela et al., 2015). CK2 is a pleiotropic enzyme involved in multiple developmental and stress-responsive pathways. This review summarizes recent advances that taken together suggest a prominent role of protein kinase CK2 in ABA signaling and related processes. PMID:26579189

  1. Crosstalk and Signaling Switches in Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Fey, Dirk; Croucher, David R.; Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2012-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades control cell fate decisions, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis by integrating and processing intra- and extracellular cues. However, similar MAPK kinetic profiles can be associated with opposing cellular decisions depending on cell type, signal strength, and dynamics. This implies that signaling by each individual MAPK cascade has to be considered in the context of the entire MAPK network. Here, we develop a dynamic model of feedback and crosstalk for the three major MAPK cascades; extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and also include input from protein kinase B (AKT) signaling. Focusing on the bistable activation characteristics of the JNK pathway, this model explains how pathway crosstalk harmonizes different MAPK responses resulting in pivotal cell fate decisions. We show that JNK can switch from a transient to sustained activity due to multiple positive feedback loops. Once activated, positive feedback locks JNK in a highly active state and promotes cell death. The switch is modulated by the ERK, p38, and AKT pathways. ERK activation enhances the dual specificity phosphatase (DUSP) mediated dephosphorylation of JNK and shifts the threshold of the apoptotic switch to higher inputs. Activation of p38 restores the threshold by inhibiting ERK activity via the PP1 or PP2A phosphatases. Finally, AKT activation inhibits the JNK positive feedback, thus abrogating the apoptotic switch and allowing only proliferative signaling. Our model facilitates understanding of how cancerous deregulations disturb MAPK signal processing and provides explanations for certain drug resistances. We highlight a critical role of DUSP1 and DUSP2 expression patterns in facilitating the switching of JNK activity and show how oncogene induced ERK hyperactivity prevents the normal apoptotic switch explaining the failure of certain drugs to

  2. Emergency Spatiotemporal Shift: The Response of Protein Kinase D to Stress Signals in the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Wood, Brent M; Bossuyt, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Protein Kinase D isoforms (PKD 1-3) are key mediators of neurohormonal, oxidative, and metabolic stress signals. PKDs impact a wide variety of signaling pathways and cellular functions including actin dynamics, vesicle trafficking, cell motility, survival, contractility, energy substrate utilization, and gene transcription. PKD activity is also increasingly linked to cancer, immune regulation, pain modulation, memory, angiogenesis, and cardiovascular disease. This increasing complexity and diversity of PKD function, highlights the importance of tight spatiotemporal control of the kinase via protein-protein interactions, post-translational modifications or targeting via scaffolding proteins. In this review, we focus on the spatiotemporal regulation and effects of PKD signaling in response to neurohormonal, oxidant and metabolic signals that have implications for myocardial disease. Precise targeting of these mechanisms will be crucial in the design of PKD-based therapeutic strategies.

  3. Emergency Spatiotemporal Shift: The Response of Protein Kinase D to Stress Signals in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Brent M.; Bossuyt, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Protein Kinase D isoforms (PKD 1-3) are key mediators of neurohormonal, oxidative, and metabolic stress signals. PKDs impact a wide variety of signaling pathways and cellular functions including actin dynamics, vesicle trafficking, cell motility, survival, contractility, energy substrate utilization, and gene transcription. PKD activity is also increasingly linked to cancer, immune regulation, pain modulation, memory, angiogenesis, and cardiovascular disease. This increasing complexity and diversity of PKD function, highlights the importance of tight spatiotemporal control of the kinase via protein–protein interactions, post-translational modifications or targeting via scaffolding proteins. In this review, we focus on the spatiotemporal regulation and effects of PKD signaling in response to neurohormonal, oxidant and metabolic signals that have implications for myocardial disease. Precise targeting of these mechanisms will be crucial in the design of PKD-based therapeutic strategies. PMID:28174535

  4. Phosphoinositide lipid phosphatases: natural regulators of phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Harris, Stephanie J; Parry, Richard V; Westwick, John; Ward, Stephen G

    2008-02-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway has been implicated in a range of T lymphocyte cellular functions, particularly growth, proliferation, cytokine secretion, and survival. Dysregulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent signaling and function in leukocytes, including B and T lymphocytes, has been implicated in many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. As befits a pivotal signaling cascade, several mechanisms exist to ensure that the pathway is tightly regulated. This minireview focuses on two lipid phosphatases, viz. the 3'-phosphatase PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and SHIP (Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase). We discuss their role in regulating T lymphocyte signaling as well their potential as future therapeutic targets.

  5. Haloperidol and Clozapine Differentially Affect the Expression of Arrestins, Receptor Kinases, and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mohamed Rafiuddin; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.; Dalby, Kevin N.; Benovic, Jeffrey L.; Gurevich, Eugenia V.

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine and other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the major target of antipsychotic drugs. GPCRs undergo desensitization via activation-dependent phosphorylation by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) followed by arrestin binding. Arrestins and GRKs are major regulators of GPCR signaling. We elucidated changes in expression of two arrestins and four GRKs following chronic (21 days) treatment with haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) or clozapine (20 mg/kg i.p.) 2 or 24 h after the last injection in 11 brain regions. Haloperidol decreased GRK3 in ventrolateral caudate-putamen and transiently down-regulated GRK5 in globus pallidus and caudal caudate-putamen. Clozapine also caused a short-term suppression of the GRK5 expression in the caudal caudate-putamen and globus pallidus, but, unlike haloperidol, elevated GRK5 in the caudal caudate-putamen after 24 h. Unlike haloperidol, clozapine decreased arrestin2 and GRK3 in hippocampus and GRK3 in globus pallidus but increased arrestin2 in the core of nucleus accumbens and ventrolateral caudate-putamen and GRK2 in prefrontal cortex. Clozapine, but not haloperidol, induced long-term activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 2 in ventrolateral caudate-putamen and transient in prefrontal cortex. The data demonstrate that haloperidol and clozapine differentially affect the expression of arrestins and GRKs and ERK activity, which may play a role in determining their clinical profile. PMID:18178904

  6. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling – A Proteomic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Biarc, Jordane; Chalkley, Robert J.; Burlingame, A. L.; Bradshaw, Ralph A.

    2011-01-01

    The stimulation of various cellular processes through extracellular signals is of paramount importance in biological systems and is a central focus in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. The information transfer is accomplished in a variety of ways by the interaction of soluble, matrix-associated and cell bound ligands that either bind specifically to plasma membrane-associated proteins that act as receptors, or penetrate to the cytoplasmic/nuclear compartments to bind and activate receptors located there. The former class of entities generates intracellular signals that are transmitted and amplified by chemical modifications that are manifested as protein post-translational modifications (PTMs). These are both reversible and irreversible and range from phosphorylation of tyrosine, threonine and serine residues to endoproteolytic cleavages. Although the PTMs alter the activity and functions of many of the proteins in these cascades, the major outcomes of most of the signaling pathways are the activation/deactivation of transcriptional regulators with the concomitant changes in gene expression that generally underlie biological responses. PMID:21056590

  7. TEC protein tyrosine kinase is involved in the Erk signaling pathway induced by HGF

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Feifei; Jiang, Yinan; Zheng, Qiping; Yang, Xiaoming; Wang, Siying

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} TEC is rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated and activated by HGF-stimulation in vivo or after partial hepatectomy in mice. {yields} TEC enhances the activity of Elk and serum response element (SRE) in HGF signaling pathway in hepatocyte. {yields} TEC promotes hepatocyte proliferation through the Erk-MAPK pathway. -- Abstract: Background/aims: TEC, a member of the TEC family of non-receptor type protein tyrosine kinases, has recently been suggested to play a role in hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration. This study aims to investigate the putative mechanisms of TEC kinase regulation of hepatocyte differentiation, i.e. to explore which signaling pathway TEC is involved in, and how TEC is activated in hepatocyte after hepatectomy and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulation. Methods: We performed immunoprecipitation (IP) and immunoblotting (IB) to examine TEC tyrosine phosphorylation after partial hepatectomy in mice and HGF stimulation in WB F-344 hepatic cells. The TEC kinase activity was determined by in vitro kinase assay. Reporter gene assay, antisense oligonucleotide and TEC dominant negative mutant (TEC{sup KM}) were used to examine the possible signaling pathways in which TEC is involved. The cell proliferation rate was evaluated by {sup 3}H-TdR incorporation. Results: TEC phosphorylation and kinase activity were increased in 1 h after hepatectomy or HGF treatment. TEC enhanced the activity of Elk and serum response element (SRE). Inhibition of MEK1 suppressed TEC phosphorylation. Blocking TEC activity dramatically decreased the activation of Erk. Reduced TEC kinase activity also suppressed the proliferation of WB F-344 cells. These results suggest TEC is involved in the Ras-MAPK pathway and acts between MEK1 and Erk. Conclusions: TEC promotes hepatocyte proliferation and regeneration and is involved in HGF-induced Erk signaling pathway.

  8. ACK1/TNK2 Tyrosine Kinase: Molecular Signaling and Evolving Role in Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Kiran; Mahajan, Nupam P.

    2014-01-01

    Deregulated tyrosine kinase signaling alters cellular homeostasis to drive cancer progression. The emergence of a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, ACK1 as an oncogenic kinase, has uncovered novel mechanisms by which tyrosine kinase signaling promotes cancer progression. While early studies focused on ACK1 (also known as activated Cdc42-associated kinase 1 or TNK2) as a cytosolic effecter of activated transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), wherein it shuttles between the cytosol and the nucleus to rapidly transduce extracellular signals from the RTKs to the intracellular effectors, recent data unfold a new aspect of its functionality as an epigenetic regulator. ACK1 interacts with the Estrogen Receptor (ER)/histone demethylase KDM3A (JHDM2a) complex, modifies KDM3A by tyrosine phosphorylation to regulate transcriptional outcome at HOXA1 locus to promote the growth of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer. It is also well established that ACK1 regulates the activity of Androgen Receptor (AR) by tyrosine phosphorylation to fuel the growth of hormone-refractory prostate cancers. Further, recent explosion in genomic sequencing has revealed recurrent ACK1 gene amplification and somatic mutations in a variety of human malignancies, providing a molecular basis for its role in neoplastic transformation. In this review, we will discuss the various facets of ACK1 signaling, including its newly uncovered epigenetic regulator function, which enables cells to bypass the blockade to major survival pathways to promote resistance to standard cancer treatments. Not surprisingly, cancer cells appear to acquire an `addiction’ to ACK1 mediated survival, particularly under stress conditions, such as growth factor deprivation or genotoxic insults or hormone deprivation. With the accelerated development of potent and selective ACK1 inhibitors, targeted treatment for cancers harboring aberrant ACK1 activity may soon become a clinical reality. PMID:25347744

  9. Cellular context–mediated Akt dynamics regulates MAP kinase signaling thresholds during angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hellesøy, Monica; Lorens, James B.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of new blood vessels by sprouting angiogenesis is tightly regulated by contextual cues that affect angiogeneic growth factor signaling. Both constitutive activation and loss of Akt kinase activity in endothelial cells impair angiogenesis, suggesting that Akt dynamics mediates contextual microenvironmental regulation. We explored the temporal regulation of Akt in endothelial cells during formation of capillary-like networks induced by cell–cell contact with vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and vSMC-associated VEGF. Expression of constitutively active Akt1 strongly inhibited network formation, whereas hemiphosphorylated Akt1 epi-alleles with reduced kinase activity had an intermediate inhibitory effect. Conversely, inhibition of Akt signaling did not affect endothelial cell migration or morphogenesis in vSMC cocultures that generate capillary-like structures. We found that endothelial Akt activity is transiently blocked by proteasomal degradation in the presence of SMCs during the initial phase of capillary-like structure formation. Suppressed Akt activity corresponded to the increased endothelial MAP kinase signaling that was required for angiogenic endothelial morphogenesis. These results reveal a regulatory principle by which cellular context regulates Akt protein dynamics, which determines MAP kinase signaling thresholds necessary drive a morphogenetic program during angiogenesis. PMID:26023089

  10. Identification of Novel Focal Adhesion Kinase Substrates: Role for FAK in NFκB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Sheila Figel; Gao, Lingqiu; Gelman, Irwin H.

    2015-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a major signaling molecule which functions downstream of integrins or in conjunction with mitogenic signaling pathways. FAK is overexpressed and/or activated in many types of human tumors, in which it promotes cell adhesion, survival, migration and invasion. In addition to FAK's ability to regulate signaling through its scaffolding activities, FAK encodes an intrinsic kinase activity. Although some FAK substrates have been identified, a more comprehensive analysis of substrates is lacking. In this study, we use a protein microarray to screen the human proteome for FAK substrates. We confirm that several of the proteins identified are bona fide in vitro FAK substrates, including several factors which are known to regulate the NFκB pathway. Finally, we identify a role for FAK's kinase activity in both canonical and non-canonical NFκB signaling. Our screen therefore represents the first high throughput screen for FAK substrates and provides the basis for future in-depth analysis of the role of FAK's kinase activity in the processes of tumorigenesis. PMID:25798060

  11. Electrochemical detection of protein kinase activity based on carboxypeptidase Y digestion triggered signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huanshun; Wang, Xinxu; Guo, Yunlong; Zhou, Yunlei; Ai, Shiyun

    2015-04-15

    An effective assay method for monitoring protein kinase activity and screening inhibitors is greatly beneficial to kinase-related drug discovery, early diagnosis of diseases, and therapeutic effect evaluation. Herein, we develop a simple electrochemical method for detecting the activity of casein kinase II (CK2) based on phosphorylation against carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) digestion triggered signal amplification, where CK2 catalyzed phosphorylation event protects the substrate peptide from the digestion of CPY, maintains the repulsive force of the substrate peptide towards the redox probe, and results in a weak electrochemical signal. Whereas, without phosphorylation, the substrate peptide is digested by CPY and a strong electrochemical signal is obtained. The detection feasibility is demonstrated for the assay of CK2 activity with low detection limit of 0.047unit/mL. Moreover, the biosensor was used for the analysis of kinase inhibition. Based on the electrochemical signal dependent inhibitor concentration, the IC50 value of ellagic acid was estimated to be 39.77nM. The proposed method is also successfully applied to analyze CK2 activity in cell lysates, proving the applicability in complex biological samples.

  12. Relationship Between Pak-Mediated Cell Death and Stress-Activated Kinase Signaling in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-01

    part of the cell death execution machinery. Here we show that a correlation exists in breast cancer cells between caspase- dependent cleavage of the...inhibits its activity might allow us to specifically inhibit signaling pathways downstream of Pak and evaluate how the cell death process is affected. In...a biochemical approach screening for substrates and possible mediators of cell death signaling components via Pak kinases we identified a guanine

  13. Receptor tyrosine kinase signaling regulates replication of the peste des petits ruminants virus.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, K; Chaubey, K K; Singh, S V; Kumar, N

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we found out that blocking the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling in Vero cells by tryphostin AG879 impairs the in vitro replication of the peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). A reduced virus replication in Trk1-knockdown (siRNA) Vero cells confirmed the essential role of RTK in the virus replication, in particular a specific regulation of viral RNA synthesis. These data represent the first evidence that the RTK signaling regulates replication of a morbillivirus.

  14. Mechanisms regulating phosphoinositide 3-kinase signalling in insulin-sensitive tissues.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, P R

    2005-01-01

    A great deal of evidence has accumulated indicating that the activity of PI 3-kinase is necessary, and in some cases sufficient, for a wide range of insulin's actions in the cell. Most biochemical, genetic and pharmacological studies have focused on identifying potential roles for the class-Ia PI 3-kinases which are rapidly activated following insulin stimulation. However, recent evidence indicates the alpha isoform of class-II PI 3-kinase (PI3K-C2alpha) may also play a role as insulin causes a very rapid activation of this as well. The basic mechanisms by which insulin activates the various members of the PI 3-kinase family are increasingly well understood and these studies reveal multiple mechanisms for modulating the activity and functionality of PI 3-kinase and for down regulating the signals they generate. These include inhibitory phosphorylation events, lipid phosphatases such as PTEN and SHIP2 and inhibitor proteins of the suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) family. The current review will focus on these mechanisms and how defects in these might contribute to the development of insulin resistance.

  15. RAS signalling through PI3-Kinase controls cell migration via modulation of Reelin expression

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Esther; Molina-Arcas, Miriam; Krygowska, Agata Adelajda; East, Philip; Warne, Patricia; Nicol, Alastair; Downward, Julian

    2016-01-01

    RAS signalling through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-Kinase) has been shown to have an essential role in tumour initiation and maintenance. RAS also regulates cell motility and tumour invasiveness, but the role of direct RAS binding to PI3-Kinase in this remains uncertain. Here, we provide evidence that disruption of RAS interaction with PI3-Kinase p110α decreases cell motility and prevents activation of Rac GTPase. Analysis of gene expression in cells lacking RAS interaction with p110α reveals increased levels of the extracellular matrix glycoprotein Reelin and activation of its downstream pathway resulting in upregulation of E-cadherin expression. Induction of the Reelin/E-cadherin axis is also observed in Kras mutant lung tumours that are regressing due to blockade of RAS interaction with PI3-Kinase. Furthermore, loss of Reelin correlates with decreased survival of lung and breast cancer patients. Reelin thus plays a role in restraining RAS and PI3-kinase promotion of cell motility and potentially tumour metastasis. PMID:27071537

  16. Designed inhibitor for nuclear localization signal of polo-like kinase 1 induces mitotic arrest.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangjin; Zhuo, Xiaolong; Qin, Tan; Guo, Xiao; Zhang, Chuanmao; Lai, Luhua

    2016-11-24

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a member of polo-like kinase family, regulates multiple essential steps of the cell cycle progression. Plk1 is overexpressed in multiple cancer cell lines and considered to be a prime anticancer target. Plk1 accumulates in the nucleus during S and G2 phases by its bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence, which is crucial for Plk1 regulation during normal cell cycle progression. Here, through combined computational and experimental studies, we identified compound D110, which inhibits Plk1 kinase activity with an IC50 of 85 nm and blocks the nuclear localization of Plk1 during S and G2 phases. D110-treated cancer cells were arrested at mitosis with monopolar spindle, indicating the inhibition of the Plk1 kinase activity in cell. As D110 interacts with both the ATP site and the NLS in Plk1, it demonstrates good selectivity toward Plk2 and Plk3. The strategy of simultaneously inhibiting kinase activity and its subcellular translocations offers a novel approach for selective kinase inhibitor design.

  17. Oncogenic signaling by Kit tyrosine kinase occurs selectively on the Golgi apparatus in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Obata, Y; Horikawa, K; Takahashi, T; Akieda, Y; Tsujimoto, M; Fletcher, J A; Esumi, H; Nishida, T; Abe, R

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are caused by gain-of-function mutations in the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase. Most primary GIST patients respond to the Kit inhibitor imatinib, but this drug often becomes ineffective because of secondary mutations in the Kit kinase domain. The characteristic intracellular accumulation of imatinib-sensitive and -resistant Kit protein is well documented, but its relationship to oncogenic signaling remains unknown. Here, we show that in cancer tissue from primary GIST patients as well as in cell lines, mutant Kit accumulates on the Golgi apparatus, whereas normal Kit localizes to the plasma membrane (PM). In imatinib-resistant GIST with a secondary Kit mutation, Kit localizes predominantly on the Golgi apparatus. Both imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant Kit (Kit(mut)) become fully auto-phosphorylated only on the Golgi and only if in a complex-glycosylated form. Kit(mut) accumulates on the Golgi during the early secretory pathway, but not after endocytosis. The aberrant kinase activity of Kit(mut) prevents its export from the Golgi to the PM. Furthermore, Kit(mut) on the Golgi signals and activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–Akt (PI3K–Akt) pathway, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), and the Mek–Erk pathway. Blocking the biosynthetic transport of Kit(mut) to the Golgi from the endoplasmic reticulum inhibits oncogenic signaling. PM localization of Kit(mut) is not required for its signaling. Activation of Src-family tyrosine kinases on the Golgi is essential for oncogenic Kit signaling. These results suggest that the Golgi apparatus serves as a platform for oncogenic Kit signaling. Our study demonstrates that Kit(mut)’s pathogenicity is related to its mis-localization, and may offer a new strategy for treating imatinib-resistant GISTs. PMID:28192400

  18. Role of Rho kinase signalling in healthy and varicose human saphenous veins

    PubMed Central

    Cario-Toumaniantz, Chrystelle; Evellin, Sandrine; Maury, Séverine; Baron, Olivier; Pacaud, Pierre; Loirand, Gervaise

    2002-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the role of Rho-Rho kinase signalling pathway in smooth muscle cells from both healthy and varicose human saphenous vein. The Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 inhibited the noradrenaline (NA)-induced contraction in human saphenous veins with IC50 corresponding to 0.5 μM and 10.9 μM in control and varicose veins, respectively. The maximal amplitude of the NA-induced contraction was smaller in varicose vein compared to control (1263±172 mg versus 1974±245 mg, P<0.05). In β-escin permeabilized strips, GTPγS induced a rise in tension that was inhibited by Y-27632. The amplitude of the GTPγS-induced contraction was smaller in varicose compared to control veins (23.1±2.4% versus 41.3±2.2%, P<0.002). In smooth muscle cells, Y-27632 induced disassembly of both actin cytoskeleton and extracellular fibronectin matrix. In comparison to control cells, varicose vein smooth muscle cells show decreased actin cytoskeleton organization and reduction of fibronectin matrix deposition. The Rho proteins Rnd1 and RhoA, and Rho kinase 1 are expressed in human saphenous veins. A 2.6 fold reduction of Rho kinase expression was found in varicose veins. These results indicate that RhoA-Rho kinase mediated Ca2+ sensitization of the contraction and regulated actin cytoskeleton and extracellular fibronectin matrix assembly in human saphenous smooth muscle. The decrease of Rho kinase expression and Rho kinase-dependent functions detected in smooth muscle from varicose veins supports a role of this signalling pathway in the functional alterations of the vein wall occurring in the course of the disease. PMID:12208777

  19. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling in tumor cells by small molecule Src family kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bartscht, Tobias; Rosien, Benjamin; Rades, Dirk; Kaufmann, Roland; Biersack, Harald; Lehnerta, Hendrik; Ungefroren, Hendrik

    2017-01-02

    In a series of studies carried out over the last couple of years in various cell types, it was observed that the experimentally used Src family kinase inhibitors PP1 and PP2 and the clinically used Src/Abl inhibitors AZM475271 and dasatinib are potent inhibitors of TGF-β mediated cellular responses such as Smad and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, Smad-dependent transcriptional activation, growth inhibition, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cell motility. While for PP1/PP2 it was demonstrated shown that these agents directly inhibit the kinase activity of the TGF-β type I receptor activin receptor-like kinase 5, the mechanism of the anti-TGF-β effect of AZM475271 and dasatinib is less clear. In contrast, the anti-TGF-β effect of yet another Src/Abl inhibitor, bosutinib, is more variable with respect to the type of the TGF-β response and the cell type affected, and lacks a clear dose-dependency. In the light of their strong anti-activin receptor-like kinase 5 kinase effect, PP1 and PP2 should not be used when studying the role of c-Src as downstream mediators in TGF-β/activin receptor-like kinase 5 signaling. On the other hand, based upon in vitro findings, it is conceivable that part of the therapeutic effects of AZM475271 and dasatinib seen in preclinical and clinical studies with solid tumors was caused by inhibition of prometastatic TGF-β rather than Src signaling. If AZM475271 and dasatinib can indeed act as dual Src / TGF-β inhibitors in vivo, this may be beneficial for prevention of metastatic disease in more advanced tumor stages.

  20. Large-Scale Analysis of Kinase Signaling in Yeast Pseudohyphal Development Identifies Regulation of Ribonucleoprotein Granules.

    PubMed

    Shively, Christian A; Kweon, Hye Kyong; Norman, Kaitlyn L; Mellacheruvu, Dattatreya; Xu, Tao; Sheidy, Daniel T; Dobry, Craig J; Sabath, Ivan; Cosky, Eric E P; Tran, Elizabeth J; Nesvizhskii, Alexey; Andrews, Philip C; Kumar, Anuj

    2015-10-01

    Yeast pseudohyphal filamentation is a stress-responsive growth transition relevant to processes required for virulence in pathogenic fungi. Pseudohyphal growth is controlled through a regulatory network encompassing conserved MAPK (Ste20p, Ste11p, Ste7p, Kss1p, and Fus3p), protein kinase A (Tpk2p), Elm1p, and Snf1p kinase pathways; however, the scope of these pathways is not fully understood. Here, we implemented quantitative phosphoproteomics to identify each of these signaling networks, generating a kinase-dead mutant in filamentous S. cerevisiae and surveying for differential phosphorylation. By this approach, we identified 439 phosphoproteins dependent upon pseudohyphal growth kinases. We report novel phosphorylation sites in 543 peptides, including phosphorylated residues in Ras2p and Flo8p required for wild-type filamentous growth. Phosphoproteins in these kinase signaling networks were enriched for ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granule components, and we observe co-localization of Kss1p, Fus3p, Ste20p, and Tpk2p with the RNP component Igo1p. These kinases localize in puncta with GFP-visualized mRNA, and KSS1 is required for wild-type levels of mRNA localization in RNPs. Kss1p pathway activity is reduced in lsm1Δ/Δ and pat1Δ/Δ strains, and these genes encoding P-body proteins are epistatic to STE7. The P-body protein Dhh1p is also required for hyphal development in Candida albicans. Collectively, this study presents a wealth of data identifying the yeast phosphoproteome in pseudohyphal growth and regulatory interrelationships between pseudohyphal growth kinases and RNPs.

  1. Protein Kinase Cι Expression and Oncogenic Signaling Mechanisms in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Nicole R.; Kalari, Krishna R.; Fields, Alan P.

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence demonstrates that PKCι is an oncogene and prognostic marker that is frequently targeted for genetic alteration in many major forms of human cancer. Functional data demonstrate that PKCι is required for the transformed phenotype of NSCLC, pancreatic, ovarian, prostate, colon and brain cancer cells. Future studies will be required to determine whether PKCι is also an oncogene in the many other cancer types that also overexpress PKCι. Studies of PKCι using genetically defined models of tumorigenesis have revealed a critical role for PKCι in multiple stages of tumorigenesis, including tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. Recent studies in a genetic model of lung adenocarcinoma suggest a role for PKCι in transformation of lung cancer stem cells. These studies have important implications for the therapeutic use of aurothiomalate (ATM), a highly selective PKCι signaling inhibitor currently undergoing clinical evaluation. Significant progress has been made in determining the molecular mechanisms by which PKCι drives the transformed phenotype, particularly the central role played by the oncogenic PKCι-Par6 complex in transformed growth and invasion, and of several PKCι-dependent survival pathways in chemo-resistance. Future studies will be required to determine the composition and dynamics of the PKCι-Par6 complex, and the mechanisms by which oncogenic signaling through this complex is regulated. Likewise, a better understanding of the critical downstream effectors of PKCι in various human tumor types holds promise for identifying novel prognostic and surrogate markers of oncogenic PKCι activity that may be clinically useful in ongoing clinical trials of ATM. PMID:20945390

  2. Targeting the interaction of Aurora kinases and SIRT1 mediated by Wnt signaling pathway in colorectal cancer: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Subramaniyan, Boopathi; Jagadeesan, Kaviya; Ramakrishnan, Sabitha; Mathan, Ganeshan

    2016-08-01

    The Aurora kinases belong to the family of serine/threonine kinase, a central regulator of mitosis and their expression increased during G2/M phase. It is classified into Aurora A, B and C, each has distinct roles in cellular processes, which includes regulation of spindle assembly, function of centrosomes, cytoskeleton and cytokinesis. During cancer growth, their rapid increase makes most attractive marker for cancer treatment at present. However Aurora A kinase is known to be a marker for cancer therapy, the most important serine/threonine kinase of Aurora B kinase involvement in cancer is still inadequate. Subsequently, the recent findings revealed that the class III histone deacetylase of SIRT1 is a key regulator to activate Aurora kinases from S phase damaged DNA through Wnt signaling pathway. Even if both Aurora A kinase and SIRT1 serve as a marker for cancer therapy, the present review reveals it is interaction in Wnt signaling pathway that solely for colorectal cancer.

  3. Role of STATs as downstream signal transducers in Src family kinase-mediated tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Corinne M

    2004-10-18

    The signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) were originally identified in the signaling pathway activated by the nontyrosine kinase containing cytokine receptors. The role of these STATs in hematopoietic cell signaling has been well described. In the case of cytokine receptors, activation of STAT tyrosine phosphorylation occurs through ligand-induced recruitment, and activation of the intracellular JAK kinases. However, STATs can also be activated by growth factor receptors, particularly the EGFR; as well as by members of the Src Family of Kinases (SFKs), particularly c-Src. In many cases, there is a differential activation of the STATs by these tyrosine kinases as compared to activation by the cytokine receptors. This difference provides for the potential of unique actions of STATs in response to growth factor receptor and SFK activation. Since there are many cancers in which SFKs and c-Src in particular, are co-overexpressed with growth factor receptors, it is not surprising that STATs play an important role in the tumorigenesis process induced by c-Src. The activation paradigm and role of STATs in these cancers, with particular emphasis on breast cancer models, is discussed.

  4. Lovastatin inhibits the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase pathway in immortalized rat brain neuroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cerezo-Guisado, Maria Isabel; GarcíA-Román, Natalia; García-MaríN, Luis Jesús; Álvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Bragado, Maria Julia; Lorenzo, Maria Jesús

    2006-01-01

    We have shown previously that lovastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methyl- glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, induces apoptosis in spontaneously immortalized rat brain neuroblasts. In the present study, we analysed the intracellular signal transduction pathways by which lovastatin induces neuroblast apoptosis. We showed that lovastatin efficiently inhibited Ras activation, which was associ-ated with a significant decrease in ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) phosphorylation. Lovastatin also decreased CREB phosphorylation and CREB-mediated gene expression. The effects of lovastatin on the Ras/ERK1/2/CREB pathway were time- and concentration-dependent and fully prevented by meva-lonate. In addition, we showed that two MEK [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK kinase] inhibitors, PD98059 and PD184352, were poor inducers of apoptosis in serum-treated neuroblasts. However, these inhibitors significantly increased apop-tosis induced by lovastatin treatment. Furthermore, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of both MEK and phosphoinos-itide 3-kinase activities was able to induce neuroblast apoptosis with similar efficacy as lovastatin. Our results suggest that lovast-atin triggers neuroblast apoptosis by regulating several signalling pathways, including the Ras/ERK1/2 pathway. These findings might also contribute to elucidate the intracellular mechanisms involved in the central nervous system side effects associated with statin therapy. PMID:16952276

  5. The receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit controls IL-33 receptor signaling in mast cells.

    PubMed

    Drube, Sebastian; Heink, Sylvia; Walter, Sabine; Löhn, Tobias; Grusser, Mandy; Gerbaulet, Alexander; Berod, Luciana; Schons, Julia; Dudeck, Anne; Freitag, Jenny; Grotha, Stefan; Reich, Daniela; Rudeschko, Olga; Norgauer, Johannes; Hartmann, Karin; Roers, Axel; Kamradt, Thomas

    2010-05-13

    Members of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) family are of importance for host defense and inflammation. Here we report that the TIR-family member interleukin-33R (IL-33R) cross-activates the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit in human and murine mast cells. The IL-33R-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2), protein kinase B (PKB), and Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) depends on c-Kit and is required to elicit optimal effector functions. Costimulation with the c-Kit ligand stem cell factor (SCF) is necessary for IL-33-induced cytokine production in primary mast cells. The structural basis for this cross-activation is the complex formation between c-Kit, IL-33R, and IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP). We found that c-Kit and IL-1RAcP interact constitutively and that IL-33R joins this complex upon ligand binding. Our findings support a model in which signals from seemingly disparate receptors are integrated for full cellular responses.

  6. Cytokine signaling through the novel tyrosine kinase RAFTK in Kaposi's sarcoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Z Y; Ganju, R K; Wang, J F; Ona, M A; Hatch, W C; Zheng, T; Avraham, S; Gill, P; Groopman, J E

    1997-01-01

    A number of cytokines, including basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), oncostatin M (OSM), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), have been postulated to have a role in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The proliferative effects of bFGF and OSM may be via their reported activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in KS cells. We now report that KS cells express a recently identified focal adhesion kinase termed RAFTK which appears in other cell systems to coordinate surface signals between cytokine and integrin receptors and the cytoskeleton as well as act downstream to modulate JNK activation. We also report that the tyrosine kinase receptor FLT-4, present on normal lymphatic endothelium, is robustly expressed in KS cells. Treatment of KS cells with VEGF-related protein (VRP), the ligand for the FLT-4 receptor, as well as with the cytokines bFGF, OSM, IL-6, VEGF, or TNF-alpha resulted in phosphorylation and activation of RAFTK. Following its activation, there was an enhanced association of RAFTK with the cytoskeletal protein paxillin. This association was mediated by the hydrophobic COOH-terminal domain of the kinase. Furthermore, JNK activity was increased in KS cells after VEGF or VRP stimulation. We postulate that in these tumor cells RAFTK may be activated by a diverse group of stimulatory cytokines and facilitate signal transduction to the cytoskeleton and downstream to the growth promoting JNK pathway. PMID:9120025

  7. GTP binding to the ROC domain of DAP-kinase regulates its function through intramolecular signalling.

    PubMed

    Carlessi, Rodrigo; Levin-Salomon, Vered; Ciprut, Sara; Bialik, Shani; Berissi, Hanna; Albeck, Shira; Peleg, Yoav; Kimchi, Adi

    2011-09-01

    Death-associated protein kinase (DAPk) was recently suggested by sequence homology to be a member of the ROCO family of proteins. Here, we show that DAPk has a functional ROC (Ras of complex proteins) domain that mediates homo-oligomerization and GTP binding through a defined P-loop motif. Upon binding to GTP, the ROC domain negatively regulates the catalytic activity of DAPk and its cellular effects. Mechanistically, GTP binding enhances an inhibitory autophosphorylation at a distal site that suppresses kinase activity. This study presents a new mechanism of intramolecular signal transduction, by which GTP binding operates in cis to affect the catalytic activity of a distal domain in the protein.

  8. Functions and Mechanisms of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Torso Signaling: Lessons From Drosophila Embryonic Terminal Development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Willis X.

    2011-01-01

    The Torso receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) is required for cell fate specification in the terminal regions (head and tail) of the early Drosophila embryo. Torso contains a split tyrosine kinase domain and belongs to the type III subgroup of the RTK superfamily that also includes the platelet-derived growth factor receptors, stem cell or steel factor receptor c-Kit proto-oncoprotein, colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. The Torso pathway has been a model system for studying RTK signal transduction. Genetic and biochemical studies of Torso signaling have provided valuable insights into the biological functions and mechanisms of RTK signaling during early Drosophila embryogenesis. PMID:15704136

  9. Methylglyoxal Activates the Target of Rapamycin Complex 2-Protein Kinase C Signaling Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Methylglyoxal is a typical 2-oxoaldehyde derived from glycolysis. We show here that methylglyoxal activates the Pkc1-Mpk1 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade in a target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2)-dependent manner in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that TORC2 phosphorylates Pkc1 at Thr1125 and Ser1143. Methylglyoxal enhanced the phosphorylation of Pkc1 at Ser1143, which transmitted the signal to the downstream Mpk1 MAP kinase cascade. We found that the phosphorylation status of Pkc1T1125 affected the phosphorylation of Pkc1 at Ser1143, in addition to its protein levels. Methylglyoxal activated mammalian TORC2 signaling, which, in turn, phosphorylated Akt at Ser473. Our results suggest that methylglyoxal is a conserved initiator of TORC2 signaling among eukaryotes. PMID:25624345

  10. Mitochondria: a kinase anchoring protein 1, a signaling platform for mitochondrial form and function.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Ronald A; Strack, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Mitochondria are best known for their role as cellular power plants, but they also serve as signaling hubs, regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival. A kinase anchoring protein 1 (AKAP1) is a scaffold protein that recruits protein kinase A (PKA) and other signaling proteins, as well as RNA, to the outer mitochondrial membrane. AKAP1 thereby integrates several second messenger cascades to modulate mitochondrial function and associated physiological and pathophysiological outcomes. Here, we review what is currently known about AKAP1's macromolecular interactions in health and disease states, including obesity. We also discuss dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), the enzyme that catalyzes mitochondrial fission, as one of the key substrates of the PKA/AKAP1 signaling complex in neurons. Recent evidence suggests that AKAP1 has critical roles in neuronal development and survival, which are mediated by inhibitory phosphorylation of Drp1 and maintenance of mitochondrial integrity.

  11. Methylglyoxal activates the target of rapamycin complex 2-protein kinase C signaling pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Wataru; Inoue, Yoshiharu

    2015-04-01

    Methylglyoxal is a typical 2-oxoaldehyde derived from glycolysis. We show here that methylglyoxal activates the Pkc1-Mpk1 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade in a target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2)-dependent manner in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that TORC2 phosphorylates Pkc1 at Thr(1125) and Ser(1143). Methylglyoxal enhanced the phosphorylation of Pkc1 at Ser(1143), which transmitted the signal to the downstream Mpk1 MAP kinase cascade. We found that the phosphorylation status of Pkc1(T1125) affected the phosphorylation of Pkc1 at Ser(1143), in addition to its protein levels. Methylglyoxal activated mammalian TORC2 signaling, which, in turn, phosphorylated Akt at Ser(473). Our results suggest that methylglyoxal is a conserved initiator of TORC2 signaling among eukaryotes.

  12. Ethanol activates midkine and anaplastic lymphoma kinase signaling in neuroblastoma cells and in the brain.

    PubMed

    He, Donghong; Chen, Hu; Muramatsu, Hisako; Lasek, Amy W

    2015-11-01

    Alcohol engages signaling pathways in the brain. Midkine (MDK) is a neurotrophic factor that is over-expressed in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics. MDK and one of its receptors, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), also regulate behavioral responses to ethanol in mice. The goal of this study was to determine whether MDK and ALK expression and signaling are activated by ethanol. We found that ethanol treatment of neuroblastoma cells increased MDK and ALK expression. We also assessed activation of ALK by ethanol in cells and found that ALK and ALK-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation increased rapidly with ethanol exposure. Similarly, treatment of cells with recombinant MDK protein increased ALK, ERK and STAT3 phosphorylation, suggesting that ethanol may utilize MDK to activate ALK signaling. In support of this, transfection of cells with MDK siRNAs attenuated ALK signaling in response to ethanol. Ethanol also activates ERK signaling in the brain. We found that inhibition of ALK or knockout of MDK attenuated ethanol-induced ERK phosphorylation in mouse amygdala. These results demonstrate that ethanol engages MDK and ALK signaling, which has important consequences for alcohol-induced neurotoxicity and the regulation of behaviors related to alcohol abuse.

  13. The Antiviral Alkaloid Berberine Reduces Chikungunya Virus-Induced Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Finny S; Thaa, Bastian; Amrun, Siti Naqiah; Simarmata, Diane; Rausalu, Kai; Nyman, Tuula A; Merits, Andres; McInerney, Gerald M; Ng, Lisa F P; Ahola, Tero

    2016-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has infected millions of people in the tropical and subtropical regions since its reemergence in the last decade. We recently identified the nontoxic plant alkaloid berberine as an antiviral substance against CHIKV in a high-throughput screen. Here, we show that berberine is effective in multiple cell types against a variety of CHIKV strains, also at a high multiplicity of infection, consolidating the potential of berberine as an antiviral drug. We excluded any effect of this compound on virus entry or on the activity of the viral replicase. A human phosphokinase array revealed that CHIKV infection specifically activated the major mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Upon treatment with berberine, this virus-induced MAPK activation was markedly reduced. Subsequent analyses with specific inhibitors of these kinases indicated that the ERK and JNK signaling cascades are important for the generation of progeny virions. In contrast to specific MAPK inhibitors, berberine lowered virus-induced activation of all major MAPK pathways and resulted in a stronger reduction in viral titers. Further, we assessed the in vivo efficacy of berberine in a mouse model and measured a significant reduction of CHIKV-induced inflammatory disease. In summary, we demonstrate the efficacy of berberine as a drug against CHIKV and highlight the importance of the MAPK signaling pathways in the alphavirus infectious cycle. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that causes severe and persistent muscle and joint pain and has recently spread to the Americas. No licensed drug exists to counter this virus. In this study, we report that the alkaloid berberine is antiviral against different CHIKV strains and in multiple human cell lines. We demonstrate that berberine collectively reduced the virus-induced activation of cellular mitogen-activated protein kinase

  14. Regulation and function of syk tyrosine kinase in mast cell signaling and beyond.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Rodrigo Orlandini

    2011-01-01

    The protein tyrosine kinase Syk plays a critical role in FcεRI signaling in mast cells. Binding of Syk to phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (p-ITAM) of the receptor subunits results in conformational changes and tyrosine phosphorylation at multiple sites that leads to activation of Syk. The phosphorylated tyrosines throughout the molecule play an important role in the regulation of Syk-mediated signaling. Reconstitution of receptor-mediated signaling in Syk(-/-) cells by wild-type Syk or mutants which have substitution of these tyrosines with phenylalanine together with in vitro assays has been useful strategies to understand the regulation and function of Syk.

  15. Cytoplasmic signalling by the c-Abl tyrosine kinase in normal and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sirvent, Audrey; Benistant, Christine; Roche, Serge

    2008-11-01

    c-Abl is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase which is localized both in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and is involved in the regulation of cell growth, survival and morphogenesis. Although c-Abl nuclear function has been extensively studied, recent data also indicate an important role in cytoplasmic signalling through mitogenic and adhesive receptors. Here, we review the mechanisms by which growth factors promote cytoplasmic c-Abl activation and signalling and its function in the induction of DNA synthesis, changes in cell morphology and receptor endocytosis. The importance of de-regulated c-Abl cytoplasmic signalling in solid tumours is also discussed.

  16. The Potential for Signal Integration and Processing in Interacting Map Kinase Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Schwacke, John H.; Voit, Eberhard O.

    2009-01-01

    The cellular response to environmental stimuli requires biochemical information processing through which sensory inputs and cellular status are integrated and translated into appropriate responses by way of interacting networks of enzymes. One such network, the Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) kinase cascade is a highly conserved signal transduction module that propagates signals from cell surface receptors to various cytosolic and nuclear targets by way of a phosphorylation cascade. We have investigated the potential for signal processing within a network of interacting feed-forward kinase cascades typified by the MAP kinase cascade. A genetic algorithm was used to search for sets of kinetic parameters demonstrating representative key input-output patterns of interest. We discuss two of the networks identified in our study, one implementing the exclusive-or function (XOR) and another implementing what we refer to as an in-band detector (IBD) or two-sided threshold. These examples confirm the potential for logic and amplitude-dependent signal processing in interacting MAP kinase cascades demonstrating limited cross-talk. Specifically, the XOR function allows the network to respond to either one, but not both signals simultaneously, while the IBD permits the network to respond exclusively to signals within a given range of strength, and to suppress signals below as well as above this range. The solution to the XOR problem is interesting in that it requires only two interacting pathways, crosstalk at only one layer, and no feedback or explicit inhibition. These types of responses are not only biologically relevant but constitute signal processing modules that can be combined to create other logical functions and that, in contrast to amplification, cannot be achieved with a single cascade or with two non-interacting cascades. Our computational results revealed surprising similarities between experimental data describing the JNK/MKK4/MKK7 pathway and the solution for

  17. Kinase signalling pathways in endometriosis: potential targets for non-hormonal therapeutics.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Brett D; Kocbek, Vida; Nirgianakis, Kostantinos; Bersinger, Nick A; Mueller, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Endometriosis, the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, is associated with chronic pelvic pain, subfertility and an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Current treatments include the surgical removal of the lesions or the induction of a hypoestrogenic state. However, a reappearance of the lesion after surgery is common and a hypoestrogenic state is less than optimal for women of reproductive age. Additional approaches are required. Endometriosis lesions exist in a unique microenvironment characterized by increased concentrations of hormones, inflammation, oxidative stress and iron. This environment influences cell survival through the binding of membrane receptors and a subsequent cascading activation of intracellular kinases that stimulate a cellular response. Many of these kinase signalling pathways are constitutively activated in endometriosis. These pathways are being investigated as therapeutic targets in other diseases and thus may also represent a target for endometriosis treatment. To identify relevant English language studies published up to 2015 on kinase signalling pathways in endometriosis, we searched the Pubmed database using the following search terms in various combinations; 'endometriosis', 'inflammation', 'oxidative stress', 'iron', 'kinase', 'NF kappa', 'mTOR', 'MAPK' 'p38', 'JNK', 'ERK' 'estrogen' and progesterone'. Further citing references were identified using the Scopus database and finally current clinical trials were searched on the clinicaltrials.gov trial registry. The current literature on intracellular kinases activated by the endometriotic environment can be summarized into three main pathways that could be targeted for treatments: the canonical IKKβ/NFκB pathway, the MAPK pathways (ERK1/2, p38 and JNK) and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. A number of pharmaceutical compounds that target these pathways have been successfully trialled in in vitro and animal models of endometriosis, although they have not yet proceeded to

  18. Targeting of a novel Ca+2/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is essential for extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated signaling in differentiated smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Marganski, William A; Gangopadhyay, Samudra S; Je, Hyun-Dong; Gallant, Cynthia; Morgan, Kathleen G

    2005-09-16

    Subcellular targeting of kinases controls their activation and access to substrates. Although Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is known to regulate differentiated smooth muscle cell (dSMC) contractility, the importance of targeting in this regulation is not clear. The present study investigated the function in dSMCs of a novel variant of the gamma isoform of CaMKII that contains a potential targeting sequence in its association domain (CaMKIIgamma G-2). Antisense knockdown of CaMKIIgamma G-2 inhibited extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) activation, myosin phosphorylation, and contractile force in dSMCs. Confocal colocalization analysis revealed that in unstimulated dSMCs CaMKIIgamma G-2 is bound to a cytoskeletal scaffold consisting of interconnected vimentin intermediate filaments and cytosolic dense bodies. On activation with a depolarizing stimulus, CaMKIIgamma G-2 is released into the cytosol and subsequently targeted to cortical dense plaques. Comparison of phosphorylation and translocation time courses indicates that, after CaMKIIgamma G-2 activation, and before CaMKIIgamma G-2 translocation, vimentin is phosphorylated at a CaMKII-specific site. Differential centrifugation demonstrated that phosphorylation of vimentin in dSMCs is not sufficient to cause its disassembly, in contrast to results in cultured cells. Loading dSMCs with a decoy peptide containing the polyproline sequence within the association domain of CaMKIIgamma G-2 inhibited targeting. Furthermore, prevention of CaMKIIgamma G-2 targeting led to significant inhibition of ERK activation as well as contractility. Thus, for the first time, this study demonstrates the importance of CaMKII targeting in dSMC signaling and identifies a novel targeting function for the association domain in addition to its known role in oligomerization.

  19. The tomato kinome and the tomato kinase library ORFeome: novel resources for the study of kinases and signal transduction in tomato and solanaceae species.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra K; Calviño, Mauricio; Brauer, Elizabeth K; Fernandez-Pozo, Noe; Strickler, Susan; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aoki, Koh; Shibata, Daisuke; Stratmann, Johannes W; Popescu, George V; Mueller, Lukas A; Popescu, Sorina C

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase-driven phosphorylation constitutes the core of cellular signaling. Kinase components of signal transduction pathways are often targeted for inactivation by pathogens. The study of kinases and immune signal transduction in the model crop tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) would benefit from the availability of community-wide resources for large scale and systems-level experimentation. Here, we defined the tomato kinome and performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of the tomato kinome and 15 other plant species. We constructed a tomato kinase library (TOKN 1.0) of over 300 full-length open reading frames (ORF) cloned into a recombination-based vector. We developed a high-throughput pipeline to isolate and transform tomato protoplasts. A subset of the TOKN 1.0 library kinases were expressed in planta, were purified, and were used to generate a functional tomato protein microarray. All resources created were utilized to test known and novel associations between tomato kinases and Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 effectors in a large-scale format. Bsk7 was identified as a component of the plant immune response and a candidate effector target. These resources will enable comprehensive investigations of signaling pathways and host-pathogen interactions in tomato and other Solanaceae spp.

