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Sample records for kinase regulates root

  1. Local and Systemic Regulation of Plant Root System Architecture and Symbiotic Nodulation by a Receptor-Like Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Huault, Emeline; Laffont, Carole; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Ratet, Pascal; Duc, Gérard; Frugier, Florian

    2014-01-01

    In plants, root system architecture is determined by the activity of root apical meristems, which control the root growth rate, and by the formation of lateral roots. In legumes, an additional root lateral organ can develop: the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodule. We identified in Medicago truncatula ten allelic mutants showing a compact root architecture phenotype (cra2) independent of any major shoot phenotype, and that consisted of shorter roots, an increased number of lateral roots, and a reduced number of nodules. The CRA2 gene encodes a Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Kinase (LRR-RLK) that primarily negatively regulates lateral root formation and positively regulates symbiotic nodulation. Grafting experiments revealed that CRA2 acts through different pathways to regulate these lateral organs originating from the roots, locally controlling the lateral root development and nodule formation systemically from the shoots. The CRA2 LRR-RLK therefore integrates short- and long-distance regulations to control root system architecture under non-symbiotic and symbiotic conditions. PMID:25521478

  2. Light-regulated root gravitropism: a role for, and characterization of, a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase homolog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Y. T.; Feldman, L. J.

    1997-01-01

    Roots of many species grow downward (orthogravitropism) only when illuminated. Previous work suggests that this is a calcium-regulated response and that both calmodulin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases participate in transducing gravity and light stimuli. A genomic sequence has been obtained for a calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase homolog (MCK1) expressed in root caps, the site of perception for both light and gravity. This homolog consists of 7265 base pairs and contains 11 exons and 10 introns. Since MCK1 is expressed constitutively in both light and dark, it is unlikely that the light directly affects MCK1 expression, though the activity of the protein may be affected by light. In cultivars showing light-regulated gravitropism, we hypothesize that MCK1, or a homolog, functions in establishing the auxin asymmetry necessary for orthogravitropism.

  3. Characterization of a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase homolog from maize roots showing light-regulated gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Y. T.; Hidaka, H.; Feldman, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Roots of many species respond to gravity (gravitropism) and grow downward only if illuminated. This light-regulated root gravitropism is phytochrome-dependent, mediated by calcium, and inhibited by KN-93, a specific inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II). A cDNA encoding MCK1, a maize homolog of mammalian CaMK, has been isolated from roots of maize (Zea mays L.). The MCK1 gene is expressed in root tips, the site of perception for both light and gravity. Using the [35S]CaM gel-overlay assay we showed that calmodulin-binding activity of the MCK1 is abolished by 50 microM KN-93, but binding is not affected by 5 microM KN-93, paralleling physiological findings that light-regulated root gravitropism is inhibited by 50 microM KN-93, but not by 5 microM KN-93. KN-93 inhibits light-regulated gravitropism by interrupting transduction of the light signal, not light perception, suggesting that MCK1 may play a role in transducing light. This is the first report suggesting a physiological function for a CaMK homolog in light signal transduction.

  4. Pinoid kinase regulates root gravitropism through modulation of PIN2-dependent basipetal auxin transport in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muday, Gloria; Sukumar, Poornima; Edwards, Karin; Delong, Alison; Rahman, Abidur

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is a key regulatory mechanism governing polar auxin transport. We tested the hypothesis that PINOID (PID)-mediated phosphorylation and RCN1- regulated dephosphorylation might antagonistically regulate auxin transport and gravity response in seedling roots. Here we show that basipetal IAA transport and gravitropism are reduced in pid mutant seedlings, while acropetal transport and lateral root development are unchanged. Treatment of wild-type seedlings with the protein kinase inhibitor, staurosporine, phenocopied the reduced auxin transport and gravity response of pid-9 and reduced formation of asymmetric DR5-revGFP expression at the root tip after reorientation relative to gravity. Gravitropism and auxin transport in pid are resistant to further inhibition by staurosporine. Gravity response defects of rcn1 and pid-9 are partially rescued by treatment with staurosporine or the phosphatase inhibitor, cantharidin, respectively, and in the pid-9 rcn1 double mutant. Furthermore, the effect of staurosporine is lost in pin2, and a PIN2::GFP fusion protein accumulates in endomembrane compartments after staurosporine treatment. In the pid-9 mutant, immunological techniques find a similar PIN2 localization. These data suggest that staurosporine inhibits gravitropism and basipetal IAA transport by blocking PID action and altering PIN2 localization and support the model that PID and RCN1 reciprocally regulate root gravitropic curvature.

  5. Activation of calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK), the central regulator of plant root endosymbiosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sylvia; Parniske, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The key molecular event during the development of arbuscular mycorrhiza and the root nodule symbiosis is the activation of calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK). Its regulation is complex and involves positive as well as negative regulation facilitated by autophosphorylation of two conserved sites. Deregulated versions of CCaMK are sufficient for mediating both organogenesis and infection processes. Epistasis tests demonstrated that a main function of signaling components upstream of calcium spiking is the activation of CCaMK. Despite CCaMK being a central signaling hub, specificity for both symbioses exists, resulting in differential transcriptional gene expression patterns. While the specificity upstream of CCaMK can be conceptualized by the specific perception of rhizobial and fungal lipo-chitooligosaccharides via cognate LysM receptors, the mechanisms conferring transcriptional specificity downstream of CCaMK are likely conferred by a variety of transcriptional regulators, mediating symbiosis appropriate gene regulation.

  6. Inhibitory effects of KN-93, an inhibitor of Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, on light-regulated root gravitropism in maize.

    PubMed

    Lu Y-T; Feldman, L J; Hidaka, H

    1993-01-01

    Light is essential for root gravitropism in Zea mays L., cultivar Merit. It is hypothesized that calcium mediates this light-regulated response. KN-93, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMK II), inhibits light-regulated root gravitropism but does not affect light perception. We hypothesize that CaMK II, or a homologue, operates late in the light/gravity signal transduction chain. Here we provide evidence suggesting a possible physiological involvement of CaMK II in root gravitropism in plants.

  7. Inhibitory effects of KN-93, an inhibitor of Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, on light-regulated root gravitropism in maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, L. J.; Hidaka, H.

    1993-01-01

    Light is essential for root gravitropism in Zea mays L., cultivar Merit. It is hypothesized that calcium mediates this light-regulated response. KN-93, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMK II), inhibits light-regulated root gravitropism but does not affect light perception. We hypothesize that CaMK II, or a homologue, operates late in the light/gravity signal transduction chain. Here we provide evidence suggesting a possible physiological involvement of CaMK II in root gravitropism in plants.

  8. The CBL-Interacting Protein Kinase CIPK23 Regulates HAK5-Mediated High-Affinity K+ Uptake in Arabidopsis Roots.

    PubMed

    Ragel, Paula; Ródenas, Reyes; García-Martín, Elena; Andrés, Zaida; Villalta, Irene; Nieves-Cordones, Manuel; Rivero, Rosa M; Martínez, Vicente; Pardo, Jose M; Quintero, Francisco J; Rubio, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Plant growth and development requires efficient acquisition of essential elements. Potassium (K(+)) is an important macronutrient present in the soil solution at a wide range of concentrations. Regulation of the K(+) uptake systems in the roots is essential to secure K(+) supply. It has been shown in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that when the external K(+) concentration is very low (<10 µm), K(+) nutrition depends exclusively on the high-affinity K(+) transporter5 (HAK5). Low-K(+)-induced transcriptional activation of the gene encoding HAK5 has been previously reported. Here, we show the posttranscriptional regulation of HAK5 transport activity by phosphorylation. Expression in a heterologous system showed that the Ca(2+) sensors calcineurin B-like (CBL1), CBL8, CBL9, and CBL10, together with CBL-interacting protein kinase23 (CIPK23), activated HAK5 in vivo. This activation produced an increase in the affinity and the Vmax of K(+) transport. In vitro experiments show that the N terminus of HAK5 is phosphorylated by CIPK23. This supports the idea that phosphorylation of HAK5 induces a conformational change that increases its affinity for K(+). Experiments of K(+) (Rb(+)) uptake and growth measurements in low-K(+) medium with Arabidopsis single mutants hak5, akt1, and cipk23, double mutants hak5 akt1, hak5 cipk23, and akt1 cipk23, and the triple mutant hak5 akt1 cipk23 confirmed the regulatory role of CIPK23 in planta.

