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Sample records for kinase cgamma leads

  1. Activation of mutant protein kinase C{gamma} leads to aberrant sequestration and impairment of its cellular function

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, Graeme; Davies, Kay E.; Talbot, Kevin

    2008-08-01

    Mutations in protein kinase C{gamma} (PKC{gamma}) cause the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14). In this study, expression of an extensive panel of known SCA14-associated PKC{gamma} mutations as fusion proteins in cell culture led to the consistent formation of cytoplasmic aggregates in response to purinoceptor stimulation. Aggregates co-stained with antibodies to phosphorylated PKC{gamma} and the early endosome marker EEA1 but failed to redistribute to the cell membrane under conditions of oxidative stress. These studies suggest that Purkinje cell damage in SCA14 may result from a reduction of PKC{gamma} activity due its aberrant sequestration in the early endosome compartment.

  2. Characterization and cDNA cloning of phospholipase C-gamma, a major substrate for heparin-binding growth factor 1 (acidic fibroblast growth factor)-activated tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, W H; Dionne, C A; Kaplow, J; Mudd, R; Friesel, R; Zilberstein, A; Schlessinger, J; Jaye, M

    1990-01-01

    Heparin-binding growth factors (HBGFs) bind to high-affinity cell surface receptors which possess intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. A Mr 150,000 protein phosphorylated on tyrosine in response to class 1 HBGF (HBGF-1) was purified and partially sequenced. On the basis of this sequence, cDNA clones were isolated from a human endothelial cell library and identified as encoding phospholipase C-gamma. Phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma in intact cells treated with HBGF-1 was directly demonstrated by using antiphospholipase C-gamma antibodies. Thus, HBGF-1 joins epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor, whose receptor activation leads to tyrosine phosphorylation and probable activation of phospholipase C-gamma. Images PMID:2167438

  3. Platelet-derived growth factor-dependent cellular transformation requires either phospholipase Cgamma or phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase.

    PubMed

    DeMali, K A; Whiteford, C C; Ulug, E T; Kazlauskas, A

    1997-04-04

    Although it has been well established that constitutive activation of receptor tyrosine kinases leads to cellular transformation, the signal relay pathways involved have not been systematically investigated. In this study we used a panel of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) beta receptor mutants (beta-PDGFR), which selectively activate various signal relay enzymes to define which signaling pathways are required for PDGF-dependent growth of cells in soft agar. The host cell line for these studies was Ph cells, a 3T3-like cell that expresses normal levels of the beta-PDGFR but no PDGF-alpha receptor (alpha-PDGFR). Hence, this cell system can be used to study signaling of mutant alphaPDGFRs or alpha/beta chimeras. We constructed chimeric receptors containing the alphaPDGFR extracellular domain and the betaPDGFR cytoplasmic domain harboring various phosphorylation site mutations. The mutants were expressed in Ph cells, and their ability to drive PDGF-dependent cellular transformation (growth in soft agar) was assayed. Cells infected with an empty expression vector failed to grow in soft agar, whereas introduction of the chimera with a wild-type beta-PDGFR cytoplasmic domain gave rise to a large number of colonies. In contrast, the N2F5 chimera, in which the binding sites for phospholipase Cgamma (PLC-gamma), RasGTPase-activating protein, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), and SHP-2 were eliminated, failed to trigger proliferation. Restoring the binding sites for RasGTPase-activating protein or SHP-2 did not rescue the PDGF-dependent response. In contrast, receptors capable of associating with either PLC-gamma or PI3K relayed a growth signal that was comparable to wild-type receptors in the soft agar growth assay. These findings indicate that the PDGF receptor activates multiple signaling pathways that lead to cellular transformation, and that either PI3K or PLC-gamma are key initiators of such signal relay cascades.

  4. Tyrosine kinase activity is essential for the association of phospholipase C-gamma with the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, B; Bellot, F; Honegger, A M; Ullrich, A; Schlessinger, J; Zilberstein, A

    1990-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment of NIH 3T3 cells transfected with wild-type EGF receptor induced tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma). The EGF receptor and PLC-gamma were found to be physically associated such that antibodies directed against PLC-gamma or the EGF receptor coimmunoprecipitated both proteins. The association between PLC-gamma and wild-type EGF receptor was dependent on the concentration of EGF, but EGF did not enhance the association between PLC-gamma and a kinase-negative mutant of the EGF receptor. Oligomerization of the EGF receptor was not sufficient to induce association of the EGF receptor with PLC-gamma, since the kinase-negative mutant receptor underwent normal dimerization in response to EGF yet did not associate with PLC-gamma. The form of PLC-gamma associated with the EGF receptor appeared to be primarily the non-tyrosine-phosphorylated form. It is concluded that the kinase activity of the EGF receptor is essential for association of PLC-gamma with the EGF receptor, possibly by stimulating receptor autophosphorylation. Images PMID:2153914

  5. Nerve growth factor rapidly stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma 1 by a kinase activity associated with the product of the trk protooncogene.

    PubMed

    Vetter, M L; Martin-Zanca, D; Parada, L F; Bishop, J M; Kaplan, D R

    1991-07-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes the survival and differentiation of specific populations of neurons. The molecular mechanisms by which cells respond to NGF are poorly understood, but two clues have emerged recently. First, NGF rapidly stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of several unidentified proteins in the NGF-responsive pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 [Maher, P. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 6788-6791]. Second, the protein-tyrosine kinase encoded by the protooncogene trk (p140trk), a member of the receptor class of tyrosine kinases, becomes activated and phosphorylated on tyrosine after NGF treatment of PC12 cells [Kaplan, D. R., Martin-Zanca, D. & Parada, L. F. (1991) Nature (London) 350, 158-160]. We now report that NGF rapidly induces tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma 1 (PLC-gamma 1), and we present evidence that the responsible tyrosine kinase is either p140trk or a closely associated protein. Treatment of responsive cells with NGF elicited phosphorylation of PLC-gamma 1 on tyrosine and serine. PLC-gamma 1 immunoprecipitated from NGF-stimulated cells was phosphorylated in vitro by coprecipitating protein kinase activity, and the phosphorylations occurred principally on tyrosine. The responsible kinase could be depleted from cellular lysates by antibodies specific for p140trk. This procedure also depleted a 140-kDa protein that normally coprecipitated with PLC-gamma 1 and became phosphorylated on tyrosine in vivo in response to NGF. Analysis of tryptic peptides from PLC-gamma 1 indicated that the residues phosphorylated in vitro by p140trk-associated kinase activity were largely congruent with those phosphorylated in vivo after NGF treatment. Our findings identify PLC-gamma 1 as a likely substrate for the trk-encoded tyrosine kinase, and they provide a link between NGF-dependent activation of p140trk and the stimulation of intracellular second messenger pathways.

  6. Stimulation of Src family protein-tyrosine kinases as a proximal and mandatory step for SYK kinase-dependent phospholipase Cgamma2 activation in lymphoma B cells exposed to low energy electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Dibirdik, I; Kristupaitis, D; Kurosaki, T; Tuel-Ahlgren, L; Chu, A; Pond, D; Tuong, D; Luben, R; Uckun, F M

    1998-02-13

    Here, we present evidence that exposure of DT40 lymphoma B cells to low energy electromagnetic field (EMF) results in a tyrosine kinase-dependent activation of phospholipase Cgamma2 (PLC-gamma2) leading to increased inositol phospholipid turnover. B cells rendered PLC-gamma2-deficient by targeted disruption of the PLC-gamma2 gene as well as PLC-gamma2-deficient cells reconstituted with Src homology domain 2 (SH2) domain mutant PLC-gamma2 did not show any increase in inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate levels after EMF exposure, providing direct evidence that PLC-gamma2 is responsible for EMF-induced stimulation of inositol phospholipid turnover, and its SH2 domains are essential for this function. B cells rendered SYK-deficient by targeted disruption of the syk gene did not show PLC-gamma2 activation in response to EMF exposure. The C-terminal SH2 domain of SYK kinase is essential for its ability to activate PLC-gamma2. SYK-deficient cells reconstituted with a C-terminal SH2 domain mutant syk gene failed to elicit increased inositol phospholipid turnover after EMF exposure, whereas SYK-deficient cells reconstituted with an N-terminal SH2 domain mutant syk gene showed a normal EMF response. LYN kinase is essential for the initiation of this biochemical signaling cascade. Lymphoma B cells rendered LYN-deficient through targeted disruption of the lyn gene did not elicit enhanced inositol phospholipid turnover after EMF exposure. Introduction of the wild-type (but not a kinase domain mutant) mouse fyn gene into LYN-deficient B cells restored their EMF responsiveness. B cells reconstituted with a SH2 domain mutant fyn gene showed a normal EMF response, whereas no increase in inositol phospholipid turnover in response to EMF was noticed in LYN-deficient cells reconstituted with a SH3 domain mutant fyn gene. Taken together, these results indicate that EMF-induced PLC-gamma2 activation is mediated by LYN-regulated stimulation of SYK, which acts downstream of LYN kinase and

  7. Vav1 transduces T cell receptor signals to the activation of phospholipase C-gamma1 via phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent and -independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lucinda F; Smyth, Lesley A; Norton, Trisha; Freshney, Norman; Downward, Julian; Kioussis, Dimitris; Tybulewicz, Victor L J

    2002-05-06

    Vav1 is a signal transducing protein required for T cell receptor (TCR) signals that drive positive and negative selection in the thymus. Furthermore, Vav1-deficient thymocytes show greatly reduced TCR-induced intracellular calcium flux. Using a novel genetic system which allows the study of signaling in highly enriched populations of CD4(+)CD8(+) double positive thymocytes, we have studied the mechanism by which Vav1 regulates TCR-induced calcium flux. We show that in Vav1-deficient double positive thymocytes, phosphorylation, and activation of phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLCgamma1) is defective. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Vav1 regulates PLCgamma1 phosphorylation by at least two distinct pathways. First, in the absence of Vav1 the Tec-family kinases Itk and Tec are no longer activated, most likely as a result of a defect in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. Second, Vav1-deficient thymocytes show defective assembly of a signaling complex containing PLCgamma1 and the adaptor molecule Src homology 2 domain-containing leukocyte phosphoprotein 76. We show that this latter function is independent of PI3K.

  8. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase-Cgamma and protein kinase-C signal myelin phagocytosis mediated by complement receptor-3 alone and combined with scavenger receptor-AI/II in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Makranz, Chen; Cohen, Goni; Baron, Ayellet; Levidor, Lital; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Reichert, Fanny; Rotshenker, Shlomo

    2004-03-01

    Complement-receptor-3 (CR3/MAC-1), scavenger-receptor-AI/II (SRAI/II) and Fcgamma-receptor (FcgammaR) can mediate phagocytosis of degenerated myelin in macrophages and microglia. However, CR3/MAC-1 and SRAI/II, but not FcgammaR, mediate phagocytosis after axonal injury. We tested for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase-Cgamma (PLCgamma) and protein kinase-C (PKC) signaling in myelin phagocytosis mediated by CR3/MAC-1 alone and by CR3/MAC-1 combined with SRAI/II. Phagocytosis was inhibited by PI3K inhibitors wortmannin and LY-294002, PLCgamma inhibitor U-73122, classical PKC (cPKC) inhibitor Go-6976, general PKC inhibitors Ro-318220 and calphostin-C, and BAPTA/AM which chelates intracellular Ca(2+) required for cPKC activation. PKC activator PMA augmented phagocytosis and further alleviated inhibitions induced by PI3K and PLCgamma inhibitors. Overall, altering PKC activity modulated phagocytosis 4- to 6-fold between inhibition and augmentation. PLCgamma activation did not require tyrosine phosphorylation. Thus, signaling of myelin phagocytosis mediated by CR3/MAC-1 alone and by CR3/MAC-1 combined with SRAI/II involves PI3K, PLCgamma and cPKC, the cascade PI3K-->PLCgamma-->cPKC, and wide-range modulation by PKC. This pathway may thus be targeted for in vivo modulation, which may explain differences in the efficiency of CR3/MAC-1-mediated myelin phagocytosis in different pathological conditions.

  9. A tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, regulated by calcium entry and dissociated from tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma-1, is involved in inositol phosphate production by activated G protein-coupled receptors in myometrium.

    PubMed

    Palmier, B; Vacher, M; Harbon, S; Leiber, D

    1999-05-01

    Our experiments were conducted to evaluate, in rat myometrium, the potential contribution of a protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) pathway in the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate mediated by bombesin, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and carbachol. The production of inositol phosphates (InsP) by agonists and AlF4- was partly inhibited (35-40%) by genistein and tyrphostins, two PTK inhibitors. Genistein attenuated uterine contractions elicited by the stimulation of muscarinic and bombesin receptors, whereas pervanadate, a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, potentiated receptor-mediated contraction. Tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins were detected in detergent extracts from agonist- and pervanadate-stimulated myometrium. The amount of InsP produced in response to pervanadate was related to the tyrosine phosphorylation status of phospholipase C-gamma1. In contrast, with ET-1 and bombesin, phosphorylated phospholipase C-gamma1 made a minor contribution. Additional findings were rather consistent with a role for Ca2+. In fura-2-loaded cells, genistein partly decreased both the transient and sustained intracellular Ca2+ concentration phases induced by bombesin. The removal of extracellular Ca2+ or the addition of nifedipine inhibited (35%) InsP production due to bombesin and ET-1. The inhibitory effects of genistein and tyrphostins were abolished in Ca2+-depleted medium, were not additive with that of nifedipine, and (as for nifedipine) were counteracted by the Ca2+ channel agonist Bay K 8644. The data are consistent with a PTK-mediated process in the activation of the voltage-gated Ca2+ influx that is involved in the production of InsP by stimulated G protein-coupled receptors.

  10. Phospholipase C{gamma}1 stimulates transcriptional activation of the matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene via the protein kinase C/Raf/ERK cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Soon Young; Choi, Ha Young; Ahn, Bong-Hyun; Son, Sang Wook; Lee, Young Han . E-mail: younghan@hanyang.ac.kr

    2007-02-16

    The phospholipid hydrolase phospholipase C{gamma}1 (PLC{gamma}1) plays a major role in regulation of cell proliferation, development, and cell motility. Overexpression of PLC{gamma}1 is associated with tumor development, and it is overexpressed in some tumors. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) is a protein involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of PLC{gamma}1 stimulates MMP-3 expression at the transcriptional level via the PKC-mediated Raf/MEK1/ERK signaling cascade. We propose that modulation of PLC{gamma}1 activity might be of value in controlling the activity of MMPs, which are important regulators of invasion and metastasis in malignant tumors.

  11. Basic fibroblast growth factor-induced translocation of p21-activated kinase to the membrane is independent of phospholipase C-gamma1 in the differentiation of PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung-Sun; Shin, Eun-Young; Lee, Chan-Soo; Quan, Song-Hua; Woo, Kyung-Nam; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Kwak, Sahng-June; Kim, Seung Ryul; Kim, Eung-Gook

    2002-05-31

    p21-activated kinase (PAK) targeting to the plasma membrane is essential for PC12 cell neurite outgrowth. Phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) can mediate the PAK translocation in response to growth factors, since PLC-gamma1 binds to both tyrosine-phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinases and PAK through its SH2 and SH3 domain, respectively. In the present study, we examined a potential role for PLC-gamma1 in the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced PAK translocation using stable PC12 cell lines that overexpress in a tetracycline-inducible manner either the wild-type FGFR-1 or the Y766F FGFR-1 mutant. Phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis was increased 6.5-fold in response to bFGF in the wild type cells but negligible in the mutant cells. The recombinant GST-PLC-gamma1 SH3 was able to bind to PAK1 but not GST alone. However, examination of PLC-gamma1 as an adaptor for translocation of PAK1 in cells showed that both cells transfected with pEGFP-PAK1 was able to differentiate for 24 h, as visualized by laser confocal microscopy. Translocation of PAK1 to growth cones occurs at similar levels in both wild and mutant cells. These results suggest that a protein(s) other than PLC-gamma1 is functionally relevant for PAK targeting.

  12. Role of phospholipase Cgamma1 in cell spreading requires association with a beta-Pix/GIT1-containing complex, leading to activation of Cdc42 and Rac1.

    PubMed

    Jones, Neil P; Katan, Matilda

    2007-08-01

    The significance of multiprotein signaling complexes in cell motility is becoming increasingly important. We have previously shown that phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1) is critical for integrin-mediated cell spreading and motility (N. Jones et al., J. Cell Sci. 118:2695-2706, 2005). In the current study we show that, on a basement membrane-type matrix, PLCgamma1 associates with the adaptor protein GIT1 and the Rac1/Cdc42 guanine exchange factor beta-Pix; GIT1 and beta-Pix form tight complexes independently of PLCgamma1. The association of PLCgamma1 with the complex requires both GIT1 and beta-Pix and the specific array region (gammaSA) of PLCgamma1. Mutations of PLCgamma1 within the gammaSA region reveal that association with this complex is essential for the phosphorylation of PLCgamma1 and the progression to an elongated morphology after integrin engagement. Short interfering RNA (siRNA) depletion of either beta-Pix or GIT1 inhibited cell spreading in a fashion similar to that seen with siRNA against PLCgamma1. Furthermore, siRNA depletion of PLCgamma1, beta-Pix, or GIT1 inhibited Cdc42 and Rac1 activation, while constitutively active forms of Cdc42 or Rac1, but not RhoA, were able to rescue the elongation of these cells. Signaling of the PLCgamma1/GIT1/beta-Pix complex to Cdc42/Rac1 was found to involve the activation of calpains, calcium-dependent proteases. Therefore, we propose that the association of PLCgamma1 with complexes containing GIT1 and beta-Pix is essential for its role in integrin-mediated cell spreading and motility. As a component of this complex, PLCgamma1 is also involved in the activation of Cdc42 and Rac1.

  13. Corticotropin-releasing factor induces phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma at tyrosine residues via its receptor 2beta in human epidermoid A-431 cells.

    PubMed

    Kiang, J G; Ding, X Z; Gist, I D; Jones, R R; Tsokos, G C

    1998-12-18

    This laboratory previously reported that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) increased intracellular free calcium concentrations, cellular cAMP, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, protein kinase C activity, and protein phosphorylation in human A-431 cells. The increase was blocked by CRF receptor antagonist. In this study, we identified the type of CRF receptors present and investigated whether CRF induced tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma via CRF receptors. Using novel primers in reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, we determined the CRF receptor type to be that of 2beta. The levels of the CRF receptor type 2beta were not altered in cells treated with activators of protein kinase C, Ca2+ ionophore, or cells overexpressing heat shock protein 70 kDa. Cells treated with CRF displayed increases in protein tyrosine phosphorylation approximately at 150 kDa as detected by immunoblotting using an antibody against phosphotyrosine. Immunoprecipitation with antibodies directed against phospholipase C-beta3, -gamma1, or -gamma2 isoforms (which have molecular weights around 150 kDa) followed by Western blotting using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody showed that only phospholipase C-gamma1 and -gamma2 were phosphorylated. The increase in phospholipase C-gamma phosphorylation was concentration-dependent with an EC50 of 4.2+/-0.1 pM. The maximal phosphorylation by CRF at 1 nM occurred by 5 min. The CRF-induced phosphorylation was inhibited by the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and herbimycin A, suggesting that CRF activates protein tyrosine kinases. Treatment of cells with CRF receptor antagonist, but not pertussis toxin, prior to treatment with CRF inhibited the CRF-induced phosphorylation, suggesting it is mediated by the CRF receptor type 2beta that is not coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins. Treatment with 1,2-bis(2iminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid attenuated the phospholipase C-gamma phosphorylation. In summary

  14. Electromagnetic field-induced stimulation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Kristupaitis, D; Dibirdik, I; Vassilev, A; Mahajan, S; Kurosaki, T; Chu, A; Tuel-Ahlgren, L; Tuong, D; Pond, D; Luben, R; Uckun, F M

    1998-05-15

    Here we present evidence that exposure of DT40 lymphoma B-cells to low energy electromagnetic fields (EMF) results in activation of phospholipase C-gamma 2 (PLC-gamma2), leading to increased inositol phospholipid turnover. PLC-gamma2 activation in EMF-stimulated cells is mediated by stimulation of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a member of the Src-related TEC family of protein tyrosine kinases, which acts downstream of LYN kinase and upstream of PLC-gamma2. B-cells rendered BTK-deficient by targeted disruption of the btk gene did not show enhanced PLC-gamma2 activation in response to EMF exposure. Introduction of the wild-type (but not a kinase domain mutant) human btk gene into BTK-deficient B-cells restored their EMF responsiveness. Thus, BTK exerts a pivotal and mandatory function in initiation of EMF-induced signaling cascades in B-cells.

  15. Mevalonate kinase deficiency leads to decreased prenylation of Rab GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Jurczyluk, Julie; Munoz, Marcia A; Skinner, Oliver P; Chai, Ryan C; Ali, Naveid; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Quinn, Julian MW; Preston, Alexandra; Tangye, Stuart G; Brown, Andrew J; Argent, Elizabeth; Ziegler, John B; Mehr, Sam; Rogers, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is caused by mutations in a key enzyme of the mevalonate–cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, leading to recurrent autoinflammatory disease characterised by enhanced release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). It is currently believed that the inflammatory phenotype of MKD is triggered by temperature-sensitive loss of mevalonate kinase activity and reduced biosynthesis of isoprenoid lipids required for the prenylation of small GTPase proteins. However, previous studies have not clearly shown any change in protein prenylation in patient cells under normal conditions. With lymphoblast cell lines from two compound heterozygous MKD patients, we used a highly sensitive in vitro prenylation assay, together with quantitative mass spectrometry, to reveal a subtle accumulation of unprenylated Rab GTPases in cells cultured for 3 days or more at 40 °C compared with 37 °C. This included a 200% increase in unprenylated Rab7A, Rab14 and Rab1A. Inhibition of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) activation by fatostatin led to more pronounced accumulation of unprenylated Rab proteins in MKD cells but not parent cells, suggesting that cultured MKD cells may partially overcome the loss of isoprenoid lipids by SREBP-mediated upregulation of enzymes required for isoprenoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, while inhibition of Rho/Rac/Rap prenylation promoted the release of IL-1β, specific inhibition of Rab prenylation by NE10790 had no effect in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells or human THP-1 monocytic cells. These studies demonstrate for the first time that mutations in mevalonate kinase can lead to a mild, temperature-induced defect in the prenylation of small GTPases, but that loss of prenylated Rab GTPases is not the cause of enhanced IL-1β release in MKD. PMID:27377765

  16. Mevalonate kinase deficiency leads to decreased prenylation of Rab GTPases.

    PubMed

    Jurczyluk, Julie; Munoz, Marcia A; Skinner, Oliver P; Chai, Ryan C; Ali, Naveid; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Quinn, Julian Mw; Preston, Alexandra; Tangye, Stuart G; Brown, Andrew J; Argent, Elizabeth; Ziegler, John B; Mehr, Sam; Rogers, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is caused by mutations in a key enzyme of the mevalonate-cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, leading to recurrent autoinflammatory disease characterised by enhanced release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). It is currently believed that the inflammatory phenotype of MKD is triggered by temperature-sensitive loss of mevalonate kinase activity and reduced biosynthesis of isoprenoid lipids required for the prenylation of small GTPase proteins. However, previous studies have not clearly shown any change in protein prenylation in patient cells under normal conditions. With lymphoblast cell lines from two compound heterozygous MKD patients, we used a highly sensitive in vitro prenylation assay, together with quantitative mass spectrometry, to reveal a subtle accumulation of unprenylated Rab GTPases in cells cultured for 3 days or more at 40 °C compared with 37 °C. This included a 200% increase in unprenylated Rab7A, Rab14 and Rab1A. Inhibition of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) activation by fatostatin led to more pronounced accumulation of unprenylated Rab proteins in MKD cells but not parent cells, suggesting that cultured MKD cells may partially overcome the loss of isoprenoid lipids by SREBP-mediated upregulation of enzymes required for isoprenoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, while inhibition of Rho/Rac/Rap prenylation promoted the release of IL-1β, specific inhibition of Rab prenylation by NE10790 had no effect in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells or human THP-1 monocytic cells. These studies demonstrate for the first time that mutations in mevalonate kinase can lead to a mild, temperature-induced defect in the prenylation of small GTPases, but that loss of prenylated Rab GTPases is not the cause of enhanced IL-1β release in MKD.

  17. Protein kinase C activity and the relations between blood lead and neurobehavioral function in lead workers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyu-Yoon; Lee, Byung-Kook; Bressler, Joseph P; Bolla, Karen I; Stewart, Walter F; Schwartz, Brian S

    2002-02-01

    At picomolar concentrations, lead activates protein kinase C (PKC). This activation has been implicated in the neurotoxicity of lead. No prior study has evaluated the association of PKC activity with neurobehavioral function in humans. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PKC activity is associated with neurobehavioral function or modifies the relationship between blood lead levels and neurobehavioral test scores. In this cross-sectional study of 212 current lead workers in the Republic of Korea, we assessed blood lead levels, neurobehavioral test scores, and PKC activity. PKC activity was determined by measuring the levels of phosphorylation of three erythrocyte membrane proteins (spectrin and the 52-kDa and 48-kDa subunits of band 4.9), using an in vitro back-phosphorylation assay. When linear regression was used to control for confounding variables, blood lead was a significant predictor of decrements in performance on tests of psychomotor function, manual dexterity, and executive ability. In linear regression models, back-phosphorylation levels were not associated with neurobehavioral test scores, but when dichotomized at the median, back-phosphorylation levels modified the relationship between blood lead and test scores. For spectrin and the 52-kDa and 48-kDa subunits of band 4.9, 5, 2, and 5 of 14 interaction terms, respectively, had associated p-values less than 0.10, all with positive signs, indicating that blood lead was associated with worse test scores only in subjects with lower back-phosphorylation levels. These data indicate that blood lead levels are associated with decrements in neurobehavioral test scores, mainly in the domains of manual dexterity and psychomotor function, but only in subjects with lower in vitro back-phosphorylation levels, which is equivalent to higher in vivo PKC activity. We hypothesize that subjects with higher PKC activity in the presence of lead may be more susceptible to the health effects of lead.

  18. Protein kinase C activity and the relations between blood lead and neurobehavioral function in lead workers.

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Kyu-Yoon; Lee, Byung-Kook; Bressler, Joseph P; Bolla, Karen I; Stewart, Walter F; Schwartz, Brian S

    2002-01-01

    At picomolar concentrations, lead activates protein kinase C (PKC). This activation has been implicated in the neurotoxicity of lead. No prior study has evaluated the association of PKC activity with neurobehavioral function in humans. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PKC activity is associated with neurobehavioral function or modifies the relationship between blood lead levels and neurobehavioral test scores. In this cross-sectional study of 212 current lead workers in the Republic of Korea, we assessed blood lead levels, neurobehavioral test scores, and PKC activity. PKC activity was determined by measuring the levels of phosphorylation of three erythrocyte membrane proteins (spectrin and the 52-kDa and 48-kDa subunits of band 4.9), using an in vitro back-phosphorylation assay. When linear regression was used to control for confounding variables, blood lead was a significant predictor of decrements in performance on tests of psychomotor function, manual dexterity, and executive ability. In linear regression models, back-phosphorylation levels were not associated with neurobehavioral test scores, but when dichotomized at the median, back-phosphorylation levels modified the relationship between blood lead and test scores. For spectrin and the 52-kDa and 48-kDa subunits of band 4.9, 5, 2, and 5 of 14 interaction terms, respectively, had associated p-values less than 0.10, all with positive signs, indicating that blood lead was associated with worse test scores only in subjects with lower back-phosphorylation levels. These data indicate that blood lead levels are associated with decrements in neurobehavioral test scores, mainly in the domains of manual dexterity and psychomotor function, but only in subjects with lower in vitro back-phosphorylation levels, which is equivalent to higher in vivo PKC activity. We hypothesize that subjects with higher PKC activity in the presence of lead may be more susceptible to the health effects of lead. PMID

  19. Requirements for distinct steps of phospholipase Cgamma2 regulation, membrane-raft-dependent targeting and subsequent enzyme activation in B-cell signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Rosie; Matsuda, Miho; Storey, Amy; Katan, Matilda

    2003-01-01

    Studies of PLCgamma (phospholipase Cgamma) have identified a number of regulatory components required for signalling; however, molecular mechanisms and the relationship between events leading to translocation and an increase of substrate hydrolysis have not been well defined. The addition of a membrane-targeting tag to many signal transducers results in constitutive activation, suggesting that these processes could be closely linked and difficult to dissect. The present study of PLCgamma2 regulation by cross-linking of the BCR (B-cell antigen receptor) or H2O2 stress in DT40 B-cells, demonstrated that the membrane targeting is a separate step from further changes that result in enzyme activation and substrate hydrolysis. Furthermore, we have defined the roles of different domains of PLCgamma2 and, using a panel of cell lines deficient in components linked to PLCgamma2 regulation, the involvement of signalling molecules with respect to each of the steps. We have found that only the lipid-raft-targeted Lyn-PLCgamma2 construct, unlike non-specific membrane targeting, overcame the requirement for the adapter protein BLNK (B-cell linker). The stable expression of Lyn-PLCgamma2 was not accompanied by an increase in substrate hydrolysis in resting cells, which followed stimulation and specifically required the presence and/or activation of Syk, Btk, phosphoinositide 3-kinase but not BLNK, as established using deficient cell lines or specific inhibitors. Based on mutational analysis of the specific tyrosine residues [Tyr753-->Phe (Y753F)/Y759F] and SH2 (Src homology 2) domains (R564A/R672A) in the context of Lyn-PLCgamma2, we found that Tyr753/Tyr759 were essential, whereas the PLCgamma2 SH2 domains did not have an important role in the transient activation of Lyn-PLCgamma2 but may serve to stabilize an activated form in sustained activation. PMID:12780340

  20. Identification of "Preferred" Human Kinase Inhibitors for Sleeping Sickness Lead Discovery. Are Some Kinases Better than Others for Inhibitor Repurposing?

    PubMed

    Amata, Emanuele; Xi, Hualin; Colmenarejo, Gonzalo; Gonzalez-Diaz, Rosario; Cordon-Obras, Carlos; Berlanga, Manuela; Manzano, Pilar; Erath, Jessey; Roncal, Norma E; Lee, Patricia J; Leed, Susan E; Rodriguez, Ana; Sciotti, Richard J; Navarro, Miguel; Pollastri, Michael P

    2016-03-11

    A kinase-targeting cell-based high-throughput screen (HTS) against Trypanosoma brucei was recently reported, and this screening set included the Published Kinase Inhibitor Set (PKIS). From the PKIS was identified 53 compounds with pEC50 ≥ 6. Utilizing the published data available for the PKIS, a statistical analysis of these active antiparasitic compounds was performed, allowing identification of a set of human kinases having inhibitors that show a high likelihood for blocking T. brucei cellular proliferation in vitro. This observation was confirmed by testing other established inhibitors of these human kinases and by mining past screening campaigns at GlaxoSmithKline. Overall, although the parasite targets of action are not known, inhibitors of this set of human kinases displayed an enhanced hit rate relative to a random kinase-targeting HTS campaign, suggesting that repurposing efforts should focus primarily on inhibitors of these specific human kinases. We therefore term this statistical analysis-driven approach "preferred lead repurposing".

  1. Polo-like kinases: structural variations lead to multiple functions.

    PubMed

    Zitouni, Sihem; Nabais, Catarina; Jana, Swadhin Chandra; Guerrero, Adán; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica

    2014-07-01

    Members of the polo-like kinase (PLK) family are crucial regulators of cell cycle progression, centriole duplication, mitosis, cytokinesis and the DNA damage response. PLKs undergo major changes in abundance, activity, localization and structure at different stages of the cell cycle. They interact with other proteins in a tightly controlled spatiotemporal manner as part of a network that coordinates key cell cycle events. Their essential roles are highlighted by the fact that alterations in PLK function are associated with cancers and other diseases. Recent knowledge gained from PLK crystal structures, evolution and interacting molecules offers important insights into the mechanisms that underlie their regulation and activity, and suggests novel functions unrelated to cell cycle control for this family of kinases.

  2. Leads for antitubercular compounds from kinase inhibitor library screens.

    PubMed

    Magnet, Sophie; Hartkoorn, Ruben C; Székely, Rita; Pató, János; Triccas, James A; Schneider, Patricia; Szántai-Kis, Csaba; Orfi, László; Chambon, Marc; Banfi, Damiano; Bueno, Manuel; Turcatti, Gerardo; Kéri, György; Cole, Stewart T

    2010-11-01

    Discovering new drugs to treat tuberculosis more efficiently and to overcome multidrug resistance is a world health priority. To find antimycobacterial scaffolds, we screened a kinase inhibitor library of more than 12,000 compounds using an integrated strategy involving whole cell-based assays with Corynebacterium glutamicum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and a target-based assay with the protein kinase PknA. Seventeen "hits" came from the whole cell-based screening approach, from which three displayed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against M. tuberculosis below 10μM and were non-mutagenic and non-cytotoxic. Two of these hits were specific for M. tuberculosis versus C. glutamicum and none of them was found to inhibit the essential serine/threonine protein kinases, PknA and PknB present in both bacteria. One of the most active hits, VI-18469, had a benzoquinoxaline pharmacophore while another, VI-9376, is structurally related to a new class of antimycobacterial agents, the benzothiazinones (BTZ). Like the BTZ, VI-9376 was shown to act on the essential enzyme decaprenylphosphoryl-β-D-ribose 2'-epimerase, DprE1, required for arabinan synthesis.

  3. A novel mutation leading to a deletion in the SH3 domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Mesci, Lütfiye; Ozdag, Hilal; Turul, Tuba; Ersoy, Fügen; Tezcan, Ilhan; Sanal, Ozden

    2006-01-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a primary B cell immunodeficiency disorder, caused by a defect in the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene. Here, we describe a novel four base pair mutation (838delGAGT) in intron 9 of the BTK gene leading to the skipping of exon 9 in a 2.5-year-old boy with this disorder.

  4. Plasmodium falciparum Choline Kinase Inhibition Leads to a Major Decrease in Phosphatidylethanolamine Causing Parasite Death

    PubMed Central

    Serrán-Aguilera, Lucía; Denton, Helen; Rubio-Ruiz, Belén; López-Gutiérrez, Borja; Entrena, Antonio; Izquierdo, Luis; Smith, Terry K.; Conejo-García, Ana; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by different species of the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, with P. falciparum being the deadliest. Increasing parasitic resistance to existing antimalarials makes the necessity of novel avenues to treat this disease an urgent priority. The enzymes responsible for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are attractive drug targets to treat malaria as their selective inhibition leads to an arrest of the parasite’s growth and cures malaria in a mouse model. We present here a detailed study that reveals a mode of action for two P. falciparum choline kinase inhibitors both in vitro and in vivo. The compounds present distinct binding modes to the choline/ethanolamine-binding site of P. falciparum choline kinase, reflecting different types of inhibition. Strikingly, these compounds primarily inhibit the ethanolamine kinase activity of the P. falciparum choline kinase, leading to a severe decrease in the phosphatidylethanolamine levels within P. falciparum, which explains the resulting growth phenotype and the parasites death. These studies provide an understanding of the mode of action, and act as a springboard for continued antimalarial development efforts selectively targeting P. falciparum choline kinase. PMID:27616047

  5. Dual role of SLP-76 in mediating T cell receptor-induced activation of phospholipase C-gamma1.

    PubMed

    Beach, Dvora; Gonen, Ronnie; Bogin, Yaron; Reischl, Ilona G; Yablonski, Deborah

    2007-02-02

    Phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) activation depends on a heterotrimeric complex of adaptor proteins composed of LAT, Gads, and SLP-76. Upon T cell receptor stimulation, a portion of PLC-gamma1 is recruited to a detergent-resistant membrane fraction known as the glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains (GEMs), or lipid rafts, to which LAT is constitutively localized. In addition to LAT, PLC-gamma1 GEM recruitment depended on SLP-76, and, in particular, required the Gads-binding domain of SLP-76. The N-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation sites and P-I region of SLP-76 were not required for PLC-gamma1 GEM recruitment, but were required for PLC-gamma1 phosphorylation at Tyr(783). Thus, GEM recruitment can be insufficient for full activation of PLC-gamma1 in the absence of a second SLP-76-mediated event. Indeed, a GEM-targeted derivative of PLC-gamma1 depended on SLP-76 for T cell receptor-induced phosphorylation at Tyr783 and subsequent NFAT activation. On a biochemical level, SLP-76 inducibly associated with both Vav and catalytically active ITK, which efficiently phosphorylated a PLC-gamma1 fragment at Tyr783 in vitro. Both associations were disrupted upon mutation of the N-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation sites of SLP-76. The P-I region deletion disrupted Vav association and reduced SLP-76-associated kinase activity. A smaller deletion within the P-I region, which does not impair PLC-gamma1 activation, did not impair the association with Vav, but reduced SLP-76-associated kinase activity. These results provide new insight into the multiple roles of SLP-76 and the functional importance of its interactions with other signaling proteins.

  6. Fragment based lead discovery of small molecule inhibitors for the EPHA4 receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    van Linden, Oscar P J; Farenc, Carine; Zoutman, Willem H; Hameetman, Liesbeth; Wijtmans, Maikel; Leurs, Rob; Tensen, Cornelis P; Siegal, Gregg; de Esch, Iwan J P

    2012-01-01

    The in silico identification, optimization and crystallographic characterization of a 6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]isoquinolin-1-amine scaffold as an inhibitor for the EPHA4 receptor tyrosine kinase is described. A database containing commercially available compounds was subjected to an in silico screening procedure which was focused on finding novel, EPHA4 hinge binding fragments. This resulted in the identification of 6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]isoquinolin-1-amine derivatives as EPHA4 inhibitors. Hit exploration yielded a compound with 2 μM (IC(50)) affinity for the EPHA4 receptor tyrosine kinase domain. Soaking experiments into a crystal of the EPHA4 kinase domain gave a 2.11Å X-ray structure of the EPHA4 - inhibitor complex, which confirmed the binding mode of the scaffold as proposed by the initial in silico work. The results underscore the strength of fragment based in silico screening as a tool for the discovery of novel lead compounds as small molecule kinase inhibitors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Using Existing Drugs as Leads for Broad Spectrum Anthelmintics Targeting Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Christina M.; Martin, John; Rao, Ramakrishna U.; Powell, Kerrie; Abubucker, Sahar; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2013-01-01

    As one of the largest protein families, protein kinases (PKs) regulate nearly all processes within the cell and are considered important drug targets. Much research has been conducted on inhibitors for PKs, leading to a wealth of compounds that target PKs that have potential to be lead anthelmintic drugs. Identifying compounds that have already been developed to treat neglected tropical diseases is an attractive way to obtain lead compounds inexpensively that can be developed into much needed drugs, especially for use in developing countries. In this study, PKs from nematodes, hosts, and DrugBank were identified and classified into kinase families and subfamilies. Nematode proteins were placed into orthologous groups that span the phylum Nematoda. A minimal kinome for the phylum Nematoda was identified, and properties of the minimal kinome were explored. Orthologous groups from the minimal kinome were prioritized for experimental testing based on RNAi phenotype of the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog, transcript expression over the life-cycle and anatomic expression patterns. Compounds linked to targets in DrugBank belonging to the same kinase families and subfamilies in the minimal nematode kinome were extracted. Thirty-five compounds were tested in the non-parasitic C. elegans and active compounds progressed to testing against nematode species with different modes of parasitism, the blood-feeding Haemonchus contortus and the filarial Brugia malayi. Eighteen compounds showed efficacy in C. elegans, and six compounds also showed efficacy in at least one of the parasitic species. Hypotheses regarding the pathway the compounds may target and their molecular mechanism for activity are discussed. PMID:23459584

  8. Using existing drugs as leads for broad spectrum anthelmintics targeting protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Christina M; Martin, John; Rao, Ramakrishna U; Powell, Kerrie; Abubucker, Sahar; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2013-02-01

    As one of the largest protein families, protein kinases (PKs) regulate nearly all processes within the cell and are considered important drug targets. Much research has been conducted on inhibitors for PKs, leading to a wealth of compounds that target PKs that have potential to be lead anthelmintic drugs. Identifying compounds that have already been developed to treat neglected tropical diseases is an attractive way to obtain lead compounds inexpensively that can be developed into much needed drugs, especially for use in developing countries. In this study, PKs from nematodes, hosts, and DrugBank were identified and classified into kinase families and subfamilies. Nematode proteins were placed into orthologous groups that span the phylum Nematoda. A minimal kinome for the phylum Nematoda was identified, and properties of the minimal kinome were explored. Orthologous groups from the minimal kinome were prioritized for experimental testing based on RNAi phenotype of the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog, transcript expression over the life-cycle and anatomic expression patterns. Compounds linked to targets in DrugBank belonging to the same kinase families and subfamilies in the minimal nematode kinome were extracted. Thirty-five compounds were tested in the non-parasitic C. elegans and active compounds progressed to testing against nematode species with different modes of parasitism, the blood-feeding Haemonchus contortus and the filarial Brugia malayi. Eighteen compounds showed efficacy in C. elegans, and six compounds also showed efficacy in at least one of the parasitic species. Hypotheses regarding the pathway the compounds may target and their molecular mechanism for activity are discussed.

  9. Identification of “Preferred” Human Kinase Inhibitors for Sleeping Sickness Lead Discovery. Are Some Kinases Better than Others for Inhibitor Repurposing?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A kinase-targeting cell-based high-throughput screen (HTS) against Trypanosoma brucei was recently reported, and this screening set included the Published Kinase Inhibitor Set (PKIS). From the PKIS was identified 53 compounds with pEC50 ≥ 6. Utilizing the published data available for the PKIS, a statistical analysis of these active antiparasitic compounds was performed, allowing identification of a set of human kinases having inhibitors that show a high likelihood for blocking T. brucei cellular proliferation in vitro. This observation was confirmed by testing other established inhibitors of these human kinases and by mining past screening campaigns at GlaxoSmithKline. Overall, although the parasite targets of action are not known, inhibitors of this set of human kinases displayed an enhanced hit rate relative to a random kinase-targeting HTS campaign, suggesting that repurposing efforts should focus primarily on inhibitors of these specific human kinases. We therefore term this statistical analysis-driven approach “preferred lead repurposing”. PMID:26998514

  10. Inhibition of astroglia-induced endothelial differentiation by inorganic lead: a role for protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Laterra, J; Bressler, J P; Indurti, R R; Belloni-Olivi, L; Goldstein, G W

    1992-01-01

    Microvascular endothelial function in developing brain is particularly sensitive to lead toxicity, and it has been hypothesized that this results from the modulation of protein kinase C (PKC) by lead. We examined the effects of inorganic lead on an in vitro model of central nervous system endothelial differentiation in which astroglial cells induce central nervous system endothelial cells to form capillary-like structures. Capillary-like structure formation within C6 astroglial-endothelial cocultures was inhibited by lead acetate with 50% maximal inhibition at 0.5 microM total lead. Inhibition was independent of effects on cell viability or growth. Under conditions that inhibited capillary-like structure formation, we found that lead increased membrane-associated PKC in both C6 astroglial and endothelial cells. Prolonged exposure of C6 cells to 5 microM lead for up to 16 h resulted in a time-dependent increase in membranous PKC as determined by immunoblot analysis. Membranous PKC increased after 5-h exposures to as little as 50 nM lead and was maximal at approximately 1 microM. Phorbol esters were used to determine whether PKC modulation was causally related to the inhibition of endothelial differentiation by lead. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (10 nM) inhibited capillary-like structure formation by 65 +/- 5%, whereas 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate was without effect. These findings suggest that inorganic lead induces cerebral microvessel dysfunction by interfering with PKC modulation in microvascular endothelial or perivascular astroglial cells. Images PMID:1438272

  11. Grb2 negatively regulates epidermal growth factor-induced phospholipase C-gamma1 activity through the direct interaction with tyrosine-phosphorylated phospholipase C-gamma1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang Hyun; Hong, Won-Pyo; Yun, Sanguk; Kim, Hyeon Soo; Lee, Jong-Ryul; Park, Jong Bae; Bae, Yun Soo; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2005-10-01

    Phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) plays pivotal roles in cellular growth and proliferation. Upon the stimulation of growth factors and hormones, PLC-gamma1 is rapidly phosphorylated at three known sites; Tyr771, Tyr783 and Tyr1254 and its enzymatic activity is up-regulated. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that Grb2, an adaptor protein, specifically interacts with tyrosine-phosphorylated PLC-gamma1 at Tyr783. The association of Grb2 with PLC-gamma1 was induced by the treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF). Replacement of Tyr783 with Phe completely blocked EGF-induced interaction of PLC-gamma1 with Grb2, indicating that tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 at Tyr783 is essential for the interaction with Grb2. Interestingly, the depletion of Grb2 from HEK-293 cells by RNA interference significantly enhanced increased EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 enzymatic activity and mobilization of the intracellular Ca2+, while it did not affect EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1. Furthermore, overexpression of Grb2 inhibited PLC-gamma1 enzymatic activity. Taken together, these results suggest Grb2, in addition to its key function in signaling through Ras, may have a negatively regulatory role on EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation.

  12. Novel mutation in the PANK2 gene leads to pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration in a Pakistani family.

    PubMed

    Saleheen, Danish; Ali, Tuba; Aly, Zarmeneh; Khealani, Bhojo; Frossard, Philippe M

    2007-10-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration is an autosomal-recessive disorder associated with the accumulation of iron in the basal ganglia. The disease presents with dystonia, rigidity, and gait impairment, leading to restriction of activities and loss of ambulation. The disorder is caused by defective iron metabolism associated with mutations in the PANK2 gene, which codes for the pantothenate kinase enzyme. We report on a mutation screen conducted in two siblings to establish a molecular diagnosis of the disease and a genetic test for the family.

  13. Decay strength distributions in {sup 12}C({sup 12}C,{gamma}) radiative capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, D. G.; Fulton, B. R.; Marley, P.; Fox, S. P.; Glover, R.; Wadsworth, R.; Watson, D. L.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Lebhertz, D.; Beck, C.; Papka, P.; Rousseau, M.; Sanchez i Zafra, A.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Davis, C.; Ottewell, D.; Pavan, M. M.; Pearson, J.; Ruiz, C.

    2007-10-15

    The heavy-ion radiative capture reaction, {sup 12}C({sup 12}C,{gamma}), has been investigated at energies both on- and off-resonance, with a particular focus on known resonances at E{sub c.m.}=6.0, 6.8, 7.5, and 8.0 MeV. Gamma rays detected in a BGO scintillator array were recorded in coincidence with {sup 24}Mg residues at the focal plane of the DRAGON recoil separator at TRIUMF. In this manner, the relative strength of all decay pathways through excited states up to the particle threshold could be examined for the first time. Isovector M1 transitions are found to be a important component of the radiative capture from the E{sub c.m.}=6.0 and 6.8 MeV resonances. Comparison with Monte Carlo simulations suggests that these resonances may have either J=0 or 2, with a preference for J=2. The higher energy resonances at E{sub c.m.}=7.5 and 8.0 MeV have a rather different decay pattern. The former is a clear candidate for a J=4 resonance, whereas the latter has a dominant J=4 character superposed on a J=2 resonant component underneath. The relationship between these resonances and the well-known quasimolecular resonances as well as resonances in breakup and electrofission of {sup 24}Mg into two {sup 12}C nuclei are discussed.

  14. Cbl competitively inhibits epidermal growth factor-induced activation of phospholipase C-gamma1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang Hyun; Bae, Sun Sik; Park, Jong Bae; Ha, Sang Hoon; Song, Hebok; Kim, Jae-Ho; Cocco, Lucio; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2003-04-30

    Phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) plays pivotal roles in cellular growth and proliferation through its two Src homology (SH) 2 domains and its single SH3 domain, which interact with signaling molecules in response to various growth factors and hormones. However, the role of the SH domains in the growth factor-induced regulation of PLC-gamma1 is unclear. By peptide-mass fingerprinting analysis we have identified Cbl as a binding protein for the SH3 domain of PLC-gamma1 from rat pheochromatocyte PC12 cells. Association of Cbl with PLC-gamma1 was induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) but not by nerve growth factor (NGF). Upon EGF stimulation, both Cbl and PLC-gamma1 were recruited to the activated EGF receptor through their SH2 domains. Mutation of the SH2 domains of either Cbl or PLC-gamma1 abrogated the EGF-induced interaction of PLC-gamma1 with Cbl, indicating that SH2-mediated translocation is essential for the association of PLC-gamma1 and Cbl. Overexpression of Cbl attenuated EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and the subsequent activation of PLC-gamma1 by interfering competitively with the interaction between PLC-gamma1 and EGFR. Taken together, these results provide the first indications that Cbl may be a negative regulator of intracellular signaling following EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation.

  15. Disruption of TrkB-mediated phospholipase Cgamma signaling inhibits limbic epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao Ping; Pan, Enhui; Sciarretta, Carla; Minichiello, Liliana; McNamara, James O

    2010-05-05

    The BDNF receptor, TrkB, is critical to limbic epileptogenesis, but the responsible downstream signaling pathways are unknown. We hypothesized that TrkB-dependent activation of phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1) signaling is the key pathway and tested this in trkB(PLC/PLC) mice carrying a mutation (Y816F) that uncouples TrkB from PLCgamma1. Biochemical measures revealed activation of both TrkB and PLCgamma1 in hippocampi in the pilocarpine and kindling models in wild-type mice. PLCgamma1 activation was decreased in hippocampi isolated from trkB(PLC/PLC) compared with control mice. Epileptogenesis assessed by development of kindling was inhibited in trkB(PLC/PLC) compared with control mice. Long-term potentiation of the mossy fiber-CA3 pyramid synapse was impaired in slices of trkB(PLC/PLC) mice. We conclude that TrkB-dependent activation of PLCgamma1 signaling is an important molecular mechanism of limbic epileptogenesis. Elucidating signaling pathways activated by a cell membrane receptor in animal models of CNS disorders promises to reveal novel targets for specific and effective therapeutic intervention.

  16. Pharmacologically diverse antidepressants rapidly activate brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor TrkB and induce phospholipase-Cgamma signaling pathways in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Rantamäki, Tomi; Hendolin, Panu; Kankaanpää, Aino; Mijatovic, Jelena; Piepponen, Petteri; Domenici, Enrico; Chao, Moses V; Männistö, Pekka T; Castrén, Eero

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor TrkB are critically involved in the therapeutic actions of antidepressant drugs. We have previously shown that the antidepressants imipramine and fluoxetine produce a rapid autophosphorylation of TrkB in the rodent brain. In the present study, we have further examined the biochemical and functional characteristics of antidepressant-induced TrkB activation in vivo. We show that all the antidepressants examined, including inhibitors of monoamine transporters and metabolism, activate TrkB rapidly in the rodent anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the results indicate that acute and long-term antidepressant treatments induce TrkB-mediated activation of phospholipase-Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1) and increase the phosphorylation of cAMP-related element binding protein, a major transcription factor mediating neuronal plasticity. In contrast, we have not observed any modulation of the phosphorylation of TrkB Shc binding site, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase or AKT by antidepressants. We also show that in the forced swim test, the behavioral effects of specific serotonergic antidepressant citalopram, but not those of the specific noradrenergic antidepressant reboxetine, are crucially dependent on TrkB signaling. Finally, brain monoamines seem to be critical mediators of antidepressant-induced TrkB activation, as antidepressants reboxetine and citalopram do not produce TrkB activation in the brains of serotonin- or norepinephrine-depleted mice. In conclusion, our data suggest that rapid activation of the TrkB neurotrophin receptor and PLCgamma1 signaling is a common mechanism for all antidepressant drugs.

  17. Contrasting role of phospholipase C-{gamma}1 in the expression of immediate early genes induced by epidermal or platelet-derived growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Hongjun; Santos, Josue de los; Carpenter, Graham . E-mail: graham.carpenter@vanderbilt.edu

    2006-04-01

    While significant progress has been achieved in identifying the signal transduction elements that operate downstream of activated receptor tyrosine kinases, it remains unclear how different receptors utilize these signaling elements to achieve a common response. This study compares the capacity of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to elicit the induction of immediate early gene (IEG) mRNAs in the presence or absence of phospholipase C-{gamma}1 (PLC-{gamma}1). The results show that while PDGF induction of nearly all IEG mRNAs is abrogated in plcg1 null cells, EGF induction of the same genes is variable in the null cells and exhibits three distinct responses. Five IEG mRNAs (Nup475, Cyr61, TF, Gly, TS7) are completely inducible by EGF in the presence or absence of PLC-{gamma}1, while three others (JE, KC, FIC) exhibit a stringent requirement for the presence of PLC-{gamma}1. The third type of response is exhibited by c-fos and COX-2. While these mRNAs are completely induced by EGF in the absence of PLC-{gamma}1, the time course of their accumulation is significantly delayed. No IEG was identified as completely inducible by EGF and PDGF in the absence of PLC-{gamma}1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) demonstrate that PLC-{gamma}1 is necessary for nuclear extracts from PDGF-treated cells, but not EGF-treated cells, to interact with probes for AP-1 or NF-{kappa}B.

  18. Loss of ATM kinase activity leads to embryonic lethality in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Manuela; Lee, Baeck-Seung; Guo, Zhi; Filsuf, Darius; Belkina, Natalya V.; You, Zhongsheng; Paull, Tanya T.; Sleckman, Barry P.; Feigenbaum, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) mutated (ATM) is a key deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage signaling kinase that regulates DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoints, and apoptosis. The majority of patients with A-T, a cancer-prone neurodegenerative disease, present with null mutations in Atm. To determine whether the functions of ATM are mediated solely by its kinase activity, we generated two mouse models containing single, catalytically inactivating point mutations in Atm. In this paper, we show that, in contrast to Atm-null mice, both D2899A and Q2740P mutations cause early embryonic lethality in mice, without displaying dominant-negative interfering activity. Using conditional deletion, we find that the D2899A mutation in adult mice behaves largely similar to Atm-null cells but shows greater deficiency in homologous recombination (HR) as measured by hypersensitivity to poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibition and increased genomic instability. These results may explain why missense mutations with no detectable kinase activity are rarely found in patients with classical A-T. We propose that ATM kinase-inactive missense mutations, unless otherwise compensated for, interfere with HR during embryogenesis. PMID:22869595

  19. Lead-induced upregulation of the heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinase is compromised by hemin in human K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Angshuman; Kulkarni, Abhijeet; Chattopadhyay, Samit; Mogare, Devraj; Sharma, Kiran K; Singh, Kamini; Pal, Jayanta K

    2005-12-30

    Expression and kinase activity of the heme-regulated-eIF-2alpha kinase or -inhibitor (HRI) are induced during cytoplasmic stresses leading to inhibition of protein synthesis. Using a reporter construct with HRI promoter, we have determined the promoter activity during heat-shock and lead toxicity in human K562 cells. These two conditions induced HRI promoter activity by 2- to 3-fold. Contrary to this, hemin, a suppressor of HRI kinase activity, downregulated HRI promoter activity and stimulated hemoglobin synthesis. Interestingly, when hemin-treated cells were transfected and exposed to lead, hemin compromised lead-effect substantially by downregulating HRI promoter activity, HRI transcription and HRI kinase activity. These results together suggest that heme signaling in relation to translation regulation is not only restricted to the cytoplasm (modulating HRI kinase activity) alone but it also spans to the nucleus modulating HRI expression. Hemin may thus be useful for alleviation of stress-induced inhibition of protein synthesis.

  20. Identification of lead small molecule inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta using a fragment-linking strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhee; Moon, Yonghoon; Hong, Sungwoo

    2016-12-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3β) kinase serves as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of various human diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we report lead GSK3β inhibitors identified using a fragment-linking strategy. Through the systematic exploration, a six-atom chain unit bearing the rigid double bond was found to be a suitable linker connecting two fragments, which enables favorable contacts with backbone groups of residues in the pockets. As a consequence, potent GSK3β inhibitor 9i was found with IC50 values of 19nM. The binding mode analysis indicates that the activities of the inhibitors appear to be achieved by the establishment of multiple hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions in the ATP-binding site of GSK3β. The good biochemical potencies and structural uniqueness of the inhibitors support consideration in the further study to optimize the biological activity.

  1. Plesiomonas shigelloides Septic Shock Leading to Death of Postsplenectomy Patient with Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency and Hemochromatosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Although Plesiomonas shigelloides, a water-borne bacterium of the Enterobacteriaceae family, usually causes self-limiting gastroenteritis with diarrhea, several cases of sepsis have been reported. We report the case of a 43-year-old male patient with hemochromatosis, pyruvate kinase deficiency, and asplenia via splenectomy who developed septic shock caused by P. shigelloides complicated by respiratory failure, renal failure, liver failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Early aggressive antimicrobial therapy and resuscitation measures were unsuccessful and the patient passed away. We kindly suggest clinicians to implement early diagnosis of septic shock, empirical coverage with antibiotics, and prompt volume resuscitation based on the high mortality rate of P. shigelloides bacteremia. PMID:27610253

  2. Homocysteine-NMDA receptor mediated activation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase leads to neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Ranjana; Paul, Surojit

    2009-01-01

    Hyper-homocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for stroke and neurological abnormalities. However the underlying cellular mechanisms by which elevated homocysteine can promote neuronal death is not clear. In the present study we have examined the role of NMDA receptor mediated activation of the extracellular-signal regulated mitogen activated protein (ERK MAP) kinase pathway in homocysteine-dependent neurotoxicity. The study demonstrates that in neurons L-homocysteine-induced cell death is mediated through activation of NMDA receptors. The study also shows that homocysteine-dependent NMDA receptor stimulation and resultant Ca2+ influx leads to rapid and sustained phosphorylation of ERK MAP kinase. Inhibition of ERK phosphorylation attenuates homocysteine mediated neuronal cell death thereby demonstrating that activation of ERK MAP kinase signaling pathway is an intermediate step that couples homocysteine mediated NMDA receptor stimulation to neuronal death. The findings also show that cAMP response-element binding protein (CREB), a pro-survival transcription factor and a downstream target of ERK, is only transiently activated following homocysteine exposure. The sustained activation of ERK but a transient activation of CREB together suggest that exposure to homocysteine initiates a feedback loop that shuts off CREB signaling without affecting ERK phosphorylation and thereby facilitates homocysteine mediated neurotoxicity. PMID:19508427

  3. 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates phospholipase C-gamma in rat colonocytes: role of c-Src in PLC-gamma activation.

    PubMed Central

    Khare, S; Bolt, M J; Wali, R K; Skarosi, S F; Roy, H K; Niedziela, S; Scaglione-Sewell, B; Aquino, B; Abraham, C; Sitrin, M D; Brasitus, T A; Bissonnette, M

    1997-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3) rapidly stimulated polyphosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis, raised intracellular Ca2+, and activated two Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, PKC-alpha and -betaII in the rat large intestine. We also showed that the direct addition of 1,25(OH)2D3 to isolated colonic membranes failed to stimulate PI hydrolysis, but required secosteroid treatment of intact colonocytes, suggesting the involvement of a soluble factor. Furthermore, this PI hydrolysis was restricted to the basal lateral plasma membrane of these cells. In the present studies, therefore, we examined whether polyphosphoinositide-phospholipase C-gamma (PI-PLC-gamma), a predominantly cytosolic isoform of PI-PLC, was involved in the hydrolysis of colonic membrane PI by 1,25(OH)2D3. This isoform has been shown to be activated and membrane-associated by tyrosine phosphorylation. We found that 1,25(OH)2D3 caused a significant increase in the biochemical activity, particulate association, and the tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma, specifically in the basal lateral membranes. This secosteroid also induced a twofold increase in the activity of Src, a proximate activator of PLC-gamma in other cells, with peaks at 1 and 9 min in association with Src tyrosine dephosphorylation. 1,25(OH)2D3 also increased the physical association of activated c-Src with PLC-gamma. In addition, Src isolated from colonocytes treated with 1,25(OH)2D3, demonstrated an increased ability to phosphorylate exogenous PLC-gamma in vitro. Inhibition of 1,25(OH)2D3-induced Src activation by PP1, a specific Src family protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocked the ability of this secosteroid to stimulate the translocation and tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma in the basolateral membrane (BLM). Src activation was lost in D deficiency, and was reversibly restored with the in vivo repletion of 1,25(OH)2D3. These studies demonstrate for the first time

  4. The haem-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinase: a molecular indicator of lead-toxicity anaemia in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sanjay; Pal, Jayanta K

    2002-08-01

    The haem-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinase, also called the haem-regulated inhibitor (HRI), has been shown to increase in the peripheral blood cells as a function of drug-induced anaemia in rabbits, suggesting that it could be a molecular indicator of drug-induced anaemia [Anand and Pal (1997) J. Biosci. 22, 287-298]. In the present investigation, we have determined the expression of HRI during lead-induced anaemia in rabbits. The level of anaemia has been determined by routine procedures such as reticulocyte count, haemoglobin content and packed cell volume. These values were compared with the results obtained for a quantitative Western blot of HRI in the blood cell lysates of drug- and lead-induced anaemic rabbits. These results indicate that HRI could be used as a molecular marker for lead-induced anaemia since a progressive increase in HRI levels could be detected as a function of the time of lead exposure. In order to understand the role of stress proteins, heat-shock protein (Hsp) 70 and Hsp90, in inducing anaemia during lead exposure, levels of Hsp70 and Hsp90, and their interaction with HRI, have been determined. Increased levels of these proteins and their intermolecular complexes with HRI suggest their role in regulating protein synthesis during lead-induced anaemia. These observations further reiterate the use of HRI as a potential indicator for drug- and heavy-metal-induced anaemia in humans.

  5. Mutations in BCKD-kinase Lead to a Potentially Treatable Form of Autism with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Novarino, Gaia; El-Fishawy, Paul; Kayserili, Hulya; Meguid, Nagwa A.; Scott, Eric M.; Schroth, Jana; Silhavy, Jennifer L.; Kara, Majdi; Khalil, Rehab O.; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Ercan-Sencicek, A. Gulhan; Hashish, Adel F.; Sanders, Stephan J.; Gupta, Abha R.; Hashem, Hebatalla S.; Matern, Dietrich; Gabriel, Stacey; Sweetman, Larry; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Harris, Robert A.; State, Matthew W.; Gleeson, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a genetically heterogeneous constellation of syndromes characterized by impairments in reciprocal social interaction. Available somatic treatments have limited efficacy. We have identified inactivating mutations in the gene BCKDK (Branched Chain Ketoacid Dehydrogenase Kinase) in consanguineous families with autism, epilepsy, and intellectual disability. The encoded protein is responsible for phosphorylation-mediated inactivation of the E1α subunit of branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH). Patients with homozygous BCKDK mutations display reductions in BCKDK messenger RNA and protein, E1α phosphorylation, and plasma branched-chain amino acids. Bckdk knockout mice show abnormal brain amino acid profiles and neurobehavioral deficits that respond to dietary supplementation. Thus, autism presenting with intellectual disability and epilepsy caused by BCKDK mutations represents a potentially treatable syndrome. PMID:22956686

  6. A genetic variant of Aurora Kinase A promotes genomic instability leading to highly malignant skin tumors

    PubMed Central

    Torchia, Enrique C.; Chen, Yiyun; Sheng, Hong; Katayama, Hiroshi; Fitzpatrick, James; Brinkley, William R.; Sen, Subrata; Roop, Dennis R.

    2009-01-01

    Aurora Kinase A (Aurora-A) belongs to a highly conserved family of mitotis-regulating serine/threonine kinases implicated in epithelial cancers. Initially we examined Aurora-A expression levels at different stages of human skin cancer. Nuclear Aurora-A was detected in benign lesions, and became more diffused but broadly expressed in well and poorly differentiated SCC, indicating that Aurora-A deregulation may contribute to SCC development. To mimic the overexpression of Aurora-A observed in human skin cancers, we established a gene-switch (GS) mouse model in which the human variant of Aurora-A (Phe31Ile) was expressed in the epidermis upon topical application of the inducer, RU486 (Aurora-AGS). Overexpression of Aurora-A alone or in combination with the tumor promoter, TPA, did not result in SCC formation in Aurora-AGS mice. Moreover, Aurora-A overexpression in naive keratinocytes resulted in spindle defects in vitro and marked cell death in vivo, suggesting that the failure of Aurora-A to initiate tumorigenesis was due to induction of catastrophic cell death. However, Aurora-A overexpression combined with exposure to TPA and the mutagen, DMBA, accelerated SCC development with greater metastastic activity than control mice, indicating that Aurora-A cannot initiate skin carcinogenesis, but rather promotes the malignant conversion of skin papillomas. Further characterization of SCCs revealed centrosome amplification and genomic alterations by array CGH analysis, indicating that Aurora-A overexpression induces a high level of genomic instability that favors the development of aggressive and metastatic tumors. Our findings strongly implicate Aurora-A overexpression in the malignant progression of skin tumors and suggest that Aurora-Amay be an important therapeutic target. PMID:19738056

  7. Deficiency of pantothenate kinase 2 (Pank2) in mice leads to retinal degeneration and azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yien-Ming; Duncan, Jacque L; Westaway, Shawn K; Yang, Haidong; Nune, George; Xu, Eugene Yujun; Hayflick, Susan J; Gitschier, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN, formerly known as Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome) is a rare but devastating neurodegenerative disorder, resulting from an inherited defect in coenzyme A biosynthesis. As pathology in the human condition is limited to the central nervous system, specifically the retina and globus pallidus, we have generated a mouse knock-out of the orthologous murine gene (Pank2) to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms of disease and to serve as a testing ground for therapies. Over time, the homozygous null mice manifest retinal degeneration, as evidenced by electroretinography, light microscopy and pupillometry response. Specifically, Pank2 mice show progressive photoreceptor decline, with significantly lower scotopic a- and b-wave amplitudes, decreased cell number and disruption of the outer segment and reduced pupillary constriction response when compared with those of wild-type littermates. Additionally, the homozygous male mutants are infertile due to azoospermia, a condition that was not appreciated in the human. Arrest occurs in spermiogenesis, with complete absence of elongated and mature spermatids. In contrast to the human, however, no changes were observed in the basal ganglia by MRI or by histological exam, nor were there signs of dystonia, even after following the mice for one year. Pank2 mice are 20% decreased in weight when compared with their wild-type littermates; however, dysphagia was not apparent. Immunohistochemistry shows staining consistent with localization of Pank2 to the mitochondria in both the retina and the spermatozoa.

  8. Inhibition of Rho Kinase (ROCK) Leads to Increased Cerebral Blood Flow and Stroke Protection

    PubMed Central

    Rikitake, Yoshiyuki; Kim, Hyung-Hwan; Huang, Zhihong; Seto, Minoru; Yano, Kazuo; Asano, Toshio; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Liao, James K.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) plays a pivotal role in vascular protection. The Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, hydroxyfasudil, prevents the downregulation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) under hypoxic conditions. However, it is unknown whether inhibition of ROCK can attenuate ischemia-induced endothelial dysfunction and tissue damage in vivo. Methods Human vascular endothelial cells were treated with increasing concentrations of hydroxyfasudil (0.1 to 100 μmol/L) and eNOS expression and activity were measured. To determine the physiological relevance of eNOS regulation by ROCK, we administered fasudil, which is metabolized to hydroxyfasudil in vivo, to mice for 2 days before subjecting them to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Cerebral blood flow, cerebral infarct size, and neurologic deficit were measured. Results In a concentration-dependent manner, hydroxyfasudil increased eNOS mRNA and protein expression, resulting in a 1.9- and 1.6-fold increase, respectively, at 10 μmol/L (P<0.05 for both). This correlated with a 1.5- and 2.3-fold increase in eNOS activity and NO production, respectively (P<0.05 for both). Fasudil increased cerebral blood flow to both ischemic and nonischemic brain areas, reduced cerebral infarct size by 33%, and improved neurologic deficit score by 37% (P<0.05). This correlated with inhibition of brain and vascular ROCK activity and increased eNOS expression and activity. Another ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, also showed similar effects. The neuroprotective effects of fasudil were absent in eNOS-deficient mice. Conclusions These findings indicate that the neuroprotective effect of ROCK inhibition is mediated by endothelium-derived NO and suggest that ROCK may be an important therapeutic target for ischemic stroke. PMID:16141422

  9. Disruption of glycogen synthase kinase-3-beta activity leads to abnormalities in physiological measures in mice.

    PubMed

    Ahnaou, A; Drinkenburg, W H I M

    2011-08-01

    Dysregulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3-beta (GSK-3β) signaling pathways is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of mood disorders. In order to demonstrate that the loss of normal GSK-3β activity results in disturbances of physiological measures, we attempted to determine whether sleep-wake architecture, circadian rhythms of core body temperature and activity were altered in transgenic mice overexpressing GSK-3β activity specifically in the brain. Cortical electroencephalographic activity, body temperature (BT) and body locomotor activity (LMA) were continuously monitored using a biopotential telemetry probe. Normal circadian patterns were maintained for different measurements in both genotypes. No differences were found in total time spent asleep and waking over the 24-h recording session. However, transgenic animals overexpressing GSK-3β showed alteration in sleep continuity characterized by an increases in number of non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep episodes (GSK-3β, 227.2 ± 1.7 vs. WT, 172.6 ± 1.4, p < 0.05) and decreases in mean episode duration (GSK-3β, 3.0 ± 0.1 vs. WT, 4.4 ± 0.2, p < 0.05). Additionally, transgenic animals exhibited marked enhancement of basal LMA and BT levels during the first part of the dark period, under both light-dark and free running dark-dark circadian cycles. Our findings indicate that transgenic mice overexpressing GSK-3β activity exhibit severe fragmentation of sleep-wake cycle during both the light and dark periods, without showing deviancy in total durations of vigilance states. The results strongly suggest that GSK-3β activity is elemental for the maintenance of circadian motor behavior levels required for proper regulation of BT and sleep-wake organization.

