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Sample records for kinase inhibitor suppresses

  1. Suppression of VEGF-induced angiogenesis by the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, lavendustin A.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, D E; Fan, T P

    1995-01-01

    1. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a heparin-binding angiogenic factor which specifically acts on endothelial cells via distinct membrane-spanning tyrosine kinase receptors. Here we used the rat sponge implant model to test the hypothesis that the angiogenic activity of VEGF can be suppressed by protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors. 2. Neovascular responses in subcutaneous sponge implants were determined by measurements of relative sponge blood flow by use of a 133Xe clearance technique, and confirmed by histological studies and morphometric analysis. 3. Daily local administration of 250 ng VEGF165 accelerated the rate of 133Xe clearance from the sponges and induced an intense neovascularisation. This VEGF165-induced angiogenesis was inhibited by daily co-administration of the selective PTK inhibitor, lavendustin A (10 micrograms), but not its negative control, lavendustin B (10 micrograms). Blood flow measurements and morphometric analysis of 8-day-old sponges showed that lavendustin A reduced the 133Xe clearance of VEGF165-treated sponges from 32.9 +/- 1.5% to 20.9 +/- 1.6% and the total fibrovascular growth area from 62.4 +/- 6.1% to 21.6 +/- 6.8% (n = 12, P < 0.05). 4. Co-injection of suramin (3 mg), an inhibitor of heparin-binding growth factors, also suppressed the VEGF165-elicited neovascular response. In contrast, neither lavendustin A nor suramin produced any effect on the basal sponge-induced angiogenesis. 5. When given alone, low doses of VEGF165 (25 ng) or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; 10 ng) did not modify the basal sponge-induced neovascularisation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 2 Figure 2 PMID:7533611

  2. Molecular mechanism of hepatitis B virus (HBV) on suppression of raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao-Ke; Yu, Guo-Zheng; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ren, Xue-Qun

    2017-01-01

    Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) has been shown to be a suppressor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and is reported to be involved in human malignancy. However, the molecular mechanism of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in regulating RKIP expression is not yet clarified. In this study, we compared RKIP expression in 107 pairs of matched liver cancer and adjacent non-cancerous liver tissues. Among seven HBV-encoded proteins, we found HBV X (HBX) protein could significantly inhibit the expression level of RKIP, indicating that HBV could suppress RKIP expression through regulating HBX. To further elucidate the mechanism, analyses on transcriptional regulation and promoter methylation inhibition were conducted in Huh7 cells. Our results showed that HBX can interact with AP1 protein to inhibit the RKIP transcription. Moreover, we observed that the promoter methylation level of RKIP could be enhanced by HBV. In conclusion, our study revealed that RKIP could act as a molecular marker for HBV-infected liver cancer, but had no tumor-suppressing effect. PMID:27902472

  3. Met tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PF-2341066, suppresses growth and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jing; Tian, Ying; Xue, Cong; Hu, Zhihuang; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We explored the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/Met signaling pathway on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells in vitro and in vivo, and investigated the ability of Met tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) to block HGF-induced biological signaling. Experimental design Met TKI inhibitor PF-2341066 alone, or in combination with cisplatin, was investigated for its ability to block HGF-induced signaling and biological effects in vitro and in vivo. HGF/Met expression and activation of signaling in NPC cells were detected by using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Biological evaluation, including wound healing, cell proliferation, and invasion of NPC cells, was also examined, and the correlation between HGF/Met expression of primary and metastatic tumor in NPC patients and clinical prognosis were also analyzed. Results Met TKI inhibitor, PF-2341066, inhibited growth of NPC cells in vivo with half maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.79±0.21 μmol/L, and suppressed invasion and migration of NPC cells; also, the inhibition of PF-2341066 was synergized with cisplatin treatment. Compared with the control group, Met TKI inhibited metastasis of transplanted NPC in nude mice (the number of live metastases [mean ± SD]: 5.8±2.2 versus 11.8±2.2, P=0.03; the number of lung metastases: 2.3±1.5 versus 5.3±0.9, P=0.06). HGF was widely expressed in both primary and metastatic lesions while Met expression of metastatic lesions was higher than that of primary lesions (primary lesions: 24.7%; liver metastases: 40%; lung metastases: 29%; lymph node metastases: 29%, P<0.05), and overall survival of NPC patients with higher expression of Met was shorter (P=0.13). Conclusion Our results demonstrated that HGF/Met signaling promoted NPC growth, further resulting in metastasis and poor prognosis. Met TKI, PF-2341066, showed potent antitumor activity in vivo and in vitro which was enhanced by combination with cisplatin. Our study implied that HGF/Met signaling was the

  4. AT9283, a novel aurora kinase inhibitor, suppresses tumor growth in aggressive B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wenqing; Liu, Xiaobing; Cooke, Laurence S; Persky, Daniel O; Miller, Thomas P; Squires, Matthew; Mahadevan, Daruka

    2012-06-15

    Aurora kinases are oncogenic serine/threonine kinases that play key roles in regulating the mitotic phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Auroras are overexpressed in numerous tumors including B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and are validated oncology targets. AT9283, a pan-aurora inhibitor inhibited growth and survival of multiple solid tumors in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated that AT9283 had potent activity against Aurora B in a variety of aggressive B-(non-Hodgkin lymphoma) B-NHL cell lines. Cells treated with AT9283 exhibited endoreduplication confirming the mechanism of action of an Aurora B inhibitor. Also, treatment of B-NHL cell lines with AT9283 induced apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner and inhibited cell proliferation with an IC(50) < 1 μM. It is well known that inhibition of auroras (A or B) synergistically enhances the effects of microtubule targeting agents such as taxanes and vinca alkaloids to induce antiproliferation and apoptosis. We evaluated whether AT9283 in combination with docetaxel is more efficient in inducing apoptosis than AT9283 or docetaxel alone. At very low doses (5 nM) apoptosis was doubled in the combination (23%) compared to AT9283 or docetaxel alone (10%). A mouse xenograft model of mantle cell lymphoma demonstrated that AT9283 at 15 mg/kg and docetaxel (10 mg/kg) alone had modest anti-tumor activity. However, AT9283 at 20 mg/kg and AT9283 (15 or 20 mg/kg) plus docetaxel (10 mg/kg) demonstrated a statistically significant tumor growth inhibition and enhanced survival. Together, our results suggest that AT9283 plus docetaxel may represent a novel therapeutic strategy in B-cell NHL and warrant early phase clinical trial evaluation.

  5. Targeting tumor-associated immune suppression with selective protein kinase A type I (PKAI) inhibitors may enhance cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Muzammal; Shah, Zahir; Abbas, Nasir; Javeed, Aqeel; Mukhtar, Muhammad Mahmood; Zhang, Jiancun

    2016-01-01

    Despite the tremendous progress in last few years, the cancer immunotherapy has not yet improved disease-free because of the tumor-associated immune suppression being a major barrier. Novel trends to enhance cancer immunotherapy aims at harnessing the therapeutic manipulation of signaling pathways mediating the tumor-associated immune suppression, with the general aims of: (a) reversing the tumor immune suppression; (b) enhancing the innate and adaptive components of anti-tumor immunosurveillance, and (c) protecting immune cells from the suppressive effects of T regulatory cells (Tregs) and the tumor-derived immunoinhibitory mediators. A particular striking example in this context is the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A type I (PKAI) pathway. Oncogenic cAMP/PKAI signaling has long been implicated in the initiation and progression of several human cancers. Emerging data indicate that cAMP/PKAI signaling also contributes to tumor- and Tregs-derived suppression of innate and adaptive arms of anti-tumor immunosurveillance. Therapeutically, selective PKAI inhibitors have been developed which have shown promising anti-cancer activity in pre-clinical and clinical settings. Rp-8-Br-cAMPS is a selective PKAI antagonist that is widely used as a biochemical tool in signal transduction research. Collateral data indicate that Rp-8-Br-cAMPS has shown immune-rescuing potential in terms of enhancing the innate and adaptive anti-tumor immunity, as well as protecting adaptive T cells from the suppressive effects of Tregs. Therefore, this proposal specifically implicates that combining selective PKAI antagonists/inhibitors with cancer immunotherapy may have multifaceted benefits, such as rescuing the endogenous anti-tumor immunity, enhancing the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy, and direct anti-cancer effects.

  6. Novel Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor bosutinib suppresses neuroblastoma growth via inhibiting Src/Abl signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bieerkehazhi, Shayahati; Chen, Zhenghu; Zhao, Yanling; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Huiyuan; Vasudevan, Sanjeev A.; Woodfield, Sarah E.; Tao, Ling; Yi, Joanna S.; Muscal, Jodi A.; Pang, Jonathan C.; Guan, Shan; Zhang, Hong; Nuchtern, Jed G.; Li, Hui; Li, Huiwu; Yang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. Aberrant activation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinases Src and c-Abl contributes to the progression of NB. Thus, targeting these kinases could be a promising strategy for NB therapy. In this paper, we report that the potent dual Src/Abl inhibitor bosutinib exerts anti-tumor effects on NB. Bosutinib inhibited NB cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed colony formation ability of NB cells. Mechanistically, bosutinib effectively decreased the activity of Src/Abl and PI3K/AKT/mTOR, MAPK/ERK, and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways. In addition, bosutinib enhanced doxorubicin (Dox)- and etoposide (VP-16)-induced cytotoxicity in NB cells. Furthermore, bosutinib demonstrated anti-tumor efficacy in an orthotopic xenograft NB mouse model in a similar mechanism as of that in vitro. In summary, our results reveal that Src and c-Abl are potential therapeutic targets in NB and that the novel Src/Abl inhibitor bosutinib alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents may be a valuable therapeutic option for NB patients. PMID:27903968

  7. The novel ATP-competitive MEK/Aurora kinase inhibitor BI-847325 overcomes acquired BRAF inhibitor resistance through suppression of Mcl-1 and MEK expression

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Manali S.; Sini, Patrizia; Smalley, Keiran S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to BRAF inhibitors is a major clinical problem. Here we evaluate BI-847325, an ATP-competitive inhibitor of MEK and Aurora kinases, in treatment-naïve and drug-resistant BRAF-mutant melanoma models. BI-847325 potently inhibited growth and survival of melanoma cell lines that were both BRAF inhibitor naïve and resistant in 2D culture, 3D cell culture conditions and in colony formation assays. Western blot studies showed BI-847325 to reduce expression of phospho-ERK and phospho-histone 3 in multiple models of vemurafenib resistance. Mechanistically, BI-847325 decreased the expression of MEK and Mcl-1 while increasing the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein BIM. Strong suppression of MEK expression was observed after 48 h of treatment, with no recovery following >72 h of washout. siRNA mediated knockdown of Mcl-1 enhanced the effects of BI-847325, whereas Mcl-1 overexpression reversed this in both 2D cell culture and 3D spheroid melanoma models. In vivo, once weekly BI-847325 (70 mg/kg) led to durable regression of BRAF-inhibitor naive xenografts with no regrowth seen (>65 days of treatment). In contrast, treatment with the vemurafenib analog PLX4720 was associated with tumor relapse at >30 days. BI-847325 also suppressed the long-term growth of xenografts with acquired PLX4720 resistance. Analysis of tumor samples revealed BI-847325 to induce apoptosis associated with suppression of phospho-ERK, total MEK, phospho-Histone3 and Mcl-1 expression. Our studies indicate that BI-847325 is effective in overcoming BRAF inhibitor resistance and has long-term inhibitory effects upon BRAF-mutant melanoma in vivo, through a mechanism associated with the decreased expression of both MEK and Mcl-1. PMID:25873592

  8. Trametinib, a novel MEK kinase inhibitor, suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production and endotoxin shock.

    PubMed

    Du, Shi-lin; Yuan, Xue; Zhan, Sun; Tang, Luo-jia; Tong, Chao-yang

    2015-03-13

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one of the most prominent pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), activates macrophages, causing release of toxic cytokines (i.e. tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α) that may provoke inflammation and endotoxin shock. Here, we tested the potential role of trametinib, a novel and highly potent MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor, against LPS-induced TNF-α response in monocytes, and analyzed the underlying mechanisms. We showed that trametinib, at nM concentrations, dramatically inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α mRNA expression and protein secretion in transformed (RAW 264.7 cells) and primary murine macrophages. In ex-vivo cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), this MEK inhibitor similarly suppressed TNF-α production by LPS. For the mechanism study, we found that trametinib blocked LPS-induced MEK-ERK activation in above monocytes, which accounted for the defective TNF-α response. Macrophages or PBMCs treated with a traditional MEK inhibitor PD98059 or infected with MEK1/2-shRNA lentivirus exhibited a similar defect as trametinib, and nullified the activity of trametinib. On the other hand, introducing a constitutively-active (CA) ERK1 restored TNF-α production by LPS in the presence of trametinib. In vivo, mice administrated with trametinib produced low levels of TNF-α after LPS stimulation, and these mice were protected from LPS-induced endotoxin shock. Together, these results show that trametinib inhibits LPS-induced TNF-α expression and endotoxin shock probably through blocking MEK-ERK signaling.

  9. [Tyrosine kinase inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Robert, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    Membrane receptors with tyrosine kinase activity and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases have emerged as important potential targets in oncology. Starting from basic structures such as anilino-quinazoline, numerous compounds have been synthesised, with the help of tyrosine kinase crystallography, which has allowed to optimise protein-ligand interactions. The catalytic domains of all kinases present similar three-dimensional structures, which explains that it may be difficult to identify molecules having a high specificity for a given tyrosine kinase. Some tyrosine kinase inhibitors are relatively specific for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) such as géfitinib and erlotinib; other are mainly active against platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and the receptor KIT, such as imatinib or nilotinib, and other against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors involved in angiogenesis, such as sunitinib and sorafenib. The oral formulation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors is well accepted by the patients but may generate sometimes compliance problems requiring pharmacokinetic monitoring. This chemical family is in full expansion and several dozens of compounds have entered clinical trials.

  10. Dasatinib suppression of medulloblastoma survival and migration is markedly enhanced by combining treatment with the aurora kinase inhibitor AT9283.

    PubMed

    Petersen, William; Liu, Jingbo; Yuan, Liangping; Zhang, Hongying; Schneiderjan, Matthew; Cho, Yoon-Jae; MacDonald, Tobey J

    2014-11-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) expresses Src kinase, while aurora kinase A overexpression correlates with poor survival. We thus investigated novel combination treatment with dasatinib and AT9283, inhibitors of Src and aurora kinase, respectively, on MB growth in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with each drug significantly reduced cell viability and combined treatment markedly potentiated this response. AT9283 induced p53 expression, autophagy, and G2/M cell-cycle arrest, while combined treatment induced S phase arrest. Dasatinib treatment caused tumor regression in vivo. Activated Src was detected in 44% MB analyzed. We conclude that further evaluation of this combination therapy for MB is highly warranted.

  11. SKI-606 (bosutinib), a novel Src kinase inhibitor, suppresses migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Vultur, Adina; Buettner, Ralf; Kowolik, Claudia; Liang, Wei; Smith, David; Boschelli, Frank; Jove, Richard

    2008-05-01

    Src family kinase activity is elevated in many human tumors, including breast cancer, and is often associated with aggressive disease. We examined the effects of SKI-606 (bosutinib), a selective Src family kinase inhibitor, on human cancer cells derived from breast cancer patients to assess its potential for breast cancer treatment. Our results show that SKI-606 caused a decrease in cell motility and invasion of breast cancer cell lines with an IC50 of approximately 250 nmol/L, which was also the IC50 for inhibition of cellular Src kinase activity in intact tumor cells. These changes were accompanied by an increase in cell-to-cell adhesion and membrane localization of beta-catenin. By contrast, cell proliferation and survival were unaffected by SKI-606 at concentrations sufficient to block cell migration and invasion. Analysis of downstream effectors of Src revealed that SKI-606 inhibits the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), and Crk-associated substrate (p130Cas), with an IC50 similar to inhibition of cellular Src kinase. Our findings indicate that SKI-606 inhibits signaling pathways involved in controlling tumor cell motility and invasion, suggesting that SKI-606 is a promising therapeutic for breast cancer.

  12. Src family tyrosine kinase inhibitors suppress Nav1.1 expression in cultured rat spiral ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huiying; Zeng, Qingjiao; Yao, Chen; Cai, Zheng; Wei, Tingjia; Huang, Zhihui; Su, Jiping

    2016-03-01

    Src family kinases regulate neuronal voltage-gated Na(+) channels, which generate action potentials. The mechanisms of action, however, remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the effects of Src family kinases on Nav1.1 mRNA and protein expression in spiral ganglion neurons. Immunofluorescence staining techniques detected Nav1.1 expression in the spiral ganglion neurons. Additionally, quantitative PCR and western blot techniques were used to analyze Nav1.1 mRNA and protein expression, respectively, in spiral ganglion neurons following exposure to Src family kinase inhibitors PP2 (1 and 10 μM) and SU6656 (0.1 and 1 μM) for different lengths of time (6 and 24 h). In the spiral ganglion neurons, Nav1.1 protein expression was detected in the somas and axons. The Src family kinase inhibitors PP2 and SU6665 significantly decreased Nav1.1 mRNA and protein expression (p < 0.05), respectively, in the spiral ganglion neurons, and changes in expression were not dependent on time or dose (p > 0.05).

  13. Novel multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor ponatinib inhibits bFGF-activated signaling in neuroblastoma cells and suppresses neuroblastoma growth in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jiaxiong; Pan, Jessie; Yu, Yang; Zhao, Yanling; Zhang, Huiyuan; Hu, Ting; Liu, Qing; Yang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is one of the most common pediatric malignancies in children. Abnormal activation of receptor tyrosine kinases contributes to the pathological development of NB. Therefore, targeting tyrosine kinase receptors to cure NB is a promising strategy. Here, we report that a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor ponatinib inhibited NB cell proliferation and induced NB cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, ponatinib suppressed the colony formation ability of NB cells. Mechanistically, ponatinib effectively inhibited the FGFR1-activated signaling pathway. Ponatinib also enhanced the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin on NB cells. Furthermore, ponatinib demonstrated anti-tumor efficacy in vivo by inhibiting tumor growth in an orthotopic xenograft NB mouse model. In summary, our results showed that ponatinib inhibited NB growth both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27564113

  14. Kinase Inhibitors from Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Skropeta, Danielle; Pastro, Natalie; Zivanovic, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Protein kinases play a critical role in cell regulation and their deregulation is a contributing factor in an increasing list of diseases including cancer. Marine sponges have yielded over 70 novel compounds to date that exhibit significant inhibitory activity towards a range of protein kinases. These compounds, which belong to diverse structural classes, are reviewed herein, and ordered based upon the kinase that they inhibit. Relevant synthetic studies on the marine natural product kinase inhibitors have also been included. PMID:22073013

  15. Effective growth-suppressive activity of maternal embryonic leucine-zipper kinase (MELK) inhibitor against small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kato, Taigo; Olugbile, Sope; Tamura, Kenji; Chung, Suyoun; Miyamoto, Takashi; Matsuo, Yo; Salgia, Ravi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK), that plays a critical role in maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs), is predominantly expressed in various types of human cancer including small cell lung cancer (SCLC). SCLC usually acquires resistance to anti-cancer drugs and portends dismal prognosis. We have delineated roles of MELK in development/progression of SCLC and examined anti-tumor efficacy of OTS167, a highly potent MELK inhibitor, against SCLC. MELK expression was highly upregulated in both SCLC cell lines and primary tumors. siRNA-mediated MELK knockdown induced significant growth inhibition in SCLC cell lines. Concordantly, treatment with OTS167 exhibited strong cytotoxicity against eleven SCLC cell lines with IC50 of < 10 nM. As similar to siRNA knockdown, OTS167 treatment induced cytokinetic defects with intercellular bridges, and in some cell lines we observed formation of neuronal protrusions accompanied with increase of a neuronal differentiation marker (CD56), indicating that the compound induced differentiation of cancer cells to neuron-like cells. Furthermore, the MELK inhibition decreased its downstream FOXM1 activity and Akt expression in SCLC cells, and led to apoptotic cell death. OTS167 appeared to be more effective to CSCs as measured by the sphere formation assay, thus MELK inhibition might become a promising treatment modality for SCLC. PMID:26871945

  16. The pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases danusertib induces apoptosis and autophagy and suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Ping; Yang, Yin-Xue; Liu, Qi-Lun; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Pan, Si-Yuan; Duan, Wei; He, Shu-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Danusertib (Danu) is a pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases and a third-generation breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (Bcr-Abl) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, but its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of human breast cancer remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Danu on the growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the molecular mechanisms in human breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The results demonstrated that Danu remarkably inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and autophagy, and suppressed EMT in both breast cancer cell lines. Danu arrested MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in G2/M phase, accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and cyclin B1 and upregulation of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. Danu significantly decreased the expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra-large (Bcl-xl) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), but increased the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and promoted the cleavage of caspases 3 and 9. Furthermore, Danu significantly increased the expression levels of the membrane-bound microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II) and beclin 1 in breast cancer cells, two markers for autophagy. Danu induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) and inhibited the activation of protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Treatment with wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor) markedly inhibited Danu-induced activation of p38 MAPK and conversion of cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II. Pharmacological inhibition and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of p38 MAPK suppressed Akt activation, resulting in LC3-II accumulation and enhanced autophagy. Pharmacological inhibition

  17. The pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases danusertib induces apoptosis and autophagy and suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Ping; Yang, Yin-Xue; Liu, Qi-Lun; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Pan, Si-Yuan; Duan, Wei; He, Shu-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Danusertib (Danu) is a pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases and a third-generation breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (Bcr-Abl) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, but its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of human breast cancer remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Danu on the growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the molecular mechanisms in human breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The results demonstrated that Danu remarkably inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and autophagy, and suppressed EMT in both breast cancer cell lines. Danu arrested MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in G2/M phase, accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and cyclin B1 and upregulation of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. Danu significantly decreased the expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra-large (Bcl-xl) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), but increased the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and promoted the cleavage of caspases 3 and 9. Furthermore, Danu significantly increased the expression levels of the membrane-bound microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II) and beclin 1 in breast cancer cells, two markers for autophagy. Danu induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) and inhibited the activation of protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Treatment with wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor) markedly inhibited Danu-induced activation of p38 MAPK and conversion of cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II. Pharmacological inhibition and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of p38 MAPK suppressed Akt activation, resulting in LC3-II accumulation and enhanced autophagy. Pharmacological inhibition

  18. Benzimidazole derivatives as kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Garuti, Laura; Roberti, Marinella; Bottegoni, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Benzimidazole is a common kinase inhibitor scaffold and benzimidazole-based compounds interact with enzymes by multiple binding modes. In some cases, the benzimidazole acts as part of the hinge-binding motif, in others it has a scaffolding role without evidence for direct hinge binding. Several of these compounds are ATP-competitive inhibitors and show high selectivity by exploiting unique structural properties that distinguish one kinase from the majority of other kinases. However, the high specificity for a single target is not always sufficient. Thus another approach, called multi-target therapy, has been developed over the last few years. The simultaneous inhibition of various kinases may be useful because the disease is attacked at several relevant targets. Moreover, if a kinase becomes drug-resistant, a multitargeted drug can act on the other kinases. Some benzimidazole derivatives are multi-target inhibitors. In this article benzimidazole inhibitors are reported with their mechanisms of action, structure-activity relationship (SAR) and biological properties.

  19. The novel role of tyrosine kinase inhibitor in the reversal of immune suppression and modulation of tumor microenvironment for immune-based cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Ozao-Choy, Junko; Ma, Ge; Kao, Johnny; Wang, George X; Meseck, Marcia; Sung, Max; Schwartz, Myron; Divino, Celia M; Pan, Ping-Ying; Chen, Shu-Hsia

    2009-03-15

    In tumor-bearing hosts, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and T regulatory cells (Treg) play important roles in immune suppression, the reversal of which is vitally important for the success of immune therapy. We have shown that ckit ligand is required for MDSC accumulation and Treg development. We hypothesized that sunitinib malate, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, could reverse MDSC-mediated immune suppression and modulate the tumor microenvironment, thereby improving the efficacy of immune-based therapies. Treatment with sunitinib decreased the number of MDSC and Treg in advanced tumor-bearing animals. Furthermore, it not only reduced the suppressive function of MDSCs but also prevented tumor-specific T-cell anergy and Treg development. Interestingly, sunitinib treatment resulted in reduced expression of interleukin (IL)-10, transforming growth factor-beta, and Foxp3 but enhanced expression of Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma and increased CTL responses in isolated tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. A significantly higher percentage and infiltration of CD8 and CD4 cells was detected in tumors of sunitinib-treated mice when compared with control-treated mice. More importantly, the expression of negative costimulatory molecules CTLA4 and PD-1 in both CD4 and CD8 T cells, and PDL-1 expression on MDSC and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, was also significantly decreased by sunitinib treatment. Finally, sunitinib in combination with our immune therapy protocol (IL-12 and 4-1BB activation) significantly improves the long-term survival rate of large tumor-bearing mice. These data suggest that sunitinib can be used to reverse immune suppression and as a potentially useful adjunct for enhancing the efficacy of immune-based cancer therapy for advanced malignancies.

  20. The Stilbenoid Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, G6, Suppresses Jak2-V617F-mediated Human Pathological Cell Growth in Vitro and in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Kirabo, Annet; Embury, Jennifer; Kiss, Róbert; Polgár, Tímea; Gali, Meghanath; Majumder, Anurima; Bisht, Kirpal S.; Cogle, Christopher R.; Keserű, György M.; Sayeski, Peter P.

    2011-01-01

    Using structure-based virtual screening, we previously identified a novel stilbenoid inhibitor of Jak2 tyrosine kinase named G6. Here, we hypothesized that G6 suppresses Jak2-V617F-mediated human pathological cell growth in vitro and in vivo. We found that G6 inhibited proliferation of the Jak2-V617F expressing human erythroleukemia (HEL) cell line by promoting marked cell cycle arrest and inducing apoptosis. The G6-dependent increase in apoptosis levels was concomitant with increased caspase 3/7 activity and cleavage of PARP. G6 also selectively inhibited phosphorylation of STAT5, a downstream signaling target of Jak2. Using a mouse model of Jak2-V617F-mediated hyperplasia, we found that G6 significantly decreased the percentage of blast cells in the peripheral blood, reduced splenomegaly, and corrected a pathologically low myeloid to erythroid ratio in the bone marrow by eliminating HEL cell engraftment in this tissue. In addition, drug efficacy correlated with the presence of G6 in the plasma, marrow, and spleen. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the stilbenoid compound, G6, suppresses Jak2-V617F-mediated aberrant cell growth. As such, G6 may be a potential therapeutic lead candidate against Jak2-mediated, human disease. PMID:21127060

  1. [Kinase inhibitors against hematological malignancies].

    PubMed

    Tojo, Arinobu

    2014-06-01

    Dysregulation of protein phosphorylation, especially on tyrosine residues, plays a crucial role in development and progression of hematological malignancies. Since remarkable success in imatinib therapy of CML and Ph+ALL, extensive efforts have made to explore candidate molecular targets and next breakthrough drugs. Now that next generation ABL kinase inhibitors are available for CML, the therapeutic algorithm has been revolutionized. As for AML and lymphoid malignancies, many kinase inhibitors targeting FLT3, BTK and aurora-A are on early and late clinical trials, and a number of promising drugs including ibrutinib are picked up for further evaluation.

  2. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor AR-A014418 suppresses pancreatic cancer cell growth via inhibition of GSK-3-mediated Notch1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Kunnimalaiyaan, Selvi; Gamblin, T Clark; Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy

    2015-01-01

    Background Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) can act as either a tumour promoter or suppressor by its inactivation depending on the cell type. There are conflicting reports on the roles of GSK-3 isoforms and their interaction with Notch1 in pancreatic cancer. It was hypothesized that GSK-3α stabilized Notch1 in pancreatic cancer cells thereby promoting cellular proliferation. Methods The pancreatic cancer cell lines MiaPaCa2, PANC-1 and BxPC-3, were treated with 0–20 μM of AR-A014418 (AR), a known GSK-3 inhibitor. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay and Live-Cell Imaging. The levels of Notch pathway members (Notch1, HES-1, survivin and cyclinD1), phosphorylated GSK-3 isoforms, and apoptotic markers were determined by Western blot. Immunoprecipitation was performed to identify the binding of GSK-3 specific isoform to Notch1. Results AR-A014418 treatment had a significant dose-dependent growth reduction (P < 0.001) in pancreatic cancer cells compared with the control and the cytotoxic effect is as a result of apoptosis. Importantly, a reduction in GSK-3 phosphorylation lead to a reduction in Notch pathway members. Overexpression of active Notch1 in AR-A014418-treated cells resulted in the negation of growth suppression. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that GSK-3α binds to Notch1. Conclusions This study demonstrates for the first time that the growth suppressive effect of AR-A014418 on pancreatic cancer cells is mainly mediated by a reduction in phosphorylation of GSK-3α with concomitant Notch1 reduction. GSK-3α appears to stabilize Notch1 by binding and may represent a target for therapeutic development. Furthermore, downregulation of GSK-3 and Notch1 may be a viable strategy for possible chemosensitization of pancreatic cancer cells to standard therapeutics. PMID:26147011

  3. Cinnamon and its Components Suppress Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Up-Regulating Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyeeun; Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Won-Kyung; Gu, Min Jung; Lee, Kwang Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum cassia bark has been used in traditional herbal medicine to treat a variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, the antiproliferative effect of cinnamon extract on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the corresponding restenosis has not been explored. Hence, after examining the effect of cinnamon extract on VSMC proliferation, we investigated the possible involvement of signal transduction pathways associated with early signal and cell cycle analysis, including regulatory proteins. Besides, to identify the active components, we investigated the components of cinnamon extract on VSMC proliferation. Cinnamon extract inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and suppressed the PDGF-stimulated early signal transduction. In addition, cinnamon extract arrested the cell cycle and inhibited positive regulatory proteins. Correspondingly, the protein levels of p21 and p27 not only were increased in the presence of cinnamon extract, also the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was inhibited by cinnamon extract. Besides, among the components of cinnamon extract, cinnamic acid (CA), eugenol (EG) and cinnamyl alcohol significantly inhibited the VSMC proliferation. Overall, the present study demonstrates that cinnamon extract inhibited the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of VSMCs through a G0/G1 arrest, which down-regulated the expression of cell cycle positive regulatory proteins by up-regulating p21 and p27 expression.

  4. Suppression of caspase-11 expression by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Hyejung; Yoo, Lang; Shin, Ki Soon; Kang, Shin Jung

    2009-01-02

    It has been well documented that histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress inflammatory gene expression. Therefore, we investigated whether histone deacetylase inhibitors modulate the expression of caspase-11 that is known as an inducible caspase regulating both inflammation and apoptosis. In the present study, we show that sodium butyrate and trichostatin A, two structurally unrelated inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC), effectively suppressed the induction of caspase-11 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts stimulated with lipopolysaccharides. Sodium butyrate inhibited the activation of upstream signaling events for the caspase-11 induction such as activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, degradation of inhibitor of {kappa}B, and activation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B. These results suggest that the HDAC inhibitor suppressed cytosolic signaling events for the induction of caspase-11 by inhibiting the deacetylation of non-histone proteins.

  5. A novel inhibitor of Chlamydophila pneumoniae protein kinase D (PknD) inhibits phosphorylation of CdsD and suppresses bacterial replication

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background We have shown previously that Chlamydophila pneumoniae contains a dual-specific Ser/Thr protein kinase that phosphorylates CdsD, a structural component of the type III secretion apparatus. To further study the role of PknD in growth and development we sought to identify a PknD inhibitor to determine whether PknD activity is required for replication. Results Using an in vitro kinase assay we screened 80 known eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitors for activity against PknD and identified a 3'-pyridyl oxindole compound that inhibited PknD autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of CdsD. The PknD inhibitor significantly retarded the growth rate of C. pneumoniae as evidenced by the presence of very small inclusions with a reduced number of bacteria as seen by electron microscopy. These inclusions contained the normal replicative forms including elementary bodies (EB), intermediate bodies (IB) and reticulate bodies (RB), but lacked persistent bodies (PB), indicating that induction of persistence was not the cause of reduced chlamydial growth. Blind passage of C. pneumoniae grown in the presence of this PknD inhibitor for 72 or 84 hr failed to produce inclusions, suggesting this compound blocks an essential step in the production of infectious chlamydial EB. The compound was not toxic to HeLa cells, did not block activation of the MEK/ERK pathway required for chlamydial invasion and did not block intracellular replication of either Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D or Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium suggesting that the inhibitory effect of the compound is specific for C. pneumoniae. Conclusion We have identified a 3'-pyridyl oxindole compound that inhibits the in vitro kinase activity of C. pneumoniae PknD and inhibits the growth and production of infectious C. pneumoniae progeny in HeLa cells. Together, these results suggest that PknD may play a key role in the developmental cycle of C. pneumoniae. PMID:19828035

  6. Combining TRAIL with PI3 Kinase or HSP90 inhibitors enhances apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells via suppression of survival signaling

    PubMed Central

    Saturno, Grazia; Valenti, Melanie; De Haven Brandon, Alexis; Thomas, George V.; Eccles, Suzanne; Clarke, Paul A.; Workman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    TRAIL has been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, but in some cases they fail to respond to this ligand. We explored the ability of representative phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3 Kinase)/mTOR and HSP90 inhibitors to overcome TRAIL resistance by increasing apoptosis in colorectal cancer models. We determined the sensitivity of 27 human colorectal cancer and 2 non-transformed colon epithelial cell lines to TRAIL treatment. A subset of the cancer cell lines with a range of responses to TRAIL was selected from the panel for treatment with TRAIL combined with the PI3 Kinase/mTOR inhibitor PI-103 or the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG (tanespimycin). Two TRAIL-resistant cell lines were selected for in vivo combination studies with TRAIL and 17-AAG. We found that 13 colorectal cancer cell lines and the 2 non-transformed colon epithelial cell lines were resistant to TRAIL. We demonstrated that co-treatment of TRAIL and PI-103 or 17-AAG was synergistic or additive and significantly enhanced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. This was associated with decreased expression or activity of survival protein biomarkers such as ERBB2, AKT, IKKα and XIAP. In contrast, the effect of the combination treatments in non-transformed colon cells was minimal. We show here for the first time that co-treatment in vivo with TRAIL and 17-AAG in two TRAIL-resistant human colorectal cancer xenograft models resulted in significantly greater tumor growth inhibition compared to single treatments. We propose that combining TRAIL with PI3 Kinase/mTOR or HSP90 inhibitors has therapeutic potential in the treatment of TRAIL-resistant colorectal cancers. PMID:23852390

  7. Suppression of c-Myc and RRM2 expression in pancreatic cancer cells by the sphingosine kinase-2 inhibitor ABC294640

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Clayton S.; Voelkel-Johnson, Christina; Smith, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains extremely difficult to treat, with the average lifespan following diagnosis being only 3-6 months, resulting in a death to incidence ratio of 0.94. A major reason for this high mortality rate is resistance to the main chemotherapeutic agent used to treat this disease, gemcitabine. Alterations in nucleoside and gemcitabine metabolism, specifically over-expression of ribonucleotide reductase, have been implicated as a major mechanism of resistance to this drug. Here, we show that inhibition of sphingosine kinase-2 by the specific inhibitor ABC294640 is synergistically cytotoxic with gemcitabine toward three human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Treatment with ABC294640 results in decreased expression of both RRM2 and MYC in all three cell lines. Additionally, expression of c-Myc protein and phosphorylation of Rb at S780 both decrease in a dose-dependent manner in response to ABC294640, while acetylation of H3-K9 and p21 levels increase. Pretreatment with the protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor okadaic acid or the ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1 fails to prevent the effects of ABC294640 on Rb phosphorylation. These data indicate a role for sphingosine kinase-2 in E2F and c-Myc mediated transcription through alteration of histone acetylation and p21 expression. These effects of ABC294640 suggest that it may be an effective agent for pancreatic cancer, particularly in combination with gemcitabine. PMID:27517489

  8. From a natural product lead to the identification of potent and selective benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides as glycogen synthase kinase 3beta inhibitors that suppress proliferation and survival of pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gaisina, Irina N; Gallier, Franck; Ougolkov, Andrei V; Kim, Ki H; Kurome, Toru; Guo, Songpo; Holzle, Denise; Luchini, Doris N; Blond, Sylvie Y; Billadeau, Daniel D; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2009-04-09

    Recent studies have demonstrated that glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) is overexpressed in human colon and pancreatic carcinomas, contributing to cancer cell proliferation and survival. Here, we report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides, potent GSK-3beta inhibitors. Some of these compounds show picomolar inhibitory activity toward GSK-3beta and an enhanced selectivity against cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK-2). Selected GSK-3beta inhibitors were tested in the pancreatic cancer cell lines MiaPaCa-2, BXPC-3, and HupT3. We determined that some of these compounds, namely compounds 5, 6, 11, 20, and 26, demonstrate antiproliferative activity against some or all of the pancreatic cancer cells at low micromolar to nanomolar concentrations. We found that the treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with GSK-3beta inhibitors 5 and 26 resulted in suppression of GSK-3beta activity and a distinct decrease of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) expression, leading to significant apoptosis. The present data suggest a possible role for GSK-3beta inhibitors in cancer therapy, in addition to their more prominent applications in CNS disorders.

  9. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Anish; Rajan, Arun; Giaccone, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS ‘Driver mutations’ are essential for carcinogenesis as well as tumor progression as they confer a selective growth advantage to cancer cells. Identification of driver mutations in growth related protein kinases, especially tyrosine kinases have led to clinical development of an array of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in various malignancies, including lung cancer. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinases have proven to be of meaningful clinical benefit, while inhibition of several other tyrosine kinases have been of limited clinical benefit, thus far. An improved understanding of tyrosine kinase biology has also led to faster drug development, identification of resistance mechanisms and ways to overcome resistance. In this review, we discuss the clinical data supporting the use and practical aspects of management of patients on epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:22520981

  10. Pyrrolopyridine inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK-2).

    PubMed

    Anderson, David R; Meyers, Marvin J; Vernier, William F; Mahoney, Matthew W; Kurumbail, Ravi G; Caspers, Nicole; Poda, Gennadiy I; Schindler, John F; Reitz, David B; Mourey, Robert J

    2007-05-31

    A new class of potent kinase inhibitors selective for mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAP-K2 or MK-2) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis has been prepared and evaluated. These inhibitors have IC50 values as low as 10 nM against the target and have good selectivity profiles against a number of kinases including CDK2, ERK, JNK, and p38. These MK-2 inhibitors have been shown to suppress TNFalpha production in U397 cells and to be efficacious in an acute inflammation model. The structure-activity relationships of this series, the selectivity for MK-2 and their activity in both in vitro and in vivo models are discussed. The observed selectivity is discussed with the aid of an MK-2/inhibitor crystal structure.

  11. Aurora kinase inhibitors as anticancer molecules.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hiroshi; Sen, Subrata

    2010-01-01

    Aurora kinase family of serine/threonine kinases are important regulators of mitosis that are frequently over expressed in human cancers and have been implicated in oncogenic transformation including development of chromosomal instability in cancer cells. In humans, among the three members of the kinase family, Aurora-A, -B and -C, only Aurora-A and -B are expressed at detectable levels in all somatic cells undergoing mitotic cell division and have been characterized in greater detail for their involvement in cellular pathways relevant to the development of cancer associated phenotypes. Aurora-A and -B are being investigated as potential targets for anticancer therapy. Development of inhibitors against Aurora kinases as anticancer molecules gained attention because of the facts that aberrant expression of these kinases leads to chromosomal instability and derangement of multiple tumor suppressor and oncoprotein regulated pathways. Preclinical studies and early phase I and II clinical trials of multiple Aurora kinase inhibitors as targeted anticancer drugs have provided encouraging results. This article discusses functional involvement of Aurora kinase-A and -B in the regulation of cancer relevant cellular phenotypes together with findings on some of the better characterized Aurora kinase inhibitors in modulating the functional interactions of Aurora kinases. Future possibilities about developing next generation Aurora kinase inhibitors and their clinical utility as anticancer therapeutic drugs are also discussed.

  12. Aurora Kinase inhibitors as Anticancer Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Hiroshi; Sen, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Aurora kinase family of serine/threonine kinases are important regulators of mitosis that are frequently over expressed in human cancers and have been implicated in oncogenic transformation including development of chromosomal instability in cancer cells. In humans, among the three members of the kinase family, Aurora-A, -B and -C, only Aurora-A and -B are expressed in detectable levels in somatic cells undergoing mitotic cell division and have been characterized in greater detail for their involvement in cellular pathways relevant to the development of cancer associated phenotypes. Aurora-A and -B are being investigated as potential targets for anticancer therapy. Development of inhibitors against Aurora kinases as anticancer molecules gained attention because of the facts that aberrant expression of these kinases lead to chromosomal instability and derangement of multiple tumor suppressor and oncoprotein regulated pathways. Pre-clinical studies and early phase I and II clinical trials of multiple Aurora kinase inhibitors as targeted anticancer drugs have provided encouraging results. This article discusses functional involvement of Aurora kinase-A and -B in the regulation of cancer relevant cellular phenotypes together with findings on some of the better characterized Aurora kinase inhibitors in modulating the functional interactions of Aurora kinases. Future possibilities about developing next generation Aurora kinase inhibitors and their clinical utility as anticancer therapeutic drugs are also discussed. PMID:20863917

  13. Ocular Toxicity of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mary Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To review common tyrosine kinase inhibitors, as well as their ocular side effects and management. Data Sources A comprehensive literature search was conducted using cINahl®, Pubmed, and cochrane databases for articles published since 2004 with the following search terms: ocular toxicities, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, ophthalmology, adverse events, eye, and vision. Data Synthesis Tyrosine kinase inhibitors can cause significant eye toxicity. Conclusions Given the prevalence of new tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapies and the complexity of possible pathogenesis of ocular pathology, oncology nurses can appreciate the occurrence of ocular toxicities and the role of nursing in the management of these problems. Implications for Nursing Knowledge of the risk factors and etiology of ocular toxicity of targeted cancer therapies can guide nursing assessment, enhance patient education, and improve care management. Including a review of eye symptoms and vision issues in nursing assessment can enhance early detection and treatment of ocular toxicity. PMID:26906134

  14. Overcoming Resistance to Inhibitors of the Akt Protein Kinase by Modulation of the Pim Kinase Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    kinase . This grant proposal will explore the resistance to small molecule AKT protein kinase inhibitors mediated by the... molecule AKT protein kinase inhibitors is potentially mediated by the Pim-1 protein kinase , and that unique Pim protein kinase inhibitors that can in...application is essential for the development of this combined chemotherapeutic strategy. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Small Molecule AKT Inhibitors ,

  15. Exploring the scaffold universe of kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-08

    The scaffold concept was applied to systematically determine, analyze, and compare core structures of kinase inhibitors. From publicly available inhibitors of the human kinome, scaffolds and cyclic skeletons were systematically extracted and organized taking activity data, structural relationships, and retrosynthetic criteria into account. Scaffold coverage varied greatly across the kinome, and many scaffolds representing compounds with different activity profiles were identified. The majority of kinase inhibitor scaffolds were involved in well-defined yet distinct structural relationships, which had different consequences on compound activity. Scaffolds exclusively representing highly potent compounds were identified as well as structurally analogous scaffolds with very different degrees of promiscuity. Scaffold relationships presented herein suggest a variety of hypotheses for inhibitor design. Our detailed organization of the kinase inhibitor scaffold universe with respect to different activity and structural criteria, all scaffolds, and the original compound data assembled for our analysis are made freely available.

  16. Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: Current Status and Outlook.

    PubMed

    Bavetsias, Vassilios; Linardopoulos, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    The Aurora kinase family comprises of cell cycle-regulated serine/threonine kinases important for mitosis. Their activity and protein expression are cell cycle regulated, peaking during mitosis to orchestrate important mitotic processes including centrosome maturation, chromosome alignment, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. In humans, the Aurora kinase family consists of three members; Aurora-A, Aurora-B, and Aurora-C, which each share a conserved C-terminal catalytic domain but differ in their sub-cellular localization, substrate specificity, and function during mitosis. In addition, Aurora-A and Aurora-B have been found to be overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumors. These observations led to a number of programs among academic and pharmaceutical organizations to discovering small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs. This review will summarize the known Aurora kinase inhibitors currently in the clinic, and discuss the current and future directions.

  17. Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: Current Status and Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Bavetsias, Vassilios; Linardopoulos, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    The Aurora kinase family comprises of cell cycle-regulated serine/threonine kinases important for mitosis. Their activity and protein expression are cell cycle regulated, peaking during mitosis to orchestrate important mitotic processes including centrosome maturation, chromosome alignment, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. In humans, the Aurora kinase family consists of three members; Aurora-A, Aurora-B, and Aurora-C, which each share a conserved C-terminal catalytic domain but differ in their sub-cellular localization, substrate specificity, and function during mitosis. In addition, Aurora-A and Aurora-B have been found to be overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumors. These observations led to a number of programs among academic and pharmaceutical organizations to discovering small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs. This review will summarize the known Aurora kinase inhibitors currently in the clinic, and discuss the current and future directions. PMID:26734566

  18. Sphingosine kinase inhibitor suppresses IL-18-induced interferon-gamma production through inhibition of p38 MAPK activation in human NK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, Soyoung; Song, Seok Bean; Jung, Minkyung; Park, Yoorim; Bang, Jung-Wook; Kim, Tae Sung; Park, Hyunjeong; Kim, Cherl-hyun; Yang, Yool-hee; Bang, Sa Ik; Cho, Daeho

    2008-09-12

    Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the innate immune response. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a well-known interferon-gamma (IFN-{gamma} inducing factor, which stimulates immune response in NK and T cells. Sphingosine kinase (SPHK) catalyzes the formation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), which acts as a second messenger to function as an anti-apoptotic factor and proliferation stimulator of immune cells. In this study, to elucidate whether SPHK is involved in IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} production, we measured IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} production after pre-treatment with SPHK inhibitor (SKI) in NK-92MI cells. We found that IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} expression was blocked by SKI pre-treatment in both mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the increased IFN-{gamma} production by stimulation with IL-18 is mediated through both SPHK and p38 MAPK. To determine the upstream signals of SKI and p38 MAPK in IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} production, phosphorylation levels of p38 MAPK was measured after SKI pre-treatment. As a result, inhibition of SPHK by SKI blocked phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, showing that SPHK activation by IL-18 is an upstream signal of p38 MAPK activation. Inhibition of SPHK by SKI also inhibited IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} production in human primary NK cells. In conclusion, SPHK activation is an essential factor for IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} production via p38 MAPK.

  19. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors as Anticancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Law, Mary E; Corsino, Patrick E; Narayan, Satya; Law, Brian K

    2015-11-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) have been considered promising drug targets for a number of years, but most CDK inhibitors have failed rigorous clinical testing. Recent studies demonstrating clear anticancer efficacy and reduced toxicity of CDK4/6 inhibitors such as palbociclib and multi-CDK inhibitors such as dinaciclib have rejuvenated the field. Favorable results with palbociclib and its recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval demonstrate that CDK inhibitors with narrow selectivity profiles can have clinical utility for therapy based on individual tumor genetics. A brief overview of results obtained with ATP-competitive inhibitors such as palbociclib and dinaciclib is presented, followed by a compilation of new avenues that have been pursued toward the development of novel, non-ATP-competitive CDK inhibitors. These creative ways to develop CDK inhibitors are presented along with crystal structures of these agents complexed with CDK2 to highlight differences in their binding sites and mechanisms of action. The recent successes of CDK inhibitors in the clinic, combined with the potential for structure-based routes to the development of non-ATP-competitive CDK inhibitors, and evidence that CDK inhibitors may have use in suppressing chromosomal instability and in synthetic lethal drug combinations inspire optimism that CDK inhibitors will become important weapons in the fight against cancer.

  20. ERK Signal Suppression and Sensitivity to CH5183284/Debio 1347, a Selective FGFR Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Yoshito; Mizuno, Hideaki; Sase, Hitoshi; Fujii, Toshihiko; Sakata, Kiyoaki; Akiyama, Nukinori; Aoki, Yuko; Aoki, Masahiro; Ishii, Nobuya

    2015-12-01

    Drugs that target specific gene alterations have proven beneficial in the treatment of cancer. Because cancer cells have multiple resistance mechanisms, it is important to understand the downstream pathways of the target genes and monitor the pharmacodynamic markers associated with therapeutic efficacy. We performed a transcriptome analysis to characterize the response of various cancer cell lines to a selective fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitor (CH5183284/Debio 1347), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor, or a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. FGFR and MEK inhibition produced similar expression patterns, and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) gene signature was altered in several FGFR inhibitor-sensitive cell lines. Consistent with these findings, CH5183284/Debio 1347 suppressed phospho-ERK in every tested FGFR inhibitor-sensitive cell line. Because the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway functions downstream of FGFR, we searched for a pharmacodynamic marker of FGFR inhibitor efficacy in a collection of cell lines with the ERK signature and identified dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) as a candidate marker. Although a MEK inhibitor suppressed the MAPK pathway, most FGFR inhibitor-sensitive cell lines are insensitive to MEK inhibitors and we found potent feedback activation of several pathways via FGFR. We therefore suggest that FGFR inhibitors exert their effect by suppressing ERK signaling without feedback activation. In addition, DUSP6 may be a pharmacodynamic marker of FGFR inhibitor efficacy in FGFR-addicted cancers.

  1. Quercetin suppresses lung cancer growth by targeting Aurora B kinase.

    PubMed

    Xingyu, Zhu; Peijie, Ma; Dan, Peng; Youg, Wang; Daojun, Wang; Xinzheng, Chen; Xijun, Zhang; Yangrong, Song

    2016-11-01

    aurora B kinase is highly expressed in several cancer cells and promotes tumorigenesis and progression, and therefore, it is an important target for drug to treat tumors. Quercetin was identified to be an antitumor agent. Herein, we report for the first time that quercetin inhibited aurora B activities by directly binding with aurora B in vitro and in vivo. Ex vivo studies showed that quercetin inhibited aurora B activities in JB6 Cl41 cells and A549 lung cancer cells. Moreover, knockdown of aurora B in A549 cells decreased their sensitivities to quercetin. In vivo study demonstrated that injection of quercetin in A549 tumor-bearing mice effectively suppressed cancer growth. The phosphorylation of histone 3 in tumor tissues was also decreased after quercetin treatment. In short, quercetin can suppress growth of lung cancer cells as an aurora B inhibitor both in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Comprehensive kinase profile of pacritinib, a nonmyelosuppressive Janus kinase 2 inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Jack W; Al-Fayoumi, Suliman; Ma, Haiching; Komrokji, Rami S; Mesa, Ruben; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2016-01-01

    Pacritinib, potent inhibitor of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), JAK2V617F, and fms-like receptor tyrosine kinase 3, is in Phase III development in myelofibrosis. Among type 1 inhibitors, pacritinib shows a lack of myelosuppression at doses that both inhibit JAK2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway and demonstrate clinical efficacy. To elucidate these mechanisms and identify other disease targets, a kinome analysis screened 439 recombinant kinases at 100 nM pacritinib concentration. For kinases with >50% inhibition, pacritinib was titrated from 1 to 100 nM. JAK2, JAK2V617F, FLT3, colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor, and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 achieved half-maximal inhibitory concentrations <50 nM. Pacritinib did not inhibit JAK1 (82% control at 100 nM). Lack of myelosuppression may stem from inhibiting JAK2 without affecting JAK1 and reducing hematopoietic inhibitory cytokines by suppressing interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 or colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor. The pacritinib kinome suggests therapeutic utility in acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, solid tumors, and inflammatory conditions. PMID:27574472

  3. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors in preclinical development.

    PubMed

    Levitt, M L; Koty, P P

    1999-01-01

    Due to the limited efficacy of cytotoxic chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced malignancy and its excessive toxicity precluding its use in chemoprevention, new therapeutic and preventive strategies have been sought. One of the most interesting of these new approaches is the manipulation of signal transduction pathways. Among the approaches being considered to eventuate such a strategy is the inhibition of autophosphorylation, a critical first step in the signal transduction pathways of many cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases, as well as of non-receptor tyrosine kinases. This article is intended to review those tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are currently in preclinical development, for which there are data to support consideration for their use in chemoprevention or cancer treatment. We will focus upon those agents that have received attention in the past several years.

  4. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors induce DNA damage through nucleoside depletion

    PubMed Central

    Juvekar, Ashish; Hu, Hai; Yadegarynia, Sina; Lyssiotis, Costas A.; Ullas, Soumya; Lien, Evan C.; Bellinger, Gary; Son, Jaekyoung; Hok, Rosanna C.; Seth, Pankaj; Daly, Michele B.; Kim, Baek; Scully, Ralph; Asara, John M.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Wulf, Gerburg M.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that combining a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with a poly-ADP Rib polymerase (PARP)-inhibitor enhanced DNA damage and cell death in breast cancers that have genetic aberrations in BRCA1 and TP53. Here, we show that enhanced DNA damage induced by PI3K inhibitors in this mutational background is a consequence of impaired production of nucleotides needed for DNA synthesis and DNA repair. Inhibition of PI3K causes a reduction in all four nucleotide triphosphates, whereas inhibition of the protein kinase AKT is less effective than inhibition of PI3K in suppressing nucleotide synthesis and inducing DNA damage. Carbon flux studies reveal that PI3K inhibition disproportionately affects the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway that delivers Rib-5-phosphate required for base ribosylation. In vivo in a mouse model of BRCA1-linked triple-negative breast cancer (K14-Cre BRCA1f/fp53f/f), the PI3K inhibitor BKM120 led to a precipitous drop in DNA synthesis within 8 h of drug treatment, whereas DNA synthesis in normal tissues was less affected. In this mouse model, combined PI3K and PARP inhibition was superior to either agent alone to induce durable remissions of established tumors. PMID:27402769

  5. Assessment of tumor response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, Amanda; Han, Zhaozhong

    2015-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent developments in the use of non-invasive imaging to assess tumor response to TKI therapy. Receptor tyrosine kinases play important roles in cancer development. A new class of drugs, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) can induce rapid and dramatic tumor suppression when administered to carefully selected patient groups. Identifying these patients with responding tumors prior to or shortly after the initiation of therapy remains challenging. The gold standard of response assessment has been by invasive biopsies used in biological and biochemical procedures. Advances in non-invasive imaging at the anatomical, functional and molecular level have enabled the early detection of tumor response; sometimes within days of beginning treatment. The growing area of molecular imaging has spurred the discovery of novel targeting peptides to bind TKI responding tumors. The emergence of targeted, quick responding imaging probes advances the field of cancer management towards the goal of personalized medicine. PMID:21622159

  6. Novel protein kinase C inhibitors: alpha-terthiophene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kim, D S; Ashendel, C L; Zhou, Q; Chang, C T; Lee, E S; Chang, C J

    1998-10-06

    A series of alpha-terthiophene derivatives were prepared and their protein kinase C inhibitory activity were evaluated. The aldehyde derivatives were most potent inhibitors (IC50 < 1 microM). alpha-Terthiophene monoaldehyde was inactive in the inhibitions of protein kinase A, mitogen activated protein kinase and protein tyrosine kinase.

  7. Combined effects of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and vATPase inhibitors in NSCLC cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Hong, Sung-Eun; Kim, Chang Soon; Park, Jin-Ah; Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Bora; Chang, Yoon Hwan; Hong, Seok-Il; Hong, Young Jun; Park, In-Chul; Lee, Jin Kyung

    2015-08-15

    Despite excellent initial clinical responses of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), many patients eventually develop resistance. According to a recent report, vacuolar H + ATPase (vATPase) is overexpressed and is associated with chemotherapy drug resistance in NSCLC. We investigated the combined effects of EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors and their underlying mechanisms in the regulation of NSCLC cell death. We found that combined treatment with EGFR TKIs (erlotinib, gefitinib, or lapatinib) and vATPase inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A) enhanced synergistic cell death compared to treatments with each drug alone. Treatment with bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A led to the induction of Bnip3 expression in an Hif-1α dependent manner. Knock-down of Hif-1α or Bnip3 by siRNA further enhanced cell death induced by bafilomycin A1, suggesting that Hif-1α/Bnip3 induction promoted resistance to cell death induced by the vATPase inhibitors. EGFR TKIs suppressed Hif-1α and Bnip3 expression induced by the vATPase inhibitors, suggesting that they enhanced the sensitivity of the cells to these inhibitors by decreasing Hif-1α/Bnip3 expression. Taken together, we conclude that EGFR TKIs enhance the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to vATPase inhibitors by decreasing Hif-1α/Bnip3 expression. We suggest that combined treatment with EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors is potentially effective for the treatment of NSCLC. - Highlights: • Co-treatment with EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors induces synergistic cell death • EGFR TKIs enhance cell sensitivity to vATPase inhibitors via Hif-1α downregulation • Co-treatment of these inhibitors is potentially effective for the treatment of NSCLC.

  8. Targeting cancer with small-molecular-weight kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, Doriano; Cowan-Jacob, Sandra W; Möbitz, Henrik; Martiny-Baron, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Protein and lipid kinases fulfill essential roles in many signaling pathways that regulate normal cell functions. Deregulation of these kinase activities lead to a variety of pathologies ranging from cancer to inflammatory diseases, diabetes, infectious diseases, cardiovascular disorders, cell growth and survival. 518 protein kinases and about 20 lipid-modifying kinases are encoded by the human genome, and a much larger proportion of additional kinases are present in parasite, bacterial, fungal, and viral genomes that are susceptible to exploitation as drug targets. Since many human diseases result from overactivation of protein and lipid kinases due to mutations and/or overexpression, this enzyme class represents an important target for the pharmaceutical industry. Approximately one third of all protein targets under investigation in the pharmaceutical industry are protein or lipid kinases.The kinase inhibitors that have been launched, thus far, are mainly in oncology indications and are directed against a handful of protein and lipid kinases. With one exception, all of these registered kinase inhibitors are directed toward the ATP-site and display different selectivities, potencies, and pharmacokinetic properties. At present, about 150 kinase-targeted drugs are in clinical development and many more in various stages of preclinical development. Kinase inhibitor drugs that are in clinical trials target all stages of signal transduction from the receptor protein tyrosine kinases that initiate intracellular signaling, through second-messenger-dependent lipid and protein kinases, and protein kinases that regulate the cell cycle.This review provides an insight into protein and lipid kinase drug discovery with respect to achievements, binding modes of inhibitors, and novel avenues for the generation of second-generation kinase inhibitors to treat cancers.

  9. Structural investigation of protein kinase C inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Barak, D; Shibata, M; Rein, R

    1991-01-01

    The phospholipid and Ca2+ dependent protein kinase (PKC) plays an essential role in a variety of cellular events. Inhibition of PKC was shown to arrest growth in tumor cell cultures making it a target for possible antitumor therapy. Calphostins are potent inhibitors of PKC with high affinity for the enzyme regulatory site. Structural characteristics of calphostins, which confer the inhibitory activity, are investigated by comparing their optimized structures with the existing models for PKC activation. The resulting model of inhibitory activity assumes interaction with two out of the three electrostatic interaction sites postulated for activators. The model shows two sites of hydrophobic interaction and enables the inhibitory activity of gossypol to be accounted for.

  10. Structural investigation of protein kinase C inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barak, D.; Shibata, M.; Rein, R.

    1991-01-01

    The phospholipid and Ca2+ dependent protein kinase (PKC) plays an essential role in a variety of cellular events. Inhibition of PKC was shown to arrest growth in tumor cell cultures making it a target for possible antitumor therapy. Calphostins are potent inhibitors of PKC with high affinity for the enzyme regulatory site. Structural characteristics of calphostins, which confer the inhibitory activity, are investigated by comparing their optimized structures with the existing models for PKC activation. The resulting model of inhibitory activity assumes interaction with two out of the three electrostatic interaction sites postulated for activators. The model shows two sites of hydrophobic interaction and enables the inhibitory activity of gossypol to be accounted for.

  11. In Vitro Characterization of Derrone as an Aurora Kinase Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Nhung Thi My; Phuong, Thuong Thien; Nguyen, Trang Thi Nhu; Tran, Yen Thi Hai; Nguyen, Anh Thi Ngoc; Nguyen, Thanh Lai; Bui, Khanh Thi Van

    2016-06-01

    Among mitotic kinases, Aurora kinases are the most widely studied, since their expression is restricted to mitosis. They play a key role in chromosome segregation and cell polyploidy. Aurora kinases are important therapeutic targets, and several research groups have directed their efforts toward the identification of kinase inhibitors. The aim of this study is to screen and characterize Aurora kinase inhibitors from natural substances extracted from plants that are used in the Vietnamese pharmacopoeia. We have characterized in vitro Derrone, extracted from Erythrina orientalis L. MURR, as a novel Aurora kinase inhibitor. This compound exhibited an ability to inhibit the phosphorylation of histone H3 at ser10 both in kinase assay and at the cellular level. The compound was more effective against Aurora kinase B, with a lower IC50 value as compared to Aurora A. Moreover, it impaired the mitotic spindle checkpoint and led to endoreduplication in cancer cells, a phenomenon caused by an Aurora B inhibitor. Interestingly, using the xCelligence system and real-time cell analysis (RTCA) software, we set up a comparison of cell proliferation profiles between cancer cells treated with Derrone and VX680-a well-known Aurora kinase inhibitor-and we found that these profiles exhibited considerable similarity in cell morphology, growth, and death. Additionally, Derrone significantly inhibited the formation and growth of MCF7 tumor spheroids.

  12. Kinase inhibitor profiling reveals unexpected opportunities to inhibit disease-associated mutant kinases

    PubMed Central

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C.; Devarajan, Karthik; Liang, Shuguang; Horiuchi, Kurumi Y.; Wang, Yuren; Ma, Haiching; Peterson, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Small-molecule kinase inhibitors have typically been designed to inhibit wild-type kinases rather than the mutant forms that frequently arise in diseases such as cancer. Mutations can have serious clinical implications by increasing kinase catalytic activity or conferring therapeutic resistance. To identify opportunities to repurpose inhibitors against disease-associated mutant kinases, we conducted a large-scale functional screen of 183 known kinase inhibitors against 76 recombinant, mutant kinases. The results revealed lead compounds with activity against clinically important mutant kinases including ALK, LRRK2, RET, and EGFR as well as unexpected opportunities for repurposing FDA-approved kinase inhibitors as leads for additional indications. Furthermore, using T674I PDGFRα as an example, we show how single-dose screening data can provide predictive structure-activity data to guide subsequent inhibitor optimization. This study provides a resource for the development of inhibitors against numerous disease-associated mutant kinases and illustrates the potential of unbiased profiling as an approach to compound-centric inhibitor development. PMID:26776524

  13. Skin problems and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Kozuki, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition is a good target for the treatment of lung, colon, pancreatic and head and neck cancers. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor was first approved for the treatment of advanced lung cancer in 2002. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor plays an essential role in the treatment of cancer, especially for patients harbouring epidermal growth factor receptor activating mutation. Hence, skin toxicity is the most concerning issue for the epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Skin toxicity is bothersome and sometimes affects the quality of life and treatment compliance. Thus, it is important for physicians to understand the background and how to manage epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-associated skin toxicity. Here, the author reviewed the mechanism and upfront preventive and reactive treatments for epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor-associated skin toxicities. PMID:26826719

  14. Skin problems and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kozuki, Toshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition is a good target for the treatment of lung, colon, pancreatic and head and neck cancers. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor was first approved for the treatment of advanced lung cancer in 2002. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor plays an essential role in the treatment of cancer, especially for patients harbouring epidermal growth factor receptor activating mutation. Hence, skin toxicity is the most concerning issue for the epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Skin toxicity is bothersome and sometimes affects the quality of life and treatment compliance. Thus, it is important for physicians to understand the background and how to manage epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-associated skin toxicity. Here, the author reviewed the mechanism and upfront preventive and reactive treatments for epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor-associated skin toxicities.

  15. A Novel Calcium-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor, Bumped Kinase Inhibitor 1517, Cures Cryptosporidiosis in Immunosuppressed Mice.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Sparks, Hayley; Nava, Samantha; Huang, Wenlin; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Rivas, Kasey; Hulverson, Matthew A; Barrett, Lynn K; Ojo, Kayode K; Fan, Erkang; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; White, Arthur Clinton

    2016-12-15

    Cryptosporidium is recognized as one of the main causes of childhood diarrhea worldwide. However, the current treatment for cryptosporidiosis is suboptimal. Calcium flux is essential for entry in apicomplexan parasites. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are distinct from protein kinases of mammals, and the CDPK1 of the apicomplexan Cryptosporidium lack side chains that typically block a hydrophobic pocket in protein kinases. We exploited this to develop bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs) that selectively target CDPK1. We have shown that several BKIs of Cryptosporidium CDPK1 potently reduce enzymatic activity and decrease parasite numbers when tested in vitro. In the present work, we studied the anticryptosporidial activity of BKI-1517, a novel BKI. The half maximal effective concentration for Cryptosporidium parvum in HCT-8 cells was determined to be approximately 50 nM. Silencing experiments of CDPK1 suggest that BKI-1517 acts on CDPK1 as its primary target. In a mouse model of chronic infection, 5 of 6 SCID/beige mice (83.3%) were cured after treatment with a single daily dose of 120 mg/kg BKI-1517. No side effects were observed. These data support advancing BKI-1517 as a lead compound for drug development for cryptosporidiosis.

  16. Therapeutic drug monitoring and tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Herviou, Pauline; Thivat, Emilie; Richard, Damien; Roche, Lucie; Dohou, Joyce; Pouget, Mélanie; Eschalier, Alain; Durando, Xavier; Authier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic activity of drugs can be optimized by establishing an individualized dosage, based on the measurement of the drug concentration in the serum, particularly if the drugs are characterized by an inter-individual variation in pharmacokinetics that results in an under- or overexposure to treatment. In recent years, several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been developed to block intracellular signaling pathways in tumor cells. These oral drugs are candidates for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) due to their high inter-individual variability for therapeutic and toxic effects. Following a literature search on PubMed, studies on TKIs and their pharmacokinetic characteristics, plasma quantification and inter-individual variability was studied. TDM is commonly used in various medical fields, including cardiology and psychiatry, but is not often applied in oncology. Plasma concentration monitoring has been thoroughly studied for imatinib, in order to evaluate the usefulness of TDM. The measurement of plasma concentration can be performed by various analytical techniques, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry being the reference method. This method is currently used to monitor the efficacy and tolerability of imatinib treatments. Although TDM is already being used for imatinib, additional studies are required in order to improve this practice with the inclusion of other TKIs. PMID:27446421

  17. Shaping development of autophagy inhibitors with the structure of the lipid kinase Vps34.

    PubMed

    Miller, Simon; Tavshanjian, Brandon; Oleksy, Arkadiusz; Perisic, Olga; Houseman, Benjamin T; Shokat, Kevan M; Williams, Roger L

    2010-03-26

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are lipid kinases with diverse roles in health and disease. The primordial PI3K, Vps34, is present in all eukaryotes and has essential roles in autophagy, membrane trafficking, and cell signaling. We solved the crystal structure of Vps34 at 2.9 angstrom resolution, which revealed a constricted adenine-binding pocket, suggesting the reason that specific inhibitors of this class of PI3K have proven elusive. Both the phosphoinositide-binding loop and the carboxyl-terminal helix of Vps34 mediate catalysis on membranes and suppress futile adenosine triphosphatase cycles. Vps34 appears to alternate between a closed cytosolic form and an open form on the membrane. Structures of Vps34 complexes with a series of inhibitors reveal the reason that an autophagy inhibitor preferentially inhibits Vps34 and underpin the development of new potent and specific Vps34 inhibitors.

  18. Second-generation inhibitors of Bruton tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingjing; Liu, Christina; Tsui, Stella T; Liu, Delong

    2016-09-02

    Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a critical effector molecule for B cell development and plays a major role in lymphoma genesis. Ibrutinib is the first-generation BTK inhibitor. Ibrutinib has off-target effects on EGFR, ITK, and Tec family kinases, which explains the untoward effects of ibrutinib. Resistance to ibrutinib was also reported. The C481S mutation in the BTK kinase domain was reported to be a major mechanism of resistance to ibrutinib. This review summarizes the clinical development of novel BTK inhibitors, ACP-196 (acalabrutinib), ONO/GS-4059, and BGB-3111.

  19. Comprehensive characterization of the Published Kinase Inhibitor Set.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Jonathan M; Fedele, Vita; Szklarz, Marta; Abdul Azeez, Kamal R; Salah, Eidarus; Mikolajczyk, Jowita; Romanov, Sergei; Sepetov, Nikolai; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L; Al Haj Zen, Ayman; Fourches, Denis; Muratov, Eugene; Tropsha, Alex; Morris, Joel; Teicher, Beverly A; Kunkel, Mark; Polley, Eric; Lackey, Karen E; Atkinson, Francis L; Overington, John P; Bamborough, Paul; Müller, Susanne; Price, Daniel J; Willson, Timothy M; Drewry, David H; Knapp, Stefan; Zuercher, William J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the success of protein kinase inhibitors as approved therapeutics, drug discovery has focused on a small subset of kinase targets. Here we provide a thorough characterization of the Published Kinase Inhibitor Set (PKIS), a set of 367 small-molecule ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors that was recently made freely available with the aim of expanding research in this field and as an experiment in open-source target validation. We screen the set in activity assays with 224 recombinant kinases and 24 G protein-coupled receptors and in cellular assays of cancer cell proliferation and angiogenesis. We identify chemical starting points for designing new chemical probes of orphan kinases and illustrate the utility of these leads by developing a selective inhibitor for the previously untargeted kinases LOK and SLK. Our cellular screens reveal compounds that modulate cancer cell growth and angiogenesis in vitro. These reagents and associated data illustrate an efficient way forward to increasing understanding of the historically untargeted kinome.

  20. Canine osteosarcoma cells exhibit resistance to aurora kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cannon, C M; Pozniak, J; Scott, M C; Ito, D; Gorden, B H; Graef, A J; Modiano, J F

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of Aurora kinase inhibitors AZD1152 and VX680 on canine osteosarcoma cells. Cytotoxicity was seen in all four cell lines; however, half-maximal inhibitory concentrations were significantly higher than in human leukaemia and canine lymphoma cells. AZD1152 reduced Aurora kinase B phosphorylation, indicating resistance was not because of failure of target recognition. Efflux mediated by ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters is one known mechanism of resistance against these drugs and verapamil enhanced AZD1152-induced apoptosis; however, these transporters were only expressed by a small percentage of cells in each line and the effects of verapamil were modest, suggesting other mechanisms contribute to resistance. Our results indicate that canine osteosarcoma cells are resistant to Aurora kinase inhibitors and suggest that these compounds are unlikely to be useful as single agents for this disease. Further investigation of these resistance mechanisms and the potential utility of Aurora kinase inhibitors in multi-agent protocols is warranted.

  1. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors - small molecular weight compounds inhibiting EGFR.

    PubMed

    Hegymegi-Barakonyi, Bálint; Eros, Dániel; Szántai-Kis, Csaba; Breza, Nóra; Bánhegyi, Péter; Szabó, Gábor Viktor; Várkondi, Edit; Peták, István; Orfi, László; Kéri, György

    2009-06-01

    Abnormally elevated EGFR kinase activity can lead to various pathological states, including proliferative diseases such as cancer. The development of selective protein kinase inhibitors has become an important area of drug discovery for the potential treatment of a variety of solid tumors such as breast, ovarian and colorectal cancers, NSCLC, and carcinoma of the head and neck. There are three small molecule EGFR kinase inhibitor drugs in clinical use (gefitinib, erlotinib and lapatinib), and several others are currently undergoing clinical development. This review summarizes the development of EGFR kinase inhibitors, and includes descriptions of the binding modes, the importance of a multiple-targets strategy, the effects of sensitizing and resistance mutations in the EGFR, and molecular diagnostic approaches. In addition, the use of target fishing for selectivity profiling, off-target identification and quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling for the prediction of EGFR inhibition is discussed.