  20. Nobiletin induces inhibitions of Ras activity and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling to suppress cell proliferation in C6 rat glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Koichi; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Fukunaga, Kohji; Yamakuni, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    Ras, a small G-protein, physiologically directs cell proliferation and cell cycle via regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade. Dysregulation of Ras/MEK/ERK signaling has been reported to cause tumorigenesis and gliomas. Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid, has been shown to have anti-tumor cells action. However, it remains elusive whether nobiletin could affect Ras activity. In this study, we provide the first evidence that nobiletin suppresses the proliferation by inhibiting Ras activity in C6 glioma cells, a rat glioma cell line. First, Ras pull-down assay showed that nobiletin inhibits Ras activity in a concentration-dependent manner in C6 cells. Second, farnesyltransferase inhibitor I, a Ras inhibitor, and U0126, a MEK inhibitor, induced an inhibition of the cell proliferation in C6 cells, while the cell proliferation was inhibited by nobiletin as well. Third, western blotting revealed that nobiletin showed inhibitory effects on MEK and ERK phopsphorylation levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Finally, such an inhibitory effect on the level of ERK phosphorylation by nobiletin was appreciably prevented by Gö6976, a selective inhibitor of conventional protein kinase Cs (PKCs) showing Ca(2+)-sensitivity, while GF109203X, a general inhibitor for PKCs, and BAPTA, a cell-permeable Ca(2+) chelator, to a lesser extent, suppressed a reduction of the phosphorylation. These findings suggest that the proliferation of C6 cells is Ras- and MEK/ERK signaling-dependent, and that nobiletin suppresses the cell proliferation by inhibiting Ras activity and MEK/ERK signaling cascade probably via a Ca(2+)-sensitive PKC-dependent mechanism. Thus, the natural compound has potential to be a therapeutic agent for glioma.

  1. The assembly of a GTPase–kinase signalling complex by a bacterial catalytic scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Selyunin, Andrey S.; Sutton, Sarah E.; Weigele, Bethany A.; Reddick, L. Evan; Orchard, Robert C.; Bresson, Stefan M.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Alto, Neal M.

    2011-01-01

    The fidelity and specificity of information flow within a cell is controlled by scaffolding proteins that assemble and link enzymes into signalling circuits1,2. These circuits can be inhibited by bacterial effector proteins that post-translationally modify individual pathway components3–6. However, there is emerging evidence that pathogens directly organize higher-order signalling networks through enzyme scaffolding7,8, and the identity of the effectors and their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Here we identify the enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 type III effector EspG as a regulator of endomembrane trafficking using a functional screen, and report ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases and p21-activated kinases (PAKs) as its relevant host substrates. The 2.5 Å crystal structure of EspG in complex with ARF6 shows how EspG blocks GTPase-activating-protein-assisted GTP hydrolysis, revealing a potent mechanism of GTPase signalling inhibition at organelle membranes. In addition, the 2.8 Å crystal structure of EspG in complex with the autoinhibitory Iα3-helix of PAK2 defines a previously unknown catalytic site in EspG and provides an allosteric mechanism of kinase activation by a bacterial effector. Unexpectedly, ARF and PAKs are organized on adjacent surfaces of EspG, indicating its role as a ‘catalytic scaffold’ that effectively reprograms cellular events through the functional assembly of GTPase-kinase signalling complex. PMID:21170023

  2. Signaling pathway adaptations and novel protein kinase A substrates related to behavioral sensitization to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Amy C; Ferrario, Carrie R; Glucksman, Marc J; Wolf, Marina E

    2009-07-01

    Behavioral sensitization is an animal model for aspects of cocaine addiction. Cocaine-sensitized rats exhibit increased AMPA receptor (AMPAR) surface expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) which may in turn enhance drug seeking. To identify signaling pathways contributing to AMPAR up-regulation, we measured AMPAR surface expression and signaling pathway activation in the NAc of cocaine-sensitized rats, cocaine-exposed rats that failed to sensitize and saline controls on withdrawal days (WD) 1, 7, and 21. We focused on calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), and protein kinase A (PKA). In sensitized rats, AMPAR surface expression was elevated on WD7 and WD21 but not WD1. ERK2 activation followed a parallel time-course, suggesting a role in AMPAR up-regulation. Both sensitized and non-sensitized rats exhibited CaMKII activation on WD7, suggesting that CaMKII activation is not sufficient for AMPAR up-regulation. PKA phosphorylation, measured using an antibody recognizing phosphorylated PKA substrates, increased gradually over withdrawal in sensitized rats, from below control levels on WD1 to significantly greater than controls on WD21. Using proteomics, novel sensitization-related PKA substrates were identified, including two structural proteins (CRMP-2 and alpha-tubulin) that we speculate may link PKA signaling to previously reported dendritic remodeling in NAc neurons of cocaine-sensitized rats.

  3. The lipid kinase PIP5K1C regulates pain signaling and sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Brittany D.; Loo, Lipin; Street, Sarah E.; Ma, Anqi; Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Stashko, Michael A.; Jin, Jian; Janzen, William P.; Frye, Stephen V.; Zylka, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Numerous pain-producing (pronociceptive) receptors signal via phosphatidylinositol 4,5- bisphosphate (PIP2) hydrolysis. However, it is currently unknown which lipid kinases generate PIP2 in nociceptive dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and if these kinases regulate pronociceptive receptor signaling. Here, we found that phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5 kinase type 1C (PIP5K1C) is expressed at higher levels than any other PIP5K and, based on experiments with Pip5k1c+/− mice, generates at least half of all PIP2 in DRG neurons. Additionally, Pip5k1c haploinsufficiency reduces pronociceptive receptor signaling and TRPV1 sensitization in DRG neurons as well as thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in mouse models of chronic pain. We identified a novel small molecule inhibitor of PIP5K1C (UNC3230) in a high-throughput screen. UNC3230 lowered PIP2 levels in DRG neurons and attenuated hypersensitivity when administered intrathecally or into the hindpaw. Our studies reveal that PIP5K1C regulates PIP2- dependent nociceptive signaling and suggest that PIP5K1C is a novel therapeutic target for chronic pain. PMID:24853942

  4. Kinase suppressor of Ras1 compartmentalizes hippocampal signal transduction and subserves synaptic plasticity and memory formation.

    PubMed

    Shalin, Sara C; Hernandez, Caterina M; Dougherty, Michele K; Morrison, Deborah K; Sweatt, J David

    2006-06-01

    The ERK/MAP kinase cascade is important for long-term memory formation and synaptic plasticity, with a myriad of upstream signals converging upon ERK activation. Despite this convergence of signaling, neurons routinely activate appropriate biological responses to different stimuli. Scaffolding proteins represent a mechanism to achieve compartmentalization of signaling and the appropriate targeting of ERK-dependent processes. We report that kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR1) functions biochemically in the hippocampus to scaffold the components of the ERK cascade, specifically regulating the cascade when a membrane fraction of ERK is activated via a PKC-dependent pathway but not via a cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway. Specificity of KSR1-dependent signaling also extends to specific downstream targets of ERK. Behaviorally and physiologically, we found that the absence of KSR1 leads to deficits in associative learning and theta burst stimulation-induced LTP. Our report provides novel insight into the endogenous scaffolding role of KSR1 in controlling kinase activation within the nervous system.

  5. Emdogain-regulated gene expression in palatal fibroblasts requires TGF-βRI kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Stähli, Alexandra; Bosshardt, Dieter; Sculean, Anton; Gruber, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide microarrays have suggested that Emdogain regulates TGF-β target genes in gingival and palatal fibroblasts. However, definitive support for this contention and the extent to which TGF-β signaling contributes to the effects of Emdogain has remained elusive. We therefore studied the role of the TGF-β receptor I (TGF-βRI) kinase to mediate the effect of Emdogain on palatal fibroblasts. Palatal fibroblasts were exposed to Emdogain with and without the inhibitor for TGF-βRI kinase, SB431542. Emdogain caused 39 coding genes to be differentially expressed in palatal fibroblasts by microarray analysis (p<0.05; >10-fold). Importantly, in the presence of the TGF-βRI kinase inhibitor SB431542, Emdogain failed to cause any significant changes in gene expression. Consistent with this mechanism, three independent TGF-βRI kinase inhibitors and a TGF-β neutralizing antibody abrogated the increased expression of IL-11, a selected Emdogain target gene. The MAPK inhibitors SB203580 and U0126 lowered the impact of Emdogain on IL-11 expression. The data support that TGF-βRI kinase activity is necessary to mediate the effects of Emdogain on gene expression in vitro.

  6. Expression and activation of platelet-derived growth factor β receptor, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Altamura, Gennaro; Uberti, Barbara Degli; Galiero, Giorgio; Martano, Manuela; Pirro, Antonella; Russo, Marco; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    Canine mammary tumours are frequent neoplasms mostly affecting intact female dogs, for which no 100% efficient therapy is available. Platelet derived growth factor β receptor (PDGFβR) is a tyrosine kinase receptor (TKR) with a potential role in human breast cancer and a series of canine tumours. In this study we demonstrated, for the first time, expression of PDGFβR and its downstream transduction molecules, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), as well as their activated forms in canine mammary tumours by both biochemical analysis and immunohistochemistry. PDGFβR was expressed and hyperphosphorylated in the majority of tumour samples and tumour derived cell lines. Additionally, both MEK and ERK were expressed and activated in cell lines as well as biopsies. TKR inhibitors (TKRi) are currently under investigation as possible therapy in human breast and several canine tumours, thus our in vivo and in vitro findings pave the way for future studies aimed at establishing a potential therapeutic employment of TKRi for the treatment of canine mammary cancer.

  7. CNK and HYP form a discrete dimer by their SAM domains to mediate RAF kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Rajakulendran, Thanashan; Sahmi, Malha; Kurinov, Igor; Tyers, Mike; Therrien, Marc; Sicheri, Frank

    2008-02-26

    RAF kinase functions in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway to transmit growth signals to the downstream kinases MEK and ERK. Activation of RAF catalytic activity is facilitated by a regulatory complex comprising the proteins CNK (Connector enhancer of KSR), HYP (Hyphen), and KSR (Kinase Suppressor of Ras). The sterile alpha-motif (SAM) domain found in both CNK and HYP plays an essential role in complex formation. Here, we have determined the x-ray crystal structure of the SAM domain of CNK in complex with the SAM domain of HYP. The structure reveals a single-junction SAM domain dimer of 1:1 stoichiometry in which the binding mode is a variation of polymeric SAM domain interactions. Through in vitro and in vivo mutational analyses, we show that the specific mode of dimerization revealed by the crystal structure is essential for RAF signaling and facilitates the recruitment of KSR to form the CNK/HYP/KSR regulatory complex. We present two docking-site models to account for how SAM domain dimerization might influence the formation of a higher-order CNK/HYP/KSR complex.

  8. Interactions and phosphorylation of postsynaptic density 93 (PSD-93) by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK).

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming-Lei; Xue, Bing; Jin, Dao-Zhong; Mao, Li-Min; Wang, John Q

    2012-07-17

    Postsynaptic density 93 (PSD-93) is a protein enriched at postsynaptic sites. As a key scaffolding protein, PSD-93 forms complexes with the clustering of various synaptic proteins to construct postsynaptic signaling networks and control synaptic transmission. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is a prototypic member of a serine/threonine protein kinase family known as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). This kinase, especially ERK2 isoform, noticeably resides in peripheral structures of neurons, such as dendritic spines and postsynaptic density areas, in addition to its distribution in the cytoplasm and nucleus, although little is known about specific substrates of ERK at synaptic sites. In this study, we found that synaptic PSD-93 is a direct target of ERK. This was demonstrated by direct protein-protein interactions between purified ERK2 and PSD-93 in vitro. The accurate ERK2-binding region seems to locate at an N-terminal region of PSD-93. In adult rat striatal neurons in vivo, native ERK from synaptosomal fractions also associated with PSD-93. In phosphorylation assays, active ERK2 phosphorylated PSD-93. An accurate phosphorylation site was identified at a serine site (S323). In striatal neurons, immunoprecipitated PSD-93 showed basal phosphorylation at an ERK-sensitive site. Our data provide evidence supporting PSD-93 as a new substrate of the synaptic species of ERK. ERK2 possesses the ability to interact with PSD-93 and phosphorylate PSD-93 at a specific site. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Human CD180 Transmits Signals via the PIM-1L Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Egli, Nicole; Zajonz, Alexandra; Burger, Matthew T.; Schweighoffer, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important sensors of the innate immune system that recognize conserved structural motifs and activate cells via a downstream signaling cascade. The CD180/MD1 molecular complex is an unusual member of the TLR family, since it lacks the components that are normally required for signal transduction by other TLRs. Therefore the CD180/MD 1 complex has been considered of being incapable of independently initiating cellular signals. Using chemogenetic approaches we identified specifically the membrane bound long form of PIM-1 kinase, PIM-1L as the mediator of CD180-dependent signaling. A dominant negative isoform of PIM-1L, but not of other PIM kinases, inhibited signaling elicited by cross-linking of CD180, and this effect was phenocopied by PIM inhibitors. PIM-1L was directed to the cell membrane by its N-terminal extension, where it colocalized and physically associated with CD180. Triggering CD180 also induced increased phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein BAD in a PIM kinase-dependent fashion. Also in primary human B cells, which are the main cells expressing CD180 in man, cross-linking of CD180 by monoclonal antibodies stimulated cell survival and proliferation that was abrogated by specific inhibitors. By associating with PIM-1L, CD180 can thus obtain autonomous signaling capabilities, and this complex is then channeling inflammatory signals into B cell survival programs. Pharmacological inhibition of PIM-1 should therefore provide novel therapeutic options in diseases that respond to innate immune stimulation with subsequently increased B cell activity, such as lupus erythematosus or myasthenia gravis. PMID:26555723

  10. Clarifying binding difference of ATP and ADP to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 by using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianzhong

    2017-04-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 is a promising target for designs and development of anticancer drugs. Molecular dynamics simulations and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann method were applied to study binding difference of ADP and ATP to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2. The results prove that the binding ability of ATP to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 is stronger than that of ADP. Principal component analysis performed by using molecular dynamics trajectories suggests that binding of ADP and ATP to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 change motion directions of two helices α1 and α2. Residue-based free energy decomposition method was adopted to calculate contributions of separate residues to associations of ADP and ATP with extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2. The results show that ADP and ATP produce strong CH-π interactions with five residues Ile29, Val37, Ala50, Leu105, and Leu154. In addition, five hydrogen bonding interactions of ADP and ATP with residues Lys52, Gln103, Asp104, and Met106 also stabilize bindings of ADP and ATP to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2. Overall, the CH-π interactions of ATP with five residues Ile29, Val37, Ala50, Leu105, and Leu154 are stronger than ADP. This study is expected to contribute a significant theoretical hint for designs of anticancer drugs targeting extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Early redox, Src family kinase, and calcium signaling integrate wound responses and tissue regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sa Kan; Freisinger, Christina M; LeBert, Danny C; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2012-10-15

    Tissue injury can lead to scar formation or tissue regeneration. How regenerative animals sense initial tissue injury and transform wound signals into regenerative growth is an unresolved question. Previously, we found that the Src family kinase (SFK) Lyn functions as a redox sensor in leukocytes that detects H(2)O(2) at wounds in zebrafish larvae. In this paper, using zebrafish larval tail fins as a model, we find that wounding rapidly activated SFK and calcium signaling in epithelia. The immediate SFK and calcium signaling in epithelia was important for late epimorphic regeneration of amputated fins. Wound-induced activation of SFKs in epithelia was dependent on injury-generated H(2)O(2). A SFK member, Fynb, was responsible for fin regeneration. This work provides a new link between early wound responses and late regeneration and suggests that redox, SFK, and calcium signaling are immediate "wound signals" that integrate early wound responses and late epimorphic regeneration.

  12. Other kinases can substitute for Jak2 in signal transduction by interferon-gamma.

    PubMed

    Kotenko, S V; Izotova, L S; Pollack, B P; Muthukumaran, G; Paukku, K; Silvennoinen, O; Ihle, J N; Pestka, S

    1996-07-19

    Each cytokine which utilizes the Jak-Stat signal transduction pathway activates a distinct combination of members of the Jak and Stat families. Thus, either the Jaks, the Stats, or both could contribute to the specificity of ligand action. With the use of chimeric receptors involving the interferon gamma receptor (IFN-gammaR) complex as a model system, we demonstrate that Jak2 activation is not an absolute requirement for IFN-gamma signaling. Other members of the Jak family can functionally substitute for Jak2. IFN-gamma can signal through the activation of Jak family members other than Jak2 as measured by Statlalpha homodimerization and major histocompatibility complex class I antigen expression. This indicates that Jaks are interchangeable and indiscriminative in the Jak-Stat signal transduction pathway. The necessity for the activation of one particular kinase during signaling can be overcome by recruiting another kinase to the receptor complex. The results may suggest that the Jaks do not contribute to the specificity of signal transduction in the Jak-Stat pathway to the same degree as Stats.

  13. Catalytic mechanism and kinase interactions of ABA-signaling PP2C phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X Edward; Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H Eric; Melcher, Karsten

    2012-05-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that controls plant growth, development and responses to abiotic stresses. ABA signaling is mediated by type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), including HAB1 and ABI2, which inhibit stress-activated SnRK2 kinases and whose activity is regulated by ABA and ABA receptors. Based on biochemical data and our previously determined crystal structures of ABI2 and the SnRK2.6-HAB1 complex, we present the catalytic mechanism of PP2C and provide new insight into PP2C-SnRK2 interactions and possible roles of other SnRK2 kinases in ABA signaling.

  14. Decoding Polo-like kinase 1 signaling along the kinetochore-centromere axis

    PubMed Central

    Lera, Robert F.; Potts, Gregory K.; Suzuki, Aussie; Johnson, James M.; Salmon, Edward D.; Coon, Joshua J.; Burkard, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase signaling along the kinetochore-centromere axis is crucial to assure mitotic fidelity, yet its spatial coordination is obscure. Here, we examined how pools of human Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) within this axis control signaling events to elicit mitotic functions. To do this, we restricted active Plk1 to discrete subcompartments within the kinetochore-centromere axis using chemical genetics and decoded functional and phosphoproteomic signatures of each. We observe distinct phosphoproteomic and functional roles, suggesting that Plk1 exists and functions in discrete pools along this axis. Deep within the centromere, Plk1 operates to assure proper chromosome alignment and segregation. Thus, Plk1 at the kinetochore is a conglomerate of an observable bulk pool coupled with additional functional pools below the threshold of microscopic detection/resolution. Although complex, this multiplicity of locales provides an opportunity to decouple functional and phosphoproteomic signatures for a comprehensive understanding of Plk1’s kinetochore functions. PMID:27043190

  15. Aurora kinase A interacts with H-Ras and potentiates Ras-MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Umstead, MaKendra; Xiong, Jinglin; Qi, Qi; Du, Yuhong; Fu, Haian

    2017-02-03

    In cancer, upregulated Ras promotes cellular transformation and proliferation in part through activation of oncogenic Ras-MAPK signaling. While directly inhibiting Ras has proven challenging, new insights into Ras regulation through protein-protein interactions may offer unique opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Here we report the identification and validation of Aurora kinase A (Aurora A) as a novel Ras binding protein. We demonstrate that the kinase domain of Aurora A mediates the interaction with the N-terminal domain of H-Ras. Further more, the interaction of Aurora A and H-Ras exists in a protein complex with Raf-1. We show that binding of H-Ras to Raf-1 and subsequent MAPK signaling is enhanced by Aurora A, and requires active H-Ras. Thus, the functional linkage between Aurora A and the H-Ras/Raf-1 protein complex may provide a mechanism for Aurora A's oncogenic activity through direct activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway.

  16. Recently emerging signaling landscape of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Attar, Rukset; Arslan, Belkis Atasever; Romero, Mirna Azalea; ul Haq, Muhammad Fahim; Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2014-01-01

    Research over the years has progressively and sequentially provided near complete resolution of regulators of the DNA repair pathways which are so important for cancer prevention. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM), a high-molecular-weight PI3K-family kinase has emerged as a master regulator of DNA damage signaling and extensive cross-talk between ATM and downstream proteins forms an interlaced signaling network. There is rapidly growing scientific evidence emphasizing newly emerging paradigms in ATM biology. In this review, we provide latest information regarding how oxidative stress induced activation of ATM can be utilized as a therapeutic target in different cancer cell lines and in xenografted mice. Moreover, crosstalk between autophagy and ATM is also discussed with focus on how autophagy inhibition induces apoptosis in cancer cells.

  17. Protein kinase C Theta inhibits insulin signaling by phosphorylating IRS1 at Ser(1101).

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Soos, Timothy J; Li, Xinghai; Wu, Jiong; Degennaro, Matthew; Sun, Xiaojian; Littman, Dan R; Birnbaum, Morris J; Polakiewicz, Roberto D

    2004-10-29

    Obesity and stress inhibit insulin action by activating protein kinases that enhance serine phosphorylation of IRS1 and have been thus associated to insulin resistance and the development of type II diabetes. The protein kinase C (PKC) is activated by free-fatty acids, and its activity is higher in muscle from obese diabetic patients. However, a molecular link between PKC and insulin resistance has not been defined yet. Here we show that PKC phosphorylates IRS1 at serine 1101 blocking IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation and downstream activation of the Akt pathway. Mutation of Ser(1101) to alanine makes IRS1 insensitive to the effect of PKC and restores insulin signaling in culture cells. These results provide a novel mechanism linking the activation of PKC to the inhibition of insulin signaling.

  18. Protein tyrosine kinase 7 has a conserved role in Wnt/β-catenin canonical signalling

    PubMed Central

    Puppo, Francesca; Thomé, Virginie; Lhoumeau, Anne-Catherine; Cibois, Marie; Gangar, Akanksha; Lembo, Frédérique; Belotti, Edwige; Marchetto, Sylvie; Lécine, Patrick; Prébet, Thomas; Sebbagh, Michael; Shin, Won-Sik; Lee, Seung-Taek; Kodjabachian, Laurent; Borg, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    The receptor protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) was recently shown to participate in noncanonical Wnt/planar cell polarity signalling during mouse and frog embryonic development. In this study, we report that PTK7 interacts with β-catenin in a yeast two-hybrid assay and mammalian cells. PTK7-deficient cells exhibit weakened β-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity on Wnt3a stimulation. Furthermore, Xenopus PTK7 is required for the formation of Spemann's organizer and for Siamois promoter activation, events that require β-catenin transcriptional activity. Using epistatic assays, we demonstrate that PTK7 functions upstream from glycogen synthase kinase 3. Taken together, our data reveal a new and conserved role for PTK7 in the Wnt canonical signalling pathway. PMID:21132015

  19. Human pre-B cell receptor signal transduction: evidence for distinct roles of PI3kinase and MAP-kinase signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Anbazhagan, Kolandaswamy; Rabbind Singh, Amrathlal; Isabelle, Piec; Stella, Ibata; Céline, Alleaume-De Martel; Bissac, Eliane; Bertrand, Brassart; Rémy, Nyga; Naomi, Taylor; Vincent, Fuentes; Rochette, Jacques; Lassoued, Kaïss

    2013-01-01

    Pre-BCR acts as a critical checkpoint in B cell development. However, its signalling cascade still remains indistinctly characterised in human. We investigated pre-BCR signalling pathway to examine its regulation in normal primary pre-B lymphocytes and pre-B cell lines. In cell lines, early signalling events occurring after pre-BCR stimulation include phosphorylation of Lyn, Blk and Syk together with ZAP70, Btk, Vav, PLC-γ2 and various adaptor proteins, such as BLNK, LAB, LAT and SLP-76. Further downstream, these molecules induced activation of the PI3K/AKT and MAP-kinase resulting in an augmentation of canonical NF-κB pathways and cFos/AP1 activation. PI3K and MAPK exerted opposing effects on the pre-BCR-induced activation of the canonical NF-κB and c-Fos/AP1 pathways. Immediate nuclear export of FoxO3A and delayed import of IRF4 were additional events observed after pre-BCR crosslinking in primary cells. Pre-BCR-induced down-regulation of Rag1, Rag2, E2A and Pax5 transcripts occurred in a PI3K-dependent manner. Finally we bring evidence that pre-BCR stimulation or co stimulation with CD19 enhances cell cycle signal. PMID:25400915

  20. Human pre-B cell receptor signal transduction: evidence for distinct roles of PI3kinase and MAP-kinase signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Anbazhagan, Kolandaswamy; Rabbind Singh, Amrathlal; Isabelle, Piec; Stella, Ibata; Céline, Alleaume-De Martel; Bissac, Eliane; Bertrand, Brassart; Rémy, Nyga; Naomi, Taylor; Vincent, Fuentes; Rochette, Jacques; Lassoued, Kaïss

    2013-10-01

    Pre-BCR acts as a critical checkpoint in B cell development. However, its signalling cascade still remains indistinctly characterised in human. We investigated pre-BCR signalling pathway to examine its regulation in normal primary pre-B lymphocytes and pre-B cell lines. In cell lines, early signalling events occurring after pre-BCR stimulation include phosphorylation of Lyn, Blk and Syk together with ZAP70, Btk, Vav, PLC-γ2 and various adaptor proteins, such as BLNK, LAB, LAT and SLP-76. Further downstream, these molecules induced activation of the PI3K/AKT and MAP-kinase resulting in an augmentation of canonical NF-κB pathways and cFos/AP1 activation. PI3K and MAPK exerted opposing effects on the pre-BCR-induced activation of the canonical NF-κB and c-Fos/AP1 pathways. Immediate nuclear export of FoxO3A and delayed import of IRF4 were additional events observed after pre-BCR crosslinking in primary cells. Pre-BCR-induced down-regulation of Rag1, Rag2, E2A and Pax5 transcripts occurred in a PI3K-dependent manner. Finally we bring evidence that pre-BCR stimulation or co stimulation with CD19 enhances cell cycle signal.

  1. Synaptic generation of an intracellular retrograde signal requires activation of the tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascades in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Stough, Shara; Kopec, Ashley M; Carew, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Cellular changes underlying memory formation can be generated in an activity-dependent manner at specific synapses. Thus an important question concerns the mechanisms by which synaptic signals communicate with the cell body to mediate these cellular changes. A monosynaptic circuit that is enhanced by sensitization in Aplysia is well-suited to study this question because three different subcellular compartments: (i) the sensorimotor SN-MN synapses, (ii) the SN projections to MNs via axonal connections, (iii) the SN cell bodies, can all be manipulated and studied independently. Here, we report that activity-dependent (AD) training in either the entire SN-MN circuit or in only the synaptic compartment, activates MAPK in a temporally and spatially specific pattern. Specifically, we find (i) MAPK activation is first transiently generated at SN-MN synapses during training, (ii) immediately after training MAPK is transiently activated in SN-MN axonal connections and persistently activated in SN cell bodies, and finally, (iii) MAPK is activated in SN cell bodies and SN-MN synapses 1h after training. These data suggest that there is an intracellularly transported retrograde signal generated at the synapse which is later responsible for delayed MAPK activation at SN somata. Finally, we find that this retrograde signal requires activation of tyrosine kinase (TK) and MEK signaling cascades at the synapses.

  2. IκB Kinase 2 Regulates TPL-2 Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases 1 and 2 by Direct Phosphorylation of TPL-2 Serine 400

    PubMed Central

    Roget, Karine; Ben-Addi, Abduelhakem; Mambole-Dema, Agnes; Gantke, Thorsten; Yang, Huei-Ting; Janzen, Julia; Morrice, Nick; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL-2) functions as a MEK-1/2 kinase, which is essential for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK-1/2) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and for inducing the production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1β. In unstimulated cells, association of TPL-2 with NF-κB1 p105 prevents TPL-2 phosphorylation of MEK-1/2. LPS stimulation of TPL-2 MEK-1/2 kinase activity requires TPL-2 release from p105. This is triggered by IκB kinase 2 (IKK-2) phosphorylation of the p105 PEST region, which promotes p105 ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. LPS activation of ERK-1/2 additionally requires transphosphorylation of TPL-2 on serine 400 in its C terminus, which controls TPL-2 signaling to ERK-1/2 independently of p105. However, the identity of the protein kinase responsible for TPL-2 serine 400 phosphorylation remained unknown. In the present study, we show that TPL-2 serine 400 phosphorylation is mediated by IKK2. The IKK complex therefore regulates two of the key regulatory steps required for TPL-2 activation of ERK-1/2, underlining the close linkage of ERK-1/2 MAP kinase activation to upregulation of NF-κB-dependent transcription. PMID:22988300

  3. Src-family-tyrosine kinase Lyn is critical for TLR2-mediated NF-κB activation through the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Toubiana, Julie; Rossi, Anne-Lise; Belaidouni, Nadia; Grimaldi, David; Pene, Frederic; Chafey, Philippe; Comba, Béatrice; Camoin, Luc; Bismuth, Georges; Claessens, Yann-Erick; Mira, Jean-Paul; Chiche, Jean-Daniel

    2015-10-01

    TLR2 has a prominent role in host defense against a wide variety of pathogens. Stimulation of TLR2 triggers MyD88-dependent signaling to induce NF-κB translocation, and activates a Rac1-PI 3-kinase dependent pathway that leads to transactivation of NF-κB through phosphorylation of the P65 NF-κB subunit. This transactivation pathway involves tyrosine phosphorylations. The role of the tyrosine kinases in TLR signaling is controversial, with discrepancies between studies using only chemical inhibitors and knockout mice. Here, we show the involvement of the tyrosine-kinase Lyn in TLR2-dependent activation of NF-κB in human cellular models, by using complementary inhibition strategies. Stimulation of TLR2 induces the formation of an activation cluster involving TLR2, CD14, PI 3-kinase and Lyn, and leads to the activation of AKT. Lyn-dependent phosphorylation of the p110 catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase is essential to the control of PI 3-kinase biological activity upstream of AKT and thereby to the transactivation of NF-κB. Thus, Lyn kinase activity is crucial in TLR2-mediated activation of the innate immune response in human mononuclear cells.

  4. Extracellular signals and receptor-like kinases regulating ROP GTPases in plants

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, Kaori N.; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2014-01-01

    Rho-like GTPase from plants (ROPs) function as signaling switches that control a wide variety of cellular functions and behaviors including cell morphogenesis, cell division and cell differentiation. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 11 ROPs that form a distinct single subfamily contrarily to animal or fungal counterparts where multiple subfamilies of Rho GTPases exist. Since Rho proteins bind to their downstream effector proteins only in their GTP-bound “active” state, the activation of ROPs by upstream factor(s) is a critical step in the regulation of ROP signaling. Therefore, it is critical to examine the input signals that lead to the activation of ROPs. Recent findings showed that the plant hormone auxin is an important signal for the activation of ROPs during pavement cell morphogenesis as well as for other developmental processes. In contrast to auxin, another plant hormone, abscisic acid, negatively regulates ROP signaling. Calcium is another emerging signal in the regulation of ROP signaling. Several lines of evidence indicate that plasma membrane localized-receptor like kinases play a critical role in the transmission of the extracellular signals to intracellular ROP signaling pathways. This review focuses on how these signals impinge upon various direct regulators of ROPs to modulate various plant processes. PMID:25295042

  5. Extracellular signals and receptor-like kinases regulating ROP GTPases in plants.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Kaori N; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2014-01-01

    Rho-like GTPase from plants (ROPs) function as signaling switches that control a wide variety of cellular functions and behaviors including cell morphogenesis, cell division and cell differentiation. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 11 ROPs that form a distinct single subfamily contrarily to animal or fungal counterparts where multiple subfamilies of Rho GTPases exist. Since Rho proteins bind to their downstream effector proteins only in their GTP-bound "active" state, the activation of ROPs by upstream factor(s) is a critical step in the regulation of ROP signaling. Therefore, it is critical to examine the input signals that lead to the activation of ROPs. Recent findings showed that the plant hormone auxin is an important signal for the activation of ROPs during pavement cell morphogenesis as well as for other developmental processes. In contrast to auxin, another plant hormone, abscisic acid, negatively regulates ROP signaling. Calcium is another emerging signal in the regulation of ROP signaling. Several lines of evidence indicate that plasma membrane localized-receptor like kinases play a critical role in the transmission of the extracellular signals to intracellular ROP signaling pathways. This review focuses on how these signals impinge upon various direct regulators of ROPs to modulate various plant processes.

  6. The signalling mucin Msb2 regulates surface sensing and host penetration via BMP1 MAP kinase signalling in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Leroch, Michaela; Mueller, Nathalie; Hinsenkamp, Isabel; Hahn, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungus that infects a wide range of fruit, vegetable and flower crops. Penetration of the host cuticle occurs via infection structures that are formed in response to appropriate plant surface signals. The differentiation of these structures requires a highly conserved mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade including the MAP kinase BMP1. In yeast and several plant-pathogenic fungi, the signalling mucin Msb2 has been shown to be involved in surface recognition and MAP kinase activation. In this study, a B. cinerea msb2 mutant was generated and characterized. The mutant showed normal growth, sporulation, sclerotia formation and stress resistance. In the absence of nutrients, abnormal germination with multiple germ tubes was observed. In the presence of sugars, normal germination occurred, but msb2 germlings were almost unable to form appressoria or infection cushions on hard surfaces. Nevertheless, the msb2 mutant showed only a moderate delay in lesion formation on different host plants, and formed expanding lesions similar to the wild-type. Although the wild-type showed increasing BMP1 phosphorylation during the first hours of germination on hard surfaces, the phosphorylation levels in the msb2 mutant were strongly reduced. Several genes encoding secreted proteins were found to be co-regulated by BMP1 and Msb2 during germination. Taken together, B. cinerea Msb2 is likely to represent a hard surface sensor of germlings and hyphae that triggers infection structure formation via the activation of the BMP1 MAP kinase pathway. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  7. Differential Phosphoproteomics of Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling: Identification of Src Family Kinase-Mediated Phosphorylation Events

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Activation of signal transduction by the receptor tyrosine kinase, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), results in a cascade of protein−protein interactions that rely on the occurrence of specific tyrosine phosphorylation events. One such protein recruited to the activated receptor complex is the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, Src, which is involved in both initiation and termination of further signaling events. To gain a further understanding of the tyrosine phosphorylation events that occur during FGF signaling, with a specific focus on those that are dependent on Src family kinase (SFK) activity, we have applied SILAC combined with chemical inhibition of SFK activity to search for phosphorylation events that are dependent on SFK activity in FGF stimulated cells. In addition, we used a more targeted approach to carry out high coverage phosphopeptide mapping of one Src substrate protein, the multifunctional adaptor Dok1, and to identify SFK-dependent Dok1 binding partners. From these analyses we identify 80 SFK-dependent phosphorylation events on 40 proteins. We further identify 18 SFK-dependent Dok1 interactions and 9 SFK-dependent Dok1 phosphorylation sites, 6 of which had not previously been known to be SFK-dependent. PMID:20225815

  8. Multiple signals modulate the activity of the complex sensor kinase TodS

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Jiménez, Hortencia; Ortega, Álvaro; García-Fontana, Cristina; Ramos, Juan Luis; Krell, Tino

    2015-01-01

    The reason for the existence of complex sensor kinases is little understood but thought to lie in the capacity to respond to multiple signals. The complex, seven-domain sensor kinase TodS controls in concert with the TodT response regulator the expression of the toluene dioxygenase pathway in Pseudomonas putida F1 and DOT-T1E. We have previously shown that some aromatic hydrocarbons stimulate TodS activity whereas others behave as antagonists. We show here that TodS responds in addition to the oxidative agent menadione. Menadione but no other oxidative agent tested inhibited TodS activity in vitro and reduced PtodX expression in vivo. The menadione signal is incorporated by a cysteine-dependent mechanism. The mutation of the sole conserved cysteine of TodS (C320) rendered the protein insensitive to menadione. We evaluated the mutual opposing effects of toluene and menadione on TodS autophosphorylation. In the presence of toluene, menadione reduced TodS activity whereas toluene did not stimulate activity in the presence of menadione. It was shown by others that menadione increases expression of glucose metabolism genes. The opposing effects of menadione on glucose and toluene metabolism may be partially responsible for the interwoven regulation of both catabolic pathways. This work provides mechanistic detail on how complex sensor kinases integrate different types of signal molecules. PMID:24986263

  9. MAP kinase signaling antagonizes PAR-1 function during polarization of the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo.

    PubMed

    Spilker, Annina C; Rabilotta, Alexia; Zbinden, Caroline; Labbé, Jean-Claude; Gotta, Monica

    2009-11-01

    PAR proteins (partitioning defective) are major regulators of cell polarity and asymmetric cell division. One of the par genes, par-1, encodes a Ser/Thr kinase that is conserved from yeast to mammals. In Caenorhabditis elegans, par-1 governs asymmetric cell division by ensuring the polar distribution of cell fate determinants. However the precise mechanisms by which PAR-1 regulates asymmetric cell division in C. elegans remain to be elucidated. We performed a genomewide RNAi screen and identified six genes that specifically suppress the embryonic lethal phenotype associated with mutations in par-1. One of these suppressors is mpk-1, the C. elegans homolog of the conserved mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase ERK. Loss of function of mpk-1 restored embryonic viability, asynchronous cell divisions, the asymmetric distribution of cell fate specification markers, and the distribution of PAR-1 protein in par-1 mutant embryos, indicating that this genetic interaction is functionally relevant for embryonic development. Furthermore, disrupting the function of other components of the MAPK signaling pathway resulted in suppression of par-1 embryonic lethality. Our data therefore indicates that MAP kinase signaling antagonizes PAR-1 signaling during early C. elegans embryonic polarization.

  10. Dermatophytes Activate Skin Keratinocytes via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling and Induce Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Achterman, Rebecca R.; Moyes, David L.; Thavaraj, Selvam; Smith, Adam R.; Blair, Kris M.

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes cause superficial and cutaneous fungal infections in immunocompetent hosts and invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. However, the host mechanisms that regulate innate immune responses against these fungi are largely unknown. Here, we utilized commercially available epidermal tissues and primary keratinocytes to assess (i) damage induction by anthropophilic, geophilic, and zoophilic dermatophyte strains and (ii) the keratinocyte signaling pathways, transcription factors, and proinflammatory responses induced by a representative dermatophyte, Trichophyton equinum. Initially, five dermatophyte species were tested for their ability to invade, cause tissue damage, and induce cytokines, with Microsporum gypseum inducing the greatest level of damage and cytokine release. Using T. equinum as a representative dermatophyte, we found that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were predominantly affected, with increased levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) but decreased levels of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Notably, the NF-κB and PI3K pathways were largely unaffected. T. equinum also significantly increased expression of the AP-1-associated transcription factor, c-Fos, and the MAPK regulatory phosphatase, MKP1. Importantly, the ability of T. equinum to invade, cause tissue damage, activate signaling and transcription factors, and induce proinflammatory responses correlated with germination, indicating that germination may be important for dermatophyte virulence and host immune activation. PMID:25667269

  11. Dermatophytes activate skin keratinocytes via mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and induce immune responses.

    PubMed

    Achterman, Rebecca R; Moyes, David L; Thavaraj, Selvam; Smith, Adam R; Blair, Kris M; White, Theodore C; Naglik, Julian R

    2015-04-01

    Dermatophytes cause superficial and cutaneous fungal infections in immunocompetent hosts and invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. However, the host mechanisms that regulate innate immune responses against these fungi are largely unknown. Here, we utilized commercially available epidermal tissues and primary keratinocytes to assess (i) damage induction by anthropophilic, geophilic, and zoophilic dermatophyte strains and (ii) the keratinocyte signaling pathways, transcription factors, and proinflammatory responses induced by a representative dermatophyte, Trichophyton equinum. Initially, five dermatophyte species were tested for their ability to invade, cause tissue damage, and induce cytokines, with Microsporum gypseum inducing the greatest level of damage and cytokine release. Using T. equinum as a representative dermatophyte, we found that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were predominantly affected, with increased levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) but decreased levels of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Notably, the NF-κB and PI3K pathways were largely unaffected. T. equinum also significantly increased expression of the AP-1-associated transcription factor, c-Fos, and the MAPK regulatory phosphatase, MKP1. Importantly, the ability of T. equinum to invade, cause tissue damage, activate signaling and transcription factors, and induce proinflammatory responses correlated with germination, indicating that germination may be important for dermatophyte virulence and host immune activation. Copyright © 2015, Achterman et al.

  12. Biglycan- and Sphingosine Kinase-1 Signaling Crosstalk Regulates the Synthesis of Macrophage Chemoattractants

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Louise Tzung-Harn; Nastase, Madalina-Viviana; Roedig, Heiko; Zeng-Brouwers, Jinyang; Poluzzi, Chiara; Schwalm, Stephanie; Fork, Christian; Tredup, Claudia; Brandes, Ralf P.; Wygrecka, Malgorzata; Huwiler, Andrea; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Schaefer, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    In its soluble form, the extracellular matrix proteoglycan biglycan triggers the synthesis of the macrophage chemoattractants, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand CCL2 and CCL5 through selective utilization of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their adaptor molecules. However, the respective downstream signaling events resulting in biglycan-induced CCL2 and CCL5 production have not yet been defined. Here, we show that biglycan stimulates the production and activation of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) in a TLR4- and Toll/interleukin (IL)-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon (IFN)-β (TRIF)-dependent manner in murine primary macrophages. We provide genetic and pharmacological proof that SphK1 is a crucial downstream mediator of biglycan-triggered CCL2 and CCL5 mRNA and protein expression. This is selectively driven by biglycan/SphK1-dependent phosphorylation of the nuclear factor NF-κB p65 subunit, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Importantly, in vivo overexpression of soluble biglycan causes Sphk1-dependent enhancement of renal CCL2 and CCL5 and macrophage recruitment into the kidney. Our findings describe the crosstalk between biglycan- and SphK1-driven extracellular matrix- and lipid-signaling. Thus, SphK1 may represent a new target for therapeutic intervention in biglycan-evoked inflammatory conditions. PMID:28282921

  13. Polo-Like Kinase 2 Is a Mediator of Hedgehog Survival Signaling in Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fingas, Christian D.; Mertens, Joachim C.; Razumilava, Nataliya; Sydor, Svenja; Bronk, Steven F.; Christensen, John D.; Rizvi, Sumera H.; Canbay, Ali; Treckmann, Jürgen W.; Paul, Andreas; Sirica, Alphonse E.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells paradoxically express the death ligand tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and thus rely on potent survival signals to circumvent cell death by TRAIL. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is an important survival pathway in CCA. Herein, we further examine the mechanisms whereby Hh signaling mediates apoptosis resistance in CCA, revealing a pivotal role for the cell division regulating serine/threonine kinase polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2). We employed 50 human CCA samples (25 intrahepatic and 25 extrahepatic CCA) as well as human KMCH-1, Mz-CHA-1, and HUCCT-1 CCA cells for these studies. In vivo experiments were conducted using a syngeneic rat orthotopic CCA model. In human samples, polo-like kinase (PLK)1/2/3-immunoreactive cancer cells were present in the preponderance of intra- and extrahepatic CCA specimens. Inhibition of Hh signaling by cyclopamine reduced PLK2, but not PLK1 or PLK3, messenger RNA and protein expression in vehicle-treated and sonic Hh–treated CCA cells, confirming our previous microarray study. PLK2 regulation by Hh signaling appears to be direct, because the Hh transcription factors, glioma-associated oncogene 1 and 2, bind to the PLK2 promotor. Moreover, inhibition of PLK2 by the PLK inhibitor, BI 6727 (volasertib), or PLK2 knockdown was proapoptotic in CCA cells. BI 6727 administration or PLK2 knockdown decreased cellular protein levels of antiapoptotic myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), an effect reversed by the proteasome inhibitor, MG-132. Finally, BI 6727 administration reduced Mcl-1 protein expression in CCA cells, resulting in CCA cell apoptosis and tumor suppression in vivo. Conclusion PLK2 appears to be an important mediator of Hh survival signaling. These results suggest PLK inhibitors to be of therapeutic value for treatment of human CCA. PMID:23703673

  14. Different designs of kinase-phosphatase interactions and phosphatase sequestration shapes the robustness and signal flow in the MAPK cascade

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The three layer mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade exhibits different designs of interactions between its kinases and phosphatases. While the sequential interactions between the three kinases of the cascade are tightly preserved, the phosphatases of the cascade, such as MKP3 and PP2A, exhibit relatively diverse interactions with their substrate kinases. Additionally, the kinases of the MAPK cascade can also sequester their phosphatases. Thus, each topologically distinct interaction design of kinases and phosphatases could exhibit unique signal processing characteristics, and the presence of phosphatase sequestration may lead to further fine tuning of the propagated signal. Results We have built four architecturally distinct types of models of the MAPK cascade, each model with identical kinase-kinase interactions but unique kinases-phosphatases interactions. Our simulations unravelled that MAPK cascade’s robustness to external perturbations is a function of nature of interaction between its kinases and phosphatases. The cascade’s output robustness was enhanced when phosphatases were sequestrated by their target kinases. We uncovered a novel implicit/hidden negative feedback loop from the phosphatase MKP3 to its upstream kinase Raf-1, in a cascade resembling the B cell MAPK cascade. Notably, strength of the feedback loop was reciprocal to the strength of phosphatases’ sequestration and stronger sequestration abolished the feedback loop completely. An experimental method to verify the presence of the feedback loop is also proposed. We further showed, when the models were activated by transient signal, memory (total time taken by the cascade output to reach its unstimulated level after removal of signal) of a cascade was determined by the specific designs of interaction among its kinases and phosphatases. Conclusions Differences in interaction designs among the kinases and phosphatases can differentially shape the robustness and

  15. Protein tyrosine kinase signaling in the mouse oocyte cortex during sperm-egg interactions and anaphase resumption.

    PubMed

    McGinnis, Lynda K; Luo, Jinping; Kinsey, William H

    2013-04-01

    Fertilization triggers activation of a series of pre-programmed signal transduction pathways in the oocyte that establish a block to polyspermy, induce meiotic resumption, and initiate zygotic development. Fusion between sperm and oocyte results in rapid changes in oocyte intracellular free-calcium levels, which in turn activate multiple protein kinase cascades in the ooplasm. The present study examined the possibility that sperm-oocyte interaction involves localized activation of oocyte protein tyrosine kinases, which could provide an alternative signaling mechanism to that triggered by the fertilizing sperm. Confocal immunofluorescence analysis with antibodies to phosphotyrosine and phosphorylated protein tyrosine kinases allowed detection of minute signaling events localized to the site of sperm-oocyte interaction that were not amenable to biochemical analysis. The results provide evidence for localized accumulation of phosphotyrosine at the site of sperm contact, binding, or fusion, which suggests active protein tyrosine kinase signaling prior to and during sperm incorporation. The PYK2 kinase was found to be concentrated and activated at the site of sperm-oocyte interaction, and likely participates in this response. Widespread activation of PYK2 and FAK kinases was subsequently observed within the oocyte cortex, indicating that sperm incorporation is followed by more global signaling via these kinases during meiotic resumption. The results demonstrate an alternate signaling pathway triggered in mammalian oocytes by sperm contact, binding, or fusion with the oocyte.