  10. Phosphorylation of TRPV1 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 promotes TRPV1 surface localization, leading to inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Du, Junxie; Yang, Yanrui; Wang, Yun

    2015-11-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is an important serine/threonine kinase that plays critical roles in many physiological processes. Recently, Cdk5 has been reported to phosphorylate TRPV1 at threonine 407 (Thr-407) in humans (Thr-406 in rats), which enhances the function of TRPV1 channel and promotes thermal hyperalgesia in the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain rats. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Cdk5 phosphorylates TRPV1 at Threonine 406 and promotes the surface localization of TRPV1, leading to inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia. The mutation of Thr-406 of TRPV1 to alanine reduced the interaction of TRPV1 with the cytoskeletal elements and decreased the binding of TRPV1 with the motor protein KIF13B, which led to reduced surface distribution of TRPV1. Disrupting the phosphorylation of TRPV1 at Thr-406 dramatically reduced the surface level of TRPV1 in HEK 293 cells after transient expression and the channel function in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Notably, intrathecal administration of the interfering peptide against the phosphorylation of Thr-406 alleviated heat hyperalgesia and reduced the surface level of TRPV1 in inflammatory pain rats. Together, these results demonstrate that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of TRPV1 at Thr-406 increases the surface level and the function of TRPV1, while the TAT-T406 peptide can effectively attenuate thermal hyperalgesia. Our studies provide a potential therapy for inflammatory pain.

  11. Conditional knockout of activin like kinase-1 (ALK-1) leads to heart failure without maladaptive remodeling.

    PubMed

    Morine, Kevin J; Qiao, Xiaoying; Paruchuri, Vikram; Aronovitz, Mark J; Mackey, Emily E; Buiten, Lyanne; Levine, Jonathan; Ughreja, Keshan; Nepali, Prerna; Blanton, Robert M; Karas, Richard H; Oh, S Paul; Kapur, Navin K

    2017-05-01

    Activin like kinase-1 (AlK-1) mediates signaling via the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) family of ligands. AlK-1 activity promotes endothelial proliferation and migration. Reduced AlK-1 activity is associated with arteriovenous malformations. No studies have examined the effect of global AlK-1 deletion on indices of cardiac remodeling. We hypothesized that reduced levels of AlK-1 promote maladaptive cardiac remodeling. To test this hypothesis, we employed AlK-1 conditional knockout mice (cKO) harboring the ROSA26-CreER knock-in allele, whereby a single dose of intraperitoneal tamoxifen triggered ubiquitous Cre recombinase-mediated excision of floxed AlK-1 alleles. Tamoxifen treated wild-type (WT-TAM; n = 5) and vehicle treated AlK-1-cKO mice (cKO-CON; n = 5) served as controls for tamoxifen treated AlK-1-cKO mice (cKO-TAM; n = 15). AlK-1 cKO-TAM mice demonstrated reduced 14-day survival compared to cKO-CON controls (13 vs 100%, respectively, p < 0.01). Seven days after treatment, cKO-TAM mice exhibited reduced left ventricular (LV) fractional shortening, progressive LV dilation, and gastrointestinal bleeding. After 14 days total body mass was reduced, but LV and lung mass increased in cKO-TAM not cKO-CON mice. Peak LV systolic pressure, contractility, and arterial elastance were reduced, but LV end-diastolic pressure and stroke volume were increased in cKO-TAM, not cKO-CON mice. LV AlK-1 mRNA levels were reduced in cKO-TAM, not cKO-CON mice. LV levels of other TGFβ-family ligands and receptors (AlK5, TBRII, BMPRII, Endoglin, BMP7, BMP9, and TGFβ1) were unchanged between groups. Cardiomyocyte area and LV levels of BNP were increased in cKO-TAM mice, but LV levels of β-MHC and SERCA were unchanged. No increase in markers of cardiac fibrosis, Type I collagen, CTGF, or PAI-1, were observed between groups. No differences were observed for any variable studied between cKO-CON and WT-TAM mice. Global deletion of AlK-1 is associated with the

  12. Inositol 5'-phosphatase, SHIP1 interacts with phospholipase C-gamma1 and modulates EGF-induced PLC activity.

    PubMed

    Song, Minseok; Kim, Myung Jong; Ha, Sanghoon; Park, Jong Bae; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2005-06-30

    Phospholipase C-gamma1, containing two SH2 and one SH3 domains which participate in the interaction between signaling molecules, plays a significant role in the growth factor-induced signal transduction. However, the role of the SH domains in the growth factor-induced PLC-gamma1 regulation is unclear. By peptide-mass fingerprinting analysis, we have identified SHIP1 as the binding protein for the SH3 domain of PLC-gamma1. SHIP1 was co-immunoprecipitated with PLC-gamma1 and potentiated EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation. However, inositol 5'-phosphatase activity of SHIP1 was not required for the potentiation of EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation. Taken together, these results suggest that SHIP1 may function as an adaptor protein which can potentiate EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation without regards to its inositol 5'-phosphatase activity.

  13. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead Contact Us Share Lead Poisoning is Preventable If your home was built ... to protect people from harmful lead exposures. Less Lead in Drinking Water = Better Health Learn about the ...

  14. Loss of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 from parvalbumin interneurons leads to hyperinhibition, decreased anxiety, and memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Rudenko, Andrii; Seo, Jinsoo; Hu, Ji; Su, Susan C; de Anda, Froylan Calderon; Durak, Omer; Ericsson, Maria; Carlén, Marie; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2015-02-11

    Perturbations in fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV) interneurons are hypothesized to be a major component of various neuropsychiatric disorders; however, the mechanisms regulating PV interneurons remain mostly unknown. Recently, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been shown to function as a major regulator of synaptic plasticity. Here, we demonstrate that genetic ablation of Cdk5 in PV interneurons in mouse brain leads to an increase in GABAergic neurotransmission and impaired synaptic plasticity. PVCre;fCdk5 mice display a range of behavioral abnormalities, including decreased anxiety and memory impairment. Our results reveal a central role of Cdk5 expressed in PV interneurons in gating inhibitory neurotransmission and underscore the importance of such regulation during behavioral tasks. Our findings suggest that Cdk5 can be considered a promising therapeutic target in a variety of conditions attributed to inhibitory interneuronal dysfunction, such as epilepsy, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia.

  15. Elucidating the role of the TRPM7 alpha-kinase: TRPM7 kinase inactivation leads to magnesium deprivation resistance phenotype in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ryazanova, Lillia V.; Hu, Zhixian; Suzuki, Sayuri; Chubanov, Vladimir; Fleig, Andrea; Ryazanov, Alexey G.

    2014-01-01

    TRPM7 is an unusual bi-functional protein containing an ion channel covalently linked to a protein kinase domain. TRPM7 is implicated in regulating cellular and systemic magnesium homeostasis. While the biophysical properties of TRPM7 ion channel and its function are relatively well characterized, the function of the TRPM7 enzymatically active kinase domain is not understood yet. To investigate the physiological role of TRPM7 kinase activity, we constructed mice carrying an inactive TRPM7 kinase. We found that these mice were resistant to dietary magnesium deprivation, surviving three times longer than wild type mice; also they displayed decreased chemically induced allergic reaction. Interestingly, mutant mice have lower magnesium bone content compared to wild type mice when fed regular diet; unlike wild type mice, mutant mice placed on magnesium-depleted diet did not alter their bone magnesium content. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts isolated from TRPM7 kinase-dead animals exhibited increased resistance to magnesium deprivation and oxidative stress. Finally, electrophysiological data revealed that the activity of the kinase-dead TRPM7 channel was not significantly altered. Together, our results suggest that TRPM7 kinase is a sensor of magnesium status and provides coordination of cellular and systemic responses to magnesium deprivation. PMID:25534891

  16. New chemical scaffolds for human african trypanosomiasis lead discovery from a screen of tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs.

    PubMed

    Behera, Ranjan; Thomas, Sarah M; Mensa-Wilmot, Kojo

    2014-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. New drugs are needed to treat HAT because of undesirable side effects and difficulties in the administration of the antiquated drugs that are currently used. In human proliferative diseases, protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors (PTKIs) have been developed into drugs (e.g., lapatinib and erlotinib) by optimization of a 4-anilinoquinazoline scaffold. Two sets of facts raise a possibility that drugs targeted against human PTKs could be "hits" for antitrypanosomal lead discoveries. First, trypanosome protein kinases bind some drugs, namely, lapatinib, CI-1033, and AEE788. Second, the pan-PTK inhibitor tyrphostin A47 blocks the endocytosis of transferrin and inhibits trypanosome replication. Following up on these concepts, we performed a focused screen of various PTKI drugs as possible antitrypanosomal hits. Lapatinib, CI-1033, erlotinib, axitinib, sunitinib, PKI-166, and AEE788 inhibited the replication of bloodstream T. brucei, with a 50% growth inhibitory concentration (GI50) between 1.3 μM and 2.5 μM. Imatinib had no effect (i.e., GI50>10 μM). To discover leads among the drugs, a mouse model of HAT was used in a proof-of-concept study. Orally administered lapatinib reduced parasitemia, extended the survival of all treated mice, and cured the trypanosomal infection in 25% of the mice. CI-1033 and AEE788 reduced parasitemia and extended the survival of the infected mice. On the strength of these data and noting their oral bioavailabilities, we propose that the 4-anilinoquinazoline and pyrrolopyrimidine scaffolds of lapatinib, CI-1033, and AEE788 are worth optimizing against T. brucei in medicinal chemistry campaigns (i.e., scaffold repurposing) to discover new drugs against HAT.

  17. New Chemical Scaffolds for Human African Trypanosomiasis Lead Discovery from a Screen of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Ranjan; Thomas, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. New drugs are needed to treat HAT because of undesirable side effects and difficulties in the administration of the antiquated drugs that are currently used. In human proliferative diseases, protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors (PTKIs) have been developed into drugs (e.g., lapatinib and erlotinib) by optimization of a 4-anilinoquinazoline scaffold. Two sets of facts raise a possibility that drugs targeted against human PTKs could be “hits” for antitrypanosomal lead discoveries. First, trypanosome protein kinases bind some drugs, namely, lapatinib, CI-1033, and AEE788. Second, the pan-PTK inhibitor tyrphostin A47 blocks the endocytosis of transferrin and inhibits trypanosome replication. Following up on these concepts, we performed a focused screen of various PTKI drugs as possible antitrypanosomal hits. Lapatinib, CI-1033, erlotinib, axitinib, sunitinib, PKI-166, and AEE788 inhibited the replication of bloodstream T. brucei, with a 50% growth inhibitory concentration (GI50) between 1.3 μM and 2.5 μM. Imatinib had no effect (i.e., GI50 > 10 μM). To discover leads among the drugs, a mouse model of HAT was used in a proof-of-concept study. Orally administered lapatinib reduced parasitemia, extended the survival of all treated mice, and cured the trypanosomal infection in 25% of the mice. CI-1033 and AEE788 reduced parasitemia and extended the survival of the infected mice. On the strength of these data and noting their oral bioavailabilities, we propose that the 4-anilinoquinazoline and pyrrolopyrimidine scaffolds of lapatinib, CI-1033, and AEE788 are worth optimizing against T. brucei in medicinal chemistry campaigns (i.e., scaffold repurposing) to discover new drugs against HAT. PMID:24468788

  18. Multitargeted drug development: Discovery and profiling of dihydroxy substituted 1-aza-9-oxafluorenes as lead compounds targeting Alzheimer disease relevant kinases.

    PubMed

    Tell, Volkmar; Holzer, Max; Herrmann, Lydia; Mahmoud, Kazem Ahmed; Schächtele, Christoph; Totzke, Frank; Hilgeroth, Andreas

    2012-11-15

    Alzheimer disease (AD) turned out to be a multifactorial process leading to neuronal decay. So far merely single target structures which attribute to the AD progression have been considered to develop specific drugs. However, such drug developments have been disappointing in clinical stages. Multitargeting of more than one target structure determines recent studies of developing novel lead compounds. Protein kinases have been identified to contribute to the neuronal decay with CDK1, GSK-3β and CDK5/p25 being involved in a pathological tau protein hyperphosphorylation. We discovered novel lead structures of the dihydroxy-1-aza-9-oxafluorene type with nanomolar activities against CDK1, GSK-3β and CDK5/p25. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) of the protein kinase inhibition are discussed within our first compound series. One nanomolar active compound profiled as selective protein kinase inhibitor. Bioanalysis of a harmless cellular toxicity and of the inhibition of tau protein phosphorylation qualifies the compound for further studies.

  19. Structure Guided Development of Novel Thymidine Mimetics targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa Thymidylate Kinase: from Hit to Lead Generation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jun Yong; Plummer, Mark S.; Starr, Jeremy; Desbonnet, Charlene R.; Soutter, Holly; Chang, Jeanne; Miller, J. Richard; Dillman, Keith; Miller, Alita A.; Roush, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Thymidylate kinase (TMK) is a potential chemotherapeutic target because it is directly involved in the synthesis of an essential component, thymidine triphosphate, in DNA replication. All reported TMK inhibitors are thymidine analogs, which might retard their development as potent therapeutics due to cell permeability and off-target activity against human TMK. A small molecule hit (1, IC50 = 58 μM), which has reasonable inhibition potency against Pseudomonas aeruginosa TMK (PaTMK), was identified by the analysis of the binding mode of thymidine or TP5A in a PaTMK homology model. This hit (1) was co-crystallized with PaTMK, and several potent PaTMK inhibitors (leads, 46, 47, 48, and 56, IC50 = 100–200 nM) were synthesized using computer aided design approaches including virtual synthesis/screening, which was used to guide the design of inhibitors. The binding mode of the optimized leads in PaTMK overlaps with that of other bacterial TMKs, but not with human TMK which shares few common features with the bacterial enzymes. Therefore, the optimized TMK inhibitors described here should be useful for the development of antibacterial agents targeting TMK without undesired off-target effects. In addition, an inhibition mechanism associated with the LID loop, which mimics the process of phosphate transfer from ATP to dTMP, was proposed based on X-ray co-crystal structures, homology models, and SAR results. PMID:22243413

  20. Pressure overload stimulated cardiac hypertrophy leads to a rapid decrease in the mRNA for creatine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Boheler, K.; Popovich, B.; Dillmann, W.H.

    1987-05-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy (CH) leads to a decrease in creatine kinase (CK) enzymatic activity. To determine if the mRNA for CK also decreases with CH, they performed the following studies. Cardiac RNA was isolated from rats subjected to either abdominal aortic stenosis (AS) or sham surgery. Through Northern blot analysis, total cardiac RNA was quantitated with a CK specific /sup 32/P-labelled cDNA clone. At 3 and 8 days post-constriction, the mRNA for CK decreases by 54.6 +/- 7% and 65.3 +/- 18% respectively, whereas the heart weight increases by 19% and 37% relative to controls. Further studies indicate that CK mRNA also decreases by 41.8% in hypothyroid rats (Tx) but decreases by a total of 68.1% in Tx rats subjected to 8 days of AS. Pressure overload stimulated CH leads to a rapid decrease in CK mRNA in normal and Tx rats. This CK mRNA decrease may account for the decreased efficiency of contraction seen in CH.

  1. Structure-based lead discovery for protein kinase C zeta inhibitor design by exploiting kinase-inhibitor complex crystal structure data and potential therapeutics for preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qing-Chun; Zhang, Cui-Juan; Li, Jie

    2014-10-14

    The protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine kinases with a broad range of cellular targets. Members of the PKC family participate at the diverse biological events involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival. The PKC isoform zeta (PKCζ) is an atypical member that has recently been found to play an essential role in promoting human uterine contractility and thus been raised as a new target for treating preterm labour and other tocolytic diseases. In this study, an integrative protocol was described to graft hundreds of inhibitor ligands from their complex crystal structures with cognate kinases into the active pocket of PKCζ and, based on the modeled structures, to evaluate the binding strength of these inhibitors to the non-cognate PKCζ receptor by using a consensus scoring strategy. A total of 32 inhibitors with top score were compiled, and eight out of them were tested for inhibitory potency against PKCζ. Consequently, five compounds, i.e. CDK6 inhibitor fisetin, PIM1 inhibitor myricetin, CDK9 inhibitor flavopiridol and PknB inhibitor mitoxantrone as well as the promiscuous kinase inhibitor staurosporine showed high or moderate inhibitory activity on PKCζ, with IC50 values of 58 ± 9, 1.7 ± 0.4, 108 ± 17, 280 ± 47 and 0.019 ± 0.004 μM, respectively, while other three compounds, including two marketed drugs dasatinib and sunitinib as well as the Rho inhibitor fasudil, have not been detected to possess observable activity. Next, based on the modeled structure data we modified three flavonoid kinase inhibitors, i.e. fisetin, myricetin and flavopiridol, to generate a number of more potential molecular entities, two of which were found to have a moderately improved activity as compared to their parent compounds.

  2. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... are approximately half a million U.S. children ages 1-5 with blood lead levels above 5 micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL), the reference level at which CDC recommends public health actions be initiated. No safe blood lead level in children has been ...

  3. Phospholipase C-gamma1 potentiates integrin-dependent cell spreading and migration through Pyk2/paxillin activation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang Hyun; Yang, Yong-Ryoul; Lee, Seul Ki; Kim, Il-Shin; Ha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Eung-Kyun; Bae, Yun Soo; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2007-08-01

    Phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1), which generates two second messengers, namely, inositol-1, 4, 5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol, is implicated in growth factor-mediated chemotaxis. However, the exact role of PLC-gamma1 in integrin-mediated cell adhesion and migration remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that PLC-gamma1 is required for actin cytoskeletal organization and cell motility through the regulation of Pyk2 and paxillin activation. After fibronectin stimulation, PLC-gamma1 directly interacted with the cytoplasmic tail of integrin beta1. In PLC-gamma1-silenced cells, integrin-induced Pyk2 and paxillin phosphorylation were significantly reduced and PLC-gamma1 potentiated the integrin-induced Pyk2/paxillin activation in its enzymatic activity-dependent manner. In addition, specific knock-down of PLC-gamma1 resulted in a failure to form focal adhesions dependent on fibronectin stimulation, which appeared to be caused by the suppression of Pyk2 and paxillin phosphorylation. Interestingly, PLC-gamma1 potentiated the activations of Rac, thus integrin-induced lamellipodia formation was up-regulated. Consequently, the strength of cell-substratum interaction and cell motility were profoundly up-regulated by PLC-gamma1. Taken together, these results suggest that PLC-gamma1 is a key player in integrin-mediated cell spreading and motility achieved by the activation of Pyk2/paxillin/Rac signaling.

  4. Phosphofructo-1-Kinase Deficiency Leads to a Severe Cardiac and Hematological Disorder in Addition to Skeletal Muscle Glycogenosis

    PubMed Central

    García, Miguel; Pujol, Anna; Ruzo, Albert; Riu, Efrén; Ruberte, Jesús; Arbós, Anna; Serafín, Anna; Albella, Beatriz; Felíu, Juan Emilio; Bosch, Fátima

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in the gene for muscle phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFKM), a key regulatory enzyme of glycolysis, cause Type VII glycogen storage disease (GSDVII). Clinical manifestations of the disease span from the severe infantile form, leading to death during childhood, to the classical form, which presents mainly with exercise intolerance. PFKM deficiency is considered as a skeletal muscle glycogenosis, but the relative contribution of altered glucose metabolism in other tissues to the pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood. To elucidate this issue, we have generated mice deficient for PFKM (Pfkm−/−). Here, we show that Pfkm−/− mice had high lethality around weaning and reduced lifespan, because of the metabolic alterations. In skeletal muscle, including respiratory muscles, the lack of PFK activity blocked glycolysis and resulted in considerable glycogen storage and low ATP content. Although erythrocytes of Pfkm−/− mice preserved 50% of PFK activity, they showed strong reduction of 2,3-biphosphoglycerate concentrations and hemolysis, which was associated with compensatory reticulocytosis and splenomegaly. As a consequence of these haematological alterations, and of reduced PFK activity in the heart, Pfkm−/− mice developed cardiac hypertrophy with age. Taken together, these alterations resulted in muscle hypoxia and hypervascularization, impaired oxidative metabolism, fiber necrosis, and exercise intolerance. These results indicate that, in GSDVII, marked alterations in muscle bioenergetics and erythrocyte metabolism interact to produce a complex systemic disorder. Therefore, GSDVII is not simply a muscle glycogenosis, and Pfkm−/− mice constitute a unique model of GSDVII which may be useful for the design and assessment of new therapies. PMID:19696889

  5. Fructose surges damage hepatic adenosyl-monophosphate-dependent kinase and lead to increased lipogenesis and hepatic insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Gugliucci, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    Fructose may be a key contributor to the biochemical alterations which promote the metabolic syndrome (MetS), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM): (a) its consumption in all forms but especially in liquid form has much increased alongside with incidence of MetS conditions; (b) it is metabolized almost exclusively in the liver, where it stimulates de novo lipogenesis to drive hepatic triglyceride (TG) synthesis which (c) contributes to hepatic insulin resistance and NAFLD (Lustig et al., 2015; Weiss et al., 2013; Lim et al., 2010; Schwarzet al., 2015; Stanhope et al., 2009, 2013) [1-6]. The specifics of fructose metabolism and its main location in the liver serve to explain many of the possible mechanisms involved. It also opens questions, as the consequences of large increases in fructose flux to the liver may wreak havoc with the regulation of metabolism and would produce two opposite effects (inhibition and activation of AMP dependent kinase-AMPK) that would tend to cancel each other. We posit that (1) surges of fructose in the portal vein lead to increased unregulated flux to trioses accompanied by unavoidable methylglyoxal (MG) production, (2) the new, sudden flux exerts carbonyl stress on the three arginines on the γ subunits AMP binding site of AMPK, irreversible blocking some of the enzyme molecules to allosteric modulation, (3) this explains why, even when fructose quick phosphorylation increases AMP and should therefore activate AMPK, the effects of fructose are compatible with inactivation of AMPK, which then solves the apparent metabolic paradox. We put forward the hypothesis that fructose loads, via the increase in MG flux worsens the fructose-driven metabolic disturbances that lead to unrestricted de novo lipogenesis, fatty liver and hepatic insulin resistance. It does so via the silencing of AMPK. Our hypothesis is testable and if proven correct will shed some further light on fructose metabolism in the liver. It will

  6. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor PI-103 downregulates choline kinase alpha leading to phosphocholine and total choline decrease detected by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Al-Saffar, Nada M S; Jackson, L Elizabeth; Raynaud, Florence I; Clarke, Paul A; Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Lacal, Juan C; Workman, Paul; Leach, Martin O

    2010-07-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is a major target for cancer drug development. PI-103 is an isoform-selective class I PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor. The aims of this work were as follows: first, to use magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to identify and develop a robust pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarker for target inhibition and potentially tumor response following PI3K inhibition; second, to evaluate mechanisms underlying the MRS-detected changes. Treatment of human PTEN null PC3 prostate and PIK3CA mutant HCT116 colon carcinoma cells with PI-103 resulted in a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in phosphocholine (PC) and total choline (tCho) levels (P < 0.05) detected by phosphorus ((31)P)- and proton ((1)H)-MRS. In contrast, the cytotoxic microtubule inhibitor docetaxel increased glycerophosphocholine and tCho levels in PC3 cells. PI-103-induced MRS changes were associated with alterations in the protein expression levels of regulatory enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, including choline kinase alpha (ChoK(alpha)), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and phosphorylated ATP-citrate lyase (pACL). However, a strong correlation (r(2) = 0.9, P = 0.009) was found only between PC concentrations and ChoK(alpha) expression but not with FAS or pACL. This study identified inhibition of ChoK(alpha) as a major cause of the observed change in PC levels following PI-103 treatment. We also showed the capacity of (1)H-MRS, a clinically well-established technique with higher sensitivity and wider applicability compared with (31)P-MRS, to assess response to PI-103. Our results show that monitoring the effects of PI3K inhibitors by MRS may provide a noninvasive PD biomarker for PI3K inhibition and potentially of tumor response during early-stage clinical trials with PI3K inhibitors.

  7. Discovery and optimization of pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazinones leads to novel and selective inhibitors of PIM kinases.

    PubMed

    Casuscelli, Francesco; Ardini, Elena; Avanzi, Nilla; Casale, Elena; Cervi, Giovanni; D'Anello, Matteo; Donati, Daniele; Faiardi, Daniela; Ferguson, Ronald D; Fogliatto, Gianpaolo; Galvani, Arturo; Marsiglio, Aurelio; Mirizzi, Danilo G; Montemartini, Marisa; Orrenius, Christian; Papeo, Gianluca; Piutti, Claudia; Salom, Barbara; Felder, Eduard R

    2013-12-01

    A novel series of PIM inhibitors was derived from a combined effort in natural product-inspired library generation and screening. The novel pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazinones initial hits are inhibitors of PIM isoforms with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. The application of a rational optimization strategy, guided by the determination of the crystal structure of the complex in the kinase domain of PIM1 with compound 1, led to the discovery of compound 15a, which is a potent PIM kinases inhibitor exhibiting excellent selectivity against a large panel of kinases, representative of each family. The synthesis, structure-activity relationship studies, and pharmacokinetic data of compounds from this inhibitor class are presented herein. Furthermore, the cellular activities including inhibition of cell growth and modulation of downstream targets are also described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Destabilization of Raf-1 by geldanamycin leads to disruption of the Raf-1-MEK-mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, T W; Blagosklonny, M V; Romanova, L; Mushinski, J F; Monia, B P; Johnston, J F; Nguyen, P; Trepel, J; Neckers, L M

    1996-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase Raf-1 functions downstream of Rats in a signal transduction cascade which transmits mitogenic stimuli from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. Raf-1 integrates signals coming from extracellular factors and, in turn, activates its substrate, MEK kinase. MEK activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which phosphorylates other kinases as well as transcription factors. Raf-1 exists in a complex with HSP90 and other proteins. The benzoquinone ansamycin geldanamycin (GA) binds to HSP90 and disrupts the Raf-1-HSP90 multimolecular complex, leading to destabilization of Raf-1. In this study, we examined whether Raf-1 destabilization is sufficient to block the Raf-1-MEK-MAPK signalling pathway and whether GA specifically inactivates the Raf-1 component of this pathway. Using the model system of NIH 3T3 cells stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), we show that GA does not affect the ability of protein kinase C alpha to be activated by phorbol esters, but it does block activation of MEK and MAPK. Further, GA does not decrease the activity of constitutively active MEK in transiently transfected cells. Finally, disruption of the Raf-1-MEK-MAPK signalling pathway by GA prevents both the PMA-induced proliferative response and PMA-induced activation of a MAPK-sensitive nuclear transcription factor. Thus, we demonstrate that interaction between HSP90 and Raf-1 is a sine qua non for Raf stability and function as a signal transducer and that the effects observed cannot be attributed to a general impairment of protein kinase function. PMID:8816498

  9. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate and Sphingosine Kinase Are Involved in a Novel Signaling Pathway Leading to Acrosomal Exocytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Suhaiman, Laila; De Blas, Gerardo A.; Obeid, Lina M.; Darszon, Alberto; Mayorga, Luis S.; Belmonte, Silvia A.

    2010-01-01

    Regulated secretion is a central issue for the specific function of many cells; for instance, mammalian sperm acrosomal exocytosis is essential for egg fertilization. Sphingosine 1-phosphate is a bioactive sphingolipid that regulates crucial physiological processes. Here we report that this lipid triggers acrosomal exocytosis in human sperm by a mechanism involving a Gi-coupled receptor. Real-time imaging showed a remarkable increase of cytosolic calcium upon activation with sphingosine 1-phosphate and pharmacological experiments indicate that the process requires extracellular calcium influx through voltage and store-operated calcium channels and efflux from intracellular stores through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive calcium channels. Sphingosine 1-phosphate-induced exocytosis requires phospholipase C and protein kinase C activation. We investigated possible sources of the lipid. Western blot indicates that sphingosine kinase 1 is present in spermatozoa. Indirect immunofluorescence showed that phorbol ester, a potent protein kinase C activator that can also trigger acrosomal exocytosis, redistributes sphingosine kinase 1 to the acrosomal region. Functional assays showed that phorbol ester-induced exocytosis depends on the activation of sphingosine kinase 1. Furthermore, incorporation of 32P to sphingosine demonstrates that cells treated with the phorbol ester increase their sphingosine kinase activity that yields sphingosine 1-phosphate. We present here the first evidence indicating that human spermatozoa produce sphingosine 1-phosphate when challenged with an exocytic stimulus. These observations point to a new role of sphingosine 1-phosphate in a signaling cascade that facilitates acrosome reaction providing some clues about novel lipid molecules involved in exocytosis. PMID:20236935

  10. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Lyn controls neutrophil adhesion by recruiting the CrkL–C3G complex and activating Rap1 at the leading edge

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuan; Kapoor, Ashish; Cook, Sara; Liu, Shubai; Xiang, Yang; Rao, Christopher V.; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Wang, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Establishing new adhesions at the extended leading edges of motile cells is essential for stable polarity and persistent motility. Despite recent identification of signaling pathways that mediate polarity and chemotaxis in neutrophils, little is known about molecular mechanisms governing cell–extracellular-matrix (ECM) adhesion in these highly polarized and rapidly migrating cells. Here, we describe a signaling pathway in neutrophils that is essential for localized integrin activation, leading edge attachment and persistent migration during chemotaxis. This pathway depends upon Gi-protein-mediated activation and leading edge recruitment of Lyn, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the Src kinase family. We identified the small GTPase Rap1 as a major downstream effector of Lyn to regulate neutrophil adhesion during chemotaxis. Depletion of Lyn in neutrophil-like HL-60 cells prevented chemoattractant-induced Rap1 activation at the leading edge of the cell, whereas ectopic expression of Rap1 largely rescued the defects induced by Lyn depletion. Furthermore, Lyn controls spatial activation of Rap1 by recruiting the CrkL–C3G protein complex to the leading edge. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic insights into the poorly understood signaling network that controls leading edge adhesion during chemotaxis of neutrophils, and possibly other amoeboid cells. PMID:21628423

  11. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Lyn controls neutrophil adhesion by recruiting the CrkL-C3G complex and activating Rap1 at the leading edge.

    PubMed

    He, Yuan; Kapoor, Ashish; Cook, Sara; Liu, Shubai; Xiang, Yang; Rao, Christopher V; Kenis, Paul J A; Wang, Fei

    2011-07-01

    Establishing new adhesions at the extended leading edges of motile cells is essential for stable polarity and persistent motility. Despite recent identification of signaling pathways that mediate polarity and chemotaxis in neutrophils, little is known about molecular mechanisms governing cell-extracellular-matrix (ECM) adhesion in these highly polarized and rapidly migrating cells. Here, we describe a signaling pathway in neutrophils that is essential for localized integrin activation, leading edge attachment and persistent migration during chemotaxis. This pathway depends upon G(i)-protein-mediated activation and leading edge recruitment of Lyn, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the Src kinase family. We identified the small GTPase Rap1 as a major downstream effector of Lyn to regulate neutrophil adhesion during chemotaxis. Depletion of Lyn in neutrophil-like HL-60 cells prevented chemoattractant-induced Rap1 activation at the leading edge of the cell, whereas ectopic expression of Rap1 largely rescued the defects induced by Lyn depletion. Furthermore, Lyn controls spatial activation of Rap1 by recruiting the CrkL-C3G protein complex to the leading edge. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic insights into the poorly understood signaling network that controls leading edge adhesion during chemotaxis of neutrophils, and possibly other amoeboid cells.

  12. The hijacking of a receptor kinase-driven pathway by a wheat fungal pathogen leads to disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Necrotrophic pathogens live and feed on dying tissue, but their interactions with plants are not well understood compared to biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens. Here, we report the positional cloning of the wheat gene, Snn1, a member of the wall-associated kinase class of receptors, which are ...

  13. Lead decreases cell survival, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation of primary cultured adult neural precursor cells through activation of the JNK and p38 MAP kinases

    PubMed Central

    Engstrom, Anna; Wang, Hao; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is the process whereby adult neural precursor cells (aNPCs) in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) generate adult-born, functional neurons in the hippocampus. This process is modulated by various extracellular and intracellular stimuli, and the adult-born neurons have been implicated in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. However, studies on how neurotoxic agents affect this process and the underlying mechanisms are limited. The goal of this study was to determine whether lead, a heavy metal, directly impairs critical processes in adult neurogenesis and to characterize the underlying signaling pathways using primary cultured SGZ-aNPCs isolated from adult mice. We report here that lead significantly increases apoptosis and inhibits proliferation in SGZ-aNPCs. In addition, lead significantly impairs spontaneous neuronal differentiation and maturation. Furthermore, we found that activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways are important for lead cytotoxicity. Our data suggest that lead can directly act on adult neural stem cells and impair critical processes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which may contribute to its neurotoxicity and adverse effects on cognition in adults. PMID:25967738

  14. Mechanism of phosphorylation-induced activation of phospholipase C-gamma isozymes.

    PubMed

    Gresset, Aurelie; Hicks, Stephanie N; Harden, T Kendall; Sondek, John

    2010-11-12

    The lipase activity of most phospholipases C (PLCs) is basally repressed by a highly degenerate and mostly disordered X/Y linker inserted within the catalytic domain. Release of this auto-inhibition is driven by electrostatic repulsion between the plasma membrane and the electronegative X/Y linker. In contrast, PLC-γ isozymes (PLC-γ1 and -γ2) are structurally distinct from other PLCs because multiple domains are present in their X/Y linker. Moreover, although many tyrosine kinases directly phosphorylate PLC-γ isozymes to enhance their lipase activity, the underlying molecular mechanism of this activation remains unclear. Here we define the mechanism for the unique regulation of PLC-γ isozymes by their X/Y linker. Specifically, we identify the C-terminal SH2 domain within the X/Y linker as the critical determinant for auto-inhibition. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the X/Y linker mediates high affinity intramolecular interaction with the C-terminal SH2 domain that is coupled to a large conformational rearrangement and release of auto-inhibition. Consequently, PLC-γ isozymes link phosphorylation to phospholipase activation by elaborating upon primordial regulatory mechanisms found in other PLCs.

  15. Membrane Receptor-Induced Changes of the Protein Kinases A and C Activity May Play a Leading Role in Promoting Developmental Synapse Elimination at the Neuromuscular Junction.

    PubMed

    Tomàs, Josep M; Garcia, Neus; Lanuza, Maria A; Nadal, Laura; Tomàs, Marta; Hurtado, Erica; Simó, Anna; Cilleros, Víctor

    2017-01-01

    Synapses that are overproduced during histogenesis in the nervous system are eventually lost and connectivity is refined. Membrane receptor signaling leads to activity-dependent mutual influence and competition between axons directly or with the involvement of the postsynaptic cell and the associated glial cell/s. Presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (subtypes mAChR; M1, M2 and M4), adenosine receptors (AR; A1 and A2A) and the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB), among others, all cooperate in synapse elimination. Between these receptors there are several synergistic, antagonic and modulatory relations that clearly affect synapse elimination. Metabotropic receptors converge in a limited repertoire of intracellular effector kinases, particularly serine protein kinases A and C (PKA and PKC), to phosphorylate protein targets and bring about structural and functional changes leading to axon loss. In most cells A1, M1 and TrkB operate mainly by stimulating PKC whereas A2A, M2 and M4 inhibit PKA. We hypothesize that a membrane receptor-induced shifting in the protein kinases A and C activity (inhibition of PKA and/or stimulation of PKC) in some nerve endings may play an important role in promoting developmental synapse elimination at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). This hypothesis is supported by: (i) the tonic effect (shown by using selective inhibitors) of several membrane receptors that accelerates axon loss between postnatal days P5-P9; (ii) the synergistic, antagonic and modulatory effects (shown by paired inhibition) of the receptors on axonal loss; (iii) the fact that the coupling of these receptors activates/inhibits the intracellular serine kinases; and (iv) the increase of the PKA activity, the reduction of the PKC activity or, in most cases, both situations simultaneously that presumably occurs in all the situations of singly and paired inhibition of the mAChR, AR and TrkB receptors. The use of transgenic animals and various

  16. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent and -independent intracellular signal transduction pathways leading to apoptosis in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Frasch, S C; Nick, J A; Fadok, V A; Bratton, D L; Worthen, G S; Henson, P M

    1998-04-03

    Human neutrophils undergo apoptosis spontaneously when cultured in vitro; however, the signal transduction pathways involved remain largely unknown. In some cell types, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) have been implicated in the pathways leading to stress-induced apoptosis. In this study, we begin to define two pathways leading to apoptosis in the neutrophil induced either by stress stimuli (UV, hyperosmolarity, sphingosine) or by anti-Fas antibody or overnight culture in vitro (spontaneous apoptosis). Apoptosis induced by stress stimuli activated p38 MAPK, and apoptosis was inhibited by the specific p38 MAPK inhibitor, 6-(4-Fluorophenyl)-2.3-dihydro-5-(4-puridinyl)imidazo(2, 1-beta)thiazole dihydrochloride. Furthermore, differentiation of HL-60 cells toward the neutrophil phenotype resulted in a loss in c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation with concomitant acquisition of formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine-stimulatable and stress-inducible p38 MAPK activity as well as apoptosis blockade by the p38 MAPK inhibitor. In contrast, anti-Fas-induced or spontaneous apoptosis occurred independent of p38 MAPK activation and was not blocked by the inhibitor. Both pathways appear to utilize member(s) of the caspase family, since pretreatment with either Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone or Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone inhibited apoptosis induced by each of the stimuli. We propose the presence of at least two pathways leading to apoptosis in human neutrophils, a stress-activated pathway that is dependent on p38 MAPK activation and an anti-FAS/spontaneous pathway that is p38 MAPK-independent.

  17. Screening and in situ synthesis using crystals of a NAD kinase lead to a potent antistaphylococcal compound.

    PubMed

    Gelin, Muriel; Poncet-Montange, Guillaume; Assairi, Liliane; Morellato, Laurence; Huteau, Valérie; Dugué, Laurence; Dussurget, Olivier; Pochet, Sylvie; Labesse, Gilles

    2012-06-06

    Making new ligands for a given protein by in situ ligation of building blocks (or fragments) is an attractive method. However, it suffers from inherent limitations, such as the limited number of available chemical reactions and the low information content of usual chemical library deconvolution. Here, we describe a focused screening of adenosine derivatives using X-ray crystallography. We discovered an unexpected and biocompatible chemical reactivity and have simultaneously identified the mode of binding of the resulting products. We observed that the NAD kinase from Listeria monocytogenes (LmNADK1) can promote amide formation between 5'-amino-5'-deoxyadenosine and carboxylic acid groups. This unexpected reactivity allowed us to bridge in situ two adenosine derivatives to fully occupy the active NAD site. This guided the design of a close analog showing micromolar inhibition of two human pathogenic NAD kinases and potent bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Altered Expression of PERK Receptor Kinases in Arabidopsis Leads to Changes in Growth and Floral Organ Formation

    PubMed Central

    Haffani, Yosr Z; Silva-Gagliardi, Nancy F; Sewter, Sarah K; Grace Aldea, May; Zhao, Zhiying; Nakhamchik, Alina; Cameron, Robin K

    2006-01-01

    The proline-rich, extensin-like receptor kinase (PERK) family is characterized by a putative extracellular domain related to cell wall proteins, followed by a transmembrane domain and kinase domain. The original member, PERK1, was isolated from Brassica napus (BnPERK1) and 15 PERK1-related members were subsequently identified in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Ectopic expression and antisense suppression studies were performed using the BnPERK1 cDNA under the control of the 35S CaMV constitutive promoter and introduced into Arabidopsis. In the case of antisense suppression, the BnPERK1 cDNA shared sufficient sequence similarity to suppress several members of the At PERK family. In both sets of transgenic Arabidopsis, several heritable changes in growth and development were observed. Antisense BnPERK1 transgenic Arabidopsis showed various growth defects including loss of apical dominance, increased secondary branching, and floral organ defects. In contrast, Arabidopsis plants ectopically expressing BnPERK1 displayed a prolonged lifespan with increased lateral shoot production and seed set. Along with these phenotypic changes, aberrant deposits of callose and cellulose were also observed, suggestive of cell wall changes as a consequence of altered PERK expression. PMID:19516986

  19. Chronic Lead Exposure and Mixed Factors of Gender×Age×Brain Regions Interactions on Dendrite Growth, Spine Maturity and NDR Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Weizhen; Yang, Qian-Qian; Wang, Shuang; Xu, Yi; Wang, Hui-Li

    2015-01-01

    NDR1/2 kinase is essential in dendrite morphology and spine formation, which is regulated by cellular Ca2+. Lead (Pb) is a potent blocker of L-type calcium channel and our recent work showed Pb exposure impairs dendritic spine outgrowth in hippocampal neurons in rats. But the sensitivity of Pb-induced spine maturity with mixed factors (gender×age×brain regions) remains unknown. This study aimed to systematically investigate the effect of Pb exposure on spine maturity in rat brain with three factors (gender×age×brain regions), as well as the NDR1/2 kinase expression. Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to Pb from parturition to postnatal day 30, 60, 90, respectively. Golgi-Cox staining was used to examine spine maturity. Western blot assay was applied to measure protein expression and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR assay was used to examine mRNA levels. The results showed chronic Pb exposure significantly decreased dendritic length and impaired spine maturity in both rat hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. The impairment of dendritic length induced by Pb exposure tended to adolescence > adulthood, hippocampus > medial prefrontal cortex and female > male. Pb exposure induced significant damage in spine maturity during adolescence and early adult while little damage during adult in male rat brain and female medial prefrontal cortex. Besides, there was sustained impairment from adolescence to adulthood in female hippocampus. Interestingly, impairment of spine maturity followed by Pb exposure was correlated with NDR1/2 kinase. The reduction of NDR1/2 kinase protein expression after Pb exposure was similar to the result of spine maturity. In addition, NDR2 and their substrate Rabin3 mRNA levels were significantly decreased by Pb exposure in developmental rat brain. Taken together, Pb exposure impaired dendrite growth and maturity which was subject to gender×age×brain regions effects and related to NDR1/2 signal expression. PMID:26368815

  20. Chronic Lead Exposure and Mixed Factors of Gender×Age×Brain Regions Interactions on Dendrite Growth, Spine Maturity and NDR Kinase.

    PubMed

    Du, Yang; Ge, Meng-Meng; Xue, Weizhen; Yang, Qian-Qian; Wang, Shuang; Xu, Yi; Wang, Hui-Li

    2015-01-01

    NDR1/2 kinase is essential in dendrite morphology and spine formation, which is regulated by cellular Ca2+. Lead (Pb) is a potent blocker of L-type calcium channel and our recent work showed Pb exposure impairs dendritic spine outgrowth in hippocampal neurons in rats. But the sensitivity of Pb-induced spine maturity with mixed factors (gender×age×brain regions) remains unknown. This study aimed to systematically investigate the effect of Pb exposure on spine maturity in rat brain with three factors (gender×age×brain regions), as well as the NDR1/2 kinase expression. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to Pb from parturition to postnatal day 30, 60, 90, respectively. Golgi-Cox staining was used to examine spine maturity. Western blot assay was applied to measure protein expression and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR assay was used to examine mRNA levels. The results showed chronic Pb exposure significantly decreased dendritic length and impaired spine maturity in both rat hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. The impairment of dendritic length induced by Pb exposure tended to adolescence > adulthood, hippocampus > medial prefrontal cortex and female > male. Pb exposure induced significant damage in spine maturity during adolescence and early adult while little damage during adult in male rat brain and female medial prefrontal cortex. Besides, there was sustained impairment from adolescence to adulthood in female hippocampus. Interestingly, impairment of spine maturity followed by Pb exposure was correlated with NDR1/2 kinase. The reduction of NDR1/2 kinase protein expression after Pb exposure was similar to the result of spine maturity. In addition, NDR2 and their substrate Rabin3 mRNA levels were significantly decreased by Pb exposure in developmental rat brain. Taken together, Pb exposure impaired dendrite growth and maturity which was subject to gender×age×brain regions effects and related to NDR1/2 signal expression.

  1. Targeting of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase by small molecule inhibitors leads to MET accumulation by impairing the receptor downregulation.

    PubMed

    Leiser, Dominic; Pochon, Benoît; Blank-Liss, Wieslawa; Francica, Paola; Glück, Astrid A; Aebersold, Daniel M; Zimmer, Yitzhak; Medová, Michaela

    2014-03-03

    The MET receptor tyrosine kinase is deregulated primarily via overexpression or point mutations in various human cancers and different strategies for MET inhibition are currently evaluated in clinical trials. We observed by Western blot analysis and by Flow cytometry that MET inhibition by different MET small molecule inhibitors surprisingly increases in a dose-dependent manner total MET levels in treated cells. Mechanistically, this inhibition-related MET accumulation was associated with reduced Tyr1003 phosphorylation and MET physical association with the CBL ubiquitin ligase with concomitant decrease in MET ubiquitination. These data may suggest careful consideration for design of anti-MET clinical protocols. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mutations in TBCK, Encoding TBC1-Domain-Containing Kinase, Lead to a Recognizable Syndrome of Intellectual Disability and Hypotonia

    PubMed Central

    Bhoj, Elizabeth J.; Li, Dong; Harr, Margaret; Edvardson, Shimon; Elpeleg, Orly; Chisholm, Elizabeth; Juusola, Jane; Douglas, Ganka; Guillen Sacoto, Maria J.; Siquier-Pernet, Karine; Saadi, Abdelkrim; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Nitschke, Patrick; Narravula, Alekhya; Walke, Maria; Horner, Michele B.; Day-Salvatore, Debra-Lynn; Jayakar, Parul; Vergano, Samantha A. Schrier; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Hegde, Madhuri; Colleaux, Laurence; Crino, Peter; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2016-01-01

    Through an international multi-center collaboration, 13 individuals from nine unrelated families and affected by likely pathogenic biallelic variants in TBC1-domain-containing kinase (TBCK) were identified through whole-exome sequencing. All affected individuals were found to share a core phenotype of intellectual disability and hypotonia, and many had seizures and showed brain atrophy and white-matter changes on neuroimaging. Minor non-specific facial dysmorphism was also noted in some individuals, including multiple older children who developed coarse features similar to those of storage disorders. TBCK has been shown to regulate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, which is also stimulated by exogenous leucine supplementation. TBCK was absent in cells from affected individuals, and decreased phosphorylation of phospho-ribosomal protein S6 was also observed, a finding suggestive of downregulation of mTOR signaling. Lastly, we demonstrated that activation of the mTOR pathway in response to L-leucine supplementation was retained, suggesting a possible avenue for directed therapies for this condition. PMID:27040691

  3. Glucose Starvation Alters Heat Shock Response, Leading to Death of Wild Type Cells and Survival of MAP Kinase Signaling Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, LeeAnn; Markowski, Todd; Brambl, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A moderate heat shock induces Neurospora crassa to synthesize large quantities of heat shock proteins that are protective against higher, otherwise lethal temperatures. However, wild type cells do not survive when carbohydrate deprivation is added to heat shock. In contrast, a mutant strain defective in a stress-activated protein kinase does survive the combined stresses. In order to understand the basis for this difference in survival, we have determined the relative levels of detected proteins in the mutant and wild type strain during dual stress, and we have identified gene transcripts in both strains whose quantities change in response to heat shock or dual stress. These data and supportive experimental evidence point to reasons for survival of the mutant strain. By using alternative respiratory mechanisms, these cells experience less of the oxidative stress that proves damaging to wild type cells. Of central importance, mutant cells recycle limited resources during dual stress by undergoing autophagy, a process that we find utilized by both wild type and mutant cells during heat shock. Evidence points to inappropriate activation of TORC1, the central metabolic regulator, in wild type cells during dual stress, based upon behavior of an additional signaling mutant and inhibitor studies. PMID:27870869

  4. Glucose Starvation Alters Heat Shock Response, Leading to Death of Wild Type Cells and Survival of MAP Kinase Signaling Mutant.

    PubMed

    Plesofsky, Nora; Higgins, LeeAnn; Markowski, Todd; Brambl, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A moderate heat shock induces Neurospora crassa to synthesize large quantities of heat shock proteins that are protective against higher, otherwise lethal temperatures. However, wild type cells do not survive when carbohydrate deprivation is added to heat shock. In contrast, a mutant strain defective in a stress-activated protein kinase does survive the combined stresses. In order to understand the basis for this difference in survival, we have determined the relative levels of detected proteins in the mutant and wild type strain during dual stress, and we have identified gene transcripts in both strains whose quantities change in response to heat shock or dual stress. These data and supportive experimental evidence point to reasons for survival of the mutant strain. By using alternative respiratory mechanisms, these cells experience less of the oxidative stress that proves damaging to wild type cells. Of central importance, mutant cells recycle limited resources during dual stress by undergoing autophagy, a process that we find utilized by both wild type and mutant cells during heat shock. Evidence points to inappropriate activation of TORC1, the central metabolic regulator, in wild type cells during dual stress, based upon behavior of an additional signaling mutant and inhibitor studies.

  5. Deregulation of vital mitotic kinase-phosphatase signaling in hematopoietic stem/progenitor compartment leads to cellular catastrophe in experimental aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Ritam; Chattopadhyay, Sukalpa; Law, Sujata

    2016-11-01

    Aplastic anemia, the paradigm of bone marrow failure, is characterized by pancytopenic peripheral blood and hypoplastic bone marrow. Among various etiologies, inappropriate use of DNA alkylating drugs like cyclophosphamide and busulfan often causes the manifestation of the dreadful disease. Cell cycle impairment in marrow hematopoietic stem/progenitor compartment together with cellular apoptosis has been recognized as culpable factors behind aplastic pathophysiologies. However, the intricate molecular mechanisms remain unrevealed till date. In the present study, we have dealt with the mechanistic intervention of the disease by peripheral blood hemogram, bone marrow histopathology, cytopathology, hematopoietic kinetic study, scanning electron microscopy, DNA damage assessment and flowcytometric analysis of cellular proliferation and apoptosis in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) rich marrow compartment using busulfan and cyclophosphamidemediated mouse model. To unveil the molecular mechanisms behind aplastic pathophysiology, we further investigated the role of some crucial mitotic and apoptotic regulators like Protein kinase-B (PKB), Gsk-3β, Cyclin-D1, PP2A, Cdc25c, Plk-1, Aurora kinase-A, Chk-1 regarding the hematopoietic catastrophe. Our observations revealed that the alteration of PKB-GSK-3β axis, Plk-1, and Aurora kinase-A expressions in HSPC compartment due to DNA damage response was associated with the proliferative impairment and apoptosis during aplastic anemia. The study established the correlation between the accumulation of DNA damage and alteration of the mentioned molecules in aplastic HSPCs that lead to the hematopoietic catastrophe. We anticipate that our findings will be beneficial for developing better therapeutic strategies for the dreadful disease concerned.

  6. Identification and in vitro evaluation of new leads as selective and competitive glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitors through ligand and structure based drug design.

    PubMed

    Darshit, B S; Balaji, B; Rani, P; Ramanathan, M

    2014-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β elicits multi-functional effects on intracellular signaling pathways, thereby making the kinase a therapeutic target in multiple pathologies. Hence, it is important to selectively inhibit GSK-3β over structurally and biologically similar targets, such as CDK5. The current study was designed to identify and evaluate novel ATP-competitive GSK-3β inhibitors. The study was designed to identify new leads by ligand based drug design, structure based drug design and in vitro evaluation. The best validated pharmacophore model (AADRRR) identified using LBDD was derived from a dataset of 135 molecules. There were 357 primary hits within the SPECS database using this pharmacophore model. A SBDD approach to the GSK-3β and CDK5 proteins was applied to all primary hits, and 5 selective inhibitors were identified for GSK-3β. GSK-3β and CDK5 in vitro kinase inhibition assays were performed with these molecules to confirm their selectivity for GSK-3β. The molecules showed IC50 values ranging from 0.825μM to 1.116μM and were 23- to 57-fold selective for GSK-3β. Of all the molecules, molecule 3 had the lowest IC50 value of 0.825μM. Our research identified molecules possessing benzothiophene, isoquinoline, thiazolidinedione imidazo-isoquinoline and quinazolinone scaffolds. Potency of these molecules may be due to H-bond interaction with backbone residues of Val135, Asp133 and side chain interaction with Tyr134. Selectivity over CDK5 may be due to side chain interactions with Asp200, backbone of Val61, ionic interaction with Lys60 and π-cationic interaction with Arg141. These selective molecules were also exhibited small atom hydrophobicity and H-bond interaction with water molecule.

  7. High CO2 Leads to Na,K-ATPase Endocytosis via c-Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase-Induced LMO7b Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Trejo Bittar, Humberto E.; Welch, Lynn C.; Vagin, Olga; Deiss-Yehiely, Nimrod; Kelly, Aileen M.; Baker, Mairead R.; Capri, Joseph; Cohn, Whitaker; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Vadász, István; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2015-01-01

    The c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) plays a role in inflammation, proliferation, apoptosis, and cell adhesion and cell migration by phosphorylating paxillin and β-catenin. JNK phosphorylation downstream of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation is required for high CO2 (hypercapnia)-induced Na,K-ATPase endocytosis in alveolar epithelial cells. Here, we provide evidence that during hypercapnia, JNK promotes the phosphorylation of LMO7b, a scaffolding protein, in vitro and in intact cells. LMO7b phosphorylation was blocked by exposing the cells to the JNK inhibitor SP600125 and by infecting cells with dominant-negative JNK or AMPK adenovirus. The knockdown of the endogenous LMO7b or overexpression of mutated LMO7b with alanine substitutions of five potential JNK phosphorylation sites (LMO7b-5SA) or only Ser-1295 rescued both LMO7b phosphorylation and the hypercapnia-induced Na,K-ATPase endocytosis. Moreover, high CO2 promoted the colocalization and interaction of LMO7b and the Na,K-ATPase α1 subunit at the plasma membrane, which were prevented by SP600125 or by transfecting cells with LMO7b-5SA. Collectively, our data suggest that hypercapnia leads to JNK-induced LMO7b phosphorylation at Ser-1295, which facilitates the interaction of LMO7b with Na,K-ATPase at the plasma membrane promoting the endocytosis of Na,K-ATPase in alveolar epithelial cells. PMID:26370512

  8. High CO2 Leads to Na,K-ATPase Endocytosis via c-Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase-Induced LMO7b Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Dada, Laura A; Trejo Bittar, Humberto E; Welch, Lynn C; Vagin, Olga; Deiss-Yehiely, Nimrod; Kelly, Aileen M; Baker, Mairead R; Capri, Joseph; Cohn, Whitaker; Whitelegge, Julian P; Vadász, István; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Sznajder, Jacob I

    2015-12-01

    The c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) plays a role in inflammation, proliferation, apoptosis, and cell adhesion and cell migration by phosphorylating paxillin and β-catenin. JNK phosphorylation downstream of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation is required for high CO2 (hypercapnia)-induced Na,K-ATPase endocytosis in alveolar epithelial cells. Here, we provide evidence that during hypercapnia, JNK promotes the phosphorylation of LMO7b, a scaffolding protein, in vitro and in intact cells. LMO7b phosphorylation was blocked by exposing the cells to the JNK inhibitor SP600125 and by infecting cells with dominant-negative JNK or AMPK adenovirus. The knockdown of the endogenous LMO7b or overexpression of mutated LMO7b with alanine substitutions of five potential JNK phosphorylation sites (LMO7b-5SA) or only Ser-1295 rescued both LMO7b phosphorylation and the hypercapnia-induced Na,K-ATPase endocytosis. Moreover, high CO2 promoted the colocalization and interaction of LMO7b and the Na,K-ATPase α1 subunit at the plasma membrane, which were prevented by SP600125 or by transfecting cells with LMO7b-5SA. Collectively, our data suggest that hypercapnia leads to JNK-induced LMO7b phosphorylation at Ser-1295, which facilitates the interaction of LMO7b with Na,K-ATPase at the plasma membrane promoting the endocytosis of Na,K-ATPase in alveolar epithelial cells.

  9. Phospholipase Cgamma2 is critical for Dectin-1-mediated Ca2+ flux and cytokine production in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shengli; Huo, Jianxin; Lee, Koon-Guan; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Lam, Kong-Peng

    2009-03-13

    Dectin-1 is a C-type lectin that recognizes beta-glucan in the cell walls of fungi and plays an important role in anti-fungal immunity. It signals via tyrosine kinase Syk and adaptor protein Card9 to activate NF-kappaB leading to proinflammatory cytokine production in dendritic cells (DCs). Other than this, not much else is known of the mechanism of Dectin-1 signaling. We demonstrate here that stimulation of DCs with zymosan triggers an intracellular Ca2+ flux that can be attenuated by a blocking anti-Dectin-1 antibody or by pre-treatment of cells with the phospholipase C (PLC) gamma-inhibitor U73122, suggesting that Dectin-1 signals via a PLCgamma pathway to induce Ca2+ flux in DCs. Interestingly, treatment of DCs with particulate curdlan, which specifically engages Dectin-1, results in the phosphorylation of both PLCgamma1 and PLCgamma2. However, we show that PLCgamma2 is the critical enzyme for Dectin-1 signaling in DCs. PLCgamma2-deficient DCs have drastic impairment of Ca2+ signaling and are defective in their secretion of interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-23, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. PLCgamma2-deficient DCs also exhibit impaired activation of ERK and JNK MAPKs and AP-1 and NFAT transcription factors in response to Dectin-1 stimulation. In addition, PLCgamma2-deficient DCs are also impaired in their activation of NF-kappaB upon Dectin-1 engagement due to defective assembly of the Card9-Bcl10-Malt1 complex and impaired IKKalpha/beta activation and IkappaBalpha degradation. Thus, our data indicate that pattern recognition receptors such as Dectin-1 could elicit Ca2+ signaling and that PLCgamma2 is a critical player in the Dectin-1 signal transduction pathway.

  10. Structure-based discovery of inhibitors of the YycG histidine kinase: New chemical leads to combat Staphylococcus epidermidis infections

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Bin; Chen, Lili; Wu, Yang; Yang, Xiaomei; Shen, Xu; Molin, Soeren; Danchin, Antoine; Jiang, Hualiang; Qu, Di

    2006-01-01

    Background Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus epidermidis has become a major frequent cause of infections in relation to the use of implanted medical devices. The pathogenicity of S. epidermidis has been attributed to its capacity to form biofilms on surfaces of medical devices, which greatly increases its resistance to many conventional antibiotics and often results in chronic infection. It has an urgent need to design novel antibiotics against staphylococci infections, especially those can kill cells embedded in biofilm. Results In this report, a series of novel inhibitors of the histidine kinase (HK) YycG protein of S. epidermidis were discovered first using structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) from a small molecular lead-compound library, followed by experimental validation. Of the 76 candidates derived by SBVS targeting of the homolog model of the YycG HATPase_c domain of S. epidermidis, seven compounds displayed significant activity in inhibiting S. epidermidis growth. Furthermore, five of them displayed bactericidal effects on both planktonic and biofilm cells of S. epidermidis. Except for one, the compounds were found to bind to the YycG protein and to inhibit its auto-phosphorylation in vitro, indicating that they are potential inhibitors of the YycG/YycF two-component system (TCS), which is essential in S. epidermidis. Importantly, all these compounds did not affect the stability of mammalian cells nor hemolytic activities at the concentrations used in our study. Conclusion These novel inhibitors of YycG histidine kinase thus are of potential value as leads for developing new antibiotics against infecting staphylococci. The structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) technology can be widely used in screening potential inhibitors of other bacterial TCSs, since it is more rapid and efficacious than traditional screening technology. PMID:17094812

  11. Overexpression of Tyro3 receptor tyrosine kinase leads to the acquisition of taxol resistance in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chuhee

    2015-07-01

    The majority of patients with ovarian cancer are diagnosed at the advanced stages (III/IV) and their 5-year-survival rate is relatively low. One of the major causes of the poor prognosis of ovarian cancer is the development of resistance to first-line chemotherapy, including platinum and taxol. Therefore, improvements in current understanding of chemoresistance is required for the successful treatment of ovarian cancer. In the present study, taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3/TR, were established by exposing parental SKOV3 cells to increasing concentrations of taxol. . Briefly, cells were treated with 1.5 nM (for 4 weeks), 3 nM (for 4 weeks), 6 nM (for 5 weeks), 12 nM (for 5 weeks) and 24 nM taxol (for 8 weeks) over 6 months. The SKOV3/TR cells were found to be smaller in size and rounder in shape compared with their parental cells. Cell viability and colony formation assays demonstrated an increase in the population doubling time of the SKOV3/TR cells, indicating a reduction in the proliferative capacity of these cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis revealed that, among the TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the mRNA and protein expression levels of Tyro3 RTK were increased, while those of Axl and Mer RTK were decreased in the SKOV3/TR cells. In addition, restoration of the level of Tyro3 by transfecting Tyro3-specific small interfering RNA into the SKOV3/TR cells reduced the proliferative capacity of the cells, indicating that upregulation of the expression of Tyro3 in SKOV3/TR cells may promote survival in the presence of taxol, which eventually resulted in the acquisition of resistance upon taxol treatment. The present study subsequently found that, in the SKOV3/TR cells, the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was elevated, and antioxidant treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) exerted more profound antiproliferative effects compared with the parental cells. The western blot analysis

  12. Kinase scaffold repurposing for neglected disease drug discovery: Discovery of an efficacious, lapatanib-derived lead compound for trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Gautam; Karver, Caitlin E.; Behera, Ranjan; Guyett, Paul; Sullenberger, Catherine; Edwards, Peter; Roncal, Norma E.; Mensa-Wilmot, Kojo; Pollastri, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Since drugs in use against HAT are toxic and require intravenous dosing, new drugs are needed. Initiating lead discovery campaigns by using chemical scaffolds from drugs approved for other indications can speed up drug discovery for neglected diseases. We demonstrated recently that the 4-anilinoquinazolines lapatinib (GW572016, 1) and canertinib (CI-1033) kill T. brucei with low micromolar EC50 values. We now report promising activity of analogs of 1, which provided an excellent starting point for optimization of the chemotype. We report our compound optimization that has led to synthesis of several potent 4-anilinoquinazolines, including NEU621, 23a, a highly potent, orally bioavailable inhibitor of trypanosome replication. At the cellular level, 23a blocks duplication of the kinetoplast and arrests cytokinesis, making it a new tool for studying regulation of the trypanosome cell cycle. PMID:23597080

  13. Kinase scaffold repurposing for neglected disease drug discovery: discovery of an efficacious, lapatinib-derived lead compound for trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Gautam; Karver, Caitlin E; Behera, Ranjan; Guyett, Paul J; Sullenberger, Catherine; Edwards, Peter; Roncal, Norma E; Mensa-Wilmot, Kojo; Pollastri, Michael P

    2013-05-23

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei . Because drugs in use against HAT are toxic and require intravenous dosing, new drugs are needed. Initiating lead discovery campaigns by using chemical scaffolds from drugs approved for other indications can speed up drug discovery for neglected diseases. We demonstrated recently that the 4-anilinoquinazolines lapatinib (GW572016, 1) and canertinib (CI-1033) kill T. brucei with low micromolar EC50 values. We now report promising activity of analogues of 1, which provided an excellent starting point for optimization of the chemotype. Our compound optimization that has led to synthesis of several potent 4-anilinoquinazolines, including NEU617, 23a, a highly potent, orally bioavailable inhibitor of trypanosome replication. At the cellular level, 23a blocks duplication of the kinetoplast and arrests cytokinesis, making it a new chemical tool for studying regulation of the trypanosome cell cycle.

  14. Wolfberries potentiate mitophagy and enhance mitochondrial biogenesis leading to prevention of hepatic steatosis in obese mice: the role of AMP-activated protein kinase α2 subunit.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dingbo; He, Hui; Ji, Hua; Willis, Jordan; Willard, Lloyd; Jiang, Yu; Medeiros, Denis M; Wark, Logan; Han, Jing; Liu, Yongzhang; Lu, Bin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether AMP-activated protein kinase α2 (AMPKα2) is essential for wolfberry's protective effects on mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent hepatic steatosis in mice. Six-week-old male AMPKα2 knockout mice and genetic background C57BL/6J (B6) mice were fed a control, high-fat diet (HD, 45% (kilocalorie) fat), and/or HD with 5% (kilocalarie) wolfberry diets for 18 wk. At termination, blood and liver tissues were sampled for analysis by ELISA, HPLC, microscopy, real-time PCR, and Western blot. HD lowered hepatic lutein and zeaxanthin contents, inhibited protein expression of β,β-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase 2 (BCO2) and heat shock protein 60 in mitochondria, increased reactive oxygen species level, and suppressed mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis as determined by accumulation of p62, inhibited phosphorylation of Unc-51-like kinase 1 on Ser555, and declined expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 α, resulting in hepatic steatosis in B6 and knockout mice. Dietary wolfberry elevated the xanthophyll concentrations and enhanced expression of BCO2 and heat shock protein 60, attenuated mitochondrial oxidative stress, activated AMPKα2, potentiated mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis, and enhanced lipid oxidation and secretion in the liver of B6 mice. Dietary wolfberry selectively activated AMPKα2, which resulted in enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and potentiated mitophagy, leading to the prevention of hepatic steatosis in obese mice. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Reduction of brain barrier tight junctional proteins by lead exposure: role of activation of nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src via chaperon GRP78.

    PubMed

    Song, Han; Zheng, Gang; Shen, Xue-Feng; Liu, Xin-Qin; Luo, Wen-Jing; Chen, Jing-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    Lead (Pb) has long been recognized as a neurodevelopmental toxin. Developing blood-brain barrier (BBB) is known to be a target of Pb neurotoxicity; however, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Recent evidence suggests that intracellular nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase Src regulates tight junctional proteins (TJPs). This study was designed to investigate whether Pb acted on the Src-mediated cascade event leading to an altered TJP expression at BBB. Rats aged 20-22 days were exposed to Pb in drinking water (0, 100, 200, and 300 ppm Pb) for eight weeks. Electron microscopic and Western blot analyses revealed a severe leakage of BBB and significantly decreased expressions of TJP occludin and ZO-1. When cultured brain endothelial RBE4 cells were exposed to 10μM Pb for 24 h, expressions of phosphor-Src and an upstream regulator GRP78 were significantly increased by 6.42-fold and 8.29-fold (p < 0.01), respectively. Inactivation of Src pathway by a Src-specific inhibitor reversed Pb-induced downregulation of occludin, but not ZO-1; small interfering RNA knockdown of GRP78 attenuated Pb-induced Src phosphorylation and occludin reduction. Furthermore, Pb exposure caused redistribution of GRP78 from endoplasmic reticulum to cytosol and toward cell member. However, the data from immunoneutralization studies did not show the involvement of cell-surface GRP78 in regulating Src phosphorylation upon Pb exposure, suggesting that the cytosolic GRP78, rather than cell-surface GRP78, was responsible to Pb-induced Src activation and ensuing occludin reduction. Taken together, this study provides the evidence of a novel linkage of GRP78, Src activation to downregulation of occludin, and BBB disruption during Pb exposure.