  2. [Mechanisms of resistance to BCR-ABL kinase inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Diamond, Joana; da Silva, Maria Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia, impressive clinical responses were observed in the majority of patients in chronic phase. However, not all patients experience an optimal response to imatinib mesylate or even to the more potent, second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, responses are not sustained in a number of patients, and it is yet unclear whether the inhibitors can be safely discontinued in patients who achieve long-term remission. The emergence of resistance to second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors has become a significant problem that led to extensive studies on the causal mechanisms. This review will describe our current state of knowledge on why and how chronic myeloid leukaemia cells can develop resistance to second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  3. PKC/MEK inhibitors suppress oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy and potentiate the antitumor effects.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Masanobu; Takeda, Tomoya; Tani, Tadahumi; Shimaoka, Hirotaka; Suzuyama, Naohiro; Sakamoto, Kotaro; Fujita, Arisa; Ogawa, Naoki; Itoh, Tatsuki; Imano, Motohiro; Funakami, Yoshinori; Ichida, Seiji; Satou, Takao; Nishida, Shozo

    2015-07-01

    Oxaliplatin is a key drug commonly used in colorectal cancer treatment. Despite high clinical efficacy, its therapeutic application is limited by common, dose-limiting occurrence of neuropathy. As usual symptomatic neuropathy treatments fail to improve the patients' condition, there is an urgent need to advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of neuropathy to propose effective therapy and ensure adequate pain management. Oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy was recently reported to be associated with protein kinase C (PKC) activation. It is unclear, however, whether PKC inhibition can prevent neuropathy. In our current studies, we found that a PKC inhibitor, tamoxifen, inhibited oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy via the PKC/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/c-Fos pathway in lumbar spinal cords (lumbar segments 4-6). Additionally, tamoxifen was shown to act in synergy with oxaliplatin to inhibit growth in tumor cells-implanted mice. Moreover, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, PD0325901, suppressed oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy and enhanced oxaliplatin efficacy. Our results indicate that oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy is associated with PKC/ERK/c-Fos pathway in lumbar spinal cord. Additionally, we demonstrate that disruption of this pathway by PKC and MEK inhibitors suppresses oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy, thereby suggesting that PKC and MEK inhibitors may be therapeutically useful in preventing oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy and could aid in combination antitumor pharmacotherapy.

  4. Discovery and Characterization of Allosteric WNK Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ken; Zhang, Ji-Hu; Xie, Xiaoling; Reinhardt, Juergen; Xie, Amy Qiongshu; LaSala, Daniel; Kohls, Darcy; Yowe, David; Burdick, Debra; Yoshisue, Hajime; Wakai, Hiromichi; Schmidt, Isabel; Gunawan, Jason; Yasoshima, Kayo; Yue, Q Kimberley; Kato, Mitsunori; Mogi, Muneto; Idamakanti, Neeraja; Kreder, Natasha; Drueckes, Peter; Pandey, Pramod; Kawanami, Toshio; Huang, Waanjeng; Yagi, Yukiko I; Deng, Zhan; Park, Hyi-Man

    2016-12-16

    Protein kinases are known for their highly conserved adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding site, rendering the discovery of selective inhibitors a major challenge. In theory, allosteric inhibitors can achieve high selectivity by targeting less conserved regions of the kinases, often with an added benefit of retaining efficacy under high physiological ATP concentration. Although often overlooked in favor of ATP-site directed approaches, performing a screen at high ATP concentration or stringent hit triaging with high ATP concentration offers conceptually simple methods of identifying inhibitors that bind outside the ATP pocket. Here, we applied the latter approach to the With-No-Lysine (K) (WNK) kinases to discover lead molecules for a next-generation antihypertensive that requires a stringent safety profile. This strategy yielded several ATP noncompetitive WNK1-4 kinase inhibitors, the optimization of which enabled cocrystallization with WNK1, revealing an allosteric binding mode consistent with the observed exquisite specificity for WNK1-4 kinases. The optimized compound inhibited rubidium uptake by sodium chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) in HT29 cells, consistent with the reported physiology of WNK kinases in renal electrolyte handling.

  5. Design, Synthesis and Inhibitory Activity of Photoswitchable RET Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rubén; Nilsson, Jesper R.; Solano, Carlos; Andréasson, Joakim; Grøtli, Morten

    2015-01-01

    REarranged during Transfection (RET) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase required for normal development and maintenance of neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Deregulation of RET and hyperactivity of the RET kinase is intimately connected to several types of human cancers, most notably thyroid cancers, making it an attractive therapeutic target for small-molecule kinase inhibitors. Novel approaches, allowing external control of the activity of RET, would be key additions to the signal transduction toolbox. In this work, photoswitchable RET kinase inhibitors based on azo-functionalized pyrazolopyrimidines were developed, enabling photonic control of RET activity. The most promising compound displays excellent switching properties and stability with good inhibitory effect towards RET in cell-free as well as live-cell assays and a significant difference in inhibitory activity between its two photoisomeric forms. As the first reported photoswitchable small-molecule kinase inhibitor, we consider the herein presented effector to be a significant step forward in the development of tools for kinase signal transduction studies with spatiotemporal control over inhibitor concentration in situ. PMID:25944708

  6. Design, Synthesis and Inhibitory Activity of Photoswitchable RET Kinase Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Rubén; Nilsson, Jesper R.; Solano, Carlos; Andréasson, Joakim; Grøtli, Morten

    2015-05-01

    REarranged during Transfection (RET) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase required for normal development and maintenance of neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Deregulation of RET and hyperactivity of the RET kinase is intimately connected to several types of human cancers, most notably thyroid cancers, making it an attractive therapeutic target for small-molecule kinase inhibitors. Novel approaches, allowing external control of the activity of RET, would be key additions to the signal transduction toolbox. In this work, photoswitchable RET kinase inhibitors based on azo-functionalized pyrazolopyrimidines were developed, enabling photonic control of RET activity. The most promising compound displays excellent switching properties and stability with good inhibitory effect towards RET in cell-free as well as live-cell assays and a significant difference in inhibitory activity between its two photoisomeric forms. As the first reported photoswitchable small-molecule kinase inhibitor, we consider the herein presented effector to be a significant step forward in the development of tools for kinase signal transduction studies with spatiotemporal control over inhibitor concentration in situ.

  7. Allosteric Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the AKT Kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalafave, D. S.

    This research addresses computational design of small druglike molecules for possible anticancer applications. AKT and SGK are kinases that control important cellular functions. They are highly homologous, having similar activators and targets. Cancers with increased SGK activity may develop resistance to AKT-specific inhibitors. Our goal was to design new molecules that would bind both AKT and SGK, thus preventing the development of drug resistance. Most kinase inhibitors target the kinase ATP-binding site. However, the high similarity in this site among kinases makes it difficult to target specifically. Furthermore, mutations in this site can cause resistance to ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors. We used existing AKT inhibitors as initial templates to design molecules that could potentially bind the allosteric sites of both AKT and SGK. Molecules with no implicit toxicities and optimal drug-like properties were used for docking studies. Binding energies of the stable complexes that the designed molecules formed with AKT and SGK were calculated. Possible applications of the designed putative inhibitors against cancers with overexpressed AKT/SGK is discussed.

  8. Targeting the TGF-β receptor with kinase inhibitors for scleroderma therapy.

    PubMed

    Cong, Lin; Xia, Zhi-Kuan; Yang, Rong-Ya

    2014-09-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) is a connective tissue disease that affects various organ systems; the treatment of scleroderma is still difficult and remains a challenge to the clinician. Recently, kinase inhibitors have shown great potential against fibrotic diseases and, specifically, the transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGF-βR) was found as a new and promising target for scleroderma therapy. In the current study, we propose that the large pool of existing kinase inhibitors could be exploited for inhibiting the TGF-βR to suppress scleroderma. In this respect, we developed a modeling protocol to systematically profile the inhibitory activities of 169 commercially available kinase inhibitors against the TGF-βR, from which five promising candidates were selected and tested using a standard kinase assay protocol. Consequently, two molecular entities, namely the PKB inhibitor MK-2206 and the mTOR C1/C2 inhibitor AZD8055, showed high potency when bound to the TGF-βR, with IC50 values of 97 and 86 nM, respectively, which are close to those of the recently developed TGF-βR selective inhibitors SB525334 and LY2157299 (IC50 = 14.3 and 56 nM, respectively). We also performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and post-molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area analyses to dissect the structural basis and energetic properties of intermolecular interactions between the TGF-βR kinase domain and these potent compounds, highlighting intensive nonbonded networks across the tightly packed interface of non-cognate TGF-βR-inhibitor complexes.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 is a target for selective kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Kayode K; Larson, Eric T; Keyloun, Katelyn R; Castaneda, Lisa J; DeRocher, Amy E; Inampudi, Krishna K; Kim, Jessica E; Arakaki, Tracy L; Murphy, Ryan C; Zhang, Li; Napuli, Alberto J; Maly, Dustin J; Verlinde, Christophe LMJ; Buckner, Frederick S; Parsons, Marilyn; Hol, Wim GJ; Merritt, Ethan A; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

    2010-01-01

    New drugs are needed to treat toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinases (TgCDPKs) are attractive targets because they are absent in mammals. We show that TgCDPK1 is inhibited by low nanomolar levels of bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs), compounds designed to be inactive against mammalian kinases. Cocrystal structures of TgCDPK1 with BKIs confirm that the structural basis for selectivity is due to the unique glycine gatekeeper residue in the ATP-binding site at residue 128. We show that BKIs interfere with an early step in T. gondii infection of human cells in culture. Furthermore, we show that TgCDPK1 is the in vivo target of BKIs because T. gondii cells expressing a glycine to methionine gatekeeper mutant enzyme show significantly decreased sensitivity to this class of selective kinase inhibitors. Thus, design of selective TgCDPK1 inhibitors with low host toxicity may be achievable. PMID:20436472

  10. Sorafenib suppresses JNK-dependent apoptosis through inhibition of ZAK kinase

    PubMed Central

    Vin, Harina; Ching, Grace; Ojeda, Sandra S.; Adelmann, Charles H.; Chitsazzadeh, Vida; Dwyer, David W.; Ma, Haiching; Ehrenreiter, Karin; Baccarini, Manuela; Ruggieri, Rosamaria; Curry, Jonathan L.; Ciurea, Ana M.; Duvic, Madeleine; Busaidy, Naifa L.; Tannir, Nizar M.; Tsai, Kenneth Y.

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib is FDA-approved for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma and has been combined with numerous other targeted therapies and chemotherapies in the treatment of many cancers. Unfortunately, as with other RAF inhibitors, patients treated with sorafenib have a 5–10% rate of developing cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma/keratoacanthomas. Paradoxical activation of ERK in BRAF-wild-type cells has been implicated in RAF-inhibitor-induced cSCC. Here we report that sorafenib suppresses UV-induced apoptosis specifically by inhibiting JNK activation through the off-target inhibition of ZAK kinase. Our results implicate suppression of JNK signaling, independent of the ERK pathway, as an additional mechanism of adverse effects of sorafenib. This has broad implications for combination therapies using sorafenib with other modalities that induce apoptosis. PMID:24170769

  11. Combination of PIM and JAK2 inhibitors synergistically suppresses cell proliferation and overcomes drug resistance of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Rita; Li, Zhifang; Sun, Fangxian; Barberis, Claude; Tabart, Michel; Patel, Vinod; Schio, Laurent; Hurley, Raelene; Chen, Bo; Cheng, Hong; Lengauer, Christoph; Pollard, Jack; Watters, James; Garcia-Echeverria, Carlos; Wiederschain, Dmitri; Adrian, Francisco; Zhang, JingXin

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of JAK2 kinase are emerging as an important treatment modality for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). However, similar to other kinase inhibitors, resistance to JAK2 inhibitors may eventually emerge through a variety of mechanisms. Effective drug combination is one way to enhance therapeutic efficacy and combat resistance against JAK2 inhibitors. To identify potential combination partners for JAK2 compounds in MPN cell lines, we performed pooled shRNA screen targeting 5,000 genes in the presence or absence of JAK2 blockade. One of the top hits identified was MYC, an oncogenic transcription factor that is difficult to inhibit directly, but could be targeted by modulation of upstream regulatory elements such as kinases. We demonstrate herein that PIM kinase inhibitors efficiently suppress MYC protein levels in MPN cell lines. Overexpression of MYC restores the viability of PIM inhibitor-treated cells, revealing causal relationship between MYC down-regulation and cell growth inhibition by PIM compounds. Combination of various PIM inhibitors with a JAK2 inhibitor results in significant synergistic growth inhibition of multiple MPN cancer cell lines and induction of apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed strong downregulation of phosphorylated forms of S6 and 4EBP1 by JAK2/PIM inhibitor combination treatment. Finally, such combination was effective in eradicating in vitro JAK2 inhibitor-resistant MPN clones, where MYC is consistently up-regulated. These findings demonstrate that simultaneous suppression of JAK2 and PIM kinase activity by small molecule inhibitors is more effective than either agent alone in suppressing MPN cell growth. Our data suggest that JAK2 and PIM combination might warrant further investigation for the treatment of JAK2-driven hematologic malignancies. PMID:24830942

  12. Guanidinium-based derivatives: searching for new kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Diez-Cecilia, Elena; Kelly, Brendan; Perez, Concepcion; Zisterer, Daniela M; Nevin, Daniel K; Lloyd, David G; Rozas, Isabel

    2014-06-23

    Considering the structural similarities between the kinase inhibitor sorafenib and 4,4'-bis-guanidinium derivatives previously prepared by Rozas and co., which display interesting cytotoxicity in cancer cells, we have studied whether this activity could result from kinase inhibition. Five new families have been prepared consisting of unsubstituted and aryl-substituted 3,4'-bis-guanidiniums, 3,4'-bis-2-aminoimidazolinium and 3-acetamide-4'-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethylphenyl)guanidinium derivatives. Cytotoxicity (measuring the IC50 values) and apoptosis studies in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells were carried out for these compounds. Additionally, their potential inhibitory effect was explored on a panel of kinases known to be involved in apoptotic pathways. The previously prepared cytotoxic 4,4'-bis-guanidiniums did not inhibit any of these kinases; however, some of the novel 3,4'-substituted derivatives showed a high percentage inhibition of RAF-1/MEK-1, for which the potential mode of binding was evaluated by docking studies. The interesting antitumour properties showed by these compounds open up new exciting lines of investigation for kinase inhibitors as anticancer agents and also highlights the relevance of the guanidinium moiety for protein kinase inhibitors chemical design.

  13. Functional Effects of AKT3 on Aurora Kinase Inhibitor-induced Aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Kohji; Hongama, Keita; Hariki, Shiori; Nonomiya, Yuma; Katayama, Kazuhiro; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2017-02-03

    The suppression of mitotic Aurora kinases (AURKs) by AURK inhibitors frequently causes cytokinetic failure, leading to polyploidy or aneuploidy, indicating the critical role of AURK-mediated phosphorylation during cytokinesis. We demonstrate the deregulated expression of AKT3 in Aurora kinase inhibitor (AURKi)-resistant cells, which we established from human colorectal cancer HCT 116 cells. The AKT family, which includes AKT1, -2, and -3, plays multiple roles in antiapoptotic functions and drug resistance and is involved in cell growth and survival pathways. We found that an AKT inhibitor, AZD5363, showed synergistic effect with an AURKi, VX-680, on two AKT3-expressing AURKi-resistant cell lines, and AKT3 knockdown sensitized cells to VX-680. Consistent with these activities, AKT3 expression suppressed AURKi-induced apoptosis and conferred resistance to AURKi. Thus, AKT3 expression affects cell sensitivity to AURKi. Moreover, we found that AKT3 expression suppressed AURKi-induced aneuploidy, and inversely AKT3 knockdown enhanced it. In addition, partial co-localization of AKT3 with AURKB was observed during anaphase. Overall, this study suggests that AKT3 could repress the antiproliferative effects of AURKi, with a novel activity particularly suppressing the aneuploidy induction.

  14. Polo-like kinase inhibitors in hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Talati, Chetasi; Griffiths, Elizabeth A; Wetzler, Meir; Wang, Eunice S

    2016-02-01

    Polo-like kinases (Plk) are key regulators of the cell cycle and multiple aspects of mitosis. Two agents that inhibit the Plk signaling pathway have shown promising activity in patients with hematologic malignancies and are currently in phase III trials. Volasertib is a Plk inhibitor under evaluation combined with low-dose cytarabine in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) ineligible for intensive induction therapy. Rigosertib, a dual inhibitor of the Plk and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways, is under investigation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who have failed azacitidine or decitabine treatment. The prognosis for patients with AML, who are ineligible for intensive induction therapy, and for those with MDS refractory/relapsed after a hypomethylating agent, remains poor. Novel approaches, such as Plk inhibitors, are urgently needed for these patients. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of development of Plk inhibitors for the treatment of hematologic malignancies.

  15. Re-purposing clinical kinase inhibitors to enhance chemosensitivity by overriding checkpoints

    PubMed Central

    Beeharry, Neil; Banina, Eugenia; Hittle, James; Skobeleva, Natalia; Khazak, Vladimir; Deacon, Sean; Andrake, Mark; Egleston, Brian L; Peterson, Jeffrey R; Astsaturov, Igor; Yen, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of the DNA damage checkpoint kinase, Chk1, are highly effective as chemo- and radio-sensitizers in preclinical studies but are not well-tolerated by patients. We exploited the promiscuous nature of kinase inhibitors to screen 9 clinically relevant kinase inhibitors for their ability to sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to a sub-lethal concentration of gemcitabine. Bosutinib, dovitinib, and BEZ-235 were identified as sensitizers that abrogated the DNA damage checkpoint. We further characterized bosutinib, an FDA-approved Src/Abl inhibitor approved for chronic myelogenous leukemia. Unbeknownst to us, we used an isomer (Bos-I) that was unknowingly synthesized and sold to the research community as “authentic” bosutinib. In vitro and cell-based assays showed that both the authentic bosutinib and Bos-I inhibited DNA damage checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Wee1, with Bos-I showing greater potency. Imaging data showed that Bos-I forced cells to override gemcitabine-induced DNA damage checkpoint arrest and destabilized stalled replication forks. These inhibitors enhanced sensitivity to the DNA damaging agents’ gemcitabine, cisplatin, and doxorubicin in pancreatic cancer cell lines. The in vivo efficacy of Bos-I was validated using cells derived directly from a pancreatic cancer patient’s tumor. Notably, the xenograft studies showed that the combination of gemcitabine and Bos-I was significantly more effective in suppressing tumor growth than either agent alone. Finally, we show that the gatekeeper residue in Wee1 dictates its sensitivity to the 2 compounds. Our strategy to screen clinically relevant kinase inhibitors for off-target effects on cell cycle checkpoints is a promising approach to re-purpose drugs as chemosensitizers. PMID:24955955

  16. Re-purposing clinical kinase inhibitors to enhance chemosensitivity by overriding checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Beeharry, Neil; Banina, Eugenia; Hittle, James; Skobeleva, Natalia; Khazak, Vladimir; Deacon, Sean; Andrake, Mark; Egleston, Brian L; Peterson, Jeffrey R; Astsaturov, Igor; Yen, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of the DNA damage checkpoint kinase, Chk1, are highly effective as chemo- and radio-sensitizers in preclinical studies but are not well-tolerated by patients. We exploited the promiscuous nature of kinase inhibitors to screen 9 clinically relevant kinase inhibitors for their ability to sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to a sub-lethal concentration of gemcitabine. Bosutinib, dovitinib, and BEZ-235 were identified as sensitizers that abrogated the DNA damage checkpoint. We further characterized bosutinib, an FDA-approved Src/Abl inhibitor approved for chronic myelogenous leukemia. Unbeknownst to us, we used an isomer (Bos-I) that was unknowingly synthesized and sold to the research community as "authentic" bosutinib. In vitro and cell-based assays showed that both the authentic bosutinib and Bos-I inhibited DNA damage checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Wee1, with Bos-I showing greater potency. Imaging data showed that Bos-I forced cells to override gemcitabine-induced DNA damage checkpoint arrest and destabilized stalled replication forks. These inhibitors enhanced sensitivity to the DNA damaging agents' gemcitabine, cisplatin, and doxorubicin in pancreatic cancer cell lines. The in vivo efficacy of Bos-I was validated using cells derived directly from a pancreatic cancer patient's tumor. Notably, the xenograft studies showed that the combination of gemcitabine and Bos-I was significantly more effective in suppressing tumor growth than either agent alone. Finally, we show that the gatekeeper residue in Wee1 dictates its sensitivity to the 2 compounds. Our strategy to screen clinically relevant kinase inhibitors for off-target effects on cell cycle checkpoints is a promising approach to re-purpose drugs as chemosensitizers.

  17. Screening of kinase inhibitors targeting BRAF for regulating autophagy based on kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingmei; Xue, Dongbo; Wang, Xiaochun; Lu, Ming; Gao, Bo; Qiao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify agents that regulate autophagy. A total of 544 differentially expressed genes were screened from the intersection set of GSE2435 and GSE31040, which was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and 19 differentially expressed kinases were selected according to a 'protein kinase database'. Gene ontology‑biological process (GO-BP) enrichment analysis revealed that the 19 kinases were mainly associated with phosphorylation. The protein-protein interaction network exhibited 30 differentially expressed genes that interacted with BRAF, and GO-BP enrichment analysis showed the function of these genes were mainly involved in cell death and apoptosis. The kinase-kinase inhibitor regulatory network identified16 kinase inhibitors that specifically inhibited BRAF. Previous studies indicated that sorafenib is capable of regulating autophagy and regorafenib has also been reported; however, there have been no studies regarding the regulation of autophagy by afatinib, selumetinib, PD318088, axitinib, TAK-733, GDC-0980, GSK2126458, PLX-4720, AS703026, trametinib, GDC-0941 and PF-04217903. Thus, these kinase inhibitors are potential targets for further study on the regulation of autophagy in the future.

  18. The specificities of protein kinase inhibitors: an update.

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Jenny; McLauchlan, Hilary; Elliott, Matthew; Cohen, Philip

    2003-01-01

    We have previously examined the specificities of 28 commercially available compounds, reported to be relatively selective inhibitors of particular serine/threonine-specific protein kinases [Davies, Reddy, Caivano and Cohen (2000) Biochem. J. 351, 95-105]. In the present study, we have extended this analysis to a further 14 compounds. Of these, indirubin-3'-monoxime, SP 600125, KT 5823 and ML-9 were found to inhibit a number of protein kinases and conclusions drawn from their use in cell-based assays are likely to be erroneous. Kenpaullone, Alsterpaullone, Purvalanol, Roscovitine, pyrazolopyrimidine 1 (PP1), PP2 and ML-7 were more specific, but still inhibited two or more protein kinases with similar potency. Our results suggest that the combined use of Roscovitine and Kenpaullone may be useful for identifying substrates and physiological roles of cyclin-dependent protein kinases, whereas the combined use of Kenpaullone and LiCl may be useful for identifying substrates and physiological roles of glycogen synthase kinase 3. The combined use of SU 6656 and either PP1 or PP2 may be useful for identifying substrates of Src family members. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate, one of the main polyphenolic constituents of tea, inhibited two of the 28 protein kinases in the panel, dual-specificity, tyrosine-phosphorylated and regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A; IC(50)=0.33 microM) and p38-regulated/activated kinase (PRAK; IC(50)=1.0 microM). PMID:12534346

  19. Old Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Newcomers in Gastrointestinal Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Erika; Zoratto, Federica; Strudel, Martina; Papa, Anselmo; Rossi, Luigi; Minozzi, Marina; Caruso, Davide; Zaccarelli, Eleonora; Verrico, Monica; Tomao, Silverio

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancer treatment is based more on molecular biology that has provided increasing knowledge about cancer pathogenesis on which targeted therapy is being developed. Precisely, targeted therapy is defined as a "type of treatment that uses drugs, such as monoclonal antibodies or tyrosine kinase inhibitors, to identify and attack specific cancer cells". Nowadays, the United States Food and Drug Administration has approved many targeted therapies for gastrointestinal cancer treatment, as many are in various phases of development as well. In a previous review we discussed the main monoclonal antibodies used and studied in gastrointestinal cancer. In addition to monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors represent another class of targeted therapy and following the approval of imatinib for gastrointestinal stromal tumours, other tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been approved for gastrointestinal cancers treatment such as sunitinib, regoragenib, sorafenib and erlotinib. Moving forward, the purpose of this review is to focus on the efficacy data of main tyrosine kinase inhibitors commonly used in the personalized treatment of each gastrointestinal tumour and to provide a comprehensive overview about experimental targeted therapies ongoing in this setting.

  20. FDA-approved small-molecule kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Nielsen, Thomas E; Clausen, Mads H

    2015-07-01

    Kinases have emerged as one of the most intensively pursued targets in current pharmacological research, especially for cancer, due to their critical roles in cellular signaling. To date, the US FDA has approved 28 small-molecule kinase inhibitors, half of which were approved in the past 3 years. While the clinical data of these approved molecules are widely presented and structure-activity relationship (SAR) has been reported for individual molecules, an updated review that analyzes all approved molecules and summarizes current achievements and trends in the field has yet to be found. Here we present all approved small-molecule kinase inhibitors with an emphasis on binding mechanism and structural features, summarize current challenges, and discuss future directions in this field.

  1. Clinical development of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors for cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is commonly deregulated in cancer. In recent years, the results of the first phase I clinical trials with PI3K inhibitors have become available. In comparison to other targeted agents such v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) inhibitors in melanoma or crizotinib in anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) translocated tumors, the number of objective responses to PI3K inhibitors is less dramatic. In this review we propose possible strategies to optimize the clinical development of PI3K inhibitors: by exploring the potential role of PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors in improving the therapeutic index, molecular characterization as a basis for patient selection, and the relevance of performing serial tumor biopsies to understand the associated mechanisms of drug resistance. The main focus of this review will be on PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors by describing the functions of different PI3K isoforms, the preclinical activity of selective PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors and the early clinical data of these compounds. PMID:23232172

  2. Prolonged and tunable residence time using reversible covalent kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, J. Michael; McFarland, Jesse M.; Paavilainen, Ville O.; Bisconte, Angelina; Tam, Danny; Phan, Vernon T.; Romanov, Sergei; Finkle, David; Shu, Jin; Patel, Vaishali; Ton, Tony; Li, Xiaoyan; Loughhead, David G.; Nunn, Philip A.; Karr, Dane E.; Gerritsen, Mary E.; Funk, Jens Oliver; Owens, Timothy D.; Verner, Erik; Brameld, Ken A.; Hill, Ronald J.; Goldstein, David M.; Taunton, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Drugs with prolonged, on-target residence time often show superior efficacy, yet general strategies for optimizing drug-target residence time are lacking. Here, we demonstrate progress toward this elusive goal by targeting a noncatalytic cysteine in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) with reversible covalent inhibitors. Utilizing an inverted orientation of the cysteine-reactive cyanoacrylamide electrophile, we identified potent and selective BTK inhibitors that demonstrate biochemical residence times spanning from minutes to 7 days. An inverted cyanoacrylamide with prolonged residence time in vivo remained bound to BTK more than 18 hours after clearance from the circulation. The inverted cyanoacrylamide strategy was further utilized to discover fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) kinase inhibitors with residence times of several days, demonstrating generalizability of the approach. Targeting noncatalytic cysteines with inverted cyanoacrylamides may serve as a broadly applicable platform that facilitates “residence time by design”, the ability to modulate and improve the duration of target engagement in vivo. PMID:26006010

  3. Selective Mycobacterium tuberculosis Shikimate Kinase Inhibitors as Potential Antibacterials

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Sara; Simithy, Johayra; Goodwin, Douglas C; Calderón, Angela I

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the persistence of tuberculosis (TB) as well as the emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) forms of the disease, the development of new antitubercular drugs is crucial. Developing inhibitors of shikimate kinase (SK) in the shikimate pathway will provide a selective target for antitubercular agents. Many studies have used in silico technology to identify compounds that are anticipated to interact with and inhibit SK. To a much more limited extent, SK inhibition has been evaluated by in vitro methods with purified enzyme. Currently, there are no data on in vivo activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis shikimate kinase (MtSK) inhibitors available in the literature. In this review, we present a summary of the progress of SK inhibitor discovery and evaluation with particular attention toward development of new antitubercular agents. PMID:25861218

  4. The novel combination of dual mTOR inhibitor AZD2014 and pan-PIM inhibitor AZD1208 inhibits growth in acute myeloid leukemia via HSF pathway suppression.

    PubMed

    Harada, Masako; Benito, Juliana; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Kaur, Surinder; Arslan, Dirim; Ramirez, Santiago; Jacamo, Rodrigo; Platanias, Leonidas; Matsushita, Hiromichi; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Kazuno, Saiko; Kojima, Kensuke; Tabe, Yoko; Konopleva, Marina

    2015-11-10

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is a critical pathway in the biology of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Proviral integration site for moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) serine/threonine kinase signaling takes part in various pathways exerting tumorigenic properties. We hypothesized that the combination of a PIM kinase inhibitor with an mTOR inhibitor might have complementary growth-inhibitory effects against AML. The simultaneous inhibition of the PIM kinase by pan-PIM inhibitor AZD1208 and of mTOR by selective mTORC1/2 dual inhibitor AZD2014 exerted anticancer properties in AML cell lines and in cells derived from primary AML samples with or without supportive stromal cell co-culture, leading to suppressed proliferation and increased apoptosis. The combination of AZD1208 and AZD2014 rapidly activated AMPKα, a negative regulator of translation machinery through mTORC1/2 signaling in AML cells; profoundly inhibited AKT and 4EBP1 activation; and suppressed polysome formation. Inhibition of both mTOR and PIM counteracted induction of heat-shock family proteins, uncovering the master negative regulation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), the dominant transcription factor controlling cellular stress responses. The novel combination of the dual mTOR inhibitor and pan-PIM inhibitor synergistically inhibited AML growth by effectively reducing protein synthesis through heat shock factor pathway suppression.

  5. Luteolin Suppresses Cancer Cell Proliferation by Targeting Vaccinia-Related Kinase 1

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Joon; Harikishore, Amaravadhi; Lim, Jong-Kwan; Jung, Youngseob; Lyu, Ha-Na; Baek, Nam-In; Choi, Kwan Yong; Yoon, Ho Sup; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled proliferation, a major feature of cancer cells, is often triggered by the malfunction of cell cycle regulators such as protein kinases. Recently, cell cycle-related protein kinases have become attractive targets for anti-cancer therapy, because they play fundamental roles in cellular proliferation. However, the protein kinase-targeted drugs that have been developed so far do not show impressive clinical results and also display severe side effects; therefore, there is undoubtedly a need to investigate new drugs targeting other protein kinases that are critical in cell cycle progression. Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) is a mitotic kinase that functions in cell cycle regulation by phosphorylating cell cycle-related substrates such as barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF), histone H3, and the cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB). In our study, we identified luteolin as the inhibitor of VRK1 by screening a small-molecule natural compound library. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of luteolin as a VRK1-targeted inhibitor for developing an effective anti-cancer strategy. We confirmed that luteolin significantly reduces VRK1-mediated phosphorylation of the cell cycle-related substrates BAF and histone H3, and directly interacts with the catalytic domain of VRK1. In addition, luteolin regulates cell cycle progression by modulating VRK1 activity, leading to the suppression of cancer cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis. Therefore, our study suggests that luteolin-induced VRK1 inhibition may contribute to establish a novel cell cycle-targeted strategy for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:25310002

  6. Resistance to HER2-directed antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Joan T

    2011-01-01

    The antibody trastuzumab and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib are approved by the FDA for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. These anti-HER2 drugs are changing the natural history of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. However, therapeutic resistance to trastuzumab or lapatinib, as either single-agents or in combination with chemotherapy in the metastatic setting, typically occurs within months of starting therapy. Several mechanisms of trastuzumab-resistance have been reported that include signaling from other HER receptors, signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) outside of the HER (ErbB) family, increased phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling, and the presence of truncated forms of HER2. Mechanisms of resistance to lapatinib also point to increased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling as well as derepression/activation of compensatory survival pathways. In this review, we discuss how these models and mechanisms enhance our understanding of the clinical resistance to HER2-directed therapies. PMID:21307659

  7. Clinical experience with aurora kinase inhibitors: a review.

    PubMed

    Boss, David S; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M

    2009-08-01

    The aurora kinase family of serine/threonine kinases comprises three members, designated auroras A, B, and C. Auroras A and B are essential components of the mitotic pathway, ensuring proper chromosome assembly, formation of the mitotic spindle, and cytokinesis. The role of aurora C is less clear. Overexpression of aurora A and B has been observed in several tumor types, and has been linked with a poor prognosis of cancer patients. Several small molecules targeting aurora kinases A and B or both have been evaluated preclinically and in early phase I trials. In this review we aim to summarize the most recent advances in the development of aurora kinase inhibitors, with a focus on the clinical data.

  8. Inhibitors of glycogen synthase 3 kinase

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter; Ring, David B.; Harrison, Stephen D.; Bray, Andrew M.

    2006-05-30

    Compounds of formula 1: ##STR00001## wherein R.sub.1 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaryl, or heteroaralkyl, substituted with 0 3 substituents selected from lower alkyl, halo, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, amino, lower alkyl-amino, and nitro; R.sub.2 is hydroxy, amino, or lower alkoxy; R.sub.3 is H, lower alkyl, lower acyl, lower alkoxy-acyl, or amino-acyl; R.sub.4 is H or lower alkyl; and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters thereof; are effective inhibitors of GSK3.

  9. Inhibitors of glycogen synthase 3 kinase

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter; Ring, David B.; Harrison, Stephen D.; Bray, Andrew M.

    2000-01-01

    Compounds of formula 1: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaryl, or heteroaralkyl, substituted with 0-3 substituents selected from lower alkyl, halo, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, amino, lower alkyl-amino, and nitro; R.sub.2 is hydroxy, amino, or lower alkoxy; R.sub.3 is H, lower alkyl, lower acyl, lower alkoxy-acyl, or amnino-acyl; R.sub.4 is H or lower alkyl; and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters thereof; are effective inhibitors of GSK3.

  10. Inhibitors of nucleotidyltransferase superfamily enzymes suppress herpes simplex virus replication.

    PubMed

    Tavis, John E; Wang, Hong; Tollefson, Ann E; Ying, Baoling; Korom, Maria; Cheng, Xiaohong; Cao, Feng; Davis, Katie L; Wold, William S M; Morrison, Lynda A

    2014-12-01

    Herpesviruses are large double-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious human diseases. Herpesvirus DNA replication depends on multiple processes typically catalyzed by nucleotidyltransferase superfamily (NTS) enzymes. Therefore, we investigated whether inhibitors of NTS enzymes would suppress replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. Eight of 42 NTS inhibitors suppressed HSV-1 and/or HSV-2 replication by >10-fold at 5 μM, with suppression at 50 μM reaching ∼1 million-fold. Five compounds in two chemical families inhibited HSV replication in Vero and human foreskin fibroblast cells as well as the approved drug acyclovir did. The compounds had 50% effective concentration values as low as 0.22 μM with negligible cytotoxicity in the assays employed. The inhibitors suppressed accumulation of viral genomes and infectious particles and blocked events in the viral replication cycle before and during viral DNA replication. Acyclovir-resistant mutants of HSV-1 and HSV-2 remained highly sensitive to the NTS inhibitors. Five of six NTS inhibitors of the HSVs also blocked replication of another herpesvirus pathogen, human cytomegalovirus. Therefore, NTS enzyme inhibitors are promising candidates for new herpesvirus treatments that may have broad efficacy against members of the herpesvirus family.

  11. Structure-guided discovery of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fischmann, Thierry O.; Hruza, Alan; Duca, Jose S.; Ramanathan, Lata; Mayhood, Todd; Windsor, William T.; Le, Hung V.; Guzi, Timothy J.; Dwyer, Michael P.; Paruch, Kamil; Doll, Ronald J.; Lees, Emma; Parry, David; Seghezzi, Wolfgang; Madison, Vincent

    2008-10-02

    CDK2 inhibitors containing the related bicyclic heterocycles pyrazolopyrimidines and imidazopyrazines were discovered through high-throughput screening. Crystal structures of inhibitors with these bicyclic cores and two more related ones show that all but one have a common binding mode featuring two hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) to the backbone of the kinase hinge region. Even though ab initio computations indicated that the imidazopyrazine core would bind more tightly to the hinge, pyrazolopyrimidines gain an advantage in potency through participation of N4 in an H-bond network involving two catalytic residues and bridging water molecules. Further insight into inhibitor/CDK2 interactions was gained from analysis of additional crystal structures. Significant gains in potency were obtained by optimizing the fit of hydrophobic substituents to the gatekeeper region of the ATP binding site. The most potent inhibitors have good selectivity.

  12. BRAF inhibitors suppress apoptosis through off-target inhibition of JNK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Vin, Harina; Ojeda, Sandra S; Ching, Grace; Leung, Marco L; Chitsazzadeh, Vida; Dwyer, David W; Adelmann, Charles H; Restrepo, Monica; Richards, Kristen N; Stewart, Larissa R; Du, Lili; Ferguson, Scarlett B; Chakravarti, Deepavali; Ehrenreiter, Karin; Baccarini, Manuela; Ruggieri, Rosamaria; Curry, Jonathan L; Kim, Kevin B; Ciurea, Ana M; Duvic, Madeleine; Prieto, Victor G; Ullrich, Stephen E; Dalby, Kevin N; Flores, Elsa R; Tsai, Kenneth Y

    2013-01-01

    Vemurafenib and dabrafenib selectively inhibit the v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) kinase, resulting in high response rates and increased survival in melanoma. Approximately 22% of individuals treated with vemurafenib develop cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) during therapy. The prevailing explanation for this is drug-induced paradoxical ERK activation, resulting in hyperproliferation. Here we show an unexpected and novel effect of vemurafenib/PLX4720 in suppressing apoptosis through the inhibition of multiple off-target kinases upstream of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), principally ZAK. JNK signaling is suppressed in multiple contexts, including in cSCC of vemurafenib-treated patients, as well as in mice. Expression of a mutant ZAK that cannot be inhibited reverses the suppression of JNK activation and apoptosis. Our results implicate suppression of JNK-dependent apoptosis as a significant, independent mechanism that cooperates with paradoxical ERK activation to induce cSCC, suggesting broad implications for understanding toxicities associated with BRAF inhibitors and for their use in combination therapies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00969.001 PMID:24192036

  13. LRRK2 kinase activity mediates toxic interactions between genetic mutation and oxidative stress in a Drosophila model: suppression by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dejun; Li, Tianxia; Liu, Zhaohui; Arbez, Nicolas; Yan, Jianqun; Moran, Timothy H; Ross, Christopher A; Smith, Wanli W

    2012-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of Lewy bodies. The pathogenesis of PD is believed to involve both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Mutations in Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause genetic forms of PD, and the LRRK2 locus contributes to sporadic PD. Environmental toxins are believed to act in part by causing oxidative stress. Here we employed cell and Drosophila models to investigate the interaction between LRRK2 genetic mutations and oxidative stress. We found that H(2)O(2) increased LRRK2 kinase activity and enhanced LRRK2 cell toxicity in cultured cells and mouse primary cortical neurons. Furthermore, a sub-toxic dose of H(2)O(2) significantly shortened the survival of LRRK2 transgenic flies and augmented LRRK2-induced locomotor defects and dopamine neuron loss. Treatment with a LRRK2 kinase inhibitor (GW5074) or an anti-oxidant (curcumin) significantly suppressed these PD-like phenotypes in flies. Moreover, curcumin significantly reduced LRRK2 kinase activity and the levels of oxidized proteins, and thus acted as not only an antioxidant but also a LRRK2 kinase inhibitor. These results indicate that LRRK2 genetic alterations can interact with oxidative stress, converging on a pathogenic pathway that may be related to PD. These studies also identified curcumin as a LRRK2 kinase inhibitor that may be a useful candidate for LRRK2-linked PD intervention.

  14. Activity of dual SRC-ABL inhibitors highlights the role of BCR/ABL kinase dynamics in drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Mohammad; Nardi, Valentina; Shakespeare, William C.; Metcalf, Chester A.; Bohacek, Regine S.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Sliz, Piotr; Veach, Darren R.; Bornmann, William G.; Clarkson, Bayard; Dalgarno, David C.; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Daley, George Q.

    2006-01-01

    Mutation in the ABL kinase domain is the principal mechanism of imatinib resistance in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Many mutations favor active kinase conformations that preclude imatinib binding. Because the active forms of ABL and SRC resemble one another, we tested two dual SRC-ABL kinase inhibitors, AP23464 and PD166326, against 58 imatinib-resistant (IMR) BCR/ABL kinase variants. Both compounds potently inhibit most IMR variants, and in vitro drug selection demonstrates that active (AP23464) and open (PD166326) conformation-specific compounds are less susceptible to resistance than imatinib. Combinations of inhibitors suppressed essentially all resistance mutations, with the notable exception of T315I. Guided by mutagenesis studies and molecular modeling, we designed a series of AP23464 analogues to target T315I. The analogue AP23846 inhibited both native and T315I variants of BCR/ABL with submicromolar potency but showed nonspecific cellular toxicity. Our data illustrate how conformational dynamics of the ABL kinase accounts for the activity of dual SRC-ABL inhibitors against IMR-mutants and provides a rationale for combining conformation specific inhibitors to suppress resistance. PMID:16754879

  15. SAR156497, an exquisitely selective inhibitor of aurora kinases.

    PubMed

    Carry, Jean-Christophe; Clerc, François; Minoux, Hervé; Schio, Laurent; Mauger, Jacques; Nair, Anil; Parmantier, Eric; Le Moigne, Ronan; Delorme, Cécile; Nicolas, Jean-Paul; Krick, Alain; Abécassis, Pierre-Yves; Crocq-Stuerga, Véronique; Pouzieux, Stéphanie; Delarbre, Laure; Maignan, Sébastien; Bertrand, Thomas; Bjergarde, Kirsten; Ma, Nina; Lachaud, Sylvette; Guizani, Houlfa; Lebel, Rémi; Doerflinger, Gilles; Monget, Sylvie; Perron, Sébastien; Gasse, Francis; Angouillant-Boniface, Odile; Filoche-Rommé, Bruno; Murer, Michel; Gontier, Sylvie; Prévost, Céline; Monteiro, Marie-Line; Combeau, Cécile

    2015-01-08

    The Aurora family of serine/threonine kinases is essential for mitosis. Their crucial role in cell cycle regulation and aberrant expression in a broad range of malignancies have been demonstrated and have prompted intensive search for small molecule Aurora inhibitors. Indeed, over 10 of them have reached the clinic as potential anticancer therapies. We report herein the discovery and optimization of a novel series of tricyclic molecules that has led to SAR156497, an exquisitely selective Aurora A, B, and C inhibitor with in vitro and in vivo efficacy. We also provide insights into its mode of binding to its target proteins, which could explain its selectivity.

  16. Practical synthesis of a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Achmatowicz, Michał; Thiel, Oliver R; Wheeler, Philip; Bernard, Charles; Huang, Jinkun; Larsen, Robert D; Faul, Margaret M

    2009-01-16

    p38 MAP kinase inhibitors have attracted considerable interest as potential agents for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Herein, we describe a concise and efficient synthesis of inhibitor 1 that is based on a phthalazine scaffold. Highlights of our approach include a practical synthesis of a 1,6-disubstituted phthalazine building block 24 as well as the one-pot formation of boronic acid 27. Significant synthetic work to understand the reactivity principles of the intermediates helped in selection of the final synthetic route. Subsequent optimization of the individual steps of the final sequence led to a practical synthesis of 1.

  17. Effects of selective inhibitors of Aurora kinases on anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Baldini, Enke; Tuccilli, Chiara; Prinzi, Natalie; Sorrenti, Salvatore; Antonelli, Alessandro; Gnessi, Lucio; Morrone, Stefania; Moretti, Costanzo; Bononi, Marco; Arlot-Bonnemains, Yannick; D'Armiento, Massimino; Ulisse, Salvatore

    2014-10-01

    Aurora kinases are serine/threonine kinases that play an essential role in cell division. Their aberrant expression and/or function induce severe mitotic abnormalities, resulting in either cell death or aneuploidy. Overexpression of Aurora kinases is often found in several malignancies, among which is anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). We have previously demonstrated the in vitro efficacy of Aurora kinase inhibitors in restraining cell growth and survival of different ATC cell lines. In this study, we sought to establish which Aurora might represent the preferential drug target for ATC. To this end, the effects of two selective inhibitors of Aurora-A (MLN8237) and Aurora-B (AZD1152) on four human ATC cell lines (CAL-62, BHT-101, 8305C, and 8505C) were analysed. Both inhibitors reduced cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with IC50 ranges of 44.3-134.2 nM for MLN8237 and of 9.2-461.3 nM for AZD1152. Immunofluorescence experiments and time-lapse videomicroscopy yielded evidence that each inhibitor induced distinct mitotic phenotypes, but both of them prevented the completion of cytokinesis. As a result, poliploidy increased in all AZD1152-treated cells, and in two out of four cell lines treated with MLN8237. Apoptosis was induced in all the cells by MLN8237, and in BHT-101, 8305C, and 8505C by AZD1152, while CAL-62 exposed to AZD1152 died through necrosis after multiple rounds of endoreplication. Both inhibitors were capable of blocking anchorage-independent cell growth. In conclusion, we demonstrated that either Aurora-A or Aurora-B might represent therapeutic targets for the ATC treatment, but inhibition of Aurora-A appears more effective for suppressing ATC cell proliferation and for inducing the apoptotic pathway.

  18. The STAT5 inhibitor pimozide decreases survival of chronic myelogenous leukemia cells resistant to kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Erik A.; Walker, Sarah R.; Weisberg, Ellen; Bar-Natan, Michal; Barrett, Rosemary; Gashin, Laurie B.; Terrell, Shariya; Klitgaard, Josephine L.; Santo, Loredana; Addorio, Martha R.; Ebert, Benjamin L.; Griffin, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The transcription factor STAT5 is an essential mediator of the pathogenesis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). In CML, the BCR/ABL fusion kinase causes the constitutive activation of STAT5, thereby driving the expression of genes promoting survival. BCR/ABL kinase inhibitors have become the mainstay of therapy for CML, although CML cells can develop resistance through mutations in BCR/ABL. To overcome this problem, we used a cell-based screen to identify drugs that inhibit STAT-dependent gene expression. Using this approach, we identified the psychotropic drug pimozide as a STAT5 inhibitor. Pimozide decreases STAT5 tyrosine phosphorylation, although it does not inhibit BCR/ABL or other tyrosine kinases. Furthermore, pimozide decreases the expression of STAT5 target genes and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CML cell lines. Pimozide also selectively inhibits colony formation of CD34+ bone marrow cells from CML patients. Importantly, pimozide induces similar effects in the presence of the T315I BCR/ABL mutation that renders the kinase resistant to presently available inhibitors. Simultaneously inhibiting STAT5 with pimozide and the kinase inhibitors imatinib or nilotinib shows enhanced effects in inhibiting STAT5 phosphorylation and in inducing apoptosis. Thus, targeting STAT5 may be an effective strategy for the treatment of CML and other myeloproliferative diseases. PMID:21233313

  19. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors as cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are lipid kinases that regulate diverse cellular processes including proliferation, adhesion, survival, and motility. Dysregulated PI3K pathway signaling occurs in one-third of human tumors. Aberrantly activated PI3K signaling also confers sensitivity and resistance to conventional therapies. PI3K has been recognized as an attractive molecular target for novel anti-cancer molecules. In the last few years, several classes of potent and selective small molecule PI3K inhibitors have been developed, and at least fifteen compounds have progressed into clinical trials as new anticancer drugs. Among these, idelalisib has advanced to phase III trials in patients with advanced indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma. In this review, we summarized the major molecules of PI3K signaling pathway, and discussed the preclinical models and clinical trials of potent small-molecule PI3K inhibitors. PMID:24261963

  20. Targeting Angiogenesis in Colorectal Cancer: Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kircher, Sheetal Mehta; Nimeiri, Halla S; Benson, Al B

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is commonly diagnosed throughout the world, and treatment options have greatly expanded over the last 2 decades. Targeting angiogenesis has been a major focus of study in a variety of malignancy types. Targeting angiogenesis has been achieved by several mechanisms in colorectal cancer, including use of antiangiogenic small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). There have been many attempts and failures to prove efficacy of TKIs in the treatment of colorectal cancer including sorafenib, sunitinib, vatalanib, and tivozanib. Regorafenib was the first TKI to demonstrate efficacy and is an orally active inhibitor of angiogenic (including the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3), stromal, and oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases. There are ongoing investigations of both regorafenib and ninetanib; however, there remains a critical need to better understand novel combinations with TKIs that could prove more efficacious than available options.

  1. Endocrine side effects of broad-acting kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-09-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology consists of drugs that specifically interfere with abnormal signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) take advantage of unique oncogenes that are activated in certain types of cancer, and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, many kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are somewhat nonselective, and most have additional mechanisms of action at the cellular level, which are not completely understood. The use of these agents has increased our knowledge of important side effects, of which the practicing clinician must be aware. Recently, proposed endocrine-related side effects of these agents include alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, and glucose metabolism, and adrenal function. This review summarizes the most recent data on the endocrine side effects of TKIs.

  2. Testing the promiscuity of commercial kinase inhibitors against the AGC kinase group using a split-luciferase screen.

    PubMed

    Jester, Benjamin W; Gaj, Alicia; Shomin, Carolyn D; Cox, Kurt J; Ghosh, Indraneel

    2012-02-23

    Using a newly developed competitive binding assay dependent upon the reassembly of a split reporter protein, we have tested the promiscuity of a panel of reported kinase inhibitors against the AGC group. Many non-AGC targeted kinase inhibitors target multiple members of the AGC group. In general, structurally similar inhibitors consistently exhibited activity toward the same target as well as toward closely related kinases. The inhibition data was analyzed to test the predictive value of either using identity scores derived from residues within 6 Å of the active site or identity scores derived from the entire kinase domain. The results suggest that the active site identity in certain cases may be a stronger predictor of inhibitor promiscuity. The overall results provide general guidelines for establishing inhibitor selectivity as well as for the future design of inhibitors that either target or avoid AGC kinases.

  3. FMS Kinase Inhibitors: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    El-Gamal, Mohammed I; Anbar, Hanan S; Yoo, Kyung Ho; Oh, Chang-Hyun

    2013-05-01

    FMS, first discovered as the oncogene responsible for Feline McDonough Sarcoma, is a type III receptor tyrosine kinase that binds to the macrophage or monocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF or CSF-1). Signal transduction through that binding results in survival, proliferation, and differentiation of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Overexpression of CSF-1 and/or FMS has been implicated in a number of disease states such as the growth of metastasis of certain types of cancer, in promoting osteoclast proliferation in bone osteolysis, and many inflammatory disorders. Inhibition of CSF-1 and/or FMS may help treat these pathological conditions. This article reviews FMS gene, FMS kinase, CSF-1, IL-34, and their roles in bone osteolysis, cancer biology, and inflammation. Monoclonal antibodies, FMS crystal structure, and small molecule FMS kinase inhibitors of different chemical scaffolds are also reviewed.

  4. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Diabetes: A Novel Treatment Paradigm?

    PubMed

    Fountas, Athanasios; Diamantopoulos, Leonidas-Nikolaos; Tsatsoulis, Agathocles

    2015-11-01

    Deregulation of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity is implicated in various proliferative conditions. Multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are increasingly used for the treatment of different malignancies. Recently, several clinical cases of the reversal of both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, T2DM) during TKI administration have been reported. Experimental in vivo and in vitro studies have elucidated some of the mechanisms behind this effect. For example, inhibition of Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) results in β cell survival and enhanced insulin secretion, while platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition leads to improvement in insulin sensitivity. In addition, inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) reduces the degree of islet cell inflammation (insulitis). Therefore, targeting several PTKs may provide a novel approach for correcting the pathophysiologic disturbances of diabetes.

  5. Discovery of indazoles as inhibitors of Tpl2 kinase.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yonghan; Cole, Derek; Denny, Rajiah Aldrin; Anderson, David R; Ipek, Manus; Ni, Yike; Wang, Xiaolun; Thaisrivongs, Suvit; Chamberlain, Timothy; Hall, J Perry; Liu, Julie; Luong, Michael; Lin, Lih-Ling; Telliez, Jean-Baptiste; Gopalsamy, Ariamala

    2011-08-15

    Synthesis, modeling and structure-activity relationship of indazoles as inhibitors of Tpl2 kinase are described. From a high throughput screening effort, we identified an indazole hit compound 5 that has a single digit micromolar Tpl2 activity. Through SAR modifications at the C3 and C5 positions of the indazole, we discovered compound 31 with good potency in LANCE assay and cell-based p-Erk assay.

  6. Inactivation of ABL kinases suppresses non–small cell lung cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jing Jin; Rouse, Clay; Wang, Jun; Onaitis, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Current therapies to treat non–small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) have proven ineffective owing to transient, variable, and incomplete responses. Here we show that ABL kinases, ABL1 and ABL2, promote metastasis of lung cancer cells harboring EGFR or KRAS mutations. Inactivation of ABL kinases suppresses NSCLC metastasis to brain and bone, and other organs. ABL kinases are required for expression of prometastasis genes. Notably, ABL1 and ABL2 depletion impairs extravasation of lung adenocarcinoma cells into the lung parenchyma. We found that ABL-mediated activation of the TAZ and β-catenin transcriptional coactivators is required for NSCLC metastasis. ABL kinases activate TAZ and β-catenin by decreasing their interaction with the β-TrCP ubiquitin ligase, leading to increased protein stability. High-level expression of ABL1, ABL2, and a subset of ABL-dependent TAZ- and β-catenin–target genes correlates with shortened survival of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Thus, ABL-specific allosteric inhibitors might be effective to treat metastatic lung cancer with an activated ABL pathway signature. PMID:28018973

  7. Daurinol Enhances the Efficacy of Radiotherapy in Lung Cancer via Suppression of Aurora Kinase A/B Expression.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jong Kyu; Kang, Ju-Hee; Shin, DongYun; Park, Seong-Hyeok; Kang, Kyungsu; Nho, Chu Won; Seong, Je Kyung; Lee, Sang-Jin; Oh, Seung Hyun

    2015-07-01

    The aurora kinases constitute one family of serine/threonine kinases whose activity is essential for mitotic progression. The aurora kinases are frequently upregulated in human cancers and are associated with sensitivity to chemotherapy in certain ones. In the present study, we investigated whether aurora kinases could be a target to overcome radioresistance or enhance the radiosensitivity of lung cancer. For that purpose, we determined the therapeutic potential of daurinol, an investigational topoisomerase inhibitor, alone and in combination with radiation, by observing its effect on aurora kinases. Daurinol decreased cell viability and proliferation in human colon and lung cancer cells. Gene expression in daurinol-treated human colon cancer cells was evaluated using RNA microarray. The mRNA expression of 18 genes involved in the mitotic spindle check point, including aurora kinase A (AURKA) and aurora kinase B (AURKB), was decreased in daurinol-treated human colon cancer cells as compared with vehicle-treated cells. As expected, radiation increased expression levels of AURKA and AURKB. This increase was effectively attenuated by siRNAs against AURKA and AURKB, which suppressed cell growth and increased apoptosis under radiation. Furthermore, the expression of AURKA and AURKB was suppressed by daurinol in the presence or absence of radiation in colon and lung cancer cells. Daurinol alone or in combination with radiation decreased lung cancer growth in xenograft mouse models. Our data clearly confirm the antitumor and radiosensitizing activity of daurinol in human lung cancer cells through the inhibition of AURKA and AURKB.

  8. Small molecule kinase inhibitor LRRK2-IN-1 demonstrates potent activity against colorectal and pancreatic cancer through inhibition of doublecortin-like kinase 1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) is emerging as a tumor specific stem cell marker in colorectal and pancreatic cancer. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of inhibiting DCLK1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) as well as genetically targeting the DCLK1+ cell for deletion. However, the effects of inhibiting DCLK1 kinase activity have not been studied directly. Therefore, we assessed the effects of inhibiting DCLK1 kinase activity using the novel small molecule kinase inhibitor, LRRK2-IN-1, which demonstrates significant affinity for DCLK1. Results Here we report that LRRK2-IN-1 demonstrates potent anti-cancer activity including inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion as well as induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Additionally we found that it regulates stemness, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and oncogenic targets on the molecular level. Moreover, we show that LRRK2-IN-1 suppresses DCLK1 kinase activity and downstream DCLK1 effector c-MYC, and demonstrate that DCLK1 kinase activity is a significant factor in resistance to LRRK2-IN-1. Conclusions Given DCLK1’s tumor stem cell marker status, a strong understanding of its biological role and interactions in gastrointestinal tumors may lead to discoveries that improve patient outcomes. The results of this study suggest that small molecule inhibitors of DCLK1 kinase should be further investigated as they may hold promise as anti-tumor stem cell drugs. PMID:24885928

  9. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Burger, Jan A

    2014-03-01

    BTK is a cytoplasmic, non-receptor tyrosine kinase that transmits signals from a variety of cell-surface molecules, including the B-cell receptor (BCR) and tissue homing receptors. Genetic BTK deletion causes B-cell immunodeficiency in humans and mice, making this kinase an attractive therapeutic target for B-cell disorders. The BTK inhibitor ibrutinib (PCI-32765, brand name: Imbruvica) demonstrated high clinical activity in B-cell malignancies, especially in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM). Therefore, ibrutinib was granted a 'breakthrough therapy' designation for these indications and was recently approved for the treatment of relapsed MCL by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Other BTK inhibitors in earlier clinical development include CC-292 (AVL-292), and ONO-4059. In CLL and MCL, ibrutinib characteristically induces redistribution of malignant B cells from tissue sites into the peripheral blood, along with rapid resolution of enlarged lymph nodes and a surge in lymphocytosis. With continuous ibrutinib therapy, growth- and survival-inhibitory activities of ibrutinib result in the normalization of lymphocyte counts and remissions in a majority of patients. This review discusses the clinical advances with BTK inhibitor therapy, as well as its pathophysiological basis, and outlines perspectives for future use of BTK inhibitors.

  10. A Fluorescence-Based Thermal Shift Assay Identifies Inhibitors of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 4

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Sankar N.; Luan, Chi-Hao; Mishra, Rama K.; Xu, Li; Scheidt, Karl A.; Anderson, Wayne F.; Bergan, Raymond C.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second highest cause of cancer death in United States males. If the metastatic movement of PCa cells could be inhibited, then mortality from PCa could be greatly reduced. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4) has previously been shown to activate pro-invasion signaling pathways in human PCa. Recognizing that MAP2K4 represents a novel and validated therapeutic target, we sought to develop and characterize an efficient process for the identification of small molecules that target MAP2K4. Using a fluorescence-based thermal shift assay (FTS) assay, we first evaluated an 80 compound library of known kinase inhibitors, thereby identifying 8 hits that thermally stabilized MAP2K4 in a concentration dependent manner. We then developed an in vitro MAP2K4 kinase assay employing the biologically relevant downstream substrates, JNK1 and p38 MAPK, to evaluate kinase inhibitory function. In this manner, we validated the performance of our initial FTS screen. We next applied this approach to a 2000 compound chemically diverse library, identified 7 hits, and confirmed them in the in vitro kinase assay. Finally, by coupling our structure-activity relationship data to MAP2K4's crystal structure, we constructed a model for ligand binding. It predicts binding of our identified inhibitory compounds to the ATP binding pocket. Herein we report the creation of a robust inhibitor-screening platform with the ability to inform the discovery and design of new and potent MAP2K4 inhibitors. PMID:24339940

  11. Pharmacological cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors: Implications for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Archana; Vyas, Arpita; Deshpande, Kaivalya; Vyas, Dinesh

    2016-02-21

    Colorectal cancer accounts for a significant proportion of cancer deaths worldwide. The need to develop more chemotherapeutic agents to combat this disease is critical. Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), along with its binding partner cyclins, serve to control the growth of cells through the cell cycle. A new class of drugs, termed CDK inhibitors, has been studied in preclinical and now clinical trials. These inhibitors are believed to act as an anti-cancer drug by blocking CDKs to block the uncontrolled cellular proliferation that is hallmark of cancers like colorectal cancer. CDK article provides overview of the emerging drug class of CDK inhibitors and provides a list of ones that are currently in clinical trials.

  12. A Cell Biologist's Field Guide to Aurora Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Christian O; Hsia, Judy E; Anzola, John V; Motamedi, Amir; Yoon, Michelle; Wong, Yao Liang; Jenkins, David; Lee, Hyun J; Martinez, Mallory B; Davis, Robert L; Gahman, Timothy C; Desai, Arshad; Shiau, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    Aurora kinases are essential for cell division and are frequently misregulated in human cancers. Based on their potential as cancer therapeutics, a plethora of small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors have been developed, with a subset having been adopted as tools in cell biology. Here, we fill a gap in the characterization of Aurora kinase inhibitors by using biochemical and cell-based assays to systematically profile a panel of 10 commercially available compounds with reported selectivity for Aurora A (MLN8054, MLN8237, MK-5108, MK-8745, Genentech Aurora Inhibitor 1), Aurora B (Hesperadin, ZM447439, AZD1152-HQPA, GSK1070916), or Aurora A/B (VX-680). We quantify the in vitro effect of each inhibitor on the activity of Aurora A alone, as well as Aurora A and Aurora B bound to fragments of their activators, TPX2 and INCENP, respectively. We also report kinome profiling results for a subset of these compounds to highlight potential off-target effects. In a cellular context, we demonstrate that immunofluorescence-based detection of LATS2 and histone H3 phospho-epitopes provides a facile and reliable means to assess potency and specificity of Aurora A versus Aurora B inhibition, and that G2 duration measured in a live imaging assay is a specific readout of Aurora A activity. Our analysis also highlights variation between HeLa, U2OS, and hTERT-RPE1 cells that impacts selective Aurora A inhibition. For Aurora B, all four tested compounds exhibit excellent selectivity and do not significantly inhibit Aurora A at effective doses. For Aurora A, MK-5108 and MK-8745 are significantly more selective than the commonly used inhibitors MLN8054 and MLN8237. A crystal structure of an Aurora A/MK-5108 complex that we determined suggests the chemical basis for this higher specificity. Taken together, our quantitative biochemical and cell-based analyses indicate that AZD1152-HQPA and MK-8745 are the best current tools for selectively inhibiting Aurora B and Aurora A, respectively

  13. PP2A Inhibitor PME-1 Drives Kinase Inhibitor Resistance in Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Denisova, Oxana V; Qiao, Xi; Jumppanen, Mikael; Peuhu, Emilia; Ahmed, Shafiq U; Raheem, Olayinka; Haapasalo, Hannu; Eriksson, John; Chalmers, Anthony J; Laakkonen, Pirjo; Westermarck, Jukka

    2016-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme lacks effective therapy options. Although deregulated kinase pathways are drivers of malignant progression in glioblastoma multiforme, glioma cells exhibit intrinsic resistance toward many kinase inhibitors, and the molecular basis of this resistance remains poorly understood. Here, we show that overexpression of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibitor protein PME-1 drives resistance of glioma cells to various multikinase inhibitors. The PME-1-elicited resistance was dependent on specific PP2A complexes and was mediated by a decrease in cytoplasmic HDAC4 activity. Importantly, both PME-1 and HDAC4 associated with human glioma progression, supporting clinical relevance of the identified mechanism. Synthetic lethality induced by both PME-1 and HDAC4 inhibition was dependent on the coexpression of proapoptotic protein BAD. Thus, PME-1-mediated PP2A inhibition is a novel mechanistic explanation for multikinase inhibitor resistance in glioma cells. Clinically, these results may inform patient stratification strategies for future clinical trials with selected kinase inhibitors in glioblastoma multiforme. Cancer Res; 76(23); 7001-11. ©2016 AACR.

  14. (R)-roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, enhances tonic GABA inhibition in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A; Tyzio, R; Zilberter, Y; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel

    2008-10-02

    Pharmacological agents that mediate a persistent GABAergic conductance are of considerable interest for treatment of epilepsy. (R)-roscovitine is a membrane permeable cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, designed to block cell division. It is currently undergoing a phase II clinical trial as an anticancer drug. We show that (R)-roscovitine increases a tonic GABA-mediated current in rat hippocampal neurons. This enhanced tonic current appears independent of synaptic GABA release and requires functional transmembrane GABA transport. The effect of (R)-roscovitine is associated with neither modification of GABAA receptors nor protein kinase activity, but is associated with a significant increase in intracellular GABA concentration in hippocampal GABAergic neurons. (R)-roscovitine-induced tonic inhibition significantly suppresses spontaneous spiking activity of hippocampal pyramidal cells. Therefore, (R)-roscovitine is a potent modulator of neuronal activity in rat hippocampus and may provide a tool for preventing paroxysmal activity.

  15. Evaluation of a tyrosine kinase peptide microarray for tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy selection in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Labots, Mariette; Gotink, Kristy J; Dekker, Henk; Azijli, Kaamar; van der Mijn, Johannes C; Huijts, Charlotte M; Piersma, Sander R; Jiménez, Connie R; Verheul, Henk M W

    2016-01-01

    Personalized cancer medicine aims to accurately predict the response of individual patients to targeted therapies, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Clinical implementation of this concept requires a robust selection tool. Here, using both cancer cell lines and tumor tissue from patients, we evaluated a high-throughput tyrosine kinase peptide substrate array to determine its readiness as a selection tool for TKI therapy. We found linearly increasing phosphorylation signal intensities of peptides representing kinase activity along the kinetic curve of the assay with 7.5–10 μg of lysate protein and up to 400 μM adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Basal kinase activity profiles were reproducible with intra- and inter-experiment coefficients of variation of <15% and <20%, respectively. Evaluation of 14 tumor cell lines and tissues showed similar consistently high phosphorylated peptides in their basal profiles. Incubation of four patient-derived tumor lysates with the TKIs dasatinib, sunitinib, sorafenib and erlotinib primarily caused inhibition of substrates that were highly phosphorylated in the basal profile analyses. Using recombinant Src and Axl kinase, relative substrate specificity was demonstrated for a subset of peptides, as their phosphorylation was reverted by co-incubation with a specific inhibitor. In conclusion, we demonstrated robust technical specifications of this high-throughput tyrosine kinase peptide microarray. These features required as little as 5–7 μg of protein per sample, facilitating clinical implementation as a TKI selection tool. However, currently available peptide substrates can benefit from an enhancement of the differential potential for complex samples such as tumor lysates. We propose that mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics may provide such an enhancement by identifying more discriminative peptides. PMID:27980342

  16. A Chrysin Derivative Suppresses Skin Cancer Growth by Inhibiting Cyclin-dependent Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haidan; Liu, Kangdong; Huang, Zunnan; Park, Chan-Mi; Thimmegowda, N. R.; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ryoo, In-Ja; He, Long; Kim, Sun-Ok; Oi, Naomi; Lee, Ki Won; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Bode, Ann M.; Yang, Yifeng; Zhou, Xinmin; Erikson, Raymond L.; Ahn, Jong-Seog; Hwang, Joonsung; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Dong, Zigang; Kim, Bo-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid widely distributed in plants, reportedly has chemopreventive properties against various cancers. However, the anticancer activity of chrysin observed in in vivo studies has been disappointing. Here, we report that a chrysin derivative, referred to as compound 69407, more strongly inhibited EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P+ cells compared with chrysin. It attenuated cell cycle progression of EGF-stimulated cells at the G1 phase and inhibited the G1/S transition. It caused loss of retinoblastoma phosphorylation at both Ser-795 and Ser-807/811, the preferred sites phosphorylated by Cdk4/6 and Cdk2, respectively. It also suppressed anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Compound 69407 reduced tumor growth in the A431 mouse xenograft model and retinoblastoma phosphorylation at Ser-795 and Ser-807/811. Immunoprecipitation kinase assay results showed that compound 69407 attenuated endogenous Cdk4 and Cdk2 kinase activities in EGF-stimulated JB6 P+ cells. Pulldown and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that compound 69407 directly binds with Cdk2 and Cdk4 in an ATP-independent manner and inhibited their kinase activities. A binding model between compound 69407 and a crystal structure of Cdk2 predicted that compound 69407 was located inside the Cdk2 allosteric binding site. The binding was further verified by a point mutation binding assay. Overall results indicated that compound 69407 is an ATP-noncompetitive cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor with anti-tumor effects, which acts by binding inside the Cdk2 allosteric pocket. This study provides new insights for creating a general pharmacophore model to design and develop novel ATP-noncompetitive agents with chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic potency. PMID:23888052

  17. A chrysin derivative suppresses skin cancer growth by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haidan; Liu, Kangdong; Huang, Zunnan; Park, Chan-Mi; Thimmegowda, N R; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ryoo, In-Ja; He, Long; Kim, Sun-Ok; Oi, Naomi; Lee, Ki Won; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Bode, Ann M; Yang, Yifeng; Zhou, Xinmin; Erikson, Raymond L; Ahn, Jong-Seog; Hwang, Joonsung; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Dong, Zigang; Kim, Bo-Yeon

    2013-09-06

    Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid widely distributed in plants, reportedly has chemopreventive properties against various cancers. However, the anticancer activity of chrysin observed in in vivo studies has been disappointing. Here, we report that a chrysin derivative, referred to as compound 69407, more strongly inhibited EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P(+) cells compared with chrysin. It attenuated cell cycle progression of EGF-stimulated cells at the G1 phase and inhibited the G1/S transition. It caused loss of retinoblastoma phosphorylation at both Ser-795 and Ser-807/811, the preferred sites phosphorylated by Cdk4/6 and Cdk2, respectively. It also suppressed anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Compound 69407 reduced tumor growth in the A431 mouse xenograft model and retinoblastoma phosphorylation at Ser-795 and Ser-807/811. Immunoprecipitation kinase assay results showed that compound 69407 attenuated endogenous Cdk4 and Cdk2 kinase activities in EGF-stimulated JB6 P(+) cells. Pulldown and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that compound 69407 directly binds with Cdk2 and Cdk4 in an ATP-independent manner and inhibited their kinase activities. A binding model between compound 69407 and a crystal structure of Cdk2 predicted that compound 69407 was located inside the Cdk2 allosteric binding site. The binding was further verified by a point mutation binding assay. Overall results indicated that compound 69407 is an ATP-noncompetitive cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor with anti-tumor effects, which acts by binding inside the Cdk2 allosteric pocket. This study provides new insights for creating a general pharmacophore model to design and develop novel ATP-noncompetitive agents with chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic potency.

  18. Photoactivatable Caged Prodrugs of VEGFR-2 Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, Boris; Horbert, Rebecca; Döbber, Alexander; Kuhl, Lydia; Peifer, Christian

    2016-04-29

    In this study, we report on the design, synthesis, photokinetic properties and in vitro evaluation of photoactivatable caged prodrugs for the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR-2. Highly potent VEGFR-2 inhibitors 1 and 3 were caged by introduction of a photoremovable protecting group (PPG) to yield the caged prodrugs 4 and 5. As expected, enzymatic and cellular proliferation assays showed dramatically diminished efficacy of caged prodrugs in vitro. Upon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of the prodrugs original inhibitory activity was completely restored and even distinctly reinforced, as was the case for the prodrug 4. The presented results are a further evidence for caging technique being an interesting approach in the protein kinase field. It could enable spatial and temporal control for the inhibition of VEGFR-2. The described photoactivatable prodrugs might be highly useful as biological probes for studying the VEGFR-2 signal transduction.

  19. Assay for isolation of inhibitors of her2-kinase expression.

    PubMed

    Chiosis, Gabriela; Keeton, Adam B

    2009-01-01

    Her2 (ErbB2) protein is overexpressed in breast and other solid tumors, and its expression is associated with progressive disease. Current therapies directed toward Her2 either block dimerization of the receptor or inhibit tyrosine kinase activity to disrupt intracellular signaling. However, little is known about alternative mechanisms for suppressing Her2 expression, possibly by inducing degradation or blocking synthesis. Here, we describe a hybrid western-blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) designed to identify in low- to medium-throughput format noncytotoxic compounds that reduce expression of Her2 protein.