  9. A Novel Plant Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor Kinase Regulates the Response of Medicago truncatula Roots to Salt Stress[W

    PubMed Central

    de Lorenzo, Laura; Merchan, Francisco; Laporte, Philippe; Thompson, Richard; Clarke, Jonathan; Sousa, Carolina; Crespi, Martín

    2009-01-01

    In plants, a diverse group of cell surface receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) plays a fundamental role in sensing external signals to regulate gene expression. Roots explore the soil environment to optimize their growth via complex signaling cascades, mainly analyzed in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, legume roots have significant physiological differences, notably their capacity to establish symbiotic interactions. These major agricultural crops are affected by environmental stresses such as salinity. Here, we report the identification of a leucine-rich repeat RLK gene, Srlk, from the legume Medicago truncatula. Srlk is rapidly induced by salt stress in roots, and RNA interference (RNAi) assays specifically targeting Srlk yielded transgenic roots whose growth was less inhibited by the presence of salt in the medium. Promoter-β-glucuronidase fusions indicate that this gene is expressed in epidermal root tissues in response to salt stress. Two Srlk-TILLING mutants also failed to limit root growth in response to salt stress and accumulated fewer sodium ions than controls. Furthermore, early salt-regulated genes are downregulated in Srlk-RNAi roots and in the TILLING mutant lines when submitted to salt stress. We propose a role for Srlk in the regulation of the adaptation of M. truncatula roots to salt stress. PMID:19244136

  10. Involvement of YODA and mitogen activated protein kinase 6 in Arabidopsis post-embryogenic root development through auxin up-regulation and cell division plane orientation

    PubMed Central

    Smékalová, Veronika; Luptovčiak, Ivan; Komis, George; Šamajová, Olga; Ovečka, Miroslav; Doskočilová, Anna; Takáč, Tomáš; Vadovič, Pavol; Novák, Ondřej; Pechan, Tibor; Ziemann, Anja; Košútová, Petra; Šamaj, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Summary The role of YODA MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASE KINASE 4 (MAPKKK4) upstream of MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 6 (MPK6) was studied during post-embryonic root development of Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss- and gain-of-function mutants of YODA (yda1 and ΔNyda1) were characterized in terms of root patterning, endogenous auxin content and global proteomes.We surveyed morphological and cellular phenotypes of yda1 and ΔNyda1 mutants suggesting possible involvement of auxin. Endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were up-regulated in both mutants. Proteomic analysis revealed up-regulation of auxin biosynthetic enzymes tryptophan synthase and nitrilases in these mutants. The expression, abundance and phosphorylation of MPK3, MPK6 and MICROTUBULE ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 65–1 (MAP65-1) were characterized by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analyses and interactions between MAP65-1, microtubules and MPK6 were resolved by quantitative co-localization studies and co-immunoprecipitations.yda1 and ΔNyda1 mutants showed disoriented cell divisions in primary and lateral roots, abortive cytokinesis, and differential subcellular localization of MPK6 and MAP65-1. They also showed deregulated expression of TANGLED1 (TAN1), PHRAGMOPLAST ORIENTING KINESIN 1 (POK1), and GAMMA TUBULIN COMPLEX PROTEIN 4 (GCP4).The findings that MPK6 localized to preprophase bands (PPBs) and phragmoplasts while the mpk6-4 mutant transformed with MPK6AEF (alanine (A)–glutamic acid (E)–phenylanine (F)) showed a root phenotype similar to that of yda1 demonstrated that MPK6 is an important player downstream of YODA. These data indicate that YODA and MPK6 are involved in post-embryonic root development through an auxin-dependent mechanism regulating cell division and mitotic microtubule (PPB and phragmoplast) organization. PMID:24923680

  11. A root-specific wall-associated kinase gene, HvWAK1, regulates root growth and is highly divergent in barley and other cereals.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravneet; Singh, Kashmir; Singh, Jaswinder

    2013-06-01

    Wall-associated receptor-like kinases (WAKs) are important candidates for directly linking the extracellular matrix with intracellular compartments and are involved in developmental processes and stress response. WAK gene family has been identified in plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the WAK1 gene from barley cv. Golden Promise, mapped to chromosome 5H. Three BAC clones corresponding to the WAK fragment were sequenced and the full-length WAK1 gene was characterized. The gene has three exons and two short introns with a coding region of 2,178 bp encoding a protein of 725 amino acids. A regulatory region was analyzed in -1,000 bp sequence upstream to start codon. Using conserved domains database and SMART, various conserved domains such as GUB WAK Bind, epidermal growth factor CA, and protein kinase C as well as other regions like signal peptides, active sites, and transmembrane domains were identified. The gene organization of HvWAK1 was compared with wheat (TaWAK1) and Arabidopsis (AtWAK1), suggesting that the WAK1 gene organization has remained highly conserved. Nonetheless, WAK1 was found to be highly divergent when compared with sequences available from barley cv. Haruna Nijo (50 %), rice (46 %), wheat (21 %), Arabidopsis (25 %), and maize (19 %). This divergence may have facilitated a better adaptation to surrounding environments due to its role in communication between the extracellular matrix, cell, and outer environment. Semiquantitative RT-PCR-based expression analysis indicates HvWAK1 expression is specific to roots. Significant differences in root growth between GP wild type and GP-Ds mutant seedlings were observed under control and salt stress conditions.

  12. The regulation of exon-specific brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression by protein kinase C in rat cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Norimitsu; Yoshida, Yosuke; Nakamura, Yoki; Hidaka, Nobue; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Nakata, Yoshihiro

    2013-05-06

    Although brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is localized in primary sensory neurons and has crucial roles in nociceptive transduction, the mechanisms involved in regulation of BDNF exon-specific mRNA expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons have yet to be determined. Rat primary cultures of DRG neurons were stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), a potent activator of protein kinase C (PKC), which resulted in the robust expression of both BDNF mRNA and protein. Among each BDNF mRNA exon, it was found that exons I, IV and VI were especially induced after PMA stimulation. The induction of these exons was significantly blocked by Gö6983 (a broad spectrum PKC inhibitor), Gö6976 (a conventional PKCs and PKCμ inhibitor), and rottlerin (a PKCδ inhibitor), but not by a PKCε inhibitor. The effect of PMA on exons I and VI was blocked by either U0126 (a MAP kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor) or SB202190 (a p38 inhibitor), and PMA's effect on exon IV was inhibited by U0126 but not by SB202190. Furthermore, the activation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) was associated with the induction of exons I and IV, and the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) contributed to the induction of exons I, IV and VI. These results show that the activation of PKCs induces the expression of BDNF mRNA exons I, IV and VI through exon-specific mechanisms, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, CREB and NF-κB, in cultured DRG neurons. These data suggest multiple pathways in the expression of BDNF in nociceptive sensory neurons.