  16. Phospholipase C-gamma1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for dynamin-1 and enhances dynamin-1-dependent epidermal growth factor receptor endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang Hyun; Park, Jong Bae; Bae, Sun Sik; Yun, Sanguk; Kim, Hyeon Soo; Hong, Won-Pyo; Kim, Il-Shin; Kim, Jae Ho; Han, Mi Young; Ryu, Sung Ho; Patterson, Randen L; Snyder, Solomon H; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2004-08-01

    Phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1), which interacts with a variety of signaling molecules through its two Src homology (SH) 2 domains and a single SH3 domain has been implicated in the regulation of many cellular functions. We demonstrate that PLC-gamma1 acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) of dynamin-1, a 100 kDa GTPase protein, which is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Overexpression of PLC-gamma1 increases endocytosis of the EGF receptor by increasing guanine nucleotide exchange activity of dynamin-1. The GEF activity of PLC-gamma1 is mediated by the direct interaction of its SH3 domain with dynamin-1. EGF-dependent activation of ERK and serum response element (SRE) are both up-regulated in PC12 cells stably overexpressing PLC-gamma1, but knockdown of PLC-gamma1 by siRNA significantly reduces ERK activation. These results establish a new role for PLC-gamma1 in the regulation of endocytosis and suggest that endocytosis of activated EGF receptors may mediate PLC-gamma1-dependent proliferation.

  17. Establishment of a Structure–Activity Relationship of 1H-Imidazo[4,5-c]quinoline-Based Kinase Inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 as a Lead for African Sleeping Sickness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Compound NVP-BEZ235 (1) is a potent inhibitor of human phospoinositide-3-kinases and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) that also showed high inhibitory potency against Trypanosoma brucei cultures. With an eye toward using 1 as a starting point for anti-trypanosomal drug discovery, we report efforts to reduce host cell toxicity, to improve the physicochemical properties, and to improve the selectivity profile over human kinases. In this work, we have developed structure–activity relationships for analogues of 1 and have prepared analogues of 1 with improved solubility properties and good predicted central nervous system exposure. In this way, we have identified 4e, 9, 16e, and 16g as the most promising leads to date. We also report cell phenotype and phospholipidomic studies that suggest that these compounds exert their anti-trypanosomal effects, at least in part, by inhibition of lipid kinases. PMID:24805946

  18. Sustained Receptor Stimulation Leads to Sequestration of Recycling Endosomes in a Classical Protein Kinase C- and Phospholipase D-dependent Manner*

    PubMed Central

    Idkowiak-Baldys, Jolanta; Baldys, Aleksander; Raymond, John R.; Hannun, Yusuf A.

    2009-01-01

    Considerable insight has been garnered on initial mechanisms of endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins and their subsequent trafficking through the endosomal compartment. It is also well established that ligand stimulation of many plasma membrane receptors leads to their internalization. However, stimulus-induced regulation of endosomal trafficking has not received much attention. In previous studies, we showed that sustained stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) with phorbol esters led to sequestration of recycling endosomes in a juxtanuclear region. In this study, we investigated whether G-protein-coupled receptors that activate PKC exerted effects on endosomal trafficking. Stimulation of cells with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) led to sequestration of the 5-HT receptor (5-HT2AR) into a Rab11-positive juxtanuclear compartment. This sequestration coincided with translocation of PKC as shown by confocal microscopy. Mechanistically the observed sequestration of 5-HT2AR was shown to require continuous PKC activity because it was inhibited by pretreatment with classical PKC inhibitor Gö6976 and could be reversed by posttreatment with this inhibitor. In addition, classical PKC autophosphorylation was necessary for receptor sequestration. Moreover inhibition of phospholipase D (PLD) activity and inhibition of PLD1 and PLD2 using dominant negative constructs also prevented this process. Functionally this sequestration did not affect receptor desensitization or resensitization as measured by intracellular calcium increase. However, the PKC- and PLD-dependent sequestration of receptors resulted in co-sequestration of other plasma membrane proteins and receptors as shown for epidermal growth factor receptor and protease activated receptor-1. This led to heterologous desensitization of those receptors and diverted their cellular fate by protecting them from agonist-induced degradation. Taken together, these results demonstrate a novel role for sustained receptor

  19. New pyrazolo-[3,4-d]-pyrimidine derivative Src kinase inhibitors lead to cell cycle arrest and tumor growth reduction of human medulloblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Alessandra; Schenone, Silvia; Angelucci, Adriano; Cozzi, Martina; Caracciolo, Valentina; Pentimalli, Francesca; Puca, Andrew; Pucci, Biagio; La Montagna, Raffaele; Bologna, Mauro; Botta, Maurizio; Giordano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children, and despite improvements in the overall survival rate, it still lacks an effective treatment. Src plays an important role in cancer, and recently high Src activity was documented in medulloblastoma. In this report, we examined the effects of novel pyrazolo-[3,4-d]-pyrimidine derivative Src inhibitors in medulloblastoma. By MTS assay, we showed that the pyrimidine derivatives indicated as S7, S29, and SI163 greatly reduce the growth rate of medulloblastoma cells by inhibiting Src phosphorylation, compared with HT22 non-neoplastic nerve cells. These compounds also halt cells in the G2/M phase, and this effect likely occurs through the regulation of cdc2 and CDC25C phosphorylation, as shown by Western blot. Moreover, the exposure to pyrimidine derivatives induces apoptosis, assayed by the supravital propidium iodide assay, through modulation of the apoptotic proteins Bax and Bcl2, and inhibits tumor growth in vivo in a mouse model. Notably, S7, S29, and SI163 show major inhibitory effects on medulloblastoma cell growth compared with the chemotherapeutic agents cisplatin and etoposide. In conclusion, our results suggest that S7, S29, and SI163 could be novel attractive candidates for the treatment of medulloblastoma or tumors characterized by high Src activity.—Rossi, A., Schenone, S., Angelucci, A., Cozzi, M., Caracciolo, V., Pentimalli, F., Puca, A., Pucci, B., La Montagna, R., Bologna, M., Botta, M., Giordano, A. New pyrazolo-[3,4-d]-pyrimidine derivative Src kinase inhibitors lead to cell cycle arrest and tumor growth reduction of human medulloblastoma cells. PMID:20354138

  20. Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress Represses Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Activities Leading to Impaired Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Michihiro; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Okajima, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Toshiaki; Hasegawa, Takashi; Ogata, Tomomi; Toyoshima, Yuka; Chida, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Kumi; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Takenaka, Asako; Asano, Tomoichiro; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Accumulated evidence indicates that oxidative stress causes and/or promotes insulin resistance; however, the mechanism by which this occurs is not fully understood. This study was undertaken to elucidate the molecular mechanism by which oxidative stress induced by paraquat impairs insulin-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We confirmed that paraquat-induced oxidative stress decreased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to the cell surface, resulting in repression of insulin-dependent 2-deoxyglucose uptake. Under these conditions, oxidative stress did not affect insulin-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and -2, or binding of the phosphatidylinositol 3′-OH kinase (PI 3-kinase) p85 regulatory subunit or p110α catalytic subunit to each IRS. In contrast, we found that oxidative stress induced by paraquat inhibited activities of PI 3-kinase bound to IRSs and also inhibited phosphorylation of Akt, the downstream serine/threonine kinase that has been shown to play an essential role in insulin-dependent translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. Overexpression of active form Akt (myr-Akt) restored inhibition of insulin-dependent glucose uptake by paraquat, indicating that paraquat-induced oxidative stress inhibits insulin signals upstream of Akt. Paraquat treatment with and without insulin treatment decreased the activity of class Ia PI 3-kinases p110α and p110β that are mainly expressed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. However, paraquat treatment did not repress the activity of the PI 3-kinase p110α mutated at Cys90 in the p85 binding region. These results indicate that the PI 3-kinase p110 is a possible primary target of paraquat-induced oxidative stress to reduce the PI 3-kinase activity and impaired glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:20430890

  1. Mutation of the 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinase 1 (PDK1) Substrate-Docking Site in the Developing Brain Causes Microcephaly with Abnormal Brain Morphogenesis Independently of Akt, Leading to Impaired Cognition and Disruptive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Cordón-Barris, Lluís; Pascual-Guiral, Sònia; Yang, Shaobin; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Lope-Piedrafita, Silvia; Niemeyer, Carlota; Claro, Enrique; Lizcano, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    The phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway plays essential roles during neuronal development. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) coordinates the PI 3-kinase signals by activating 23 kinases of the AGC family, including Akt. Phosphorylation of a conserved docking site in the substrate is a requisite for PDK1 to recognize, phosphorylate, and activate most of these kinases, with the exception of Akt. We exploited this differential mechanism of regulation by generating neuron-specific conditional knock-in mice expressing a mutant form of PDK1, L155E, in which the substrate-docking site binding motif, termed the PIF pocket, was disrupted. As a consequence, activation of all the PDK1 substrates tested except Akt was abolished. The mice exhibited microcephaly, altered cortical layering, and reduced circuitry, leading to cognitive deficits and exacerbated disruptive behavior combined with diminished motivation. The abnormal patterning of the adult brain arises from the reduced ability of the embryonic neurons to polarize and extend their axons, highlighting the essential roles that the PDK1 signaling beyond Akt plays in mediating the neuronal responses that regulate brain development. PMID:27644329

  2. Lead exposure and heat shock inhibit cell proliferation in human HeLa and K562 cells by inducing expression and activity of the heme-regulated eIF-2alpha kinase.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Angshuman; Chattopadhyay, Samit; Kaul, Ruchika; Pal, Jayanta K

    2002-12-01

    We have used human cell lines, namely, K562 and HeLa cells as model systems in understanding the mechanism of lead toxicity and heat shock, that may be mediated by the heme-regulated eIF-2alpha kinase which is also called the heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI). RT-PCR analysis using HRI-specific primers indicated a two- to three-fold increase in HRI expression in K562 and HeLa cells exposed to lead acetate and heat shock, respectively. Further, in vitro eIF-2alpha kinase assay indicated a two- to three-fold increase in HRI kinase activity during lead toxicity in K562 cells. This increase in HRI expression and its activity was accompanied by a significant decrease in cell proliferation and cell viability. This is therefore, the first report indicating that both heavy metal exposure and heat shock cause inhibition of protein synthesis not by activation of HRI alone but by its over-expression as well as activation. Our data indicate further that lead-induced inhibition of cell proliferation may be caused due to inhibition of protein synthesis resulted due to induced expression and activity of HRI.

  3. Regulation of CD3-induced phospholipase C-gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) tyrosine phosphorylation by CD4 and CD45 receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Kanner, S B; Deans, J P; Ledbetter, J A

    1992-01-01

    Stimulation of the signal transduction cascade in T cells through the T-cell receptor (CD3) coincides with activation of the phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) pathway. activation of phospholipase C-gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) occurs through tyrosine phosphorylation in T cells following surface ligation of CD3 receptors with CD3-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Here we show that cross-linking of CD4 molecules with CD3 augments the tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC gamma 1, while co-ligation of CD3 with CD45 (a receptor tyrosine phosphatase) results in reduced PLC gamma 1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Mobilization of intracellular calcium correlated with the extent of PLC gamma 1 tyrosine phosphorylation, indicating that PLC gamma 1 enzymatic activity in T cells may be regulated by its phosphorylation state. The time-course of PLC gamma 1 tyrosine phosphorylation in cells stimulated by soluble anti-CD3 was transient and closely paralleled that of calcium mobilization, while the kinetics in cells stimulated by immobilized anti-CD3 were prolonged. The PI-PLC pathway in T cells was not stimulated by tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC gamma 2, a homologue of PLC gamma 1, demonstrating the strict regulation of PLC gamma isoform usage in CD3-stimulated T cells. A 35,000/36,000 MW tyrosine phosphorylated protein in T cells formed stable complexes with PLC gamma 1, and its tyrosine phosphorylation was co-regulated with that of PLC gamma 1 by CD4 and CD45 receptors. Enzymatic activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC gamma 1 occurs during growth factor stimulation of fibroblasts, where PLC gamma 1 exists in multi-component complexes. The observation that PLC gamma 1 exists in complexes with unique tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in T cells suggests that haematopoietic lineage-specific proteins associated with PLC gamma 1 may play roles in cellular signalling. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:1533389

  4. T cell receptor-induced activation of phospholipase C-gamma1 depends on a sequence-independent function of the P-I region of SLP-76.

    PubMed

    Gonen, Ronnie; Beach, Dvora; Ainey, Carmit; Yablonski, Deborah

    2005-03-04

    SLP-76 forms part of a hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein complex, and is absolutely required for T cell development and activation. T cell receptor (TCR)-induced activation of phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) depends on three features of SLP-76: the N-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation sites, the Gads-binding site, and an intervening sequence, denoted the P-I region, which binds to the SH3 domain of PLC-gamma1 (SH3(PLC)) via a low affinity interaction. Despite extensive research, the mechanism whereby SLP-76 regulates PLC-gamma1 remains uncertain. In this study, we uncover and explore an apparent paradox: whereas the P-I region as a whole is essential for TCR-induced activation of PLC-gamma1 and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), no particular part of this region is absolutely required. To better understand the contribution of the P-I region to PLC-gamma1 activation, we mapped the PLC-gamma1-binding site within the region, and created a SLP-76 mutant that fails to bind SH3(PLC), but is fully functional, mediating TCR-induced phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 at tyrosine 783, calcium flux, and nuclear factor of activated T cells activation. Unexpectedly, full functionality of this mutant was maintained even under less than optimal stimulation conditions, such as a low concentration of the anti-TCR antibody. Another SLP-76 mutant, in which the P-I region was scrambled to abolish any sequence-dependent protein-binding motifs, also retained significant functionality. Our results demonstrate that SLP-76 need not interact with SH3(PLC) to activate PLC-gamma1, and further suggest that the P-I region of SLP-76 serves a structural role that is sequence-independent and is not directly related to protein-protein interactions.

  5. Mutation of the PDK1 PH Domain Inhibits Protein Kinase B/Akt, Leading to Small Size and Insulin Resistance▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Bayascas, Jose R.; Wullschleger, Stephan; Sakamoto, Kei; García-Martínez, Juan M.; Clacher, Carol; Komander, David; van Aalten, Daan M. F.; Boini, Krishna M.; Lang, Florian; Lipina, Christopher; Logie, Lisa; Sutherland, Calum; Chudek, John A.; van Diepen, Janna A.; Voshol, Peter J.; Lucocq, John M.; Alessi, Dario R.

    2008-01-01

    PDK1 activates a group of kinases, including protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt, p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K), and serum and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase (SGK), that mediate many of the effects of insulin as well as other agonists. PDK1 interacts with phosphoinositides through a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. To study the role of this interaction, we generated knock-in mice expressing a mutant of PDK1 incapable of binding phosphoinositides. The knock-in mice are significantly small, insulin resistant, and hyperinsulinemic. Activation of PKB is markedly reduced in knock-in mice as a result of lower phosphorylation of PKB at Thr308, the residue phosphorylated by PDK1. This results in the inhibition of the downstream mTOR complex 1 and S6K1 signaling pathways. In contrast, activation of SGK1 or p90 ribosomal S6 kinase or stimulation of S6K1 induced by feeding is unaffected by the PDK1 PH domain mutation. These observations establish the importance of the PDK1-phosphoinositide interaction in enabling PKB to be efficiently activated with an animal model. Our findings reveal how reduced activation of PKB isoforms impinges on downstream signaling pathways, causing diminution of size as well as insulin resistance. PMID:18347057

  6. SH2 domains of the p85 alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulate binding to growth factor receptors.

    PubMed Central

    McGlade, C J; Ellis, C; Reedijk, M; Anderson, D; Mbamalu, G; Reith, A D; Panayotou, G; End, P; Bernstein, A; Kazlauskas, A

    1992-01-01

    The binding of cytoplasmic signaling proteins such as phospholipase C-gamma 1 and Ras GTPase-activating protein to autophosphorylated growth factor receptors is directed by their noncatalytic Src homology region 2 (SH2) domains. The p85 alpha regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, which associates with several receptor protein-tyrosine kinases, also contains two SH2 domains. Both p85 alpha SH2 domains, when expressed individually as fusion proteins in bacteria, bound stably to the activated beta receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Complex formation required PDGF stimulation and was dependent on receptor tyrosine kinase activity. The bacterial p85 alpha SH2 domains recognized activated beta PDGF receptor which had been immobilized on a filter, indicating that SH2 domains contact autophosphorylated receptors directly. Several receptor tyrosine kinases within the PDGF receptor subfamily, including the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor and the Steel factor receptor (Kit), also associate with PI 3-kinase in vivo. Bacterially expressed SH2 domains derived from the p85 alpha subunit of PI 3-kinase bound in vitro to the activated colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor and to Kit. We infer that the SH2 domains of p85 alpha bind to high-affinity sites on these receptors, whose creation is dependent on receptor autophosphorylation. The SH2 domains of p85 are therefore primarily responsible for the binding of PI 3-kinase to activated growth factor receptors. Images PMID:1372092

  7. Inhibition of the focal adhesion kinase and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 interaction leads to decreased survival in human neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Beierle, Elizabeth A; Ma, Xiaojie; Stewart, Jerry E; Megison, Michael; Cance, William G; Kurenova, Elena V

    2014-03-01

    Neuroblastoma continues to be a devastating childhood solid tumor and is responsible for over 15% of all childhood cancer-related deaths. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) are protein tyrosine kinases that are overexpressed in a number of human cancers, including neuroblastoma. These two kinases can directly interact and provide survival signals to cancer cells. In this study, we utilized siRNA to VEGFR-3 to demonstrate the biologic importance of this kinase in neuroblastoma cell survival. We also used confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation to show that FAK and VEGFR-3 bind in neuroblastoma. Finally, employing a 12-amino-acid peptide (AV3) specific to VEGFR-3, we showed that the colocalization between FAK and VEGFR-3 could be disrupted, and that disruption resulted in decreased neuroblastoma cell survival. These studies provide insight to the FAK-VEGFR-3 interaction in neuroblastoma and demonstrate its importance in this tumor type. Focusing upon the FAK-VEGFR-3 interaction may provide a novel therapeutic target for the development of new strategies for treatment of neuroblastoma.

  8. Smad7 knockdown activates protein kinase RNA-associated eIF2α pathway leading to colon cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    De Simone, Veronica; Bevivino, Gerolamo; Sedda, Silvia; Izzo, Roberta; Laudisi, Federica; Dinallo, Vincenzo; Franzè, Eleonora; Colantoni, Alfredo; Ortenzi, Angela; Salvatori, Silvia; Rossi, Piero; Sica, Giuseppe S; Fantini, Massimo C; Stolfi, Carmine; Monteleone, Giovanni

    2017-03-16

    Upregulation of Smad7, an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), occurs in sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) and knockdown of Smad7 inhibits CRC cell growth, a phenomenon that associates with decreased expression of cell division cycle 25 homolog A and arrest of cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. These findings occur in CRC cells unresponsive to TGF-β1, thus suggesting the existence of a Smad7-mediated TGF-β1-independent mechanism that controls CRC cell behavior. Here we show that Smad7 inhibition with a specific Smad7 antisense oligonucleotide upregulates eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) phosphorylation, a transcription factor involved in the regulation of cell cycle arrest and induction of cell death, and induces activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homology protein (CHOP), two downstream targets of eIF2α. Among the upstream kinases that control eIF2α phosphorylation, the serine-threonine protein kinase RNA (PKR), but not general control non-derepressible 2 (GCN2) and protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), is activated by Smad7 knockdown. PKR silencing abolishes Smad7 antisense-induced eIF2α phosphorylation and ATF4/CHOP induction, thereby preventing Smad7 antisense-driven cell death. Smad7 inhibition diminishes interaction of PKR with protein kinase inhibitor p58 (p58(IPK)), a cellular inhibitor of PKR, but does not change the expression and/or activity of other factors involved in the control of PKR activation. These findings delineate a novel mechanism by which Smad7 knockdown promotes CRC cell death.

  9. Restoration of SHIP activity in a human leukemia cell line downregulates constitutively activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/GSK-3beta signaling and leads to an increased transit time through the G1 phase of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Horn, S; Endl, E; Fehse, B; Weck, M M; Mayr, G W; Jücker, M

    2004-11-01

    The inositol 5-phosphatase SHIP (SHIP-1) is a negative regulator of signal transduction in hematopoietic cells and targeted disruption of SHIP in mice leads to a myeloproliferative disorder. We analyzed the effects of SHIP on the human leukemia cell line Jurkat in which expression of endogenous SHIP protein is not detectable. Restoration of SHIP expression in Jurkat cells with an inducible expression system caused a 69% reduction of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)) and a 65% reduction of Akt kinase activity, which was associated with reduced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) (Ser-9) without changing the phosphorylation of Bad (Ser-136), FKHR (Ser-256) or MAPK (Thr-202/Tyr-204). SHIP-expressing Jurkat cells showed an increased transit time through the G1 phase of the cell cycle, but SHIP did not cause a complete cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Extension of the G1 phase was associated with an increased stability of the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1) and reduced phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein Rb at serine residue 780. Our data indicate that restoration of SHIP activity in a human leukemia cell line, which has lost expression of endogenous SHIP, downregulates constitutively activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/GSK-3beta signaling and leads to an increased transit time through the G1 phase of the cell cycle.

  10. Phospholipase C-gamma 1 can induce DNA synthesis by a mechanism independent of its lipase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M R; Liu, Y L; Matthews, N T; Rhee, S G; Sung, W K; Kung, H F

    1994-01-01

    Inositol phospholipid-specific phospholipase C (PLC) is involved in several signaling pathways leading to cellular growth and differentiation. Our previous studies reported the induction of DNA synthesis in quiescent NIH 3T3 cells after microinjection of PLC and the inhibition of serum- or Ras-stimulated DNA synthesis by a mixture of monoclonal antibodies to PLC-gamma 1. In the course of our investigation of anti-PLC-gamma 1 monoclonal antibodies, we found that each antibody exerts different inhibitory effects on the phosphatidylinositol-hydrolyzing activity of PLC-gamma 1 and that the inhibition of enzymatic activity does not correlate with the inhibition of DNA synthesis observed in the microinjection assay. PLC-gamma 1 with defective enzymatic activity was synthesized by substituting phenylalanine for histidine within the PLC-gamma 1 catalytic domain at amino acids 335 and 380, and mutant enzymes were expressed using a vaccinia expression system. The mutant enzymes were purified and microinjected into quiescent NIH 3T3 cells to evaluate their mitogenic activity. A moderate induction of DNA synthesis occurred after injection of mutant PLC-gamma 1. This mitogenic activity was inhibited by an antibody (alpha E 8-4) that does not significantly inhibit PLC-gamma 1 enzyme activity, which indicates that something else has to be inhibited. Furthermore, the partial induction of DNA synthesis observed with mutant PLC-gamma 1 was increased to levels seen with wild-type PLC-gamma 1 by coinjection of mutant PLC-gamma 1 with two second messengers, diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate. These results suggest that the mitogenic activity of PLC-gamma 1 does not exclusively result from the enzymatic activity of the lipase and that another activity inherent to the PLC-gamma 1 molecule can also induce DNA synthesis in quiescent cells. Images PMID:8022819

  11. Endothelial thrombomodulin induces Ca2+ signals and nitric oxide synthesis through epidermal growth factor receptor kinase and calmodulin kinase II.

    PubMed

    David-Dufilho, Monique; Millanvoye-Van Brussel, Elisabeth; Topal, Gokce; Walch, Laurence; Brunet, Annie; Rendu, Francine

    2005-10-28

    Endothelial membrane-bound thrombomodulin is a high affinity receptor for thrombin to inhibit coagulation. We previously demonstrated that the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex restrains cell proliferation mediated through protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1. We have now tested the hypothesis that thrombomodulin transduces a signal to activate the endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (NOS3) and to modulate G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells were stimulated with thrombin or a mutant of thrombin that binds to thrombomodulin and has no catalytic activity on PAR-1. Thrombin and its mutant dose dependently activated NO release at cell surface. Pretreatment with anti-thrombomodulin antibody suppressed NO response to the mutant and to low thrombin concentration and reduced by half response to high concentration. Thrombin receptor-activating peptide that only activates PAR-1 and high thrombin concentration induced marked biphasic Ca2+ signals with rapid phosphorylation of PLC(beta3) and NOS3 at both serine 1177 and threonine 495. The mutant thrombin evoked a Ca2+ spark and progressive phosphorylation of Src family kinases at tyrosine 416 and NOS3 only at threonine 495. It activated rapid phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-dependent NO synthesis and phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and calmodulin kinase II. Complete epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition only partly reduced the activation of phospholipase Cgamma1 and NOS3. Prestimulation of thrombomodulin did not affect NO release but reduced Ca2+ responses to thrombin and histamine, suggesting cross-talks between thrombomodulin and G protein-coupled receptors. This is the first demonstration of an outside-in signal mediated by the cell surface thrombomodulin receptor to activate NOS3 through tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway. This signaling may contribute to thrombomodulin function in thrombosis, inflammation, and atherosclerosis.

  12. Trypanosoma brucei Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3, A Target for Anti-Trypanosomal Drug Development: A Public-Private Partnership to Identify Novel Leads

    PubMed Central

    Oduor, Richard O.; Ojo, Kayode K.; Williams, Gareth P.; Bertelli, Francois; Mills, James; Maes, Louis; Pryde, David C.; Parkinson, Tanya; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Holler, Tod P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), expresses two proteins with homology to human glycogen synthase kinase 3β (HsGSK-3) designated TbruGSK-3 short and TbruGSK-3 long. TbruGSK-3 short has previously been validated as a potential drug target and since this enzyme has also been pursued as a human drug target, a large number of inhibitors are available for screening against the parasite enzyme. A collaborative industrial/academic partnership facilitated by the World Health Organisation Tropical Diseases Research division (WHO TDR) was initiated to stimulate research aimed at identifying new drugs for treating HAT. Methodology/Principal Findings A subset of over 16,000 inhibitors of HsGSK-3 β from the Pfizer compound collection was screened against the shorter of two orthologues of TbruGSK-3. The resulting active compounds were tested for selectivity versus HsGSK-3β and a panel of human kinases, as well as in vitro anti-trypanosomal activity. Structural analysis of the human and trypanosomal enzymes was also performed. Conclusions/Significance We identified potent and selective compounds representing potential attractive starting points for a drug discovery program. Structural analysis of the human and trypanosomal enzymes also revealed hypotheses for further improving selectivity of the compounds. PMID:21483717

  13. Hyaluronan-CD44 interaction stimulates Rac1 signaling and PKN gamma kinase activation leading to cytoskeleton function and cell migration in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Lilly Y W; Gilad, Eli; Peyrollier, Karine; Brightman, Amy; Swanson, Raymond A

    2007-05-01

    Both hyaluronan [HA, the major glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix (ECM)] and CD44 (a primary HA receptor) are associated with astrocyte activation and tissue repair following central nervous system (CNS) injury. In this study we investigated the question of whether HA-CD44 interaction influences astrocyte signaling and migration. Our data indicated that HA binding to the cultured astrocytes stimulated Rac1 signaling and cytoskeleton-mediated migration. To determine the cellular and molecular basis of these events, we focused on PKN gamma, a Rac1-activated serine/threonine kinase in astrocytes. We determined that HA binding to astrocytes stimulated Rac1-dependent PKN gamma kinase activity which, in turn, up-regulated the phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal protein, cortactin, and attenuated the ability of cortactin to cross-link F-actin. Further analyses indicated that the N-terminal antiparallel coiled-coil (ACC) domains of PKN gamma interacted with Rac1, and transfection of astrocytes with PKN gamma-ACCcDNA inhibited PKN gamma activity. Over-expression of the PKN gamma-ACC domain also functions as a dominant-negative mutant to block HA/CD44-mediated PKN gamma activation of cortactin and astrocyte migration. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that hyaluronan/CD44 interaction with Rac1-PKN gamma plays a pivotal role in cytoskeleton activation and astrocyte migration. These newly discovered HA/CD44-induced astrocyte function may provide important insight into novel therapeutic treatments for tissue repair following CNS injury.

  14. Ultra-deep sequencing leads to earlier and more sensitive detection of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance mutation T315I in chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Constance; Kern, Wolfgang; Koch, Sarah; Nadarajah, Niroshan; Schindela, Sonja; Meggendorfer, Manja; Haferlach, Claudia; Haferlach, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia cells acquire resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors through mutations in the ABL1 kinase domain. The T315I mutation mediates resistance to imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib and bosutinib, whereas sensitivity to ponatinib remains. Mutation detection by conventional Sanger sequencing requires 10%–20% expansion of the mutated subclone. We studied the T315I mutation development by ultra-deep sequencing on the 454 XL+ platform (Roche) in comparison to Sanger sequencing. By ultra-deep sequencing, mutations were detected at loads of 1%–2%. We selected 40 patients who had failed first-line to third-line treatment (imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib) and had high loads of the T315I mutation detected by Sanger sequencing. We confirmed T315I mutations by ultra-deep sequencing and investigated the mutation dynamics by backtracking earlier samples. In 20 of 40 patients, we identified the T315I three months (median) before Sanger sequencing detection limits were reached. To exclude sporadic low percentage mutation development without subsequent mutation outgrowth, we selected 42 patients without resistance mutations detected by Sanger sequencing but loss of major molecular response. Here, no mutation was detected by ultradeep sequencing. Additional non-T315I resistance mutations were found in 20 of 40 patients. Only 15% had two mutations per cell; the other cases showed multiple independently mutated clones and the T315I clone demonstrated a rapid outgrowth. In conclusion, T315I mutations could be detected earlier by ultra-deep sequencing compared to Sanger sequencing in a selected group of cases. Earlier mutation detection by ultra-deep sequencing might allow treatment to be changed before clonal increase of cells with the T315I mutation. PMID:27102501

  15. Ultra-deep sequencing leads to earlier and more sensitive detection of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance mutation T315I in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Baer, Constance; Kern, Wolfgang; Koch, Sarah; Nadarajah, Niroshan; Schindela, Sonja; Meggendorfer, Manja; Haferlach, Claudia; Haferlach, Torsten

    2016-07-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia cells acquire resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors through mutations in the ABL1 kinase domain. The T315I mutation mediates resistance to imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib and bosutinib, whereas sensitivity to ponatinib remains. Mutation detection by conventional Sanger sequencing requires 10%-20% expansion of the mutated subclone. We studied the T315I mutation development by ultra-deep sequencing on the 454 XL+ platform (Roche) in comparison to Sanger sequencing. By ultra-deep sequencing, mutations were detected at loads of 1%-2%. We selected 40 patients who had failed first-line to third-line treatment (imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib) and had high loads of the T315I mutation detected by Sanger sequencing. We confirmed T315I mutations by ultra-deep sequencing and investigated the mutation dynamics by backtracking earlier samples. In 20 of 40 patients, we identified the T315I three months (median) before Sanger sequencing detection limits were reached. To exclude sporadic low percentage mutation development without subsequent mutation outgrowth, we selected 42 patients without resistance mutations detected by Sanger sequencing but loss of major molecular response. Here, no mutation was detected by ultradeep sequencing. Additional non-T315I resistance mutations were found in 20 of 40 patients. Only 15% had two mutations per cell; the other cases showed multiple independently mutated clones and the T315I clone demonstrated a rapid outgrowth. In conclusion, T315I mutations could be detected earlier by ultra-deep sequencing compared to Sanger sequencing in a selected group of cases. Earlier mutation detection by ultra-deep sequencing might allow treatment to be changed before clonal increase of cells with the T315I mutation.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: mevalonate kinase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... shape, leading to a reduction of mevalonate kinase enzyme activity. Despite this shortage (deficiency) of mevalonate kinase activity, ... who have less than 1 percent of normal enzyme activity usually develop MVA. Learn more about the gene ...

  17. Ectopic expression of cone-specific G-protein-coupled receptor kinase GRK7 in zebrafish rods leads to lower photosensitivity and altered responses

    PubMed Central

    Vogalis, F; Shiraki, T; Kojima, D; Wada, Y; Nishiwaki, Y; Jarvinen, J L P; Sugiyama, J; Kawakami, K; Masai, I; Kawamura, S; Fukada, Y; Lamb, T D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the roles of G-protein receptor kinases (GRKs) in the light responses of vertebrate photoreceptors, we generated transgenic zebrafish lines, the rods of which express either cone GRK (GRK7) or rod GRK (GRK1) in addition to the endogenous GRK1, and we then measured the electrophysiological characteristics of single-cell responses and the behavioural responses of intact animals. Our study establishes the zebrafish expression system as a convenient platform for the investigation of specific components of the phototransduction cascade. The addition of GRK1 led to minor changes in rod responses. However, exogenous GRK7 in GRK7-tg animals led to lowered rod sensitivity, as occurs in cones, but surprisingly to slower response kinetics. Examination of responses to long series of very dim flashes suggested the possibility that the GRK7-tg rods generated two classes of single-photon response, perhaps corresponding to the interaction of activated rhodopsin with GRK1 (giving a standard response) or with GRK7 (giving a very small response). Behavioural measurement of optokinetic responses (OKR) in intact GRK7-tg zebrafish larvae showed that the overall rod visual pathway was less sensitive, in accord with the lowered sensitivity of the rods. These results help provide an understanding for the molecular basis of the electrophysiological differences between cones and rods. PMID:21486791

  18. AMP-activated protein kinase activation leads to lysome-mediated NA(+)/I(-)-symporter protein degradation in rat thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Cazarin, J M; Andrade, B M; Carvalho, D P

    2014-05-01

    Iodide uptake by thyroid cells is mediated by a transmembrane glycoprotein known as the Na+/I--symporter (NIS). NIS-mediated iodide uptake plays important physiological role in thyroid gland function, as well as in diagnostic and treatment of Graves' disease and thyroid cancer. Although different studies investigated the transcriptional mechanisms of NIS expression, there is no report on the NIS post-translational regulation related to NIS protein degradation in thyroid cells. Recently, our group showed that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a pivotal role in the rat thyroid gland, downregulating iodide uptake, NIS protein, and mRNA content. Since several studies demonstrated that AMPK regulates post-transcriptional mechanisms, such as autophagy-mediated processes in different tissues, we hypothesized that AMPK activation could also regulate NIS protein degradation through the lysosome pathway in thyroid cells. Rat follicular thyroid PCCL3 cells cultivated in Ham's F12 supplemented with 5% calf serum and hormones were exposed to the AMPK pharmacological activator 5-aminoimidazole-4 carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR), in the presence or absence of Bafilomycin A1 or MG132 for 24 h. Treatment of PCCL3 cells with Bafilomycin A1 fully prevented the decrease of iodide uptake and NIS protein content mediated by AMPK activation. In contrast, the treatment with MG132 was unable to prevent the effects of AMPK activation on NIS. Our results show that AMPK activation significantly induces NIS protein degradation through a lysosome-mediated mechanism.

  19. Tat engagement of p38 MAP kinase and IRF7 pathways leads to activation of interferon-stimulated genes in antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nayoung; Kukkonen, Sami; Martinez-Viedma, Maria Del Pilar; Gupta, Sumeet; Aldovini, Anna

    2013-05-16

    As a result of its interaction with transcription factors, HIV type 1 (HIV-1) Tat can modulate the expression of both HIV and cellular genes. In antigen-presenting cells Tat induces the expression of a subset of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs) in the absence of IFNs. We investigated the genome-wide Tat association with promoters in immature dendritic cells and in monocyte-derived macrophages. Among others, Tat associated with the MAP2K6, MAP2K3, and IRF7 promoters that are functionally part of IL-1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. The association correlated with their increased gene expression, increased activation of p38 MAPK and of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), and consequent induction of ISGs. Probing these pathways with RNA interference, pharmacological p38 MAPK inhibition, and in cell lines lacking STAT1s or the type I IFN receptor chain confirmed the role of MAPKKs and IRF7 in Tat-mediated modulation of ISGs and excluded the involvement of IFNs in this modulation. Tat interaction with the 2 MAPKK and IRF7 promoters in HIV-1-infected cells and the resulting persistent activation of ISGs, which include inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, can contribute to the increased immune activation that characterizes HIV infection.

  20. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase targeting by the β galactoside binding protein cytokine negates akt gene expression and leads aggressive breast cancer cells to apoptotic death

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Valerie; Mallucci, Livio

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-activated signalling has a critical role in the evolution of aggressive tumourigenesis and is therefore a prime target for anticancer therapy. Previously we have shown that the β galactoside binding protein (βGBP) cytokine, an antiproliferative molecule, induces functional inhibition of class 1A and class 1B PI3K. Here, we have investigated whether, by targeting PI3K, βGBP has therapeutic efficacy in aggressive breast cancer cells where strong mitogenic input is fuelled by overexpression of the ErbB2 (also known as HER/neu, for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) oncoprotein receptor and have used immortalised ductal cells and non-aggressive mammary cancer cells, which express ErbB2 at low levels, as controls. Methods Aggressive BT474 and SKBR3 cancer cells where ErbB2 is overexpressed, MCF10A immortalised ductal cells and non-invasive MCF-7 cancer cells which express low levels of ErbB2, both in their naive state and when forced to mimic aggressive behaviour, were used. Class IA PI3K was immunoprecipitated and the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-biphosphate (PIP2) to phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) assessed by ELISA. The consequences of PI3K inhibition by βGBP were analysed at proliferation level, by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, by akt gene expression and by apoptosis. Apoptosis was documented by changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, alteration of the plasma membrane, caspase 3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Phosphorylated and total ERK were measured by Western blot analysis and akt mRNA levels by Northern blot analysis. The results obtained with the BT474 and SKBR3 cells were validated in the MCF10A ductal cells and in non-invasive MCF-7 breast cancer cells forced into mimicking the in vitro behaviour of the BT474 and SKBR3 cells. Results In aggressive breast cancer cells, where mitogenic signalling is enforced by the ErbB2 oncoprotein receptor

  1. Adipocyte-specific deficiency of Janus kinase (JAK) 2 in mice impairs lipolysis and increases body weight, and leads to insulin resistance with ageing.

    PubMed

    Shi, Sally Yu; Luk, Cynthia T; Brunt, Jara J; Sivasubramaniyam, Tharini; Lu, Shun-Yan; Schroer, Stephanie A; Woo, Minna

    2014-05-01

    The growing obesity epidemic necessitates a better understanding of adipocyte biology and its role in metabolism. The Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway mediates signalling by numerous cytokines and hormones that regulate adipocyte function, illustrating the physiological importance of adipose JAK-STAT. The aim of this study was to investigate potential roles of adipocyte JAK2, an essential player in the JAK-STAT pathway, in adipocyte biology and metabolism. We generated adipocyte-specific Jak2 knockout (A-Jak2 KO) mice using the Cre-loxP system with Cre expression driven by the Ap2 (also known as Fabp4) promoter. Starting at 2-3 months of age, male and female A-Jak2 KO mice gradually gained more body weight than control littermates primarily due to increased adiposity. This was associated with reduced energy expenditure in A-Jak2 KO mice. In perigonadal adipose tissue, the expression of numerous genes involved in lipid metabolism was differentially regulated. In addition, adipose tissue from A-Jak2 KO mice displayed impaired lipolysis in response to isoprenaline, growth hormone and leptin stimulation, suggesting that adipose JAK2 directly modulates the lipolytic program. Impaired lipid homeostasis was also associated with disrupted adipokine secretion. Accordingly, while glucose metabolism was normal at 2 months of age, by 5-6 months of age, A-Jak2 KO mice had whole-body insulin resistance. Our results suggest that adipocyte JAK2 plays a critical role in the regulation of adipocyte biology and whole-body metabolism. Targeting of the JAK-STAT pathway could be a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  2. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke leads to activation of p21 (RAC1)-activated kinase 6 (PAK6) in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Nazia; Solanki, Hitendra S.; Puttamallesh, Vinuth N.; Balaji, Sai A.; Nanjappa, Vishalakshi; Datta, Keshava K.; Babu, Niraj; Renuse, Santosh; Patil, Arun H.; Izumchenko, Evgeny; Prasad, T.S. Keshava; Chang, Xiaofei; Rangarajan, Annapoorni; Sidransky, David; Pandey, Akhilesh; Gowda, Harsha; Chatterjee, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological data clearly establishes cigarette smoking as one of the major cause for lung cancer worldwide. Recently, targeted therapy has become one of the most preferred modes of treatment for cancer. Though certain targeted therapies such as anti-EGFR are in clinical practice, they have shown limited success in lung cancer patients who are smokers. This demands discovery of alternative drug targets through systematic investigation of cigarette smoke-induced signaling mechanisms. To study the signaling events activated in response to cigarette smoke, we carried out SILAC-based phosphoproteomic analysis of H358 lung cancer cells chronically exposed to cigarette smoke. We identified 1,812 phosphosites, of which 278 phosphosites were hyperphosphorylated (≥ 3-fold) in H358 cells chronically exposed to cigarette smoke. Our data revealed hyperphosphorylation of S560 within the conserved kinase domain of PAK6. Activation of PAK6 is associated with various processes in cancer including metastasis. Mechanistic studies revealed that inhibition of PAK6 led to reduction in cell proliferation, migration and invasion of the cigarette smoke treated cells. Further, siRNA mediated silencing of PAK6 resulted in decreased invasive abilities in a panel of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Consistently, mice bearing tumor xenograft showed reduced tumor growth upon treatment with PF-3758309 (group II PAK inhibitor). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed overexpression of PAK6 in 66.6% (52/78) of NSCLC cases in tissue microarrays. Taken together, our study indicates that PAK6 is a promising novel therapeutic target for NSCLC, especially in smokers. PMID:27542207

  3. Down-regulation of catalase and oxidative modification of protein kinase CK2 lead to the failure of apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain to inhibit cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Murtaza, Iram; Wang, Hong-Xia; Feng, Xue; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Prabhakar, Bellur S; Li, Pei-Feng

    2008-03-07

    Cardiac hypertrophy is regulated by a complex interplay of pro- and anti-hypertrophic factors. Here, we report a novel anti-hypertrophic pathway composed of catalase, protein kinase CK2 (CK2), and apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC). Our results showed that ARC phosphorylation levels, CK2 activity, and catalase expression levels were decreased in the hearts of the angiotensinogen transgenic mice and in cardiomyocytes treated with the hypertrophic stimuli, including phenylephrine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and angiotensin II. To understand the role of ARC in hypertrophy, we observed that enforced expression of ARC could inhibit hypertrophy. Knockdown of endogenous ARC or inhibition of its phosphorylation could sensitize cardiomyocytes to undergoing hypertrophy. The phosphorylatable, but not the nonphosphorylatable, ARC could inhibit hypertrophy. Thus, ARC is able to inhibit hypertrophy in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. In exploring the molecular mechanism by which CK2 activity is reduced, we found that CK2 was carbonylated in angiotensinogen transgenic mice and in cardiomyocytes treated with the hypertrophic stimuli. The decrease in catalase expression led to an elevated level of reactive oxygen species. The latter oxidatively modified CK2, resulting in its carbonylation. CK2 lost its catalytic activity upon carbonylation. ARC is phosphorylated by CK2, and ARC phosphorylation levels were reduced as a consequence of the decrease of CK2 activity. To understand the molecular mechanism by which ARC inhibits hypertrophy, we observed that ARC could inhibit the activation of mitochondrial permeability transition. These results suggest that catalase, CK2, and ARC constitute an anti-hypertrophic pathway in the heart.

  4. Dectin-1-mediated signaling leads to characteristic gene expressions and cytokine secretion via spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in rat mast cells.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yukihiro; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Honjoh, Chisato; Takeuchi, Kenji; Yamauchi, Shota; Yoshiki, Hatsumi; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Sada, Kiyonao

    2014-11-07

    Dectin-1 recognizes β-glucan and plays important roles for the antifungal immunity through the activation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in dendritic cells or macrophages. Recently, expression of Dectin-1 was also identified in human and mouse mast cells, although its physiological roles were largely unknown. In this report, rat mast cell line RBL-2H3 was analyzed to investigate the molecular mechanism of Dectin-1-mediated activation and responses of mast cells. Treatment of cells with Dectin-1-specific agonist curdlan induced tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins and the interaction of Dectin-1 with the Src homology 2 domain of Syk. These responses depended on tyrosine phosphorylation of the hemi-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif in the cytoplasmic tail of Dectin-1, whereas they were independent of the γ-subunit of high-affinity IgE receptor. DNA microarray and real-time PCR analyses showed that Dectin-1-mediated signaling stimulated gene expression of transcription factor Nfkbiz and inflammatory cytokines, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-3, IL-4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. The response was abrogated by pretreatment with Syk inhibitor R406. These results suggest that Syk is critical for Dectin-1-mediated activation of mast cells, although the signaling differs from that triggered by FcϵRI activation. In addition, these gene expressions induced by curdlan stimulation were specifically observed in mast cells, suggesting that Dectin-1-mediated signaling of mast cells offers new insight into the antifungal immunity. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Dectin-1-mediated Signaling Leads to Characteristic Gene Expressions and Cytokine Secretion via Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (Syk) in Rat Mast Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yukihiro; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Honjoh, Chisato; Takeuchi, Kenji; Yamauchi, Shota; Yoshiki, Hatsumi; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Sada, Kiyonao

    2014-01-01

    Dectin-1 recognizes β-glucan and plays important roles for the antifungal immunity through the activation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in dendritic cells or macrophages. Recently, expression of Dectin-1 was also identified in human and mouse mast cells, although its physiological roles were largely unknown. In this report, rat mast cell line RBL-2H3 was analyzed to investigate the molecular mechanism of Dectin-1-mediated activation and responses of mast cells. Treatment of cells with Dectin-1-specific agonist curdlan induced tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins and the interaction of Dectin-1 with the Src homology 2 domain of Syk. These responses depended on tyrosine phosphorylation of the hemi-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif in the cytoplasmic tail of Dectin-1, whereas they were independent of the γ-subunit of high-affinity IgE receptor. DNA microarray and real-time PCR analyses showed that Dectin-1-mediated signaling stimulated gene expression of transcription factor Nfkbiz and inflammatory cytokines, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-3, IL-4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. The response was abrogated by pretreatment with Syk inhibitor R406. These results suggest that Syk is critical for Dectin-1-mediated activation of mast cells, although the signaling differs from that triggered by FcϵRI activation. In addition, these gene expressions induced by curdlan stimulation were specifically observed in mast cells, suggesting that Dectin-1-mediated signaling of mast cells offers new insight into the antifungal immunity. PMID:25246527

  6. From a natural product lead to the identification of potent and selective benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides as glycogen synthase kinase 3beta inhibitors that suppress proliferation and survival of pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gaisina, Irina N; Gallier, Franck; Ougolkov, Andrei V; Kim, Ki H; Kurome, Toru; Guo, Songpo; Holzle, Denise; Luchini, Doris N; Blond, Sylvie Y; Billadeau, Daniel D; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2009-04-09

    Recent studies have demonstrated that glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) is overexpressed in human colon and pancreatic carcinomas, contributing to cancer cell proliferation and survival. Here, we report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides, potent GSK-3beta inhibitors. Some of these compounds show picomolar inhibitory activity toward GSK-3beta and an enhanced selectivity against cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK-2). Selected GSK-3beta inhibitors were tested in the pancreatic cancer cell lines MiaPaCa-2, BXPC-3, and HupT3. We determined that some of these compounds, namely compounds 5, 6, 11, 20, and 26, demonstrate antiproliferative activity against some or all of the pancreatic cancer cells at low micromolar to nanomolar concentrations. We found that the treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with GSK-3beta inhibitors 5 and 26 resulted in suppression of GSK-3beta activity and a distinct decrease of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) expression, leading to significant apoptosis. The present data suggest a possible role for GSK-3beta inhibitors in cancer therapy, in addition to their more prominent applications in CNS disorders.

  7. Structure based design of novel 6,5 heterobicyclic mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors leading to the discovery of imidazo[1,5-a] pyrazine G-479.

    PubMed

    Robarge, Kirk D; Lee, Wendy; Eigenbrot, Charles; Ultsch, Mark; Wiesmann, Christian; Heald, Robert; Price, Steve; Hewitt, Joanne; Jackson, Philip; Savy, Pascal; Burton, Brenda; Choo, Edna F; Pang, Jodie; Boggs, Jason; Yang, April; Yang, Xioaye; Baumgardner, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    Use of the tools of SBDD including crystallography led to the discovery of novel and potent 6,5 heterobicyclic MEKi's [J. Med. Chem.2012, 55, 4594]. The core change from a 5,6 heterobicycle to a 6,5 heterobicycle was driven by the desire for increased structural diversity and aided by the co-crystal structure of G-925 [J. Med. Chem.2012, 55, 4594]. The key design feature was the shift of the attachment of the five-membered heterocyclic ring towards the B ring while maintaining the key hydroxamate and anilino pharamcophoric elements in a remarkably similar position as in G-925. From modelling, changing the connection point of the five membered ring heterocycle placed the H-bond accepting nitrogen within a good distance and angle to the Ser212 [J. Med. Chem.2012, 55, 4594]. The resulting novel 6,5 benzoisothiazole MEKi G-155 exhibited improved potency versus aza-benzofurans G-925 and G-963 but was a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450's 2C9 and 2C19. Lowering the logD by switching to the more polar imidazo[1,5-a] pyridine core significantly diminished 2C9/2C19 inhibition while retaining potency. The imidazo[1,5-a] pyridine G-868 exhibited increased potency versus the starting point for this work (aza-benzofuran G-925) leading to deprioritization of the azabenzofurans. The 6,5-imidazo[1,5-a] pyridine scaffold was further diversified by incorporating a nitrogen at the 7 position to give the imidazo[1,5-a] pyrazine scaffold. The introduction of the C7 nitrogen was driven by the desire to improve metabolic stability by blocking metabolism at the C7 and C8 positions (particularly the HLM stability). It was found that improving on G-868 (later renamed GDC-0623) required combining C7 nitrogen with a diol hydroxamate to give G-479. G-479 with polarity distributed throughout the molecule was improved over G-868 in many aspects.

  8. Excess F-actin mechanically impedes mitosis leading to cytokinesis failure in X-linked neutropenia by exceeding Aurora B kinase error correction capacity.

    PubMed

    Moulding, Dale A; Moeendarbary, Emad; Valon, Leo; Record, Julien; Charras, Guillaume T; Thrasher, Adrian J

    2012-11-01

    The constitutively active mutant of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (CA-WASp) is the cause of X-linked neutropenia and is linked with genomic instability and myelodysplasia. CA-WASp generates abnormally high levels of cytoplasmic F-actin through dysregulated activation of the Arp2/3 complex leading to defects in cell division. As WASp has no reported role in cell division, we hypothesized that alteration of cell mechanics because of increased F-actin may indirectly disrupt dynamic events during mitosis. Inhibition of the Arp2/3 complex revealed that excess cytoplasmic F-actin caused increased cellular viscosity, slowed all phases of mitosis, and perturbed mitotic mechanics. Comparison of chromosome velocity to the cytoplasmic viscosity revealed that cells compensated for increased viscosity by up-regulating force applied to chromosomes and increased the density of microtubules at kinetochores. Mitotic abnormalities were because of overload of the aurora signaling pathway as subcritical inhibition of Aurora in CA-WASp cells caused increased cytokinesis failure, while overexpression reduced defects. These findings demonstrate that changes in cell mechanics can cause significant mitotic abnormalities leading to genomic instability, and highlight the importance of mechanical sensors such as Aurora B in maintaining the fidelity of hematopoietic cell division.

  9. Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

  10. In Vitro Treatment of Human Monocytes/Macrophages with Myristoylated Recombinant Nef of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Leads to the Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, IκB Kinases, and Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 and to the Release of Beta Interferon▿

    PubMed Central

    Mangino, Giorgio; Percario, Zulema A.; Fiorucci, Gianna; Vaccari, Gabriele; Manrique, Santiago; Romeo, Giovanna; Federico, Maurizio; Geyer, Matthias; Affabris, Elisabetta

    2007-01-01

    The viral protein Nef is a virulence factor that plays multiple roles during the early and late phases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication. Nef regulates the cell surface expression of critical proteins (including down-regulation of CD4 and major histocompatibility complex class I), T-cell receptor signaling, and apoptosis, inducing proapoptotic effects in uninfected bystander cells and antiapoptotic effects in infected cells. It has been proposed that Nef intersects the CD40 ligand signaling pathway in macrophages, leading to modification in the pattern of secreted factors that appear able to recruit and activate T lymphocytes, rendering them susceptible to HIV infection. There is also increasing evidence that in vitro cell treatment with Nef induces signaling effects. Exogenous Nef treatment is able to induce apoptosis in uninfected T cells, maturation in dendritic cells, and suppression of CD40-dependent immunoglobulin class switching in B cells. Previously, we reported that Nef treatment of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) induces a cycloheximide-independent activation of NF-κB and the synthesis and secretion of a set of chemokines/cytokines that activate STAT1 and STAT3. Here, we show that Nef treatment is capable of hijacking cellular signaling pathways, inducing a very rapid regulatory response in MDMs that is characterized by the rapid and transient phosphorylation of the α and β subunits of the IκB kinase complex and of JNK, ERK1/2, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase family members. In addition, we have observed the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3, leading to the synthesis of beta interferon mRNA and protein, which in turn induces STAT2 phosphorylation. All of these effects require Nef myristoylation. PMID:17182689

  11. Platelet-derived growth factor triggers translocation of the insulin-regulatable glucose transporter (type 4) predominantly through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase binding sites on the receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Kamohara, S; Hayashi, H; Todaka, M; Kanai, F; Ishii, K; Imanaka, T; Escobedo, J A; Williams, L T; Ebina, Y

    1995-01-01

    Insulin is the only known hormone which rapidly stimulates glucose uptake in target tissues, mainly by translocation to the cell surface of the intracellular insulin-regulatable glucose transporter (glucose transporter type 4, GLUT4). We have developed a cell line for direct, sensitive detection of GLUT4 on the cell surface. We have suggested that insulin-activated phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase may be involved in the signaling pathway of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. We report that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), which stimulates PI 3-kinase activity, triggers GLUT4 translocation in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably overexpressing the PDGF receptor and in 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes. Using mutant PDGF receptors that cannot bind to Ras-GTPase-activating protein, phospholipase C-gamma, and PI 3-kinase, respectively, we obtained evidence that PI 3-kinase binding sites play a key role in the signaling pathway of PDGF-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in the CHO cell system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:7862637

  12. Oncoprotein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2001-02-27

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  13. Small Molecule Reversible Inhibitors of Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK): Structure-Activity Relationships Leading to the Identification of 7-(2-Hydroxypropan-2-yl)-4-[2-methyl-3-(4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-3-yl)phenyl]-9H-carbazole-1-carboxamide (BMS-935177).

    PubMed

    De Lucca, George V; Shi, Qing; Liu, Qingjie; Batt, Douglas G; Beaudoin Bertrand, Myra; Rampulla, Rick; Mathur, Arvind; Discenza, Lorell; D'Arienzo, Celia; Dai, Jun; Obermeier, Mary; Vickery, Rodney; Zhang, Yingru; Yang, Zheng; Marathe, Punit; Tebben, Andrew J; Muckelbauer, Jodi K; Chang, ChiehYing J; Zhang, Huiping; Gillooly, Kathleen; Taylor, Tracy; Pattoli, Mark A; Skala, Stacey; Kukral, Daniel W; McIntyre, Kim W; Salter-Cid, Luisa; Fura, Aberra; Burke, James R; Barrish, Joel C; Carter, Percy H; Tino, Joseph A

    2016-09-08

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) belongs to the TEC family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases and plays a critical role in multiple cell types responsible for numerous autoimmune diseases. This article will detail the structure-activity relationships (SARs) leading to a novel second generation series of potent and selective reversible carbazole inhibitors of BTK. With an excellent pharmacokinetic profile as well as demonstrated in vivo activity and an acceptable safety profile, 7-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-4-[2-methyl-3-(4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-3-yl)phenyl]-9H-carbazole-1-carboxamide 6 (BMS-935177) was selected to advance into clinical development.

  14. Small Molecule Reversible Inhibitors of Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase (BTK): Structure–Activity Relationships Leading to the Identification of 7-(2-Hydroxypropan-2-yl)-4-[2-methyl-3-(4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-3-yl)phenyl]-9 H -carbazole-1-carboxamide (BMS-935177)

    SciTech Connect

    De Lucca, George V.; Shi, Qing; Liu, Qingjie; Batt, Douglas G.; Beaudoin Bertrand, Myra; Rampulla, Rick; Mathur, Arvind; Discenza, Lorell; D’Arienzo, Celia; Dai, Jun; Obermeier, Mary; Vickery, Rodney; Zhang, Yingru; Yang, Zheng; Marathe, Punit; Tebben, Andrew J.; Muckelbauer, Jodi K.; Chang, ChiehYing J.; Zhang, Huiping; Gillooly, Kathleen; Taylor, Tracy; Pattoli, Mark A.; Skala, Stacey; Kukral, Daniel W.; McIntyre, Kim W.; Salter-Cid, Luisa; Fura, Aberra; Burke, James R.; Barrish, Joel C.; Carter, Percy H.; Tino, Joseph A.

    2016-09-08

    Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) belongs to the TEC family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases and plays a critical role in multiple cell types responsible for numerous autoimmune diseases. This article will detail the structure–activity relationships (SARs) leading to a novel second generation series of potent and selective reversible carbazole inhibitors of BTK. With an excellent pharmacokinetic profile as well as demonstrated in vivo activity and an acceptable safety profile, 7-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-4-[2-methyl-3-(4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-3-yl)phenyl]-9H-carbazole-1-carboxamide 6 (BMS-935177) was selected to advance into clinical development.

  15. Identification of a phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) SH3 domain-binding site in SLP-76 required for T-cell receptor-mediated activation of PLC-gamma1 and NFAT.

    PubMed

    Yablonski, D; Kadlecek, T; Weiss, A

    2001-07-01

    SLP-76 is an adapter protein required for T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. In particular, TCR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1), and the resultant TCR-inducible gene expression, depend on SLP-76. Nonetheless, the mechanisms by which SLP-76 mediates PLC-gamma1 activation are not well understood. We now demonstrate that SLP-76 directly interacts with the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of PLC-gamma1. Structure-function analysis of SLP-76 revealed that each of the previously defined protein-protein interaction domains can be individually deleted without completely disrupting SLP-76 function. Additional deletion mutations revealed a new, 67-amino-acid functional domain within the proline-rich region of SLP-76, which we have termed the P-1 domain. The P-1 domain mediates a constitutive interaction of SLP-76 with the SH3 domain of PLC-gamma1 and is required for TCR-mediated activation of Erk, PLC-gamma1, and NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells). The adjacent Gads-binding domain of SLP-76, also within the proline-rich region, mediates inducible recruitment of SLP-76 to a PLC-gamma1-containing complex via the recruitment of both PLC-gamma1 and Gads to another cell-type-specific adapter, LAT. Thus, TCR-induced activation of PLC-gamma1 entails the binding of PLC-gamma1 to both LAT and SLP-76, a finding that may underlie the requirement for both LAT and SLP-76 to mediate the optimal activation of PLC-gamma1.

  16. Novel role for mitochondria: protein kinase Ctheta-dependent oxidative signaling organelles in activation-induced T-cell death.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Marcin; Kiessling, Michael; Süss, Dorothee; Krammer, Peter H; Gülow, Karsten

    2007-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in regulation of activation-induced T-cell death (AICD) by induction of CD95L expression. However, the molecular source and the signaling steps necessary for ROS production are largely unknown. Here, we show that the proximal T-cell receptor-signaling machinery, including ZAP70 (zeta chain-associated protein kinase 70), LAT (linker of activated T cells), SLP76 (SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa), PLCgamma1 (phospholipase Cgamma1), and PKCtheta (protein kinase Ctheta), are crucial for ROS production. PKCtheta is translocated to the mitochondria. By using cells depleted of mitochondrial DNA, we identified the mitochondria as the source of activation-induced ROS. Inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport complex I assembly by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of the chaperone NDUFAF1 resulted in a block of ROS production. Complex I-derived ROS are converted into a hydrogen peroxide signal by the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. This signal is essential for CD95L expression, as inhibition of complex I assembly by NDUFAF1-specific siRNA prevents AICD. Similar results were obtained when metformin, an antidiabetic drug and mild complex I inhibitor, was used. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time that PKCtheta-dependent ROS generation by mitochondrial complex I is essential for AICD.

  17. LIM-kinase1.

    PubMed

    Stanyon, C A; Bernard, O

    1999-01-01

    LIM-kinase1 (LIMK1) is a serine-only protein kinase that contains LIM and PDZ protein-protein interaction domains which is highly expressed in neurons. Overexpression of LIMK1 in cultured cells results in accumulation of filamentous (F-) actin. LIMK1 phosphorylates cofilin, an actin depolymerisation factor, which is then unable to bind and depolymerise F-actin. Rac-GTP enhances phosphorylation of LIMK1 and cofilin, which leads to accumulation of F-actin, while Rac-GDP and PMA reduce these effects. LIMK1 is therefore a key component of a signal transduction network that connects extracellular stimuli to changes in cytoskeletal structure. Control of cell morphology and mobility via LIMK1 activity may provide novel approaches to cancer therapy.

  18. Intracellular signaling of the Ufo/Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is mediated mainly by a multi-substrate docking-site.

    PubMed

    Braunger, J; Schleithoff, L; Schulz, A S; Kessler, H; Lammers, R; Ullrich, A; Bartram, C R; Janssen, J W

    1997-06-05

    Ufo/Axl belongs to a new family of receptor tyrosine kinases with an extracellular structure similar to that of neural cell adhesion molecules. In order to elucidate intracellular signaling, the cytoplasmic moiety of Ufo/Axl was used to screen an expression library according to the CORT (cloning of receptor targets) method. Three putative Ufo substrates were identified: phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma), as well as p85alpha and p85beta subunits of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-kinase). Subsequently, chimeric EGFR/Ufo receptors consisting of the extracellular domains of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the transmembrane and intracellular moiety of Ufo were engineered. Using different far-Western blot analyses and coimmunoprecipitation assays, receptor binding of PLCgamma and p85 proteins as well as GRB2, c-src and lck was examined in vitro and in vivo. Competitive inhibition of substrate binding and mutagenesis experiments with EGFR/Ufo constructs revealed C-terminal tyrosine 821 (EILpYVNMDEG) as a docking site for multiple effectors, namely PLCgamma, p85 proteins, GRB2, c-src and lck. Tyrosine 779 (DGLpYALMSRC) demonstrated an additional, but lower binding affinity for the p85 proteins in vitro. In addition, binding of PLCgamma occurred through tyrosine 866 (AGRpYVLCPST). Moreover, our in vivo data indicate that further direct or indirect binding sites for PLCgamma, GRB2, c-src and lck on the human Ufo receptor may exist.

  19. Aurora kinases: novel therapy targets in cancers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Anqun; Gao, Keyu; Chu, Laili; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Jing; Zheng, Junnian

    2017-01-29

    Aurora kinases, a family of serine/threonine kinases, consisting of Aurora A (AURKA), Aurora B (AURKB) and Aurora C (AURKC), are essential kinases for cell division via regulating mitosis especially the process of chromosomal segregation. Besides regulating mitosis, Aurora kinases have been implicated in regulating meiosis. The deletion of Aurora kinases could lead to failure of cell division and impair the embryonic development. Overexpression or gene amplification of Aurora kinases has been clarified in a number of cancers. And a growing number of studies have demonstrated that inhibition of Aurora kinases could potentiate the effect of chemotherapies. For the past decades, a series of Aurora kinases inhibitors (AKIs) developed effectively repress the progression and growth of many cancers both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that Aurora kinases could be a novel therapeutic target. In this review, we'll first briefly present the structure, localization and physiological functions of Aurora kinases in mitosis, then describe the oncogenic role of Aurora kinases in tumorigenesis, we shall finally discuss the outcomes of AKIs combination with conventional therapy.

  20. NAK is an IkappaB kinase-activating kinase.

    PubMed

    Tojima, Y; Fujimoto, A; Delhase, M; Chen, Y; Hatakeyama, S; Nakayama, K; Kaneko, Y; Nimura, Y; Motoyama, N; Ikeda, K; Karin, M; Nakanishi, M

    2000-04-13

    Phosphorylation of IkappaB by the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex is a critical step leading to IkappaB degradation and activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB. The IKK complex contains two catalytic subunits, IKKalpha and IKKbeta, the latter being indispensable for NF-kappaB activation by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although IKK is activated by phosphorylation of the IKKbeta activation loop, the physiological IKK kinases that mediate responses to extracellular stimuli remain obscure. Here we describe an IKK-related kinase, named NAK (NF-kappaB-activating kinase), that can activate IKK through direct phosphorylation. NAK induces IkappaB degradation and NF-kappaB activity through IKKbeta. Endogenous NAK is activated by phorbol ester tumour promoters and growth factors, whereas catalytically inactive NAK specifically inhibits activation of NF-kappaB by protein kinase C-epsilon (PKCepsilon). Thus, NAK is an IKK kinase that may mediate IKK and NF-kappaB activation in response to growth factors that stimulate PKCepsilon activity.

  1. The carboxy-terminal domains of erbB-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor exert different regulatory effects on intrinsic receptor tyrosine kinase function and transforming activity.

    PubMed Central

    Di Fiore, P P; Segatto, O; Lonardo, F; Fazioli, F; Pierce, J H; Aaronson, S A

    1990-01-01

    The erbB-2 gene product, gp185erbB-2, displays a potent transforming effect when overexpressed in NIH 3T3 cells. In addition, it possesses constitutively high levels of tyrosine kinase activity in the absence of exogenously added ligand. In this study, we demonstrate that its carboxy-terminal domain exerts an enhancing effect on erbB-2 kinase and transforming activities. A premature termination mutant of the erbB-2 protein, lacking the entire carboxy-terminal domain (erbB-2 delta 1050), showed a 40-fold reduction in transforming ability and a lowered in vivo kinase activity for intracellular substrates. When the carboxy-terminal domain of erbB-2 was substituted for its analogous region in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (EGFR/erbB-2COOH chimera), it conferred erbB-2-like properties to the EGFR, including transforming ability in the absence of epidermal growth factor, elevated constitutive autokinase activity in vivo and in vitro, and constitutive ability to phosphorylate phospholipase C-gamma. Conversely, a chimeric erbB-2 molecule bearing an EGFR carboxy-terminal domain (erbB-2/EGFRCOOH chimera) showed reduced transforming and kinase activity with respect to the wild-type erbB-2 and was only slightly more efficient than the erbB-2 delta 1050 mutant. Thus, we conclude that the carboxy-terminal domains of erbB-2 and EGFR exert different regulatory effects on receptor kinase function and biological activity. The up regulation of gp185erbB-2 enzymatic activity exerted by its carboxy-terminal domain can explain, at least in part, its constitutive level of kinase activity. Images PMID:2188097

  2. Aurora kinase inhibitors as anticancer molecules.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hiroshi; Sen, Subrata

    2010-01-01

    Aurora kinase family of serine/threonine kinases are important regulators of mitosis that are frequently over expressed in human cancers and have been implicated in oncogenic transformation including development of chromosomal instability in cancer cells. In humans, among the three members of the kinase family, Aurora-A, -B and -C, only Aurora-A and -B are expressed at detectable levels in all somatic cells undergoing mitotic cell division and have been characterized in greater detail for their involvement in cellular pathways relevant to the development of cancer associated phenotypes. Aurora-A and -B are being investigated as potential targets for anticancer therapy. Development of inhibitors against Aurora kinases as anticancer molecules gained attention because of the facts that aberrant expression of these kinases leads to chromosomal instability and derangement of multiple tumor suppressor and oncoprotein regulated pathways. Preclinical studies and early phase I and II clinical trials of multiple Aurora kinase inhibitors as targeted anticancer drugs have provided encouraging results. This article discusses functional involvement of Aurora kinase-A and -B in the regulation of cancer relevant cellular phenotypes together with findings on some of the better characterized Aurora kinase inhibitors in modulating the functional interactions of Aurora kinases. Future possibilities about developing next generation Aurora kinase inhibitors and their clinical utility as anticancer therapeutic drugs are also discussed.