  20. Compound Selectivity and Target Residence Time of Kinase Inhibitors Studied with Surface Plasmon Resonance.

    PubMed

    Willemsen-Seegers, Nicole; Uitdehaag, Joost C M; Prinsen, Martine B W; de Vetter, Judith R F; de Man, Jos; Sawa, Masaaki; Kawase, Yusuke; Buijsman, Rogier C; Zaman, Guido J R

    2017-02-17

    Target residence time (τ) has been suggested to be a better predictor of the biological activity of kinase inhibitors than inhibitory potency (IC50) in enzyme assays. Surface plasmon resonance binding assays for 46 human protein and lipid kinases were developed. The association and dissociation constants of 80 kinase inhibitor interactions were determined. τ and equilibrium affinity constants (KD) were calculated to determine kinetic selectivity. Comparison of τ and KD or IC50 values revealed a strikingly different view on the selectivity of several kinase inhibitors, including the multi-kinase inhibitor ponatinib, which was tested on 10 different kinases. In addition, known pan-Aurora inhibitors resided much longer on Aurora B than on Aurora A, despite having comparable affinity for Aurora A and B. Furthermore, the γ/δ-selective PI3K inhibitor duvelisib and the δ-selective drug idelalisib had similar 20-fold selectivity for δ- over γ-isoform but duvelisib resided much longer on both targets.

  1. Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 Inhibitors for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Yogesh A; Taylor, Margaret A; Napoleon, John Victor; Rana, Sandeep; Contreras, Jacob I; Natarajan, Amarnath

    2016-10-13

    Cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors have been the topic of intense research for nearly 2 decades due to their widely varied and critical functions within the cell. Recently CDK9 has emerged as a druggable target for the development of cancer therapeutics. CDK9 plays a crucial role in transcription regulation; specifically, CDK9 mediated transcriptional regulation of short-lived antiapoptotic proteins is critical for the survival of transformed cells. Focused chemical libraries based on a plethora of scaffolds have resulted in mixed success with regard to the development of selective CDK9 inhibitors. Here we review the regulation of CDK9, its cellular functions, and common core structures used to target CDK9, along with their selectivity profile and efficacy in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Regulate OPG through Inhibition of PDGFRβ

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Mei Lin; Lin, Jian-Ming; Bava, Usha; Callon, Karen; Cornish, Jillian; Naot, Dorit; Grey, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Nilotinib and imatinib are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). In vitro, imatinib and nilotinib inhibit osteoclastogenesis, and in patients they reduce levels of bone resorption. One of the mechanisms that might underlie these effects is an increase in the production of osteoprotegerin (OPG). In the current work we report that platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) signaling regulates OPG production in vitro. In addition, we have shown that TKIs have effects on RANKL signaling through inhibition of the PDGFRβ and other target receptors. These findings have implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which TKIs affect osteoclastogenesis, and the role of PDGFRβ signaling in regulating osteoclastogenesis. Further studies are indicated to confirm the clinical effects of PDGFRβ-inhibitors and to elaborate the intracellular pathways that underpin these effects. PMID:27737004

  3. Development of highly potent and selective diaminothiazole inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases

    PubMed Central

    Schonbrunn, Ernst; Betzi, Stephane; Alam, Riazul; Martin, Mathew P.; Becker, Andreas; Han, Huijong; Francis, Rawle; Chakrasali, Ramappa; Jakkaraj, Sudhakar; Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Sebti, Said M.; Cubitt, Christopher L.; Gebhard, Anthony W.; Hazlehurst, Lori A.; Tash, Joseph S.; Georg, Gunda I.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are serine/threonine protein kinases that act as key regulatory elements in cell cycle progression. We describe the development of highly potent diaminothiazole inhibitors of CDK2 (IC50 = 0.0009 – 0.0015 µM) from a single hit compound with weak inhibitory activity (IC50 = 15 µM), discovered by high-throughput screening. Structure-based design was performed using 35 co-crystal structures of CDK2 liganded with distinct analogues of the parent compound. The profiling of compound 51 against a panel of 339 kinases revealed high selectivity for CDKs, with preference for CDK2 and CDK5 over CDK9, CDK1, CDK4 and CDK6. Compound 51 inhibited the proliferation of 13 out of 15 cancer cell lines with IC50 values between 0.27 and 6.9 µM, which correlated with the complete suppression of retinoblastoma phosphorylation and the onset of apoptosis. Combined, the results demonstrate the potential of this new inhibitors series for further development into CDK-specific chemical probes or therapeutics. PMID:23600925

  4. Ret function in muscle stem cells points to tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Moyle, Louise A; Blanc, Eric; Jaka, Oihane; Prueller, Johanna; Banerji, Christopher RS; Tedesco, Francesco Saverio; Harridge, Stephen DR; Knight, Robert D; Zammit, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) involves sporadic expression of DUX4, which inhibits myogenesis and is pro-apoptotic. To identify target genes, we over-expressed DUX4 in myoblasts and found that the receptor tyrosine kinase Ret was significantly up-regulated, suggesting a role in FSHD. RET is dynamically expressed during myogenic progression in mouse and human myoblasts. Constitutive expression of either RET9 or RET51 increased myoblast proliferation, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of Ret induced myogenic differentiation. Suppressing RET activity using Sunitinib, a clinically-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor, rescued differentiation in both DUX4-expressing murine myoblasts and in FSHD patient-derived myoblasts. Importantly, Sunitinib also increased engraftment and differentiation of FSHD myoblasts in regenerating mouse muscle. Thus, DUX4-mediated activation of Ret prevents myogenic differentiation and could contribute to FSHD pathology by preventing satellite cell-mediated repair. Rescue of DUX4-induced pathology by Sunitinib highlights the therapeutic potential of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for treatment of FSHD. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11405.001 PMID:27841748

  5. Inhibition of formation of filopodia after axotomy by inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D J; Wu, D Y

    1995-08-01

    The activity of motile protrusions of the growth cone--filopodia, veils, and lamellipodia--is essential for directed growth of a neuronal process. The regulation of the formation of these protrusions is not well understood. Numerous filopodia and veils or lamellipodia form within minutes of transection of an Aplysia axon in culture, as the initial components of growth cones of regenerating neurites. Axotomy, therefore, provides a robust and reliable protocol for analyzing the formation of these protrusions. We evaluated the involvement of protein phosphorylation in the regulation of protrusive activity. Of the inhibitors of protein kinases assayed, only the inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinases--genistein, lavendustin A, herbimycin A, and erbstatin analogue--suppressed the formation of protrusions, as assessed by high magnification video microscopy. These drugs did not work by preventing resealing of the axon, as evident from visual inspection and by the unimpaired effectiveness of genistein or lavendustin in preventing formation of filopodia when applied after resealing. Inhibition of protein tyrosine kinases not only prevented the formation of actin-based protrusions, but also caused deterioration of the actin network underlying the protrusive area of preexisting growth cones. Consistent with an involvement of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the generation of protrusive structures, immunocytochemistry revealed that aggregates of phosphotyrosine appeared at the margins of the axon, from which protrusions emerge shortly after axotomy. These results suggest a role for protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the formation and maintenance of actin-based protrusive structures.

  6. SD0006: A Potent, Selective and Orally Available Inhibitor of p38 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Burnette, Barry L.; Selness, Shaun; Devraj, Raj; Jungbluth, Gail; Kurumbail, Ravi; Stillwell, Loreen; Anderson, Gary; Mnich, Stephen; Hirsch, Jeffrey; Compton, Robert; De Ciechi, Pamela; Hope, Heidi; Hepperle, Michael; Keith, Robert H.; Naing, Win; Shieh, Huey; Portanova, Joseph; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Leimgruber, Richard M.; Monahan, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    SD0006 is a diarylpyrazole that was prepared as an inhibitor of p38 kinase-α (p38α). In vitro, SD0006 was selective for p38α kinase over 50 other kinases screened (including p38γ and p38δ with modest selectivity over p38β). Crystal structures with p38α show binding at the ATP site with additional residue interactions outside the ATP pocket unique to p38α that can confer advantages over other ATP competitive inhibitors. Direct correlation between inhibition of p38α activity and that of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated TNFα release was established in cellular models and in vivo, including a phase 1 clinical trial. Potency (IC50) for inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) release, in vitro and in vivo, was <200 nmol/l. In vivo, SD0006 was effective in the rat streptococcal-cell-wall-induced arthritis model, with dramatic protective effects on paw joint integrity and bone density as shown by radiographic analysis. In the murine collagen-induced arthritis model, equivalence was demonstrated to anti-TNFα treatment. SD0006 also demonstrated good oral anti-inflammatory efficacy with excellent cross-species correlation between the rat, cynomolgus monkey, and human. SD0006 suppressed expression of multiple proinflammatory proteins at both the transcriptional and translational levels. These properties suggest SD0006 could provide broader therapeutic efficacy than cytokine-targeted monotherapeutics. PMID:19590255

  7. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel biarylamine-based Met kinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, David K; Chen, Xiao-Tao; Tarby, Christine; Kaltenbach, Robert; Cai, Zhen-Wei; Tokarski, John S; An, Yongmi; Sack, John S; Wautlet, Barri; Gullo-Brown, Johnni; Henley, Benjamin J; Jeyaseelan, Robert; Kellar, Kristen; Manne, Veeraswamy; Trainor, George L; Lombardo, Louis J; Fargnoli, Joseph; Borzilleri, Robert M

    2010-09-03

    Biarylamine-based inhibitors of Met kinase have been identified. Lead compounds demonstrate nanomolar potency in Met kinase biochemical assays and significant activity in the Met-driven GTL-16 human gastric carcinoma cell line. X-ray crystallography revealed that these compounds adopt a bioactive conformation, in the kinase domain, consistent with that previously seen with 2-pyridone-based Met kinase inhibitors. Compound 9b demonstrated potent in vivo antitumor activity in the GTL-16 human tumor xenograft model.

  8. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors: Rescuers of cognitive impairments

    PubMed Central

    King, Margaret K.; Pardo, Marta; Cheng, Yuyan; Downey, Kimberlee; Jope, Richard S.; Beurel, Eléonore

    2013-01-01

    Impairment of cognitive processes is a devastating outcome of many diseases, injuries, and drugs affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Most often, very little can be done by available therapeutic interventions to improve cognitive functions. Here we review evidence that inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) ameliorates cognitive deficits in a wide variety of animal models of CNS diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, Parkinson's disease, spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, traumatic brain injury, and others. GSK3 inhibitors also improve cognition following impairments caused by therapeutic interventions, such as cranial irradiation for brain tumors. These findings demonstrate that GSK3 inhibitors are able to ameliorate cognitive impairments caused by a diverse array of diseases, injury, and treatments. The improvements in impaired cognition instilled by administration of GSK3 inhibitors appear to involve a variety of different mechanisms, such as supporting long-term potentiation and diminishing long-term depression, promotion of neurogenesis, reduction of inflammation, and increasing a number of neuroprotective mechanisms. The potential for GSK3 inhibitors to repair cognitive deficits associated with many conditions warrants further investigation of their potential for therapeutic interventions, particularly considering the current dearth of treatments available to reduce loss of cognitive functions. PMID:23916593

  9. Emerging Drug Profile: Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Blachly, James S.; Byrd, John C.

    2013-01-01

    As the rational application of targeted therapies in cancer supplants traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy, there is an ever-greater need for a thorough understanding of the complex machinery of the cell and an application of this knowledge to the development of novel therapeutics and combinations of agents. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of the class of targeted agents known as cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, with a focus on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Flavopiridol (alvocidib) is the best studied of the CDK inhibitors, producing a dramatic cytotoxic effect in vitro and in vivo, with the principal limiting factor of acute tumor lysis. Unfortunately, flavopiridol has a narrow therapeutic window and is relatively non-selective with several off-target (i.e. non-CDK) effects, which prompted development of the second-generation CDK inhibitor dinaciclib. Dinaciclib appears to be both more potent and selective than flavopiridol, with at least an order of magnitude greater therapeutic index, and is currently in phase III clinical trials. In additional to flavopiridol and dinaciclib, we also review the current state of other members of this class, and provide commentary as to the future direction of combination therapy including CDK inhibitors. PMID:23488658

  10. Development of Selective Covalent Janus Kinase 3 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li; Akahane, Koshi; McNally, Randall; Reyskens, Kathleen M S E; Ficarro, Scott B; Liu, Suhu; Herter-Sprie, Grit S; Koyama, Shohei; Pattison, Michael J; Labella, Katherine; Johannessen, Liv; Akbay, Esra A; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Frank, David A; Marto, Jarrod A; Look, Thomas A; Arthur, J Simon C; Eck, Michael J; Gray, Nathanael S

    2015-08-27

    The Janus kinases (JAKs) and their downstream effectors, signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins (STATs), form a critical immune cell signaling circuit, which is of fundamental importance in innate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis, and dysregulation is frequently observed in immune disease and cancer. The high degree of structural conservation of the JAK ATP binding pockets has posed a considerable challenge to medicinal chemists seeking to develop highly selective inhibitors as pharmacological probes and as clinical drugs. Here we report the discovery and optimization of 2,4-substituted pyrimidines as covalent JAK3 inhibitors that exploit a unique cysteine (Cys909) residue in JAK3. Investigation of structure-activity relationship (SAR) utilizing biochemical and transformed Ba/F3 cellular assays resulted in identification of potent and selective inhibitors such as compounds 9 and 45. A 2.9 Å cocrystal structure of JAK3 in complex with 9 confirms the covalent interaction. Compound 9 exhibited decent pharmacokinetic properties and is suitable for use in vivo. These inhibitors provide a set of useful tools to pharmacologically interrogate JAK3-dependent biology.

  11. Development of covalent inhibitors that can overcome resistance to first-generation FGFR kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li; Wang, Jun; Tanizaki, Junko; Huang, Zhifeng; Aref, Amir R; Rusan, Maria; Zhu, Su-Jie; Zhang, Yiyun; Ercan, Dalia; Liao, Rachel G; Capelletti, Marzia; Zhou, Wenjun; Hur, Wooyoung; Kim, NamDoo; Sim, Taebo; Gaudet, Suzanne; Barbie, David A; Yeh, Jing-Ruey Joanna; Yun, Cai-Hong; Hammerman, Peter S; Mohammadi, Moosa; Jänne, Pasi A; Gray, Nathanael S

    2014-11-11

    The human FGF receptors (FGFRs) play critical roles in various human cancers, and several FGFR inhibitors are currently under clinical investigation. Resistance usually results from selection for mutant kinases that are impervious to the action of the drug or from up-regulation of compensatory signaling pathways. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that resistance to FGFR inhibitors can be acquired through mutations in the FGFR gatekeeper residue, as clinically observed for FGFR4 in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroendocrine breast carcinomas. Here we report on the use of a structure-based drug design to develop two selective, next-generation covalent FGFR inhibitors, the FGFR irreversible inhibitors 2 (FIIN-2) and 3 (FIIN-3). To our knowledge, FIIN-2 and FIIN-3 are the first inhibitors that can potently inhibit the proliferation of cells dependent upon the gatekeeper mutants of FGFR1 or FGFR2, which confer resistance to first-generation clinical FGFR inhibitors such as NVP-BGJ398 and AZD4547. Because of the conformational flexibility of the reactive acrylamide substituent, FIIN-3 has the unprecedented ability to inhibit both the EGF receptor (EGFR) and FGFR covalently by targeting two distinct cysteine residues. We report the cocrystal structure of FGFR4 with FIIN-2, which unexpectedly exhibits a "DFG-out" covalent binding mode. The structural basis for dual FGFR and EGFR targeting by FIIN3 also is illustrated by crystal structures of FIIN-3 bound with FGFR4 V550L and EGFR L858R. These results have important implications for the design of covalent FGFR inhibitors that can overcome clinical resistance and provide the first example, to our knowledge, of a kinase inhibitor that covalently targets cysteines located in different positions within the ATP-binding pocket.

  12. Development of covalent inhibitors that can overcome resistance to first-generation FGFR kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Li; Wang, Jun; Tanizaki, Junko; Huang, Zhifeng; Aref, Amir R.; Rusan, Maria; Zhu, Su-Jie; Zhang, Yiyun; Ercan, Dalia; Liao, Rachel G.; Capelletti, Marzia; Zhou, Wenjun; Hur, Wooyoung; Kim, NamDoo; Sim, Taebo; Gaudet, Suzanne; Barbie, David A.; Yeh, Jing-Ruey Joanna; Yun, Cai-Hong; Hammerman, Peter S.; Mohammadi, Moosa; Jänne, Pasi A.; Gray, Nathanael S.

    2014-01-01

    The human FGF receptors (FGFRs) play critical roles in various human cancers, and several FGFR inhibitors are currently under clinical investigation. Resistance usually results from selection for mutant kinases that are impervious to the action of the drug or from up-regulation of compensatory signaling pathways. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that resistance to FGFR inhibitors can be acquired through mutations in the FGFR gatekeeper residue, as clinically observed for FGFR4 in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroendocrine breast carcinomas. Here we report on the use of a structure-based drug design to develop two selective, next-generation covalent FGFR inhibitors, the FGFR irreversible inhibitors 2 (FIIN-2) and 3 (FIIN-3). To our knowledge, FIIN-2 and FIIN-3 are the first inhibitors that can potently inhibit the proliferation of cells dependent upon the gatekeeper mutants of FGFR1 or FGFR2, which confer resistance to first-generation clinical FGFR inhibitors such as NVP-BGJ398 and AZD4547. Because of the conformational flexibility of the reactive acrylamide substituent, FIIN-3 has the unprecedented ability to inhibit both the EGF receptor (EGFR) and FGFR covalently by targeting two distinct cysteine residues. We report the cocrystal structure of FGFR4 with FIIN-2, which unexpectedly exhibits a “DFG-out” covalent binding mode. The structural basis for dual FGFR and EGFR targeting by FIIN3 also is illustrated by crystal structures of FIIN-3 bound with FGFR4 V550L and EGFR L858R. These results have important implications for the design of covalent FGFR inhibitors that can overcome clinical resistance and provide the first example, to our knowledge, of a kinase inhibitor that covalently targets cysteines located in different positions within the ATP-binding pocket. PMID:25349422

  13. Structural Determinants of CX-4945 Derivatives as Protein Kinase CK2 Inhibitors: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongbo; Wang, Xia; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jinghui; Li, Yan; Yang, Ling; Li, Guohui

    2011-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2, also known as casein kinase-2, is involved in a broad range of physiological events including cell growth, proliferation and suppression of apoptosis which are related to human cancers. A series of compounds were identified as CK2 inhibitors and their inhibitory activities varied depending on their structures. In order to explore the structure-activity correlation of CX-4945 derivatives as inhibitors of CK2, in the present study, a set of ligand- and receptor-based 3D-QSAR models were developed employing Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Index Analysis (CoMSIA). The optimum CoMFA (Rcv2 = 0.618, Rpred2 = 0.892) and CoMSIA (Rcv2 = 0.681, Rpred2 = 0.843) models exhibited reasonable statistical characteristics for CX-4945 derivatives. The results indicated that electrostatic effects contributed the most to both CoMFA and CoMSIA models. The combination of docking analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation showed that Leu45, Lys68, Glu81, Val116, Asp175 and Trp176 of CK2 which formed several direct or water-bridged H-bonds with CX-4945 are crucial for CX-4945 derivatives recognition to CK2. These results can offer useful theoretical references for designing more potent CK2 inhibitors. PMID:22072932

  14. Selective Sparing of Human Tregs by Pharmacologic Inhibitors of the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and MEK Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zwang, N. A.; Zhang, R.; Germana, S.; Fan, M. Y.; Hastings, W. D.; Cao, A.; Turka, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated (MEK) signaling are central to the survival and proliferation of many cell types. Multiple lines of investigation in murine models have shown that control of the PI3K pathway is particularly important for regulatory T cell (Treg) stability and function. PI3K and MEK inhibitors are being introduced into the clinic, and we hypothesized that pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K, and possibly MEK, in mixed cultures of human mononuclear cells would preferentially affect CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes compared with Tregs. We tested this hypothesis using four readouts: proliferation, activation, functional suppression, and signaling. Results showed that Tregs were less susceptible to inhibition by both δ and α isoform–specific PI3K inhibitors and by an MEK inhibitor compared with their conventional CD4+ and CD8+ counterparts. These studies suggest less functional reliance on PI3K and MEK signaling in Tregs compared with conventional CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. Therefore, the PI3K and MEK pathways are attractive pharmacologic targets for transplantation and treatment of autoimmunity. PMID:27017850

  15. Action of the Src family kinase inhibitor, dasatinib (BMS-354825), on human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sangkil; Kim, Donghwa; Cheng, Jin Q; Zhang, Shumin; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Buettner, Ralf; Mirosevich, Janni; Lee, Francis Y; Jove, Richard

    2005-10-15

    Src family kinases (SFK) are currently being investigated as targets for treatment strategies in various cancers. The novel SFK/Abl inhibitor, dasatinib (BMS-354825), is a promising therapeutic agent with oral bioavailability. Dasatinib has been shown to inhibit growth of Bcr-Abl-dependent chronic myeloid leukemia xenografts in nude mice. Dasatinib also has been shown to have activity against cultured human prostate and breast cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism by which dasatinib acts on epithelial tumor cells remains unknown. In this study, we show that dasatinib blocks the kinase activities of the SFKs, Lyn, and Src, in human prostate cancer cells at low nanomolar concentrations. Moreover, focal adhesion kinase and Crk-associated substrate (p130(CAS)) signaling downstream of SFKs are also inhibited at similar concentrations of dasatinib. Consistent with inhibition of these signaling pathways, dasatinib suppresses cell adhesion, migration, and invasion of prostate cancer cells at low nanomolar concentrations. Therefore, dasatinib has potential as a therapeutic agent for metastatic prostate cancers harboring activated SFK and focal adhesion kinase signaling.

  16. Andrographolide suppresses endothelial cell apoptosis via activation of phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiun-Han; Hsiao, George; Lee, An-Rong; Wu, Chin-Chen; Yen, Mao-Hsiung

    2004-04-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), an active component isolated from the Chinese official herbal Andrographis paniculata, which has been reported to prevent oxygen radical production and thus prevent inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways by which Andro protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from growth factor (GF) deprivation-induced apoptosis. Results demonstrated that HUVECs undergo apoptosis after 18 hr of GF deprivation but that this cell death was suppressed by the addition of Andro in a concentration-dependent manner (1-100 microM). Andro suppresses the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis by inhibiting release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and dissipation of mitochondrial potential (Deltapsi(m)), as a consequence, prevented caspase-3 and -9 activation. Treatment of endothelial cells with Andro-induced activation of the protein kinase Akt, an anti-apoptotic signal, and phosphorylation of BAD, a down-stream target of Akt. Suppression of Akt activity by wortmannin, by LY-294002 and by using a dominant negative Akt mutant abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of Andro. In contrast, the ERK1/2 activities were not affected by Andro. The ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059 failed to antagonize the protective effect of Andro. In conclusion, Andro exerts its anti-apoptotic potential via activation of the Akt-BAD pathway in HUVECs and thus may represent a candidate of therapeutic agent for atherosclerosis.

  17. Crystal structure of inhibitor of ;#954;B kinase [beta

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Guozhou; Lo, Yu-Chih; Li, Qiubai; Napolitano, Gennaro; Wu, Xuefeng; Jiang, Xuliang; Dreano, Michel; Karin, Michael; Wu, Hao

    2011-07-26

    Inhibitor of {kappa}B (I{kappa}B) kinase (IKK) phosphorylates I{kappa}B proteins, leading to their degradation and the liberation of nuclear factor {kappa}B for gene transcription. Here we report the crystal structure of IKK{beta} in complex with an inhibitor, at a resolution of 3.6 {angstrom}. The structure reveals a trimodular architecture comprising the kinase domain, a ubiquitin-like domain (ULD) and an elongated, {alpha}-helical scaffold/dimerization domain (SDD). Unexpectedly, the predicted leucine zipper and helix-loop-helix motifs do not form these structures but are part of the SDD. The ULD and SDD mediate a critical interaction with I{kappa}B{alpha} that restricts substrate specificity, and the ULD is also required for catalytic activity. The SDD mediates IKK{beta} dimerization, but dimerization per se is not important for maintaining IKK{beta} activity and instead is required for IKK{beta} activation. Other IKK family members, IKK{alpha}, TBK1 and IKK-i, may have a similar trimodular architecture and function.

  18. The evolving field of kinase inhibitors in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Marotta, V; Sciammarella, C; Vitale, M; Colao, A; Faggiano, A

    2015-01-01

    Most of the genetic events implicated in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer (TC) involve genes with kinase activity. Thus, kinase inhibitors (KIs) are very relevant in this field. KIs are considered the most suitable treatment for patients with iodine-refractory differentiated TC; these patients comprise the subgroup with the poorer prognosis. To date, only sorafenib has been approved for this indication, but promising results have been reported with several other KIs. In particular, lenvatinib has demonstrated excellent efficacy, with both progression-free survival and objective tumour response being better than with sorafenib. Despite being considered to be well tolerated, both sorafenib and lenvatinib have shown a remarkable toxicity, which has led to dose reductions in the majority of patients and to treatment discontinuation in a significant proportion of cases. The role of KIs in differentiated TC may be revolutionised by the finding that selumetinib may restore a clinical response to radioactive iodine (RAI). Vandetanib and cabozantinib have been approved for the treatment of advanced, progressive medullary TC (MTC). Nevertheless, the toxicity of both compounds suggests their selective use in those patients with strong disease progression. Treatment with the mTOR-inhibitor everolimus, alone or in combination with somatostatin analogues, should be studied in metastatic MTC patients with slow progression of disease, these representing the vast majority of patients. KIs did not significantly impact on the clinical features of anaplastic TC (ATC).

  19. Kinase inhibitors as potential agents in the treatment of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Hanley N.

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of therapeutic options available for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) - from immunomodulating agents to proteasome inhibitors to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors and, most recently, monoclonal antibodies. Used in conjunction with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, these modalities have nearly doubled the disease's five-year survival rate over the last three decades to about 50%. In spite of these advances, MM still is considered incurable as resistance and relapse are common. While small molecule protein kinase inhibitors have made inroads in the therapy of a number of cancers, to date their application to MM has been less than successful. Focusing on MM, this review examines the roles played by a number of kinases in driving the malignant state and the rationale for target development in the design of a number of kinase inhibitors that have demonstrated anti-myeloma activity in both in vitro and in vivo xenograph models, as well as those that have entered clinical trials. Among the targets and their inhibitors examined are receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases, cell cycle control kinases, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway kinases, protein kinase C, mitogen-activated protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase, casein kinase, integrin-linked kinase, sphingosine kinase, and kinases involved in the unfolded protein response. PMID:27655636

  20. Novel bone-targeted Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, William C; Metcalf, Chester A; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Keenan, Terence; Weigele, Manfred; Bohacek, Regine S; Dalgarno, David C; Sawyer, Tomi K

    2003-09-01

    Bone-targeted Src tyrosine kinase (STK) inhibitors have recently been developed for the treatment of osteoporosis and cancer-related bone diseases. The concept of bone targeting derives from bisphosphonates, and from the evolution of such molecules in terms of therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of bone disorders. Interestingly, some of the earliest bisphosphonates were recognized for their ability to inhibit calcium carbonate precipitation (scaling) by virtue of their affinity to chelate calcium. This chelating property was subsequently exploited in the development of bisphosphonate analogs as inhibitors of the bone-resorbing cells known as osteoclasts, giving rise to breakthrough medicines, such as Fosamax (for the treatment of osteoporosis) and Zometa (for the treatment of osteoporosis and bone metastases). Relative to these milestone achievements, there is a tremendous opportunity to explore beyond the limited chemical space (functional group diversity) of such bisphosphonates to design novel bone-targeting moieties, which may be used to develop other classes of promising small-molecule drugs affecting different biological pathways. Here, we review studies focused on bone-targeted inhibitors of STK, a key enzyme in osteoclast-dependent bone resorption. Two strategies are described relative to bone-targeted STK inhibitor drug discovery: (i) the development of novel Src homology (SH)-2 inhibitors incorporating non-hydrolyzable phosphotyrosine mimics and exhibiting molecular recognition and bone-targeting properties, leading to the in vivo-effective lead compound AP-22408; and (ii) the development of novel ATP-based Src kinase inhibitors incorporating bone-targeting moieties, leading to the in vivo-effective lead compound AP-23236. In summary, AP-22408 and AP-23236, which differ mechanistically by virtue of blocking Src-dependent non-catalytic or catalytic activities in osteoclasts, exemplify ARIAD Pharmaceuticals' structure-based design of novel bone

  1. Leads for antitubercular compounds from kinase inhibitor library screens.

    PubMed

    Magnet, Sophie; Hartkoorn, Ruben C; Székely, Rita; Pató, János; Triccas, James A; Schneider, Patricia; Szántai-Kis, Csaba; Orfi, László; Chambon, Marc; Banfi, Damiano; Bueno, Manuel; Turcatti, Gerardo; Kéri, György; Cole, Stewart T

    2010-11-01

    Discovering new drugs to treat tuberculosis more efficiently and to overcome multidrug resistance is a world health priority. To find antimycobacterial scaffolds, we screened a kinase inhibitor library of more than 12,000 compounds using an integrated strategy involving whole cell-based assays with Corynebacterium glutamicum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and a target-based assay with the protein kinase PknA. Seventeen "hits" came from the whole cell-based screening approach, from which three displayed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against M. tuberculosis below 10μM and were non-mutagenic and non-cytotoxic. Two of these hits were specific for M. tuberculosis versus C. glutamicum and none of them was found to inhibit the essential serine/threonine protein kinases, PknA and PknB present in both bacteria. One of the most active hits, VI-18469, had a benzoquinoxaline pharmacophore while another, VI-9376, is structurally related to a new class of antimycobacterial agents, the benzothiazinones (BTZ). Like the BTZ, VI-9376 was shown to act on the essential enzyme decaprenylphosphoryl-β-D-ribose 2'-epimerase, DprE1, required for arabinan synthesis.

  2. Identification of Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of Oncogenic RET Kinase.

    PubMed

    Moccia, Marialuisa; Liu, Qingsong; Guida, Teresa; Federico, Giorgia; Brescia, Annalisa; Zhao, Zheng; Choi, Hwan Geun; Deng, Xianming; Tan, Li; Wang, Jinhua; Billaud, Marc; Gray, Nathanael S; Carlomagno, Francesca; Santoro, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic mutation of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase is observed in several human malignancies. Here, we describe three novel type II RET tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01, that inhibit the cellular activity of oncogenic RET mutants at two digit nanomolar concentration. These three compounds shared a 3-trifluoromethyl-4-methylpiperazinephenyl pharmacophore that stabilizes the 'DFG-out' inactive conformation of RET activation loop. They blocked RET-mediated signaling and proliferation with an IC50 in the nM range in fibroblasts transformed by the RET/C634R and RET/M918T oncogenes. They also inhibited autophosphorylation of several additional oncogenic RET-derived point mutants and chimeric oncogenes. At a concentration of 10 nM, ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01 inhibited RET kinase and signaling in human thyroid cancer cell lines carrying oncogenic RET alleles; they also inhibited proliferation of cancer, but not non-tumoral Nthy-ori-3-1, thyroid cells, with an IC50 in the nM range. The three compounds were capable of inhibiting the 'gatekeeper' V804M mutant which confers substantial resistance to established RET inhibitors. In conclusion, we have identified a type II TKI scaffold, shared by ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01, that may be used as novel lead for the development of novel agents for the treatment of cancers harboring oncogenic activation of RET.

  3. Identification of Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of Oncogenic RET Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Moccia, Marialuisa; Liu, Qingsong; Guida, Teresa; Federico, Giorgia; Brescia, Annalisa; Zhao, Zheng; Choi, Hwan Geun; Deng, Xianming; Tan, Li; Wang, Jinhua; Billaud, Marc; Gray, Nathanael S.

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic mutation of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase is observed in several human malignancies. Here, we describe three novel type II RET tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01, that inhibit the cellular activity of oncogenic RET mutants at two digit nanomolar concentration. These three compounds shared a 3-trifluoromethyl-4-methylpiperazinephenyl pharmacophore that stabilizes the ‘DFG-out’ inactive conformation of RET activation loop. They blocked RET-mediated signaling and proliferation with an IC50 in the nM range in fibroblasts transformed by the RET/C634R and RET/M918T oncogenes. They also inhibited autophosphorylation of several additional oncogenic RET-derived point mutants and chimeric oncogenes. At a concentration of 10 nM, ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01 inhibited RET kinase and signaling in human thyroid cancer cell lines carrying oncogenic RET alleles; they also inhibited proliferation of cancer, but not non-tumoral Nthy-ori-3-1, thyroid cells, with an IC50 in the nM range. The three compounds were capable of inhibiting the ‘gatekeeper’ V804M mutant which confers substantial resistance to established RET inhibitors. In conclusion, we have identified a type II TKI scaffold, shared by ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01, that may be used as novel lead for the development of novel agents for the treatment of cancers harboring oncogenic activation of RET. PMID:26046350

  4. Quick evaluation of kinase inhibitors by surface plasmon resonance using single-site specifically biotinylated kinases.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Daisuke; Gouda, Masaki; Kirii, Yasuyuki

    2014-03-01

    In evaluating kinase inhibitors, kinetic parameters such as association/dissociation rate constants are valuable information, as are equilibrium parameters KD and IC50 values. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a powerful technique to investigate these parameters. However, results are often complicated because of impaired conformations by inappropriate conditions required for protein immobilization and/or heterogeneity of the orientation of immobilization. In addition, conventional SPR experiments are generally time-consuming. Here we introduce the use of single-site specifically biotinylated kinases combined with a multichannel SPR device to improve such problems. Kinetic parameters of four compounds-staurosporine, dasatinib, sunitinib, and lapatinib-against six kinases were determined by the ProteOn XPR36 system. The very slow off-rate of lapatinib from the epidermal growth factor receptor and dasatinib from Bruton's tyrosine kinase and colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) were confirmed. Furthermore, IC50 values were determined by an activity-based assay. Evaluating both physicochemical and biochemical properties would help to understand the detailed character of the compound.

  5. Targeting Human Central Nervous System Protein Kinases: An Isoform Selective p38αMAPK Inhibitor That Attenuates Disease Progression in Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The first kinase inhibitor drug approval in 2001 initiated a remarkable decade of tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs for oncology indications, but a void exists for serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor drugs and central nervous system indications. Stress kinases are of special interest in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders due to their involvement in synaptic dysfunction and complex disease susceptibility. Clinical and preclinical evidence implicates the stress related kinase p38αMAPK as a potential neurotherapeutic target, but isoform selective p38αMAPK inhibitor candidates are lacking and the mixed kinase inhibitor drugs that are promising in peripheral tissue disease indications have limitations for neurologic indications. Therefore, pursuit of the neurotherapeutic hypothesis requires kinase isoform selective inhibitors with appropriate neuropharmacology features. Synaptic dysfunction disorders offer a potential for enhanced pharmacological efficacy due to stress-induced activation of p38αMAPK in both neurons and glia, the interacting cellular components of the synaptic pathophysiological axis, to be modulated. We report a novel isoform selective p38αMAPK inhibitor, MW01-18-150SRM (=MW150), that is efficacious in suppression of hippocampal-dependent associative and spatial memory deficits in two distinct synaptic dysfunction mouse models. A synthetic scheme for biocompatible product and positive outcomes from pharmacological screens are presented. The high-resolution crystallographic structure of the p38αMAPK/MW150 complex documents active site binding, reveals a potential low energy conformation of the bound inhibitor, and suggests a structural explanation for MW150’s exquisite target selectivity. As far as we are aware, MW150 is without precedent as an isoform selective p38MAPK inhibitor or as a kinase inhibitor capable of modulating in vivo stress related behavior. PMID:25676389

  6. Identification of “Preferred” Human Kinase Inhibitors for Sleeping Sickness Lead Discovery. Are Some Kinases Better than Others for Inhibitor Repurposing?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A kinase-targeting cell-based high-throughput screen (HTS) against Trypanosoma brucei was recently reported, and this screening set included the Published Kinase Inhibitor Set (PKIS). From the PKIS was identified 53 compounds with pEC50 ≥ 6. Utilizing the published data available for the PKIS, a statistical analysis of these active antiparasitic compounds was performed, allowing identification of a set of human kinases having inhibitors that show a high likelihood for blocking T. brucei cellular proliferation in vitro. This observation was confirmed by testing other established inhibitors of these human kinases and by mining past screening campaigns at GlaxoSmithKline. Overall, although the parasite targets of action are not known, inhibitors of this set of human kinases displayed an enhanced hit rate relative to a random kinase-targeting HTS campaign, suggesting that repurposing efforts should focus primarily on inhibitors of these specific human kinases. We therefore term this statistical analysis-driven approach “preferred lead repurposing”. PMID:26998514

  7. Norathyriol Suppresses Skin Cancers Induced by Solar Ultraviolet Radiation by Targeting ERK Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jixia; Malakhova, Margarita; Mottamal, Madhusoodanan; Reddy, Kanamata; Kurinov, Igor; Carper, Andria; Langfald, Alyssa; Oi, Naomi; Kim, Myoung Ok; Zhu, Feng; Sosa, Carlos P.; Zhou, Keyuan; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2012-06-27

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is the leading factor in the development of skin cancer, prompting great interest in chemopreventive agents for this disease. In this study, we report the discovery of norathyriol, a plant-derived chemopreventive compound identified through an in silico virtual screening of the Chinese Medicine Library. Norathyriol is a metabolite of mangiferin found in mango, Hypericum elegans, and Tripterospermum lanceolatum and is known to have anticancer activity. Mechanistic investigations determined that norathyriol acted as an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activity to attenuate UVB-induced phosphorylation in mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling cascades. We confirmed the direct and specific binding of norathyriol with ERK2 through a cocrystal structural analysis. The xanthone moiety in norathyriol acted as an adenine mimetic to anchor the compound by hydrogen bonds to the hinge region of the protein ATP-binding site on ERK2. Norathyriol inhibited in vitro cell growth in mouse skin epidermal JB6 P+ cells at the level of G{sub 2}-M phase arrest. In mouse skin tumorigenesis assays, norathyriol significantly suppressed solar UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Further analysis indicated that norathyriol mediates its chemopreventive activity by inhibiting the ERK-dependent activity of transcriptional factors AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B during UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Taken together, our results identify norathyriol as a safe new chemopreventive agent that is highly effective against development of UV-induced skin cancer.

  8. Approved and Experimental Small-Molecule Oncology Kinase Inhibitor Drugs: A Mid-2016 Overview.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter M

    2017-03-01

    Kinase inhibitor research is a comparatively recent branch of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology and the first small-molecule kinase inhibitor, imatinib, was approved for clinical use only 15 years ago. Since then, 33 more kinase inhibitor drugs have received regulatory approval for the treatment of a variety of cancers and the volume of reports on the discovery and development of kinase inhibitors has increased to an extent where it is now difficult-even for those working in the field-easily to keep an overview of the compounds that are being developed, as currently there are 231 such compounds, targeting 38 different protein and lipid kinases (not counting isoforms), in clinical use or under clinical investigation. The purpose of this review is thus to provide an overview of the biomedical rationales for the kinases being targeted on the one hand, and the design principles, as well as chemical, pharmacological, pharmaceutical, and toxicological kinase inhibitor properties, on the other hand. Two issues that are especially important in kinase inhibitor research, target selectivity and drug resistance, as well as the underlying structural concepts, are discussed in general terms and in the context of relevant kinases and their inhibitors.

  9. Design and Synthesis of Novel Macrocyclic Mer Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodong; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Weihe; Stashko, Michael A; Nichols, James; Miley, Michael J; Norris-Drouin, Jacqueline; Chen, Zhilong; Machius, Mischa; DeRyckere, Deborah; Wood, Edgar; Graham, Douglas K; Earp, H Shelton; Kireev, Dmitri; Frye, Stephen V

    2016-12-08

    Mer tyrosine kinase (MerTK) is aberrantly elevated in various tumor cells and has a normal anti-inflammatory role in the innate immune system. Inhibition of MerTK may provide dual effects against these MerTK-expressing tumors through reducing cancer cell survival and redirecting the innate immune response. Recently, we have designed novel and potent macrocyclic pyrrolopyrimidines as MerTK inhibitors using a structure-based approach. The most active macrocycles had an EC50 below 40 nM in a cell-based MerTK phosphor-protein ELISA assay. The X-ray structure of macrocyclic analogue 3 complexed with MerTK was also resolved and demonstrated macrocycles binding in the ATP binding pocket of the MerTK protein as anticipated. In addition, the lead compound 16 (UNC3133) had a 1.6 h half-life and 16% oral bioavailability in a mouse PK study.

  10. [Cytotoxicity of chimera peptides incorporating sequences of cyclin kinases inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Kharchenko, V P; Kulinich, V G; Lunin, V G; Filiasova, E I; Shishkin, A M; Sergeenko, O V; Riazanova, E M; Voronina, O L; Bozhenko, V K

    2007-01-01

    The study is concerned with proapoptotic properties of chimera peptides which incorporate sequences of inhibitors of cyclin kinases p161NK4a and p21CIP/WAF1 as well as internalized sequences (Antp and tat). Sequences of the p16 type appeared to be more cytotoxic than the p21 one. Cytotoxic effect proved dependent on orientation with respect to the C or N terminal point of a polypeptide chain rather than on chimera sequence extent. Although p16 endogenous synthesis did not influence chimera peptide levels, apoptosis did not take place in certain cellular lines. Due to the rather unsophisticated nature of such synthesis, it might be used in designing individually-tailored chemotherapeutic drugs.

  11. Mechanisms of resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihua; Fu, Liwu

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery that non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is driven by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs, e.g., gefitinib and elrotinib) have been effectively used for clinical treatment. However, patients eventually develop drug resistance. Resistance to EGFR-TKIs is inevitable due to various mechanisms, such as the secondary mutation (T790M), activation of alternative pathways (c-Met, HGF, AXL), aberrance of the downstream pathways (K-RAS mutations, loss of PTEN), impairment of the EGFR-TKIs-mediated apoptosis pathway (BCL2-like 11/BIM deletion polymorphism), histologic transformation, ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter effusion, etc. Here we review and summarize the known resistant mechanisms to EGFR-TKIs and provide potential targets for development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26579470

  12. A matched couple: Combining kinase inhibitors with immunotherapy for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qun; Weiss, Jonathan M; Wiltrout, Robert H

    2012-01-01

    Small-molecule kinase inhibitors targeting oncogenic signaling pathways have been explored as cancer therapeutic agents due to their strong anti-tumor activity and manageable toxicity. Accumulating evidence shows that many kinase inhibitors also profoundly modulate immune cell functions, suggesting they may be promising candidates for combination with immunotherapeutic agents for the improved treatment of cancer.

  13. The protein kinase 2 inhibitor tetrabromobenzotriazole protects against renal ischemia reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Ka, Sun-O; Hwang, Hong Pil; Jang, Jong-Hwa; Hyuk Bang, In; Bae, Ui-Jin; Yu, Hee Chul; Cho, Baik Hwan; Park, Byung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase 2 (CK2) activation was reported to enhance reactive oxygen species production and activate the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. Because oxidative stress and inflammation are critical events for tissue destruction during ischemia reperfusion (I/R), we sought to determine whether CK2 was important in the renal response to I/R. Mice underwent 25 min of renal ischemia and were then reperfused. We confirmed an increased expression of CK2α during the reperfusion period, while expression of CK2β remained consistent. We administered tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBBt), a selective CK2α inhibitor before inducing I/R injury. Mice subjected to I/R injury showed typical patterns of acute kidney injury; blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels, tubular necrosis and apoptosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine production, and oxidative stress were markedly increased when compared to sham mice. However, pretreatment with TBBt abolished these changes and improved renal function and architecture. Similar renoprotective effects of CK2α inhibition were observed for emodin. Renoprotective effects of CK2α inhibition were associated with suppression of NF-κB and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Taken together, these results suggest that CK2α mediates proapoptotic and proinflammatory signaling, thus the CK2α inhibitor may be used to prevent renal I/R injuries observed in clinical settings. PMID:26423352

  14. Aurora Kinases and Potential Medical Applications of Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gavriilidis, Paschalis; Giakoustidis, Alexandros; Giakoustidis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Aurora kinases (AKs) represent a novel group of serine/threonine kinases. They were originally described in 1995 by David Glover in the course of studies of mutant alleles characterized with unusual spindle pole configuration in Drosophila melanogaster. Thus far, three AKs A, B, and C have been discovered in human healthy and neoplastic cells. Each one locates in different subcellular locations and they are all nuclear proteins. AKs are playing an essential role in mitotic events such as monitoring of the mitotic checkpoint, creation of bipolar mitotic spindle and alignment of centrosomes on it, also regulating centrosome separation, bio-orientation of chromosomes and cytokinesis. Any inactivation of them can have catastrophic consequences on mitotic events of spindle formation, alignment of centrosomes and cytokinesis, resulting in apoptosis. Overexpression of AKs has been detected in diverse solid and hematological cancers and has been linked with a dismal prognosis. After discovery and identification of the first aurora kinase inhibitor (AKI) ZM447439 as a potential drug for targeted therapy in cancer treatment, approximately 30 AKIs have been introduced in cancer treatment. PMID:26345296

  15. Aurora Kinase Inhibitors in Oncology Clinical Trials: Current State of the Progress.

    PubMed

    Falchook, Gerald S; Bastida, Christel C; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-12-01

    The Aurora kinase family of kinases (Aurora A, B, and C) are involved in multiple mitotic events, and aberrant expression of these kinases is associated with tumorigenesis. Aurora A and Aurora B are validated anticancer targets, and the development of Aurora kinase inhibitors has progressed from preclinical to clinical studies. A variety of Aurora A, B and pan-Aurora kinase inhibitors have entered the clinic. The main side effects include febrile neutropenia, stomatitis, gastrointestinal toxicity, hypertension, and fatigue. Responses including complete remissions have been described in diverse, advanced malignancies, most notably ovarian cancer and acute myelogenous leukemia. This review highlights the biologic rationale for Aurora kinase as a target, and clinical trials involving Aurora kinase inhibitors, with particular emphasis on published early phase studies, and the observed anti-tumor activity of these agents.

  16. Affinity purification of proteins binding to kinase inhibitors immobilized on self-assembling monolayers.

    PubMed

    Bantscheff, Marcus; Hobson, Scott; Kuster, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Kinase inhibitors represent a relatively new class of drugs that offer novel therapies targeting specific -malfunctioning kinase-mediated signaling pathways in oncology and potentially inflammation. As the ATP binding sites of the ∼500 human kinases are structurally conserved and because most current drugs target the ATP binding site, there is a need to profile all the kinases that a drug may bind and/or inhibit. We have developed a chemical proteomics method that affinity purifies kinases from cell or tissue lysates using kinase inhibitors immobilized on self-assembling monolayers. The method can be applied to assess the selectivity of a given kinase inhibitor and thus to guide its preclinical or clinical development.

  17. Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 transcriptionally suppresses hepatitis B virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Jinke; Zhang, Geng; Lin, Yong; Xie, Zhanglian; Liu, Hongyan; Tang, Libo; Lu, Mengji; Yan, Ran; Guo, Haitao; Sun, Jian; Hou, Jinlin; Zhang, Xiaoyong

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) replication in hepatocytes is restricted by the host innate immune system and related intracellular signaling pathways. Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is a key mediator of toll-like receptors and pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling pathways. Here, we report that silencing or inhibition of endogenous TAK1 in hepatoma cell lines leads to an upregulation of HBV replication, transcription, and antigen expression. In contrast, overexpression of TAK1 significantly suppresses HBV replication, while an enzymatically inactive form of TAK1 exerts no effect. By screening TAK1-associated signaling pathways with inhibitors and siRNAs, we found that the MAPK-JNK pathway was involved in TAK1-mediated HBV suppression. Moreover, TAK1 knockdown or JNK pathway inhibition induced the expression of farnesoid X receptor α, a transcription factor that upregulates HBV transcription. Finally, ectopic expression of TAK1 in a HBV hydrodynamic injection mouse model resulted in lower levels of HBV DNA and antigens in both liver and serum. In conclusion, our data suggest that TAK1 inhibits HBV primarily at viral transcription level through activation of MAPK-JNK pathway, thus TAK1 represents an intrinsic host restriction factor for HBV replication in hepatocytes. PMID:28045080

  18. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation and suppression of inflammatory response by cell stretching in rabbit synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kunanusornchai, Wanlop; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2016-12-01

    Joint mobilization is known to be beneficial in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of stretching on adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and its role in modulating inflammation in rabbit synovial fibroblasts. Uniaxial stretching of isolated rabbit synovial fibroblasts for ten min was performed. Stretching-induced AMPK activation, its underlying mechanism, and its anti-inflammatory effect were investigated using Western blot. Static stretching at 20 % of initial length resulted in AMPK activation characterized by expression of phosphorylated AMPK and phosphorylated acetyl-Co A carboxylase. AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation peaked 1 h after stretching and declined toward resting activity. Using cell viability assays, static stretching did not appear to cause cellular damage. Activation of AMPK involves Ca(2+) influx via a mechanosensitive L-type Ca(2+) channel, which subsequently raises intracellular Ca(2+) and activates AMPK via Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ). Interestingly, stretching suppressed TNFα-induced expression of COX-2, iNOS, and phosphorylated NF-κB. These effects were prevented by pretreatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. These results suggest that mechanical stretching suppressed inflammatory responses in synovial fibroblasts via a L-type Ca(2+)-channel-CaMKKβ-AMPK-dependent pathway which may underlie joint mobilization's ability to alleviate OA symptoms.

  19. Substance P suppresses GABAA receptor function via protein kinase C in primary sensory neurones of bullfrogs.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, K; Akasu, T

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of substance P (SP) and related tachykinins on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors were examined in acutely dissociated neurones of bullfrog dorsal root ganglia (DRG) by using whole-cell voltage-clamp techniques. 2. Application of SP (10 nM to 1 microM) depressed inward currents produced by GABAA receptor activation (IGABA). Neurokinin A (NKA) and neurokinin B (NKB) also depressed IGABA; the rank order of agonist potency was SP > NKA > NKB. Spantide ([D-Arg1, D-Trp7,9,Leu11]SP) and L-703,606, NK1 receptor antagonists, blocked the SP-induced depression of IGABA. 3. SP irreversibly depressed IGABA, when neurones were intracellularly dialysed with GTP gamma S. Intracellular application of GDP beta S prevented the SP-induced depression of IGABA. Pertussis toxin (PTX) did not block the inhibitory effect of SP on IGABA. 4. The depression of IGABA produced by SP was inhibited by H-7 and PKC(19-36), protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, but not by H-9 and HA-1004, protein kinase A inhibitors. IGABA was suppressed by application of sn-1,2-dioctanoyl glycerol (DOG), a PKC activator. 5. It is concluded that activation of neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptors downregulates the function of the GABAA receptor of primary sensory neurones through a PTX-insensitive G-protein. PKC may be involved in the transduction pathway of the tachykinin-induced inhibition of the GABAA receptor. PMID:8910228

  20. A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor induced compound skin toxicity with oedema in metastatic malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Thomas, C L; Mortimer, P S; Larkin, J M; Basu, T N; Gore, M E; Fearfield, L

    2016-04-01

    We report three cases of skin toxicity associated with oral mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor treatment for metastatic malignant melanoma (MM). All three patients developed oedema, and a single patient experienced eyelash trichomegaly. This is the first known report of eyelash trichomegaly secondary to MEK inhibitor use. We also discuss possible mechanisms for MEK inhibitor-associated oedema development. This series supports the role of the dermatologist in the screening and management of patients in the rapidly developing oncology setting, as new targeted agents can give rise to marked skin toxicity.

  1. Pharmacological cdk inhibitor R-Roscovitine suppresses JC virus proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Orba, Yasuko; Sunden, Yuji; Suzuki, Tadaki; Nagashima, Kazuo; Kimura, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2008-01-05

    The human Polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) utilizes cellular proteins for viral replication and transcription in the host cell nucleus. These cellular proteins represent potential targets for antiviral drugs against the JCV. In this study, we examined the antiviral effects of the pharmacological cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor R-Roscovitine, which has been shown to have antiviral activity against other viruses. We found that Roscovitine significantly inhibited the viral production and cytopathic effects of the JCV in a JCV-infected cell line. Roscovitine attenuated the transcriptional activity of JCV late genes, but not early genes, and also prevented viral replication via inhibiting phosphorylation of the viral early protein, large T antigen. These data suggest that the JCV requires cdks to transcribe late genes and to replicate its own DNA. That Roscovitine exhibited antiviral activity in JCV-infected cells suggests that Roscovitine might have therapeutic utility in the treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)

  2. Structure-based lead discovery for protein kinase C zeta inhibitor design by exploiting kinase-inhibitor complex crystal structure data and potential therapeutics for preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qing-Chun; Zhang, Cui-Juan; Li, Jie

    2014-10-14

    The protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine kinases with a broad range of cellular targets. Members of the PKC family participate at the diverse biological events involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival. The PKC isoform zeta (PKCζ) is an atypical member that has recently been found to play an essential role in promoting human uterine contractility and thus been raised as a new target for treating preterm labour and other tocolytic diseases. In this study, an integrative protocol was described to graft hundreds of inhibitor ligands from their complex crystal structures with cognate kinases into the active pocket of PKCζ and, based on the modeled structures, to evaluate the binding strength of these inhibitors to the non-cognate PKCζ receptor by using a consensus scoring strategy. A total of 32 inhibitors with top score were compiled, and eight out of them were tested for inhibitory potency against PKCζ. Consequently, five compounds, i.e. CDK6 inhibitor fisetin, PIM1 inhibitor myricetin, CDK9 inhibitor flavopiridol and PknB inhibitor mitoxantrone as well as the promiscuous kinase inhibitor staurosporine showed high or moderate inhibitory activity on PKCζ, with IC50 values of 58 ± 9, 1.7 ± 0.4, 108 ± 17, 280 ± 47 and 0.019 ± 0.004 μM, respectively, while other three compounds, including two marketed drugs dasatinib and sunitinib as well as the Rho inhibitor fasudil, have not been detected to possess observable activity. Next, based on the modeled structure data we modified three flavonoid kinase inhibitors, i.e. fisetin, myricetin and flavopiridol, to generate a number of more potential molecular entities, two of which were found to have a moderately improved activity as compared to their parent compounds.

  3. mTOR kinase inhibitors promote antibody class switching via mTORC2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Limon, Jose J; So, Lomon; Jellbauer, Stefan; Chiu, Honyin; Corado, Juana; Sykes, Stephen M; Raffatellu, Manuela; Fruman, David A

    2014-11-25

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a kinase that functions in two distinct complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. In peripheral B cells, complete deletion of mTOR suppresses germinal center B-cell responses, including class switching and somatic hypermutation. The allosteric mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin blocks proliferation and differentiation, but lower doses can promote protective IgM responses. To elucidate the complexity of mTOR signaling in B cells further, we used ATP-competitive mTOR kinase inhibitors (TOR-KIs), which inhibit both mTORC1 and mTORC2. Although TOR-KIs are in clinical development for cancer, their effects on mature lymphocytes are largely unknown. We show that high concentrations of TOR-KIs suppress B-cell proliferation and differentiation, yet lower concentrations that preserve proliferation increase the fraction of B cells undergoing class switching in vitro. Transient treatment of mice with the TOR-KI compound AZD8055 increased titers of class-switched high-affinity antibodies to a hapten-protein conjugate. Mechanistic investigation identified opposing roles for mTORC1 and mTORC2 in B-cell differentiation and showed that TOR-KIs enhance class switching in a manner dependent on forkhead box, subgroup O (FoxO) transcription factors. These observations emphasize the distinct actions of TOR-KIs compared with rapamycin and suggest that TOR-KIs might be useful to enhance production of class-switched antibodies following vaccination.

  4. Combination of bortezomib and mitotic inhibitors down-modulate Bcr-Abl and efficiently eliminates tyrosine-kinase inhibitor sensitive and resistant Bcr-Abl-positive leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Bucur, Octavian; Stancu, Andreea Lucia; Goganau, Ioana; Petrescu, Stefana Maria; Pennarun, Bodvael; Bertomeu, Thierry; Dewar, Rajan; Khosravi-Far, Roya

    2013-01-01

    Emergence of resistance to Tyrosine-Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs), such as imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib, in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) demands new therapeutic strategies. We and others have previously established bortezomib, a selective proteasome inhibitor, as an important potential treatment in CML. Here we show that the combined regimens of bortezomib with mitotic inhibitors, such as the microtubule-stabilizing agent Paclitaxel and the PLK1 inhibitor BI2536, efficiently kill TKIs-resistant and -sensitive Bcr-Abl-positive leukemic cells. Combined treatment activates caspases 8, 9 and 3, which correlate with caspase-induced PARP cleavage. These effects are associated with a marked increase in activation of the stress-related MAP kinases p38MAPK and JNK. Interestingly, combined treatment induces a marked decrease in the total and phosphorylated Bcr-Abl protein levels, and inhibits signaling pathways downstream of Bcr-Abl: downregulation of STAT3 and STAT5 phosphorylation and/or total levels and a decrease in phosphorylation of the Bcr-Abl-associated proteins CrkL and Lyn. Moreover, we found that other mitotic inhibitors (Vincristine and Docetaxel), in combination with bortezomib, also suppress the Bcr-Abl-induced pro-survival signals and result in caspase 3 activation. These results open novel possibilities for the treatment of Bcr-Abl-positive leukemias, especially in the imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib-resistant CML cases.

  5. Combination of Bortezomib and Mitotic Inhibitors Down-Modulate Bcr-Abl and Efficiently Eliminates Tyrosine-Kinase Inhibitor Sensitive and Resistant Bcr-Abl-Positive Leukemic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Goganau, Ioana; Petrescu, Stefana Maria; Pennarun, Bodvael; Bertomeu, Thierry; Dewar, Rajan; Khosravi-Far, Roya

    2013-01-01

    Emergence of resistance to Tyrosine-Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs), such as imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib, in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) demands new therapeutic strategies. We and others have previously established bortezomib, a selective proteasome inhibitor, as an important potential treatment in CML. Here we show that the combined regimens of bortezomib with mitotic inhibitors, such as the microtubule-stabilizing agent Paclitaxel and the PLK1 inhibitor BI2536, efficiently kill TKIs-resistant and -sensitive Bcr-Abl-positive leukemic cells. Combined treatment activates caspases 8, 9 and 3, which correlate with caspase-induced PARP cleavage. These effects are associated with a marked increase in activation of the stress-related MAP kinases p38MAPK and JNK. Interestingly, combined treatment induces a marked decrease in the total and phosphorylated Bcr-Abl protein levels, and inhibits signaling pathways downstream of Bcr-Abl: downregulation of STAT3 and STAT5 phosphorylation and/or total levels and a decrease in phosphorylation of the Bcr-Abl-associated proteins CrkL and Lyn. Moreover, we found that other mitotic inhibitors (Vincristine and Docetaxel), in combination with bortezomib, also suppress the Bcr-Abl-induced pro-survival signals and result in caspase 3 activation. These results open novel possibilities for the treatment of Bcr-Abl-positive leukemias, especially in the imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib-resistant CML cases. PMID:24155950

  6. Analogs of cinnamic acid benzyl amide as nonclassical inhibitors of activated JAK2 kinase.

    PubMed

    Mielecki, Marcin; Milner-Krawczyk, Małgorzata; Grzelak, Krystyna; Mielecki, Damian; Krzysko, Krystiana A; Lesyng, Bogdan; Priebe, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    Scaffold-based analogs of cinnamic acid benzyl amide (CABA) exhibit pleiotropic effects in cancer cells, and their exact molecular mechanism of action is under investigation. The present study is part of our systemic analysis of interactions of CABA analogs with their molecular targets. These compounds were shown to inhibit Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and JAK2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) signaling and thus are attractive scaffolds for anticancer drug design. To identify the potential mechanisms of action of this class of compounds, direct interactions of the selected CABA analogs with JAK2 kinase were examined. Inhibition of JAK2 enzymatic activity was assessed, and molecular modeling studies of selected compounds-(E)-2-cyano-N-[(S)-1-phenylethyl]-3-(pyridin-2-yl)acrylamide (WP1065), (E)-2-cyano-N-[(S)-1-phenylbutyl]- 3-(3-bromopyridin-2-yl)acrylamide (WP1130), and (E)-2-cyano-N-[(S)-1,4-diphenylbutyl]-3-(3-bromopyridin-2-yl)acrylamide (WP1702)-in the JAK2 kinase domain were used to support interpretation of the experimental data. Our results indicated that the tested CABA analogs are nonclassical inhibitors of activated (phosphorylated) JAK2, although markedly weaker than clinically tested ATP-competitive JAK2 inhibitors. Relatively small structural changes in the studied compounds affected interactions with JAK2, and their mode of action ranged from allosteric-noncompetitive to bisubstratecompetitive. These results demonstrated that direct inhibition of JAK2 enzymatic activity by the WP1065 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration [IC₅₀] = 14.8 µM), WP1130 (IC₅₀ = 3.8 µM), and WP1702 (IC₅₀ = 2.9 µM) potentially contributes, albeit minimally, to suppression of the JAK2/STAT signaling pathways in cancer cells and that additional specific structural modifications may amplify JAK2-inhibitory effects.

  7. A chemoproteomic method for identifying cellular targets of covalent kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Chu; Zhang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinases are attractive drug targets for numerous human diseases including cancers, diabetes and neurodegeneration. A number of kinase inhibitors that covalently target a cysteine residue in their target kinases have recently entered use in the cancer clinic. Despite the advantages of covalent kinases inhibitors, their inherent reactivity can lead to non-specific binding to other cellular proteins and cause off- target effects in cells. It is thus essential to determine the identity of these off targets in order to fully account for the phenotype and to improve the selectivity and efficacy of covalent inhibitors. Herein we present a detailed protocol for a chemoproteomic method to enrich and identify cellular targets of covalent kinase inhibitors. PMID:27551330

  8. Bisubstrate fluorescent probes and biosensors in binding assays for HTS of protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Uri, Asko; Lust, Marje; Vaasa, Angela; Lavogina, Darja; Viht, Kaido; Enkvist, Erki

    2010-03-01

    Conjugates of adenosine mimics and d-arginine-rich peptides (ARCs) are potent inhibitors of protein kinases (PKs) from the AGC group. Labeling ARCs with fluorescent dyes or immobilizing on chip surfaces gives fluorescent probes (ARC-Photo) and biosensors that can be used for high-throughput screening (HTS) of inhibitors of protein kinases. The bisubstrate character (simultaneous association with both binding sites of the kinase) and high affinity of ARCs allow ARC-based probes and sensors to be used for characterization of inhibitors targeted to either binding site of the kinase with affinities in whole nanomolar to micromolar range. The ability to penetrate cell plasma membrane and bind to the target kinase fused with a fluorescent protein leads to the possibility to use ARC-Photo probes for high content screening (HCS) of inhibitors in cellular milieu with detection of intensity of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two fluorophores.

  9. Anchor-based classification and type-C inhibitors for tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Sung, Tzu-Ying; Lin, Chih-Ta; Chiu, Yi-Yuan; Hsu, John T.-A.; Hung, Hui-Chen; Sun, Chung-Ming; Barve, Indrajeet; Chen, Wen-Liang; Huang, Wen-Chien; Huang, Chin-Ting; Chen, Chun-Hwa; Yang, Jinn-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases regulate various biological processes and are drug targets for cancers. At present, the design of selective and anti-resistant inhibitors of kinases is an emergent task. Here, we inferred specific site-moiety maps containing two specific anchors to uncover a new binding pocket in the C-terminal hinge region by docking 4,680 kinase inhibitors into 51 protein kinases, and this finding provides an opportunity for the development of kinase inhibitors with high selectivity and anti-drug resistance. We present an anchor-based classification for tyrosine kinases and discover two type-C inhibitors, namely rosmarinic acid (RA) and EGCG, which occupy two and one specific anchors, respectively, by screening 118,759 natural compounds. Our profiling reveals that RA and EGCG selectively inhibit 3% (EGFR and SYK) and 14% of 64 kinases, respectively. According to the guide of our anchor model, we synthesized three RA derivatives with better potency. These type-C inhibitors are able to maintain activities for drug-resistant EGFR and decrease the invasion ability of breast cancer cells. Our results show that the type-C inhibitors occupying a new pocket are promising for cancer treatments due to their kinase selectivity and anti-drug resistance. PMID:26077136

  10. Kinase inhibitors as potential therapeutics for acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions.

    PubMed

    Cuny, G D

    2009-01-01

    Kinases, which number > 500 in humans, are a class of enzymes that participate in an array of important functions within normal cellular physiology and during various pathological conditions. Due to the key role of kinases in the regulation of all aspects of cellular signaling and the well established contribution of kinase dysregulation to the etiology of many human pathologies, the development of kinase inhibitors has emerged as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human disease, including most notably oncology. Difficulties generating selective inhibitors have hampered their use in other therapeutic areas with less tolerance for off-target effects. However, with an increasing understanding of kinase structures and with the advent of newer inhibitor design strategies more highly selective inhibitors are beginning to emerge. This has prompted interest in utilizing kinase inhibitors in therapeutic areas beyond oncology, including acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions for which disease modify therapies are lacking. This review provides a background in acute (i.e. brain ischemia and traumatic brain injury) and chronic (i.e. Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis) neurodegenerative conditions. Then, the role of several kinase (i.e. JNK3, p38 MAPK, ERK, PKC, ROCKII, GSK3, Cdk5, MLK, EphB3 kinase, RIP1 kinase, LRRK2, TTBK1, ASK1, CK, DAPK, and PKN1) that could serve as potential therapeutic targets for these maladies are reviewed.

  11. Novel mutant-selective EGFR kinase inhibitors against EGFR T790M

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Wenjun; Ercan, Dalia; Chen, Liang; Yun, Cai-Hong; Li, Danan; Capelletti, Marzia; Cortot, Alexis B.; Chirieac, Lucian; Iacob, Roxana E.; Padera, Robert; Engen, John R.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Eck, Michael J.; Gray, Nathanael S.; Jänne, Pasi A.

    2010-01-12

    The clinical efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors in EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is limited by the development of drug-resistance mutations, including the gatekeeper T790M mutation. Strategies targeting EGFR T790M with irreversible inhibitors have had limited success and are associated with toxicity due to concurrent inhibition of wild-type EGFR. All current EGFR inhibitors possess a structurally related quinazoline-based core scaffold and were identified as ATP-competitive inhibitors of wild-type EGFR. Here we identify a covalent pyrimidine EGFR inhibitor by screening an irreversible kinase inhibitor library specifically against EGFR T790M. These agents are 30- to 100-fold more potent against EGFR T790M, and up to 100-fold less potent against wild-type EGFR, than quinazoline-based EGFR inhibitors in vitro. They are also effective in murine models of lung cancer driven by EGFR T790M. Co-crystallization studies reveal a structural basis for the increased potency and mutant selectivity of these agents. These mutant-selective irreversible EGFR kinase inhibitors may be clinically more effective and better tolerated than quinazoline-based inhibitors. Our findings demonstrate that functional pharmacological screens against clinically important mutant kinases represent a powerful strategy to identify new classes of mutant-selective kinase inhibitors.

  12. Feasibility of using molecular docking-based virtual screening for searching dual target kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shunye; Li, Youyong; Hou, Tingjun

    2013-04-22

    Multitarget agents have been extensively explored for solving limited efficacies, poor safety, and resistant profiles of an individual target. Theoretical approaches for searching and designing multitarget agents are critically useful. Here, the performance of molecular docking to search dual-target inhibitors for four kinase pairs (CDK2-GSK3B, EGFR-Src, Lck-Src, and Lck-VEGFR2) was assessed. First, the representative structures for each kinase target were chosen by structural clustering of available crystal structures. Next, the performance of molecular docking to distinguish inhibitors from noninhibitors for each individual kinase target was evaluated. The results show that molecular docking-based virtual screening illustrates good capability to find known inhibitors for individual targets, but the prediction accuracy is structurally dependent. Finally, the performance of molecular docking to identify the dual-target kinase inhibitors for four kinase pairs was evaluated. The analyses show that molecular docking successfully filters out most noninhibitors and achieves promising performance for identifying dual-kinase inhibitors for CDK2-GSK3B and Lck-VEGFR2. But a high false-positive rate leads to low enrichment of true dual-target inhibitors in the final list. This study suggests that molecular docking serves as a useful tool in searching inhibitors against dual or even multiple kinase targets, but integration with other virtual screening tools is necessary for achieving better predictions.

  13. Screening of Microbial Extracts for Anticancer Compounds Using Streptomyces Kinase Inhibitor Assay.

    PubMed

    Shanbhag, Prashant; Bhave, Sarita; Vartak, Ashwini; Kulkarni-Almeida, Asha; Mahajan, Girish; Villanueva, Ivan; Davies, Julian

    2015-07-01

    Eukaryotic kinases are known to play an important role in signal transduction pathways by phosphorylating their respective substrates. Abnormal phosphorylations by these kinases have resulted in diseases. Hence inhibitors of kinases are of considerable pharmaceutical interest for a wide variety of disease targets, especially cancers. A number of reports have been published which indicate that eukaryotic-like kinases may complement two-component kinase systems in several bacteria. In Streptomyces sp. such kinases have been found to have a role in formation of aerial hyphae, spores, pigmentation & even in antibiotic production in some strains. Eukaryotic kinase inhibitors are seen to inhibit formation of aerial mycelia in Streptomyces without inhibiting vegetative mycelia. This property has been used to design an assay to screen for eukaryotic kinase inhibitors. The assay involves testing of compounds against Streptomyces 85E ATCC 55824 using agar well diffusion method. Inhibitors of kinases give rise to "bald" colonies where aerial mycelia and sporulation inhibition is seen. The assay has been standardized using known eukaryotic protein kinase inhibiting anticancer agents like AG-490, AG-1295, AG-1478, Flavopiridol and Imatinib as positive controls, at a concentration ranging from 10 μg/well to 100 μg/well. Anti-infective compounds which are not reported to inhibit eukaryotic protein kinases were used as negative controls. A number of microbial cultures have been screened for novel eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitors. Further these microbial extracts were tested in various cancer cell lines like Panel, HCT116, Calul, ACHN and H460 at a concentration of 10 μg/mL/ well. The anticancer data was seen correlating well with the Streptomyces kinase assay thus validating the assay.

  14. Have adjuvant tyrosine kinase inhibitors lost their shine?

    PubMed Central

    Sabari, Joshua K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite broad advances in molecularly targeted therapies, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer related mortality in the United States. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations occur in approximately 17% of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the US population. The remarkable efficacy of small-molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in this unique subset of patients has revolutionized the therapeutic approach to lung cancer. The success of these agents in the metastatic setting leads to the logical question of what role these drugs may have in the adjuvant setting for patients with earlier stage disease. RADIANT, an international randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled phase III study in patients with completely resected stage IB to IIIA NSLC whose tumors expressed EGFR by IHC and EGFR amplification by FISH, attempted to answer the question of whether erlotinib would improve disease free survival and overall survival in the adjuvant setting. While RADIANT does not conclude for or against adjuvant use of EGFR-TKIs, all data points towards benefit in a selected population. As clinicians, we must continue to enroll to potentially practice changing therapeutic neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy studies internationally. PMID:27568486

  15. Fluorescent biosensors for high throughput screening of protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Prével, Camille; Pellerano, Morgan; Van, Thi Nhu Ngoc; Morris, May C

    2014-02-01

    High throughput screening assays aim to identify small molecules that interfere with protein function, activity, or conformation, which can serve as effective tools for chemical biology studies of targets involved in physiological processes or pathways of interest or disease models, as well as templates for development of therapeutics in medicinal chemistry. Fluorescent biosensors constitute attractive and powerful tools for drug discovery programs, from high throughput screening assays, to postscreen characterization of hits, optimization of lead compounds, and preclinical evaluation of candidate drugs. They provide a means of screening for inhibitors that selectively target enzymatic activity, conformation, and/or function in vitro. Moreover, fluorescent biosensors constitute useful tools for cell- and image-based, multiplex and multiparametric, high-content screening. Application of fluorescence-based sensors to screen large and complex libraries of compounds in vitro, in cell-based formats or whole organisms requires several levels of optimization to establish robust and reproducible assays. In this review, we describe the different fluorescent biosensor technologies which have been applied to high throughput screens, and discuss the prerequisite criteria underlying their successful application. Special emphasis is placed on protein kinase biosensors, since these enzymes constitute one of the most important classes of therapeutic targets in drug discovery.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Protein Kinase Inhibitor Pyrrol Derivate

    PubMed Central

    Yena, Maryna S.; Kotlyar, Iryna P.; Ogloblya, Olexandr V.; Rybalchenko, Volodymyr K.