  13. The CBL-Interacting Protein Kinase CIPK23 Regulates HAK5-Mediated High-Affinity K+ Uptake in Arabidopsis Roots1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ragel, Paula; Ródenas, Reyes; García-Martín, Elena; Andrés, Zaida; Villalta, Irene; Nieves-Cordones, Manuel; Martínez, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth and development requires efficient acquisition of essential elements. Potassium (K+) is an important macronutrient present in the soil solution at a wide range of concentrations. Regulation of the K+ uptake systems in the roots is essential to secure K+ supply. It has been shown in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that when the external K+ concentration is very low (<10 µm), K+ nutrition depends exclusively on the high-affinity K+ transporter5 (HAK5). Low-K+-induced transcriptional activation of the gene encoding HAK5 has been previously reported. Here, we show the posttranscriptional regulation of HAK5 transport activity by phosphorylation. Expression in a heterologous system showed that the Ca2+ sensors calcineurin B-like (CBL1), CBL8, CBL9, and CBL10, together with CBL-interacting protein kinase23 (CIPK23), activated HAK5 in vivo. This activation produced an increase in the affinity and the Vmax of K+ transport. In vitro experiments show that the N terminus of HAK5 is phosphorylated by CIPK23. This supports the idea that phosphorylation of HAK5 induces a conformational change that increases its affinity for K+. Experiments of K+ (Rb+) uptake and growth measurements in low-K+ medium with Arabidopsis single mutants hak5, akt1, and cipk23, double mutants hak5 akt1, hak5 cipk23, and akt1 cipk23, and the triple mutant hak5 akt1 cipk23 confirmed the regulatory role of CIPK23 in planta. PMID:26474642

  14. Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

  15. PiHOG1, a stress regulator MAP kinase from the root endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica, confers salinity stress tolerance in rice plants

    PubMed Central

    Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Verma, Nidhi; Oelmüller, Ralf; Dua, Meenakshi; Nevo, Eviatar; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this study, yeast HOG1 homologue from the root endophyte Piriformospora indica (PiHOG1) was isolated and functionally characterized. Functional expression of PiHOG1 in S. cerevisiae ∆hog1 mutant restored osmotolerance under high osmotic stress. Knockdown (KD) transformants of PiHOG1 generated by RNA interference in P. indica showed that genes for the HOG pathway, osmoresponse and salinity tolerance were less stimulated in KD-PiHOG1 compared to the wild-type under salinity stress. Furthermore, KD lines are impaired in the colonization of rice roots under salinity stress of 200 mM NaCl, and the biomass of the host plants, their shoot and root lengths, root number, photosynthetic pigment and proline contents were reduced as compared to rice plants colonized by WT P. indica. Therefore, PiHOG1 is critical for root colonisation, salinity tolerance and the performance of the host plant under salinity stress. Moreover, downregulation of PiHOG1 resulted not only in reduced and delayed phosphorylation of the remaining PiHOG1 protein in colonized salinity-stressed rice roots, but also in the downregulation of the upstream MAP kinase genes PiPBS2 and PiSSK2 involved in salinity tolerance signalling in the fungus. Our data demonstrate that PiHOG1 is not only involved in the salinity response of P. indica, but also helping host plant to overcome salinity stress. PMID:27849025

  16. Adenosine kinase modulates root gravitropism and cap morphogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Young, Li-Sen; Harrison, Benjamin R; Narayana Murthy, U M; Moffatt, Barbara A; Gilroy, Simon; Masson, Patrick H

    2006-10-01

    Adenosine kinase (ADK) is a key enzyme that regulates intra- and extracellular levels of adenosine, thereby modulating methyltransferase reactions, production of polyamines and secondary compounds, and cell signaling in animals. Unfortunately, little is known about ADK's contribution to the regulation of plant growth and development. Here, we show that ADK is a modulator of root cap morphogenesis and gravitropism. Upon gravistimulation, soluble ADK levels and activity increase in the root tip. Mutation in one of two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ADK genes, ADK1, results in cap morphogenesis defects, along with alterations in root sensitivity to gravistimulation and slower kinetics of root gravitropic curvature. The kinetics defect can be partially rescued by adding spermine to the growth medium, whereas the defects in cap morphogenesis and gravitropic sensitivity cannot. The root morphogenesis and gravitropism defects of adk1-1 are accompanied by altered expression of the PIN3 auxin efflux facilitator in the cap and decreased expression of the auxin-responsive DR5-GUS reporter. Furthermore, PIN3 fails to relocalize to the bottom membrane of statocytes upon gravistimulation. Consequently, adk1-1 roots cannot develop a lateral auxin gradient across the cap, necessary for the curvature response. Interestingly, adk1-1 does not affect gravity-induced cytoplasmic alkalinization of the root statocytes, suggesting either that ADK1 functions between cytoplasmic alkalinization and PIN3 relocalization in a linear pathway or that the pH and PIN3-relocalization responses to gravistimulation belong to distinct branches of the pathway. Our data are consistent with a role for ADK and the S-adenosyl-L-methionine pathway in the control of root gravitropism and cap morphogenesis.

  17. Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase Genes in Corn Roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takezawa, D.; Patil, S.; Bhatia, A.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1996-01-01

    Two cDNAs encoding Ca-2(+) - Dependent Protein Kinases (CDPKs), Corn Root Protein Kinase 1 and 2 (CRPK 1, CRPK 2) were isolated from the root tip library of corn (Zea mays L., cv. Merit) and their nucleotide sequences were determined. Deduced amino acid sequences of both the clones have features characteristic of plant CDPKS, including all 11 conserved serine/threonine kinase subdomains, a junction domain and a calmodulin-like domain with four Ca-2(+), -binding sites. Northern analysis revealed that CRPKI mRNA is preferentially expressed in roots, especially in the root tip; whereas, the expression of CRPK2 mRNA was very low in all the tissues tested. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that CRPKI mRNA is highly expressed in the root apex, as compared to other parts of the root. Partially purified CDPK from the root tip phosphorylates syntide-2, a common peptide substrate for plant CDPKs, and the phosphorylation was stimulated 7-fold by the addition of Ca-2(+). Our results show that two CDPK isoforms are expressed in corn roots and they may be involved in the Ca-2(+)-dependent signal transduction process.

  18. Strigolactones are regulators of root development.

    PubMed

    Koltai, Hinanit

    2011-05-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) have been defined as a new group of plant hormones or their derivatives that suppress lateral shoot branching. Recently, a new role for SLs was discovered, in the regulation of root development. Strigolactones were shown to alter root architecture and affect root-hair elongation. Here, I review the recent findings regarding the effects of SLs on root growth and development, and their association with changes in auxin flux. The networking between SLs and other plant hormones that regulate root development is also presented. Strigolactone regulation of plant development suggests that they are coordinators of shoot and root development and mediators of plant responses to environmental conditions.

  19. Underground tuning: quantitative regulation of root growth.

    PubMed

    Satbhai, Santosh B; Ristova, Daniela; Busch, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    Plants display a high degree of phenotypic plasticity that allows them to tune their form and function to changing environments. The plant root system has evolved mechanisms to anchor the plant and to efficiently explore soils to forage for soil resources. Key to this is an enormous capacity for plasticity of multiple traits that shape the distribution of roots in the soil. Such root system architecture-related traits are determined by root growth rates, root growth direction, and root branching. In this review, we describe how the root system is constituted, and which mechanisms, pathways, and genes mainly regulate plasticity of the root system in response to environmental variation.

  20. Cell wall-associated ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC 10, a proline-rich receptor-like kinase, is a negative modulator of Arabidopsis root hair growth

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Youra; Lee, Hyodong; Lee, Young-Sook; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell growth is restricted by the cell wall, and cell wall dynamics act as signals for the cytoplasmic and nuclear events of cell growth. Among various receptor kinases, ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC 10 (RHS10) belongs to a poorly known receptor kinase subfamily with a proline-rich extracellular domain. Here, we report that RHS10 defines the root hair length of Arabidopsis thaliana by negatively regulating hair growth. RHS10 modulates the duration of root hair growth rather than the growth rate. As poplar and rice RHS10 orthologs also showed a root hair-inhibitory function, this receptor kinase-mediated function appears to be conserved in angiosperms. RHS10 showed a strong association with the cell wall, most probably through its extracellular proline-rich domain (ECD). Deletion analysis of the ECD demonstrated that a minimal extracellular part, which includes a few proline residues, is required for RHS10-mediated root hair inhibition. RHS10 suppressed the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the root, which are necessary for root hair growth. A yeast two-hybrid screening identified an RNase (RNS2) as a putative downstream target of RHS10. Accordingly, RHS10 overexpression decreased and RHS10 loss increased RNA levels in the hair-growing root region. Our results suggest that RHS10 mediates cell wall-associated signals to maintain proper root hair length, at least in part by regulating RNA catabolism and ROS accumulation. PMID:26884603

  1. Spatial gradients in kinase cascade regulation.

    PubMed

    Kazmierczak, B; Lipniacki, T

    2010-11-01

    The spatiotemporal kinetics of proteins and other substrates regulate cell fate and signaling. In this study, we consider a reaction-diffusion model of interaction of membrane receptors with a two-step kinase cascade. The receptors activate the 'up-stream' kinase, which may diffuse over cell volume and activate the 'down-stream' kinase, which is also diffusing. Both kinase species and receptors are inactivated by uniformly distributed phosphatases. The positive feedback, key to the considered dynamics, arises since the up-stream kinase activates the receptors. Such a mutual interaction is characteristic for immune cell receptors. Based on the proposed model, we demonstrated that cell sensitivity (measured as a critical value of phosphatase activity at which cell maybe activated) increases with decreasing motility of receptor-interacting kinases and with increasing polarity of receptors distribution. These two effects are cooperating, the effect of receptors localisation close to one pole of the cell grows with the decreasing kinase diffusion and vanishes in the infinite diffusion limit. As the cell sensitivity increases with decreasing diffusion of receptor-interacting kinase, the overall activity of the down-stream kinase increases with its diffusion. In conclusion, the analysis of the proposed model shows that, for the fixed substrate interaction rates, spatial distribution of the surface receptors together with the motility of intracellular kinases control cell signalling and sensitivity to extracellular signals. The increase of the cell sensitivity can be achieved by (i) localisation of receptors in a small subdomain of the cell membrane, (ii) lowering the motility of receptor-interacting kinase, (iii) increasing the motility of down-stream kinases which distribute the signal over the whole cell.