  16. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in postgermination arrest of development by abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Lu, C; Han, M-H; Guevara-Garcia, A; Fedoroff, N V

    2002-11-26

    Abscisic acid (ABA) mediates plant responses to environmental stress, particularly to water status. During germination, the embryo emerges from dormancy as the ABA concentration declines. Exposure to exogenous ABA during germination arrests development rapidly, but reversibly, enabling seedlings to withstand early water stress without loss of viability. Postgermination proteolytic degradation of the essential ABI5 transcription factor is interrupted by perception of an increase in ABA concentration, leading to ABI5 accumulation and reactivation of embryonic genes. Making use of the ABA-hypersensitive hyl1 mutant of Arabidopsis, we show that the ABA signal is transmitted to the transcriptional apparatus through mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling.

  17. Extract of Reishi polysaccharides induces cytokine expression via TLR4-modulated protein kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsien-Yeh; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Lin, Chun-Hung; Hsu, Jason; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2004-11-15

    We have demonstrated that an extract of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Ling-Zhi) polysaccharides (EORP) exerts immunomodulating activities by stimulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines from mouse spleen cells. Interestingly, via responding to LPS in genetic variation of murine macrophage HeNC2 and GG2EE cell lines, and using TLR4 Ab blockage in human blood-derived monocytic macrophages, we have found that the TLR4, but not complement receptor type 3, is a putative receptor of EORP, mediating the consequent immunomodulating events associated with IL-1 gene expression. Based on our studies of reactive oxygen species production, polymyxin B inhibition, and protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity, we ruled out the possibility of LPS contamination in EORP. We have found that EORP differentially modulates the protein kinase (PK)-mediated signal transduction pathways associated with inflammatory cytokine IL-1. In human macrophages and murine macrophage J774A.1 cells, EORP was found to up-regulate IL-1 secretion and pro-IL-1 (precursor of IL-1) as well as IL-1-converting enzyme expression. Specifically, EORP rapidly stimulates PTK-mediated phosphorylation, followed by induction of PKs and activation of MAPKs: ERK, JNK, and p38. Using PK inhibitors in the kinase activity assays, Western blot analyses and IL-1 ELISA, we have extensively examined and dissected the role of individual PK in the regulation of pro-IL-1/IL-1. Our findings establish that EORP-mediated signaling pathways are involved in the pro-IL-1/IL-1 regulation: PTK/protein kinase C/MEK1/ERK and PTK/Rac1/p21-activated kinase/p38.

  18. Inhibition of Apoptosis-Regulated Signaling Kinase-1 and Prevention of Congestive Heart Failure by Estrogen

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Minoru; Matter, Christian M.; Ogita, Hisakazu; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Wang, Chao-Yung; Dorn, Gerald W.; Liao, James K.

    2008-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have shown gender differences in the incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF); however, the role of estrogen in CHF is not known. We hypothesize that estrogen prevents cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the development of CHF. Methods and Results 17β-Estradiol (E2, 0.5 mg/60-day release) or placebo pellet was implanted subcutaneously into male Gαq transgenic (Gq) mice. After 8 weeks, E2 treatment decreased the extent of cardiac hypertrophy and dilation and improved contractility in Gq mice. E2 treatment also attenuated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity and superoxide anion production via downregulation of Rac1. This correlated with reduced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes of Gq mice. The antioxidative properties of E2 were also associated with increased expression of thioredoxin (Trx), Trx reductases, and Trx reductase activity in the hearts of Gq mice. Furthermore, the activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 and its downstream effectors, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, in the hearts of Gq mice was reduced by long-term E2 treatment. Indeed, E2 (10 nmol/L)-treated cardiomyocytes were much more resistant to angiotensin II–induced apoptosis. These antiapoptotic and cardioprotective effects of E2 were blocked by an estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI 182,780) and by a Trx reductase inhibitor (azelaic acid). Conclusions These findings indicate that long-term E2 treatment improves CHF by antioxidative mechanisms that involve the upregulation of Trx and inhibition of Rac1-mediated attenuated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 /c-Jun N-terminal kinase/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase–mediated apoptosis. These results suggest that estrogen may be a useful adjunctive therapy for patients with CHF. PMID:17562954

  19. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 activation in endothelial cells exposed to cyclic strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, M.; Takei, T.; Mills, I.; Kito, H.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/ERK2) are activated and might play a role in enhanced proliferation and morphological change induced by strain. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were subjected to an average of 6 or 10% strain at a rate of 60 cycles/min for up to 4 h. Cyclic strain caused strain- and time-dependent phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2. Peak phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2 induced by 10% strain were at 10 min. A specific ERK1/ERK2 kinase inhibitor, PD-98059, inhibited phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2 but did not inhibit the increased cell proliferation and cell alignment induced by strain. Treatment of BAEC with 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1, 4-benzohydroquinone, to deplete inositol trisphosphate-sensitive calcium storage, and gadolinium chloride, a Ca2+ channel blocker, did not inhibit the activation of ERK1/ERK2. Strain-induced ERK1/ERK2 activation was partly inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin C and completely inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. These data suggest that 1) ERK1/ERK2 are not critically involved in the strain-induced cell proliferation and orientation, 2) strain-dependent activation of ERK1/ERK2 is independent of intracellular and extracellular calcium mobilization, and 3) protein kinase C activation and tyrosine kinase regulate strain-induced activation of ERK1/ERK2.

  20. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 activation in endothelial cells exposed to cyclic strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, M.; Takei, T.; Mills, I.; Kito, H.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/ERK2) are activated and might play a role in enhanced proliferation and morphological change induced by strain. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were subjected to an average of 6 or 10% strain at a rate of 60 cycles/min for up to 4 h. Cyclic strain caused strain- and time-dependent phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2. Peak phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2 induced by 10% strain were at 10 min. A specific ERK1/ERK2 kinase inhibitor, PD-98059, inhibited phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2 but did not inhibit the increased cell proliferation and cell alignment induced by strain. Treatment of BAEC with 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1, 4-benzohydroquinone, to deplete inositol trisphosphate-sensitive calcium storage, and gadolinium chloride, a Ca2+ channel blocker, did not inhibit the activation of ERK1/ERK2. Strain-induced ERK1/ERK2 activation was partly inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin C and completely inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. These data suggest that 1) ERK1/ERK2 are not critically involved in the strain-induced cell proliferation and orientation, 2) strain-dependent activation of ERK1/ERK2 is independent of intracellular and extracellular calcium mobilization, and 3) protein kinase C activation and tyrosine kinase regulate strain-induced activation of ERK1/ERK2.

  1. HCMV pUS28 initiates pro-migratory signaling via activation of Pyk2 kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Vomaske, Jennifer; Varnum, Susan M.; Melnychuk, Ryan; Smith, Patricia; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Streblow, Daniel N.

    2010-12-10

    The HCMV-encoded chemokine receptor US28 mediates smooth muscle cell (SMC) and macrophage motility and this activity has been implicated in the acceleration of vascular disease. US28 induced SMC migration involves the activation of the protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) Src and Focal adhesion kinase as well as the small GTPase RhoA. In the current study, we examined the involvement of the PTK Pyk2 in US28-induced cellular motility. Expression of a Pyk2 lacking the autophosphorylation site (Tyr-402) blocks US28-mediated SMC migration in response to RANTES, while the kinase-inactive mutant failed to elicit the same negative effect on migration. US28 stimulation with RANTES results in ligand-dependent and calcium-dependent phosphorylation of Pyk2 Tyr-402 and induced the formation of an active Pyk2 kinase complex containing several novel Pyk2 binding proteins. Interestingly, expression of the autophosphorylation site mutant Pyk2 F402Y did not abrogate the formation of an active Pyk2 kinase complex, but instead prevented US28-mediated activation of RhoA. These findings represent the first demonstration that US28 signals through Pyk2 and that this PTK participates in US28-mediated cellular motility via activation of RhoA. Additionally, US28 activated RhoA via Pyk2 in the U373 glioblastoma cells. Interestingly, the Pyk2 kinase complex in U373 contained several proteins known to participate in glioma tumorigenesis. These results provide a potential mechanistic link between HCMV-US28 and glioblastoma cell activation and motility.

  2. Signal transduction in neurons: effects of cellular prion protein on fyn kinase and ERK1/2 kinase.

    PubMed

    Tomasi, Vittorio

    2010-12-16

    It has been reported that cellular prion protein (PrPc) co-localizes with caveolin-1 and participates to signal transduction events by recruiting Fyn kinase. As PrPc is a secreted protein anchored to the outer surface membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor (secPrP) and caveolin-1 is located in the inner leaflet of plasma membrane, there is a problem of how the two proteins can physically interact each other and transduce signals. By using the GST-fusion proteins system we observed that PrPc strongly interacts with caveolin-1 scaffolding domain and with a caveolin-1 hydrophilic C-terminal region, but not with the caveolin-1 N-terminal region. In vitro binding experiments were also performed to define the site(s) of PrPc interacting with cav-1. The results are consistent with a participation of PrPc octapeptide repeats motif in the binding to caveolin-1 scaffolding domain. The caveolar localization of PrPc was ascertained by co-immunoprecipitation, by co-localization after flotation in density gradients and by confocal microscopy analysis of PrPc and caveolin-1 distributions in a neuronal cell line (GN11) expressing caveolin-1 at high levels. We observed that, after antibody-mediated cross-linking or copper treatment, PrPc was internalized probably into caveolae. We propose that following translocation from rafts to caveolae or caveolae-like domains, secPrP could interact with caveolin-1 and induce signal transduction events.

  3. Mechanisms of cell signaling by nitric oxide and peroxynitrite: from mitochondria to MAP kinases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levonen, A. L.; Patel, R. P.; Brookes, P.; Go, Y. M.; Jo, H.; Parthasarathy, S.; Anderson, P. G.; Darley-Usmar, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    Many of the biological and pathological effects of nitric oxide (NO) are mediated through cell signaling pathways that are initiated by NO reacting with metalloproteins. More recently, it has been recognized that the reaction of NO with free radicals such as superoxide and the lipid peroxyl radical also has the potential to modulate redox signaling. Although it is clear that NO can exert both cytotoxic and cytoprotective actions, the focus of this overview are those reactions that could lead to protection of the cell against oxidative stress in the vasculature. This will include the induction of antioxidant defenses such as glutathione, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in response to blood flow, and modulation of mitochondrial function and its impact on apoptosis. Models are presented that show the increased synthesis of glutathione in response to shear stress and inhibition of cytochrome c release from mitochondria. It appears that in the vasculature NO-dependent signaling pathways are of three types: (i) those involving NO itself, leading to modulation of mitochondrial respiration and soluble guanylate cyclase; (ii) those that involve S-nitrosation, including inhibition of caspases; and (iii) autocrine signaling that involves the intracellular formation of peroxynitrite and the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases. Taken together, NO plays a major role in the modulation of redox cell signaling through a number of distinct pathways in a cellular setting.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide sensing and signaling by protein kinases in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Burgoyne, Joseph R; Oka, Shin-ichi; Ale-Agha, Niloofar; Eaton, Philip

    2013-03-20

    Oxidants were once principally considered perpetrators of injury and disease. However, this has become an antiquated view, with cumulative evidence showing that the oxidant hydrogen peroxide serves as a signaling molecule. Hydrogen peroxide carries vital information about the redox state of the cell and is crucial for homeostatic regulation during health and adaptation to stress. In this review, we examine the contemporary concepts for how hydrogen peroxide is sensed and transduced into a biological response by introducing post-translational oxidative modifications on select proteins. Oxidant sensing and signaling by kinases are of particular importance as they integrate oxidant signals into phospho-regulated pathways. We focus on CAMKII, PKA, and PKG, kinases whose redox regulation has notable impact on cardiovascular function. In addition, we examine the mechanism for regulating intracellular hydrogen peroxide, considering the net concentrations that may accumulate. The effects of endogenously generated oxidants are often modeled by applying exogenous hydrogen peroxide to cells or tissues. Here we consider whether model systems exposed to exogenous hydrogen peroxide have relevance to systems where the oxidant is generated endogenously, and if so, what concentration can be justified in terms of relevance to health and disease. Improving our understanding of hydrogen peroxide signaling and the sensor proteins that it can modify will help us develop new strategies to regulate intracellular signaling to prevent disease.

  5. Kinase-Independent Small-Molecule Inhibition of JAK-STAT Signaling.

    PubMed

    Chou, Danny Hung-Chieh; Vetere, Amedeo; Choudhary, Amit; Scully, Stephen S; Schenone, Monica; Tang, Alicia; Gomez, Rachel; Burns, Sean M; Lundh, Morten; Vital, Tamara; Comer, Eamon; Faloon, Patrick W; Dančík, Vlado; Ciarlo, Christie; Paulk, Joshiawa; Dai, Mingji; Reddy, Clark; Sun, Hanshi; Young, Matthew; Donato, Nicholas; Jaffe, Jacob; Clemons, Paul A; Palmer, Michelle; Carr, Steven A; Schreiber, Stuart L; Wagner, Bridget K

    2015-06-24

    Phenotypic cell-based screening is a powerful approach to small-molecule discovery, but a major challenge of this strategy lies in determining the intracellular target and mechanism of action (MoA) for validated hits. Here, we show that the small-molecule BRD0476, a novel suppressor of pancreatic β-cell apoptosis, inhibits interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-induced Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducer and activation of transcription 1 (STAT1) signaling to promote β-cell survival. However, unlike common JAK-STAT pathway inhibitors, BRD0476 inhibits JAK-STAT signaling without suppressing the kinase activity of any JAK. Rather, we identified the deubiquitinase ubiquitin-specific peptidase 9X (USP9X) as an intracellular target, using a quantitative proteomic analysis in rat β cells. RNAi-mediated and CRISPR/Cas9 knockdown mimicked the effects of BRD0476, and reverse chemical genetics using a known inhibitor of USP9X blocked JAK-STAT signaling without suppressing JAK activity. Site-directed mutagenesis of a putative ubiquitination site on JAK2 mitigated BRD0476 activity, suggesting a competition between phosphorylation and ubiquitination to explain small-molecule MoA. These results demonstrate that phenotypic screening, followed by comprehensive MoA efforts, can provide novel mechanistic insights into ostensibly well-understood cell signaling pathways. Furthermore, these results uncover USP9X as a potential target for regulating JAK2 activity in cellular inflammation.

  6. SAP-MEDIATED INHIBITION OF DIACYLGLYCEROL KINASE ALPHA REGULATES TCR-INDUCED DIACYLGLYCEROL SIGNALING

    PubMed Central

    Baldanzi, Gianluca; Pighini, Andrea; Bettio, Valentina; Rainero, Elena; Traini, Sara; Chianale, Federica; Porporato, Paolo; Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Mesturini, Riccardo; Song, Shuping; Schweighoffer, Tamas; Patrussi, Laura; Baldari, Cosima Tatiana; Zhong, Xiao-Ping; van Blitterswijk, Wim J.; Sinigaglia, Fabiola; Nichols, Kim E.; Rubio, Ignacio; Parolini, Ornella; Graziani, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) metabolize diacylglycerol (DAG) to phosphatidic acid (PA). In T lymphocytes, DGKα acts as a negative regulator of TCR signaling by decreasing diacylglycerol levels and inducing anergy. Here, we show that upon co-stimulation of the TCR with CD28 or SLAM, DGKα, but not DGKζ, exit from the nucleus and undergoes rapid negative regulation of its enzymatic activity. Inhibition of DGKα is dependent on the expression of SAP, an adaptor protein mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), which is essential for SLAM-mediated signaling and contributes to TCR/CD28-induced signaling and T cell activation. Accordingly, over-expression of SAP is sufficient to inhibit DGKα, while SAP mutants unable to bind either phospho-tyrosine residues or SH3 domain are ineffective. Moreover phospholipase C activity and calcium, but not Src-family tyrosine kinases, are also required for negative regulation of DGKα. Finally, inhibition of DGKα in SAP-deficient cells partially rescues defective TCR/CD28 signaling, including Ras and ERK-1/2 activation, PKCθ membrane recruitment, induction of NF-AT transcriptional activity and IL-2 production. Thus SAP-mediated inhibition of DGKα sustains diacylglycerol signaling, thereby regulating T cell activation and may represent a novel pharmacological strategy for XLP treatment. PMID:22048771

  7. Mechanisms of cell signaling by nitric oxide and peroxynitrite: from mitochondria to MAP kinases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levonen, A. L.; Patel, R. P.; Brookes, P.; Go, Y. M.; Jo, H.; Parthasarathy, S.; Anderson, P. G.; Darley-Usmar, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    Many of the biological and pathological effects of nitric oxide (NO) are mediated through cell signaling pathways that are initiated by NO reacting with metalloproteins. More recently, it has been recognized that the reaction of NO with free radicals such as superoxide and the lipid peroxyl radical also has the potential to modulate redox signaling. Although it is clear that NO can exert both cytotoxic and cytoprotective actions, the focus of this overview are those reactions that could lead to protection of the cell against oxidative stress in the vasculature. This will include the induction of antioxidant defenses such as glutathione, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in response to blood flow, and modulation of mitochondrial function and its impact on apoptosis. Models are presented that show the increased synthesis of glutathione in response to shear stress and inhibition of cytochrome c release from mitochondria. It appears that in the vasculature NO-dependent signaling pathways are of three types: (i) those involving NO itself, leading to modulation of mitochondrial respiration and soluble guanylate cyclase; (ii) those that involve S-nitrosation, including inhibition of caspases; and (iii) autocrine signaling that involves the intracellular formation of peroxynitrite and the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases. Taken together, NO plays a major role in the modulation of redox cell signaling through a number of distinct pathways in a cellular setting.

  8. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (MKK5)-mediated signalling cascade regulates expression of iron superoxide dismutase gene in Arabidopsis under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yu; Chen, Wei-hua; Jia, Wensuo; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-09-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are involved in plant adaptive responses to biotic and abiotic stresses but the upstream signalling process that modulates their expression is not clear. Expression of two iron SODs, FSD2 and FSD3, was significantly increased in Arabidopsis in response to NaCl treatment but blocked in transgenic MKK5-RNAi plant, mkk5. Using an assay system for transient expression in protoplasts, it was found that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (MKK5) was also activated in response to salt stress. Overexpression of MKK5 in wild-type plants enhanced their tolerance to salt treatments, while mkk5 mutant exhibited hypersensitivity to salt stress in germination on salt-containing media. Moreover, another kinase, MPK6, was also involved in the MKK5-mediated iron superoxide dismutase (FSD) signalling pathway in salt stress. The kinase activity of MPK6 was totally turned off in mkk5, whereas the activity of MPK3 was only partially blocked. MKK5 interacted with the MEKK1 protein that was also involved in the salt-induced FSD signalling pathway. These data suggest that salt-induced FSD2 and FSD3 expressions are influenced by MEKK1 via MKK5-MPK6-coupled signalling. This MAP kinase cascade (MEKK1, MKK5, and MPK6) mediates the salt-induced expression of iron superoxide dismutases.

  9. Environmental neurotoxic pesticide dieldrin activates a non receptor tyrosine kinase to promote PKCδ-mediated dopaminergic apoptosis in a dopaminergic neuronal cell model.

    PubMed

    Saminathan, Hariharan; Asaithambi, Arunkumar; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2011-10-01

    Oxidative stress and apoptosis are two key pathophysiological mechanisms underlying dopaminergic degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we identified that proteolytic activation of protein kinase C-delta (PKCδ), a member of the novel PKC family, contributes to oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic degeneration and that phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 311 (tyr311) on PKCδ is a key event preceding the PKCδ proteolytic activation during oxidative damage. Herein, we report that a non-receptor tyrosine kinase Fyn is significantly expressed in a dopaminergic neuronal N27 cell model. Exposure of N27 cells to the dopaminergic toxicant dieldrin (60 μM) rapidly activated Fyn kinase, PKCδ-tyr311 phosphorylation and proteolytic cleavage. Fyn kinase activation precedes the caspase-3-mediated proteolytic activation of PKCδ. Pre-treatment with p60-tyrosine-specific kinase inhibitor (TSKI) almost completely attenuated dieldrin-induced phosphorylation of PKCδ-tyr311 and its proteolytic activation. Additionally, TSKI almost completely blocked dieldrin-induced apoptotic cell death. To further confirm Fyn's role in the pro-apoptotic function of PKCδ, we adopted the RNAi approach. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Fyn kinase also effectively attenuated dieldrin-induced phosphorylation of PKCδ-tyr311, caspase-3-mediated PKCδ proteolytic cleavage, and DNA fragmentation, suggesting that Fyn kinase regulates the pro-apoptotic function of PKCδ. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that Fyn kinase is a pro-apoptotic kinase that regulates upstream signaling of the PKCδ-mediated apoptotic cell death pathway in neurotoxicity models of pesticide exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL NEUROTOXIC PESTICIDE DIELDRIN ACTIVATES A NON RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASE TO PROMOTE PKCδ-MEDIATED DOPAMINERGIC APOPTOSIS IN A DOPAMINERGIC NEURONAL CELL MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Saminathan, Hariharan; Asaithambi, Arunkumar; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and apoptosis are two key pathophysiological mechanisms underlying dopaminergic degeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Recently, we identified that proteolytic activation of protein kinase C-delta (PKCδ), a member of the novel PKC family, contributes to oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic degeneration and that phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 311 (tyr311) on PKCδ is a key event preceding the PKCδ proteolytic activation during oxidative damage. Herein, we report that a non-receptor tyrosine kinase Fyn is significantly expressed in a dopaminergic neuronal N27 cell model. Exposure of N27 cells to the dopaminergic toxicant dieldrin (60 μM) rapidly activated Fyn kinase, PKCδ-tyr311 phosphorylation and proteolytic cleavage. Fyn kinase activation precedes the caspase-3-mediated proteolytic activation of PKCδ. Co-treatment with p60-tyrosine-specific kinase inhibitor (TSKI) almost completely attenuated dieldrin-induced phosphorylation of PKCδ-tyr311 and its proteolytic activation. Additionally, TSKI almost completely blocked dieldrin-induced apoptotic cell death. To further confirm Fyn’s role in the pro-apoptotic function of PKCδ, we adopted the RNAi approach. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Fyn kinase also effectively attenuated dieldrin-induced phosphorylation of PKCδ-tyr311, caspase-3-mediated PKCδ proteolytic cleavage, and DNA fragmentation, suggesting that Fyn kinase regulates the pro-apoptotic function of PKCδ. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that Fyn kinase is a pro-apoptotic kinase that regulates upstream signaling of the PKCδ-mediated apoptotic cell death pathway in neurotoxicity models of pesticide exposure. PMID:21801747

  11. Functional insights of plant GSK3-like kinases: multi-taskers in diverse cellular signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Youn, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Wuk

    2015-04-01

    The physiological importance of GSK3-like kinases in plants emerged when the functional role of plant GSK3-like kinases represented by BIN2 was first elucidated in the brassinosteroid (BR)-regulated signal transduction pathway. While early studies focused more on understanding how GSK3-like kinases regulate BR signaling, recent studies have implicated many novel substrates of GSK3-like kinases that are involved in a variety of cellular processes as well as BR signaling. Plant GSK3-like kinases play diverse roles in physiological and developmental processes such as cell growth, root and stomatal cell development, flower development, xylem differentiation, light response, and stress responses. Here, we review the progress made in recent years in understanding the versatile functions of plant GSK3-like kinases. Based on the relationship between GSK3-like kinases and their newly identified substrates, we discuss the physiological and biochemical relevance of various cellular signaling mediated by GSK3-like kinases in plants. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Change or Die: Targeting Adaptive Signaling to Kinase Inhibition in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rebecca, Vito W.; Smalley, Keiran S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Small molecule kinase inhibitors have proven enormously successful at delivering impressive responses in patients with cancers as diverse as chronic myeloid-leukemia, melanoma, breast cancer and small cell lung cancer. Despite this, resistance is commonplace and most patients ultimately fail therapy. One emerging observation is the rapid rewiring of signaling that occurs across multiple cancer types when driver oncogene function is inhibited. These adaptive signaling changes, seem critical in delivering some of the earliest survival signals that allow small numbers of cells to evade therapy. In this commentary we review the mechanisms that contribute to the robustness of signaling networks within cancer cells and suggest new therapeutic strategies to limit treatment failure. PMID:25107706

  13. Suppression of Mitochondrial Biogenesis through Toll-Like Receptor 4–Dependent Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling in Endotoxin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joshua A.; Stallons, L. Jay; Collier, Justin B.; Chavin, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Although disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis and biogenesis (MB) is a widely accepted pathophysiologic feature of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), the molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are unknown. In this study, we examined the signaling pathways responsible for the suppression of MB in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI. Downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of MB, was noted at the mRNA level at 3 hours and protein level at 18 hours in the renal cortex, and was associated with loss of renal function after LPS treatment. LPS-mediated suppression of PGC-1α led to reduced expression of downstream regulators of MB and electron transport chain proteins along with a reduction in renal cortical mitochondrial DNA content. Mechanistically, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) knockout mice were protected from renal injury and disruption of MB after LPS exposure. Immunoblot analysis revealed activation of tumor progression locus 2/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (TPL-2/MEK/ERK) signaling in the renal cortex by LPS. Pharmacologic inhibition of MEK/ERK signaling attenuated renal dysfunction and loss of PGC-1α, and was associated with a reduction in proinflammatory cytokine (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin-1β) expression at 3 hours after LPS exposure. Neutralization of TNF-α also blocked PGC-1α suppression, but not renal dysfunction, after LPS-induced AKI. Finally, systemic administration of recombinant tumor necrosis factor-α alone was sufficient to produce AKI and disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis. These findings indicate an important role for the TLR4/MEK/ERK pathway in both LPS-induced renal dysfunction and suppression of MB. TLR4/MEK/ERK/TNF-α signaling may represent a novel therapeutic target to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and AKI produced by sepsis. PMID:25503387

  14. Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 2 Kinase Activity Is Controlled by Multiple Inputs from Oncogenic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuemin; Regufe da Mota, Sergio; Liu, Rui; Moore, Claire E.; Xie, Jianling; Lanucara, Francesco; Agarwala, Usha; Pyr dit Ruys, Sébastien; Vertommen, Didier; Rider, Mark H.; Eyers, Claire E.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K), an atypical calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, phosphorylates and inhibits eEF2, slowing down translation elongation. eEF2K contains an N-terminal catalytic domain, a C-terminal α-helical region and a linker containing several regulatory phosphorylation sites. eEF2K is expressed at high levels in certain cancers, where it may act to help cell survival, e.g., during nutrient starvation. However, it is a negative regulator of protein synthesis and thus cell growth, suggesting that cancer cells may possess mechanisms to inhibit eEF2K under good growth conditions, to allow protein synthesis to proceed. We show here that the mTORC1 pathway and the oncogenic Ras/Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway cooperate to restrict eEF2K activity. We identify multiple sites in eEF2K whose phosphorylation is regulated by mTORC1 and/or ERK, including new ones in the linker region. We demonstrate that certain sites are phosphorylated directly by mTOR or ERK. Our data reveal that glycogen synthase kinase 3 signaling also regulates eEF2 phosphorylation. In addition, we show that phosphorylation sites remote from the N-terminal calmodulin-binding motif regulate the phosphorylation of N-terminal sites that control CaM binding. Mutations in the former sites, which occur in cancer cells, cause the activation of eEF2K. eEF2K is thus regulated by a network of oncogenic signaling pathways. PMID:25182533

  15. Sphingosine Kinases and Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptors: Signaling and Actions in the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Cannavo, Alessandro; Liccardo, Daniela; Komici, Klara; Corbi, Graziamaria; de Lucia, Claudio; Femminella, Grazia D; Elia, Andrea; Bencivenga, Leonardo; Ferrara, Nicola; Koch, Walter J; Paolocci, Nazareno; Rengo, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (SphK1 and 2) catalyze the phosphorylation of the lipid, sphingosine, generating the signal transmitter, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). The activation of such kinases and the subsequent S1P generation and secretion in the blood serum of mammals represent a major checkpoint in many cellular signaling cascades. In fact, activating the SphK/S1P system is critical for cell motility and proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, cell growth, survival, and response to stress. In the cardiovascular system, the physiological effects of S1P intervene through the binding and activation of a family of five highly selective G protein-coupled receptors, called S1PR1-5. Importantly, SphK/S1P signal is present on both vascular and myocardial cells. S1P is a well-recognized survival factor in many tissues. Therefore, it is not surprising that the last two decades have seen a flourishing of interest and investigative efforts directed to obtain additional mechanistic insights into the signaling, as well as the biological activity of this phospholipid, and of its receptors, especially in the cardiovascular system. Here, we will provide an up-to-date account on the structure and function of sphingosine kinases, discussing the generation, release, and function of S1P. Keeping the bull's eye on the cardiovascular system, we will review the structure and signaling cascades and biological actions emanating from the stimulation of different S1P receptors. We will end this article with a summary of the most recent, experimental and clinical observations targeting S1PRs and SphKs as possible new therapeutic avenues for cardiovascular disorders, such as heart failure.

  16. Phylogenomics of phosphoinositide lipid kinases: perspectives on the evolution of second messenger signaling and drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Phosphoinositide lipid kinases (PIKs) generate specific phosphorylated variants of phosatidylinositols (PtdIns) that are critical for second messenger signaling and cellular membrane remodeling. Mammals have 19 PIK isoforms spread across three major families: the PtIns 3-kinases (PI3Ks), PtdIns 4-kinases (PI4Ks), and PtdIns-P (PIP) kinases (PIPKs). Other eukaryotes have fewer yet varying PIK complements. PIKs are also an important, emerging class of drug targets for many therapeutic areas including cancer, inflammatory and metabolic diseases and host-pathogen interactions. Here, we report the genomic occurrences and evolutionary relationships or phylogenomics of all three PIK families across major eukaryotic groups and suggest potential ramifications for drug discovery. Results Our analyses reveal four core eukaryotic PIKs which are type III PIK4A and PIK4B, and at least one homolog each from PI3K (possibly PIK3C3 as the ancestor) and PIP5K families. We also applied evolutionary analyses to PIK disease ontology and drug discovery. Mutated PIK3CA are known to be oncogenic and several inhibitors are in anti-cancer clinical trials. We found conservation of activating mutations of PIK3CA in paralogous isoforms suggesting specific functional constraints on these residues. By mapping published compound inhibition data (IC50s) onto a phylogeny of PI3Ks, type II PI4Ks and distantly related, MTOR, ATM, ATR and PRKDC kinases, we also show that compound polypharmacology corresponds to kinase evolutionary relationships. Finally, we extended the rationale for drugs targeting PIKs of malarial Plasmodium falciparum, and the parasites, Leishmania sp. and Trypanosoma sp. by identifying those PIKs highly divergent from human homologs. Conclusion Our phylogenomic analysis of PIKs provides new insights into the evolution of second messenger signaling. We postulate two waves of PIK diversification, the first in metazoans with a subsequent expansion in cold

  17. Induction of Central Host Signaling Kinases during Pneumococcal Infection of Human THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Thomas P.; Scholz, Annemarie; Kiachludis, Delia; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a widespread colonizer of the mucosal epithelia of the upper respiratory tract of human. However, pneumococci are also responsible for numerous local as well as severe systemic infections, especially in children under the age of five and the elderly. Under certain conditions, pneumococci are able to conquer the epithelial barrier, which can lead to a dissemination of the bacteria into underlying tissues and the bloodstream. Here, specialized macrophages represent an essential part of the innate immune system against bacterial intruders. Recognition of the bacteria through different receptors on the surface of macrophages leads thereby to an uptake and elimination of bacteria. Accompanied cytokine release triggers the migration of leukocytes from peripheral blood to the site of infection, where monocytes differentiate into mature macrophages. The rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton during phagocytosis, resulting in the engulfment of bacteria, is thereby tightly regulated by receptor-mediated phosphorylation cascades of different protein kinases. The molecular cellular processes including the modulation of central protein kinases are only partially solved. In this study, the human monocytic THP-1 cell line was used as a model system to examine the activation of Fcγ and complement receptor-independent signal cascades during infection with S. pneumoniae. Pneumococci cultured either in chemically defined or complex medium showed no significant differences in pneumococcal phagocytosis by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) differentiated THP-1 cells. Double immuno-fluorescence microscopy and antibiotic protection assays demonstrated a time-dependent uptake and killing of S. pneumoniae 35A inside of macrophages. Infections of THP-1 cells in the presence of specific pharmacological inhibitors revealed a crucial role of actin polymerization and importance of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Protein kinase B (Akt) as well during

  18. Eupafolin suppresses prostate cancer by targeting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-mediated Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kangdong; Park, Chanmi; Chen, Hanyong; Hwang, Joonsung; Thimmegowda, N R; Bae, Eun Young; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Hong-Gyum; Liu, Haidan; Soung, Nak Kyun; Peng, Cong; Jang, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Ahn, Jong Seog; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Ziming; Kim, Bo Yeon; Dong, Zigang

    2015-09-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss or mutation consistently activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt signaling pathway, which contributes to the progression and invasiveness of prostate cancer. Furthermore, the PTEN/PI3-K/Akt and Ras/MAPK pathways cooperate to promote the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis initiated from prostate stem/progenitor cells. For these reasons, the PTEN/PI3-K/Akt pathway is considered as an attractive target for both chemoprevention and chemotherapy. Herein we report that eupafolin, a natural compound found in common sage, inhibited proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Protein content analysis indicated that phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream kinases was inhibited by eupafolin treatment. Pull-down assay and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that eupafolin could bind with PI3-K and attenuate its kinase activity. Eupafolin also exhibited tumor suppressive effects in vivo in an athymic nude mouse model. Overall, these results suggested that eupafolin exerts antitumor effects by targeting PI3-K. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Eupafolin suppresses prostate cancer by targeting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-mediated Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kangdong; Park, Chanmi; Chen, Hanyong; Hwang, Joonsung; Thimmegowda, N.R.; Bae, Eun Young; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Hong-Gyum; Liu, Haidan; Soung, Nak Kyun; Peng, Cong; Jang, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Ahn, Jong Seog; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Ziming; Kim, Bo Yeon; Dong, Zigang

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss or mutation consistently activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt signaling pathway, which contributes to the progression and invasiveness of prostate cancer. Furthermore, the PTEN/PI3-K/Akt and Ras/MAPK pathways cooperate to promote the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis initiated from prostate stem/progenitor cells. For these reasons, the PTEN/PI3-K/Akt pathway is considered as an attractive target for both chemoprevention and chemotherapy. Herein we report that eupafolin, a natural compound found in common sage, inhibited proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Protein content analysis indicated that phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream kinases was inhibited by eupafolin treatment. Pull-down assay and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that eupafolin could bind with PI3-K and attenuate its kinase activity. Eupafolin also exhibited tumor suppressive effects in vivo in an athymic nude mouse model. Overall, these results suggested that eupafolin exerts antitumor effects by targeting PI3-K. PMID:24700667

  20. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 exhibits oncogenic activity in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ziwei; Yang, Yang; Xie, Songbo; Li, Dengwen; Liu, Min; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has an extremely grim prognosis, with an overall 5-year survival rate less than 5%, as a result of its rapid metastasis and late diagnosis. To combat this disease, it is crucial to better understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to its pathogenesis. Herein, we report that apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer tissues and that its expression correlates with the histological grade of pancreatic cancer. The expression of ASK1 is also elevated in pancreatic cancer cell lines at both protein and mRNA levels. In addition, ASK1 promotes the proliferation and stimulates the tumorigenic capacity of pancreatic cancer cells. These functions of ASK1 are abrogated by pharmacological inhibition of its kinase activity or by introduction of a kinase-dead mutation, suggesting that the kinase activity of ASK1 is required for its role in pancreatic cancer. However, the alteration of ASK1 expression or activity does not significantly affect the migration or invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. Collectively, these findings reveal a critical role for ASK1 in the development of pancreatic cancer and have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of this malignancy. PMID:27655673

  1. Activation of MAP kinase signaling pathway in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as biomarker of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Châtel, A; Hamer, B; Talarmin, H; Dorange, G; Schröder, H C; Müller, W E G

    2010-03-01

    Stimulation of MAP kinase signal transduction pathway by various stressful stimuli was investigated in the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Analyses were performed in animals exposed in laboratory to selected pollutants and in mussels collected in winter and summer along the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia). Effects of oxidative stress, induced by tributyltin, hydrogen peroxide and water soluble fraction of diesel fuel on the activation/phosphorylation of the three Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) p38, JNK and ERK using a newly developed ELISA procedure were evaluated. MAP kinase activation was analyzed 1h after exposure of mussels to chemical agents, and after recovery periods of 6 and 24h. Our results clearly indicated that pollutants generated different patterns of induction of the MAPK phosphorylation. Indeed, only pp38 and pJNK were activated with 11, 33 and 100 microg/L TBT, reaching a maximum activation after 6h in seawater following treatment of mussels with 11 microg/L TBT. Treatment with 0.074 and 0.222 mM H2O2 enhanced activation of both p38 and ERK. These two kinases were activated after 1h exposure, followed by a diminution after 6h of recovery in seawater and a reactivation after 24h. The levels of phosphorylated P38 and JNK were increased after mussel exposure with 7.5, 15 and 30% of water soluble fraction of diesel oil. P38 was activated concentration dependently at 1h exposure. Additionally, field study pointed out seasonal differences in MAP kinases activation as mussels collected during summer had a higher enzyme activation state than in winter, as well as sampling site differences which could be correlated to the industrial/tourism activity and environmental stresses (salinity). All the results converge towards MAP kinase signaling pathway being induced by various pollutants in M. galloprovincialis. This signaling cascade should be considered as a possible biomarker of environmental stress and pollution. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All

  2. Erythropoietin inhibits osmotic swelling of retinal glial cells by Janus kinase- and extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2-mediated release of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Krügel, K; Wurm, A; Linnertz, R; Pannicke, T; Wiedemann, P; Reichenbach, A; Bringmann, A

    2010-02-17

    The volume homeostasis of retinal glial cells is mediated by an autocrine purinergic mechanism of ion channel opening which is activated in response to a decrease in the extracellular osmolarity. Here, we show that erythropoietin (EPO) prevents the osmotic swelling of glial somata in retinal slices and of isolated glial cells from control and diabetic rats, with a half-maximal effect at approximately 0.01 nM. The downstream signaling evoked by EPO includes a release of vascular endothelial growth factor from the cells which was blocked by Janus kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 inhibitors. Transactivation of kinase insert domain-containing receptor/fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (KDR/flk-1) evokes a calcium-dependent, exocytotic release of glutamate, followed by activation of group I/II metabotropic glutamate receptors which results in calcium-independent release of ATP and adenosine from the cells. The final step in this cascade is the activation of adenosine A(1) receptors which results in protein kinase A- and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated opening of potassium and chloride channels. EPO receptor protein was immunohistochemically localized to the inner retina and photoreceptor inner segments. In isolated glial cells, EPO receptor protein is selectively localized to fibers which traverse the inner nuclear layer in situ. Inhibition of glial swelling might contribute to the neuroprotective action of EPO in the retina under pathological conditions.

  3. MicroRNAs: Non-coding fine tuners of receptor tyrosine kinase signalling in cancer.

    PubMed

    Donzelli, Sara; Cioce, Mario; Muti, Paola; Strano, Sabrina; Yarden, Yosef; Blandino, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Emerging evidence point to a crucial role for non-coding RNAs in modulating homeostatic signaling under physiological and pathological conditions. MicroRNAs, the best-characterized non-coding RNAs to date, can exquisitely integrate spatial and temporal signals in complex networks, thereby confer specificity and sensitivity to tissue response to changes in the microenvironment. MicroRNAs appear as preferential partners for Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) in mediating signaling under stress conditions. Stress signaling can be especially relevant to disease. Here we focus on the ability of microRNAs to mediate RTK signaling in cancer, by acting as both tumor suppressors and oncogenes. We will provide a few general examples of microRNAs modulating specific tumorigenic functions downstream of RTK signaling and integrate oncogenic signals from multiple RTKs. A special focus will be devoted to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, a system offering relatively rich information. We will explore the role of selected microRNAs as bidirectional modulators of EGFR functions in cancer cells. In addition, we will present the emerging evidence for microRNAs being specifically modulated by oncogenic EGFR mutants and we will discuss how this impinges on EGFRmut driven chemoresistance, which fits into the tumor heterogeneity-driven cancer progression. Finally, we discuss how other non-coding RNA species are emerging as important modulators of cancer progression and why the scenario depicted herein is destined to become increasingly complex in the future.

  4. T Cell Receptor-Independent Basal Signaling via Erk and Abl Kinases Suppresses RAG Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Roose, Jeroen P; Diehn, Maximilian; Tomlinson, Michael G; Lin, Joseph; Alizadeh, Ash A; Botstein, David; Brown, Patrick O

    2003-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways guided by cellular receptors commonly exhibit low-level constitutive signaling in a continuous, ligand-independent manner. The dynamic equilibrium of positive and negative regulators establishes such a tonic signal. Ligand-independent signaling by the precursors of mature antigen receptors regulates development of B and T lymphocytes. Here we describe a basal signal that controls gene expression profiles in the Jurkat T cell line and mouse thymocytes. Using DNA microarrays and Northern blots to analyze unstimulated cells, we demonstrate that expression of a cluster of genes, including RAG-1 and RAG-2, is repressed by constitutive signals requiring the adapter molecules LAT and SLP-76. This TCR-like pathway results in constitutive low-level activity of Erk and Abl kinases. Inhibition of Abl by the drug STI-571 or inhibition of signaling events upstream of Erk increases RAG-1 expression. Our data suggest that physiologic gene expression programs depend upon tonic activity of signaling pathways independent of receptor ligation. PMID:14624253

  5. Protein Kinase C alpha (PKCα) dependent signaling mediates endometrial cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Haughian, James M.; Reno, Elaine M.; Thorne, Alicia M.; Bradford, Andrew P.

    2009-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common invasive gynecologic malignancy, yet molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways underlying its etiology and pathophysiology remain poorly characterized. We sought to define a functional role for the protein kinase C (PKC) isoform, PKCα, in an established cell model of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Ishikawa cells depleted of PKCα protein grew slower, formed fewer colonies in anchorage-independent growth assays and exhibited impaired xenograft tumor formation in nude mice. Consistent with impaired growth, PKCα knockdown increased levels of the cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21Cip1/WAF1 (p21) and p27Kip1 (p27). Despite the absence of functional phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) protein in Ishikawa cells, PKCα knockdown reduced Akt phosphorylation at serine 473 and concomitantly inhibited phosphorylation of the Akt target, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). PKCα knockdown also resulted in decreased basal ERK phosphorylation and attenuated ERK activation following EGF stimulation. p21 and p27 expression was not increased by treatment of Ishikawa cells with ERK and Akt inhibitors, suggesting PKCα regulates CDK expression independently of Akt and ERK. Immunohistochemical analysis of grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma revealed aberrant PKCα expression, with foci of elevated PKCα staining, not observed in normal endometrium. These studies demonstrate a critical role for PKCα signaling in endometrial tumorigenesis by regulating expression of CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 and activation of Akt and ERK dependent proliferative pathways. Thus, targeting PKCα may provide novel therapeutic options in endometrial tumors. PMID:19672862

  6. Science Signaling Podcast for 15 November 2016: A new type of kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit; VanHook, Annalisa M

    2016-11-15

    This Podcast features an interview with Hagit Eldar-Finkelman, author of a Research Article that appears in the 15 November 2016 issue of Science Signaling, about a newly developed inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). GSK-3 participates in several signaling networks and has been implicated in various pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases, cognitive impairments, and cancer. Licht-Murava et al developed L807mts, a substrate-competitive peptide inhibitor that blocks GSK-3 activity through an unusual mechanism. L807mts not only bound to the substrate recognition domain of GSK-3, it was also phosphorylated by the kinase. This phosphorylated form of L807mts remained associated with GSK-3 and inhibited GSK-3 activity. L807mts treatment reduced cellular, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. L807mts is an advance in kinase inhibitor development because it is both highly specific and very potent.Listen to Podcast. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Raf kinase inhibitory protein suppresses a metastasis signalling cascade involving LIN28 and let-7

    PubMed Central

    Dangi-Garimella, Surabhi; Yun, Jieun; Eves, Eva M; Newman, Martin; Erkeland, Stefan J; Hammond, Scott M; Minn, Andy J; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2009-01-01

    Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) negatively regulates the MAP kinase (MAPK), G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2, and NF-κB signalling cascades. RKIP has been implicated as a metastasis suppressor for prostate cancer, but the mechanism is not known. Here, we show that RKIP inhibits invasion by metastatic breast cancer cells and represses breast tumour cell intravasation and bone metastasis in an orthotopic murine model. The mechanism involves inhibition of MAPK, leading to decreased transcription of LIN28 by Myc. Suppression of LIN28 enables enhanced let-7 processing in breast cancer cells. Elevated let-7 expression inhibits HMGA2, a chromatin remodelling protein that activates pro-invasive and pro-metastatic genes, including Snail. LIN28 depletion and let-7 expression suppress bone metastasis, and LIN28 restores bone metastasis in mice bearing RKIP-expressing breast tumour cells. These results indicate that RKIP suppresses invasion and metastasis in part through a signalling cascade involving MAPK, Myc, LIN28, let-7, and downstream let-7 targets. RKIP regulation of two pluripotent stem cell genes, Myc and LIN28, highlights the importance of RKIP as a key metastasis suppressor and potential therapeutic agent. PMID:19153603

  8. Protein kinase A activation of glucocorticoid-mediated signaling in the developing retina.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H; Li, Y C; Young, A P

    1993-01-01

    This report establishes that increasing the activity of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A; PKA) potentiates glucocorticoid-mediated signaling in embryonic day 5.5 (E5.5) chicken retina. Expression of a glutamine synthetase-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion gene is not induced by treatment with glucocorticoid hormone in transfected E5.5 retina. However, treatment of the retina with forskolin, an activator of adenyl cyclase, or cotransfection with an expression vector encoding PKA is sufficient to render the fusion gene hormonally responsive. Similar results are obtained after forskolin treatment of E5.5 retina that have been transfected with a plasmid that contains the CAT reporter gene under transcriptional control by the thymidine kinase promoter and a 46-nucleotide enhancer with two glucocorticoid response elements (GREs). In contrast, forskolin augments but is not required to achieve glucocorticoid-inducible CAT gene expression in E5.5 retina transfected with a plasmid that contains the reporter driven by a minimal promoter with six juxtaposed GREs. Based on these results, we postulate that E5.5 retina contain glucocorticoid receptors whose signal transduction properties are enhanced by PKA. Unlike the transiently expressed glutamine synthetase fusion gene, however, activation of PKA does not render the endogenous glutamine synthetase gene glucocorticoid-inducible. Thus, its expression appears to be subject to an additional level of control in the developing retina. PMID:8097880

  9. CERK1, a LysM receptor kinase, is essential for chitin elicitor signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Miya, Ayako; Albert, Premkumar; Shinya, Tomonori; Desaki, Yoshitake; Ichimura, Kazuya; Shirasu, Ken; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Kawakami, Naoto; Kaku, Hanae; Shibuya, Naoto

    2007-12-04

    Chitin is a major component of fungal cell walls and serves as a microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) for the detection of various potential pathogens in innate immune systems of both plants and animals. We recently showed that chitin elicitor-binding protein (CEBiP), plasma membrane glycoprotein with LysM motifs, functions as a cell surface receptor for chitin elicitor in rice. The predicted structure of CEBiP does not contain any intracellular domains, suggesting that an additional component(s) is required for signaling through the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm. Here, we identified a receptor-like kinase, designated CERK1, which is essential for chitin elicitor signaling in Arabidopsis. The KO mutants for CERK1 completely lost the ability to respond to the chitin elicitor, including MAPK activation, reactive oxygen species generation, and gene expression. Disease resistance of the KO mutant against an incompatible fungus, Alternaria brassicicola, was partly impaired. Complementation with the WT CERK1 gene showed cerk1 mutations were responsible for the mutant phenotypes. CERK1 is a plasma membrane protein containing three LysM motifs in the extracellular domain and an intracellular Ser/Thr kinase domain with autophosphorylation/myelin basic protein kinase activity, suggesting that CERK1 plays a critical role in fungal MAMP perception in plants.