    2016-01-01

    In our previous studies we showed antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities of protein kinases inhibitor pyrrol derivate 1-(4-Cl-benzyl)-3-Cl-4-(CF3-fenylamino)-1H-pyrrol-2,5-dione (MI-1) on rat colon cancer model. Therefore anti-inflammatory effect of MI-1 on rat acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis (UC) model was aimed to be discovered. The anti-inflammatory effects of MI-1 (2.7 mg/kg daily) compared to reference drug Prednisolone (0.7 mg/kg daily) after 14-day usage were evaluated on macro- and light microscopy levels and expressed in 21-grade scale. Redox status of bowel mucosa was also estimated. It was shown that in UC group the grade of total injury (GTI) was equal to 9.6 (GTIcontrol = 0). Increase of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) by 89% and protein carbonyl groups (PCG) by 60% and decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 40% were also observed. Prednisolone decreased GTI to 3 and leveled SOD activity, but MDA and PCG remained higher than control ones by 52% and 42%, respectively. MI-1 restored colon mucosa integrity and decreased mucosa inflammation down to GTI = 0.5 and leveled PCG and SOD. Thus, MI-1 possessed anti-inflammatory properties, which were more expressed that Prednisolone ones, as well as normalized mucosa redox balance, and so has a prospect for correction of inflammatory processes. PMID:28101521

  17. Kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies in oncology: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Gharwan, Helen; Groninger, Hunter

    2016-04-01

    Molecularly targeted cancer therapies, such as small-molecule kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, constitute a rapidly growing and an important part of the oncology armamentarium. Unlike conventional (cytotoxic) chemotherapeutics, targeted therapies were designed to disrupt cancer cell pathogenesis at specific biological points essential for the development and progression of the tumour. These agents were developed to disrupt specific targets with the aim of minimizing treatment burden compared with conventional chemotherapy. Nevertheless the increasingly common use of targeted therapies has revealed some unanticipated, often clinically significant toxic effects, as well as compromising effective palliative and end-of-life management approaches. Although patients and clinicians welcome improvements in cancer prognosis, these changes can also impact patient quality-of-life. Therefore, as demand for oncology expertise increases, physicians need to apprise themselves of targeted therapies and their clinical implications, including drug-specific side effects, impact on quality of life, and cost issues, especially in relation to end-of-life care. This Review provides a useful summary and guide for professionals treating patients with malignant diseases.

  18. Structure of Human G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 in Complex with the Kinase Inhibitor Balanol

    SciTech Connect

    Tesmer, John J.G.; Tesmer, Valerie M.; Lodowski, David T.; Steinhagen, Henning; Huber, Jochen

    2010-07-19

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a pharmaceutical target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, and hypertension. To better understand how nanomolar inhibition and selectivity for GRK2 might be achieved, we have determined crystal structures of human GRK2 in complex with G{beta}{gamma} in the presence and absence of the AGC kinase inhibitor balanol. The selectivity of balanol among human GRKs is assessed.

  19. Regulation of the activity of protein kinases by endogenous heat stable protein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Szmigielski, A

    1985-01-01

    Protein kinase activities are regulated by endogenous thermostable protein inhibitors. Type I inhibitor is a protein of MW 22,000-24,000 which inhibits specifically cyclic AMP-(cAMP) dependent protein kinase (APK) as a competitive inhibitor of catalytic subunits of the enzyme. Type I inhibitor activity changes inversely according to the activation of adenylate cyclase and the changes in cAMP content in tissues. It seems that type I inhibitor serves as a factor preventing spontaneous cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in unstimulated cell. The other thermostable protein which inhibits APK activity has been found in Sertoli cell-enriched testis (testis inhibitor). Physiological role of the testis inhibitor is unknown. Type II inhibitor is a protein of MW 15,000 which blocks phosphorylation mediated by cAMP and cyclic GMP (cGMP) dependent (APK and GPK) and cyclic nucleotide independent protein kinases as a competitive inhibitor of substrate proteins. Activity of this inhibitor specifically changes in reciprocal manner to the changes in cGMP content. It seems that type II inhibitor serves as a factor preventing the phosphorylation catalyzed by GPK when cGMP content is low. Stimulation of guanylate cyclase and activation of GPK is followed by a decrease of type II inhibitor activity. This change in relationship between activities of GPK and type II inhibitor allows for effective phosphorylation catalyzed by this enzyme when cGMP content is increased.

  20. A roadmap to evaluate the proteome-wide selectivity of covalent kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Dix, Melissa M.; Douhan, John; Gilbert, Adam M.; Hett, Erik C.; Johnson, Theodore O.; Joslyn, Chris; Kath, John C.; Niessen, Sherry; Roberts, Lee R.; Schnute, Mark E.; Wang, Chu; Hulce, Jonathan J.; Wei, Baoxian; Whiteley, Laurence O.; Hayward, Matthew M.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2014-01-01

    Kinases are principal components of signal transduction pathways and the focus of intense basic and drug discovery research. Irreversible inhibitors that covalently modify non-catalytic cysteines in kinase active-sites have emerged as valuable probes and approved drugs. Many protein classes, however, possess functional cysteines and therefore understanding the proteome-wide selectivity of covalent kinase inhibitors is imperative. Here, we accomplish this objective using activity-based protein profiling coupled with quantitative mass spectrometry to globally map the targets, both specific and non-specific, of covalent kinase inhibitors in human cells. Many of the specific off-targets represent non-kinase proteins that, interestingly, possess conserved, active-site cysteines. We define windows of selectivity for covalent kinase inhibitors and show that, when these windows are exceeded, rampant proteome-wide reactivity and kinase target-independent cell death conjointly occur. Our findings, taken together, provide an experimental roadmap to illuminate opportunities and surmount challenges for the development of covalent kinase inhibitors. PMID:25038787

  1. Pim kinases modulate resistance to FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors in FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Green, Alexa S.; Maciel, Thiago T.; Hospital, Marie-Anne; Yin, Chae; Mazed, Fetta; Townsend, Elizabeth C.; Pilorge, Sylvain; Lambert, Mireille; Paubelle, Etienne; Jacquel, Arnaud; Zylbersztejn, Florence; Decroocq, Justine; Poulain, Laury; Sujobert, Pierre; Jacque, Nathalie; Adam, Kevin; So, Jason C. C.; Kosmider, Olivier; Auberger, Patrick; Hermine, Olivier; Weinstock, David M.; Lacombe, Catherine; Mayeux, Patrick; Vanasse, Gary J.; Leung, Anskar Y.; Moura, Ivan C.; Bouscary, Didier; Tamburini, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) is frequently detected in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and is associated with a dismal long-term prognosis. FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors provide short-term disease control, but relapse invariably occurs within months. Pim protein kinases are oncogenic FLT3-ITD targets expressed in AML cells. We show that increased Pim kinase expression is found in relapse samples from AML patients treated with FLT3 inhibitors. Ectopic Pim-2 expression induces resistance to FLT3 inhibition in both FLT3-ITD–induced myeloproliferative neoplasm and AML models in mice. Strikingly, we found that Pim kinases govern FLT3-ITD signaling and that their pharmacological or genetic inhibition restores cell sensitivity to FLT3 inhibitors. Finally, dual inhibition of FLT3 and Pim kinases eradicates FLT3-ITD+ cells including primary AML cells. Concomitant Pim and FLT3 inhibition represents a promising new avenue for AML therapy. PMID:26601252

  2. Cytoplasmic kinases downstream of GPR30 suppress gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from bovine anterior pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Faidiban O; Kadokawa, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    GPR30 is known as a membrane receptor for picomolar concentrations of estradiol. The GPR30-specific agonist G1 causes a rapid, non-genomic suppression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from bovine anterior pituitary (AP) cells. A few studies have recently clarified that protein kinase A (PKA) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) might be involved in cytoplasmic signaling pathways of GPR30 in other cells. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that PKA and ERK kinase (MEK) are important cytoplasmic mediators for GPR30-associated non-genomic suppression of GnRH-induced LH secretion from bovine AP cells. Bovine AP cells (n = 8) were cultured for 3 days under steroid-free conditions. The AP cells were previously treated for 30 min with one of the following: 5000 nM of PKA inhibitor (H89), 1000 nM of MEK inhibitor (U0126), or a combination of H89 and U0126. Next, the AP cells were treated with 0.01 nM estradiol for 5 min before GnRH stimulation. Estradiol treatment without inhibitor pretreatment significantly suppressed GnRH-induced LH secretion (P < 0.01). In contrast, estradiol treatment after pretreatment with H89, U0126 or their combination had no suppressive effect on GnRH-induced LH secretion. The inhibitors also inhibited the G1 suppression of GnRH-induced LH secretion. Therefore, these data supported the hypothesis that PKA and MEK (thus, also pERK) are the intracellular mediators downstream of GPR30 that induce the non-genomic suppression of GnRH-induced LH secretion from bovine AP cells by estradiol or G1.

  3. Identification of small molecule inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Thomas; Daugaard, Mads; Jäättelä, Marja

    2011-11-11

    Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is a lysosomal catabolic pathway that controls cellular homeostasis and survival. It has recently emerged as an attractive target for the treatment of a variety of degenerative diseases and cancer. The targeting of autophagy has, however, been hampered by the lack of specific small molecule inhibitors. Thus, we screened two small molecule kinase inhibitor libraries for inhibitors of rapamycin-induced autophagic flux. The three most potent inhibitors identified conferred profound inhibition of autophagic flux by inhibiting the formation of autophagosomes. Notably, the autophagy inhibitory effects of all three compounds were independent of their established kinase targets, i.e. ataxia telangiectasia mutated for KU55933, protein kinase C for Gö6976, and Janus kinase 3 for Jak3 inhibitor VI. Instead, we identified phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) as a direct target of KU55933 and Gö6976. Importantly, and in contrast to the currently available inhibitors of autophagosome formation (e.g. 3-methyladenine), none of the three compounds inhibited the cell survival promoting class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt signaling at the concentrations required for effective autophagy inhibition. Accordingly, they proved to be valuable tools for investigations of autophagy-associated cell death and survival. Employing KU55399, we demonstrated that autophagy protects amino acid-starved cells against both apoptosis and necroptosis. Taken together, our data introduce new possibilities for the experimental study of autophagy and can form a basis for the development of clinically relevant autophagy inhibitors.

  4. Recent development of ATP-competitive small molecule phosphatidylinostitol-3-kinase inhibitors as anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Wan, Wen-zhu; Li, Yan; Zhou, Guan-lian; Liu, Xin-guang

    2017-01-01

    Phosphatidylinostitol-3-kinase (PI3K) is the potential anticancer target in the PI3K/Akt/ mTOR pathway. Here we reviewed the ATP-competitive small molecule PI3K inhibitors in the past few years, including the pan Class I PI3K inhibitors, the isoform-specific PI3K inhibitors and/or the PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitors. PMID:27769061

  5. A two-tiered mechanism of EGFR inhibition by RALT/MIG6 via kinase suppression and receptor degradation.

    PubMed

    Frosi, Yuri; Anastasi, Sergio; Ballarò, Costanza; Varsano, Giulia; Castellani, Loriana; Maspero, Elena; Polo, Simona; Alemà, Stefano; Segatto, Oreste

    2010-05-03

    Signaling by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) must be controlled tightly because aberrant EGFR activity may cause cell transformation. Receptor-associated late transducer (RALT) is a feedback inhibitor of EGFR whose genetic ablation in the mouse causes phenotypes due to EGFR-driven excess cell proliferation. RALT inhibits EGFR catalytic activation by docking onto EGFR kinase domain. We report here an additional mechanism of EGFR suppression mediated by RALT, demonstrating that RALT-bound EGF receptors undergo endocytosis and eventual degradation into lysosomes. Moreover, RALT rescues the endocytic deficit of EGFR mutants unable to undergo either endocytosis (Dc214) or degradation (Y1045F) and mediates endocytosis via a domain distinct from that responsible for EGFR catalytic suppression. Consistent with providing a scaffolding function for endocytic proteins, RALT drives EGFR endocytosis by binding to AP-2 and Intersectins. These data suggest a model in which binding of RALT to EGFR integrates suppression of EGFR kinase with receptor endocytosis and degradation, leading to durable repression of EGFR signaling.

  6. A two-tiered mechanism of EGFR inhibition by RALT/MIG6 via kinase suppression and receptor degradation

    PubMed Central

    Frosi, Yuri; Anastasi, Sergio; Ballarò, Costanza; Varsano, Giulia; Castellani, Loriana; Maspero, Elena; Polo, Simona; Alemà, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Signaling by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) must be controlled tightly because aberrant EGFR activity may cause cell transformation. Receptor-associated late transducer (RALT) is a feedback inhibitor of EGFR whose genetic ablation in the mouse causes phenotypes due to EGFR-driven excess cell proliferation. RALT inhibits EGFR catalytic activation by docking onto EGFR kinase domain. We report here an additional mechanism of EGFR suppression mediated by RALT, demonstrating that RALT-bound EGF receptors undergo endocytosis and eventual degradation into lysosomes. Moreover, RALT rescues the endocytic deficit of EGFR mutants unable to undergo either endocytosis (Dc214) or degradation (Y1045F) and mediates endocytosis via a domain distinct from that responsible for EGFR catalytic suppression. Consistent with providing a scaffolding function for endocytic proteins, RALT drives EGFR endocytosis by binding to AP-2 and Intersectins. These data suggest a model in which binding of RALT to EGFR integrates suppression of EGFR kinase with receptor endocytosis and degradation, leading to durable repression of EGFR signaling. PMID:20421427

  7. Selective interleukin-1 receptor–associated kinase 4 inhibitors for the treatment of autoimmune disorders and lymphoid malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Priscilla N.; Romero, Donna L.; Yang, Yibin; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Chaudhary, Divya; Robinson, Shaughnessy; Miao, Wenyan; Rui, Lixin; Westlin, William F.; Kapeller, Rosana

    2015-01-01

    Pathological activation of the Toll-like receptor signaling adaptor protein MYD88 underlies many autoimmune and inflammatory disease states. In the activated B cell–like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the oncogenic MYD88 L265P mutation occurs in 29% of cases, making it the most prevalent activating mutation in this malignancy. IRAK4 kinase accounts for almost all of the biological functions of MYD88, highlighting IRAK4 as a therapeutic target for diseases driven by aberrant MYD88 signaling. Using innovative structure-based drug design methodologies, we report the development of highly selective and bioavailable small molecule IRAK4 inhibitors, ND-2158 and ND-2110. These small molecules suppressed LPS-induced TNF production, alleviated collagen-induced arthritis, and blocked gout formation in mouse models. IRAK4 inhibition promoted killing of ABC DLBCL lines harboring MYD88 L265P, by down-modulating survival signals, including NF-κB and autocrine IL-6/IL-10 engagement of the JAK–STAT3 pathway. In ABC DLBCL xenograft models, IRAK4 inhibition suppressed tumor growth as a single agent, and in combination with the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib or the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-199. Our findings support pharmacological inhibition of IRAK4 as a therapeutic strategy in autoimmune disorders, in a genetically defined population of ABC DLBCL, and possibly other malignancies dependent on aberrant MYD88 signaling. PMID:26621451

  8. Inhibition of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) Kinase Suppresses Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Alekseev, Oleg; Donovan, Kelly; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Herpes keratitis (HK) remains the leading cause of cornea-derived blindness in the developed world, despite the availability of effective antiviral drugs. Treatment toxicity and the emergence of drug resistance highlight the need for additional therapeutic approaches. This study examined ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), an apical kinase in the host DNA damage response, as a potential new target for the treatment of HK. Methods. Small molecule inhibitor of ATM (KU-55933) was used to treat herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in three experimental models: (1) in vitro—cultured human corneal epithelial cells, hTCEpi, (2) ex vivo—organotypically explanted human and rabbit corneas, and (3) in vivo—corneal infection in young C57BL/6J mice. Infection productivity was assayed by plaque assay, real-time PCR, Western blot, and disease scoring. Results. Robust ATM activation was detected in HSV-1-infected human corneal epithelial cells. Inhibition of ATM greatly suppressed viral replication in cultured cells and in explanted human and rabbit corneas, and reduced the severity of stromal keratitis in mice. The antiviral effect of KU-55933 in combination with acyclovir was additive, and KU-55933 suppressed replication of a drug-resistant HSV-1 strain. KU-55933 caused minimal toxicity, as monitored by clonogenic survival assay and fluorescein staining. Conclusions. This study identifies ATM as a potential target for the treatment of HK. ATM inhibition by KU-55933 reduces epithelial infection and stromal disease severity without producing appreciable toxicity. These findings warrant further investigations into the DNA damage response as an area for therapeutic intervention in herpetic ocular diseases. PMID:24370835

  9. Discovery of orally active pyrrolopyridine- and aminopyridine-based Met kinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Zhen-Wei; Wei, Donna; Schroeder, Gretchen M.; Cornelius, Lyndon A.M.; Kim, Kyoung; Chen, Xiao-Tao; Schmidt, Robert J.; Williams, David K.; Tokarski, John S.; An, Yongmi; Sack, John S.; Manne, Veeraswamy; Kamath, Amrita; Zhang, Yueping; Marathe, Punit; Hunt, John T.; Lombardo, Louis J.; Fargnoli, Joseph; Borzilleri, Robert M.

    2008-09-10

    A series of acylurea analogs derived from pyrrolopyridine and aminopyridine scaffolds were identified as potent inhibitors of Met kinase activity. The SAR at various positions of the two kinase scaffolds was investigated. These studies led to the discovery of compounds 3b and 20b, which demonstrated favorable pharmacokinetic properties in mice and significant antitumor activity in a human gastric carcinoma xenograft model.

  10. MAP KINASE ERK 1/2 INHIBITORS INDUCE DYSMORPHOLOGY IN MOUSE WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ROSEN, M.B. and E. S. HUNTER. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. MAP kinase Erk1/2 inhibitors induce dysmorphology in mouse whole embryo culture.

    MAP Kinase signal transduction is associated with a variety ...

  11. Pre-clinical characterization of PKC412, a multi-kinase inhibitor, against colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi-Chan; Shao, Yun; He, Xiao-Pu; Chen, Su-Rong; Wang, Dong-Dong; Qin, Li-Sen; Sun, Wei-Hao

    2016-01-01

    The potential effect of PKC412, a small molecular multi-kinase inhibitor, in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells was evaluated here. We showed that PKC412 was cytotoxic and anti-proliferative against CRC cell lines (HT-29, HCT-116, HT-15 and DLD-1) and primary CRC cells. PKC412 provoked caspase-dependent apoptotic death, and induced G2-M arrest in the CRC cells. AKT activation was inhibited by PKC412 in CRC cells. Reversely, expression of constitutively-active AKT1 (CA-AKT1) decreased the PKC412's cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells. We propose that Bcl-2 could be a primary resistance factor of PKC412. ABT-737, a Bcl-2 inhibitor, or Bcl-2 siRNA knockdown, dramatically potentiated PKC412's lethality against CRC cells. Forced Bcl-2 over-expression, on the other hand, attenuated PKC412's cytotoxicity. Significantly, PKC412 oral administration suppressed AKT activation and inhibited HT-29 tumor growth in nude mice. Mice survival was also improved with PKC412 administration. These results indicate that PKC412 may have potential value for CRC treatment. PMID:27780925

  12. Cardiotoxicity Associated with the Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Sunitinib

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Tammy F.; Rupnick, Maria A.; Kerkela, Risto; Dallabrida, Susan M.; Zurakowski, David; Nguyen, Lisa; Woulfe, Kathleen; Pravda, Elke; Cassiola, Flavia; Desai, Jayesh; George, Suzanne; Morgan, Jeffrey A.; Harris, David; Ismail, Nesreen S.; Chen, Jey-Hsin; Schoen, Frederick J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have advanced cancer treatment. Sunitinib, a recently-approved, multi-targeted TKI, prolongs survival for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), but concerns about cardiac safety have arisen with this agent. Methods To determine the cardiovascular risk associated with sunitinib, we reviewed all cardiovascular events in patients with imatinib-resistant, metastatic GIST at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute enrolled in a Phase I/II protocol evaluating the efficacy of the drug (n=75). Sunitinib’s effects on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and blood pressure (BP) were also examined. Studies in isolated cardiomyocytes and mice investigated potential mechanisms of sunitinib-associated cardiac effects. Findings Eleven percent (8/75) of subjects suffered a cardiovascular event with congestive heart failure (CHF) occurring in 8% (6/75) of the population. Twenty-eight percent (10/36) of patients treated at the FDA-approved dose had LVEF declines of ≥ 10 EF%, and nineteen percent (7/36) experienced LVEF declines of ≥ 15 EF%. Sunitinib induced significant increases in mean systolic and diastolic BP in patients, and 47% (35/75) of individuals developed hypertension (HTN) (>150/100 mmHg). CHF and LV dysfunction generally responded to withholding drug and instituting medical management. In mice and cultured cardiomyocytes, sunitinib caused mitochondrial injury and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Interpretation Sunitinib treatment can lead to HTN, LVEF decline, and/or CHF. Experimental studies suggest that this is due, at least in part, to direct cardiomyocyte toxicity which may be exacerbated by HTN. Patients treated with sunitinib should receive close monitoring and prompt treatment for HTN and/or LVEF decline. PMID:18083403

  13. Drug-drug interactions with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Roelof W F; van Gelder, Teun; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Jansman, Frank G A

    2014-07-01

    In the past decade, many tyrosine-kinase inhibitors have been introduced in oncology and haemato-oncology. Because this new class of drugs is extensively used, serious drug-drug interactions are an increasing risk. In this Review, we give a comprehensive overview of known or suspected drug-drug interactions between tyrosine-kinase inhibitors and other drugs. We discuss all haemato-oncological and oncological tyrosine-kinase inhibitors that had been approved by Aug 1, 2013, by the US Food and Drug Administration or the European Medicines Agency. Various clinically relevant drug interactions with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors have been identified. Most interactions concern altered bioavailability due to altered stomach pH, metabolism by cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, and prolongation of the QTc interval. To guarantee the safe use of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors, a drugs review for each patient is needed. This Review provides specific recommendations to guide haemato-oncologists, oncologists, and clinical pharmacists, through the process of managing drug-drug interactions during treatment with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors in daily clinical practice.

  14. Effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on the contractility of rat mesenteric resistance arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Toma, C; Jensen, P E; Prieto, D; Hughes, A; Mulvany, M J; Aalkjaer, C

    1995-01-01

    1. A pharmacological characterization of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) belonging to two distinct groups (competitors at the ATP-binding site and the substrate-binding site, respectively) was performed, based on their effects on the contractility of rat mesenteric arteries. 2. Both the ATP-site competitors (genistein and its inactive analogue, daidzein) and the substrate-site competitors (tyrphostins A-23, A-47 and the inactive analogue, A-1) reversibly inhibited noradrenaline (NA, (10 microM)) and KCl (125 mM) induced contractions, concentration-dependently. Genistein was slightly but significantly more potent than daidzein; the tyrphostins were all less potent than genistein, and there were no significant differences between the individual potencies. The tyrosine kinase substrate-site inhibitor bis-tyrphostin had no inhibitory effect. 3. Genistein, daidzein, A-23 and A-47 each suppressed the contraction induced by Ca2+ (1 microM) in alpha-toxin permeabilized arteries. A-1 and bis-tyrphostin had little or no effect on contraction of the permeabilized arteries. 4. Genistein was significantly more potent than daidzein with respect to inhibition of the contraction induced by 200 nM Ca2+ in the presence of NA (100 microM) and GTP (3 microM). The effect of A-23, A-47, A-1 and bis-tyrphostin was similar in permeabilized arteries activated with Ca2+ (200 nM) + NA (100 microM) + GTP (3 microM) and permeabilized arteries activated with 1 microM Ca2+.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7620718

  15. Enzastaurin (LY317615), a Protein Kinase C Beta Selective Inhibitor, Enhances Antiangiogenic Effect of Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Willey, Christopher D.; Xiao Dakai; Tu Tianxiang; Kim, Kwang Woon; Moretti, Luigi; Niermann, Kenneth J.; Tawtawy, Mohammed N.; Quarles, Chad C. Ph.D.; Lu Bo

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: Angiogenesis has generated interest in oncology because of its important role in cancer growth and progression, particularly when combined with cytotoxic therapies, such as radiotherapy. Among the numerous pathways influencing vascular growth and stability, inhibition of protein kinase B(Akt) or protein kinase C(PKC) can influence tumor blood vessels within tumor microvasculature. Therefore, we wanted to determine whether PKC inhibition could sensitize lung tumors to radiation. Methods and Materials: The combination of the selective PKC{beta} inhibitor Enzastaurin (ENZ, LY317615) and ionizing radiation were used in cell culture and a mouse model of lung cancer. Lung cancer cell lines and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) were examined using immunoblotting, cytotoxic assays including cell proliferation and clonogenic assays, and Matrigel endothelial tubule formation. In vivo, H460 lung cancer xenografts were examined for tumor vasculature and proliferation using immunohistochemistry. Results: ENZ effectively radiosensitizes HUVEC within in vitro models. Furthermore, concurrent ENZ treatment of lung cancer xenografts enhanced radiation-induced destruction of tumor vasculature and proliferation by IHC. However, tumor growth delay was not enhanced with combination treatment compared with either treatment alone. Analysis of downstream effectors revealed that HUVEC and the lung cancer cell lines differed in their response to ENZ and radiation such that only HUVEC demonstrate phosphorylated S6 suppression, which is downstream of mTOR. When ENZ was combined with the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, in H460 lung cancer cells, radiosensitization was observed. Conclusion: PKC appears to be crucial for angiogenesis, and its inhibition by ENZ has potential to enhance radiotherapy in vivo.

  16. Widespread potential for growth-factor-driven resistance to anticancer kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Timothy R.; Fridlyand, Jane; Yan, Yibing; Penuel, Elicia; Burton, Luciana; Chan, Emily; Peng, Jing; Lin, Eva; Wang, Yulei; Sosman, Jeff; Ribas, Antoni; Li, Jiang; Moffat, John; Sutherlin, Daniel P.; Koeppen, Hartmut; Merchant, Mark; Neve, Richard; Settleman, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Mutationally activated kinases define a clinically validated class of targets for cancer drug therapy1. However, the efficacy of kinase inhibitors in patients whose tumours harbour such alleles is invariably limited by innate or acquired drug resistance2,3. The identification of resistance mechanisms has revealed a recurrent theme—the engagement of survival signals redundant to those transduced by the targeted kinase4. Cancer cells typically express multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that mediate signals that converge on common critical downstream cell-survival effectors—most notably, phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)5. Consequently, an increase in RTK-ligand levels, through autocrine tumour-cell production, paracrine contribution from tumour stroma6 or systemic production, could confer resistance to inhibitors of an oncogenic kinase with a similar signalling output. Here, using a panel of kinase-‘addicted’ human cancer cell lines, we found that most cells can be rescued from drug sensitivity by simply exposing them to one or more RTK ligands. Among the findings with clinical implications was the observation that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) confers resistance to the BRAF inhibitor PLX4032 (vemurafenib) in BRAF-mutant melanoma cells. These observations highlight the extensive redundancy of RTK-transduced signalling in cancer cells and the potentially broad role of widely expressed RTK ligands in innate and acquired resistance to drugs targeting oncogenic kinases. PMID:22763448

  17. Structural Biology Insight for the Design of Sub-type Selective Aurora Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sarvagalla, Sailu; Coumar, Mohane Selvaraj

    2015-01-01

    Aurora kinase A, B and C, are key regulators of mitosis and are over expressed in many of the human cancers, making them an ideal drug target for cancer chemotherapy. Currently, over a dozen of Aurora kinase inhibitors are in various phases of clinical development. The majority of the inhibitors (VX-680/MK-0457, PHA-739358, CYC116, SNS-314, AMG 900, AT-9283, SCH- 1473759, ABT-348, PF-03814735, R-763/AS-703569, KW-2449 and TAK-901) are pan-selective (isoform non-selective) and few are Aurora A (MLN8054, MLN8237, VX-689/MK5108 and ENMD 2076) and Aurora B (AZD1152 and GSK1070916) sub-type selective. Despite the intensive research efforts in the past decade, no Aurora kinase inhibitor has reached the market. Recent evidence suggests that the sub-type selective Aurora kinase A inhibitor could possess advantages over pan-selective Aurora inhibitors, by avoiding Aurora B mediated neutropenia. However, sub-type selective Aurora kinase A inhibitor design is very challenging due to the similarity in the active site among the isoforms. Structural biology and computational aspects pertaining to the design of Aurora kinase inhibitors were analyzed and found that a possible means to develop sub-type selective inhibitor is by targeting Aurora A specific residues (Leu215, Thr217 and Arg220) or Aurora B specific residues (Arg159, Glu161 and Lys164), near the solvent exposed region of the protein. Particularly, a useful strategy for the design of sub-type selective Aurora A inhibitor could be by targeting Thr217 residue as in the case of MLN8054. Further preclinical and clinical studies with the sub-type selective Aurora inhibitors could help bring them to the market for the treatment of cancer.

  18. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors suppress CCL2 chemokine in monocytes via epigenetic modification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Ching; Lin, Yu-Chih; Huang, Ming-Yii; Kuo, Po-Lin; Wu, Cheng-Chin; Lee, Min-Sheng; Hsieh, Chong-Chao; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Kuo, Chang-Hung; Tsai, Wen-Chan; Hung, Chih-Hsing

    2017-03-01

    The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors could lead to adverse effects. Therefore, the identification of downstream therapeutic targets is important. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, also called CCL2) is related to RA disease activity, and epigenetic modifications are hypothesized to regulate gene expression in RA pathogenesis. We studied the effects of two TNF-α inhibitors, etanercept and adalimumab, on CCL2 expression and the potentially associated intracellular mechanisms, including epigenetic regulation. Etanercept and adalimumab decreased CCL2 production in THP-1 cells and human primary monocytes, as detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and these changes in the CCL2 levels were independent of the TNF-α levels. Etanercept and adalimumab suppressed mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phospho-p38, phospho-JNK, phospho-ERK and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) phospho-p65, as demonstrated using western blot analyses. The investigation of epigenetic modifications using chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that etanercept and adalimumab down-regulated acetylation of histone (H)3 and H4 in the CCL2 promoter region by decreasing the recruitment of the NF-κB associated acetyltransferases p300, CBP and PCAF. Etanercept and adalimumab also down-regulated trimethylation of H3K4, H3K27, H3K36 and H3K79 in the CCL2 promoter region by decreasing the expression of the related methyltransferases WDR5 and Smyd2. We demonstrated that TNF-α inhibitors exert immunomodulatory effects on CCL2 expression in human monocytes via MAPKs, NF-κB and epigenetic modifications. These findings broaden the mechanistic knowledge related to TNF-α inhibitors and provide novel therapeutic targets for RA.

  19. Virtual screening of selective multitarget kinase inhibitors by combinatorial support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Ma, X H; Wang, R; Tan, C Y; Jiang, Y Y; Lu, T; Rao, H B; Li, X Y; Go, M L; Low, B C; Chen, Y Z

    2010-10-04

    Multitarget agents have been increasingly explored for enhancing efficacy and reducing countertarget activities and toxicities. Efficient virtual screening (VS) tools for searching selective multitarget agents are desired. Combinatorial support vector machines (C-SVM) were tested as VS tools for searching dual-inhibitors of 11 combinations of 9 anticancer kinase targets (EGFR, VEGFR, PDGFR, Src, FGFR, Lck, CDK1, CDK2, GSK3). C-SVM trained on 233-1,316 non-dual-inhibitors correctly identified 26.8%-57.3% (majority >36%) of the 56-230 intra-kinase-group dual-inhibitors (equivalent to the 50-70% yields of two independent individual target VS tools), and 12.2% of the 41 inter-kinase-group dual-inhibitors. C-SVM were fairly selective in misidentifying as dual-inhibitors 3.7%-48.1% (majority <20%) of the 233-1,316 non-dual-inhibitors of the same kinase pairs and 0.98%-4.77% of the 3,971-5,180 inhibitors of other kinases. C-SVM produced low false-hit rates in misidentifying as dual-inhibitors 1,746-4,817 (0.013%-0.036%) of the 13.56 M PubChem compounds, 12-175 (0.007%-0.104%) of the 168 K MDDR compounds, and 0-84 (0.0%-2.9%) of the 19,495-38,483 MDDR compounds similar to the known dual-inhibitors. C-SVM was compared to other VS methods Surflex-Dock, DOCK Blaster, kNN and PNN against the same sets of kinase inhibitors and the full set or subset of the 1.02 M Zinc clean-leads data set. C-SVM produced comparable dual-inhibitor yields, slightly better false-hit rates for kinase inhibitors, and significantly lower false-hit rates for the Zinc clean-leads data set. Combinatorial SVM showed promising potential for searching selective multitarget agents against intra-kinase-group kinases without explicit knowledge of multitarget agents.

  20. Suppression of interferon β gene transcription by inhibitors of bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family members.

    PubMed

    Malik, Nazma; Vollmer, Stefan; Nanda, Sambit Kumar; Lopez-Pelaez, Marta; Prescott, Alan; Gray, Nathanael; Cohen, Philip

    2015-06-15

    PLK (Polo-like kinase) inhibitors, such as BI-2536, have been reported to suppress IFNB (encoding IFNβ, interferon β) gene transcription induced by ligands that activate TLR3 (Toll-like receptor 3) and TLR4. In the present study, we found that BI-2536 is likely to exert this effect by preventing the interaction of the transcription factors IRF3 (interferon-regulatory factor 3) and c-Jun with the IFNB promoter, but without affecting the TBK1 {TANK [TRAF (tumour-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated factor)-associated nuclear factor κB activator]-binding kinase 1}-catalysed phosphorylation of IRF3 at Ser³⁹⁶, the dimerization and nuclear translocation of IRF3 or the phosphorylation of c-Jun and ATF2 (activating transcription factor 2). Although BI-2536 inhibits few other kinases tested, it interacts with BET (bromodomain and extra-terminal) family members and displaces them from acetylated lysine residues on histones. We found that BET inhibitors that do not inhibit PLKs phenocopied the effect of BI-2536 on IFNB gene transcription. Similarly, BET inhibitors blocked the interaction of IRF5 with the IFNB promoter and the secretion of IFNβ induced by TLR7 or TLR9 ligands in the human plasmacytoid dendritic cell line GEN2.2, but without affecting the nuclear translocation of IRF5. We found that the BET family member BRD4 (bromodomain-containing protein 4) was associated with the IFNB promoter and that this interaction was enhanced by TLR3- or TLR4-ligation and prevented by BI-2536 and other BET inhibitors. Our results establish that BET family members are essential for TLR-stimulated IFNB gene transcription by permitting transcription factors to interact with the IFNB promoter. They also show that the interaction of the IFNB promoter with BRD4 is regulated by TLR ligation and that BI-2536 is likely to suppress IFNB gene transcription by targeting BET family members.

  1. Kinase Inhibitor Screening Identifies Cyclin-Dependent Kinases and Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 as Potential Modulators of TDP-43 Cytosolic Accumulation during Cell Stress.

    PubMed

    Moujalled, Diane; James, Janine L; Parker, Sarah J; Lidgerwood, Grace E; Duncan, Clare; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Nonaka, Takashi; Hasegawa, Masato; Kanninen, Katja M; Grubman, Alexandra; Liddell, Jeffrey R; Crouch, Peter J; White, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal processing of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been identified as a major factor in neuronal degeneration during amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). It is unclear how changes to TDP-43, including nuclear to cytosolic translocation and subsequent accumulation, are controlled in these diseases. TDP-43 is a member of the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) RNA binding protein family and is known to associate with cytosolic RNA stress granule proteins in ALS and FTLD. hnRNP trafficking and accumulation is controlled by the action of specific kinases including members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. However, little is known about how kinase pathways control TDP-43 movement and accumulation. In this study, we used an in vitro model of TDP-43-positve stress granule formation to screen for the effect of kinase inhibitors on TDP-43 accumulation. We found that while a number of kinase inhibitors, particularly of the MAPK pathways modulated both TDP-43 and the global stress granule marker, human antigen R (HuR), multiple inhibitors were more specific to TDP-43 accumulation, including inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Close correlation was observed between effects of these inhibitors on TDP-43, hnRNP K and TIAR, but often with different effects on HuR accumulation. This may indicate a potential interaction between TDP-43, hnRNP K and TIAR. CDK inhibitors were also found to reverse pre-formed TDP-43-positive stress granules and both CDK and GSK3 inhibitors abrogated the accumulation of C-terminal TDP-43 (219-414) in transfected cells. Further studies are required to confirm the specific kinases involved and whether their action is through phosphorylation of the TDP-43 binding partner hnRNP K. This knowledge provides a valuable insight into the mechanisms controlling abnormal cytoplasmic TDP-43 accumulation and may herald new opportunities

  2. Tyrosine kinase, aurora kinase and leucine aminopeptidase as attractive drug targets in anticancer therapy - characterisation of their inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ziemska, Joanna; Solecka, Jolanta

    Cancers are the leading cause of deaths all over the world. Available anticancer agents used in clinics exhibit low therapeutic index and usually high toxicity. Wide spreading drug resistance of cancer cells induce a demanding need to search for new drug targets. Currently, many on-going studies on novel compounds with potent anticancer activity, high selectivity as well as new modes of action are conducted. In this work, we describe in details three enzyme groups, which are at present of extensive interest to medical researchers and pharmaceutical companies. These include receptor tyrosine kinases (e.g. EGFR enzymes) and non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Src enzymes), type A, B and C Aurora kinases and aminopeptidases, especially leucine aminopeptidase. We discuss classification of these enzymes, biochemistry as well as their role in the cell cycle under normal conditions and during cancerogenesis. Further on, the work describes enzyme inhibitors that are under in vitro, preclinical, clinical studies as well as drugs available on the market. Both, chemical structures of discovered inhibitors and the role of chemical moieties in novel drug design are discussed. Described enzymes play essential role in cell cycle, especially in mitosis (Aurora kinases), cell differentiation, growth and apoptosis (tyrosine kinases) as well as G1/S transition (leucine aminopeptidase). In cancer cells, they are overexpressed and only their inhibition may stop tumor progression. This review presents the clinical outcomes of selected inhibitors and argues the safety of drug usage in human volunteers. Clinical studies of EGFR and Src kinase inhibitors in different tumors clearly show the need for molecular selection of patients (to those with mutations in genes coding EGFR and Src) to achieve positive clinical response. Current data indicates the great necessity for new anticancer treatment and actions to limit off-target activity.

  3. Repositioning of amprenavir as a novel extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 inhibitor and apoptosis inducer in MCF-7 human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenchun; Li, Xin; Li, Tongyu; Wang, Hailian; Shi, Wei; Qi, Ping; Li, Chunyang; Chen, Jie; Bao, Jinku; Huang, Guodong; Wang, Yi

    2017-03-01

    Computational drug repositioning by virtually screening existing drugs for additional therapeutic usage could efficiently accelerate anticancer drug discovery. Herein, a library of 1447 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved small molecule drugs was screened in silico for inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). Then, in vitro kinase assay demonstrated amprenavir, a HIV-1 protease inhibitor, as a potential kinase inhibitor of ERK2. The in vivo kinase assay indicated that amprenavir could inhibit ERK2-mediated phosphorylation of BimEL at Ser69. Amprenavir could suppress this phosphorylation in MCF-7 cells, which may further facilitate the association of BimEL with several pro-survival molecules. Additionally, inhibition of ERK2-BimEL signaling pathway by amprenavir could contribute to its anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity in MCF-7 cells. Finally, in vivo tumor growth and immunohistochemical studies confirmed that amprenavir remarkably suppressed tumor proliferation and induce apoptosis in MCF-7 xenografts. Taken together, amprenavir can effectively inhibit the kinase activity of ERK2, and thus induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth in human MCF-7 cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, making amprenavir a promising candidate for future anticancer therapeutics.

  4. Crystal Structure of the Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase in Complex with the Inhibitor STO-609*

    PubMed Central

    Kukimoto-Niino, Mutsuko; Yoshikawa, Seiko; Takagi, Tetsuo; Ohsawa, Noboru; Tomabechi, Yuri; Terada, Takaho; Shirouzu, Mikako; Suzuki, Atsushi; Lee, Suni; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Okada-Iwabu, Miki; Iwabu, Masato; Kadowaki, Takashi; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2011-01-01

    Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) kinase (CaMKK) is a member of the CaMK cascade that mediates the response to intracellular Ca2+ elevation. CaMKK phosphorylates and activates CaMKI and CaMKIV, which directly activate transcription factors. In this study, we determined the 2.4 Å crystal structure of the catalytic kinase domain of the human CaMKKβ isoform complexed with its selective inhibitor, STO-609. The structure revealed that CaMKKβ lacks the αD helix and that the equivalent region displays a hydrophobic molecular surface, which may reflect its unique substrate recognition and autoinhibition. Although CaMKKβ lacks the activation loop phosphorylation site, the activation loop is folded in an active-state conformation, which is stabilized by a number of interactions between amino acid residues conserved among the CaMKK isoforms. An in vitro analysis of the kinase activity confirmed the intrinsic activity of the CaMKKβ kinase domain. Structure and sequence analyses of the STO-609-binding site revealed amino acid replacements that may affect the inhibitor binding. Indeed, mutagenesis demonstrated that the CaMKKβ residue Pro274, which replaces the conserved acidic residue of other protein kinases, is an important determinant for the selective inhibition by STO-609. Therefore, the present structure provides a molecular basis for clarifying the known biochemical properties of CaMKKβ and for designing novel inhibitors targeting CaMKKβ and the related protein kinases. PMID:21504895

  5. Targeting inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase pathway with AZD6244 (ARRY-142886) suppresses growth and angiogenesis of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jin-Hang; Wang, Chun-Hui; Tong, Huan; Wen, Shi-Lei; Huang, Zhi-Yin; Tang, Cheng-Wei

    2015-11-16

    AZD6244 (ARRY-142886), a highly selective MAPK-ERK kinase inhibitor, has shown excellent clinical efficacy in many tumors. However, the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenesis efficacy of AZD6244 on gastric cancer has not been well characterized. In this study, high p-ERK expression was associated with advanced TNM stage, increased lymphovascular invasion and poor survival. For absence of NRAS, KRAS and BRAF mutation, SGC7901 and BGC823 gastric cancer cells were relative resistance to AZD6244 in vitro. And such resistance was not attributed to the insufficient inhibition of ERK phosphorylation. However, tumor growth was significantly suppressed in SGC7901 xenografts by blockage of angiogenesis. This result was further supported by suppression of tube formation and migration in HUVEC cells after treatment with AZD6244. Moreover, the anti-angiogenesis effect of AZD6244 may predominantly attribute to its modulation on VEGF through p-ERK - c-Fos - HIF-1α integrated signal pathways. In conclusions, High p-ERK expression was associated with advanced TNM stage, increased lymphovascular invasion and poor survival. Targeting inhibition of p-ERK by AZD6244 suppress gastric cancer xenografts by blockage of angiogenesis without systemic toxicity. The anti-angiogenesis effect afford by AZD6244 may attribute to its modulation on p-ERK - c-Fos - HIF-1α - VEGF integrated signal pathways.

  6. Design, synthesis, and biological activity of urea derivatives as anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    af Gennäs, Gustav Boije; Mologni, Luca; Ahmed, Shaheen; Rajaratnam, Mohanathas; Marin, Oriano; Lindholm, Niko; Viltadi, Michela; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Scapozza, Leonardo; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari

    2011-09-05

    In anaplastic large-cell lymphomas, chromosomal translocations involving the kinase domain of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), generally fused to the 5' part of the nucleophosmin gene, produce highly oncogenic ALK fusion proteins that deregulate cell cycle, apoptosis, and differentiation in these cells. Other fusion oncoproteins involving ALK, such as echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-ALK, were recently found in patients with non-small-cell lung, breast, and colorectal cancers. Recent research has focused on the development of inhibitors for targeted therapy of these ALK-positive tumors. Because kinase inhibitors that target the inactive conformation are thought to be more specific than ATP-targeted inhibitors, we investigated the possibility of using two known inhibitors, doramapimod and sorafenib, which target inactive kinases, to design new urea derivatives as ALK inhibitors. We generated a homology model of ALK in its inactive conformation complexed with doramapimod or sorafenib in its active site. The results elucidated why doramapimod is a weak inhibitor and why sorafenib does not inhibit ALK. Virtual screening of commercially available compounds using the homology model of ALK yielded candidate inhibitors, which were tested using biochemical assays. Herein we present the design, synthesis, biological activity, and structure-activity relationships of a novel series of urea compounds as potent ALK inhibitors. Some compounds showed inhibition of purified ALK in the high nanomolar range and selective antiproliferative activity on ALK-positive cells.

  7. New HSP27 inhibitors efficiently suppress drug resistance development in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lennig, Petra; Zhang, Yixin; Schroeder, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance is an important open problem in cancer treatment. In recent years, the heat shock protein HSP27 (HSPB1) was identified as a key player driving resistance development. HSP27 is overexpressed in many cancer types and influences cellular processes such as apoptosis, DNA repair, recombination, and formation of metastases. As a result cancer cells are able to suppress apoptosis and develop resistance to cytostatic drugs. To identify HSP27 inhibitors we follow a novel computational drug repositioning approach. We exploit a similarity between a predicted HSP27 binding site to a viral thymidine kinase to generate lead inhibitors for HSP27. Six of these leads were verified experimentally. They bind HSP27 and down-regulate its chaperone activity. Most importantly, all six compounds inhibit development of drug resistance in cellular assays. One of the leads – chlorpromazine – is an antipsychotic, which has a positive effect on survival time in human breast cancer. In summary, we make two important contributions: First, we put forward six novel leads, which inhibit HSP27 and tackle drug resistance. Second, we demonstrate the power of computational drug repositioning. PMID:27626687

  8. A derivative of chrysin suppresses two-stage skin carcinogenesis by inhibiting mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haidan; Hwang, Joon-Sung; Li, Wei; Choi, Tae Woong; Liu, Kangdong; Huang, Zunnan; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Thimmegowda, N. R.; Lee, Ki-Won; Ryoo, In-Ja; Ahn, Jong-Seog; Bode, Ann M.; Zhou, Xinmin; Yang, Yifeng; Erikson, Raymond L.; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Dong, Zigang

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1) is a nuclear serine/threonine protein kinase that acts downstream of both ERKs and p38 MAP kinases in response to stress or mitogenic extracellular stimuli. Increasing evidence has shown that MSK1 is closely associated with malignant transformation and cancer development. MSK1 should be an effective target for cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy. However, very few MSK1 inhibitors, especially natural compounds, have been reported. We used virtual screening of a natural products database and the active conformation of the C-terminal kinase domain of MSK1 (PDB id 3KN) as the receptor structure to identify chrysin and its derivative, compound 69407, as inhibitors of MSK1. Compared with chrysin, compound 69407 more strongly inhibited proliferation and TPA-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P+ cells with lower cytotoxicity. Western blot data demonstrated that compound 69407 suppressed phosphorylation of the MSK1 downstream effector histone H3 in intact cells. Knocking down the expression of MSK1 effectively reduced the sensitivity of JB6 P+ cells to compound 69407. Moreover, topical treatment with compound 69407 prior to TPA application significantly reduced papilloma development in terms of number and size in a two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis model. The reduction in papilloma development was accompanied by the inhibition of histone H3 phosphorylation at Ser10 in tumors extracted from mouse skin. The results indicated that compound 69407 exerts inhibitory effects on skin tumorigenesis by directly binding with MSK1 and attenuates the MSK1/histone H3 signaling pathway, which makes it an ideal chemopreventive agent against skin cancer. PMID:24169959

  9. SUPPRESSION OF THE NITRIC OXIDE PATHWAY IN METASTATIC RENAL CELL CARCINOMA PATIENTS RECEIVING VEGF-SIGNALING INHIBITORS

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Emily S.; Khankin, Eliyahu V.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Dhawan, Mallika D.; Rogers, Miranda J.; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Humphreys, Benjamin D.

    2010-01-01

    Therapies that target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway cause hypertension but the mechanism remains unknown. This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that VEGF inhibition causes hypertension by suppressing VEGF-mediated vasodilatory pathways. Urine was collected from 80 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma from 2002–2009, 40 at baseline and 40 while on VEGF inhibitors. Measured urinary biomarkers include albumin, metabolites of the nitric oxide pathway and its downstream effector, cGMP, and prostaglandin pathway biomarkers prostaglandin E2, 6-keto PGF 1α, and cAMP, all normalized to urinary creatinine. The mean age in both groups was 61.8 years, 76% were male, and urinary albumin was higher in patients receiving VEGF inhibitors (median 18.4mg/g vs. 4.6 mg/g; p=0.009). cGMP/Cr was suppressed in patients on VEGF inhibitors (0.28 pmol/ug vs. 0.39 pmol/ug; p=0.01), with a trend toward suppression of nitrate/Cr (0.46 umol/mg vs. 0.62 umol/mg; p=0.09). Both comparisons were strengthened when patients on bevacizumab were excluded and only those receiving small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors were analyzed (cGMP/Cr, p=0.003; Nitrate/Cr, p=0.01). Prostaglandin E2, 6-keto PGF1α, and cAMP did not differ between groups. These results suggest that hypertension induced by VEGF inhibitors is mediated by suppression of nitric oxide production. Prospective studies are needed to explore whether these biomarkers may be useful predictors of efficacy in patients receiving VEGF-targeted therapies. PMID:20956731

  10. Purine inhibitors of protein kinases, G proteins and polymerases

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Nathanael S.; Schultz, Peter; Kim, Sung-Hou; Meijer, Laurent

    2001-07-03

    The present invention relates to purine analogs that inhibit, inter alia, protein kinases, G-proteins and polymerases. In addition, the present invention relates to methods of using such purine analogs to inhibit protein kinases, G-proteins, polymerases and other cellular processes and to treat cellular proliferative diseases.

  11. Investigation of potential glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors using pharmacophore mapping and virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Dessalew, Nigus; Bharatam, Prasad V

    2006-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is a serine/threonine kinase that has attracted significant drug discovery attention in recent years. To investigate the identification of new potential glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors, a pharmacophore mapping study was carried out using a set of 21 structurally diverse glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors. A hypothesis containing four features: two hydrophobic, one hydrogen bond donor and another hydrogen bond acceptor was found to be the best from the 10 common feature hypotheses produced by HipHop module of Catalyst. The best hypothesis has a high cost of 156.592 and higher best fit values were obtained for the 21 inhibitors using this best hypothesis than the other HipHop hypotheses. The best hypothesis was then used to screen electronically the NCI2000 database. The hits obtained were docked into glycogen synthase kinase-3beta active site. A total of five novel potential leads were proposed after: (i) visual examination of how well they dock into the glycogen synthase kinase-3beta-binding site, (ii) comparative analysis of their FlexX, G-Score, PMF-Score, ChemScore and D-Scores values, (iii) comparison of their best fit value with the known inhibitors and (iv) examination of the how the hits retain interactions with the important amino acid residues of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta-binding site.

  12. Selective elimination of neuroblastoma cells by synergistic effect of Akt kinase inhibitor and tetrathiomolybdate.

    PubMed

    Navrátilová, Jarmila; Karasová, Martina; Kohutková Lánová, Martina; Jiráková, Ludmila; Budková, Zuzana; Pacherník, Jiří; Šmarda, Jan; Beneš, Petr

    2017-02-28

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumour of infancy. Pathological activation of glucose consumption, glycolysis and glycolysis-activating Akt kinase occur frequently in neuroblastoma cells, and these changes correlate with poor prognosis of patients. Therefore, several inhibitors of glucose utilization and the Akt kinase activity are in preclinical trials as potential anti-cancer drugs. However, metabolic plasticity of cancer cells might undermine efficacy of this approach. In this work, we identified oxidative phosphorylation as compensatory mechanism preserving viability of neuroblastoma cells with inhibited glucose uptake/Akt kinase. It was oxidative phosphorylation that maintained intracellular level of ATP and proliferative capacity of these cells. The oxidative phosphorylation inhibitors (rotenone, tetrathiomolybdate) synergized with inhibitor of the Akt kinase/glucose uptake in down-regulation of both viability of neuroblastoma cells and clonogenic potential of cells forming neuroblastoma spheroids. Interestingly, tetrathiomolybdate acted as highly specific inhibitor of oxygen consumption and activator of lactate production in neuroblastoma cells, but not in normal fibroblasts and neuronal cells. Moreover, the reducing effect of tetrathiomolybdate on cell viability and the level of ATP in the cells with inhibited Akt kinase/glucose uptake was also selective for neuroblastoma cells. Therefore, efficient elimination of neuroblastoma cells requires inhibition of both glucose uptake/Akt kinase and oxidative phosphorylation activities. The use of tetrathiomolybdate as a mitochondrial inhibitor contributes to selectivity of this combined treatment, preferentially targeting neuroblastoma cells.

  13. Methods for Investigation of Targeted Kinase Inhibitor Therapy using Chemical Proteomics and Phosphorylation Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Bin; Haura, Eric B.; Smalley, Keiran S.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Koomen, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorylation acts as a molecular switch for many regulatory events in signaling pathways that drive cell division, proliferation, and apoptosis. Because of the critical nature of these protein post-translational modifications in cancer, drug development programs often focus on inhibitors for kinases and phosphatases, which control protein phosphorylation. Numerous kinase inhibitors have entered clinical use, but prediction of their efficacy and a molecular basis for patient response remain uncertain. Chemical proteomics, the combination of drug affinity chromatography with mass spectrometry, identifies potential target proteins that bind to the drugs. Phosphorylation profiling can complement chemical proteomics by cataloging modifications in the target kinases and their downstream substrates using phosphopeptide enrichment and quantitative mass spectrometry. These experiments shed light on the mechanism of disease development and illuminate candidate biomarkers to guide personalized therapeutic strategies. In this review, commonly applied technologies and workflows are discussed to illustrate the role of proteomics in examining tumor biology and therapeutic intervention using kinase inhibitors. PMID:20361944

  14. Opening the door to the development of novel Abl kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bezerra Morais, Pedro Alves; Daltoé, Renata Dalmaschio; Paula, Heberth de

    2016-10-24

    The discovery of the importance of kinase activity and its relationship to the emergence and proliferation of cancer cells, due to changes in normal physiology, opened a remarkable pathway for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia through intense search of drug candidates. Six Abl kinase inhibitors have received the US FDA approval as chronic myelogenous leukemia treatment, and continuous efforts in obtaining new, more effective and selective molecules are being carried out. Herein we discuss the mechanisms of Abl inhibition, structural features and ligand/protein interactions that are important for the design of new Abl kinase inhibitors. This review provides a broad overview of binding mode predictions, through molecular docking, which can be an approach to discover novel Abl kinase inhibitors.

  15. Identification of potent Yes1 kinase inhibitors using a library screening approach.

    PubMed

    Patel, Paresma R; Sun, Hongmao; Li, Samuel Q; Shen, Min; Khan, Javed; Thomas, Craig J; Davis, Mindy I

    2013-08-01

    Yes1 kinase has been implicated as a potential therapeutic target in a number of cancers including melanomas, breast cancers, and rhabdomyosarcomas. Described here is the development of a robust and miniaturized biochemical assay for Yes1 kinase that was applied in a high throughput screen (HTS) of kinase-focused small molecule libraries. The HTS provided 144 (17% hit rate) small molecule compounds with IC₅₀ values in the sub-micromolar range. Three of the most potent Yes1 inhibitors were then examined in a cell-based assay for inhibition of cell survival in rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. Homology models of Yes1 were generated in active and inactive conformations, and docking of inhibitors supports binding to the active conformation (DFG-in) of Yes1. This is the first report of a large high throughput enzymatic activity screen for identification of Yes1 kinase inhibitors, thereby elucidating the polypharmacology of a variety of small molecules and clinical candidates.

  16. Computational Insights for the Discovery of Non-ATP Competitive Inhibitors of MAP Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Schnieders, Michael J.; Kaoud, Tamer S.; Yan, Chunli; Dalby, Kevin N.; Ren, Pengyu

    2014-01-01

    Due to their role in cellular signaling mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases represent targets of pharmaceutical interest. However, the majority of known MAP kinase inhibitors compete with cellular ATP and target an ATP binding pocket that is highly conserved in the 500 plus representatives of the human protein kinase family. Here we review progress toward the development of non-ATP competitive MAP kinase inhibitors for the extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK1/2), the c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3) and the p38 MAPKs (α, β, γ, and δ). Special emphasis is placed on the role of computational methods in the drug discovery process for MAP kinases. Topics include recent advances in X-ray crystallography theory that improve the MAP kinase structures essential to structure-based drug discovery, the use of molecular dynamics to understand the conformational heterogeneity of the activation loop and inhibitors discovered by virtual screening. The impact of an advanced polarizable force field such as AMOEBA used in conjunction with sophisticated kinetic and thermodynamic simulation methods is also discussed. PMID:22316156

  17. Combined therapeutic potential of nuclear receptors with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wairagu, Peninah M.; Park, Kwang Hwa; Kim, Jihye; Choi, Jong-Whan; Kim, Hyun-Won; Yeh, Byung-Il; Jung, Soon-Hee; Yong, Suk-Joong; Jeong, Yangsik

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • The 48 NR genes and 48 biological anti-cancer targets are profiled in paired-cells. • Growth inhibition by NR ligands or TKIs is target receptor level-dependent. • T0901317 with gefitinib/PHA665752 shows additive growth inhibition in lung cells. - Abstract: Cancer heterogeneity is a big hurdle in achieving complete cancer treatment, which has led to the emergence of combinational therapy. In this study, we investigated the potential use of nuclear receptor (NR) ligands for combinational therapy with other anti-cancer drugs. We first profiled all 48 NRs and 48 biological anti-cancer targets in four pairs of lung cell lines, where each pair was obtained from the same patient. Two sets of cell lines were normal and the corresponding tumor cell lines while the other two sets consisted of primary versus metastatic tumor cell lines. Analysis of the expression profile revealed 11 NRs and 15 cancer targets from the two pairs of normal versus tumor cell lines, and 9 NRs and 9 cancer targets from the primary versus metastatic tumor cell lines had distinct expression patterns in each category. Finally, the evaluation of nuclear receptor ligand T0901317 for liver X receptor (LXR) demonstrated its combined therapeutic potential with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The combined treatment of cMET inhibitor PHA665752 or EGFR inhibitor gefitinib with T0901317 showed additive growth inhibition in both H2073 and H1993 cells. Mechanistically, the combined treatment suppressed cell cycle progression by inhibiting cyclinD1 and cyclinB expression. Taken together, this study provides insight into the potential use of NR ligands in combined therapeutics with other biological anti-cancer drugs.

  18. Identification of novel polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors by a hybrid virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuai; Sun, Shan-Liang; Liu, Hai-Chun; Chen, Ya-Dong; Yuan, Hao-Liang; Gao, Yi-Ping; Yang, Pei; Lu, Tao

    2012-08-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 is an important and attractive oncological target that plays a key role in mitosis and cytokinesis. A combined pharmacophore- and docking-based virtual screening was performed to identify novel polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors. A total of 34 hit compounds were selected and tested in vitro, and some compounds showed inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 and human tumor cell growth. The most potent compound (66) inhibited polo-like kinase 1 with an IC(50) value of 6.99 μm. The docked binding models of two hit compounds were discussed in detail. These compounds contained novel chemical scaffolds and may be used as foundations for the development of novel classes of polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors.

  19. The noni anthraquinone damnacanthal is a multi-kinase inhibitor with potent anti-angiogenic effects.

    PubMed

    García-Vilas, Javier A; Pino-Ángeles, Almudena; Martínez-Poveda, Beatriz; Quesada, Ana R; Medina, Miguel Ángel

    2017-01-28

    The natural bioactive compound damnacanthal inhibits several tyrosine kinases. Herein, we show that -in fact- damancanthal is a multi kinase inhibitor. A docking and molecular dynamics simulation approach allows getting further insight on the inhibitory effect of damnacanthal on three different kinases: vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, c-Met and focal adhesion kinase. Several of the kinases targeted and inhibited by damnacanthal are involved in angiogenesis. Ex vivo and in vivo experiments clearly demonstrate that, indeed, damnacanthal is a very potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. A number of in vitro assays contribute to determine the specific effects of damnacanthal on each of the steps of the angiogenic process, including inhibition of tubulogenesis, endothelial cell proliferation, survival, migration and production of extracellular matrix remodeling enzyme. Taken altogether, these results suggest that damancanthal could have potential interest for the treatment of cancer and other angiogenesis-dependent diseases.

  20. Effect of kinase inhibitors on the therapeutic properties of monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Minh Ngoc; Matera, Eva-Laure; Mathé, Doriane; Evesque, Anne; Valsesia-Wittmann, Sandrine; Clémenceau, Béatrice; Dumontet, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Targeted therapies of malignancies currently consist of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and small molecule kinase inhibitors. The combination of these novel agents raises the issue of potential antagonisms. We evaluated the potential effect of 4 kinase inhibitors, including the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib, and 3 PI3K inhibitors idelalisib, NVP-BEZ235 and LY294002, on the effects of the 3 monoclonal antibodies, rituximab and obinutuzumab (directed against CD20) and trastuzumab (directed against HER2). We found that ibrutinib potently inhibits antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity exerted by all antibodies, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.2 microM for trastuzumab, 0.5 microM for rituximab and 2 microM for obinutuzumab, suggesting a lesser effect in combination with obinutuzumab than with rituximab. The 4 kinase inhibitors were found to inhibit phagocytosis by fresh human neutrophils, as well as antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis induced by the 3 antibodies. Conversely co-administration of ibrutinib with rituximab, obinutuzumab or trastuzumab did not demonstrate any inhibitory effect of ibrutinib in vivo in murine xenograft models. In conclusion, some kinase inhibitors, in particular, ibrutinib, are likely to exert inhibitory effects on innate immune cells. However, these effects do not compromise the antitumor activity of monoclonal antibodies in vivo in the models that were evaluated. PMID:25523586

  1. Effect of kinase inhibitors on the therapeutic properties of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Duong, Minh Ngoc; Matera, Eva-Laure; Mathé, Doriane; Evesque, Anne; Valsesia-Wittmann, Sandrine; Clémenceau, Béatrice; Dumontet, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Targeted therapies of malignancies currently consist of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and small molecule kinase inhibitors. The combination of these novel agents raises the issue of potential antagonisms. We evaluated the potential effect of 4 kinase inhibitors, including the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib, and 3 PI3K inhibitors idelalisib, NVP-BEZ235 and LY294002, on the effects of the 3 monoclonal antibodies, rituximab and obinutuzumab (directed against CD20) and trastuzumab (directed against HER2). We found that ibrutinib potently inhibits antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity exerted by all antibodies, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.2 microM for trastuzumab, 0.5 microM for rituximab and 2 microM for obinutuzumab, suggesting a lesser effect in combination with obinutuzumab than with rituximab. The 4 kinase inhibitors were found to inhibit phagocytosis by fresh human neutrophils, as well as antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis induced by the 3 antibodies. Conversely co-administration of ibrutinib with rituximab, obinutuzumab or trastuzumab did not demonstrate any inhibitory effect of ibrutinib in vivo in murine xenograft models. In conclusion, some kinase inhibitors, in particular, ibrutinib, are likely to exert inhibitory effects on innate immune cells. However, these effects do not compromise the antitumor activity of monoclonal antibodies in vivo in the models that were evaluated.

  2. Structure-based design of isoquinoline-5-sulfonamide inhibitors of protein kinase B.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ian; Caldwell, John; Fonseca, Tatiana; Donald, Alastair; Bavetsias, Vassilios; Hunter, Lisa-Jane K; Garrett, Michelle D; Rowlands, Martin G; Aherne, G Wynne; Davies, Thomas G; Berdini, Valerio; Woodhead, Steven J; Davis, Deborah; Seavers, Lisa C A; Wyatt, Paul G; Workman, Paul; McDonald, Edward

    2006-02-15

    Structure-based drug design of novel isoquinoline-5-sulfonamide inhibitors of PKB as potential antitumour agents was investigated. Constrained pyrrolidine analogues that mimicked the bound conformation of linear prototypes were identified and investigated by co-crystal structure determinations with the related protein PKA. Detailed variation in the binding modes between inhibitors with similar overall conformations was observed. Potent PKB inhibitors from this series inhibited GSK3beta phosphorylation in cellular assays, consistent with inhibition of PKB kinase activity in cells.

  3. MLS-2384, a new 6-bromoindirubin derivative with dual JAK/Src kinase inhibitory activity, suppresses growth of diverse cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lucy; Gaboriaud, Nicolas; Vougogianopoulou, Konstantina; Tian, Yan; Wu, Jun; Wen, Wei; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Jove, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Janus kinase (JAK) and Src kinase are the two major tyrosine kinase families upstream of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT). Among the seven STAT family proteins, STAT3 is constitutively activated in many diverse cancers. Upon activation, JAK and Src kinases phosphorylate STAT3, and thereby promote cell growth and survival. MLS-2384 is a novel 6-bromoindirubin derivative with a bromo-group at the 6-position on one indole ring and a hydrophilic group at the 3'-position on the other indole ring. In this study, we investigated the kinase inhibitory activity and anticancer activity of MLS-2384. Our data from in vitro kinase assays, cell viability analyses, western blotting analyses, and animal model studies, demonstrate that MLS-2384 is a dual JAK/Src kinase inhibitor, and suppresses growth of various human cancer cells, such as prostate, breast, skin, ovarian, lung, and liver. Consistent with the inactivation of JAK and Src kinases, phosphorylation of STAT3 was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in the cancer cells treated with MLS-2384. STAT3 downstream proteins involved in cell proliferation and survival, such as c-Myc and Mcl-1, are downregulated by MLS-2384 in prostate cancer cells, whereas survivin is downregulated in A2058 cells. In these two cancer cell lines, PARP is cleaved, indicating that MLS-2384 induces apoptosis in human melanoma and prostate cancer cells. Importantly, MLS-2384 suppresses tumor growth with low toxicity in a mouse xenograft model of human melanoma. Taken together, MLS-2384 demonstrates dual JAK/Src inhibitory activity and suppresses tumor cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings support further development of MLS-2384 as a potential small-molecule therapeutic agent that targets JAK, Src, and STAT3 signaling in multiple human cancer cells.

  4. The lack of target specificity of small molecule anticancer kinase inhibitors is correlated with their ability to damage myocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Hasinoff, Brian B. Patel, Daywin

    2010-12-01

    Many new targeted small molecule anticancer kinase inhibitors are actively being developed. However, the clinical use of some kinase inhibitors has been shown to result in cardiotoxicity. In most cases the mechanisms by which they exert their cardiotoxicity are not well understood. We have used large scale profiling data on 8 FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors and 10 other kinase inhibitors to a panel of 317 kinases in order to correlate binding constants and kinase inhibitor binding selectivity scores with kinase inhibitor-induced damage to neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. The 18 kinase inhibitors that were the subject of this study were: canertinib, dasatinib, dovitinib, erlotinib, flavopiridol, gefitinib, imatinib, lapatinib, midostaurin, motesanib, pazopanib, sorafenib, staurosporine, sunitinib, tandutinib, tozasertib, vandetanib and vatalanib. The combined tyrosine kinase and serine-threonine kinase selectivity scores were highly correlated with the myocyte-damaging effects of the kinase inhibitors. This result suggests that myocyte damage was due to a lack of target selectivity to binding of both tyrosine kinases and serine-threonine kinases, and was not due to binding to either group specifically. Finally, the strength of kinase inhibitor binding for 290 kinases was examined for correlations with myocyte damage. Kinase inhibitor binding was significantly correlated with myocyte damage for 12 kinases. Thus, myocyte damage may be multifactorial in nature with the inhibition of a number of kinases involved in producing kinase inhibitor-induced myocyte damage.

  5. Inhibition of sphingosine kinase prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm birth and suppresses proinflammatory responses in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Vibhuti; Ashby, Charles R; Olgun, Nicole S; Sundaram, Sruthi; Salami, Oluwabukola; Munnangi, Swapna; Pekson, Ryan; Mahajan, Prathamesh; Reznik, Sandra E

    2015-03-01

    Premature delivery occurs in 12% of all births, and accounts for nearly half of long-term neurological morbidity, and 60% to 80% of perinatal mortality. Despite advances in obstetrics and neonatology, the rate of premature delivery has increased approximately 12% since 1990. The single most common cause of spontaneous preterm birth is infection. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated the role of endothelin-1 as both a constrictor of uterine myometrial smooth muscle and a proinflammatory mediator. Endothelin-1 activates the phospholipase C pathway, leading to activation of protein kinase C and, in turn, sphingosine kinase (SphK). The inhibition of SphK has been recently shown to control the proinflammatory response associated with sepsis. We show herein, for the first time, that SphK inhibition prevents inflammation-associated preterm birth in a murine model. Rescue of pups from premature abortion with an SphK inhibitor occurs by suppression of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α, Il-1β, and Il-6 and attenuation of polymorphonuclear inflammatory cells into the placental labyrinth. Moreover, we postulate that inhibition of SphK leads to suppression of endothelin-converting enzyme-1 expression, indicating the presence of an endothelin-converting enzyme 1/endothelin 1-SphK positive feedback loop. This work introduces a novel approach for the control of infection-triggered preterm labor, a condition for which there is no effective treatment.

  6. Crystal structure of a human cyclin-dependent kinase 6 complexwith a flavonol inhibitor, Fisetin

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Heshu; Chang, Debbie J.; Baratte, Blandine; Meijer, Laurent; Schulze-Gahmen, Ursula

    2005-01-10

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play a central role in cell cycle control, apoptosis, transcription and neuronal functions. They are important targets for the design of drugs with anti-mitotic and/or anti-neurodegenerative effects. CDK4 and CDK6 form a subfamily among the CDKs in mammalian cells, as defined by sequence similarities. Compared to CDK2 and CDK5, structural information on CDK4 and CDK6 is sparse. We describe here the crystal structure of human CDK6 in complex with a viral cyclin and a flavonol inhibitor, fisetin. Fisetin binds to the active form of CDK6, forming hydrogen bonds with the side chains of residues in the binding pocket that undergo large conformational changes during CDK activation by cyclin binding. The 4-keto group and the 3-hydroxyl group of fisetin are hydrogen bonded with the backbone in the hinge region between the N-terminal and C-terminal kinase domain, as has been observed for many CDK inhibitors. However, CDK2 and HCK kinase in complex with other flavone inhibitors such as quercetin and flavopiridol showed a different binding mode with the inhibitor rotated by about 180. The structural information of the CDK6-fisetin complex is correlated with the binding affinities of different flavone inhibitors for CDK6. This complex structure is the first description of an inhibitor complex with a kinase from the CDK4/6 subfamily and can provide a basis for selecting and designing inhibitor compounds with higher affinity and specificity.