  2. Morphine activates the E twenty six-like transcription factor-1/serum response factor pathway via extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 in F11 cells derived from dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Kathrin; Solinski, Hans Jürgen; Boekhoff, Ingrid; Gudermann, Thomas; Breit, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Morphine-induced signaling via opioid receptors (ORs) in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, the spinal cord, and various brain regions has been shown to modulate gene activity. Hitherto, little attention has been paid to extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2 (ERK-1/2)-mediated activation of the serum response factor (SRF) and ternary complex factors (TCFs) such as the E twenty six-like transcription factor-1 (ELK-1) in this context. Using TCF/SRF-dependent reporter gene constructs, a specific ERK-1/2 inhibitor and a dominant-negative ELK-1 mutant, we show herein that morphine activates ELK-1 via ERK-1/2 in DRG-derived F11 cells endogenously expressing μ and δ ORs. Previous studies with glioma cell lines such as NG108-15 cells attributed morphine-induced gene expression to the activation of the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). Thus, we also analyzed morphine-dependent activation of CREB in F11 and NG108-15 cells. In contrast to the CREB stimulation found in NG108-15 cells, we observed an inhibitory effect of morphine in F11 cells, indicating cell type-specific regulation of CREB by morphine. To obtain data about putative target genes of morphine-induced ELK-1/SRF activation, we analyzed mRNA levels of 15 ELK-1/SRF-dependent genes in cultured rat DRG neurons and F11 cells. We identified the early growth response protein-4 (EGR-4) as the strongest up-regulated gene in both cell types and observed ELK-1 activity-dependent activation of an EGR-4-driven reporter in F11 cells. Overall, we reveal an important role of ELK-1 for morphine-dependent gene induction in DRG-derived cells and propose that ELK-1 and EGR-4 contribute to the effects of morphine on neuronal plasticity.

  3. Effects of DA-9701, a Novel Prokinetic Agent, on Phosphorylated Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Expression in the Dorsal Root Ganglion and Spinal Cord Induced by Colorectal Distension in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Pyo; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Hang Lak; Jun, Dae Won; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon; Hwang, Se Jin; Lee, Seo Eun

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims DA-9701, a standardized extract of Pharbitis Semen and Corydalis Tuber, is a new prokinetic agent that exhibits an analgesic effect on the abdomen. We investigated whether DA-9701 affects visceral pain induced by colorectal distension (CRD) in rats. Methods A total of 21 rats were divided into three groups: group A (no CRD+no drug), group B (CRD+no drug), and group C (CRD+DA-9701). Expression of pain-related factors, substance P (SP), c-fos, and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord was determined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. Results The proportions of neurons in the DRG and spinal cord expressing SP, c-fos, and p-ERK were higher in group B than in group A. In the group C, the proportion of neurons in the DRG and spinal cord expressing p-ERK was lower than that in group B. Western blot results for p-ERK in the spinal cord indicated a higher level of expression in group B than in group A and a lower level of expression in group C than in group B. Conclusions DA-9701 may decrease visceral pain via the downregulation of p-ERK in the DRG and spinal cord. PMID:24672654

  4. Regulation of polar auxin transport by protein and lipid kinases

    PubMed Central

    Jaillais, Yvon

    2016-01-01

    The directional transport of auxin, known as polar auxin transport, allows asymmetric distribution of this hormone in different cells and tissues. This system creates local auxin maxima, minima and gradients that are instrumental in both organ initiation and shape determination. As such, polar auxin transport is crucial for all aspects of plant development but also for environmental interaction, notably in shaping plant architecture to its environment. Cell-to-cell auxin transport is mediated by a network of auxin carriers that are regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. Here we review our current knowledge on some aspects of the ‘non-genomic’ regulation of auxin transport, putting an emphasis on how phosphorylation by protein and lipid kinases controls the polarity, intracellular trafficking, stability and activity of auxin carriers. We describe the role of several AGC kinases, including PINOID, D6PK and the blue light photoreceptor phot1, in phosphorylating auxin carriers from the PIN and ABCB families. We also highlight the function of some Receptor-Like Kinases (RLK) and two-component histidine kinase receptors in polar auxin transport, noticing that there are likely RLKs involved in coordinating auxin distribution yet to be discovered. In addition, we describe the emerging role of phospholipid phosphorylation in polarity establishment and intracellular trafficking of PIN proteins. We outline these various phosphorylation mechanisms in the context of primary and lateral root development, leaf cell shape acquisition as well as root gravitropism and shoot phototropism. PMID:27242371

  5. Up-regulation of low-threshold tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ current via activation of a cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway in nociceptor-like rat dorsal root ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Scroggs, R S

    2011-07-14

    The effects of forskolin on low-threshold tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-r) Na(+) currents was studied in small diameter (average ≈ 25 μm) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells. All DRG cells included in the study were categorized as type-2 or non-type-2 based on the expression of a low-threshold A-current. In all type-2 and some non-type-2 DRG cells held at -80 mV, the adenylyl cyclase (AC) activator forskolin (10 μM) up-regulated TTX-r Na(+) currents evoked with steps to -55 mV through -35 mV (low-threshold current). Up-regulation of low-threshold current by forskolin was mimicked by the protein kinase A (PKA) agonist Sp-cAMPs and the inflammatory mediator serotonin, and blocked by the PKA antagonist Rp-cAMPs. Forskolin-induced up-regulation of low-threshold current evoked from a holding potential of -60 mV was blocked by 40 ms steps to 0 mV, which presumably induced a long lasting inactivation of the low-threshold channels. Reducing to 3 ms the duration of steps to 0 mV, significantly increased the number of DRG cells where low-threshold current was up-regulated by forskolin, presumably by reducing the long-lasting inactivation of the low-threshold channels. In the same cells, high-threshold current, evoked by 40 ms or 3 ms steps to 0 mV, was consistently up-regulated by forskolin. The selective Na(V)1.8 channel blocker A-803467 markedly blocked high-threshold current but not low-threshold current. The different voltage protocols observed to activate and inactivate the low- and high-threshold currents, and the observation that A-803467 blocked high- but not low-threshold current suggests that the two currents were mediated by different channels, possibly Na(V)1.8 and Na(V)1.9, respectively. Inflammatory mediators may simultaneously up-regulate Na(V)1.8 and Na(V)1.9 channels in the same nociceptor via a AC/PKA signaling pathway, increasing nociceptor signaling strength, and lowering nociceptor threshold, respectively.

  6. Brassinosteroids Regulate Root Growth, Development, and Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhuoyun; Li, Jia

    2016-01-04

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are natural plant hormones critical for growth and development. BR deficient or signaling mutants show significantly shortened root phenotypes. However, for a long time, it was thought that these phenotypes were solely caused by reduced cell elongation in the mutant roots. Functions of BRs in regulating root development have been largely neglected. Nonetheless, recent detailed analyses, revealed that BRs are not only involved in root cell elongation but are also involved in many aspects of root development, such as maintenance of meristem size, root hair formation, lateral root initiation, gravitropic response, mycorrhiza formation, and nodulation in legume species. In this review, current findings on the functions of BRs in mediating root growth, development, and symbiosis are discussed.