  3. Aurora Kinase inhibitors as Anticancer Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Hiroshi; Sen, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Aurora kinase family of serine/threonine kinases are important regulators of mitosis that are frequently over expressed in human cancers and have been implicated in oncogenic transformation including development of chromosomal instability in cancer cells. In humans, among the three members of the kinase family, Aurora-A, -B and -C, only Aurora-A and -B are expressed in detectable levels in somatic cells undergoing mitotic cell division and have been characterized in greater detail for their involvement in cellular pathways relevant to the development of cancer associated phenotypes. Aurora-A and -B are being investigated as potential targets for anticancer therapy. Development of inhibitors against Aurora kinases as anticancer molecules gained attention because of the facts that aberrant expression of these kinases lead to chromosomal instability and derangement of multiple tumor suppressor and oncoprotein regulated pathways. Pre-clinical studies and early phase I and II clinical trials of multiple Aurora kinase inhibitors as targeted anticancer drugs have provided encouraging results. This article discusses functional involvement of Aurora kinase-A and -B in the regulation of cancer relevant cellular phenotypes together with findings on some of the better characterized Aurora kinase inhibitors in modulating the functional interactions of Aurora kinases. Future possibilities about developing next generation Aurora kinase inhibitors and their clinical utility as anticancer therapeutic drugs are also discussed. PMID:20863917

  4. MAP kinase and pain

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Gereau, Robert W.; Malcangio, Marzia; Strichartz, Gary R.

    2008-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important for intracellular signal transduction and play critical roles in regulating neural plasticity and inflammatory responses. The MAPK family consists of three major members: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which represent three separate signaling pathways. Accumulating evidence shows that all three MAPK pathways contribute to pain sensitization after tissue and nerve injury via distinct molecular and cellular mechanisms. Activation (phosphorylation) of MAPKs under different persistent pain conditions results in the induction and maintenance of pain hypersensitivity via non-transcriptional and transcriptional regulation. In particular, ERK activation in spinal cord dorsal horn neurons by nociceptive activity, via multiple neurotransmitter receptors, and using different second messenger pathways plays a critical role in central sensitization by regulating the activity of glutamate receptors and potassium channels and inducing gene transcription. ERK activation in amygdala neurons is also required for inflammatory pain sensitization. After nerve injury, ERK, p38, and JNK are differentially activated in spinal glial cells (microglia vs astrocytes), leading to the synthesis of proinflammatory/pronociceptive mediators, thereby enhancing and prolonging pain. Inhibition of all three MAPK pathways has been shown to attenuate inflammatory and neuropathic pain in different animal models. Development of specific inhibitors for MAPK pathways to target neurons and glial cells may lead to new therapies for pain management. Although it is well documented that MAPK pathways can increase pain sensitivity via peripheral mechanisms, this review will focus on central mechanisms of MAPKs, especially ERK. PMID:19150373

  5. Proteolytic susceptibility of creatine kinase isozymes and arginine kinase.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Altan; Grossman, Steven H

    2003-07-11

    The time course and dose-response to proteolysis of three dimeric isozymes of creatine kinase, CK-MM (muscle), CK-BB (brain), and CK-MB (heart) and the homologous monomer, arginine kinase were compared. Chymotrypsin and trypsin cause a rapid and significant loss of intact CK-BB, but limited hydrolysis of CK-MM. After 1h of hydrolysis by chymotrypsin, 80% of CK-MM is intact as judged by quantification of monomers after electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. While 50% of the intact monomers of CK-MB remain under these conditions, no CK-BB monomers are detected. These results indicate that treatment with chymotrypsin leads to a CK-MB devoid of the B-subunit. When treated with trypsin for 1h, CK-MM is totally resistant to hydrolysis and all CK-BB is highly degraded. However, CK-MB exhibits approximately 90% intact monomers, indicating survival of intact B-subunit in CK-MB. This suggests that heterodimerization of a B-subunit with an M-subunit may have a protective effect against hydrolysis by trypsin. In view of the considerably larger number of potentially tryptic sensitive sites on the muscle isozyme, the resistance of CK-MM and susceptibility of CK-BB dimers to trypsin implies that differences in subunit tertiary structure are a factor in proteolysis of the homodimeric isozymes. Arginine kinase is rapidly degraded by trypsin, but is minimally affected by chymotrypsin. The finding that both a monomeric (arginine kinase) and dimeric (CK-BB) phosphagen kinase are highly susceptible to proteolysis by trypsin indicates that quaternary structure is not, in and of itself, an advantage in resistance to proteolysis. Since both arginine kinase and muscle creatine kinase are resistant to chymotryptic hydrolysis, it seems unlikely that in general, the increased packing density, which may result from dimerization can account for the stability of CK-MM towards trypsin.

  6. Activation of the PAK-Related Kinase by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nef in Primary Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes and Macrophages Leads to Phosphorylation of a PIX-p95 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Amanda; Wang, Xia; Sawai, Earl; Cheng-Mayer, Cecilia

    1999-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef enhances virus replication in both primary T lymphocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. This enhancement phenotype has been linked to the ability of Nef to modulate the activity of cellular kinases. We find that despite the reported high-affinity interaction between Nef and the Src kinase Hck in vitro, a Nef-Hck interaction in the context of HIV-1-infected primary macrophages is not detectable. However, Nef binding and activation of the PAK-related kinase and phosphorylation of its substrate could be readily detected in both infected primary T lymphocytes and macrophages. Furthermore, we show that this substrate is a complex composed of the recently characterized PAK interacting partner PIX (PAK-interacting guanine nucleotide exchange factor) and its tightly associated p95 protein. PAK and PIX-p95 appear to be differentially activated and phosphorylated depending on the intracellular environment in which nef is expressed. These results identify the PIX-p95 complex as a novel effector of Nef in primary cells and suggest that the regulation of the PAK signaling pathway may differ in T cells and macrophages. PMID:10559302

  7. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  8. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate regulates CD3-mediated T cell receptor signaling in leukemia through the inhibition of ZAP-70 kinase.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jung-Hyun; Choi, Hong Seok; Pugliese, Angelo; Lee, Sung-Young; Chae, Jung-Il; Choi, Bu Young; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang

    2008-10-17

    The zeta chain-associated 70-kDa protein (ZAP-70) of tyrosine kinase plays a critical role in T cell receptor-mediated signal transduction and the immune response. A high level of ZAP-70 expression is observed in leukemia, which suggests ZAP-70 as a logical target for immunomodulatory therapies. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is one of the major green tea catechins that is suggested to have a role as a preventive agent in cancer, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Here we identified ZAP-70 as an important and novel molecular target of EGCG in leukemia cells. ZAP-70 and EGCG displayed high binding affinity (Kd = 0.6207 micromol/liter), and additional results revealed that EGCG effectively suppressed ZAP-70, linker for the activation of T cells, phospholipase Cgamma1, extracellular signaling-regulated kinase, and MAPK kinase activities in CD3-activated T cell leukemia. Furthermore, the activation of activator protein-1 and interleukin-2 induced by CD3 was dose-dependently inhibited by EGCG treatment. Notably, EGCG dose-dependently induced caspase-mediated apoptosis in P116.cl39 ZAP-70-expressing leukemia cells, whereas P116 ZAP-70-deficient cells were resistant to EGCG treatment. Molecular docking studies, supported by site-directed mutagenesis experiments, showed that EGCG could form a series of intermolecular hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions within the ATP binding domain, which may contribute to the stability of the ZAP-70-EGCG complex. Overall, these results strongly indicated that ZAP-70 activity was inhibited specifically by EGCG, which contributed to suppressing the CD3-mediated T cell-induced pathways in leukemia cells.

  9. Acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase.

    PubMed

    Ferry, James G

    2011-01-01

    Most of the methane produced in nature derives from the methyl group of acetate, the major end product of anaerobes decomposing complex plant material. The acetate is derived from the metabolic intermediate acetyl-CoA via the combined activities of phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase. In Methanosarcina species, the enzymes function in the reverse direction to activate acetate to acetyl-CoA prior to cleavage into a methyl and carbonyl group of which the latter is oxidized providing electrons for reduction of the former to methane. Thus, phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase have a central role in the conversion of complex organic matter to methane by anaerobic microbial food chains. Both enzymes have been purified from Methanosarcina thermophila and characterized. Both enzymes from M. thermophila have also been produced in Escherichia coli permitting crystal structures and amino acid variants, the kinetic and biochemical studies of which have lead to proposals for catalytic mechanisms. The high identity of both enzymes to paralogs in the domain Bacteria suggests ancient origins and common mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinase inhibitor profiling reveals unexpected opportunities to inhibit disease-associated mutant kinases

    PubMed Central

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C.; Devarajan, Karthik; Liang, Shuguang; Horiuchi, Kurumi Y.; Wang, Yuren; Ma, Haiching; Peterson, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Small-molecule kinase inhibitors have typically been designed to inhibit wild-type kinases rather than the mutant forms that frequently arise in diseases such as cancer. Mutations can have serious clinical implications by increasing kinase catalytic activity or conferring therapeutic resistance. To identify opportunities to repurpose inhibitors against disease-associated mutant kinases, we conducted a large-scale functional screen of 183 known kinase inhibitors against 76 recombinant, mutant kinases. The results revealed lead compounds with activity against clinically important mutant kinases including ALK, LRRK2, RET, and EGFR as well as unexpected opportunities for repurposing FDA-approved kinase inhibitors as leads for additional indications. Furthermore, using T674I PDGFRα as an example, we show how single-dose screening data can provide predictive structure-activity data to guide subsequent inhibitor optimization. This study provides a resource for the development of inhibitors against numerous disease-associated mutant kinases and illustrates the potential of unbiased profiling as an approach to compound-centric inhibitor development. PMID:26776524

  11. Bacteroides fragilis Enterotoxin Upregulates Heme Oxygenase-1 in Intestinal Epithelial Cells via a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase- and NF-κB-Dependent Pathway, Leading to Modulation of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Su Hyuk; Rho, Da Jeong; Jeon, Jong Ik; Kim, Young-Jeon; Woo, Hyun Ae; Lee, Yun Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin (BFT), a virulence factor of enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF), interacts with intestinal epithelial cells and can provoke signals that induce mucosal inflammation. Although expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is associated with regulation of inflammatory responses, little is known about HO-1 induction in ETBF infection. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of BFT on HO-1 expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Stimulation of intestinal epithelial cells with BFT resulted in upregulated expression of HO-1. BFT activated transcription factors such as NF-κB, AP-1, and Nrf2 in intestinal epithelial cells. Upregulation of HO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells was dependent on activated IκB kinase (IKK)–NF-κB signals. However, suppression of Nrf2 or AP-1 signals in intestinal epithelial cells did not result in significant attenuation of BFT-induced HO-1 expression. HO-1 induction via IKK–NF-κB in intestinal epithelial cells was regulated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Furthermore, suppression of HO-1 activity led to increased apoptosis in BFT-stimulated epithelial cells. These results suggest that a signaling pathway involving p38 MAPK–IKK–NF-κB in intestinal epithelial cells is required for HO-1 induction during exposure to BFT. Following this induction, increased HO-1 expression may regulate the apoptotic process in responses to BFT stimulation. PMID:27324483

  12. Palmitate-induced interleukin 6 production is mediated by protein kinase C and nuclear-factor kappaB activation and leads to glucose transporter 4 down-regulation in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mireia; Planavila, Anna; Laguna, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel

    2005-07-01

    The mechanisms by which elevated levels of free fatty acids cause insulin resistance are not well understood. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests a link between inflammation and type 2 diabetes. Here, we report that exposure of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells to 0.5 mm palmitate results in increased mRNA levels (3.5-fold induction; P < 0.05) and secretion (control 375 +/- 57 vs. palmitate 1129 +/- 177 pg/ml; P < 0.001) of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Palmitate increased nuclear factor-kappaB activation and coincubation of the cells with palmitate and the nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate prevented both IL-6 expression and secretion. Furthermore, incubation of palmitate-treated cells with calphostin C, a strong and specific inhibitor of protein kinase C, and phorbol myristate acetate, that down-regulates protein kinase C in long-term incubations, abolished induction of IL-6 production. Finally, exposure of skeletal muscle cells to palmitate caused a fall in the mRNA levels of glucose transporter 4 and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, whereas in the presence of anti-IL-6 antibody, which neutralizes the biological activity of mouse IL-6 in cell culture, these reductions were prevented. These findings suggest that IL-6 may mediate several of the prodiabetic effects of palmitate.

  13. Teaching resources. Protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Avrom

    2005-02-22

    This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes and slides for a class covering the structure and function of protein kinases and is part of the course "Cell Signaling Systems: A Course for Graduate Students." The lecture begins with a discussion of the genomics and evolutionary relationships among kinases and then proceeds to describe the structure-function relationships of specific kinases, the molecular mechanisms underlying substrate specificity, and selected issues in regulation of kinase activity.

  14. Two Kinase Family Dramas

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Thomas A.; Hurley, James H.

    2007-01-01

    In this issue, Lietha and colleagues (2007) report the structure of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and reveal how FAK maintains an autoinhibited state. Together with the structure of another tyrosine kinase, ZAP-70 (Deindl et al., 2007), this work highlights the diversity of mechanisms that nature has evolved within the kinase superfamily to regulate their activity through autoinhibition. PMID:17574014

  15. Lead Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (CSEM) Patient Information Sheet Lead Toxicity What is lead? How are people exposed to lead? • Lead is a soft, blue- ...

  16. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of lead in household dust. DRINKING WATER: Lead may get into drinking water when materials used in plumbing materials, such as ... and dishware. Lead may also be in contaminated water. Lead poisoning is harmful to human health and ...

  17. 3-aminopyrazolopyrazine derivatives as spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiayi; Li, Xiaokai; Zhang, Zhang; Luo, Jingfeng; Long, Huoyou; Tu, Zhengchao; Zhou, Xiaoping; Ding, Ke; Lu, Xiaoyun

    2016-11-01

    Spleen tyrosine kinase is a new promising target for drug discovery to treat human cancer and inflammatory disorders. A series of pyrazolopyrazine-3-amine and pyrazolopyrimidine-3-amine derivatives was designed and synthesized as new spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The efforts yielded compound 6h with promising spleen tyrosine kinase inhibition in both enzymatic and B-lymphoma cell proliferation assays. Additionally, compound 6h dose dependently inhibited the activation of spleen tyrosine kinase signal in human B-cell lymphoma cells. Compound 6h might serve as a lead for further development of new spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Targeting cancer with small-molecular-weight kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, Doriano; Cowan-Jacob, Sandra W; Möbitz, Henrik; Martiny-Baron, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Protein and lipid kinases fulfill essential roles in many signaling pathways that regulate normal cell functions. Deregulation of these kinase activities lead to a variety of pathologies ranging from cancer to inflammatory diseases, diabetes, infectious diseases, cardiovascular disorders, cell growth and survival. 518 protein kinases and about 20 lipid-modifying kinases are encoded by the human genome, and a much larger proportion of additional kinases are present in parasite, bacterial, fungal, and viral genomes that are susceptible to exploitation as drug targets. Since many human diseases result from overactivation of protein and lipid kinases due to mutations and/or overexpression, this enzyme class represents an important target for the pharmaceutical industry. Approximately one third of all protein targets under investigation in the pharmaceutical industry are protein or lipid kinases.The kinase inhibitors that have been launched, thus far, are mainly in oncology indications and are directed against a handful of protein and lipid kinases. With one exception, all of these registered kinase inhibitors are directed toward the ATP-site and display different selectivities, potencies, and pharmacokinetic properties. At present, about 150 kinase-targeted drugs are in clinical development and many more in various stages of preclinical development. Kinase inhibitor drugs that are in clinical trials target all stages of signal transduction from the receptor protein tyrosine kinases that initiate intracellular signaling, through second-messenger-dependent lipid and protein kinases, and protein kinases that regulate the cell cycle.This review provides an insight into protein and lipid kinase drug discovery with respect to achievements, binding modes of inhibitors, and novel avenues for the generation of second-generation kinase inhibitors to treat cancers.

  19. Modeled Microgravity-Induced Protein Kinase C Isoform Expression in Human Lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.

    2003-01-01

    In long-term space travel, the crew is exposed to microgravity and radiation that invoke potential hazards to the immune system. T cell activation is a critical step in the immune response. Receptor-mediated signaling is inhibited both in microgravity and modeled microgravity (MMG) as reflected in diminished DNA synthess in peripheral blood lymphocytes and their locomotion through gelled type 1 collagen. Direct activation of Protein Kinase C (PKC) bypassing cell surface events using the phorbol ester PMA rescues MMG-inhibited lymphocyte activation and locomotion, whereas calcium ionophore ionomycin had no rescue effect. Thus calcium-independent PKC isoforms may be affected in MMG-induced locomotion inhibition and rescue. Both calcium-dependent isoforms and calcium-independent PKC isoforms were investigated to assess their expression in lymphocytes in 19 and MMG-culture. Human lymphocytes were cultured and harvested at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours and serial samples assessed for locomotion using type I collagen and expression of PKC isoforms. Expression of PKC-alpha, -delta and -epsilon was assessed by RT-PCR, flow cytometry and immunoblotting. Results indicated that PKC isoforms delta and epsilon were down-regulated by more than 50% at the transcriptional and translational levels in MMG-cultured lymphocytes compared with 19 controls. Events upstream of PKC such as phosphorylation of Phospholipase C(gamma) (PLC-gamma) in MMG, revealed accumulation of inactive enzyme. Depressed Ca++ -independent PKC isoforms may be a consequence of an upstream lesion in the signal transduction pathway. The differential response among calcium-dependent and calcium-independent isoforms may actually result from MMG intrusion events earlier than, but after ligand-receptor interaction. Keywords: Signal transduction, locomotion, immunity

  20. Modeled microgravity-induced protein kinase C isoform expression in human lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.

    2004-01-01

    In long-term space travel, the crew is exposed to microgravity and radiation that invoke potential hazards to the immune system. T cell activation is a critical step in the immune response. Receptor-mediated signaling is inhibited in both microgravity and modeled microgravity (MMG) as reflected by diminished DNA synthesis in peripheral blood lymphocytes and their locomotion through gelled type I collagen. Direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC) bypassing cell surface events using the phorbol ester PMA rescues MMG-inhibited lymphocyte activation and locomotion, whereas the calcium ionophore ionomycin had no rescue effect. Thus calcium-independent PKC isoforms may be affected in MMG-induced locomotion inhibition and rescue. Both calcium-dependent isoforms and calcium-independent PKC isoforms were investigated to assess their expression in lymphocytes in 1 g and MMG culture. Human lymphocytes were cultured and harvested at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, and serial samples were assessed for locomotion by using type I collagen and expression of PKC isoforms. Expression of PKC-alpha, -delta, and -epsilon was assessed by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting. Results indicated that PKC isoforms delta and epsilon were downregulated by >50% at the transcriptional and translational levels in MMG-cultured lymphocytes compared with 1-g controls. Events upstream of PKC, such as phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma in MMG, revealed accumulation of inactive enzyme. Depressed calcium-independent PKC isoforms may be a consequence of an upstream lesion in the signal transduction pathway. The differential response among calcium-dependent and calcium-independent isoforms may actually result from MMG intrusion events earlier than PKC, but after ligand-receptor interaction.

  1. Modeled microgravity-induced protein kinase C isoform expression in human lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.

    2004-01-01

    In long-term space travel, the crew is exposed to microgravity and radiation that invoke potential hazards to the immune system. T cell activation is a critical step in the immune response. Receptor-mediated signaling is inhibited in both microgravity and modeled microgravity (MMG) as reflected by diminished DNA synthesis in peripheral blood lymphocytes and their locomotion through gelled type I collagen. Direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC) bypassing cell surface events using the phorbol ester PMA rescues MMG-inhibited lymphocyte activation and locomotion, whereas the calcium ionophore ionomycin had no rescue effect. Thus calcium-independent PKC isoforms may be affected in MMG-induced locomotion inhibition and rescue. Both calcium-dependent isoforms and calcium-independent PKC isoforms were investigated to assess their expression in lymphocytes in 1 g and MMG culture. Human lymphocytes were cultured and harvested at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, and serial samples were assessed for locomotion by using type I collagen and expression of PKC isoforms. Expression of PKC-alpha, -delta, and -epsilon was assessed by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting. Results indicated that PKC isoforms delta and epsilon were downregulated by >50% at the transcriptional and translational levels in MMG-cultured lymphocytes compared with 1-g controls. Events upstream of PKC, such as phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma in MMG, revealed accumulation of inactive enzyme. Depressed calcium-independent PKC isoforms may be a consequence of an upstream lesion in the signal transduction pathway. The differential response among calcium-dependent and calcium-independent isoforms may actually result from MMG intrusion events earlier than PKC, but after ligand-receptor interaction.

  2. The Effects of Early Life Lead Exposure on the Expression of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor in the Hippocampus of Mouse Pups.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Qiao, MingWu; Zhang, PingAn; Li, Xing; Li, Li; Yu, ZengLi

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of maternal lead exposure on expression of GSK-3β and IGF1R in the hippocampus of mice offspring. Lead exposure initiated from beginning of gestation to weaning. Lead acetate administered in drinking solutions was dissolved in distilled deionized water at the concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 1%, respectively. On the 21st postnatal day, the Pb levels were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The expression of GSK-3β and IGF1R in hippocampus was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The lead levels in blood and hippocampus of all lead exposure groups were significantly higher than those of the control group (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the expression of GSK-3β was increased in lead-exposed groups (P < 0.05), but the expression of IGF1R was decreased (P < 0.05). The high expression of GSK-3β and low expression of IGF1R in the hippocampus of pups may contribute to the neurotoxicity associated with maternal Pb exposure.

  3. Mnk kinase pathway: Cellular functions and biological outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sonali; Platanias, Leonidas C

    2014-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) interacting protein kinases 1 and 2 (Mnk1 and Mnk2) play important roles in controlling signals involved in mRNA translation. In addition to the MAPKs (p38 or Erk), multiple studies suggest that the Mnk kinases can be regulated by other known kinases such as Pak2 and/or other unidentified kinases by phosphorylation of residues distinct from the sites phosphorylated by the MAPKs. Several studies have established multiple Mnk protein targets, including PSF, heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, Sprouty 2 and have lead to the identification of distinct biological functions and substrate specificity for the Mnk kinases. In this review we discuss the pathways regulating the Mnk kinases, their known substrates as well as the functional consequences of engagement of pathways controlled by Mnk kinases. These kinases play an important role in mRNA translation via their regulation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and their functions have important implications in tumor biology as well as the regulation of drug resistance to anti-oncogenic therapies. Other studies have identified a role for the Mnk kinases in cap-independent mRNA translation, suggesting that the Mnk kinases can exert important functional effects independently of the phosphorylation of eIF4E. The role of Mnk kinases in inflammation and inflammation-induced malignancies is also discussed. PMID:25225600

  4. Protein Kinases and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anna M.; Messing, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    Although drugs of abuse have different chemical structures and interact with different protein targets, all appear to usurp common neuronal systems that regulate reward and motivation. Addiction is a complex disease that is thought to involve drug-induced changes in synaptic plasticity due to alterations in cell signaling, gene transcription, and protein synthesis. Recent evidence suggests that drugs of abuse interact with and change a common network of signaling pathways that include a subset of specific protein kinases. The best studied of these kinases are reviewed here and include extracellular signal-regulated kinase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5, protein kinase C, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and Fyn tyrosine kinase. These kinases have been implicated in various aspects of drug addiction including acute drug effects, drug self-administration, withdrawal, reinforcement, sensitization, and tolerance. Identifying protein kinase substrates and signaling pathways that contribute to the addicted state may provide novel approaches for new pharma-cotherapies to treat drug addiction. PMID:18991950

  5. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 7 Controls mRNA Synthesis by Affecting Stability of Preinitiation Complexes, Leading to Altered Gene Expression, Cell Cycle Progression, and Survival of Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kelso, Timothy W. R.; Baumgart, Karen; Eickhoff, Jan; Albert, Thomas; Antrecht, Claudia; Lemcke, Sarah; Klebl, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) activates cell cycle CDKs and is a member of the general transcription factor TFIIH. Although there is substantial evidence for an active role of CDK7 in mRNA synthesis and associated processes, the degree of its influence on global and gene-specific transcription in mammalian species is unclear. In the current study, we utilize two novel inhibitors with high specificity for CDK7 to demonstrate a restricted but robust impact of CDK7 on gene transcription in vivo and in in vitro-reconstituted reactions. We distinguish between relative low- and high-dose responses and relate them to distinct molecular mechanisms and altered physiological responses. Low inhibitor doses cause rapid clearance of paused RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) molecules and sufficed to cause genome-wide alterations in gene expression, delays in cell cycle progression at both the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints, and diminished survival of human tumor cells. Higher doses and prolonged inhibition led to strong reductions in RNAPII carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) phosphorylation, eventual activation of the p53 program, and increased cell death. Together, our data reason for a quantitative contribution of CDK7 to mRNA synthesis, which is critical for cellular homeostasis. PMID:25047832

  6. Up-regulation of Tight-Junction Proteins by p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase/p53 Inhibition Leads to a Reduction of Injury to the Intestinal Mucosal Barrier in Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jun; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Zhou, Yue-Xian; Niu, Wan-Cheng; Zhou, Feng; Shen, Chang-Bing; Chen, Ren-Guo; Li, Xi

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)/p53 signaling pathway in injury to the intestinal mucosal barrier during severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Both sham operation and SAP groups had 3 subgroups analyzed 3, 6, or 12 hours after the SAP induction. The concentrations of amylase, endotoxin, diamine oxidase, tumor necrosis factor α, and phospho-p38MAPK, p53, and caspase-3 and the messenger RNA levels of zonula occludens protein-1 and occludin in the intestine were measured. Immunohistochemical staining was used to determine the expression of zonula occludens protein-1 and occludin. Pathological changes of the pancreas and intestine were also assessed. Then, rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups-sham operation group, SAP group, 3 groups treated with different concentrations of p38MAPK-inhibitor SB203580-and the abovementioned experiment was repeated and analyzed 6 hours after the SAP induction. The phospho-p38MAPK reached a peak value at 6 hours after the SAP induction with obvious pathological injury to the pancreas and intestine. Treatment with SB203580 led to a less damage to the pancreatic and intestinal tissues. These results suggest that SAP activates the p38MAPK/p53 signaling pathway and induces injury to the intestinal mucosal barrier, which can be alleviated by inhibiting the p38MAPK/p53 pathway.

  7. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  8. NDP kinase reactivity towards 3TC nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Kreimeyer, A; Schneider, B; Sarfati, R; Faraj, A; Sommadossi, J P; Veron, M; Deville-Bonne, D

    2001-05-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is usually considered as the enzyme responsible for the last step of the cellular phosphorylation pathway leading to the synthesis of biologically active triphospho-derivatives of nucleoside analogs used in antiviral therapies and in particular in the treatment of AIDS. NDP kinase lacks specificity for the nucleobase and can use as substrate both ribo- or 2'-deoxyribonucleotides. However, only nucleoside analogs with a sugar moiety in the D-configuration (e.g. 3'-deoxy-3'-azidothymidine (AZT), 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (d4T)) have so far been analyzed as substrates of NDP kinase. In contrast, beta-L-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC), also called lamivudine, is a nucleoside analog that is now widely used in AIDS therapy and has a sugar moiety in the L-configuration. Using protein fluorescence to monitor the phosphotransfer between the enzyme and the nucleotide derivative at the presteady state, we have studied the reactivity of 3TC triphosphate and of other L-dideoxynucleotides with NDP kinase. We found that L-dideoxynucleoside triphosphates have a poor affinity for NDP kinase and that the catalytic efficiency of the phosphorylation of L-dideoxyderivatives is very low as compared with their D-enantiomers. We discuss these results using a computer model of 3TC diphosphate bound to the NDP kinase active site. NDP kinase may not seem to be the major enzyme phosphorylating 3TC-DP, in contrast to current opinion.

  9. UV activation of receptor tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Coffer, P J; Burgering, B M; Peppelenbosch, M P; Bos, J L; Kruijer, W

    1995-08-03

    The exposure of mammalian cells to ultraviolet radiation (UV) may lead to DNA damage resulting in mutation and thus possibly cancer, while irradiation can further act as a potent tumor promoter. In addition UV induces p21ras-mediated signalling leading to activation of transcription factors such as AP-1 and NF-kappa B, as well as activation of the Src tyrosine kinase. This 'UV-response' has been well studied in mammalian cells and furthermore is conserved in yeast, however the most upstream components of this signal transduction pathway have remained elusive. Here we show that UV rapidly activates both the EGF receptor and insulin receptor, as shown by tyrosine phosphorylation of these receptors. We demonstrate that this activation is due to autophosphorylation as it only occurs in cells containing receptors with a functional kinase domain. We have further analysed the propagation of the UV-induced signal to downstream events such as, IRS-1 and Shc tyrosine phosphorylation, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation, leukotriene synthesis, MAP kinase activation and gene induction all of which are activated by UV irradiation. Importantly, we demonstrate that in cells expressing a 'kinase-dead' receptor mutant the UV-response is inhibited, blocking leukotriene synthesis, MAP kinase activation and transcriptional induction. Furthermore, prior-stimulation of cells with UV appears to reduce further responsiveness to addition of growth factor suggesting a common signaling pathway. These data demonstrate a critical role for receptor-mediated events in regulating the response mammalian cells to UV exposure.

  10. Suppression of extracellular signal-related kinase and activation of p38 MAPK are two critical events leading to caspase-8- and mitochondria-mediated cell death in phytosphingosine-treated human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Moon-Taek; Choi, Jung-A; Kim, Min-Jeong; Um, Hong-Duck; Bae, Sangwoo; Kang, Chang-Mo; Cho, Chul-Koo; Kang, Seongman; Chung, Hee Yong; Lee, Yun-Sil; Lee, Su-Jae

    2003-12-12

    We previously demonstrated that the phytosphingosine-induced apoptosis was accompanied by the concomitant induction of both the caspase-8-mediated and mitochondrial activation-mediated apoptosis pathways. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the activation of these two distinct cell death pathways induced by phytosphingosine in human cancer cells. Phytosphingosine caused strong induction of caspase-8 activity and caspase-independent Bax translocation to the mitochondria. A rapid decrease of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and a marked increase of p38 MAPK phosphorylation were observed within 10 min after phytosphingosine treatment. Activation of ERK1/2 by pretreatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or forced expression of ERK1/2 attenuated phytosphingosine-induced caspase-8 activation. However, Bax translocation and caspase-9 activation was unaffected, indicating that down-regulation of the ERK activity is specifically required for the phytosphingosine-induced caspase-8-dependent cell death pathway. On the other hand, treatment with SB203580, a p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor, or expression of a dominant negative form of p38 MAPK suppressed phytosphingosine-induced translocation of the proapoptotic protein, Bax, from the cytosol to mitochondria, cytochrome c release, and subsequent caspase-9 activation but did not affect caspase-8 activation, indicating that activation of p38 MAPK is involved in the mitochondrial activation-mediated cell death pathway. Our results suggest that phytosphingosine can utilize two different MAPK signaling pathways for amplifying the apoptosis cascade, enhancing the understanding of the molecular mechanisms utilized by naturally occurring metabolites to regulate cell death. Molecular dissection of the signaling pathways that activate the apoptotic cell death machinery is critical for both our understanding of cell death events and development of cancer therapeutic agents.

  11. let-7 Overexpression Leads to an Increased Fraction of Cells in G2/M, Direct Down-regulation of Cdc34, and Stabilization of Wee1 Kinase in Primary Fibroblasts*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Legesse-Miller, Aster; Elemento, Olivier; Pfau, Sarah J.; Forman, Joshua J.; Tavazoie, Saeed; Coller, Hilary A.

    2009-01-01

    microRNAs play a critically important role in a wide array of biological processes including those implicated in cancer, neuro-degenerative and metabolic disorders, and viral infection. Although we have begun to understand microRNA biogenesis and function, experimental demonstration of their functional effects and the molecular mechanisms by which they function remains a challenge. Members of the let-7/miR-98 family play a critical role in cell cycle control with respect to differentiation and tumorigenesis. In this study, we show that exogenous addition of pre-let-7 in primary human fibroblasts results in a decrease in cell number and an increased fraction of cells in the G2/M cell cycle phase. Combining microarray techniques with DNA sequence analysis to identify potential let-7 targets, we discovered 838 genes with a let-7 binding site in their 3′-untranslated region that were down-regulated upon overexpression of let-7b. Among these genes is cdc34, the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme of the Skp1/cullin/F-box (SCF) complex. Cdc34 protein levels are strongly down-regulated by let-7 overexpression. Reporter assays demonstrated direct regulation of the cdc34 3′-untranslated region by let-7. We hypothesized that low Cdc34 levels would result in decreased SCF activity, stabilization of the SCF target Wee1, and G2/M accumulation. Consistent with this hypothesis, small interfering RNA-mediated down-regulation of Wee1 reversed the G2/M phenotype induced by let-7 overexpression. We conclude that Cdc34 is a functional target of let-7 and that let-7 induces down-regulation of Cdc34, stabilization of the Wee1 kinase, and an increased fraction of cells in G2/M in primary fibroblasts. PMID:19126550

  12. Activation of platelet-activating factor receptor-coupled G alpha q leads to stimulation of Src and focal adhesion kinase via two separate pathways in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Deo, Dayanand D; Bazan, Nicolas G; Hunt, Jay D

    2004-01-30

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a phospholipid second messenger, has diverse physiological functions, including responses in differentiated endothelial cells to external stimuli. We used human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model system. We show that PAF activated pertussis toxin-insensitive G alpha(q) protein upon binding to its seven transmembrane receptor. Elevated cAMP levels were observed via activation of adenylate cyclase, which activated protein kinase A (PKA) and was attenuated by a PAF receptor antagonist, blocking downstream activity. Phosphorylation of Src by PAF required G alpha(q) protein and adenylate cyclase activation; there was an absolute requirement of PKA for PAF-induced Src phosphorylation. Immediate (1 min) PAF-induced STAT-3 phosphorylation required the activation of G alpha(q) protein, adenylate cyclase, and PKA, and was independent of these intermediates at delayed (30 min) and prolonged (60 min) PAF exposure. PAF activated PLC beta 3 through its G alpha(q) protein-coupled receptor, whereas activation of phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) by PAF was independent of G proteins but required the involvement of Src at prolonged PAF exposure (60 min). We demonstrate for the first time in vascular endothelial cells: (i) the involvement of signaling intermediates in the PAF-PAF receptor system in the induction of TIMP2 and MT1-MMP expression, resulting in the coordinated proteolytic activation of MMP2, and (ii) a receptor-mediated signal transduction cascade for the tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK by PAF. PAF exposure induced binding of p130(Cas), Src, SHC, and paxillin to FAK. Clearly, PAF-mediated signaling in differentiated endothelial cells is critical to endothelial cell functions, including cell migration and proteolytic activation of MMP2.

  13. GIPC and GAIP form a complex with TrkA: a putative link between G protein and receptor tyrosine kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Lou, X; Yano, H; Lee, F; Chao, M V; Farquhar, M G

    2001-03-01

    NGF initiates the majority of its neurotrophic effects by promoting the activation of the tyrosine kinase receptor TrkA. Here we describe a novel interaction between TrkA and GIPC, a PDZ domain protein. GIPC binds to the juxtamembrane region of TrkA through its PDZ domain. The PDZ domain of GIPC also interacts with GAIP, an RGS (regulators of G protein signaling) protein. GIPC and GAIP are components of a G protein-coupled signaling complex thought to be involved in vesicular trafficking. In transfected HEK 293T cells GIPC, GAIP, and TrkA form a coprecipitable protein complex. Both TrkA and GAIP bind to the PDZ domain of GIPC, but their binding sites within the PDZ domain are different. The association of endogenous GIPC with the TrkA receptor was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation in PC12 (615) cells stably expressing TrkA. By immunofluorescence GIPC colocalizes with phosphorylated TrkA receptors in retrograde transport vesicles located in the neurites and cell bodies of differentiated PC12 (615) cells. These results suggest that GIPC, like other PDZ domain proteins, serves to cluster transmembrane receptors with signaling molecules. When GIPC is overexpressed in PC12 (615) cells, NGF-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (Erk1/2) decreases; however, there is no effect on phosphorylation of Akt, phospholipase C-gamma1, or Shc. The association of TrkA receptors with GIPC and GAIP plus the inhibition of MAP kinase by GIPC suggests that GIPC may provide a link between TrkA and G protein signaling pathways.

  14. Novel pathway in Bcr-Abl signal transduction involves Akt-independent, PLC-gamma1-driven activation of mTOR/p70S6-kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Markova, B; Albers, C; Breitenbuecher, F; Melo, J V; Brümmendorf, T H; Heidel, F; Lipka, D; Duyster, J; Huber, C; Fischer, T

    2010-02-04

    In chronic myeloid leukemia, activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is crucial for survival and proliferation of leukemic cells. Essential downstream molecules involve mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S6-kinase. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the molecular events involved in activation of these key signaling pathways. We provide evidence for a previously unrecognized phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1)-controlled mechanism of mTOR/p70S6-kinase activation, which operates in parallel to the classical Akt-dependent machinery. Short-term imatinib treatment of Bcr-Abl-positive cells caused dephosphorylation of p70S6-K and S6-protein without inactivation of Akt. Suppression of Akt activity alone did not affect phosphorylation of p70-S6K and S6. These results suggested the existence of an alternative mechanism for mTOR/p70S6-K activation. In Bcr-Abl-expressing cells, we detected strong PLC-gamma1 activation, which was suppressed by imatinib. Pharmacological inhibition and siRNA knockdown of PLC-gamma1 blocked p70S6-K and S6 phosphorylation. By inhibiting the Ca-signaling, CaMK and PKCs we demonstrated participation of these molecules in the pathway. Suppression of PLC-gamma1 led to inhibition of cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. The novel pathway proved to be essential for survival and proliferation of leukemic cells and almost complete cell death was observed upon combined PLC-gamma1 and Bcr-Abl inhibition. The pivotal role of PLC-gamma1 was further confirmed in a mouse leukemogenesis model.

  15. The C-terminus of the kinase-defective neuregulin receptor ErbB-3 confers mitogenic superiority and dictates endocytic routing.

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, H; Alroy, I; Strano, S; Seger, R; Yarden, Y

    1999-01-01

    Signaling by the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family and the neuregulin group of ligands is mediated by four ErbB receptor tyrosine kinases, that form homo- and heterodimeric complexes. Paradoxically, the neuregulin receptor ErbB-3 is devoid of catalytic activity, but its heterodimerization with other ErbBs, particularly the ligand-less ErbB-2 oncoprotein of carcinomas, reconstitutes superior mitogenic and transforming activities. To understand the underlying mechanism we constructed a chimeric EGF-receptor (ErbB-1) whose autophosphorylation C-terminal domain was replaced by the corresponding portion of ErbB-3. Consistent with the possibility that this domain recruits a relatively potent signaling pathway(s), the mitogenic signals generated by the recombinant fusion protein were superior to those generated by ErbB-1 homodimers and comparable to the proliferative activity of ErbB-2/ErbB-3 heterodimers. Upon ligand binding, the chimeric receptor recruited an ErbB-3-specific repertoire of signaling proteins, including Shc and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, but excluding the ErbB-1-specific substrate, phospholipase Cgamma1. Unlike ErbB-1, which is destined to lysosomal degradation through a mechanism that includes recruitment of c-Cbl and receptor poly-ubiquitination, the C-terminal tail of ErbB-3 shunted the chimeric protein to the ErbB-3-characteristic recycling pathway. These observations attribute the mitogenic superiority of ErbB-3 to its C-terminal tail and imply that the flanking kinase domain has lost catalytic activity in order to restrain the relatively potent signaling capability of the C-terminus. PMID:10369675

  16. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  17. Protein Kinase Activity of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Regulates Cytokine-Dependent Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Green, Benjamin D.; Barry, Emma F.; Ma, Yuefang; Woodcock, Joanna; Fitter, Stephen; Zannettino, Andrew C. W.; Pitson, Stuart M.; Hughes, Timothy P.; Lopez, Angel F.; Shepherd, Peter R.; Wei, Andrew H.; Ekert, Paul G.; Guthridge, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The dual specificity protein/lipid kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), promotes growth factor-mediated cell survival and is frequently deregulated in cancer. However, in contrast to canonical lipid-kinase functions, the role of PI3K protein kinase activity in regulating cell survival is unknown. We have employed a novel approach to purify and pharmacologically profile protein kinases from primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells that phosphorylate serine residues in the cytoplasmic portion of cytokine receptors to promote hemopoietic cell survival. We have isolated a kinase activity that is able to directly phosphorylate Ser585 in the cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin 3 (IL-3) and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptors and shown it to be PI3K. Physiological concentrations of cytokine in the picomolar range were sufficient for activating the protein kinase activity of PI3K leading to Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival but did not activate PI3K lipid kinase signaling or promote proliferation. Blockade of PI3K lipid signaling by expression of the pleckstrin homology of Akt1 had no significant impact on the ability of picomolar concentrations of cytokine to promote hemopoietic cell survival. Furthermore, inducible expression of a mutant form of PI3K that is defective in lipid kinase activity but retains protein kinase activity was able to promote Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival in the absence of cytokine. Blockade of p110α by RNA interference or multiple independent PI3K inhibitors not only blocked Ser585 phosphorylation in cytokine-dependent cells and primary human AML blasts, but also resulted in a block in survival signaling and cell death. Our findings demonstrate a new role for the protein kinase activity of PI3K in phosphorylating the cytoplasmic tail of the GM-CSF and IL-3 receptors to selectively regulate cell survival highlighting the importance of targeting such pathways in

  18. Homo- and heterodimerization of ROCO kinases: LRRK2 kinase inhibition by the LRRK2 ROCO fragment.

    PubMed

    Klein, Christian L; Rovelli, Giorgio; Springer, Wolfdieter; Schall, Christoph; Gasser, Thomas; Kahle, Philipp J

    2009-11-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of autosomal-dominant familial and late-onset sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 is a large multi-domain protein featuring a GTP-binding C-terminal of Ras of complex proteins (ROC) (ROCO) domain combination unique for the ROCO protein family, directly followed by a kinase domain. Dimerization is a well-established phenomenon among protein kinases. Here, we confirm LRRK2 self-interaction, and provide evidence for general homo- and heterodimerization potential among the ROCO kinase family (LRRK2, LRRK1, and death-associated protein kinase 1). The ROCO domain was critically, though not exclusively involved in dimerization, as a LRRK2 deletion mutant lacking the ROCO domain retained dimeric properties. GTP binding did not appear to influence ROCO(LRRK2) self-interaction. Interestingly, ROCO(LRRK2) fragments exerted an inhibitory effect on both wild-type and the elevated G2019S LRRK2 autophosphorylation activity. Insertion of PD mutations into ROCO(LRRK2) reduced self-interaction and led to a reduction of LRRK2 kinase inhibition. Collectively, these results suggest a functional link between ROCO interactions and kinase activity of wild-type and mutant LRRK2. Importantly, our finding of ROCO(LRRK2) fragment-mediated LRRK2 kinase inhibition offers a novel lead for drug design and thus might have important implications for new therapeutic avenues in PD.

  19. Mevalonate kinase deficiency: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Favier, Leslie A; Schulert, Grant S

    2016-01-01

    Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is a recessively inherited autoinflammatory disorder with a spectrum of manifestations, including the well-defined clinical phenotypes of hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome and mevalonic aciduria. Patients with MKD have recurrent attacks of hyperinflammation associated with fever, abdominal pain, arthralgias, and mucocutaneous lesions, and more severely affected patients also have dysmorphisms and central nervous system anomalies. MKD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding mevalonate kinase, with the degree of residual enzyme activity largely determining disease severity. Mevalonate kinase is essential for the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids, which mediate protein prenylation. Although the precise pathogenesis of MKD remains unclear, increasing evidence suggests that deficiency in protein prenylation leads to innate immune activation and systemic hyperinflammation. Given the emerging understanding of MKD as an autoinflammatory disorder, recent treatment approaches have largely focused on cytokine-directed biologic therapy. Herein, we review the current genetic and pathologic understanding of MKD, its various clinical phenotypes, and the evolving treatment approach for this multifaceted disorder. PMID:27499643

  20. The erbB-2 mitogenic signaling pathway: tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma and GTPase-activating protein does not correlate with erbB-2 mitogenic potency.

    PubMed Central

    Fazioli, F; Kim, U H; Rhee, S G; Molloy, C J; Segatto, O; Di Fiore, P P

    1991-01-01

    The erbB-2 gene product, gp185erbB-2, unlike the structurally related epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR), exhibits constitutive kinase and transforming activity. We used a chimeric EGFR/erbB-2 expression vector to compare the mitogenic signaling pathway of the erbB-2 kinase with that of the EGFR, at similar levels of expression, in response to EGF stimulation. The EGFR/erbB-2 chimera was significantly more active in inducing DNA synthesis than the EGFR when either was expressed in NIH 3T3 cells. Analysis of biochemical pathways implicated in signal transduction by growth factor receptors indicated that both phospholipase C type gamma (PLC-gamma) and the p21ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP) are substrates for the erbB-2 kinase in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. However, under conditions in which activation of the erbB-2 kinase induced DNA synthesis at least fivefold more efficiently than the EGFR, the levels of erbB-2- or EGFR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma and GAP were comparable. In addition, the stoichiometry of tyrosine phosphorylation of these putative substrates by erbB-2 appeared to be at least an order of magnitude lower than that induced by platelet-derived growth factor receptors at comparable levels of mitogenic potency. Thus, our results indicate that differences in tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma and GAP do not account for the differences in mitogenic activity of the erbB-2 kinase compared with either the EGFR or platelet-derived growth factor receptor in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Images PMID:1672440

  1. Lead Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the condition. Children should also be assessed for iron deficiency and general nutrition consistent with AAP guidelines. BLLs ... raised blood lead concentrations should be tested for iron deficiency . Each person eliminates lead differently. Thus, laboratory tests ...

  2. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... through deteriorating paint, household dust, bare soil, air, drinking water, food, ceramics, home remedies, hair dyes and other ... an elevated blood lead level can easily result. Drinking water can also sometimes contribute to elevated blood lead ...

  3. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mirshafiey, Abbas; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Asghari, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are essential components of signal transduction pathways that mediate cell-to-cell communication and their function as relay points for signaling pathways. They have a key role in numerous processes that control cellular proliferation and differentiation, regulate cell growth and cellular metabolism, and promote cell survival and apoptosis. Recently, the role of RTKs including TCR, FLT-3, c-Kit, c-Fms, PDGFR, ephrin, neurotrophin receptor, and TAM receptor in autoimmune disorder, especially rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis has been suggested. In multiple sclerosis pathogenesis, RTKs and their tyrosine kinase enzymes are selective important targets for tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) agents. TKIs, compete with the ATP binding site of the catalytic domain of several tyrosine kinases, and act as small molecules that have a favorable safety profile in disease treatment. Up to now, the efficacy of TKIs in numerous animal models of MS has been demonstrated, but application of these drugs in human diseases should be tested in future clinical trials. PMID:25337443

  4. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition: An Approach to Drug Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitzki, Alexander; Gazit, Aviv

    1995-03-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulate cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and signaling processes in the cells of the immune system. Uncontrolled signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases and intracellular tyrosine kinases can lead to inflammatory responses and to diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and psoriasis. Thus, inhibitors that block the activity of tyrosine kinases and the signaling pathways they activate may provide a useful basis for drug development. This article summarizes recent progress in the development of PTK inhibitors and demonstrates their potential use in the treatment of disease.

  5. [Tyrosine kinase inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Robert, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    Membrane receptors with tyrosine kinase activity and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases have emerged as important potential targets in oncology. Starting from basic structures such as anilino-quinazoline, numerous compounds have been synthesised, with the help of tyrosine kinase crystallography, which has allowed to optimise protein-ligand interactions. The catalytic domains of all kinases present similar three-dimensional structures, which explains that it may be difficult to identify molecules having a high specificity for a given tyrosine kinase. Some tyrosine kinase inhibitors are relatively specific for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) such as géfitinib and erlotinib; other are mainly active against platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and the receptor KIT, such as imatinib or nilotinib, and other against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors involved in angiogenesis, such as sunitinib and sorafenib. The oral formulation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors is well accepted by the patients but may generate sometimes compliance problems requiring pharmacokinetic monitoring. This chemical family is in full expansion and several dozens of compounds have entered clinical trials.

  6. AKAP-Lbc nucleates a protein kinase D activation scaffold.

    PubMed

    Carnegie, Graeme K; Smith, F Donelson; McConnachie, George; Langeberg, Lorene K; Scott, John D

    2004-09-24

    The transmission of cellular signals often proceeds through multiprotein complexes where enzymes are positioned in proximity to their upstream activators and downstream substrates. In this report we demonstrate that the A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP-Lbc assembles an activation complex for the lipid-dependent enzyme protein kinase D (PKD). Using a combination of biochemical, enzymatic, and immunofluorescence techniques, we show that the anchoring protein contributes to PKD activation in two ways: it recruits an upstream kinase PKCeta and coordinates PKA phosphorylation events that release activated protein kinase D. Thus, AKAP-Lbc synchronizes PKA and PKC activities in a manner that leads to the activation of a third kinase. This configuration illustrates the utility of kinase anchoring as a mechanism to constrain the action of broad-spectrum enzymes.

  7. Exploring Missense Mutations in Tyrosine Kinases Implicated with Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Sami, Neha; Kumar, Vijay; Islam, Asimul; Ali, Sher; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Imtaiyaz

    2017-09-01

    Protein kinases are one of the largest families of evolutionarily related proteins and the third most common protein class of human genome. All the protein kinases share the same structural organization. They are made up of an extracellular domain, transmembrane domain and an intra cellular kinase domain. Missense mutations in these kinases have been studied extensively and correlated with various neurological disorders. Individual mutations in the kinase domain affect the functions of protein. The enhanced or reduced expression of protein leads to hyperactivation or inactivation of the signalling pathways, resulting in neurodegeneration. Here, we present extensive analyses of missense mutations in the tyrosine kinase focussing on the neurodegenerative diseases encompassing structure function relationship. This is envisaged to enhance our understanding about the neurodegeneration and possible therapeutic measures.

  8. Lead Pencils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, L. B.

    1971-01-01

    A study, undertaken to determine the lead content of paint on various pencils in the Goddard supply system, is reported. The survey found that lead content varied from .04 mg per pencil for carmine colored pencils to approximately 43 mg per pencil for yellow colored pencils. Results also show that yellow pencils had higher lead content than other colors analyzed. More detailed results are given in tabular form.

  9. RAF protein-serine/threonine kinases: Structure and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors block MEK activation in cells containing oncogenic B-RAF. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors can lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity. -- Abstract: A-RAF, B-RAF, and C-RAF are a family of three protein-serine/threonine kinases that participate in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade. This cascade participates in the regulation of a large variety of processes including apoptosis, cell cycle progression, differentiation, proliferation, and transformation to the cancerous state. RAS mutations occur in 15-30% of all human cancers, and B-RAF mutations occur in 30-60% of melanomas, 30-50% of thyroid cancers, and 5-20% of colorectal cancers. Activation of the RAF kinases requires their interaction with RAS-GTP along with dephosphorylation and also phosphorylation by SRC family protein-tyrosine kinases and other protein-serine/threonine kinases. The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. RAF kinase inhibitors are effective in blocking MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation in cells containing the oncogenic B-RAF Val600Glu activating mutation. RAF kinase inhibitors lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity in cells containing wild-type B-RAF and wild-type or activated mutant RAS. C-RAF plays a key role in this paradoxical increase in downstream MEK-ERK activation.

  10. Bharangin, a Diterpenoid Quinonemethide, Abolishes Constitutive and Inducible Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) Activation by Modifying p65 on Cysteine 38 Residue and Reducing Inhibitor of Nuclear Factor-κB α Kinase Activation, Leading to Suppression of NF-κB-Regulated Gene Expression and Sensitization of Tumor Cells to Chemotherapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Subash C.; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Kim, Jihye; Rahman, Ghazi M.; Francis, Sajin K.; Raveendran, Reshma; Nair, Mangalam S.; Das, Joydip

    2011-01-01

    Although inflammatory pathways have been linked with various chronic diseases including cancer, identification of an agent that can suppress these pathways has therapeutic potential. Herein we describe the identification of a novel compound bharangin, a diterpenoid quinonemethide that can suppress pro-inflammatory pathways specifically. We found that bharangin suppresses nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation induced by pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor promoter, cigarette smoke, and endotoxin. Inhibition of NF-κB activation was mediated through the suppression of phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (IκBα); inhibition of IκBα kinase activation; and suppression of p65 nuclear translocation, and phosphorylation. The diterpenoid inhibited binding of p65 to DNA. A reducing agent reversed the inhibitory effect, and mutation of the Cys38 of p65 to serine abrogated the effect of bharangin on p65-DNA binding. Molecular docking revealed strong interaction of the ligand with the p65 via two hydrogen bonds one with Lys37 (2.204 Å) and another with Cys38 (2.023 Å). The inhibitory effect of bharangin on NF-κB activation was specific, inasmuch as binding of activator protein-1 and octameric transcription factor 1 to DNA was not affected. Suppression of NF-κB activation by this diterpenoid caused the down-regulation of the expression of proteins involved in tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis, leading to potentiation of apoptosis, suppression of proliferation, and invasion of tumor cells. Furthermore, the genetic deletion of p65 and mutation of p65Cys38 residue to Ser abolished the affect of bharangin. Overall, our results demonstrate that bharangin specifically inhibits the NF-κB activation pathway by modifying p65 and inhibiting IκBα kinase activation and potentiates apoptosis in tumor cells. PMID:21795584

  11. Leading Democratically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  12. MAPKAP kinase-2; a novel protein kinase activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Stokoe, D; Campbell, D G; Nakielny, S; Hidaka, H; Leevers, S J; Marshall, C; Cohen, P

    1992-01-01

    A novel protein kinase, which was only active when phosphorylated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), has been purified 85,000-fold to homogeneity from rabbit skeletal muscle. This MAP kinase activated protein kinase, termed MAPKAP kinase-2, was distinguished from S6 kinase-II (MAPKAP kinase-1) by its response to inhibitors, lack of phosphorylation of S6 peptides and amino acid sequence. MAPKAP kinase-2 phosphorylated glycogen synthase at Ser7 and the equivalent serine (*) in the peptide KKPLNRTLS*VASLPGLamide whose sequence is similar to the N terminus of glycogen synthase. MAPKAP kinase-2 was resolved into two monomeric species of apparent molecular mass 60 and 53 kDa that had similar specific activities and substrate specificities. Peptide sequences of the 60 and 53 kDa species were identical, indicating that they are either closely related isoforms or derived from the same gene. MAP kinase activated the 60 and 53 kDa forms of MAPKAP kinase-2 by phosphorylating the first threonine residue in the sequence VPQTPLHTSR. Furthermore, Mono Q chromatography of extracts from rat phaeochromocytoma and skeletal muscle demonstrated that two MAP kinase isoforms (p42mapk and p44mapk) were the only enzymes in these cells that were capable of reactivating MAPKAP kinase-2. These results indicate that MAP kinase activates at least two distinct protein kinases, suggesting that it represents a point at which the growth factor-stimulated protein kinase cascade bifurcates. Images PMID:1327754

  13. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel biarylamine-based Met kinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, David K; Chen, Xiao-Tao; Tarby, Christine; Kaltenbach, Robert; Cai, Zhen-Wei; Tokarski, John S; An, Yongmi; Sack, John S; Wautlet, Barri; Gullo-Brown, Johnni; Henley, Benjamin J; Jeyaseelan, Robert; Kellar, Kristen; Manne, Veeraswamy; Trainor, George L; Lombardo, Louis J; Fargnoli, Joseph; Borzilleri, Robert M

    2010-09-03

    Biarylamine-based inhibitors of Met kinase have been identified. Lead compounds demonstrate nanomolar potency in Met kinase biochemical assays and significant activity in the Met-driven GTL-16 human gastric carcinoma cell line. X-ray crystallography revealed that these compounds adopt a bioactive conformation, in the kinase domain, consistent with that previously seen with 2-pyridone-based Met kinase inhibitors. Compound 9b demonstrated potent in vivo antitumor activity in the GTL-16 human tumor xenograft model.

  14. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel biarylamine-based Met kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Williams, David K; Chen, Xiao-Tao; Tarby, Christine; Kaltenbach, Robert; Cai, Zhen-Wei; Tokarski, John S; An, Yongmi; Sack, John S; Wautlet, Barri; Gullo-Brown, Johnni; Henley, Benjamin J; Jeyaseelan, Robert; Kellar, Kristen; Manne, Veeraswamy; Trainor, George L; Lombardo, Louis J; Fargnoli, Joseph; Borzilleri, Robert M

    2010-05-01

    Biarylamine-based inhibitors of Met kinase have been identified. Lead compounds demonstrate nanomolar potency in Met kinase biochemical assays and significant activity in the Met-driven GTL-16 human gastric carcinoma cell line. X-ray crystallography revealed that these compounds adopt a bioactive conformation, in the kinase domain, consistent with that previously seen with 2-pyridone-based Met kinase inhibitors. Compound 9b demonstrated potent in vivo antitumor activity in the GTL-16 human tumor xenograft model.

  15. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  16. Non-degradative Ubiquitination of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ball, K. Aurelia; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Lewinski, Mary K.; Guatelli, John; Verschueren, Erik; Krogan, Nevan J.; Jacobson, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supports other regulatory roles for protein ubiquitination in addition to serving as a tag for proteasomal degradation. In contrast to other common post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, little is known about how non-degradative ubiquitination modulates protein structure, dynamics, and function. Due to the wealth of knowledge concerning protein kinase structure and regulation, we examined kinase ubiquitination using ubiquitin remnant immunoaffinity enrichment and quantitative mass spectrometry to identify ubiquitinated kinases and the sites of ubiquitination in Jurkat and HEK293 cells. We find that, unlike phosphorylation, ubiquitination most commonly occurs in structured domains, and on the kinase domain, ubiquitination is concentrated in regions known to be important for regulating activity. We hypothesized that ubiquitination, like other post-translational modifications, may alter the conformational equilibrium of the modified protein. We chose one human kinase, ZAP-70, to simulate using molecular dynamics with and without a monoubiquitin modification. In Jurkat cells, ZAP-70 is ubiquitinated at several sites that are not sensitive to proteasome inhibition and thus may have other regulatory roles. Our simulations show that ubiquitination influences the conformational ensemble of ZAP-70 in a site-dependent manner. When monoubiquitinated at K377, near the C-helix, the active conformation of the ZAP-70 C-helix is disrupted. In contrast, when monoubiquitinated at K476, near the kinase hinge region, an active-like ZAP-70 C-helix conformation is stabilized. These results lead to testable hypotheses that ubiquitination directly modulates kinase activity, and that ubiquitination is likely to alter structure, dynamics, and function in other protein classes as well. PMID:27253329

  17. Kinase cascades regulating entry into apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P

    1997-01-01

    All cells are constantly exposed to conflicting environment cues that signal cell survival or cell death. Survival signals are delivered by autocrine or paracrine factors that actively suppress a default death pathway. In addition to survival factor withdrawal, cell death can be triggered by environmental stresses such as heat, UV light, and hyperosmolarity or by dedicated death receptors (e.g., FAS/APO-1 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF] receptors) that are counterparts of growth factor or survival receptors at the cell surface. One of the ways that cells integrate conflicting exogenous stimuli is by phosphorylation (or dephosphorylation) of cellular constituents by interacting cascades of serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases (and phosphatases). Survival factors (e.g., growth factors and mitogens) activate receptor tyrosine kinases and selected mitogen-activated, cyclin-dependent, lipid-activated, nucleic acid-dependent, and cyclic AMP-dependent kinases to promote cell survival and proliferation, whereas environmental stress (or death factors such as FAS/APO-1 ligand and TNF-alpha) activates different members of these kinase families to inhibit cell growth and, under some circumstances, promote apoptotic cell death. Because individual kinase cascades can interact with one another, they are able to integrate conflicting exogenous stimuli and provide a link between cell surface receptors and the biochemical pathways leading to cell proliferation or cell death. PMID:9106363

  18. Orphan kinases turn eccentric

    PubMed Central

    Mikolcevic, Petra; Rainer, Johannes; Geley, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    PCTAIRE kinases (PCTK) are a highly conserved, but poorly characterized, subgroup of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). They are characterized by a conserved catalytic domain flanked by N- and C-terminal extensions that are involved in cyclin binding. Vertebrate genomes contain three highly similar PCTAIRE kinases (PCTK1,2,3, a.k.a., CDK16,17,18), which are most abundant in post-mitotic cells in brain and testis. Consistent with this restricted expression pattern, PCTK1 (CDK16) has recently been shown to be essential for spermatogenesis. PCTAIREs are activated by cyclin Y (CCNY), a highly conserved single cyclin fold protein. By binding to N-myristoylated CCNY, CDK16 is targeted to the plasma membrane. Unlike conventional cyclin-CDK interactions, binding of CCNY to CDK16 not only requires the catalytic domain, but also domains within the N-terminal extension. Interestingly, phosphorylation within this domain blocks CCNY binding, providing a novel means of cyclin-CDK regulation. By using these functional characteristics, we analyzed “PCTAIRE” sequence containing protein kinase genes in genomes of various organisms and found that CCNY and CCNY-dependent kinases are restricted to eumetazoa and possibly evolved along with development of a central nervous system. Here, we focus on the structure and regulation of PCTAIREs and discuss their established functions. PMID:22895054

  19. Conserved herpesvirus protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gershburg, Edward; Pagano, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    Conserved herpesviral protein kinases (CHPKs) are a group of enzymes conserved throughout all subfamilies of Herpesviridae. Members of this group are serine/threonine protein kinases that are likely to play a conserved role in viral infection by interacting with common host cellular and viral factors; however along with a conserved role, individual kinases may have unique functions in the context of viral infection in such a way that they are only partially replaceable even by close homologues. Recent studies demonstrated that CHPKs are crucial for viral infection and suggested their involvement in regulation of numerous processes at various infection steps (primary infection, nuclear egress, tegumentation), although the mechanisms of this regulation remain unknown. Notwithstanding, recent advances in discovery of new CHPK targets, and studies of CHPK knockout phenotypes have raised their attractiveness as targets for antiviral therapy. A number of compounds have been shown to inhibit the activity of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded UL97 protein kinase and exhibit a pronounced antiviral effect, although the same compounds are inactive against Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-encoded protein kinase BGLF4, illustrating the fact that low homology between the members of this group complicates development of compounds targeting the whole group, and suggesting that individualized, structure-based inhibitor design will be more effective. Determination of CHPK structures will greatly facilitate this task. PMID:17881303

  20. Kinase inhibitor recognition by use of a multivariable QSAR model.

    PubMed

    Sprous, D G; Zhang, John; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Zhaolin; Tepper, M A

    2006-01-01

    We have applied a retrosynthetic program to determine the scaffold and R-group chemical space seen within a library of known kinase inhibitors and non-kinase drug-like molecules. Comparison of the differences quickly revealed that kinase inhibitors are distinct in several chemical fragment and physical properties. We then applied these descriptors in a multivariable quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model with the goal to distinguish kinase inhibitors from non-kinase drug-like molecules. This model is heuristic in that it was trained over a dataset of 258 known kinase inhibitors and 230 non-kinase drug molecules. The final model recognized 98% of the training set as being kinase inhibitors and had a false positive rate of 15%. This trait for false positives was accepted out of a desire to maintain diversity and not miss possible good kinase inhibitors for screening. The model was validated by reserving a portion of the datasets as test sets, which were not included in the QSAR model building stage. This was done repetitively for different percentiles of the total dataset population. It was seen that model recognition and false positive were only slightly damaged well down to a 70% reserve (30% dataset used for QSAR model training while 70% used for reserve test set). Beyond 70%, the QSAR models were inconsistent, signifying that the training sets were inadequately diverse to represent the greater reserve test sets. We applied this model to evaluate the commercial kinase libraries available from Asinex, BioFocus, ChemDiv and LifeChemicals to facilitate purchase decisions for compounds for HTS for lead compounds. We observed that there are significant differences in populations of recognizable kinase inhibitors across the vendors analyzed, with BioFocus showing the greatest population of kinase like molecules.

  1. Salicylic acid activates a 48-kD MAP kinase in tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S; Klessig, D F

    1997-01-01

    The involvement of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in the salicylic acid (SA) signal transduction pathway leading to pathogenesis-related gene induction has previously been demonstrated using kinase and phosphatase inhibitors. Here, we show that in tobacco suspension cells, SA induced a rapid and transient activation of a 48-kD kinase that uses myelin basic protein as a substrate. This kinase is called the p48 SIP kinase (for SA-Induced Protein kinase). Biologically active analogs of SA, which induce pathogenesis-related genes and enhanced resistance, also activated this kinase, whereas inactive analogs did not. Phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue(s) in the SIP kinase was associated with its activation. The SIP kinase was purified to homogeneity from SA-treated tobacco suspension culture cells. The purified SIP kinase is strongly phosphorylated on a tyrosine residue(s), and treatment with either protein tyrosine or serine/threonine phosphatases abolished its activity. Using primers corresponding to the sequences of internal tryptic peptides, we cloned the SIP kinase gene. Analysis of the SIP kinase sequence indicates that it belongs to the MAP kinase family and that it is distinct from the other plant MAP kinases previously implicated in stress responses, suggesting that different members of the MAP kinase family are activated by different stresses. PMID:9165755

  2. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  3. Phosphorylation of the Yeast Choline Kinase by Protein Kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mal-Gi; Kurnov, Vladlen; Kersting, Michael C.; Sreenivas, Avula; Carman, George M.