  10. Interaction between G proteins and tyrosine kinases upon T cell receptor.CD3-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Stanners, J; Kabouridis, P S; McGuire, K L; Tsoukas, C D

    1995-12-22

    Engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR).CD3 complex results in the induction of multiple intracellular events, with protein tyrosine kinases playing a pivotal role in their initiation. Biochemical studies also exist suggesting the involvement of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins); however, the functional consequence of this participation in TCR.CD3-mediated signaling is unresolved. Here, we report TCR.CD3-mediated guanine nucleotide exchange among the 42-kDa G protein alpha subunits of the G alpha q/11 family, their physical association with CD3 epsilon, and the G alpha 11-dependent activation of phospholipase C beta. Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, however, abrogate TCR.CD3-mediated G protein activation. Quite interesting is the observation that cells transfected with a function-deficient mutant of G alpha 11 display diminished tyrosine phosphorylation of TCR.CD3 zeta and epsilon chains, as well as ZAP-70, upon anti-CD3 antibody triggering. These data indicate the involvement of the G alpha q/11 family in TCR.CD3 signaling at a step proximal to the receptor and suggest a reciprocal regulation between tyrosine kinases and G proteins in T cells.

  11. Irisin promotes osteoblast proliferation and differentiation via activating the MAP kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yong Qiao, Xiao; Nie, Ying; Xian Ma, Ya; Chen, Yan; Cheng, Ran; Yao Yinrg, Wei; Hu, Ying; Ming Xu, Wen; Zhi Xu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise is able to improve skeletal health. However, the mechanisms are poorly known. Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, secreted by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, have been shown to mediate beneficial effects of exercise in many disorders. In the current study, we demonstrated that irisin promotes osteoblast proliferation, and increases the expression of osteoblastic transcription regulators, such as Runt-related transcription factor-2, osterix/sp7; and osteoblast differentiation markers, including alkaline phosphatase, collagen type 1 alpha-1, osteocalcin, and osteopontin in vitro. Irisin also increase ALP activity and calcium deposition in cultured osteoblast. These osteogenic effects were mediated by activating the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB023580 or pERK by U0126 abolished the proliferation and up-regulatory effects of irisin on Runx2 expression and ALP activity. Together our observation suggest that irisin directly targets osteoblast, promoting osteoblast proliferation and differentiation via activating P38/ERK MAP kinase signaling cascades in vitro. Whether irisin can be utilized as the therapeutic agents for osteopenia and osteoporosis is worth to be further pursued. PMID:26738434

  12. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling to Akt promotes keratinocyte differentiation versus death.

    PubMed

    Calautti, Enzo; Li, Jian; Saoncella, Stefania; Brissette, Janice L; Goetinck, Paul F

    2005-09-23

    Signaling pathways regulating the differentiation program of epidermal cells overlap widely with those activated during apoptosis. How differentiating cells remain protected from premature death, however, is still poorly defined. We show here that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is activated at early stages of mouse keratinocyte differentiation both in culture and in the intact epidermis in vivo. Expression of active Akt in keratinocytes promotes growth arrest and differentiation, whereas pharmacological blockade of PI3K inhibits the expression of "late" differentiation markers and leads to death of cells that would otherwise differentiate. Mechanistically, the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway in keratinocyte differentiation depends on the activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor and Src families of tyrosine kinases and the engagement of E-cadherin-mediated adhesion. During this process, PI3K associates increasingly with cadherin-catenin protein complexes bearing tyrosine phosphorylated YXXM motifs. Thus, the PI3K signaling pathway regulates the choice between epidermal cell differentiation and death at the cross-talk between tyrosine kinases and cadherin-associated catenins.

  13. Redundant Canonical and Noncanonical Caenorhabditis elegans p21-Activated Kinase Signaling Governs Distal Tip Cell Migrations

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Eldon C.; Gossett, Andrea J.; Goldstein, Bob; Der, Channing J.; Reiner, David J.

    2013-01-01

    p21-activated kinases (Paks) are prominent mediators of Rac/Cdc42-dependent and -independent signaling and regulate signal transduction and cytoskeletal-based cell movements. We used the reproducible migrations of the Caenorhabditis elegans gonadal distal tip cells to show that two of the three nematode Pak proteins, MAX-2 and PAK-1, function redundantly in regulation of cell migration but are regulated by very different mechanisms. First, we suggest that MAX-2 requires CED-10/Rac function and thus functions canonically. Second, PIX-1 and GIT-1 function in the same role as PAK-1, and PAK-1 interaction with PIX-1 is required for PAK-1 activity; thus, PAK-1 functions noncanonically. The human Pak-Pix-Git complex is central to noncanonical Pak signaling and requires only modest Rac/CDC-42 input. Unlike the human complex, our results suggest that the C. elegans Pak-Pix-Git complex requires PAK-1 kinase domain activity. This study delineates signaling network relationships in this cell migration model, thus providing potential further mechanistic insights and an assessment of total Pak contribution to cell migration events. PMID:23390595

  14. IκB Kinase α Phosphorylation of TRAF4 Downregulates Innate Immune Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Marinis, Jill M.; Hutti, Jessica E.; Homer, Craig R.; Cobb, Brian A.; Cantley, Lewis C.; McDonald, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Despite their homology, IκB kinase α (IKKα) and IKKβ have divergent roles in NF-κB signaling. IKKβ strongly activates NF-κB while IKKα can downregulate NF-κB under certain circumstances. Given this, identifying independent substrates for these kinases could help delineate their divergent roles. Peptide substrate array technology followed by bioinformatic screening identified TRAF4 as a substrate for IKKα. Like IKKα, TRAF4 is atypical within its family because it is the only TRAF family member to negatively regulate innate immune signaling. IKKα's phosphorylation of serine-426 on TRAF4 was required for this negative regulation. Binding to the Crohn's disease susceptibility protein, NOD2, is required for TRAF4 phosphorylation and subsequent inhibition of NOD2 signaling. Structurally, serine-426 resides within an exaggerated β-bulge in TRAF4 that is not present in the other TRAF proteins, and phosphorylation of this site provides a structural basis for the atypical function of TRAF4 and its atypical role in NOD2 signaling. PMID:22547678

  15. Activation of oncogenic tyrosine kinase signaling promotes insulin receptor-mediated cone photoreceptor survival

    PubMed Central

    Rajala, Ammaji; Wang, Yuhong; Rajala, Raju V.S.

    2016-01-01

    In humans, daylight vision is primarily mediated by cone photoreceptors. These cells die in age-related retinal degenerations. Prolonging the life of cones for even one decade would have an enormous beneficial effect on usable vision in an aging population. Photoreceptors are postmitotic, but shed 10% of their outer segments daily, and must synthesize the membrane and protein equivalent of a proliferating cell each day. Although activation of oncogenic tyrosine kinase and inhibition of tyrosine phosphatase signaling is known to be essential for tumor progression, the cellular regulation of this signaling in postmitotic photoreceptor cells has not been studied. In the present study, we report that a novel G-protein coupled receptor–mediated insulin receptor (IR) signaling pathway is regulated by non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src through the inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase IB (PTP1B). We demonstrated the functional significance of this pathway through conditional deletion of IR and PTP1B in cones, in addition to delaying the death of cones in a mouse model of cone degeneration by activating the Src. This is the first study demonstrating the molecular mechanism of a novel signaling pathway in photoreceptor cells, which provides a window of opportunity to save the dying cones in retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27391439

  16. The yeast Sks1p kinase signaling network regulates pseudohyphal growth and glucose response.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cole; Kweon, Hye Kyong; Sheidy, Daniel; Shively, Christian A; Mellacheruvu, Dattatreya; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I; Andrews, Philip C; Kumar, Anuj

    2014-03-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes a dramatic growth transition from its unicellular form to a filamentous state, marked by the formation of pseudohyphal filaments of elongated and connected cells. Yeast pseudohyphal growth is regulated by signaling pathways responsive to reductions in the availability of nitrogen and glucose, but the molecular link between pseudohyphal filamentation and glucose signaling is not fully understood. Here, we identify the glucose-responsive Sks1p kinase as a signaling protein required for pseudohyphal growth induced by nitrogen limitation and coupled nitrogen/glucose limitation. To identify the Sks1p signaling network, we applied mass spectrometry-based quantitative phosphoproteomics, profiling over 900 phosphosites for phosphorylation changes dependent upon Sks1p kinase activity. From this analysis, we report a set of novel phosphorylation sites and highlight Sks1p-dependent phosphorylation in Bud6p, Itr1p, Lrg1p, Npr3p, and Pda1p. In particular, we analyzed the Y309 and S313 phosphosites in the pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit Pda1p; these residues are required for pseudohyphal growth, and Y309A mutants exhibit phenotypes indicative of impaired aerobic respiration and decreased mitochondrial number. Epistasis studies place SKS1 downstream of the G-protein coupled receptor GPR1 and the G-protein RAS2 but upstream of or at the level of cAMP-dependent PKA. The pseudohyphal growth and glucose signaling transcription factors Flo8p, Mss11p, and Rgt1p are required to achieve wild-type SKS1 transcript levels. SKS1 is conserved, and deletion of the SKS1 ortholog SHA3 in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans results in abnormal colony morphology. Collectively, these results identify Sks1p as an important regulator of filamentation and glucose signaling, with additional relevance towards understanding stress-responsive signaling in C. albicans.

  17. Kinase Cascades and Ligand-Directed Signaling at the Kappa Opioid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bruchas, Michael R.; Chavkin, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Background and Rationale The dynorphin / kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) system has been implicated as a critical component of the stress response. Stress-induced activation of dynorphin-KOR is well-known to produce analgesia, and more recently it has been implicated as a mediator of stress-induced responses including anxiety, depression, and reinstatement of drug seeking. Objective Drugs selectively targeting specific KOR signaling pathways may prove potentially useful as therapeutic treatments for mood and addiction disorders. Results KOR is a member of the seven transmembrane spanning (7TM) G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. KOR activation of pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins leads to Gαi/o inhibition of adenylyl cyclase production of cAMP and releases Gβγ, which modulates the conductances of Ca+2 and K+ channels. In addition, KOR agonists activate kinase cascades including G-protein coupled Receptor Kinases (GRK) and members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family: ERK1/2, p38 and JNK. Recent pharmacological data suggests that GPCRs exist as dynamic, multi-conformational protein complexes that can be directed by specific ligands towards distinct signaling pathways. Ligand-induced conformations of KOR that evoke β–arrestin-dependent p38 MAPK activation result in aversion; whereas ligand-induced conformations that activate JNK without activating arrestin produce long-lasting inactivation of KOR signaling. Conclusions In this review, we discuss the current status of KOR signal transduction research and the data that support two novel hypotheses: 1) KOR selective partial agonists that do not efficiently activate p38 MAPK may be useful analgesics without producing the dysphoric or hallucinogenic effects of selective, highly efficacious KOR agonists and 2) KOR antagonists that do not activate JNK may be effective short-acting drugs that may promote stress-resilience. PMID:20401607

  18. Scaffold State Switching Amplifies, Accelerates, and Insulates Protein Kinase C Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Eric C.; Redden, John M.; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly L.; Saucerman, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Scaffold proteins localize two or more signaling enzymes in close proximity to their downstream effectors. A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are a canonical family of scaffold proteins known to bind protein kinase A (PKA) and other enzymes. Several AKAPs have been shown to accelerate, amplify, and specify signal transduction to dynamically regulate numerous cellular processes. However, there is little theory available to mechanistically explain how signaling on protein scaffolds differs from solution biochemistry. In our present study, we propose a novel kinetic mechanism for enzymatic reactions on protein scaffolds to explain these phenomena, wherein the enzyme-substrate-scaffold complex undergoes stochastic state switching to reach an active state. This model predicted anchored enzymatic reactions to be accelerated, amplified, and insulated from inhibition compared with those occurring in solution. We exploited a direct interaction between protein kinase C (PKC) and AKAP7α as a model to validate these predictions experimentally. Using a genetically encoded PKC activity reporter, we found that both the strength and speed of substrate phosphorylation were enhanced by AKAP7α. PKC tethered to AKAP7α was less susceptible to inhibition from the ATP-competitive inhibitor Gö6976 and the substrate-competitive inhibitor PKC 20-28, but not the activation-competitive inhibitor calphostin C. Model predictions and experimental validation demonstrated that insulation is a general property of scaffold tethering. Sensitivity analysis indicated that these findings may be applicable to many other scaffolds as well. Collectively, our findings provide theoretical and experimental evidence that scaffold proteins can amplify, accelerate, and insulate signal transduction. PMID:24302730

  19. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in signaling plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Zhang, Shuqun

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are ubiquitous signaling modules in eukaryotes. Early research of plant MAPKs has been focused on their functions in immunity and stress responses. Recent studies reveal that they also play essential roles in plant growth and development downstream of receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs). With only a limited number of MAPK components, multiple functional pathways initiated from different receptors often share the same MAPK components or even a complete MAPK cascade. In this review, we discuss how MAPK cascades function as molecular switches in response to spatiotemporal-specific ligand-receptor interactions and the availability of downstream substrates. In addition, we discuss other possible mechanisms governing the functional specificity of plant MAPK cascades, a question central to our understanding of MAPK functions.

  20. Phospho-kinase profile of triple negative breast cancer and androgen receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in the oncogenesis of different tumors, as is the case in prostate cancer. In triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) a gene expression classification has described different subgroups including a luminal androgen subtype. The AR can be controlled by several mechanisms like the activation of membrane tyrosine kinases and downstream signaling pathways. However little is known in TNBC about how the AR is modulated by these mechanisms and the potential therapeutic strategists to inhibit its expression. Methods We used human samples to evaluate the expression of AR by western-blot and phospho-proteomic kinase arrays that recognize membrane tyrosine kinase receptors and downstream mediators. Western-blots in human cell lines were carried out to analyze the expression and activation of individual proteins. Drugs against these kinases in different conditions were used to measure the expression of the androgen receptor. PCR experiments were performed to assess changes in the AR gene after therapeutic modulation of these pathways. Results AR is present in a subset of TNBC and its expression correlates with activated membrane receptor kinases-EGFR and PDGFRβ in human samples and cell lines. Inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR pathway in TNBC cell lines decreased notably the expression of the AR. Concomitant administration of the anti-androgen bicalutamide with the EGFR, PDGFRβ and Erk1/2 inhibitors, decreased the amount of AR compared to each agent given alone, and had an additive anti-proliferative effect. Administration of dihydrotestosterone augmented the expression of AR that was not modified by the inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR or Erk1/2 pathways. AR expression was posttranscriptionally regulated by PI3K or Erk1/2 inhibition. Conclusion Our results describe the expression of the AR in TNBC as a druggable target and further suggest the combination of bicalutamide with inhibitors of EGFR, PDGFRβ or Erk1/2 for future

  1. Casein kinase 1 gamma couples Wnt receptor activation to cytoplasmic signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Gary; Wu, Wei; Shen, Jinlong; Bilic, Josipa; Fenger, Ursula; Stannek, Peter; Glinka, Andrei; Niehrs, Christof

    2005-12-08

    Signalling by Wnt proteins (Wingless in Drosophila) has diverse roles during embryonic development and in adults, and is implicated in human diseases, including cancer. LDL-receptor-related proteins 5 and 6 (LRP5 and LRP6; Arrow in Drosophila) are key receptors required for transmission of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling in metazoa. Although the role of these receptors in Wnt signalling is well established, their coupling with the cytoplasmic signalling apparatus remains poorly defined. Using a protein modification screen for regulators of LRP6, we describe the identification of Xenopus Casein kinase 1 gamma (CK1gamma), a membrane-bound member of the CK1 family. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments show that CK1gamma is both necessary and sufficient to transduce LRP6 signalling in vertebrates and Drosophila cells. In Xenopus embryos, CK1gamma is required during anterio-posterior patterning to promote posteriorizing Wnt/beta-catenin signalling. CK1gamma is associated with LRP6, which has multiple, modular CK1 phosphorylation sites. Wnt treatment induces the rapid CK1gamma-mediated phosphorylation of these sites within LRP6, which, in turn, promotes the recruitment of the scaffold protein Axin. Our results reveal an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that couples Wnt receptor activation to the cytoplasmic signal transduction apparatus.

  2. [Acupuncture-moxibustion and mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways].

    PubMed

    Tiano, Shen; Zhong-Ren, Li

    2012-03-01

    The Literatures on mechanism of acupuncture from the aspect of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathways are analyzed in this paper. And the result shows that many acupuncture effects are closely related with the regulation of MAPK signal transduction pathway. However, the current studies only cover limited aspects, and there problems still existed in the experiment designation. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture are often adopted for the treatment group, while moxibustion is not applied for most of them. There are not unified wave model, frequency and stimulation period for electroacupuncture. And the studies still remain in simple confirmation and proper inference. In the future, the domain of researches should be further wid ened and the experiment designation further perfected. Therefore, the therapeutic effect of acupuncture in clinic will be greatly improved through researches on MAPK signal transduction pathway and the production mechanism of acupuncture effect.

  3. Brassinosteroid signal transduction: from receptor kinase activation to transcriptional networks regulating plant development.

    PubMed

    Clouse, Steven D

    2011-04-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) signal transduction research has progressed rapidly from the initial discovery of the BR receptor to a complete definition of the basic molecular components required to relay the BR signal from perception by receptor kinases at the cell surface to activation of a small family of transcription factors that regulate the expression of more than a thousand genes in a BR-dependent manner. These mechanistic advances have helped answer the intriguing question of how a single molecule, such as a hormone, can have dramatic pleiotropic effects on a broad range of diverse developmental pathways and have shed light on how BRs interact with other plant hormones and environmental cues to shape the growth of the whole plant. This review summarizes the current state of BR signal transduction research and then examines recent articles uncovering gene regulatory networks through which BR influences both vegetative and reproductive development.

  4. Brassinosteroid Signal Transduction: From Receptor Kinase Activation to Transcriptional Networks Regulating Plant Development REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Clouse, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) signal transduction research has progressed rapidly from the initial discovery of the BR receptor to a complete definition of the basic molecular components required to relay the BR signal from perception by receptor kinases at the cell surface to activation of a small family of transcription factors that regulate the expression of more than a thousand genes in a BR-dependent manner. These mechanistic advances have helped answer the intriguing question of how a single molecule, such as a hormone, can have dramatic pleiotropic effects on a broad range of diverse developmental pathways and have shed light on how BRs interact with other plant hormones and environmental cues to shape the growth of the whole plant. This review summarizes the current state of BR signal transduction research and then examines recent articles uncovering gene regulatory networks through which BR influences both vegetative and reproductive development. PMID:21505068

  5. Human cervical cancer cells use Ca2+ signalling, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and MAP kinase in regulatory volume decrease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Meng-Ru; Chou, Cheng-Yang; Browning, Joseph A; Wilkins, Robert J; Ellory, J Clive

    2001-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying the signalling pathways involved in the activation of volume-regulatory mechanisms of human cervical cancer cells. Osmotic swelling of human cervical cancer cells induced a substantial increase in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) by the activation of Ca2+ entry across the cell membrane, as well as Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. This Ca2+ signalling was critical for the normal regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response. The activation of swelling-activated ion and taurine transport was significantly inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein and tyrphostin AG 1478) and potentiated by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor Na3VO4. However, the Src family of tyrosine kinases was not involved in regulation of the swelling-activated Cl− channel. Cell swelling triggered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades leading to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/ERK2) and p38 kinase. The volume-responsive ERK1/ERK2 signalling pathway linked with the activation of K+ and Cl− channels, and taurine transport. However, the volume-regulatory mechanism was independent of the activation of p38 MAP kinase. The phosphorylated ERK1/ERK2 expression following a hypotonic shock was up-regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and down-regulated by PKC inhibitor staurosporine. The response of ERK activation to hypotonicity also required Ca2+ entry and depended on tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated/ERK-activating kinase (MEK) activity. Considering the results overall, osmotic swelling promotes the activation of tyrosine kinase and ERK1/ERK2 and raises intracellular Ca2+, all of which play a crucial role in the volume-regulatory mechanism of human cervical cancer cells. PMID:11731569

  6. Human cervical cancer cells use Ca2+ signalling, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and MAP kinase in regulatory volume decrease.

    PubMed

    Shen, M R; Chou, C Y; Browning, J A; Wilkins, R J; Ellory, J C

    2001-12-01

    1. This study was aimed at identifying the signalling pathways involved in the activation of volume-regulatory mechanisms of human cervical cancer cells. 2. Osmotic swelling of human cervical cancer cells induced a substantial increase in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) by the activation of Ca2+ entry across the cell membrane, as well as Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. This Ca2+ signalling was critical for the normal regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response. 3. The activation of swelling-activated ion and taurine transport was significantly inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein and tyrphostin AG 1478) and potentiated by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor Na3VO4. However, the Src family of tyrosine kinases was not involved in regulation of the swelling-activated Cl- channel. 4. Cell swelling triggered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades leading to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/ERK2) and p38 kinase. The volume-responsive ERK1/ERK2 signalling pathway linked with the activation of K+ and Cl- channels, and taurine transport. However, the volume-regulatory mechanism was independent of the activation of p38 MAP kinase. 5. The phosphorylated ERK1/ERK2 expression following a hypotonic shock was up-regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and down-regulated by PKC inhibitor staurosporine. The response of ERK activation to hypotonicity also required Ca2+ entry and depended on tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated/ERK-activating kinase (MEK) activity. 6. Considering the results overall, osmotic swelling promotes the activation of tyrosine kinase and ERK1/ERK2 and raises intracellular Ca2+, all of which play a crucial role in the volume-regulatory mechanism of human cervical cancer cells.

  7. Reciprocal regulation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 and mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-3

    SciTech Connect

    Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Mauro, Laura J.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2008-11-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-3 (MKP-3) is a putative tumor suppressor. When transiently overexpressed, MKP-3 dephosphorylates and inactivates extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Little is known about the roles of endogenous MKP-3, however. We previously showed that MKP-3 is upregulated in cell lines that express oncogenic Ras. Here we tested the roles of endogenous MKP-3 in modulating ERK1/2 under conditions of chronic stimulation of the Ras/Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 pathway by expression of oncogenic Ras. We used two cell lines: H-ras MCF10A, breast epithelial cells engineered to express H-Ras, and DLD-1, colon cancer cells that express endogenous Ki-Ras. First, we found that MKP-3 acts in a negative feedback loop to suppress basal ERK1/2 when oncogenic Ras stimulates the Ras/Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 cascade. ERK1/2 was required to maintain elevated MKP-3, indicative of a negative feedback loop. Accordingly, knockdown of MKP-3, via siRNA, increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Second, by using siRNA, we found that MKP-3 helps establish the sensitivity of ERK1/2 to extracellular activators by limiting the duration of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Third, we found that the regulation of ERK1/2 by MKP-3 is countered by the complex regulation of MKP-3 by ERK1/2. Potent ERK1/2 activators stimulated the loss of MKP-3 within 30 min due to an ERK1/2-dependent decrease in MKP-3 protein stability. MKP-3 levels recovered within 120 min due to ERK1/2-dependent resynthesis. Preventing MKP-3 resynthesis, via siRNA, prolonged ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Altogether, these results suggest that under the pressure of oncogenic Ras expression, MKP-3 reins in ERK1/2 by serving in ERK1/2-dependent negative feedback pathways.

  8. Differential regulation of protein tyrosine kinase signalling by Dock and the PTP61F variants.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Lee F; Manent, Jan; Allan, Kirsten; Lee, Han; Portela, Marta; Wiede, Florian; Warr, Coral; Meng, Tzu-Ching; Tiganis, Tony; Richardson, Helena E

    2017-07-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent signalling is coordinated by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). There is a growing list of adaptor proteins that interact with PTPs and facilitate the dephosphorylation of substrates. The extent to which any given adaptor confers selectivity for any given substrate in vivo remains unclear. Here we have taken advantage of Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism to explore the influence of the SH3/SH2 adaptor protein Dock on the abilities of the membrane (PTP61Fm)- and nuclear (PTP61Fn)-targeted variants of PTP61F (the Drosophila othologue of the mammalian enzymes PTP1B and TCPTP respectively) to repress PTK signalling pathways in vivo. PTP61Fn effectively repressed the eye overgrowth associated with activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), PTK, or the expression of the platelet-derived growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (PVR) or insulin receptor (InR) PTKs. PTP61Fn repressed EGFR and PVR-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling and attenuated PVR-induced STAT92E signalling. By contrast, PTP61Fm effectively repressed EGFR- and PVR-, but not InR-induced tissue overgrowth. Importantly, coexpression of Dock with PTP61F allowed for the efficient repression of the InR-induced eye overgrowth, but did not enhance the PTP61Fm-mediated inhibition of EGFR and PVR-induced signalling. Instead, Dock expression increased, and PTP61Fm coexpression further exacerbated the PVR-induced eye overgrowth. These results demonstrate that Dock selectively enhances the PTP61Fm-mediated attenuation of InR signalling and underscores the specificity of PTPs and the importance of adaptor proteins in regulating PTP function in vivo. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. SUCROSE NON-FERMENTING 1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE 2 (SNRK2): A FAMILY OF PROTEIN KINASES INVOLVED IN HYPEROSMOTIC STRESS SIGNALING

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our understanding of plant adaptation to abiotic stresses, which include drought, salinity, non-optimal temperatures and poor soil nutrition, is still limiting although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the gene players and signaling partners. Several protein kinases get acti...

  10. Imipramine protects retinal ganglion cells from oxidative stress through the tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ming-lei; Liu, Guo-hua; Guo, Jin; Yu, Shu-juan; Huang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration is irreversible in glaucoma and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB)-associated signaling pathways have been implicated in the process. In this study, we attempted to examine whether imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, may protect hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced RGC degeneration through the activation of the TrkB pathway in RGC-5 cell lines. RGC-5 cell lines were pre-treated with imipramine 30 minutes before exposure to H2O2. Western blot assay showed that in H2O2 -damaged RGC-5 cells, imipramine activated TrkB pathways through extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase/TrkB phosphorylation. TUNEL staining assay also demonstrated that imipramine ameliorated H2O2 -induced apoptosis in RGC-5 cells. Finally, TrkB-IgG intervention was able to reverse the protective effect of imipramine on H2O2 -induced RGC-5 apoptosis. Imipramine therefore protects RGCs from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through the TrkB signaling pathway. PMID:27127489

  11. A chemical proteomics approach to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Christian; Bertschy-Meier, Dominique; Chabert, Christian; Curchod, Marie-Laure; Arod, Christian; Booth, Randy; Mechtler, Karl; Vilbois, Francis; Xenarios, Ioannis; Ferguson, Colin G; Prestwich, Glenn D; Camps, Montserrat; Rommel, Christian

    2007-11-01

    Prior work using lipid-based affinity matrices has been done to investigate distinct sets of lipid-binding proteins, and one series of experiments has proven successful in mammalian cells for the proteome-wide identification of lipid-binding proteins. However, most lipid-based proteomics screens require scaled up sample preparation, are often composed of multiple cell types, and are not adapted for simultaneous signal transduction studies. Herein we provide a chemical proteomics strategy that uses cleavable lipid "baits" with broad applicability to diverse biological samples. The novel baits were designed to avoid preparative steps to allow functional proteomics studies when the biological source is a limiting factor. Validation of the chemical baits was first confirmed by the selective isolation of several known endogenous phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling proteins using primary bone marrow-derived macrophages. The use of this technique for cellular proteomics and MS/MS analysis was then demonstrated by the identification of known and potential novel lipid-binding proteins that was confirmed in vitro for several proteins by direct lipid-protein interactions. Further to the identification, the method is also compatible with subsequent signal transduction studies, notably for protein kinase profiling of the isolated lipid-bound protein complexes. Taken together, this integration of minimal scale proteomics, lipid chemistry, and activity-based readouts provides a significant advancement in the ability to identify and study the lipid proteome of single, relevant cell types.

  12. Measurement of the formation of complexes in tyrosine kinase-mediated signal transduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ladbury, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) provides a full thermodynamic characterization of an interaction in one experiment. The determination of the affinity is an important value; however, the additional layer of information provided by the change in enthalpy and entropy can help in understanding the biology. This is demonstrated with respect to tyrosine kinase-mediated signal transduction. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) provides highly complementary data to high-resolution structural detail. An overview of the methodology of the technique is provided. Ultimately, the correlation of the thermodynamic parameters determined by ITC with structural perturbation observed on going from the free to the bound state should be possible at an atomic level. Currently, thermodynamic data provide some insight as to potential changes occurring on complex formation. Here, this is demonstrated in the context of in vitro quantification of intracellular tyrosine kinase-mediated signal transduction and the issue of specificity of the important interactions. The apparent lack of specificity in the interactions of domains of proteins involved in early signalling from membrane-bound receptors is demonstrated using data from ITC.

  13. Isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in breast cancer via Akt and mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shan; Huang, Liming; Meng, Liwei; Sun, He; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yingchun

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of female cancer-associated mortality. Although treatment options, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have led to a decline in the mortality rates associated with breast cancer, drug resistance remains one of the predominant causes for poor prognosis and high recurrence rates. The present study investigated the potential effects of the natural product, isorhamnetin on breast cancer, and examined the effects of isorhamnetin on the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK kinase (MEK) signaling cascades, which are two important signaling pathways for endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer. The results of the present study indicate that isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis. In addition, isorhamnetin was observed to inhibit the Akt/mTOR and the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation cascades. The inhibition of these two signaling pathways was attenuated by the two Akt and MEK1 inhibitors, but not by the nuclear factor-κB inhibitor. Furthermore, epidermal growth factor inhibited the effects of isorhamnetin via activation of the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. These results indicate that isorhamnetin exhibits antitumor effects in breast cancer, which are mediated by the Akt and MEK signaling pathways.

  14. Isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in breast cancer via Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    HU, SHAN; HUANG, LIMING; MENG, LIWEI; SUN, HE; ZHANG, WEI; XU, YINGCHUN

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of female cancer-associated mortality. Although treatment options, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have led to a decline in the mortality rates associated with breast cancer, drug resistance remains one of the predominant causes for poor prognosis and high recurrence rates. The present study investigated the potential effects of the natural product, isorhamnetin on breast cancer, and examined the effects of isorhamnetin on the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK kinase (MEK) signaling cascades, which are two important signaling pathways for endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer. The results of the present study indicate that isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis. In addition, isorhamnetin was observed to inhibit the Akt/mTOR and the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation cascades. The inhibition of these two signaling pathways was attenuated by the two Akt and MEK1 inhibitors, but not by the nuclear factor-κB inhibitor. Furthermore, epidermal growth factor inhibited the effects of isorhamnetin via activation of the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. These results indicate that isorhamnetin exhibits antitumor effects in breast cancer, which are mediated by the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. PMID:26502751

  15. Caveolin-1 regulates shear stress-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, H.; Go, Y. M.; Darji, R.; Choi, J. W.; Lisanti, M. P.; Maland, M. C.; Jo, H.

    2000-01-01

    Fluid shear stress activates a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), by mechanisms dependent on cholesterol in the plasma membrane in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Caveolae are microdomains of the plasma membrane that are enriched with cholesterol, caveolin, and signaling molecules. We hypothesized that caveolin-1 regulates shear activation of ERK. Because caveolin-1 is not exposed to the outside, cells were minimally permeabilized by Triton X-100 (0.01%) to deliver a neutralizing, polyclonal caveolin-1 antibody (pCav-1) inside the cells. pCav-1 then bound to caveolin-1 and inhibited shear activation of ERK but not c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Epitope mapping studies showed that pCav-1 binds to caveolin-1 at two regions (residues 1-21 and 61-101). When the recombinant proteins containing the epitopes fused to glutathione-S-transferase (GST-Cav(1-21) or GST-Cav(61-101)) were preincubated with pCav-1, only GST-Cav(61-101) reversed the inhibitory effect of the antibody on shear activation of ERK. Other antibodies, including m2234, which binds to caveolin-1 residues 1-21, had no effect on shear activation of ERK. Caveolin-1 residues 61-101 contain the scaffolding and oligomerization domains, suggesting that binding of pCav-1 to these regions likely disrupts the clustering of caveolin-1 or its interaction with signaling molecules involved in the shear-sensitive ERK pathway. We suggest that caveolae-like domains play a critical role in the mechanosensing and/or mechanosignal transduction of the ERK pathway.

  16. Caveolin-1 regulates shear stress-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, H.; Go, Y. M.; Darji, R.; Choi, J. W.; Lisanti, M. P.; Maland, M. C.; Jo, H.

    2000-01-01

    Fluid shear stress activates a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), by mechanisms dependent on cholesterol in the plasma membrane in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Caveolae are microdomains of the plasma membrane that are enriched with cholesterol, caveolin, and signaling molecules. We hypothesized that caveolin-1 regulates shear activation of ERK. Because caveolin-1 is not exposed to the outside, cells were minimally permeabilized by Triton X-100 (0.01%) to deliver a neutralizing, polyclonal caveolin-1 antibody (pCav-1) inside the cells. pCav-1 then bound to caveolin-1 and inhibited shear activation of ERK but not c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Epitope mapping studies showed that pCav-1 binds to caveolin-1 at two regions (residues 1-21 and 61-101). When the recombinant proteins containing the epitopes fused to glutathione-S-transferase (GST-Cav(1-21) or GST-Cav(61-101)) were preincubated with pCav-1, only GST-Cav(61-101) reversed the inhibitory effect of the antibody on shear activation of ERK. Other antibodies, including m2234, which binds to caveolin-1 residues 1-21, had no effect on shear activation of ERK. Caveolin-1 residues 61-101 contain the scaffolding and oligomerization domains, suggesting that binding of pCav-1 to these regions likely disrupts the clustering of caveolin-1 or its interaction with signaling molecules involved in the shear-sensitive ERK pathway. We suggest that caveolae-like domains play a critical role in the mechanosensing and/or mechanosignal transduction of the ERK pathway.

  17. Drug-induced alterations in the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway: implications for reinforcement and reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haifeng; Li, Yanqin; Wang, Xi; Lu, Lin

    2008-02-01

    Drug addiction, characterized by high rates of relapse, is recognized as a kind of neuroadaptive disorder. Since the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is critical to neuroplasticity in the adult brain, understanding the role this pathway plays is important for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying drug addiction and relapse. Here, we review previous literatures that focus on the effects of exposure to cocaine, amphetamine, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), nicotine, morphine, and alcohol on ERK signaling in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system; these alterations of ERK signaling have been thought to contribute to the drug's rewarding effects and to the long-term maladaptation induced by drug abuse. We then discuss the possible upstreams of the ERK signaling pathway activated by exposure of drugs of abuse and the environmental cues previously paired with drugs. Finally, we argue that since ERK activation is a key molecular process in reinstatement of conditioned place preference and drug self-administration, the pharmacological manipulation of the ERK pathway is a potential treatment strategy for drug addiction.

  18. Heparanase Enhances the Insulin Receptor Signaling Pathway to Activate Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase in Multiple Myeloma*

    PubMed Central

    Purushothaman, Anurag; Babitz, Stephen K.; Sanderson, Ralph D.

    2012-01-01

    ERK signaling regulates proliferation, survival, drug resistance, and angiogenesis in cancer. Although the mechanisms regulating ERK activation are not fully understood, we previously demonstrated that ERK phosphorylation is elevated by heparanase, an enzyme associated with aggressive behavior of many cancers. In the present study, myeloma cell lines expressing either high or low levels of heparanase were utilized to determine how heparanase stimulates ERK signaling. We discovered that the insulin receptor was abundant on cells expressing either high or low levels of heparanase, but the receptor was highly phosphorylated in heparanase-high cells compared with heparanase-low cells. In addition, protein kinase C activity was elevated in heparanase-high cells, and this enhanced expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), the principle intracellular substrate for phosphorylation by the insulin receptor. Blocking insulin receptor function with antibody or a small molecule inhibitor or knockdown of IRS-1 expression using shRNA diminished heparanase-mediated ERK activation in the tumor cells. In addition, up-regulation of the insulin signaling pathway by heparanase and the resulting ERK activation were dependent on heparanase retaining its enzyme activity. These results reveal a novel mechanism whereby heparanase enhances activation of the insulin receptor signaling pathway leading to ERK activation and modulation of myeloma behavior. PMID:23048032

  19. The noble gas argon modifies extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling in neurons and glial cells.

    PubMed

    Fahlenkamp, Astrid V; Rossaint, Rolf; Haase, Hajo; Al Kassam, Hussam; Ryang, Yu-Mi; Beyer, Cordian; Coburn, Mark

    2012-01-15

    Recently, the noble gas argon has been identified as a potent neuroprotective agent, but little is known about its cellular effects. In this in vitro study, we investigated argon's influence on the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, a ubiquitous enzyme with numerous functions in cell proliferation and survival. Primary neuronal and astroglial cell cultures and the microglial cell line BV-2 were exposed to 50 vol.% argon. Further possible effects were studied following stimulation of microglia with 50 ng/ml LPS. ERK 1/2 activation was assessed by phosphorylation state-specific western blotting, cytokine levels by real-time PCR and western blotting. Total phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity was examined with p-nitrophenylphosphate. After 30 min exposure, argon significantly activated ERK 1/2 signaling in microglia. Enhanced phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 was also found in astrocytes and neurons following argon exposure, but it lacked statistical significance. In microglia, argon did not substantially interfere with LPS-induced ERK1/2 activation and inflammatory cytokine induction. Addition of the MEK-Inhibitor U0126 abolished the induced ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. Cellular phosphatase activity and the inactivation of phosphorylated ERK 1/2 were not altered by argon. In conclusion, argon enhanced ERK 1/2 activity in microglia via the upstream kinase MEK, probably through a direct mode of activation. ERK 1/2 signaling in astrocytes and neurons in vitro was also influenced, although not with statistical significance. Whether ERK 1/2 activation by argon affects cellular functions like differentiation and survival in the brain in vivo will have to be determined in future experiments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Amyloid-β induced signaling by cellular prion protein and Fyn kinase in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Um, Ji Won; Strittmatter, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia. Amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers are potent synaptotoxins thought to mediate AD-related phenotypes. Cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) has been identified as a high-affinity receptor for Aβ oligomers. Herein, we review the functional consequences of Aβ oligomer binding to PrP(C) on the neuronal surface. We highlight recent evidence that Fyn kinase mediates signal transduction downstream of the PrP(C)-Aβ oligomer complex. These studies suggest that PrP(C) has a central role in AD pathogenesis and may provide a target for therapeutic intervention in AD.

  1. The receptor kinase CERK1 has dual functions in symbiosis and immunity signalling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Dong, Wentao; Sun, Jongho; Feng, Feng; Deng, Yiwen; He, Zuhua; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Wang, Ertao

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of symbiotic interactions between mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobial bacteria and their legume hosts involves a common symbiosis signalling pathway. This signalling pathway is activated by Nod factors produced by rhizobia and these are recognised by the Nod factor receptors NFR1/LYK3 and NFR5/NFP. Mycorrhizal fungi produce lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs) similar to Nod factors, as well as short-chain chitin oligomers (CO4/5), implying commonalities in signalling during mycorrhizal and rhizobial associations. Here we show that NFR1/LYK3, but not NFR5/NFP, is required for the establishment of the mycorrhizal interaction in legumes. NFR1/LYK3 is necessary for the recognition of mycorrhizal fungi and the activation of the symbiosis signalling pathway leading to induction of calcium oscillations and gene expression. Chitin oligosaccharides also act as microbe associated molecular patterns that promote plant immunity via similar LysM receptor-like kinases. CERK1 in rice has the highest homology to NFR1 and we show that this gene is also necessary for the establishment of the mycorrhizal interaction as well as for resistance to the rice blast fungus. Our results demonstrate that NFR1/LYK3/OsCERK1 represents a common receptor for chitooligosaccharide-based signals produced by mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobial bacteria (in legumes) and fungal pathogens. It would appear that mycorrhizal recognition has been conserved in multiple receptors across plant species, but additional diversification in certain plant species has defined other signals that this class of receptors can perceive.

  2. Inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 enhances endochondral bone formation by increasing chondrocyte survival.

    PubMed

    Eaton, G J; Zhang, Q-S; Diallo, C; Matsuzawa, A; Ichijo, H; Steinbeck, M J; Freeman, T A

    2014-11-13

    Endochondral ossification is the result of chondrocyte differentiation, hypertrophy, death and replacement by bone. The careful timing and progression of this process is important for normal skeletal bone growth and development, as well as fracture repair. Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is activated by reactive oxygen species and other cellular stress events. Activation of ASK1 initiates a signaling cascade known to regulate diverse cellular events including cytokine and growth factor signaling, cell cycle regulation, cellular differentiation, hypertrophy, survival and apoptosis. ASK1 is highly expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes, but the role of ASK1 in skeletal tissues has not been investigated. Herein, we report that ASK1 knockout (KO) mice display alterations in normal growth plate morphology, which include a shorter proliferative zone and a lengthened hypertrophic zone. These changes in growth plate dynamics result in accelerated long bone mineralization and an increased formation of trabecular bone, which can be attributed to an increased resistance of terminally differentiated chondrocytes to undergo cell death. Interestingly, under normal cell culture conditions, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from ASK1 KO mice show no differences in either MAPK signaling or osteogenic or chondrogenic differentiation when compared with wild-type (WT) MEFs. However, when cultured with stress activators, H2O2 or staurosporine, the KO cells show enhanced survival, an associated decrease in the activation of proteins involved in death signaling pathways and a reduction in markers of terminal differentiation. Furthermore, in both WT mice treated with the ASK1 inhibitor, NQDI-1, and ASK1 KO mice endochondral bone formation was increased in an ectopic ossification model. These findings highlight a previously unrealized role for ASK1 in regulating endochondral bone formation. Inhibition of ASK1 has

  3. Inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 enhances endochondral bone formation by increasing chondrocyte survival

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, G J; Zhang, Q-S; Diallo, C; Matsuzawa, A; Ichijo, H; Steinbeck, M J; Freeman, T A

    2014-01-01

    Endochondral ossification is the result of chondrocyte differentiation, hypertrophy, death and replacement by bone. The careful timing and progression of this process is important for normal skeletal bone growth and development, as well as fracture repair. Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is activated by reactive oxygen species and other cellular stress events. Activation of ASK1 initiates a signaling cascade known to regulate diverse cellular events including cytokine and growth factor signaling, cell cycle regulation, cellular differentiation, hypertrophy, survival and apoptosis. ASK1 is highly expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes, but the role of ASK1 in skeletal tissues has not been investigated. Herein, we report that ASK1 knockout (KO) mice display alterations in normal growth plate morphology, which include a shorter proliferative zone and a lengthened hypertrophic zone. These changes in growth plate dynamics result in accelerated long bone mineralization and an increased formation of trabecular bone, which can be attributed to an increased resistance of terminally differentiated chondrocytes to undergo cell death. Interestingly, under normal cell culture conditions, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from ASK1 KO mice show no differences in either MAPK signaling or osteogenic or chondrogenic differentiation when compared with wild-type (WT) MEFs. However, when cultured with stress activators, H2O2 or staurosporine, the KO cells show enhanced survival, an associated decrease in the activation of proteins involved in death signaling pathways and a reduction in markers of terminal differentiation. Furthermore, in both WT mice treated with the ASK1 inhibitor, NQDI-1, and ASK1 KO mice endochondral bone formation was increased in an ectopic ossification model. These findings highlight a previously unrealized role for ASK1 in regulating endochondral bone formation. Inhibition of ASK1 has

  4. Inhibition of Janus kinase signaling during controlled mechanical ventilation prevents ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ira J; Godinez, Guillermo L; Singh, Baljit K; McCaughey, Kelly M; Alcantara, Raniel R; Gururaja, Tarikere; Ho, Melissa S; Nguyen, Henry N; Friera, Annabelle M; White, Kathy A; McLaughlin, John R; Hansen, Derek; Romero, Jason M; Baltgalvis, Kristen A; Claypool, Mark D; Li, Wei; Lang, Wayne; Yam, George C; Gelman, Marina S; Ding, Rongxian; Yung, Stephanie L; Creger, Daniel P; Chen, Yan; Singh, Rajinder; Smuder, Ashley J; Wiggs, Michael P; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Sollanek, Kurt J; Powers, Scott K; Masuda, Esteban S; Taylor, Vanessa C; Payan, Donald G; Kinoshita, Taisei; Kinsella, Todd M

    2014-07-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is associated with the development of diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction, and respiratory muscle weakness is thought to contribute significantly to delayed weaning of patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies for preventing these processes may have clinical benefit. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in CMV-mediated diaphragm wasting and weakness in rats. CMV-induced diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction coincided with marked increases in STAT3 phosphorylation on both tyrosine 705 (Tyr705) and serine 727 (Ser727). STAT3 activation was accompanied by its translocation into mitochondria within diaphragm muscle and mitochondrial dysfunction. Inhibition of JAK signaling during CMV prevented phosphorylation of both target sites on STAT3, eliminated the accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3 within the mitochondria, and reversed the pathologic alterations in mitochondrial function, reduced oxidative stress in the diaphragm, and maintained normal diaphragm contractility. In addition, JAK inhibition during CMV blunted the activation of key proteolytic pathways in the diaphragm, as well as diaphragm atrophy. These findings implicate JAK/STAT3 signaling in the development of diaphragm muscle atrophy and dysfunction during CMV and suggest that the delayed extubation times associated with CMV can be prevented by inhibition of Janus kinase signaling.-Smith, I. J., Godinez, G. L., Singh, B. K., McCaughey, K. M., Alcantara, R. R., Gururaja, T., Ho, M. S., Nguyen, H. N., Friera, A. M., White, K. A., McLaughlin, J. R., Hansen, D., Romero, J. M., Baltgalvis, K. A., Claypool, M. D., Li, W., Lang, W., Yam, G. C., Gelman, M. S., Ding, R., Yung, S. L., Creger, D. P., Chen, Y., Singh, R., Smuder, A. J., Wiggs, M. P., Kwon, O.-S., Sollanek, K. J., Powers, S. K., Masuda, E. S., Taylor, V. C., Payan, D. G

  5. Inhibition of Janus kinase signaling during controlled mechanical ventilation prevents ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ira J.; Godinez, Guillermo L.; Singh, Baljit K.; McCaughey, Kelly M.; Alcantara, Raniel R.; Gururaja, Tarikere; Ho, Melissa S.; Nguyen, Henry N.; Friera, Annabelle M.; White, Kathy A.; McLaughlin, John R.; Hansen, Derek; Romero, Jason M.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Claypool, Mark D.; Li, Wei; Lang, Wayne; Yam, George C.; Gelman, Marina S.; Ding, Rongxian; Yung, Stephanie L.; Creger, Daniel P.; Chen, Yan; Singh, Rajinder; Smuder, Ashley J.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Sollanek, Kurt J.; Powers, Scott K.; Masuda, Esteban S.; Taylor, Vanessa C.; Payan, Donald G.; Kinoshita, Taisei; Kinsella, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is associated with the development of diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction, and respiratory muscle weakness is thought to contribute significantly to delayed weaning of patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies for preventing these processes may have clinical benefit. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in CMV-mediated diaphragm wasting and weakness in rats. CMV-induced diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction coincided with marked increases in STAT3 phosphorylation on both tyrosine 705 (Tyr705) and serine 727 (Ser727). STAT3 activation was accompanied by its translocation into mitochondria within diaphragm muscle and mitochondrial dysfunction. Inhibition of JAK signaling during CMV prevented phosphorylation of both target sites on STAT3, eliminated the accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3 within the mitochondria, and reversed the pathologic alterations in mitochondrial function, reduced oxidative stress in the diaphragm, and maintained normal diaphragm contractility. In addition, JAK inhibition during CMV blunted the activation of key proteolytic pathways in the diaphragm, as well as diaphragm atrophy. These findings implicate JAK/STAT3 signaling in the development of diaphragm muscle atrophy and dysfunction during CMV and suggest that the delayed extubation times associated with CMV can be prevented by inhibition of Janus kinase signaling.—Smith, I. J., Godinez, G. L., Singh, B. K., McCaughey, K. M., Alcantara, R. R., Gururaja, T., Ho, M. S., Nguyen, H. N., Friera, A. M., White, K. A., McLaughlin, J. R., Hansen, D., Romero, J. M., Baltgalvis, K. A., Claypool, M. D., Li, W., Lang, W., Yam, G. C., Gelman, M. S., Ding, R., Yung, S. L., Creger, D. P., Chen, Y., Singh, R., Smuder, A. J., Wiggs, M. P., Kwon, O.-S., Sollanek, K. J., Powers, S. K., Masuda, E. S., Taylor, V. C., Payan, D. G

  6. Inactivation of Smad-Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling by Ca2+-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II

    PubMed Central

    Wicks, Stephen J.; Lui, Stephen; Abdel-Wahab, Nadia; Mason, Roger M.; Chantry, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Members of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family transduce signals through Smad proteins. Smad signaling can be regulated by the Ras/Erk/mitogen-activated protein pathway in response to receptor tyrosine kinase activation and the gamma interferon pathway and also by the functional interaction of Smad2 with Ca2+-calmodulin. Here we report that Smad–TGF-β-dependent transcriptional responses are prevented by expression of a constitutively activated Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (Cam kinase II). Smad2 is a target substrate for Cam kinase II in vitro at serine-110, -240, and -260. Cam kinase II induces in vivo phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad4 and, to a lesser extent, Smad3. A phosphopeptide antiserum raised against Smad2 phosphoserine-240 reacted with Smad2 in vivo when coexpressed with Cam kinase II and by activation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor, the epidermal growth factor receptor, HER2 (c-erbB2), and the TGF-β receptor. Furthermore, Cam kinase II blocked nuclear accumulation of a Smad2 and induced Smad2-Smad4 hetero-oligomerization independently of TGF-β receptor activation, while preventing TGF-β-dependent Smad2-Smad3 interactions. These findings provide a novel cross-talk mechanism by which Ca2+-dependent kinases activated downstream of multiple growth factor receptors antagonize cell responses to TGF-β. PMID:11027280

  7. Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection modulates expression of megakaryocyte cell cycle genes through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Supreet; Sultana, Hameeda; Catravas, John D; Carlyon, Jason A; Neelakanta, Girish

    2017-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis infects neutrophils and other cells from hematopoietic origin. Using human megakaryocytic cell line, MEG-01, we show that expression of cell cycle genes in these cells are altered upon A. phagocytophilum infection. Expression of several cell cycle genes in MEG-01 cells was significantly up regulated at early and then down regulated at later stages of A. phagocytophilum infection. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays revealed reduced cellular cytotoxicity in MEG-01 cells upon A. phagocytophilum infection. The levels of both PI3KCA (p110 alpha, catalytic subunit) and PI3KR1 (p85, regulatory subunit) of Class I PI3 kinases and phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) and inhibitory kappa B (IκB) were elevated at both early and late stages of A. phagocytophilum infection. Inhibition of PI3 kinases with LY294002 treatment resulted in significant reduction in the expression of tested cell cycle genes, A. phagocytophilum burden and phosphorylated Akt levels in these MEG-01 cells. Collectively, these results suggest a role for PI3K-Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway in the modulation of megakaryocyte cell cycle genes upon A. phagocytophilum infection.