  7. Mining protein kinases regulation using graphical models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingfeng; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

    2011-03-01

    Abnormal kinase activity is a frequent cause of diseases, which makes kinases a promising pharmacological target. Thus, it is critical to identify the characteristics of protein kinases regulation by studying the activation and inhibition of kinase subunits in response to varied stimuli. Bayesian network (BN) is a formalism for probabilistic reasoning that has been widely used for learning dependency models. However, for high-dimensional discrete random vectors the set of plausible models becomes large and a full comparison of all the posterior probabilities related to the competing models becomes infeasible. A solution to this problem is based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. This paper proposes a BN-based framework to discover the dependency correlations of kinase regulation. Our approach is to apply the MCMC method to generate a sequence of samples from a probability distribution, by which to approximate the distribution. The frequent connections (edges) are identified from the obtained sampling graphical models. Our results point to a number of novel candidate regulation patterns that are interesting in biology and include inferred associations that were unknown.

  8. CLE peptides regulate lateral root development in response to nitrogen nutritional status of plants.

    PubMed

    Araya, Takao; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Takahashi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    CLE (CLAVATA3/embryo surrounding region (ESR)) peptides control meristem functions in plants. Our recent study highlights the critical role of a peptide-receptor signaling module composed of nitrogen (N)-responsive CLE peptides and the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase in controlling lateral root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. CLE1, -3, -4 and -7 are expressed in root pericycle cells in Arabidopsis roots under N-limited growth conditions. Overexpression of these CLE genes inhibits lateral root emergence from the primary root. The inhibitory action of N-responsive CLE peptides on lateral root development requires the function of CLV1 expressed in phloem companion cells in roots, suggesting that downstream signals are transferred through phloem for systemic regulation of root system architecture. An additional mechanism downstream of CLV1 feedback-regulates transcript levels of N-responsive CLE genes in roots for fine-tuning the signal amplitude.

  9. Gene expression regulation in roots under drought.

    PubMed

    Janiak, Agnieszka; Kwaśniewski, Mirosław; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-02-01

    Stress signalling and regulatory networks controlling expression of target genes are the basis of plant response to drought. Roots are the first organs exposed to water deficiency in the soil and are the place of drought sensing. Signalling cascades transfer chemical signals toward the shoot and initiate molecular responses that lead to the biochemical and morphological changes that allow plants to be protected against water loss and to tolerate stress conditions. Here, we present an overview of signalling network and gene expression regulation pathways that are actively induced in roots under drought stress. In particular, the role of several transcription factor (TF) families, including DREB, AP2/ERF, NAC, bZIP, MYC, CAMTA, Alfin-like and Q-type ZFP, in the regulation of root response to drought are highlighted. The information provided includes available data on mutual interactions between these TFs together with their regulation by plant hormones and other signalling molecules. The most significant downstream target genes and molecular processes that are controlled by the regulatory factors are given. These data are also coupled with information about the influence of the described regulatory networks on root traits and root development which may translate to enhanced drought tolerance. This is the first literature survey demonstrating the gene expression regulatory machinery that is induced by drought stress, presented from the perspective of roots.

  10. PAS kinase: a nutrient sensing regulator of glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    DeMille, Desiree; Grose, Julianne H

    2013-11-01

    Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) kinase (PASK, PASKIN, and PSK) is a member of the group of nutrient sensing protein kinases. These protein kinases sense the energy or nutrient status of the cell and regulate cellular metabolism appropriately. PAS kinase responds to glucose availability and regulates glucose homeostasis in yeast, mice, and man. Despite this pivotal role, the molecular mechanisms of PAS kinase regulation and function are largely unknown. This review focuses on what is known about PAS kinase, including its conservation from yeast to man, identified substrates, associated phenotypes and role in metabolic disease.

  11. Diacylglycerol kinase θ: regulation and stability.

    PubMed

    Tu-Sekine, Becky; Goldschmidt, Hana; Petro, Elizabeth; Raben, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    Given the well-established roles of diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) in a variety of signaling cascades, it is not surprising that there is an increasing interest in understanding their physiological roles and mechanisms that regulate their cellular levels. One class of enzymes capable of coordinately regulating the levels of these two lipids is the diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs). These enzymes catalyze the transfer of the γ-phosphate of ATP to the hydroxyl group of DAG, which generates PtdOH while reducing DAG. As these enzymes reciprocally modulate the relative levels of these two signaling lipids, it is essential to understand the regulation and roles of these enzymes in various tissues. One system where these enzymes play important roles is the nervous system. Of the ten mammalian DGKs, eight of them are readily detected in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS): DGK-α, DGK-β, DGK-γ, DGK-η, DGK-ζ, DGK-ι, DGK-ε, and DGK-θ. Despite the increasing interest in DGKs, little is known about their regulation. We have focused some attention on understanding the enzymology and regulation of one of these DGK isoforms, DGK-θ. We recently showed that DGK-θ is regulated by an accessory protein containing polybasic regions. We now report that this accessory protein is required for the previously reported broadening of the pH profile observed in cell lysates in response to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer). Our data further reveal DGK-θ is regulated by magnesium and zinc, and sensitive to the known DGK inhibitor R599022. These data outline new parameters involved in regulating DGK-θ.

  12. Microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4: structure, function, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Naz, Farha; Anjum, Farah; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2013-11-01

    MAP/Microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4 (MARK4) belongs to the family of serine/threonine kinases that phosphorylate the microtubule-associated proteins (MAP) causing their detachment from the microtubules thereby increasing microtubule dynamics and facilitating cell division, cell cycle control, cell polarity determination, cell shape alterations, etc. The MARK4 gene encodes two alternatively spliced isoforms, L and S that differ in their C-terminal region. These isoforms are differentially regulated in human tissues including central nervous system. MARK4L is a 752-residue-long polypeptide that is divided into three distinct domains: (1) protein kinase domain (59-314), (2) ubiquitin-associated domain (322-369), and (3) kinase-associated domain (703-752) plus 54 residues (649-703) involved in the proper folding and function of the enzyme. In addition, residues 65-73 are considered to be the ATP-binding domain and Lys88 is considered as ATP-binding site. Asp181 has been proposed to be the active site of MARK4 that is activated by phosphorylation of Thr214 side chain. The isoform MARK4S is highly expressed in the normal brain and is presumably involved in neuronal differentiation. On the other hand, the isoform MARK4L is upregulated in hepatocarcinoma cells and gliomas suggesting its involvement in cell cycle. Several biological functions are also associated with MARK4 including microtubule bundle formation, nervous system development, and positive regulation of programmed cell death. Therefore, MARK4 is considered as the most suitable target for structure-based rational drug design. Our sequence, structure- and function-based analysis should be helpful for better understanding of mechanisms of regulation of microtubule dynamics and MARK4 associated diseases.

  13. The calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK7 acts on root hydraulic conductivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Guowei; Boudsocq, Marie; Hem, Sonia; Vialaret, Jérôme; Rossignol, Michel; Maurel, Christophe; Santoni, Véronique

    2015-07-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of plant roots (Lp(r)) is determined in large part by the activity of aquaporins. Mechanisms occurring at the post-translational level, in particular phosphorylation of aquaporins of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein 2 (PIP2) subfamily, are thought to be of critical importance for regulating root water transport. However, knowledge of protein kinases and phosphatases acting on aquaporin function is still scarce. In the present work, we investigated the Lp(r) of knockout Arabidopsis plants for four Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases. cpk7 plants showed a 30% increase in Lp(r) because of a higher aquaporin activity. A quantitative proteomic analysis of wild-type and cpk7 plants revealed that PIP gene expression and PIP protein quantity were not correlated and that CPK7 has no effect on PIP2 phosphorylation. In contrast, CPK7 exerts a negative control on the cellular abundance of PIP1s, which likely accounts for the higher Lp(r) of cpk7. In addition, this study revealed that the cellular amount of a few additional proteins including membrane transporters is controlled by CPK7. The overall work provides evidence for CPK7-dependent stability of specific membrane proteins.