    2005-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CKI1-encoded choline kinase catalyzes the committed step in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. The enzyme is phosphorylated on multiple serine residues, and some of this phosphorylation is mediated by protein kinase A. In this work, we examined the hypothesis that choline kinase is also phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Using choline kinase as a substrate, protein kinase C activity was dose- and time-dependent, and dependent on the concentrations of choline kinase (Km = 27 μg/ml) and ATP (Km = 15 μM). This phosphorylation, which occurred on a serine residue, was accompanied by a 1.6-fold stimulation of choline kinase activity. The synthetic peptide SRSSS25QRRHS (Vmax/Km = 17.5 mM-1 μmol min-1 mg-1) that contains the protein kinase C motif for Ser25 was a substrate for protein kinase C. A Ser25 to Ala (S25A) mutation in choline kinase resulted in a 60% decrease in protein kinase C phosphorylation of the enzyme. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis of the S25A mutant enzyme confirmed that Ser25 was a protein kinase C target site. In vivo, the S25A mutation correlated with a decrease (55%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway whereas an S25D phosphorylation site mimic correlated with an increase (44%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Whereas the S25A (protein kinase C site) mutation did not affect the phosphorylation of choline kinase by protein kinase A, the S30A (protein kinase A site) mutation caused a 46% reduction in enzyme phosphorylation by protein kinase C. A choline kinase synthetic peptide (SQRRHS30LTRQ) containing Ser30 was a substrate (Vmax/Km = 3.0 mM−1 μmol min−1 mg−1) for protein kinase C. Comparison of phosphopeptide maps of the wild type and S30A mutant choline kinase enzymes phosphorylated by protein kinase C confirmed that Ser30 was also a target site for protein kinase C. PMID:15919656

  4. PAK family kinases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhuo-shen; Manser, Ed

    2012-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of Ser/Thr protein kinases that are represented by six genes in humans (PAK 1–6), and are found in all eukaryotes sequenced to date. Genetic and knockdown experiments in frogs, fish and mice indicate group I PAKs are widely expressed, required for multiple tissue development, and particularly important for immune and nervous system function in the adult. The group II PAKs (human PAKs 4–6) are more enigmatic, but their restriction to metazoans and presence at cell-cell junctions suggests these kinases emerged to regulate junctional signaling. Studies of protozoa and fungal PAKs show that they regulate cell shape and polarity through phosphorylation of multiple cytoskeletal proteins, including microtubule binding proteins, myosins and septins. This chapter discusses what we know about the regulation of PAKs and their physiological role in different model organisms, based primarily on gene knockout studies. PMID:23162738

  5. Leading Meetings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John; Heynderickx, James

    Chapter 13 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter offers suggestions to help educators improve their performance in meetings, both as group leaders and as participants. Well-run meetings can rejuvenate an organization, leading to improved teamwork, communication, and morale. A poor meeting, on the other hand, can have a…

  6. Tetraethyl lead

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tetraethyl lead ; CASRN 78 - 00 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  7. Protein kinase activity of the insulin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Gammeltoft, S; Van Obberghen, E

    1986-01-01

    The insulin receptor is an integral membrane glycoprotein (Mr approximately 300,000) composed of two alpha-subunits (Mr approximately 130,000) and two beta-subunits (Mr approximately 95,000) linked by disulphide bonds. This oligomeric structure divides the receptor into two functional domains such that alpha-subunits bind insulin and beta-subunits possess tyrosine kinase activity. The amino acid sequence deduced from cDNA of the single polypeptide chain precursor of human placental insulin receptor revealed that alpha- and beta-subunits consist of 735 and 620 residues, respectively. The alpha-subunit is hydrophilic, disulphide-bonded, glycosylated and probably extracellular. The beta-subunit consists of a short extracellular region which links the alpha-subunit through disulphide bridges, a hydrophobic transmembrane region and a longer cytoplasmic region which is structurally homologous with other tyrosine kinases like the src oncogene product and EGF receptor kinases. The cellular function of insulin receptors is dual: transmembrane signalling and endocytosis of hormone. The binding of insulin to its receptor on the cell membrane induces transfer of signal from extracellular to cytoplasmic receptor domains leading to activation of cell metabolism and growth. In addition, hormone-receptor complexes are internalized leading to intracellular proteolysis of insulin, whereas receptors are recycled to the membrane. These phenomena are kinetically well-characterized, but their molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Insulin receptor in different tissues and animal species are homologous in their structure and function, but show also significant differences regarding size of alpha-subunits, binding kinetics, insulin specificity and receptor-mediated degradation. We suggest that this heterogeneity of receptors may be linked to the diversity in insulin effects on metabolism and growth in various cell types. The purified insulin receptor phosphorylates its own beta-subunit and

  8. Feedback Regulation of Kinase Signaling Pathways by AREs and GREs

    PubMed Central

    Vlasova-St. Louis, Irina; Bohjanen, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental signals, kinases phosphorylate numerous proteins, including RNA-binding proteins such as the AU-rich element (ARE) binding proteins, and the GU-rich element (GRE) binding proteins. Posttranslational modifications of these proteins lead to a significant changes in the abundance of target mRNAs, and affect gene expression during cellular activation, proliferation, and stress responses. In this review, we summarize the effect of phosphorylation on the function of ARE-binding proteins ZFP36 and ELAVL1 and the GRE-binding protein CELF1. The networks of target mRNAs that these proteins bind and regulate include transcripts encoding kinases and kinase signaling pathways (KSP) components. Thus, kinase signaling pathways are involved in feedback regulation, whereby kinases regulate RNA-binding proteins that subsequently regulate mRNA stability of ARE- or GRE-containing transcripts that encode components of KSP. PMID:26821046

  9. Feedback Regulation of Kinase Signaling Pathways by AREs and GREs.

    PubMed

    Vlasova-St Louis, Irina; Bohjanen, Paul R

    2016-01-25

    In response to environmental signals, kinases phosphorylate numerous proteins, including RNA-binding proteins such as the AU-rich element (ARE) binding proteins, and the GU-rich element (GRE) binding proteins. Posttranslational modifications of these proteins lead to a significant changes in the abundance of target mRNAs, and affect gene expression during cellular activation, proliferation, and stress responses. In this review, we summarize the effect of phosphorylation on the function of ARE-binding proteins ZFP36 and ELAVL1 and the GRE-binding protein CELF1. The networks of target mRNAs that these proteins bind and regulate include transcripts encoding kinases and kinase signaling pathways (KSP) components. Thus, kinase signaling pathways are involved in feedback regulation, whereby kinases regulate RNA-binding proteins that subsequently regulate mRNA stability of ARE- or GRE-containing transcripts that encode components of KSP.

  10. The DAP kinase family of pro-apoptotic proteins: novel players in the apoptotic game.

    PubMed

    Kögel, D; Prehn, J H; Scheidtmann, K H

    2001-04-01

    The DAP (Death Associated Protein) kinase family is a novel subfamily of pro-apoptotic serine/threonine kinases. All five DAP kinase family members identified to date are ubiquitously expressed in various tissues and are capable of inducing apoptosis. The sequence homology of the five kinases is largely restricted to the N-terminal kinase domain. In contrast, the adjacent C-terminal regions are very diverse and link individual family members to specific signal transduction pathways. There is increasing evidence that DAP kinase family members are involved in both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis and may play a role in tumor progression. This review will focus on structural composition and subcellular localization of DAP kinase family members and on signal transduction pathways leading to their activation. Potential mechanisms of DAP kinase family-mediated apoptosis will be discussed. BioEssays 23:352-358, 2001. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Linn, Anning

    1996-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK.

  12. Pantothenate - kinase associated neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Alpana; Khare, Shruti; Srivastav, Vipul

    2012-04-01

    Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation is a group of disorders, the commonest of which is PKAN (Pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration). We present here, a case of 18 year old boy with progressive dementia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal involvement, dysarthria, seizures and myoclonus. The patient was diagnosed as PKAN (formerly Hallervorden Spatz disease) after "eye of tiger" appearance on neuro-imaging.

  13. Visualizing autophosphorylation in histidine kinases.

    PubMed

    Casino, Patricia; Miguel-Romero, Laura; Marina, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is the most widespread regulatory mechanism in signal transduction. Autophosphorylation in a dimeric sensor histidine kinase is the first step in two-component signalling, the predominant signal-transduction device in bacteria. Despite being the most abundant sensor kinases in nature, the molecular bases of the histidine kinase autophosphorylation mechanism are still unknown. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that autophosphorylation can occur in two directions, cis (intrasubunit) or trans (intersubunit) within the dimeric histidine kinase. Here, we present the crystal structure of the complete catalytic machinery of a chimeric histidine kinase. The structure shows an asymmetric histidine kinase dimer where one subunit is caught performing the autophosphorylation reaction. A structure-guided functional analysis on HK853 and EnvZ, two prototypical cis- and trans-phosphorylating histidine kinases, has allowed us to decipher the catalytic mechanism of histidine kinase autophosphorylation, which seems to be common independently of the reaction directionality.

  14. Who Leads China's Leading Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the major characteristics of two different groups of institutional leaders in China's leading universities. The study begins with a review of relevant literature and theory. Then, there is a brief introduction to the selection of party secretaries, deputy secretaries, presidents and vice presidents in leading…

  15. Who Leads China's Leading Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the major characteristics of two different groups of institutional leaders in China's leading universities. The study begins with a review of relevant literature and theory. Then, there is a brief introduction to the selection of party secretaries, deputy secretaries, presidents and vice presidents in leading…

  16. Kinase Inhibitors from Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Skropeta, Danielle; Pastro, Natalie; Zivanovic, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Protein kinases play a critical role in cell regulation and their deregulation is a contributing factor in an increasing list of diseases including cancer. Marine sponges have yielded over 70 novel compounds to date that exhibit significant inhibitory activity towards a range of protein kinases. These compounds, which belong to diverse structural classes, are reviewed herein, and ordered based upon the kinase that they inhibit. Relevant synthetic studies on the marine natural product kinase inhibitors have also been included. PMID:22073013

  17. Kinases as Novel Therapeutic Targets in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    Multiple kinases play a critical role in orchestrating the chronic inflammation and structural changes in the respiratory tract of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Kinases activate signaling pathways that lead to contraction of airway smooth muscle and release of inflammatory mediators (such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors) as well as cell migration, activation, and proliferation. For this reason there has been great interest in the development of kinase inhibitors as anti-inflammatory therapies, particular where corticosteroids are less effective, as in severe asthma and COPD. However, it has proven difficult to develop selective kinase inhibitors that are both effective and safe after oral administration and this has led to a search for inhaled kinase inhibitors, which would reduce systemic exposure. Although many kinases have been implicated in inflammation and remodeling of airway disease, very few classes of drug have reached the stage of clinical studies in these diseases. The most promising drugs are p38 MAP kinases, isoenzyme-selective PI3-kinases, Janus-activated kinases, and Syk-kinases, and inhaled formulations of these drugs are now in development. There has also been interest in developing inhibitors that block more than one kinase, because these drugs may be more effective and with less risk of losing efficacy with time. No kinase inhibitors are yet on the market for the treatment of airway diseases, but as kinase inhibitors are improved from other therapeutic areas there is hope that these drugs may eventually prove useful in treating refractory asthma and COPD.

  18. Mechanism of activation and functional role of protein kinase Ceta in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Bynagari, Yamini S; Nagy, Bela; Tuluc, Florin; Bhavaraju, Kamala; Kim, Soochong; Vijayan, K Vinod; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2009-05-15

    The novel class of protein kinase C (nPKC) isoform eta is expressed in platelets, but not much is known about its activation and function. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of activation and functional implications of nPKCeta using pharmacological and gene knock-out approaches. nPKCeta was phosphorylated (at Thr-512) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by 2MeSADP. Pretreatment of platelets with MRS-2179, a P2Y1 receptor antagonist, or YM-254890, a G(q) blocker, abolished 2MeSADP-induced phosphorylation of nPKCeta. Similarly, ADP failed to activate nPKCeta in platelets isolated from P2Y1 and G(q) knock-out mice. However, pretreatment of platelets with P2Y12 receptor antagonist, AR-C69331MX did not interfere with ADP-induced nPKCeta phosphorylation. In addition, when platelets were activated with 2MeSADP under stirring conditions, although nPKCeta was phosphorylated within 30 s by ADP receptors, it was also dephosphorylated by activated integrin alpha(IIb)beta3 mediated outside-in signaling. Moreover, in the presence of SC-57101, a alpha(IIb)beta3 receptor antagonist, nPKCeta dephosphorylation was inhibited. Furthermore, in murine platelets lacking PP1cgamma, a catalytic subunit of serine/threonine phosphatase, alpha(IIb)beta3 failed to dephosphorylate nPKCeta. Thus, we conclude that ADP activates nPKCeta via P2Y1 receptor and is subsequently dephosphorylated by PP1gamma phosphatase activated by alpha(IIb)beta3 integrin. In addition, pretreatment of platelets with eta-RACK antagonistic peptides, a specific inhibitor of nPKCeta, inhibited ADP-induced thromboxane generation. However, these peptides had no affect on ADP-induced aggregation when thromboxane generation was blocked. In summary, nPKCeta positively regulates agonist-induced thromboxane generation with no effects on platelet aggregation.

  19. Ancestral resurrection reveals evolutionary mechanisms of kinase plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Conor J; Hanson-Smith, Victor; Kennedy, Kristopher J; Miller, Chad J; Lou, Hua Jane; Johnson, Alexander D; Turk, Benjamin E; Holt, Liam J

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases have evolved diverse specificities to enable cellular information processing. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying kinase diversification, we studied the CMGC protein kinases using ancestral reconstruction. Within this group, the cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) require proline at the +1 position of their substrates, while Ime2 prefers arginine. The resurrected common ancestor of CDKs, MAPKs, and Ime2 could phosphorylate substrates with +1 proline or arginine, with preference for proline. This specificity changed to a strong preference for +1 arginine in the lineage leading to Ime2 via an intermediate with equal specificity for proline and arginine. Mutant analysis revealed that a variable residue within the kinase catalytic cleft, DFGx, modulates +1 specificity. Expansion of Ime2 kinase specificity by mutation of this residue did not cause dominant deleterious effects in vivo. Tolerance of cells to new specificities likely enabled the evolutionary divergence of kinases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04126.001 PMID:25310241

  20. Molecular and structural insight into plasmodium falciparum RIO2 kinase.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Devendra K; Sharon, Ashoke; Bal, Chandralata

    2013-02-01

    Among approximately 65 kinases of the malarial genome, RIO2 (right open reading frame) kinase belonging to the atypical class of kinase is unique because along with a kinase domain, it has a highly conserved N-terminal winged helix (wHTH) domain. The wHTH domain resembles the wing like domain found in DNA binding proteins and is situated near to the kinase domain. Ligand binding to this domain may reposition the kinase domain leading to inhibition of enzyme function and could be utilized as a novel allosteric site to design inhibitor. In the present study, we have generated a model of RIO2 kinase from Plasmodium falciparum utilizing multiple modeling, simulation approach. A novel putative DNA-binding site is identified for the first time in PfRIO2 kinase to understand the DNA binding events involving wHTH domain and flexible loop. Induced fit DNA docking followed by minimization, molecular dynamics simulation, energetic scoring and binding mode studies are used to reveal the structural basis of PfRIO2-ATP-DNA complex. Ser105 as a potential site of phosphorylation is revealed through the structural studies of ATP binding in PfRIO2. Overall the present study discloses the structural facets of unknown PfRIO2 complex and opens an avenue toward exploration of novel drug target.

  1. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Modeling of Kinase Selectivity Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kothiwale, Sandeepkumar; Borza, Corina; Pozzi, Ambra; Meiler, Jens

    2017-09-19

    The discovery of selective inhibitors of biological target proteins is the primary goal of many drug discovery campaigns. However, this goal has proven elusive, especially for inhibitors targeting the well-conserved orthosteric adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding pocket of kinase enzymes. The human kinome is large and it is rather difficult to profile early lead compounds against around 500 targets to gain an upfront knowledge on selectivity. Further, selectivity can change drastically during derivatization of an initial lead compound. Here, we have introduced a computational model to support the profiling of compounds early in the drug discovery pipeline. On the basis of the extensive profiled activity of 70 kinase inhibitors against 379 kinases, including 81 tyrosine kinases, we developed a quantitative structure-activity relation (QSAR) model using artificial neural networks, to predict the activity of these kinase inhibitors against the panel of 379 kinases. The model's performance in predicting activity ranges from 0.6 to 0.8 depending on the kinase, from the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC). The profiler is available online at http://www.meilerlab.org/index.php/servers/show?s_id=23.

  2. Rho kinase as a target for cerebral vascular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Lisa M; Sellers, James R; McKerracher, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The development of novel pharmaceutical treatments for disorders of the cerebral vasculature is a serious unmet medical need. These vascular disorders are typified by a disruption in the delicate Rho signaling equilibrium within the blood vessel wall. In particular, Rho kinase overactivation in the smooth muscle and endothelial layers of the vessel wall results in cytoskeletal modifications that lead to reduced vascular integrity and abnormal vascular growth. Rho kinase is thus a promising target for the treatment of cerebral vascular disorders. Indeed, preclinical studies indicate that Rho kinase inhibition may reduce the formation/growth/rupture of both intracranial aneurysms and cerebral cavernous malformations. PMID:26062400

  3. Secondary kinase reactions catalyzed by yeast pyruvate kinase.

    PubMed

    Leblond, D J; Robinson, J L

    1976-06-07

    1. Yeast pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40) catalyzes, in addition to the primary, physiologically important reaction, three secondary kinase reactions, the ATP-dependent phosphorylations of fluoride (fluorokinase), hydroxylamine (hydroxylamine kinase) and glycolate (glycolate kinase). 2. These reactions are accelerated by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, the allosteric activator of the primary reaction. Wth Mg2+ as the required divalent cation, none of these reactions are observed in the absence of fructose-biphosphate. With Mn2+, fructose-bisphosphate is required for the glycolate kinase reaction, but merely stimulates the other reactions. 3. The effect of other divalent cations and pH on three secondary kinase reactions was also examined. 4. Results are compared with those obtained from muscle pyruvate kinase and the implications of the results for the mechanism of the yeast enzyme are discussed.

  4. Protein Kinases in Mammary Gland Development and Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    cellular process including cell motility, metabolism, proliferation and differentiation. Aberrant expression or mutations in kinases has been shown to...transduction cascades leading to differentiation in normal breast tissue. Carcinogenic transformation often results from mutations or aberrant...expression of molecules such as c- erbB2 /HER2/neu, the EGF receptor, the FGF receptor family, and Met(I-4).1-4 The aforementioned kinases are examples of the

  5. The association of phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer A with hepatic insulin receptor enhances its kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chi Bun; Liu, Xia; He, Kunyan; Qi, Qi; Jung, Dae Y; Kim, Jason K; Ye, Keqiang

    2011-07-01

    Dysfunction of hepatic insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (IRTK) causes the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanism regulating IRTK activity in the liver remains poorly understood. Here, we show that phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer A (PIKE-A) is a new insulin-dependent enhancer of hepatic IRTK. Liver-specific Pike-knockout (LPKO) mice display glucose intolerance with impaired hepatic insulin sensitivity. Specifically, insulin-provoked phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signalling is diminished in the liver of LPKO mice, leading to the failure of insulin-suppressed gluconeogenesis and hyperglycaemia. Thus, hepatic PIKE-A has a key role in mediating insulin signal transduction and regulating glucose homeostasis in the liver.

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    PRISIC, SLADJANA; HUSSON, ROBERT N.

    2014-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 11 serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs). A similar number of two-component systems are also present, indicating that these two signal transduction mechanisms are both important in the adaptation of this bacterial pathogen to its environment. The M. tuberculosis phosphoproteome includes hundreds of Ser- and Thr-phosphorylated proteins that participate in all aspects of M. tuberculosis biology, supporting a critical role for the STPKs in regulating M. tuberculosis physiology. Nine of the STPKs are receptor type kinases, with an extracytoplasmic sensor domain and an intracellular kinase domain, indicating that these kinases transduce external signals. Two other STPKs are cytoplasmic and have regulatory domains that sense changes within the cell. Structural analysis of some of the STPKs has led to advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which these STPKs are activated and regulated. Functional analysis has provided insights into the effects of phosphorylation on the activity of several proteins, but for most phosphoproteins the role of phosphorylation in regulating function is unknown. Major future challenges include characterizing the functional effects of phosphorylation for this large number of phosphoproteins, identifying the cognate STPKs for these phosphoproteins, and determining the signals that the STPKs sense. Ultimately, combining these STPK-regulated processes into larger, integrated regulatory networks will provide deeper insight into M. tuberculosis adaptive mechanisms that contribute to tuberculosis pathogenesis. Finally, the STPKs offer attractive targets for inhibitor development that may lead to new therapies for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:25429354

  7. Designing novel kinases using evolutionary sequence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mody, Areez; Weiner, Joan; Iyer, Lakshman; Ramanathan, Sharad

    2006-03-01

    Cellular pathways with new functions are thought to arise from the duplication and divergence of proteins in existing pathways. The MAP kinase pathways in eukaryotes provide one example of this. These pathways consist of the MAP kinase proteins which are responsible for evoking the correct response to external stimuli. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae these pathways detect pheromones, osmolar stresses and nutrient levels, leading the cell into dramatic changes of morphology. Despite being homologous to each other, the MAP kinase proteins show specificity of function. We investigate the nature of the amino acid sequences conferring this specificity. To this end, we i) search the sequences of similar proteins in other Eukaryote species, ii) make a study of simple theoretical models exploring the constraints felt by these protein segments and iii) experimentally construct, a large suite of hybrid proteins made of segments taken from the homologous proteins. These are then expressed in Yeast cells to see what function they are able to perform. Particularly we also ask whether it is possible to design a new kinase protein possessing new function and specificity.

  8. 3-Formylchromone Interacts with Cysteine 38 in p65 Protein and with Cysteine 179 in IκBα Kinase, Leading to Down-regulation of Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB)-regulated Gene Products and Sensitization of Tumor Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Vivek R.; Prasad, Sahdeo; Gupta, Subash C.; Sung, Bokyung; Phatak, Sharangdhar S.; Zhang, Shuxing; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2012-01-01

    3-Formylchromone (3-FC) has been associated with anticancer potential through a mechanism yet to be elucidated. Because of the critical role of NF-κB in tumorigenesis, we investigated the effect of this agent on the NF-κB activation pathway. Whether activated by inflammatory agents (such as TNF-α and endotoxin) or tumor promoters (such as phorbol ester and okadaic acid), 3-FC suppressed NF-κB activation. It also inhibited constitutive NF-κB expressed by most tumor cells. This activity correlated with sequential inhibition of IκBα kinase (IKK) activation, IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation, and reporter gene expression. We found that 3-FC inhibited the direct binding of p65 to DNA, and this binding was reversed by a reducing agent, thus suggesting a role for the cysteine residue. Furthermore, mutation of Cys38 to Ser in p65 abolished this effect of the chromone. This result was confirmed by a docking study. 3-FC also inhibited IKK activation directly, and the reducing agent reversed this inhibition. Furthermore, mutation of Cys179 to Ala in IKK abolished the effect of the chromone. Suppression of NF-κB activation led to inhibition of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, survivin, and cIAP-1), proliferative (cyclin D1 and COX-2), invasive (MMP-9 and ICAM-1), and angiogenic (VEGF) gene products and sensitization of tumor cells to cytokines. Thus, this study shows that modification of cysteine residues in IKK and p65 by 3-FC leads to inhibition of the NF-κB activation pathway, suppression of anti-apoptotic gene products, and potentiation of apoptosis in tumor cells. PMID:22065587

  9. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, M.; Hibi, M.; Lin, A.

    1997-02-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE is disclosed. The polypeptide has serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences. The method of detection of JNK is also provided. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites. 44 figs.

  10. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2004-03-16

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  11. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Lin, Anning

    1999-11-30

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  12. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1998-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  13. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit; Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2005-01-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  14. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2003-02-04

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  15. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  16. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2005-03-08

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  17. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1999-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  18. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  19. Cyclin-dependent kinases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are protein kinases characterized by needing a separate subunit - a cyclin - that provides domains essential for enzymatic activity. CDKs play important roles in the control of cell division and modulate transcription in response to several extra- and intracellular cues. The evolutionary expansion of the CDK family in mammals led to the division of CDKs into three cell-cycle-related subfamilies (Cdk1, Cdk4 and Cdk5) and five transcriptional subfamilies (Cdk7, Cdk8, Cdk9, Cdk11 and Cdk20). Unlike the prototypical Cdc28 kinase of budding yeast, most of these CDKs bind one or a few cyclins, consistent with functional specialization during evolution. This review summarizes how, although CDKs are traditionally separated into cell-cycle or transcriptional CDKs, these activities are frequently combined in many family members. Not surprisingly, deregulation of this family of proteins is a hallmark of several diseases, including cancer, and drug-targeted inhibition of specific members has generated very encouraging results in clinical trials. PMID:25180339

  20. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia.

    PubMed

    Roth Flach, Rachel J; Danai, Laura V; DiStefano, Marina T; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C; Czech, Michael P

    2016-07-29

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia*

    PubMed Central

    Roth Flach, Rachel J.; Danai, Laura V.; DiStefano, Marina T.; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B.; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K.; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C.; Czech, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo. After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. PMID:27226575

  2. The molecular basis of targeting protein kinases in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Nussinov, Ruth

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of targeted anticancer therapies with small molecule kinase inhibitors. First, we discuss why a single constitutively active kinase emanating from a variety of aberrant genetic alterations is capable of transforming a normal cell, leading it to acquire the hallmarks of a cancer cell. To draw attention to the fact that kinase inhibition in targeted cancer therapeutics differs from conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, we exploit a conceptual framework explaining why suppressed kinase activity will selectively kill only the so-called oncogene 'addicted' cancer cell, while sparing the healthy cell. Second, we introduce the protein kinase superfamily in light of its common active conformation with precisely positioned structural elements, and the diversified auto-inhibitory conformations among the kinase families. Understanding the detailed activation mechanism of individual kinases is essential to relate the observed oncogenic alterations to the elevated constitutively active state, to identify the mechanism of consequent drug resistance, and to guide the development of the next-generation inhibitors. To clarify the vital importance of structural guidelines in studies of oncogenesis, we explain how somatic mutations in EGFR result in kinase constitutive activation. Third, in addition to the common theme of secondary (acquired) mutations that prevent drug binding from blocking a signaling pathway which is hijacked by the aberrant activated kinase, we discuss scenarios of drug resistance and relapse by compensating lesions that bypass the inactivated pathway in a vertical or horizontal fashion. Collectively, these suggest that the future challenge of cancer therapy with small molecule kinase inhibitors will rely on the discovery of distinct combinations of optimized drugs to target individual subtypes of different cancers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A high-throughput radiometric kinase assay

    PubMed Central

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C.; Peterson, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant kinase signaling has been implicated in a number of diseases. While kinases have become attractive drug targets, only a small fraction of human protein kinases have validated inhibitors. Screening libraries of compounds against a kinase or kinases of interest is routinely performed during kinase inhibitor development to identify promising scaffolds for a particular target and to identify kinase targets for compounds of interest. Screening of more focused compound libraries may also be conducted in the later stages of inhibitor development to improve potency and optimize selectivity. The dot blot kinase assay is a robust, high-throughput kinase assay that can be used to screen a number of small molecule compounds against one kinase of interest or several kinases. Here, a protocol for a dot blot kinase assay used for measuring insulin receptor kinase activity is presented. This protocol can be readily adapted for use with other protein kinases. PMID:26501904

  4. Targeting checkpoint kinase 1 in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tse, Archie N; Carvajal, Richard; Schwartz, Gary K

    2007-04-01

    Progression through the cell cycle is monitored by surveillance mechanisms known as cell cycle checkpoints. Our knowledge of the biochemical nature of checkpoint regulation during an unperturbed cell cycle and following DNA damage has expanded tremendously over the past decade. We now know that dysfunction in cell cycle checkpoints leads to genomic instability and contributes to tumor progression, and most agents used for cancer therapy, such as cytotoxic chemotherapy and ionizing radiation, also activate cell cycle checkpoints. Understanding how checkpoints are regulated is therefore important from the points of view of both tumorigenesis and cancer treatment. In this review, we present an overview of the molecular hierarchy of the checkpoint signaling network and the emerging role of checkpoint targets, especially checkpoint kinase 1, in cancer therapy. Further, we discuss the results of recent clinical trials involving the nonspecific checkpoint kinase 1 inhibitor, UCN-01, and the challenges we face with this new therapeutic approach.

  5. Comprehensive characterization of the Published Kinase Inhibitor Set.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Jonathan M; Fedele, Vita; Szklarz, Marta; Abdul Azeez, Kamal R; Salah, Eidarus; Mikolajczyk, Jowita; Romanov, Sergei; Sepetov, Nikolai; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L; Al Haj Zen, Ayman; Fourches, Denis; Muratov, Eugene; Tropsha, Alex; Morris, Joel; Teicher, Beverly A; Kunkel, Mark; Polley, Eric; Lackey, Karen E; Atkinson, Francis L; Overington, John P; Bamborough, Paul; Müller, Susanne; Price, Daniel J; Willson, Timothy M; Drewry, David H; Knapp, Stefan; Zuercher, William J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the success of protein kinase inhibitors as approved therapeutics, drug discovery has focused on a small subset of kinase targets. Here we provide a thorough characterization of the Published Kinase Inhibitor Set (PKIS), a set of 367 small-molecule ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors that was recently made freely available with the aim of expanding research in this field and as an experiment in open-source target validation. We screen the set in activity assays with 224 recombinant kinases and 24 G protein-coupled receptors and in cellular assays of cancer cell proliferation and angiogenesis. We identify chemical starting points for designing new chemical probes of orphan kinases and illustrate the utility of these leads by developing a selective inhibitor for the previously untargeted kinases LOK and SLK. Our cellular screens reveal compounds that modulate cancer cell growth and angiogenesis in vitro. These reagents and associated data illustrate an efficient way forward to increasing understanding of the historically untargeted kinome.

  6. Aurora Kinases Throughout Plant Development.

    PubMed

    Weimer, Annika K; Demidov, Dmitri; Lermontova, Inna; Beeckman, Tom; Van Damme, Daniël

    2016-01-01

    Aurora kinases are evolutionarily conserved key mitotic determinants in all eukaryotes. Yeasts contain a single Aurora kinase, whereas multicellular eukaryotes have at least two functionally diverged members. The involvement of Aurora kinases in human cancers has provided an in-depth mechanistic understanding of their roles throughout cell division in animal and yeast models. By contrast, understanding Aurora kinase function in plants is only starting to emerge. Nevertheless, genetic, cell biological, and biochemical approaches have revealed functional diversification between the plant Aurora kinases and suggest a role in formative (asymmetric) divisions, chromatin modification, and genome stability. This review provides an overview of the accumulated knowledge on the function of plant Aurora kinases as well as some major challenges for the future.

  7. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors - small molecular weight compounds inhibiting EGFR.

    PubMed

    Hegymegi-Barakonyi, Bálint; Eros, Dániel; Szántai-Kis, Csaba; Breza, Nóra; Bánhegyi, Péter; Szabó, Gábor Viktor; Várkondi, Edit; Peták, István; Orfi, László; Kéri, György

    2009-06-01

    Abnormally elevated EGFR kinase activity can lead to various pathological states, including proliferative diseases such as cancer. The development of selective protein kinase inhibitors has become an important area of drug discovery for the potential treatment of a variety of solid tumors such as breast, ovarian and colorectal cancers, NSCLC, and carcinoma of the head and neck. There are three small molecule EGFR kinase inhibitor drugs in clinical use (gefitinib, erlotinib and lapatinib), and several others are currently undergoing clinical development. This review summarizes the development of EGFR kinase inhibitors, and includes descriptions of the binding modes, the importance of a multiple-targets strategy, the effects of sensitizing and resistance mutations in the EGFR, and molecular diagnostic approaches. In addition, the use of target fishing for selectivity profiling, off-target identification and quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling for the prediction of EGFR inhibition is discussed.

  8. An X-ray structural study of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase: A eukaryotic serine kinase with a prokaryotic histidine-kinase fold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steussy, Calvin Nicklaus, Jr.

    2001-07-01

    Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase is an enzyme that controls the flow of glucose through the eukaryotic cell and contributes to the pathology of diabetes mellitus. Early work on this kinase demonstrated that it has an amino acid sequence much like bacterial histidine kinases, but an activity similar to that of modern serine/threonine kinases. This project utilized the techniques of X-ray crystallography to determine molecular structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 2. The structure was phased using selenium substituted for sulfur in methionine residues, and data at multiple wavelengths was collected at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratories. PDK 2 was found to fold into a two-domain monomer that forms a dimer through two beta sheets in the C-terminal domain. The N-terminal domain is an alpha-helical bundle while the C-terminal domain is an alpha/beta sandwich. The fold of the C-terminal domain is very similar to that of the prokaryotic histidine kinases, indicating that they share a common ancestor. The catalytic mechanism, however, has evolved to use general base catalysis to activate the serine substrate, rather than the direct nucleophilic attack by the imidazole sidechain used in the prokaryotic kinases. Thus, the structure of the protein echoes its prokaryotic ancestor, while the chemical mechanism has adapted to a serine substrate. The electrostatic surface of PDK2 leads to the suggestion that the lipoyl domain of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, an important associated structure, may bind in the cleft formed between the N- and C-terminal domains. In addition, a network of hydrogen bonds directly connects the nucleotide binding pocket to the dimer interface, suggesting that there may be some interaction between dimer formation and ATP binding or ADP release.

  9. Effects of butyltins on mitogen-activated-protein kinase kinase kinase and Ras activity in human natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Celada, Lindsay J; Whalen, Margaret M

    2014-09-01

    Butyltins (BTs) contaminate the environment and are found in human blood. BTs, tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) diminish the cytotoxic function and levels of key proteins of human natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells are an initial immune defense against tumors, virally infected cells and antibody-coated cells and thus critical to human health. The signaling pathways that regulate NK cell functions include mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Studies have shown that exposure to BTs leads to activation of specific MAPKs and MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks) in human NK cells. MAP2K kinases (MAP3Ks) are upstream activators of MAP2Ks, which then activate MAPKs. The current study examined if BT-induced activation of MAP3Ks was responsible for MAP2K and thus, MAPK activation. This study examines the effects of TBT and DBT on the total levels of two MAP3Ks, c-Raf and ASK1, as well as activating and inhibitory phosphorylation sites on these MAP3Ks. In addition, the immediate upstream activator of c-Raf, Ras, was examined for BT-induced alterations. Our results show significant activation of the MAP3K, c-Raf, in human NK cells within 10 min of TBT exposure and the MAP3K, ASK1, after 1 h exposures to TBT. In addition, our results suggest that both TBT and DBT affect the regulation of c-Raf.

  10. Structural basis of constitutive activity and a unique nucleotide binding mode of human Pim-1 kinase.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kevin C; Wang, Lian; Hickey, Eugene R; Studts, Joey; Barringer, Kevin; Peng, Charline; Kronkaitis, Anthony; Li, Jun; White, Andre; Mische, Sheenah; Farmer, Bennett

    2005-02-18

    Pim-1 kinase is a member of a distinct class of serine/threonine kinases consisting of Pim-1, Pim-2, and Pim-3. Pim kinases are highly homologous to one another and share a unique consensus hinge region sequence, ER-PXPX, with its two proline residues separated by a non-conserved residue, but they (Pim kinases) have <30% sequence identity with other kinases. Pim-1 has been implicated in both cytokine-induced signal transduction and the development of lymphoid malignancies. We have determined the crystal structures of apo Pim-1 kinase and its AMP-PNP (5'-adenylyl-beta,gamma-imidodiphosphate) complex to 2.1-angstroms resolutions. The structures reveal the following. 1) The kinase adopts a constitutively active conformation, and extensive hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions between the activation loop and the catalytic loop might be the structural basis for maintaining such a conformation. 2) The hinge region has a novel architecture and hydrogen-bonding pattern, which not only expand the ATP pocket but also serve to establish unambiguously the alignment of the Pim-1 hinge region with that of other kinases. 3) The binding mode of AMP-PNP to Pim-1 kinase is unique and does not involve a critical hinge region hydrogen bond interaction. Analysis of the reported Pim-1 kinase-domain structures leads to a hypothesis as to how Pim kinase activity might be regulated in vivo.

  11. Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase associates with an insulin receptor substrate-1 serine kinase distinct from its intrinsic serine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Cengel, K A; Kason, R E; Freund, G G

    1998-01-01

    Serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) has been proposed as a counter-regulatory mechanism in insulin and cytokine signalling. Here we report that IRS-1 is phosphorylated by a wortmannin insensitive phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI 3-kinase)-associated serine kinase (PAS kinase) distinct from PI 3-kinase serine kinase. We found that PI 3-kinase immune complexes contain 5-fold more wortmannin-insensitive serine kinase activity than SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) and IRS-1 immune complexes. Affinity chromatography of cell lysates with a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein for the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase showed that PAS kinase associated with the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase. This interaction required unoccupied SH2 domain(s) but did not require the PI 3-kinase p110 subunit binding domain. In terms of function, PAS kinase phosphorylated IRS-1 and, after insulin stimulation, PAS kinase phosphorylated IRS-1 in PI 3-kinase-IRS-1 complexes. Phosphopeptide mapping showed that insulin-dependent in vivo sites of IRS-1 serine phosphorylation were comparable to those of PAS kinase phosphorylated IRS-1. More importantly, PAS kinase-dependent phosphorylation of IRS-1 reduced by 4-fold the ability of IRS-1 to act as an insulin receptor substrate. Taken together, these findings indicate that: (a) PAS kinase is distinct from the intrinsic serine kinase activity of PI 3-kinase, (b) PAS kinase associates with the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase through SH2 domain interactions, and (c) PAS kinase is an IRS-1 serine kinase that can reduce the ability of IRS-1 to serve as an insulin receptor substrate. PMID:9761740

  12. Understanding the Polo Kinase machine.

    PubMed

    Archambault, V; Lépine, G; Kachaner, D

    2015-09-10

    The Polo Kinase is a central regulator of cell division required for several events of mitosis and cytokinesis. In addition to a kinase domain (KD), Polo-like kinases (Plks) comprise a Polo-Box domain (PBD), which mediates protein interactions with targets and regulators of Plks. In all organisms that contain Plks, one Plk family member fulfills several essential functions in the regulation of cell division, and here we refer to this conserved protein as Polo Kinase (Plk1 in humans). The PBD and the KD are capable of both cooperation and mutual inhibition in their functions. Crystal structures of the PBD, the KD and, recently, a PBD-KD complex have helped understanding the inner workings of the Polo Kinase. In parallel, an impressive array of molecular mechanisms has been found to mediate the regulation of the protein. Moreover, the targeting of Polo Kinase in the development of anti-cancer drugs has yielded several molecules with which to chemically modulate Polo Kinase to study its biological functions. Here we review our current understanding of the protein function and regulation of Polo Kinase as a fascinating molecular device in control of cell division.

  13. A Novel Calcium-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor, Bumped Kinase Inhibitor 1517, Cures Cryptosporidiosis in Immunosuppressed Mice.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Sparks, Hayley; Nava, Samantha; Huang, Wenlin; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Rivas, Kasey; Hulverson, Matthew A; Barrett, Lynn K; Ojo, Kayode K; Fan, Erkang; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; White, Arthur Clinton

    2016-12-15

    Cryptosporidium is recognized as one of the main causes of childhood diarrhea worldwide. However, the current treatment for cryptosporidiosis is suboptimal. Calcium flux is essential for entry in apicomplexan parasites. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are distinct from protein kinases of mammals, and the CDPK1 of the apicomplexan Cryptosporidium lack side chains that typically block a hydrophobic pocket in protein kinases. We exploited this to develop bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs) that selectively target CDPK1. We have shown that several BKIs of Cryptosporidium CDPK1 potently reduce enzymatic activity and decrease parasite numbers when tested in vitro. In the present work, we studied the anticryptosporidial activity of BKI-1517, a novel BKI. The half maximal effective concentration for Cryptosporidium parvum in HCT-8 cells was determined to be approximately 50 nM. Silencing experiments of CDPK1 suggest that BKI-1517 acts on CDPK1 as its primary target. In a mouse model of chronic infection, 5 of 6 SCID/beige mice (83.3%) were cured after treatment with a single daily dose of 120 mg/kg BKI-1517. No side effects were observed. These data support advancing BKI-1517 as a lead compound for drug development for cryptosporidiosis.

  14. P21 activated kinases

    PubMed Central

    Rane, Chetan K; Minden, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    The p21 activated kinases (Paks) are well known effector proteins for the Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac. The Paks contain 6 members, which fall into 2 families of proteins. The first family consists of Paks 1, 2, and 3, and the second consists of Paks 4, 5, and 6. While some of the Paks are ubiquitously expressed, others have more restrictive tissue specificity. All of them are found in the nervous system. Studies using cell culture, transgenic mice, and knockout mice, have revealed important roles for the Paks in cytoskeletal organization and in many aspects of cell growth and development. This review discusses the basic structures of the Paks, and their roles in cell growth, development, and in cancer. PMID:24658305

  15. Purification and characterization of a cytosolic insulin-stimulated serine kinase from rat liver.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, L; Bradford, A P; Klarlund, J K; Czech, M P

    1992-05-15

    A cytosolic insulin-sensitive serine kinase has been purified to apparent homogeneity in parallel from livers of control or acutely insulin-treated rats. The kinase is labile and requires rapid purification for stability. The kinase migrates as a band of apparent Mr = 90,000 on denaturing gels and elutes as a monomer on Superose 12 gel filtration. After sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and renaturation, the 90-kDa band presumed to be the kinase shows kinase activity toward myelin basic protein in situ. Substrates of the kinase include Leu-Arg-Arg-Ala-Ser-Leu-Gly (Kemptide), ribosomal protein S6, S6 peptide, a proline-rich peptide substrate, microtubule-associated protein 2, and myelin basic protein. The kinase also phosphorylates histones H1 and H2B, but does not autophosphorylate to a significant stoichiometry. The activity of the kinase is inhibited by fluoride, glycerophosphate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, p-nitrophenol, heparin, quercetin, poly-L-lysine, and potassium phosphate, but is unaffected by calcium, cAMP, spermine, protein kinase inhibitor peptide, phorbol myristate acetate, calcium plus phosphatidylserine, or vanadate. The kinase will utilize magnesium (10 mM) as well as manganese (1 mM) as a cofactor for maximal phosphotransferase activity. The kinase is not detected by immunoblotting with antibodies directed against protein kinase C or type II S6 kinase. Taken together, these properties distinguish this kinase from other insulin-sensitive kinases that have been described previously. The purified kinase from livers of insulin-treated rats shows a 5-20-fold higher specific activity compared to enzyme prepared from control rats, suggesting a covalent modification as the mechanism of activation. Incubation of purified, insulin-stimulated kinase with purified phosphatase 2A leads to deactivation of the kinase activity, and the phosphatase inhibitor nitrophenyl phosphate blocks this deactivation. The insulin-activated kinase fails to

  16. ERK kinases modulate the activation of PI3 kinase related kinases (PIKKs) in DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaozeng; Yan, Judy; Tang, Damu

    2013-12-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) is the critical surveillance mechanism in maintaining genome integrity. The mechanism activates checkpoints to prevent cell cycle progression in the presence of DNA lesions, and mediates lesion repair. DDR is coordinated by three apical PI3 kinase related kinases (PIKKs), including ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), and DNA-PKcs (the catalytic subunit of the DNA dependent protein kinase). These kinases are activated in response to specific DNA damage or lesions, resulting in checkpoint activation and DNA lesion repair. While it is clear that the pathways of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK are the core components of DDR, there is accumulating evidence revealing the involvement of other cellular pathways in regulating DDR; this is in line with the concept that in addition to being a nuclear event DDR is also a cellular process. One of these pathways is the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. ERK is a converging point of multiple signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Adding to this list of pathways is the recent development of ERK in DDR. The ERK kinases (ERK1 and ERK2) contribute to the proper execution of DDR in terms of checkpoint activation and the repair of DNA lesions. This review summarizes the contributions of ERK to DDR with emphasis on the relationship of ERK kinases with the activation of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PKcs.

  17. Discovery and Characterization of Allosteric WNK Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ken; Zhang, Ji-Hu; Xie, Xiaoling; Reinhardt, Juergen; Xie, Amy Qiongshu; LaSala, Daniel; Kohls, Darcy; Yowe, David; Burdick, Debra; Yoshisue, Hajime; Wakai, Hiromichi; Schmidt, Isabel; Gunawan, Jason; Yasoshima, Kayo; Yue, Q Kimberley; Kato, Mitsunori; Mogi, Muneto; Idamakanti, Neeraja; Kreder, Natasha; Drueckes, Peter; Pandey, Pramod; Kawanami, Toshio; Huang, Waanjeng; Yagi, Yukiko I; Deng, Zhan; Park, Hyi-Man

    2016-12-16

    Protein kinases are known for their highly conserved adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding site, rendering the discovery of selective inhibitors a major challenge. In theory, allosteric inhibitors can achieve high selectivity by targeting less conserved regions of the kinases, often with an added benefit of retaining efficacy under high physiological ATP concentration. Although often overlooked in favor of ATP-site directed approaches, performing a screen at high ATP concentration or stringent hit triaging with high ATP concentration offers conceptually simple methods of identifying inhibitors that bind outside the ATP pocket. Here, we applied the latter approach to the With-No-Lysine (K) (WNK) kinases to discover lead molecules for a next-generation antihypertensive that requires a stringent safety profile. This strategy yielded several ATP noncompetitive WNK1-4 kinase inhibitors, the optimization of which enabled cocrystallization with WNK1, revealing an allosteric binding mode consistent with the observed exquisite specificity for WNK1-4 kinases. The optimized compound inhibited rubidium uptake by sodium chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) in HT29 cells, consistent with the reported physiology of WNK kinases in renal electrolyte handling.

  18. Quantitative and Dynamic Imaging of ATM Kinase Activity.

    PubMed

    Nyati, Shyam; Young, Grant; Ross, Brian Dale; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2017-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase critical to the cellular DNA-damage response, including DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). ATM activation results in the initiation of a complex cascade of events facilitating DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint control, and survival. Traditionally, protein kinases have been analyzed in vitro using biochemical methods (kinase assays using purified proteins or immunological assays) requiring a large number of cells and cell lysis. Genetically encoded biosensors based on optical molecular imaging such as fluorescence or bioluminescence have been developed to enable interrogation of kinase activities in live cells with a high signal to background. We have genetically engineered a hybrid protein whose bioluminescent activity is dependent on the ATM-mediated phosphorylation of a substrate. The engineered protein consists of the split luciferase-based protein complementation pair with a CHK2 (a substrate for ATM kinase activity) target sequence and a phospho-serine/threonine-binding domain, FHA2, derived from yeast Rad53. Phosphorylation of the serine residue within the target sequence by ATM would lead to its interaction with the phospho-serine-binding domain, thereby preventing complementation of the split luciferase pair and loss of reporter activity. Bioluminescence imaging of reporter expressing cells in cultured plates or as mouse xenografts provides a quantitative surrogate for ATM kinase activity and therefore the cellular DNA damage response in a noninvasive, dynamic fashion.

  19. Glucose repression may involve processes with different sugar kinase requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, P; Nieto, A; Prieto, J A

    1996-01-01

    Adding glucose to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells growing among nonfermentable carbon sources leads to glucose repression. This process may be resolved into several steps. An early repression response requires any one of the three glucose kinases present in S. cerevisiae (HXK1, HXK2, or GLK1). A late response is only achieved when Hxk2p is present. PMID:8755906

  20. Scaffold mining of kinase hinge binders in crystal structure database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Li; Rai, Brajesh; Lunney, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases are the second most prominent group of drug targets, after G-protein-coupled receptors. Despite their distinct inhibition mechanisms, the majority of kinase inhibitors engage the conserved hydrogen bond interactions with the backbone of hinge residues. We mined Pfizer internal crystal structure database (CSDb) comprising of several thousand of public as well as internal X-ray binary complexes to compile an inclusive list of hinge binding scaffolds. The minimum ring scaffolds with directly attached hetero-atoms and functional groups were extracted from the full compounds by applying a rule-based filtering procedure employing a comprehensive annotation of ATP-binding site of the human kinase complements. The results indicated large number of kinase inhibitors of diverse chemical structures are derived from a relatively small number of common scaffolds, which serve as the critical recognition elements for protein kinase interaction. Out of the nearly 4,000 kinase-inhibitor complexes in the CSDb we identified approximately 600 unique scaffolds. Hinge scaffolds are overwhelmingly flat with very little sp3 characteristics, and are less lipophilic than their corresponding parent compounds. Examples of the most common as well as the uncommon hinge scaffolds are presented. Although the most common scaffolds are found in complex with multiple kinase targets, a large number of them are uniquely bound to a specific kinase, suggesting certain scaffolds could be more promiscuous than the others. The compiled collection of hinge scaffolds along with their three-dimensional binding coordinates could serve as basis set for hinge hopping, a practice frequently employed to generate novel invention as well as to optimize existing leads in medicinal chemistry.

  1. Tec kinase signaling in T cells is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the Tec pleckstrin homology domain.

    PubMed

    Yang, W C; Ching, K A; Tsoukas, C D; Berg, L J

    2001-01-01

    Tec, the prototypical member of the Tec family of tyrosine kinases, is abundantly expressed in T cells and other hemopoietic cell types. Although the functions of Itk and Txk have recently been investigated, little is known about the role of Tec in T cells. Using antisense oligonucleotide treatment to deplete Tec protein from primary T cells, we demonstrate that Tec plays a role in TCR signaling leading to IL-2 gene induction. Interestingly, Tec kinases are the only known family of tyrosine kinases containing a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Using several PH domain mutants overexpressed in Jurkat T cells, we show that the Tec PH domain is required for Tec-mediated IL-2 gene induction and TCR-mediated Tec tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, we show that Tec colocalizes with the TCR after TCR cross-linking, and that both the Tec PH and Src homology (SH) 2 domains play a role in this association. Wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, abolishes Tec-mediated IL-2 gene induction and Tec tyrosine phosphorylation, and partially suppresses Tec colocalization with the activated TCR. Thus, our data implicate the Tec kinase PH domain and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in Tec signaling downstream of the TCR.

  2. The Src family kinases: distinct functions of c-Src, Yes, and Fyn in the liver.

    PubMed

    Reinehr, Roland; Sommerfeld, Annika; Häussinger, Dieter

    2013-04-01

    The Src family kinases Yes, Fyn, and c-Src play a pivotal role in regulating diverse liver functions such as bile flow, proteolysis, apoptosis, and proliferation and are regulated by anisoosmotic cell volume changes, death receptor ligands, and bile acids. For example, cell swelling leads to an integrin-sensed and focal adhesion kinase-mediated activation of c-Src-triggering choleresis, proteolysis inhibition, regulatory volume decrease via p38MAPK and proliferation via the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and extracellular regulated kinases 1 and 2. In contrast, hepatocyte shrinkage generates an almost instantaneous oxidative stress response that triggers the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and the Src family kinases Fyn and Yes. Whereas Fyn activation mediates cholestasis, Yes triggers CD95 activation and apoptosis. This review will discuss the role of Src family kinases in the regulation of liver function with emphasis on their role in osmo-signaling and bile acid signaling.

  3. Kinase inhibition by deoxy analogues of the resorcylic lactone L-783277.

    PubMed

    Liniger, Marc; Neuhaus, Christian; Hofmann, Tatjana; Fransioli-Ignazio, Luca; Jordi, Michel; Drueckes, Peter; Trappe, Jörg; Fabbro, Doriano; Altmann, Karl-Heinz

    2011-01-13

    The natural product L-783277 is a resorcylic lactone type covalent kinase inhibitor. We have prepared the 5'-deoxy analogue of L-783277 (1) in a stereoselective fashion. Remarkably, this analogue retains almost the full kinase inhibitory potential of natural L-783277, with low nanomolar IC50 values against the most sensitive kinases, and it exhibits essentially the same selectivity profile (within the panel of 39 kinases investigated). In contrast, removal of both the 4'- and the 5'-hydroxyl groups leads to a more significant reduction in kinase inhibitory activity and so does a change in the geometry of the C7'-C8' double bond in 1 from Z to E. These findings offer new perspectives for the design of second generation resorcylic lactone-based kinase inhibitors.

  4. Defining mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways with mass spectrometry-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Powell, David W; Pierce, William M; McLeish, Kenneth R

    2005-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases are a group of ubiquitously expressed kinase pathways that have been conserved from yeast through humans. They control a large number of critical cell functions. Identification of targets of those kinases is necessary to define signal transduction pathways that lead to cell responses. The application of a number of mass spectrometry-based techniques to the identification of phosphoproteins is reviewed. A new proteomic approach is described for the identification of the downstream targets of specific kinases that combines phosphorylation of cell lysates in in vitro kinase reactions by active recombinant kinase with protein separation by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE and phosphoprotein identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry or by phosphopeptide enrichment and tandem mass spectrometry. The results suggested that a combination of multiple approaches will be required to fully identify phosphoproteomes. (c) 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Mass Spec Rev 24:847-864, 2005.

  5. Activity and regulation by growth factors of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III (elongation factor 2-kinase) in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Parmer, T G; Ward, M D; Yurkow, E J; Vyas, V H; Kearney, T J; Hait, W N

    1999-01-01

    Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III (CaM kinase III, elongation factor-2 kinase) is a unique member of the Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase family. Activation of CaM kinase III leads to the selective phosphorylation of elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) and transient inhibition of protein synthesis. Recent cloning and sequencing of CaM kinase III revealed that this enzyme represents a new superfamily of protein kinases. The activity of CaM kinase III is selectively activated in proliferating cells; inhibition of the kinase blocked cells in G0/G1-S and decreased viability. To determine the significance of CaM kinase III in breast cancer, we measured the activity of the kinase in human breast cancer cell lines as well as in fresh surgical specimens. The specific activity of CaM kinase III in human breast cancer cell lines was equal to or greater than that seen in a variety of cell lines with similar rates of proliferation. The specific activity of CaM kinase III was markedly increased in human breast tumour specimens compared with that of normal adjacent breast tissue. The activity of this enzyme was regulated by breast cancer mitogens. In serum-deprived MDA-MB-231 cells, the combination of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulated cell proliferation and activated CaM kinase III to activities observed in the presence of 10% serum. Inhibition of enzyme activity blocked cell proliferation induced by growth factors. In MCF-7 cells separated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, CaM kinase III was increased in S-phase over that of other phases of the cell cycle. In summary, the activity of Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase III is controlled by breast cancer mitogens and appears to be constitutively activated in human breast cancer. These results suggest that CaM kinase III may contribute an important link between growth factor/receptor interactions, protein synthesis and the induction of cellular proliferation in human breast

  6. Small molecule modulators of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinases, the key regulators of protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Manali; Kulkarni, Abhijeet; Pal, Jayanta K

    2013-11-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha kinases (eIF-2α kinases) are key mediators of stress response in cells. In mammalian cells, there are four eIF-2α kinases, namely HRI (Heme-Regulated Inhibitor), PKR (RNA-dependent Protein Kinase), PERK (PKR-like ER Kinase) and GCN2 (General Control Non-derepressible 2). These kinases get activated during diverse cytoplasmic stress conditions and phosphorylate the alpha-subunit of eIF2, leading to global protein synthesis inhibition. Therefore, eIF-2α kinases play a vital role in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and cell signaling. Deregulation of eIF-2α kinases and protein synthesis has been linked to numerous pathological conditions such as certain cancers, anemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, modulation of these kinases by small molecules holds a great therapeutic promise. In this review we have compiled the available information on inhibitors and activators of these four eIF-2α kinases. The review concludes with a note on the selectivity issue of currently available modulators and future perspectives for the design of specific small molecule probes.

  7. c-Jun controls the efficiency of MAP kinase signaling by transcriptional repression of MAP kinase phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Sprowles, Amy; Wu Yimi; Kung, H.-J.; Wisdom, Ron . E-mail: ronald.wisdom@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu

    2005-08-15

    The mammalian JNK signaling pathway regulates the transcriptional response of cells to environmental stress, including UV irradiation. This signaling pathway is composed of a classical MAP kinase cascade; activation results in phosphorylation of the transcription factor substrates c-Jun and ATF2, and leads to changes in gene expression. The defining components of this pathway are conserved in the fission yeast S. pombe, where the genetic studies have shown that the ability of the JNK homolog Spc1 to be activated in response to UV irradiation is dependent on the presence of the transcription factor substrate Atf1. We have used genetic analysis to define the role of c-Jun in activation of the mammalian JNK signaling pathway. Our results show that optimal activation of JNK requires the presence of its transcription factor substrate c-Jun. Mutational analysis shows that the ability of c-Jun to support efficient activation of JNK requires the ability of Jun to bind DNA, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism. Consistent with this, we show that c-Jun represses the expression of several MAP kinase phosphatases. In the absence of c-Jun, the increased expression of MAP kinase phosphatases leads to impaired activation of the ERK, JNK, and p38 MAP kinases after pathway activation. The results show that one function of c-Jun is to regulate the efficiency of signaling by the ERK, p38, and JNK MAP kinases, a function that is likely to affect cellular responses to many different stimuli.

  8. Neuronal migration and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the six-layered structure of the mammalian cortex via the inside-out pattern of neuronal migration is fundamental to neocortical functions. Extracellular cues such as Reelin induce intracellular signaling cascades through the protein phosphorylation. Migrating neurons also have intrinsic machineries to regulate cytoskeletal proteins and adhesion properties. Protein phosphorylation regulates these processes. Moreover, the balance between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is modified by extracellular cues. Multipolar-bipolar transition, radial glia-guided locomotion and terminal translocation are critical steps of radial migration of cortical pyramidal neurons. Protein kinases such as Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) involve these steps. In this review, I shall give an overview the roles of protein kinases in neuronal migration. PMID:25628530

  9. Isolation of chloroplastic phosphoglycerate kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Macioszek, J.; Anderson, L.E. ); Anderson, J.B. )

    1990-09-01

    We report here a method for the isolation of high specific activity phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) from chloroplasts. The enzyme has been purified over 200-fold from pea (Pisum sativum L.) stromal extracts to apparent homogeneity with 23% recovery. Negative cooperativity is observed with the two enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase/glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13) couple restored from the purified enzymes when NADPH is the reducing pyridine nucleotide, consistent with earlier results obtained with crude chloroplastic extracts. Michaelis Menten kinetics are observed when 3-phosphoglycerate is held constant and phosphoglycerate kinase is varied, which suggests that phosphoglycerate kinase-bound 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate may be the preferred substrate for glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase in the chloroplast.

  10. PREX1 Protein Function Is Negatively Regulated Downstream of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Activation by p21-activated Kinases (PAKs).

    PubMed

    Barrows, Douglas; He, John Z; Parsons, Ramon

    2016-09-16

    Downstream of receptor tyrosine kinase and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) stimulation, the phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3)-dependent Rac exchange factor (PREX) family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) activates Rho GTPases, leading to important roles for PREX proteins in numerous cellular processes and diseases, including cancer. PREX1 and PREX2 GEF activity is activated by the second messengers PIP3 and Gβγ, and further regulation of PREX GEF activity occurs by phosphorylation. Stimulation of receptor tyrosine kinases by neuregulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) leads to the phosphorylation of PREX1; however, the kinases that phosphorylate PREX1 downstream of these ligands are not known. We recently reported that the p21-activated kinases (PAKs), which are activated by GTP-bound Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), mediate the phosphorylation of PREX2 after insulin receptor activation. Here we show that certain phosphorylation events on PREX1 after insulin, neuregulin, and IGF1 treatment are PAK-dependent and lead to a reduction in PREX1 binding to PIP3 Like PREX2, PAK-mediated phosphorylation also negatively regulates PREX1 GEF activity. Furthermore, the onset of PREX1 phosphorylation was delayed compared with the phosphorylation of AKT, supporting a model of negative feedback downstream of PREX1 activation. We also found that the phosphorylation of PREX1 after isoproterenol and prostaglandin E2-mediated GPCR activation is partially PAK-dependent and likely also involves protein kinase A, which is known to reduce PREX1 function. Our data point to multiple mechanisms of PREX1 negative regulation by PAKs within receptor tyrosine kinase and GPCR-stimulated signaling pathways that have important roles in diseases such as diabetes and cancer.

  11. CUL3 and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Thibaud; Kleiss, Charlotte; Sumara, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    Posttranslational mechanisms drive fidelity of cellular processes. Phosphorylation and ubiquitination of substrates represent very common, covalent, posttranslational modifications and are often co-regulated. Phosphorylation may play a critical role both by directly regulating E3-ubiquitin ligases and/or by ensuring specificity of the ubiquitination substrate. Importantly, many kinases are not only critical regulatory components of these pathways but also represent themselves the direct ubiquitination substrates. Recent data suggest the role of CUL3-based ligases in both proteolytic and non-proteolytic regulation of protein kinases. Our own recent study identified the mitotic kinase PLK1 as a direct target of the CUL3 E3-ligase complex containing BTB-KELCH adaptor protein KLHL22.1 In this study, we aim at gaining mechanistic insights into CUL3-mediated regulation of the substrates, in particular protein kinases, by analyzing mechanisms of interaction between KLHL22 and PLK1. We find that kinase activity of PLK1 is redundant for its targeting for CUL3-ubiquitination. Moreover, CUL3/KLHL22 may contact 2 distinct motifs within PLK1 protein, consistent with the bivalent mode of substrate targeting found in other CUL3-based complexes. We discuss these findings in the context of the existing knowledge on other protein kinases and substrates targeted by CUL3-based E3-ligases. PMID:24067371

  12. Benzimidazole derivatives as kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Garuti, Laura; Roberti, Marinella; Bottegoni, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Benzimidazole is a common kinase inhibitor scaffold and benzimidazole-based compounds interact with enzymes by multiple binding modes. In some cases, the benzimidazole acts as part of the hinge-binding motif, in others it has a scaffolding role without evidence for direct hinge binding. Several of these compounds are ATP-competitive inhibitors and show high selectivity by exploiting unique structural properties that distinguish one kinase from the majority of other kinases. However, the high specificity for a single target is not always sufficient. Thus another approach, called multi-target therapy, has been developed over the last few years. The simultaneous inhibition of various kinases may be useful because the disease is attacked at several relevant targets. Moreover, if a kinase becomes drug-resistant, a multitargeted drug can act on the other kinases. Some benzimidazole derivatives are multi-target inhibitors. In this article benzimidazole inhibitors are reported with their mechanisms of action, structure-activity relationship (SAR) and biological properties.

  13. Functional Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Arbiser, Jack L.; Govindarajan, Baskaran; Bai, Xianhe; Onda, Hiroaki; Kazlauskas, Andrius; Lim, So Dug; Amin, Mahul B.; Claesson-Welsh, Lena

    2002-01-01

    Tumors often exhibit activation of specific tyrosine kinases, which may allow targeting of therapy through inhibition of tyrosine kinase signaling. This strategy has been used successfully in the development of STI571 (gleevec), an inhibitor of bcr-abl tyrosine kinase that has been used successfully in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. STI571 also shows activity against c-kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ) tyrosine kinase signaling, thus potentially expanding the number of tumors that may respond to it. We describe a simple and rapid method to assess functional activity of tyrosine kinase signaling that is broadly applicable to tumor types. As proof of principle, we have applied it to cells that serve as models of the autosomal-dominant tumor syndrome tuberous sclerosis (TS). We found that TS model cells derived from tuberin heterozygous mice and from a human renal angiomyolipoma are highly sensitive to PDGFR antagonists and that these cells express PDGFRβ. Given that PDGFRβ signaling is inhibited by STI571, we found that SV7tert human angiomyolipoma cells are sensitive to STI571. Thus, we describe a novel but simple method of determining the functional tyrosine kinase profile of a neoplastic cell and our results suggest that STI571 might be useful in the treatment of neoplasms commonly seen in patients with TS. PMID:12213705

  14. The protein kinase C family.

    PubMed

    Azzi, A; Boscoboinik, D; Hensey, C

    1992-09-15

    Protein kinase C represents a structurally homologous group of proteins similar in size, structure and mechanism of activation. They can modulate the biological function of proteins in a rapid and reversible manner. Protein kinase C participates in one of the major signal transduction systems triggered by the external stimulation of cells by various ligands including hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors. Hydrolysis of membrane inositol phospholipids by phospholipase C or of phosphatidylcholine, generates sn-1,2-diacylglycerol, considered the physiological activator of this kinase. Other agents, such as arachidonic acid, participate in the activation of some of these proteins. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters and related compounds is not physiological and may be responsible, at least in part, for their tumor-promoting activity. The cellular localization of the different calcium-activated protein kinases, their substrate and activator specificity are dissimilar and thus their role in signal transduction is unlike. A better understanding of the exact cellular function of the different protein kinase C isoenzymes requires the identification and characterization of their physiological substrates.

  15. TNF and MAP kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sabio, Guadalupe; Davis, Roger J.

    2014-01-01

    The binding of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) to cell surface receptors engages multiple signal transduction pathways, including three groups of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases: extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); the cJun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs); and the p38 MAP kinases. These MAP kinase signalling pathways induce a secondary response by increasing the expression of several inflammatory cytokines (including TNFα) that contribute to the biological activity of TNFα. MAP kinases therefore function both upstream and down-stream of signalling by TNFα receptors. Here we review mechanisms that mediate these actions of MAP kinases during the response to TNFα. PMID:24647229

  16. Overcoming Resistance to Inhibitors of the Akt Protein Kinase by Modulation of the Pim Kinase Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    kinase . This grant proposal will explore the resistance to small molecule AKT protein kinase inhibitors mediated by the... molecule AKT protein kinase inhibitors is potentially mediated by the Pim-1 protein kinase , and that unique Pim protein kinase inhibitors that can in...application is essential for the development of this combined chemotherapeutic strategy. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Small Molecule AKT Inhibitors ,

  17. Cycloheximide-induced activation of mouse eggs: effects on cdc2/cyclin B and MAP kinase activities.

    PubMed

    Moos, J; Kopf, G S; Schultz, R M

    1996-04-01

    Fertilization of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs results in resumption of meiosis and a decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities; the decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity precedes the decrease in MAP kinase activity. Cycloheximide treatment of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs also results in resumption of meiosis but bypasses the fertilization-induced Ca2+ transient. However, it is not known if cycloheximide treatment results in the same temporal changes in cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that are intimately associated with resumption of meiosis. We report that cycloheximide-treated mouse eggs manifest similar temporal changes in the decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that occur following fertilization, although cortical granule exocytosis is not stimulated. The decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity, however, does not seem to be required for the decrease in MAP kinase activity, since the decrease in MAP kinase activity still occurs in cycloheximide-treated eggs that are also incubated in the presence of nocodazole, which inhibits cyclin B degradation and hence the decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase. Following removal of these drugs, cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity remains high, MAP kinase activity increases to levels similar to that in the metaphase II-arrested eggs, and a spindle(s) forms with the chromosomes aligned on a metaphase plate. Results of these experiments suggest that some other protein with a relatively short half-life, e.g. cmos, a known upstream activator of MAP kinase, may be responsible for events leading to the decrease in MAP kinase activity.

  18. Lead - nutritional considerations

    MedlinePlus

    Lead poisoning - nutritional considerations; Toxic metal - nutritional considerations ... utensils . Old paint poses the greatest danger for lead poisoning , especially in young children. Tap water from lead ...

  19. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Diabetes: A Novel Treatment Paradigm?

    PubMed

    Fountas, Athanasios; Diamantopoulos, Leonidas-Nikolaos; Tsatsoulis, Agathocles

    2015-11-01

    Deregulation of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity is implicated in various proliferative conditions. Multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are increasingly used for the treatment of different malignancies. Recently, several clinical cases of the reversal of both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, T2DM) during TKI administration have been reported. Experimental in vivo and in vitro studies have elucidated some of the mechanisms behind this effect. For example, inhibition of Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) results in β cell survival and enhanced insulin secretion, while platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition leads to improvement in insulin sensitivity. In addition, inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) reduces the degree of islet cell inflammation (insulitis). Therefore, targeting several PTKs may provide a novel approach for correcting the pathophysiologic disturbances of diabetes.

  20. Signal transduction at fertilization: the Ca2+ release pathway in echinoderms and other invertebrate deuterostomes.

    PubMed

    Townley, Ian K; Roux, Michelle M; Foltz, Kathy R

    2006-04-01

    Gamete interaction and fusion triggers a number of events that lead to egg activation and development of a new organism. A key event at fertilization is the rise in intracellular calcium. In deuterostomes, this calcium is released from the egg's endoplasmic reticulum and is necessary for proper activation. This article reviews recent data regarding how gamete interaction triggers the initial calcium release, focusing on the echinoderms (invertebrate deuterostomes) as model systems. In eggs of these animals, Src-type kinases and phospholipase C-gamma are required components of the initial calcium trigger pathway in eggs.

  1. Src-family-tyrosine kinase Lyn is critical for TLR2-mediated NF-κB activation through the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Toubiana, Julie; Rossi, Anne-Lise; Belaidouni, Nadia; Grimaldi, David; Pene, Frederic; Chafey, Philippe; Comba, Béatrice; Camoin, Luc; Bismuth, Georges; Claessens, Yann-Erick; Mira, Jean-Paul; Chiche, Jean-Daniel

    2015-10-01

    TLR2 has a prominent role in host defense against a wide variety of pathogens. Stimulation of TLR2 triggers MyD88-dependent signaling to induce NF-κB translocation, and activates a Rac1-PI 3-kinase dependent pathway that leads to transactivation of NF-κB through phosphorylation of the P65 NF-κB subunit. This transactivation pathway involves tyrosine phosphorylations. The role of the tyrosine kinases in TLR signaling is controversial, with discrepancies between studies using only chemical inhibitors and knockout mice. Here, we show the involvement of the tyrosine-kinase Lyn in TLR2-dependent activation of NF-κB in human cellular models, by using complementary inhibition strategies. Stimulation of TLR2 induces the formation of an activation cluster involving TLR2, CD14, PI 3-kinase and Lyn, and leads to the activation of AKT. Lyn-dependent phosphorylation of the p110 catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase is essential to the control of PI 3-kinase biological activity upstream of AKT and thereby to the transactivation of NF-κB. Thus, Lyn kinase activity is crucial in TLR2-mediated activation of the innate immune response in human mononuclear cells.