  7. Reduced Proteolytic Shedding of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases is a Post-Translational Mechanism of Kinase Inhibitor Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Miles A.; Oudin, Madeleine J.; Sullivan, Ryan J.; Wang, Stephanie J.; Meyer, Aaron S.; Im, Hyungsoon; Frederick, Dennie T.; Tadros, Jenny; Griffith, Linda G.; Lee, Hakho; Weissleder, Ralph; Flaherty, Keith T.; Gertler, Frank B.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    Kinase inhibitor resistance often involves upregulation of poorly understood “bypass” signaling pathways. Here, we show that extracellular proteomic adaptation is one path to bypass signaling and drug resistance. Proteolytic shedding of surface receptors, which can provide negative feedback on signaling activity, is blocked by kinase inhibitor treatment and enhances bypass signaling. In particular, MEK inhibition broadly decreases shedding of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) including HER4, MET, and most prominently AXL, an ADAM10 and ADAM17 substrate, thus increasing surface RTK levels and mitogenic signaling. Progression-free survival of melanoma patients treated with clinical BRAF/MEK inhibitors inversely correlates with RTK shedding reduction following treatment, as measured non-invasively in blood plasma. Disrupting protease inhibition by neutralizing TIMP1 improves MAPK inhibitor efficacy, and combined MAPK/AXL inhibition synergistically reduces tumor growth and metastasis in xenograft models. Altogether, extracellular proteomic rewiring through reduced RTK shedding represents a surprising mechanism for bypass signaling in cancer drug resistance. PMID:26984351

  8. Temporal quantitation of mutant Kit tyrosine kinase signaling attenuated by a novel thiophene kinase inhibitor OSI-930.

    PubMed

    Petti, Filippo; Thelemann, April; Kahler, Jen; McCormack, Siobhan; Castaldo, Linda; Hunt, Tony; Nuwaysir, Lydia; Zeiske, Lynn; Haack, Herbert; Sullivan, Laura; Garton, Andrew; Haley, John D

    2005-08-01

    OSI-930, a potent thiophene inhibitor of the Kit, KDR, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, was used to selectively inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation downstream of juxtamembrane mutant Kit in the mast cell leukemia line HMC-1. Inhibition of Kit kinase activity resulted in a rapid dephosphorylation of Kit and inhibition of the downstream signaling pathways. Attenuation of Ras-Raf-Erk (phospho-Erk, phospho-p38), phosphatidyl inositol-3' kinase (phospho-p85, phospho-Akt, phospho-S6), and signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling pathways (phospho-STAT3/5/6) were measured by affinity liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, by immunoblot, and by tissue microarrays of fixed cell pellets. To more globally define additional components of Kit signaling temporally altered by kinase inhibition, a novel multiplex quantitative isobaric peptide labeling approach was used. This approach allowed clustering of proteins by temporal expression patterns. Kit kinase, which dephosphorylates rapidly upon kinase inhibition, was shown to regulate both Shp-1 and BDP-1 tyrosine phosphatases and the phosphatase-interacting protein PSTPIP2. Interactions with SH2 domain adapters [growth factor receptor binding protein 2 (Grb2), Cbl, Slp-76] and SH3 domain adapters (HS1, cortactin, CD2BP3) were attenuated by inhibition of Kit kinase activity. Functional crosstalk between Kit and the non-receptor tyrosine kinases Fes/Fps, Fer, Btk, and Syk was observed. Inhibition of Kit modulated phosphorylation-dependent interactions with pathways controlling focal adhesion (paxillin, leupaxin, p130CAS, FAK1, the Src family kinase Lyn, Wasp, Fhl-3, G25K, Ack-1, Nap1, SH3P12/ponsin) and septin-actin complexes (NEDD5, cdc11, actin). The combined use of isobaric protein quantitation and expression clustering, immunoblot, and tissue microarray strategies allowed temporal measurement signaling pathways modulated by mutant Kit inhibition in a model of mast cell

  9. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Suppression by WEE1 Kinase Protects the Genome through Control of Replication Initiation and Nucleotide Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Halfdan; Nähse-Kumpf, Viola; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; O'Hanlon, Karen A.; Patzke, Sebastian; Holmberg, Christian; Mejlvang, Jakob; Groth, Anja; Nielsen, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Activation of oncogenes or inhibition of WEE1 kinase deregulates cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity and leads to replication stress; however, the underlying mechanism is not understood. We now show that elevation of CDK activity by inhibition of WEE1 kinase rapidly increases initiation of replication. This leads to nucleotide shortage and reduces replication fork speed, which is followed by SLX4/MUS81-mediated DNA double-strand breakage. Fork speed is normalized and DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation is suppressed when CDT1, a key factor for replication initiation, is depleted. Furthermore, addition of nucleosides counteracts the effects of unscheduled CDK activity on fork speed and DNA DSB formation. Finally, we show that WEE1 regulates the ionizing radiation (IR)-induced S-phase checkpoint, consistent with its role in control of replication initiation. In conclusion, these results suggest that deregulated CDK activity, such as that occurring following inhibition of WEE1 kinase or activation of oncogenes, induces replication stress and loss of genomic integrity through increased firing of replication origins and subsequent nucleotide shortage. PMID:22907750

  10. Purine inhibitors of protein kinases, G proteins and polymerases

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Nathanael S.; Schultz, Peter; Kim, Sung-Hou; Meijer, Laurent

    2004-10-12

    The present invention relates to 2-N-substituted 6-(4-methoxybenzylamino)-9-isopropylpurines that inhibit, inter alia, protein kinases, G-proteins and polymerases. In addition, the present invention relates to methods of using such 2-N-substituted 6-(4-methoxybenzylamino)-9-isopropylpurines to inhibit protein kinases, G-proteins, polymerases and other cellular processes and to treat cellular proliferative diseases.

  11. Molecular Mechanism of Selectivity among G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Thal, David M.; Yeow, Raymond Y.; Schoenau, Christian; Huber, Jochen; Tesmer, John J.G.

    2012-07-11

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key regulators of cell physiology and control processes ranging from glucose homeostasis to contractility of the heart. A major mechanism for the desensitization of activated GPCRs is their phosphorylation by GPCR kinases (GRKs). Overexpression of GRK2 is strongly linked to heart failure, and GRK2 has long been considered a pharmaceutical target for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Several lead compounds developed by Takeda Pharmaceuticals show high selectivity for GRK2 and therapeutic potential for the treatment of heart failure. To understand how these drugs achieve their selectivity, we determined crystal structures of the bovine GRK2-G{beta}{gamma} complex in the presence of two of these inhibitors. Comparison with the apoGRK2-G{beta}{gamma} structure demonstrates that the compounds bind in the kinase active site in a manner similar to that of the AGC kinase inhibitor balanol. Both balanol and the Takeda compounds induce a slight closure of the kinase domain, the degree of which correlates with the potencies of the inhibitors. Based on our crystal structures and homology modeling, we identified five amino acids surrounding the inhibitor binding site that we hypothesized could contribute to inhibitor selectivity. However, our results indicate that these residues are not major determinants of selectivity among GRK subfamilies. Rather, selectivity is achieved by the stabilization of a unique inactive conformation of the GRK2 kinase domain.

  12. Benefits of targeting both pericytes and endothelial cells in the tumor vasculature with kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Bergers, Gabriele; Song, Steven; Meyer-Morse, Nicole; Bergsland, Emily; Hanahan, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Functions of receptor tyrosine kinases implicated in angiogenesis were pharmacologically impaired in a mouse model of pancreatic islet cancer. An inhibitor targeting VEGFRs in endothelial cells (SU5416) is effective against early-stage angiogenic lesions, but not large, well-vascularized tumors. In contrast, a kinase inhibitor incorporating selectivity for PDGFRs (SU6668) is shown to block further growth of end-stage tumors, eliciting detachment of pericytes and disruption of tumor vascularity. Importantly, PDGFRs were expressed only in perivascular cells of this tumor type, suggesting that PDGFR+ pericytes in tumors present a complimentary target to endothelial cells for efficacious antiangiogenic therapy. Therapeutic regimes combining the two kinase inhibitors (SU5416 and SU6668) were more efficacious against all stages of islet carcinogenesis than either single agent. Combination of the VEGFR inhibitor with another distinctive kinase inhibitor targeting PDGFR activity (Gleevec) was also able to regress late-stage tumors. Thus, combinatorial targeting of receptor tyrosine kinases shows promise for treating multiple stages in tumorigenesis, most notably the often-intractable late-stage solid tumor. PMID:12727920

  13. Targeting Cyclin-Dependent Kinases in Human Cancers: From Small Molecules to Peptide Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Peyressatre, Marion; Prével, Camille; Pellerano, Morgan; Morris, May C.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK/Cyclins) form a family of heterodimeric kinases that play central roles in regulation of cell cycle progression, transcription and other major biological processes including neuronal differentiation and metabolism. Constitutive or deregulated hyperactivity of these kinases due to amplification, overexpression or mutation of cyclins or CDK, contributes to proliferation of cancer cells, and aberrant activity of these kinases has been reported in a wide variety of human cancers. These kinases therefore constitute biomarkers of proliferation and attractive pharmacological targets for development of anticancer therapeutics. The structural features of several of these kinases have been elucidated and their molecular mechanisms of regulation characterized in depth, providing clues for development of drugs and inhibitors to disrupt their function. However, like most other kinases, they constitute a challenging class of therapeutic targets due to their highly conserved structural features and ATP-binding pocket. Notwithstanding, several classes of inhibitors have been discovered from natural sources, and small molecule derivatives have been synthesized through rational, structure-guided approaches or identified in high throughput screens. The larger part of these inhibitors target ATP pockets, but a growing number of peptides targeting protein/protein interfaces are being proposed, and a small number of compounds targeting allosteric sites have been reported. PMID:25625291

  14. BRAF kinase inhibitor exerts anti-tumor activity against breast cancer cells via inhibition of FGFR2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zong Xin; Jin, Wen Jun; Yang, Sheng; Ji, Cun Li

    2016-01-01

    Most anti-angiogenic therapies currently being evaluated in clinical trials targetvascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway; however, the tumor vasculature can acquire resistance to VEGF-targeted therapy by shifting to other angiogenesis mechanisms. Therefore, other potential therapeutic agents that block non-VEGF angiogenic pathways need to be evaluated. Here we identified BRAF kinase inhibitor, vemurafenibas an agent with potential anti-angiogenic and anti-breast cancer activities. Vemurafenib demonstrated inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in response to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). In ex vivo and in vivo angiogenesis assays, vemurafenib suppressed bFGF-induced microvessel sprouting of rat aortic rings and angiogenesis in vivo. To understand the underlying molecular basis, we examined the effects of vemurafenib on different molecular components in treated endothelial cell, and found that vemurafenib suppressed bFGF-triggered activation of FGFR2 and protein kinase B (AKT). Moreover, vemurafenib directly inhibited proliferation and blocked the oncogenic signaling pathways in breast cancer cell. In vivo, using xenograft models of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231, vemurafenib showed growth-inhibitory activity associated with inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate that vemurafenib targets the FGFR2-mediated AKT signaling pathway in endothelial cells, leading to the suppression of tumor growth and angiogenesis. PMID:27293997

  15. Unprecedently Large-Scale Kinase Inhibitor Set Enabling the Accurate Prediction of Compound–Kinase Activities: A Way toward Selective Promiscuity by Design?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Drug discovery programs frequently target members of the human kinome and try to identify small molecule protein kinase inhibitors, primarily for cancer treatment, additional indications being increasingly investigated. One of the challenges is controlling the inhibitors degree of selectivity, assessed by in vitro profiling against panels of protein kinases. We manually extracted, compiled, and standardized such profiles published in the literature: we collected 356 908 data points corresponding to 482 protein kinases, 2106 inhibitors, and 661 patents. We then analyzed this data set in terms of kinome coverage, results reproducibility, popularity, and degree of selectivity of both kinases and inhibitors. We used the data set to create robust proteochemometric models capable of predicting kinase activity (the ligand–target space was modeled with an externally validated RMSE of 0.41 ± 0.02 log units and R02 0.74 ± 0.03), in order to account for missing or unreliable measurements. The influence on the prediction quality of parameters such as number of measurements, Murcko scaffold frequency or inhibitor type was assessed. Interpretation of the models enabled to highlight inhibitors and kinases properties correlated with higher affinities, and an analysis in the context of kinases crystal structures was performed. Overall, the models quality allows the accurate prediction of kinase-inhibitor activities and their structural interpretation, thus paving the way for the rational design of compounds with a targeted selectivity profile. PMID:27482722

  16. Inflammation and bone erosion are suppressed in models of rheumatoid arthritis following treatment with a novel Syk inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Pine, Polly R; Chang, Betty; Schoettler, Nathan; Banquerigo, Mona L; Wang, Su; Lau, Angela; Zhao, Feifei; Grossbard, Elliott B; Payan, Donald G; Brahn, Ernest

    2007-09-01

    Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), a key mediator of immunoreceptor signaling in inflammatory cells, is essential for immune complex-mediated signal transduction initiated by activated receptors for immunoglobulin G. In collagen-induced arthritis, R788/R406, a novel and potent small molecule Syk inhibitor suppressed clinical arthritis, bone erosions, pannus formation, and synovitis. Serum anti-collagen type II antibody levels were unaltered, while the half-life of exogenous antibody was extended when co-administered with R406. Expression of the targeted kinase (Syk) in synovial tissue correlated with the joint level of inflammatory cell infiltrates and was virtually undetectable in treated rats. Syk inhibition suppressed synovial cytokines and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) in serum, suggesting a sensitive and reliable biomarker for R406 activity. These results highlight the role of activating Fcgamma receptors in inflammatory synovitis and suggest that interruption of the signaling cascade with a novel Syk inhibitor may be a useful addition to immunosuppressive disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs currently used in the treatment of human autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

  17. Structure and inhibitor specificity of the PCTAIRE-family kinase CDK16

    PubMed Central

    Dixon-Clarke, Sarah E.; Shehata, Saifeldin N.; Krojer, Tobias; Sharpe, Timothy D.; vonDelft, Frank; Sakamoto, Kei

    2017-01-01

    CDK16 (also known as PCTAIRE1 or PCTK1) is an atypical member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family that has emerged as a key regulator of neurite outgrowth, vesicle trafficking and cancer cell proliferation. CDK16 is activated through binding to cyclin Y via a phosphorylation-dependent 14-3-3 interaction and has a unique consensus substrate phosphorylation motif compared with conventional CDKs. To elucidate the structure and inhibitor-binding properties of this atypical CDK, we screened the CDK16 kinase domain against different inhibitor libraries and determined the co-structures of identified hits. We discovered that the ATP-binding pocket of CDK16 can accommodate both type I and type II kinase inhibitors. The most potent CDK16 inhibitors revealed by cell-free and cell-based assays were the multitargeted cancer drugs dabrafenib and rebastinib. An inactive DFG-out binding conformation was confirmed by the first crystal structures of CDK16 in separate complexes with the inhibitors indirubin E804 and rebastinib, respectively. The structures revealed considerable conformational plasticity, suggesting that the isolated CDK16 kinase domain was relatively unstable in the absence of a cyclin partner. The unusual structural features and chemical scaffolds identified here hold promise for the development of more selective CDK16 inhibitors and provide opportunity to better characterise the role of CDK16 and its related CDK family members in various physiological and pathological contexts. PMID:28057719

  18. Activation of Pim Kinases Is Sufficient to Promote Resistance to MET Small Molecule Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    An, Ningfei; Xiong, Ying; LaRue, Amanda C.; Kraft, Andrew S.; Cen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    MET blockade offers a new targeted therapy particularly in those cancers with MET amplification. However, the efficacy and the duration of the response to MET inhibitors are limited by the emergence of drug resistance. Here we report that resistance to small molecule inhibitors of MET can arise from increased expression of the pro-survival Pim protein kinases. This resistance mechanism was documented in non-small cell lung cancer and gastric cancer cells with MET amplification. Inhibition of Pim kinases enhanced cell death triggered by short-term treatment with MET inhibitors. Pim kinases control the translation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 at an internal ribosome entry site and this mechanism was identified as the basis for Pim-mediated resistance to MET inhibitors. Protein synthesis was increased in drug-resistant cells, secondary to a Pim-mediated increase in cap-independent translation. In cells rendered drug resistant by chronic treatment with MET inhibitors, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of Pim kinases was sufficient to restore sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our results rationalize Pim inhibition as a strategy to augment responses and blunt acquired resistance to MET inhibitors in cancer. PMID:26670562

  19. Structure and inhibitor specificity of the PCTAIRE-family kinase CDK16.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Clarke, Sarah E; Shehata, Saifeldin N; Krojer, Tobias; Sharpe, Timothy D; von Delft, Frank; Sakamoto, Kei; Bullock, Alex N

    2017-02-20

    CDK16 (also known as PCTAIRE1 or PCTK1) is an atypical member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family that has emerged as a key regulator of neurite outgrowth, vesicle trafficking and cancer cell proliferation. CDK16 is activated through binding to cyclin Y via a phosphorylation-dependent 14-3-3 interaction and has a unique consensus substrate phosphorylation motif compared with conventional CDKs. To elucidate the structure and inhibitor-binding properties of this atypical CDK, we screened the CDK16 kinase domain against different inhibitor libraries and determined the co-structures of identified hits. We discovered that the ATP-binding pocket of CDK16 can accommodate both type I and type II kinase inhibitors. The most potent CDK16 inhibitors revealed by cell-free and cell-based assays were the multitargeted cancer drugs dabrafenib and rebastinib. An inactive DFG-out binding conformation was confirmed by the first crystal structures of CDK16 in separate complexes with the inhibitors indirubin E804 and rebastinib, respectively. The structures revealed considerable conformational plasticity, suggesting that the isolated CDK16 kinase domain was relatively unstable in the absence of a cyclin partner. The unusual structural features and chemical scaffolds identified here hold promise for the development of more selective CDK16 inhibitors and provide opportunity to better characterise the role of CDK16 and its related CDK family members in various physiological and pathological contexts.

  20. Nemo-like kinase (NLK) expression in osteoblastic cells and suppression of osteoblastic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nifuji, Akira; Ideno, Hisashi; Ohyama, Yoshio; Takanabe, Rieko; Araki, Ryoko; Abe, Masumi; Noda, Masaki; Shibuya, Hiroshi

    2010-04-15

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate proliferation and differentiation in osteoblasts. The vertebral homologue of nemo, nemo-like kinase (NLK), is an atypical MAPK that targets several signaling components, including the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/Lef1) transcription factor. Recent studies have shown that NLK forms a complex with the histone H3-K9 methyltransferase SETDB1 and suppresses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma:: action in the mesenchymal cell line ST2. Here we investigated whether NLK regulates osteoblastic differentiation. We showed that NLK mRNA is expressed in vivo in osteoblasts at embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5) mouse calvariae. By using retrovirus vectors, we performed forced expression of NLK in primary calvarial osteoblasts (pOB cells) and the mesenchymal cell line ST2. Wild-type NLK (NLK-WT) suppressed alkaline phosphatase activity and expression of bone marker genes such as alkaline phosphatase, type I procollagen, runx2, osterix, steopontin and osteocalcin in these cells. NLK-WT also decreased type I collagen protein expression in pOB and ST2 cells. Furthermore, mineralized nodule formation was reduced in pOB cells overexpressing NLK-WT. In contrast, kinase-negative form of NLK (NLK-KN) did not suppress or partially suppress ALP activity and bone marker gene expression in pOB and ST2 cells. NLK-KN did not suppress nodule formation in pOB cells. In addition to forced expression, suppression of endogenous NLK expression by siRNA increased bone marker gene expression in pOB and ST2 cells. Finally, transcriptional activity analysis of gene promoters revealed that NLK-WT suppressed Wnt1 activation of TOP flash promoter and Runx2 activation of the osteocalcin promoter. Taken together, these results suggest that NLK negatively regulates osteoblastic differentiation.

  1. Nemo-like kinase (NLK) expression in osteoblastic cells and suppression of osteoblastic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Nifuji, Akira; Ideno, Hisashi; Ohyama, Yoshio; Takanabe, Rieko; Araki, Ryoko; Abe, Masumi; Noda, Masaki; Shibuya, Hiroshi

    2010-04-15

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate proliferation and differentiation in osteoblasts. The vertebral homologue of nemo, nemo-like kinase (NLK), is an atypical MAPK that targets several signaling components, including the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/Lef1) transcription factor. Recent studies have shown that NLK forms a complex with the histone H3-K9 methyltransferase SETDB1 and suppresses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma:: action in the mesenchymal cell line ST2. Here we investigated whether NLK regulates osteoblastic differentiation. We showed that NLK mRNA is expressed in vivo in osteoblasts at embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5) mouse calvariae. By using retrovirus vectors, we performed forced expression of NLK in primary calvarial osteoblasts (pOB cells) and the mesenchymal cell line ST2. Wild-type NLK (NLK-WT) suppressed alkaline phosphatase activity and expression of bone marker genes such as alkaline phosphatase, type I procollagen, runx2, osterix, steopontin and osteocalcin in these cells. NLK-WT also decreased type I collagen protein expression in pOB and ST2 cells. Furthermore, mineralized nodule formation was reduced in pOB cells overexpressing NLK-WT. In contrast, kinase-negative form of NLK (NLK-KN) did not suppress or partially suppress ALP activity and bone marker gene expression in pOB and ST2 cells. NLK-KN did not suppress nodule formation in pOB cells. In addition to forced expression, suppression of endogenous NLK expression by siRNA increased bone marker gene expression in pOB and ST2 cells. Finally, transcriptional activity analysis of gene promoters revealed that NLK-WT suppressed Wnt1 activation of TOP flash promoter and Runx2 activation of the osteocalcin promoter. Taken together, these results suggest that NLK negatively regulates osteoblastic differentiation.

  2. Glycogen synthase kinasesuppresses polyglutamine aggregation by inhibiting Vaccinia-related kinase 2 activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunju; Ryu, Hye Guk; Kim, Sangjune; Lee, Dohyun; Jeong, Young-Hun; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by an abnormal expansion of polyglutamine repeats in the N-terminal of huntingtin. The amount of aggregate-prone protein is controlled by various mechanisms, including molecular chaperones. Vaccinia-related kinase 2 (VRK2) is known to negatively regulate chaperonin TRiC, and VRK2-facilitated degradation of TRiC increases polyQ protein aggregation, which is involved in HD. We found that VRK2 activity was negatively controlled by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). GSK3β directly bound to VRK2 and inhibited the catalytic activity of VRK2 in a kinase activity-independent manner. Furthermore, GSK3β increased the stability of TRiC and decreased the formation of HttQ103-GFP aggregates by inhibiting VRK2. These results indicate that GSK3β signaling may be a regulatory mechanism of HD progression and suggest targets for further therapeutic trials for HD. PMID:27377031

  3. Oncogenic roles of TOPK and MELK, and effective growth suppression by small molecular inhibitors in kidney cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kato, Taigo; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Imoto, Seiya; Tamada, Yoshinori; Miyamoto, Takashi; Matsuo, Yo; Nakamura, Yusuke; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2016-04-05

    T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) and maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) have been reported to play critical roles in cancer cell proliferation and maintenance of stemness. In this study, we investigated possible roles of TOPK and MELK in kidney cancer cells and found their growth promotive effect as well as some feedback mechanism between these two molecules. Interestingly, the blockade of either of these two kinases effectively caused downregulation of forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) activity which is known as an oncogenic transcriptional factor in various types of cancer cells. Small molecular compound inhibitors against TOPK (OTS514) and MELK (OTS167) effectively suppressed the kidney cancer cell growth, and the combination of these two compounds additively worked and showed the very strong growth suppressive effect on kidney cancer cells. Collectively, our results suggest that both TOPK and MELK are promising molecular targets for kidney cancer treatment and that dual blockade of OTS514 and OTS167 may bring additive anti-tumor effects with low risk of side effects.

  4. Aurora kinase inhibitors--rising stars in cancer therapeutics?

    PubMed

    Dar, Altaf A; Goff, Laura W; Majid, Shahana; Berlin, Jordan; El-Rifai, Wael

    2010-02-01

    Standard therapeutic approaches of cytotoxics and radiation in cancer are not only highly toxic, but also of limited efficacy in treatment of a significant number of cancer patients. The molecular analysis of the cancer genomes have shown a remarkable complexity and pointed to key genomic and epigenomic alterations in cancer. These discoveries are paving the way for targeted therapy approaches. However, although there are a large number of potential targets, only a few can regulate key cellular functions and intersect multiple signaling networks. The Aurora kinase family members (A, B, and C) are a collection of highly related and conserved serine-threonine kinases that fulfill these criteria, being key regulators of mitosis and multiple signaling pathways. Alterations in Aurora kinase signaling are associated with mitotic errors and have been closely linked to chromosomal aneuploidy in cancer cells. Several studies have shown amplification and/or overexpression of Aurora kinase A and B in hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Over the past several years, Aurora kinases have become attractive targets. Several ongoing clinical trials and bench-based research are assessing the unique therapeutic potential of Aurora-based targeted therapy.

  5. A novel transmembrane Ser/Thr kinase complexes with protein phosphatase-1 and inhibitor-2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Brautigan, David L

    2002-12-20

    Protein kinases and protein phosphatases exert coordinated control over many essential cellular processes. Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of a novel human transmembrane protein KPI-2 (Kinase/Phosphatase/Inhibitor-2) that was identified by yeast two-hybrid using protein phosphatase inhibitor-2 (Inh2) as bait. KPI-2 mRNA was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. KPI-2 is a 1503-residue protein with two predicted transmembrane helices at the N terminus, a kinase domain, followed by a C-terminal domain. The transmembrane helices were sufficient for targeting proteins to the membrane. KPI-2 kinase domain has about 60% identity with its closest relative, a tyrosine kinase. However, it only exhibited serine/threonine kinase activity in autophosphorylation reactions or with added substrates. KPI-2 kinase domain phosphorylated protein phosphatase-1 (PP1C) at Thr(320), which attenuated PP1C activity. KPI-2 C-terminal domain directly associated with PP1C, and this required a VTF motif. Inh2 associated with KPI-2 C-terminal domain with and without PP1C. Thus, KPI-2 is a kinase with sites to associate with PP1C and Inh2 to form a regulatory complex that is localized to membranes.

  6. Structural insight into selectivity and resistance profiles of ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Davare, Monika A.; Vellore, Nadeem A.; Wagner, Jacob P.; Eide, Christopher A.; Goodman, James R.; Drilon, Alexander; Deininger, Michael W.; O’Hare, Thomas; Druker, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic ROS1 fusion proteins are molecular drivers in multiple malignancies, including a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The phylogenetic proximity of the ROS1 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) catalytic domains led to the clinical repurposing of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved ALK inhibitor crizotinib as a ROS1 inhibitor. Despite the antitumor activity of crizotinib observed in both ROS1- and ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients, resistance due to acquisition of ROS1 or ALK kinase domain mutations has been observed clinically, spurring the development of second-generation inhibitors. Here, we profile the sensitivity and selectivity of seven ROS1 and/or ALK inhibitors at various levels of clinical development. In contrast to crizotinib’s dual ROS1/ALK activity, cabozantinib (XL-184) and its structural analog foretinib (XL-880) demonstrate a striking selectivity for ROS1 over ALK. Molecular dynamics simulation studies reveal structural features that distinguish the ROS1 and ALK kinase domains and contribute to differences in binding site and kinase selectivity of the inhibitors tested. Cell-based resistance profiling studies demonstrate that the ROS1-selective inhibitors retain efficacy against the recently reported CD74-ROS1G2032R mutant whereas the dual ROS1/ALK inhibitors are ineffective. Taken together, inhibitor profiling and stringent characterization of the structure–function differences between the ROS1 and ALK kinase domains will facilitate future rational drug design for ROS1- and ALK-driven NSCLC and other malignancies. PMID:26372962

  7. 3-Cyano-6-(5-methyl-3-pyrazoloamino) pyridines (Part 2): A dual inhibitor of Aurora kinase and tubulin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Masahiko

    2016-12-15

    A new class of a dual inhibitor of Aurora kinase and tubulin polymerization was created by introducing various substituted phenoxyethylamino or pyridyloxyethylamino groups to the 2-position of 3-cyano-4-methyl-6-(5-methyl-3-pyrazoloamino)-pyridine. Compound 3g exhibited Aurora kinase inhibition, excellent protein kinase selectivity to Aurora kinase in comparison with 66 other kinases, inhibition of phosphorylation of Ser10 of histone H3 as an Aurora kinase inhibitor, inhibition of tubulin polymerization in vitro, good cell membrane permeability, and a good PK profile. Therefore compound 3g was effective in some antitumor mouse models at a dose of 30mg/kgpoqd.

  8. Recent developments in the chromatographic bioanalysis of approved kinase inhibitor drugs in oncology.

    PubMed

    Rood, Johannes J M; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Sparidans, Rolf W

    2016-10-25

    In recent years (2010-present) there has been an increase in the number of publications reporting the development, validation and use of bioanalytical methods in the rapidly expanding drug class of small molecule protein kinase inhibitors. Most reports describe the technological set-up of the methods that have allowed for drug concentration measurements from various sample types. This includes plasma, dried blood-spot, and tissue-analysis. Also method development, exploration of various techniques, as well as measurement and identification of metabolites were addressed. For the bioanalysis, a variety of sample-pretreatment methods like protein-precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, and solid-phase extraction have been employed, all varying in complexity, cleanliness and time-consumption. Chromatographic separation, nowadays, is more focused on separating components from ion-suppressive effects, since for MS/MS detection, various components do not have to be baseline separated. For detection multiple types of detectors were used, ranging from state-of-the-art high resolution, and tandem mass spectrometry with low picogram per milliliter detection limits to the classical UV-detector with several nanograms per milliliter limits. As new bioanalytical methods have arisen that do rely on chromatographic separation, for example for high-throughput analysis, these are addressed in this review as well.

  9. Discovery of Small Molecule Mer Kinase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic Mer expression promotes pro-survival signaling and contributes to leukemogenesis and chemoresistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Consequently, Mer kinase inhibitors may promote leukemic cell death and further act as chemosensitizers increasing efficacy and reducing toxicities of current ALL regimens. We have applied a structure-based design approach to discover novel small molecule Mer kinase inhibitors. Several pyrazolopyrimidine derivatives effectively inhibit Mer kinase activity at subnanomolar concentrations. Furthermore, the lead compound shows a promising selectivity profile against a panel of 72 kinases and has excellent pharmacokinetic properties. We also describe the crystal structure of the complex between the lead compound and Mer, opening new opportunities for further optimization and new template design. PMID:22662287

  10. Discovery of Novel Small Molecule Mer Kinase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Yang, Chao; Simpson, Catherine; Deryckere, Deborah; Van Deusen, Amy; Miley, Michael J; Kireev, Dmitri; Norris-Drouin, Jacqueline; Sather, Susan; Hunter, Debra; Korboukh, Victoria K; Patel, Hari S; Janzen, William P; Machius, Mischa; Johnson, Gary L; Earp, H Shelton; Graham, Douglas K; Frye, Stephen V; Wang, Xiaodong

    2012-02-09

    Ectopic Mer expression promotes pro-survival signaling and contributes to leukemogenesis and chemoresistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Consequently, Mer kinase inhibitors may promote leukemic cell death and further act as chemosensitizers increasing efficacy and reducing toxicities of current ALL regimens. We have applied a structure-based design approach to discover novel small molecule Mer kinase inhibitors. Several pyrazolopyrimidine derivatives effectively inhibit Mer kinase activity at sub-nanomolar concentrations. Furthermore, the lead compound shows a promising selectivity profile against a panel of 72 kinases and has excellent pharmacokinetic properties. We also describe the crystal structure of the complex between the lead compound and Mer, opening new opportunities for further optimization and new template design.

  11. Recent advances in the development of Aurora kinases inhibitors in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Choudary, Iqra; Barr, Paul M; Friedberg, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Over the last two decades, since the discovery of Drosophila mutants in 1995, much effort has been made to understand Aurora kinase biology. Three mammalian subtypes have been identified thus far which include the Aurora A, B and C kinases. These regulatory proteins specifically work at the cytoskeleton and chromosomal structures between the kinetochores and have vital functions in the early phases of the mitotic cell cycle. Today, there are multiple phase I and phase II clinical trials as well as numerous preclinical studies taking place looking at Aurora kinase inhibitors in both hematologic and solid malignancies. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical development of Aurora kinase inhibitors in hematological malignancy and discusses their therapeutic potential.

  12. Recent advances in the development of Aurora kinases inhibitors in hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Choudary, Iqra; Barr, Paul M.; Friedberg, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, since the discovery of Drosophila mutants in 1995, much effort has been made to understand Aurora kinase biology. Three mammalian subtypes have been identified thus far which include the Aurora A, B and C kinases. These regulatory proteins specifically work at the cytoskeleton and chromosomal structures between the kinetochores and have vital functions in the early phases of the mitotic cell cycle. Today, there are multiple phase I and phase II clinical trials as well as numerous preclinical studies taking place looking at Aurora kinase inhibitors in both hematologic and solid malignancies. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical development of Aurora kinase inhibitors in hematological malignancy and discusses their therapeutic potential. PMID:26622997

  13. Lichen planopilaris-like eruption during treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib*

    PubMed Central

    Leitão, Juliana Ribeiro; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai; Kakizaki, Priscila; Veronez, Isis Suga; Pires, Mario Cezar

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are effective as a target therapy for malignant neoplasms. Imatinib was the first tyrosine kinase inhibitor used. After its introduction, several other drugs have appeared with a similar mechanism of action, but less prone to causing resistance. Even though these drugs are selective, their toxicity does not exclusively target cancer cells, and skin toxicity is the most common non-hematologic adverse effect. We report an eruption similar to lichen planopilaris that developed during therapy with nilotinib, a second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia resistant to imatinib. In a literature review, we found only one report of non-scarring alopecia due to the use of nilotinib.

  14. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Crissman, Harry A.; Gadbois, Donna M.; Tobey, Robert A.; Bradbury, E. Morton

    1993-01-01

    A G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G.sub.1 cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G.sub.1 phase, suggesting that such G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  15. Science Signaling Podcast for 15 November 2016: A new type of kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit; VanHook, Annalisa M

    2016-11-15

    This Podcast features an interview with Hagit Eldar-Finkelman, author of a Research Article that appears in the 15 November 2016 issue of Science Signaling, about a newly developed inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). GSK-3 participates in several signaling networks and has been implicated in various pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases, cognitive impairments, and cancer. Licht-Murava et al developed L807mts, a substrate-competitive peptide inhibitor that blocks GSK-3 activity through an unusual mechanism. L807mts not only bound to the substrate recognition domain of GSK-3, it was also phosphorylated by the kinase. This phosphorylated form of L807mts remained associated with GSK-3 and inhibited GSK-3 activity. L807mts treatment reduced cellular, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. L807mts is an advance in kinase inhibitor development because it is both highly specific and very potent.Listen to Podcast.

  16. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1993-02-09

    A G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G[sub 1] cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G[sub 1] phase, suggesting that such G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  17. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1991-12-31

    A G{sub 1} phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G{sub 1} phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G{sub 1} cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G{sub 1} phase, suggesting that such G{sub 1} phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  18. A first generation inhibitor of human Greatwall kinase, enabled by structural and functional characterisation of a minimal kinase domain construct

    PubMed Central

    Ocasio, Cory A.; Rajasekaran, Mohan B.; Walker, Sarah; Le Grand, Darren; Spencer, John; Pearl, Frances M.G.; Ward, Simon E.; Savic, Velibor; Pearl, Laurence H.; Hochegger, Helfrid; Oliver, Antony W.

    2016-01-01

    MASTL (microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase-like), more commonly known as Greatwall (GWL), has been proposed as a novel cancer therapy target. GWL plays a crucial role in mitotic progression, via its known substrates ENSA/ARPP19, which when phosphorylated inactivate PP2A/B55 phosphatase. When over-expressed in breast cancer, GWL induces oncogenic properties such as transformation and invasiveness. Conversely, down-regulation of GWL selectively sensitises tumour cells to chemotherapy. Here we describe the first structure of the GWL minimal kinase domain and development of a small-molecule inhibitor GKI-1 (Greatwall Kinase Inhibitor-1). In vitro, GKI-1 inhibits full-length human GWL, and shows cellular efficacy. Treatment of HeLa cells with GKI-1 reduces ENSA/ARPP19 phosphorylation levels, such that they are comparable to those obtained by siRNA depletion of GWL; resulting in a decrease in mitotic events, mitotic arrest/cell death and cytokinesis failure. Furthermore, GKI-1 will be a useful starting point for the development of more potent and selective GWL inhibitors. PMID:27563826

  19. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling in tumor cells by small molecule Src family kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bartscht, Tobias; Rosien, Benjamin; Rades, Dirk; Kaufmann, Roland; Biersack, Harald; Lehnerta, Hendrik; Ungefroren, Hendrik

    2017-01-02

    In a series of studies carried out over the last couple of years in various cell types, it was observed that the experimentally used Src family kinase inhibitors PP1 and PP2 and the clinically used Src/Abl inhibitors AZM475271 and dasatinib are potent inhibitors of TGF-β mediated cellular responses such as Smad and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, Smad-dependent transcriptional activation, growth inhibition, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cell motility. While for PP1/PP2 it was demonstrated shown that these agents directly inhibit the kinase activity of the TGF-β type I receptor activin receptor-like kinase 5, the mechanism of the anti-TGF-β effect of AZM475271 and dasatinib is less clear. In contrast, the anti-TGF-β effect of yet another Src/Abl inhibitor, bosutinib, is more variable with respect to the type of the TGF-β response and the cell type affected, and lacks a clear dose-dependency. In the light of their strong anti-activin receptor-like kinase 5 kinase effect, PP1 and PP2 should not be used when studying the role of c-Src as downstream mediators in TGF-β/activin receptor-like kinase 5 signaling. On the other hand, based upon in vitro findings, it is conceivable that part of the therapeutic effects of AZM475271 and dasatinib seen in preclinical and clinical studies with solid tumors was caused by inhibition of prometastatic TGF-β rather than Src signaling. If AZM475271 and dasatinib can indeed act as dual Src / TGF-β inhibitors in vivo, this may be beneficial for prevention of metastatic disease in more advanced tumor stages.

  20. "Addition" and "Subtraction": Selectivity Design for Type II Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Giraldes, John; Sprague, Elizabeth R; Shakya, Subarna; Chen, Zhuoliang; Wang, Yaping; Joud, Carol; Mathieu, Simon; Chen, Christine Hiu-Tung; Straub, Christopher; Duca, Jose; Hurov, Kristen; Yuan, Yanqiu; Shao, Wenlin; Touré, B Barry

    2017-03-09

    While adding the structural features that are more favored by on-target activity is the more common strategy in selectivity optimization, the opposite strategy of subtracting the structural features that contribute more to off-target activity can also be very effective. Reported here is our successful effort of improving the kinase selectivity of type II maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase inhibitors by applying these two complementary approaches together, which clearly demonstrates the powerful synergy between them.

  1. Chemical inhibitors of c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase stimulate osteoblast differentiation and bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Woo; Nam Lee, Mi; Jeong, Byung-Chul; Oh, Sin-Hye; Kook, Min-Suk; Koh, Jeong-Tae

    2017-03-16

    The c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), have been recently introduced to negatively regulate bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced osteogenesis. However, the effect of chemical inhibitors of c-Met receptor on osteoblast differentiation process has not been examined, especially the applicability of c-Met chemical inhibitors on in vivo bone regeneration. In this study, we demonstrated that chemical inhibitors of c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase, SYN1143 and SGX523, could potentiate the differentiation of precursor cells to osteoblasts and stimulate regeneration in calvarial bone defects of mice. Treatment with SYN1143 or SGX523 inhibited HGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation in MC3T3-E1 and C3H10T1/2 cells. Cell proliferation of MC3T3-E1 or C3H10T1/2 was not significantly affected by the concentrations of these inhibitors. Co-treatment with chemical inhibitor of c-Met and osteogenic inducing media enhanced osteoblast-specific genes expression and calcium nodule formation accompanied by increased Runx2 expression via c-Met receptor-dependent but Erk-Smad signaling independent pathway. Notably, the administration of these c-Met inhibitors significantly repaired critical-sized calvarial bone defects. Collectively, our results suggest that chemical inhibitors of c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase might be used as novel therapeutics to induce bone regeneration.

  2. Are Accurins the cure for Aurora kinase inhibitors?

    PubMed

    Bearss, David J

    2016-02-10

    A nanoparticle formulation of an Aurora B inhibitor increases antitumor efficacy and reduces toxicity, which may be a precedent for the use of this technology with other small molecules (Ashton et al., this issue).

  3. Crystal structures of the S6K1 kinase domain in complexes with inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Hideaki; Mikuni, Junko; Sasaki, Shunta; Tomabechi, Yuri; Honda, Keiko; Ikeda, Mariko; Ohsawa, Noboru; Wakiyama, Motoaki; Handa, Noriko; Shirouzu, Mikako; Honma, Teruki; Tanaka, Akiko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-09-01

    Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays an important role in the PIK3/mTOR signaling pathway, and is implicated in diseases including diabetes, obesity, and cancer. The crystal structures of the S6K1 kinase domain in complexes with staurosporine and the S6K1-specific inhibitor PF-4708671 have been reported. In the present study, five compounds (F108, F109, F176, F177, and F179) were newly identified by in silico screening of a chemical library and kinase assay. The crystal structures of the five inhibitors in complexes with the S6K1 kinase domain were determined at resolutions between 1.85 and 2.10 Å. All of the inhibitors bound to the ATP binding site, lying along the P-loop, while the activation loop stayed in the inactive form. Compound F179, with a carbonyl group in the middle of the molecule, altered the αC helix conformation by interacting with the invariant Lys123. Compounds F176 and F177 bound slightly distant from the hinge region, and their sulfoamide groups formed polar interactions with the protein. The structural features required for the specific binding of inhibitors are discussed.

  4. Targeting kinases with anilinopyrimidines: discovery of N-phenyl-N’-[4-(pyrimidin-4-ylamino)phenyl]urea derivatives as selective inhibitors of class III receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Gandin, Valentina; Ferrarese, Alessandro; Dalla Via, Martina; Marzano, Cristina; Chilin, Adriana; Marzaro, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Kinase inhibitors are attractive drugs/drug candidates for the treatment of cancer. The most recent literature has highlighted the importance of multi target kinase inhibitors, although a correct balance between specificity and non-specificity is required. In this view, the discovery of multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitors with subfamily selectivity is a challenging goal. Herein we present the synthesis and the preliminary kinase profiling of a set of novel 4-anilinopyrimidines. Among the synthesized compounds, the N-phenyl-N’-[4-(pyrimidin-4-ylamino)phenyl]urea derivatives selectively targeted some members of class III receptor tyrosine kinase family. Starting from the structure of hit compound 19 we synthesized a further compound with an improved affinity toward the class III receptor tyrosine kinase members and endowed with a promising antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo in a murine solid tumor model. Molecular modeling simulations were used in order to rationalize the behavior of the title compounds. PMID:26568452

  5. Novel N9-arenethenyl purines as potent dual Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yihan; Shakespeare, William C; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Lentini, Scott; Das, Sasmita; Liu, Shuangying; Banda, Geeta; Wen, David; Zhu, Xiaotian; Xu, Qihong; Keats, Jeffrey; Wang, Frank; Wardwell, Scott; Ning, Yaoyu; Snodgrass, Joseph T; Broudy, Mark I; Russian, Karin; Dalgarno, David; Clackson, Tim; Sawyer, Tomi K

    2008-09-01

    Novel N(9)-arenethenyl purines, optimized potent dual Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors, are described. The key structural feature is a trans vinyl linkage at N(9) on the purine core which projects hydrophobic substituents into the selectivity pocket at the rear of the ATP site. Their synthesis was achieved through a Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction of N(9)-phosphorylmethylpurines and substituted benzaldehydes or Heck reactions between 9-vinyl purines and aryl halides. Most compounds are potent inhibitors of both Src and Abl kinase, and several possess good oral bioavailability.

  6. Preclinical testing of selective Aurora kinase inhibitors on a medullary thyroid carcinoma-derived cell line.

    PubMed

    Tuccilli, Chiara; Baldini, Enke; Prinzi, Natalie; Morrone, Stefania; Sorrenti, Salvatore; Filippini, Angelo; Catania, Antonio; Alessandrini, Stefania; Rendina, Roberta; Coccaro, Carmela; D'Armiento, Massimino; Ulisse, Salvatore

    2016-05-01

    Deregulated expression of the Aurora kinases (Aurora-A, B, and C) is thought to be involved in cell malignant transformation and genomic instability in several cancer types. Over the last decade, a number of small-molecule inhibitors of Aurora kinases have been developed, which have proved to efficiently restrain malignant cell growth and tumorigenicity. Regarding medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), we previously showed the efficacy of a pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor (MK-0457) in impairing growth and survival of the MTC-derived cell line TT. In the present study, we sought to establish if one of the Aurora kinases might represent a preferential target for MTC therapy. The effects of selective inhibitors of Aurora-A (MLN8237) and Aurora-B (AZD1152) were analyzed on TT cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and ploidy. The two inhibitors reduced TT cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with IC50 of 19.0 ± 2.4 nM for MLN8237 and 401.6 ± 44.1 nM for AZD1152. Immunofluorescence experiments confirmed that AZD1152 inhibited phosphorylation of histone H3 (Ser10) by Aurora-B, while it did not affect Aurora-A autophosphorylation. MLN8237 inhibited Aurora-A autophosphorylation as expected, but at concentrations required to achieve the maximum antiproliferative effects it also abolished H3 (Ser10) phosphorylation. Cytofluorimetry experiments showed that both inhibitors induced accumulation of cells in G2/M phase and increased the subG0/G1 fraction and polyploidy. Finally, both inhibitors triggered apoptosis. We demonstrated that inhibition of either Aurora-A or Aurora-B has antiproliferative effects on TT cells, and thus it would be worthwhile to further investigate the therapeutical potential of Aurora kinase inhibitors in MTC treatment.

  7. Suppression of microRNAs by dual-targeting and clustered Tough Decoy inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hollensen, Anne Kruse; Bak, Rasmus O.; Haslund, Didde; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ubiquitous regulators of gene expression that contribute to almost any cellular process. Methods for managing of miRNA activity are attracting increasing attention in relation to diverse experimental and therapeutic applications. DNA-encoded miRNA inhibitors expressed from plasmid or virus-based vectors provide persistent miRNA suppression and options of tissue-directed micromanaging. In this report, we explore the potential of exploiting short, hairpin-shaped RNAs for simultaneous suppression of two or more miRNAs. Based on the “Tough Decoy” (TuD) design, we create dual-targeting hairpins carrying two miRNA recognition sites and demonstrate potent co-suppression of different pairs of unrelated miRNAs by a single DNA-encoded inhibitor RNA. In addition, enhanced miRNA suppression is achieved by expression of RNA polymerase II-transcribed inhibitors carrying clustered TuD hairpins with up to a total of eight miRNA recognition sites. Notably, by expressing clustered TuD inhibitors harboring a single recognition site for each of a total of six miRNAs, we document robust parallel suppression of multiple miRNAs by inhibitor RNA molecules encoded by a single expression cassette. These findings unveil a new potential of TuD-based miRNA inhibitors and pave the way for standardizing synchronized suppression of families or clusters of miRNAs. PMID:23324610

  8. A novel Pim-1 kinase inhibitor targeting residues that bind the substrate peptide.

    PubMed

    Tsuganezawa, Keiko; Watanabe, Hisami; Parker, Lorien; Yuki, Hitomi; Taruya, Shigenao; Nakagawa, Yukari; Kamei, Daisuke; Mori, Masumi; Ogawa, Naoko; Tomabechi, Yuri; Handa, Noriko; Honma, Teruki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Okabe, Takayoshi; Nagano, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Akiko

    2012-03-30

    A new screening method using fluorescent correlation spectroscopy was developed to select kinase inhibitors that competitively inhibit the binding of a fluorescently labeled substrate peptide. Using the method, among approximately 700 candidate compounds selected by virtual screening, we identified a novel Pim-1 kinase inhibitor targeting its peptide binding residues. X-ray crystal analysis of the complex structure of Pim-1 with the inhibitor indicated that the inhibitor actually binds to the ATP-binding site and also forms direct interactions with residues (Asp128 and Glu171) that bind the substrate peptide. These interactions, which cause small side-chain movements, seem to affect the binding ability of the fluorescently labeled substrate. The compound inhibited Pim-1 kinase in vitro, with an IC(50) value of 150 nM. Treatment of cultured leukemia cells with the compound reduced the amount of p21 and increased the amount of p27, due to Pim-1 inhibition, and then triggered apoptosis after cell-cycle arrest at the G(1)/S phase. This screening method may be widely applicable for the identification of various new Pim-1 kinase inhibitors targeting the residues that bind the substrate peptide.

  9. Deguelin Potentiates Apoptotic Activity of an EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (AG1478) in PIK3CA-Mutated Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Yuh; Maeda, Toyonobu; Suzuki, Atsuko; Takada, Satoshi; Fujii, Masato; Kato, Yasumasa

    2017-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is known to be intrinsically resistant to inhibitors for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Until now, clinical outcomes for HNSCC using EGFR inhibitors as single agents have yielded disappointing results. Here, we aimed to study whether combinatorial treatment using AG1478 (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and deguelin, which is a rotenoid isolated from the African plant Mundulea sericea, could enhance the anti-tumor effects of AG1478 in HNSCC. For Ca9-22 cells with EGFR, KRAS, and PIK3CA wild types, AG1478 alone suppressed both phosphorylated levels of ERK and AKT and induced apoptosis. On the contrary, for HSC-4 cells with EGFR and KRAS wild types, and a PIK3CA mutant, AG1478 alone did not suppress the phosphorylated level of AKT nor induce apoptosis, while it suppressed ERK phosphorylation. Forced expression of constitutively active PIK3CA (G1633A mutation) significantly reduced the apoptotic effect of AG1478 on the PIK3CA wild-type Ca9-22 cells. When HSC-4 cells with the PIK3CA G1633A mutation were treated with a combination of AG1478 and deguelin, combination effects on apoptosis induction were observed through the inhibition of the AKT pathway. These results suggest that the combination of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor with deguelin is a potential therapeutic approach to treat PIK3CA-mutated HNSCC. PMID:28134774

  10. Inhibitors of cellular kinases with broad-spectrum antiviral activity for hemorrhagic fever viruses.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Emma L; McMullan, Laura K; Lo, Michael K; Spengler, Jessica R; Bergeron, Éric; Albariño, César G; Shrivastava-Ranjan, Punya; Chiang, Cheng-Feng; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Flint, Mike

    2015-08-01

    Host cell kinases are important for the replication of a number of hemorrhagic fever viruses. We tested a panel of kinase inhibitors for their ability to block the replication of multiple hemorrhagic fever viruses. OSU-03012 inhibited the replication of Lassa, Ebola, Marburg and Nipah viruses, whereas BIBX 1382 dihydrochloride inhibited Lassa, Ebola and Marburg viruses. BIBX 1382 blocked both Lassa and Ebola virus glycoprotein-dependent cell entry. These compounds may be used as tools to understand conserved virus-host interactions, and implicate host cell kinases that may be targets for broad spectrum therapeutic intervention.

  11. Development of Certain Protein Kinase Inhibitors with the Components from Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Minghua; Zhao, Ge; Cao, Shousong; Zhang, Yangyang; Li, Xiaofang; Lin, Xiukun

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been used in China for more than two thousand years, and some of them have been confirmed to be effective in cancer treatment. Protein kinases play critical roles in control of cell growth, proliferation, migration, survival, and angiogenesis and mediate their biological effects through their catalytic activity. In recent years, numerous protein kinase inhibitors have been developed and are being used clinically. Anticancer TCMs represent a large class of bioactive substances, and some of them display anticancer activity via inhibiting protein kinases to affect the phosphoinositide 3-kinase, serine/threonine-specific protein kinases, pechanistic target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR), P38, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) pathways. In the present article, we comprehensively reviewed several components isolated from anticancer TCMs that exhibited significantly inhibitory activity toward a range of protein kinases. These components, which belong to diverse structural classes, are reviewed herein, based upon the kinases that they inhibit. The prospects and problems in development of the anticancer TCMs are also discussed. PMID:28119606

  12. Methods Of Using Chemical Libraries To Search For New Kinase Inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Nathanael S. , Schultz, Peter , Wodicka, Lisa , Meijer, Laurent , Lockhart, David J.

    2003-06-03

    The generation of selective inhibitors for specific protein kinases would provide new tools for analyzing signal transduction pathways and possibly new therapeutic agents. We have invented an approach to the development of selective protein kinase inhibitors based on the unexpected binding mode of 2,6,9-trisubstituted purines to the ATP binding site of human CDK2. The most potent inhibitor, purvalanol B (IC.sub.50 =6 nM), binds with a 30-fold greater affinity than the known CDK2 inhibitor, flavopiridol. The cellular effects of this class of compounds were examined and compared to those of flavopiridol by monitoring changes in mRNA expression levels for all genes in treated cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using high-density oligonucleotide probe arrays.

  13. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Vascular Toxicity: Impetus for a Classification System?

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Joerg

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of molecularly targeted therapies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors has revolutionized cancer therapy and has contributed to a steady decline in cancer-related mortality since the late 1990s. However, not only cardiac but also vascular toxicity has been reported for these agents, some as expected on-target effects (e.g., VEGF receptor inhibitors) and others as unanticipated events (e.g., BCR-Abl inhibitors). A sound understanding of these cardiovascular toxic effects is critical to advance mechanistic insight into vascular disease and clinical care. From a conceptual standpoint, there might be value in defining type I (permanent) and type II (transient) vascular toxicity. This review will focus on the tyrosine kinase inhibitors in current clinical use and their associated vascular side effects.

  14. Selective inhibitors of Cyclin-G associated kinase (GAK) as anti-HCV agents

    PubMed Central

    Kovackova, Sona; Chang, Lei; Bekerman, Elena; Neveu, Gregory; Barouch-Bentov, Rina; Chaikuad, Apirat; Heroven, Christina; Šála, Michal; De Jonghe, Steven; Knapp, Stefan; Einav, Shirit; Herdewijn, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-G associated kinase (GAK) emerged as a promising drug target for the treatment of viral infections. However, no potent and selective GAK inhibitors have been reported in the literature to date. This paper describes the discovery of isothiazolo[5,4-b]pyridines as selective GAK inhibitors, with the most potent congeners displaying low nanomolar binding affinity for GAK. Co-crystallization experiments revealed that these compounds behaved as classic type I ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors. In addition, we have demonstrated that these compounds exhibit a potent activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) by inhibiting two temporally distinct steps in the HCV lifecycle (i.e. viral entry and assembly). Hence, these GAK inhibitors represent chemical probes to study GAK function in different disease areas where GAK has been implicated (including viral infection, cancer and Parkinson's disease). PMID:25822739

  15. Suppression of complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor in vascular endothelial activation by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 action

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haimou; Qin, Gangjian; Liang, Gang; Li, Jinan; Chiu, Isaac; Barrington, Robert A.; Liu, Dongxu . E-mail: dxliu001@yahoo.com

    2007-07-13

    Increased expression of adhesion molecules by activated endothelium is a critical feature of vascular inflammation associated with the several diseases such as endotoxin shock and sepsis/septic shock. Our data demonstrated complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor (C1INH) prevents endothelial cell injury. We hypothesized that C1INH has the ability of an anti-endothelial activation associated with suppression of expression of adhesion molecule(s). C1INH blocked leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell monolayer in both static assay and flow conditions. In inflammatory condition, C1INH reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression associated with its cytoplasmic mRNA destabilization and nuclear transcription level. Studies exploring the underlying mechanism of C1INH-mediated suppression in VCAM-1 expression were related to reduction of NF-{kappa}B activation and nuclear translocation in an I{kappa}B{alpha}-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects were associated with reduction of inhibitor I{kappa}B kinase activity and stabilization of the NF-{kappa}B inhibitor I{kappa}B. These findings indicate a novel role for C1INH in inhibition of vascular endothelial activation. These observations could provide the basis for new therapeutic application of C1INH to target inflammatory processes in different pathologic situations.

  16. Novel inhibitors of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-pyruvate kinase.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mardia Telep; Zoraghi, Roya; Reiner, Neil; Suzen, Sibel; Ohlsen, Knut; Lalk, Michael; Altanlar, Nurten; Hilgeroth, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    Novel bisindolyl-cycloalkane indoles resulted from the reaction of aliphatic dialdehydes and indole. As bisindolyl-natural alkaloid compounds have recently been reported as inhibitors of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-pyruvate kinase (PK), we tested our novel compounds as MRSA PK inhibitors and now report first inhibiting activities. We discuss structure-activity relationships of structurally varied compounds. Activity influencing substituents have been characterized and relations to antibacterial activities of the most active compounds have been proved.

  17. Clinical development of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathway inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2010-01-01

    The PI3K pathway is the most commonly altered in human cancer. Several recent phase I studies with therapeutic inhibitors of this pathway have shown that pharmacological inhibition of PI3K in humans is feasible and overall well tolerated. Furthermore, there has already been clinical evidence of anti-tumor activity in patients with advanced cancer. The intensity and duration of PI3K inhibition required for an antitumor effect and the optimal pharmacodynamic biomarker(s) of pathway inactivation remain to be established. Preclinical and early clinical data support focusing on trials with PI3K inhibitors that are at a minimum enriched with patients with alterations in this signaling pathway. These inhibitors are likely to be more effective in combination with established and other novel molecular therapies.

  18. A Pentacyclic Aurora Kinase Inhibitor (AKI-001) With High in Vivo Potency And Oral Bioavailability

    SciTech Connect

    Rawson, T.E.; Ruth, M.; Blackwood, E.; Burdick, D.; Corson, L.; Dotson, J.; Drummond, J.; Fields, C.; Georges, G.J.; Goller, B.; Halladay, J.; Hunsaker, T.; Kleinheinz, T.; Krell, H.-W.; Li, J.; Liang, J.; Limberg, A.; McNutt, A.; Moffat, J.; Phillips, G.; Ran, Y.

    2009-05-21

    Aurora kinase inhibitors have attracted a great deal of interest as a new class of antimitotic agents. We report a novel class of Aurora inhibitors based on a pentacyclic scaffold. A prototype pentacyclic inhibitor 32 (AKI-001) derived from two early lead structures improves upon the best properties of each parent and compares favorably to a previously reported Aurora inhibitor, 39 (VX-680). The inhibitor exhibits low nanomolar potency against both Aurora A and Aurora B enzymes, excellent cellular potency (IC{sub 50} < 100 nM), and good oral bioavailability. Phenotypic cellular assays show that both Aurora A and Aurora B are inhibited at inhibitor concentrations sufficient to block proliferation. Importantly, the cellular activity translates to potent inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. An oral dose of 5 mg/kg QD is well tolerated and results in near stasis (92% TGI) in an HCT116 mouse xenograft model.

  19. Structural Mechanism of the Pan-BCR-ABL Inhibitor Ponatinib (AP24534): Lessons for Overcoming Kinase Inhibitor Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Tianjun; Commodore, Lois; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Yihan; Thomas, Mathew; Keats, Jeff; Xu, Qihong; Rivera, Victor M.; Shakespeare, William C.; Clackson, Tim; Dalgarno, David C.; Zhu, Xiaotian

    2012-01-20

    The BCR-ABL inhibitor imatinib has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, drug resistance caused by kinase domain mutations has necessitated the development of new mutation-resistant inhibitors, most recently against the T315I gatekeeper residue mutation. Ponatinib (AP24534) inhibits both native and mutant BCR-ABL, including T315I, acting as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor. Here, we undertook a combined crystallographic and structure-activity relationship analysis on ponatinib to understand this unique profile. While the ethynyl linker is a key inhibitor functionality that interacts with the gatekeeper, virtually all other components of ponatinib play an essential role in its T315I inhibitory activity. The extensive network of optimized molecular contacts found in the DFG-out binding mode leads to high potency and renders binding less susceptible to disruption by single point mutations. The inhibitory mechanism exemplified by ponatinib may have broad relevance to designing inhibitors against other kinases with mutated gatekeeper residues.

  20. Urotensin II inhibitor eases neuropathic pain by suppressing the JNK/NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhao, Pan-Pan; Hao, Ting; Wang, Dan; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Yang-Zi; Wu, Yu-Qing; Zhou, Cheng-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Urotensin II (U-II), a cyclic peptide originally isolated from the caudal neurosecretory system of fishes, can produce proinflammatory effects through its specific G protein-coupled receptor, GPR14. Neuropathic pain, a devastating disease, is related to excessive inflammation in the spinal dorsal horn. However, the relationship between U-II and neuropathic pain has not been reported. This study was designed to investigate the effect of U-II antagonist on neuropathic pain and to understand the associated mechanisms. We reported that U-II and its receptor GPR14 were persistently upregulated and activated in the dorsal horn of L4-6 spinal cord segments after chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats. Intrathecal injection of SB657510, a specific antagonist against U-II, reversed CCI-induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Furthermore, we found that SB657510 reduced the expression of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 as well as subsequent secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). It was also showed that both the JNK inhibitor SP600125 and the NF-κB inhibitor PDTC significantly attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in CCI rats. Our present research showed that U-II receptor antagonist alleviated neuropathic pain possibly through the suppression of the JNK/NF-κB pathway in CCI rats, which will contribute to the better understanding of function of U-II and pathogenesis of neuropathic pain.

  1. Kinase crystal identification and ATP-competitive inhibitor screening using the fluorescent ligand SKF86002.

    PubMed

    Parker, Lorien J; Taruya, Shigenao; Tsuganezawa, Keiko; Ogawa, Naoko; Mikuni, Junko; Honda, Keiko; Tomabechi, Yuri; Handa, Noriko; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Akiko

    2014-02-01

    The small kinase inhibitor SKF86002 lacks intrinsic fluorescence but becomes fluorescent upon binding to the ATP-binding sites of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38α). It was found that co-crystals of this compound with various kinases were distinguishable by their strong fluorescence. The co-crystals of SKF86002 with p38α, Pim1, ASK1, HCK and AMPK were fluorescent. Addition of SKF86002, which binds to the ATP site, to the co-crystallization solution of HCK promoted protein stability and thus facilitated the production of crystals that otherwise would not grow in the apo form. It was further demonstrated that the fluorescence of SKF86002 co-crystals can be applied to screen for candidate kinase inhibitors. When a compound binds competitively to the ATP-binding site of a kinase crystallized with SKF86002, it displaces the fluorescent SKF86002 and the crystal loses its fluorescence. Lower fluorescent signals were reported after soaking SKF86002-Pim1 and SKF86002-HCK co-crystals with the inhibitors quercetin, a quinazoline derivative and A-419259. Determination of the SKF86002-Pim1 and SKF86002-HCK co-crystal structures confirmed that SKF86002 interacts with the ATP-binding sites of Pim1 and HCK. The structures of Pim1-SKF86002 crystals soaked with the inhibitors quercetin and a quinazoline derivative and of HCK-SKF86002 crystals soaked with A-419259 were determined. These structures were virtually identical to the deposited crystal structures of the same complexes. A KINOMEscan assay revealed that SKF86002 binds a wide variety of kinases. Thus, for a broad range of kinases, SKF86002 is useful as a crystal marker, a crystal stabilizer and a marker to identify ligand co-crystals for structural analysis.

  2. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced NSCLC: A case report.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana Ferreira; Liebermann, Marco

    2008-10-01

    Erlotinib is a molecule that selectively inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase activity. The authors present a case that exemplifies the use of erlotinib as second line therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This case is about a 76 years old woman, non-smoker, with advanced lung adenocarcinoma (stage IIIB) previously treated with two cycles of standard chemotherapy, which were interrupted by serious adverse reactions. Rev Port Pneumol 2008; XIV (Supl 3): S23-S28.

  3. SAR and inhibitor complex structure determination of a novel class of potent and specific Aurora kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Heron, Nicola M; Anderson, Malcolm; Blowers, David P; Breed, Jason; Eden, Jonathan M; Green, Stephen; Hill, George B; Johnson, Trevor; Jung, Frederic H; McMiken, Helen H J; Mortlock, Andrew A; Pannifer, Andrew D; Pauptit, Richard A; Pink, Jennifer; Roberts, Nicola J; Rowsell, Siân

    2006-03-01

    A novel series of 5-aminopyrimidinyl quinazolines has been developed from anilino-quinazoline 1, which was identified in a high throughput screen for Aurora A. Introduction of the pyrimidine ring and optimisation of the substituents both on this ring and at the C7 position of the quinazoline led to the discovery of compounds that are highly specific Aurora kinase inhibitors. Co-crystallisation of one of these inhibitors with a fragment of Aurora A shows the importance of the benzamido group in achieving selectivity.

  4. Targeting the receptor tyrosine kinase RET in combination with aromatase inhibitors in ER positive breast cancer xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Fearns, Antony; Martin, Lesley-Ann; Chiarugi, Paola; Isacke, Clare M.; Morandi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The majority of breast cancers are estrogen receptor positive (ER+). Blockade of estrogen biosynthesis by aromatase inhibitors (AIs) is the first-line endocrine therapy for post-menopausal women with ER+ breast cancers. However, AI resistance remains a major challenge. We have demonstrated previously that increased GDNF/RET signaling in ER+ breast cancers promotes AI resistance. Here we investigated the efficacy of different small molecule RET kinase inhibitors, sunitinib, cabozantinib, NVP-BBT594 and NVP-AST487, and the potential of combining a RET inhibitor with the AI letrozole in ER+ breast cancers. The most effective inhibitor identified, NVP-AST487, suppressed GDNF-stimulated RET downstream signaling and 3D tumor spheroid growth. Ovariectomized mice were inoculated with ER+ aromatase-overexpressing MCF7-AROM1 cells and treated with letrozole, NVP-AST487 or the two drugs in combination. Surprisingly, the three treatment regimens showed similar efficacy in impairing MCF7-AROM1 tumor growth in vivo. However in vitro, NVP-AST487 was superior to letrozole in inhibiting the GDNF-induced motility and tumor spheroid growth of MCF7-AROM1 cells and required in combination with letrozole to inhibit GDNF-induced motility in BT474-AROM3 aromatase expressing cells. These data indicate that inhibiting RET is as effective as the current therapeutic regimen of AI therapy but that a combination treatment may delay cancer cell dissemination and metastasis. PMID:27602955

  5. Pharmacophore modeling study based on known spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors together with virtual screening for identifying novel inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Huan-Zhang; Li, Lin-Li; Ren, Ji-Xia; Zou, Jun; Yang, Li; Wei, Yu-Quan; Yang, Sheng-Yong

    2009-04-01

    In this investigation, chemical features based 3D pharmacophore models were developed based on the known inhibitors of Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) with the aid of hiphop and hyporefine modules within catalyst. The best quantitative pharmacophore model, Hypo1, was used as a 3D structural query for retrieving potential inhibitors from chemical databases including Specs, NCI, MayBridge, and Chinese Nature Product Database (CNPD). The hit compounds were subsequently subjected to filtering by Lipinski's rule of five and docking studies to refine the retrieved hits. Finally 30 compounds were selected from the top ranked hit compounds and conducted an in vitro kinase inhibitory assay. Six compounds showed a good inhibitory potency against Syk, which have been selected for further investigation.

  6. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-1/ERK) inhibitors sensitize reduced glucocorticoid response mediated by TNF{alpha} in human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT)

    SciTech Connect

    Onda, Kenji . E-mail: knjond@ps.toyaku.ac.jp; Nagashima, Masahiro; Kawakubo, Yo; Inoue, Shota; Hirano, Toshihiko; Oka, Kitaro

    2006-12-08

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are essential drugs administered topically or systematically for the treatment of autoimmune skin diseases such as pemphigus. However, a certain proportion of patients does not respond well to GCs. Although studies on the relationship between cytokines and GC insensitivity in local tissues have attracted attention recently, little is known about the underlying mechanism(s) for GC insensitivity in epidermal keratinocytes. Here, we report that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) {alpha} reduces GC-induced transactivation of endogenous genes as well as a reporter plasmid which contains GC responsive element (GRE) in human epidermal keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). The GC insensitivity by TNF{alpha} was not accompanied by changes in mRNA expressions of GR isoforms ({alpha} or {beta}). However, we observed that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-1/ERK) inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) significantly sensitized the GC-induced transactivation of anti-inflammatory genes (glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (MKP)-1) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP) 51 gene in the presence of TNF{alpha}. Additionally, we observed that TNF{alpha} reduced prednisolone (PSL)-dependent nuclear translocation of GR, which was restored by pre-treatment of MEK-1 inhibitors. This is the first study demonstrating a role of the MEK-1/ERK cascade in TNF{alpha}-mediated GC insensitivity. Our data suggest that overexpression of TNF{alpha} leads to topical GC insensitivity by reducing GR nuclear translocation in keratinocytes, and our findings also suggest that inhibiting the MEK-1/ERK cascade may offer a therapeutic potential for increasing GC efficacy in epidermis where sufficient inflammatory suppression is required.

  7. Visible-Light-Triggered Activation of a Protein Kinase Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Danielle; Li, Jason W; Branda, Neil R

    2017-02-20

    A photoresponsive small molecule undergoes a ring-opening reaction when exposed to visible light and becomes an active inhibitor of the enzyme protein kinase C. This "turning on" of enzyme inhibition with light puts control into the hands of the user, creating the opportunity to regulate when and where enzyme catalysis takes place.

  8. Identification, SAR studies, and X-ray co-crystallographic analysis of a novel furanopyrimidine aurora kinase A inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Coumar, Mohane Selvaraj; Tsai, Ming-Tsung; Chu, Chang-Ying; Uang, Biing-Jiun; Lin, Wen-Hsing; Chang, Chun-Yu; Chang, Teng-Yuan; Leou, Jiun-Shyang; Teng, Chi-Huang; Wu, Jian-Sung; Fang, Ming-Yu; Chen, Chun-Hwa; Hsu, John T-A; Wu, Su-Ying; Chao, Yu-Sheng; Hsieh, Hsing-Pang

    2010-02-01

    Herein we reveal a simple method for the identification of novel Aurora kinase A inhibitors through substructure searching of an in-house compound library to select compounds for testing. A hydrazone fragment conferring Aurora kinase activity and heterocyclic rings most frequently reported in kinase inhibitors were used as substructure queries to filter the in-house compound library collection prior to testing. Five new series of Aurora kinase inhibitors were identified through this strategy, with IC(50) values ranging from approximately 300 nM to approximately 15 microM, by testing only 133 compounds from a database of approximately 125,000 compounds. Structure-activity relationship studies and X-ray co-crystallographic analysis of the most potent compound, a furanopyrimidine derivative with an IC(50) value of 309 nM toward Aurora kinase A, were carried out. The knowledge gained through these studies could help in the future design of potent Aurora kinase inhibitors.

  9. Discovery and Characterization of Non-ATP Site Inhibitors of the Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Comess, Kenneth M.; Sun, Chaohong; Abad-Zapatero, Cele; Goedken, Eric R.; Gum, Rebecca J.; Borhani, David W.; Argiriadi, Maria; Groebe, Duncan R.; Jia, Yong; Clampit, Jill E.; Haasch, Deanna L.; Smith, Harriet T.; Wang, Sanyi; Song, Danying; Coen, Michael L.; Cloutier, Timothy E.; Tang, Hua; Cheng, Xueheng; Quinn, Christopher; Liu, Bo; Xin, Zhili; Liu, Gang; Fry, Elizabeth H.; Stoll, Vincent; Ng, Teresa I.; Banach, David; Marcotte, Doug; Burns, David J.; Calderwood, David J.; Hajduk, Philip J.