  14. Branching Out in Roots: Uncovering Form, Function, and Regulation1

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Jonathan A.; Rasmussen, Amanda; Traini, Richard; Voß, Ute; Sturrock, Craig; Mooney, Sacha J.; Wells, Darren M.; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    Root branching is critical for plants to secure anchorage and ensure the supply of water, minerals, and nutrients. To date, research on root branching has focused on lateral root development in young seedlings. However, many other programs of postembryonic root organogenesis exist in angiosperms. In cereal crops, the majority of the mature root system is composed of several classes of adventitious roots that include crown roots and brace roots. In this Update, we initially describe the diversity of postembryonic root forms. Next, we review recent advances in our understanding of the genes, signals, and mechanisms regulating lateral root and adventitious root branching in the plant models Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa). While many common signals, regulatory components, and mechanisms have been identified that control the initiation, morphogenesis, and emergence of new lateral and adventitious root organs, much more remains to be done. We conclude by discussing the challenges and opportunities facing root branching research. PMID:25136060

  15. Kinase active Misshapen regulates Notch signaling in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abhinava K; Sachan, Nalani; Mutsuddi, Mousumi; Mukherjee, Ashim

    2015-11-15

    Notch signaling pathway represents a principal cellular communication system that plays a pivotal role during development of metazoans. Drosophila misshapen (msn) encodes a protein kinase, which is related to the budding yeast Ste20p (sterile 20 protein) kinase. In a genetic screen, using candidate gene approach to identify novel kinases involved in Notch signaling, we identified msn as a novel regulator of Notch signaling. Data presented here suggest that overexpression of kinase active form of Msn exhibits phenotypes similar to Notch loss-of-function condition and msn genetically interacts with components of Notch signaling pathway. Kinase active form of Msn associates with Notch receptor and regulate its signaling activity. We further show that kinase active Misshapen leads to accumulation of membrane-tethered form of Notch. Moreover, activated Msn also depletes Armadillo and DE-Cadherin from adherens junctions. Thus, this study provides a yet unknown mode of regulation of Notch signaling by Misshapen.

  16. A Legume TOR Protein Kinase Regulates Rhizobium Symbiosis and Is Essential for Infection and Nodule Development.

    PubMed

    Nanjareddy, Kalpana; Blanco, Lourdes; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Alvarado-Affantranger, Xóchitl; Quinto, Carmen; Sánchez, Federico; Lara, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase regulates metabolism, growth, and life span in yeast, animals, and plants in coordination with nutrient status and environmental conditions. The nutrient-dependent nature of TOR functionality makes this kinase a putative regulator of symbiotic associations involving nutrient acquisition. However, TOR's role in these processes remains to be understood. Here, we uncovered the role of TOR during the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)-Rhizobium tropici (Rhizobium) symbiotic interaction. TOR was expressed in all tested bean tissues, with higher transcript levels in the root meristems and senesced nodules. We showed TOR promoter expression along the progressing infection thread and in the infected cells of mature nodules. Posttranscriptional gene silencing of TOR using RNA interference (RNAi) showed that this gene is involved in lateral root elongation and root cell organization and also alters the density, size, and number of root hairs. The suppression of TOR transcripts also affected infection thread progression and associated cortical cell divisions, resulting in a drastic reduction of nodule numbers. TOR-RNAi resulted in reduced reactive oxygen species accumulation and altered CyclinD1 and CyclinD3 expression, which are crucial factors for infection thread progression and nodule organogenesis. Enhanced expression of TOR-regulated ATG genes in TOR-RNAi roots suggested that TOR plays a role in the recognition of Rhizobium as a symbiont. Together, these data suggest that TOR plays a vital role in the establishment of root nodule symbiosis in the common bean.

  17. Regulation of Macropinocytosis by Diacylglycerol Kinase ζ.

    PubMed

    Ard, Ryan; Mulatz, Kirk; Pomoransky, Julia L; Parks, Robin J; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Bell, John C; Gee, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Macropinosomes arise from the closure of plasma membrane ruffles to bring about the non-selective uptake of nutrients and solutes into cells. The morphological changes underlying ruffle formation and macropinosome biogenesis are driven by actin cytoskeleton rearrangements under the control of the Rho GTPase Rac1. We showed previously that Rac1 is activated by diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid. Here, we show DGKζ is required for optimal macropinocytosis induced by growth factor stimulation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Time-lapse imaging of live cells and quantitative analysis revealed DGKζ was associated with membrane ruffles and nascent macropinosomes. Macropinocytosis was attenuated in DGKζ-null cells, as determined by live imaging and vaccinia virus uptake experiments. Moreover, macropinosomes that did form in DGKζ-null cells were smaller than those found in wild type cells. Rescue of this defect required DGKζ catalytic activity, consistent with it also being required for Rac1 activation. A constitutively membrane bound DGKζ mutant substantially increased the size of macropinosomes and potentiated the effect of a constitutively active Rac1 mutant on macropinocytosis. Collectively, our results suggest DGKζ functions in concert with Rac1 to regulate macropinocytosis.

  18. Receptor-like kinase ACR4 restricts formative cell divisions in the Arabidopsis root.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Ive; Vassileva, Valya; De Rybel, Bert; Levesque, Mitchell P; Grunewald, Wim; Van Damme, Daniël; Van Noorden, Giel; Naudts, Mirande; Van Isterdael, Gert; De Clercq, Rebecca; Wang, Jean Y; Meuli, Nicholas; Vanneste, Steffen; Friml, Jirí; Hilson, Pierre; Jürgens, Gerd; Ingram, Gwyneth C; Inzé, Dirk; Benfey, Philip N; Beeckman, Tom

    2008-10-24

    During the development of multicellular organisms, organogenesis and pattern formation depend on formative divisions to specify and maintain pools of stem cells. In higher plants, these activities are essential to shape the final root architecture because the functioning of root apical meristems and the de novo formation of lateral roots entirely rely on it. We used transcript profiling on sorted pericycle cells undergoing lateral root initiation to identify the receptor-like kinase ACR4 of Arabidopsis as a key factor both in promoting formative cell divisions in the pericycle and in constraining the number of these divisions once organogenesis has been started. In the root tip meristem, ACR4 shows a similar action by controlling cell proliferation activity in the columella cell lineage. Thus, ACR4 function reveals a common mechanism of formative cell division control in the main root tip meristem and during lateral root initiation.

  19. Globular body production, their anatomy, DNase gel analysis and NDP kinase activity in root tips of Poncirus trifoliata L.

    PubMed

    Tzatzani, Thiresia-Teresa; Dimassi-Theriou, Kortessa; Yupsanis, Traianos; Bosabalidis, Artemios; Therios, Ioannis; Sarropoulou, Virginia

    2013-10-01

    Green globular bodies were developed from Poncirus trifoliata L. root tip explants as a response to addition in the substrate of different growth regulators. From the globular bodies, shoots initiated and grew. Median section of the globular bodies reveals that they are composed of parenchyma cells and originate from the pericycle. The activity of DNases during shoot formation from globular bodies was influenced by the type and concentration of plant growth regulators that were added in the nutrient substrate. Peptide bands formation was also influenced by the increase of BA concentration. Consequently, BA, NAA and IAA combination influenced 5'-triphosphonucleosides (NTPs) appearance and activity in the presence of metal. Peptide bands resulted from the electrophoretic analysis of endogenous protein phosphorylation, proved to be catalytic subunits of NDP kinases, as they all phosphorylate diphosphonucleosides. The enzymes DNases and NDP kinases could be used as a scientific tool for the study of shoot formation from P. trifoliata L. green globular bodies.

  20. Screening of kinase inhibitors targeting BRAF for regulating autophagy based on kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingmei; Xue, Dongbo; Wang, Xiaochun; Lu, Ming; Gao, Bo; Qiao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify agents that regulate autophagy. A total of 544 differentially expressed genes were screened from the intersection set of GSE2435 and GSE31040, which was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and 19 differentially expressed kinases were selected according to a 'protein kinase database'. Gene ontology‑biological process (GO-BP) enrichment analysis revealed that the 19 kinases were mainly associated with phosphorylation. The protein-protein interaction network exhibited 30 differentially expressed genes that interacted with BRAF, and GO-BP enrichment analysis showed the function of these genes were mainly involved in cell death and apoptosis. The kinase-kinase inhibitor regulatory network identified16 kinase inhibitors that specifically inhibited BRAF. Previous studies indicated that sorafenib is capable of regulating autophagy and regorafenib has also been reported; however, there have been no studies regarding the regulation of autophagy by afatinib, selumetinib, PD318088, axitinib, TAK-733, GDC-0980, GSK2126458, PLX-4720, AS703026, trametinib, GDC-0941 and PF-04217903. Thus, these kinase inhibitors are potential targets for further study on the regulation of autophagy in the future.