  2. Simultaneous inhibition assay for human and microbial kinases via MALDI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anne Marie E; Brennan, John D

    2014-03-03

    Selective inhibition of one kinase over another is a critical issue in drug development. For antimicrobial development, it is particularly important to selectively inhibit bacterial kinases, which can phosphorylate antimicrobial compounds such as aminoglycosides, without affecting human kinases. Previous work from our group showed the development of a MALDI-MS/MS assay for the detection of small molecule modulators of the bacterial aminoglycoside kinase APH3'IIIa. Herein, we demonstrate the development of an enhanced kinase MALDI-MS/MS assay involving simultaneous assaying of two kinase reactions, one for APH3'IIIa, and the other for human protein kinase A (PKA), which leads to an output that provides direct information on selectivity and mechanism of action. Specificity of the respective enzyme substrates were verified, and the assay was validated through generation of Z'-factors of 0.55 for APH3'IIIa with kanamycin and 0.60 for PKA with kemptide. The assay was used to simultaneously screen a kinase-directed library of mixtures of ten compounds each against both enzymes, leading to the identification of selective inhibitors for each enzyme as well as one non-selective inhibitor following mixture deconvolution.

  3. Casein Kinase 1 Functions as both Penultimate and Ultimate Kinase in Regulating Cdc25A Destruction

    PubMed Central

    Honaker, Yuchi; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

    2010-01-01

    The Cdc25A protein phosphatase drives cell cycle transitions by activating cyclin-dependent protein kinases. Failure to regulate Cdc25A leads to deregulated cell cycle progression, bypass of cell cycle checkpoints and genome instability. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis plays an important role in balancing Cdc25A levels. Cdc25A contains a DS82G motif whose phosphorylation is targeted by β-TrCP E3 ligase during interphase. Targeting of β-TrCP to Cdc25A requires phosphorylation of serines 79 (S79) and 82 (S82). Here, we report that casein kinase 1 alpha (CK1α) phosphorylates Cdc25A on both S79 and S82 in a hierarchical manner requiring prior phosphorylation of serine 76 by Chk1 or GSK-3β. This facilitates β-TrCP binding and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of Cdc25A throughout interphase and following exposure to genotoxic stress. The priming of Cdc25A by at least three kinases (Chk1, GSK-3β, CK1α), some of which also require priming, ensures diverse extra- and intra-cellular signals interface with Cdc25A to precisely control cell division. PMID:20348946

  4. Improving nucleoside diphosphate kinase for antiviral nucleotide analogs activation.

    PubMed

    Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah; Schneider, Benoit; Chen, Yuxing; Giacomoni-Fernandes, Veronique; Mulard, Laurence; Morera, Solange; Janin, Joel; Deville-Bonne, Dominique; Veron, Michel

    2002-10-18

    Antiviral nucleoside analog therapies rely on their incorporation by viral DNA polymerases/reverse transcriptase leading to chain termination. The analogs (3'-deoxy-3'-azidothymidine (AZT), 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (d4T), and other dideoxynucleosides) are sequentially converted into triphosphate by cellular kinases of the nucleoside salvage pathway and are often poor substrates of these enzymes. Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase phosphorylates the diphosphate derivatives of the analogs with an efficiency some 10(4) lower than for its natural substrates. Kinetic and structural studies of Dictyostelium and human NDP kinases show that the sugar 3'-OH, absent from all antiviral analogs, is required for catalysis. To improve the catalytic efficiency of NDP kinase on the analogs, we engineered several mutants with a protein OH group replacing the sugar 3'-OH. The substitution of Asn-115 in Ser and Leu-55 in His results in an NDP kinase mutant with an enhanced ability to phosphorylate antiviral derivatives. Transfection of the mutant enzyme in Escherichia coli results in an increased sensitivity to AZT. An x-ray structure at 2.15-A resolution of the Dictyostelium enzyme bearing the serine substitution in complex with the R(p)-alpha-borano-triphosphate derivative of AZT shows that the enhanced activity reflects an improved geometry of binding and a favorable interaction of the 3'-azido group with the engineered serine.

  5. Chloride sensing by WNK1 kinase involves inhibition of autophosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Piala, Alexander T.; Moon, Thomas M.; Akella, Radha; He, Haixia; Cobb, Melanie H.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    WNK1 [with no lysine (K)] is a serine-threonine kinase associated with a form of familial hypertension. WNK1 is at the top of a kinase cascade leading to phosphorylation of several cotransporters, in particular those transporting sodium, potassium, and chloride (NKCC), sodium and chloride (NCC), and potassium and chloride (KCC). The responsiveness of NKCC, NCC, and KCC to changes in extracellular chloride parallels their phosphorylation state, provoking the proposal that these transporters are controlled by a chloride-sensitive protein kinase. Here, we found that chloride stabilizes the inactive conformation of WNK1, preventing kinase autophosphorylation and activation. Crystallographic studies of inactive WNK1 in the presence of chloride revealed that chloride binds directly to the catalytic site, providing a basis for the unique position of the catalytic lysine. Mutagenesis of the chloride binding site rendered the kinase less sensitive to inhibition of autophosphorylation by chloride, validating the binding site. Thus, these data suggest that WNK1 functions as a chloride sensor through direct binding of a regulatory chloride ion to the active site, which inhibits autophosphorylation. PMID:24803536

  6. Lead aVR--the neglected lead.

    PubMed

    Chenniappan, M; Sankar, R Uday; Saravanan, K; Karthikeyan

    2013-09-01

    The aVR is often neglected lead. It is an unipolar lead facing the right superior surface. As all the depolarisations are going away from lead aVR, all waves are negative in aVR (P, QRS, T) in normal sinus rhythm. In dextrocardia, (True and technical) the p is upright in aVR. The lead aVR is a very important lead in localisation of Coronary Artery Disease. In the presence of anterior ST elevation, ST elevation in lead aVR and V1 denotes proximal LAD obstruction where ST elevation is more in lead V1, than in aVR. In the presence of anterior ST depression, ST elevation in lead aVR indicates Left Main Coronary Artery (LMCA) Disease where ST elevation is more in aVR than in V1. In wide QRS tachycardia, tall R wave in aVR indicates Ventricular Tachycardia rather than SVT with aberrancy. In the presence of QS complexes in inferior leads, the lead aVR helps to differentiate between inferior wall MI (IWMI) and left anterior fascicular block (LAFB). Initial R in aVR is suggestive of IWMI and terminal R is suggestive of LAFB. In pericarditis, lead aVR is most often the only lead which shows reciprocal ST depression where as in Acute Infarction, usually a group of leads shows reciprocal depression. In the presence of persistent ST elevation in anterior chest leads, the R in aVR is suggestive of left ventricular aneurysm (Goldburger's sign). In acute pulmonary embolism, ST elevation in lead aVR is a bad prognostic sign. In Tricyclic antidepressant toxicity, R in aVR more than 3 mm is an adverse prognostic sign. So in variety of conditions, the aVR is proved to be a valuable lead not only in diagnosis but also in predicting the prognosis.

  7. Lead levels - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Blood lead levels ... is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children ... also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working. Lead is common in the ...

  8. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  9. Learn about Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Environment . Top of page What are the Health Effects of Lead? Lead can affect almost every organ ... both men and women) Read more on the health effects of lead EPA’s Integrated Science Assessment for Lead ...

  10. AG-348 enhances pyruvate kinase activity in red blood cells from patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kung, Charles; Hixon, Jeff; Kosinski, Penelope A; Cianchetta, Giovanni; Histen, Gavin; Chen, Yue; Hill, Collin; Gross, Stefan; Si, Yaguang; Johnson, Kendall; DeLaBarre, Byron; Luo, Zhiyong; Gu, Zhiwei; Yao, Gui; Tang, Huachun; Fang, Cheng; Xu, Yingxia; Lv, Xiaobing; Biller, Scott; Su, Shin-San Michael; Yang, Hua; Popovici-Muller, Janeta; Salituro, Francesco; Silverman, Lee; Dang, Lenny

    2017-09-14

    Pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency is a rare genetic disease that causes chronic hemolytic anemia. There are currently no targeted therapies for PK deficiency. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of AG-348, an allosteric activator of PK that is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of PK deficiency. We demonstrate that AG-348 can increase the activity of wild-type and mutant PK enzymes in biochemical assays and in patient red blood cells treated ex vivo. These data illustrate the potential for AG-348 to restore the glycolytic pathway activity in patients with PK deficiency and ultimately lead to clinical benefit. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  11. AG-348 enhances pyruvate kinase activity in red blood cells from patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hixon, Jeff; Kosinski, Penelope A.; Cianchetta, Giovanni; Histen, Gavin; Chen, Yue; Hill, Collin; Gross, Stefan; Si, Yaguang; Johnson, Kendall; DeLaBarre, Byron; Luo, Zhiyong; Gu, Zhiwei; Yao, Gui; Tang, Huachun; Fang, Cheng; Xu, Yingxia; Lv, Xiaobing; Biller, Scott; Su, Shin-San Michael; Yang, Hua; Popovici-Muller, Janeta; Salituro, Francesco; Silverman, Lee; Dang, Lenny

    2017-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency is a rare genetic disease that causes chronic hemolytic anemia. There are currently no targeted therapies for PK deficiency. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of AG-348, an allosteric activator of PK that is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of PK deficiency. We demonstrate that AG-348 can increase the activity of wild-type and mutant PK enzymes in biochemical assays and in patient red blood cells treated ex vivo. These data illustrate the potential for AG-348 to restore the glycolytic pathway activity in patients with PK deficiency and ultimately lead to clinical benefit. PMID:28760888

  12. Discovering the first tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In the middle of the 20th century, animal tumor viruses were heralded as possible models for understanding human cancer. By the mid-1970s, the molecular basis by which tumor viruses transform cells into a malignant state was beginning to emerge as the first viral genomic sequences were reported and the proteins encoded by their transforming genes were identified and characterized. This was a time of great excitement and rapid progress. In 1978, prompted by the discovery from Ray Erikson’s group that the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) v-Src–transforming protein had an associated protein kinase activity specific for threonine, my group at the Salk Institute set out to determine whether the polyomavirus middle T-transforming protein had a similar kinase activity. Here, I describe the experiments that led to the identification of a kinase activity associated with middle T antigen and our serendipitous discovery that this activity was specific for tyrosine in vitro, and how this in turn led to the fortuitous observation that the v-Src–associated kinase activity was also specific for tyrosine. Our finding that v-Src increased the level of phosphotyrosine in cellular proteins in RSV-transformed cells confirmed that v-Src is a tyrosine kinase and transforms cells by phosphorylating proteins on tyrosine. My colleague Bart Sefton and I reported these findings in the March issue of PNAS in 1980. Remarkably, all of the experiments in this paper were accomplished in less than one month. PMID:26130799

  13. Discovering the first tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Tony

    2015-06-30

    In the middle of the 20th century, animal tumor viruses were heralded as possible models for understanding human cancer. By the mid-1970s, the molecular basis by which tumor viruses transform cells into a malignant state was beginning to emerge as the first viral genomic sequences were reported and the proteins encoded by their transforming genes were identified and characterized. This was a time of great excitement and rapid progress. In 1978, prompted by the discovery from Ray Erikson's group that the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) v-Src-transforming protein had an associated protein kinase activity specific for threonine, my group at the Salk Institute set out to determine whether the polyomavirus middle T-transforming protein had a similar kinase activity. Here, I describe the experiments that led to the identification of a kinase activity associated with middle T antigen and our serendipitous discovery that this activity was specific for tyrosine in vitro, and how this in turn led to the fortuitous observation that the v-Src-associated kinase activity was also specific for tyrosine. Our finding that v-Src increased the level of phosphotyrosine in cellular proteins in RSV-transformed cells confirmed that v-Src is a tyrosine kinase and transforms cells by phosphorylating proteins on tyrosine. My colleague Bart Sefton and I reported these findings in the March issue of PNAS in 1980. Remarkably, all of the experiments in this paper were accomplished in less than one month.

  14. WNK kinases and essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chou-Long; Kuo, Elizabeth; Toto, Robert D

    2008-03-01

    The present review summarizes recent literature and discusses the potential roles of WNKs in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. WNKs (with-no-lysine [K]) are a recently discovered family of serine-threonine protein kinases with unusual protein kinase domains. The role of WNK kinases in the control of blood pressure was first revealed by the findings that mutations of two members, WNK1 and WNK4, cause Gordon's syndrome. Laboratory studies have revealed that WNK kinases play important roles in the regulation of sodium and potassium transport. Animal models have been created to unravel the pathophysiology of sodium transport disorders caused by mutations of the WNK4 gene. Potassium deficiency causes sodium retention and increases hypertension prevalence. The expression of WNK1 is upregulated by potassium deficiency, raising the possibility that WNK1 may contribute to salt-sensitive essential hypertension associated with potassium deficiency. Associations of polymorphisms of WNK genes with essential hypertension in the general population have been reported. Mutations of WNK1 and WNK4 cause hypertension at least partly by increasing renal sodium retention. The role of WNK kinases in salt-sensitive hypertension within general hypertension is suggested, but future work is required to firmly establish the connection.

  15. Endothelial Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 Is Critical for Lymphatic Vascular Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chang-An; Danai, Laura V.; Yawe, Joseph C.; Gujja, Sharvari; Edwards, Yvonne J. K.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying lymphatic vascular development and function are not well understood. Recent studies have suggested a role for endothelial cell (EC) mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) in developmental angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. Here, we show that constitutive loss of EC Map4k4 in mice causes postnatal lethality due to chylothorax, suggesting that Map4k4 is required for normal lymphatic vascular function. Mice constitutively lacking EC Map4k4 displayed dilated lymphatic capillaries, insufficient lymphatic valves, and impaired lymphatic flow; furthermore, primary ECs derived from these animals displayed enhanced proliferation compared with controls. Yeast 2-hybrid analyses identified the Ras GTPase-activating protein Rasa1, a known regulator of lymphatic development and lymphatic endothelial cell fate, as a direct interacting partner for Map4k4. Map4k4 silencing in ECs enhanced basal Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activities, and primary ECs lacking Map4k4 displayed enhanced lymphatic EC marker expression. Taken together, these results reveal that EC Map4k4 is critical for lymphatic vascular development by regulating EC quiescence and lymphatic EC fate. PMID:27044870

  16. Aurora kinase A is a possible target of OSU‑03012 to destabilize MYC family proteins.

    PubMed

    Silva, Andres; Wang, Jennie; Lomahan, Sarah; Tran, Tuan-Anh; Grenlin, Laura; Suganami, Akiko; Tamura, Yutaka; Ikegaki, Naohiko

    2014-09-01

    OSU-03012, a 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) inhibitor, destabilizes MYCN and MYC proteins in neuroblastoma cells. However, AKT phosphorylation is barely detectable in neuroblastoma cells under normal culture conditions whether treated with OSU-03012 or not. This observation suggests that PDK1 is not the main target of OSU-03012 to destabilize MYC and MYCN in neuroblastoma cells. In the present study, we explored one of the possible mechanisms by which OSU-03012 destabilizes MYC and MYCN. Since Aurora kinase A is reported to phosphorylate GSK3β, leading to its inactivation, we hypothesized that one of the targets of OSU-03012 is Aurora kinase A. Comparative analysis of OSU-03012 and VX-680, a potent and specific inhibitor of Aurora kinases, showed that both inhibitors destabilized MYC and MYCN and were significantly growth suppressive to neuroblastoma cell lines. In silico molecular docking analysis further showed that the calculated interaction energy between Aurora kinase A and OSU-03012 was -109.901 kcal/mol, which was lower than that (-89.273 kcal/mol) between Aurora kinase A and FXG, an Aurora kinase-specific inhibitor. Finally, an in vitro Aurora kinase A inhibition assay using a recombinant Aurora kinase A showed that OSU-03012 significantly inhibited Aurora kinase A, although it was weaker in potency than that of VX-680. Thus, OSU-03012 has a likelihood of binding to and inhibiting Aurora kinase A in vivo. These results suggest that OSU-03012 affects multiple cellular targets, including Aurora kinase A, to exhibit its growth suppressive and MYC and MYCN-destabilizing effects on neuroblastoma and other cancer cells.

  17. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Anish; Rajan, Arun; Giaccone, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS ‘Driver mutations’ are essential for carcinogenesis as well as tumor progression as they confer a selective growth advantage to cancer cells. Identification of driver mutations in growth related protein kinases, especially tyrosine kinases have led to clinical development of an array of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in various malignancies, including lung cancer. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinases have proven to be of meaningful clinical benefit, while inhibition of several other tyrosine kinases have been of limited clinical benefit, thus far. An improved understanding of tyrosine kinase biology has also led to faster drug development, identification of resistance mechanisms and ways to overcome resistance. In this review, we discuss the clinical data supporting the use and practical aspects of management of patients on epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:22520981

  18. The role of MAP2 kinases and p38 kinase in acute murine liver injury models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Min, Robert W M; Le, Khanh; Zhou, Sheng; Aghajan, Mariam; Than, Tin A; Win, Sanda; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2017-06-29

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mediates hepatotoxicity through interaction of its phospho-activated form with a mitochondrial outer membrane protein, Sh3bp5 or Sab, leading to dephosphorylation of intermembrane Src and consequent impaired mitochondrial respiration and enhanced ROS release. ROS production from mitochondria activates MAP3 kinases, such as MLK3 and ASK1, which continue to activate a pathway to sustain JNK activation, and amplifies the toxic effect of acetaminophen (APAP) and TNF/galactosamine (TNF/GalN). Downstream of MAP3K, in various contexts MKK4 activates both JNK and p38 kinases and MKK7 activates only JNK. The relative role of MKK4 versus 7 in liver injury is largely unexplored, as is the potential role of p38 kinase, which might be a key mediator of toxicity in addition to JNK. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) to MKK4, MKK7 and p38 (versus scrambled control) were used for in vivo knockdown, and in some experiments PMH were used after in vivo knockdown. Mice were treated with APAP or TNF/GalN and injury assessed. MKK4 and MKK7 were expressed in liver and each was efficiently knocked down with two different ASOs. Massive liver injury and ALT elevation were abrogated by MKK4 but not MKK7 ASO pretreatment in both injury models. The protection was confirmed in PMH. Knockdown of MKK4 completely inhibited basal P-p38 in both cytoplasm and mitochondria. However, ALT levels and histologic injury in APAP-treated mice were not altered with p38 knockdown versus scrambled control. p38 knockdown significantly increased P-JNK levels in cytoplasm but not mitochondria after APAP treatment. In conclusion, MKK4 is the major MAP2K, which activates JNK in acute liver injury. p38, the other downstream target of MKK4, does not contribute to liver injury from APAP or TNF/galactosamine.

  19. Lead in petrol. The isotopic lead experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Facchetti, S. )

    1989-10-01

    Many studies were dedicated to the evaluation of the impact of automotive lead on the environment and to the assessment of its absorption in the human population. They can be subdivided into two groups, those based on changes of air and blood lead concentrations and those based on changes of air and blood lead isotopic compositions. According to various authors, 50-66% of the lead added to petrol is mobilized in the atmosphere, while most of the remainder adheres to the walls of the exhaust system from which it is expelled by mechanical and thermal shocks in the forms of easily sedimented particles. The fraction directly emitted by engine exhaust fumes is found in the form of fine particles, which can be transferred a long way from the emitting sources. However important the contribution of petrol lead to the total airborne lead may be, our knowledge does not permit a straightforward calculation of the percentage of petrol lead in total blood lead, which of course can also originate from other sources (e.g., industrial, natural). To evaluate this percentage in 1973, the idea of the Isotopic Lead Experiment (ILE project) was conceived to label, on a regional scale, petrol with a nonradioactive lead of an isotopic composition sufficiently different from that of background lead and sufficiently stable in time. This Account summarizes the main results obtained by the ILE project.

  20. Bone lead, hypertension, and lead nephropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Wedeen, R.P.

    1988-06-01

    There is considerable clinical evidence that excessive lead absorption causes renal failure with hypertension and predisposes individuals to hypertension even in the absence of detectable renal failure. Recent analyses of transiliac bone biopsies indicate that unsuspected elevated bone leads may reflect the cause (or contributing cause) of end-stage renal disease in 5% of the European dialysis population. In these patients, bone lead levels were four times higher than in unexposed cadavers (6 micrograms/g wet weight) and approximated levels found in lead workers (30 micrograms/g). At present, the most reliable index of the body lead burden is the CaNa2 EDTA lead mobilization test. In vivo tibial X-ray-induced X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a more practical noninvasive technique for assessing bone lead, which should find widespread application as a diagnostic tool and for epidemiologic studies.

  1. The discovery of novel vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases inhibitors: pharmacophore modeling, virtual screening and docking studies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Wang, Zhanli; Zhang, Liangren; Zhang, Jufeng; Huang, Qian

    2007-03-01

    We have applied pharmacophore generation, database searching and docking methodologies to discover new structures for the design of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, the tyrosine kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase inhibitors. The chemical function based pharmacophore models were built for kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase inhibitors from a set of 10 known inhibitors using the algorithm HipHop, which is implemented in the CATALYST software. The highest scoring HipHop model consists of four features: one hydrophobic, one hydrogen bond acceptor, one hydrogen bond donor and one ring aromatic function. Using the algorithm CatShape within CATALYST, the bound conformation of 4-amino-furo [2, 3-d] pyrimidine binding to kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase was used to generate a shape query. A merged shape and hypothesis query that is in an appropriate alignment was then built. The combined shape and hypothesis model was used as a query to search Maybridge database for other potential lead compounds. A total of 39 compounds were retrieved as hits. The hits obtained were docked into kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase active site. One novel potential lead was proposed based on CATALYST fit value, LigandFit docking scores, and examination of how the hit retain key interactions known to be required for kinase binding. This compound inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor stimulated kinase insert domain-containing receptor phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  2. Effect of Flos carthami on stress-activated protein kinase activity in the isolated reperfused rat heart.

    PubMed

    Siow, Y L; Choy, P C; Leung, W M; O, K

    2000-04-01

    The apoptotic death of cardiomyocytes due to ischemia/reperfusion is one of the major complications of heart disease. Ischemia/reperfusion has been shown to lead to the activation of the stress-activated protein (SAP) kinases and the p38/reactivating kinase (p38/RK). In this study, the direct effect of an aqueous Flos carthami (FC) extract on SAP kinases was investigated. When isolated rat hearts were perfused by Langendorff mode with media containing FC extract prior to the induction of global ischemia and the subsequent reperfusion, SAP kinase activity was inhibited 95%. Untreated ischemic/reperfused hearts showed a 57% elevation in the activity of SAP kinase. The in vitro effect of these FC extracts on SAP kinase was also tested. At a concentration of 10 microg/ml, the aqueous FC extract resulted in 50% inhibition of SAP kinase activity in ischemic heart tissue. Our results showed that FC affected both the interaction of SAP kinase with c-jun as well as the phosphotransferase reaction. These results clearly demonstrate that extracts from Flos carthami exerted inhibitory effects on SAP kinase. The administration of the FC extract may lead to a modulation of the apoptotic effect of SAP kinase activation induced during ischemia/reperfusion.

  3. Differential regulation of rice mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MKK) by abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kundan; Rao, Kudupudi Prabhakara; Sharma, Pallavi; Sinha, Alok Krishna

    2008-10-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinase cascade plays a crucial role in various biotic and abiotic stresses, hormones, cell division and developmental processes. MAP kinase kinase being integral part of this cascade performs an important function of integrating upstream signals to mitogen activated protein kinase for further appropriate cellular responses. We here report cloning of five MAP kinase kinase members from Oryza sativa indica cultivar var. Pusa Basmati 1, namely MAP kinase kinases 1, 3, 4, 6 and 10-2. All these members, except MKK10-2 possess fully canonical motif structures of MAP kinase kinase. The deduced amino acid sequence showed changes at certain position within japonica and indica variety of rice. Analysis of transcript regulation by quantitative real time PCR revealed that these five members are differentially regulated by cold, heat, salinity and drought stresses. MAP kinase kinases 4 and 6 are strongly regulated by cold and salt stresses while MAP kinase kinase 1 is regulated by salt and drought stresses. MAP kinase kinase 10-2 is regulated only by cold stress. The study provides the indication of involvement of specific MAP kinase kinase in different abiotic stress signaling and also possible cross talks that exist during the signaling processes.

  4. Protein kinase C activity in boar sperm.

    PubMed

    Teijeiro, J M; Marini, P E; Bragado, M J; Garcia-Marin, L J

    2017-03-01

    Male germ cells undergo different processes within the female reproductive tract to successfully fertilize the oocyte. These processes are triggered by different extracellular stimuli leading to activation of protein phosphorylation. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a key regulatory enzyme in signal transduction mechanisms involved in many cellular processes. Studies in boar sperm demonstrated a role for PKC in the intracellular signaling involved in motility and cellular volume regulation. Experiments using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) showed increases in the Serine/Threonine phosphorylation of substrates downstream of PKC in boar sperm. In order to gain knowledge about those cellular processes regulated by PKC, we evaluate the effects of PMA on boar sperm motility, lipid organization of plasma membrane, integrity of acrosome membrane and sperm agglutination. Also, we investigate the crosstalk between PKA and PKC intracellular pathways in spermatozoa from this species. The results presented here reveal a participation of PKC in sperm motility regulation and membrane fluidity changes, which is probably associated to acrosome reaction and to agglutination. Also, we show the existence of a hierarchy in the kinases pathway. Previous works on boar sperm suggest a pathway in which PKA is positioned upstream to PKC and this new results support such model.

  5. Bimodal lipid substrate dependence of phosphatidylinositol kinase.

    PubMed

    Ganong, B R

    1990-07-24

    Phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase activity was solubilized from rat liver microsomes and partially purified by chromatography on hydroxyapatite and Reactive Green 19-Superose. Examination of the ATP dependence using a mixed micellar assay gave a Km of 120 microM. The dependence of reaction rate on PI was more complicated. PI kinase bound a large amount of Triton X-100, and as expected for a micelle-associated enzyme utilizing a micelle-associated lipid substrate, the reaction rate was dependent on the micellar mole fraction, PI/(PI + Triton X-100), with a Km of 0.02 (unitless). Activity showed an additional dependence on bulk PI concentration at high micelle dilution. These results demonstrated two kinetically distinguishable steps leading to formation of a productive PI/enzyme(/ATP) complex. The rate of the first step, which probably represents exchange of PI from the bulk micellar pool into enzyme-containing micelles, depends on bulk PI concentration. The rate of the second step, association of PI with enzyme within a single micelle, depends on the micellar mole fraction of PI. Depression of the apparent Vmax at low ionic strength suggested that electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged PI/Triton X-100 mixed micelles inhibits PI exchange, consistent with a model in which intermicellar PI exchange depends on micellar collisions.

  6. Evolutionary hypothesis of the Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vuch, J; Marcuzzi, A; Bianco, A M; Tommasini, A; Zanin, V; Crovella, S

    2013-01-01

    Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency (MKD) is an autosomal-recessively inherited disorder of cholesterol biosynthesis with higher prevalence in the Netherlands and other North European countries. MKD is due to mutations in the second enzyme of mevalonate pathway (mevalonate kinase, MK/MVK) which results in reduced enzymatic activity and in the consequent shortage of downstream compounds. In most severe cases the deregulation of mevalonate pathway is associated with a decrease in serum cholesterol. More than 100 pathological mutations have been described in the MVK gene so far, and a founder effect has been hypothesized as responsible for the diffusion of the most frequent disease-associated mutations. In the acute phase of disease, patients affected with MKD present low cholesterol levels comparable to their basal physiologic conditions, already characterized by lower cholesterol levels when compared to healthy individuals. Low cholesterol levels are widely known to correlate with the reduction of cardiovascular events. We hypothesize a selective advantage for heterozygote carriers of the most frequent MVK mutations in those countries where the diet is characterized by high consumption of saturated animal fats rich in cholesterol. This could explain the maintenance in North European population of the main mutations leading to MKD and the distribution world-wide of these mutations that followed the migrations of North European populations.

  7. Rho-kinase mediated cytoskeletal stiffness in skinned smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Bo; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jenny; Pascoe, Chris D.; Norris, Brandon A.; Liu, Jeffrey C.-Y.; Solomon, Dennis; Paré, Peter D.; Deng, Linhong

    2013-01-01

    The structurally dynamic cytoskeleton is important in many cell functions. Large gaps still exist in our knowledge regarding what regulates cytoskeletal dynamics and what underlies the structural plasticity. Because Rho-kinase is an upstream regulator of signaling events leading to phosphorylation of many cytoskeletal proteins in many cell types, we have chosen this kinase as the focus of the present study. In detergent skinned tracheal smooth muscle preparations, we quantified the proteins eluted from the muscle cells over time and monitored the muscle's ability to respond to acetylcholine (ACh) stimulation to produce force and stiffness. In a partially skinned preparation not able to generate active force but could still stiffen upon ACh stimulation, we found that the ACh-induced stiffness was independent of calcium and myosin light chain phosphorylation. This indicates that the myosin light chain-dependent actively cycling crossbridges are not likely the source of the stiffness. The results also indicate that Rho-kinase is central to the ACh-induced stiffness, because inhibition of the kinase by H1152 (1 μM) abolished the stiffening. Furthermore, the rate of relaxation of calcium-induced stiffness in the skinned preparation was faster than that of ACh-induced stiffness, with or without calcium, suggesting that different signaling pathways lead to different means of maintenance of stiffness in the skinned preparation. PMID:24072407

  8. [Kinase inhibitors against hematological malignancies].

    PubMed

    Tojo, Arinobu

    2014-06-01

    Dysregulation of protein phosphorylation, especially on tyrosine residues, plays a crucial role in development and progression of hematological malignancies. Since remarkable success in imatinib therapy of CML and Ph+ALL, extensive efforts have made to explore candidate molecular targets and next breakthrough drugs. Now that next generation ABL kinase inhibitors are available for CML, the therapeutic algorithm has been revolutionized. As for AML and lymphoid malignancies, many kinase inhibitors targeting FLT3, BTK and aurora-A are on early and late clinical trials, and a number of promising drugs including ibrutinib are picked up for further evaluation.

  9. Lead Aprons Are a Lead Exposure Hazard.

    PubMed

    Burns, Kevin M; Shoag, Jamie M; Kahlon, Sukhraj S; Parsons, Patrick J; Bijur, Polly E; Taragin, Benjamin H; Markowitz, Morri

    2017-05-01

    To determine whether lead-containing shields have lead dust on the external surface. Institutional review board approval was obtained for this descriptive study of a convenience sample of 172 shields. Each shield was tested for external lead dust via a qualitative rapid on-site test and a laboratory-based quantitative dust wipe analysis, flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The χ(2) test was used to test the association with age, type of shield, lead sheet thickness, storage method, and visual and radiographic appearance. Sixty-three percent (95% confidence interval [CI]: 56%-70%) of the shields had detectable surface lead by FAAS and 50% (95% CI: 43%-57%) by the qualitative method. Lead dust by FAAS ranged from undetectable to 998 μg/ft(2). The quantitative detection of lead was significantly associated with the following: (1) visual appearance of the shield (1 = best, 3 = worst): 88% of shields that scored 3 had detectable dust lead; (2) type of shield: a greater proportion of the pediatric patient, full-body, and thyroid shields were positive than vests and skirts; (3) use of a hanger for storage: 27% of shields on a hanger were positive versus 67% not on hangers. Radiographic determination of shield intactness, thickness of interior lead sheets, and age of shield were unrelated to presence of surface dust lead. Sixty-three percent of shields had detectable surface lead that was associated with visual appearance, type of shield, and storage method. Lead-containing shields are a newly identified, potentially widespread source of lead exposure in the health industry. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the Ras/Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Suhasini, M; Li, H; Lohmann, S M; Boss, G R; Pilz, R B

    1998-12-01

    Agents which increase the intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP) concentration and cGMP analogs inhibit cell growth in several different cell types, but it is not known which of the intracellular target proteins of cGMP is (are) responsible for the growth-suppressive effects of cGMP. Using baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, which are deficient in cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase), we show that 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)guanosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate and 8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate inhibit cell growth in cells stably transfected with a G-kinase Ibeta expression vector but not in untransfected cells or in cells transfected with a catalytically inactive G-kinase. We found that the cGMP analogs inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and nuclear translocation of MAP kinase in G-kinase-expressing cells but not in G-kinase-deficient cells. Ras activation by EGF was not impaired in G-kinase-expressing cells treated with cGMP analogs. We show that activation of G-kinase inhibited c-Raf kinase activation and that G-kinase phosphorylated c-Raf kinase on Ser43, both in vitro and in vivo; phosphorylation of c-Raf kinase on Ser43 uncouples the Ras-Raf kinase interaction. A mutant c-Raf kinase with an Ala substitution for Ser43 was insensitive to inhibition by cGMP and G-kinase, and expression of this mutant kinase protected cells from inhibition of EGF-induced MAP kinase activity by cGMP and G-kinase, suggesting that Ser43 in c-Raf is the major target for regulation by G-kinase. Similarly, B-Raf kinase was not inhibited by G-kinase; the Ser43 phosphorylation site of c-Raf is not conserved in B-Raf. Activation of G-kinase induced MAP kinase phosphatase 1 expression, but this occurred later than the inhibition of MAP kinase activation. Thus, in BHK cells, inhibition of cell growth by cGMP analogs is strictly dependent on G-kinase and G-kinase activation inhibits the Ras/MAP kinase pathway (i) by

  11. Evolutionary Ancestry of Eukaryotic Protein Kinases and Choline Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shenshen; Safaei, Javad

    2016-01-01

    The reversible phosphorylation of proteins catalyzed by protein kinases in eukaryotes supports an important role for eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) in the emergence of nucleated cells in the third superkingdom of life. Choline kinases (ChKs) could also be critical in the early evolution of eukaryotes, because of their function in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is unique to eukaryotic membranes. However, the genomic origins of ePKs and ChKs are unclear. The high degeneracy of protein sequences and broad expansion of ePK families have made this fundamental question difficult to answer. In this study, we identified two class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases with high similarities to consensus amino acid sequences of human protein-serine/threonine kinases. Comparisons of primary and tertiary structures supported that ePKs and ChKs evolved from a common ancestor related to glutaminyl aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which may have been one of the key factors in the successful of emergence of ancient eukaryotic cells from bacterial colonies. PMID:26742849

  12. Characterization of PDZ-binding kinase, a mitotic kinase

    PubMed Central

    Gaudet, Suzanne; Branton, Daniel; Lue, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    hDlg, the human homologue of the Drosophila Discs-large (Dlg) tumor suppressor protein, is known to interact with the tumor suppressor protein APC and the human papillomavirus E6 transforming protein. In a two-hybrid screen, we identified a 322-aa serine/threonine kinase that binds to the PDZ2 domain of hDlg. The mRNA for this PDZ-binding kinase, or PBK, is most abundant in placenta and absent from adult brain tissue. The protein sequence of PBK has all the characteristic protein kinase subdomains and a C-terminal PDZ-binding T/SXV motif. In vitro, PBK binds specifically to PDZ2 of hDlg through its C-terminal T/SXV motif. PBK and hDlg are phosphorylated at mitosis in HeLa cells, and the mitotic phosphorylation of PBK is required for its kinase activity. In vitro, cdc2/cyclin B phosphorylates PBK. This evidence shows how PBK could link hDlg or other PDZ-containing proteins to signal transduction pathways regulating the cell cycle or cellular proliferation. PMID:10779557

  13. The FRK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) from Solanum chacoense is involved in embryo sac and pollen development

    PubMed Central

    Lafleur, Edith; Kapfer, Christelle; Joly, Valentin; Liu, Yang; Tebbji, Faiza; Daigle, Caroline; Gray-Mitsumune, Madoka; Cappadocia, Mario; Nantel, André; Matton, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    The fertilization-related kinase 1 (ScFRK1), a nuclear-localized mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) from the wild potato species Solanum chacoense, belongs to a small group of pMEKKs that do not possess an extended N- or C-terminal regulatory domain. Initially selected based on its highly specific expression profile following fertilization, in situ expression analyses revealed that the ScFRK1 gene is also expressed early on during female gametophyte development in the integument and megaspore mother cell and, later, in the synergid and egg cells of the embryo sac. ScFRK1 mRNAs are also detected in pollen mother cells. Transgenic plants with lower or barely detectable levels of ScFRK1 mRNAs lead to the production of small fruits with severely reduced seed set, resulting from a concomitant decline in the number of normal embryo sacs produced. Megagametogenesis and microgametogenesis were affected, as megaspores did not progress beyond the functional megaspore (FG1) stage and the microspore collapsed around the first pollen mitosis. As for other mutants that affect embryo sac development, pollen tube guidance was severely affected in the ScFRK1 transgenic lines. Gametophyte to sporophyte communication was also affected, as observed from a marked change in the transcriptomic profiles of the sporophytic tissues of the ovule. The ScFRK1 MAPKKK is thus involved in a signalling cascade that regulates both male and female gamete development. PMID:25576576

  14. The FRK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) from Solanum chacoense is involved in embryo sac and pollen development.

    PubMed

    Lafleur, Edith; Kapfer, Christelle; Joly, Valentin; Liu, Yang; Tebbji, Faiza; Daigle, Caroline; Gray-Mitsumune, Madoka; Cappadocia, Mario; Nantel, André; Matton, Daniel P

    2015-04-01

    The fertilization-related kinase 1 (ScFRK1), a nuclear-localized mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) from the wild potato species Solanum chacoense, belongs to a small group of pMEKKs that do not possess an extended N- or C-terminal regulatory domain. Initially selected based on its highly specific expression profile following fertilization, in situ expression analyses revealed that the ScFRK1 gene is also expressed early on during female gametophyte development in the integument and megaspore mother cell and, later, in the synergid and egg cells of the embryo sac. ScFRK1 mRNAs are also detected in pollen mother cells. Transgenic plants with lower or barely detectable levels of ScFRK1 mRNAs lead to the production of small fruits with severely reduced seed set, resulting from a concomitant decline in the number of normal embryo sacs produced. Megagametogenesis and microgametogenesis were affected, as megaspores did not progress beyond the functional megaspore (FG1) stage and the microspore collapsed around the first pollen mitosis. As for other mutants that affect embryo sac development, pollen tube guidance was severely affected in the ScFRK1 transgenic lines. Gametophyte to sporophyte communication was also affected, as observed from a marked change in the transcriptomic profiles of the sporophytic tissues of the ovule. The ScFRK1 MAPKKK is thus involved in a signalling cascade that regulates both male and female gamete development.

  15. CaM kinase kinase beta-mediated activation of the growth regulatory kinase AMPK is required for androgen-dependent migration of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Frigo, Daniel E; Howe, Matthew K; Wittmann, Bryan M; Brunner, Abigail M; Cushman, Ian; Wang, Qianben; Brown, Myles; Means, Anthony R; McDonnell, Donald P

    2011-01-15

    While patients with advanced prostate cancer initially respond favorably to androgen ablation therapy, most experience a relapse of the disease within 1-2 years. Although hormone-refractory disease is unresponsive to androgen-deprivation, androgen receptor (AR)-regulated signaling pathways remain active and are necessary for cancer progression. Thus, both AR itself and the processes downstream of the receptor remain viable targets for therapeutic intervention. Microarray analysis of multiple clinical cohorts showed that the serine/threonine kinase Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) is both highly expressed in the prostate and further elevated in prostate cancers. Using cellular models of prostate cancer, we have determined that androgens (a) directly increase the expression of a CaMKKβ splice variant and (b) increase functional CaMKKβ protein levels as determined by the phosphorylation of both CaMKI and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), two of CaMKKβ's primary substrates. Importantly, inhibition of the CaMKKβ-AMPK, but not CaMKI, signaling axis in prostate cancer cells by pharmacological inhibitors or siRNA-mediated knockdown blocks androgen-mediated migration and invasion. Conversely, overexpression of CaMKKβ alone leads to both increased AMPK phosphorylation and cell migration. Given the key roles of CaMKKβ and AMPK in the biology of prostate cancer cells, we propose that these enzymes are potential therapeutic targets in prostate cancer. © 2010 AACR.

  16. Structure of the pseudokinase-kinase domains from protein kinase TYK2 reveals a mechanism for Janus kinase (JAK) autoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Lupardus, Patrick J; Ultsch, Mark; Wallweber, Heidi; Bir Kohli, Pawan; Johnson, Adam R; Eigenbrot, Charles

    2014-06-03

    Janus kinases (JAKs) are receptor-associated multidomain tyrosine kinases that act downstream of many cytokines and interferons. JAK kinase activity is regulated by the adjacent pseudokinase domain via an unknown mechanism. Here, we report the 2.8-Å structure of the two-domain pseudokinase-kinase module from the JAK family member TYK2 in its autoinhibited form. We find that the pseudokinase and kinase interact near the kinase active site and that most reported mutations in cancer-associated JAK alleles cluster in or near this interface. Mutation of residues near the TYK2 interface that are analogous to those in cancer-associated JAK alleles, including the V617F and "exon 12" JAK2 mutations, results in increased kinase activity in vitro. These data indicate that JAK pseudokinases are autoinhibitory domains that hold the kinase domain inactive until receptor dimerization stimulates transition to an active state.

  17. Spatial distribution of protein kinase A activity during cell migration is mediated by A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP Lbc.

    PubMed

    Paulucci-Holthauzen, Adriana A; Vergara, Leoncio A; Bellot, Larry J; Canton, David; Scott, John D; O'Connor, Kathleen L

    2009-02-27

    Protein kinase A (PKA) has been suggested to be spatially regulated in migrating cells due to its ability to control signaling events that are critical for polarized actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Here, using the fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based A-kinase activity reporter (AKAR1), we find that PKA activity gradients form with the strongest activity at the leading edge and are restricted to the basal surface in migrating cells. The existence of these gradients was confirmed using immunocytochemistry using phospho-PKA substrate antibodies. This observation holds true for carcinoma cells migrating randomly on laminin-1 or stimulated to migrate on collagen I with lysophosphatidic acid. Phosphodiesterase inhibition allows the formation of PKA activity gradients; however, these gradients are no longer polarized. PKA activity gradients are not detected when a non-phosphorylatable mutant of AKAR1 is used, if PKA activity is inhibited with H-89 or protein kinase inhibitor, or when PKA anchoring is perturbed. We further find that a specific A-kinase anchoring protein, AKAP-Lbc, is a major contributor to the formation of these gradients. In summary, our data show that PKA activity gradients are generated at the leading edge of migrating cells and provide additional insight into the mechanisms of PKA regulation of cell motility.

  18. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Suppression by WEE1 Kinase Protects the Genome through Control of Replication Initiation and Nucleotide Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Halfdan; Nähse-Kumpf, Viola; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; O'Hanlon, Karen A.; Patzke, Sebastian; Holmberg, Christian; Mejlvang, Jakob; Groth, Anja; Nielsen, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Activation of oncogenes or inhibition of WEE1 kinase deregulates cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity and leads to replication stress; however, the underlying mechanism is not understood. We now show that elevation of CDK activity by inhibition of WEE1 kinase rapidly increases initiation of replication. This leads to nucleotide shortage and reduces replication fork speed, which is followed by SLX4/MUS81-mediated DNA double-strand breakage. Fork speed is normalized and DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation is suppressed when CDT1, a key factor for replication initiation, is depleted. Furthermore, addition of nucleosides counteracts the effects of unscheduled CDK activity on fork speed and DNA DSB formation. Finally, we show that WEE1 regulates the ionizing radiation (IR)-induced S-phase checkpoint, consistent with its role in control of replication initiation. In conclusion, these results suggest that deregulated CDK activity, such as that occurring following inhibition of WEE1 kinase or activation of oncogenes, induces replication stress and loss of genomic integrity through increased firing of replication origins and subsequent nucleotide shortage. PMID:22907750

  19. Spatial Distribution of Protein Kinase A Activity during Cell Migration Is Mediated by A-kinase Anchoring Protein AKAP Lbc*

    PubMed Central

    Paulucci-Holthauzen, Adriana A.; Vergara, Leoncio A.; Bellot, Larry J.; Canton, David; Scott, John D.; O'Connor, Kathleen L.

    2009-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) has been suggested to be spatially regulated in migrating cells due to its ability to control signaling events that are critical for polarized actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Here, using the fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based A-kinase activity reporter (AKAR1), we find that PKA activity gradients form with the strongest activity at the leading edge and are restricted to the basal surface in migrating cells. The existence of these gradients was confirmed using immunocytochemistry using phospho-PKA substrate antibodies. This observation holds true for carcinoma cells migrating randomly on laminin-1 or stimulated to migrate on collagen I with lysophosphatidic acid. Phosphodiesterase inhibition allows the formation of PKA activity gradients; however, these gradients are no longer polarized. PKA activity gradients are not detected when a non-phosphorylatable mutant of AKAR1 is used, if PKA activity is inhibited with H-89 or protein kinase inhibitor, or when PKA anchoring is perturbed. We further find that a specific A-kinase anchoring protein, AKAP-Lbc, is a major contributor to the formation of these gradients. In summary, our data show that PKA activity gradients are generated at the leading edge of migrating cells and provide additional insight into the mechanisms of PKA regulation of cell motility. PMID:19106088

  20. Bisubstrate fluorescent probes and biosensors in binding assays for HTS of protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Uri, Asko; Lust, Marje; Vaasa, Angela; Lavogina, Darja; Viht, Kaido; Enkvist, Erki

    2010-03-01

    Conjugates of adenosine mimics and d-arginine-rich peptides (ARCs) are potent inhibitors of protein kinases (PKs) from the AGC group. Labeling ARCs with fluorescent dyes or immobilizing on chip surfaces gives fluorescent probes (ARC-Photo) and biosensors that can be used for high-throughput screening (HTS) of inhibitors of protein kinases. The bisubstrate character (simultaneous association with both binding sites of the kinase) and high affinity of ARCs allow ARC-based probes and sensors to be used for characterization of inhibitors targeted to either binding site of the kinase with affinities in whole nanomolar to micromolar range. The ability to penetrate cell plasma membrane and bind to the target kinase fused with a fluorescent protein leads to the possibility to use ARC-Photo probes for high content screening (HCS) of inhibitors in cellular milieu with detection of intensity of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two fluorophores.

  1. A chemoproteomic method for identifying cellular targets of covalent kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Chu; Zhang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinases are attractive drug targets for numerous human diseases including cancers, diabetes and neurodegeneration. A number of kinase inhibitors that covalently target a cysteine residue in their target kinases have recently entered use in the cancer clinic. Despite the advantages of covalent kinases inhibitors, their inherent reactivity can lead to non-specific binding to other cellular proteins and cause off- target effects in cells. It is thus essential to determine the identity of these off targets in order to fully account for the phenotype and to improve the selectivity and efficacy of covalent inhibitors. Herein we present a detailed protocol for a chemoproteomic method to enrich and identify cellular targets of covalent kinase inhibitors. PMID:27551330

  2. Structures of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases reveal mechanism of activation by calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Wernimont, Amy K; Artz, Jennifer D.; Jr, Patrick Finerty; Lin, Yu-Hui; Amani, Mehrnaz; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Senisterra, Guillermo; Vedadi, Masoud; Tempel, Wolfram; Mackenzie, Farrell; Chau, Irene; Lourido, Sebastian; Sibley, L. David; Hui, Raymond

    2010-09-21

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have pivotal roles in the calcium-signaling pathway in plants, ciliates and apicomplexan parasites and comprise a calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK)-like kinase domain regulated by a calcium-binding domain in the C terminus. To understand this intramolecular mechanism of activation, we solved the structures of the autoinhibited (apo) and activated (calcium-bound) conformations of CDPKs from the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In the apo form, the C-terminal CDPK activation domain (CAD) resembles a calmodulin protein with an unexpected long helix in the N terminus that inhibits the kinase domain in the same manner as CaMKII. Calcium binding triggers the reorganization of the CAD into a highly intricate fold, leading to its relocation around the base of the kinase domain to a site remote from the substrate binding site. This large conformational change constitutes a distinct mechanism in calcium signal-transduction pathways.

  3. [Effects of RhoA/Rho-kinase in the regulation of penile erection].

    PubMed

    Xia, Chuan; Jiang, Rui

    2007-06-01

    The erectile response of the penis depends on a balance between vasoconstrictor agents, which cause cavernosal smooth muscle to contract limiting blood inflow, and vasodilators, which relax cavernosal smooth muscle leading to increased blood inflow and erection. This review emphasizes the role of the RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway in the cavernosal circulation. While it is widely held that the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP-protein kinase G(NO-cGMP-PKG) pathway mediates vasorelaxation and penile erection, the vasoconstrictor actions of endothelin ET-1 and NE are reported to be mediated by the RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway in the cavernosal circulation and NO relax cavernosal smooth by inhibition of Rho-kinase. The application of Rho-kinase inhibitor on the penile erection may represent a new and promising method of treatment for erectile dysfunction.

  4. Contraction inhibits insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate-1/2-associated phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity, but not protein kinase B activation or glucose uptake, in rat muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, J P; Soos, M A; Aslesen, R; O'rahilly, S; Jensen, J

    2000-01-01

    The initial stages of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake are thought to involve tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRSs), which recruit and activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), leading to the activation of protein kinase B (PKB) and other downstream effectors. In contrast, contraction stimulates glucose uptake via a PI 3-kinase-independent mechanism. The combined effects of insulin and contraction on glucose uptake are additive. However, it has been reported that contraction causes a decrease in insulin-stimulated IRS-1-associated PI 3-kinase activity. To investigate this paradox, we have examined the effects of contraction on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and proximal insulin-signalling events in isolated rat epitrochlearis muscle. Stimulation by insulin or contraction produced a 3-fold increase in glucose uptake, with the effects of simultaneous treatment by insulin and contraction being additive. Wortmannin completely blocked the additive effect of insulin in contracting skeletal muscle, indicating that this is a PI 3-kinase-dependent effect. Insulin-stimulated recruitment of PI 3-kinase to IRS-1 was unaffected by contraction; however, insulin produced no discernible increase in PI 3-kinase activity in IRS-1 or IRS-2 immunocomplexes in contracting skeletal muscle. Consistent with this, contraction inhibited insulin-stimulated p70(S6K) activation. In contrast, insulin-stimulated activation of PKB was unaffected by contraction. Thus, in contracting skeletal muscle, insulin stimulates glucose uptake and activates PKB, but not p70(S6K), by a PI 3-kinase-dependent mechanism that is independent of changes in IRS-1- and IRS-2-associated PI 3-kinase activity. PMID:10903138

  5. Lead and the Romans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Aravind; Braun, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been a problem since early history and continues into modern times. An appealing characteristic of lead is that many lead salts are sweet. In the absence of cane and beet sugars, early Romans used "sugar of lead" (lead acetate) to sweeten desserts, fruits, and sour wine. People most at risk would have been those who…

  6. Lead and the Romans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Aravind; Braun, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been a problem since early history and continues into modern times. An appealing characteristic of lead is that many lead salts are sweet. In the absence of cane and beet sugars, early Romans used "sugar of lead" (lead acetate) to sweeten desserts, fruits, and sour wine. People most at risk would have been those who…

  7. AXL kinase as a novel target for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Youl; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Halmos, Balazs

    2014-01-01

    The AXL receptor tyrosine kinase and its major ligand, GAS6 have been demonstrated to be overexpressed and activated in many human cancers (such as lung, breast, and pancreatic cancer) and have been correlated with poor prognosis, promotion of increased invasiveness/metastasis, the EMT phenotype and drug resistance. Targeting AXL in different model systems with specific small molecule kinase inhibitors or antibodies alone or in combination with other drugs can lead to inactivation of AXL-mediated signaling pathways and can lead to regained drug sensitivity and improved therapeutic efficacy, defining AXL as a promising novel target for cancer therapeutics. This review highlights the data supporting AXL as a novel treatment candidate in a variety of cancers as well as the current status of drug development targeting the AXL/GAS6 axis and future perspectives in this emerging field. PMID:25337673

  8. Kinase signalling in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Kathryn R; Jones, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in numerous signal transduction pathways and aberrant activity of specific kinases have been identified in multiple cell and mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD), as well as in human HD brain. The balance and integration of a network of kinase signalling pathways is paramount for the regulation of a wide range of cellular and physiological processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, inflammation, neuronal plasticity and apoptosis. Unbalanced activity within these pathways provides a potential mechanism for many of the pathological phenotypes associated with HD, such as transcriptional dysregulation, inflammation and ultimately neurodegeneration. The characterisation of aberrant kinase signalling regulation in HD has been inconsistent and may be a result of failure to consider integration between multiple signalling pathways, as well as alterations that may occur over time with both age and disease progression. Collating the information about the effect of mHTT on signalling pathways demonstrates that it has wide ranging effects on multiple pro- and anti-apoptotic kinases, resulting in the dysregulation of numerous complex interactions within a dynamic network.

  9. Case report: pyruvate kinase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rothman, J M

    1995-09-01

    Pyruvate kinase deficiency is a rare cause of congenital hemolytic anemia. Despite a paucity of reports, splenectomy resulted in successful outcomes for two siblings with this disorder. The sisters were diagnosed at birth with profound jaundice and congenital nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia.

  10. Degradation of Activated Protein Kinases by Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhimin; Hunter, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Protein kinases are important regulators of intracellular signal transduction pathways and play critical roles in diverse cellular functions. Once a protein kinase is activated, its activity is subsequently downregulated through a variety of mechanisms. Accumulating evidence indicates that the activation of protein kinases commonly initiates their downregulation via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Failure to regulate protein kinase activity or expression levels can cause human diseases. PMID:19489726

  11. Discovery of Small Molecule Mer Kinase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic Mer expression promotes pro-survival signaling and contributes to leukemogenesis and chemoresistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Consequently, Mer kinase inhibitors may promote leukemic cell death and further act as chemosensitizers increasing efficacy and reducing toxicities of current ALL regimens. We have applied a structure-based design approach to discover novel small molecule Mer kinase inhibitors. Several pyrazolopyrimidine derivatives effectively inhibit Mer kinase activity at subnanomolar concentrations. Furthermore, the lead compound shows a promising selectivity profile against a panel of 72 kinases and has excellent pharmacokinetic properties. We also describe the crystal structure of the complex between the lead compound and Mer, opening new opportunities for further optimization and new template design. PMID:22662287

  12. Discovery of Novel Small Molecule Mer Kinase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Yang, Chao; Simpson, Catherine; Deryckere, Deborah; Van Deusen, Amy; Miley, Michael J; Kireev, Dmitri; Norris-Drouin, Jacqueline; Sather, Susan; Hunter, Debra; Korboukh, Victoria K; Patel, Hari S; Janzen, William P; Machius, Mischa; Johnson, Gary L; Earp, H Shelton; Graham, Douglas K; Frye, Stephen V; Wang, Xiaodong

    2012-02-09

    Ectopic Mer expression promotes pro-survival signaling and contributes to leukemogenesis and chemoresistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Consequently, Mer kinase inhibitors may promote leukemic cell death and further act as chemosensitizers increasing efficacy and reducing toxicities of current ALL regimens. We have applied a structure-based design approach to discover novel small molecule Mer kinase inhibitors. Several pyrazolopyrimidine derivatives effectively inhibit Mer kinase activity at sub-nanomolar concentrations. Furthermore, the lead compound shows a promising selectivity profile against a panel of 72 kinases and has excellent pharmacokinetic properties. We also describe the crystal structure of the complex between the lead compound and Mer, opening new opportunities for further optimization and new template design.

  13. Small molecule kinase inhibitor LRRK2-IN-1 demonstrates potent activity against colorectal and pancreatic cancer through inhibition of doublecortin-like kinase 1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) is emerging as a tumor specific stem cell marker in colorectal and pancreatic cancer. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of inhibiting DCLK1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) as well as genetically targeting the DCLK1+ cell for deletion. However, the effects of inhibiting DCLK1 kinase activity have not been studied directly. Therefore, we assessed the effects of inhibiting DCLK1 kinase activity using the novel small molecule kinase inhibitor, LRRK2-IN-1, which demonstrates significant affinity for DCLK1. Results Here we report that LRRK2-IN-1 demonstrates potent anti-cancer activity including inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion as well as induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Additionally we found that it regulates stemness, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and oncogenic targets on the molecular level. Moreover, we show that LRRK2-IN-1 suppresses DCLK1 kinase activity and downstream DCLK1 effector c-MYC, and demonstrate that DCLK1 kinase activity is a significant factor in resistance to LRRK2-IN-1. Conclusions Given DCLK1’s tumor stem cell marker status, a strong understanding of its biological role and interactions in gastrointestinal tumors may lead to discoveries that improve patient outcomes. The results of this study suggest that small molecule inhibitors of DCLK1 kinase should be further investigated as they may hold promise as anti-tumor stem cell drugs. PMID:24885928

  14. Mutations in Myosin Light Chain Kinase Cause Familial Aortic Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Guo, Dong-chuan; Cao, Jiumei; Gong, Limin; Kamm, Kristine E.; Regalado, Ellen; Li, Li; Shete, Sanjay; He, Wei-Qi; Zhu, Min-Sheng; Offermanns, Stephan; Gilchrist, Dawna; Elefteriades, John; Stull, James T.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific isoforms of α-actin and β-myosin heavy chain, two major components of the SMC contractile unit, cause familial thoracic aortic aneurysms leading to acute aortic dissections (FTAAD). To investigate whether mutations in the kinase that controls SMC contractile function (myosin light chain kinase [MYLK]) cause FTAAD, we sequenced MYLK by using DNA from 193 affected probands from unrelated FTAAD families. One nonsense and four missense variants were identified in MYLK and were not present in matched controls. Two variants, p.R1480X (c.4438C>T) and p.S1759P (c.5275T>C), segregated with aortic dissections in two families with a maximum LOD score of 2.1, providing evidence of linkage of these rare variants to the disease (p = 0.0009). Both families demonstrated a similar phenotype characterized by presentation with an acute aortic dissection with little to no enlargement of the aorta. The p.R1480X mutation leads to a truncated protein lacking the kinase and calmodulin binding domains, and p.S1759P alters amino acids in the α-helix of the calmodulin binding sequence, which disrupts kinase binding to calmodulin and reduces kinase activity in vitro. Furthermore, mice with SMC-specific knockdown of Mylk demonstrate altered gene expression and pathology consistent with medial degeneration of the aorta. Thus, genetic and functional studies support the conclusion that heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in MYLK are associated with aortic dissections. PMID:21055718

  15. Lim kinase regulates the development of olfactory and neuromuscular synapses.

    PubMed

    Ang, Lay-Hong; Chen, Weitao; Yao, Ying; Ozawa, Rie; Tao, Enxiang; Yonekura, Junichiro; Uemura, Tadashi; Keshishian, Haig; Hing, Huey

    2006-05-01

    Lim Kinase (Limk) belongs to a phylogenetically conserved family of serine/threonine kinases, which have been shown to be potent regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. Despite accumulating evidence of its biochemical actions, its in vivo function has remained poorly understood. The association of the Limk1 gene with Williams Syndrome indicates that proteins of this family play a role in the nervous system. To unravel the cellular and molecular functions of Limk, we have either knocked out or activated the Limk gene in Drosophila. At the neuromuscular junction, loss of Limk leads to enlarged terminals, while increasing the activity of Limk leads to stunted terminals with fewer synaptic boutons. In the antennal lobe, loss of Limk abolishes the ability of p21-activated kinase (Pak) to alter glomerular development. In contrast, increase in Limk function leads to ectopic glomeruli, a phenotype suppressible by the coexpression of a hyperactive Cofilin gene. These results establish Limk as a critical regulator of Cofilin function and synapse development, and a downstream effector of Pak in vivo.

  16. Tyrosine kinase, aurora kinase and leucine aminopeptidase as attractive drug targets in anticancer therapy - characterisation of their inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ziemska, Joanna; Solecka, Jolanta

    Cancers are the leading cause of deaths all over the world. Available anticancer agents used in clinics exhibit low therapeutic index and usually high toxicity. Wide spreading drug resistance of cancer cells induce a demanding need to search for new drug targets. Currently, many on-going studies on novel compounds with potent anticancer activity, high selectivity as well as new modes of action are conducted. In this work, we describe in details three enzyme groups, which are at present of extensive interest to medical researchers and pharmaceutical companies. These include receptor tyrosine kinases (e.g. EGFR enzymes) and non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Src enzymes), type A, B and C Aurora kinases and aminopeptidases, especially leucine aminopeptidase. We discuss classification of these enzymes, biochemistry as well as their role in the cell cycle under normal conditions and during cancerogenesis. Further on, the work describes enzyme inhibitors that are under in vitro, preclinical, clinical studies as well as drugs available on the market. Both, chemical structures of discovered inhibitors and the role of chemical moieties in novel drug design are discussed. Described enzymes play essential role in cell cycle, especially in mitosis (Aurora kinases), cell differentiation, growth and apoptosis (tyrosine kinases) as well as G1/S transition (leucine aminopeptidase). In cancer cells, they are overexpressed and only their inhibition may stop tumor progression. This review presents the clinical outcomes of selected inhibitors and argues the safety of drug usage in human volunteers. Clinical studies of EGFR and Src kinase inhibitors in different tumors clearly show the need for molecular selection of patients (to those with mutations in genes coding EGFR and Src) to achieve positive clinical response. Current data indicates the great necessity for new anticancer treatment and actions to limit off-target activity.

  17. Perspectives on lead toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lockitch, G

    1993-10-01

    Lead toxicity causes hematological, gastrointestinal, and neurological dysfunction in adults and children. Symptoms are usually noted with blood lead greater than 1.93 mumol/L. Severe or prolonged exposure may also cause chronic nephropathy, hypertension, and reproductive impairment. Lead inhibits enzymes; alters cellular calcium metabolism; stimulates synthesis of binding proteins in kidney, brain, and bone; and slows nerve conduction. Less severe exposure to lead, designated by blood lead levels of 0.48-0.96 mumol/L, has been implicated in poor pregnancy outcome, impaired neurobehavioral development, reduced stature in young children, and higher blood pressure in adults. Biochemical and systemic effects of high and low level lead toxicity are described. Dust, water, and paint chips are still major sources of lead but lead from folk remedies, cosmetics, food supplements, food preparation utensils, and improperly prepared infant formula has caused epidemic and sporadic severe lead toxicity. Screening for pediatric low level lead exposure requires measurement of blood lead.

  18. Comprehensive assay of kinase catalytic activity reveals features of kinase inhibitor selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Anastassiadis, Theonie; Deacon, Sean W.; Devarajan, Karthik; Ma, Haiching; Peterson, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Small-molecule protein kinase inhibitors are central tools for elucidating cellular signaling pathways and are promising therapeutic agents. Due to evolutionary conservation of the ATP-binding site, most kinase inhibitors that target this site promiscuously inhibit multiple kinases. Interpretation of experiments utilizing these compounds is confounded by a lack of data on the comprehensive kinase selectivity of most inhibitors. Here we profiled the activity of 178 commercially available kinase inhibitors against a panel of 300 recombinant protein kinases using a functional assay. Quantitative analysis revealed complex and often unexpected kinase-inhibitor interactions, with a wide spectrum of promiscuity. Many off-target interactions occur with seemingly unrelated kinases, revealing how large-scale profiling can be used to identify multi-targeted inhibitors of specific, diverse kinases. The results have significant implications for drug development and provide a resource for selecting compounds to elucidate kinase function and for interpreting the results of experiments that use them. PMID:22037377

  19. Aspartate kinase as an enzyme able to phosphorylate aspartate in the nervous system. Immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Díaz, G; Martínez-Rodríguez, R

    1990-01-01

    An immunohistochemical method using antibodies against bacterial aspartate kinase has been carried out in order to localize this enzyme in the cerebellar cortex of rat. The results obtained with light microscope have demonstrated a positive immunoreaction in both the granular and molecular layers. Electron microscopic observation has also revealed the reaction in several dendrites, axons and myelinated fibers. These facts lead us to think that aspartate kinase could be involved in the phosphorylation of aspartate in the nervous tissue.

  20. The receptor kinase family: primary structure of rhodopsin kinase reveals similarities to the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, W; Inglese, J; Palczewski, K; Onorato, J J; Caron, M G; Lefkowitz, R J

    1991-01-01

    Light-dependent deactivation of rhodopsin as well as homologous desensitization of beta-adrenergic receptors involves receptor phosphorylation that is mediated by the highly specific protein kinases rhodopsin kinase (RK) and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK), respectively. We report here the cloning of a complementary DNA for RK. The deduced amino acid sequence shows a high degree of homology to beta ARK. In a phylogenetic tree constructed by comparing the catalytic domains of several protein kinases, RK and beta ARK are located on a branch close to, but separate from the cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C subfamilies. From the common structural features we conclude that both RK and beta ARK are members of a newly delineated gene family of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinases that may function in diverse pathways to regulate the function of such receptors. Images PMID:1656454

  1. Protein Kinase A: A Master Kinase of Granulosa Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Pawan; Little-Ihrig, Lynda; Chandran, Uma; Law, Nathan C.; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary; Zeleznik, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) transduces the signal that drives differentiation of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs). An unresolved question is whether PKA is sufficient to initiate the complex program of GC responses to FSH. We compared signaling pathways and gene expression profiles of GCs stimulated with FSH or expressing PKA-CQR, a constitutively active mutant of PKA. Both FSH and PKA-CQR stimulated the phosphorylation of proteins known to be involved in GC differentiation including CREB, ß-catenin, AKT, p42/44 MAPK, GAB2, GSK-3ß, FOXO1, and YAP. In contrast, FSH stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but PKA-CQR did not. Microarray analysis revealed that 85% of transcripts that were up-regulated by FSH were increased to a comparable extent by PKA-CQR and of the transcripts that were down-regulated by FSH, 76% were also down-regulated by PKA-CQR. Transcripts regulated similarly by FSH and PKA-CQR are involved in steroidogenesis and differentiation, while transcripts more robustly up-regulated by PKA-CQR are involved in ovulation. Thus, PKA, under the conditions of our experimental approach appears to function as a master upstream kinase that is sufficient to initiate the complex pattern of intracellular signaling pathway and gene expression profiles that accompany GC differentiation. PMID:27324437

  2. Lead Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on lead exposure is presented including forms of lead, sources, hematologic effects, neurologic effects, endocrine effects, renal effects, and reproductive and developmental effects. The purpose of the Lead Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Lead Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  3. Sphingosine kinase-mediated calcium signaling by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    van Koppen, C J; Meyer zu Heringdorf, D; Alemany, R; Jakobs, K H

    2001-04-27

    Based on the finding that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can induce Ca2+ mobilization, apparently independent of the phospholipase C (PLC)/inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) pathway, we investigated whether sphingosine kinase, which generates sphingosine-1-phosphate (SPP), is involved in calcium signaling by mAChR and other GPCRs. Inhibition of sphingosine kinase by DL-threo-dihydrosphingosine and N,/N-dimethylsphingosine markedly inhibited [Ca2+]i increases elicited by M2 and M3 mAChRs in HEK-293 cells without affecting PLC activation. Activation of M2 and M3 mAChR rapidly and transiently stimulated production of SPP. Furthermore, microinjection of SPP into HEK-293 cells induced rapid and transient Ca2+ mobilization. Pretreatment of HEK-293 cells with the calcium chelator BAPTA/AM fully blocked mAChR-induced SPP production. On the other hand, incubation of HEK-293 cells with calcium ionophores activated SPP production. Similar findings were obtained for formyl peptide and P2Y2 purinergic receptors in HL-60 cells. On the basis of these studies we propose, that following initial IP3 production by receptor-mediated PLC activation, a local discrete increase in [Ca2+]i induces sphingosine kinase stimulation, which ultimately leads to full calcium mobilization. Thus, sphingosine kinase activation most likely represents an amplification system for calcium signaling by mAChRs and other GPCRs.

  4. Tyrosine kinase receptors as attractive targets of cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Bennasroune, Amar; Gardin, Anne; Aunis, Dominique; Crémel, Gérard; Hubert, Pierre

    2004-04-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are the main mediators of the signaling network that transmit extracellular signals into the cell, and control cellular differentiation and proliferation. Recent and rapid advances in our understanding of cellular signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases, in normal and malignant cells, have brought to light the potential of RTKs as selective anti-cancer targets. Their activity is normally tightly controlled and regulated. Overexpression of RTK proteins or functional alterations caused by mutations in the corresponding genes or abnormal stimulation by autocrine growth factor loops contribute to constitutive RTK signaling, resulting in dysregulated cell growth and cancer. The mechanisms of uncontrolled RTK signaling that leads to cancer has provided the rationale for anti-RTK drug development. Herceptin, Gleevec, and Iressa are the first examples of drugs which have successfully translated basic research on oncogenes into cancer therapeutics. RTKs can be viewed as multifunctional targets, and strategies towards the prevention and inhibition of RTK signaling include antibodies, antagonist ligands, small molecule inhibitors of protein kinase activity, and inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. Progresses in the field of rational drug design and computational chemistry will vastly benefit from the availability of increasing structural knowledge of both the kinase domains and the ligand-binding sites of these receptors.