  8. SH2B1beta adaptor is a key enhancer of RET tyrosine kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Donatello, S; Fiorino, A; Degl'Innocenti, D; Alberti, L; Miranda, C; Gorla, L; Bongarzone, I; Rizzetti, M G; Pierotti, M A; Borrello, M G

    2007-10-04

    The RET gene encodes two main isoforms of a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) implicated in various human diseases. Activating germ-line point mutations are responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2-associated medullary thyroid carcinomas, inactivating germ-line mutations for Hirschsprung's disease, while somatic rearrangements (RET/PTCs) are specific to papillary thyroid carcinomas. SH2B1beta, a member of the SH2B adaptors family, and binding partner for several RTKs, has been recently described to interact with proto-RET. Here, we show that both RET isoforms and its oncogenic derivatives bind to SH2B1beta through the SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain and a kinase activity-dependent mechanism. As a result, RET phosphorylates SH2B1beta, which in turn enhances its autophosphorylation, kinase activity, and downstream signaling. RET tyrosine residues 905 and 981 are important determinants for functional binding of the adaptor, as removal of both autophosphorylation sites displaces its recruitment. Binding of SH2B1beta appears to protect RET from dephosphorylation by protein tyrosine phosphatases, and might represent a likely mechanism contributing to its upregulation. Thus, overexpression of SH2B1beta, by enhancing phosphorylation/activation of RET transducers, potentiates the cellular differentiation and the neoplastic transformation thereby induced, and counteracts the action of RET inhibitors. Overall, our results identify SH2B1beta as a key enhancer of RET physiologic and pathologic activities.

  9. Expression of HopAI interferes with MAP kinase signalling in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Liu, Wende; Li, Yang; Li, Guotian; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2017-08-11

    The Pmk1 and Mps1 MAP kinases are essential for appressorium formation and plant infection in Magnaporthe oryzae. However, their exact roles during invasive growth are not clear because pmk1 and mps1 mutants are defective in penetration. To further characterize their functions after penetration, in this study we expressed the Pseudomonas syringae effector HopAI known to inactivate plant MAP kinases in M. oryzae. Constitutive expression of HopAI with the RP27 or TrpC promoter resulted in defects in hyphal growth, conidiation, appressorium penetration and pathogenicity, which is similar to the phenotype of the mps1 mutant. HopAI interacted strongly with Mps1 in vivo and expression of dominant active MKK2 partially suppressed the defects of PRP27 -HopAI transformants, which were significantly reduced in Mps1 phosphorylation. When the infection-specific MIR1 (Magnaporthe-infection-related gene-1) promoter was used to express HopAI, PMIR1 -HopAI transformants were defective in the spreading of invasive hyphae and elicited strong defense responses in penetrated plant cells. Expression of HopAI in Fusarium graminearum also mainly affected the activation of Mgv1, an Mps1 orthologue. Taken together, our results showed that Mps1 is the major intracellular target of HopAI when it is overexpressed, and MAP kinase signalling is important for cell-to-cell movement of invasive hyphae in M. oryzae. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Phosphorylation of the TAL1 oncoprotein by the extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase ERK1.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, J T; Cobb, M H; Baer, R

    1993-01-01

    Alteration of the TAL1 gene is the most common genetic lesion found in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. TAL1 encodes phosphoproteins, pp42TAL1 and pp22TAL1, that represent phosphorylated versions of the full-length (residues 1 to 331) and truncated (residues 176 to 331) TAL1 gene products, respectively. Both proteins contain the basic helix-loop-helix motif, a DNA-binding and protein dimerization motif common to several known transcriptional regulatory factors. We now report that serine residue 122 (S122) is a major phosphorylation site of pp42TAL1 in leukemic cell lines and transfected COS1 cells. In vivo phosphorylation of S122 is induced by epidermal growth factor with a rapid time course that parallels activation of the ERK/MAP2 protein kinases. Moreover, S122 is readily phosphorylated in vitro by the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase ERK1. These data suggest that TAL1 residue S122 serves as an in vivo substrate for ERK/MAP2 kinases such as ERK1. Therefore, S122 phosphorylation may provide a mechanism whereby the properties of TAL1 polypeptides can be modulated by extracellular stimuli. Images PMID:8423803

  11. Positioning atypical protein kinase C isoforms in the UV-induced apoptotic signaling cascade.

    PubMed Central

    Berra, E; Municio, M M; Sanz, L; Frutos, S; Diaz-Meco, M T; Moscat, J

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have documented the involvement of the atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms in important cellular functions such as cell proliferation and survival. Exposure of cells to a genotoxic stimulus that induces apoptosis, such as UV irradiation, leads to a profound inhibition of the atypical PKC activity in vivo. In this study, we addressed the relationship between this phenomenon and different proteins involved in the apoptotic response. We show that (i) the inhibition of the aPKC activity precedes UV-induced apoptosis; (ii) UV-induced aPKC inhibition and apoptosis are independent of p53; (iii) Bcl-2 proteins are potent modulators of aPKC activity; and (iv) the aPKCs are located upstream of the interleukin-converting enzyme-like protease system, which is required for the induction of apoptosis by both Par-4 (a selective aPKC inhibitor) and UV irradiation. We also demonstrate here that inhibition of aPKC activity leads to a decrease in mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity and simultaneously an increase in p38 activity. Both effects are critical for the induction of apoptosis in response to Par-4 expression and UV irradiation. Collectively, these results clarify the position of the aPKCs in the UV-induced apoptotic pathway and strongly suggest that MAP kinases play a role in this signaling cascade. PMID:9234692

  12. Roles of tyrosine kinase-, 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-, and mitogen-activated protein kinase-signaling pathways in ethanol-induced contractions of rat aortic smooth muscle: possible relation to alcohol-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-wei; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Tao; Altura, Bella T; Altura, Burton M

    2002-08-01

    Insights into the relations between and among ethanol-induced contractions in rat aorta, tyrosine kinases (including src family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases), 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI-3Ks), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and regulation of intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) were investigated in the present study. Ethanol-induced concentration-dependent contractions in isolated rat aortic rings were attenuated greatly by pretreatment of the arteries with low concentrations of an antagonist of protein tyrosine kinases (genistein), an src homology domain 2 (SH2) inhibitor peptide, a highly specific antagonist of p38 MAPK (SB-203580), a potent, selective antagonist of two specific MAPK kinases-MEK1/MEK2 (U0126)-and a selective antagonist of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) (PD-98059), as well as by treatment with wortmannin or LY-294002 (both are selective antagonists of PI-3Ks). Inhibitory concentration 50 (IC(50)) levels obtained for these seven antagonists were consistent with reported inhibition constant (Ki) values for these tyrosine kinase, MAPK, and MAPKK antagonists. Ethanol-induced transient and sustained increases in [Ca(2+)](i) in primary single smooth muscle cells from rat aorta were markedly attenuated in the presence of genistein, an SH2 domain inhibitor peptide, SB-203580, U0126, PD-98059, wortmannin, and LY-294002. A variety of specific antagonists of known endogenously formed vasoconstrictors did not inhibit or attenuate either the ethanol-induced contractions or the elevations of [Ca(2+)](i). Results of the present study support the suggestion that activation of tyrosine kinases (including the src family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases), PI-3Ks, and MAPK seems to play an important role in ethanol-induced contractions and the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) in smooth muscle cells from rat aorta. These signaling pathways thus may be important in hypertension in human beings associated with chronic alcohol

  13. Systematically Studying Kinase Inhibitor Induced Signaling Network Signatures by Integrating Both Therapeutic and Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Hongwei; Peng, Tao; Ji, Zhiwei; Su, Jing; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    Substantial effort in recent years has been devoted to analyzing data based large-scale biological networks, which provide valuable insight into the topologies of complex biological networks but are rarely context specific and cannot be used to predict the responses of cell signaling proteins to specific ligands or compounds. In this work, we proposed a novel strategy to investigate kinase inhibitor induced pathway signatures by integrating multiplex data in Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS), e.g. KINOMEscan data and cell proliferation/mitosis imaging data. Using this strategy, we first established a PC9 cell line specific pathway model to investigate the pathway signatures in PC9 cell line when perturbed by a small molecule kinase inhibitor GW843682. This specific pathway revealed the role of PI3K/AKT in modulating the cell proliferation process and the absence of two anti-proliferation links, which indicated a potential mechanism of abnormal expansion in PC9 cell number. Incorporating the pathway model for side effects on primary human hepatocytes, it was used to screen 27 kinase inhibitors in LINCS database and PF02341066, known as Crizotinib, was finally suggested with an optimal concentration 4.6 uM to suppress PC9 cancer cell expansion while avoiding severe damage to primary human hepatocytes. Drug combination analysis revealed that the synergistic effect region can be predicted straightforwardly based on a threshold which is an inherent property of each kinase inhibitor. Furthermore, this integration strategy can be easily extended to other specific cell lines to be a powerful tool for drug screen before clinical trials. PMID:24339888

  14. dsRNA-Dependent Protein Kinase PKR and its Role in Stress, Signaling and HCV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dabo, Stéphanie; Meurs, Eliane F.

    2012-01-01

    The double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR plays multiple roles in cells, in response to different stress situations. As a member of the interferon (IFN)‑Stimulated Genes, PKR was initially recognized as an actor in the antiviral action of IFN, due to its ability to control translation, through phosphorylation, of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). As such, PKR participates in the generation of stress granules, or autophagy and a number of viruses have designed strategies to inhibit its action. However, PKR deficient mice resist most viral infections, indicating that PKR may play other roles in the cell other than just acting as an antiviral agent. Indeed, PKR regulates several signaling pathways, either as an adapter protein and/or using its kinase activity. Here we review the role of PKR as an eIF2α kinase, its participation in the regulation of the NF-κB, p38MAPK and insulin pathways, and we focus on its role during infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). PKR binds the HCV IRES RNA, cooperates with some functions of the HCV core protein and may represent a target for NS5A or E2. Novel data points out for a role of PKR as a pro-HCV agent, both as an adapter protein and as an eIF2α-kinase, and in cooperation with the di-ubiquitin-like protein ISG15. Developing pharmaceutical inhibitors of PKR may help in resolving some viral infections as well as stress-related damages. PMID:23202496

  15. PfIRR Interacts with HrIGF-I and Activates the MAP-kinase and PI3-kinase Signaling Pathways to Regulate Glycogen Metabolism in Pinctada fucata

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yu; He, Mao-xian

    2016-01-01

    The insulin-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways are major intracellular signaling modules and conserved among eukaryotes that are known to regulate diverse cellular processes. However, they have not been investigated in the mollusk species Pinctada fucata. Here, we demonstrate that insulin-related peptide receptor of P. fucata (pfIRR) interacts with human recombinant insulin-like growth factor I (hrIGF-I), and stimulates the MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways in P. fucata oocytes. We also show that inhibition of pfIRR by the inhibitor PQ401 significantly attenuates the basal and hrIGF-I-induced phosphorylation of MAPK and PI3K/Akt at amino acid residues threonine 308 and serine 473. Furthermore, our experiments show that there is cross-talk between the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways, in which MAPK kinase positively regulates the PI3K pathway, and PI3K positively regulates the MAPK cascade. Intramuscular injection of hrIGF-I stimulates the PI3K and MAPK pathways to increase the expression of pfirr, protein phosphatase 1, glucokinase, and the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase, decreases the mRNA expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, decreases glucose levels in hemocytes, and increases glycogen levels in digestive glands. These results suggest that the MAPK and PI3K pathways in P. fucata transmit the hrIGF-I signal to regulate glycogen metabolism. PMID:26911653

  16. Roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3'-kinase in ErbB2/ErbB3 coreceptor-mediated heregulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Vijapurkar, Ulka; Kim, Myong-Soo; Koland, John G

    2003-04-01

    ErbB2/HER2 and ErbB3/HER3, two members of the ErbB/HER family, together constitute a heregulin coreceptor complex that elicits a potent mitogenic and transforming signal. Among known intracellular effectors of the ErbB2/ErbB3 heregulin coreceptor are mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase. Activation of the distinct MAPK and PI 3-kinase signaling pathways by the ErbB2/ErbB3 coreceptor in response to heregulin and their relative contributions to the mitogenic and transformation potentials of the activated coreceptor were investigated here. To this end, cDNAs encoding the wild-type ErbB3 protein (ErbB3-WT) and ErbB3 proteins with amino acid substitutions in either the Shc-binding site (ErbB3-Y1325F), the six putative PI 3-kinase-binding sites (ErbB3-6F), or both (ErbB3-7F) were generated and expressed in NIH-3T3 cells to form functional ErbB2/ErbB3 heregulin coreceptors. While the coreceptor incorporating ErbB3-WT activated both the MAPK and the PI 3-kinase signaling pathways, those incorporating ErbB3-Y1325F or ErbB3-6F activated either PI 3-kinase or MAPK, respectively. The ErbB2/ErbB3-7F coreceptor activated neither. Elimination of either signaling pathway lowered basal and eliminated heregulin-dependent expression of cyclin D1, which was in each case accompanied by an attenuated mitogenic response. Selective elimination of the PI 3-kinase pathway severely impaired the ability of heregulin to transform cells expressing the coreceptor, whereas attenuation of the MAPK pathway had a lesser effect. Thus, while both pathways contributed in a roughly additive manner to the mitogenic response elicited by the activated ErbB2/ErbB3 coreceptor, the PI 3-kinase pathway predominated in the induction of cellular transformation.

  17. Mechanisms of extracellular signal-regulated kinase/cAMP response element-binding protein/brain-derived neurotrophic factor signal transduction pathway in depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyan; Zhang, Yingquan; Qiao, Mingqi

    2013-03-25

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase/cAMP response element-binding protein/brain-derived neurotrophic factor signal transduction pathway plays an important role in the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs and has dominated recent studies on the pathogenesis of depression. In the present review we summarize the known roles of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, cAMP response element-binding protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the pathogenesis of depression and in the mechanism of action of antidepressant medicines. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase/cAMP response element-binding protein/brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway has potential to be used as a biological index to help diagnose depression, and as such it is considered as an important new target in the treatment of depression.

  18. Xanthohumol inhibits the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway and suppresses cell growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sławińska-Brych, Adrianna; Zdzisińska, Barbara; Dmoszyńska-Graniczka, Magdalena; Jeleniewicz, Witold; Kurzepa, Jacek; Gagoś, Mariusz; Stepulak, Andrzej

    2016-05-16

    Aberrant activation of the Ras/MEK/ERK signaling pathway has been frequently observed in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and its important role in cancer progression and malignant transformation has been documented. Hence, the ERK1/2 kinase cascade becomes a potential molecular target in cancer treatment. Xanthohumol (XN, a prenylated chalcone derived from hope cones) is known to possess a broad spectrum of chemopreventive and anticancer activities. In our studies, the MTT and BrdU assays revealed that XN demonstrated greater antiproliferative activity against A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells than against the lung adenocarcinoma H1563 cell line. We observed that XN was able to suppress the activities of ERK1/2 and p90RSK kinases, followed by inhibition of phosphorylation and activation of the CREB protein. Additionally, the XN treatment of the cancer cells caused upregulation of key cell cycle regulators p53 and p21 as well as downregulation of cyclin D1. As a result, the cytotoxic effect of XN was attributed to the cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and induction of apoptosis indicated by increased caspase-3 activity. Thus, XN might be a promising anticancer drug candidate against lung carcinomas.

  19. The c-Jun kinase signaling cascade promotes glial engulfment activity through activation of draper and phagocytic function.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, J M; Doherty, J; Hackett, R; Freeman, M R

    2013-09-01

    After neuronal injury or death glial cells become reactive, exhibiting dramatic changes in morphology and patterns of gene expression and ultimately engulfing neuronal debris. Rapid clearance of degenerating neuronal material is thought to be crucial for suppression of inflammation and promotion of functional recovery. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila c-Jun N-terminal kinase (dJNK) signaling is a critical in vivo mediator of glial engulfment activity. In response to axotomy, we find glial dJNK signals through a cascade involving the upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases Slipper and Tak1, the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase MKK4, and ultimately the Drosophila activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcriptional complex composed of Jra and Kayak to initiate glial phagocytosis of degenerating axons. Interestingly, loss of dJNK also blocked injury-induced upregulation of Draper levels in glia, and glial-specific overexpression of Draper was sufficient to rescue engulfment defects associated with loss of dJNK signaling. This work identifies that the dJNK pathway is a novel mediator of glial engulfment activity and a primary role for the glial Slipper/Tak1 →MKK4 →dJNK →dAP-1 signaling cascade appears to be activation of draper expression after axon injury.

  20. The c-Jun kinase signaling cascade promotes glial engulfment activity through activation of draper and phagocytic function

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, J M; Doherty, J; Hackett, R; Freeman, M R

    2013-01-01

    After neuronal injury or death glial cells become reactive, exhibiting dramatic changes in morphology and patterns of gene expression and ultimately engulfing neuronal debris. Rapid clearance of degenerating neuronal material is thought to be crucial for suppression of inflammation and promotion of functional recovery. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila c-Jun N-terminal kinase (dJNK) signaling is a critical in vivo mediator of glial engulfment activity. In response to axotomy, we find glial dJNK signals through a cascade involving the upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases Slipper and Tak1, the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase MKK4, and ultimately the Drosophila activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcriptional complex composed of Jra and Kayak to initiate glial phagocytosis of degenerating axons. Interestingly, loss of dJNK also blocked injury-induced upregulation of Draper levels in glia, and glial-specific overexpression of Draper was sufficient to rescue engulfment defects associated with loss of dJNK signaling. This work identifies that the dJNK pathway is a novel mediator of glial engulfment activity and a primary role for the glial Slipper/Tak1→MKK4→dJNK→dAP-1 signaling cascade appears to be activation of draper expression after axon injury. PMID:23618811

  1. Interferon-gamma expression by Th1 effector T cells mediated by the p38 MAP kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Rincón, M; Enslen, H; Raingeaud, J; Recht, M; Zapton, T; Su, M S; Penix, L A; Davis, R J; Flavell, R A

    1998-01-01

    Signal transduction via MAP kinase pathways plays a key role in a variety of cellular responses, including growth factor-induced proliferation, differentiation and cell death. In mammalian cells, p38 MAP kinase can be activated by multiple stimuli, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress. Although p38 MAP kinase is implicated in the control of inflammatory responses, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Upon activation, CD4+ T cells differentiate into Th2 cells, which potentiate the humoral immune response or pro-inflammatory Th1 cells. Here, we show that pyridinyl imidazole compounds (specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase) block the production of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) by Th1 cells without affecting IL-4 production by Th2 cells. These drugs also inhibit transcription driven by the IFNgamma promoter. In transgenic mice, inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase pathway by the expression of dominant-negative p38 MAP kinase results in selective impairment of Th1 responses. In contrast, activation of the p38 MAP kinase pathway by the expression of constitutivelyactivated MAP kinase kinase 6 in transgenic mice caused increased production of IFNgamma during the differentiation and activation of Th1 cells. Together, these data demonstrate that the p38 MAP kinase is relevant for Th1 cells, not Th2 cells, and that inhibition of p38 MAP kinase represents a possible site of therapeutic intervention in diseases where a predominant Th1 immune response leads to a pathological outcome. Moreover, our study provides an additional mechanism by which the p38 MAP kinase pathway controls inflammatory responses. PMID:9582275

  2. Rho-kinase regulates energy balance by targeting hypothalamic leptin receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hu; Kong, Dong; Byun, Kyung Hee; Ye, Chianping; Koda, Shuichi; Lee, Dae Ho; Oh, Byung-Chul; Lee, Sam W; Lee, Bonghee; Zabolotny, Janice M; Kim, Min Seon; Bjørbæk, Christian; Lowell, Bradford B; Kim, Young-Bum

    2012-10-01

    Leptin regulates energy balance. However, knowledge of the critical intracellular transducers of leptin signaling remains incomplete. We found that Rho-kinase 1 (ROCK1) regulates leptin action on body weight homeostasis by activating JAK2, an initial trigger of leptin receptor signaling. Leptin promoted the physical interaction of JAK2 and ROCK1, thereby increasing phosphorylation of JAK2 and downstream activation of Stat3 and FOXO1. Mice lacking ROCK1 in either pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) or agouti-related protein neurons, mediators of leptin action, displayed obesity and impaired leptin sensitivity. In addition, deletion of ROCK1 in the arcuate nucleus markedly enhanced food intake, resulting in severe obesity. Notably, ROCK1 was a specific mediator of leptin, but not insulin, regulation of POMC neuronal activity. Our data identify ROCK1 as a key regulator of leptin action on energy homeostasis.

  3. EGFR oligomerization organizes kinase-active dimers into competent signalling platforms.

    PubMed

    Needham, Sarah R; Roberts, Selene K; Arkhipov, Anton; Mysore, Venkatesh P; Tynan, Christopher J; Zanetti-Domingues, Laura C; Kim, Eric T; Losasso, Valeria; Korovesis, Dimitrios; Hirsch, Michael; Rolfe, Daniel J; Clarke, David T; Winn, Martyn D; Lajevardipour, Alireza; Clayton, Andrew H A; Pike, Linda J; Perani, Michela; Parker, Peter J; Shan, Yibing; Shaw, David E; Martin-Fernandez, Marisa L

    2016-10-31

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling is activated by ligand-induced receptor dimerization. Notably, ligand binding also induces EGFR oligomerization, but the structures and functions of the oligomers are poorly understood. Here, we use fluorophore localization imaging with photobleaching to probe the structure of EGFR oligomers. We find that at physiological epidermal growth factor (EGF) concentrations, EGFR assembles into oligomers, as indicated by pairwise distances of receptor-bound fluorophore-conjugated EGF ligands. The pairwise ligand distances correspond well with the predictions of our structural model of the oligomers constructed from molecular dynamics simulations. The model suggests that oligomerization is mediated extracellularly by unoccupied ligand-binding sites and that oligomerization organizes kinase-active dimers in ways optimal for auto-phosphorylation in trans between neighbouring dimers. We argue that ligand-induced oligomerization is essential to the regulation of EGFR signalling.

  4. Rho-kinase Regulates Energy Balance by Targeting Hypothalamic Leptin Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hu; Kong, Dong; Byun, Kyung Hee; Ye, Chianping; Koda, Shuichi; Lee, Dae Ho; Oh, Byung-Chul; Lee, Sam W; Lee, Bonghee; Zabolotny, Janice M; Kim, Min Seon; Bjørbæk, Christian; Lowell, Bradford B; Kim, Young-Bum

    2012-01-01

    Leptin regulates energy balance. However, knowledge of the critical intracellular transducers of leptin signaling remains incomplete. Here we report that Rho-kinase 1 (ROCK1) regulates leptin action on body weight homeostasis by activating JAK2, an initial trigger of leptin receptor signaling. Leptin promotes the physical interaction of JAK2 and ROCK1, thereby increasing phosphorylation of JAK2 and downstream activation of Stat3 and FOXO1. Mice lacking ROCK1 in either POMC or AgRP neurons, mediators of leptin action, display obesity and impaired leptin sensitivity. In addition, deletion of ROCK1 in the arcuate nucleus markedly enhances food intake, resulting in severe obesity. Of note, ROCK1 is a specific mediator of leptin, but not insulin, regulation of POMC neuronal activity. Our data identify ROCK1 as a key regulator of leptin action on energy homeostasis. PMID:22941110

  5. Constitutively active Lck kinase in T cells drives antigen receptor signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Nika, Konstantina; Soldani, Cristiana; Salek, Mogjiborahman; Paster, Wolfgang; Gray, Adrian; Etzensperger, Ruth; Fugger, Lars; Polzella, Paolo; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Dushek, Omer; Höfer, Thomas; Viola, Antonella; Acuto, Oreste

    2010-06-25

    T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and coreceptor ligation is thought to initiate signal transduction by inducing activation of the kinase Lck. Here we showed that catalytically active Lck was present in unstimulated naive T cells and thymocytes and was readily detectable in these cells in lymphoid organs. In naive T cells up to approximately 40% of total Lck was constitutively activated, part of which was also phosphorylated on the C-terminal inhibitory site. Formation of activated Lck was independent of TCR and coreceptors but required Lck catalytic activity and its maintenance relied on monitoring by the HSP90-CDC37 chaperone complex to avoid degradation. The amount of activated Lck did not change after TCR and coreceptor engagement; however it determined the extent of TCR-zeta phosphorylation. Our findings suggest a dynamic regulation of Lck activity that can be promptly utilized to initiate T cell activation and have implications for signaling by other immune receptors.

  6. Role of integrin signalling through integrin-linked kinase in skin physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Eckes, Beate; Krieg, Thomas; Wickström, Sara A

    2014-07-01

    Cell-matrix adhesions provide structural stability to the tissue and regulate intracellular signalling pathways that are important for cell fate decisions of the different cell populations within the skin. As a consequence of these central functions, genetic or functional impairment of various key protein components of matrix adhesions plays a causative role in the aetiology or pathophysiology in a large variety of skin disorders. Research towards understanding the molecular composition of these adhesions as well as the mechanisms by which they transmit signals is therefore of obvious importance. In this essay, we discuss the roles of integrin-linked kinase, a key component of cell-matrix adhesions, in the (patho)physiology of skin and in particular highlight its role in regulating mechanical tension and matrix remodelling both in the epidermis and in the dermis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. EGFR oligomerization organizes kinase-active dimers into competent signalling platforms

    PubMed Central

    Needham, Sarah R.; Roberts, Selene K.; Arkhipov, Anton; Mysore, Venkatesh P.; Tynan, Christopher J.; Zanetti-Domingues, Laura C.; Kim, Eric T.; Losasso, Valeria; Korovesis, Dimitrios; Hirsch, Michael; Rolfe, Daniel J.; Clarke, David T.; Winn, Martyn D.; Lajevardipour, Alireza; Clayton, Andrew H. A.; Pike, Linda J.; Perani, Michela; Parker, Peter J.; Shan, Yibing; Shaw, David E.; Martin-Fernandez, Marisa L.

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling is activated by ligand-induced receptor dimerization. Notably, ligand binding also induces EGFR oligomerization, but the structures and functions of the oligomers are poorly understood. Here, we use fluorophore localization imaging with photobleaching to probe the structure of EGFR oligomers. We find that at physiological epidermal growth factor (EGF) concentrations, EGFR assembles into oligomers, as indicated by pairwise distances of receptor-bound fluorophore-conjugated EGF ligands. The pairwise ligand distances correspond well with the predictions of our structural model of the oligomers constructed from molecular dynamics simulations. The model suggests that oligomerization is mediated extracellularly by unoccupied ligand-binding sites and that oligomerization organizes kinase-active dimers in ways optimal for auto-phosphorylation in trans between neighbouring dimers. We argue that ligand-induced oligomerization is essential to the regulation of EGFR signalling. PMID:27796308

  8. A putative leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase involved in brassinosteroid signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Chory, J

    1997-09-05

    Brassinosteroids are a class of growth-promoting regulators that play a key role throughout plant development. Despite their importance, nothing is known of the mechanism of action of these steroid hormones. We describe the identification of 18 Arabidopsis dwarf mutants that are unable to respond to exogenously added brassinosteroid, a phenotype that might be expected for brassinosteroid signaling mutants. All 18 mutations define alleles of a single previously described gene, BRI1. We cloned BRI1 and examined its expression pattern. It encodes a ubiquitously expressed putative receptor kinase. The extracellular domain contains 25 tandem leucine-rich repeats that resemble repeats found in animal hormone receptors, plant disease resistance genes, and genes involved in unknown signaling pathways controlling plant development.

  9. Protein kinase C and phospholipase D: intimate interactions in intracellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Becker, K P; Hannun, Y A

    2005-07-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) was discovered as a potent lipid second messenger with protein kinase C (PKC) as its major cellular target more than 25 years ago. There is increasing evidence of significant complexity within lipid signaling, and the classical DAG-PKC model no longer stands alone but is part of a larger bioactive lipid universe involving glycerolipids and sphingolipids. Multiple layers of regulation exist among PKC- and DAG-metabolizing enzymes such as phosphatidylcholine (PC)-specific phospholipase D, and cross-talk exists between the glycerolipid and sphingolipid pathways, with PKC at the center. Currently, there is intense interest in the question of whether DAG derived from PC can function as a lipid second messenger and regulate PKC analogous to DAG derived from phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). To address these issues and incorporate DAG-PKC and other signaling pathways into an expanded view of cell biology, it will be necessary to go beyond the classical approaches and concepts.

  10. The protein kinase LKB1 negatively regulates bone morphogenetic protein receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Erna; Edlund, Karolina; Kahata, Kaoru; Zieba, Agata; Morén, Anita; Watanabe, Yukihide; Voytyuk, Iryna; Botling, Johan; Söderberg, Ola; Micke, Patrick; Pyrowolakis, George; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2016-01-01

    The protein kinase LKB1 regulates cell metabolism and growth and is implicated in intestinal and lung cancer. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates cell differentiation during development and tissue homeostasis. We demonstrate that LKB1 physically interacts with BMP type I receptors and requires Smad7 to promote downregulation of the receptor. Accordingly, LKB1 suppresses BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation and affects BMP signaling in Drosophila wing longitudinal vein morphogenesis. LKB1 protein expression and Smad1 phosphorylation analysis in a cohort of non-small cell lung cancer patients demonstrated a negative correlation predominantly in a subset enriched in adenocarcinomas. Lung cancer patient data analysis indicated strong correlation between LKB1 loss-of-function mutations and high BMP2 expression, and these two events further correlated with expression of a gene subset functionally linked to apoptosis and migration. This new mechanism of BMP receptor regulation by LKB1 has ramifications in physiological organogenesis and disease. PMID:26701726

  11. Lyn tyrosine kinase promotes silencing of ATM-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumoto, Yasunori Kuki, Kazumasa; Morii, Mariko; Miura, Takahito; Honda, Takuya; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Hitomi; Kubota, Sho; Ide, Yudai; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Inhibition of Src family kinases decreased γ-H2AX signal. • Inhibition of Src family increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. • shRNA-mediated knockdown of Lyn increased phosphorylation of Kap1 by ATM. • Ectopic expression of Src family kinase suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. • Src is involved in upstream signaling for inactivation of ATM signaling. - Abstract: DNA damage activates the DNA damage checkpoint and the DNA repair machinery. After initial activation of DNA damage responses, cells recover to their original states through completion of DNA repair and termination of checkpoint signaling. Currently, little is known about the process by which cells recover from the DNA damage checkpoint, a process called checkpoint recovery. Here, we show that Src family kinases promote inactivation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks. Inhibition of Src activity increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. Src inhibition increased ATM signaling both in G2 phase and during asynchronous growth. shRNA knockdown of Lyn increased ATM signaling. Src-dependent nuclear tyrosine phosphorylation suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. These results suggest that Src family kinases are involved in upstream signaling that leads to inactivation of the ATM-dependent DNA damage checkpoint.

  12. Synergism between inositol polyphosphates and TOR kinase signaling in nutrient sensing, growth control, and lipid metabolism in Chlamydomonas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The networks that govern carbon metabolism and control intracellular carbon partitioning in photosynthetic cells are poorly understood. Target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is a conserved growth regulator that integrates nutrient signals and modulates cell growth in eukaryotes, though the TOR signaling ...

  13. Reprogramming of G protein-coupled receptor recycling and signaling by a kinase switch

    PubMed Central

    Vistein, Rachel; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A.

    2013-01-01

    The postendocytic recycling of signaling receptors is subject to multiple requirements. Why this is so, considering that many other proteins can recycle without apparent requirements, is a fundamental question. Here we show that cells can leverage these requirements to switch the recycling of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (B2AR), a prototypic signaling receptor, between sequence-dependent and bulk recycling pathways, based on extracellular signals. This switch is determined by protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of B2AR on the cytoplasmic tail. The phosphorylation state of B2AR dictates its partitioning into spatially and functionally distinct endosomal microdomains mediating bulk and sequence-dependent recycling, and also regulates the rate of B2AR recycling and resensitization. Our results demonstrate that G protein-coupled receptor recycling is not always restricted to the sequence-dependent pathway, but may be reprogrammed as needed by physiological signals. Such flexible reprogramming might provide a versatile method for rapidly modulating cellular responses to extracellular signaling. PMID:24003153

  14. Inhibition of interleukin-1 signaling enhances elimination of tyrosine kinase inhibitor–treated CML stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Chu, Su; Agarwal, Puneet; Campbell, Victoria L.; Hopcroft, Lisa; Jørgensen, Heather G.; Lin, Allen; Gaal, Karl; Holyoake, Tessa L.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) with BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) fails to eliminate leukemia stem cells (LSC). Patients remain at risk for relapse, and additional approaches to deplete CML LSC are needed to enhance the possibility of discontinuing TKI treatment. We have previously reported that expression of the pivotal proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is increased in CML bone marrow. We show here that CML LSC demonstrated increased expression of the IL-1 receptors, IL-1 receptor accessory protein and IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1), and enhanced sensitivity to IL-1-induced NF-κB signaling compared with normal stem cells. Treatment with recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) inhibited IL-1 signaling in CML LSC and inhibited growth of CML LSC. Importantly, the combination of IL-1RA with TKI resulted in significantly greater inhibition of CML LSC compared with TKI alone. Our studies also suggest that IL-1 signaling contributes to overexpression of inflammatory mediators in CML LSC, suggesting that blocking IL-1 signaling could modulate the inflammatory milieu. We conclude that IL-1 signaling contributes to maintenance of CML LSC following TKI treatment and that IL-1 blockade with IL-1RA enhances elimination of TKI-treated CML LSC. These results provide a strong rationale for further exploration of anti-IL-1 strategies to enhance LSC elimination in CML. PMID:27621307

  15. Cellular Notch responsiveness is defined by phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent signals

    PubMed Central

    Mckenzie, Grahame; Ward, George; Stallwood, Yvette; Briend, Emmanuel; Papadia, Sofia; Lennard, Andrew; Turner, Martin; Champion, Brian; Hardingham, Giles E

    2006-01-01

    Background Notch plays a wide-ranging role in controlling cell fate, differentiation and development. The PI3K-Akt pathway is a similarly conserved signalling pathway which regulates processes such as differentiation, proliferation and survival. Mice with disrupted Notch and PI3K signalling show phenotypic similarities during haematopoietic cell development, suggesting functional interaction between these pathways. Results We show that cellular responsiveness to Notch signals depends on the activity of the PI3K-Akt pathway in cells as diverse as CHO cells, primary T-cells and hippocampal neurons. Induction of the endogenous PI3K-Akt pathway in CHO cells (by the insulin pathway), in T-cells (via TCR activation) or in neurons (via TrKB activation) potentiates Notch-dependent responses. We propose that the PI3K-Akt pathway exerts its influence on Notch primarily via inhibition of GSK3-beta, a kinase known to phosphorylate and regulate Notch signals. Conclusion The PI3K-Akt pathway acts as a "gain control" for Notch signal responses. Since physiological levels of intracellular Notch are often low, coincidence with PI3K-activation may be crucial for induction of Notch-dependent responses. PMID:16507111

  16. Inhibition of interleukin-1 signaling enhances elimination of tyrosine kinase inhibitor-treated CML stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Chu, Su; Agarwal, Puneet; Campbell, Victoria L; Hopcroft, Lisa; Jørgensen, Heather G; Lin, Allen; Gaal, Karl; Holyoake, Tessa L; Bhatia, Ravi

    2016-12-08

    Treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) with BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) fails to eliminate leukemia stem cells (LSC). Patients remain at risk for relapse, and additional approaches to deplete CML LSC are needed to enhance the possibility of discontinuing TKI treatment. We have previously reported that expression of the pivotal proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is increased in CML bone marrow. We show here that CML LSC demonstrated increased expression of the IL-1 receptors, IL-1 receptor accessory protein and IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1), and enhanced sensitivity to IL-1-induced NF-κB signaling compared with normal stem cells. Treatment with recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) inhibited IL-1 signaling in CML LSC and inhibited growth of CML LSC. Importantly, the combination of IL-1RA with TKI resulted in significantly greater inhibition of CML LSC compared with TKI alone. Our studies also suggest that IL-1 signaling contributes to overexpression of inflammatory mediators in CML LSC, suggesting that blocking IL-1 signaling could modulate the inflammatory milieu. We conclude that IL-1 signaling contributes to maintenance of CML LSC following TKI treatment and that IL-1 blockade with IL-1RA enhances elimination of TKI-treated CML LSC. These results provide a strong rationale for further exploration of anti-IL-1 strategies to enhance LSC elimination in CML. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. A Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Protein Kinase B-independent Activation of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Is Sufficient to Induce Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Craig A.; Miu, Man Hing; Frey, John W.; Mabrey, Danielle M.; Lincoln, Hannah C.; Ge, Yejing; Chen, Jie

    2010-01-01

    It has been widely proposed that signaling by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is both necessary and sufficient for the induction of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Evidence for this hypothesis is largely based on studies that used stimuli that activate mTOR via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB)-dependent mechanism. However, the stimulation of signaling by PI3K/PKB also can activate several mTOR-independent growth-promoting events; thus, it is not clear whether signaling by mTOR is permissive, or sufficient, for the induction of hypertrophy. Furthermore, the presumed role of mTOR in hypertrophy is derived from studies that used rapamycin to inhibit mTOR; yet, there is very little direct evidence that mTOR is the rapamycin-sensitive element that confers the hypertrophic response. In this study, we determined that, in skeletal muscle, overexpression of Rheb stimulates a PI3K/PKB-independent activation of mTOR signaling, and this is sufficient for the induction of a rapamycin-sensitive hypertrophic response. Transgenic mice with muscle specific expression of various mTOR mutants also were used to demonstrate that mTOR is the rapamycin-sensitive element that conferred the hypertrophic response and that the kinase activity of mTOR is necessary for this event. Combined, these results provide direct genetic evidence that a PI3K/PKB-independent activation of mTOR signaling is sufficient to induce hypertrophy. In summary, overexpression of Rheb activates mTOR signaling via a PI3K/PKB-independent mechanism and is sufficient to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The hypertrophic effects of Rheb are driven through a rapamycin-sensitive (RS) mechanism, mTOR is the RS element that confers the hypertrophy, and the kinase activity of mTOR is necessary for this event. PMID:20668162

  18. A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B-independent activation of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling is sufficient to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Craig A; Miu, Man Hing; Frey, John W; Mabrey, Danielle M; Lincoln, Hannah C; Ge, Yejing; Chen, Jie; Hornberger, Troy A

    2010-09-15

    It has been widely proposed that signaling by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is both necessary and sufficient for the induction of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Evidence for this hypothesis is largely based on studies that used stimuli that activate mTOR via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB)-dependent mechanism. However, the stimulation of signaling by PI3K/PKB also can activate several mTOR-independent growth-promoting events; thus, it is not clear whether signaling by mTOR is permissive, or sufficient, for the induction of hypertrophy. Furthermore, the presumed role of mTOR in hypertrophy is derived from studies that used rapamycin to inhibit mTOR; yet, there is very little direct evidence that mTOR is the rapamycin-sensitive element that confers the hypertrophic response. In this study, we determined that, in skeletal muscle, overexpression of Rheb stimulates a PI3K/PKB-independent activation of mTOR signaling, and this is sufficient for the induction of a rapamycin-sensitive hypertrophic response. Transgenic mice with muscle specific expression of various mTOR mutants also were used to demonstrate that mTOR is the rapamycin-sensitive element that conferred the hypertrophic response and that the kinase activity of mTOR is necessary for this event. Combined, these results provide direct genetic evidence that a PI3K/PKB-independent activation of mTOR signaling is sufficient to induce hypertrophy. In summary, overexpression of Rheb activates mTOR signaling via a PI3K/PKB-independent mechanism and is sufficient to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The hypertrophic effects of Rheb are driven through a rapamycin-sensitive (RS) mechanism, mTOR is the RS element that confers the hypertrophy, and the kinase activity of mTOR is necessary for this event.

  19. The RWP-RK factor GROUNDED promotes embryonic polarity by facilitating YODA MAP kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sangho; Palmer, Travis M; Lukowitz, Wolfgang

    2011-08-09

    The division of plant zygotes is typically asymmetric, generating daughter cells with different developmental fates. In Arabidopsis, the apical daughter cell produces the proembryo, whereas the basal daughter cell forms the mostly extraembryonic suspensor. Establishment of apical and basal fates is known to depend on the YODA (YDA) mitogen-associated protein (MAP) kinase cascade and WUSCHEL-LIKE HOMEOBOX (WOX) homeodomain transcription factors. Mutations in GROUNDED (GRD) cause anatomical defects implying a partial loss of developmental asymmetry in the first division. Subsequently, suspensor-specific WOX8 expression disappears while proembryo-specific ZLL expression expands in the mutants, revealing that basal fates are confounded. GRD encodes a small nuclear protein of the RWP-RK family and is broadly transcribed in the early embryo. Loss of GRD eliminates the dominant effects of hyperactive YDA variants, indicating that GRD is required for YDA-dependent signaling in the embryo. However, GRD function is not regulated via direct phosphorylation by MAP kinases, and forced expression of GRD does not suppress the effect of yda mutations. In a strong synthetic interaction, grd;wox8;wox9 triple mutants arrest as zygotes or one-cell embryos lacking apparent polarity. The predicted transcription factor GRD acts cooperatively with WOX homeodomain proteins to establish embryonic polarity in the first division. Like YDA, GRD promotes zygote elongation and basal cell fates. GRD function is required for YDA-dependent signaling but apparently not regulated by the YDA MAP kinase cascade. Similarity of GRD to Chlamydomonas MID suggests a conserved role for small RWP-RK proteins in regulating the transcriptional programs of generative cells and the zygote. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Raf Kinase Inhibitor Sorafenib Inhibits JAK-STAT Signal Transduction in Human Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    del Campo, Sara E. Martin; Levine, Kala M.; Mundy-Bosse, Bethany L.; Grignol, Valerie P.; Fairchild, Ene T.; Campbell, Amanda R.; Trikha, Prashant; Mace, Thomas A.; Paul, Bonnie K.; Jaime-Ramirez, Alena Cristina; Markowitz, Joseph; Kondadasula, Sri Vidya; Guenterberg, Kristan D.; McClory, Susan; Karpa, Volodymyr I.; Pan, Xueliang; Olencki, Thomas E.; Monk, J. Paul; Mortazavi, Amir; Tridandapani, Susheela; Lesinski, Gregory B.; Byrd, John C.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Shah, Manisha H.; Carson, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor that was originally developed as a Raf kinase inhibitor. We hypothesized that sorafenib would also have inhibitory effects upon cytokine signaling pathways in immune cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from normal donors were treated with varying concentrations of sorafenib, and stimulated with IFN-α or IL-2. Phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT5 was measured by flow cytometry and confirmed by immunoblot analysis. Changes in IFN-α- and IL-2 stimulated gene expression were measured by qPCR, and changes in cytokine production were evaluated by ELISA. Cryopreserved PBMCs were obtained from cancer patients before and after receiving 400 mg of sorafenib twice daily. Patient PBMCs were thawed, stimulated with IL-2 or IFN-α, and evaluated for phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT5. Pre-treatment of PBMCs with 10 μM sorafenib decreased STAT1 and STAT5 phosphorylation after treatment with IFN-α or IL-2. This inhibitory effect was observed in PBMCs from healthy donors over a range of concentrations of sorafenib (5-20 μM), IL-2 (2-24 nM), and IFN-α (101- 106 U/mL). This effect was observed in immune cell subsets including T cells, B cells, NK cells, regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Pre-treatment with sorafenib also inhibited PBMC expression of IFN-α- and IL-2-regulated genes and inhibited NK cell production of IFN-γ, RANTES, MIP1-α, and MIG in response to IFN-α stimulation. PBMCs from patients receiving sorafenib therapy showed decreased responsiveness to IL-2 and IFN-α treatment. Sorafenib is a Raf kinase inhibitor that could have off-target effects on cytokine-induced signal transduction in immune effector cells. PMID:26238487

  1. Porcine circovirus type 2 replication is impaired by inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Li; Liu Jue

    2009-03-30

    Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, which is primarily caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), is an emerging and important swine disease. We have recently shown that PCV2 induces nuclear factor kappa B activation and its activation is required for active replication, but the other cellular factors involved in PCV2 replication are not well defined. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) which served as an important component of cellular signal transduction pathways has been shown to regulate many viral infections. In this report, we show that PCV2 activates ERK1/2 in PCV2-infected PK15 cells dependent on viral replication. The PCV2-induced ERK1/2 leads to phosphorylation of the ternary complex factor Elk-1, which kinetically paralleled ERK1/2 activation. Inhibition of ERK activation with U0126, a specific MEK1/2 inhibitor, significantly reduced viral progeny release. Investigations into the mechanism of ERK1/2 regulation revealed that inhibition of ERK activation leads to decreased viral transcription and lower virus protein expression. These data indicate that the ERK signaling pathway is involved in PCV2 infection and beneficial to PCV2 replication in the cultured cells.