  1. Regulation of heart muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ronald H.; Randle, Philip J.; Denton, Richard M.

    1974-01-01

    1. The activity of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase was assayed by the incorporation of [32P]phosphate from [γ-32P]ATP into the dehydrogenase complex. There was a very close correlation between this incorporation and the loss of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity with all preparations studied. 2. Nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP (at 100μm) and cyclic 3′:5′-nucleotides (at 10μm) had no significant effect on kinase activity. 3. The Km for thiamin pyrophosphate in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was 0.76μm. Sodium pyrophosphate, adenylyl imidodiphosphate, ADP and GTP were competitive inhibitors against thiamin pyrophosphate in the dehydrogenase reaction. 4. The Km for ATP of the intrinsic kinase assayed in three preparations of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase was in the range 13.9–25.4μm. Inhibition by ADP and adenylyl imidodiphosphate was predominantly competitive, but there was nevertheless a definite non-competitive element. Thiamin pyrophosphate and sodium pyrophosphate were uncompetitive inhibitors against ATP. It is suggested that ADP and adenylyl imidodiphosphate inhibit the kinase mainly by binding to the ATP site and that the adenosine moiety may be involved in this binding. It is suggested that thiamin pyrophosphate, sodium pyrophosphate, adenylyl imidodiphosphate and ADP may inhibit the kinase by binding through pyrophosphate or imidodiphosphate moieties at some site other than the ATP site. It is not known whether this is the coenzyme-binding site in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction. 5. The Km for pyruvate in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was 35.5μm. 2-Oxobutyrate and 3-hydroxypyruvate but not glyoxylate were also substrates; all three compounds inhibited pyruvate oxidation. 6. In preparations of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase free of thiamin pyrophosphate, pyruvate inhibited the kinase reaction at all concentrations in the range 25–500μm. The inhibition was uncompetitive. In the presence of thiamin pyrophosphate

  2. Kinase cascades regulating entry into apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P

    1997-01-01

    All cells are constantly exposed to conflicting environment cues that signal cell survival or cell death. Survival signals are delivered by autocrine or paracrine factors that actively suppress a default death pathway. In addition to survival factor withdrawal, cell death can be triggered by environmental stresses such as heat, UV light, and hyperosmolarity or by dedicated death receptors (e.g., FAS/APO-1 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF] receptors) that are counterparts of growth factor or survival receptors at the cell surface. One of the ways that cells integrate conflicting exogenous stimuli is by phosphorylation (or dephosphorylation) of cellular constituents by interacting cascades of serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases (and phosphatases). Survival factors (e.g., growth factors and mitogens) activate receptor tyrosine kinases and selected mitogen-activated, cyclin-dependent, lipid-activated, nucleic acid-dependent, and cyclic AMP-dependent kinases to promote cell survival and proliferation, whereas environmental stress (or death factors such as FAS/APO-1 ligand and TNF-alpha) activates different members of these kinase families to inhibit cell growth and, under some circumstances, promote apoptotic cell death. Because individual kinase cascades can interact with one another, they are able to integrate conflicting exogenous stimuli and provide a link between cell surface receptors and the biochemical pathways leading to cell proliferation or cell death. PMID:9106363

  3. The SH2 domain of Abl kinases regulates kinase autophosphorylation by controlling activation loop accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontanara, Allan Joaquim; Georgeon, Sandrine; Tria, Giancarlo; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Hantschel, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    The activity of protein kinases is regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms, and their disruption is a common driver of oncogenesis. A central and almost universal control element of protein kinase activity is the activation loop that utilizes both conformation and phosphorylation status to determine substrate access. In this study, we use recombinant Abl tyrosine kinases and conformation-specific kinase inhibitors to quantitatively analyse structural changes that occur after Abl activation. Allosteric SH2-kinase domain interactions were previously shown to be essential for the leukemogenesis caused by the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. We find that these allosteric interactions switch the Abl activation loop from a closed to a fully open conformation. This enables the trans-autophosphorylation of the activation loop and requires prior phosphorylation of the SH2-kinase linker. Disruption of the SH2-kinase interaction abolishes activation loop phosphorylation. Our analysis provides a molecular mechanism for the SH2 domain-dependent activation of Abl that may also regulate other tyrosine kinases.

  4. Myosin 3A Kinase Activity Is Regulated by Phosphorylation of the Kinase Domain Activation Loop*

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Omar A.; Unrath, William C.; Stevens, Stanley M.; Manor, Uri; Kachar, Bechara; Yengo, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Class III myosins are unique members of the myosin superfamily in that they contain both a motor and kinase domain. We have found that motor activity is decreased by autophosphorylation, although little is known about the regulation of the kinase domain. We demonstrate by mass spectrometry that Thr-178 and Thr-184 in the kinase domain activation loop and two threonines in the loop 2 region of the motor domain are autophosphorylated (Thr-908 and Thr-919). The kinase activity of MYO3A 2IQ with the phosphomimic (T184E) or phosphoblock (T184A) mutations demonstrates that kinase activity is reduced 30-fold as a result of the T184A mutation, although the Thr-178 site only had a minor impact on kinase activity. Interestingly, the actin-activated ATPase activity of MYO3A 2IQ is slightly reduced as a result of the T178A and T184A mutations suggesting coupling between motor and kinase domains. Full-length GFP-tagged T184A and T184E MYO3A constructs transfected into COS7 cells do not disrupt the ability of MYO3A to localize to filopodia structures. In addition, we demonstrate that T184E MYO3A reduces filopodia elongation in the presence of espin-1, whereas T184A enhances filopodia elongation in a similar fashion to kinase-dead MYO3A. Our results suggest that as MYO3A accumulates at the tips of actin protrusions, autophosphorylation of Thr-184 enhances kinase activity resulting in phosphorylation of the MYO3A motor and reducing motor activity. The differential regulation of the kinase and motor activities allows for MYO3A to precisely self-regulate its concentration in the actin bundle-based structures of cells. PMID:24214986

  5. Phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinase genes respond to phosphate deficiency for root hair elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yukika; Kusano, Hiroaki; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Aoyama, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Plants drastically alter their root system architecture to adapt to different underground growth conditions. During phosphate (Pi) deficiency, most plants including Arabidopsis thaliana enhance the development of lateral roots and root hairs, resulting in bushy and hairy roots. To elucidate the signal pathway specific for the root hair elongation response to Pi deficiency, we investigated the expression of type-B phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) genes, as a quantitative factor for root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. At young seedling stages, the PIP5K3 and PIP5K4 genes responded to Pi deficiency in steady-state transcript levels via PHR1-binding sequences (P1BSs) in their upstream regions. Both pip5k3 and pip5k4 single mutants, which exhibit short-root-hair phenotypes, remained responsive to Pi deficiency for root hair elongation; however the pip5k3pip5k4 double mutant exhibited shorter root hairs than the single mutants, and lost responsiveness to Pi deficiency at young seedling stages. In the tactical complementation line in which modified PIP5K3 and PIP5K4 genes with base substitutions in their P1BSs were co-introduced into the double mutant, root hairs of young seedlings had normal lengths under Pi-sufficient conditions, but were not responsive to Pi deficiency. From these results, we conclude that a Pi-deficiency signal is transferred to the pathway for root hair elongation via the PIP5K genes.

  6. Phenotyping jasmonate regulation of root growth.

    PubMed

    Kellermeier, Fabian; Amtmann, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Root architecture is a complex and highly plastic feature of higher plants. Direct treatments with jasmonates and alterations in jasmonate signaling have been shown to elicit a range of root phenotypes. Here, we describe a fast, noninvasive, and semiautomatic method to monitor root architectural responses to environmental stimuli using plant tissue culture and the software tool EZ-RHIZO.