  5. Targeting protein kinases to reverse multidrug resistance in sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Shen, Jacson; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2016-02-01

    Sarcomas are a group of cancers that arise from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. They can be classified into over 50 subtypes, accounting for approximately 1% of adult and 15% of pediatric cancers. Wide surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the most common treatments for the majority of sarcomas. Among these therapies, chemotherapy can palliate symptoms and prolong life for some sarcoma patients. However, sarcoma cells can have intrinsic or acquired resistance after treatment with chemotherapeutics drugs, leading to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). MDR attenuates the efficacy of anticancer drugs and results in treatment failure for sarcomas. Therefore, overcoming MDR is an unmet need for sarcoma therapy. Certain protein kinases demonstrate aberrant expression and/or activity in sarcoma cells, which have been found to be involved in the regulation of sarcoma cell progression, such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and survival. Inhibiting these protein kinases may not only decrease the proliferation and growth of sarcoma cells, but also reverse their resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs to subsequently reduce the doses of anticancer drugs and decrease drug side-effects. The discovery of novel strategies targeting protein kinases opens a door to a new area of sarcoma research and provides insight into the mechanisms of MDR in chemotherapy. This review will focus on the recent studies in targeting protein kinase to reverse chemotherapeutic drug resistance in sarcoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeting Protein Kinases to Reverse Multidrug Resistance in Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua; Shen, Jacson; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J.; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Sarcomas are a group of cancers that arise from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. They can be classified into over 50 subtypes, accounting for approximately 1% of adult and 15% of pediatric cancers. Wide surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the most common treatments for the majority of sarcomas. Among these therapies, chemotherapy can palliate symptoms and prolong life for some sarcoma patients. However, sarcoma cells can have intrinsic or acquired resistance after treatment with chemotherapeutics drugs, leading to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). MDR attenuates the efficacy of anticancer drugs and results in treatment failure for sarcomas. Therefore, overcoming MDR is an unmet need for sarcoma therapy. Certain protein kinases demonstrate aberrant expression and/or activity in sarcoma cells, which have been found to be involved in the regulation of sarcoma cell progression, such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and survival. Inhibiting these protein kinases may not only decrease the proliferation and growth of sarcoma cells, but also reverse their resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs to subsequently reduce the doses of anticancer drugs and decrease drug side-effects. The discovery of novel strategies targeting protein kinases opens a door to a new area of sarcoma research and provides insight into the mechanisms of MDR in chemotherapy. This review will focus on the recent studies in targeting protein kinase to reverse chemotherapeutic drug resistance in sarcoma. PMID:26827688

  7. Protein kinase D activity controls endothelial nitric oxide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Aicart-Ramos, Clara; Sánchez-Ruiloba, Lucía; Gómez-Parrizas, Mónica; Zaragoza, Carlos; Iglesias, Teresa; Rodríguez-Crespo, Ignacio

    2014-08-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulates key functions of the endothelium, such as angiogenesis or vessel repair in processes involving endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation. One of the effector kinases that become activated in endothelial cells upon VEGF treatment is protein kinase D (PKD). Here, we show that PKD phosphorylates eNOS, leading to its activation and a concomitant increase in NO synthesis. Using mass spectrometry, we show that the purified active kinase specifically phosphorylates recombinant eNOS on Ser1179. Treatment of endothelial cells with VEGF or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) activates PKD and increases eNOS Ser1179 phosphorylation. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of PKD and gene silencing of both PKD1 and PKD2 abrogate VEGF signaling, resulting in a clear diminished migration of endothelial cells in a wound healing assay. Finally, inhibition of PKD in mice results in an almost complete disappearance of the VEGF-induced vasodilatation, as monitored through determination of the diameter of the carotid artery. Hence, our data indicate that PKD is a new regulatory kinase of eNOS in endothelial cells whose activity orchestrates mammalian vascular tone. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Dynamic Clustering of the Bacterial Sensory Kinase BaeS

    PubMed Central

    Koler, Moriah; Frank, Vered; Amartely, Hadar; Friedler, Assaf; Vaknin, Ady

    2016-01-01

    Several bacterial sensory-kinase receptors form clusters on the cell membrane. However, the dynamics of sensory-kinase clustering are largely unclear. Using measurements of fluorescence anisotropy and time-lapse imaging of Escherichia coli cells, we demonstrate that copper ions trigger self-association of BaeS receptors and lead to rapid formation of clusters, which can be reversibly dispersed by a metal chelator. Copper ions did not trigger self-association of other fluorescently tagged sensory kinases, and other divalent metal ions could not elicit self-association of BaeS. The histidine residues in the BaeS periplasmic domain are essential for copper binding in vitro and are important for the copper-induced BaeS responses in vivo. BaeS clustering was triggered also under conditions that directly triggered BaeS-dependent transcriptional responses. Thus, clustering of sensory kinase receptors can be dynamic and context dependent and can be triggered by specific environmental cues. PMID:26950881

  9. Implications of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in glioma.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vimal; Bhaskara, Vasantha Kumar; Babu, Phanithi Prakash

    2016-02-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system tumors. Gliomas originate from astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neural stem cells or their precursors. According to WHO classification, gliomas are classified into four different malignant grades ranging from grade I to grade IV based on histopathological features and related molecular aberrations. The induction and maintenance of these tumors can be attributed largely to aberrant signaling networks. In this regard, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) network has been widely studied and is reported to be severely altered in glial tumors. Mutations in MAPK pathways most frequently affect RAS and B-RAF in the ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 pathways leading to malignant transformation. Also, it is linked to both inherited and sequential accumulations of mutations that control receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-activated signal transduction pathways, cell cycle growth arrest pathways, and nonresponsive cell death pathways. Genetic alterations that modulate RTK signaling can also alter several downstream pathways, including RAS-mediated MAP kinases along with JNK pathways, which ultimately regulate cell proliferation and cell death. The present review focuses on recent literature regarding important deregulations in the RTK-activated MAPK pathway during gliomagenesis and progression.

  10. Kinase-dependent Regulation of Monoamine Neurotransmitter Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of neurotransmission by the monoamines dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT) is critical for normal nervous system function. Precise temporal and spatial control of this signaling in mediated in large part by the actions of monoamine transporters (DAT, NET, and SERT, respectively). These transporters act to recapture their respective neurotransmitters after release, and disruption of clearance and reuptake has significant effects on physiology and behavior and has been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. To ensure adequate and dynamic control of these transporters, multiple modes of control have evolved to regulate their activity and trafficking. Central to many of these modes of control are the actions of protein kinases, whose actions can be direct or indirectly mediated by kinase-modulated protein interactions. Here, we summarize the current state of our understanding of how protein kinases regulate monoamine transporters through changes in activity, trafficking, phosphorylation state, and interacting partners. We highlight genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological evidence for kinase-linked control of DAT, NET, and SERT and, where applicable, provide evidence for endogenous activators of these pathways. We hope our discussion can lead to a more nuanced and integrated understanding of how neurotransmitter transporters are controlled and may contribute to disorders that feature perturbed monoamine signaling, with an ultimate goal of developing better therapeutic strategies. PMID:27591044

  11. Receptor tyrosine kinases in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Pei-Ying

    2016-11-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are cell surface glycoproteins with enzymatic activity involved in the regulation of various important functions. In all-important physiological functions including differentiation, cell-cell interactions, survival, proliferation, metabolism, migration and signaling these receptors are the key players of regulation. Additionally, mutations of RTKs or their overexpression have been described in many human cancers and are being explored as a novel avenue for a new therapeutic approach. Some of the deregulated RTKs observed to be significantly affected in cancers included vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor, RTK-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor. These deregulated RTKs offer attractive possibilities for the new anticancer therapeutic approach involving specific targeting by monoclonal antibodies as well as kinase. The present review aimed to highlight recent perspectives of RTK ROR1 in cancer.

  12. Oncoprotein protein kinase antibody kit

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2008-12-23

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  13. Nucleotide selectivity of antibiotic kinases.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Tushar; Wright, Gerard D

    2010-05-01

    Antibiotic kinases, which include aminoglycoside and macrolide phosphotransferases (APHs and MPHs), pose a serious threat to currently used antimicrobial therapies. These enzymes show structural and functional homology with Ser/Thr/Tyr kinases, which is suggestive of a common ancestor. Surprisingly, recent in vitro studies using purified antibiotic kinase enzymes have revealed that a number are able to utilize GTP as the antibiotic phospho donor, either preferentially or exclusively compared to ATP, the canonical phosphate donor in most biochemical reactions. To further explore this phenomenon, we examined three enzymes, APH(3')-IIIa, APH(2'')-Ib, and MPH(2')-I, using a competitive assay that mimics in vivo nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) concentrations and usage by each enzyme. Downstream analysis of reaction products by high-performance liquid chromatography enabled the determination of partitioning of phosphate flux from NTP donors to antibiotics. Using this ratio along with support from kinetic analysis and inhibitor studies, we find that under physiologic concentrations of NTPs, APH(3')-IIIa exclusively uses ATP, MPH(2')-I exclusively uses GTP, and APH(2'')-Ib is able to use both species with a preference for GTP. These differences reveal likely different pathways in antibiotic resistance enzyme evolution and can be exploited in selective inhibitor design to counteract resistance.

  14. Antihypertensive action of 2-hydroxyoleic acid in SHRs via modulation of the protein kinase A pathway and Rho kinase.

    PubMed

    Alemany, Regina; Vögler, Oliver; Terés, Silvia; Egea, Carolina; Baamonde, Carmela; Barceló, Francisca; Delgado, Carlos; Jakobs, Karl H; Escribá, Pablo V

    2006-08-01

    Olive oil consumption leads to high monounsaturated fatty acid intake, especially oleic acid, and has been associated with a reduced risk of hypertension. However, the molecular mechanisms and contribution of its different components to lower blood pressure (BP) require further evaluation. Here, we examined whether a synthetic, non-beta-oxidation-metabolizable derivative of oleic acid, 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA), can normalize BP in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and whether its antihypertensive action involves cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and Rho kinase, two major regulators of vascular smooth muscle contraction. Oral administration of 2-OHOA to SHRs induced sustained systolic BP decreases in a time-dependent (1-7 days) and dose-dependent (100-900 mg/kg every 12 h) manner. After 7 days of treatment with 2-OHOA (600 mg/kg), the systolic BP of SHRs was similar to that of normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats, returning to its initial hypertensive level after withdrawal of 2-OHOA. This treatment strongly increased the protein expression of the catalytic and regulatory RIalpha and RIIalpha PKA subunits as well as PKA activity in aortas from SHRs. Consistently, administration of the PKA inhibitor 8-bromo adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp isomer, to 2-OHOA-treated SHRs induced a pronounced reversal (up to 59%) of the antihypertensive effect of 2-OHOA. Additionally, 2-OHOA completely reversed the pathological overexpression of aortic Rho kinase found in SHRs, suppressing the vasoconstrictory Rho kinase pathway.

  15. Evolution of breast cancer therapeutics: Breast tumour kinase's role in breast cancer and hope for breast tumour kinase targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Haroon A; Harvey, Amanda J

    2014-08-10

    There have been significant improvements in the detection and treatment of breast cancer in recent decades. However, there is still a need to develop more effective therapeutic techniques that are patient specific with reduced toxicity leading to further increases in patients' overall survival; the ongoing progress in understanding recurrence, resistant and spread also needs to be maintained. Better understanding of breast cancer pathology, molecular biology and progression as well as identification of some of the underlying factors involved in breast cancer tumourgenesis and metastasis has led to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Over a number of years interest has risen in breast tumour kinase (Brk) also known as protein tyrosine kinase 6; the research field has grown and Brk has been described as a desirable therapeutic target in relation to tyrosine kinase inhibition as well as disruption of its kinase independent activity. This review will outline the current "state of play" with respect to targeted therapy for breast cancer, as well as discussing Brk's role in the processes underlying tumour development and metastasis and its potential as a therapeutic target in breast cancer.

  16. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase, supramolecular organization, modulation of activity, and related conformational changes.

    PubMed Central

    Filenko, A M; Danilova, V M; Sobieszek, A

    1997-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that activation of smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) can be modulated by formation of supramolecular structures (Sobieszek, A. 1991. Regulation of smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase. Allosteric effects and co-operative activation by CaM. J. Mol. Biol. 220:947-957). The present light scattering data demonstrate that the inactive (calmodulin-free) MLCK apoenzyme exists in solution as a mixture of oligomeric (2% by weight), dimeric (53%), and monomeric (45%) species at physiological ionic strength (160 mM salt). These long-living assemblies, the lifetime of which was measured by minutes, were in equilibrium with each other. The most likely form of the oligomer was a spiral-like hexamer, the dimensions of which fit very well the helical structure of self-assembled myosin filaments (Sobieszek, A. 1972. Cross-bridges on self-assembled smooth muscle myosin filaments. J. Mol. Biol. 70:741-744). After activation of the kinase by calmodulin (CaM) we could not detect any appreciable changes in the distribution of the kinase species either when the kinase was saturated with CaM or when its molar concentration exceeded that of CaM. Our fluorescent measurements suggest that the earlier observed inhibition of kinase at substoichiometric amounts of CaM (Sobieszek, A., A. Strobl, B. Ortner, and E. Babiychuk. 1993. Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent modification of smooth-muscle myosin light chain kinase leading to its co-operative activation by calmodulin. Biochem. J. 295:405-411) is associated with slow conformational change(s) of the activated (CaM-bound) kinase molecules. Such conformational rearrangements also took place with equimolar kinase to CaM; however, in this case there was no decrease in MLCK activity. The nature of these conformational changes, which are accompanied by reduction of the kinase for CaM affinity, is discussed. PMID:9284326

  17. The Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKAPKs) in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Moens, Ugo; Kostenko, Sergiy; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are implicated in several cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell survival, cell motility, metabolism, stress response and inflammation. MAPK pathways transmit and convert a plethora of extracellular signals by three consecutive phosphorylation events involving a MAPK kinase kinase, a MAPK kinase, and a MAPK. In turn MAPKs phosphorylate substrates, including other protein kinases referred to as MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Eleven mammalian MAPKAPKs have been identified: ribosomal-S6-kinases (RSK1-4), mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK1-2), MAPK-interacting kinases (MNK1-2), MAPKAPK-2 (MK2), MAPKAPK-3 (MK3), and MAPKAPK-5 (MK5). The role of these MAPKAPKs in inflammation will be reviewed. PMID:24705157

  18. Transboundary atmospheric lead pollution.

    PubMed

    Erel, Yigal; Axelrod, Tamar; Veron, Alain; Mahrer, Yitzak; Katsafados, Petros; Dayan, Uri

    2002-08-01

    A high-temporal resolution collection technique was applied to refine aerosol sampling in Jerusalem, Israel. Using stable lead isotopes, lead concentrations, synoptic data, and atmospheric modeling, we demonstrate that lead detected in the atmosphere of Jerusalem is not only anthropogenic lead of local origin but also lead emitted in other countries. Fifty-seven percent of the collected samples contained a nontrivial fraction of foreign atmospheric lead and had 206Pb/207Pb values which deviated from the local petrol-lead value (206Pb/207Pb = 1.113) by more than two standard deviations (0.016). Foreign 206Pb/207Pb values were recorded in Jerusalem on several occasions. The synoptic conditions on these dates and reported values of the isotopic composition of lead emitted in various countries around Israel suggest that the foreign lead was transported to Jerusalem from Egypt, Turkey, and East Europe. The average concentration of foreign atmospheric lead in Jerusalem was 23 +/- 17 ng/m3, similar to the average concentration of local atmospheric lead, 21 +/- 18 ng/ m3. Hence, the load of foreign atmospheric lead is similar to the load of local atmospheric lead in Jerusalem.

  19. Glucose regulates diacylglycerol intracellular levels and protein kinase C activity by modulating diacylglycerol kinase subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Miele, Claudia; Paturzo, Flora; Teperino, Raffaele; Sakane, Fumio; Fiory, Francesca; Oriente, Francesco; Ungaro, Paola; Valentino, Rossella; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2007-11-02

    Although chronic hyperglycemia reduces insulin sensitivity and leads to impaired glucose utilization, short term exposure to high glucose causes cellular responses positively regulating its own metabolism. We show that exposure of L6 myotubes overexpressing human insulin receptors to 25 mm glucose for 5 min decreased the intracellular levels of diacylglycerol (DAG). This was paralleled by transient activation of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) and of insulin receptor signaling. Following 30-min exposure, however, both DAG levels and DGK activity returned close to basal levels. Moreover, the acute effect of glucose on DAG removal was inhibited by >85% by the DGK inhibitor R59949. DGK inhibition was also accompanied by increased protein kinase C-alpha (PKCalpha) activity, reduced glucose-induced insulin receptor activation, and GLUT4 translocation. Glucose exposure transiently redistributed DGK isoforms alpha and delta, from the prevalent cytosolic localization to the plasma membrane fraction. However, antisense silencing of DGKdelta, but not of DGKalpha expression, was sufficient to prevent the effect of high glucose on PKCalpha activity, insulin receptor signaling, and glucose uptake. Thus, the short term exposure of skeletal muscle cells to glucose causes a rapid induction of DGK, followed by a reduction of PKCalpha activity and transactivation of the insulin receptor signaling. The latter may mediate, at least in part, glucose induction of its own metabolism.

  20. Protein kinase C-associated kinase can activate NFkappaB in both a kinase-dependent and a kinase-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Moran, Stewart T; Haider, Khaleda; Ow, Yongkai; Milton, Peter; Chen, Luojing; Pillai, Shiv

    2003-06-13

    Protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK, also known as RIP4/DIK) activates NFkappaB when overexpressed in cell lines and is required for keratinocyte differentiation in vivo. However, very little is understood about the factors upstream of PKK or how PKK activates NFkappaB. Here we show that certain catalytically inactive mutants of PKK can activate NFkappaB, although to a lesser degree than wild type PKK. The deletion of specific domains of wild type PKK diminishes the ability of this enzyme to activate NFkappaB; the same deletions made on a catalytically inactive PKK background completely ablate NFkappaB activation. PKK may be phosphorylated by two specific mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases, MEKK2 and MEKK3, and this interaction may in part be mediated through a critical activation loop residue, Thr184. Catalytically inactive PKK mutants that block phorbol ester-induced NFkappaB activation do not interfere with, but unexpectedly enhance, the activation of NFkappaB by these two mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases. Taken together, these data indicate that PKK may function in both a kinase-dependent as well as a kinase-independent manner to activate NFkappaB.

  1. Kinases Involved in Both Autophagy and Mitosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Xin

    2017-08-31

    Both mitosis and autophagy are highly regulated dynamic cellular processes and involve various phosphorylation events catalysed by kinases, which play vital roles in almost all physiological and pathological conditions. Mitosis is a key event during the cell cycle, in which the cell divides into two daughter cells. Autophagy is a process in which the cell digests its own cellular contents. Although autophagy regulation has mainly been studied in asynchronous cells, increasing evidence indicates that autophagy is in fact tightly regulated in mitosis. Here in this review, we will discuss kinases that were originally identified to be involved in only one of either mitosis or autophagy, but were later found to participate in both processes, such as CDKs (cyclin-dependent kinases), Aurora kinases, PLK-1 (polo-like kinase 1), BUB1 (budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1), MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1), AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase), PI3K (phosphoinositide-3 kinase) and protein kinase B (AKT). By focusing on kinases involved in both autophagy and mitosis, we will get a more comprehensive understanding about the reciprocal regulation between the two key cellular events, which will also shed light on their related therapeutic investigations.

  2. Lead Content of Foodstuffs

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Douglas G.; Aldous, Kenneth M.

    1974-01-01

    The lead content of a number of foodstuffs, particularly baby fruit juices and milk, is reported. Samples were analyzed in quadruplicate by using an automated Delves cup atomic absorption procedure. A large proportion of the products examined contained significant amounts of lead. Of 256 metal can examined, the contents of 62% contained a lead level of 100 μg/l. or more, 37% contained 200 μg/l. or more and 12% contained 400 μg/l. lead or more. Of products in glass and aluminum containers, only 1% had lead levels in excess of 200 μg/l. Lead levels of contents also correlate with the seam length/volume ratio of the leaded seam can. A survey of bulk milk showed a mean lead level of 40 μg/l. for 270 samples; for canned evaporated milk the mean level was 202 μg/l. These data indicate a potential health hazard. PMID:4406645

  3. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... metal used in everything from construction materials to batteries, can cause serious health problems, particularly in young ... introduce lead dust into the home. water that flows through old lead pipes or faucets, if the ...

  4. Aquatic Life Criteria - Lead

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    References and documents pertaining to Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Lead. These documents include the safe levels of Lead in water that should protect the majority of species.

  5. Lead and tap water

    MedlinePlus

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water in the United States. It requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports include information about lead amounts, and they ...

  6. VOLUMETRIC LEAD ASSAY

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua; David Roelant; Sachin Kumar

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a system for handling and radioassay of lead, consisting of a robot, a conveyor, and a gamma spectrometer. The report also presents a cost-benefit analysis of options: radioassay and recycling lead vs. disposal as waste.

  7. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Lead.

    PubMed

    Caito, Samuel; Aschner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Lead exposure is a major concern for the developing nervous system. Environmental exposures to lead, predominantly from contaminated water or lead paint chips, account for the majority of exposures to children. In utero and early life exposures to lead have been associated with lower IQ, antisocial and delinquent behaviors, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this review, we will discuss sources of developmental lead exposure and mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity. We will highlight both human epidemiological studies showing associations between lead exposure and behavioral abnormalities as well as experimental data from animal studies. Finally, we will discuss the effects of lead on neurological endpoint past childhood, namely, development of Alzheimer's disease in old age.

  8. Immunochemical characterization of rat brain protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K.P.; Huang, F.L.

    1986-11-05

    Polyclonal antibodies against rat brain protein kinase C (the Ca/sup 2 +//phospholipid-dependent enzyme) were raised in goat. These antibodies can neutralize completely the kinase activity in purified enzyme preparation as well as that in the crude homogenate. Immunoblot analysis of the purified and the crude protein kinase C preparations revealed a major immunoreactive band of 80 kDa. The antibodies also recognize the same enzyme from other rat tissues. Neuronal tissues (cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, and retina) and lymphoid organs (thymus and spleen) were found to be enriched in protein kinase C, whereas lung, kidney, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle contained relatively low amounts of this kinase. Limited proteolysis of the purified rat brain protein kinase C with trypsin results in an initial degradation of the kinase into two major fragments of 48 and 38 kDa. Both fragments are recognized by the antibodies. However, further digestion of the 48-kDa fragment to 45 kDa and the 38-kDa fragment to 33 kDa causes a loss of the immunoreactivity. Upon incubation of the cerebellar extract with Ca/sup 2 +/, the 48-kDa fragment was also identified as a major proteolytic product of protein kinase C. Proteolytic degradation of protein kinase C converts the Ca/sup 2 +//phospholipid-dependent kinase to an independent form without causing a large impairment of the binding of (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate. The two major proteolytic fragments were separated by ion exchange chromatography and one of them (45-48 kDa) was identified as a protein kinase and the other (33-38 kDa) as a phorbol ester-binding protein. These results demonstrate that rat brain protein kinase C is composed of two functionally distinct units, namely, a protein kinase and a Ca/sup 2 +/-independent/phospholipid-dependent phorbol ester-binding protein.

  9. PHOTOEMISSION PROPERTIES OF LEAD.

    SciTech Connect

    SMEDLEY,J.; RAO,T.; WARREN,J.; SEKUTOWICZ,J.; LEFFERTS,R.; LIPSKI,A.

    2004-07-05

    In this paper we present a study of the photoemission properties of lead at several UV wavelengths, including a study of the damage threshold of electroplated lead under laser cleaning. A quantum efficiency in excess of 0.1% has been achieved for a laser cleaned, electroplated lead sample with a laser wavelength of 193 nm. Niobium cathodes have been measured for comparison, and lead is found to be a superior photoemitter for all measured wavelengths.

  10. Transplacental transport of lead

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Neurotoxicity is the major health effect from exposure to lead for infants and young children, and there is current concern regarding possible toxic effects of lead on the child while in utero. there is no placental-fetal barrier to lead transport. Maternal and fetal blood lead levels are nearly identical, so lead passes through the placenta unencumbered. Lead has been measured in the fetal brain as early as the end of the first trimester (13 weeks). There is a similar rate of increase in brain size and lead content throughout pregnancy in the fetus of mothers in the general population, so concentration of lead probably does not differ greatly during gestation unless exposure of the mother changes. Cell-specific sensitivity to the toxic effects of lead, however, may be greater the younger the fetus. Lead toxicity to the nervous system is characterized by edema or swelling of the brain due to altered permeability of capillary endothelial cells. Experimental studies suggest that immature endothelial cells forming the capillaries of the developing brain are less resistant to the effects of lead, permitting fluid and cations including lead to reach newly formed components of the brain, particularly astrocytes and neurons. Also, the ability of astrocytes and neurons to sequester lead in the form of lead protein complexes occurs only in the later stages of fetal development, permitting lead in maturing brain cells to interact with vital subcellular organelles, particularly mitochondria, which are the major cellular energy source. Intracellular lead also affects binding sites for calcium which, in turn, may affect numerous cell functions including neurotransmitter release.

  11. [Lead content in alginates].

    PubMed

    Castagnola, L; Wirz, J

    1977-03-01

    Alginates containing a high level of lead may lead to health damages in dentists and their personnel. Walter and Söremark have pointed out these hazards. The author's investigations with the Perkin-Elmer absorption-photospectrometer shall show how high the lead content of the 25 brands of alginate sold in this country is. Ca 37, Protex and Algihard S contain sizeable amounts of lead. Recommendations are given towards the protection of dentist and assistant.

  12. Lead poisoning: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendel, Neil

    1993-01-01

    A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

  13. Lead Poisoning in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyaux, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Overexposure to lead can permanently impair a child's mental and physical development. This article discusses sources of lead paint, survey and testing methods, management and abatement plans, drinking water contamination, and associated federal standards. Although lead is present in soil and in art, theater, and vocational programs, no federal…

  14. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  15. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  16. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckx, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

  17. Lead Poisoning in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyaux, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Overexposure to lead can permanently impair a child's mental and physical development. This article discusses sources of lead paint, survey and testing methods, management and abatement plans, drinking water contamination, and associated federal standards. Although lead is present in soil and in art, theater, and vocational programs, no federal…

  18. Lead and children

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan R.; Sanborn, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To provide family physicians with a practical, evidence-based approach to screening for and preventing children’s exposure to lead. SOURCES OF INFORMATION MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to lead exposure and poisoning. We reviewed English-language articles published in 2003 to 2008. Most cited studies provide level 2 or 3 evidence. MAIN MESSAGE Lead is a developmental neurotoxin. Children are most commonly exposed and they are most vulnerable. Lead exposure has been associated with many cognitive and motor deficits, as well as distractibility and other characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although children’s blood lead levels have declined considerably over the past 3 decades with removal of lead from gasoline and paint, children can still be exposed to lead from lead paint in older homes, toys, and other sources. Because post-exposure treatment cannot reverse the cognitive effects of lead exposure, preventing lead exposure is essential. CONCLUSION Family physicians have an important role in screening for children at high risk of lead exposure, and in educating families to prevent the exposure of children to lead. PMID:20547517

  19. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  20. Association of protein kinase Cmu with type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase and type I phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, K; Toker, A; Wong, K; Marignani, P A; Johannes, F J; Cantley, L C

    1998-09-04

    Protein kinase Cmu (PKCmu), also named protein kinase D, is an unusual member of the PKC family that has a putative transmembrane domain and pleckstrin homology domain. This enzyme has a substrate specificity distinct from other PKC isoforms (Nishikawa, K., Toker, A., Johannes, F. J., Songyang, Z., and Cantley, L. C. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 952-960), and its mechanism of regulation is not yet clear. Here we show that PKCmu forms a complex in vivo with a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase and a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase. A region of PKCmu between the amino-terminal transmembrane domain and the pleckstrin homology domain is shown to be involved in the association with the lipid kinases. Interestingly, a kinase-dead point mutant of PKCmu failed to associate with either lipid kinase activity, indicating that autophosphorylation may be required to expose the lipid kinase interaction domain. Furthermore, the subcellular distribution of the PKCmu-associated lipid kinases to the particulate fraction depends on the presence of the amino-terminal region of PKCmu including the predicted transmembrane region. These results suggest a novel model in which the non-catalytic region of PKCmu acts as a scaffold for assembly of enzymes involved in phosphoinositide synthesis at specific membrane locations.

  1. Protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK), a novel membrane-associated, ankyrin repeat-containing protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Haider, K; Ponda, M; Cariappa, A; Rowitch, D; Pillai, S

    2001-06-15

    A novel murine membrane-associated protein kinase, PKK (protein kinase C-associated kinase), was cloned on the basis of its physical association with protein kinase Cbeta (PKCbeta). The regulated expression of PKK in mouse embryos is consistent with a role for this kinase in early embryogenesis. The human homolog of PKK has over 90% identity to its murine counterpart, has been localized to chromosome 21q22.3, and is identical to the PKCdelta-interacting kinase, DIK (Bahr, C., Rohwer, A., Stempka, L., Rincke, G., Marks, F., and Gschwendt, M. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 36350-36357). PKK comprises an N-terminal kinase domain and a C-terminal region containing 11 ankyrin repeats. PKK exhibits protein kinase activity in vitro and associates with cellular membranes. PKK exists in three discernible forms at steady state: an underphosphorylated form of 100 kDa; a soluble, cytosolic, phosphorylated form of 110 kDa; and a phosphorylated, detergent-insoluble form of 112 kDa. PKK is initially synthesized as an underphosphorylated soluble 100-kDa protein that is quantitatively converted to a detergent-soluble 110-kDa form. This conversion requires an active catalytic domain. Although PKK physically associates with PKCbeta, it does not phosphorylate this PKC isoform. However, PKK itself may be phosphorylated by PKCbeta. PKK represents a developmentally regulated protein kinase that can associate with membranes. The functional significance of its association with PKCbeta remains to be ascertained.

  2. Interleukin-20 Promotes Migration of Bladder Cancer Cells through Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK)-mediated MMP-9 Protein Expression Leading to Nuclear Factor (NF-κB) Activation by Inducing the Up-regulation of p21WAF1 Protein Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Se-Jung; Cho, Seok-Cheol; Lee, Eo-Jin; Kim, Sangtae; Lee, Soo-Bok; Lim, Jung-Hyurk; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    The role of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-20 (IL-20) has not yet been studied in cancer biology. Here, we demonstrated up-regulation of both IL-20 and IL-20R1 in muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients. The expressions of IL-20 and IL-20R1 were observed in bladder cancer 5637 and T-24 cells. We found that IL-20 significantly increased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 via binding activity of NF-κB and AP-1 in bladder cancer cells and stimulated the activation of ERK1/2, JNK, p38 MAPK, and JAK-STAT signaling. Among the pathways examined, only ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 significantly inhibited IL-20-induced migration and invasion. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of IL-20R1 suppressed migration, invasion, ERK1/2 activation, and NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 expression induced by IL-20. Unexpectedly, the cell cycle inhibitor p21WAF1 was induced by IL-20 treatment without altering cell cycle progression. Blockade of p21WAF1 function by siRNA reversed migration, invasion, activation of ERK signaling, MMP-9 expression, and activation of NF-κB in IL-20-treated cells. In addition, IL-20 induced the activation of IκB kinase, the degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα, and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, which was regulated by ERK1/2. IL-20 stimulated the recruitment of p65 to the MMP-9 promoter region. Finally, the IL-20-induced migration and invasion of cells was confirmed by IL-20 gene transfection and by addition of anti-IL-20 antibody. This is the first report that p21WAF1 is involved in ERK1/2-mediated MMP-9 expression via increased binding activity of NF-κB, which resulted in the induction of migration in IL-20/IL-20R1 dyad-induced bladder cancer cells. These unexpected results might provide a critical new target for the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:23271730

  3. Receptor kinase signaling pathways in plant-microbe interactions.

    PubMed

    Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; Ried, Martina K; Binder, Andreas; Parniske, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) function in diverse signaling pathways, including the responses to microbial signals in symbiosis and defense. This versatility is achieved with a common overall structure: an extracytoplasmic domain (ectodomain) and an intracellular protein kinase domain involved in downstream signal transduction. Various surfaces of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) ectodomain superstructure are utilized for interaction with the cognate ligand in both plant and animal receptors. RLKs with lysin-motif (LysM) ectodomains confer recognitional specificity toward N-acetylglucosamine-containing signaling molecules, such as chitin, peptidoglycan (PGN), and rhizobial nodulation factor (NF), that induce immune or symbiotic responses. Signaling downstream of RLKs does not follow a single pattern; instead, the detailed analysis of brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, innate immunity, and symbiosis revealed at least three largely nonoverlapping pathways. In this review, we focus on RLKs involved in plant-microbe interactions and contrast the signaling pathways leading to symbiosis and defense.

  4. Focal adhesion kinase and its role in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Zachary A.; Gallagher, Philip M.; Cardozo, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle has a remarkable ability to respond to different physical stresses. Loading muscle through exercise, either anaerobic or aerobic, can lead to increases in muscle size and function while, conversely, the absence of muscle loading stimulates rapid decreases in size and function. A principal mediator of this load-induced change is focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a downstream non-receptor tyrosine kinase that translates the cytoskeletal stress and strain signals transmitted across the cytoplasmic membrane by integrins to activate multiple anti-apoptotic and cell growth pathways. Changes in FAK expression and phosphorylation have been found to correlate to specific developmental states in myoblast differentiation, muscle fiber formation and muscle size in response to loading and unloading. With the capability to regulate costamere formation, hypertrophy and glucose metabolism, FAK is a molecule with diverse functions that are important in regulating muscle cell health. PMID:26142360

  5. Role of LRRK2 kinase dysfunction in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Azad; Cookson, Mark R

    2011-06-13

    Parkinson disease is a common and usually sporadic neurodegenerative disorder. However, a subset of cases are inherited and, of these, mutations in the gene encoding leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most frequent genetic cause of disease. Here, we will discuss recent progress in understanding how LRRK2 mutations lead to disease and how this might have therapeutic implications. The effect of mutations on LRRK2 enzyme function provides clues as to which functions of the protein are important to disease. Recent work has focused on the kinase and GTP-binding domains of LRRK2, and it is assumed that these will be therapeutically important, although there is a substantial amount of work to be done to address this hypothesis.

  6. Complex Glycerol Kinase Deficiency and Adrenocortical Insufficiency in Two Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Korkut, Sabriye; Baştuğ, Osman; Raygada, Margarita; Hatipoğlu, Nihal; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Kendirci, Mustafa; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2016-01-01

    Contiguous gene deletions of chromosome Xp21 can lead to glycerol kinase deficiency and severe adrenocortical insufficiency (AI) in a male newborn among other problems. We describe our experience with two such patients who presented with dysmorphic facies, AI, and pseudo-hypertriglyceridemia. Both infants had normal serum 17-hidroxyprogesterone levels, and adrenal glands could not be observed with ultrasonography. Creatine kinase and triglyceride levels were measured to elucidate the etiology of adrenal hypoplasia and were above normal limits in both cases. Both patients required steroid and salt supplementation. They were both found to have Xp21.2 deletions (DMD, NR0B1, GK, IL1RAPL1). We conclude that AI in the context of other genetic abnormalities should prompt chromosomal investigations in the absence of another unifying explanation. PMID:27087023

  7. Complex Glycerol Kinase Deficiency and Adrenocortical Insufficiency in Two Neonates.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Sabriye; Baştuğ, Osman; Raygada, Margarita; Hatipoğlu, Nihal; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Kendirci, Mustafa; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-12-01

    Contiguous gene deletions of chromosome Xp21 can lead to glycerol kinase deficiency and severe adrenocortical insufficiency (AI) in a male newborn among other problems. We describe our experience with two such patients who presented with dysmorphic facies, AI, and pseudo-hypertriglyceridemia. Both infants had normal serum 17-hidroxyprogesterone levels, and adrenal glands could not be observed with ultrasonography. Creatine kinase and triglyceride levels were measured to elucidate the etiology of adrenal hypoplasia and were above normal limits in both cases. Both patients required steroid and salt supplementation. They were both found to have Xp21.2 deletions (DMD, NR0B1, GK, IL1RAPL1). We conclude that AI in the context of other genetic abnormalities should prompt chromosomal investigations in the absence of another unifying explanation.

  8. Protein Kinase C Enzymes in the Hematopoietic and Immune Systems.

    PubMed

    Altman, Amnon; Kong, Kok-Fai

    2016-05-20

    The protein kinase C (PKC) family, discovered in the late 1970s, is composed of at least 10 serine/threonine kinases, divided into three groups based on their molecular architecture and cofactor requirements. PKC enzymes have been conserved throughout evolution and are expressed in virtually all cell types; they represent critical signal transducers regulating cell activation, differentiation, proliferation, death, and effector functions. PKC family members play important roles in a diverse array of hematopoietic and immune responses. This review covers the discovery and history of this enzyme family, discusses the roles of PKC enzymes in the development and effector functions of major hematopoietic and immune cell types, and points out gaps in our knowledge, which should ignite interest and further exploration, ultimately leading to better understanding of this enzyme family and, above all, its role in the many facets of the immune system.

  9. Focal adhesion kinase and its role in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Graham, Zachary A; Gallagher, Philip M; Cardozo, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Skeletal muscle has a remarkable ability to respond to different physical stresses. Loading muscle through exercise, either anaerobic or aerobic, can lead to increases in muscle size and function while, conversely, the absence of muscle loading stimulates rapid decreases in size and function. A principal mediator of this load-induced change is focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a downstream non-receptor tyrosine kinase that translates the cytoskeletal stress and strain signals transmitted across the cytoplasmic membrane by integrins to activate multiple anti-apoptotic and cell growth pathways. Changes in FAK expression and phosphorylation have been found to correlate to specific developmental states in myoblast differentiation, muscle fiber formation and muscle size in response to loading and unloading. With the capability to regulate costamere formation, hypertrophy and glucose metabolism, FAK is a molecule with diverse functions that are important in regulating muscle cell health.

  10. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors closer to market launch?

    PubMed

    Galons, Hervé; Oumata, Nassima; Gloulou, Olfa; Meijer, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    Interest in cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors was stimulated by the demonstration that their pharmacological activities could lead to therapies for numerous diseases. Until now, despite the clinical introduction of a dozen compounds belonging to other classes of kinase inhibitors, no CDK inhibitor has reached the marketplace. This review covers CDK inhibitor patents published between 2009 and September 2012. It presents compounds currently undergoing clinical development, along with our earlier (2010) review of the same topic, as well as descriptions of recently published compounds not disclosed in the patent literature. It provides the reader with an update of all chemical structures of current interest in the CDK inhibitor field. Though cancer remains the most obvious application for CDK inhibition, other indications, such as HIV infection, could potentially be treated with CDK inhibitors.

  11. Selective inhibition of the kinase DYRK1A by targeting its folding process

    PubMed Central

    Kii, Isao; Sumida, Yuto; Goto, Toshiyasu; Sonamoto, Rie; Okuno, Yukiko; Yoshida, Suguru; Kato-Sumida, Tomoe; Koike, Yuka; Abe, Minako; Nonaka, Yosuke; Ikura, Teikichi; Ito, Nobutoshi; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Hagiwara, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Autophosphorylation of amino-acid residues is part of the folding process of various protein kinases. Conventional chemical screening of mature kinases has missed inhibitors that selectively interfere with the folding process. Here we report a cell-based assay that evaluates inhibition of a kinase at a transitional state during the folding process and identify a folding intermediate-selective inhibitor of dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A), which we refer to as FINDY. FINDY suppresses intramolecular autophosphorylation of Ser97 in DYRK1A in cultured cells, leading to its degradation, but does not inhibit substrate phosphorylation catalysed by the mature kinase. FINDY also suppresses Ser97 autophosphorylation of recombinant DYRK1A, suggesting direct inhibition, and shows high selectivity for DYRK1A over other DYRK family members. In addition, FINDY rescues DYRK1A-induced developmental malformations in Xenopus laevis embryos. Our study demonstrates that transitional folding intermediates of protein kinases can be targeted by small molecules, and paves the way for developing novel types of kinase inhibitors. PMID:27102360

  12. Aurora kinase inhibition overcomes cetuximab resistance in squamous cell cancer of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Hoellein, Alexander; Pickhard, Anja; von Keitz, Fabienne; Schoeffmann, Stephanie; Piontek, Guido; Rudelius, Martina; Baumgart, Anja; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Peschel, Christian; Dechow, Tobias; Bier, Henning; Keller, Ulrich

    2011-08-01

    Squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN) is the sixth leading cause for cancer deaths worldwide. Despite extense knowledge of risk factors and pathogenesis about 50 percent of all patients and essentially every patient with metastatic SCCHN eventually die from this disease. We analyzed the clinical data and performed immunohistochemistry for Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Aurora kinase A (Aurora-A) expression in 180 SCCHN patients. Patients characterized by elevated EGFR and elevated Aurora-A protein expression in tumor tissue represent a risk group with poor disease-free and overall survival (EGFR(low)Aurora-A(low) versus EGFR(high)Aurora-A(high), p = 0.024). Treating SCCHN cell lines with a pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor resulted in defective cytokinesis, polyploidy and apoptosis, which was effective irrespective of the EGFR status. Combined Aurora kinase and EGFR targeting using a monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody was more effective compared to single EGFR and Aurora kinase inhibition. Comparing pan-Aurora kinase and Aurora-A targeting hints towards a strong and clinically relevant biological effect mediated via Aurora kinase B. Taken together, our findings characterize a new poor risk group in SCCHN patients defined by elevated EGFR and Aurora-A protein expression. Our results demonstrate that combined targeting of EGFR and Aurora kinases represents a therapeutic means to activate cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis in SCCHN.

  13. Structure and Activation Mechanism of the CHK2 DNA Damage Checkpoint Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Z.; Chehab, N; Pavletich, N

    2009-01-01

    The CHK2 protein kinase is an important transducer of DNA damage checkpoint signals, and its mutation contributes to hereditary and sporadic cancer. CHK2 activation is triggered by the phosphorylation of Thr68 by the DNA damage-activated ATM kinase. This leads to transient CHK2 dimerization, in part through intermolecular phosphoThr68-FHA domain interactions. Dimerization promotes kinase activation through activation-loop autophosphorylation, but the mechanism of this process has not been clear. The dimeric crystal structure of CHK2, described here, in conjunction with biochemical and mutational data reveals that productive CHK2 dimerization additionally involves intermolecular FHA-kinase domain and FHA-FHA interactions. Ile157, mutated in the Li-Fraumeni cancer-predisposition syndrome, plays a central role in the FHA-kinase domain interface, explaining the lack of dimerization and autophosphorylation of this mutant. In the dimer, the kinase active sites face each other in close proximity, indicating that dimerization may also serve to optimally position the kinase active sites for efficient activation loop transphosphorylation.

  14. Feasibility of using molecular docking-based virtual screening for searching dual target kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shunye; Li, Youyong; Hou, Tingjun

    2013-04-22

    Multitarget agents have been extensively explored for solving limited efficacies, poor safety, and resistant profiles of an individual target. Theoretical approaches for searching and designing multitarget agents are critically useful. Here, the performance of molecular docking to search dual-target inhibitors for four kinase pairs (CDK2-GSK3B, EGFR-Src, Lck-Src, and Lck-VEGFR2) was assessed. First, the representative structures for each kinase target were chosen by structural clustering of available crystal structures. Next, the performance of molecular docking to distinguish inhibitors from noninhibitors for each individual kinase target was evaluated. The results show that molecular docking-based virtual screening illustrates good capability to find known inhibitors for individual targets, but the prediction accuracy is structurally dependent. Finally, the performance of molecular docking to identify the dual-target kinase inhibitors for four kinase pairs was evaluated. The analyses show that molecular docking successfully filters out most noninhibitors and achieves promising performance for identifying dual-kinase inhibitors for CDK2-GSK3B and Lck-VEGFR2. But a high false-positive rate leads to low enrichment of true dual-target inhibitors in the final list. This study suggests that molecular docking serves as a useful tool in searching inhibitors against dual or even multiple kinase targets, but integration with other virtual screening tools is necessary for achieving better predictions.

  15. Investigation of potential glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors using pharmacophore mapping and virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Dessalew, Nigus; Bharatam, Prasad V

    2006-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is a serine/threonine kinase that has attracted significant drug discovery attention in recent years. To investigate the identification of new potential glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors, a pharmacophore mapping study was carried out using a set of 21 structurally diverse glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors. A hypothesis containing four features: two hydrophobic, one hydrogen bond donor and another hydrogen bond acceptor was found to be the best from the 10 common feature hypotheses produced by HipHop module of Catalyst. The best hypothesis has a high cost of 156.592 and higher best fit values were obtained for the 21 inhibitors using this best hypothesis than the other HipHop hypotheses. The best hypothesis was then used to screen electronically the NCI2000 database. The hits obtained were docked into glycogen synthase kinase-3beta active site. A total of five novel potential leads were proposed after: (i) visual examination of how well they dock into the glycogen synthase kinase-3beta-binding site, (ii) comparative analysis of their FlexX, G-Score, PMF-Score, ChemScore and D-Scores values, (iii) comparison of their best fit value with the known inhibitors and (iv) examination of the how the hits retain interactions with the important amino acid residues of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta-binding site.

  16. Selective inhibition of the kinase DYRK1A by targeting its folding process.

    PubMed

    Kii, Isao; Sumida, Yuto; Goto, Toshiyasu; Sonamoto, Rie; Okuno, Yukiko; Yoshida, Suguru; Kato-Sumida, Tomoe; Koike, Yuka; Abe, Minako; Nonaka, Yosuke; Ikura, Teikichi; Ito, Nobutoshi; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Hagiwara, Masatoshi

    2016-04-22

    Autophosphorylation of amino-acid residues is part of the folding process of various protein kinases. Conventional chemical screening of mature kinases has missed inhibitors that selectively interfere with the folding process. Here we report a cell-based assay that evaluates inhibition of a kinase at a transitional state during the folding process and identify a folding intermediate-selective inhibitor of dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A), which we refer to as FINDY. FINDY suppresses intramolecular autophosphorylation of Ser97 in DYRK1A in cultured cells, leading to its degradation, but does not inhibit substrate phosphorylation catalysed by the mature kinase. FINDY also suppresses Ser97 autophosphorylation of recombinant DYRK1A, suggesting direct inhibition, and shows high selectivity for DYRK1A over other DYRK family members. In addition, FINDY rescues DYRK1A-induced developmental malformations in Xenopus laevis embryos. Our study demonstrates that transitional folding intermediates of protein kinases can be targeted by small molecules, and paves the way for developing novel types of kinase inhibitors.

  17. Role(s) of IL-2 inducible T cell kinase and Bruton's tyrosine kinase in mast cell response to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weishan; August, Avery

    2016-06-01

    Mast cells play critical roles during immune responses to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that can lead to fatal septic hypothermia [1], [2], [3]. IL-2 inducible T cell kinase (ITK) and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) are non-receptor tyrosine kinases that act downstream of numerous receptors, and have been shown to modulate mast cell responses downstream of FcεRIα [4], however, their roles in regulating mast cell responses to endotoxic stimuli were unclear. We found that the absence of ITK and BTK alters the mast cell response to LPS, and leads to enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production by mast cells and more severe LPS-induced hypothermia in mice [5]. Here, we detail our investigation using microarray analysis to study the transcriptomic profiles of mast cell responses to LPS, and the roles of ITK and/or BTK expression in this process. Mouse whole genome array data of WT, Itk (-/-) , Btk (-/-) , and Itk (-/-)  Btk (-/-) bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) stimulated by PBS (control) or LPS for 1 h were used in our latest research article [5] and is available in the Gene Expression Omnibus under accession number GSE64287.

  18. MAP kinase activator from insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle is a protein threonine/tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Nakielny, S; Cohen, P; Wu, J; Sturgill, T

    1992-01-01

    A 'MAP kinase activator' was purified several thousand-fold from insulin-stimulated rabbit skeletal muscle, which resembled the 'activator' from nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells in that it could be inactivated by incubation with protein phosphatase 2A, but not by protein tyrosine phosphatases and its apparent molecular mass was 45-50 kDa. In the presence of MgATP, 'MAP kinase activator' converted the normal 'wild-type' 42 kDa MAP kinase from an inactive dephosphorylated form to the fully active diphosphorylated species. Phosphorylation occurred on the same threonine and tyrosine residues which are phosphorylated in vivo in response to growth factors or phorbol esters. A mutant MAP kinase produced by changing a lysine at the active centre to arginine was phosphorylated in an identical manner by the 'MAP kinase activator', but no activity was generated. The results demonstrate that 'MAP kinase activator' is a protein kinase (MAP kinase kinase) and not a protein that stimulates the autophosphorylation of MAP kinase. MAP kinase kinase is the first established example of a protein kinase that can phosphorylate an exogenous protein on threonine as well as tyrosine residues. Images PMID:1318193

  19. Using Bioluminescent Kinase Profiling Strips to Identify Kinase Inhibitor Selectivity and Promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Zegzouti, Hicham; Hennek, Jacquelyn; Goueli, Said A

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of a kinase inhibitor throughout drug discovery and development is predicated upon its selectivity towards the target of interest. Thus, profiling the compound against a broad panel of kinases is important for providing a better understanding of its activity and for obviating any off-target activities that can result in undesirable consequences. To assess the selectivity and potency of an inhibitor against multiple kinases, it is desirable to use a universal assay that can monitor the activity of all classes of kinases regardless of the nature of their substrates. The luminescent ADP-Glo kinase assay is a universal platform that measures kinase activity by quantifying the amount of the common kinase reaction product ADP. Here we present a method using standardized kinase profiling systems for inhibitor profiling studies based on ADP detection by luminescence. The kinase profiling systems are sets of kinases organized by family, presented in multi-tube strips containing eight enzymes, each with corresponding substrate strips, and standardized for optimal kinase activity. We show that using the kinase profiling strips we could quickly and easily generate multiple selectivity profiles using small or large kinase panels, and identify compound promiscuity within the kinome.

  20. Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Activated Protein Kinase 2 Regulates Actin Polymerization and Vascular Leak in Ventilator Associated Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Damarla, Mahendra; Hasan, Emile; Boueiz, Adel; Le, Anne; Pae, Hyun Hae; Montouchet, Calypso; Kolb, Todd; Simms, Tiffany; Myers, Allen; Kayyali, Usamah S.; Gaestel, Matthias; Peng, Xinqi; Reddy, Sekhar P.; Damico, Rachel; Hassoun, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation, a fundamental therapy for acute lung injury, worsens pulmonary vascular permeability by exacting mechanical stress on various components of the respiratory system causing ventilator associated lung injury. We postulated that MK2 activation via p38 MAP kinase induced HSP25 phosphorylation, in response to mechanical stress, leading to actin stress fiber formation and endothelial barrier dysfunction. We sought to determine the role of p38 MAP kinase and its downstream effector MK2 on HSP25 phosphorylation and actin stress fiber formation in ventilator associated lung injury. Wild type and MK2−/− mice received mechanical ventilation with high (20 ml/kg) or low (7 ml/kg) tidal volumes up to 4 hrs, after which lungs were harvested for immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and lung permeability assays. High tidal volume mechanical ventilation resulted in significant phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, MK2, HSP25, actin polymerization, and an increase in pulmonary vascular permeability in wild type mice as compared to spontaneous breathing or low tidal volume mechanical ventilation. However, pretreatment of wild type mice with specific p38 MAP kinase or MK2 inhibitors abrogated HSP25 phosphorylation and actin polymerization, and protected against increased lung permeability. Finally, MK2−/− mice were unable to phosphorylate HSP25 or increase actin polymerization from baseline, and were resistant to increases in lung permeability in response to HVT MV. Our results suggest that p38 MAP kinase and its downstream effector MK2 mediate lung permeability in ventilator associated lung injury by regulating HSP25 phosphorylation and actin cytoskeletal remodeling. PMID:19240800

  1. Protein kinase CK2 triggers cytosolic zinc signaling pathways by phosphorylation of zinc channel ZIP7.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kathryn M; Hiscox, Stephen; Nicholson, Robert I; Hogstrand, Christer; Kille, Peter

    2012-02-07

    The transition element zinc, which has recently been identified as an intracellular second messenger, has been implicated in various signaling pathways, including those leading to cell proliferation. Zinc channels of the ZIP (ZRT1- and IRT1-like protein) family [also known as solute carrier family 39A (SLC39A)] transiently increase the cytosolic free zinc (Zn(2+)) concentration in response to extracellular signals. We show that phosphorylation of evolutionarily conserved residues in endoplasmic reticulum zinc channel ZIP7 is associated with the gated release of Zn(2+) from intracellular stores, leading to activation of tyrosine kinases and the phosphorylation of AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. Through pharmacological manipulation, proximity ligation assay, and mutagenesis, we identified protein kinase CK2 as the kinase responsible for ZIP7 activation. Together, the present results show that transition element channels in eukaryotes can be activated posttranslationally by phosphorylation, as part of a cell signaling cascade. Our study links the regulated release of zinc from intracellular stores to phosphorylation of kinases involved in proliferative responses and cell migration, suggesting a functional role for ZIP7 and zinc signals in these events. The connection with proliferation and migration, as well as the activation of ZIP7 by CK2, a kinase that is antiapoptotic and promotes cell division, suggests that ZIP7 may provide a target for anticancer drug development.

  2. In-situ coupling between kinase activities and protein dynamics within single focal adhesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yiqian; Zhang, Kaiwen; Seong, Jihye; Fan, Jason; Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao; Lu, Shaoying

    2016-07-01

    The dynamic activation of oncogenic kinases and regulation of focal adhesions (FAs) are crucial molecular events modulating cell adhesion in cancer metastasis. However, it remains unclear how these events are temporally coordinated at single FA sites. Therefore, we targeted fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors toward subcellular FAs to report local molecular events during cancer cell adhesion. Employing single FA tracking and cross-correlation analysis, we quantified the dynamic coupling characteristics between biochemical kinase activities and structural FA within single FAs. We show that kinase activations and FA assembly are strongly and sequentially correlated, with the concurrent FA assembly and Src activation leading focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation by 42.6 ± 12.6 sec. Strikingly, the temporal coupling between kinase activation and individual FA assembly reflects the fate of FAs at later stages. The FAs with a tight coupling tend to grow and mature, while the less coupled FAs likely disassemble. During FA disassembly, however, kinase activations lead the disassembly, with FAK being activated earlier than Src. Therefore, by integrating subcellularly targeted FRET biosensors and computational analysis, our study reveals intricate interplays between Src and FAK in regulating the dynamic life of single FAs in cancer cells.

  3. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Sopko, Richelle; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes. The Drosophila genome encodes more than 20 receptor tyrosine kinases and extensive studies in the past 20 years have illustrated their diverse roles and complex signaling mechanisms. Although some receptor tyrosine kinases have highly specific functions, others strikingly are used in rather ubiquitous manners. Receptor tyrosine kinases regulate a broad expanse of processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to differentiation and patterning. Remarkably, different receptor tyrosine kinases share many of the same effectors and their hierarchical organization is retained in disparate biological contexts. In this comprehensive review, we summarize what is known regarding each receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila development. Astonishingly, very little is known for approximately half of all Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23732470

  4. Pathway illuminated: visualizing protein kinase C signaling.

    PubMed

    Violin, Jonathan D; Newton, Alexandra C

    2003-12-01

    Protein kinase C has been at the center of cell signaling since the discovery 25 years ago that it transduces signals that promote phospholipid hydrolysis. In recent years, the use of genetically encoded fluorescent reporters has enabled studies of the regulation of protein kinase C signaling in living cells. Advances in imaging techniques have unveiled unprecedented detail of the signal processing mechanics of protein kinase C, from the second messengers calcium and diacylglycerol that regulate protein kinase C activity, to the locations and kinetics of different protein kinase C isozymes, to the spatial and temporal dynamics of substrate phosphorylation by this key enzyme. This review discusses how fluorescence imaging studies have illuminated the fidelity with which protein kinase C transduces rapidly changing extracellular information into intracellular phosphorylation signals.

  5. Law: toxic lead aftermath

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, E.A.

    1983-03-01

    The paper describes the events which began with an EPA proposal to weaken the lead-in-gas regulations. Because of the outcry from environmentalists and expert testimony from the medical community, the EPA reversed its policy and issued new standards which would reduce lead emissions between 1983 and 1990 by 34 percent (128,000 tons). Scientific evidence presented showed a clear reduction in blood lead levels from 1976-1980 which paralleled decreases of lead in gasoline. Results from lead poisoning clinics which linked chronic low lead exposures to decreased classroom performance and other learning disabilities were presented. Lawyers from several environmental groups took the agency to court on the related issue of attaining national ambient air quality standards for lead. (JMT)

  6. Lead in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Pain, D.J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John=

    2003-01-01

    Anthropogenic uses of lead have probably altered its availability and environmental distribution more than any other toxic element. Consequently, lead concentrations in many living organisms may be approaching thresholds of toxicity for the adverse effects of lead. Such thresholds are difficult to define, as they vary with the chemical and physical form of lead, exposure regime, other elements present and also vary both within and between species. The technological capability to accurately quantify low lead concentrations has increased over the last decade, and physiological and behavioral effects have been measured in wildlife with tissue lead concentrations below those previously considered safe for humans.s.236 Consequently. lead criteria for the protection of wildlife and human health are frequently under review, and 'thresholds' of lead toxicity are being reconsidered. Proposed lead criteria for the protection of natural resources have been reviewed by Eisler. Uptake of lead by plants is limited by its generally low availability in soils and sediments, and toxicity may be limited by storage mechanisms and its apparently limited translocation within most plants. Lead does not generally accumulate within the foliar parts of plants, which limits its transfer to higher trophic levels. Although lead may concentrate in plant and animal tissues, no evidence of biomagnification exists. Acid deposition onto surface waters and soils with low buffering capacity may influence the availability of lead for uptake by plants and animals, and this may merit investigation at susceptible sites. The biological significance of chronic low-level lead exposure to wildlife is sometimes difficult to quantify. Animals living in urban environments or near point sources of lead emission are inevitably subject to greater exposure to lead and enhanced risk of lead poisoning. Increasingly strict controls on lead emissions in many countries have reduced exposure to lead from some sources

  7. A phosphoserine-regulated docking site in the protein kinase RSK2 that recruits and activates PDK1

    PubMed Central

    Frödin, Morten; Jensen, Claus J.; Merienne, Karine; Gammeltoft, Steen

    2000-01-01

    The 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase-2 (RSK2) is a growth factor-stimulated protein kinase with two kinase domains. The C-terminal kinase of RSK2 is activated by ERK-type MAP kinases, leading to autophosphorylation of RSK2 at Ser386 in a hydrophobic motif. The N-terminal kinase is activated by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) through phosphorylation of Ser227, and phosphorylates the substrates of RSK. Here, we identify Ser386 in the hydrophobic motif of RSK2 as a phosphorylation-dependent docking site and activator of PDK1. Treatment of cells with growth factor induced recruitment of PDK1 to the Ser386-phosphorylated hydrophobic motif and phosphorylation of RSK2 at Ser227. A RSK2-S386K mutant showed no interaction with PDK1 or phosphorylation at Ser227. Interaction with Ser386-phosphorylated RSK2 induced autophosphorylation of PDK1. Addition of a synthetic phosphoSer386 peptide (RSK2373–396) increased PDK1 activity 6-fold in vitro. Finally, mutants of RSK2 and MSK1, a RSK-related kinase, with increased affinity for PDK1, were constitutively active in vivo and phosphorylated histone H3. Our results suggest a novel regulatory mechanism based on phosphoserine-mediated recruitment of PDK1 to RSK2, leading to coordinated phosphorylation and activation of PDK1 and RSK2. PMID:10856237

  8. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Cantley, Lewis C

    2002-05-31

    Phosphorylated lipids are produced at cellular membranes during signaling events and contribute to the recruitment and activation of various signaling components. The role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), which catalyzes the production of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate, in cell survival pathways; the regulation of gene expression and cell metabolism; and cytoskeletal rearrangements are highlighted. The PI3K pathway is implicated in human diseases including diabetes and cancer, and understanding the intricacies of this pathway may provide new avenues for therapuetic intervention.

  9. Analysis of lead toxicity in human cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lead is a metal with many recognized adverse health side effects, and yet the molecular processes underlying lead toxicity are still poorly understood. Quantifying the injurious effects of lead is also difficult because of the diagnostic limitations that exist when analyzing human blood and urine specimens for lead toxicity. Results We analyzed the deleterious impact of lead on human cells by measuring its effects on cytokine production and gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Lead activates the secretion of the chemokine IL-8 and impacts mitogen-dependent activation by increasing the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and of the chemokines IL-8 and MIP1-α in the presence of phytohemagglutinin. The recorded changes in gene expression affected major cellular functions, including metallothionein expression, and the expression of cellular metabolic enzymes and protein kinase activity. The expression of 31 genes remained elevated after the removal of lead from the testing medium thereby allowing for the measurement of adverse health effects of lead poisoning. These included thirteen metallothionein transcripts, three endothelial receptor B transcripts and a number of transcripts which encode cellular metabolic enzymes. Cellular responses to lead correlated with blood lead levels and were significantly altered in individuals with higher lead content resultantly affecting the nervous system, the negative regulation of transcription and the induction of apoptosis. In addition, we identified changes in gene expression in individuals with elevated zinc protoporphyrin blood levels and found that genes regulating the transmission of nerve impulses were affected in these individuals. The affected pathways were G-protein mediated signaling, gap junction signaling, synaptic long-term potentiation, neuropathic pain signaling as well as CREB signaling in neurons. Cellular responses to lead were altered in subjects with high

  10. How do kinases transfer phosphoryl groups?

    PubMed

    Matte, A; Tari, L W; Delbaere, L T

    1998-04-15

    Understanding how phosphoryl transfer is accomplished by kinases, a ubiquitous group of enzymes, is central to many biochemical processes. Qualitative analysis of the crystal structures of enzyme-substrate complexes of kinases reveals structural features of these enzymes important to phosphoryl transfer. Recently determined crystal structures which mimic the transition state complex have added new insight into the debate as to whether kinases use associative or dissociative mechanisms of catalysis.

  11. Spatial gradients in kinase cascade regulation.

    PubMed

    Kazmierczak, B; Lipniacki, T

    2010-11-01

    The spatiotemporal kinetics of proteins and other substrates regulate cell fate and signaling. In this study, we consider a reaction-diffusion model of interaction of membrane receptors with a two-step kinase cascade. The receptors activate the 'up-stream' kinase, which may diffuse over cell volume and activate the 'down-stream' kinase, which is also diffusing. Both kinase species and receptors are inactivated by uniformly distributed phosphatases. The positive feedback, key to the considered dynamics, arises since the up-stream kinase activates the receptors. Such a mutual interaction is characteristic for immune cell receptors. Based on the proposed model, we demonstrated that cell sensitivity (measured as a critical value of phosphatase activity at which cell maybe activated) increases with decreasing motility of receptor-interacting kinases and with increasing polarity of receptors distribution. These two effects are cooperating, the effect of receptors localisation close to one pole of the cell grows with the decreasing kinase diffusion and vanishes in the infinite diffusion limit. As the cell sensitivity increases with decreasing diffusion of receptor-interacting kinase, the overall activity of the down-stream kinase increases with its diffusion. In conclusion, the analysis of the proposed model shows that, for the fixed substrate interaction rates, spatial distribution of the surface receptors together with the motility of intracellular kinases control cell signalling and sensitivity to extracellular signals. The increase of the cell sensitivity can be achieved by (i) localisation of receptors in a small subdomain of the cell membrane, (ii) lowering the motility of receptor-interacting kinase, (iii) increasing the motility of down-stream kinases which distribute the signal over the whole cell.

  12. Hsp90·Cdc37 Complexes with Protein Kinases Form Cooperatively with Multiple Distinct Interaction Sites.

    PubMed

    Eckl, Julia M; Scherr, Matthias J; Freiburger, Lee; Daake, Marina A; Sattler, Michael; Richter, Klaus

    2015-12-25

    Protein kinases are the most prominent group of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) clients and are recruited to the molecular chaperone by the kinase-specific cochaperone cell division cycle 37 (Cdc37). The interaction between Hsp90 and nematode Cdc37 is mediated by binding of the Hsp90 middle domain to an N-terminal region of Caenorhabditis elegans Cdc37 (CeCdc37). Here we map the binding site by NMR spectroscopy and define amino acids relevant for the interaction between CeCdc37 and the middle domain of Hsp90. Apart from these distinct Cdc37/Hsp90 interfaces, binding of the B-Raf protein kinase to the cochaperone is conserved between mammals and nematodes. In both cases, the C-terminal part of Cdc37 is relevant for kinase binding, whereas the N-terminal domain displaces the nucleotide from the kinase. This interaction leads to a cooperative formation of the ternary complex of Cdc37 and kinase with Hsp90. For the mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (Erk2), we observe that certain features of the interaction with Cdc37·Hsp90 are conserved, but the contribution of Cdc37 domains varies slightly, implying that different kinases may utilize distinct variations of this binding mode to interact with the Hsp90 chaperone machinery. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Activation pathway of Src kinase reveals intermediate states as targets for drug design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Diwakar; Meng, Yilin; Roux, Benoît; Pande, Vijay S.

    2014-03-01

    Unregulated activation of Src kinases leads to aberrant signalling, uncontrolled growth and differentiation of cancerous cells. Reaching a complete mechanistic understanding of large-scale conformational transformations underlying the activation of kinases could greatly help in the development of therapeutic drugs for the treatment of these pathologies. In principle, the nature of conformational transition could be modelled in silico via atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, although this is very challenging because of the long activation timescales. Here we employ a computational paradigm that couples transition pathway techniques and Markov state model-based massively distributed simulations for mapping the conformational landscape of c-src tyrosine kinase. The computations provide the thermodynamics and kinetics of kinase activation for the first time, and help identify key structural intermediates. Furthermore, the presence of a novel allosteric site in an intermediate state of c-src that could be potentially used for drug design is predicted.

  14. The role and targeting of Aurora kinases in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Ranee; Serebriiskii, Ilya G.; Burtness, Barbara; Astsaturov, Igor; Golemis, Erica A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Controlled activation of the Aurora kinases regulates mitotic progression in normal cells. Overexpression and hyperactivation of the Aurora-A and -B kinases play a leading role in tumorigenesis, inducing aneuploidy and genomic instability. In squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN), overexpression of Aurora-A is associated with decreased survival, and reduction of Aurora-A and -B expression inhibits SCCHN cell growth and increases apoptosis. In this article, we provide a basic overview of the biological functions of Aurora kinases in normal cells and in cancer, and review both small studies and high throughput datasets that implicate Aurora-A, particularly, in the pathogenesis of SCCHN. Early phase clinical trials are beginning to evaluate the activity of small molecule inhibitors of the Aurora kinases. We summarize the state of current trials evaluating Aurora inhibitors in SCCHN, and discuss rational directions for future drug combination trials and biomarkers for use with Aurora-inhibiting agents. PMID:23993387

  15. Targeting the DFG-in kinase conformation: a new trend emerging from a patent analysis.

    PubMed

    Angiolini, Mauro

    2011-03-01

    Aberrant kinase signaling leads to a multitude of disease states. The clinical and commercial success of agents typified by imatinib or dasatinib in the treatment of hematological malignancies has further validated kinase inhibition as a useful clinical strategy. This increased interest in kinases as therapeutic targets is evidenced by the rapidly increasing number of patent applications and peer-reviewed articles. This article discusses recent Patent that describe small molecules targeting the DFG-in active kinase conformation, by the so-called 'Type I½' inhibitor, against a small set of clinically relevant targets such as B-Raf, p38α, Jak2 and EphB4. Preclinical and clinical data are also highlighted for the most promising new molecular entities.