    2012-03-02

    Inhibition of protein kinases has validated therapeutic utility for cancer, with at least seven kinase inhibitor drugs on the market. Protein kinase inhibition also has significant potential for a variety of other diseases, including diabetes, pain, cognition, and chronic inflammatory and immunologic diseases. However, as the vast majority of current approaches to kinase inhibition target the highly conserved ATP-binding site, the use of kinase inhibitors in treating nononcology diseases may require great selectivity for the target kinase. As protein kinases are signal transducers that are involved in binding to a variety of other proteins, targeting alternative, less conserved sites on the protein may provide an avenue for greater selectivity. Here we report an affinity-based, high-throughput screening technique that allows nonbiased interrogation of small molecule libraries for binding to all exposed sites on a protein surface. This approach was used to screen both the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase Jnk-1 (involved in insulin signaling) and p38{alpha} (involved in the formation of TNF{alpha} and other cytokines). In addition to canonical ATP-site ligands, compounds were identified that bind to novel allosteric sites. The nature, biological relevance, and mode of binding of these ligands were extensively characterized using two-dimensional {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, protein X-ray crystallography, surface plasmon resonance, and direct enzymatic activity and activation cascade assays. Jnk-1 and p38{alpha} both belong to the MAP kinase family, and the allosteric ligands for both targets bind similarly on a ledge of the protein surface exposed by the MAP insertion present in the CMGC family of protein kinases and distant from the active site. Medicinal chemistry studies resulted in an improved Jnk-1 ligand able to increase adiponectin secretion in human adipocytes and increase insulin-induced protein kinase PKB phosphorylation in human hepatocytes, in

  10. Identification of a novel Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor that specifically blocks the functions of Polo-Box domain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongsheng; Jiang, Jiandong; Wang, Yanchang; Si, Shuyi

    2017-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is a promising target for cancer therapy due to its essential role in cell division. In addition to a highly conserved kinase domain, Plk1 also contains a Polo-Box domain (PBD), which is essential for Plk1's subcellular localization and mitotic functions. We adopted a fluorescence polarization assay and identified a new Plk1 PBD inhibitor T521 from a small-molecule compound library. T521 specifically inhibits the PBD of Plk1, but not those of Plk2-3. T521 exhibits covalent binding to some lysine residues of Plk1 PBD, which causes significant changes in the secondary structure of Plk1 PBD. Using a cell-based assay, we showed that T521 impedes the interaction between Plk1 and Bub1, a mitotic checkpoint protein. Moreover, HeLa cells treated with T521 exhibited dramatic mitotic defects. Importantly, T521 suppresses the growth of A549 cells in xenograft nude mice. Taken together, we have identified a novel Plk1 inhibitor that specifically disrupts the functions of Plk1 PBD and shows anticancer activity. PMID:27902479

  11. Identification of a novel Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor that specifically blocks the functions of Polo-Box domain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunyu; Zhang, Jing; Li, Dongsheng; Jiang, Jiandong; Wang, Yanchang; Si, Shuyi

    2017-01-03

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is a promising target for cancer therapy due to its essential role in cell division. In addition to a highly conserved kinase domain, Plk1 also contains a Polo-Box domain (PBD), which is essential for Plk1's subcellular localization and mitotic functions. We adopted a fluorescence polarization assay and identified a new Plk1 PBD inhibitor T521 from a small-molecule compound library. T521 specifically inhibits the PBD of Plk1, but not those of Plk2-3. T521 exhibits covalent binding to some lysine residues of Plk1 PBD, which causes significant changes in the secondary structure of Plk1 PBD. Using a cell-based assay, we showed that T521 impedes the interaction between Plk1 and Bub1, a mitotic checkpoint protein. Moreover, HeLa cells treated with T521 exhibited dramatic mitotic defects. Importantly, T521 suppresses the growth of A549 cells in xenograft nude mice. Taken together, we have identified a novel Plk1 inhibitor that specifically disrupts the functions of Plk1 PBD and shows anticancer activity.

  12. Dual p38/JNK mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitors prevent ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Verhein, Kirsten C; Salituro, Francesco G; Ledeboer, Mark W; Fryer, Allison D; Jacoby, David B

    2013-01-01

    Ozone exposure causes airway hyperreactivity and increases hospitalizations resulting from pulmonary complications. Ozone reacts with the epithelial lining fluid and airway epithelium to produce reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation products, which then activate cell signaling pathways, including the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Both p38 and c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK) are MAPK family members that are activated by cellular stress and inflammation. To test the contribution of both p38 and JNK MAPK to ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity, guinea pigs were pretreated with dual p38 and JNK MAPK inhibitors (30 mg/kg, i.p.) 60 minutes before exposure to 2 ppm ozone or filtered air for 4 hours. One day later airway reactivity was measured in anesthetized animals. Ozone caused airway hyperreactivity one day post-exposure, and blocking p38 and JNK MAPK completely prevented ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity. Blocking p38 and JNK MAPK also suppressed parasympathetic nerve activity in air exposed animals, suggesting p38 and JNK MAPK contribute to acetylcholine release by airway parasympathetic nerves. Ozone inhibited neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors and blocking both p38 and JNK prevented M2 receptor dysfunction. Neutrophil influx into bronchoalveolar lavage was not affected by MAPK inhibitors. Thus p38 and JNK MAPK mediate ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity through multiple mechanisms including prevention of neuronal M2 receptor dysfunction.

  13. A receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Tyrphostin A9 induces cancer cell death through Drp1 dependent mitochondria fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, So Jung; Park, Young Jun; Shin, Ji Hyun; Kim, Eun Sung; Hwang, Jung Jin; Jin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Jin Cheon; Cho, Dong-Hyung

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} We screened and identified Tyrphostin A9, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor as a strong mitochondria fission inducer. {yields} Tyrphostin A9 treatment promotes mitochondria dysfunction and contributes to cytotoxicity in cancer cells. {yields} Tyrphostin A9 induces apoptotic cell death through a Drp1-mediated pathway. {yields} Our studies suggest that Tyrphostin A9 induces mitochondria fragmentation and apoptotic cell death via Drp1 dependently. -- Abstract: Mitochondria dynamics controls not only their morphology but also functions of mitochondria. Therefore, an imbalance of the dynamics eventually leads to mitochondria disruption and cell death. To identify specific regulators of mitochondria dynamics, we screened a bioactive chemical compound library and selected Tyrphostin A9, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as a potent inducer of mitochondrial fission. Tyrphostin A9 treatment resulted in the formation of fragmented mitochondria filament. In addition, cellular ATP level was decreased and the mitochondrial membrane potential was collapsed in Tyr A9-treated cells. Suppression of Drp1 activity by siRNA or over-expression of a dominant negative mutant of Drp1 inhibited both mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death induced by Tyrpohotin A9. Moreover, treatment of Tyrphostin A9 also evoked mitochondrial fragmentation in other cells including the neuroblastomas. Taken together, these results suggest that Tyrphostin A9 induces Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission and apoptotic cell death.

  14. The cardiotoxicity and myocyte damage caused by small molecule anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitors is correlated with lack of target specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Hasinoff, Brian B.

    2010-04-15

    The use of the new anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) has revolutionized the treatment of certain cancers. However, the use of some of these results in cardiotoxicity. Large-scale profiling data recently made available for the binding of 7 of the 9 FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors to a panel of 317 kinases has allowed us to correlate kinase inhibitor binding selectivity scores with TKI-induced damage to neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. The tyrosine kinase selectivity scores, but not the serine-threonine kinase scores, were highly correlated with the myocyte damaging effects of the TKIs. Additionally, we showed that damage to myocytes gave a good rank order correlation with clinical cardiotoxicity. Finally, strength of TKI binding to colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) was highly correlated with myocyte damage, thus possibly implicating this kinase in contributing to TKI-induced cardiotoxicity.

  15. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors target cancer stem cells in renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Solarek, Wojciech; Kornakiewicz, Anna; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to analyze the impact of multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors on the cancer stem cell subpopulation in renal cell cancer. The second objective was to evaluate the effect of tumor growth inhibition related to a tumor niche factor - oxygen deprivation - as hypoxia develops along with the anti-angiogenic activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in renal tumors. Cells were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, sunitinib, sorafenib and axitinib, in 2D and 3D culture conditions. Cell proliferation along with drug toxicity were evaluated. It was shown that the proliferation rate of cancer stem cells was decreased by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The efficacy of the growth inhibition was limited by hypoxic conditions and 3D intratumoral cell-cell interactions. We conclude that understanding the complex molecular interaction feedback loops between differentiated cancer cells, cancer stem cells and the tumor microenvironment in 3D culture should aid the identification of novel treatment targets and to evalute the efficacy of renal cancer therapies. Cell-cell interaction may represent a critical microenvironmental factor regulating cancer stem cell self-renewal potential, enhancing the stem cell phenotype and limiting drug toxicity. At the same time the role of hypoxia in renal cancer stem cell biology is also significant.

  16. Identification of small molecule inhibitors that block the Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry kinase ROP18.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Catherine; Jones, Nathaniel G; Hull-Ryde, Emily A; Kireev, Dmitri; Stashko, Michael; Tang, Keliang; Janetka, Jim; Wildman, Scott A; Zuercher, William J; Schapira, Matthieu; Hui, Raymond; Janzen, William; Sibley, L David

    2016-03-11

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii secretes a family of serine-threonine protein kinases into its host cell in order to disrupt signaling and alter immune responses. One prominent secretory effector is the rhoptry protein 18 (ROP18), a serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates immunity related GTPases (IRGs) and hence blocks interferon gamma-mediated responses in rodent cells. Previous genetic studies show that ROP18 is a major virulence component of T. gondii strains from North and South America. Here, we implemented a high throughput screen to identify small molecule inhibitors of ROP18 in vitro and subsequently validated their specificity within infected cells. Although ROP18 was not susceptible to many kinase-directed inhibitors that affect mammalian kinases, the screen identified several sub micromolar inhibitors that belong to three chemical scaffolds: oxindoles, 6-azaquinazolines, and pyrazolopyridines. Treatment of interferon gamma-activated cells with one of these inhibitors enhanced immunity related GTPase recruitment to wild type parasites, recapitulating the defect of Δrop18 mutant parasites, consistent with targeting ROP18 within infected cells. These compounds provide useful starting points for chemical biology experiments or as leads for therapeutic interventions designed to reduce parasite virulence.

  17. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor-associated syndrome of inappropriate secretion of anti-diuretic hormone.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jordan; Shields, Jenna; Passero, Vida

    2016-10-01

    Hyponatremia is a common complication among cancer patients. Certain antineoplastic agents have been associated with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of anti-diuretic hormone-induced hyponatremia. The most common agents associated with secretion of anti-diuretic hormone are vinca alkaloids, platinum compounds, and alkylating agents. We report a case of secretion of anti-diuretic hormone associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  18. Design of Targeted Inhibitors of Polo-like Kinase 1 (Plk1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalafave, D. S.

    2011-03-01

    Computational design of small molecule inhibitors of Polo-like Kinase 1 (Plk1) is presented. Plk1, which regulates cell cycle, is often overexpressed in cancers. Its downregulation was shown to inhibit cancer progression. Most inhibitors of kinases' interact with the highly conserved ATP binding site. This makes the development of Plk1-specific inhibitors challenging, since different kinases have similar ATP sites. However, Plk1 also contains the polo-box domain (PBD), which is absent from other kinases. In this study, the PBD site was used as a target for designed Plk1 inhibitors. Common structural features of experimentally known Plk1 ligands were first identified. The information was used to design putative small molecules that specifically bonded Plk1. Druglikeness and possible toxicities of the designed molecules were determined. Molecules with no implied toxicities and optimal druglikeness were used for docking studies. The docking studies identified several molecules that made stable complexes with the Plk1 PBD site. Possible utilization of the designed molecules in drugs against cancers with overexpressed Plk1 is discussed.

  19. Discovery of Non-ATP-Competitive Inhibitors of Polo-like Kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Yun, Taikangxiang; Qin, Tan; Liu, Ying; Lai, Luhua

    2016-04-05

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase, and its N-terminal kinase domain (KD) controls cell signaling through phosphorylation. Inhibitors of Plk1 are potential anticancer drugs. Most known Plk1 KD inhibitors are ATP-competitive compounds, which may suffer from low selectivity. In this study we discovered novel non-ATP-competitive Plk1 KD inhibitors by virtual screening and experimental studies. Potential binding sites in Plk1 KD were identified by using the protein binding site detection program Cavity. The identified site was subjected to molecular-docking-based virtual screening. The activities of top-ranking compounds were evaluated by in vitro enzyme assay with full-length Plk1 and direct binding assay with Plk1 KD. Several compounds showed inhibitory activity, and the most potent was found to be 3-((2-oxo-2-(thiophen-2-yl)ethyl)thio)-6-(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)-one (compound 4) with an IC50 value of 13.1 ± 1.7 μm. Our work provides new insight into the design of kinase inhibitors that target non-ATP binding sites.

  20. The Adverse Effect of Hypertension in the Treatment of Thyroid Cancer with Multi-Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ancker, Ole Vincent; Wehland, Markus; Bauer, Johann; Infanger, Manfred; Grimm, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of thyroid cancer has promising prospects, mostly through the use of surgical or radioactive iodine therapy. However, some thyroid cancers, such as progressive radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma, are not remediable with conventional types of treatment. In these cases, a treatment regimen with multi-kinase inhibitors is advisable. Unfortunately, clinical trials have shown a large number of patients, treated with multi-kinase inhibitors, being adversely affected by hypertension. This means that treatment of thyroid cancer with multi-kinase inhibitors prolongs progression-free and overall survival of patients, but a large number of patients experience hypertension as an adverse effect of the treatment. Whether the prolonged lifetime is sufficient to develop sequelae from hypertension is unclear, but late-stage cancer patients often have additional diseases, which can be complicated by the presence of hypertension. Since the exact mechanisms of the rise of hypertension in these patients are still unknown, the only available strategy is treating the symptoms. More studies determining the pathogenesis of hypertension as a side effect to cancer treatment as well as outcomes of dose management of cancer drugs are necessary to improve future therapy options for hypertension as an adverse effect to cancer therapy with multi-kinase inhibitors. PMID:28335429

  1. Novel protein kinase C inhibitors: synthesis and PKC inhibition of beta-substituted polythiophene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Xu, W C; Zhou, Q; Ashendel, C L; Chang, C T; Chang, C J

    1999-08-02

    A series of beta-substituted polythiophene derivatives was synthesized through palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction. Their structure-protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitory activity relationship was studied. The carboxaldehyde and hydroxymethyl derivatives of alpha-terthiophene were potent PKC inhibitors (IC50 = 10(-7) M).

  2. COMPARATIVE PATHOGENESIS OF HALOACETIC ACID AND PROTEIN KINASE INHIBITOR EMBRYOTOXICITY IN MOUSE WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative pathogenesis of haloacetic acid and protein kinase inhibitor embryotoxicity in mouse whole embryo culture.

    Ward KW, Rogers EH, Hunter ES 3rd.

    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599-7270, USA.

    Haloacetic acids ...

  3. HALOACETIC ACIDS AND KINASE INHIBITORS PERTURB MOUSE NEURAL CREST CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUNTER, E.S.1, J. SMITH2, J. ANDREWS1. 1 Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park and 2 Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Haloacetic acids and kinase inhibitors perturb mouse neural crest cells in vi...

  4. Arylphthalazines: identification of a new phthalazine chemotype as inhibitors of VEGFR kinase.

    PubMed

    Piatnitski, Evgueni L; Duncton, Matthew A J; Kiselyov, Alexander S; Katoch-Rouse, Reeti; Sherman, Dan; Milligan, Daniel L; Balagtas, Chris; Wong, Wai C; Kawakami, Joel; Doody, Jacqueline F

    2005-11-01

    A novel class of 4-arylamino-phthalazin-1-yl-benzamides is described as inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor II (VEGFR-2). Several compounds display potent VEGFR-2 inhibitory activity with an IC50 as low as 0.078 microM in an HTRF enzymatic assay. These compounds are relatively selective against a small kinase panel.

  5. A High-Throughput Screen Reveals New Small-Molecule Activators and Inhibitors of Pantothenate Kinases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Pantothenate kinase (PanK) is a regulatory enzyme that controls coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis. The association of PanK with neurodegeneration and diabetes suggests that chemical modifiers of PanK activity may be useful therapeutics. We performed a high throughput screen of >520000 compounds from the St. Jude compound library and identified new potent PanK inhibitors and activators with chemically tractable scaffolds. The HTS identified PanK inhibitors exemplified by the detailed characterization of a tricyclic compound (7) and a preliminary SAR. Biophysical studies reveal that the PanK inhibitor acts by binding to the ATP–enzyme complex. PMID:25569308

  6. Novel irreversible EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor 324674 sensitizes human colon carcinoma HT29 and SW480 cells to apoptosis by blocking the EGFR pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhiwei; Cui, Binbin; Jin, Yinghu; Chen, Haipeng; Wang, Xishan

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} This article described the effects of the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor on the cell proliferation and the apoptosis induction of the colon carcinoma cell lines. {yields} Demonstrated that 326474 is a more potent EGFR inhibitor on colon cancer cells than other three TKIs. {yields} It can be important when considering chemotherapy for colonic cancer patients. -- Abstract: Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is widely expressed in multiple solid tumors including colorectal cancer by promoting cancer cell growth and proliferation. Therefore, the inhibition of EGFR activity may establish a clinical strategy of cancer therapy. Methods: In this study, using human colon adenocarcinoma HT29 and SW480 cells as research models, we compared the efficacy of four EGFR inhibitors in of EGFR-mediated pathways, including the novel irreversible inhibitor 324674, conventional reversible inhibitor AG1478, dual EGFR/HER2 inhibitor GW583340 and the pan-EGFR/ErbB2/ErbB4 inhibitor. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT analysis, and apoptosis was evaluated by the Annexin-V binding assay. EGFR and its downstream signaling effectors were examined by western blotting analysis. Results: Among the four inhibitors, the irreversible EGFR inhibitor 324674 was more potent at inhibiting HT29 and SW480 cell proliferation and was able to efficiently induce apoptosis at lower concentrations. Western blotting analysis revealed that AG1478, GW583340 and pan-EGFR/ErbB2/ErbB4 inhibitors failed to suppress EGFR activation as well as the downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3K/AKT/mTOR (AKT) pathways. In contrast, 324674 inhibited EGFR activation and the downstream AKT signaling pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Our studies indicated that the novel irreversible EGFR inhibitor 324674 may have a therapeutic application in colon cancer therapy.

  7. AZD1208, a potent and selective pan-Pim kinase inhibitor, demonstrates efficacy in preclinical models of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Keeton, Erika K; McEachern, Kristen; Dillman, Keith S; Palakurthi, Sangeetha; Cao, Yichen; Grondine, Michael R; Kaur, Surinder; Wang, Suping; Chen, Yuching; Wu, Allan; Shen, Minhui; Gibbons, Francis D; Lamb, Michelle L; Zheng, Xiaolan; Stone, Richard M; Deangelo, Daniel J; Platanias, Leonidas C; Dakin, Les A; Chen, Huawei; Lyne, Paul D; Huszar, Dennis

    2014-02-06

    Upregulation of Pim kinases is observed in several types of leukemias and lymphomas. Pim-1, -2, and -3 promote cell proliferation and survival downstream of cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways. AZD1208 is a potent, highly selective, and orally available Pim kinase inhibitor that effectively inhibits all three isoforms at <5 nM or <150 nM in enzyme and cell assays, respectively. AZD1208 inhibited the growth of 5 of 14 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines tested, and sensitivity correlates with Pim-1 expression and STAT5 activation. AZD1208 causes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MOLM-16 cells, accompanied by a dose-dependent reduction in phosphorylation of Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death, 4EBP1, p70S6K, and S6, as well as increases in cleaved caspase 3 and p27. Inhibition of p4EBP1 and p-p70S6K and suppression of translation are the most representative effects of Pim inhibition in sensitive AML cell lines. AZD1208 inhibits the growth of MOLM-16 and KG-1a xenograft tumors in vivo with a clear pharmacodynamic-pharmacokinetic relationship. AZD1208 also potently inhibits colony growth and Pim signaling substrates in primary AML cells from bone marrow that are Flt3 wild-type or Flt3 internal tandem duplication mutant. These results underscore the therapeutic potential of Pim kinase inhibition for the treatment of AML.

  8. Risk of Infectious Complications in Hemato-Oncological Patients Treated with Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Reinwald, Mark; Boch, Tobias; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Buchheidt, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Infectious complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hemato-oncological diseases. Although disease-related immunosuppression represents one factor, aggressive treatment regimens, such as chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or antibody treatment, account for a large proportion of infectious side effects. With the advent of targeted therapies affecting specific kinases in malignant diseases, the outcome of patients has further improved. Nonetheless, dependent on the specific pathway targeted or off-target activity of the kinase inhibitor, therapy-associated infectious complications may occur. We review the most common and approved kinase inhibitors targeting a variety of hemato-oncological malignancies for their immunosuppressive potential and evaluate their risk of infectious side effects based on preclinical evidence and clinical data in order to raise awareness of the potential risks involved. PMID:27127405

  9. A Cell-Based Assay for Measuring Endogenous BcrAbl Kinase Activity and Inhibitor Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ouellette, Steven B.; Noel, Brett M.; Parker, Laurie L.

    2016-01-01

    Kinase enzymes are an important class of drug targets, particularly in cancer. Cell-based kinase assays are needed to understand how potential kinase inhibitors act on their targets in a physiologically relevant context. Current cell-based kinase assays rely on antibody-based detection of endogenous substrates, inaccurate disease models, or indirect measurements of drug action. Here we expand on previous work from our lab to introduce a 96-well plate compatible approach for measuring cell-based kinase activity in disease-relevant human chronic myeloid leukemia cell lines using an exogenously added, multi-functional peptide substrate. Our cellular models natively express the BcrAbl oncogene and are either sensitive or have acquired resistance to well-characterized BcrAbl tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This approach measures IC50 values comparable to established methods of assessing drug potency, and its robustness indicates that it can be employed in drug discovery applications. This medium-throughput assay could bridge the gap between single target focused, high-throughput in vitro assays and lower-throughput cell-based follow-up experiments. PMID:27598410

  10. Computational study of Gleevec and G6G reveals molecular determinants of kinase inhibitor selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yen -Lin; Meng, Yilin; Huang, Lei; Roux, Benoît

    2014-10-22

    Gleevec is a potent inhibitor of Abl tyrosine kinase but not of the highly homologous c-Src kinase. Because the ligand binds to an inactive form of the protein in which an Asp-Phe-Gly structural motif along the activation loop adopts a so-called DFG-out conformation, it was suggested that binding specificity was controlled by a “conformational selection” mechanism. In this context, the binding affinity displayed by the kinase inhibitor G6G poses an intriguing challenge. Although it possesses a chemical core very similar to that of Gleevec, G6G is a potent inhibitor of both Abl and c-Src kinases. Both inhibitors bind to the DFG-out conformation of the kinases, which seems to be in contradiction with the conformational selection mechanism. To address this issue and display the hidden thermodynamic contributions affecting the binding selectivity, molecular dynamics free energy simulations with explicit solvent molecules were carried out. Relative to Gleevec, G6G forms highly favorable van der Waals dispersive interactions upon binding to the kinases via its triazine functional group, which is considerably larger than the corresponding pyridine moiety in Gleevec. Upon binding of G6G to c-Src, these interactions offset the unfavorable free energy cost of the DFG-out conformation. When binding to Abl, however, G6G experiences an unfavorable free energy penalty due to steric clashes with the phosphate-binding loop, yielding an overall binding affinity that is similar to that of Gleevec. Such steric clashes are absent when G6G binds to c-Src, due to the extended conformation of the phosphate-binding loop.

  11. Computational study of Gleevec and G6G reveals molecular determinants of kinase inhibitor selectivity

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Yen -Lin; Meng, Yilin; Huang, Lei; ...

    2014-10-22

    Gleevec is a potent inhibitor of Abl tyrosine kinase but not of the highly homologous c-Src kinase. Because the ligand binds to an inactive form of the protein in which an Asp-Phe-Gly structural motif along the activation loop adopts a so-called DFG-out conformation, it was suggested that binding specificity was controlled by a “conformational selection” mechanism. In this context, the binding affinity displayed by the kinase inhibitor G6G poses an intriguing challenge. Although it possesses a chemical core very similar to that of Gleevec, G6G is a potent inhibitor of both Abl and c-Src kinases. Both inhibitors bind to themore » DFG-out conformation of the kinases, which seems to be in contradiction with the conformational selection mechanism. To address this issue and display the hidden thermodynamic contributions affecting the binding selectivity, molecular dynamics free energy simulations with explicit solvent molecules were carried out. Relative to Gleevec, G6G forms highly favorable van der Waals dispersive interactions upon binding to the kinases via its triazine functional group, which is considerably larger than the corresponding pyridine moiety in Gleevec. Upon binding of G6G to c-Src, these interactions offset the unfavorable free energy cost of the DFG-out conformation. When binding to Abl, however, G6G experiences an unfavorable free energy penalty due to steric clashes with the phosphate-binding loop, yielding an overall binding affinity that is similar to that of Gleevec. Such steric clashes are absent when G6G binds to c-Src, due to the extended conformation of the phosphate-binding loop.« less

  12. Discovery of a Selective Inhibitor of Oncogenic B-Raf Kinase With Potent Antimelanoma Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, J.; Lee, J.T.; Wang, W.; Zhang, J.; Cho, H.; Mamo, S.; Bremer, R.; Gillette, S.; Kong, J.; Haass, N.K.; Sproesser, K.; Li, L.; Smalley, K.S.M.; Fong, D.; Zhu, Y.-L.; Marimuthu, A.; Nguyen, H.; Lam, B.; Liu, J.; Cheung, I.; Rice, J.

    2009-05-26

    BRAF{sup V600E} is the most frequent oncogenic protein kinase mutation known. Furthermore, inhibitors targeting 'active' protein kinases have demonstrated significant utility in the therapeutic repertoire against cancer. Therefore, we pursued the development of specific kinase inhibitors targeting B-Raf, and the V600E allele in particular. By using a structure-guided discovery approach, a potent and selective inhibitor of active B-Raf has been discovered. PLX4720, a 7-azaindole derivative that inhibits B-Raf{sup V600E} with an IC{sub 50} of 13 nM, defines a class of kinase inhibitor with marked selectivity in both biochemical and cellular assays. PLX4720 preferentially inhibits the active B-Raf{sup V600E} kinase compared with a broad spectrum of other kinases, and potent cytotoxic effects are also exclusive to cells bearing the V600E allele. Consistent with the high degree of selectivity, ERK phosphorylation is potently inhibited by PLX4720 in B-Raf{sup V600E}-bearing tumor cell lines but not in cells lacking oncogenic B-Raf. In melanoma models, PLX4720 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis exclusively in B-Raf{sup V600E}-positive cells. In B-Raf{sup V600E}-dependent tumor xenograft models, orally dosed PLX4720 causes significant tumor growth delays, including tumor regressions, without evidence of toxicity. The work described here represents the entire discovery process, from initial identification through structural and biological studies in animal models to a promising therapeutic for testing in cancer patients bearing B-Raf{sup V600E}-driven tumors.

  13. A Novel Triazolopyridine-Based Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor That Arrests Joint Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Gregory D.; Delgado, Mercedes; Plantevin-Krenitsky, Veronique; Jensen-Pergakes, Kristen; Bates, R. J.; Torres, Sanaa; Celeridad, Maria; Brown, Heather; Burnett, Kelven; Nadolny, Lisa; Tehrani, Lida; Packard, Garrick; Pagarigan, Barbra; Haelewyn, Jason; Nguyen, Trish; Xu, Li; Tang, Yang; Hickman, Matthew; Baculi, Frans; Pierce, Steven; Miyazawa, Keiji; Jackson, Pilgrim; Chamberlain, Philip; LeBrun, Laurie; Xie, Weilin; Bennett, Brydon; Blease, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies and the immunoreceptors to which they bind can contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (Syk) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase with a central role in immunoreceptor (FcR) signaling and immune cell functionality. Syk kinase inhibitors have activity in antibody-dependent immune cell activation assays, in preclinical models of arthritis, and have progressed into clinical trials for RA and other autoimmune diseases. Here we describe the characterization of a novel triazolopyridine-based Syk kinase inhibitor, CC-509. This compound is a potent inhibitor of purified Syk enzyme, FcR-dependent and FcR-independent signaling in primary immune cells, and basophil activation in human whole blood. CC-509 is moderately selective across the kinome and against other non-kinase enzymes or receptors. Importantly, CC-509 was optimized away from and has modest activity against cellular KDR and Jak2, kinases that when inhibited in a preclinical and clinical setting may promote hypertension and neutropenia, respectively. In addition, CC-509 is orally bioavailable and displays dose-dependent efficacy in two rodent models of immune-inflammatory disease. In passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), CC-509 significantly inhibited skin edema. Moreover, CC-509 significantly reduced paw swelling and the tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines RANTES and MIP-1α in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. In summary, CC-509 is a potent, moderately selective, and efficacious inhibitor of Syk that has a differentiated profile when compared to other Syk compounds that have progressed into the clinic for RA. PMID:26756335

  14. A Novel Triazolopyridine-Based Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor That Arrests Joint Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Gregory D; Delgado, Mercedes; Plantevin-Krenitsky, Veronique; Jensen-Pergakes, Kristen; Bates, R J; Torres, Sanaa; Celeridad, Maria; Brown, Heather; Burnett, Kelven; Nadolny, Lisa; Tehrani, Lida; Packard, Garrick; Pagarigan, Barbra; Haelewyn, Jason; Nguyen, Trish; Xu, Li; Tang, Yang; Hickman, Matthew; Baculi, Frans; Pierce, Steven; Miyazawa, Keiji; Jackson, Pilgrim; Chamberlain, Philip; LeBrun, Laurie; Xie, Weilin; Bennett, Brydon; Blease, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies and the immunoreceptors to which they bind can contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (Syk) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase with a central role in immunoreceptor (FcR) signaling and immune cell functionality. Syk kinase inhibitors have activity in antibody-dependent immune cell activation assays, in preclinical models of arthritis, and have progressed into clinical trials for RA and other autoimmune diseases. Here we describe the characterization of a novel triazolopyridine-based Syk kinase inhibitor, CC-509. This compound is a potent inhibitor of purified Syk enzyme, FcR-dependent and FcR-independent signaling in primary immune cells, and basophil activation in human whole blood. CC-509 is moderately selective across the kinome and against other non-kinase enzymes or receptors. Importantly, CC-509 was optimized away from and has modest activity against cellular KDR and Jak2, kinases that when inhibited in a preclinical and clinical setting may promote hypertension and neutropenia, respectively. In addition, CC-509 is orally bioavailable and displays dose-dependent efficacy in two rodent models of immune-inflammatory disease. In passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), CC-509 significantly inhibited skin edema. Moreover, CC-509 significantly reduced paw swelling and the tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines RANTES and MIP-1α in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. In summary, CC-509 is a potent, moderately selective, and efficacious inhibitor of Syk that has a differentiated profile when compared to other Syk compounds that have progressed into the clinic for RA.

  15. A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of PIM Kinases as a Potential Treatment for Urothelial Carcinomas12

    PubMed Central

    Foulks, Jason M.; Carpenter, Kent J.; Luo, Bai; Xu, Yong; Senina, Anna; Nix, Rebecca; Chan, Ashley; Clifford, Adrianne; Wilkes, Marcus; Vollmer, David; Brenning, Benjamin; Merx, Shannon; Lai, Shuping; McCullar, Michael V.; Ho, Koc-Kan; Albertson, Daniel J.; Call, Lee T.; Bearss, Jared J.; Tripp, Sheryl; Liu, Ting; Stephens, Bret J.; Mollard, Alexis; Warner, Steven L.; Bearss, David J.; Kanner, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    The proto-oncogene proviral integration site for moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) kinases (PIM-1, PIM-2, and PIM-3) are serine/threonine kinases that are involved in a number of signaling pathways important to cancer cells. PIM kinases act in downstream effector functions as inhibitors of apoptosis and as positive regulators of G1-S phase progression through the cell cycle. PIM kinases are upregulated in multiple cancer indications, including lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and prostate, gastric, and head and neck cancers. Overexpression of one or more PIM family members in patient tumors frequently correlates with poor prognosis. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate PIM expression in low- and high-grade urothelial carcinoma and to assess the role PIM function in disease progression and their potential to serve as molecular targets for therapy. One hundred thirty-seven cases of urothelial carcinoma were included in this study of surgical biopsy and resection specimens. High levels of expression of all three PIM family members were observed in both noninvasive and invasive urothelial carcinomas. The second-generation PIM inhibitor, TP-3654, displays submicromolar activity in pharmacodynamic biomarker modulation, cell proliferation studies, and colony formation assays using the UM-UC-3 bladder cancer cell line. TP-3654 displays favorable human ether-à-go-go-related gene and cytochrome P450 inhibition profiles compared with the first-generation PIM inhibitor, SGI-1776, and exhibits oral bioavailability. In vivo xenograft studies using a bladder cancer cell line show that PIM kinase inhibition can reduce tumor growth, suggesting that PIM kinase inhibitors may be active in human urothelial carcinomas. PMID:24953177

  16. QSAR, molecular docking studies of thiophene and imidazopyridine derivatives as polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shandong

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop in silico models allowing for a reliable prediction of polo-like kinase inhibitors based on a large diverse dataset of 136 compounds. As an effective method, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) was applied using the comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). The proposed QSAR models showed reasonable predictivity of thiophene analogs (Rcv2=0.533, Rpred2=0.845) and included four molecular descriptors, namely IC3, RDF075m, Mor02m and R4e+. The optimal model for imidazopyridine derivatives (Rcv2=0.776, Rpred2=0.876) was shown to perform good in prediction accuracy, using GATS2m and BEHe1 descriptors. Analysis of the contour maps helped to identify structural requirements for the inhibitors and served as a basis for the design of the next generation of the inhibitor analogues. Docking studies were also employed to position the inhibitors into the polo-like kinase active site to determine the most probable binding mode. These studies may help to understand the factors influencing the binding affinity of chemicals and to develop alternative methods for prescreening and designing of polo-like kinase inhibitors.

  17. Effects of BP-14, a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Allegri, Lorenzo; Baldan, Federica; Mio, Catia; Puppin, Cinzia; Russo, Diego; Kryštof, Vladimir; Damante, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an extremely aggressive human malignancy characterized by a marked degree of invasiveness, absense of features of thyroid differentiation and resistance to current medical treatment. It is well known that ATCs are characterized by deregulation of genes related to cell cycle regulation, i.e., cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and endogenous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs). Therefore, in the present study, the effect of a novel exogenous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, BP-14, was investigated in three human ATC cell lines. The ATC-derived cell lines FRO, SW1736 and 8505C were treated with BP-14 alone or in combination with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. In all ATC cell lines, treatment with BP-14 decreased cell viability and, in two of them, BP-14 modified expression of genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Thus, our data indicate that BP-14 is a potential new compound effective against ATC. Combined treatment with BP-14 and the mTOR inhibitor everolimus had a strong synergistic effect on cell viability in all three cell lines, suggesting that the combined used of CDK and mTOR inhibitors may be a useful strategy for ATC treatment.

  18. Identification of Polo-like kinase 1 interaction inhibitors using a novel cell-based assay

    PubMed Central

    Normandin, Karine; Lavallée, Jean-François; Futter, Marie; Beautrait, Alexandre; Duchaine, Jean; Guiral, Sébastien; Marinier, Anne; Archambault, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) plays several roles in cell division and it is a recognized cancer drug target. Plk1 levels are elevated in cancer and several types of cancer cells are hypersensitive to Plk1 inhibition. Small molecule inhibitors of the kinase domain (KD) of Plk1 have been developed. Their selectivity is limited, which likely contributes to their toxicity. Polo-like kinases are characterized by a Polo-Box Domain (PBD), which mediates interactions with phosphorylation substrates or regulators. Inhibition of the PBD could allow better selectivity or result in different effects than inhibition of the KD. In vitro screens have been used to identify PBD inhibitors with mixed results. We developed the first cell-based assay to screen for PBD inhibitors, using Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET). We screened through 112 983 compounds and characterized hits in secondary biochemical and biological assays. Subsequent Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) analysis on our most promising hit revealed that it requires an alkylating function for its activity. In addition, we show that the previously reported PBD inhibitors thymoquinone and Poloxin are also alkylating agents. Our cell-based assay is a promising tool for the identification of new PBD inhibitors with more drug-like profiles using larger and more diverse chemical libraries. PMID:27874094

  19. Molecular modeling studies of phenoxypyrimidinyl imidazoles as p38 kinase inhibitors using QSAR and docking.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, G K; Achaiah, G; Sastry, G N

    2008-04-01

    p38 Kinase plays a vital role in inflammation mediated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) pathways and inhibitors of p38 kinase provide effective approach for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Pyridinyl and pyrimidinyl imidazoles, selectively inhibit p38alpha MAP kinase, are useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. Three dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship studies (3D-QSAR) involving comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) and molecular docking were performed on 44 phenoxypyrimidinyl imidazole p38 kinase inhibitors to find out the structural relationship with the activity. The best predictive CoMFA model with atom fit alignment resulted in cross-validated r(2) value of 0.553, noncross-validated r(2) value of 0.908 and standard error of estimate 0.187. Similarly the best predictive CoMSIA model was derived with q(2) of 0.508, noncross-validated r(2) of 0.894 and standard error of estimate of 0.197, comprising steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic and hydrogen bond donor fields. These models were able to predict the activity of test set molecules efficiently within an acceptable error range. GOLD and FlexX were employed to dock the inhibitors into the active site of the p38 kinase and these docking studies revealed the vital interactions and binding conformation of the inhibitors. The information rendered by 3D-QSAR models and the docking interactions may afford valuable clues to optimize the lead and design new potential inhibitors.

  20. An Aminopyridazine Inhibitor of Death Associated Protein Kinase Attenuates Hypoxia-Ischemia Induced Brain Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Velentza, A.V.; Wainwright, M.S.; Zasadzki, M.; Mirzoeva, S.; Haiech, J.; Focia, P.J.; Egli, M.; Watterson, D.M.

    2010-03-08

    Death associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a calcium and calmodulin regulated enzyme that functions early in eukaryotic programmed cell death, or apoptosis. To validate DAPK as a potential drug discovery target for acute brain injury, the first small molecule DAPK inhibitor was synthesized and tested in vivo. A single injection of the aminopyridazine-based inhibitor administered 6 h after injury attenuated brain tissue or neuronal biomarker loss measured, respectively, 1 week and 3 days later. Because aminopyridazine is a privileged structure in neuropharmacology, we determined the high-resolution crystal structure of a binary complex between the kinase domain and a molecular fragment of the DAPK inhibitor. The co-crystal structure describes a structural basis for interaction and provides a firm foundation for structure-assisted design of lead compounds with appropriate molecular properties for future drug development.

  1. Fisetin Ameliorated Photodamage by Suppressing the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase/Matrix Metalloproteinase Pathway and Nuclear Factor-κB Pathways.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chan, Shih-Yun; Chu, Yin; Wen, Kuo-Ching

    2015-05-13

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is one of the most important extrinsic factors contributing to skin photodamage. After UV irradiation, a series of signal transductions in the skin will be activated, leading to inflammatory response and photoaged skin. In this study, fisetin, a flavonol that exists in fruits and vegetables, was investigated for its photoprotective effects. The results revealed that 5-25 μM fisetin inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-3, MMP-9 expression induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation in human skin fibroblasts. In addition, fisetin suppressed UVB-induced collagen degradation. With regard to its effect on upper-stream signal transduction, we found that fisetin reduced the expression of ultraviolet (UV)-induced ERK, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) pathway. Furthermore, fisetin reduced inhibitor κB (IκB) degradation and increased the amount of p65, which is a major subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), in cytoplasm. It also suppressed NF-κB translocated to the nucleus and inhibited cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) Ser-133 phosphorylation level in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/CREB (PI3K/AKT/CREB) pathway. Finally, fisetin inhibited UV-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO) generation. The mentioned effects and mechanisms suggest that fisetin can be used in the development of photoprotective agents.

  2. Key Structures and Interactions for Binding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Kinase B Inhibitors from Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    PubMed

    Punkvang, Auradee; Kamsri, Pharit; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart; Hannongbua, Supa; Wolschann, Peter; Irle, Stephan; Pungpo, Pornpan

    2015-07-01

    Substituted aminopyrimidine inhibitors have recently been introduced as antituberculosis agents. These inhibitors show impressive activity against protein kinase B, a Ser/Thr protein kinase that is essential for cell growth of M. tuberculosis. However, up to now, X-ray structures of the protein kinase B enzyme complexes with the substituted aminopyrimidine inhibitors are currently unavailable. Consequently, structural details of their binding modes are questionable, prohibiting the structural-based design of more potent protein kinase B inhibitors in the future. Here, molecular dynamics simulations, in conjunction with molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area binding free-energy analysis, were employed to gain insight into the complex structures of the protein kinase B inhibitors and their binding energetics. The complex structures obtained by the molecular dynamics simulations show binding free energies in good agreement with experiment. The detailed analysis of molecular dynamics results shows that Glu93, Val95, and Leu17 are key residues responsible to the binding of the protein kinase B inhibitors. The aminopyrazole group and the pyrimidine core are the crucial moieties of substituted aminopyrimidine inhibitors for interaction with the key residues. Our results provide a structural concept that can be used as a guide for the future design of protein kinase B inhibitors with highly increased antagonistic activity.

  3. Identification of a Dual Inhibitor of Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) and p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase1 (S6K1) Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Sanguine; Lim, Semi; Mun, Ji Young; Kim, Ki Hyun; Ramadhar, Timothy R.; Farrand, Lee; Shin, Seung Ho; Thimmegowda, N. R.; Lee, Hyong Joo; Frank, David A.; Clardy, Jon; Lee, Sam W.; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive phytochemicals can suppress the growth of malignant cells, and investigation of the mechanisms responsible can assist in the identification of novel therapeutic strategies for cancer therapy. Ginger has been reported to exhibit potent anti-cancer effects, although previous reports have often focused on a narrow range of specific compounds. Through a direct comparison of various ginger compounds, we determined that gingerenone A selectively kills cancer cells while exhibiting minimal toxicity toward normal cells. Kinase array screening revealed JAK2 and S6K1 as the molecular targets primarily responsible for gingerenone A-induced cancer cell death. The effect of gingerenone A was strongly associated with relative phosphorylation levels of JAK2 and S6K1, and administration of gingerenone A significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo. More importantly, the combined inhibition of JAK2 and S6K1 by commercial inhibitors selectively induced apoptosis in cancer cells, whereas treatment with either agent alone did not. These findings provide rationale for dual targeting of JAK2 and S6K1 in cancer for a combinatorial therapeutic approach. PMID:26242912

  4. On-Chip Peptide Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Protein Kinase Inhibitor Screening.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Lai; Kim, Young-Pil; Son, Jin Gyeong; Son, Miyoung; Lee, Tae Geol

    2017-01-03

    Protein kinases are enzymes that are important targets for drug discovery because of their involvement in regulating the essential cellular processes. For this reason, the changes in protein kinase activity induced by each drug candidate (the inhibitor in this case) need to be accurately determined. Here, an on-chip secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging technique of the peptides was developed for determining protein kinase activity and inhibitor screening without a matrix. In our method, cysteine-tethered peptides adsorbed onto a gold surface produced changes in the relative peak intensities of the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated substrate peptides, which were quantitatively dependent on protein kinase activity. Using mass spectrometry imaging of multiple compartments on the gold surface in the presence of a peptide substrate, we screened 13,727 inhibitors, of which seven were initially found to have inhibitor efficiencies that surpassed 50%. Of these, we were able to identify a new breakpoint cluster region-abelson (BCR-ABL)(T315I) kinase inhibitor, henceforth referred to as KR135861. KR135861 showed no cytotoxicity and was subsequently confirmed to be superior to imatinib, a commercial drug marketed as Gleevec. Moreover, KR135861 exhibited a greater inhibitory effect on the BCR-ABL(T315I) tyrosine kinase, with an IC50 value as low as 1.3 μM. In in vitro experiments, KR135861 reduced the viability of both Ba/F3 cells expressing wild-type BCR-ABL and BCR-ABL(T315I), in contrast to imatinib's inhibitory effects only on Ba/F3 cells expressing wild-type BCR-ABL. Due to the surface sensitivity and selectivity of SIMS imaging, it is anticipated that our approach will make it easier to validate the small modifications of a substrate in relation to enzyme activity as well as for drug discovery. This mass spectrometry imaging analysis enables efficient screening for protein kinase inhibitors, thus permitting high-throughput drug screening with high accuracy

  5. Development of a cell-based, high-throughput screening assay for ATM kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kexiao; Shelat, Anang A; Guy, R Kiplin; Kastan, Michael B

    2014-04-01

    The ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated) protein kinase is a major regulator of cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), DNA lesions that can be caused by ionizing irradiation (IR), oxidative damage, or exposure to certain chemical agents. In response to DSBs, the ATM kinase is activated and subsequently phosphorylates numerous downstream substrates, including p53, Chk2, BRCA1, and KAP1, which affect processes such as cell cycle progression and DNA repair. Numerous studies have demonstrated that loss of ATM function results in enhanced sensitivity to ionizing irradiation in clinically relevant dose ranges, suggesting that ATM kinase is an attractive therapeutic target for enhancing tumor cell kill with radiotherapy. Previously identified small-molecule ATM kinase inhibitors, such as CP466722 and Ku55933, were identified using in vitro kinase assays carried out with recombinant ATM kinase isolated from mammalian cells. Since it has not been feasible to express full-length recombinant ATM in bacterial or baculovirus systems, a robust in vitro screening tool has been lacking. We have developed a cell-based assay that is robust, straightforward, and sensitive. Using this high-throughput assay, we screened more than 7000 compounds and discovered additional small molecules that inhibit the ATM kinase and further validated these hits by secondary assays.

  6. Protein kinase C activators suppress stimulation of capillary endothelial cell growth by angiogenic endothelial mitogens

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The intracellular events regulating endothelial cell proliferation and organization into formalized capillaries are not known. We report that the protein kinase C activator beta-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) suppresses bovine capillary endothelial (BCE) cell proliferation (K50 = 6 +/- 4 nM) and DNA synthesis in response to human hepatoma-derived growth factor, an angiogenic endothelial mitogen. In contrast, PDBu has no effect on the proliferation of bovine aortic endothelial cells and is mitogenic for bovine aortic smooth muscle and BALB/c 3T3 cells. Several observations indicate that the inhibition of human hepatoma- derived growth factor-stimulated BCE cell growth by PDBu is mediated through protein kinase C. Different phorbol compounds inhibit BCE cell growth according to their potencies as protein kinase C activators (12- O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate greater than PDBu much greater than beta-phorbol 12,13-diacetate much much greater than beta-phorbol; alpha- phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate; alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate). PDBu binds to a single class of specific, saturable sites on the BCE cell with an apparent Kd of 8 nM, in agreement with reported affinities of PDBu for protein kinase C in other systems. Specific binding of PDBu to BCE cells is displaced by sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, a protein kinase C activator and an analog of the putative second messenger activating this kinase in vivo. The weak protein kinase C activator, sn-1,2- dibutyrylglycerol, does not affect PDBu binding. A cytosolic extract from BCE cells contains a calcium/phosphatidylserine-dependent protein kinase that is activated by sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol and PDBu, but not by beta-phorbol. These findings indicate that protein kinase C activation can cause capillary endothelial cells to become desensitized to angiogenic endothelial mitogens. This intracellular regulatory mechanism might be invoked during certain phases of angiogenesis, for example when proliferating endothelial cells become

  7. Discovery and characterization of LY2784544, a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor of JAK2V617F

    PubMed Central

    Ma, L; Clayton, J R; Walgren, R A; Zhao, B; Evans, R J; Smith, M C; Heinz-Taheny, K M; Kreklau, E L; Bloem, L; Pitou, C; Shen, W; Strelow, J M; Halstead, C; Rempala, M E; Parthasarathy, S; Gillig, J R; Heinz, L J; Pei, H; Wang, Y; Stancato, L F; Dowless, M S; Iversen, P W; Burkholder, T P

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the prevalence of the JAK2V617F mutation in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), its constitutive activity, and ability to recapitulate the MPN phenotype in mouse models, JAK2V617F kinase is an attractive therapeutic target. We report the discovery and initial characterization of the orally bioavailable imidazopyridazine, LY2784544, a potent, selective and ATP-competitive inhibitor of janus kinase 2 (JAK2) tyrosine kinase. LY2784544 was discovered and characterized using a JAK2-inhibition screening assay in tandem with biochemical and cell-based assays. LY2784544 in vitro selectivity for JAK2 was found to be equal or superior to known JAK2 inhibitors. Further studies showed that LY2784544 effectively inhibited JAK2V617F-driven signaling and cell proliferation in Ba/F3 cells (IC50=20 and 55 nM, respectively). In comparison, LY2784544 was much less potent at inhibiting interleukin-3-stimulated wild-type JAK2-mediated signaling and cell proliferation (IC50=1183 and 1309 nM, respectively). In vivo, LY2784544 effectively inhibited STAT5 phosphorylation in Ba/F3-JAK2V617F-GFP (green fluorescent protein) ascitic tumor cells (TED50=12.7 mg/kg) and significantly reduced (P<0.05) Ba/F3-JAK2V617F-GFP tumor burden in the JAK2V617F-induced MPN model (TED50=13.7 mg/kg, twice daily). In contrast, LY2784544 showed no effect on erythroid progenitors, reticulocytes or platelets. These data suggest that LY2784544 has potential for development as a targeted agent against JAK2V617F and may have properties that allow suppression of JAK2V617F-induced MPN pathogenesis while minimizing effects on hematopoietic progenitor cells. PMID:23584399

  8. Phos-tag analysis of Rab10 phosphorylation by LRRK2: a powerful assay for assessing kinase function and inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Genta; Katsemonova, Kristina; Tonelli, Francesca; Lis, Pawel; Baptista, Marco A.S.; Shpiro, Natalia; Duddy, Graham; Wilson, Steve; Ho, Philip Wing-Lok; Ho, Shu-Leong; Reith, Alastair D.; Alessi, Dario R.

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant mutations that activate the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause inherited Parkinson's disease. Recent work has revealed that LRRK2 directly phosphorylates a conserved threonine/serine residue in the effector-binding switch-II motif of a number of Rab GTPase proteins, including Rab10. Here we describe a facile and robust method to assess phosphorylation of endogenous Rab10 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), lung and spleen-derived B-cells, based on the ability of the Phos-tag reagent to retard the electrophoretic mobility of LRRK2-phosphorylated Rab10. We exploit this assay to show that phosphorylation of Rab10 is ablated in kinase-inactive LRRK2[D2017A] knockin MEFs and mouse lung, demonstrating that LRRK2 is the major Rab10 kinase in these cells/tissue. We also establish that the Phos-tag assay can be deployed to monitor the impact that activating LRRK2 pathogenic (G2019S and R1441G) knockin mutations have on stimulating Rab10 phosphorylation. We show that upon addition of LRRK2 inhibitors, Rab10 is dephosphorylated within 1–2 min, markedly more rapidly than the Ser935 and Ser1292 biomarker sites that require 40–80 min. Furthermore, we find that phosphorylation of Rab10 is suppressed in LRRK2[S910A+S935A] knockin MEFs indicating that phosphorylation of Ser910 and Ser935 and potentially 14-3-3 binding play a role in facilitating the phosphorylation of Rab10 by LRRK2 in vivo. The Rab Phos-tag assay has the potential to significantly aid with evaluating the effect that inhibitors, mutations and other factors have on the LRRK2 signalling pathway. PMID:27474410

  9. Intranasal delivery of FSD-C10, a novel Rho kinase inhibitor, exhibits therapeutic potential in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Hua; Yu, Jie-Zhong; Liu, Chun-Yun; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Hai-Fei; Yang, Wan-Fang; Li, Jun-Lian; Feng, Qian-Jin; Feng, Ling; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Xiao, Bao-Guo; Ma, Cun-Gen

    2014-10-01

    Viewing multiple sclerosis (MS) as both neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration has major implications for therapy, with neuroprotection and neurorepair needed in addition to controlling neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). While Fasudil, an inhibitor of Rho kinase (ROCK), is known to suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, it relies on multiple, short-term injections, with a narrow safety window. In this study, we explored the therapeutic effect of a novel ROCK inhibitor FSD-C10, a Fasudil derivative, on EAE. An important advantage of this derivative is that it can be used via non-injection routes; intranasal delivery is the preferred route because of its efficient CNS delivery and the much lower dose compared with oral delivery. Our results showed that intranasal delivery of FSD-C10 effectively ameliorated the clinical severity of EAE and CNS inflammatory infiltration and promoted neuroprotection. FSD-C10 effectively induced CNS production of the immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin-10 and boosted expression of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor proteins, while inhibiting activation of p-nuclear factor-κB/p65 on astrocytes and production of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, FSD-C10 treatment effectively induced CD4(+) CD25(+) , CD4(+) FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells. Together, our results demonstrate that intranasal delivery of the novel ROCK inhibitor FSD-C10 has therapeutic potential in EAE, through mechanisms that possibly involve both inhibiting CNS inflammation and promoting neuroprotection.

  10. Identification and Structure-Function Analysis of Subfamily Selective G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, Kristoff T.; Larimore, Kelly M.; Elkins, Jonathan M.; Szklarz, Marta; Knapp, Stefan; Tesmer, John J.G.

    2015-02-13

    Selective inhibitors of individual subfamilies of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) would serve as useful chemical probes as well as leads for therapeutic applications ranging from heart failure to Parkinson’s disease. To identify such inhibitors, differential scanning fluorimetry was used to screen a collection of known protein kinase inhibitors that could increase the melting points of the two most ubiquitously expressed GRKs: GRK2 and GRK5. Enzymatic assays on 14 of the most stabilizing hits revealed that three exhibit nanomolar potency of inhibition for individual GRKs, some of which exhibiting orders of magnitude selectivity. Most of the identified compounds can be clustered into two chemical classes: indazole/dihydropyrimidine-containing compounds that are selective for GRK2 and pyrrolopyrimidine-containing compounds that potently inhibit GRK1 and GRK5 but with more modest selectivity. The two most potent inhibitors representing each class, GSK180736A and GSK2163632A, were cocrystallized with GRK2 and GRK1, and their atomic structures were determined to 2.6 and 1.85 Å spacings, respectively. GSK180736A, developed as a Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase inhibitor, binds to GRK2 in a manner analogous to that of paroxetine, whereas GSK2163632A, developed as an insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor inhibitor, occupies a novel region of the GRK active site cleft that could likely be exploited to achieve more selectivity. However, neither compound inhibits GRKs more potently than their initial targets. This data provides the foundation for future efforts to rationally design even more potent and selective GRK inhibitors.

  11. Combining the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 with histone deacetylase inhibitors enhances antitumor activity in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Paller, Channing J; Wissing, Michel D; Mendonca, Janet; Sharma, Anup; Kim, Eugene; Kim, Hea-Soo; Kortenhorst, Madeleine S Q; Gerber, Stephanie; Rosen, Marc; Shaikh, Faraz; Zahurak, Marianna L; Rudek, Michelle A; Hammers, Hans; Rudin, Charles M; Carducci, Michael A; Kachhap, Sushant K

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of solid tumors. While most studies have focused on the reexpression of silenced tumor suppressor genes, a number of genes/pathways are downregulated by HDACIs. This provides opportunities for combination therapy: agents that further disable these pathways through inhibition of residual gene function are speculated to enhance cell death in combination with HDACIs. A previous study from our group indicated that mitotic checkpoint kinases such as PLK1 and Aurora A are downregulated by HDACIs. We used in vitro and in vivo xenograft models of prostate cancer (PCA) to test whether combination of HDACIs with the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 can synergistically or additively kill PCA cells. AMG 900 and HDACIs synergistically decreased cell proliferation activity and clonogenic survival in DU-145, LNCaP, and PC3 PCA cell lines compared to single-agent treatment. Cellular senescence, polyploidy, and apoptosis was significantly increased in all cell lines after combination treatment. In vivo xenograft studies indicated decreased tumor growth and decreased aurora B kinase activity in mice treated with low-dose AMG 900 and vorinostat compared to either agent alone. Pharmacodynamics was assessed by scoring for phosphorylated histone H3 through immunofluorescence. Our results indicate that combination treatment with low doses of AMG 900 and HDACIs could be a promising therapy for future clinical trials against PCA. PMID:24989836

  12. Conformation-selective ATP-competitive inhibitors control regulatory interactions and noncatalytic functions of mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Hari, Sanjay B; Merritt, Ethan A; Maly, Dustin J

    2014-05-22

    Most potent protein kinase inhibitors act by competing with ATP to block the phosphotransferase activity of their targets. However, emerging evidence demonstrates that ATP-competitive inhibitors can affect kinase interactions and functions in ways beyond blocking catalytic activity. Here, we show that stabilizing alternative ATP-binding site conformations of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38α and Erk2 with ATP-competitive inhibitors differentially, and in some cases divergently, modulates the abilities of these kinases to interact with upstream activators and deactivating phosphatases. Conformation-selective ligands are also able to modulate Erk2's ability to allosterically activate the MAPK phosphatase DUSP6, highlighting how ATP-competitive ligands can control noncatalytic kinase functions. Overall, these studies underscore the relationship between the ATP-binding and regulatory sites of MAPKs and provide insight into how ATP-competitive ligands can be designed to confer graded control over protein kinase function.

  13. Efficacy of ponatinib against ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okabe, Seiichi Tauchi, Tetsuzo; Tanaka, Yuko; Ohyashiki, Kazuma

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •Efficacy of ponatinib against ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant leukemia cells okabe et al. •Imatinib or nilotinib resistance was involved Src family kinase. •The BCR-ABL point mutation (E334V) was highly resistant to imatinib or nilotinib. •Ponatinib was a powerful strategy against imatinib or nilotinib resistant Ph-positive cells. -- Abstract: Because a substantial number of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia acquire resistance to ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), their management remains a challenge. Ponatinib, also known as AP24534, is an oral multi-targeted TKI. Ponatinib is currently being investigated in a pivotal phase 2 clinical trial. In the present study, we analyzed the molecular and functional consequences of ponatinib against imatinib- or nilotinib-resistant (R) K562 and Ba/F3 cells. The proliferation of imatinib- or nilotinib-resistant K562 cells did not decrease after treatment with imatinib or nilotinib. Src family kinase Lyn was activated. Point mutation Ba/F3 cells (E334 V) were also highly resistant to imatinib and nilotinib. Treatment with ponatinib for 72 h inhibited the growth of imatinib- and nilotinib-resistant cells. The phosphorylation of BCR-ABL, Lyn, and Crk-L was reduced. This study demonstrates that ponatinib has an anti-leukemia effect by reducing ABL and Lyn kinase activity and this information may be of therapeutic relevance.

  14. Divergent allosteric control of the IRE1α endoribonuclease using kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Likun; Perera, B. Gayani K.; Hari, Sanjay B.; Bhhatarai, Barun; Backes, Bradley J.; Seeliger, Markus A.; Schürer, Stephan C.; Oakes, Scott A.; Papa, Feroz R.; Maly, Dustin J.

    2012-01-01

    Under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, unfolded proteins accumulate in the ER to activate the ER transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease (RNase)—IRE1α. IRE1α oligomerizes, autophosphorylates, and initiates splicing of XBP1 mRNA, thus triggering the unfolded protein response (UPR). Here we show that IRE1α’s kinase-controlled RNase can be regulated in two distinct modes with kinase inhibitors: one class of ligands occupy IRE1α’s kinase ATP-binding site to activate RNase-mediated XBP1 mRNA splicing even without upstream ER stress, while a second class can inhibit the RNase through the same ATP-binding site, even under ER stress. Thus, alternative kinase conformations stabilized by distinct classes of ATP-competitive inhibitors can cause allosteric switching of IRE1α’s RNase—either on or off. As dysregulation of the UPR has been implicated in a variety of cell degenerative and neoplastic disorders, small molecule control over IRE1α should advance efforts to understand the UPR’s role in pathophysiology and to develop drugs for ER stress-related diseases. PMID:23086298

  15. A Small Molecule Bidentate-Binding Dual Inhibitor Probe of the LRRK2 and JNK Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yangbo; Chambers, Jeremy W.; Iqbal, Sarah; Koenig, Marcel; Park, HaJeung; Cherry, Lisa; Hernandez, Pamela; Figuera-Losada, Mariana; LoGrasso, Philip V.

    2013-01-01

    Both JNK and LRRK2 are associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here we report a reasonably selective and potent kinase inhibitor (compound 6) that bound to both JNK and LRRK2 (a dual inhibitor). A bidentate-binding strategy that simultaneously utilized the ATP hinge binding and a unique protein surface site outside of the ATP pocket was applied to the design and identification of this kind of inhibitor. Compound 6 was a potent JNK3 and modest LRRK2 dual inhibitor with an enzyme IC50 value of 12 nM and 99 nM (LRRK2-G2019S), respectively. 6 also exhibited good cell potency, inhibited LRRK2:G2019S induced mitochondrial dysfunction in SHSY5Y cells, and was demonstrated to be reasonably selective against a panel of 116 kinases from representative kinase families. Design of such a probe molecule may help enable testing if dual JNK and LRRK2 inhibitions have added or synergistic efficacy in protecting against neurodegeneration in PD. PMID:23751758

  16. QSAR and molecular docking studies on oxindole derivatives as VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kang, Cong-Min; Liu, Dong-Qing; Zhao, Xu-Hao; Dai, Ying-Jie; Cheng, Jia-Gao; Lv, Ying-Tao

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR) were established for 30 oxindole derivatives as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) tyrosine kinase inhibitors by using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative similarity indices analysis comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) techniques. With the CoMFA model, the cross-validated value (q(2)) was 0.777, the non-cross-validated value (R(2)) was 0.987, and the external cross-validated value ([Formula: see text]) was 0.72. And with the CoMSIA model, the corresponding q(2), R(2) and [Formula: see text] values were 0.710, 0.988 and 0.78, respectively. Docking studies were employed to bind the inhibitors into the active site to determine the probable binding conformation. The binding mode obtained by molecular docking was in good agreement with the 3D-QSAR results. Based on the QSAR models and the docking binding mode, a set of new VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors were designed, which showed excellent predicting inhibiting potencies. The result revealed that both QSAR models have good predictive capability to guide the design and structural modification of homologic compounds. It is also helpful for further research and development of new VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  17. Discovery of Pyrrolopyridine−Pyridone Based Inhibitors of Met Kinase: Synthesis, X-ray Crystallographic Analysis, and Biological Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyoung Soon; Zhang, Liping; Schmidt, Robert; Cai, Zhen-Wei; Wei, Donna; Williams, David K.; Lombardo, Louis J.; Trainor, George L.; Xie, Dianlin; Zhang, Yaquan; An, Yongmi; Sack, John S.; Tokarski, John S.; Darienzo, Celia; Kamath, Amrita; Marathe, Punit; Zhang, Yueping; Lippy, Jonathan; Jeyaseelan, Sr., Robert; Wautlet, Barri; Henley, Benjamin; Gullo-Brown, Johnni; Manne, Veeraswamy; Hunt, John T.; Fargnoli, Joseph; Borzilleri, Robert M.

    2008-10-02

    Conformationally constrained 2-pyridone analogue 2 is a potent Met kinase inhibitor with an IC50 value of 1.8 nM. Further SAR of the 2-pyridone based inhibitors of Met kinase led to potent 4-pyridone and pyridine N-oxide inhibitors such as 3 and 4. The X-ray crystallographic data of the inhibitor 2 bound to the ATP binding site of Met kinase protein provided insight into the binding modes of these inhibitors, and the SAR of this series of analogues was rationalized. Many of these analogues showed potent antiproliferative activities against the Met dependent GTL-16 gastric carcinoma cell line. Compound 2 also inhibited Flt-3 and VEGFR-2 kinases with IC{sub 50} values of 4 and 27 nM, respectively. It possesses a favorable pharmacokinetic profile in mice and demonstrates significant in vivo antitumor activity in the GTL-16 human gastric carcinoma xenograft model.

  18. A class of selective antibacterials derived from a protein kinase inhibitor pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Miller, J Richard; Dunham, Steve; Mochalkin, Igor; Banotai, Craig; Bowman, Matthew; Buist, Susan; Dunkle, Bill; Hanna, Debra; Harwood, H James; Huband, Michael D; Karnovsky, Alla; Kuhn, Michael; Limberakis, Chris; Liu, Jia Y; Mehrens, Shawn; Mueller, W Thomas; Narasimhan, Lakshmi; Ogden, Adam; Ohren, Jeff; Prasad, J V N Vara; Shelly, John A; Skerlos, Laura; Sulavik, Mark; Thomas, V Hayden; VanderRoest, Steve; Wang, LiAnn; Wang, Zhigang; Whitton, Amy; Zhu, Tong; Stover, C Kendall

    2009-02-10

    As the need for novel antibiotic classes to combat bacterial drug resistance increases, the paucity of leads resulting from target-based antibacterial screening of pharmaceutical compound libraries is of major concern. One explanation for this lack of success is that antibacterial screening efforts have not leveraged the eukaryotic bias resulting from more extensive chemistry efforts targeting eukaryotic gene families such as G protein-coupled receptors and protein kinases. Consistent with a focus on antibacterial target space resembling these eukaryotic targets, we used whole-cell screening to identify a series of antibacterial pyridopyrimidines derived from a protein kinase inhibitor pharmacophore. In bacteria, the pyridopyrimidines target the ATP-binding site of biotin carboxylase (BC), which catalyzes the first enzymatic step of fatty acid biosynthesis. These inhibitors are effective in vitro and in vivo against fastidious gram-negative pathogens including Haemophilus influenzae. Although the BC active site has architectural similarity to those of eukaryotic protein kinases, inhibitor binding to the BC ATP-binding site is distinct from the protein kinase-binding mode, such that the inhibitors are selective for bacterial BC. In summary, we have discovered a promising class of potent antibacterials with a previously undescribed mechanism of action. In consideration of the eukaryotic bias of pharmaceutical libraries, our findings also suggest that pursuit of a novel inhibitor leads for antibacterial targets with active-site structural similarity to known human targets will likely be more fruitful than the traditional focus on unique bacterial target space, particularly when structure-based and computational methodologies are applied to ensure bacterial selectivity.

  19. A class of selective antibacterials derived from a protein kinase inhibitor pharmacophore

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J. Richard; Dunham, Steve; Mochalkin, Igor; Banotai, Craig; Bowman, Matthew; Buist, Susan; Dunkle, Bill; Hanna, Debra; Harwood, H. James; Huband, Michael D.; Karnovsky, Alla; Kuhn, Michael; Limberakis, Chris; Liu, Jia Y.; Mehrens, Shawn; Mueller, W. Thomas; Narasimhan, Lakshmi; Ogden, Adam; Ohren, Jeff; Prasad, J.V.N. Vara; Shelly, John A.; Skerlos, Laura; Sulavik, Mark; Thomas, V. Hayden; VanderRoest, Steve; Wang, LiAnn; Wang, Zhigang; Whitton, Amy; Zhu, Tong; Stover, C. Kendall

    2009-06-25

    As the need for novel antibiotic classes to combat bacterial drug resistance increases, the paucity of leads resulting from target-based antibacterial screening of pharmaceutical compound libraries is of major concern. One explanation for this lack of success is that antibacterial screening efforts have not leveraged the eukaryotic bias resulting from more extensive chemistry efforts targeting eukaryotic gene families such as G protein-coupled receptors and protein kinases. Consistent with a focus on antibacterial target space resembling these eukaryotic targets, we used whole-cell screening to identify a series of antibacterial pyridopyrimidines derived from a protein kinase inhibitor pharmacophore. In bacteria, the pyridopyrimidines target the ATP-binding site of biotin carboxylase (BC), which catalyzes the first enzymatic step of fatty acid biosynthesis. These inhibitors are effective in vitro and in vivo against fastidious Gram-negative pathogens including Haemophilus influenzae. Although the BC active site has architectural similarity to those of eukaryotic protein kinases, inhibitor binding to the BC ATP-binding site is distinct from the protein kinase-binding mode, such that the inhibitors are selective for bacterial BC. In summary, we have discovered a promising class of potent antibacterials with a previously undescribed mechanism of action. In consideration of the eukaryotic bias of pharmaceutical libraries, our findings also suggest that pursuit of a novel inhibitor leads for antibacterial targets with active-site structural similarity to known human targets will likely be more fruitful than the traditional focus on unique bacterial target space, particularly when structure-based and computational methodologies are applied to ensure bacterial selectivity.

  20. Discovery of Small Molecule RIP1 Kinase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Pathologies Associated with Necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Potent inhibitors of RIP1 kinase from three distinct series, 1-aminoisoquinolines, pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines, and furo[2,3-d]pyrimidines, all of the type II class recognizing a DLG-out inactive conformation, were identified from screening of our in-house kinase focused sets. An exemplar from the furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine series showed a dose proportional response in protection from hypothermia in a mouse model of TNFα induced lethal shock. PMID:24900635

  1. Using ovality to predict nonmutagenic, orally efficacious pyridazine amides as cell specific spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Matthew C; Bhagirath, Niala; Chiao, Eric; Goldstein, David M; Hermann, Johannes C; Hsu, Pei-Yuan; Kirchner, Stephan; Kennedy-Smith, Joshua J; Kuglstatter, Andreas; Lukacs, Christine; Menke, John; Niu, Linghao; Padilla, Fernando; Peng, Ying; Polonchuk, Liudmila; Railkar, Aruna; Slade, Michelle; Soth, Michael; Xu, Daigen; Yadava, Preeti; Yee, Calvin; Zhou, Mingyan; Liao, Cheng

    2014-03-27

    Inhibition of spleen tyrosine kinase has attracted much attention as a mechanism for the treatment of cancers and autoimmune diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematous. We report the structure-guided optimization of pyridazine amide spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Early representatives of this scaffold were highly potent and selective but mutagenic in an Ames assay. An approach that led to the successful identification of nonmutagenic examples, as well as further optimization to compounds with reduced cardiovascular liabilities is described. Select pharmacokinetic and in vivo efficacy data are presented.

  2. An interaction map of small-molecule kinase inhibitors with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutants in ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ai, Xinghao; Shen, Shengping; Shen, Lan; Lu, Shun

    2015-05-01

    Human anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has become a well-established target for the treatment of ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we have profiled seven small-molecule inhibitors, including 2 that are approved drugs, against a panel of clinically relevant mutations in ALK tyrosine kinase (TK) domain, aiming at a comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanism and biological implication underlying inhibitor response to ALK TK mutation. We find that (i) the gatekeeper mutation L1196M causes crizotinib resistance by simultaneously increasing and decreasing the binding affinities of, respectively, ATP and inhibitor to ALK, whereas the secondary mutation C1156Y, which is located far away from the ATP-binding site of ALK TK domain, causes the resistance by inducing marked allosteric effect on the site, (ii) the 2nd and 3rd generation kinase inhibitors exhibit relatively high sensitivity towards ALK mutants as compared to 1st generation inhibitors, (iii) the pan-kinase inhibitor staurosporine is insensitive for most mutations due to its high structural compatibility, and (iv) ATP affinity to ALK is generally reduced upon most clinically relevant mutations. Furthermore, we also identify six novel mutation-inhibitor pairs that are potentially associated with drug resistance. In addition, the G1202R and C1156Y mutations are expected to generally cause resistance for many existing inhibitors, since they can address significant effect on the geometric shape and physicochemical property of ALK active pocket.

  3. Tannic acid, a potent inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Er Bin; Wei, Liu; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Yu Zong; Chen, Wei Ning

    2006-03-01

    Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that tannic acid, a plant polyphenol, exerts anticarcinogenic activity in chemically induced cancers. In the present study, tannic acid was found to strongly inhibit tyrosine kinase activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) in vitro (IC50 = 323 nM). In contrast, the inhibition by tannic acid of p60(c-src) tyrosine kinase (IC50 = 14 microM) and insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (IC50 = 5 microM) was much weaker. The inhibition of EGFr tyrosine kinase by tannic acid was competitive with respect to ATP and non-competitive with respect to peptide substrate. In cultured cells, growth factor-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of growth factor receptors, including EGFr, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and basic fibroblast growth factor receptor, was inhibited by tannic acid. No inhibition of insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor and insulin-receptor substrate-1 was observed. EGF-stimulated growth of HepG2 cells was inhibited in the presence of tannic acid. The inhibition of serine/threonine-specific protein kinases, including cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase, by tannic acid was only detected at relatively high concentration, IC50 being 3, 325 and 142 microM respectively. The molecular modeling study suggested that tannic acid could be docked into the ATP binding pockets of either EGFr or insulin receptor. These results demonstrate that tannic acid is an in vitro potent inhibitor of EGFr tyrosine kinase.