  2. A-kinase anchoring protein BIG3 coordinates oestrogen signalling in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimaru, Tetsuro; Ono, Masaya; Bando, Yoshimi; Chen, Yi-An; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Shima, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Masato; Imoto, Issei; Izumi, Keisuke; Honda, Junko; Miyoshi, Yasuo; Sasa, Mitsunori; Katagiri, Toyomasa

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 70% of breast cancer cells express oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Previous studies have shown that the Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 3–prohibitin 2 (BIG3-PHB2) complex has a crucial role in these cells. However, it remains unclear how BIG3 regulates the suppressive activity of PHB2. Here we demonstrate that BIG3 functions as an A-kinase anchoring protein that binds protein kinase A (PKA) and the α isoform of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1Cα), thereby dephosphorylating and inactivating PHB2. E2-induced PKA-mediated phosphorylation of BIG3-S305 and -S1208 serves to enhance PP1Cα activity, resulting in E2/ERα signalling activation via PHB2 inactivation due to PHB2-S39 dephosphorylation. Furthermore, an analysis of independent cohorts of ERα-positive breast cancers patients reveal that both BIG3 overexpression and PHB2-S39 dephosphorylation are strongly associated with poor prognosis. This is the first demonstration of the mechanism of E2/ERα signalling activation via the BIG3–PKA–PP1Cα tri-complex in breast cancer cells. PMID:28555617

  3. Genetic analysis of signal integration by the Sinorhizobium meliloti sensor kinase FeuQ.

    PubMed

    VanYperen, Ryan D; Orton, Taylor S; Griffitts, Joel S

    2015-02-01

    Two-component signalling systems allow bacteria to recognize and respond to diverse environmental stimuli. Auxiliary proteins can provide an additional layer of control to these systems. The Sinorhizobium meliloti FeuPQ two-component system is required for symbiotic development and is negatively regulated by the auxiliary small periplasmic protein FeuN. This study explores the mechanistic basis of this regulation. We provide evidence that FeuN directly interacts with the sensor kinase FeuQ. Isolation and characterization of an extensive set of FeuN-insensitive and FeuN-mimicking variants of FeuQ reveal specific FeuQ residues (periplasmic and intracellular) that control the transmission of FeuN-specific signalling information. Similar analysis of the FeuN protein highlights short patches of compatibly charged residues on each protein that probably engage one another, giving rise to the downstream effects on target gene expression. The accumulated evidence suggests that the periplasmic interaction between FeuN and FeuQ introduces an intracellular conformational change in FeuQ, resulting in an increase in its ability to remove phosphate from its cognate response regulator FeuP. These observations underline the complex manner in which membrane-spanning sensor kinases interface with the extracytoplasmic environment and convert that information to changes in intracellular processes.

  4. An electrostatic selection mechanism controls sequential kinase signaling downstream of the T cell receptor

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Neel H; Wang, Qi; Yan, Qingrong; Karandur, Deepti; Kadlecek, Theresa A; Fallahee, Ian R; Russ, William P; Ranganathan, Rama; Weiss, Arthur; Kuriyan, John

    2016-01-01

    The sequence of events that initiates T cell signaling is dictated by the specificities and order of activation of the tyrosine kinases that signal downstream of the T cell receptor. Using a platform that combines exhaustive point-mutagenesis of peptide substrates, bacterial surface-display, cell sorting, and deep sequencing, we have defined the specificities of the first two kinases in this pathway, Lck and ZAP-70, for the T cell receptor ζ chain and the scaffold proteins LAT and SLP-76. We find that ZAP-70 selects its substrates by utilizing an electrostatic mechanism that excludes substrates with positively-charged residues and favors LAT and SLP-76 phosphosites that are surrounded by negatively-charged residues. This mechanism prevents ZAP-70 from phosphorylating its own activation loop, thereby enforcing its strict dependence on Lck for activation. The sequence features in ZAP-70, LAT, and SLP-76 that underlie electrostatic selectivity likely contribute to the specific response of T cells to foreign antigens. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20105.001 PMID:27700984

  5. Single cell kinase signaling assay using pinched flow coupled droplet microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Ramji, Ramesh; Wang, Ming; Bhagat, Ali Asgar S; Tan Shao Weng, Daniel; Thakor, Nitish V; Teck Lim, Chwee; Chen, Chia-Hung

    2014-05-01

    Droplet-based microfluidics has shown potential in high throughput single cell assays by encapsulating individual cells in water-in-oil emulsions. Ordering cells in a micro-channel is necessary to encapsulate individual cells into droplets further enhancing the assay efficiency. This is typically limited due to the difficulty of preparing high-density cell solutions and maintaining them without cell aggregation in long channels (>5 cm). In this study, we developed a short pinched flow channel (5 mm) to separate cell aggregates and to form a uniform cell distribution in a droplet-generating platform that encapsulated single cells with >55% encapsulation efficiency beating Poisson encapsulation statistics. Using this platform and commercially available Sox substrates (8-hydroxy-5-(N,N-dimethylsulfonamido)-2-methylquinoline), we have demonstrated a high throughput dynamic single cell signaling assay to measure the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in lung cancer cells triggered by cell surface ligand binding. The phosphorylation of the substrates resulted in fluorescent emission, showing a sigmoidal increase over a 12 h period. The result exhibited a heterogeneous signaling rate in individual cells and showed various levels of drug resistance when treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, gefitinib.

  6. Inflammatory Signaling by NOD-RIPK2 Is Inhibited by Clinically Relevant Type II Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Peter; Ruan, Qui; Schwerd, Tobias; Hrdinka, Matous; Maki, Jenny L.; Saleh, Danish; Suebsuwong, Chalada; Ray, Soumya; Brennan, Paul E.; Cuny, Gregory D.; Uhlig, Holm H.; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads; Degterev, Alexei; Bullock, Alex N.

    2015-01-01

    Summary RIPK2 mediates pro-inflammatory signaling from the bacterial sensors NOD1 and NOD2, and is an emerging therapeutic target in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We observed that cellular RIPK2 can be potently inhibited by type II inhibitors that displace the kinase activation segment, whereas ATP-competitive type I inhibition was only poorly effective. The most potent RIPK2 inhibitors were the US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs ponatinib and regorafenib. Their mechanism of action was independent of NOD2 interaction and involved loss of downstream kinase activation as evidenced by lack of RIPK2 autophosphorylation. Notably, these molecules also blocked RIPK2 ubiquitination and, consequently, inflammatory nuclear factor κB signaling. In monocytes, the inhibitors selectively blocked NOD-dependent tumor necrosis factor production without affecting lipopolysaccharide-dependent pathways. We also determined the first crystal structure of RIPK2 bound to ponatinib, and identified an allosteric site for inhibitor development. These results highlight the potential for type II inhibitors to treat indications of RIPK2 activation as well as inflammation-associated cancers. PMID:26320862

  7. Inflammatory Signaling by NOD-RIPK2 Is Inhibited by Clinically Relevant Type II Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Canning, Peter; Ruan, Qui; Schwerd, Tobias; Hrdinka, Matous; Maki, Jenny L; Saleh, Danish; Suebsuwong, Chalada; Ray, Soumya; Brennan, Paul E; Cuny, Gregory D; Uhlig, Holm H; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads; Degterev, Alexei; Bullock, Alex N

    2015-09-17

    RIPK2 mediates pro-inflammatory signaling from the bacterial sensors NOD1 and NOD2, and is an emerging therapeutic target in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We observed that cellular RIPK2 can be potently inhibited by type II inhibitors that displace the kinase activation segment, whereas ATP-competitive type I inhibition was only poorly effective. The most potent RIPK2 inhibitors were the US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs ponatinib and regorafenib. Their mechanism of action was independent of NOD2 interaction and involved loss of downstream kinase activation as evidenced by lack of RIPK2 autophosphorylation. Notably, these molecules also blocked RIPK2 ubiquitination and, consequently, inflammatory nuclear factor κB signaling. In monocytes, the inhibitors selectively blocked NOD-dependent tumor necrosis factor production without affecting lipopolysaccharide-dependent pathways. We also determined the first crystal structure of RIPK2 bound to ponatinib, and identified an allosteric site for inhibitor development. These results highlight the potential for type II inhibitors to treat indications of RIPK2 activation as well as inflammation-associated cancers.

  8. Haemophilus ducreyi targets Src family protein tyrosine kinases to inhibit phagocytic signaling.

    PubMed

    Mock, Jason R; Vakevainen, Merja; Deng, Kaiping; Latimer, Jo L; Young, Jennifer A; van Oers, Nicolai S C; Greenberg, Steven; Hansen, Eric J

    2005-12-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, has been shown to inhibit phagocytosis of both itself and secondary targets in vitro. Immunodepletion of LspA proteins from H. ducreyi culture supernatant fluid abolished this inhibitory effect, indicating that the LspA proteins are necessary for the inhibition of phagocytosis by H. ducreyi. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that macrophages incubated with wild-type H. ducreyi, but not with a lspA1 lspA2 mutant, were unable to complete development of the phagocytic cup around immunoglobulin G-opsonized targets. Examination of the phosphotyrosine protein profiles of these two sets of macrophages showed that those incubated with wild-type H. ducreyi had greatly reduced phosphorylation levels of proteins in the 50-to-60-kDa range. Subsequent experiments revealed reductions in the catalytic activities of both Lyn and Hck, two members of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases that are known to be involved in the proximal signaling steps of Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Additional experiments confirmed reductions in the levels of both active Lyn and active Hck in three different immune cell lines, but not in HeLa cells, exposed to wild-type H. ducreyi. This is the first example of a bacterial pathogen that suppresses Src family protein tyrosine kinase activity to subvert phagocytic signaling in hostcells.

  9. MST50 Is Involved in Multiple MAP Kinase Signaling Pathways in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Li, Guotian; Zhang, Xue; Tian, Huan; Choi, Yoon-E; Andy Tao, W; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2017-02-28

    Appressorium formation plays a critical role in Magnaporthe oryzae. Mst50 is an adapter protein of the Mst11-Mst7-Pmk1 cascade that is essential for appressorium formation. To further characterize its functions, affinity purification was used to identify Mst50-interacting proteins (MIPs) in this study. Two of the MIPs are Mst11 and Mst7 that are known to interact with Mst50 for Pmk1 activation. Surprisingly, two other MIPs are Mck1 and Mkk2 that are the upstream kinases of the Mps1 pathway. Domain deletion analysis showed that the sterile alpha-motif of Mst50 but not the Ras-association domain was important for its interaction with Mck1 and responses to cell wall and oxidative stresses. The mst50 mutant was reduced in Mps1 activation under stress conditions. MIP11 encodes a RACK1 protein that also interacted with Mck1. Deletion of MIP11 resulted in defects in cell wall integrity, Mps1 phosphorylation, and plant infection. Furthermore, Mst50 interacted with histidine kinase Hik1, and the mst50 mutant was reduced in Osm1 phosphorylation. These results indicated that Mst50 is involved in all three MAPK pathways in M. oryzae although its functions differ in each pathway. Several MIPs are conserved hypothetical proteins and may be involved in responses to various signals and crosstalk among signaling pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Phosphorylation of Notch1 by Pim kinases promotes oncogenic signaling in breast and prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Vahtera, Laura; Ylä-Pelto, Jani; Paloniemi, Elina; Imanishi, Susumu Y.; Corthals, Garry; Varjosalo, Markku; Manoharan, Ganesh Babu; Uri, Asko; Lendahl, Urban; Sahlgren, Cecilia; Koskinen, Päivi J.

    2016-01-01

    Tumorigenesis is a multistep process involving co-operation between several deregulated oncoproteins. In this study, we unravel previously unrecognized interactions and crosstalk between Pim kinases and the Notch signaling pathway, with implications for both breast and prostate cancer. We identify Notch1 and Notch3, but not Notch2, as novel Pim substrates and demonstrate that for Notch1, the serine residue 2152 is phosphorylated by all three Pim family kinases. This target site is located in the second nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of the Notch1 intracellular domain (N1ICD), and is shown to be important for both nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of N1ICD. Phosphorylation-dependent stimulation of Notch1 signaling promotes migration of prostate cancer cells, balances glucose metabolism in breast cancer cells, and supports in vivo growth of both types of cancer cells on chick embryo chorioallantoic membranes. Furthermore, Pim-induced growth of orthotopic prostate xenografts in mice is associated with enhanced nuclear Notch1 activity. Finally, simultaneous inhibition of Pim and Notch abrogates the cellular responses more efficiently than individual treatments, opening up new vistas for combinatorial cancer therapy. PMID:27281612

  11. The effect of exercise-intensity on skeletal muscle stress kinase and insulin protein signaling

    PubMed Central

    Trewin, Adam; Levinger, Itamar; Shaw, Christopher S.; Stepto, Nigel K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Stress and mitogen activated protein kinase (SAPK) signaling play an important role in glucose homeostasis and the physiological adaptation to exercise. However, the effects of acute high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and sprint interval exercise (SIE) on activation of these signaling pathways are unclear. Methods Eight young and recreationally active adults performed a single cycling session of HIIE (5 x 4 minutes at 75% Wmax), SIE (4 x 30 second Wingate sprints), and continuous moderate-intensity exercise work-matched to HIIE (CMIE; 30 minutes at 50% of Wmax), separated by a minimum of 1 week. Skeletal muscle SAPK and insulin protein signaling were measured immediately, and 3 hours after exercise. Results SIE elicited greater skeletal muscle NF-κB p65 phosphorylation immediately after exercise (SIE: ~40%; HIIE: ~4%; CMIE; ~13%; p < 0.05) compared to HIIE and CMIE. AS160Ser588 phosphorylation decreased immediately after HIIE (~-27%; p < 0.05), and decreased to the greatest extent immediately after SIE (~-60%; p < 0.05). Skeletal muscle JNK (~42%; p < 0.05) and p38 MAPK (~171%; p < 0.05) phosphorylation increased, and skeletal muscle AktSer473 phosphorylation (~-32%; p < 0.05) decreased, to a similar extent immediately after all exercise protocols. AS160Ser588 phosphorylation was similar to baseline three hours after SIE (~-12%; p > 0.05), remained lower 3 hours after HIIE (~-34%; p < 0.05), and decreased 3 hours after CMIE (~-33%; p < 0.05). Conclusion Despite consisting of less total work than CMIE and HIIE, SIE proved to be an effective stimulus for the activation of stress protein kinase signaling pathways linked to exercise-mediated adaptation of skeletal muscle. Furthermore, post-exercise AS160Ser588 phosphorylation decreased in an exercise-intensity and post-exercise time-course dependent manner. PMID:28182793

  12. Coronin 1 Regulates Cognition and Behavior through Modulation of cAMP/Protein Kinase A Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun-Lei; Moshous, Despina; Studer, Vera; Schneider, Jacques; Genoud, Christel; Fossoud, Catherine; Gambino, Frédéric; Khelfaoui, Malik; Müller, Christian; Bartholdi, Deborah; Rossez, Helene; Stiess, Michael; Houbaert, Xander; Jaussi, Rolf; Frey, Daniel; Kammerer, Richard A.; Deupi, Xavier; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Lüthi, Andreas; Humeau, Yann; Pieters, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and behavioral disorders are thought to be a result of neuronal dysfunction, but the underlying molecular defects remain largely unknown. An important signaling pathway involved in the regulation of neuronal function is the cyclic AMP/Protein kinase A pathway. We here show an essential role for coronin 1, which is encoded in a genomic region associated with neurobehavioral dysfunction, in the modulation of cyclic AMP/PKA signaling. We found that coronin 1 is specifically expressed in excitatory but not inhibitory neurons and that coronin 1 deficiency results in loss of excitatory synapses and severe neurobehavioral disabilities, including reduced anxiety, social deficits, increased aggression, and learning defects. Electrophysiological analysis of excitatory synaptic transmission in amygdala revealed that coronin 1 was essential for cyclic–AMP–protein kinase A–dependent presynaptic plasticity. We further show that upon cell surface stimulation, coronin 1 interacted with the G protein subtype Gαs to stimulate the cAMP/PKA pathway. The absence of coronin 1 or expression of coronin 1 mutants unable to interact with Gαs resulted in a marked reduction in cAMP signaling. Strikingly, synaptic plasticity and behavioral defects of coronin 1–deficient mice were restored by in vivo infusion of a membrane-permeable cAMP analogue. Together these results identify coronin 1 as being important for cognition and behavior through its activity in promoting cAMP/PKA-dependent synaptic plasticity and may open novel avenues for the dissection of signal transduction pathways involved in neurobehavioral processes. PMID:24667537

  13. IL-10/Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling dysregulates Bim expression in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    PubMed

    Niss, Omar; Sholl, Allyson; Bleesing, Jack J; Hildeman, David A

    2015-03-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a human disorder of T cell homeostasis caused by mutations that impair FAS-mediated apoptosis. A defining characteristic of ALPS is the expansion of double negative T cells (DNTC). Relatively little is known about how defective FAS-driven cell death and the Bcl-2 apoptotic pathway intersect in ALPS patients. We studied changes in Bcl-2 family member expression in ALPS to determine whether the Bcl-2 pathway might provide a therapeutic target. We used flow cytometry to analyze the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members in T cells from 12 ALPS patients and determined the in vitro sensitivity of ALPS DNTC to the pro-apoptotic BH3 mimetic, ABT-737. The pro-apoptotic molecule, Bim, was significantly elevated in DNTC. Although no general pattern of individual anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members emerged, increased expression of Bim was always accompanied by increased expression of at least 1 anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member. Strikingly, Bim levels in DNTC correlated significantly with serum IL-10 in ALPS patients, and IL-10 was sufficient to mildly induce Bim in normal and ALPS T cells via a Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3-dependent mechanism. Finally, ABT-737 preferentially killed ALPS DNTC in vitro. Combined, these data show that an IL-10/Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway drives Bim expression in ALPS DNTC, which renders them sensitive to BH3 mimetics, uncovering a potentially novel therapeutic approach to ALPS. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuroprotection of brain-derived neurotrophic factor against hypoxic injury in vitro requires activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaomei; Zhou, Hui; Luo, Xiaoli; Li, Shengfu; Yu, Dan; Hua, Jiping; Mu, Dezhi; Mao, Meng

    2008-01-01

    Intrauterine asphyxia is one of the major contributors for perinatal death, mental and physical disorders of surviving children. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) provides a promising solution to hypoxic injury due to its survival-promoting effects. In an attempt to identify possible molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective role of BDNF, we studied extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3-K) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. We demonstrated that BDNF protected cortical neurons against hypoxic injury in vitro via activation of both the ERK and PI-3-K pathways but not the p38 MAPK pathway. We also showed that both hypoxic stimuli and exogenous BDNF treatment phosphorylated the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and that CREB phosphorylation induced by BDNF was mediated via the ERK pathway in cultured cortical neurons.

  15. Contribution of PIP-5 kinase I{alpha} to raft-based Fc{gamma}RIIA signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Szymanska, Ewelina; Korzeniowski, Marek; Raynal, Patrick; Sobota, Andrzej; Kwiatkowska, Katarzyna

    2009-04-01

    Receptor Fc{gamma}IIA (Fc{gamma}RIIA) associates with plasma membrane rafts upon activation to trigger signaling cascades leading to actin polymerization. We examined whether compartmentalization of PI(4,5)P{sub 2} and PI(4,5)P{sub 2}-synthesizing PIP5-kinase I{alpha} to rafts contributes to Fc{gamma}RIIA signaling. A fraction of PIP5-kinase I{alpha} was detected in raft-originating detergent-resistant membranes (DRM) isolated from U937 monocytes and other cells. The DRM of U937 monocytes contained also a major fraction of PI(4,5)P{sub 2}. PIP5-kinase I{alpha} bound PI(4,5)P{sub 2}, and depletion of the lipid displaced PIP5-kinase I{alpha} from the DRM. Activation of Fc{gamma}RIIA in BHK transfectants led to recruitment of the kinase to the plasma membrane and enrichment of DRM in PI(4,5)P{sub 2}. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that in resting cells the kinase was associated with the plasma membrane, cytoplasmic vesicles and the nucleus. After Fc{gamma}RIIA activation, PIP5-kinase I{alpha} and PI(4,5)P{sub 2} co-localized transiently with the activated receptor at distinct cellular locations. Immunoelectron microscopy studies revealed that PIP5-kinase I{alpha} and PI(4,5)P{sub 2} were present at the edges of electron-dense assemblies containing activated Fc{gamma}RIIA in their core. The data suggest that activation of Fc{gamma}RIIA leads to membrane rafts coalescing into signaling platforms containing PIP5-kinase I{alpha} and PI(4,5)P{sub 2}.

  16. p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 exerts a tonic brake on G protein-coupled receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Sheffler, Douglas J; Kroeze, Wesley K; Garcia, Bonnie G; Deutch, Ariel Y; Hufeisen, Sandra J; Leahy, Patrick; Brüning, Jens C; Roth, Bryan L

    2006-03-21

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential for normal central CNS function and represent the proximal site(s) of action for most neurotransmitters and many therapeutic drugs, including typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. Similarly, protein kinases mediate many of the downstream actions for both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. We report here that genetic deletion of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) potentiates GPCR signaling. Initial studies of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptor signaling in fibroblasts obtained from RSK2 wild-type (+/+) and knockout (-/-) mice showed that 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and both basal and 5-HT-stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation are augmented in RSK2 knockout fibroblasts. Endogenous signaling by other GPCRs, including P2Y-purinergic, PAR-1-thrombinergic, beta1-adrenergic, and bradykinin-B receptors, was also potentiated in RSK2-deficient fibroblasts. Importantly, reintroduction of RSK2 into RSK2-/- fibroblasts normalized signaling, thus demonstrating that RSK2 apparently modulates GPCR signaling by exerting a "tonic brake" on GPCR signal transduction. Our results imply the existence of a novel pathway regulating GPCR signaling, modulated by downstream members of the extracellular signal-related kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. The loss of RSK2 activity in humans leads to Coffin-Lowry syndrome, which is manifested by mental retardation, growth deficits, skeletal deformations, and psychosis. Because RSK2-inactivating mutations in humans lead to Coffin-Lowry syndrome, our results imply that alterations in GPCR signaling may account for some of its clinical manifestations.

  17. Reversing multidrug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway activity

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, SIYUAN; WANG, YALI; RUAN, WENWEN; WANG, XIAOMIN; PAN, CHAO

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is involved in conventional reversal methods and whether the inhibitors of the ERK signaling pathway reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The sensitivities of SMMC7721 and BEL7402, and the MDR SMMC7721/Adriamycin (ADM) and BEL7402/ADM HCC cell lines to ADM were evaluated by CellTiter-Glo® luminescent cell viability assay through calculating the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of ADM. In addition, the expression levels of ERK1/2 and phosphorylated (p)ERK1/2 were determined by western blot analysis subsequent to treatment of the cells with PD98059, an MEK inhibitor, or sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor. The results revealed that the ADM IC50 for the SMMC7721/ADM cells was 16.44 times higher than that of the SMMC7721 cells (P<0.05), and the ADM IC50 for the BEL7402/ADM cells was 20.34 times higher than that of the BEL7402 cells (P<0.05). Following treatment with PD98059 or sorafenib, the expression levels of pERK1/2 in the MDR cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequent to treatment with 5 μM PD98059, the ADM IC50 values for the SMMC7721/ADM and BEL7402/ADM cells were reduced to 0.8±0.056 and 1.583±0.284 μg/ml, respectively. Following treatment with 2.5 μM sorafenib, the ADM IC50 values for the SMMC7721/ADM and BEL7402/ADM cells were reduced to 0.264±0.049 and 1.099±0.135 μg/ml, respectively. Subsequent to incubation with 4 μg/ml cyclosporine A (CsA), a classic MDR reversal agent, the ADM IC50 values in the SMMC7721/ADM and BEL7402/ADM cells were reduced to 0.349±0.023 and 0.427±0.039 μg/ml, respectively. CsA treatment also increased the expression levels of pERK1/2 without affecting the total ERK1/2 levels. Therefore, the inhibition of ERK signaling pathway activity may be an important method to reverse the MDR of HCC cells, but is not unique. PMID:25295120

  18. Combining RNA interference and kinase inhibitors against cell signalling components involved in cancer

    PubMed Central

    O'Grady, Michael; Raha, Debasish; Hanson, Bonnie J; Bunting, Michaeline; Hanson, George T

    2005-01-01

    Background The transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) has been implicated in a large variety of biological processes including oncogenic transformation. The tyrosine kinases of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) constitute the beginning of one signal transduction cascade leading to AP-1 activation and are known to control cell proliferation and differentiation. Drug discovery efforts targeting this receptor and other pathway components have centred on monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors. Resistance to such inhibitors has already been observed, guiding the prediction of their use in combination therapies with other targeted agents such as RNA interference (RNAi). This study examines the use of RNAi and kinase inhibitors for qualification of components involved in the EGFR/AP-1 pathway of ME180 cells, and their inhibitory effects when evaluated individually or in tandem against multiple components of this important disease-related pathway. Methods AP-1 activation was assessed using an ME180 cell line stably transfected with a beta-lactamase reporter gene under the control of AP-1 response element following epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. Immunocytochemistry allowed for further quantification of small molecule inhibition on a cellular protein level. RNAi and RT-qPCR experiments were performed to assess the amount of knockdown on an mRNA level, and immunocytochemistry was used to reveal cellular protein levels for the targeted pathway components. Results Increased potency of kinase inhibitors was shown by combining RNAi directed towards EGFR and small molecule inhibitors acting at proximal or distal points in the pathway. After cellular stimulation with EGF and analysis at the level of AP-1 activation using a β-lactamase reporter gene, a 10–12 fold shift or 2.5–3 fold shift toward greater potency in the IC50 was observed for EGFR and MEK-1 inhibitors, respectively, in the presence of RNAi targeting EGFR. Conclusion EGFR

  19. Global Analysis of Muscle-specific Kinase Signaling by Quantitative Phosphoproteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Dürnberger, Gerhard; Camurdanoglu, Bahar Z.; Tomschik, Matthias; Schutzbier, Michael; Roitinger, Elisabeth; Hudecz, Otto; Mechtler, Karl; Herbst, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The development of the neuromuscular synapse depends on signaling processes that involve protein phosphorylation as a crucial regulatory event. Muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) is the key signaling molecule at the neuromuscular synapse whose activity is required for the formation of a mature and functional synapse. However, the signaling cascade downstream of MuSK and the regulation of the different components are still poorly understood. In this study we used a quantitative phosphoproteomics approach to study the phosphorylation events and their temporal regulation downstream of MuSK. We identified a total of 10,183 phosphopeptides, of which 203 were significantly up- or down-regulated. Regulated phosphopeptides were classified into four different clusters according to their temporal profiles. Within these clusters we found an overrepresentation of specific protein classes associated with different cellular functions. In particular, we found an enrichment of regulated phosphoproteins involved in posttranscriptional mechanisms and in cytoskeletal organization. These findings provide novel insights into the complex signaling network downstream of MuSK and form the basis for future mechanistic studies. PMID:24899341

  20. Diacylglycerol kinase-δ regulates AMPK signaling, lipid metabolism, and skeletal muscle energetics

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lake Q.; de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Massart, Julie; Deshmukh, Atul S.; Löfgren, Lars; Duque-Guimaraes, Daniella E.; Ozilgen, Arda; Osler, Megan E.; Chibalin, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Decrease of AMPK-related signal transduction and insufficient lipid oxidation contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Previously, we identified that diacylglycerol kinase-δ (DGKδ), an enzyme involved in triglyceride biosynthesis, is reduced in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic patients. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DGKδ plays a role in maintaining appropriate AMPK action in skeletal muscle and energetic aspects of contraction. Voluntary running activity was reduced in DGKδ+/− mice, but glycogen content and mitochondrial markers were unaltered, suggesting that DGKδ deficiency affects skeletal muscle energetics but not mitochondrial protein abundance. We next determined the role of DGKδ in AMPK-related signal transduction and lipid metabolism in isolated skeletal muscle. AMPK activation and signaling were reduced in DGKδ+/− mice, concomitant with impaired lipid oxidation and elevated incorporation of free fatty acids into triglycerides. Strikingly, DGKδ deficiency impaired work performance, as evident by altered force production and relaxation dynamics in response to repeated contractions. In conclusion, DGKδ deficiency impairs AMPK signaling and lipid metabolism, thereby highlighting the deleterious role of excessive lipid metabolites in the development of peripheral insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. DGKδ deficiency also influences skeletal muscle energetics, which may lead to low physical activity levels in type 2 diabetes. PMID:26530149

  1. Convergence of Protein Kinase C and JAK-STAT Signaling on Transcription Factor GATA-4

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Paradis, Pierre; Aries, Anne; Komati, Hiba; Lefebvre, Chantal; Wang, Hao; Nemer, Mona

    2005-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AII), a potent vasoactive hormone, acts on numerous organs via G-protein-coupled receptors and elicits cell-specific responses. At the level of the heart, AII stimulation alters gene transcription and leads to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Numerous intracellular signaling pathways are activated in this process; however, which of these directly link receptor activation to transcriptional regulation remains undefined. We used the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) gene (NPPA) as a marker to elucidate the signaling cascades involved in AII transcriptional responses. We show that ANF transcription is activated directly by the AII type 1 receptor and precedes the development of myocyte hypertrophy. This response maps to STAT and GATA binding sites, and the two elements transcriptionally cooperate to mediate signaling through the JAK-STAT and protein kinase C (PKC)-GATA-4 pathways. PKC phosphorylation enhances GATA-4 DNA binding activity, and STAT-1 functionally and physically interacts with GATA-4 to synergistically activate AII and other growth factor-inducible promoters. Moreover, GATA factors are able to recruit STAT proteins to target promoters via GATA binding sites, which are sufficient to support synergy. Thus, STAT proteins can act as growth factor-inducible coactivators of tissue-specific transcription factors. Interactions between STAT and GATA proteins may provide a general paradigm for understanding cell specificity of cytokine and growth factor signaling. PMID:16260600

  2. Crystal Structure and Oligomeric State of the RetS Signaling Kinase Sensory Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, X.; Jaw, J; Robinson, H; Schubot, F

    2010-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa may cause both acute and chronic-persistent infections in predisposed individuals. Acute infections require the presence of a functional type III secretion system (T3SS), whereas chronic P. aeruginosa infections are characterized by the formation of drug-resistant biofilms. The T3SS and biofilm formation are reciprocally regulated by the signaling kinases LadS, RetS, and GacS. RetS downregulates biofilm formation and upregulates expression of the T3SS through a unique mechanism. RetS forms a heterodimeric complex with GacS and thus prevents GacS autophosphorylation and downstream signaling. The signals that regulate RetS are not known but RetS possesses a distinctive periplasmic sensor domain that is believed to serve as receptor for the regulatory ligand. We have determined the crystal structure of the RetS sensory domain at 2.0 {angstrom} resolution. The structure closely resembles those of carbohydrate binding modules of other proteins, suggesting that the elusive ligands are likely carbohydrate moieties. In addition to the conserved beta-sandwich structure, the sensory domain features two alpha helices which create a unique surface topology. Protein-protein crosslinking and fluorescence energy transfer experiments also revealed that the sensory domain dimerizes with a dissociation constant of K{sub d} = 580 {+-} 50 nM, a result with interesting implications for our understanding of the underlying signaling mechanism.

  3. Interactions in the pollen-specific receptor-like kinases-containing signaling network.

    PubMed

    Löcke, Susanne; Fricke, Inka; Mucha, Elena; Humpert, Marie-Luise; Berken, Antje

    2010-12-01

    The pollen-specific receptor-like kinases (PRKs) from Solanum lycopersicum, LePRK1 and LePRK2, are believed to be involved in the regulation of pollen germination and pollen tube growth. They appear to be part of a multimeric complex in which the transmembranic LePRKs presumably have a key position in transducing exogenous signals through the plasma membrane. Here, we focused on extra- and intracellular interactions involving the LePRKs. We show in yeast two-hybrid experiments a cross-interaction of putative PRK-ligands, the oligomerization of LePRK2 and a direct contact of LePRKs to activated Rho proteins of plants (ROPs). Moreover, we observed that pollen-specific RopGEFs, which catalyze ROP activation and may be regulated by PRK interaction, are active in vitro while autoinhibition seems to occur in vivo. We suggest that activation of RopGEFs as a checkpoint in PRK signal transduction is a more complex event including further components in planta. Our findings point to some new aspects in PRK-mediated signal transduction implying a LePRK2 complex with different signaling activity and a further direct control of LePRKs by activated ROP.

  4. Drosophila Spidey/Kar Regulates Oenocyte Growth via PI3-Kinase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cinnamon, Einat; Sawala, Annick; Tittiger, Claus; Paroush, Ze'ev

    2016-01-01

    Cell growth and proliferation depend upon many different aspects of lipid metabolism. One key signaling pathway that is utilized in many different anabolic contexts involves Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and its membrane lipid products, the Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphates. It remains unclear, however, which other branches of lipid metabolism interact with the PI3K signaling pathway. Here, we focus on specialized fat metabolizing cells in Drosophila called larval oenocytes. In the presence of dietary nutrients, oenocytes undergo PI3K-dependent cell growth and contain very few lipid droplets. In contrast, during starvation, oenocytes decrease PI3K signaling, shut down cell growth and accumulate abundant lipid droplets. We now show that PI3K in larval oenocytes, but not in fat body cells, functions to suppress lipid droplet accumulation. Several enzymes of fatty acid, triglyceride and hydrocarbon metabolism are required in oenocytes primarily for lipid droplet induction rather than for cell growth. In contrast, a very long chain fatty-acyl-CoA reductase (FarO) and a putative lipid dehydrogenase/reductase (Spidey, also known as Kar) not only promote lipid droplet induction but also inhibit oenocyte growth. In the case of Spidey/Kar, we show that the growth suppression mechanism involves inhibition of the PI3K signaling pathway upstream of Akt activity. Together, the findings in this study show how Spidey/Kar and FarO regulate the balance between the cell growth and lipid storage of larval oenocytes. PMID:27500738

  5. Global analysis of muscle-specific kinase signaling by quantitative phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Dürnberger, Gerhard; Camurdanoglu, Bahar Z; Tomschik, Matthias; Schutzbier, Michael; Roitinger, Elisabeth; Hudecz, Otto; Mechtler, Karl; Herbst, Ruth

    2014-08-01

    The development of the neuromuscular synapse depends on signaling processes that involve protein phosphorylation as a crucial regulatory event. Muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) is the key signaling molecule at the neuromuscular synapse whose activity is required for the formation of a mature and functional synapse. However, the signaling cascade downstream of MuSK and the regulation of the different components are still poorly understood. In this study we used a quantitative phosphoproteomics approach to study the phosphorylation events and their temporal regulation downstream of MuSK. We identified a total of 10,183 phosphopeptides, of which 203 were significantly up- or down-regulated. Regulated phosphopeptides were classified into four different clusters according to their temporal profiles. Within these clusters we found an overrepresentation of specific protein classes associated with different cellular functions. In particular, we found an enrichment of regulated phosphoproteins involved in posttranscriptional mechanisms and in cytoskeletal organization. These findings provide novel insights into the complex signaling network downstream of MuSK and form the basis for future mechanistic studies. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Functional characterization of AMP-activated protein kinase signaling in tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ji; Zhang, Tao; Ji, Hongbin; Tao, Kaixiong; Guo, Jianping; Wei, Wenyi

    2016-12-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a ubiquitously expressed metabolic sensor among various species. Specifically, cellular AMPK is phosphorylated and activated under certain stressful conditions, such as energy deprivation, in turn to activate diversified downstream substrates to modulate the adaptive changes and maintain metabolic homeostasis. Recently, emerging evidences have implicated the potential roles of AMPK signaling in tumor initiation and progression. Nevertheless, a comprehensive description on such topic is still in scarcity, especially in combination of its biochemical features with mouse modeling results to elucidate the physiological role of AMPK signaling in tumorigenesis. Hence, we performed this thorough review by summarizing the tumorigenic role of each component along the AMPK signaling, comprising of both its upstream and downstream effectors. Moreover, their functional interplay with the AMPK heterotrimer and exclusive efficacies in carcinogenesis were chiefly explained among genetically altered mice models. Importantly, the pharmaceutical investigations of AMPK relevant medications have also been highlighted. In summary, in this review, we not only elucidate the potential functions of AMPK signaling pathway in governing tumorigenesis, but also potentiate the future targeted strategy aiming for better treatment of aberrant metabolism-associated diseases, including cancer.

  7. FGFR-4 Arg388 enhances prostate cancer progression via extracellular signal-related kinase and serum response factor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wendong; Feng, Shu; Dakhova, Olga; Creighton, Chad J.; Cai, Yi; Wang, Jianghua; Li, Rile; Frolov, Anna; Ayala, Gustavo; Ittmann, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Increased expression of FGFR-4 and its ligands have been linked to lethal prostate cancer (PCa). Furthermore, a germline polymorphism in the FGFR-4 gene, resulting in arginine at codon 388 (Arg388) instead of glycine (Gly388), is associated with aggressive disease. The FGFR-4 Arg388 variant results in increased receptor stability, sustained receptor activation and increased motility and invasion compared to Gly388. However, the impact of sustained signaling on cellular signal transduction pathways is unknown. Experimental Design Expression microarray analysis of immortalized prostatic epithelial cells lines expressing FGFR-4 Arg388 or Gly388 was used to establish a gene signature associated with FGFR-4 Arg388 expression. Transient transfection of reporters and inhibitors were used to establish the pathways activated by FGFR-4 Arg388 expression. The impact of pathway knockdown in vitro and in an orthotopic model was assessed using inhibitors and/or shRNA. Results Expression of the FGFR-4 Arg388 protein leads to increased activity of the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathway, increased activity of serum response factor (SRF) and AP1 and transcription of multiple genes which are correlated with aggressive clinical behavior in PCa. Increased expression of SRF is associated with biochemical recurrence in men undergoing radical prostatectomy. Consistent with these observations, knockdown of FGFR-4 Arg388 in PCa cells decreases proliferation and invasion in vitro and primary tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Conclusions These studies define a signal transduction pathway downstream of FGFR-4 Arg388 that acts via ERK and SRF to promote prostate cancer progression. PMID:21622724

  8. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in the ventral tegmental area mediates cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity and rewarding effects.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bin; Zhong, Peng; Sun, Dalong; Liu, Qing-song

    2011-08-03

    Drugs of abuse such as cocaine induce long-term synaptic plasticity in the reward circuitry, which underlies the formation of drug-associated memories and addictive behavior. We reported previously that repeated cocaine exposure in vivo facilitates long-term potentiation (LTP) in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) by reducing the strength of GABAergic inhibition and that endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression at inhibitory synapses (I-LTD) constitutes a mechanism for cocaine-induced reduction of GABAergic inhibition. The present study investigated the downstream signaling mechanisms and functional consequences of I-LTD in the VTA in the rat. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling has been implicated in long-term synaptic plasticity, associative learning, and drug addiction. We tested the hypothesis that VTA ERK activity is required for I-LTD and cocaine-induced long-term synaptic plasticity and behavioral effects. We show that the activation of receptors required for I-LTD increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and inhibitors of ERK activation blocked I-LTD. We further demonstrate that ERK mediates cocaine-induced reduction of GABAergic inhibition and facilitation of LTP induction. Finally, we show that cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) training (15 mg/kg; four pairings) increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the VTA, while bilateral intra-VTA injections of a CB(1) antagonist or an inhibitor of ERK activation attenuated ERK1/2 phosphorylation and the acquisition, but not the expression, of CPP to cocaine. Our study has identified the CB(1) and ERK signaling cascade as a key mediator of several forms of cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity and provided evidence linking long-term synaptic plasticity in the VTA to rewarding effects of cocaine.

  9. Modulation of Brahma expression by the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase pathway is associated with changes in melanoma proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Aanchal; Saladi, Srinivas Vinod; Trivedi, Archit R; Aras, Shweta; Qi, Huiling; Jayanthy, Ashika; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi; de la Serna, Ivana L

    2014-12-01

    Brahma (BRM) and Brahma-related gene 1(BRG1) are catalytic subunits of SWItch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes. BRM is epigenetically silenced in a wide-range of tumors. Mutations in the v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) gene occur frequently in melanoma and lead to constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway. We tested the hypothesis that BRM expression is modulated by oncogenic BRAF and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in melanocytes and melanoma cells. Expression of oncogenic BRAF in melanocytes and melanoma cells that are wild-type for BRAF decreased BRM expression and increased BRG1 expression. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) or selective inhibition of BRAF in melanoma cells that harbor oncogenic BRAF increased BRM expression and decreased BRG1 expression. Increased BRM expression was associated with increased histone acetylation on the BRM promoter. Over-expression of BRM in melanoma cells that harbor oncogenic BRAF promoted changes in cell cycle progression and apoptosis consistent with a tumor suppressive role. Upon inhibition of BRAF(V600E) with PLX4032, BRM promoted survival. PLX4032 induced changes in BRM function were correlated with increased acetylation of the BRM protein. This study provides insights into the epigenetic consequences of inhibiting oncogenic BRAF in melanoma through modulation of SWI/SNF subunit expression and function.

  10. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 inhibition and sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in camptothecin-induced human colon cancer cell death

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minyoung; Young Kim, Sun; Kim, JongGuk; Kim, Hak-Su; Kim, Sang-Man; Kim, Eun Ju

    2013-01-01

    Camptothecins are commonly used chemotherapeutics; in some models, they enhance signaling via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway through effects on upstream kinases. To evaluate the impact of camptothecin (CPT) on MAPKs in human colon cancer, we studied HCT116 and CaCo2 colon cancer cells. We found that HCT116 cells highly express mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP1), which selectively inactivates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), whereas MKP1 levels were undetectable in CaCo2 cells. CPT did not affect ERK activity in CaCo2 cells, but did induce a striking increase in ERK activity in HCT116 cells in association with a corresponding decrease in MKP1. The reduction in MKP1 expression occurred at a posttranscriptional level and was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132, whereas that CPT-induced downregulation of MKP1 was not due to proteasome-mediated degradation. Treatment of HCT116 cells with CPT induced a sustained activation of nuclear ERK, which was required for CPT-induced apoptosis. P38 and JNK activity were unaffected by CPT, suggesting that the effects of CPT are mediated specifically by ERK. These results suggest that targeting dual-specificity MAPK phosphatases in colon cancer cells may be a viable strategy for optimizing camptothecin-based therapeutic protocols. PMID:24005240

  11. Targeting Glutamatergic Signaling and the PI3 Kinase Pathway to Halt Melanoma Progression.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Stephen A; Niglio, Scot A; Salehomoum, Negar; Chan, Joseph L-K; Jeong, Byeong-Seon; Wen, Yu; Li, Jiadong; Fukui, Jami; Chen, Suzie; Shin, Seung-Shick; Goydos, James S

    2015-02-01

    Our group has previously reported that the majority of human melanomas (>60%) express the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (GRM1) and that the glutamate release inhibitor riluzole, a drug currently used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, can induce apoptosis in GRM1-expressing melanoma cells. Our group previously reported that in vitro riluzole treatment reduces cell growth in three-dimensional (3D) soft agar colony assays by 80% in cells with wildtype phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activation. However, melanoma cell lines harboring constitutive activating mutations of the PI3K pathway (PTEN and NRAS mutations) showed only a 35% to 40% decrease in colony formation in soft agar in the presence of riluzole. In this study, we have continued our preclinical studies of riluzole and its effect on melanoma cells alone and in combination with inhibitors of the PI3 kinase pathway: the AKT inhibitor, API-2, and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, rapamycin. We modeled these combinatorial therapies on various melanoma cell lines in 3D and 2D systems and in vivo. Riluzole combined with mTOR inhibition is more effective at halting melanoma anchorage-independent growth and xenograft tumor progression than either agent alone. PI3K signaling changes associated with this combinatorial treatment shows that 3D (nanoculture) modeling of cell signaling more closely resembles in vivo signaling than monolayer models. Riluzole combined with mTOR inhibition is effective at halting tumor cell progression independent of BRAF mutational status. This makes this combinatorial therapy a potentially viable alternative for metastatic melanoma patients who are BRAF WT and are therefore ineligible for vemurafenib therapy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Targeting Glutamatergic Signaling and the PI3 Kinase Pathway to Halt Melanoma Progression12

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Stephen A.; Niglio, Scot A.; Salehomoum, Negar; Chan, Joseph L.-K.; Jeong, Byeong-Seon; Wen, Yu; Li, Jiadong; Fukui, Jami; Chen, Suzie; Shin, Seung-Shick; Goydos, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Our group has previously reported that the majority of human melanomas (> 60%) express the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (GRM1) and that the glutamate release inhibitor riluzole, a drug currently used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, can induce apoptosis in GRM1-expressing melanoma cells. Our group previously reported that in vitro riluzole treatment reduces cell growth in three-dimensional (3D) soft agar colony assays by 80% in cells with wildtype phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activation. However, melanoma cell lines harboring constitutive activating mutations of the PI3K pathway (PTEN and NRAS mutations) showed only a 35% to 40% decrease in colony formation in soft agar in the presence of riluzole. In this study, we have continued our preclinical studies of riluzole and its effect on melanoma cells alone and in combination with inhibitors of the PI3 kinase pathway: the AKT inhibitor, API-2, and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, rapamycin. We modeled these combinatorial therapies on various melanoma cell lines in 3D and 2D systems and in vivo. Riluzole combined with mTOR inhibition is more effective at halting melanoma anchorage-independent growth and xenograft tumor progression than either agent alone. PI3K signaling changes associated with this combinatorial treatment shows that 3D (nanoculture) modeling of cell signaling more closely resembles in vivo signaling than monolayer models. Riluzole combined with mTOR inhibition is effective at halting tumor cell progression independent of BRAF mutational status. This makes this combinatorial therapy a potentially viable alternative for metastatic melanoma patients who are BRAF WT and are therefore ineligible for vemurafenib therapy. PMID:25749171

  13. Extracellular signal-related kinase positively regulates ataxia telangiectasia mutated, homologous recombination repair, and the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Golding, Sarah E; Rosenberg, Elizabeth; Neill, Steven; Dent, Paul; Povirk, Lawrence F; Valerie, Kristoffer

    2007-02-01

    The accurate joining of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination repair (HRR) is critical to the long-term survival of the cell. The three major mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun-NH(2)-kinase (JNK), regulate cell growth, survival, and apoptosis. To determine the role of MAPK signaling in HRR, we used a human in vivo I-SceI-based repair system. First, we verified that this repair platform is amenable to pharmacologic manipulation and show that the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase is critical for HRR. The ATM-specific inhibitor KU-55933 compromised HRR up to 90% in growth-arrested cells, whereas this effect was less pronounced in cycling cells. Then, using well-characterized MAPK small-molecule inhibitors, we show that ERK1/2 and JNK signaling are important positive regulators of HRR in growth-arrested cells. On the other hand, inhibition of the p38 MAPK pathway generated an almost 2-fold stimulation of HRR. When ERK1/2 signaling was stimulated by oncogenic RAF-1, an approximately 2-fold increase in HRR was observed. KU-55933 partly blocked radiation-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting that ATM regulates ERK1/2 signaling. Furthermore, inhibition of MAP/ERK kinase (MEK)/ERK signaling resulted in severely reduced levels of phosphorylated (S1981) ATM foci but not gamma-H2AX foci, and suppressed ATM phosphorylation levels >85% throughout the cell cycle. Collectively, these results show that MAPK signaling positively and negatively regulates HRR in human cells. More specifically, ATM-dependent signaling through the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway is critical for efficient HRR and for radiation-induced ATM activation, suggestive of a regulatory feedback loop between ERK and ATM.