  16. Detecting kinase activities from single cell lysate using concentration-enhanced mobility shift assay.

    PubMed

    Cheow, Lih Feng; Sarkar, Aniruddh; Kolitz, Sarah; Lauffenburger, Douglas; Han, Jongyoon

    2014-08-05

    Electrokinetic preconcentration coupled with mobility shift assays can give rise to very high detection sensitivities. We describe a microfluidic device that utilizes this principle to detect cellular kinase activities by simultaneously concentrating and separating substrate peptides with different phosphorylation states. This platform is capable of reliably measuring kinase activities of single adherent cells cultured in nanoliter volume microwells. We also describe a novel method utilizing spacer peptides that significantly increase separation resolution while maintaining high concentration factors in this device. Thus, multiplexed kinase measurements can be implemented with single cell sensitivity. Multiple kinase activity profiling from single cell lysate could potentially allow us to study heterogeneous activation of signaling pathways that can lead to multiple cell fates.

  17. Pivotal Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinase 2 in Inflammatory Pulmonary Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Feng; Deng, Jing; Wang, Gang; Ye, Richard D.; Christman, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase (MK2) is exclusively regulated by p38 MAPK in vivo. Upon activation of p38 MAPK, MK2 binds with p38 MAPK, leading to phosphorylation of TTP, Hsp27, Akt and Cdc25 that are involved in regulation of various essential cellular functions. In this review, we discuss current knowledge about molecular mechanisms of MK2 in regulation of TNF-α production, NADPH oxidase activation, neutrophil migration, and DNA-damage-induced cell cycle arrest which are involved in the molecular pathogenesis of acute lung injury, pulmonary fibrosis, and non-small-cell lung cancer. Collectively current and emerging new information indicate that developing MK2 inhibitors and blocking MK2-mediated signal pathways is a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of inflammatory and fibrotic lung diseases and lung cancer. PMID:26119506

  18. Phosphorylation and activation of p40 tyrosine kinase by casein kinase-1.

    PubMed

    Vila, J; Payne, D M; Zioncheck, T F; Harrison, M L; Itarte, E; Weber, M J

    1990-05-07

    Because examination of regulatory trans-phosphorylations can help elucidate the cellular functions of tyrosyl protein kinases, we have investigated the effects of phosphorylation by casein kinase-1 on the activity of the p40 tyrosyl protein kinase. We find that casein kinase-1 can phosphorylate the p40 tyrosyl kinase on serine and threonine residues, in part on a unique tryptic peptide. The phosphorylation induces a substantial increase in the tyrosyl protein kinase activity of p40, in contrast to most instances in which serine/threonine phosphorylation inhibits activity of tyrosyl protein kinases. These findings raise the possibility that p40 might be part of a protein phosphorylation network in which casein kinase-1 participates.

  19. Tyrosine kinases in inflammatory dermatologic disease

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, Ricardo T.; Fiorentino, David; Chung, Lorinda; Robinson, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases are enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on protein substrates. They are key components of signaling pathways that drive an array of cellular responses including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Specific tyrosine kinases have recently been identified as critical to the pathogenesis of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Small-molecule inhibitors of tyrosine kinases are emerging as a novel class of therapy that may provide benefit in certain patient subsets. In this review, we highlight tyrosine kinase signaling implicated in inflammatory dermatologic diseases, evaluate strategies aimed at inhibiting these aberrant signaling pathways, and discuss prospects for future drug development. PMID:20584561

  20. MST kinases in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian MST kinase family, which is related to the Hippo kinase in Drosophila melanogaster, includes five related proteins: MST1 (also called STK4), MST2 (also called STK3), MST3 (also called STK24), MST4, and YSK1 (also called STK25 or SOK1). MST kinases are emerging as key signaling molecules that influence cell proliferation, organ size, cell migration, and cell polarity. Here we review the regulation and function of these kinases in normal physiology and pathologies, including cancer, endothelial malformations, and autoimmune disease. PMID:26370497

  1. Lead in candle emissions.

    PubMed

    Wasson, Shirley J; Guo, Zhishi; McBrian, Jenia A; Beach, Laura O

    2002-09-16

    The candle-using public should be made aware that the core of candle wicks may contain lead. Used as a stiffening agent to keep the wick out of the molten wax, lead can be emitted as particulates to the air and then deposited on indoor surfaces. To define the problem, 100 sets of candles (two or more identical candles) were purchased locally. The criterion for purchase was that the candles must appear to contain a metal-cored wick or be covered by a metallic pigment. Of the candles purchased, 8% contained lead wicks. The wicks were 39-74% lead (the remainder was fabric or paper) and the lead cores (approx. 100% lead) had linear densities of 13-27 mg/cm. Candles were burned to completion in a closed chamber to capture the air emissions, and the candle residue was extracted to assess the lead mass balance. It was found that individual candles emitted lead to the air at average rates that ranged from 100 to 1700 microg/h. Assuming realistic indoor conditions, these emission rates were modeled to project room air concentration, child exposure by inhalation, and indoor deposition. Results showed that burning single candles can easily raise the source room concentration above the ambient air lead concentration limit of 1.5 microg/m3 set by EPA. Burning multiple candles can elevate it above OSHA permissible exposure limits of 50 microg/m3. Although blood lead levels have dropped precipitously in the United States since lead was phased out of gasoline in 1986, nearly 900,000 children still had levels above 10 microg/dl during NHANES III. Considering that candle sales in the US are estimated at $1-2 billion per year, and that children may spend as much as 88% of their time indoors, it is reasonable to suspect that some blood lead elevation in children arises from indoor micro-environments where lead-wick candles are burned.

  2. Functional Significance of Aurora Kinases-p53 Protein Family Interactions in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sasai, Kaori; Treekitkarnmongkol, Warapen; Kai, Kazuharu; Katayama, Hiroshi; Sen, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Aurora kinases play critical roles in regulating spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis to ensure faithful segregation of chromosomes during mitotic cell division cycle. Molecular and cell biological studies have revealed that Aurora kinases, at physiological levels, orchestrate complex sequential cellular processes at distinct subcellular locations through functional interactions with its various substrates. Aberrant expression of Aurora kinases, on the other hand, cause defects in mitotic spindle assembly, checkpoint response activation, and chromosome segregation leading to chromosomal instability. Elevated expression of Aurora kinases correlating with chromosomal instability is frequently detected in human cancers. Recent genomic profiling of about 3000 human cancer tissue specimens to identify various oncogenic signatures in The Cancer Genome Atlas project has reported that recurrent amplification and overexpression of Aurora kinase-A characterize distinct subsets of human tumors across multiple cancer types. Besides the well-characterized canonical pathway interactions of Aurora kinases in regulating assembly of the mitotic apparatus and chromosome segregation, growing evidence also supports the notion that deregulated expression of Aurora kinases in non-canonical pathways drive transformation and genomic instability by antagonizing tumor suppressor and exacerbating oncogenic signaling through direct interactions with critical proteins. Aberrant expression of the Aurora kinases-p53 protein family signaling axes appears to be critical in the abrogation of p53 protein family mediated tumor suppressor pathways frequently deregulated during oncogenic transformation process. Recent findings reveal the existence of feedback regulatory loops in mRNA expression and protein stability of these protein families and their consequences on downstream effectors involved in diverse physiological functions, such as mitotic progression, checkpoint response

  3. Interferon-gamma expression by Th1 effector T cells mediated by the p38 MAP kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Rincón, M; Enslen, H; Raingeaud, J; Recht, M; Zapton, T; Su, M S; Penix, L A; Davis, R J; Flavell, R A

    1998-01-01

    Signal transduction via MAP kinase pathways plays a key role in a variety of cellular responses, including growth factor-induced proliferation, differentiation and cell death. In mammalian cells, p38 MAP kinase can be activated by multiple stimuli, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress. Although p38 MAP kinase is implicated in the control of inflammatory responses, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Upon activation, CD4+ T cells differentiate into Th2 cells, which potentiate the humoral immune response or pro-inflammatory Th1 cells. Here, we show that pyridinyl imidazole compounds (specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase) block the production of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) by Th1 cells without affecting IL-4 production by Th2 cells. These drugs also inhibit transcription driven by the IFNgamma promoter. In transgenic mice, inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase pathway by the expression of dominant-negative p38 MAP kinase results in selective impairment of Th1 responses. In contrast, activation of the p38 MAP kinase pathway by the expression of constitutivelyactivated MAP kinase kinase 6 in transgenic mice caused increased production of IFNgamma during the differentiation and activation of Th1 cells. Together, these data demonstrate that the p38 MAP kinase is relevant for Th1 cells, not Th2 cells, and that inhibition of p38 MAP kinase represents a possible site of therapeutic intervention in diseases where a predominant Th1 immune response leads to a pathological outcome. Moreover, our study provides an additional mechanism by which the p38 MAP kinase pathway controls inflammatory responses. PMID:9582275

  4. Diacylglycerol kinases in membrane trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shuwei; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) belong to a family of cytosolic kinases that regulate the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG), converting it into phosphatidic acid (PA). There are 10 known mammalian DGK isoforms, each with a different tissue distribution and substrate specificity. These differences allow regulation of cellular responses by fine-tuning the delicate balance of cellular DAG and PA. DGK isoforms are best characterized as mediators of signal transduction and immune function. However, since recent studies reveal that DAG and PA are also involved in the regulation of endocytic trafficking, it is therefore anticipated that DGKs also plays an important role in membrane trafficking. In this review, we summarize the literature discussing the role of DGK isoforms at different stages of endocytic trafficking, including endocytosis, exocytosis, endocytic recycling, and transport from/to the Golgi apparatus. Overall, these studies contribute to our understanding of the involvement of PA and DAG in endocytic trafficking, an area of research that is drawing increasing attention in recent years. PMID:27057419

  5. Dynamic Allostery Mediated by a Conserved Tryptophan in the Tec Family Kinases.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Nikita; Wales, Thomas E; Joseph, Raji E; Boyken, Scott E; Engen, John R; Jernigan, Robert L; Andreotti, Amy H

    2016-03-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a Tec family non-receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a critical role in immune signaling and is associated with the immunological disorder X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). Our previous findings showed that the Tec kinases are allosterically activated by the adjacent N-terminal linker. A single tryptophan residue in the N-terminal 17-residue linker mediates allosteric activation, and its mutation to alanine leads to the complete loss of activity. Guided by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry results, we have employed Molecular Dynamics simulations, Principal Component Analysis, Community Analysis and measures of node centrality to understand the details of how a single tryptophan mediates allostery in Btk. A specific tryptophan side chain rotamer promotes the functional dynamic allostery by inducing coordinated motions that spread across the kinase domain. Either a shift in the rotamer population, or a loss of the tryptophan side chain by mutation, drastically changes the coordinated motions and dynamically isolates catalytically important regions of the kinase domain. This work also identifies a new set of residues in the Btk kinase domain with high node centrality values indicating their importance in transmission of dynamics essential for kinase activation. Structurally, these node residues appear in both lobes of the kinase domain. In the N-lobe, high centrality residues wrap around the ATP binding pocket connecting previously described Catalytic-spine residues. In the C-lobe, two high centrality node residues connect the base of the R- and C-spines on the αF-helix. We suggest that the bridging residues that connect the catalytic and regulatory architecture within the kinase domain may be a crucial element in transmitting information about regulatory spine assembly to the catalytic machinery of the catalytic spine and active site.

  6. Phosphorylation of myosin-binding subunit (MBS) of myosin phosphatase by Rho-kinase in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Y; Fukata, Y; Oshiro, N; Amano, M; Nakamura, T; Ito, M; Matsumura, F; Inagaki, M; Kaibuchi, K

    1999-11-29

    Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase), which is activated by the small GTPase Rho, phosphorylates myosin-binding subunit (MBS) of myosin phosphatase and thereby inactivates the phosphatase activity in vitro. Rho-kinase is thought to regulate the phosphorylation state of the substrates including myosin light chain (MLC), ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) family proteins and adducin by their direct phosphorylation and by the inactivation of myosin phosphatase. Here we identified the sites of phosphorylation of MBS by Rho-kinase as Thr-697, Ser-854 and several residues, and prepared antibody that specifically recognized MBS phosphorylated at Ser-854. We found by use of this antibody that the stimulation of MDCK epithelial cells with tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced the phosphorylation of MBS at Ser-854 under the conditions in which membrane ruffling and cell migration were induced. Pretreatment of the cells with Botulinum C3 ADP-ribosyltransferase (C3), which is thought to interfere with Rho functions, or Rho-kinase inhibitors inhibited the TPA- or HGF-induced MBS phosphorylation. The TPA stimulation enhanced the immunoreactivity of phosphorylated MBS in the cytoplasm and membrane ruffling area of MDCK cells. In migrating MDCK cells, phosphorylated MBS as well as phosphorylated MLC at Ser-19 were localized in the leading edge and posterior region. Phosphorylated MBS was localized on actin stress fibers in REF52 fibroblasts. The microinjection of C3 or dominant negative Rho-kinase disrupted stress fibers and weakened the accumulation of phosphorylated MBS in REF52 cells. During cytokinesis, phosphorylated MBS, MLC and ERM family proteins accumulated at the cleavage furrow, and the phosphorylation level of MBS at Ser-854 was increased. Taken together, these results indicate that MBS is phosphorylated by Rho-kinase downstream of Rho in vivo, and suggest that myosin phosphatase and Rho-kinase spatiotemporally regulate the

  7. Lead Poison Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  8. [Familial lead poisoning].

    PubMed

    Ríos, E; Dal Borgo, P; Riveros, A; Díaz, S M

    1989-06-01

    A 1 year and 9 month old patient was admitted with ataxia. CBC showed a microcytic, hypocromic anemia with intense basophilic sttipling of erythrocytes. Lead poisoning was suspected and confirmed with a blood lead level of 167 micrograms/dl. The patient was treated with EDTA and BAL. It was discovered that family burned old car batteries for food cooking. Four members were intoxicated, with blood lead levels at or above 50 micrograms/dl.

  9. Receptor-like kinases from Arabidopsis form a monophyletic gene family related to animal receptor kinases

    PubMed Central

    Shiu, Shin-Han; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2001-01-01

    Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are proteins with a predicted signal sequence, single transmembrane region, and cytoplasmic kinase domain. Receptor-like kinases belong to a large gene family with at least 610 members that represent nearly 2.5% of Arabidopsis protein coding genes. We have categorized members of this family into subfamilies based on both the identity of the extracellular domains and the phylogenetic relationships between the kinase domains of subfamily members. Surprisingly, this structurally defined group of genes is monophyletic with respect to kinase domains when compared with the other eukaryotic kinase families. In an extended analysis, animal receptor kinases, Raf kinases, plant RLKs, and animal receptor tyrosine kinases form a well supported group sharing a common origin within the superfamily of serine/threonine/tyrosine kinases. Among animal kinase sequences, Drosophila Pelle and related cytoplasmic kinases fall within the plant RLK clade, which we now define as the RLK/Pelle family. A survey of expressed sequence tag records for land plants reveals that mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants have similar percentages of expressed sequence tags representing RLK/Pelle homologs, suggesting that the size of this gene family may have been close to the present-day level before the diversification of land plant lineages. The distribution pattern of four RLK subfamilies on Arabidopsis chromosomes indicates that the expansion of this gene family is partly a consequence of duplication and reshuffling of the Arabidopsis genome and of the generation of tandem repeats. PMID:11526204

  10. Immunosuppressive effects of lead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Feierabend, J.Scott; Russell, A.Brooke

    1986-01-01

    Immunosuppressive effects of lead were reported as early as 1966, when it was noted that lead increased the sensitivity of rats to bacterial endotoxins (Selye et al. 1966). Since then a substantial body of literature has demonstrated adverse effects of lead on the immune system in a variety of laboratory animals, but very little has been done in this area with avian species. Such immunosuppressive effects could be of significance to waterfowl populations, considering the potential for lead ingestion by waterfowl and subsequent exposure of these birds to disease agents.

  11. Lead poisoning: case studies.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J N; Taylor, A; Bennett, P N

    2002-05-01

    Early clinical features of lead toxicity are non-specific and an occupational history is particularly valuable. Lead in the body comprises 2% in the blood (t1/2 35 days) and 95% in bone and dentine (t1/2 20-30 years). Blood lead may remain elevated for years after cessation from long exposure, due to redistribution from bone. Blood lead concentration is the most widely used marker for inorganic lead exposure. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentration in blood usefully reflects lead exposure over the prior 3 months. Symptomatic patients with blood lead concentration >2.4 micromol l-1 (50 microg dl-1) or in any event >3.8 micromol l-1 (80 microg dl-1) should receive sodium calciumedetate i.v., followed by succimer by mouth for 19 days. Asymptomatic patients with blood lead concentration >2.4 micromol l-1 (50 microg dl-1) may be treated with succimer alone. Sodium calciumedetate should be given with dimercaprol to treat lead encephalopathy.

  12. Immunosuppressive effects of lead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Feierabend, J.Scott; Russell, A.Brooke

    1986-01-01

    Immunosuppressive effects of lead were reported as early as 1966, when it was noted that lead increased the sensitivity of rats to bacterial endotoxins (Selye et al. 1966). Since then a substantial body of literature has demonstrated adverse effects of lead on the immune system in a variety of laboratory animals, but very little has been done in this area with avian species. Such immunosuppressive effects could be of significance to waterfowl populations, considering the potential for lead ingestion by waterfowl and subsequent exposure of these birds to disease agents.

  13. Acute lead arsenate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Tallis, G A

    1989-12-01

    Three cases of acute lead arsenate poisoning which occurred in South Australia during a 12 month interval are described. The case reports demonstrate a number of features of the characteristic clinical syndrome which may follow ingestion of lead arsenate. The recommended management is immediate gastric lavage and subsequent chelation therapy with calcium EDTA and dimercaprol. Early gastric lavage may prevent significant lead absorption. However, arsenic acid (produced in the stomach when lead arsenate reacts with hydrochloric acid) is relatively water soluble and prompt gastric lavage is unlikely to prevent extensive arsenic absorption. It remains controversial as to whether chelation with dimercaprol prevents arsenical neuropathy.

  14. Dominant Mutations of Drosophila Map Kinase Kinase and Their Activities in Drosophila and Yeast Map Kinase Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Y. M.; Tsuda, L.; Inoue, Y. H.; Irie, K.; Adachi-Yamada, T.; Hata, M.; Nishi, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Nishida, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Eight alleles of Dsor1 encoding a Drosophila homologue of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase were obtained as dominant suppressors of the MAP kinase kinase kinase D-raf. These Dsor1 alleles themselves showed no obvious phenotypic consequences nor any effect on the viability of the flies, although they were highly sensitive to upstream signals and strongly interacted with gain-of-function mutations of upstream factors. They suppressed mutations for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs); torso (tor), sevenless (sev) and to a lesser extent Drosophila EGF receptor (DER). Furthermore, the Dsor1 alleles showed no significant interaction with gain-of-function mutations of DER. The observed difference in activity of the Dsor1 alleles among the RTK pathways suggests Dsor1 is one of the components of the pathway that regulates signal specificity. Expression of Dsor1 in budding yeast demonstrated that Dsor1 can activate yeast MAP kinase homologues if a proper activator of Dsor1 is coexpressed. Nucleotide sequencing of the Dsor1 mutant genes revealed that most of the mutations are associated with amino acid changes at highly conserved residues in the kinase domain. The results suggest that they function as suppressors due to increased reactivity to upstream factors. PMID:9136016

  15. Novel library of selenocompounds as kinase modulators.

    PubMed

    Plano, Daniel; Ibáñez, Elena; Calvo, Alfonso; Palop, Juan Antonio; Sanmartín, Carmen

    2011-07-27

    Although the causes of cancer lie in mutations or epigenic changes at the genetic level, their molecular manifestation is the dysfunction of biochemical pathways at the protein level. The 518 protein kinases encoded by the human genome play a central role in various diseases, a fact that has encouraged extensive investigations on their biological function and three dimensional structures. Selenium (Se) is an important nutritional trace element involved in different physiological functions with antioxidative, antitumoral and chemopreventive properties. The mechanisms of action for selenocompounds as anticancer agents are not fully understood, but kinase modulation seems to be a possible pathway. Various organosulfur compounds have shown antitumoral and kinase inhibition effects but, in many cases, the replacement of sulfur by selenium improves the antitumoral effect of compounds. Although Se atom possesses a larger atomic volume and nucleophilic character than sulfur, Se can also formed interactions with aminoacids of the catalytic centers of proteins. So, we propose a novel chemical library that includes organoselenium compounds as kinase modulators. In this study thirteen selenocompounds have been evaluated at a concentration of 3 or 10 µM in a 24 kinase panel using a Caliper LabChip 3000 Drug Discover Platform. Several receptor (EGFR, IGFR1, FGFR1…) and non-receptor (Abl) kinases have been selected, as well as serine/threonine/lipid kinases (AurA, Akt, CDKs, MAPKs…) implicated in main cancer pathways: cell cycle regulation, signal transduction, angiogenesis regulation among them. The obtained results showed that two compounds presented inhibition values higher than 50% in at least four kinases and seven derivatives selectively inhibited one or two kinases. Furthermore, three compounds selectively activated IGF-1R kinase with values ranging from -98% to -211%. In conclusion, we propose that the replacement of sulfur by selenium seems to be a potential and

  16. Physiological roles of the Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase cascade in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Colomer, J; Means, A R

    2007-01-01

    Numerous hormones, growth factors and physiological processes cause a rise in cytosolic Ca2+, which is translated into meaningful cellular responses by interacting with a large number of Ca2(+)-binding proteins. The Ca2(+)-binding protein that is most pervasive in mediating these responses is calmodulin (CaM), which acts as a primary receptor for Ca2+ in all eukaryotic cells. In turn, Ca2+/CaM functions as an allosteric activator of a host of enzymatic proteins including a considerable number of protein kinases. The topic of this review is to discuss the physiological roles of a sub-set of these protein kinases which can function in cells as a Ca2+/CaM-dependent kinase signaling cascade. The cascade was originally believed to consist of a CaM kinase kinase that phosphorylates and activates one of two CaM kinases, CaMKI or CaMKIV. The unusual aspect of this cascade is that both the kinase kinase and the kinase require the binding of Ca2+/CaM for activation. More recently, one of the CaM kinase kinases has been found to activate another important enzyme, the AMP-dependent protein kinase so the concept of the CaM kinase cascade must be expanded. A CaM kinase cascade is important for many normal physiological processes that when misregulated can lead to a variety of disease states. These processes include: cell proliferation and apoptosis that may conspire in the genesis of cancer; neuronal growth and function related to brain development, synaptic plasticity as well as memory formation and maintenance; proper function of the immune system including the inflammatory response, activation of T lymphocytes and hematopoietic stem cell maintenance; and the central control of energy balance that, when altered, can lead to obesity and diabetes. Although the study of the CaM-dependent kinase cascades is still in its infancy continued analysis of the pathways regulated by these Ca2(+)-initiated signaling cascades holds considerable promise for the future of disease

  17. Childhood lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Linakis, J G

    1995-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been referred to as the most important environmental health hazard for children in New England. Medical professionals are in a unique position to perform a number of interventions that could make a lasting impact. First, physicians and nurses, particularly in the areas of pediatrics and family medicine, can provide anticipatory guidance to all families with young children. Lead poisoning, in contrast to long held beliefs, is an affliction that affects all socioeconomic groups. Parents should thus be informed regarding sources of lead, including occupational and hobby sources, and basic nutritional and abatement information should be provided. Second, health care workers should encourage lead screening in appropriately aged children at recommended intervals based on known risk factors. Once a blood lead concentration greater than 20[symbol: see text]g/dl has been obtained in a child, treatment or referral to an established lead clinic should be undertaken in a timely fashion. For children with low or moderate lead levels, many pediatricians or family physicians prefer to supervise their patients' treatment, including chelation therapy. For children with higher levels or in instances when the health care professional elects to refer, there are several lead clinics throughout New England whose clinicians are experienced in the treatment of childhood lead poisoning. Finally the medical profession needs to publicly recognize, as child advocates, that lead poisoning is one of the most common pediatric health problems in the United States and that it is entirely preventable. Fortunately, after many years and much hard work, Rhode Island finally has laws that start to deal with the lead problem in an appropriately aggressive fashion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. The adenosine kinase hypothesis of epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Boison, Detlev

    2008-01-01

    Current therapies for epilepsy are largely symptomatic and do not affect the underlying mechanisms of disease progression, i.e. epileptogenesis. Given the large percentage of pharmacoresistant chronic epilepsies, novel approaches are needed to understand and modify the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. Although different types of brain injury (e.g. status epilepticus, traumatic brain injury, stroke) can trigger epileptogenesis, astrogliosis appears to be a homotypic response and hallmark of epilepsy. Indeed, recent findings indicate that epilepsy might be a disease of astrocyte dysfunction. This review focuses on the inhibitory neuromodulator and endogenous anticonvulsant adenosine, which is largely regulated by astrocytes and its key metabolic enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK). Recent findings support the “ADK hypothesis of epileptogenesis”: (i) Mouse models of epileptogenesis suggest a sequence of events leading from initial downregulation of ADK and elevation of ambient adenosine as an acute protective response, to changes in astrocytic adenosine receptor expression, to astrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy (i.e. astrogliosis), to consequential overexpression of ADK, reduced adenosine and – finally – to spontaneous focal seizure activity restricted to regions of astrogliotic overexpression of ADK. (ii) Transgenic mice overexpressing ADK display increased sensitivity to brain injury and seizures. (iii) Inhibition of ADK prevents seizures in a mouse model of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. (iv) Intrahippocampal implants of stem cells engineered to lack ADK prevent epileptogenesis. Thus, ADK emerges both as a diagnostic marker to predict, as well as a prime therapeutic target to prevent, epileptogenesis. PMID:18249058

  19. Targeting Sphingosine Kinase-1 To Inhibit Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V.; Hengst, Jeremy; Gowda, Raghavendra; Fox, Todd E.; Yun, Jong K; Robertson, Gavin P.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Resistance to therapies develops rapidly for melanoma leading to more aggressive disease. Therefore, agents are needed that specifically inhibit proteins or pathways controlling the development of this disease, which can be combined, dependent on genes deregulated in a particular patient’s tumors. This study shows that elevated sphingosine-1-phosphate (S-1-P) levels resulting from increased activity of sphingosine kinase-1 (SPHK1) occur in advanced melanomas. Targeting SPHK1 using siRNA decreased anchorage dependent and independent growth as well as sensitized melanoma cells to apoptosis inducing agents. Pharmacological SPHK1 inhibitors SKI-I but not SKI-II decreased S-1-P content, elevated ceramide levels, caused a G2-M block and induced apoptotic cell death in melanomas. Targeting SPHK1 using siRNA or the pharmacological agent called SKI-I, decreased the levels of pAKT. Furthermore, SKI-I inhibited the expression of CYCLIN D1 protein and increased the activity of caspase-3/7, which in turn led to the degradation of PARP. In animals, SKI-I but not SKI-II retarded melanoma growth by 25-40%. Thus, targeting SPHK1 using siRNAs or SKI-I has therapeutic potential for melanoma treatment either alone or in combination with other targeted agents. PMID:22236408

  20. Aurora kinase A in Barrett's carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rugge, Massimo; Fassan, Matteo; Zaninotto, Giovanni; Pizzi, Marco; Giacomelli, Luciano; Battaglia, Giorgio; Rizzetto, Christian; Parente, Paola; Ancona, Ermanno

    2010-10-01

    In Barrett's mucosa, both aneuploidy and TP53 mutations are consistently recognized as markers of an increased risk of Barrett's adenocarcinoma. Overexpression of the mitotic kinase encoding gene (AURKA) results in chromosome instability (assessed from the micronuclei count) and ultimately in aneuploidy. Eighty-seven esophageal biopsy samples representative of all the phenotypic lesions occurring in the multistep process of Barrett's carcinogenesis (gastric metaplasia in 25, intestinal metaplasia in 25, low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in 16, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in 11, and Barrett's adenocarcinoma in 10) were obtained from long segments of Barrett's mucosa. Twenty-five additional biopsy samples of native esophageal mucosa were used for control purposes. In all tissue samples, the immunohistochemical expression of both AURKA and TP53 gene products was scored; and the micronuclei index was calculated. AURKA immunostaining increased progressively and significantly along with dedifferentiation of the histologic phenotype (P < .001). Nine of 10 Barrett's adenocarcinomas showed AURKA immunostaining. AURKA expression correlated significantly with p53 expression and the micronuclei index (both Ps < .001). AURKA overexpression is significantly associated with Barrett's mucosa progressing to Barrett's adenocarcinoma and contributes to esophageal carcinogenesis via chromosome instability. The identification of AURKA as a novel molecular target of cancer progression in Barrett's mucosa provides a lead for the development of new therapeutic approaches in Barrett's mucosa patients.

  1. LEAD IN CANDLE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The candle-using public should be made aware that the core of candle wicks may contain lead. Used as a stiffening agent to keep the wick out of the molten wax, lead can be emitted as particulate to the air and then deposited on indoor surfaces. To define the problem, 100 sets of ...

  2. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOEpatents

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    1991-01-01

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses.

  3. Supersonic Leading Edge Receptivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslov, Anatoly A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes experimental studies of leading edge boundary layer receptivity for imposed stream disturbances. Studies were conducted in the supersonic T-325 facility at ITAM and include data for both sharp and blunt leading edges. The data are in agreement with existing theory and should provide guidance for the development of more complete theories and numerical computations of this phenomena.

  4. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... and treated earlier before the damaging effects of lead poisoning occur. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ... exceed 10μg/dL, the threshold used to indicate lead poisoning. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) estimates one ...

  5. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

  6. Lead toxicity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Ara, Anjum; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Lead toxicity is an important environmental disease and its effects on the human body are devastating. There is almost no function in the human body which is not affected by lead toxicity. Though in countries like US and Canada the use of lead has been controlled up to a certain extent, it is still used vehemently in the developing countries. This is primarily because lead bears unique physical and chemical properties that make it suitable for a large number of applications for which humans have exploited its benefits from historical times and thus it has become a common environmental pollutant. Lead is highly persistent in the environment and because of its continuous use its levels rise in almost every country, posing serious threats. This article reviews the works listed in the literature with recent updates regarding the toxicity of lead. Focus is also on toxic effects of lead on the renal, reproductive and nervous system. Finally the techniques available for treating lead toxicity are presented with some recent updates. PMID:27486361

  7. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood cells and limit their ability to carry oxygen to the organs and tissues that need it, thus causing anemia. Most lead ends up in the bone, where it causes even more problems. Lead can interfere with the production of blood cells and the absorption of calcium ...

  8. Lead toxicity: a review.

    PubMed

    Wani, Ab Latif; Ara, Anjum; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Lead toxicity is an important environmental disease and its effects on the human body are devastating. There is almost no function in the human body which is not affected by lead toxicity. Though in countries like US and Canada the use of lead has been controlled up to a certain extent, it is still used vehemently in the developing countries. This is primarily because lead bears unique physical and chemical properties that make it suitable for a large number of applications for which humans have exploited its benefits from historical times and thus it has become a common environmental pollutant. Lead is highly persistent in the environment and because of its continuous use its levels rise in almost every country, posing serious threats. This article reviews the works listed in the literature with recent updates regarding the toxicity of lead. Focus is also on toxic effects of lead on the renal, reproductive and nervous system. Finally the techniques available for treating lead toxicity are presented with some recent updates.

  9. LEAD IN CANDLE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The candle-using public should be made aware that the core of candle wicks may contain lead. Used as a stiffening agent to keep the wick out of the molten wax, lead can be emitted as particulate to the air and then deposited on indoor surfaces. To define the problem, 100 sets of ...

  10. Bonding aluminum beam leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkett, F. S.

    1978-01-01

    Report makes it relatively easy for hybrid-circuit manufacturers to convert integrated circuit chips with aluminum bead leads. Report covers: techniques for handling tiny chips; proper geometries for ultrasonic bonding tips; best combinations of pressure, pulse time, and ultrasonic energy for bonding; and best thickness for metal films to which beam leads are bonded.

  11. Lead polluters get punished

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-09

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Justice last week cracked down on 36 US companies for polluting the environment with lead. EPA slapped fines totaling more than $10 million on 12 of the offending companies, and Justice filed 24 civil complaints. Hank Habicht, deputy administrator of the EPA, said that his agency's initiative comes after 8 months of intense - and presumably successful - efforts at locating and documenting lead pollution in the soil, air, and water supply. Most feared has been lead's ability to damage the intellectual development of children. This caused the agency, Habicht said, to look beyond the usual suspect - lead in the water supply - to lead-laced dirt in residential areas. Meanwhile, the Department of Justice is using the EPA contamination data as well. Twenty US attorneys have been assigned to pore over the federal environmental statutes, including the Clean Water Act and the Superfund Law, in order to file civil complaints.

  12. Lead contamination in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Mañay, N; Pereira, L; Cousillas, Z

    1999-01-01

    Uruguay is a developing country of South America with about 3 million people, half of whom live in its principal city, Montevideo. This city has several lead pollution sources as emitting industries, most of them surrounded by residential neighborhoods, some still using lead pipes in drinking water systems of old buildings, and has areas of heavy traffic with cars that are still fueled with leaded gasoline. The toxic effects of this heavy metal are well known. Children are a very sensitive population and their early symptoms of intoxication are not always taken into account. Blood lead is a good indicator of recent exposure to lead influenced by inhalation and ingestion. The systematic data assessment of lead pollution and people exposure in Uruguay was not well known when the Department of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene of the Faculty of Chemistry began to analyze lead in biological samples, first from exposed workers and next from children and the general population, including sensitive animal species like dogs. Several described studies were carried out analyzing for blood lead to assess lead uptake and to obtain reference values for Uruguayan populations. Since 1986, that Department is the only laboratory where blood lead analyses are done, and the analytical method has been controlled by an interlaboratory quality control program of the Ministry of Labour of Spain and confirmed by experts from the Laboratory of Occupational and Environmental Medicine of Lund, Sweden. Financial and technical support was obtained from Sweden (SAREC) and also from the University of the Republic of Uruguay. Uruguayan lead workers have always been the principally studied population because their lead exposure assessment as well as their health protection education is not always done properly. Uruguay has adopted ACGIH reference values (150 micrograms/m3 in total lead dust, 50 micrograms/m3 respirable lead dust, 300 micrograms/L blood), and the high blood lead levels indicate

  13. Protein kinase biochemistry and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Phillip A; Murray, Brion W

    2011-12-01

    Protein kinases are fascinating biological catalysts with a rapidly expanding knowledge base, a growing appreciation in cell regulatory control, and an ascendant role in successful therapeutic intervention. To better understand protein kinases, the molecular underpinnings of phosphoryl group transfer, protein phosphorylation, and inhibitor interactions are examined. This analysis begins with a survey of phosphate group and phosphoprotein properties which provide context to the evolutionary selection of phosphorylation as a central mechanism for biological regulation of most cellular processes. Next, the kinetic and catalytic mechanisms of protein kinases are examined with respect to model aqueous systems to define the elements of catalysis. A brief structural biology overview further delves into the molecular basis of catalysis and regulation of catalytic activity. Concomitant with a prominent role in normal physiology, protein kinases have important roles in the disease state. To facilitate effective kinase drug discovery, classic and emerging approaches for characterizing kinase inhibitors are evaluated including biochemical assay design, inhibitor mechanism of action analysis, and proper kinetic treatment of irreversible inhibitors. As the resulting protein kinase inhibitors can modulate intended and unintended targets, profiling methods are discussed which can illuminate a more complete range of an inhibitor's biological activities to enable more meaningful cellular studies and more effective clinical studies. Taken as a whole, a wealth of protein kinase biochemistry knowledge is available, yet it is clear that a substantial extent of our understanding in this field remains to be discovered which should yield many new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  14. An atlas of human kinase regulation.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, David; Jonikas, Mindaugas; Lawrence, Robert T; El Debs, Bachir; Selkrig, Joel; Typas, Athanasios; Villén, Judit; Santos, Silvia Dm; Beltrao, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    The coordinated regulation of protein kinases is a rapid mechanism that integrates diverse cues and swiftly determines appropriate cellular responses. However, our understanding of cellular decision-making has been limited by the small number of simultaneously monitored phospho-regulatory events. Here, we have estimated changes in activity in 215 human kinases in 399 conditions derived from a large compilation of phosphopeptide quantifications. This atlas identifies commonly regulated kinases as those that are central in the signaling network and defines the logic relationships between kinase pairs. Co-regulation along the conditions predicts kinase-complex and kinase-substrate associations. Additionally, the kinase regulation profile acts as a molecular fingerprint to identify related and opposing signaling states. Using this atlas, we identified essential mediators of stem cell differentiation, modulators of Salmonella infection, and new targets of AKT1. This provides a global view of human phosphorylation-based signaling and the necessary context to better understand kinase-driven decision-making. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  15. Fetal anaemia due to pyruvate kinase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Gilsanz, F; Vega, M A; Gómez-Castillo, E; Ruiz-Balda, J A; Omeñaca, F

    1993-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase deficiency was diagnosed in an infant by umbilical vessel sampling at 30 weeks' gestation. Although three previous hydropic siblings had been stillborn or died in the neonatal period, this infant survived with transfusion dependent haemolytic anaemia. Prompt fetal diagnosis of pyruvate kinase deficiency is feasible and allows better management of hydrops fetalis due to this disorder. PMID:8285758

  16. Measuring the Activity of Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2: A Kinase Involved in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung Dae; Li, Xiaojie; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 (Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2) gene are the most common cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 has multiple functional domains including a kinase domain. The kinase activity of LRRK2 is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Developing an assay to understand the mechanisms of LRRK2 kinase activity is important for the development of pharmacologic and therapeutic applications. Here, we describe how to measure in vitro LRRK2 kinase activity and its inhibition. PMID:21960214

  17. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. Images FIGURE 2. PMID:8354166

  18. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  19. Discovery of Type II Inhibitors of TGFβ-Activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 2 (MAP4K2)

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, Li; Nomanbhoy, Tyzoon; Gurbani, Deepak; ...

    2014-07-17

    Here, we developed a pharmacophore model for type II inhibitors that was used to guide the construction of a library of kinase inhibitors. Kinome-wide selectivity profiling of the library resulted in the identification of a series of 4-substituted 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines that exhibited potent inhibitory activity against two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), TAK1 (MAP3K7) and MAP4K2, as well as pharmacologically well interrogated kinases such as p38α (MAPK14) and ABL. Further investigation of the structure–activity relationship (SAR) resulted in the identification of potent dual TAK1 and MAP4K2 inhibitors such as 1 (NG25) and 2 as well as MAP4K2 selective inhibitors such as 16more » and 17. Some of these inhibitors possess good pharmacokinetic properties that will enable their use in pharmacological studies in vivo. Lastly, a 2.4 Å cocrystal structure of TAK1 in complex with 1 confirms that the activation loop of TAK1 assumes the DFG-out conformation characteristic of type II inhibitors.« less

  20. Targeting lung cancer through inhibition of checkpoint kinases

    PubMed Central

    Syljuåsen, Randi G.; Hasvold, Grete; Hauge, Sissel; Helland, Åslaug

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of checkpoint kinases ATR, Chk1, and Wee1 are currently being tested in preclinical and clinical trials. Here, we review the basic principles behind the use of such inhibitors as anticancer agents, and particularly discuss their potential for treatment of lung cancer. As lung cancer is one of the most deadly cancers, new treatment strategies are highly needed. We discuss how checkpoint kinase inhibition in principle can lead to selective killing of lung cancer cells while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Several features of lung cancer may potentially be exploited for targeting through inhibition of checkpoint kinases, including mutated p53, low ERCC1 levels, amplified Myc, tumor hypoxia and presence of lung cancer stem cells. Synergistic effects have also been reported between inhibitors of ATR/Chk1/Wee1 and conventional lung cancer treatments, such as gemcitabine, cisplatin, or radiation. Altogether, inhibitors of ATR, Chk1, and Wee1 are emerging as new cancer treatment agents, likely to be useful in lung cancer treatment. However, as lung tumors are very diverse, the inhibitors are unlikely to be effective in all patients, and more work is needed to determine how such inhibitors can be utilized in the most optimal ways. PMID:25774168

  1. Protein kinase CK2: a newcomer in the 'druggable kinome'.

    PubMed

    Pagano, M A; Cesaro, L; Meggio, F; Pinna, L A

    2006-12-01

    The acronym CK2 (derived from the misnomer 'casein kinase' 2) denotes one of the most pleiotropic members of the eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily, characterized by an acidic consensus sequence in which a carboxylic acid (or pre-phosphorylated) side chain at position n+3 relative to the target serine/threonine residue plays a crucial role. The latest repertoire of CK2 substrates includes approx. 300 proteins, but the analysis of available phosphopeptide databases from different sources suggests that CK2 alone may be responsible for the generation of a much larger proportion (10-20%) of the eukaryotic phosphoproteome. Although for the time being CK2 is not included among protein kinases whose inhibitors are in clinical practice or in advanced clinical trials, evidence is accumulating that elevated CK2 constitutive activity co-operates to induce a number of pathological conditions, including cancer, infectious diseases, neurodegeneration and cardiovascular pathologies. The development and usage of cell-permeant, selective inhibitors discloses a scenario whereby CK2 plays a global anti-apoptotic role, which under special circumstances may lead to untimely and pathogenic cell survival.

  2. Terreic Acid, a Quinone Epoxide Inhibitor of Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Yuko; Hartman, Stephen E.; Kinoshita, Eiji; Suzuki, Hidefumi; Kitaura, Jiro; Yao, Libo; Inagaki, Naoki; Franco, Alessandra; Hata, Daisuke; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Fukamachi, Hiromi; Nagai, Hiroichi; Kawakami, Toshiaki

    1999-03-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) plays pivotal roles in mast cell activation as well as in B cell development. Btk mutations lead to severe impairments in proinflammatory cytokine production induced by cross-linking of high-affinity IgE receptor on mast cells. By using an in vitro assay to measure the activity that blocks the interaction between protein kinase C and the pleckstrin homology domain of Btk, terreic acid (TA) was identified and characterized in this study. This quinone epoxide specifically inhibited the enzymatic activity of Btk in mast cells and cell-free assays. TA faithfully recapitulated the phenotypic defects of btk mutant mast cells in high-affinity IgE receptor-stimulated wild-type mast cells without affecting the enzymatic activities and expressions of many other signaling molecules, including those of protein kinase C. Therefore, this study confirmed the important roles of Btk in mast cell functions and showed the usefulness of TA in probing into the functions of Btk in mast cells and other immune cell systems. Another insight obtained from this study is that the screening method used to identify TA is a useful approach to finding more efficacious Btk inhibitors.

  3. Crosstalk between kinases, phosphatases and miRNAs in cancer.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Júlia L F; Tornatore, Thaís F; Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin J; de Jesus, Marcelo B; Cartaxo, Rodrigo T; Milani, Renato; Ferreira-Halder, Carmen V

    2014-12-01

    Reversible phosphorylation of proteins, performed by kinases and phosphatases, is the major post translational protein modification in eukaryotic cells. This intracellular event represents a critical regulatory mechanism of several signaling pathways and can be related to a vast array of diseases, including cancer. Cancer research has produced increasing evidence that kinase and phosphatase activity can be compromised by mutations and also by miRNA silencing, performed by small non-coding and endogenously produced RNA molecules that lead to translational repression. miRNAs are believed to target about one-third of human mRNAs while a single miRNA may target about 200 transcripts simultaneously. Regulation of the phosphorylation balance by miRNAs has been a topic of intense research over the last years, spanning topics going as far as cancer aggressiveness and chemotherapy resistance. By addressing recent studies that have shown miRNA expression patterns as phenotypic signatures of cancers and how miRNA influence cellular processes such as apoptosis, cell cycle control, angiogenesis, inflammation and DNA repair, we discuss how kinases, phosphatases and miRNAs cooperatively act in cancer biology.

  4. Eph-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of citron kinase controls abscission

    PubMed Central

    Jungas, Thomas; Perchey, Renaud T.; Fawal, Mohamad; Callot, Caroline; Froment, Carine; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Besson, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinesis is the last step of cell division, culminating in the physical separation of daughter cells at the end of mitosis. Cytokinesis is a tightly regulated process that until recently was mostly viewed as a cell-autonomous event. Here, we investigated the role of Ephrin/Eph signaling, a well-known local cell-to-cell communication pathway, in cell division. We show that activation of Eph signaling in vitro leads to multinucleation and polyploidy, and we demonstrate that this is caused by alteration of the ultimate step of cytokinesis, abscission. Control of abscission requires Eph kinase activity, and Src and citron kinase (CitK) are downstream effectors in the Eph-induced signal transduction cascade. CitK is phosphorylated on tyrosines in neural progenitors in vivo, and Src kinase directly phosphorylates CitK. We have identified the specific tyrosine residues of CitK that are phosphorylated and show that tyrosine phosphorylation of CitK impairs cytokinesis. Finally, we show that, similar to CitK, Ephrin/Eph signaling controls neuronal ploidy in the developing neocortex. Our study indicates that CitK integrates intracellular and extracellular signals provided by the local environment to coordinate completion of cytokinesis. PMID:27551053

  5. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase: signalling in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Ruth H.; Vernersson, Emma; Grabbe, Caroline; Hallberg, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    RTKs (receptor tyrosine kinases) play important roles in cellular proliferation and differentiation. In addition, RTKs reveal oncogenic potential when their kinase activities are constitutively enhanced by point mutation, amplification or rearrangement of the corresponding genes. The ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) RTK was originally identified as a member of the insulin receptor subfamily of RTKs that acquires transforming capability when truncated and fused to NPM (nucleophosmin) in the t(2;5) chromosomal rearrangement associated with ALCL (anaplastic large cell lymphoma). To date, many chromosomal rearrangements leading to enhanced ALK activity have been described and are implicated in a number of cancer types. Recent reports of the EML4 (echinoderm microtubule-associated protein like 4)–ALK oncoprotein in NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer), together with the identification of activating point mutations in neuroblastoma, have highlighted ALK as a significant player and target for drug development in cancer. In the present review we address the role of ALK in development and disease and discuss implications for the future. PMID:19459784

  6. Protein kinase C mechanisms that contribute to cardiac remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Alexandra C.; Antal, Corina E.; Steinberg, Susan F.

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a highly-regulated and reversible process that is precisely controlled by the actions of protein kinases and protein phosphatases. Factors that tip the balance of protein phosphorylation lead to changes in a wide range of cellular responses, including cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. The protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine/threonine kinases sits at nodal points in many signal transduction pathways; PKC enzymes have been the focus of considerable attention since they contribute to both normal physiological responses as well as maladaptive pathological responses that drive a wide range of clinical disorders. This review provides a background on the mechanisms that regulate individual PKC isoenzymes followed by a discussion of recent insights into their role in the pathogenesis of diseases such as cancer. We then provide an overview on the role of individual PKC isoenzymes in the regulation of cardiac contractility and pathophysiological growth responses, with a focus on the PKC-dependent mechanisms that regulate pump function and/or contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. PMID:27433023

  7. WNK kinases regulate thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransport.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Ling; Angell, Jordan; Mitchell, Rose; Ellison, David H

    2003-04-01

    Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) is an autosomal dominant disorder of hyperkalemia and hypertension. Mutations in two members of the WNK kinase family, WNK1 and WNK4, cause the disease. WNK1 mutations are believed to increase WNK1 expression; the effect of WNK4 mutations remains unknown. The clinical phenotype of PHAII is opposite to Gitelman syndrome, a disease caused by dysfunction of the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter. We tested the hypothesis that WNK kinases regulate the mammalian thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC). Mouse WNK4 was cloned and expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without NCC. Coexpression with WNK4 suppressed NCC activity by more than 85%. This effect did not result from defects in NCC synthesis or processing, but was associated with an 85% reduction in NCC abundance at the plasma membrane. Unlike WNK4, WNK1 did not affect NCC activity directly. WNK1, however, completely prevented WNK4 inhibition of NCC. Some WNK4 mutations that cause PHAII retained NCC-inhibiting activity, but the Q562E WNK4 demonstrated diminished activity, suggesting that some PHAII mutations lead to loss of NCC inhibition. Gain-of-function WNK1 mutations would be expected to inhibit WNK4 activity, thereby activating NCC, contributing to the PHAII phenotype. Together, these results identify WNK kinases as a previously unrecognized sodium regulatory pathway of the distal nephron. This pathway likely contributes to normal and pathological blood pressure homeostasis.

  8. Phosphoglycerate Kinase 1 Phosphorylates Beclin1 to Induce Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xu; Li, Xinjian; Cai, Qingsong; Zhang, Chuanbao; Yu, Qiujing; Jiang, Yuhui; Lee, Jong-Ho; Hawke, David; Wang, Yugang; Xia, Yan; Zheng, Yanhua; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Liu, David X; Jiang, Tao; Lu, Zhimin

    2017-03-02

    Autophagy is crucial for maintaining cell homeostasis. However, the precise mechanism underlying autophagy initiation remains to be defined. Here, we demonstrate that glutamine deprivation and hypoxia result in inhibition of mTOR-mediated acetyl-transferase ARD1 S228 phosphorylation, leading to ARD1-dependent phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) K388 acetylation and subsequent PGK1-mediated Beclin1 S30 phosphorylation. This phosphorylation enhances ATG14L-associated class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase VPS34 activity by increasing the binding of phosphatidylinositol to VPS34. ARD1-dependent PGK1 acetylation and PGK1-mediated Beclin1 S30 phosphorylation are required for glutamine deprivation- and hypoxia-induced autophagy and brain tumorigenesis. Furthermore, PGK1 K388 acetylation levels correlate with Beclin1 S30 phosphorylation levels and poor prognosis in glioblastoma patients. Our study unearths an important mechanism underlying cellular-stress-induced autophagy initiation in which the protein kinase activity of the metabolic enzyme PGK1 plays an instrumental role and reveals the significance of the mutual regulation of autophagy and cell metabolism in maintaining cell homeostasis.

  9. Sequential Transphosphorylation of the BRI1/BAK1 Receptor Kinase Pair Regulates Early Events of the Brassinosteriod Signaling Pathway Promoting Plant Growth and Development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development through a signal transduction pathway that is initiated by BR binding to the transmembrane receptor kinase BRI1. Activated BRI1 heterodimerizes with a second receptor kinase, BAK1, leading to enhanced signaling output. ...

  10. Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: Current Status and Outlook.

    PubMed

    Bavetsias, Vassilios; Linardopoulos, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    The Aurora kinase family comprises of cell cycle-regulated serine/threonine kinases important for mitosis. Their activity and protein expression are cell cycle regulated, peaking during mitosis to orchestrate important mitotic processes including centrosome maturation, chromosome alignment, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. In humans, the Aurora kinase family consists of three members; Aurora-A, Aurora-B, and Aurora-C, which each share a conserved C-terminal catalytic domain but differ in their sub-cellular localization, substrate specificity, and function during mitosis. In addition, Aurora-A and Aurora-B have been found to be overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumors. These observations led to a number of programs among academic and pharmaceutical organizations to discovering small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs. This review will summarize the known Aurora kinase inhibitors currently in the clinic, and discuss the current and future directions.

  11. WNK Kinases in Development and Disease.

    PubMed

    Rodan, Aylin R; Jenny, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    WNK (With-No-Lysine (K)) kinases are serine-threonine kinases characterized by an atypical placement of a catalytic lysine within the kinase domain. Mutations in human WNK1 or WNK4 cause an autosomal dominant syndrome of hypertension and hyperkalemia, reflecting the fact that WNK kinases are critical regulators of renal ion transport processes. Here, the role of WNKs in the regulation of ion transport processes in vertebrate and invertebrate renal function, cellular and organismal osmoregulation, and cell migration and cerebral edema will be reviewed, along with emerging literature demonstrating roles for WNKs in cardiovascular and neural development, Wnt signaling, and cancer. Conserved roles for these kinases across phyla are emphasized. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: Current Status and Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Bavetsias, Vassilios; Linardopoulos, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    The Aurora kinase family comprises of cell cycle-regulated serine/threonine kinases important for mitosis. Their activity and protein expression are cell cycle regulated, peaking during mitosis to orchestrate important mitotic processes including centrosome maturation, chromosome alignment, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. In humans, the Aurora kinase family consists of three members; Aurora-A, Aurora-B, and Aurora-C, which each share a conserved C-terminal catalytic domain but differ in their sub-cellular localization, substrate specificity, and function during mitosis. In addition, Aurora-A and Aurora-B have been found to be overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumors. These observations led to a number of programs among academic and pharmaceutical organizations to discovering small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs. This review will summarize the known Aurora kinase inhibitors currently in the clinic, and discuss the current and future directions. PMID:26734566

  13. Protein Kinases in Zucchini (Characterization of Calcium-Requiring Plasma Membrane Kinases).

    PubMed Central

    Verhey, S. D.; Gaiser, J. C.; Lomax, T. L.

    1993-01-01

    Using an in situ phosphorylation assay with zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L. cv Dark Green) seedling tissue, we have identified numerous polypeptides that are capable of acting as protein kinases. Total protein preparations from different organs contain different kinase profiles, but all are within the range of 55 to 70 kD. At least four kinases are associated with highly purified plasma membranes from etiolated zucchini hypocotyls. The major phosphorylated polypeptides from plasma membranes range in apparent molecular mass from 58 to 68 kD. The plasma membrane kinases are activated by micromolar concentrations of calcium and phosphorylate serine, and, to a lesser extent, threonine residues. These characteristics are similar to those of a soluble calcium-dependent protein kinase that has been purified to homogeneity from soybean suspension cultures. Three of the zucchini plasma membrane kinases share antigenic epitopes with the soluble soybean kinase. The presence of kinase activity at different apparent molecular masses may be indicative of separate kinases with similar characteristics. The zucchini hypocotyl protein kinases are not removed from plasma membrane vesicles by 0.5 M NaCl/5 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetate or by detergent concentrations below the critical micelle concentration of two types of detergent. This indicates that the plasma membrane protein kinases are tightly associated with the membrane in zucchini seedlings. PMID:12231949

  14. KinasePhos: a web tool for identifying protein kinase-specific phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsien-Da; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Tzeng, Shih-Wei; Horng, Jorng-Tzong

    2005-07-01

    KinasePhos is a novel web server for computationally identifying catalytic kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. The known phosphorylation sites from public domain data sources are categorized by their annotated protein kinases. Based on the profile hidden Markov model, computational models are learned from the kinase-specific groups of the phosphorylation sites. After evaluating the learned models, the model with highest accuracy was selected from each kinase-specific group, for use in a web-based prediction tool for identifying protein phosphorylation sites. Therefore, this work developed a kinase-specific phosphorylation site prediction tool with both high sensitivity and specificity. The prediction tool is freely available at http://KinasePhos.mbc.nctu.edu.tw/.

  15. Primary cilia and coordination of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Søren T; Clement, Christian A; Satir, Peter; Pedersen, Lotte B

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles that coordinate signalling pathways in cell-cycle control, migration, differentiation and other cellular processes critical during development and for tissue homeostasis. Accordingly, defects in assembly or function of primary cilia lead to a plethora of developmental disorders and pathological conditions now known as ciliopathies. In this review, we summarize the current status of the role of primary cilia in coordinating receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling pathways. Further, we present potential mechanisms of signalling crosstalk and networking in the primary cilium and discuss how defects in ciliary RTK signalling are linked to human diseases and disorders. PMID:21956154

  16. Protein Kinase C: An Attractive Target for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Marengo, Barbara; De Ciucis, Chiara; Ricciarelli, Roberta; Pronzato, Maria A.; Marinari, Umberto M.; Domenicotti, Cinzia

    2011-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role during all stages of carcinogenesis and the development of chemoresistance in tumor cells may be due to their selective defects in the intracellular signaling proteins, central to apoptotic pathways. Consequently, many studies have focused on rendering the chemotherapy more effective in order to prevent chemoresistance and pre-clinical and clinical data has suggested that protein kinase C (PKC) may represent an attractive target for cancer therapy. Therefore, a complete understanding of how PKC regulates apoptosis and chemoresistance may lead to obtaining a PKC-based therapy that is able to reduce drug dosages and to prevent the development of chemoresistance. PMID:24212628

  17. Lead-free piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yasuyoshi; Takao, Hisaaki; Tani, Toshihiko; Nonoyama, Tatsuhiko; Takatori, Kazumasa; Homma, Takahiko; Nagaya, Toshiatsu; Nakamura, Masaya

    2004-11-01

    Lead has recently been expelled from many commercial applications and materials (for example, from solder, glass and pottery glaze) owing to concerns regarding its toxicity. Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics are high-performance piezoelectric materials, which are widely used in sensors, actuators and other electronic devices; they contain more than 60 weight per cent lead. Although there has been a concerted effort to develop lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, no effective alternative to PZT has yet been found. Here we report a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with an electric-field-induced strain comparable to typical actuator-grade PZT. We achieved this through the combination of the discovery of a morphotropic phase boundary in an alkaline niobate-based perovskite solid solution, and the development of a processing route leading to highly <001> textured polycrystals. The ceramic exhibits a piezoelectric constant d33 (the induced charge per unit force applied in the same direction) of above 300picocoulombs per newton (pCN-1), and texturing the material leads to a peak d33 of 416pCN-1. The textured material also exhibits temperature-independent field-induced strain characteristics.

  18. Lead-free piezoceramics.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yasuyoshi; Takao, Hisaaki; Tani, Toshihiko; Nonoyama, Tatsuhiko; Takatori, Kazumasa; Homma, Takahiko; Nagaya, Toshiatsu; Nakamura, Masaya

    2004-11-04

    Lead has recently been expelled from many commercial applications and materials (for example, from solder, glass and pottery glaze) owing to concerns regarding its toxicity. Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics are high-performance piezoelectric materials, which are widely used in sensors, actuators and other electronic devices; they contain more than 60 weight per cent lead. Although there has been a concerted effort to develop lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, no effective alternative to PZT has yet been found. Here we report a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with an electric-field-induced strain comparable to typical actuator-grade PZT. We achieved this through the combination of the discovery of a morphotropic phase boundary in an alkaline niobate-based perovskite solid solution, and the development of a processing route leading to highly <001> textured polycrystals. The ceramic exhibits a piezoelectric constant d33 (the induced charge per unit force applied in the same direction) of above 300 picocoulombs per newton (pC N(-1)), and texturing the material leads to a peak d33 of 416 pC N(-1). The textured material also exhibits temperature-independent field-induced strain characteristics.

  19. Lead in potatoes

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Harry V.

    1975-01-01

    There are specific environments where potatoes contain much larger amounts of lead than is generally realised. Nevertheless, if we accept the hypothesis that human adults are only likely to be harmed if they absorb more than 100 micrograms of lead daily for extended periods10 then only in rare instances are they apt to be adversely affected by eating potatoes. Medical data suggest that where children are involved the acceptable amounts of lead are significantly less. However, where potatoes do show evidence of contamination by virtue of their high lead content, the possibility of more general contamination should be investigated. The intake of lead from potatoes, if supplemented by lead provided from other foodstuffs, from air, and possibly from water, can well reach unacceptable amounts. Patterson's12 claim that most people in industrialised countries are suffering from a chronic lead insult, does seem justified but, because of the remarkable ability of humans to adapt to some conditions, but how much this insult constitutes a menace to heath must be dealt with by medical men. PMID:1177205

  20. Inorganic lead may inhibit neurite development in cultured rat hippocampal neurons through hyperphosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kern, M; Audesirk, G

    1995-09-01

    Inorganic lead inhibits neurite initiation in cultured rat hippocampal neurons at concentrations as low as 100 nM. Conflicting reports suggest that Pb2+ may stimulate or inhibit protein kinase C, adenylyl cyclase, phosphodiesterase, and calmodulin, or increase intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations. Therefore, Pb2+ may alter the activities of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) or protein kinases C or A. We cultured rat hippocampal neurons in 100 nM PbCI2 alone or in combination with kinase or calmodulin inhibitors. Inhibiting protein kinase C with calphostin C exacerbated the inhibition of neurite initiation caused by PbCI2, but inhibiting protein kinase A with KT5720, CaM kinase with KN62, or calmodulin with calmidazolium completely reversed the effects of PbCI2. These results indicate that Pb2+ may inhibit neurite initiation by inappropriately stimulating protein phosphorylation by CaM kinase or cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), possibly by stimulating calmodulin. This hypothesis is supported by findings that other treatments that should increase protein phosphorylation (okadaic acid, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, and Sp-cAMPS, a PKA activator) also reduced neurite initiation. Whole-cell intracellular free Ca2+ ion concentrations were not significantly altered by 100 nM PbCI2 at 4, 12, 24, or 48 hr. Therefore, the hypothesized stimulatory effects of Pb2+ exposure on calmodulin, CaM kinase, or PKA are probably not caused by increases in whole-cell intracellular free Ca2+, but may be attributable either to intracellular Pb2+ or to localized increases in [Ca2+]in that are not reflected in whole-cell measurements.

  1. Drug discovery in the kinase inhibitory field using the Nested Chemical Library technology.

    PubMed

    Kéri, György; Székelyhidi, Zsolt; Bánhegyi, Péter; Varga, Zoltán; Hegymegi-Barakonyi, Bálint; Szántai-Kis, Csaba; Hafenbradl, Doris; Klebl, Bert; Muller, Gerhard; Ullrich, Axel; Erös, Dániel; Horváth, Zoltán; Greff, Zoltán; Marosfalvi, Jenö; Pató, János; Szabadkai, István; Szilágyi, Ildikó; Szegedi, Zsolt; Varga, István; Wáczek, Frigyes; Orfi, László

    2005-10-01

    Kinase inhibitors are at the forefront of modern drug research, where mostly three technologies are used for hit-and-lead finding: high throughput screening of random libraries, three-dimensional structure-based drug design based on X-ray data, and focused libraries around limited number of new cores. Our novel Nested Chemical Library (NCL) (Vichem Chemie Research Ltd., Budapest, Hungary) technology is based on a knowledge base approach, where focused libraries around selected cores are used to generate pharmacophore models. NCL was designed on the platform of a diverse kinase inhibitory library organized around 97 core structures. We have established a unique, proprietary kinase inhibitory chemistry around these core structures with small focused sublibraries around each core. All the compounds in our NCL library are stored in a big unified Structured Query Language database along with their measured and calculated physicochemical and ADME/toxicity (ADMET) properties, together with thousands of molecular descriptors calculated for each compound. Biochemical kinase inhibitory assays on selected, cloned kinase enzymes for a few hundred NCL compound sets can provide sufficient biological data for rational computerized design of new analogues, based on our pharmacophore model-generating 3DNET4W QSPAR (quantitative structure-property/activity relationships) approach. Using this pharmacophore modeling approach and the ADMET filters, we can preselect synthesizable compounds for hit-and-lead optimization. Starting from this point and integrating the information from QSPAR, high-quality leads can be generated within a small number of optimization cycles. Applying NCL technology we have developed lead compounds for several validated kinase targets.

  2. Calcium-Oxidant Signaling Network Regulates AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation upon Matrix Deprivation*

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaman, Ananthalakshmy; Amirtham, Usha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has recently been implicated in anoikis resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms that activate AMPK upon matrix detachment remain unexplored. In this study, we show that AMPK activation is a rapid and sustained phenomenon upon matrix deprivation, whereas re-attachment to the matrix leads to its dephosphorylation and inactivation. Because matrix detachment leads to loss of integrin signaling, we investigated whether integrin signaling negatively regulates AMPK activation. However, modulation of focal adhesion kinase or Src, the major downstream components of integrin signaling, failed to cause a corresponding change in AMPK signaling. Further investigations revealed that the upstream AMPK kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) contribute to AMPK activation upon detachment. In LKB1-deficient cells, we found AMPK activation to be predominantly dependent on CaMKKβ. We observed no change in ATP levels under detached conditions at early time points suggesting that rapid AMPK activation upon detachment was not triggered by energy stress. We demonstrate that matrix deprivation leads to a spike in intracellular calcium as well as oxidant signaling, and both these intracellular messengers contribute to rapid AMPK activation upon detachment. We further show that endoplasmic reticulum calcium release-induced store-operated calcium entry contributes to intracellular calcium increase, leading to reactive oxygen species production, and AMPK activation. We additionally show that the LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK axis and intracellular calcium levels play a critical role in anchorage-independent cancer sphere formation. Thus, the Ca2+/reactive oxygen species-triggered LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK signaling cascade may provide a quick, adaptable switch to promote survival of metastasizing cancer cells. PMID:27226623

  3. Aurora kinase family: a new target for anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Macarulla, Teresa; Ramos, Francisco Javier; Tabernero, Josep

    2008-06-01

    Aurora kinases (AK) are the name given to a family of Serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinases. These proteins represent a novel family of kinases crucial for cell cycle control. The cell division process is one of the hallmarks of every living organism. Within the complete cell-cycle process, mitosis constitutes one of the most critical steps. The main purpose of mitosis is to segregate sister chromatics into two daughters cells. It is a complex biologic process, and errors in this mechanism can lead to genomic instability, a condition associated with tumorigenesis. This process is tightly regulated by several proteins, some of them acting as check-points that ultimately ensure the correct temporal and spatial coordination of this critical biologic process. Among this network of mitotic regulators, AK play a critical role in cellular division by controlling chromatid segregation. Three AK family members have been identified in mammalian cells: A, B, and C. These proteins are implicated in several vital events in mitosis. In experimental models, overexpression of AK can induce spindle defects, chromosome mis-segregation, and malignant transformation. Conversely, downregulation of AK expression cause mitotic arrest and apoptosis in tumor cell lines. The expression levels of human AK are increased in certain types of cancer including breast, colon, pancreatic, ovarian, and gastric tumors. This observation has lent an interest to this family of kinases as potential drug targets for development of new anticancer therapies. This review focuses in recent progress in the role of AK in tumorogenesis and the development of new anticancer drug against AK proteins. This manuscript also includes some relevant patents as well.

  4. Phosphorylase kinase isoenzymes in deficient ICR/IAn mice.

    PubMed

    Daegelen-Proux, D; Alexandre, Y; Dreyfus, J C

    1978-10-01

    ICR/IAn mice present a deficiency in phosphorylase kinase activity; the extent of this deficiency is less in some tissues [Lyon, S.B. Biochem. Genet. 4, 169--185 (1970)] than in skeletal muscle, where enzyme activity is 0.3% of normal [Cohen, P.T. W & Cohen, P. FEBS Lett. 29, 113--115 (1973)]. New-born mice of this strain were also reported (Lyon, 1970) to reveal a small amount of skeletal muscle enzyme activity. The properties of these residual phosphorylase kinases were compared to those of control C57 BL mice, with reference to control muscle and liver enzymes which were shown to be of different molecular species [Daegelen-Proux et al. Biochim. Biophys Acta, 452, 398--405 (1976)]. The properties investigated were the immunological reactivity against an antiserum raised against muscle phosphorylase kinase, the thermal stability and the Ca2+ dependency. The results suggest that the muscle enzyme from the new-born ICR/IAn mice and the heart enzyme from adult deficient mice are different to the muscle enzyme from adult normal mice, but they have properties in common with normal adult liver enzyme. These results lead to the conclusion that there exists in the muscle of I strain a "foetal form" of phosphorylase kinase, the activity of which decreases progressively after birth. Out work also confirmed the observations made by Cohen et al. [Eur. J. Biochem. 66, 347--356 (1976)] which showed that there is no evidence for the existence of a cross-reacting material in the muscle of adult deficient mice.

  5. Apoptosis and melanogenesis in human melanoma cells induced by anthrax lethal factor inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Han-Mo; Vanbrocklin, Matt; McWilliams, Mary Jane; Leppla, Stephan H.; Duesbery, Nicholas S.; Vande Woude, George F.

    2002-03-01

    Lethal factor, the principal virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by proteolytically cleaving MAPK kinases. Edema factor, another component of anthrax toxin, is an adenylate cyclase, which increases intracellular cAMP. Inhibition of MAPK signaling with either anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) or small molecule MAPK kinase inhibitors triggers apoptosis in human melanoma cells. Normal melanocytes do not undergo apoptosis in response to MAPK inhibition but arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Importantly, in vivo treatment of human melanoma xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice with LeTx results in significant or complete tumor regression without apparent side effects, suggesting that inhibiting the MAPK signaling pathway may be a useful strategy for treating melanoma. Additionally, interrupting MAPK signaling with LeTx and elevating cAMP with anthrax edema toxin in both melanoma cells and melanocytes lead to dramatic melanin production, perhaps explaining the formation of blackened eschars in cutaneous anthrax.

  6. Leading Causes of Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cataract. Photo courtesy of National Eye Institute, NIH Cataracts Cataracts are a clouding of the lenses in your ... older people. More than 22 million Americans have cataracts. They are the leading cause of blindness in ...

  7. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Philadelphia Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont ... up paint debris after work is completed. Create barriers between living/play areas and lead sources. U