  4. Multi-kinase inhibitors interact with sildenafil and ERBB1/2/4 inhibitors to kill tumor cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Booth, Laurence; Albers, Thomas; Roberts, Jane L; Tavallai, Mehrad; Poklepovic, Andrew; Lebedyeva, Iryna O; Dent, Paul

    2016-06-28

    We have recently demonstrated that multi-kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib and pazopanib can suppress the detection of chaperones by in situ immuno-fluorescence, which is further enhanced by phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors. Sorafenib and pazopanib inhibited the HSP90 ATPase activity with IC50 values of ~1.0 μM and ~75 nM, respectively. Pazopanib docked in silico with two possible poses into the HSP90 ATP binding pocket. Pazopanib and sildenafil combined to reduce the total protein levels of HSP1H/p105 and c-MYC and to reduce their co-localization. Sorafenib/pazopanib combined with sildenafil in a [GRP78+HSP27] -dependent fashion to: (i) profoundly activate an eIF2α/Beclin1 pathway; (ii) profoundly inactivate mTOR and increase ATG13 phosphorylation, collectively resulting in the formation of toxic autophagosomes. In a fresh PDX isolate of NSCLC combined knock down of [ERBB1+ERBB3] or use of the ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor afatinib altered cell morphology, enhanced ATG13 phosphorylation, inactivated NFκB, and further enhanced [sorafenib/pazopanib + sildenafil] lethality. Identical data to that with afatinib were obtained knocking down PI3K p110α/β or using buparlisib, copanlisib or the specific p110α inhibitor BYL719. Afatinib adapted NSCLC clones were resistant to buparlisib or copanlisib but were more sensitive than control clones to [sorafenib + sildenafil] or [pazopanib + sildenafil]. Lapatinib significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effect of [regorafenib + sildenafil] in vivo; afatinib and BYL719 enhanced the anti-tumor effects of [sorafenib + sildenafil] and [pazopanib] in vivo, respectively.

  5. Multi-kinase inhibitors interact with sildenafil and ERBB1/2/4 inhibitors to kill tumor cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Laurence; Albers, Thomas; Roberts, Jane L.; Tavallai, Mehrad; Poklepovic, Andrew; Lebedyeva, Iryna O.; Dent, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that multi-kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib and pazopanib can suppress the detection of chaperones by in situ immuno-fluorescence, which is further enhanced by phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors. Sorafenib and pazopanib inhibited the HSP90 ATPase activity with IC50 values of ~1.0 μM and ~75 nM, respectively. Pazopanib docked in silico with two possible poses into the HSP90 ATP binding pocket. Pazopanib and sildenafil combined to reduce the total protein levels of HSP1H/p105 and c-MYC and to reduce their co-localization. Sorafenib/pazopanib combined with sildenafil in a [GRP78+HSP27] –dependent fashion to: (i) profoundly activate an eIF2α/Beclin1 pathway; (ii) profoundly inactivate mTOR and increase ATG13 phosphorylation, collectively resulting in the formation of toxic autophagosomes. In a fresh PDX isolate of NSCLC combined knock down of [ERBB1+ERBB3] or use of the ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor afatinib altered cell morphology, enhanced ATG13 phosphorylation, inactivated NFκB, and further enhanced [sorafenib/pazopanib + sildenafil] lethality. Identical data to that with afatinib were obtained knocking down PI3K p110α/β or using buparlisib, copanlisib or the specific p110α inhibitor BYL719. Afatinib adapted NSCLC clones were resistant to buparlisib or copanlisib but were more sensitive than control clones to [sorafenib + sildenafil] or [pazopanib + sildenafil]. Lapatinib significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effect of [regorafenib + sildenafil] in vivo; afatinib and BYL719 enhanced the anti-tumor effects of [sorafenib + sildenafil] and [pazopanib] in vivo, respectively. PMID:27259258

  6. An overview of the binding models of FGFR tyrosine kinases in complex with small molecule inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weiyan; Wang, Mixiang; Tian, Xin; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2017-01-27

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) includes four structurally related members, termed as FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, and FGFR4. Given its intimate role in the progression of several solid tumors, excessive FGFR signaling provides an opportunity for anticancer therapy. Along with extensive pharmacological studies validating the therapeutic potential of targeting the FGFRs for cancer treatment, co-crystal structures of FGFRs/inhibitors are continuously coming up to study the mechanism of actions and explore new inhibitors. Herein, we review the reported co-crystals of FGFRs in complex with the corresponding inhibitors, main focusing our attention on the binding models and the pharmacological activities of the inhibitors.

  7. Discovery of GS-9973, a selective and orally efficacious inhibitor of spleen tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Currie, Kevin S; Kropf, Jeffrey E; Lee, Tony; Blomgren, Peter; Xu, Jianjun; Zhao, Zhongdong; Gallion, Steve; Whitney, J Andrew; Maclin, Deborah; Lansdon, Eric B; Maciejewski, Patricia; Rossi, Ann Marie; Rong, Hong; Macaluso, Jennifer; Barbosa, James; Di Paolo, Julie A; Mitchell, Scott A

    2014-05-08

    Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is an attractive drug target in autoimmune, inflammatory, and oncology disease indications. The most advanced Syk inhibitor, R406, 1 (or its prodrug form fostamatinib, 2), has shown efficacy in multiple therapeutic indications, but its clinical progress has been hampered by dose-limiting adverse effects that have been attributed, at least in part, to the off-target activities of 1. It is expected that a more selective Syk inhibitor would provide a greater therapeutic window. Herein we report the discovery and optimization of a novel series of imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine Syk inhibitors. This work culminated in the identification of GS-9973, 68, a highly selective and orally efficacious Syk inhibitor which is currently undergoing clinical evaluation for autoimmune and oncology indications.

  8. Ligand-protein interactions of selective casein kinaseinhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mente, Scot; Arnold, Eric; Butler, Todd; Chakrapani, Subramanyam; Chandrasekaran, Ramalakshmi; Cherry, Kevin; DiRico, Ken; Doran, Angela; Fisher, Katherine; Galatsis, Paul; Green, Michael; Hayward, Matthew; Humphrey, John; Knafels, John; Li, Jianke; Liu, Shenping; Marconi, Michael; McDonald, Scott; Ohren, Jeff; Paradis, Vanessa; Sneed, Blossom; Walton, Kevin; Wager, Travis

    2013-09-12

    Casein kinase 1δ (CK1δ) and 1ε (CK1ε) are believed to be necessary enzymes for the regulation of circadian rhythms in all mammals. On the basis of our previously published work demonstrating a CK1ε-preferring compound to be an ineffective circadian clock modulator, we have synthesized a series of pyrazole-substitued pyridine inhibitors, selective for the CK1δ isoform. Additionally, using structure-based drug design, we have been able to exploit differences in the hinge region between CK1δ and p38 to find selective inhibitors that have minimal p38 activity. The SAR, brain exposure, and the effect of these inhibitors on mouse circadian rhythms are described. The in vivo evaluation of these inhibitors demonstrates that selective inhibition of CK1δ at sufficient central exposure levels is capable of modulating circadian rhythms.

  9. Overcoming Resistance to Inhibitors of the AKT Protein Kinase by Modulation of the Pim Kinase Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    translation of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase in prostate cancer. This regulates the activity of the MET/ HGF axis and potentially can affect the...on culture of wild-type DU145 cells in the presence of HGF was enhanced in the Pim-1-overexpressing cells (Fig 6a). This effect was specific as there...was no difference in ERK phosphorylation between the over expressor and wild-type cell lines cultured in HGF . Conversely, in PC3-LN4 cells in

  10. Designed inhibitor for nuclear localization signal of polo-like kinase 1 induces mitotic arrest.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangjin; Zhuo, Xiaolong; Qin, Tan; Guo, Xiao; Zhang, Chuanmao; Lai, Luhua

    2016-11-24

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a member of polo-like kinase family, regulates multiple essential steps of the cell cycle progression. Plk1 is overexpressed in multiple cancer cell lines and considered to be a prime anticancer target. Plk1 accumulates in the nucleus during S and G2 phases by its bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence, which is crucial for Plk1 regulation during normal cell cycle progression. Here, through combined computational and experimental studies, we identified compound D110, which inhibits Plk1 kinase activity with an IC50 of 85 nm and blocks the nuclear localization of Plk1 during S and G2 phases. D110-treated cancer cells were arrested at mitosis with monopolar spindle, indicating the inhibition of the Plk1 kinase activity in cell. As D110 interacts with both the ATP site and the NLS in Plk1, it demonstrates good selectivity toward Plk2 and Plk3. The strategy of simultaneously inhibiting kinase activity and its subcellular translocations offers a novel approach for selective kinase inhibitor design.

  11. Second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors prevent disease progression in high-risk (high CIP2A) chronic myeloid leukaemia patients.

    PubMed

    Lucas, C M; Harris, R J; Holcroft, A K; Scott, L J; Carmell, N; McDonald, E; Polydoros, F; Clark, R E

    2015-07-01

    High cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) protein levels at diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) are predictive of disease progression in imatinib-treated patients. It is not known whether this is true in patients treated with second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (2G TKI) from diagnosis, and whether 2G TKIs modulate the CIP2A pathway. Here, we show that patients with high diagnostic CIP2A levels who receive a 2G TKI do not progress, unlike those treated with imatinib (P=<0.0001). 2G TKIs induce more potent suppression of CIP2A and c-Myc than imatinib. The transcription factor E2F1 is elevated in high CIP2A patients and following 1 month of in vivo treatment 2G TKIs suppress E2F1 and reduce CIP2A; these effects are not seen with imatinib. Silencing of CIP2A, c-Myc or E2F1 in K562 cells or CML CD34+ cells reactivates PP2A leading to BCR-ABL suppression. CIP2A increases proliferation and this is only reduced by 2G TKIs. Patients with high CIP2A levels should be offered 2G TKI treatment in preference to imatinib. 2G TKIs disrupt the CIP2A/c-Myc/E2F1 positive feedback loop, leading to lower disease progression risk. The data supports the view that CIP2A inhibits PP2Ac, stabilising E2F1, creating a CIP2A/c-Myc/E2F1 positive feedback loop, which imatinib cannot overcome.

  12. Crystal Structure of Checkpoint Kinase 2 in Complex with Nsc 109555, a Potent and Selective Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lountos, George T.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Zhang, Di; Jobson, Andrew G.; Pommier, Yves; Shoemaker, Robert H.; Waugh, David S.

    2009-03-05

    Checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), a ser/thr kinase involved in the ATM-Chk2 checkpoint pathway, is activated by genomic instability and DNA damage and results in either arrest of the cell cycle to allow DNA repair to occur or apoptosis if the DNA damage is severe. Drugs that specifically target Chk2 could be beneficial when administered in combination with current DNA-damaging agents used in cancer therapy. Recently, a novel inhibitor of Chk2, NSC 109555, was identified that exhibited high potency (IC{sub 50} = 240 nM) and selectivity. This compound represents a new chemotype and lead for the development of novel Chk2 inhibitors that could be used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer. To facilitate the discovery of new analogs of NSC 109555 with even greater potency and selectivity, we have solved the crystal structure of this inhibitor in complex with the catalytic domain of Chk2. The structure confirms that the compound is an ATP-competitive inhibitor, as the electron density clearly reveals that it occupies the ATP-binding pocket. However, the mode of inhibition differs from that of the previously studied structure of Chk2 in complex with debromohymenialdisine, a compound that inhibits both Chk1 and Chk2. A unique hydrophobic pocket in Chk2, located very close to the bound inhibitor, presents an opportunity for the rational design of compounds with higher binding affinity and greater selectivity.

  13. Inflammatory Signaling by NOD-RIPK2 Is Inhibited by Clinically Relevant Type II Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Peter; Ruan, Qui; Schwerd, Tobias; Hrdinka, Matous; Maki, Jenny L.; Saleh, Danish; Suebsuwong, Chalada; Ray, Soumya; Brennan, Paul E.; Cuny, Gregory D.; Uhlig, Holm H.; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads; Degterev, Alexei; Bullock, Alex N.

    2015-01-01

    Summary RIPK2 mediates pro-inflammatory signaling from the bacterial sensors NOD1 and NOD2, and is an emerging therapeutic target in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We observed that cellular RIPK2 can be potently inhibited by type II inhibitors that displace the kinase activation segment, whereas ATP-competitive type I inhibition was only poorly effective. The most potent RIPK2 inhibitors were the US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs ponatinib and regorafenib. Their mechanism of action was independent of NOD2 interaction and involved loss of downstream kinase activation as evidenced by lack of RIPK2 autophosphorylation. Notably, these molecules also blocked RIPK2 ubiquitination and, consequently, inflammatory nuclear factor κB signaling. In monocytes, the inhibitors selectively blocked NOD-dependent tumor necrosis factor production without affecting lipopolysaccharide-dependent pathways. We also determined the first crystal structure of RIPK2 bound to ponatinib, and identified an allosteric site for inhibitor development. These results highlight the potential for type II inhibitors to treat indications of RIPK2 activation as well as inflammation-associated cancers. PMID:26320862

  14. Inflammatory Signaling by NOD-RIPK2 Is Inhibited by Clinically Relevant Type II Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Canning, Peter; Ruan, Qui; Schwerd, Tobias; Hrdinka, Matous; Maki, Jenny L; Saleh, Danish; Suebsuwong, Chalada; Ray, Soumya; Brennan, Paul E; Cuny, Gregory D; Uhlig, Holm H; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads; Degterev, Alexei; Bullock, Alex N

    2015-09-17

    RIPK2 mediates pro-inflammatory signaling from the bacterial sensors NOD1 and NOD2, and is an emerging therapeutic target in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We observed that cellular RIPK2 can be potently inhibited by type II inhibitors that displace the kinase activation segment, whereas ATP-competitive type I inhibition was only poorly effective. The most potent RIPK2 inhibitors were the US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs ponatinib and regorafenib. Their mechanism of action was independent of NOD2 interaction and involved loss of downstream kinase activation as evidenced by lack of RIPK2 autophosphorylation. Notably, these molecules also blocked RIPK2 ubiquitination and, consequently, inflammatory nuclear factor κB signaling. In monocytes, the inhibitors selectively blocked NOD-dependent tumor necrosis factor production without affecting lipopolysaccharide-dependent pathways. We also determined the first crystal structure of RIPK2 bound to ponatinib, and identified an allosteric site for inhibitor development. These results highlight the potential for type II inhibitors to treat indications of RIPK2 activation as well as inflammation-associated cancers.

  15. Inhibiting EGF receptor or SRC family kinase signaling overcomes BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Girotti, Maria R; Pedersen, Malin; Sanchez-Laorden, Berta; Viros, Amaya; Turajlic, Samra; Niculescu-Duvaz, Dan; Zambon, Alfonso; Sinclair, John; Hayes, Andrew; Gore, Martin; Lorigan, Paul; Springer, Caroline; Larkin, James; Jorgensen, Claus; Marais, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We generated cell lines resistant to BRAF inhibitors and show that the EGF receptor (EGFR)–SRC family kinase (SFK)–STAT3 signaling pathway was upregulated in these cells. In addition to driving proliferation of resistant cells, this pathway also stimulated invasion and metastasis. EGFR inhibitors cooperated with BRAF inhibitors to block the growth of the resistant cells in vitro and in vivo, and monotherapy with the broad specificity tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib blocked growth and metastasis in vivo. We analyzed tumors from patients with intrinsic or acquired resistance to vemurafenib and observed increased EGFR and SFK activity. Furthermore, dasatinib blocked the growth and metastasis of one of the resistant tumors in immunocompromised mice. Our data shows that BRAF inhibitor-mediated activation of EFGR/SFK/STAT3 signaling can mediate resistance in BRAF mutant melanoma patients. We describe two treatments that appear to overcome this resistance and could deliver therapeutic efficacy in drug-resistant BRAF mutant melanoma patients. PMID:23242808

  16. ZSTK474, a novel phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor identified using the JFCR39 drug discovery system.

    PubMed

    Kong, De-xin; Yamori, Takao

    2010-09-01

    JFCR39 is an informatic anticancer drug discovery system that utilizes a panel of 39 human cancer cells coupled with a drug-activity database. This system not only provides disease-oriented information but can also predict the mechanism of action of a given antitumor agent. Development of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor as an anticancer drug candidate has attracted a great deal of attention from both academia and industry because PI3K is known to be closely involved in carcinogenesis. ZSTK474 was identified as a PI3K inhibitor using JFCR39 system in combination with COMPARE analysis program. These findings were based on the similar fingerprint (growth inhibition profiles for JFCR39 human cancer cell line panel) with that of a classical PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Biochemical experiments confirmed ZSTK474 to be a potent pan-class I PI3K inhibitor, with high selectivity over other classes of PI3K and protein kinases. We previously reported the in vitro and in vivo antitumor efficacy of ZSTK474, together with the G(0)/G(1) arrest and antiangiogenic activity. Here, we review the JFCR39 system and summarize recent studies on PI3K biology and the development of PI3K inhibitors before discussing ZSTK474 in some detail.

  17. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors enhance ciprofloxacin-induced phototoxicity by inhibiting ABCG2.

    PubMed

    Mealey, Katrina L; Dassanayake, Sandamali; Burke, Neal S

    2014-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) class of anticancer agents inhibits ABCG2-mediated drug efflux. ABCG2 is an important component of the blood-retinal barrier, where it limits retinal exposure to phototoxic compounds such as fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Patients treated with TKIs would be expected to be at greater risk for retinal phototoxicity. Using an in vitro system, our results indicate that the TKIs gefitinib and imatinib abrogate the ability of ABCG2 to protect cells against ciprofloxacin-induced phototoxicity. We conclude that the concurrent administration of ABCG2 inhibitors with photoreactive fluoroquinolone antibiotics may result in retinal damage.

  18. Structural basis for isoform selectivity in a class of benzothiazole inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ.

    PubMed

    Collier, Philip N; Martinez-Botella, Gabriel; Cornebise, Mark; Cottrell, Kevin M; Doran, John D; Griffith, James P; Mahajan, Sudipta; Maltais, François; Moody, Cameron S; Huck, Emilie Porter; Wang, Tiansheng; Aronov, Alex M

    2015-01-08

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) is an attractive target to potentially treat a range of disease states. Herein, we describe the evolution of a reported phenylthiazole pan-PI3K inhibitor into a family of potent and selective benzothiazole inhibitors. Using X-ray crystallography, we discovered that compound 22 occupies a previously unreported hydrophobic binding cleft adjacent to the ATP binding site of PI3Kγ, and achieves its selectivity by exploiting natural sequence differences among PI3K isoforms in this region.

  19. Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ONO/GS-4059: from bench to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingjing; Zhang, Mingzhi; Liu, Delong

    2017-01-01

    The Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, ibrutinib, has been approved for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma, and Waldenstroms macroglobulinemia. Acquired resistance to ibrutinib due to BTK C481S mutation has been reported. Mutations in PLC?2 can also mediate resistance to ibrutinib. Untoward effects due to off-target effects are also disadvantages of ibrutinib. More selective and potent BTK inhibitors (ACP-196, ONO/GS-4059, BGB-3111, CC-292) are being investigated. This review summarized the preclinical research and clinical data of ONO/GS-4059. PMID:27776353

  20. Mumps Virus Induces Protein-Kinase-R-Dependent Stress Granules, Partly Suppressing Type III Interferon Production

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Shin; Yamamoto, Soh; Ogasawara, Noriko; Sato, Toyotaka; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Katoh, Hiroshi; Kubota, Toru; Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Kojima, Takashi; Himi, Tetsuo; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic granular aggregations that are induced by cellular stress, including viral infection. SGs have opposing antiviral and proviral roles, which depend on virus species. The exact function of SGs during viral infection is not fully understood. Here, we showed that mumps virus (MuV) induced SGs depending on activation of protein kinase R (PKR). MuV infection strongly induced interferon (IFN)-λ1, 2 and 3, and IFN-β through activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) via retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) pathway. MuV-induced IFNs were strongly upregulated in PKR-knockdown cells. MuV-induced SG formation was suppressed by knockdown of PKR and SG marker proteins, Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3-domain-binding protein 1 and T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1, and significantly increased the levels of MuV-induced IFN-λ1. However, viral titer was not altered by suppression of SG formation. PKR was required for induction of SGs by MuV infection and regulated type III IFN (IFN-λ1) mRNA stability. MuV-induced SGs partly suppressed type III IFN production by MuV; however, the limited suppression was not sufficient to inhibit MuV replication in cell culture. Our results provide insight into the relationship between SGs and IFN production induced by MuV infection. PMID:27560627

  1. Emission Tuning of Fluorescent Kinase Inhibitors: Conjugation Length and Substituent Effects

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent N-phenyl-4-aminoquinazoline probes targeting the ATP-binding pocket of the ERBB family of receptor tyrosine kinases are reported. Extension of the aromatic quinazoline core with fluorophore “arms” through substitution at the 6- position of the quinazoline core with phenyl, styryl, and phenylbutadienyl moieties was predicted by means of TD-DFT calculations to produce probes with tunable photoexcitation energies and excited states possessing charge-transfer character. Optical spectroscopy identified several synthesized probes that are nonemissive in aqueous solutions and exhibit emission enhancements in solvents of low polarity, suggesting good performance as turn-on fluorophores. Ligand-induced ERBB2 phosphorylation assays demonstrate that despite chemical modification to the quinazoline core these probes still function as ERBB2 inhibitors in MCF7 cells. Two probes were found to exhibit ERBB2-induced fluorescence, demonstrating the utility of these probes as turn-on, fluoroescent kinase inhibitors. PMID:24784897

  2. Inhibitors of the Polo-Box Domain of Polo-Like Kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Berg, Angela; Berg, Thorsten

    2016-04-15

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a key player in mitosis, is overexpressed in a wide range of tumor types and has been validated as a target for tumor therapy. In addition to its N-terminal kinase domain, Plk1 harbors a C-terminal protein-protein interaction domain, referred to as the polo-box domain (PBD). Because the PBD is unique to the five-member family of polo-like kinases, and its inhibition is sufficient to inhibit the enzyme, the Plk1 PBD is an attractive target for the inhibition of Plk1 function. Although peptide-based inhibitors are invaluable tools for elucidating the nature of the binding interface, small molecules are better suited for the induction of mitotic arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells by Plk1 inhibition. This review describes the considerable progress that has been made in developing small-molecule and peptide-based inhibitors of the Plk1 PBD.

  3. Combination treatment of prostate cancer with FGF receptor and AKT kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shu; Shao, Longjiang; Castro, Patricia; Coleman, Ilsa; Nelson, Peter S; Smith, Paul D; Davies, Barry R; Ittmann, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway occurs in the vast majority of advanced prostate cancers (PCas). Activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling occurs in a wide variety of malignancies, including PCa. RNA-Seq of castration resistant PCa revealed expression of multiple FGFR signaling components compatible with FGFR signaling in all cases, with multiple FGF ligands expressed in 90% of cases. Immunohistochemistry confirmed FGFR signaling in the majority of xenografts and advanced PCas. AZD5363, an AKT kinase inhibitor and AZD4547, a FGFR kinase inhibitor are under active clinical development. We therefore sought to determine if these two drugs have additive effects in PCa models. The effect of both agents, singly and in combination was evaluated in a variety of PCa cell lines in vitro and in vivo. All cell lines tested responded to both drugs with decreased invasion, soft agar colony formation and growth in vivo, with additive effects seen with combination treatment. Activation of the FGFR, AKT, ERK and STAT3 pathways was examined in treated cells. AZD5363 inhibited AKT signaling and increased FGFR1 signaling, which partially compensated for decreased AKT kinase activity. While AZD4547 could effectively block the ERK pathway, combination treatment was needed to completely block STAT3 activation. Thus combination treatment with AKT and FGFR kinase inhibitors have additive effects on malignant phenotypes in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting multiple signaling pathways and mitigating the compensatory upregulation of FGFR signaling induced by AKT kinase inhibition. Our studies suggest that co-targeting these pathways may be efficacious in advanced PCa. PMID:28008155

  4. Discovery of 2-Acylaminothiophene-3-Carboxamides as Multitarget Inhibitors for BCR-ABL Kinase and Microtubules.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ran; Wang, Yanli; Huang, Niu

    2015-11-23

    The emergence of drug resistance of the BCR-ABL kinase inhibitor imatinib, especially toward the T315I gatekeeper mutation, poses a great challenge to targeted therapy in treating chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. To discover novel inhibitors against drug-resistant CML bearing T315I mutation, we applied a physics-based hierarchical virtual screening approach to dock a large chemical library against ATP binding pockets of both wild-type (WT) and T315I mutant ABL kinases in a combinatorial fashion. This strategy automatically resulted in 87 compounds satisfying structural and energetic criteria of both WT and T315I mutant kinases. Among them, nine compounds, which share a common thiophene-based scaffold and adopt similar binding poses, were chosen for experimental testing and one of them was shown to have low micromolar inhibition activities against both WT and mutant ABL kinases. Structure-activity relationship analysis with a series of structural modifications based on 2-acylaminothiophene-3-carboxamide scaffold supports our predicted binding mode. Interestingly, the same chemical scaffold was also enriched in our previous virtual screening campaign against colchicine site of microtubules using the same computational protocol, which suggests our virtual screening strategy is capable of discovering small-molecule ligands targeting distinct protein binding sites without sharing any sequential and structural similarity. Furthermore, the multitarget inhibition activity of this class of compounds was assessed in cellular experiments. We expect that the 2-acylaminothiophene-3-carboxamide scaffold may serve as a promising starting point for developing multitarget inhibitors in cancer treatment by targeting both kinases and microtubules.

  5. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors as modulators of ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Suneet; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases (TKs) are involved in key signaling events/pathways that regulate cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis. Deregulated activity of TKs has been implicated in several types of cancers. In recent years, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been developed to inhibit specific kinases whose constitutive activity results in specific cancer types. These TKIs have been found to demonstrate effective anticancer activity and some of them have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for clinical use or are in clinical trials. However, these targeted therapeutic agents are also transported by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, resulting in altered pharmacokinetics or development of resistance to these drugs in cancer patients. This review covers the recent findings on the interactions of clinically important TKIs with ABC drug transporters. Future research efforts in the development of novel TKIs with specific targets, seeking improved activity, should consider these underlying causes of resistance to TKIs in cancer cells. PMID:22325423

  6. Discovery of Isonicotinamides as Highly Selective, Brain Penetrable, and Orally Active Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guanglin; Chen, Ling; Burton, Catherine R; Xiao, Hong; Sivaprakasam, Prasanna; Krause, Carol M; Cao, Yang; Liu, Nengyin; Lippy, Jonathan; Clarke, Wendy J; Snow, Kimberly; Raybon, Joseph; Arora, Vinod; Pokross, Matt; Kish, Kevin; Lewis, Hal A; Langley, David R; Macor, John E; Dubowchik, Gene M

    2016-02-11

    GSK-3 is a serine/threonine kinase that has numerous substrates. Many of these proteins are involved in the regulation of diverse cellular functions, including metabolism, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Inhibition of GSK-3 may be useful in treating a number of diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), type II diabetes, mood disorders, and some cancers, but the approach poses significant challenges. Here, we present a class of isonicotinamides that are potent, highly kinase-selective GSK-3 inhibitors, the members of which demonstrated oral activity in a triple-transgenic mouse model of AD. The remarkably high kinase selectivity and straightforward synthesis of these compounds bode well for their further exploration as tool compounds and therapeutics.

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2,4-diaminopyrimidines as selective Aurora A kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wen-Wen; Sang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Lin-Lin; Wei, Wei; Tian, Heng-Zhi; Liu, Huan-Xiang; Chen, Shi-Wu; Hui, Ling

    2015-05-05

    The Aurora kinases are a family of serine/threonine kinases that interact with components of the mitotic apparatus and serve as potential therapeutic targets in oncology. Here we synthesized 15 2,4-diaminopyrimidines and evaluated their biological activities, including antiproliferation, inhibition against Aurora kinases and cell cycle effects. These compounds generally exhibited more potent cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines compared with the VX-680 control, especially compound 11c, which showed the highest cytotoxicities, with IC50 values of 0.5-4.0 μM. Compound 11c had more than 35-fold more selectivity for Aurora A over Aurora B, and molecular docking analysis indicated that compound 11c form better interaction with Aurora A both from the perspective of structure and energy. Furthermore, compound 11c induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells. This series of compounds has the potential for further development as selective Aurora A inhibitors for anticancer activity.

  8. Fragment-Based Discovery of Type I Inhibitors of Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design was successfully applied to maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK). A low affinity (160 μM) fragment hit was identified, which bound to the hinge region with an atypical binding mode, and this was optimized using structure-based design into a low-nanomolar and cell-penetrant inhibitor, with a good selectivity profile, suitable for use as a chemical probe for elucidation of MELK biology. PMID:25589925

  9. In Vitro High Throughput Screening, What Next? Lessons from the Screening for Aurora Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Thi-My-Nhung; Vu, Hong-Lien; Le, Ly-Thuy-Tram; Nguyen, Chi-Hung; Molla, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Based on in vitro assays, we performed a High Throughput Screening (HTS) to identify kinase inhibitors among 10,000 small chemical compounds. In this didactic paper, we describe step-by-step the approach to validate the hits as well as the major pitfalls encountered in the development of active molecules. We propose a decision tree that could be adapted to most in vitro HTS. PMID:24833340

  10. Role of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Indolent and Other Mature B-Cell Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kutsch, Nadine; Marks, Reinhard; Ratei, Richard; Held, Thomas K; Schmidt-Hieber, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Targeting tyrosine kinases represents a highly specific treatment approach for different malignancies. This also includes non-Hodgkin lymphoma since it is well known that these enzymes are frequently involved in the lymphomagenesis. Hereby, tyrosine kinases might either be dysregulated intrinsically or be activated within signal transduction pathways leading to tumor survival and growth. Among others, Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) is of particular interest as a potential therapeutic target. Btk is stimulated by B-cell receptor signaling and activates different transcription factors such as nuclear factor κB. The Btk inhibitor ibrutinib has been approved for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle-cell lymphoma recently. Numerous clinical trials evaluating this agent in different combinations (eg, with rituximab or classical chemotherapeutic agents) as a treatment option for aggressive and indolent lymphoma are under way. Here, we summarize the role of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of indolent and other non-Hodgkin lymphomas (eg, mantle-cell lymphoma). PMID:26327780

  11. Perspectives for the use of structural information and chemical genetics to develop inhibitors of Janus kinases

    PubMed Central

    Haan, Claude; Behrmann, Iris; Haan, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Gain-of-function mutations in the genes encoding Janus kinases have been discovered in various haematologic diseases. Jaks are composed of a FERM domain, an SH2 domain, a pseudokinase domain and a kinase domain, and a complex interplay of the Jak domains is involved in regulation of catalytic activity and association to cytokine receptors. Most activating mutations are found in the pseudokinase domain. Here we present recently discovered mutations in the context of our structural models of the respective domains. We describe two structural hotspots in the pseudokinase domain of Jak2 that seem to be associated either to myeloproliferation or to lymphoblastic leukaemia, pointing at the involvement of distinct signalling complexes in these disease settings. The different domains of Jaks are discussed as potential drug targets. We present currently available inhibitors targeting Jaks and indicate structural differences in the kinase domains of the different Jaks that may be exploited in the development of specific inhibitors. Moreover, we discuss recent chemical genetic approaches which can be applied to Jaks to better understand the role of these kinases in their biological settings and as drug targets. PMID:20132407

  12. Discovery of Novel Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 Kinase Inhibitors by Structure-Based Virtual Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindranathan, K.; Mandiyan, V; Ekkati, A; Bae, J; Schlessinger, J; Jorgensen, W

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play important roles in embryonic development, angiogenesis, wound healing, and cell proliferation and differentiation. In search of inhibitors of FGFR1 kinase, 2.2 million compounds were docked into the ATP binding site of the protein. A co-crystal structure, which shows two alternative conformations for the nucleotide binding loop, is reported. Docking was performed on both conformations and, ultimately, 23 diverse compounds were purchased and assayed. Following hit validation, two compounds 10 and 16, a benzylidene derivative of pseudothiohydantoin and a thienopyrimidinone derivative, respectively, were discovered that inhibit FGFR1 kinase with IC{sub 50} values of 23 and 50 {micro}M. Initial optimization of 16 led to the more unsaturated 40, which has significantly enhanced potency, 1.9 {micro}M. The core structures represent new structural motifs for FGFR1 kinase inhibitors. The study also illustrates complexities associated with the choice of protein structures for docking, possible use of multiple kinase structures to seek selectivity, and hit identification.

  13. Transcriptional upregulation of the human MRP2 gene expression by serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pułaski, L; Szemraj, J; Uchiumi, T; Kuwano, M; Bartosz, G

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation by cellular signalling pathways of multidrug resistance proteins that pump anticancer drugs out of cells is one of key issues in the development of the multidrug resistance phenotype. In our study, we have used the reporter gene approach as well as determination of mRNA levels in two cancer cell lines of human origin, MCF-7 and A549, to study the regulation of multidrug resistance proteins 2 and 3 (MRP2 AND MRP3) by serine/threonine protein kinases. Since a prototypic PKC inducer, PMA, caused a marked upregulation of transcription from both human MRP2 and MRP3 promoters, a role for PKC isoforms in positive control of expression of these proteins could be postulated. Interestingly, broad-spectrum serine-threonine protein kinase inhibitors which also inhibit PKC, staurosporine and H-7, stimulated expression from the MRP2 promoter instead of inhibiting it. This effect was not seen for MRP3. MRP2 induction by staurosporine and H-7 was shown to have phenotypic consequences in whole cells, rendering them more resistant to etoposide and increasing their ability to export calcein through the plasma membrane. These results point to the involvement of serine/threonine protein kinases in negative regulation of the human MRP2 gene and to the necessity of testing novel anti-cancer drugs acting as protein kinase inhibitors with regard to their potential ability to induce multidrug resistance.

  14. High-content screen using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos identifies a novel kinase activator and inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Werner J; Bergeron, Sadie A; Mullins, Jackie E; Aljammal, Rowaa; Gaasch, Briah L; Chen, Wei-Chi; Yun, June; Hazlehurst, Lori A

    2017-02-28

    In this report we utilized zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos in a phenotypical high-content screen (HCS) to identify novel leads in a cancer drug discovery program. We initially validated our HCS model using the flavin adenosine dinucleotide (FAD) containing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) enzyme, endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductase (ERO1) inhibitor EN460. EN460 showed a dose response effect on the embryos with a dose of 10μM being significantly lethal during early embryonic development. The HCS campaign which employed a small library identified a promising lead compound, a naphthyl-benzoic acid derivative coined compound 1 which had significant dosage and temporally dependent effects on notochord and muscle development in zebrafish embryos. Screening a 369 kinase member panel we show that compound 1 is a PIM3 kinase inhibitor (IC50=4.078μM) and surprisingly a DAPK1 kinase agonist/activator (EC50=39.525μM). To our knowledge this is the first example of a small molecule activating DAPK1 kinase. We provide a putative model for increased phosphate transfer in the ATP binding domain when compound 1 is virtually docked with DAPK1. Our data indicate that observable phenotypical changes can be used in future zebrafish screens to identify compounds acting via similar molecular signaling pathways.

  15. Discovery of a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable pyridinyl-pyrimidine phthalazine aurora kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cee, Victor J; Schenkel, Laurie B; Hodous, Brian L; Deak, Holly L; Nguyen, Hanh N; Olivieri, Philip R; Romero, Karina; Bak, Annette; Be, Xuhai; Bellon, Steve; Bush, Tammy L; Cheng, Alan C; Chung, Grace; Coats, Steve; Eden, Patrick M; Hanestad, Kelly; Gallant, Paul L; Gu, Yan; Huang, Xin; Kendall, Richard L; Lin, Min-Hwa Jasmine; Morrison, Michael J; Patel, Vinod F; Radinsky, Robert; Rose, Paul E; Ross, Sandra; Sun, Ji-Rong; Tang, Jin; Zhao, Huilin; Payton, Marc; Geuns-Meyer, Stephanie D

    2010-09-09

    The discovery of aurora kinases as essential regulators of cell division has led to intense interest in identifying small molecule aurora kinase inhibitors for the potential treatment of cancer. A high-throughput screening effort identified pyridinyl-pyrimidine 6a as a moderately potent dual inhibitor of aurora kinases -A and -B. Optimization of this hit resulted in an anthranilamide lead (6j) that possessed improved enzyme and cellular activity and exhibited a high level of kinase selectivity. However, this anthranilamide and subsequent analogues suffered from a lack of oral bioavailability. Converting the internally hydrogen-bonded six-membered pseudo-ring of the anthranilamide to a phthalazine (8a-b) led to a dramatic improvement in oral bioavailability (38-61%F) while maintaining the potency and selectivity characteristics of the anthranilamide series. In a COLO 205 tumor pharmacodynamic assay measuring phosphorylation of the aurora-B substrate histone H3 at serine 10 (p-histone H3), oral administration of 8b at 50 mg/kg demonstrated significant reduction in tumor p-histone H3 for at least 6 h.

  16. Effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitor on the motility and ATP concentrations of fowl spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Ashizawa, K; Higashio, M; Tsuzuki, Y

    1998-02-01

    The possible role of tyrosine kinase in the regulation of fowl sperm motility was investigated by using a stable analogue of erbstatin, methyl 2,5-dihydroxycinnamate (2,5-MeC), a specific inhibitor of tyrosine kinase. This inhibited the motility of intact spermatozoa at 30 degrees C in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the motility of demembranated spermatozoa was not inhibited by the same concentrations of 2,5-MeC. At 40 degrees C, both intact and demembranated spermatozoa were almost immotile with or without 2,5-MeC. Additionally, intact spermatozoa, stimulated by the addition of Ca2+ or calyculin A, a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases, lost their motility with the subsequent addition of 2,5-MeC at 40 degrees C. However, unlike the motility, the ATP concentrations of spermatozoa were maintained in about 30-35 nmol ATP/10(9) cells during these incubation periods. The activity of tyrosine kinase of spermatozoa at 30 degrees C, estimated by measuring the phosphorylation of a synthetic peptide substrate, RR-SRC, was 0.17 pmol/min per milligram of protein. This activity was lower than that of fowl testes or chick brain but higher than that of chick liver. These results suggest that tyrosine kinase activity, which is not retained in the axoneme and/or accessory cytoskeletal components, may be involved in the maintenance of flagellar movement of fowl spermatozoa at 30 degrees C.

  17. In silico 3D structure modeling and inhibitor binding studies of human male germ cell-associated kinase.

    PubMed

    Tanneeru, Karunakar; Balla, Ashok Raja; Guruprasad, Lalitha

    2015-01-01

    Human male germ cell-associated kinase (hMAK) is an androgen-inducible gene in prostate epithelial cells, and it acts as a coactivator of androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer. The 3D structure of the hMAK kinase was modeled based on the crystal structure of CDK2 kinase using comparative modeling methods, and the ATP-binding site was characterized. We have collected five inhibitors of hMAK from the literature and docked into the ATP-binding site of the kinase domain. Solvated interaction energies (SIE) of inhibitor binding are calculated from the molecular dynamics simulations trajectories of protein-inhibitor complexes. The contribution from each active site residue in hMAK toward inhibitor binding revealed the nature and extent of interactions between inhibitors and individual residues. The main chain atoms of Met79 invariably form hydrogen bonds with all five inhibitors. The amino acids Leu7, Val15, and Leu129 stabilize the inhibitors via CH-pi interactions. The Asp140 in the active site and Glu77 in hinge region show characteristic hydrogen bonding interactions with inhibitors. From SIE, the residue-wise interactions revealed the nature of non-bonding contacts and modifications required to increase the inhibitor activity. Our work provides 3D model structure of hMAK and molecular basis for the mechanisms of hMAK inhibition at atomic level that aid in designing new potent inhibitors.

  18. Aurora kinase inhibitor nanoparticles target tumors with favorable therapeutic index in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Susan; Song, Young Ho; Nolan, Jim; Cadogan, Elaine; Murray, Jim; Odedra, Rajesh; Foster, John; Hall, Peter A; Low, Susan; Taylor, Paula; Ellston, Rebecca; Polanska, Urszula M; Wilson, Joanne; Howes, Colin; Smith, Aaron; Goodwin, Richard J A; Swales, John G; Strittmatter, Nicole; Takáts, Zoltán; Nilsson, Anna; Andren, Per; Trueman, Dawn; Walker, Mike; Reimer, Corinne L; Troiano, Greg; Parsons, Donald; De Witt, David; Ashford, Marianne; Hrkach, Jeff; Zale, Stephen; Jewsbury, Philip J; Barry, Simon T

    2016-02-10

    Efforts to apply nanotechnology in cancer have focused almost exclusively on the delivery of cytotoxic drugs to improve therapeutic index. There has been little consideration of molecularly targeted agents, in particular kinase inhibitors, which can also present considerable therapeutic index limitations. We describe the development of Accurin polymeric nanoparticles that encapsulate the clinical candidate AZD2811, an Aurora B kinase inhibitor, using an ion pairing approach. Accurins increase biodistribution to tumor sites and provide extended release of encapsulated drug payloads. AZD2811 nanoparticles containing pharmaceutically acceptable organic acids as ion pairing agents displayed continuous drug release for more than 1 week in vitro and a corresponding extended pharmacodynamic reduction of tumor phosphorylated histone H3 levels in vivo for up to 96 hours after a single administration. A specific AZD2811 nanoparticle formulation profile showed accumulation and retention in tumors with minimal impact on bone marrow pathology, and resulted in lower toxicity and increased efficacy in multiple tumor models at half the dose intensity of AZD1152, a water-soluble prodrug of AZD2811. These studies demonstrate that AZD2811 can be formulated in nanoparticles using ion pairing agents to give improved efficacy and tolerability in preclinical models with less frequent dosing. Accurins specifically, and nanotechnology in general, can increase the therapeutic index of molecularly targeted agents, including kinase inhibitors targeting cell cycle and oncogenic signal transduction pathways, which have to date proved toxic in humans.

  19. Novel, potent and selective inhibitors of protein kinase C show oral anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Nixon, J S; Bishop, J; Bradshaw, D; Davis, P D; Hill, C H; Elliott, L H; Kumar, H; Lawton, G; Lewis, E J; Mulqueen, M

    1991-01-01

    Clarification of the precise role of protein kinase C (PKC) in cellular functional responses has been hampered by a lack of potent, selective inhibitors. The structural lead provided by staurosporine, a potent but non-selective protein kinase (PK) inhibitor, was used to derive a series of bis(indolyl)maleimides of which the most potent, Ro 31-8425 (I50: PKC = 8 nM) showed 350-fold selectivity for PKC over cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Ro 31-8425 antagonised cellular processes triggered by phorbol esters (potent, specific PKC activators) and inhibited the allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction, suggesting a role for PKC in T-cell activation. Methylation of the primary amine in Ro 31-8425 produced an analogue. Ro 31-8830 which, when administered orally, produced a dose-dependent inhibition of a phorbol ester-induced paw oedema in mice (minimum effective dose = 15 mg/kg). Ro 31-8830 also selectively inhibited the secondary inflammation in a developing adjuvant arthritis model in the rat. The results presented here suggest that these selective inhibitors of PKC may have therapeutic value in the treatment of T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  20. A computational model of binding thermodynamics: the design of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sims, Peter A; Wong, Chung F; McCammon, J Andrew

    2003-07-17

    The cyclin-dependent protein kinases are important targets in drug discovery because of their role in cell cycle regulation. In this computational study, we have applied a continuum solvent model to study the interactions between cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and analogues of the clinically tested anticancer agent flavopiridol. The continuum solvent model uses Coulomb's law to account for direct electrostatic interactions, solves the Poisson equation to obtain the electrostatic contributions to solvation energy, and calculates scaled solvent-accessible surface area to account for hydrophobic interactions. The computed free energy of binding gauges the strength of protein-ligand interactions. Our model was first validated through a study on the binding of a number of flavopiridol derivatives to CDK2, and its ability to identify potent inhibitors was observed. The model was then used to aid in the design of novel CDK2 inhibitors with the aid of a computational sensitivity analysis. Some of these hypothetical structures could be significantly more potent than the lead compound flavopiridol. We applied two approaches to gain insights into designing selective inhibitors. One relied on the comparative analysis of the binding pocket for several hundred protein kinases to identify the parts of a lead compound whose modifications might lead to selective compounds. The other was based on building and using homology models for energy calculations. The homology models appear to be able to classify ligand potency into groups but cannot yet give reliable quantitative results.

  1. Casein kinase 1δ/ε inhibitor PF-5006739 attenuates opioid drug-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Wager, Travis T; Chandrasekaran, Ramalakshmi Y; Bradley, Jenifer; Rubitski, David; Berke, Helen; Mente, Scot; Butler, Todd; Doran, Angela; Chang, Cheng; Fisher, Katherine; Knafels, John; Liu, Shenping; Ohren, Jeff; Marconi, Michael; DeMarco, George; Sneed, Blossom; Walton, Kevin; Horton, David; Rosado, Amy; Mead, Andy

    2014-12-17

    Casein kinase 1 delta (CK1δ) and casein kinase 1 epsilon (CK1ε) inhibitors are potential therapeutic agents for a range of psychiatric disorders. The feasibility of developing a CNS kinase inhibitor has been limited by an inability to identify safe brain-penetrant compounds with high kinome selectivity. Guided by structure-based drug design, potent and selective CK1δ/ε inhibitors have now been identified that address this gap, through the design and synthesis of novel 4-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(piperidin-4-yl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl]pyrimidin-2-amine derivatives. PF-5006739 (6) possesses a desirable profile, with low nanomolar in vitro potency for CK1δ/ε (IC50 = 3.9 and 17.0 nM, respectively) and high kinome selectivity. In vivo, 6 demonstrated robust centrally mediated circadian rhythm phase-delaying effects in both nocturnal and diurnal animal models. Further, 6 dose-dependently attenuated opioid drug-seeking behavior in a rodent operant reinstatement model in animals trained to self-administer fentanyl. Collectively, our data supports further development of 6 as a promising candidate to test the hypothesis of CK1δ/ε inhibition in treating multiple indications in the clinic.

  2. The discovery of novel vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases inhibitors: pharmacophore modeling, virtual screening and docking studies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Wang, Zhanli; Zhang, Liangren; Zhang, Jufeng; Huang, Qian

    2007-03-01

    We have applied pharmacophore generation, database searching and docking methodologies to discover new structures for the design of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, the tyrosine kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase inhibitors. The chemical function based pharmacophore models were built for kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase inhibitors from a set of 10 known inhibitors using the algorithm HipHop, which is implemented in the CATALYST software. The highest scoring HipHop model consists of four features: one hydrophobic, one hydrogen bond acceptor, one hydrogen bond donor and one ring aromatic function. Using the algorithm CatShape within CATALYST, the bound conformation of 4-amino-furo [2, 3-d] pyrimidine binding to kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase was used to generate a shape query. A merged shape and hypothesis query that is in an appropriate alignment was then built. The combined shape and hypothesis model was used as a query to search Maybridge database for other potential lead compounds. A total of 39 compounds were retrieved as hits. The hits obtained were docked into kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase active site. One novel potential lead was proposed based on CATALYST fit value, LigandFit docking scores, and examination of how the hit retain key interactions known to be required for kinase binding. This compound inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor stimulated kinase insert domain-containing receptor phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  3. Pyruvate kinase M2 activators promote tetramer formation and suppress tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasiou, Dimitrios; Yu, Yimin; Israelsen, William J.; Jiang, Jian-Kang; Boxer, Matthew B.; Hong, Bum Soo; Tempel, Wolfram; Dimov, Svetoslav; Shen, Min; Jha, Abhishek; Yang, Hua; Mattaini, Katherine R.; Metallo, Christian M.; Fiske, Brian P.; Courtney, Kevin D.; Malstrom, Scott; Khan, Tahsin M.; Kung, Charles; Skoumbourdis, Amanda P.; Veith, Henrike; Southall, Noel; Walsh, Martin J.; Brimacombe, Kyle R.; Leister, William; Lunt, Sophia Y.; Johnson, Zachary R.; Yen, Katharine E.; Kunii, Kaiko; Davidson, Shawn M.; Christofk, Heather R.; Austin, Christopher P.; Inglese, James; Harris, Marian H.; Asara, John M.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Salituro, Francesco G.; Jin, Shengfang; Dang, Lenny; Auld, Douglas S.; Park, Hee-Won; Cantley, Lewis C.; Thomas, Craig J.; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.

    2012-08-26

    Cancer cells engage in a metabolic program to enhance biosynthesis and support cell proliferation. The regulatory properties of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) influence altered glucose metabolism in cancer. The interaction of PKM2 with phosphotyrosine-containing proteins inhibits enzyme activity and increases the availability of glycolytic metabolites to support cell proliferation. This suggests that high pyruvate kinase activity may suppress tumor growth. We show that expression of PKM1, the pyruvate kinase isoform with high constitutive activity, or exposure to published small-molecule PKM2 activators inhibits the growth of xenograft tumors. Structural studies reveal that small-molecule activators bind PKM2 at the subunit interaction interface, a site that is distinct from that of the endogenous activator fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP). However, unlike FBP, binding of activators to PKM2 promotes a constitutively active enzyme state that is resistant to inhibition by tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. This data supports the notion that small-molecule activation of PKM2 can interfere with anabolic metabolism.

  4. Pyruvate kinase M2 activators promote tetramer formation and suppress tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Anastasiou, Dimitrios; Yu, Yimin; Israelsen, William J.; Jiang, Jian-kang; Boxer, Matthew B.; Hong, Bum Soo; Tempel, Wolfram; Dimov, Svetoslav; Shen, Min; Jha, Abhishek; Yang, Hua; Mattaini, Katherine R.; Metallo, Christian M.; Fiske, Brian P.; Courtney, Kevin D.; Malstrom, Scott; Khan, Tahsin M.; Kung, Charles; Skoumbourdis, Amanda P.; Veith, Henrike; Southall, Noel; Walsh, Martin J.; Brimacombe, Kyle R.; Leister, William; Lunt, Sophia Y.; Johnson, Zachary R.; Yen, Katharine E.; Kunii, Kaiko; Davidson, Shawn M.; Christofk, Heather R.; Austin, Christopher P.; Inglese, James; Harris, Marian H.; Asara, John M.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Salituro, Francesco G.; Jin, Shengfang; Dang, Lenny; Auld, Douglas S.; Park, Hee-Won; Cantley, Lewis C.; Thomas, Craig J.; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells engage in a metabolic program to enhance biosynthesis and support cell proliferation. The regulatory properties of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) influence altered glucose metabolism in cancer. PKM2 interaction with phosphotyrosine-containing proteins inhibits enzyme activity and increases availability of glycolytic metabolites to support cell proliferation. This suggests that high pyruvate kinase activity may suppress tumor growth. We show that expression of PKM1, the pyruvate kinase isoform with high constitutive activity, or exposure to published small molecule PKM2 activators inhibit growth of xenograft tumors. Structural studies reveal that small molecule activators bind PKM2 at the subunit interaction interface, a site distinct from that of the endogenous activator fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP). However, unlike FBP, binding of activators to PKM2 promotes a constitutively active enzyme state that is resistant to inhibition by tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. These data support the notion that small molecule activation of PKM2 can interfere with anabolic metabolism. PMID:22922757

  5. Effects of a selective Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 on oxidative stress parameters in acute dichlorvos poisoning in rats.

    PubMed

    Gunay, N; Kose, B; Demiryurek, S; Ocak, A R; Erel, O; Demiryurek, A T

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the effects of Y-27632, a selective Rho-kinase inhibitor, on organophosphate-induced acute toxicity in rats. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as control (corn oil), dichlorvos (30 mg kg(-1) i.p.), 1 and 10 mg kg(-1) Y-27632 + dichlorvos groups. Cholinergic signs (fatigue, tremor, cyanosis, hyper-secretion, fasciculations) were observed in all the rats in the dichlorvos group and the mortality rate was 50%. No cholinergic findings and deaths were observed in the control and Y-27632 groups. Plasma cholinesterase activities were suppressed with dichlorvos and these reductions were attenuated with Y-27632 pretreatment. There was a marked increase in plasma malondialdehyde level in the dichlorvos group, but Y-27632 pretreatment abolished this elevation. Dichlorvos markedly depressed cardiac paraoxonase activity, but these changes were not markedly modified with Y-27632. Total antioxidant capacities, total oxidant status, oxidative stress index, total free sulfhydryl groups and catalase activities in plasma and cardiac tissues were not markedly different between the groups. No significant changes were observed with cardiac myeloperoxidase activities or plasma arylesterase and ceruloplasmin activities. In conclusion, our results suggest that Rho-kinase pathway is involved in organophosphate intoxication, and a decrease in cardiac paraoxonase activities may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute organophosphate poisoning in rats.

  6. GZD824 suppresses the growth of human B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by inhibiting the SRC kinase and PI3K/AKT pathways.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wei; Jiang, Zhiwu; Lu, Xiaoyun; Ren, Xiaomei; Deng, Manman; Lin, Shouheng; Xiao, Yiren; Lin, Simiao; Wang, Suna; Li, Baiheng; Zheng, Yi; Lai, Peilong; Weng, Jianyu; Wu, Donghai; Ma, Yuguo; Chen, Xudong; Wen, Zhesheng; Chen, Yaoyu; Feng, Xiaoyan; Li, Yangqiu; Liu, Pentao; Du, Xin; Pei, Duanqing; Yao, Yao; Xu, Bing; Ding, Ke; Li, Peng

    2016-07-28

    Available therapeutic options for advanced B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) are limited. Many lead to neutropenia, leaving patients at risk of life-threatening infections and result in bad outcomes. New treatment options are needed to improve overall survival. We previously showed that GZD824, a novel BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has anti-tumor activity in Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukemia cells and tumor models. Here, we show that GZD824 decreases cell viability, induces cell-cycle arrest, and causes apoptosis in pre-B ALL cells. Furthermore, Ph- pre-B ALL cells were more sensitive to GZD824 than Ph+ pre-B ALL cells. GZD824 consistently reduced tumor loads in Ph- pre-B ALL xenografts but failed to suppress Ph+ pre-B ALL xenografts. GZD824 decreased phosphorylation of SRC kinase, STAT3, RB and C-myc. It also downregulated the expression of BCL-XL, CCND1 and CDK4 and upregulated expression of CCKN1A. Expression of IRS1 was decreased in GZD824-treated pre-B ALL cells, blocking the PI3K/AKT pathway. These data demonstrate that GZD824 suppresses pre-B ALL cells through inhibition of the SRC kinase and PI3K/AKT pathways and may be a potential therapeutic agent for the management of pre-B ALL.

  7. Effects of tyrosine kinase and phosphatase inhibitors on mitosis progression in synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sheremet, Ya A; Yemets, A I; Azmi, A; Vissenberg, K; Verbelen, J P; Blume, Ya B

    2012-01-01

    To test whether reversible tubulin phosphorylation plays any role in the process of plant mitosis the effects of inhibitors of tyrosine kinases, herbimycin A, genistein and tyrphostin AG 18, and of an inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatases, sodium orthovanadate, on microtubule organization and mitosis progression in a synchronized BY-2 culture has been investigated. It was found that treatment with inhibitors of tyrosine kinases of BY-2 cells at the G2/M transition did not lead to visible disturbances of mitotic microtubule structures, while it did reduce the frequency of their appearance. We assume that a decreased tyrosine phosphorylation level could alter the microtubule dynamic instability parameters during interphase/prophase transition. All types of tyrosine kinase inhibitors used caused a prophase delay: herbimycin A and genistein for 2 h, and tyrphostin AG18 for 1 h. Thereafter the peak of mitosis was displaced for 1 h by herbimycin A or genistein exposure, but after tyrphostin AG18 treatment the timing of the mitosis-peak was comparable to that in control cells. Enhancement of tyrosine phosphorylation induced by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor resulted in the opposite effect on BY-2 mitosis transition. Culture treatment with sodium orthovanadate during 1 h resulted in an accelerated start of the prophase and did not lead to the alteration in time of the mitotic index peak formation, as compared to control cells. We suppose that the reversible tyrosine phosphorylation can be involved in the regulation of interphase to M phase transition possibly through regulation of microtubule dynamics in plant cells.

  8. Novel Kinase Inhibitors Targeting the PH Domain of AKT for Preventing and Treating Cancer | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute's Medical Oncology Branch is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in licensing and co-development collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize novel kinase inhibitors targeting the PH domain of AKT.

  9. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin suppresses mouse colon tumorigenesis in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Naoki; Inoue, Takuya; Iguchi, Munetaka; Fujiwara, Kaori; Kakimoto, Kazuki; Nouda, Sadaharu; Okada, Toshihiko; Kawakami, Ken; Abe, Yosuke; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2016-02-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to have an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have been used as a new therapeutic tool for type 2 diabetes. Since the substrates for DPP-4 include intestinotrophic hormones and chemokines such as GLP-2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), which are associated with tumor progression, DPP-4 inhibitors may increase the risk of colorectal tumors. However, the influence of DPP-4 inhibitors on colorectal neoplasia in patients with type 2 diabetes remains unknown. In the present study, we show that long-term administration of a DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin (STG), suppressed colon carcinogenesis in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) C57BL/6J mice. Colonic mucosal concentrations of glucagon‑like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-2 were significantly elevated in the ob/ob mice. However, mucosal GLP concentrations and the plasma level of SDF-1 were not affected by the administration of STG. Real‑time PCR analysis revealed that colonic mucosal IL-6 mRNA expression, which was significantly upregulated in the ob/ob mice, was significantly suppressed by the long-term administration of STG. These results suggest that a DPP-4 inhibitor may suppress colon carcinogenesis in mice with type 2 diabetes in a GLP-independent manner. Since DPP-4 has multiple biological functions, further studies analyzing other factors related to colon carcinogenesis are needed.

  10. GSK-3β inhibitors suppressed neuroinflammation in rat cortex by activating autophagy in ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaogang; Zhou, Jian; Li, Xilei; Guo, Chang'an; Fang, Taolin; Chen, Zhengrong

    2011-07-29

    Previous studies have shown that GSK-3β inhibitor could reduce infarct volume after ischemia brain injury. However, the underlying mechanisms of GSK-3β inhibitor involving neuroprotection remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that GSK-3β inhibitor suppressed insult-induced neuroinflammation in rat cortex by increasing autophagy activation in ischemic injury. Male rats were subjected to pMCAO (permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion) followed by treating with SB216763, a GSK-3β inhibitor. We found that insult-induced inflammatory response was significantly decreased by intraperitoneal infusion of SB216763 in rat cortex. A higher level of autophagy was also detected after SB216763 treatment. In the cultured primary microglia, SB216763 activated autophagy and suppressed inflammatory response. Importantly, inhibition of autophagy by Beclin1-siRNA increased inflammatory response in the SB216763-treated microglia. These data suggest that GSK-3β inhibitor suppressed neuroinflammation by activating autophagy after ischemic brain injury, thus offering a new target for prevention of ischemic brain injury.

  11. Effect of Narrow Spectrum Versus Selective Kinase Inhibitors on the Intestinal Proinflammatory Immune Response in Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Biancheri, Paolo; Foster, Martyn R.; Fyfe, Matthew C. T.; MacDonald, Thomas T.; Sirohi, Sameer; Solanke, Yemisi; Wood, Eleanor; Rowley, Adele; Webber, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kinases are key mediators of inflammation, highlighting the potential of kinase inhibitors as treatments for inflammatory disorders. Selective kinase inhibitors, however, have proved disappointing, particularly in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Consequently, to improve efficacy, attention has turned to multikinase inhibition. Methods: The activity of a narrow spectrum kinase inhibitor, TOP1210, has been compared with selective kinase inhibitors (BIRB-796, dasatinib and BAY-61-3606) in a range of kinase assays, inflammatory cell assays, and in inflamed biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Effects on recombinant P38α, Src, and Syk kinase activities were assessed using Z-lyte assays (Invitrogen, Paisley, United Kingdom). Anti-inflammatory effects were assessed by measurement of proinflammatory cytokine release from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, primary macrophages, HT29 cells, inflamed colonic UC biopsies, and myofibroblasts isolated from inflamed colonic UC mucosa. Results: TOP1210 potently inhibits P38α, Src, and Syk kinase activities. Similarly, TOP1210 demonstrates potent inhibitory activity against proinflammatory cytokine release in each of the cellular assays and the inflamed colonic UC biopsies and myofibroblasts isolated from inflamed colonic UC mucosa. Generally, the selective kinase inhibitors showed limited and weaker activity in the cellular assays compared with the broad inhibitory profile of TOP1210. However, combination of the selective inhibitors led to improved efficacy and potency in both cellular and UC biopsy assays. Conclusions: Targeted, multikinase inhibition with TOP1210 leads to a broad efficacy profile in both the innate and adaptive immune responses, with significant advantages over existing selective kinase approaches, and potentially offers a much improved therapeutic benefit in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27104822

  12. Structure-based design and synthesis of potent benzothiazole inhibitors of interleukin-2 inducible T cell kinase (ITK).

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, Colin H; Lau, Kevin; Burch, Jason D; Chen, Yuan; Dines, Jonathon; Ding, Xiao; Eigenbrot, Charles; Heifetz, Alexander; Jaochico, Allan; Johnson, Adam; Kraemer, Joachim; Kruger, Susanne; Krülle, Thomas M; Liimatta, Marya; Ly, Justin; Maghames, Rosemary; Montalbetti, Christian A G N; Ortwine, Daniel F; Pérez-Fuertes, Yolanda; Shia, Steven; Stein, Daniel B; Trani, Giancarlo; Vaidya, Darshan G; Wang, Xiaolu; Bromidge, Steven M; Wu, Lawren C; Pei, Zhonghua

    2013-12-01

    Inhibition of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase ITK, a component of the T-cell receptor signalling cascade, may represent a novel treatment for allergic asthma. Here we report the structure-based optimization of a series of benzothiazole amides that demonstrate sub-nanomolar inhibitory potency against ITK with good cellular activity and kinase selectivity. We also elucidate the binding mode of these inhibitors by solving the X-ray crystal structures of several inhibitor-ITK complexes.

  13. Structural characterization of nonactive site, TrkA-selective kinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Hua-Poo; Rickert, Keith; Burlein, Christine; Narayan, Kartik; Bukhtiyarova, Marina; Hurzy, Danielle M.; Stump, Craig A.; Zhang, Xufang; Reid, John; Krasowska-Zoladek, Alicja; Tummala, Srivanya; Shipman, Jennifer M.; Kornienko, Maria; Lemaire, Peter A.; Krosky, Daniel; Heller, Amanda; Achab, Abdelghani; Chamberlin, Chad; Saradjian, Peter; Sauvagnat, Berengere; Yang, Xianshu; Ziebell, Michael R.; Nickbarg, Elliott; Sanders, John M.; Bilodeau, Mark T.; Carroll, Steven S.; Lumb, Kevin J.; Soisson, Stephen M.; Henze, Darrell A.; Cooke, Andrew J.

    2016-12-30

    Current therapies for chronic pain can have insufficient efficacy and lead to side effects, necessitating research of novel targets against pain. Although originally identified as an oncogene, Tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) is linked to pain and elevated levels of NGF (the ligand for TrkA) are associated with chronic pain. Antibodies that block TrkA interaction with its ligand, NGF, are in clinical trials for pain relief. Here, we describe the identification of TrkA-specific inhibitors and the structural basis for their selectivity over other Trk family kinases. The X-ray structures reveal a binding site outside the kinase active site that uses residues from the kinase domain and the juxtamembrane region. Three modes of binding with the juxtamembrane region are characterized through a series of ligand-bound complexes. The structures indicate a critical pharmacophore on the compounds that leads to the distinct binding modes. The mode of interaction can allow TrkA selectivity over TrkB and TrkC or promiscuous, pan-Trk inhibition. This finding highlights the difficulty in characterizing the structure-activity relationship of a chemical series in the absence of structural information because of substantial differences in the interacting residues. These structures illustrate the flexibility of binding to sequences outside of—but adjacent to—the kinase domain of TrkA. This knowledge allows development of compounds with specificity for TrkA or the family of Trk proteins.

  14. Crystal structure of the FLT3 kinase domain bound to the inhibitor quizartinib (AC220)

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, Julie A.; Wang, Qi; Fujimura, Eric; Barros, Tiago; Kuriyan, John; Boggon, Titus J.

    2015-04-02

    More than 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients possess activating mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 or FLT3. A small-molecule inhibitor of FLT3 (known as quizartinib or AC220) that is currently in clinical trials appears promising for the treatment of AML. Here, we report the co-crystal structure of the kinase domain of FLT3 in complex with quizartinib. FLT3 with quizartinib bound adopts an “Abl-like” inactive conformation with the activation loop stabilized in the “DFG-out” orientation and folded back onto the kinase domain. This conformation is similar to that observed for the uncomplexed intracellular domain of FLT3 as well as for related receptor tyrosine kinases, except for a localized induced fit in the activation loop. The co-crystal structure reveals the interactions between quizartinib and the active site of FLT3 that are key for achieving its high potency against both wild-type FLT3 as well as a FLT3 variant observed in many AML patients. This co-complex further provides a structural rationale for quizartinib-resistance mutations.

  15. Crystal structure of the FLT3 kinase domain bound to the inhibitor quizartinib (AC220)

    DOE PAGES

    Zorn, Julie A.; Wang, Qi; Fujimura, Eric; ...

    2015-04-02

    More than 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients possess activating mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 or FLT3. A small-molecule inhibitor of FLT3 (known as quizartinib or AC220) that is currently in clinical trials appears promising for the treatment of AML. Here, we report the co-crystal structure of the kinase domain of FLT3 in complex with quizartinib. FLT3 with quizartinib bound adopts an “Abl-like” inactive conformation with the activation loop stabilized in the “DFG-out” orientation and folded back onto the kinase domain. This conformation is similar to that observed for the uncomplexed intracellular domain ofmore » FLT3 as well as for related receptor tyrosine kinases, except for a localized induced fit in the activation loop. The co-crystal structure reveals the interactions between quizartinib and the active site of FLT3 that are key for achieving its high potency against both wild-type FLT3 as well as a FLT3 variant observed in many AML patients. This co-complex further provides a structural rationale for quizartinib-resistance mutations.« less

  16. Inhibition of dihydroceramide desaturase activity by the sphingosine kinase inhibitor SKI II.

    PubMed

    Cingolani, Francesca; Casasampere, Mireia; Sanllehí, Pol; Casas, Josefina; Bujons, Jordi; Fabrias, Gemma

    2014-08-01

    Sphingosine kinase inhibitor (SKI) II has been reported as a dual inhibitor of sphingosine kinases (SKs) 1 and 2 and has been extensively used to prove the involvement of SKs and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in cellular processes. Dihydroceramide desaturase (Des1), the last enzyme in the de novo synthesis of ceramide (Cer), regulates the balance between dihydroceramides (dhCers) and Cers. Both SKs and Des1 have interest as therapeutic targets. Here we show that SKI II is a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki = 0.3 μM) of Des1 activity with effect also in intact cells without modifying Des1 protein levels. Molecular modeling studies support that the SKI II-induced decrease in Des1 activity could result from inhibition of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase. SKI II, but not the SK1-specific inhibitor PF-543, provoked a remarkable accumulation of dhCers and their metabolites, while both SKI II and PF-543 reduced S1P to almost undetectable levels. SKI II, but not PF543, reduced cell proliferation with accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase. SKI II, but not PF543, induced autophagy. These overall findings should be taken into account when using SKI II as a pharmacological tool, as some of the effects attributed to decreased S1P may actually be caused by augmented dhCers and/or their metabolites.

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of analogues of AKT (protein kinase B) inhibitor-IV.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi; Wu, Runzhi; Cai, Sutang; Lin, Yuan; Sellers, Llewlyn; Sakamoto, Kaori; He, Biao; Peterson, Blake R

    2011-03-10

    Inhibitors of the PI3-kinase/AKT (protein kinase B) pathway are under investigation as anticancer and antiviral agents. The benzimidazole derivative AKT inhibitor-IV (ChemBridge 5233705) affects this pathway and exhibits potent anticancer and antiviral activity. To probe its biological activity, we synthesized AKT inhibitor-IV and 21 analogues using a novel six-step route based on ZrCl(4)-catalyzed cyclization of 1,2-arylenediamines with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. We examined effects on viability of HeLa carcinoma cells, viability of normal human cells (NHBE), replication of recombinant parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) in HeLa cells, and replication of the intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium fortuitum in HeLa cells. Replacement of the benzimidazole N-ethyl substitutent of AKT inhibitor-IV with N-hexyl and N-dodecyl groups enhanced antiviral activity and cytotoxicity against the cancer cell line, but these compounds showed substantially lower toxicity (from 6-fold to >20-fold) against NHBE cells and no effect on M. fortuitum, suggesting inhibition of one or more host protein(s) required for proliferation of cancer cells and PIV5. The key structural elements identified here may facilitate identification of targets of this highly biologically active scaffold.

  18. Small-molecule inhibitors of the receptor tyrosine kinases: promising tools for targeted cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad

    2014-08-08

    Chemotherapeutic and cytotoxic drugs are widely used in the treatment of cancer. In spite of the improvements in the life quality of patients, their effectiveness is compromised by several disadvantages. This represents a demand for developing new effective strategies with focusing on tumor cells and minimum side effects. Targeted cancer therapies and personalized medicine have been defined as a new type of emerging treatments. Small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) are among the most effective drugs for targeted cancer therapy. The growing number of approved SMIs of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) i.e., tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the clinical oncology imply the increasing attention and application of these therapeutic tools. Most of the current approved RTK-TKIs in preclinical and clinical settings are multi-targeted inhibitors with several side effects. Only a few specific/selective RTK-TKIs have been developed for the treatment of cancer patients. Specific/selective RTK-TKIs have shown less deleterious effects compared to multi-targeted inhibitors. This review intends to highlight the importance of specific/selective TKIs for future development with less side effects and more manageable agents. This article provides an overview of: (1) the characteristics and function of RTKs and TKIs; (2) the recent advances in the improvement of specific/selective RTK-TKIs in preclinical or clinical settings; and (3) emerging RTKs for targeted cancer therapies by TKIs.

  19. Novel small molecule inhibitors of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Richard I; Wu, James M; Polokoff, Mark A; Kochanny, Monica J; Dinter, Harald; Zhu, Daguang; Biroc, Sandra L; Alicke, Bruno; Bryant, Judi; Yuan, Shendong; Buckman, Brad O; Lentz, Dao; Ferrer, Mike; Whitlow, Marc; Adler, Marc; Finster, Silke; Chang, Zheng; Arnaiz, Damian O

    2005-05-20

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1)/Akt signaling pathway plays a key role in cancer cell growth, survival, and tumor angiogenesis and represents a promising target for anticancer drugs. Here, we describe three potent PDK1 inhibitors, BX-795, BX-912, and BX-320 (IC(50) = 11-30 nm) and their initial biological characterization. The inhibitors blocked PDK1/Akt signaling in tumor cells and inhibited the anchorage-dependent growth of a variety of tumor cell lines in culture or induced apoptosis. A number of cancer cell lines with elevated Akt activity were >30-fold more sensitive to growth inhibition by PDK1 inhibitors in soft agar than on tissue culture plastic, consistent with the cell survival function of the PDK1/Akt signaling pathway, which is particularly important for unattached cells. BX-320 inhibited the growth of LOX melanoma tumors in the lungs of nude mice after injection of tumor cells into the tail vein. The effect of BX-320 on cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo indicates that PDK1 inhibitors may have clinical utility as anticancer agents.