  14. A high-throughput, multiplexed kinase assay using a benchtop orbitrap mass spectrometer to investigate the effect of kinase inhibitors on kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Ryan C; McAllister, Fiona E; Rush, John; Gygi, Steven P

    2012-07-17

    Protein phosphorylation is an important and ubiquitous post-translational modification in eukaryotic biological systems. The KAYAK (Kinase ActivitY Assay for Kinome profiling) assay measures the phosphorylation rates of dozens of peptide substrates simultaneously, directly from cell lysates. Here, we simplified the assay by removing the phosphopeptide enrichment step, increasing throughput while maintaining similar data quality. We term this new method, direct-KAYAK, because kinase activities were measured directly from reaction mixtures after desalting. In addition, new peptides were included to profile additional kinase pathways and redundant substrate peptides were removed. Finally, the method is now performed in 96-well plate format using a benchtop orbitrap mass spectrometer and the Pinpoint software package for improved data analysis. We applied the new high-throughput method to measure IC(50) values for kinases involved in monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation, a process important for inflammation and the immune response.

  15. Signal Sensing and Transduction by Histidine Kinases as Unveiled through Studies on a Temperature Sensor.

    PubMed

    Abriata, Luciano A; Albanesi, Daniela; Dal Peraro, Matteo; de Mendoza, Diego

    2017-06-20

    Histidine kinases (HK) are the sensory proteins of two-component systems, responsible for a large fraction of bacterial responses to stimuli and environmental changes. Prototypical HKs are membrane-bound proteins that phosphorylate cognate response regulator proteins in the cytoplasm upon signal detection in the membrane or periplasm. HKs stand as potential drug targets but also constitute fascinating systems for studying proteins at work, specifically regarding the chemistry and mechanics of signal detection, transduction through the membrane, and regulation of catalytic outputs. In this Account, we focus on Bacillus subtilis DesK, a membrane-bound HK part of a two-component system that maintains appropriate membrane fluidity at low growth temperatures. Unlike most HKs, DesK has no extracytoplasmic signal-sensing domains; instead, sensing is carried out by 10 transmembrane helices (coming from two protomers) arranged in an unknown structure. The fifth transmembrane helix from each protomer connects, without any of the intermediate domains found in other HKs, into the dimerization and histidine phosphotransfer (DHp) domain located in the cytoplasm, which is followed by the ATP-binding domains (ABD). Throughout the years, genetic, biochemical, structural, and computational studies on wild-type, mutant, and truncated versions of DesK allowed us to dissect several aspects of DesK's functioning, pushing forward a more general understanding of its own structure/function relationships as well as those of other HKs. We have shown that the sensing mechanism is rooted in temperature-dependent membrane properties, most likely a combination of thickness, fluidity, and water permeability, and we have proposed possible mechanisms by which DesK senses these properties and transduces the signals. X-ray structures and computational models have revealed structural features of TM and cytoplasmic regions in DesK's kinase- and phosphatase-competent states. Biochemical and genetic

  16. Signaling via mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1) is required for Golgi fragmentation during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U; Mallabiabarrena, A; Acharya, J K; Malhotra, V

    1998-01-23

    We have developed an assay using permeabilized cells to monitor fragmentation of the Golgi complex that occurs during mitosis. Golgi stacks, in permeabilized interphase normal rat kidney (NRK) cells, upon incubation with mitotic extracts undergo extensive fragmentation, and the fragmented Golgi membranes are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. We find that the continued presence of p34cdc2, the mitosis initiation kinase, is not necessary for Golgi fragmentation. Instead, fragmentation depends on cytosolic mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1 or MAPKK1). However, the known cytoplasmic substrates for MEK1, ERK1, and ERK2 are not required for this process. Interestingly, we find a Golgi-associated ERK, which we propose as the likely target for MEK1 in Golgi fragmentation.

  17. Hypoxia induces a phase transition within a kinase signaling network in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Shi, Qihui; Remacle, Francoise; Qin, Lidong; Shackelford, David B; Shin, Young Shik; Mischel, Paul S; Levine, R D; Heath, James R

    2013-04-09

    Hypoxia is a near-universal feature of cancer, promoting glycolysis, cellular proliferation, and angiogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of hypoxic signaling have been intensively studied, but the impact of changes in oxygen partial pressure (pO2) on the state of signaling networks is less clear. In a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cancer cell model, we examined the response of signaling networks to targeted pathway inhibition between 21% and 1% pO2. We used a microchip technology that facilitates quantification of a panel of functional proteins from statistical numbers of single cells. We find that near 1.5% pO2, the signaling network associated with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1)--a critical component of hypoxic signaling and a compelling cancer drug target--is deregulated in a manner such that it will be unresponsive to mTOR kinase inhibitors near 1.5% pO2, but will respond at higher or lower pO2 values. These predictions were validated through experiments on bulk GBM cell line cultures and on neurosphere cultures of a human-origin GBM xenograft tumor. We attempt to understand this behavior through the use of a quantitative version of Le Chatelier's principle, as well as through a steady-state kinetic model of protein interactions, both of which indicate that hypoxia can influence mTORC1 signaling as a switch. The Le Chatelier approach also indicates that this switch may be thought of as a type of phase transition. Our analysis indicates that certain biologically complex cell behaviors may be understood using fundamental, thermodynamics-motivated principles.

  18. Chrysin inhibits human airway smooth muscle cells proliferation through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jing; Zhang, Yun-Shi; Feng, Gan-Zhu; Du, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease characterized by an increased mass of airway smooth muscle (ASM). Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid, has been shown to exert multiple biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-oxidant effects, as well as the potency to ameliorate asthma in animal models. The objective of the present study was to identify the underlying mechanism of the therapeutic effects of chrysin. The impact of chrysin on basal and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced proliferation and apoptosis of human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) was investigated. Furthermore, the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway was evaluated in HASMCs. The results revealed that chrysin significantly inhibited basal as well as PDGF-induced HASMC proliferation, most likely through the suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. However, chrysin did not significantly reduce PDGF-induced apoptosis of HASMCs. The present study indicated that chrysin may be a promising medication for controlling airway remodeling and clinical manifestations of asthma.

  19. Multiple functions and dynamic activation of MPK-1 extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans germline development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Ho; Ohmachi, Mitsue; Arur, Swathi; Nayak, Sudhir; Francis, Ross; Church, Diane; Lambie, Eric; Schedl, Tim

    2007-12-01

    The raison d'etre of the germline is to produce oocytes and sperm that pass genetic material and cytoplasmic constituents to the next generation. To achieve this goal, many developmental processes must be executed and coordinated. ERK, the terminal MAP kinase of a number of signaling pathways, controls many aspects of development. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of MPK-1 ERK in Caenorhabditis elegans germline development. MPK-1 functions in four developmental switches: progression through pachytene, oocyte meiotic maturation/ovulation, male germ cell fate specification, and a nonessential function of promoting the proliferative fate. MPK-1 also regulates multiple aspects of cell biology during oogenesis, including membrane organization and morphogenesis: organization of pachytene cells on the surface of the gonadal tube, oocyte organization and differentiation, oocyte growth control, and oocyte nuclear migration. MPK-1 activation is temporally/spatially dynamic and most processes appear to be controlled through sustained activation. MPK-1 thus may act not only in the control of individual processes but also in the coordination of contemporaneous processes and the integration of sequential processes. Knowledge of the dynamic activation and diverse functions of MPK-1 provides the foundation for identification of upstream signaling cascades responsible for region-specific activation and the downstream substrates that mediate the various processes.

  20. Multiple Functions and Dynamic Activation of MPK-1 Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans Germline Development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min-Ho; Ohmachi, Mitsue; Arur, Swathi; Nayak, Sudhir; Francis, Ross; Church, Diane; Lambie, Eric; Schedl, Tim

    2007-01-01

    The raison d'etre of the germline is to produce oocytes and sperm that pass genetic material and cytoplasmic constituents to the next generation. To achieve this goal, many developmental processes must be executed and coordinated. ERK, the terminal MAP kinase of a number of signaling pathways, controls many aspects of development. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of MPK-1 ERK in Caenorhabditis elegans germline development. MPK-1 functions in four developmental switches: progression through pachytene, oocyte meiotic maturation/ovulation, male germ cell fate specification, and a nonessential function of promoting the proliferative fate. MPK-1 also regulates multiple aspects of cell biology during oogenesis, including membrane organization and morphogenesis: organization of pachytene cells on the surface of the gonadal tube, oocyte organization and differentiation, oocyte growth control, and oocyte nuclear migration. MPK-1 activation is temporally/spatially dynamic and most processes appear to be controlled through sustained activation. MPK-1 thus may act not only in the control of individual processes but also in the coordination of contemporaneous processes and the integration of sequential processes. Knowledge of the dynamic activation and diverse functions of MPK-1 provides the foundation for identification of upstream signaling cascades responsible for region-specific activation and the downstream substrates that mediate the various processes. PMID:18073423

  1. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 signaling in the hippocampal dentate gyrus mediates the antidepressant effects of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Nicole; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2012-04-01

    Human and animal studies suggest that testosterone may have antidepressant effects. In this study, we sought to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of testosterone within the hippocampus, an area that is fundamental in the etiology of depression. The effects of testosterone replacements in gonadectomized adult male rats were investigated using the sucrose preference and forced swim tests. We explored possible effects of testosterone on hippocampal neurogenesis and gene expression of stress-related molecules. Through the use of viral vectors, we pursued the antidepressant molecular mechanism(s) of testosterone in mediating anhedonia and manipulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) expression in the dentate gyrus in gonadectomized rats with testosterone replacements. Testosterone had antidepressant effects, likely mediated by aromatization to estrogen metabolites, in the sucrose preference and forced swim tests despite having no effects on hippocampal cell proliferation or survival. We found a testosterone-dependent regulation of hippocampal ERK2 expression. Functionally, reducing ERK2 activity within the dentate gyrus induced anhedonia in gonadectomized rats receiving testosterone supplementation, whereas the overexpression of ERK2 rescued this behavior in gonadectomized rats. These results implicate a role for ERK2 signaling within the dentate gyrus area of the hippocampus as a key mediator of the antidepressant effects of testosterone. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Agonist-Biased Signaling via Proteinase Activated Receptor-2: Differential Activation of Calcium and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Rithwik; Mihara, Koichiro; Mathur, Maneesh; Rochdi, Moulay Driss; Bouvier, Michel; DeFea, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of different trypsin-revealed tethered ligand (TL) sequences of rat proteinase-activated receptor 2 (rPAR2) and the corresponding soluble TL-derived agonist peptides to trigger agonist-biased signaling. To do so, we mutated the proteolytically revealed TL sequence of rPAR2 and examined the impact on stimulating intracellular calcium transients and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. The TL receptor mutants, rPAR2-Leu37Ser38, rPAR2-Ala37–38, and rPAR2-Ala39–42 were compared with the trypsin-revealed wild-type rPAR2 TL sequence, S37LIGRL42—. Upon trypsin activation, all constructs stimulated MAP kinase signaling, but only the wt-rPAR2 and rPAR2-Ala39–42 triggered calcium signaling. Furthermore, the TL-derived synthetic peptide SLAAAA-NH2 failed to cause PAR2-mediated calcium signaling but did activate MAP kinase, whereas SLIGRL-NH2 triggered both calcium and MAP kinase signaling by all receptors. The peptides AAIGRL-NH2 and LSIGRL-NH2 triggered neither calcium nor MAP kinase signals. Neither rPAR2-Ala37–38 nor rPAR2-Leu37Ser38 constructs recruited β-arrestins-1 or -2 in response to trypsin stimulation, whereas both β-arrestins were recruited to these mutants by SLIGRL-NH2. The lack of trypsin-triggered β-arrestin interactions correlated with impaired trypsin-activated TL-mutant receptor internalization. Trypsin-stimulated MAP kinase activation by the TL-mutated receptors was not blocked by inhibitors of Gαi (pertussis toxin), Gαq [N-cyclohexyl-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methylindeno[1,2-c]pyrazole-3-carboxamide (GP2A)], Src kinase [4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]-pyrimidine (PP1)], or the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor [4-(3′-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxy-quinazoline (AG1478)], but was inhibited by the Rho-kinase inhibitor (R)-(+)-trans-N-(4-pyridyl)-4-(1-aminoethyl)-cyclohexanecarboxamide, 2HCl (Y27362). The data indicate that the proteolytically revealed TL sequence(s) and the mode

  3. Signal transduction by epidermal growth factor and heregulin via the kinase-deficient ErbB3 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H H; Vijapurkar, U; Hellyer, N J; Bravo, D; Koland, J G

    1998-01-01

    The role of protein tyrosine kinase activity in ErbB3-mediated signal transduction was investigated. ErbB3 was phosphorylated in vivo in response to either heregulin (HRG) in cells expressing both ErbB3 and ErbB2, or epidermal growth factor (EGF) in cells expressing both ErbB3 and EGF receptor. A recombinant receptor protein (ErbB3-K/M, in which K/M stands for Lys-->Met amino acid substitution) containing an inactivating mutation in the putative ATP-binding site was also phosphorylated in response to HRG and EGF. Both the wild-type ErbB3 and mutant ErbB3-K/M proteins transduced signals to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Shc and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Separate kinase-inactivating mutations in the EGF receptor and ErbB2 proteins abolished ErbB3 phosphorylation and signal transduction activated by EGF and HRG respectively. Hence the protein tyrosine kinase activity necessary for growth factor signalling via the ErbB3 protein seems to be provided by coexpressed EGF and ErbB2 receptor proteins. PMID:9693119

  4. Signal transduction by epidermal growth factor and heregulin via the kinase-deficient ErbB3 protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, H H; Vijapurkar, U; Hellyer, N J; Bravo, D; Koland, J G

    1998-08-15

    The role of protein tyrosine kinase activity in ErbB3-mediated signal transduction was investigated. ErbB3 was phosphorylated in vivo in response to either heregulin (HRG) in cells expressing both ErbB3 and ErbB2, or epidermal growth factor (EGF) in cells expressing both ErbB3 and EGF receptor. A recombinant receptor protein (ErbB3-K/M, in which K/M stands for Lys-->Met amino acid substitution) containing an inactivating mutation in the putative ATP-binding site was also phosphorylated in response to HRG and EGF. Both the wild-type ErbB3 and mutant ErbB3-K/M proteins transduced signals to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Shc and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Separate kinase-inactivating mutations in the EGF receptor and ErbB2 proteins abolished ErbB3 phosphorylation and signal transduction activated by EGF and HRG respectively. Hence the protein tyrosine kinase activity necessary for growth factor signalling via the ErbB3 protein seems to be provided by coexpressed EGF and ErbB2 receptor proteins.

  5. Src Family Kinases Promote Silencing of ATR-Chk1 Signaling in Termination of DNA Damage Checkpoint*

    PubMed Central

    Fukumoto, Yasunori; Morii, Mariko; Miura, Takahito; Kubota, Sho; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Honda, Takuya; Okamoto, Aya; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Iwama, Atsushi; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    The DNA damage checkpoint arrests cell cycle progression to allow time for repair. Once DNA repair is completed, checkpoint signaling is terminated. Currently little is known about the mechanism by which checkpoint signaling is terminated, and the disappearance of DNA lesions is considered to induce the end of checkpoint signaling; however, here we show that the termination of checkpoint signaling is an active process promoted by Src family tyrosine kinases. Inhibition of Src activity delays recovery from the G2 phase DNA damage checkpoint following DNA repair. Src activity is required for the termination of checkpoint signaling, and inhibition of Src activity induces persistent activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)- and Rad3-related (ATR) and Chk1 kinases. Src-dependent nuclear protein tyrosine phosphorylation and v-Src expression suppress the ATR-mediated Chk1 and Rad17 phosphorylation induced by DNA double strand breaks or DNA replication stress. Thus, Src family kinases promote checkpoint recovery through termination of ATR- and Chk1-dependent G2 DNA damage checkpoint. These results suggest a model according to which Src family kinases send a termination signal between the completion of DNA repair and the initiation of checkpoint termination. PMID:24634213

  6. Epidermal growth factor-stimulated intestinal epithelial cell migration requires Src family kinase-dependent p38 MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Frey, Mark R; Golovin, Anastasia; Polk, D Brent

    2004-10-22

    Members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of ligands and their receptors regulate migration and growth of intestinal epithelial cells. However, our understanding of the signal transduction pathways determining these responses is incomplete. In this study we tested the hypothesis that p38 is required for EGF-stimulated intestinal epithelial monolayer restitution. EGF-stimulated migration in a wound closure model required continuous presence of ligand for several hours for maximal response, suggesting a requirement for sustained signal transduction pathway activation. In this regard, prolonged exposure of cells to EGF activated p38 for up to 5 h. Furthermore genetic or pharmacological blockade of p38 signaling inhibited the ability of EGF to accelerate wound closure. Interestingly p38 inhibition was associated with increased EGF-stimulated ERK1/ERK2 phosphorylation and cell proliferation, suggesting that p38 regulates the balance of proliferation/migration signaling in response to EGF receptor activity. Activation of p38 in intestinal epithelial cells through EGF receptor was abolished by blockade of Src family tyrosine kinase signaling but not inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or protein kinase C. Taken together, these data suggest that Src family kinase-dependent p38 activation is a key component of a signaling switch routing EGF-stimulated responses to epithelial cell migration/restitution rather than proliferation during wound closure.

  7. Jedi-1 and MEGF10 signal engulfment of apoptotic neurons through the tyrosine kinase Syk.

    PubMed

    Scheib, Jami L; Sullivan, Chelsea S; Carter, Bruce D

    2012-09-19

    During the development of the peripheral nervous system there is extensive apoptosis, and these neuronal corpses need to be cleared to prevent an inflammatory response. Recently, Jedi-1 and MEGF10, both expressed in glial precursor cells, were identified in mouse as having an essential role in this phagocytosis (Wu et al., 2009); however, the mechanisms by which they promote engulfment remained unknown. Both Jedi-1 and MEGF10 are homologous to the Drosophila melanogaster receptor Draper, which mediates engulfment through activation of the tyrosine kinase Shark. Here, we identify Syk, the mammalian homolog of Shark, as a signal transducer for both Jedi-1 and MEGF10. Syk interacted with each receptor independently through the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) in their intracellular domains. The interaction was enhanced by phosphorylation of the tyrosines in the ITAMs by Src family kinases (SFKs). Jedi association with Syk and activation of the kinase was also induced by exposure to dead cells. Expression of either Jedi-1 or MEGF10 in HeLa cells facilitated engulfment of carboxylated microspheres to a similar extent, and there was no additive effect when they were coexpressed. Mutation of the ITAM tyrosines of Jedi-1 and MEGF10 prevented engulfment. The SFK inhibitor PP2 or a selective Syk inhibitor (BAY 61-3606) also blocked engulfment. Similarly, in cocultures of glial precursors and dying sensory neurons from embryonic mice, addition of PP2 or knock down of endogenous Syk decreased the phagocytosis of apoptotic neurons. These results indicate that both Jedi-1 and MEGF10 can mediate phagocytosis independently through the recruitment of Syk.

  8. Cadmium activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 in HK-2 human renal proximal tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Mio; Inamura, Hisako; Matsumura, Ken-ichi; Matsuoka, Masato

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium exposure induces ERK5 phosphorylation in HK-2 renal proximal tubular cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BIX02189 treatment suppresses cadmium-induced ERK5 but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BIX02189 treatment suppresses cadmium-induced CREB and c-Fos phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ERK5 activation by cadmium exposure may play an anti-apoptotic role in HK-2 cells. -- Abstract: We examined the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) exposure on the phosphorylation and functionality of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5), a recently identified member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, in HK-2 human renal proximal tubular cells. Following exposure to CdCl{sub 2}, ERK5 phosphorylation increased markedly, but the level of total ERK5 was unchanged. ERK5 phosphorylation following CdCl{sub 2} exposure was rapid and transient, similar to the time course of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Treatment of HK-2 cells with the MAPK/ERK kinase 5 inhibitor, BIX02189, suppressed CdCl{sub 2}-induced ERK5 but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The CdCl{sub 2}-induced increase of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and activating transcription factor-1 (ATF-1), as well as the accumulation of mobility-shifted c-Fos protein, were suppressed by BIX02189 treatment. Furthermore, BIX02189 treatment enhanced cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and increased the level of cytoplasmic nucleosomes in HK-2 cells exposed to CdCl{sub 2}. These findings suggest that ERK5 pathway activation by CdCl{sub 2} exposure might induce the phosphorylation of cell survival-transcription factors, such as CREB, ATF-1, and c-Fos, and may exert a partial anti-apoptotic role in HK-2 cells.

  9. Ventricular hypertrophy abrogates intralipid-induced cardioprotection by alteration of reperfusion injury salvage kinase/glycogen synthase kinasesignal.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei-Lei; Ge, Hong-Wei; Kong, Fei-Juan; Qian, Ling-Bo; Hu, Bang-Chuan; Li, Qian; Xu, Liang; Liu, Jing-Quan; Xu, Yun-Xiang; Sun, Ren-Hua

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that intralipid (ILP) conferred myocardial protection against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury through activation of reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) pathway. As RISK signal has been shown to be impaired in hypertrophied myocardium, we investigated whether ILP-induced cardiac protection was maintained in hypertrophied rat hearts. Transverse aortic constriction was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats to induce left ventricular hypertrophy, then sham-operated or hypertrophied rat hearts were isolated and perfused retrogradely by the Langendorff for 30 min (equilibration) followed by 40 min of ischemia and then 120 min of reperfusion. The isolated hearts received 15-min episode of 1% ILP separated by 15 min of washout or three episodes of 5-min ischemia followed by 5-min reperfusion before ischemia. The hemodynamics, infarct size, apoptosis, phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt), phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), Bcl-2, phosphorylated Bad, and Bax were determined. We found that ILP significantly improved left ventricular hemodynamics and reduced infarct size and the number of TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling)-positive cells in the sham-operated rat hearts exposed to IR. However, such myocardial infarct-sparing effect of ILP was completely blocked by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin, but only partially by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD98059 in sham-operated hearts. Intralipd upregulated the phosphorylation of Akt, extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and their downstream target of GSK3β and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression in healthy rat hearts. Nonetheless, ILP failed to improve left ventricular hemodynamics and reduced infarct size and apoptosis and increase the phosphorylated Akt, ERK1/2, GSK3β, and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 in hypertrophied myocardium

  10. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the BRI1 receptor kinase emerges as a component of brassinosteroid signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Man-Ho; Wang, Xiaofeng; Kota, Uma; Goshe, Michael B; Clouse, Steven D; Huber, Steven C

    2009-01-13

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential growth-promoting hormones that regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. Two leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) are involved in BR perception and signal transduction: brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1), which is the BR receptor, and its coreceptor BRI1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1). Both proteins are classified as serine/threonine protein kinases, but here we report that recombinant cytoplasmic domains of BRI1 and BAK1 also autophosphorylate on tyrosine residues and thus are dual-specificity kinases. With BRI1, Tyr-831 and Tyr-956 are identified as autophosphorylation sites in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, Tyr-956 in kinase subdomain V is essential for activity, because the Y956F mutant is catalytically inactive and thus this site cannot be simply manipulated by mutagenesis. In contrast, Tyr-831 in the juxtamembrane domain is not essential for kinase activity but plays an important role in BR signaling in vivo, because expression of BRI1(Y831F)-Flag in transgenic bri1-5 plants results in plants with larger leaves (but altered leaf shape) and early flowering relative to plants expressing wild-type BRI1-Flag. Acidic substitutions of Tyr-831 restored normal leaf size (but not shape) and normal flowering time. This is an example where a specific tyrosine residue has been shown to play an important role in vivo in plant receptor kinase function. Interestingly, 6 additional LRR-RLKs (of the 23 tested) were also found to autophosphorylate on tyrosine in addition to serine and threonine, suggesting that tyrosine signaling should be considered with other plant receptor kinases as well.

  11. Computational Modeling of Allosteric Communication Reveals Organizing Principles of Mutation-Induced Signaling in ABL and EGFR Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Anshuman; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2011-01-01

    The emerging structural information about allosteric kinase complexes and the growing number of allosteric inhibitors call for a systematic strategy to delineate and classify mechanisms of allosteric regulation and long-range communication that control kinase activity. In this work, we have investigated mechanistic aspects of long-range communications in ABL and EGFR kinases based on the results of multiscale simulations of regulatory complexes and computational modeling of signal propagation in proteins. These approaches have been systematically employed to elucidate organizing molecular principles of allosteric signaling in the ABL and EGFR multi-domain regulatory complexes and analyze allosteric signatures of the gate-keeper cancer mutations. We have presented evidence that mechanisms of allosteric activation may have universally evolved in the ABL and EGFR regulatory complexes as a product of a functional cross-talk between the organizing αF-helix and conformationally adaptive αI-helix and αC-helix. These structural elements form a dynamic network of efficiently communicated clusters that may control the long-range interdomain coupling and allosteric activation. The results of this study have unveiled a unifying effect of the gate-keeper cancer mutations as catalysts of kinase activation, leading to the enhanced long-range communication among allosterically coupled segments and stabilization of the active kinase form. The results of this study can reconcile recent experimental studies of allosteric inhibition and long-range cooperativity between binding sites in protein kinases. The presented study offers a novel molecular insight into mechanistic aspects of allosteric kinase signaling and provides a quantitative picture of activation mechanisms in protein kinases at the atomic level. PMID:21998569

  12. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5 modulates the antioxidant response by transcriptionally controlling Sirtuin 1 expression in leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Royuela, Nuria; Rathore, Moeez G; Allende-Vega, Nerea; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien; Fajas, Lluis; Ramachandran, Bindu; Gulick, Tod; Villalba, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Cancer cell metabolism differs from that of non-transformed cells in the same tissue. This specific metabolism gives tumor cells growing advantages besides the effect in increasing anabolism. One of these advantages is immune evasion mediated by a lower expression of the mayor histocompatibility complex class I molecules. The extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 regulates both mayor histocompatibility complex class I expression and metabolic activity. However, the mechanisms underlying are largely unknown. We show here that extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 regulates the transcription of the NADH(+)-dependent histone deacetylase silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Sirtuin 1) in leukemic Jurkat T cells. This involves the activation of the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor-2 and its binding to the sirt1 promoter. In addition, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 is required for T cell receptor-induced and oxidative stress-induced full Sirtuin 1 expression. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 induces the expression of promoters containing the antioxidant response elements through a Sirtuin 1-dependent pathway. On the other hand, down modulation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 expression impairs the anti-oxidant response. Notably, the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 inhibitor BIX02189 induces apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia tumor cells without affecting T cells from healthy donors. Our results unveil a new pathway that modulates metabolism in tumor cells. This pathway represents a promising therapeutic target in cancers with deep metabolic layouts such as acute myeloid leukemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PB1 Domain-Dependent Signaling Complex Is Required for Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 5 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Uhlik, Mark T.; Johnson, Nancy L.; Hahn, Klaus M.; Johnson, Gary L.

    2006-01-01

    MEKK2, MEK5, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) are members of a three-kinase cascade for the activation of ERK5. MEK5 is the only MAP2K to express a PB1 domain, and we have shown that it heterodimerizes with the PB1 domain of MEKK2. Here we demonstrate the MEK5 PB1 domain is a scaffold that also binds ERK5, functionally forming a MEKK2-MEK5-ERK5 complex. Reconstitution assays and CFP/YFP imaging (fluorescence resonance energy transfer [FRET]) measuring YFP-MEKK2/CFP-MEK5 and CFP-MEK5/YFP-ERK5 interactions define distinct MEK5 PB1 domain binding sites for MEKK2 and ERK5, with a C-terminal extension of the PB1 domain contributing to ERK5 binding. Stimulus-dependent CFP/YFP FRET in combination with mutational analysis was used to define MEK5 PB1 domain residues critical for the interaction of MEKK2/MEK5 and MEK5/ERK5 required for activation of the ERK5 pathway in living cells. Fusion of the MEK5 PB1 domain to the N terminus of MEK1 confers ERK5 regulation by a MAP2K normally regulating only ERK1/2. The MEK5 PB1 domain confers stringent MAP3K regulation of ERK5 relative to more promiscuous MAP3K control of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. PMID:16507987

  14. Fasting potentiates the anticancer activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors by strengthening MAPK signaling inhibition.

    PubMed

    Caffa, Irene; D'Agostino, Vito; Damonte, Patrizia; Soncini, Debora; Cea, Michele; Monacelli, Fiammetta; Odetti, Patrizio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Provenzani, Alessandro; Longo, Valter D; Nencioni, Alessio

    2015-05-20

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are now the mainstay of treatment in many types of cancer. However, their benefit is frequently short-lived, mandating the search for safe potentiation strategies. Cycles of fasting enhance the activity of chemo-radiotherapy in preclinical cancer models and dietary approaches based on fasting are currently explored in clinical trials. Whether combining fasting with TKIs is going to be potentially beneficial remains unknown. Here we report that starvation conditions increase the ability of commonly administered TKIs, including erlotinib, gefitinib, lapatinib, crizotinib and regorafenib, to block cancer cell growth, to inhibit the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and to strengthen E2F-dependent transcription inhibition. In cancer xenografts models, both TKIs and cycles of fasting slowed tumor growth, but, when combined, these interventions were significantly more effective than either type of treatment alone. In conclusion, cycles of fasting or of specifically designed fasting-mimicking diets should be evaluated in clinical studies as a means to potentiate the activity of TKIs in clinical use.

  15. TAM Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Biologic Functions, Signaling, and Potential Therapeutic Targeting in Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Linger, Rachel M. A.; Keating, Amy K.; Earp, H. Shelton; Graham, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    Tyro-3, Axl, and Mer constitute the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) characterized by a conserved sequence within the kinase domain and adhesion molecule-like extracellular domains. This small family of RTKs regulates an intriguing mix of processes, including cell proliferation/survival, cell adhesion and migration, blood clot stabilization, and regulation of inflammatory cytokine release. Genetic or experimental alteration of TAM receptor function can contribute to a number of disease states, including coagulopathy, autoimmune disease, retinitis pigmentosa, and cancer. In this chapter, we first provide a comprehensive review of the structure, regulation, biologic functions, and down-stream signaling pathways of these receptors. In addition, we discuss recent evidence which suggests a role for TAM receptors in oncogenic mechanisms as family members are over-expressed in a spectrum of human cancers and have prognostic significance in some. Possible strategies for targeted inhibition of the TAM family in the treatment of human cancer are described. Further research will be necessary to evaluate the full clinical implications of TAM family expression and activation in cancer. PMID:18620092

  16. Prostaglandin E2 restrains macrophage maturation via E prostanoid receptor 2/protein kinase A signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zasłona, Zbigniew; Serezani, Carlos H.; Okunishi, Katsuhide; Aronoff, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a lipid mediator that acts by ligating 4 distinct G protein–coupled receptors, E prostanoid (EP) 1 to 4. Previous studies identified the importance of PGE2 in regulating macrophage functions, but little is known about its effect on macrophage maturation. Macrophage maturation was studied in vitro in bone marrow cell cultures, and in vivo in a model of peritonitis. EP2 was the most abundant PGE2 receptor expressed by bone marrow cells, and its expression further increased during macrophage maturation. EP2-deficient (EP2−/−) macrophages exhibited enhanced in vitro maturation compared with wild-type cells, as evidenced by higher F4/80 expression. An EP2 antagonist also increased maturation. In the peritonitis model, EP2−/− mice exhibited a higher percentage of F4/80high/CD11bhigh cells and greater expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR) in both the blood and the peritoneal cavity. Subcutaneous injection of the PGE2 analog misoprostol decreased M-CSFR expression in bone marrow cells and reduced the number of peritoneal macrophages in wild-type mice but not EP2−/− mice. The suppressive effect of EP2 ligation on in vitro macrophage maturation was mimicked by a selective protein kinase A agonist. Our findings reveal a novel role for PGE2/EP2/protein kinase A signaling in the suppression of macrophage maturation. PMID:22234697

  17. The involvement of Gab1 and PI 3-kinase in {beta}1 integrin signaling in keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwano, Yoshihiro; Fujimoto, Manabu . E-mail: fujimoto-m@umin.ac.jp; Watanabe, Rei; Ishiura, Nobuko; Nakashima, Hiroko; Komine, Mayumi; Hamazaki, Tatsuo S.; Tamaki, Kunihiko; Okochi, Hitoshi

    2007-09-14

    The control of the stem cell compartment in epidermis is closely linked to the regulation of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. {beta}1 integrins are expressed 2-fold higher by stem cells than transit-amplifying cells. Signaling from these {beta}1 integrins is critical for the regulation of the epidermal stem cell compartment. To clarify the functional relevance of this differential expression of {beta}1 integrins, we established HaCaT cells with high {beta}1integrin expression by repeated flow cytometric sorting of this population from the parental cell line. In these obtained cells expressing {beta}1 integrins by 5-fold, MAPK activation was markedly increased. Regarding the upstream of MAPK, Gab1 phosphorylation was also higher with high {beta}1 integrin expression, while Shc phosphorylation was not altered. In addition, enhanced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation was also observed. These observations suggest that Gab1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase play pivotal roles in the {beta}1 integrin-mediated regulation of the epidermal stem cell compartment.

  18. The Orphan Tyrosine Kinase Receptor, ROR2, Mediates Wnt5A Signaling in Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Michael P.; Fiori, Jennifer L.; Xu, Mai; Carter, Arnell D.; Frank, Brittany P.; Camilli, Tura C.; French, Amanda D.; Dissanayake, Samudra K.; Indig, Fred E.; Bernier, Michel; Taub, Dennis D.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Weeraratna, Ashani T.

    2009-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase receptors represent targets of great interest for cancer therapy. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the importance of the orphan tyrosine kinase receptor, ROR2, in melanoma progression. Using melanoma tissue microarrays we show that ROR2 is expressed predominantly in metastatic melanoma. Because ROR2 has been shown to specifically interact with the non-canonical Wnt ligand, Wnt5A, this corroborates our previous data implicating Wnt5A as a mediator of melanoma metastasis. We show here that increases in Wnt5A cause increases in ROR2 expression, as well as the PKC-dependent, clathrin-mediated internalization of ROR2. WNT5A knockdown by siRNA decreases ROR2 expression, but silencing of ROR2 has no effect on WNT5A levels. ROR2 knockdown does, however, result in a decrease in signaling downstream of Wnt5A. Using in vitro and in vivo metastasis assays we demonstrate that ROR2 is necessary for the Wnt5A-mediated metastasis of melanoma cells. These data imply that ROR2 may represent a novel target for melanoma therapy. PMID:19802008

  19. High fat diet induced obesity alters ovarian phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling gene expression.

    PubMed

    Nteeba, J; Ross, J W; Perfield, J W; Keating, A F

    2013-12-01

    Insulin regulates ovarian phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3 K) signaling, important for primordial follicle viability and growth activation. This study investigated diet-induced obesity impacts on: (1) insulin receptor (Insr) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs1); (2) PI3K components (Kit ligand (Kitlg), kit (c-Kit), protein kinase B alpha (Akt1) and forkhead transcription factor subfamily 3 (Foxo3a)); (3) xenobiotic biotransformation (microsomal epoxide hydrolase (Ephx1), Cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1 (Cyp2e1), Glutathione S-transferase (Gst) isoforms mu (Gstm) and pi (Gstp)) and (4) microRNA's 184, 205, 103 and 21 gene expression. INSR, GSTM and GSTP protein levels were also measured. Obese mouse ovaries had decreased Irs1, Foxo3a, Cyp2e1, MiR-103, and MiR-21 but increased Kitlg, Akt1, and miR-184 levels relative to lean littermates. These results support that diet-induced obesity potentially impairs ovarian function through aberrant gene expression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High fat diet induced obesity alters ovarian phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Nteeba, J.; Ross, J.W.; Perfield, J.W.; Keating, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin regulates ovarian phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, important for primordial follicle viability and growth activation. This study investigated diet-induced obesity impacts on: 1) insulin receptor (Insr) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs1); 2) PI3K components (Kit ligand (Kitlg), kit (c-Kit), protein kinase B alpha (Akt1) and forkhead transcription factor subfamily 3 (Foxo3a)); 3) xenobiotic biotransformation (microsomal epoxide hydrolase (Ephx1), Cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1 (Cyp2e1), Glutathione S-transferase (Gst) isoforms mu (Gstm) and pi (Gstp)) and 4) microRNA’s 184, 205, 103 and 21 gene expression. INSR, GSTM and GSTP protein levels were also measured. Obese mouse ovaries had decreased Irs1, Foxo3a, Cyp2e1, MiR-103, and MiR-21 but increased Kitlg, Akt1, and miR-184 levels relative to lean littermates. These results support that diet-induced obesity potentially impairs ovarian function through aberrant gene expression. PMID:23954404

  1. Loss of dual leucine zipper kinase signaling is protective in animal models of neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Le Pichon, Claire E; Meilandt, William J; Dominguez, Sara; Solanoy, Hilda; Lin, Han; Ngu, Hai; Gogineni, Alvin; Sengupta Ghosh, Arundhati; Jiang, Zhiyu; Lee, Seung-Hye; Maloney, Janice; Gandham, Vineela D; Pozniak, Christine D; Wang, Bei; Lee, Sebum; Siu, Michael; Patel, Snahel; Modrusan, Zora; Liu, Xingrong; Rudhard, York; Baca, Miriam; Gustafson, Amy; Kaminker, Josh; Carano, Richard A D; Huang, Eric J; Foreman, Oded; Weimer, Robby; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly; Lewcock, Joseph W

    2017-08-16

    Hallmarks of chronic neurodegenerative disease include progressive synaptic loss and neuronal cell death, yet the cellular pathways that underlie these processes remain largely undefined. We provide evidence that dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) is an essential regulator of the progressive neurodegeneration that occurs in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. We demonstrate that DLK/c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling was increased in mouse models and human patients with these disorders and that genetic deletion of DLK protected against axon degeneration, neuronal loss, and functional decline in vivo. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of DLK activity was sufficient to attenuate the neuronal stress response and to provide functional benefit even in the presence of ongoing disease. These findings demonstrate that pathological activation of DLK is a conserved mechanism that regulates neurodegeneration and suggest that DLK inhibition may be a potential approach to treat multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  2. Fasting potentiates the anticancer activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors by strengthening MAPK signaling inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Caffa, Irene; D'Agostino, Vito; Damonte, Patrizia; Soncini, Debora; Cea, Michele; Monacelli, Fiammetta; Odetti, Patrizio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Provenzani, Alessandro; Longo, Valter D.; Nencioni, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are now the mainstay of treatment in many types of cancer. However, their benefit is frequently short-lived, mandating the search for safe potentiation strategies. Cycles of fasting enhance the activity of chemo-radiotherapy in preclinical cancer models and dietary approaches based on fasting are currently explored in clinical trials. Whether combining fasting with TKIs is going to be potentially beneficial remains unknown. Here we report that starvation conditions increase the ability of commonly administered TKIs, including erlotinib, gefitinib, lapatinib, crizotinib and regorafenib, to block cancer cell growth, to inhibit the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and to strengthen E2F-dependent transcription inhibition. In cancer xenografts models, both TKIs and cycles of fasting slowed tumor growth, but, when combined, these interventions were significantly more effective than either type of treatment alone. In conclusion, cycles of fasting or of specifically designed fasting-mimicking diets should be evaluated in clinical studies as a means to potentiate the activity of TKIs in clinical use. PMID:25909220

  3. Activation of p38 and Erk Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Signaling in Ocular Rosacea.

    PubMed

    Wladis, Edward J; Swamy, Supraja; Herrmann, Alyssa; Yang, Jinhong; Carlson, J Andrew; Adam, Alejandro P

    2017-02-01

    Rosacea-related cutaneous inflammation is a common cause of ocular surface disease. Currently, there are no specific pharmacologic therapies to treat ocular rosacea. Here, we aimed at determining the differences in intracellular signaling activity in eyelid skin from patients with and without ocular rosacea. This was an observational, comparative case series including 21 patients undergoing lower lid ectropion surgery at one practice during 2013 and 2014 (18 patients with rosacea, 13 control patients), and 24 paraffin-embedded archival samples from Albany Medical Center, selected randomly (12 patients with rosacea, 12 control patients). Cutaneous biopsies resulting from elective lower lid ectropion surgery were analyzed by Proteome Profiler Human Phospho-Kinase Array, Western blot, and/or immunohistochemistry. Samples derived from ocular rosacea patients showed increased levels of phosphorylated (active) p38 and Erk kinases. Phosphoproteins were mainly localized to the epidermis of affected eyelids. This finding provides a novel potential therapeutic target for treatment of ocular rosacea and possibly other forms of rosacea. Further testing is required to determine if p38 and Erk activation have a causal role in ocular rosacea. The selective activation of keratinocytes in the affected skin suggests that topical pathway inhibition may be an effective treatment that will ultimately prevent ocular surface damage due to ocular rosacea.

  4. Targeting protein kinase-b3 (akt3) signaling in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V; Robertson, Gavin P

    2017-03-01

    Deregulated Akt activity leading to apoptosis inhibition, enhanced proliferation and drug resistance has been shown to be responsible for 35-70% of advanced metastatic melanomas. Of the three isoforms, the majority of melanomas have elevated Akt3 expression and activity. Hence, potent inhibitors targeting Akt are urgently required, which is possible only if (a) the factors responsible for the failure of Akt inhibitors in clinical trials is known; and (b) the information pertaining to synergistically acting targeted therapeutics is available. Areas covered: This review provides a brief introduction of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and its role in melanoma development. In addition, the functional role of key Akt pathway members such as PRAS40, GSK3 kinases, WEE1 kinase in melanoma development are discussed together with strategies to modulate these targets. Efficacy and safety of Akt inhibitors is also discussed. Finally, the mechanism(s) through which Akt leads to drug resistance is discussed in this expert opinion review. Expert opinion: Even though Akt play key roles in melanoma tumor progression, cell survival and drug resistance, many gaps still exist that require further understanding of Akt functions, especially in the (a) metastatic spread; (b) circulating melanoma cells survival; and (c) melanoma stem cells growth.

  5. Polycystin-1 Induces Resistance to Apoptosis through the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Boca, Manila; Distefano, Gianfranco; Boletta, Alessandra; Qian, Feng; Bhunia, Anil K.; Germino, Gregory G.

    2006-01-01

    Polycystin-1 (PC-1), the PKD1 gene product, is a large receptor whose expression in renal epithelial cells results in resistance to apoptosis and tubulogenesis, a model consistent with the phenotype observed in patients. This study links PC-1 expression to a signaling pathway that is known to be both antiapoptotic and important for normal tubulogenesis. This study found that PC-1 expression results in phosphorylation of Akt and downstream effectors and that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitors prevent this process. In addition, it is shown that dominant negative Akt can revert PC-1-induced protection from apoptosis. Furthermore, it was observed that increased PI3-K β activity in PC-1- expressing MDCK cells seems to be dependent on both tyrosine-kinase activity and heterotrimeric G proteins. It also was found that PC-1-induced tubulogenesis is inhibited by PI3-K inhibitors. Taken together, these data suggest that the PI3-K/Akt cascade may be a central modulator of PC-1 function and that its deregulation might be important in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:16452497

  6. Early postnatal stress alters extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in the corticolimbic system modulating emotional circuitry in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shuhei; Saito, Yasuhiro; Yanagawa, Yoshiki; Otani, Satoru; Hiraide, Sachiko; Shimamura, Kei-ichi; Matsumoto, Machiko; Togashi, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    The present study elucidated whether early life stress alters the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway that underlies fear retrieval and fear extinction based on a contextual fear conditioning paradigm, using a juvenile stress model. Levels of phospho-ERK (pERK), the active form of ERK, increased after fear retrieval in the hippocampal CA1 region but not in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). ERK activation in the CA1 following fear retrieval was not observed in adult rats who received aversive footshock (FS) stimuli during the second postnatal period (2wFS), which exhibited low levels of freezing. In fear extinction, pERK levels in the CA1 were increased by repeated extinction trials, but they were not altered after extinction retrieval. In contrast, pERK levels in the mPFC did not change during extinction training, but were enhanced after extinction retrieval. These findings were compatible in part with electrophysiological data showing that synaptic transmission in the CA1 field and mPFC was enhanced during extinction training and extinction retrieval, respectively. ERK activation in the CA1 and mPFC associated with extinction processes did not occur in rats that received FS stimuli during the third postnatal period (3wFS), which exhibited sustained freezing behavior. The repressed ERK signaling and extinction deficit observed in the 3wFS group were ameliorated by treatment with the partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist D-cycloserine. These findings suggest that early postnatal stress induced the downregulation of ERK signaling in distinct brain regions through region-specific regulation, which may lead to increased behavioral abnormalities or emotional vulnerabilities in adulthood.

  7. Phosphorylation of Tyr245 in the open-inhibited state of Abelson kinase does not induce downstream signaling.

    PubMed

    Skora, Lukasz; Kempf, Dominique; Mestan, Jürgen; D'Orazio, Daniel; Jahnke, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Binding of tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib was shown to induce a novel open-inhibited conformation of BCR-ABL, in which Tyr245 is exposed and prone to phosphorylation. To evaluate whether this leads to priming of the kinase in cellular systems, we probed activation of downstream signaling as a result of Tyr245 phosphorylation in a series of cellular washout experiments. While a spike in Tyr245 phosphorylation was observed both in overexpression and endogenous settings, no induction of downstream signaling was detected, showing that the priming hypothesis is not relevant for the therapeutic situation.

  8. c-Jun-N-Terminal Kinase Signaling Is Involved in Cyclosporine-Induced Epithelial Phenotypic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Pallet, Nicolas; Thervet, Eric; Anglicheau, Dany

    2012-01-01

    Tubular epithelial cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of chronic nephropathies. Previous toxicogenomic studies have demonstrated that cyclosporine- (CsA-) induced epithelial phenotypic changes (EPCs) are reminiscent of an incomplete epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in a TGF-β-independent manner. Furthermore, we identified endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as a potential mechanism that may participate in the modulation of tubular cell plasticity during CsA exposure. Because c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), which is activated during ER stress, is implicated in kidney fibrogenesis, we undertook the current study to identify the role of JNK signaling in EPCs induced by CsA. In primary cultures of human renal epithelial cells, CsA activates JNK signaling, and the treatment with a JNK inhibitor reduces the occurrence of cell shape changes, E-cadherin downregulation, cell migration, and Snail-1 expression. Our results suggest that CsA activates JNK signaling, which, in turn, may participate in the morphological alterations through the regulation of Snail-1 expression. PMID:22028950

  9. c-Jun-N-Terminal Kinase Signaling Is Involved in Cyclosporine-Induced Epithelial Phenotypic Changes.

    PubMed

    Pallet, Nicolas; Thervet, Eric; Anglicheau, Dany

    2012-01-01

    Tubular epithelial cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of chronic nephropathies. Previous toxicogenomic studies have demonstrated that cyclosporine- (CsA-) induced epithelial phenotypic changes (EPCs) are reminiscent of an incomplete epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in a TGF-β-independent manner. Furthermore, we identified endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as a potential mechanism that may participate in the modulation of tubular cell plasticity during CsA exposure. Because c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), which is activated during ER stress, is implicated in kidney fibrogenesis, we undertook the current study to identify the role of JNK signaling in EPCs induced by CsA. In primary cultures of human renal epithelial cells, CsA activates JNK signaling, and the treatment with a JNK inhibitor reduces the occurrence of cell shape changes, E-cadherin downregulation, cell migration, and Snail-1 expression. Our results suggest that CsA activates JNK signaling, which, in turn, may participate in the morphological alterations through the regulation of Snail-1 expression.

  10. Cardioprotective kinase signaling to subsarcolemmal and interfibrillar mitochondria is mediated by caveolar structures.

    PubMed

    García-Niño, Wylly Ramsés; Correa, Francisco; Rodríguez-Barrena, Julia Isabel; León-Contreras, Juan Carlos; Buelna-Chontal, Mabel; Soria-Castro, Elizabeth; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Zazueta, Cecilia

    2017-03-01

    The demonstration that caveolin-3 overexpression reduces myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and our own finding that multiprotein signaling complexes increase in mitochondria in association with caveolin-3 levels, led us to investigate the contribution of caveolae-driven extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) on maintaining the function of cardiac mitochondrial subpopulations from reperfused hearts subjected to postconditioning (PostC). Rat hearts were isolated and subjected to ischemia/reperfusion and to PostC. Enhanced cardiac function, reduced infarct size and preserved ultrastructure of cardiomyocytes were associated with increased formation of caveolar structures, augmented levels of caveolin-3 and mitochondrial ERK1/2 activation in PostC hearts in both subsarcolemmal (SSM) and interfibrillar (IFM) subpopulations. Disruption of caveolae with methyl-β-cyclodextrin abolished cardioprotection in PostC hearts and diminished pho-ERK1/2 gold-labeling in both mitochondrial subpopulations in correlation with suppression of resistance to permeability transition pore opening. Also, differences between the mitochondrial subpopulations in the setting of PostC were evaluated. Caveolae disruption with methyl-β-cyclodextrin abolished the cardioprotective effect of postconditioning by inhibiting the interaction of ERK1/2 with mitochondria and promoted decline in mitochondrial function. SSM, which are particularly sensitive to reperfusion damage, take advantage of their location in cardiomyocyte boundary and benefit from the cardioprotective signaling driven by caveolae, avoiding injury propagation.

  11. Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase signaling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Amoebozoa constitute one of the primary divisions of eukaryotes, encompassing taxa of both biomedical and evolutionary importance, yet its genomic diversity remains largely unsampled. Here we present an analysis of a whole genome assembly of Acanthamoeba castellanii (Ac) the first representative from a solitary free-living amoebozoan. Results Ac encodes 15,455 compact intron-rich genes, a significant number of which are predicted to have arisen through inter-kingdom lateral gene transfer (LGT). A majority of the LGT candidates have undergone a substantial degree of intronization and Ac appears to have incorporated them into established transcriptional programs. Ac manifests a complex signaling and cell communication repertoire, including a complete tyrosine kinase signaling toolkit and a comparable diversity of predicted extracellular receptors to that found in the facultatively multicellular dictyostelids. An important environmental host of a diverse range of bacteria and viruses, Ac utilizes a diverse repertoire of predicted pattern recognition receptors, many with predicted orthologous functions in the innate immune systems of higher organisms. Conclusions Our analysis highlights the important role of LGT in the biology of Ac and in the diversification of microbial eukaryotes. The early evolution of a key signaling facility implicated in the evolution of metazoan multicellularity strongly argues for its emergence early in the Unikont lineage. Overall, the availability of an Ac genome should aid in deciphering the biology of the Amoebozoa and facilitate functional genomic studies in this important model organism and environmental host. PMID:23375108

  12. Bruton's tyrosine kinase regulates TLR9 but not TLR7 signaling in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingming; Lau, Kai-Yeung; Jung, Jimmy; Ravindran, Palanikumar; Barrat, Franck J

    2014-04-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) represent a key cell type for both innate and adaptive immunity. PDCs express both TLR7 and TLR9 and the recognition of nucleic acids by these two receptors triggers the production of a large amount of type-I IFN and the induction of PDC maturation into APCs. This unique feature of PDCs is at the basis of clinical development of both TLR7 and TLR9 agonists for infectious diseases, allergy, cancer, and asthma. However, TLR7 and TLR9 recognition of self-nucleic acids is linked to many autoimmune diseases including lupus, and a better understanding of the signaling pathways of these two receptors in PDCs is thus important. We have identified Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) as an important player for TLR9 but not TLR7 signaling in human PDCs. Blocking Btk using a specific inhibitor leads to the reduction of all TLR9-induced responses in PDCs, including cytokine production and expression of costimulatory molecules, while this has no impact on the TLR7 response. This identifies Btk as a key molecule in TLR9 signaling in PDCs and is the first demonstration that the TLR7 and TLR9 pathways can be dissociated in human PDCs. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase involved in NGF/VEGF-induced neuroprotective effect.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Ping; Liu, Xin-Feng; Liu, Huai-Jun; Xu, Ge-Lin; Ma, Yu-Ping

    2008-03-28

    Compelling evidence has shown that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is widely expressed in many tissues, including the brain. In the present work, we investigated the temporospatial alterations of ERK1 immunoreactivity in hippocampus and perifocal cortex, and the expression involved in NGF/VEGF-induced neuroprotective effect. We demonstrated that ERK1 expression was first increased in hippocampal CA3/DG 1 h after reperfusion, then it was also increased 6 h after reperfusion in other brain regions, with a peak at day 1-3, and then gradually decreased to basal level at day 14. The expression of caspase-3 was strongly increased 1 h after reperfusion, with peak demonstrated at 3d. NGF/VEGF significantly inhibited the expression of ERK1 and caspase-3. These results suggest that ERK1 signaling pathway may be involved in neuronal cell death and NGF/VEGF-induced neuroprotective effect and there appeared an association between ERK and caspase-3. Inhibition of the ERK signaling pathway might therefore provide an efficient way to prevent neuronal cell death after ischemic cerebral injuries.

  14. Tyrosine Kinase Signal Modulation: A Matter of H2O2 Membrane Permeability?

    PubMed Central

    Bertolotti, Milena; Bestetti, Stefano; García-Manteiga, Jose M.; Medraño-Fernandez, Iria; Dal Mas, Andrea; Malosio, Maria Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract H2O2 produced by extracellular NADPH oxidases regulates tyrosine kinase signaling inhibiting phosphatases. How does it cross the membrane to reach its cytosolic targets? Silencing aquaporin-8 (AQP8), but not AQP3 or AQP4, inhibited H2O2 entry into HeLa cells. Re-expression of AQP8 with silencing-resistant vectors rescued H2O2 transport, whereas a C173A-AQP8 mutant failed to do so. Lowering AQP8 levels affected H2O2 entry into the endoplasmic reticulum, but not into mitochondria. AQP8 silencing also inhibited the H2O2 spikes and phosphorylation of downstream proteins induced by epidermal growth factor. These observations lead to the hypothesis that H2O2 does not freely diffuse across the plasma membrane and AQP8 and other H2O2 transporters are potential targets for manipulating key signaling pathways in cancer and degenerative diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1447–1451. PMID:23541115

  15. Hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine couples Ras to activation of Raf protein kinase during mitogenic signal transduction.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, H; Erhardt, P; Troppmair, J; Diaz-Meco, M T; Sithanandam, G; Rapp, U R; Moscat, J; Cooper, G M

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the relationship between hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and activation of the Raf-1 protein kinase in Ras-mediated transduction of mitogenic signals. As previously reported, cotransfection of a PC-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) expression plasmid bypassed the block to cell proliferation resulting from expression of the dominant inhibitory mutant Ras N-17. In contrast, PC-PLC failed to bypass the inhibitory effect of dominant negative Raf mutants, suggesting that PC-PLC functions downstream of Ras but upstream of Raf. Consistent with this hypothesis, treatment of quiescent cells with exogenous PC-PLC induced Raf activation, even when normal Ras function was blocked by Ras N-17 expression. Further, activation of Raf in response to mitogenic growth factors was blocked by inhibition of endogenous PC-PLC. Taken together, these results indicate that hydrolysis of PC mediates Raf activation in response to mitogenic growth factors. Images PMID:8246981

  16. R3 receptor tyrosine phosphatases: conserved regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and tubular organ development.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Mili; Zinn, Kai

    2015-01-01

    R3 receptor tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) are characterized by extracellular domains composed solely of long chains of fibronectin type III repeats, and by the presence of a single phosphatase domain. There are five proteins in mammals with this structure, two in Drosophila and one in Caenorhabditis elegans. R3 RPTPs are selective regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, and a number of different RTKs have been shown to be direct targets for their phosphatase activities. Genetic studies in both invertebrate model systems and in mammals have shown that R3 RPTPs are essential for tubular organ development. They also have important functions during nervous system development. R3 RPTPs are likely to be tumor suppressors in a number of types of cancer.

  17. R3 receptor tyrosine phosphatases: conserved regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and tubular organ development

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Mili; Zinn, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Summary R3 receptor tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) are characterized by extracellular domains composed solely of long chains of fibronectin type III repeats, and by the presence of a single phosphatase domain. There are five proteins in mammals with this structure, two in Drosophila, and one in Caenorhabditis elegans. R3 RPTPs are selective regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, and a number of different RTKs have been shown to be direct targets for their phosphatase activities. Genetic studies in both invertebrate model systems and in mammals have shown that R3 RPTPs are essential for tubular organ development. They also have important functions during nervous system development. R3 RPTPs are likely to be tumor suppressors in a number of types of cancer. PMID:25242281

  18. Aurora A kinase activates YAP signaling in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, S-S; Yamaguchi, H; Xia, W; Lim, S-O; Khotskaya, Y; Wu, Y; Chang, W-C; Liu, Q; Hung, M-C

    2017-03-02

    The Yes-associated protein (YAP) is an effector that transduces the output of the Hippo pathway to transcriptional modulation. Considering the role of YAP in cancers, this protein has emerged as a key node in malignancy development. In this study, we determined that Aurora A kinase acts as a positive regulator for YAP-mediated transcriptional machinery. Specifically, YAP associates with Aurora A predominantly in the nucleus. Activation of Aurora A can impinge on YAP activity through direct phosphorylation. Moreover, aberrant expression of YAP and Aurora A signaling is highly correlated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We herein provide evidence to establish the functional relevance of this newly discovered regulatory axis in TNBC.

  19. Arg kinase signaling in dendrite and synapse stabilization pathways: memory, cocaine sensitivity, and stress.

    PubMed

    Kerrisk, Meghan E; Koleske, Anthony J

    2013-11-01

    The Abl2/Arg nonreceptor tyrosine kinase is enriched in dendritic spines where it is essential for maintaining dendrite and synapse stability in the postnatal mouse brain. Arg is activated downstream of integrin α3β1 receptors and it regulates the neuronal actin cytoskeleton by directly binding F-actin and via phosphorylation of substrates including p190RhoGAP and cortactin. Neurons in mice lacking Arg or integrin α3β1 develop normally through postnatal day 21 (P21), however by P42 mice exhibit major reductions in dendrite arbor size and complexity, and lose dendritic spines and synapses. As a result, mice with loss of Arg and Arg-dependent signaling pathways have impairments in memory tasks, heightened sensitivity to cocaine, and vulnerability to corticosteroid-induced neuronal remodeling. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms of Arg regulation may lead to therapeutic approaches to treat human psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases in which neuronal structure is destabilized.

  20. Lung epithelial cell focal adhesion kinase signaling inhibits lung injury and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Amanda K; Agarwal, Manisha; Jia, Shijing; Kim, Kevin K

    2017-05-01

    Progressive pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating consequence of many acute and chronic insults to the lung. Lung injury leads to alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) death, destruction of the basement membrane, and activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). There is subsequent resolution of the injury and a coordinated and concurrent initiation of fibrosis. Both of these processes may involve activation of similar intracellular signaling pathways regulated in part by dynamic changes to the extracellular matrix. Matrix signaling can augment the profibrotic fibroblast response to TGF-β. However, similar matrix/integrin signaling pathways may also be involved in the inhibition of ongoing TGF-β-induced AEC apoptosis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an integrin-associated signaling molecule expressed by many cell types. We used mice with AEC-specific FAK deletion to isolate the epithelial aspect of integrin signaling in the bleomycin model of lung injury and fibrosis. Mice with AEC-specific deletion of FAK did not exhibit spontaneous lung injury but did have significantly greater terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP-mediated nick-end labeling-positive cells (18.6 vs. 7.1) per ×200 field, greater bronchoalveolar lavage protein (3.2 vs. 1.8 mg/ml), and significantly greater death (77 vs. 19%) after bleomycin injury compared with littermate control mice. Within primary AECs, activated FAK directly associates with caspase-8 and inhibits activation of the caspase cascade resulting in less apoptosis in response to TGF-β. Our studies support a model in which dynamic changes to the extracellular matrix after injury promote fibroblast activation and inhibition of epithelial cell apoptosis in response to TGF-β through FAK activation potentially complicating attempts to nonspecifically target this pathway for antifibrotic therapy. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Amplification of IL-21 signalling pathway through Bruton's tyrosine kinase in human B cell activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheau-Pey; Iwata, Shigeru; Nakayamada, Shingo; Niiro, Hiroaki; Jabbarzadeh-Tabrizi, Siamak; Kondo, Masahiro; Kubo, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Maiko; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2015-08-01

    B cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. The role of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) in cytokine-induced human B cell differentiation and class-switch recombination remains incompletely defined. This study analysed the effect of Btk on human activated B cells. Purified B cells from healthy subjects were stimulated with B cell receptor (BCR) and other stimuli with or without a Btk inhibitor and gene expression was measured. The B cell line BJAB was used to assess Btk-associated signalling cascades. Phosphorylated Btk (p-Btk) in peripheral blood B cells obtained from 10 healthy subjects and 41 patients with RA was measured by flow cytometry and compared with patient backgrounds. IL-21 signalling, in concert with BCR, CD40 and BAFF signals, led to robust expression of differentiation- and class-switch DNA recombination-related genes and IgG production in human B cells, all of which were significantly suppressed by the Btk inhibitor. Although phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 was induced by co-stimulation with IL-21, BCR and CD40, STAT1 phosphorylation in the nucleus, but not in the cytoplasm, was exclusively impaired by Btk blockade. High levels of p-Btk were noted in B cells of RA patients compared with controls and they correlated significantly with titres of RF among RF-positive patients. The findings elucidate a model in which Btk not only plays a fundamental role in the regulation of BCR signalling, but may also mediate crosstalk with cytokine signalling pathways through regulation of IL-21-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 in the nuclei of human B cells. Btk appears to have pathological relevance in RA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Bruton's tyrosine kinase mediated signaling enhances leukemogenesis in a mouse model for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kil, Laurens P; de Bruijn, Marjolein Jw; van Hulst, Jennifer Ac; Langerak, Anton W; Yuvaraj, Saravanan; Hendriks, Rudi W

    2013-01-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) signals from the B cell receptor (BCR) play a major role in disease development and progression. In this light, new therapies that specifically target signaling molecules downstream of the BCR continue to be developed. While first studies on the selective small molecule inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), Ibrutinib (PCI-32765), demonstrated that Btk inhibition sensitizes CLL cells to apoptosis and alters their migratory behavior, these studies however did not address whether Btk-mediated signaling is involved in the process of CLL leukemogenesis. To investigate the requirement of Btk signaling for CLL development, we modulated Btk expression in the IgH.ETμ CLL mouse model, which is based on sporadic expression of the simian oncovirus SV40 T-antigen in mature B cells. To this end, we crossed IgH.ETμ mice on a Btk-deficient background or introduced a human Btk transgene (CD19-hBtk). Here we show that Btk deficiency fully abrogates CLL formation in IgH.ETμ mice, and that leukemias formed in Btk haplo-insufficient mice selectively expressed the wild-type Btk allele on their active X chromosome. Conversely, Btk overexpression accelerated CLL onset, increased mortality, and was associated with selection of non-stereotypical BCRs into CLL clones. Taken together, these data show that Btk expression represents an absolute prerequisite for CLL development and that Btk mediated signaling enhances leukemogenesis in mice. We therefore conclude that in CLL Btk expression levels set the threshold for malignant transformation.

  3. Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Protein Kinase C Signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Reveals Slt2 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)-dependent Phosphorylation of Eisosome Core Components*

    PubMed Central

    Mascaraque, Victoria; Hernáez, María Luisa; Jiménez-Sánchez, María; Hansen, Rasmus; Gil, Concha; Martín, Humberto; Cid, Víctor J.; Molina, María

    2013-01-01

    The cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway of the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been thoroughly studied as a paradigm of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. It consists of a classic MAPK module comprising the Bck1 MAPK kinase kinase, two redundant MAPK kinases (Mkk1 and Mkk2), and the Slt2 MAPK. This module is activated under a variety of stimuli related to cell wall homeostasis by Pkc1, the only member of the protein kinase C family in budding yeast. Quantitative phosphoproteomics based on stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture is a powerful tool for globally studying protein phosphorylation. Here we report an analysis of the yeast phosphoproteome upon overexpression of a PKC1 hyperactive allele that specifically activates CWI MAPK signaling in the absence of external stimuli. We found 82 phosphopeptides originating from 43 proteins that showed enhanced phosphorylation in these conditions. The MAPK S/T-P target motif was significantly overrepresented in these phosphopeptides. Hyperphosphorylated proteins provide putative novel targets of the Pkc1–cell wall integrity pathway involved in diverse functions such as the control of gene expression, protein synthesis, cytoskeleton maintenance, DNA repair, and metabolism. Remarkably, five components of the plasma-membrane-associated protein complex known as eisosomes were found among the up-regulated proteins. We show here that Pkc1-induced phosphorylation of the eisosome core components Pil1 and Lsp1 was not exerted directly by Pkc1, but involved signaling through the Slt2 MAPK module. PMID:23221999

  4. Epstein-Barr Virus BGLF4 Kinase Suppresses the Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Signaling Pathway▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiin-Tarng; Doong, Shin-Lian; Teng, Shu-Chun; Lee, Chung-Pei; Tsai, Ching-Hwa; Chen, Mei-Ru

    2009-01-01

    The BGLF4 protein kinase of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a member of the conserved family of herpesvirus protein kinases which, to some extent, have a function similar to that of the cellular cyclin-dependent kinase in regulating multiple cellular and viral substrates. In a yeast two-hybrid screening assay, a splicing variant of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) was found to interact with the BGLF4 protein. This interaction was defined further by coimmunoprecipitation in transfected cells and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down in vitro. Using reporter assays, we show that BGLF4 effectively suppresses the activities of the poly(I:C)-stimulated IFN-β promoter and IRF3-responsive element. Moreover, BGLF4 represses the poly(I:C)-stimulated expression of endogenous IFN-β mRNA and the phosphorylation of STAT1 at Tyr701. In searching for a possible mechanism, BGLF4 was shown not to affect the dimerization, nuclear translocation, or CBP recruitment of IRF3 upon poly(I:C) treatment. Notably, BGLF4 reduces the amount of active IRF3 recruited to the IRF3-responsive element containing the IFN-β promoter region in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. BGLF4 phosphorylates GST-IRF3 in vitro, but Ser339-Pro340 phosphorylation-dependent, Pin1-mediated downregulation is not responsible for the repression. Most importantly, we found that three proline-dependent phosphorylation sites at Ser123, Ser173, and Thr180, which cluster in a region between the DNA binding and IRF association domains of IRF3, contribute additively to the BGLF4-mediated repression of IRF3(5D) transactivation activity. IRF3 signaling is activated in reactivated EBV-positive NA cells, and the knockdown of BGLF4 further stimulates IRF3-responsive reporter activity. The data presented here thus suggest a novel mechanism by which herpesviral protein kinases suppress host innate immune responses and facilitate virus replication. PMID:19052084

  5. Modulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling reduces intimal hyperplasia in aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts.

    PubMed

    Hata, Jonathan A; Petrofski, Jason A; Schroder, Jacob N; Williams, Matthew L; Timberlake, Sarah H; Pippen, Anne; Corwin, Michael T; Solan, Amy K; Jakoi, Andre; Gehrig, Thomas R; Kontos, Christopher D; Milano, Carmelo A

    2005-06-01

    -derived growth factor-induced phosphorylation of Akt, a downstream effector of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. PTEN-treated vascular smooth muscle cells demonstrated decreased basal, platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated, and serum-stimulated proliferation. This study demonstrates that PTEN overexpression in aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts reduces intimal hyperplasia. The mechanism of this antiproliferative effect in vascular smooth muscle cells is likely due to inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling through Akt, with resultant decreases in vascular smooth muscle cell growth and survival. Therefore modulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway through PTEN overexpression might represent a novel therapy to prevent saphenous vein graft intimal hyperplasia after coronary artery bypass grafting.

  6. Early activation of mTORC1 signalling in response to mechanical overload is independent of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signalling

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Mitsunori; McCarthy, John J; Fedele, Mark J; Esser, Karyn A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) functions as a central integrator of a wide range of signals that modulate protein metabolism and cell growth. However, the contributions of individual pathways regulating mTORC1 activity in skeletal muscle are poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the regulatory mechanisms that contribute to mTORC1 activation during mechanical overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Consistent with previous studies, mechanical overload induced progressive hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle which was associated with significant increases in total RNA content and protein metabolism. mTORC1 was activated after a single day of overload as indicated by a significant increase in S6K1 phosphorylation at T389 and T421/S424. In contrast, Akt activity, as assessed by Akt phosphorylation status (T308 and S473), phosphorylation of direct downstream targets (glycogen synthase kinase 3 β, proline-rich Akt substrate 40 kDa and tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2)) and a kinase assay, was not significantly increased until 2–3 days of overload. Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity by wortmannin was sufficient to block insulin-dependent signalling but did not prevent the early activation of mTORC1 in response to overload. We identified that the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent pathway was activated at day 1 after overload. In addition, a target of MEK/ERK signalling, phosphorylation of TSC2 at S664, was also increased at this early time point. These observations demonstrate that in vivo, mTORC1 activation at the early phase of mechanical overload in skeletal muscle occurs independently of PI3K/Akt signalling and provide evidence that the MEK/ERK pathway may contribute to mTORC1 activation through phosphorylation of TSC2. PMID:21300751

  7. Role of p38 MAP Kinase Signal Transduction in Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Mintu; Koul, Sweaty

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) mediate a wide variety of cellular behaviors in response to extracellular stimuli. One of the main subgroups, the p38 MAP kinases, has been implicated in a wide range of complex biologic processes, such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell death, cell migration, and invasion. Dysregulation of p38 MAPK levels in patients are associated with advanced stages and short survival in cancer patients (e.g., prostate, breast, bladder, liver, and lung cancer). p38 MAPK plays a dual role as a regulator of cell death, and it can either mediate cell survival or cell death depending not only on the type of stimulus but also in a cell type specific manner. In addition to modulating cell survival, an essential role of p38 MAPK in modulation of cell migration and invasion offers a distinct opportunity to target this pathway with respect to tumor metastasis. The specific function of p38 MAPK appears to depend not only on the cell type but also on the stimuli and/or the isoform that is activated. p38 MAPK signaling pathway is activated in response to diverse stimuli and mediates its function by components downstream of p38. Extrapolation of the knowledge gained from laboratory findings is essential to address the clinical significance of p38 MAPK signaling pathways. The goal of this review is to provide an overview on recent progress made in defining the functions of p38 MAPK pathways with respect to solid tumor biology and generate testable hypothesis with respect to the role of p38 MAPK as an attractive target for intervention of solid tumors. PMID:24349632

  8. Teneurin-4 promotes cellular protrusion formation and neurite outgrowth through focal adhesion kinase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Nobuharu; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Chou, Joshua; de Vega, Susana; Mizuniwa, Chihiro; Sekimoto, Kaori; Adachi, Naoki; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Akazawa, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Teneurin-4 (Ten-4), a transmembrane protein, is highly expressed in the central nervous system; however, its cellular and molecular function in neuronal differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the function of Ten-4 in neurite outgrowth. Ten-4 expression was induced during neurite outgrowth of the neuroblastoma cell line Neuro-2a. Ten-4 protein was localized at the neurite growth cones. Knockdown of Ten-4 expression in Neuro-2a cells decreased the formation of the filopodia-like protrusions and the length of individual neurites. Conversely, overexpression of Ten-4 promoted filopodia-like protrusion formation. In addition, knockdown and overexpression of Ten-4 reduced and elevated the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Rho-family small GTPases, Cdc42 and Rac1, key molecules for the membranous protrusion formation downstream of FAK, respectively. Inhibition of the activation of FAK and neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP), which is a downstream regulator of FAK and Cdc42, blocked protrusion formation by Ten-4 overexpression. Further, Ten-4 colocalized with phosphorylated FAK in the filopodia-like protrusion regions. Together, our findings show that Ten-4 is a novel positive regulator of cellular protrusion formation and neurite outgrowth through the FAK signaling pathway.—Suzuki, N., Numakawa, T., Chou, J., de Vega, S., Mizuniwa, C., Sekimoto, K., Adachi, N., Kunugi, H., Arikawa-Hirasawa, E., Yamada, Y., Akazawa, C. Teneurin-4 promotes cellular protrusion formation and neurite outgrowth through focal adhesion kinase signaling. PMID:24344332

  9. Huntingtin Subcellular Localisation Is Regulated by Kinase Signalling Activity in the StHdhQ111 Model of HD

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Kathryn R.; Brooks, Simon P.; Dunnett, Stephen B.; Jones, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised primarily by motor abnormalities, and is caused by an expanded polyglutamine repeat in the huntingtin protein. Huntingtin dynamically shuttles between subcellular compartments, and the mutant huntingtin protein is mislocalised to cell nuclei, where it may interfere with nuclear functions, such as transcription. However, the mechanism by which mislocalisation of mutant huntingtin occurs is currently unknown. An immortalised embryonic striatal cell model of HD (StHdhQ111) was stimulated with epidermal growth factor in order to determine whether the subcellular localisation of huntingtin is dependent on kinase signalling pathway activation. Aberrant phosphorylation of AKT and MEK signalling pathways was identified in cells carrying mutant huntingtin. Activity within these pathways was found to contribute to the regulation of huntingtin and mutant huntingtin localisation, as well as to the expression of immediate-early genes. We propose that altered kinase signalling is a phenotype of Huntington’s disease that occurs prior to cell death; specifically, that altered kinase signalling may influence huntingtin localisation, which in turn may impact upon nuclear processes such as transcriptional regulation. Aiming to restore the balance of activity between kinase signalling networks may therefore prove to be an effective approach to delaying Huntington’s disease symptom development and progression. PMID:26660732

  10. GCN-2 dependent inhibition of protein synthesis activates osmosensitive gene transcription via WNK and Ste20 kinase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Elaine Choung-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Increased gpdh-1 transcription is required for accumulation of the organic osmolyte glycerol and survival of Caenorhabditis elegans during hypertonic stress. Our previous work has shown that regulators of gpdh-1 (rgpd) gene knockdown constitutively activates gpdh-1 expression. Fifty-five rgpd genes play essential roles in translation suggesting that inhibition of protein synthesis is an important signal for regulating osmoprotective gene transcription. We demonstrate here that translation is reduced dramatically by hypertonic stress or knockdown of rgpd genes encoding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs). Toxin-induced inhibition of translation also activates gpdh-1 expression. Hypertonicity-induced translation inhibition is mediated by general control nonderepressible (GCN)-2 kinase signaling and eIF-2α phosphoryation. Loss of gcn-1 or gcn-2 function prevents eIF-2α phosphorylation, completely blocks reductions in translation, and inhibits gpdh-1 transcription. gpdh-1 expression is regulated by the highly conserved with-no-lysine kinase (WNK) and Ste20 kinases WNK-1 and GCK-3, which function in the GCN-2 signaling pathway downstream from eIF-2α phosphorylation. Our previous work has shown that hypertonic stress causes rapid and dramatic protein damage in C. elegans and that inhibition of translation reduces this damage. The current studies demonstrate that reduced translation also serves as an essential signal for activation of WNK-1/GCK-3 kinase signaling and subsequent transcription of gpdh-1 and possibly other osmoprotective genes. PMID:23076791

  11. GCN-2 dependent inhibition of protein synthesis activates osmosensitive gene transcription via WNK and Ste20 kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Elaine Choung-Hee; Strange, Kevin

    2012-12-15

    Increased gpdh-1 transcription is required for accumulation of the organic osmolyte glycerol and survival of Caenorhabditis elegans during hypertonic stress. Our previous work has shown that regulators of gpdh-1 (rgpd) gene knockdown constitutively activates gpdh-1 expression. Fifty-five rgpd genes play essential roles in translation suggesting that inhibition of protein synthesis is an important signal for regulating osmoprotective gene transcription. We demonstrate here that translation is reduced dramatically by hypertonic stress or knockdown of rgpd genes encoding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs). Toxin-induced inhibition of translation also activates gpdh-1 expression. Hypertonicity-induced translation inhibition is mediated by general control nonderepressible (GCN)-2 kinase signaling and eIF-2α phosphoryation. Loss of gcn-1 or gcn-2 function prevents eIF-2α phosphorylation, completely blocks reductions in translation, and inhibits gpdh-1 transcription. gpdh-1 expression is regulated by the highly conserved with-no-lysine kinase (WNK) and Ste20 kinases WNK-1 and GCK-3, which function in the GCN-2 signaling pathway downstream from eIF-2α phosphorylation. Our previous work has shown that hypertonic stress causes rapid and dramatic protein damage in C. elegans and that inhibition of translation reduces this damage. The current studies demonstrate that reduced translation also serves as an essential signal for activation of WNK-1/GCK-3 kinase signaling and subsequent transcription of gpdh-1 and possibly other osmoprotective genes.

  12. Mitogenic signals and transforming potential of Nyk, a newly identified neural cell adhesion molecule-related receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, L; Kung, H J

    1995-01-01

    Nyk/Mer is a recently identified receptor tyrosine kinase with neural cell adhesion molecule-like structure (two immunoglobulin G-like domains and two fibronectin III-like domains) in its extracellular region and belongs to the Ufo/Axl family of receptors. The ligand for Nyk/Mer is presently unknown, as are the signal transduction pathways mediated by this receptor. We constructed and expressed a chimeric receptor (Fms-Nyk) composed of the extracellular domain of the human colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (Fms) and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of human Nyk/Mer in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts in order to investigate the mitogenic signaling and biochemical properties of Nyk/Mer. Colony-stimulating factor 1 stimulation of the Fms-Nyk chimeric receptor in transfected NIH 3T3 fibroblasts leads to a transformed phenotype and generates a proliferative response in the absence of other growth factors. We show that phospholipase C gamma, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/p70 S6 kinase, Shc, Grb2, Raf-1, and mitogen-activated protein kinase are downstream components of the Nyk/Mer signal transduction pathways. In addition, Nyk/Mer weakly activates p90rsk, while stress-activated protein kinase, Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP), and GAP-associated p62 and p190 proteins are not activated or tyrosine phosphorylated by Nyk/Mer. An analysis comparing the Nyk/Mer signal cascade with that of the epidermal growth factor receptor indicates substrate preferences by these two receptors. Our results provide a detailed description of the Nyk/Mer signaling pathways. Given the structural similarity between the Ufo/Axl family receptors, some of the information may also be applied to other members of this receptor tyrosine kinase family. PMID:8524223

  13. Signal Integration at Elongation Factor 2 Kinase: THE ROLES OF CALCIUM, CALMODULIN, AND SER-500 PHOSPHORYLATION.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Clint D J; Giles, David H; Stancu, Gabriel; Chitjian, Catrina A; Ferguson, Scarlett B; Wellmann, Rebecca M; Kaoud, Tamer S; Ghose, Ranajeet; Dalby, Kevin N

    2017-02-03

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF-2K), the only calmodulin (CaM)-dependent member of the unique α-kinase family, impedes protein synthesis by phosphorylating eEF-2. We recently identified Thr-348 and Ser-500 as two key autophosphorylation sites within eEF-2K that regulate its activity. eEF-2K is regulated by Ca(2+) ions and multiple upstream signaling pathways, but how it integrates these signals into a coherent output, i.e. phosphorylation of eEF-2, is unclear. This study focuses on understanding how the post-translational phosphorylation of Ser-500 integrates with Ca(2+) and CaM to regulate eEF-2K. CaM is shown to be absolutely necessary for efficient activity of eEF-2K, and Ca(2+) is shown to enhance the affinity of CaM toward eEF-2K. Ser-500 is found to undergo autophosphorylation in cells treated with ionomycin and is likely also targeted by PKA. In vitro, autophosphorylation of Ser-500 is found to require Ca(2+) and CaM and is inhibited by mutations that compromise binding of phosphorylated Thr-348 to an allosteric binding pocket on the kinase domain. A phosphomimetic Ser-500 to aspartic acid mutation (eEF-2K S500D) enhances the rate of activation (Thr-348 autophosphorylation) by 6-fold and lowers the EC50 for Ca(2+)/CaM binding to activated eEF-2K (Thr-348 phosphorylated) by 20-fold. This is predicted to result in an elevation of the cellular fraction of active eEF-2K. In support of this mechanism, eEF-2K knock-out MCF10A cells reconstituted with eEF-2K S500D display relatively high levels of phospho-eEF-2 under basal conditions. This study reports how phosphorylation of a regulatory site (Ser-500) integrates with Ca(2+) and CaM to influence eEF-2K activity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide Activation of the TPL-2/MEK/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade Is Regulated by IκB Kinase-Induced Proteolysis of NF-κB1 p105†

    PubMed Central

    Beinke, S.; Robinson, M. J.; Hugunin, M.; Ley, S. C.

    2004-01-01

    The MEK kinase TPL-2 (also known as Cot) is required for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade in macrophages and consequent upregulation of genes involved in innate immune responses. In resting cells, TPL-2 forms a stoichiometric complex with NF-κB1 p105, which negatively regulates its MEK kinase activity. Here, it is shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of primary macrophages causes the release of both long and short forms of TPL-2 from p105 and that TPL-2 MEK kinase activity is restricted to this p105-free pool. Activation of TPL-2, MEK, and ERK by LPS is also demonstrated to require proteasome-mediated proteolysis. p105 is known to be proteolysed by the proteasome following stimulus-induced phosphorylation of two serines in its PEST region by the IκB kinase (IKK) complex. Expression of a p105 point mutant, which is not susceptible to signal-induced proteolysis, in RAW264.7 macrophages impairs LPS-induced release of TPL-2 from p105 and its subsequent activation of MEK. Furthermore, expression of wild-type but not mutant p105 reconstitutes LPS stimulation of MEK and ERK phosphorylation in primary NF-κB1-deficient macrophages. Consistently, pharmacological blockade of IKK inhibits LPS-induced release of TPL-2 from p105 and TPL-2 activation. These data show that IKK-induced p105 proteolysis is essential for LPS activation of TPL-2, thus revealing a novel function of IKK in the regulation of the ERK MAP kinase cascade. PMID:15485931

  15. Targeting Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling in Mouse Models of Cardiomyopathy Caused by Lamin A/C Gene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Muchir, Antoine; Worman, Howard J.

    2016-01-01

    The most frequently occurring mutations in the gene encoding nuclear lamin A and nuclear lamin C cause striated muscle diseases virtually always involving the heart. In this review, we describe the approaches and methods used to discover that cardiomyopathy-causing lamin A/C gene mutations increase MAP kinase signaling in the heart and that this plays a role in disease pathogenesis. We review different mouse models of cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene mutations and how transcriptomic analysis of one model identified increased cardiac activity of the ERK1/2, JNK, and p38α MAP kinases. We describe methods used to measure the activity of these MAP kinases in mouse hearts and then discuss preclinical treatment protocols using pharmacological inhibitors to demonstrate their role in pathogenesis. Several of these kinase inhibitors are in clinical development and could potentially be used to treat human subjects with cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene mutations. PMID:26795484

  16. Neuronal nitric oxide contributes to neuroplasticity-associated protein expression through cGMP, protein kinase G, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Eduardo F; Iadecola, Costantino

    2011-05-11

    Nitric oxide (NO) synthesized by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) has long been implicated in brain plasticity. However, it is unclear how this short-lived mediator contributes to the long-term molecular changes underlying neuroplasticity, which typically require activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway and gene expression. To address this issue, we used a neuroplasticity model based on treatment of neuronal cultures with bicuculline and a model of experience-dependent plasticity in the barrel cortex. In neuronal cultures, NOS inhibition attenuated the bicuculline-induced activation of ERK and the expression of c-Fos, Egr-1, Arc, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), proteins essential for neuroplasticity. Furthermore, inhibition of the NO target soluble guanylyl cyclase or of the cGMP effector kinase protein kinase G (PKG) reduced both ERK activation and plasticity-related protein expression. NOS inhibition did not affect phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), a well-established ERK nuclear target, but it attenuated the nuclear accumulation of the CREB coactivator TORC1 and suppressed the activation of Elk-1, another transcription factor target of ERK. Consistent with these in vitro observations, induction of c-Fos, Egr-1, and BDNF was attenuated in the D1 cortical barrel of nNOS(-/-) mice subjected to single whisker experience. These results establish nNOS-derived NO as a key factor in the expression of proteins involved in neuroplasticity, an effect mediated through cGMP, PKG, and ERK signaling. These actions of NO do not depend on CREB phosphorylation but may involve TORC1 and Elk-1. Our data unveil a previously unrecognized link between neuronal NO and the molecular machinery responsible for the sustained synaptic changes underlying neuroplasticity.

  17. Hepatitis B virus HBx protein activates Ras-GTP complex formation and establishes a Ras, Raf, MAP kinase signaling cascade.

    PubMed Central

    Benn, J; Schneider, R J

    1994-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus produces a small (154-amino acid) transcriptional transactivating protein, HBx, which is required for viral infection and has been implicated in virus-mediated liver oncogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism for HBx activity and its possible influence on cell proliferation have remained obscure. A number of studies suggest that HBx may stimulate transcription by indirectly activating transcription factors, possibly by influencing cell signaling pathways. We now present biochemical evidence that HBx activates Ras and rapidly induces a cytoplasmic signaling cascade linking Ras, Raf, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), leading to transcriptional transactivation. HBx strongly elevates levels of GTP-bound Ras, activated and phosphorylated Raf, and tyrosine-phosphorylated and activated MAP kinase. Transactivation of transcription factor AP-1 by HBx is blocked by inhibition of Ras or Raf activities but not by inhibition of Ca(2+)- and diacylglycerol-dependent protein kinase C. HBx was also found to stimulate DNA synthesis in serum-starved cells. The hepatitis B virus HBx protein therefore stimulates Ras-GTP complex formation and promotes downstream signaling through Raf and MAP kinases, and may influence cell proliferation. Images PMID:7937954

  18. Regulation of Raf-1 kinase by TNF via its second messenger ceramide and cross-talk with mitogenic signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, G; Storz, P; Bourteele, S; Döppler, H; Pfizenmaier, K; Mischak, H; Philipp, A; Kaiser, C; Kolch, W

    1998-01-01

    Raf-1 kinase is a central regulator of mitogenic signal pathways, whereas its general role in signal transduction of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is less well defined. We have investigated mechanisms of Raf-1 regulation by TNF and its messenger ceramide in cell-free assays, insect and mammalian cell lines. In vitro, ceramide specifically bound to the purified catalytic domain and enhanced association with activated Ras proteins, but did not affect the kinase activity of Raf-1. Cell-permeable ceramides induced a marked increase of Ras-Raf-1 complexes in cells co-expressing Raf-1 and activated Ras. Likewise, a fast elevation of the endogeneous ceramide level, induced by TNF treatment of human Kym-1 rhabdomyosarcoma cells, was followed by stimulation of Ras-Raf-1 association without significant Raf-1 kinase activation. Failure of TNF or ceramide to induce Raf-1 kinase was observed in several TNF-responsive cell lines. Both TNF and exogeneous C6-ceramide interfered with the mitogenic activation of Raf-1 and ERK by epidermal growth factor and down-regulated v-Src-induced Raf-1 kinase activity. TNF also induced the translocation of Raf-1 from the cytosolic to the particulate fraction, indicating that this negative regulatory cross-talk occurs at the cell membrane. Interference with mitogenic signals at the level of Raf-1 could be an important initial step in TNF's cytostatic action. PMID:9450998

  19. AKAP (A-kinase anchoring protein) domains: beads of structure-function on the necklace of G-protein signalling.

    PubMed

    Malbon, C C; Tao, J; Shumay, E; Wang, H-Y

    2004-11-01

    AKAPs (A-kinase anchoring proteins) are members of a diverse family of scaffold proteins that minimally possess a characteristic binding domain for the RI/RII regulatory subunit of protein kinase A and play critical roles in establishing spatial constraints for multivalent signalling assemblies. Especially for G-protein-coupled receptors, the AKAPs provide an organizing centre about which various protein kinases and phosphatases can be assembled to create solid-state signalling devices that can signal, be modulated and trafficked within the cell. The structure of AKAP250 (also known as gravin or AKAP12), based on analyses of milligram quantities of recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli, suggests that the AKAP is probably an unordered scaffold, acting as a necklace on which 'jewels' of structure-function (e.g. the RII-binding domain) that provide docking sites on which signalling components can be assembled. Recent results suggest that AKAP250 provides not only a 'tool box' for assembling signalling elements, but may indeed provide a basis for spatial constraint observed for many signalling paradigms. The spatial dimension of the integration of cell signalling will probably reflect many functions performed by members of the AKAP family.

  20. Retrograde Neurotrophic Signaling Requires a Protein Interacting with Receptor Tyrosine Kinases via C2H2 Zinc Fingers

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiaoqin; Zang, Keling; Zhou, Zhiwei; Reichardt, Louis F.

    2010-01-01

    Neurotrophins at axonal terminals signal to cell bodies to regulate neuronal development via signaling endosomes containing activated Trk receptor tyrosine kinases and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Requirements for the formation of signaling endosomes remain, however, poorly characterized. Here we show that a novel Trk-interacting protein, NTRAP (neurotrophic factor receptor–associated protein), plays a crucial role in this signaling process. NTRAP interacts with the Trk intracellular domain through its C2H2 zinc fingers in a kinase-dependent manner. It is associated with vesicles, some of which contain markers for signaling endosomes. Inhibition of NTRAP function suppresses neurotrophin-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells by altering TrkA endocytic traffic, inhibiting the formation of endosomes containing persistently active MAPKs. In compartmentalized sensory neuron cultures, down-regulation of NTRAP abolishes the ability of neurotrophins applied to distal axons to activate the transcription factor adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) and to promote neuronal survival. We propose that NTRAP regulates retrograde neurotrophic signaling by controlling the formation of signaling endosomes. PMID:19864463

  1. A novel signaling pathway associated with Lyn, PI 3-kinase and Akt supports the proliferation of myeloma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Mohd S.; Tsuyama, Naohiro; Obata, Masanori; Ishikawa, Hideaki

    2010-02-12

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a growth factor for human myeloma cells. We have recently found that in myeloma cells the activation of both signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 is not sufficient for the IL-6-induced proliferation, which further requires the activation of the src family kinases, such as Lyn. Here we showed that the Lyn-overexpressed myeloma cell lines had the higher proliferative rate with IL-6 and the enhanced activation of the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and Akt. The IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 was not up-regulated in the Lyn-overexpressed cells, indicating that the Lyn-PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway is independent of these pathways. The PI 3-kinase was co-precipitated with Lyn in the Lyn-overexpressed cells of which proliferation with IL-6 was abrogated by the specific inhibitors for PI 3-kinase or Akt, suggesting that the activation of the PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway associated with Lyn is indeed related to the concomitant augmentation of myeloma cell growth. Furthermore, the decreased expression of p53 and p21{sup Cip1} proteins was observed in the Lyn-overexpressed cells, implicating a possible downstream target of Akt. This study identifies a novel IL-6-mediated signaling pathway that certainly plays a role in the proliferation of myeloma cells and this novel mechanism of MM tumor cell growth associated with Lyn would eventually contribute to the development of MM treatment.

  2. Role played by Disabled-2 in albumin induced MAP Kinase signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Diwakar, Ramaswamy Pearson, Alexander L.; Colville-Nash, Paul; Baines, Deborah L.; Dockrell, Mark E.C.

    2008-02-15

    Albumin has been shown to activate the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in proximal tubular cells (PTECs) of the kidney. Megalin, the putative receptor for albumin has potential signalling properties. However, the mechanisms by which megalin signals are unclear. The adaptor phosphoprotein Disabled-2 (Dab2) is known to interact with the cytoplasmic tail of megalin and may be involved in albumin-mediated MAPK signalling. In this study, we investigated the role of Dab2 in albumin-mediated MAPK signalling and further studied the role of Dab2 in albumin-induced TGF{beta}-1 secretion, a MAPK dependent event. We used RNA interference to knockdown Dab2 protein abundance in HKC-8 cells a model of human PTECs. Albumin activated ERK1,2 and Elk-1 in a MEK-1 dependent manner and resulted in secretion of TGF{beta}-1. In the absence of albumin, knockdown of Dab2 resulted in a trend towards increase in pERK1,2 consistent with its putative role as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. However albumin-induced ERK1,2 activation was completely abolished by Dab2 knockdown. Dab2 knockdown did not however result in inhibition of albumin-induced TGF{beta}-1 secretion. These results suggest that Dab2 is a ligand dependent bi-directional regulator of ERK1,2 activity by demonstrating that in addition to its more traditional role as an inhibitor of ERK1,2 it may also activate ERK1,2.

  3. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling controls basal and oncostatin M-mediated JUNB gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Mellissa J; Hu, Qiuping; Macrae, Erin; DeWille, James

    2015-05-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is aberrantly activated in many human cancers, including breast cancer. Activation of MAPK signaling is associated with the increased expression of a wide range of genes that promote cell survival, proliferation, and migration. This report investigated the influence of MAPK signaling on the regulation and expression of JUNB in human breast cancer cell lines. JUNB has been associated with tumor suppressor and oncogenic functions, with most reports describing JUNB as an oncogene in breast cancer. Our results indicated that JUNB expression is elevated in MCF10A(met), SKBR3, and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines compared to nontransformed MCF10A mammary epithelial cells. Increased RAS/MAPK signaling in MCF10A(met) cells correlates with the increased association of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) phosphorylated on serine 5 (Pol IIser5p) with the JUNB proximal promoter. Pol IIser5p is the "transcription initiating" form of Pol II. Treatment with U0126, a MAPK pathway inhibitor, reduces Pol IIser5p association with the JUNB proximal promoter and reduces JUNB expression. Oncostatin M (OSM) enhances MAPK and STAT3 signaling and significantly induces JUNB expression. U0126 treatment reduces OSM-induced Pol IIser5p binding to the JUNB proximal promoter and JUNB expression, but does not reduce pSTAT