  20. Evaluating the promiscuous nature of tyrosine kinase inhibitors assessed in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells by both chemical- and phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Giansanti, Piero; Preisinger, Christian; Huber, Kilian V M; Gridling, Manuela; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Bennett, Keiryn L; Heck, Albert J R

    2014-07-18

    Deregulation of protein tyrosine kinase signaling has been linked to many diseases, most notably cancer. As a consequence, small molecule inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinases may provide powerful strategies for treatment. Following the successful introduction of imatinib in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, such drugs are also now evaluated for other types of cancer. However, many developed kinase inhibitors are not very target-specific and therefore may induce side effects. The importance of such side effects is certainly cell-proteome dependent. Understanding the all-inclusive action of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor on each individual cell-type entails the identification of potential targets, combined with monitoring the downstream effects revealing the signaling networks involved. Here, we explored a multilevel quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic strategy to identify the direct targets and downstream signaling effect of four tyrosine kinase inhibitors (imatinib, dasatinib, bosutinib, and nilotinib) in epidermoid carcinoma cells, as a model system for skin-cancer. More than 25 tyrosine kinases showed affinity to the drugs, with imatinib and nilotinib displaying a high specificity, especially when compared to dasatinib and bosutinib. Consequently, the latter two drugs showed a larger effect on downstream phosphotyrosine signaling. Many of the proteins affected are key regulators in cell adhesion and invasion. Our data represents a multiplexed view on the promiscuous action of certain tyrosine kinase inhibitors that needs to be taking into consideration prior to the application of these drugs in the treatment of different forms of cancer.

  1. Antidepressant indatraline induces autophagy and inhibits restenosis via suppression of mTOR/S6 kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoon Sun; Yen, Chih-Na; Shim, Joong Sup; Kang, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Won; Liu, Jun O; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2016-10-03

    Indatraline is an antidepressive agent and a non-selective monoamine transporter inhibitor that blocks the reuptake of neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine). In this study, we report that indatraline induces autophagy via the suppression of mTOR/S6 kinase signaling. Autophagy induction was examined by a cell-based high content screening system using LysoTracker, which was followed by monodansylcadaverine staining and transmission electron microscope observation. Indatraline increased the number of EGFP-LC3 cells expressing autophagosomes in the cytoplasm. Conversion of LC3 was further validated by immunoblotting. Indatraline induced autophagy by affecting the AMPK/mTOR/S6K signaling axis and had no influence on the PI3K/AKT/ERK signaling. Moreover, indatraline induced autophagy in smooth muscle cells (SMCs); further, it exhibited therapeutic potential for restenosis by inhibiting SMC accumulation in a rat restenosis model. These results provide new insights into the role of monoamine transporters in autophagy regulation and identify indatraline as a novel agent for inducing autophagy.

  2. Antidepressant indatraline induces autophagy and inhibits restenosis via suppression of mTOR/S6 kinase signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoon Sun; Yen, Chih-na; Shim, Joong Sup; Kang, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Won; Liu, Jun O.; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Indatraline is an antidepressive agent and a non-selective monoamine transporter inhibitor that blocks the reuptake of neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine). In this study, we report that indatraline induces autophagy via the suppression of mTOR/S6 kinase signaling. Autophagy induction was examined by a cell-based high content screening system using LysoTracker, which was followed by monodansylcadaverine staining and transmission electron microscope observation. Indatraline increased the number of EGFP-LC3 cells expressing autophagosomes in the cytoplasm. Conversion of LC3 was further validated by immunoblotting. Indatraline induced autophagy by affecting the AMPK/mTOR/S6K signaling axis and had no influence on the PI3K/AKT/ERK signaling. Moreover, indatraline induced autophagy in smooth muscle cells (SMCs); further, it exhibited therapeutic potential for restenosis by inhibiting SMC accumulation in a rat restenosis model. These results provide new insights into the role of monoamine transporters in autophagy regulation and identify indatraline as a novel agent for inducing autophagy. PMID:27694974

  3. Vitamin C is a kinase inhibitor: dehydroascorbic acid inhibits IkappaBalpha kinase beta.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, Juan M; Pedraza, Alicia; Bórquez-Ojeda, Oriana; Zhang, Bing; Sanchez, Roberto; Golde, David W

    2004-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key intermediates in cellular signal transduction pathways whose function may be counterbalanced by antioxidants. Acting as an antioxidant, ascorbic acid (AA) donates two electrons and becomes oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid (DHA). We discovered that DHA directly inhibits IkappaBalpha kinase beta (IKKbeta) and IKKalpha enzymatic activity in vitro, whereas AA did not have this effect. When cells were loaded with AA and induced to generate DHA by oxidative stress in cells expressing a constitutive active IKKbeta, NF-kappaB activation was inhibited. Our results identify a dual molecular action of vitamin C in signal transduction and provide a direct linkage between the redox state of vitamin C and NF-kappaB signaling events. AA quenches ROS intermediates involved in the activation of NF-kappaB and is oxidized to DHA, which directly inhibits IKKbeta and IKKalpha enzymatic activity. These findings define a function for vitamin C in signal transduction other than as an antioxidant and mechanistically illuminate how vitamin C down-modulates NF-kappaB signaling.

  4. Evaluation of Improved Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3α Inhibitors in Models of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Theresa; Benajiba, Lina; Göring, Stefan; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Schmidt, Boris

    2016-01-01

    The challenge for Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor design lies in achieving high selectivity for one isoform over the other. The therapy of certain diseases, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may require α-isoform specific targeting. The scorpion shaped GSK-3 inhibitors developed by our group achieved the highest GSK-3α selectivity reported so far, but suffered from insufficient aqueous solubility. This work presents the solubility-driven optimization of our isoform-selective inhibitors using a scorpion shaped lead. Among 15 novel compounds, compound 27 showed high activity against GSK-3α/β with the highest GSK-3α selectivity reported to date. Compound 27 was profiled for bioavailability and toxicity in a zebrafish embryo phenotype assay. Selective GSK-3α targeting in AML cell lines was achieved with compound 27, resulting in a strong differentiation phenotype and colony formation impairment, confirming the potential of GSK-3α inhibition in AML therapy. PMID:26496242

  5. Implications of promiscuous Pim-1 kinase fragment inhibitor hydrophobic interactions for fragment-based drug design.

    PubMed

    Good, Andrew C; Liu, Jinyu; Hirth, Bradford; Asmussen, Gary; Xiang, Yibin; Biemann, Hans-Peter; Bishop, Kimberly A; Fremgen, Trisha; Fitzgerald, Maria; Gladysheva, Tatiana; Jain, Annuradha; Jancsics, Katherine; Metz, Markus; Papoulis, Andrew; Skerlj, Renato; Stepp, J David; Wei, Ronnie R

    2012-03-22

    We have studied the subtleties of fragment docking and binding using data generated in a Pim-1 kinase inhibitor program. Crystallographic and docking data analyses have been undertaken using inhibitor complexes derived from an in-house surface plasmon resonance (SPR) fragment screen, a virtual needle screen, and a de novo designed fragment inhibitor hybrid. These investigations highlight that fragments that do not fill their binding pocket can exhibit promiscuous hydrophobic interactions due to the lack of steric constraints imposed on them by the boundaries of said pocket. As a result, docking modes that disagree with an observed crystal structure but maintain key crystallographically observed hydrogen bonds still have potential value in ligand design and optimization. This observation runs counter to the lore in fragment-based drug design that all fragment elaboration must be based on the parent crystal structure alone.

  6. Design of inhibitors of thymidylate kinase from Variola virus as new selective drugs against smallpox.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Ana P; de Souza, Felipe R; Oliveira, Aline A; Gonçalves, Arlan S; de Alencastro, Ricardo B; Ramalho, Teodorico C; França, Tanos C C

    2015-02-16

    Recently we constructed a homology model of the enzyme thymidylate kinase from Variola virus (VarTMPK) and proposed it as a new target to the drug design against smallpox. In the present work, we used the antivirals cidofovir and acyclovir as reference compounds to choose eleven compounds as leads to the drug design of inhibitors for VarTMPK. Docking and molecular dynamics (MD) studies of the interactions of these compounds inside VarTMPK and human TMPK (HssTMPK) suggest that they compete for the binding region of the substrate and were used to propose the structures of ten new inhibitors for VarTMPK. Further docking and MD simulations of these compounds, inside VarTMPK and HssTMPK, suggest that nine among ten are potential selective inhibitors of VarTMPK.

  7. Small Molecule Kinase Inhibitors for LRRK2 and Their Application to Parkinson's Disease Models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Several single gene mutations have been linked to this disease. Mutations in the gene encoding leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) indicate LRRK2 as promising therapeutic target for the treatment of PD. LRRK2 mutations were observed in sporadic as well as familial PD patients and have been investigated intensively. LRRK2 is a large and complex protein, with multiple enzymatic and protein-interaction domains, each of which is effected by mutations. The most common mutation in PD patients is G2019S. Several LRRK2 inhibitors have been reported already, although the crystal structure of LRRK2 has not yet been determined. This review provides a summary of known LRRK2 inhibitors and will discuss recent in vitro and in vivo results of these inhibitors. PMID:22860184

  8. Large-Scale Computational Screening Identifies First in Class Multitarget Inhibitor of EGFR Kinase and BRD4

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Bryce K.; Mehta, Saurabh; Ember, Stewart W. J.; Schonbrunn, Ernst; Ayad, Nagi; Schürer, Stephan C.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of cancer-promoting kinases is an established therapeutic strategy for the treatment of many cancers, although resistance to kinase inhibitors is common. One way to overcome resistance is to target orthogonal cancer-promoting pathways. Bromo and Extra-Terminal (BET) domain proteins, which belong to the family of epigenetic readers, have recently emerged as promising therapeutic targets in multiple cancers. The development of multitarget drugs that inhibit kinase and BET proteins therefore may be a promising strategy to overcome tumor resistance and prolong therapeutic efficacy in the clinic. We developed a general computational screening approach to identify novel dual kinase/bromodomain inhibitors from millions of commercially available small molecules. Our method integrated machine learning using big datasets of kinase inhibitors and structure-based drug design. Here we describe the computational methodology, including validation and characterization of our models and their application and integration into a scalable virtual screening pipeline. We screened over 6 million commercially available compounds and selected 24 for testing in BRD4 and EGFR biochemical assays. We identified several novel BRD4 inhibitors, among them a first in class dual EGFR-BRD4 inhibitor. Our studies suggest that this computational screening approach may be broadly applicable for identifying dual kinase/BET inhibitors with potential for treating various cancers. PMID:26596901

  9. Inhibitors of c-Jun N-terminal kinases: JuNK no more?

    PubMed

    Bogoyevitch, Marie A; Arthur, Peter G

    2008-01-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) have been the subject of intense interest since their discovery in the early 1990s. Major research programs have been directed to the screening and/or design of JNK-selective inhibitors and testing their potential as drugs. We begin this review by considering the first commercially-available JNK ATP-competitive inhibitor, SP600125. We focus on recent studies that have evaluated the actions of SP600125 in lung, brain, kidney and liver following exposure to a range of stress insults including ischemia/reperfusion. In many but not all cases, SP600125 administration has proved beneficial. JNK activation can also follow infection, and we next consider recent examples that demonstrate the benefits of SP600125 administration in viral infection. Additional ATP-competitive JNK inhibitors have now been described following high throughput screening of small molecule libraries, but information on their use in biological systems remains limited and thus these inhibitors will require further evaluation. Peptide substrate-competitive ATP-non-competitive inhibitors of JNK have also now been described, and we discuss the recent advances in the use of JNK inhibitory peptides in the treatment of neuronal death, diabetes and viral infection. We conclude by raising a number of questions that should be considered in the quest for JNK-specific inhibitors.

  10. Evolution of resistance to Aurora kinase B inhibitors in leukaemia cells.

    PubMed

    Failes, Timothy W; Mitic, Gorjana; Abdel-Halim, Heba; Po'uha, Sela T; Liu, Marjorie; Hibbs, David E; Kavallaris, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Aurora kinase inhibitors are new mitosis-targeting drugs currently in clinical trials for the treatment of haematological and solid malignancies. However, knowledge of the molecular factors that influence sensitivity and resistance remains limited. Herein, we developed and characterised an in vitro leukaemia model of resistance to the Aurora B inhibitor ZM447439. Human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells, CCRF-CEM, were selected for resistance in 4 µM ZM447439. CEM/AKB4 cells showed no cross-resistance to tubulin-targeted and DNA-damaging agents, but were hypersensitive to an Aurora kinase A inhibitor. Sequencing revealed a mutation in the Aurora B kinase domain corresponding to a G160E amino acid substitution. Molecular modelling of drug binding in Aurora B containing this mutation suggested that resistance is mediated by the glutamate substitution preventing formation of an active drug-binding motif. Progression of resistance in the more highly selected CEM/AKB8 and CEM/AKB16 cells, derived sequentially from CEM/AKB4 in 8 and 16 µM ZM447439 respectively, was mediated by additional defects. These defects were independent of Aurora B and multi-drug resistance pathways and are associated with reduced apoptosis mostly likely due to reduced inhibition of the catalytic activity of aurora kinase B in the presence of drug. Our findings are important in the context of the use of these new targeted agents in treatment regimes against leukaemia and suggest resistance to therapy may arise through multiple independent mechanisms.

  11. Characterization of GSK′963: a structurally distinct, potent and selective inhibitor of RIP1 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Berger, SB; Harris, P; Nagilla, R; Kasparcova, V; Hoffman, S; Swift, B; Dare, L; Schaeffer, M; Capriotti, C; Ouellette, M; King, BW; Wisnoski, D; Cox, J; Reilly, M; Marquis, RW; Bertin, J; Gough, PJ

    2015-01-01

    Necroptosis and signaling regulated by RIP1 kinase activity is emerging as a key driver of inflammation in a variety of disease settings. A significant amount has been learned about how RIP1 regulates necrotic cell death through the use of the RIP1 kinase inhibitor Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1). Nec-1 has been a transformational tool for exploring the function of RIP1 kinase activity; however, its utility is somewhat limited by moderate potency, off-target activity against indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), and poor pharmacokinetic properties. These limitations of Nec-1 have driven an effort to identify next-generation tools to study RIP1 function, and have led to the identification of 7-Cl-O-Nec-1 (Nec-1s), which has improved pharmacokinetic properties and lacks IDO inhibitory activity. Here we describe the characterization of GSK′963, a chiral small-molecule inhibitor of RIP1 kinase that is chemically distinct from both Nec-1 and Nec-1s. GSK′963 is significantly more potent than Nec-1 in both biochemical and cellular assays, inhibiting RIP1-dependent cell death with an IC50 of between 1 and 4 nM in human and murine cells. GSK′963 is >10 000-fold selective for RIP1 over 339 other kinases, lacks measurable activity against IDO and has an inactive enantiomer, GSK′962, which can be used to confirm on-target effects. The increased in vitro potency of GSK′963 also translates in vivo, where GSK′963 provides much greater protection from hypothermia at matched doses to Nec-1, in a model of TNF-induced sterile shock. Together, we believe GSK′963 represents a next-generation tool for examining the function of RIP1 in vitro and in vivo, and should help to clarify our current understanding of the role of RIP1 in contributing to disease pathogenesis. PMID:27551444

  12. ENMD-2076 is an orally active kinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic and antiproliferative mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Graham C; Brokx, Richard D; Denny, Trisha A; Hembrough, Todd A; Plum, Stacy M; Fogler, William E; Sidor, Carolyn F; Bray, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    ENMD-2076 is a novel orally active, small molecule kinase inhibitor with a mechanism of action involving several pathways key to tumor growth and survival: angiogenesis, proliferation, and the cell cycle. ENMD-2076 has selective activity against the mitotic kinase Aurora A, as well as kinases involved in angiogenesis (VEGFRs, FGFRs). ENMD-2076 inhibited the growth in vitro of a wide range of human solid tumor and hematopoietic cancer cell lines with IC(50) values ranging from 0.025 to 0.7 μmol/L. ENMD-2076 was also shown to induce regression or complete inhibition of tumor growth in vivo at well-tolerated doses in tumor xenograft models derived from breast, colon, melanoma, leukemia, and multiple myeloma cell lines. Pharmacodynamic experiments in vivo showed that in addition to inhibiting Aurora A, single doses of ENMD-2076 had sustained inhibitory effects on the activation of Flt3 as well as the angiogenic tyrosine kinases, VEGFR2/KDR and FGFR1 and 2. ENMD-2076 was shown to prevent the formation of new blood vessels and regress formed vessels in vivo at doses equivalent to those that gave substantial activity in tumor xenograft models. These results indicate that ENMD-2076 is a well-tolerated, orally active multitarget kinase inhibitor with a unique antiangiogenic/antiproliferative profile and provides strong preclinical support for use as a therapeutic for human cancers. Several phase 1 studies involving ENMD-2076 have been recently completed, and the compound is currently being evaluated in a phase 2 clinical trial in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

  13. RAS signaling promotes resistance to JAK inhibitors by suppressing BAD-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Winter, Peter S; Sarosiek, Kristopher A; Lin, Kevin H; Meggendorfer, Manja; Schnittger, Susanne; Letai, Anthony; Wood, Kris C

    2014-12-23

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) frequently have an activating mutation in the gene encoding Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). Thus, targeting the pathway mediated by JAK and its downstream substrate, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), may yield clinical benefit for patients with MPNs containing the JAK2(V617F) mutation. Although JAK inhibitor therapy reduces splenomegaly and improves systemic symptoms in patients, this treatment does not appreciably reduce the number of neoplastic cells. To identify potential mechanisms underlying this inherent resistance phenomenon, we performed pathway-centric, gain-of-function screens in JAK2(V617F) hematopoietic cells and found that the activation of the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) RAS or its effector pathways [mediated by the kinases AKT and ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase)] renders cells insensitive to JAK inhibition. Resistant MPN cells became sensitized to JAK inhibitors when also exposed to inhibitors of the AKT or ERK pathways. Mechanistically, in JAK2(V617F) cells, a JAK2-mediated inactivating phosphorylation of the proapoptotic protein BAD [B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2)-associated death promoter] promoted cell survival. In sensitive cells, exposure to a JAK inhibitor resulted in dephosphorylation of BAD, enabling BAD to bind and sequester the prosurvival protein BCL-XL (BCL-2-like 1), thereby triggering apoptosis. In resistant cells, RAS effector pathways maintained BAD phosphorylation in the presence of JAK inhibitors, yielding a specific dependence on BCL-XL for survival. In patients with MPNs, activating mutations in RAS co-occur with the JAK2(V617F) mutation in the malignant cells, suggesting that RAS effector pathways likely play an important role in clinically observed resistance.

  14. Epstein-Barr Virus BGLF4 Kinase Suppresses the Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Signaling Pathway▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiin-Tarng; Doong, Shin-Lian; Teng, Shu-Chun; Lee, Chung-Pei; Tsai, Ching-Hwa; Chen, Mei-Ru

    2009-01-01

    The BGLF4 protein kinase of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a member of the conserved family of herpesvirus protein kinases which, to some extent, have a function similar to that of the cellular cyclin-dependent kinase in regulating multiple cellular and viral substrates. In a yeast two-hybrid screening assay, a splicing variant of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) was found to interact with the BGLF4 protein. This interaction was defined further by coimmunoprecipitation in transfected cells and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down in vitro. Using reporter assays, we show that BGLF4 effectively suppresses the activities of the poly(I:C)-stimulated IFN-β promoter and IRF3-responsive element. Moreover, BGLF4 represses the poly(I:C)-stimulated expression of endogenous IFN-β mRNA and the phosphorylation of STAT1 at Tyr701. In searching for a possible mechanism, BGLF4 was shown not to affect the dimerization, nuclear translocation, or CBP recruitment of IRF3 upon poly(I:C) treatment. Notably, BGLF4 reduces the amount of active IRF3 recruited to the IRF3-responsive element containing the IFN-β promoter region in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. BGLF4 phosphorylates GST-IRF3 in vitro, but Ser339-Pro340 phosphorylation-dependent, Pin1-mediated downregulation is not responsible for the repression. Most importantly, we found that three proline-dependent phosphorylation sites at Ser123, Ser173, and Thr180, which cluster in a region between the DNA binding and IRF association domains of IRF3, contribute additively to the BGLF4-mediated repression of IRF3(5D) transactivation activity. IRF3 signaling is activated in reactivated EBV-positive NA cells, and the knockdown of BGLF4 further stimulates IRF3-responsive reporter activity. The data presented here thus suggest a novel mechanism by which herpesviral protein kinases suppress host innate immune responses and facilitate virus replication. PMID:19052084

  15. A kinase inhibitor screen identifies Mcl-1 and Aurora kinase A as novel treatment targets in antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Thrane, S; Pedersen, A M; Thomsen, M B H; Kirkegaard, T; Rasmussen, B B; Duun-Henriksen, A K; Lænkholm, A V; Bak, M; Lykkesfeldt, A E; Yde, C W

    2015-08-06

    Antiestrogen resistance is a major problem in breast cancer treatment. Therefore, the search for new therapeutic targets and biomarkers for antiestrogen resistance is crucial. In this study, we performed a kinase inhibitor screen on antiestrogen responsive MCF-7 cells and a panel of MCF-7-derived tamoxifen- and fulvestrant-resistant cell lines. Our focus was to identify common and distinct molecular mechanisms involved in tamoxifen- and fulvestrant-resistant cell growth. We identified 18 inhibitors, of which the majority was common for both tamoxifen- and fulvestrant-resistant cell lines. Two compounds, WP1130 and JNJ-7706621, exhibiting prominent preferential growth inhibition of antiestrogen-resistant cell lines, were selected for further studies. WP1130, a deubiquitinase inhibitor, induced caspase-mediated cell death in both tamoxifen- and fulvestrant-resistant cell lines by destabilization of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1. Mcl-1 expression was found upregulated in the antiestrogen-resistant cell lines and depletion of Mcl-1 in resistant cells caused decreased viability. JNJ-7706621, a dual Aurora kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, specifically inhibited growth and caused G2 phase cell cycle arrest of the tamoxifen-resistant cell lines. Knockdown studies showed that Aurora kinase A is essential for growth of the tamoxifen-resistant cells and inhibition of Aurora kinase A resensitized tamoxifen-resistant cells to tamoxifen treatment. Preferential growth inhibition by WP1130 and JNJ-7706621 was also found in T47D-derived tamoxifen-resistant cell lines, pointing at Mcl-1 and Aurora kinase A as potential treatment targets. In addition, tumor samples from 244 estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen showed that higher expression level of Aurora kinase A was significantly associated with shorter disease-free and overall survival, demonstrating the potential of Aurora kinase A as a biomarker for tamoxifen

  16. Inhibitors of the Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase family (CaMKP and CaMKP-N)

    SciTech Connect

    Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Takao, Toshihiko; Nimura, Takaki; Sugiyama, Yasunori; Numano, Takamasa; Shigeri, Yasushi; Taniguchi, Takanobu; Kameshita, Isamu Ishida, Atsuhiko

    2007-11-23

    Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase (CaMKP) and its nuclear isoform CaMKP-N are unique Ser/Thr protein phosphatases that negatively regulate the Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) cascade by dephosphorylating multifunctional CaMKI, II, and IV. However, the lack of specific inhibitors of these phosphatases has hampered studies on these enzymes in vivo. In an attempt to obtain specific inhibitors, we searched inhibitory compounds and found that Evans Blue and Chicago Sky Blue 6B served as effective inhibitors for CaMKP. These compounds also inhibited CaMKP-N, but inhibited neither protein phosphatase 2C, another member of PPM family phosphatase, nor calcineurin, a typical PPP family phosphatase. The minimum structure required for the inhibition was 1-amino-8-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid. When Neuro2a cells cotransfected with CaMKIV and CaMKP-N were treated with these compounds, the dephosphorylation of CaMKIV was strongly suppressed, suggesting that these compounds could be used as potent inhibitors of CaMKP and CaMKP-N in vivo as well as in vitro.

  17. A Cell Biologist’s Field Guide to Aurora Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Christian O.; Hsia, Judy E.; Anzola, John V.; Motamedi, Amir; Yoon, Michelle; Wong, Yao Liang; Jenkins, David; Lee, Hyun J.; Martinez, Mallory B.; Davis, Robert L.; Gahman, Timothy C.; Desai, Arshad; Shiau, Andrew K.

    2015-01-01

    Aurora kinases are essential for cell division and are frequently misregulated in human cancers. Based on their potential as cancer therapeutics, a plethora of small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors have been developed, with a subset having been adopted as tools in cell biology. Here, we fill a gap in the characterization of Aurora kinase inhibitors by using biochemical and cell-based assays to systematically profile a panel of 10 commercially available compounds with reported selectivity for Aurora A (MLN8054, MLN8237, MK-5108, MK-8745, Genentech Aurora Inhibitor 1), Aurora B (Hesperadin, ZM447439, AZD1152-HQPA, GSK1070916), or Aurora A/B (VX-680). We quantify the in vitro effect of each inhibitor on the activity of Aurora A alone, as well as Aurora A and Aurora B bound to fragments of their activators, TPX2 and INCENP, respectively. We also report kinome profiling results for a subset of these compounds to highlight potential off-target effects. In a cellular context, we demonstrate that immunofluorescence-based detection of LATS2 and histone H3 phospho-epitopes provides a facile and reliable means to assess potency and specificity of Aurora A versus Aurora B inhibition, and that G2 duration measured in a live imaging assay is a specific readout of Aurora A activity. Our analysis also highlights variation between HeLa, U2OS, and hTERT-RPE1 cells that impacts selective Aurora A inhibition. For Aurora B, all four tested compounds exhibit excellent selectivity and do not significantly inhibit Aurora A at effective doses. For Aurora A, MK-5108 and MK-8745 are significantly more selective than the commonly used inhibitors MLN8054 and MLN8237. A crystal structure of an Aurora A/MK-5108 complex that we determined suggests the chemical basis for this higher specificity. Taken together, our quantitative biochemical and cell-based analyses indicate that AZD1152-HQPA and MK-8745 are the best current tools for selectively inhibiting Aurora B and Aurora A, respectively

  18. The discovery of novel 3-(pyrazin-2-yl)-1H-indazoles as potent pan-Pim kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Ling; Cee, Victor J; Chavez, Frank; Lanman, Brian A; Reed, Anthony B; Wu, Bin; Guerrero, Nadia; Lipford, J Russell; Sastri, Christine; Winston, Jeff; Andrews, Kristin L; Huang, Xin; Lee, Matthew R; Mohr, Christopher; Xu, Yang; Zhou, Yihong; Tasker, Andrew S

    2015-02-15

    The three Pim kinases are a small family of serine/threonine kinases regulating several signaling pathways that are fundamental to tumorigenesis. As such, the Pim kinases are a very attractive target for pharmacological inhibition in cancer therapy. Herein, we describe our efforts toward the development of a potent, pan-Pim inhibitor. The synthesis and hit-to-lead SAR development from a 3-(pyrazin-2-yl)-1H-indazole derived hit 2 to the identification of a series of potent, pan-Pim inhibitors such as 13o are described.

  19. Suppression of FVIII Inhibitor Formation in Hemophilic Mice by Delivery of Transgene Modified Apoptotic Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Su, Rui-Jun; Epp, Angela; Latchman, Yvette; Bolgiano, Doug; Pipe, Steven W; Josephson, Neil C

    2009-01-01

    The development of inhibitory antibodies to factor VIII (FVIII) is currently the most significant complication of FVIII replacement therapy in the management of patients with severe hemophilia A. Immune tolerance protocols for the eradication of inhibitors require daily delivery of intravenous FVIII for at least 6 months and are unsuccessful in 20–40% of treated patients. We hypothesize that tolerance can be induced more efficiently and reliably by delivery of FVIII antigen within autologous apoptotic cells (ACs). In this study, we demonstrated suppression of the T cell and inhibitor responses to FVIII by infusion of FVIII expression vector modified apoptotic syngeneic fibroblasts in both naive and preimmunized hemophilia A mice. ACs without FVIII antigen exerted modest generalized immune suppression mediated by anti-inflammatory signals. However, FVIII expressing apoptotic syngeneic fibroblasts produced much stronger antigen-specific immune suppression. Mice treated with these fibroblasts generated CD4+ T cells that suppressed the immune response to FVIII after adoptive transfer into naive recipients and antigen-specific CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) that inhibited the proliferation of FVIII responsive effector T cells in vitro. These preclinical results demonstrate the potential for using FVIII vector modified autologous ACs to treat high-titer inhibitors in patients with hemophilia A. PMID:19755963

  20. The structure of human tau-tubulin kinase 1 both in the apo form and in complex with an inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, Susan E.; Chang, ChiehYing J.; Kimura, S. Roy; Gao, Mian; Xie, Dianlin; Zhang, Yaqun; Zhang, Guifen; Gill, Martin B.; Mastalerz, Harold; Thompson, Lorin A.; Cacace, Angela M.; Sheriff, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Tau-tubulin kinase 1 (TTBK1) is a dual-specificity (serine/threonine and tyrosine) kinase belonging to the casein kinase 1 superfamily. TTBK1 is a neuron-specific kinase that regulates tau phosphorylation. Hyperphosphorylation of tau is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Two kinase-domain constructs of TTBK1 were expressed in a baculovirus-infected insect-cell system and purified. The purified TTBK1 kinase-domain proteins were crystallized using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected and the structure of TTBK1 was determined by molecular replacement both as an apo structure and in complex with a kinase inhibitor. PMID:24637750

  1. A high-throughput, nonisotopic, competitive binding assay for kinases using nonselective inhibitor probes (ED-NSIP).

    PubMed

    Vainshtein, Inna; Silveria, Scott; Kaul, Poonam; Rouhani, Riaz; Eglen, Richard M; Wang, John

    2002-12-01

    A novel competitive binding assay for protein kinase inhibitors has been developed for high-throughput screening (HTS). Unlike functional kinase assays, which are based on detection of substrate phosphorylation by the enzyme, this novel method directly measures the binding potency of compounds to the kinase ATP binding site through competition with a conjugated binding probe. The binding interaction is coupled to a signal amplification system based on complementation of beta-galactosidase enzyme fragments, a homogeneous, nonisotopic assay technology platform developed by DiscoveRx Corp. In the present study, staurosporine, a potent, nonselective kinase inhibitor, was chemically conjugated to a small fragment of beta-galactosidase (termed ED-SS). This was used as the binding probe to the kinase ATP binding pocket. The binding potencies of several inhibitors with diverse structures were assessed by displacement of ED-SS from the kinase. The assay format was specifically evaluated with GSK3alpha, an enzyme previously screened in a radioactive kinase assay (i.e., measurement of [(33)P]-gamma-ATP incorporation into the kinase peptide substrate). Under optimized assay conditions, nonconjugated staurosporine inhibited ED-SS binding in a concentration-dependent manner with an apparent potency (IC(50)) of 11 nM, which was similar to the IC(50) value determined in a radioactive assay. Furthermore, 9 kinase inhibitors with diverse structures, previously identified from chemical compound library screening, were screened using the competitive binding assay. The potencies in the binding assay were in very good agreement with those obtained previously in the isotopic functional activity assay. The binding assay was adapted for automated HTS using selected compound libraries in a 384-well microtiter plate format. The HTS assay was observed to be highly robust and reproducible (Z' factors > 0.7) with high interassay precision (R(2) > 0.96). Interference of compounds with the beta

  2. Discovery of Mer kinase inhibitors by Virtual Screening using Structural Protein-Ligand Interaction Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Da, C.; Stashko, M.; Jayakody, C.; Wang, X.; Janzen, W.; Frye, S.; Kireev, D.

    2015-01-01

    Mer is a receptor tyrosine kinase implicated in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common malignancy in children. The currently available data provide a rationale for development of Mer kinase inhibitors as cancer therapeutics that can target both cell autologous and immune-modulatory anti-tumor effects. We have previously reported several series of potent Mer inhibitors and the objective of the current report is to identify a chemically dissimilar back-up series that might circumvent potential, but currently unknown, flaws inherent to the lead series. To this end, we virtually screened a database of ∼3.8 million commercially available compounds using high-throughput docking followed by a filter involving Structural Protein-Ligand Interaction Fingerprints (SPLIF). SPLIF permits a quantitative assessment of whether a docking pose interacts with the protein target similarly to an endogenous or known synthetic ligand, and therefore helps to improve both sensitivity and specificity with respect to the docking score alone. Of the total of 62 experimentally tested compounds, 15 demonstrated reliable dose-dependent responses in the Mer in vitro kinase activity assay with inhibitory potencies ranging from 0.46 μM to 9.9 μM. PMID:25638502

  3. Discovery of Mer specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment and prevention of thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihe; McIver, Andrew L; Stashko, Michael A; DeRyckere, Deborah; Branchford, Brian R; Hunter, Debra; Kireev, Dmitri; Miley, Michael J; Norris-Drouin, Jacqueline; Stewart, Wendy M; Lee, Minjung; Sather, Susan; Zhou, Yingqiu; Di Paola, Jorge A; Machius, Mischa; Janzen, William P; Earp, H Shelton; Graham, Douglas K; Frye, Stephen V; Wang, Xiaodong

    2013-12-12

    The role of Mer kinase in regulating the second phase of platelet activation generates an opportunity to use Mer inhibitors for preventing thrombosis with diminished likelihood for bleeding as compared to current therapies. Toward this end, we have discovered a novel, Mer kinase specific substituted-pyrimidine scaffold using a structure-based drug design and a pseudo ring replacement strategy. The cocrystal structure of Mer with two compounds (7 and 22) possessing distinct activity have been determined. Subsequent SAR studies identified compound 23 (UNC2881) as a lead compound for in vivo evaluation. When applied to live cells, 23 inhibits steady-state Mer kinase phosphorylation with an IC50 value of 22 nM. Treatment with 23 is also sufficient to block EGF-mediated stimulation of a chimeric receptor containing the intracellular domain of Mer fused to the extracellular domain of EGFR. In addition, 23 potently inhibits collagen-induced platelet aggregation, suggesting that this class of inhibitors may have utility for prevention and/or treatment of pathologic thrombosis.

  4. Discovery of Mer kinase inhibitors by virtual screening using Structural Protein-Ligand Interaction Fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Da, C; Stashko, M; Jayakody, C; Wang, X; Janzen, W; Frye, S; Kireev, D

    2015-03-01

    Mer is a receptor tyrosine kinase implicated in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common malignancy in children. The currently available data provide a rationale for development of Mer kinase inhibitors as cancer therapeutics that can target both cell autologous and immune-modulatory anti-tumor effects. We have previously reported several series of potent Mer inhibitors and the objective of the current report is to identify a chemically dissimilar back-up series that might circumvent potential, but currently unknown, flaws inherent to the lead series. To this end, we virtually screened a database of ∼3.8million commercially available compounds using high-throughput docking followed by a filter involving Structural Protein-Ligand Interaction Fingerprints (SPLIF). SPLIF permits a quantitative assessment of whether a docking pose interacts with the protein target similarly to an endogenous or known synthetic ligand, and therefore helps to improve both sensitivity and specificity with respect to the docking score alone. Of the total of 62 experimentally tested compounds, 15 demonstrated reliable dose-dependent responses in the Mer in vitro kinase activity assay with inhibitory potencies ranging from 0.46μM to 9.9μM.

  5. Discovery of Mer Specific Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for the Treatment and Prevention of Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weihe; McIver, Andrew L.; Stashko, Michael A.; DeRyckere, Deborah; Branchford, Brian R.; Hunter, Debra; Kireev, Dmitri; Miley, Michael J.; Norris-Drouin, Jacqueline; Stewart, Wendy M.; Lee, Minjung; Sather, Susan; Zhou, Yingqiu; Di Paola, Jorge A.; Machius, Mischa; Janzen, William P.; Earp, H. Shelton; Graham, Douglas K.; Frye, Stephen V.; Wang, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    The role of Mer kinase in regulating the second phase of platelet activation generates an opportunity to use Mer inhibitors for preventing thrombosis with diminished likelihood for bleeding as compared to current therapies. Toward this end, we have discovered a novel, Mer kinase specific substituted-pyrimidine scaffold using a structure-based drug design and a pseudo-ring replacement strategy. The co-crystal structure of Mer with two compounds (7 & 22) possessing distinct activity have been determined. Subsequent SAR studies identified compound 23 (UNC2881) as a lead compound for in vivo evaluation. When applied to live cells, 23 inhibits steady-state Mer kinase phosphorylation with an IC50 value of 22 nM. Treatment with 23 is also sufficient to block EGF-mediated stimulation of a chimeric receptor containing the intracellular domain of Mer fused to the extracellular domain of EGFR. In addition, 23 potently inhibits collagen-induced platelet aggregation, suggesting that this class of inhibitors may have utility for prevention and/or treatment of pathologic thrombosis. PMID:24219778

  6. Discovery, Synthesis and Characterization of an Orally Bioavailable, Brain Penetrant Inhibitor of Mixed Lineage Kinase 3

    PubMed Central

    Goodfellow, Val S.; Loweth, Colin J.; Ravula, Satheesh B.; Wiemann, Torsten; Nguyen, Thong; Xu, Yang; Todd, Daniel E.; Sheppard, David; Pollack, Scott; Polesskaya, Oksana; Marker, Daniel F.; Dewhurst, Stephen; Gelbard, Harris A.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) is a potential strategy for treatment of Parkinson’s Disease and HIV-1 Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND), requiring an inhibitor that can achieve significant brain concentration levels. We report here URMC-099 (1) an orally bioavailable (F = 41%), potent (IC50 = 14 nM) MLK3 inhibitor with excellent brain exposure in mouse PK models and minimal interference with key human CYP450 enzymes or hERG channels. The compound inhibits LPS-induced TNFα release in microglial cells, HIV-1 Tat-induced release of cytokines in human monocytes, and up-regulation of phospho-JNK in Tat-injected brains of mice. Compound 1 likely functions in HAND preclinical models by inhibiting multiple kinase pathways, including MLK3 and LRRK2 (IC50 = 11 nM). We compare the kinase specificity and BBB penetration of 1 with CEP-1347 (2). Compound 1 is well tolerated, with excellent in vivo activity in HAND models, and is under investigation for further development. PMID:24044867

  7. FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors in acute myeloid leukemia: clinical implications and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Sabine; Levis, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Internal tandem duplications of the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene are one of the most frequent gene mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associated with poor clinical outcome. The remission rate is high with intensive chemotherapy, but most patients eventually relapse. During the last decade, FLT3 mutations have emerged as an attractive target for a molecularly specific treatment strategy. Targeting FLT3 receptor tyrosine kinases in AML has shown encouraging results in the treatment of FLT3 mutated AML, but in most patients responses are incomplete and not sustained. Newer, more specific compounds seem to have a higher potency and selectivity against FLT3. During therapy with FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) the induction of acquired resistance has emerged as a clinical problem. Therefore, optimization of the targeted therapy and potential treatment options to overcome resistance is currently the focus of clinical research. In this review we discuss the use and limitations of TKIs as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of FLT3 mutated AML, including mechanisms of resistance to TKIs as well as possible novel strategies to improve FLT3 inhibitor therapy. PMID:23631653

  8. Discovery, synthesis, and characterization of an orally bioavailable, brain penetrant inhibitor of mixed lineage kinase 3.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Val S; Loweth, Colin J; Ravula, Satheesh B; Wiemann, Torsten; Nguyen, Thong; Xu, Yang; Todd, Daniel E; Sheppard, David; Pollack, Scott; Polesskaya, Oksana; Marker, Daniel F; Dewhurst, Stephen; Gelbard, Harris A

    2013-10-24

    Inhibition of mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) is a potential strategy for treatment of Parkinson's disease and HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), requiring an inhibitor that can achieve significant brain concentration levels. We report here URMC-099 (1) an orally bioavailable (F = 41%), potent (IC50 = 14 nM) MLK3 inhibitor with excellent brain exposure in mouse PK models and minimal interference with key human CYP450 enzymes or hERG channels. The compound inhibits LPS-induced TNFα release in microglial cells, HIV-1 Tat-induced release of cytokines in human monocytes and up-regulation of phospho-JNK in Tat-injected brains of mice. Compound 1 likely functions in HAND preclinical models by inhibiting multiple kinase pathways, including MLK3 and LRRK2 (IC50 = 11 nM). We compare the kinase specificity and BBB penetration of 1 with CEP-1347 (2). Compound 1 is well tolerated, with excellent in vivo activity in HAND models, and is under investigation for further development.

  9. Glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose suppresses carcinogen-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis by restricting cancer cell metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaofa; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Dong; Sun, Rongsheng; Wang, Qingyan; Liu, Xinyi

    2015-03-01

    The abnormal metabolism of cancer cells is a crucial feature of tumors and provides promising therapeutic targets for cancer treatments. Aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells, termed the Warburg effect, is a highlighted characteristic of cancer‑specific metabolism. However, the effect of glycolysis inhibition on hepatocarcinogenesis remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the effects of the glycolysis inhibitor 2‑deoxy‑D‑glucose (2‑DG) on the N‑diethylnitrosamine (DEN)‑induced rat hepatocarcinoma model and its underlying mechanisms were investigated. It was observed that 2‑DG significantly delayed hepatocarcinogenesis and effectively prolonged survival time in the DEN‑treated rats. The glycolysis inhibitor, 2‑DG prominently decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis in the DEN‑induced rat hepatoma and had no evident impact on the pericarcinomatous liver tissues. Further investigation revealed that 2‑DG resulted in a reduction of glycolysis products, the compensatory increase of hexokinase 2 expression and a decrease in 6‑phosphofructo‑2‑kinase, pyruvate kinase M2 and lactate dehydrogenase A expression in the hepatoma tissues. The inhibition of glycolysis further suppressed the tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis and ATP production, while it promoted autophagic activation. In addition, the in vitro study demonstrated that hypoxia, an important factor in the tumor microenvironment, may assist in increasing 2‑DG‑induced inhibition of cell viability, cell cycle retardation and the decrease of colony formation ability in hepatoma cells. Taken together, the present results suggested that 2‑DG may inhibit hepatocarcinogenesis in the DEN‑treated rats via restricting cancer cell metabolism. This finding provides a promising measure in the prevention and treatment of hepatoma.

  10. 3'-Phosphorylated nucleotides are tight binding inhibitors of nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Xu, Y W; Janin, J; Véron, M; Deville-Bonne, D

    1998-10-30

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of ribo- and deoxyribonucleosides diphosphates into triphosphates. NDP kinase is also involved in malignant tumors and was shown to activate in vitro transcription of the c-myc oncogene by binding to its NHE sequence. The structure of the complex of NDP kinase with bound ADP shows that the nucleotide adopts a different conformation from that observed in other phosphokinases with an internal H bond between the 3'-OH and the beta-O made free by the phosphate transfer. We use intrinsic protein fluorescence to investigate the inhibitory and binding potential of nucleotide analogues phosphorylated in 3'-OH position of the ribose to both wild type and F64W mutant NDP kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum. Due to their 3'-phosphate, 5'-phosphoadenosine 3'-phosphate (PAP) and adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) can be regarded as structural analogues of enzyme-bound ADP. The KD of PAPS (10 microM) is three times lower than the KD of ADP. PAPS also acts as a competitive inhibitor toward natural substrates during catalysis, with a KI in agreement with binding data. The crystal structure of the binary complex between Dictyostelium NDP kinase and PAPS was solved at 2.8-A resolution. It shows a new mode of nucleotide binding at the active site with the 3'-phosphate of PAPS located near the catalytic histidine, at the same position as the gamma-phosphate in the transition state. The sulfate group is directed toward the protein surface. PAPS will be useful for the design of high affinity drugs targeted to NDP kinases.

  11. Understanding and modulating cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor specificity: molecular modeling and biochemical evaluation of pyrazolopyrimidinones as CDK2/cyclin A and CDK4/cyclin D1 inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Karen A.; Markwalder, Jay A.; Seitz, Steven P.; Chang, Chong-Hwan; Cox, Sarah; Boisclair, Michael D.; Brizuela, Leonardo; Brenner, Stephen L.; Stouten, Pieter F. W.

    2005-02-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play a key role in regulating the cell cycle. The cyclins, their activating agents, and endogenous CDK inhibitors are frequently mutated in human cancers, making CDKs interesting targets for cancer chemotherapy. Our aim is the discovery of selective CDK4/cyclin D1 inhibitors. An ATP-competitive pyrazolopyrimidinone CDK inhibitor was identified by HTS and docked into a CDK4 homology model. The resulting binding model was consistent with available SAR and was validated by a subsequent CDK2/inhibitor crystal structure. An iterative cycle of chemistry and modeling led to a 70-fold improvement in potency. Small substituent changes resulted in large CDK4/CDK2 selectivity changes. The modeling revealed that selectivity is largely due to hydrogen-bonded interactions with only two kinase residues. This demonstrates that small differences between enzymes can efficiently be exploited in the design of selective inhibitors.

  12. Design of a selective insulin receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and its effect on glucose uptake and metabolism in intact cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saperstein, R.; Vicario, P.P.; Strout, H.V.; Brady, E.; Slater, E.E.; Greenlee, W.J.; Onedyka, D.L.; Patchett, A.A.; Hangauer, D.G. )

    1989-06-27

    An inhibitor of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (IRTK), (hydroxy-2-napthalenylmethyl)phosphonic acid, was designed and synthesized and was shown to be an inhibitor of the biological effects of insulin in vitro. With a wheat germ purified human placental insulin receptor preparation, this compound inhibited the insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the 95-kDa {beta}-subunit of the insulin receptor. The ability of the kinase to phosphorylate an exogenous peptide substrate, angiotensin II, was also inhibited. Half-maximal inhibition of basal and insulin-stimulated human placental IRTK activity was found at concentrations of 150 and 100 {mu}M, respectively, with 2 mM angiotensin II as the peptide substrate. The inhibitor was found to be specific for tyrosine kinases over serine kinases and noncompetitive with ATP. The inhibitor was converted into various (acyloxy)methyl prodrugs in order to achieve permeability through cell membranes. These prodrugs inhibited insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor 95-kDa {beta}-subunit in intact CHO cells transfected with human insulin receptor. Inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation in isolated rat adipocytes and 2-deoxyglucose uptake into CHO cells was observed with these prodrugs. The data provide additional evidence for the involvement of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase in the regulation of glucose uptake and metabolism. These results and additional data reported herein suggest that this class of prodrugs and inhibitors will be useful for modulating the activity of a variety of tyrosine kinases.

  13. Design checkpoint kinase 2 inhibitors by pharmacophore modeling and virtual screening techniques.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yen-Ling; Lin, Chun-Yuan; Shih, Kuei-Chung; Huang, Jui-Wen; Tang, Chuan-Yi

    2013-12-01

    Damage to DNA is caused by ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals or collapsed replication forks. When DNA is damaged or cells fail to respond, a mutation that is associated with breast or ovarian cancer may occur. Mammalian cells control and stabilize the genome using a cell cycle checkpoint to prevent damage to DNA or to repair damaged DNA. Checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) is one of the important kinases, which strongly affects DNA-damage and plays an important role in the response to the breakage of DNA double-strands and related lesions. Therefore, this study concerns Chk2. Its purpose is to find potential inhibitors using the pharmacophore hypotheses (PhModels) and virtual screening techniques. PhModels can identify inhibitors with high biological activities and virtual screening techniques are used to screen the database of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to retrieve compounds that exhibit all of the pharmacophoric features of potential inhibitors with high interaction energy. Ten PhModels were generated using the HypoGen best algorithm. The established PhModel, Hypo01, was evaluated by performing a cost function analysis of its correlation coefficient (r), root mean square deviation (RMSD), cost difference, and configuration cost, with the values 0.955, 1.28, 192.51, and 16.07, respectively. The result of Fischer's cross-validation test for the Hypo01 model yielded a 95% confidence level, and the correlation coefficient of the testing set (rtest) had a best value of 0.81. The potential inhibitors were then chosen from the NCI database by Hypo01 model screening and molecular docking using the cdocker docking program. Finally, the selected compounds exhibited the identified pharmacophoric features and had a high interaction energy between the ligand and the receptor. Eighty-three potential inhibitors for Chk2 are retrieved for further study.

  14. Erkitinib, a novel EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor screened using a ProteoChip system from a phytochemical library

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eung-Yoon; Choi, Young-Jin; Park, Chan-Won; Kang, In-Cheol

    2009-11-20

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play key roles in the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases, including cancer. Therefore PTK inhibitors are currently under intensive investigation as potential drug candidates. Herein, we report on a ProteoChip-based screening of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor, Erkitinibs, from phytochemical libraries. PLC-{gamma}-1 was used as a substrate immobilized on a ProteoChip and incubated with an EGFR kinase to phosphorylate tyrosine residues of the substrate, followed by a fluorescence detection of the substrate recognized by a phospho-specific monoclonal antibody. Erkitinibs inhibited HeLa cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, these data suggest that Erkitinibs can be a specific inhibitor of an EGFR kinase and can be further developed as a potent anti-tumor agent.

  15. Molecular docking and NMR binding studies to identify novel inhibitors of human phosphomevalonate kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Boonsri, Pornthip; Neumann, Terrence S.; Olson, Andrew L.; Cai, Sheng; Herdendorf, Timothy J.; Miziorko, Henry M.; Hannongbua, Supa; Sem, Daniel S.

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Natural and synthetic inhibitors of human phosphomevalonate kinase identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Virtual screening yielded a hit rate of 15%, with inhibitor K{sub d}'s of 10-60 {mu}M. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NMR studies indicate significant protein conformational changes upon binding. -- Abstract: Phosphomevalonate kinase (PMK) phosphorylates mevalonate-5-phosphate (M5P) in the mevalonate pathway, which is the sole source of isoprenoids and steroids in humans. We have identified new PMK inhibitors with virtual screening, using autodock. Promising hits were verified and their affinity measured using NMR-based {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) chemical shift perturbation and fluorescence titrations. Chemical shift changes were monitored, plotted, and fitted to obtain dissociation constants (K{sub d}). Tight binding compounds with K{sub d}'s ranging from 6-60 {mu}M were identified. These compounds tended to have significant polarity and negative charge, similar to the natural substrates (M5P and ATP). HSQC cross peak changes suggest that binding induces a global conformational change, such as domain closure. Compounds identified in this study serve as chemical genetic probes of human PMK, to explore pharmacology of the mevalonate pathway, as well as starting points for further drug development.

  16. Bis-Aryl Urea Derivatives as Potent and Selective LIM Kinase (Limk) Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yan; Zheng, Ke; Eid, Nibal; Howard, Shannon; Jeong, Ji-Hak; Yi, Fei; Guo, Jia; Park, Chul M; Bibian, Mathieu; Wu, Weilin; Hernandez, Pamela; Park, HaJeung; Wu, Yuntao; Luo, Jun-Li; LoGrasso, Philip V.; Feng, Yangbo

    2015-01-01

    The discovery/optimization of bis-aryl ureas as Limk inhibitors to obtain high potency and selectivity, and appropriate pharmacokinetic properties through systematic SAR studies is reported. Docking studies supported the observed SAR. Optimized Limk inhibitors had high biochemical potency (IC50 < 25 nM), excellent selectivity against ROCK and JNK kinases (> 400-fold), potent inhibition of cofilin phosphorylation in A7r5,PC-3, and CEM-SS T cells (IC50 < 1 μM), and good in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic properties. In the profiling against a panel of 61 kinases, compound 18b at 1 μM inhibited only Limk1 and STK16 with ≥ 80% inhibition. Compounds 18b and 18f were highly efficient in inhibiting cell-invasion/migration in PC-3 cells. In addition, compound 18w was demonstrated to be effective on reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) on rat eyes. Taken together, these data demonstrated that we had developed a novel class of bis-aryl urea derived potent and selective Limk inhibitors. PMID:25621531

  17. Combination therapy with copanlisib and ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors against Philadelphia chromosome-positive resistant cells

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Seiichi; Tauchi, Tetsuzo; Tanaka, Yuko; Sakuta, Juri; Ohyashiki, Kazuma

    2016-01-01

    ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy has improved the survival of patients with Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-positive leukemia. However, ABL TKIs cannot eradicate leukemia stem cells. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches for Ph-positive leukemia are needed. Aberrant activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is important for the initiation and maintenance of human cancers. Copanlisib (BAY80-6946) is a potent inhibitor of PI3Kα and PI3K-δ. Here we investigated the efficacy of combination therapy of copanlisib with an ABL TKI (imatinib, nilotinib, or ponatinib) using BCR-ABL-positive cells. Although the effects of the ABL TKI treatment were reduced in the presence of the feeder cell line, HS-5, copanlisib inhibited cell growth. Upon combining ABL TKI and copanlisib, cell growth was reduced. Ponatinib and copanlisib combined therapy reduced tumor volume and increased survival in mouse allograft models, respectively. These results indicate that the PI3Kα and -δ inhibitors overcame the chemoprotective effects of the feeder cells and enhanced ABL TKI cytotoxicity. Thus, co-treatment with ABL TKI and copanlisib may be a powerful strategy against ABL TKI-resistant cells, including those harboring the related T315I mutation. PMID:27437766

  18. Combination therapy with copanlisib and ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors against Philadelphia chromosome-positive resistant cells.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Seiichi; Tauchi, Tetsuzo; Tanaka, Yuko; Sakuta, Juri; Ohyashiki, Kazuma

    2016-08-16

    ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy has improved the survival of patients with Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-positive leukemia. However, ABL TKIs cannot eradicate leukemia stem cells. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches for Ph-positive leukemia are needed. Aberrant activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is important for the initiation and maintenance of human cancers. Copanlisib (BAY80-6946) is a potent inhibitor of PI3Kα and PI3K-δ. Here we investigated the efficacy of combination therapy of copanlisib with an ABL TKI (imatinib, nilotinib, or ponatinib) using BCR-ABL-positive cells. Although the effects of the ABL TKI treatment were reduced in the presence of the feeder cell line, HS-5, copanlisib inhibited cell growth. Upon combining ABL TKI and copanlisib, cell growth was reduced. Ponatinib and copanlisib combined therapy reduced tumor volume and increased survival in mouse allograft models, respectively. These results indicate that the PI3Kα and -δ inhibitors overcame the chemoprotective effects of the feeder cells and enhanced ABL TKI cytotoxicity. Thus, co-treatment with ABL TKI and copanlisib may be a powerful strategy against ABL TKI-resistant cells, including those harboring the related T315I mutation.

  19. A specific pharmacophore model of Aurora B kinase inhibitors and virtual screening studies based on it.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Yuan; Li, Lin-Li; Cao, Zhi-Xing; Luo, Shi-Dong; Wei, Yu-Quan; Yang, Sheng-Yong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 3D-pharmacophore models of Aurora B kinase inhibitors have been developed by using HipHop and HypoGen modules in Catalyst software package. The best pharmacophore model, Hypo1, which has the highest correlation coefficient (0.9911), consists of one hydrogen-bond acceptor, one hydrogen-bond donor, one hydrophobic aliphatic moiety and one ring aromatic feature. Hypo1 was validated by test set and cross-validation methods. And the specificity of Hypo1 to Aurora B inhibitors was examined with the use of selective inhibitors against Aurora B and its paralogue Aurora A. The results clearly indicate that Hypo1 can differentiate selective inhibitors of Aurora B from those of Aurora A, and the ring aromatic feature likely plays some important roles for the specificity of Hypo1. Then Hypo1 was used as a 3D query to screen several databases including Specs, NCI, Maybridge and Chinese Nature Product Database (CNPD) for identifying new inhibitors of Aurora B. The hit compounds were subsequently subjected to filtering by Lipinski's rule of five and docking studies to refine the retrieved hits, and some compounds selected from the top ranked hits have been suggested for further experimental assay studies.

  20. Molecular dynamics of protein kinase-inhibitor complexes: a valid structural information.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinases (PKs) are key components of protein phosphorylation based signaling networks in eukaryotic cells. They have been identified as being implicated in many diseases. High-resolution X-ray crystallographic data exist for many PKs and, in many cases, these structures are co-complexed with inhibitors. Although this valuable information confirms the precise structure of PKs and their complexes, it ignores the dynamic movements of the structures which are relevant to explain the affinities and selectivity of the ligands, to characterize the thermodynamics of the solvated complexes, and to derive predictive models. Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations present a convenient way to study PK-inhibitor complexes and have been increasingly used in recent years in structure-based drug design. MD is a very useful computational method and a great counterpart for experimentalists, which helps them to derive important additional molecular information. That enables them to follow and understand structure and dynamics of protein-ligand systems with extreme molecular detail on scales where motion of individual atoms can be tracked. MD can be used to sample dynamic molecular processes, and can be complemented with more advanced computational methods (e.g., free energy calculations, structure-activity relationship analysis). This review focuses on the most commonly applications to study PK-inhibitor complexes using MD simulations. Our aim is that researchers working in the design of PK inhibitors be aware of the benefits of this powerful tool in the design of potent and selective PK inhibitors.

  1. A DPP-4 inhibitor suppresses fibrosis and inflammation on experimental autoimmune myocarditis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Hiroyuki; Zempo, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Masahito; Watanabe, Ryo; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2015-01-01

    Myocarditis is a critical inflammatory disorder which causes life-threatening conditions. No specific or effective treatment has been established. DPP-4 inhibitors have salutary effects not only on type 2 diabetes but also on certain cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of a DPP-4 inhibitor on myocarditis has not been investigated. To clarify the effects of a DPP-4 inhibitor on myocarditis, we used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model in Balb/c mice. EAM mice were assigned to the following groups: EAM mice group treated with a DPP-4 inhibitor (linagliptin) (n = 19) and those untreated (n = 22). Pathological analysis revealed that the myocardial fibrosis area ratio in the treated group was significantly lower than in the untreated group. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the levels of mRNA expression of IL-2, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly lower in the treated group than in the untreated group. Lymphocyte proliferation assay showed that treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor had no effect on antigen-induced spleen cell proliferation. Administration of the DPP-4 inhibitor remarkably suppressed cardiac fibrosis and reduced inflammatory cytokine gene expression in EAM mice. Thus, the agents present in DPP-4 inhibitors may be useful to treat and/or prevent clinical myocarditis.

  2. Tyrosol Suppresses Allergic Inflammation by Inhibiting the Activation of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase in Mast Cells.

    PubMed

    Je, In-Gyu; Kim, Duk-Sil; Kim, Sung-Wan; Lee, Soyoung; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Park, Eui Kyun; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, asthma, and anaphylaxis are attractive research areas. Tyrosol (2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol) is a polyphenolic compound with diverse biological activities. In this study, we investigated whether tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects. Ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis and immunoglobulin E-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis models were used for the immediate-type allergic responses. Oral administration of tyrosol reduced the allergic symptoms of hypothermia and pigmentation in both animal models. Mast cells that secrete allergic mediators are key regulators on allergic inflammation. Tyrosol dose-dependently decreased mast cell degranulation and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Intracellular calcium levels and activation of inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) regulate cytokine expression and degranulation. Tyrosol blocked calcium influx and phosphorylation of the IKK complex. To define the molecular target for tyrosol, various signaling proteins involved in mast cell activation such as Lyn, Syk, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt were examined. Our results showed that PI3K could be a molecular target for tyrosol in mast cells. Taken together, these findings indicated that tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects by inhibiting the degranulation of mast cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines; these effects are mediated via PI3K. Therefore, we expect tyrosol become a potential therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory disorders.

  3. Targeting protein kinase CK2 suppresses bladder cancer cell survival via the glucose metabolic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Yuan, Wenbo; Deng, Xiaheng; Cheng, Yidong; Li, Pengchao; Yang, Haiwei; Tao, Jun; Lu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a constitutively active serine/threonine kinase that promotes cell proliferation and resists apoptosis. Elevated CK2 expression has been demonstrated in several solid tumors. The expression of CK2α in bladder cancer was elevated in tumor tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues. Amplified expression of CK2α was highly correlated with histological grade in bladder cancer(P = 0.024). Knockdown of CK2α in bladder cancer cell lines resulted in a reduction in tumor aerobic glycolysis, accompanied with lower phosphorylated AKT. Moreover, low CK2α levels suppressed cell growth, and similar results could be reproduced after treatment with CX-4945 with a dose-dependent response. CX-4945 inhibited migration and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, knockdown of CK2α decreased the tumorigenicity of bladder cancer cells in vivo. This study is the first to report that CK2 increases glucose metabolism in human bladder cancer. Blocking CK2 function may provide novel diagnostic and potential therapeutic. PMID:27888634

  4. Phosphorylation of phosphatase inhibitor-2 (i-2) by a bovine thymus tyrosine protein kinase, p40

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli-Roach, A.A.; Votaw, P.; Zioncheck, T.F.; Harrison, M.L.; Geahlen, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    Phosphatase inhibitor-2, a heat stable protein of Mr 22,800, is a regulatory component of the ATP-Mg-dependent phosphatase. It has been shown that in the cell tyrosine kinase activation can result in altered phosphorylation at serine and/or threonine residues, but the mechanism involved is unknown. The authors have found that i-2 is a substrate for a tyrosine specific protein kinase, p40, purified from bovine thymus. The purified enzyme is a monomer of Mr 40,000 that is autophosphorylated at tyrosine residue(s). The stoichiometry of phosphorylation of i-2 by this tyrosine protein kinase is up to 1 mol of phosphate per mol of i-2. Phosphoaminoacid analysis revealed that all the phosphate introduced was associated with tyrosine residues. Mapping of TSP-tryptic peptides by TLE and isoelectric focusing showed one major labeled fragment. Using the ATP-Mg-dependent phosphatase, a lesser extent of phosphorylation of i-2 by p40 was obtained although partial activation of the phosphatase was observed. The effect on the activity was not due to FA/GSK-3 contamination. These results could provide an important link between tyrosine protein kinase activity and modulation of phosphorylation at serine and/or threonine residues.

  5. Selectivity filters to edit out deleterious side effects in kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sessel, Sean; Fernández, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    As the molecular etiology of cancer unravels, revealing the heterogeneous nature of the malignancy, multi-target drug treatments are more frequently advocated. Such therapeutic avenues often target kinases, the basic signal transducers in the cell. Because kinases share common evolutionary backgrounds, they also share many structural attributes, making it difficult for molecular targeted therapy to distinguish between paralogs. Thus, kinase inhibitors (KIs) tend to have undesired cross-reactivities, resulting in potentially lethal side effects. The health risks are obviously higher in these multi-pronged treatments when contrasted with the effects of more selective therapeutic agents. Using a nonconserved physicochemical biomarker, we present a rationally designed molecular filter that enables the control of specificity and the development of adjuvant drugs to edit out the side effects of the primary therapeutic agent. These editors work by overlapping therapeutically with the primary drug in cancer cells, while interfering with toxicity-related signaling pathways recruited by the primary drug in off-target cells. We then examine the possible application of these filtering methods to specifically target kinases when they present idiosyncratic cancer-related mutations. Such applications open the door to engineer personalized drugs tailored to the genetic makeup of the patient. These various methods of enhancing efficacy and safety show some degree of modularity, allowing drug designers to utilize multiple techniques and various drug combinations to create the safest and most powerful treatment for any given therapeutic scenario.

  6. X-ray structures of checkpoint kinase 2 in complex with inhibitors that target its gatekeeper-dependent hydrophobic pocket

    SciTech Connect

    Lountos, George T.; Jobson, Andrew G.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Self, Christopher R.; Zhang, Guangtao; Pommier, Yves; Shoemaker, Robert H.; Waugh, David S.

    2012-09-17

    The serine/threonine checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) is an attractive molecular target for the development of small molecule inhibitors to treat cancer. Here, we report the rational design of Chk2 inhibitors that target the gatekeeper-dependent hydrophobic pocket located behind the adenine-binding region of the ATP-binding site. These compounds exhibit IC{sub 50} values in the low nanomolar range and are highly selective for Chk2 over Chk1. X-ray crystallography was used to determine the structures of the inhibitors in complex with the catalytic kinase domain of Chk2 to verify their modes of binding.

  7. Discovery and optimization of indazoles as potent and selective interleukin-2 inducible T cell kinase (ITK) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Richard M; Burch, Jason D; Magnuson, Steven; Ortwine, Daniel F; Chen, Yuan; De La Torre, Kelly; Ding, Xiao; Eigenbrot, Charles; Johnson, Adam; Liimatta, Marya; Liu, Yichin; Shia, Steven; Wang, Xiaolu; Wu, Lawren C; Pei, Zhonghua

    2014-06-01

    There is evidence that small molecule inhibitors of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase ITK, a component of the T-cell receptor signaling cascade, could represent a novel asthma therapeutic class. Moreover, given the expected chronic dosing regimen of any asthma treatment, highly selective as well as potent inhibitors would be strongly preferred in any potential therapeutic. Here we report hit-to-lead optimization of a series of indazoles that demonstrate sub-nanomolar inhibitory potency against ITK with strong cellular activity and good kinase selectivity. We also elucidate the binding mode of these inhibitors by solving the X-ray crystal structures of the complexes.

  8. Integration of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Determines Sensitivity to PI3Kα-selective Inhibitors in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi-chao; Wang, Xiang; Chen, Yi; Chen, Si-meng; Yang, Xin-ying; Sun, Yi-ming; Geng, Mei-yu; Ding, Jian; Meng, Ling-hua

    2017-01-01

    PI3Kα-selective inhibitor BYL719 is currently in phase II/III clinical trial for the treatment of breast cancer, but highly variable response has been observed among patients. We sought to discover predictive biomarker for the efficacy of BYL719 by dissecting the proliferative signaling pathway mediated by PI3K in breast cancer. BYL719 concurrently inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in PIK3CA-mutated human breast cancer cells. PI3K-regulated ERK phosphorylation was independent of canonical PDK1/AKT/mTOR pathway, while it was associated with RAF/MEK. Hyper-activation of EGFR or RAS abrogated inhibition of ERK phosphorylation by BYL719. Furthermore, hyper-activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) including EGFR, c-MET, FGFR and HER3 but not IGF-1R restored ERK phosphorylation and cell viability suppressed by BYL719, suggesting the discriminative functions of RTKs in cell signaling and proliferation. By profiling 22 breast cancer cell lines, we found that BYL719 was more potent in cell lines where phosphorylation of both AKT and ERK was attenuated than those where only AKT phosphorylation was inhibited. The potency of BYL719 was further found to be significantly correlated with the expression profile of RTKs in breast cancer cells. Specifically, overexpression of EGFR, c-MET and/or FGFR1 forecasted resistance, while overexpression of IGF-1R and/or HER2 predicted sensitivity to BYL719 in breast cancer cells. Similar correlation between BYL719 efficacy and expression profile of RTKs was found in patient-derived xenograft models of breast cancer. Thus, inhibition of ERK phosphorylation by PI3Kα inhibitor BYL719 contributes to its antitumor efficacy and is determined by the converged signaling from RTKs. The expression profile of RTKs in breast cancer tissue could be potentially developed as a predictive biomarker for the efficacy of PI3Kα inhibitors. PMID:28382169

  9. A systematic analysis of the resistance and sensitivity of HER2YVMA receptor tyrosine kinase mutant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in HER2-positive lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaokun; Chen, Beibei; Ma, Zhaosheng; Xie, Bojian; Cao, Xinguang; Yang, Tiejun; Zhao, Yuzhou; Qin, Jianjun; Li, Jicheng; Cao, Feilin; Chen, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has become a well-established target for the treatment of HER2-positive lung cancer. However, a frequently observed in-frame mutation that inserts amino acid quadruplex Tyr776-Val777-Met778-Ala779 at G776 (G776(YVMA)) in HER2 kinase domain can cause drug resistance and sensitivity, largely limiting the application of reversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung cancer therapy. A systematic investigation of the intermolecular interactions between the HER2(YVMA) mutant and clinical small-molecule inhibitors would help to establish a complete picture of drug response to HER2 G776(YVMA) insertion in lung cancer, and to design new tyrosine kinase inhibitors with high potency and selectivity to target the lung cancer-related HER2(YVMA) mutant. Here, we combined homology modeling, ligand grafting, structure minimization, molecular simulation and binding affinity analysis to profile a number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors against the G776(YVMA) insertion in HER2. It is found that the insertion is far away from HER2 active pocket and thus cannot contact inhibitor ligand directly. However, the insertion is expected to induce marked allosteric effect on some regions around the pocket, including A-loop and hinges connecting between the N- and C-lobes of HER2 kinase domain, which may exert indirect influence to inhibitor binding. Most investigated inhibitors exhibit weak binding strength to both wild-type and mutant HER2, which can be attributed to steric hindrance that impairs ligand compatibility with HER2 active pocket. However, the cognate inhibitor lapatinib and the non-cognate inhibitor bosutinib were predicted to have low affinity for wild-type HER2 but high affinity for HER2(YVMA) mutant, which was confirmed by subsequent kinase assay experiments; the inhibitory potencies of bosutinib against wild-type and mutant HER2 were determined to be IC(50) > 1000 and =27 nM, respectively, suggesting that the bosutinib might be

  10. High Throughput Screening of a Library Based on Kinase Inhibitor Scaffolds Against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis H37Rv

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Robert C.; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Faaleolea, Ellen; Hobrath, Judith V.; Kwong, Cecil D.; Maddox, Clinton; Rasmussen, Lynn; Sosa, Melinda I.; Thammasuvimol, Elizabeth; White, E. Lucile; Zhang, Wei; Secrist, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Kinase targets are being pursued in a variety of diseases beyond cancer, including immune and metabolic as well as viral, parasitic, fungal and bacterial. In particular, there is a relatively recent interest in kinase and ATP-binding targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in order to identify inhibitors and potential drugs for essential proteins that are not targeted by current drug regimens. Herein, we report the high throughput screening results for a targeted library of approximately 26,000 compounds that was designed based on current kinase inhibitor scaffolds and known kinase binding sites. The phenotypic data presented herein may form the basis for selecting scaffolds/compounds for further enzymatic screens against specific kinase or other ATP-binding targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis based on the apparent activity against the whole bacteria in vitro. PMID:21708485

  11. Acetyl-lysine Binding Site of Bromodomain-Containing Protein 4 (BRD4) Interacts with Diverse Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Members of the bromodomain and extra terminal (BET) family of proteins are essential for the recognition of acetylated lysine (KAc) residues in histones and have emerged as promising drug targets in cancer, inflammation, and contraception research. In co-crystallization screening campaigns using the first bromodomain of BRD4 (BRD4-1) against kinase inhibitor libraries, we identified and characterized 14 kinase inhibitors (10 distinct chemical scaffolds) as ligands of the KAc binding site. Among these, the PLK1 inhibitor BI2536 and the JAK2 inhibitor TG101209 displayed strongest inhibitory potential against BRD4 (IC50 = 25 nM and 130 nM, respectively) and high selectivity for BET bromodomains. Comparative structural analysis revealed markedly different binding modes of kinase hinge-binding scaffolds in the KAc binding site, suggesting that BET proteins are potential off-targets of diverse kinase inhibitors. Combined, these findings provide a new structural framework for the rational design of next-generation BET-selective and dual-activity BET-kinase inhibitors. PMID:24568369

  12. Kinase inhibitor-responsive genotypes in EGFR mutated lung adenocarcinomas: moving past common point mutations or indels into uncommon kinase domain duplications and rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The most frequent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations found by traditional or comprehensive molecular profiling of lung adenocarcinomas include indels of exon 19 (the exon 19 deletion delE746_A750 being the most common) and the exon 21 L858R point mutation. The current approval labels for first line palliative gefitinib 250 mg/day, erlotinib 150 mg/day and afatinib 40 mg/day for advanced lung cancers require the presence of the aforementioned classical/sensitizing EGFR mutations. Other gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib sensitizing mutations include exon 18 indels, G719X, exon 19 insertions, A763_Y764insFQEA, S768I and L861Q; for which off-label EGFR kinase inhibitor use is generally agreed upon by thoracic oncologists. The main biological mechanism of resistance to approved first line EGFR inhibitors is the selection/acquisition of EGFR-T790M that in itself can be inhibited by osimertinib 80 mg/day, a 3rd generation EGFR inhibitor that is bypassed by EGFR-C797X mutations. Another class of de novo inhibitor insensitive mutation includes EGFR exon 20 insertions. More recently, the dichotomy of only point mutations or indels explaining aberrant kinase activation of EGFR plus inhibitor response has been shattered by the discovery of uncommon (<0.5% of all EGFR mutations) genomic events involving exon 18–25 kinase domain duplications (KDD) and rearrangements (EGFR-RAD51 or EGFR-PURB). The latter lead to oncogene addiction, enhanced sensitivity to kinase inhibitors in vitro and clinical responses to approved EGFR inhibitors. The enhanced landscape of EGFR inhibitor-responsive genotypes highlights that comprehensive molecular profiling may be necessary to maximize the identification of all cases that can benefit from precision oncology. PMID:27413714