  7. Protein Kinases of the Hippo Pathway: Regulation and Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Avruch, Joseph; Zhou, Dawang; Fitamant, Julien; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Mou, Fan; Barrufet, Laura Regué

    2012-01-01

    The “Hippo” signaling pathway has emerged as a major regulator of cell proliferation and survival in metazoans. The pathway, as delineated by genetic and biochemical studies in Drosophila, consists of a kinase cascade regulated by cell-cell contact and cell polarity that inhibits the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie and its proliferative, anti-differentiation, antiapoptotic transcriptional program. The core pathway components are the GC kinase Hippo, which phosphorylates the noncatalytic polypeptide Mats/Mob1 and, with the assistance of the scaffold protein Salvador, phosphorylates the ndr-family kinase Lats. In turn phospho-Lats, after binding to phospho-Mats, autoactivates and phosphorylates Yorkie, resulting in its nuclear exit. Hippo also uses the scaffold protein Furry and a different Mob protein to control another ndr-like kinase, the morphogenetic regulator Tricornered. Architecturally homologous kinase cascades consisting of a GC kinase, a Mob protein, a scaffolding polypeptide and an ndr-like kinase are well described in yeast; in S. cerevisiae e.g., the MEN pathway promotes mitotic exit whereas the RAM network, using a different GC kinase, Mob protein, scaffold and ndr-like kinase, regulates cell polarity and morphogenesis. In mammals, the Hippo orthologues Mst1 and Mst2 utilize the Salvador ortholog WW45/Sav1 and other scaffolds to regulate the kinases Lats1/Lats2 and ndr1/ndr2. As in Drosophila, murine Mst1/Mst2, in a redundant manner, negatively regulate the Yorkie ortholog YAP in the epithelial cells of the liver and gut; loss of both Mst1 and Mst2 results in hyperproliferation and tumorigenesis that can be largely negated by reduction or elimination of YAP. Despite this conservation, considerable diversification in pathway composition and regulation is already evident; in skin e.g., YAP phosphorylation is independent of Mst1Mst2 and Lats1Lats2. Moreover, in lymphoid cells, Mst1/Mst2, under the control of the Rap1 GTPase and independent of YAP

  8. Root gravitropism and root hair development constitute coupled developmental responses regulated by auxin homeostasis in the Arabidopsis root apex.

    PubMed

    Rigas, Stamatis; Ditengou, Franck Anicet; Ljung, Karin; Daras, Gerasimos; Tietz, Olaf; Palme, Klaus; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

    2013-03-01

    Active polar transport establishes directional auxin flow and the generation of local auxin gradients implicated in plant responses and development. Auxin modulates gravitropism at the root tip and root hair morphogenesis at the differentiation zone. Genetic and biochemical analyses provide evidence for defective basipetal auxin transport in trh1 roots. The trh1, pin2, axr2 and aux1 mutants, and transgenic plants overexpressing PIN1, all showing impaired gravity response and root hair development, revealed ectopic PIN1 localization. The auxin antagonist hypaphorine blocked root hair elongation and caused moderate agravitropic root growth, also leading to PIN1 mislocalization. These results suggest that auxin imbalance leads to proximal and distal developmental defects in Arabidopsis root apex, associated with agravitropic root growth and root hair phenotype, respectively, providing evidence that these two auxin-regulated processes are coupled. Cell-specific subcellular localization of TRH1-YFP in stele and epidermis supports TRH1 engagement in auxin transport, and hence impaired function in trh1 causes dual defects of auxin imbalance. The interplay between intrinsic cues determining root epidermal cell fate through the TTG/GL2 pathway and environmental cues including abiotic stresses modulates root hair morphogenesis. As a consequence of auxin imbalance in Arabidopsis root apex, ectopic PIN1 mislocalization could be a risk aversion mechanism to trigger root developmental responses ensuring root growth plasticity.

  9. RAF protein-serine/threonine kinases: Structure and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors block MEK activation in cells containing oncogenic B-RAF. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors can lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity. -- Abstract: A-RAF, B-RAF, and C-RAF are a family of three protein-serine/threonine kinases that participate in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade. This cascade participates in the regulation of a large variety of processes including apoptosis, cell cycle progression, differentiation, proliferation, and transformation to the cancerous state. RAS mutations occur in 15-30% of all human cancers, and B-RAF mutations occur in 30-60% of melanomas, 30-50% of thyroid cancers, and 5-20% of colorectal cancers. Activation of the RAF kinases requires their interaction with RAS-GTP along with dephosphorylation and also phosphorylation by SRC family protein-tyrosine kinases and other protein-serine/threonine kinases. The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. RAF kinase inhibitors are effective in blocking MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation in cells containing the oncogenic B-RAF Val600Glu activating mutation. RAF kinase inhibitors lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity in cells containing wild-type B-RAF and wild-type or activated mutant RAS. C-RAF plays a key role in this paradoxical increase in downstream MEK-ERK activation.

  10. Comparative phytohormone profiles, lipid kinase and lipid phosphatase activities in barley aleurone, coleoptile, and root tissues.

    PubMed

    Meringer, Maria V; Villasuso, Ana L; Pasquaré, Susana J; Giusto, Norma M; Machado, Estela E; Racagni, Graciela E

    2012-09-01

    We analyzed lipid kinase and lipid phosphatase activities and determined endogenous phytohormone levels by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in root and coleoptile tissues following germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seeds. The enzymes showing highest activity in aleurone cells were diacylglycerol kinase (DAG-k, EC 2.7.1.107) and phosphatidate kinase (PA-k). The ratio of gibberellins (GAs) to abscisic acid (ABA) was 2-fold higher in aleurone than in coleoptile or root tissues. In coleoptiles, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4-k, EC 2.7.1.67) showed the highest enzyme activity, and jasmonic acid (JA) level was higher than in aleurone. In roots, activities of PI4-k, DAG-k, and PA-k were similar, and salicylic acid (SA) showed the highest concentration. In the assays to evaluate the hydrolysis of DGPP (diacylglycerol pyrophosphate) and PA (phosphatidic acid) we observed that PA hydrolysis by LPPs (lipid phosphate phosphatases) was not modified; however, the diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase (DGPPase) was strikingly higher in coleoptile and root tissues than to aleurone. Relevance of these findings in terms of signaling responses and seedling growth is discussed.

  11. Regulated protein kinases and phosphatases in cell cycle decisions.

    PubMed

    Novak, Bela; Kapuy, Orsolya; Domingo-Sananes, Maria Rosa; Tyson, John J

    2010-12-01

    Many aspects of cell physiology are controlled by protein kinases and phosphatases, which together determine the phosphorylation state of targeted substrates. Some of these target proteins are themselves kinases or phosphatases or other components of a regulatory network characterized by feedback and feed-forward loops. In this review we describe some common regulatory motifs involving kinases, phosphatases, and their substrates, focusing particularly on bistable switches involved in cellular decision processes. These general principles are applied to cell cycle transitions, with special emphasis on the roles of regulated phosphatases in orchestrating progression from one phase to the next of the DNA replication-division cycle.

  12. SOS4, a pyridoxal kinase gene, is required for root hair development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huazhong; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-06-01

    Root hair development in plants is controlled by many genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors. A number of genes have been shown to be important for root hair formation. Arabidopsis salt overly sensitive 4 mutants were originally identified by screening for NaCl-hypersensitive growth. The SOS4 (Salt Overly Sensitive 4) gene was recently isolated by map-based cloning and shown to encode a pyridoxal (PL) kinase involved in the production of PL-5-phosphate, which is an important cofactor for various enzymes and a ligand for certain ion transporters. The root growth of sos4 mutants is slower than that of the wild type. Microscopic observations revealed that sos4 mutants do not have root hairs in the maturation zone. The sos4 mutations block the initiation of most root hairs, and impair the tip growth of those that are initiated. The root hairless phenotype of sos4 mutants was complemented by the wild-type SOS4 gene. SOS4 promoter-beta-glucuronidase analysis showed that SOS4 is expressed in the root hair and other hair-like structures. Consistent with SOS4 function as a PL kinase, in vitro application of pyridoxine and pyridoxamine, but not PL, partially rescued the root hair defect in sos4 mutants. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid treatments promoted root hair formation in both wild-type and sos4 plants, indicating that genetically SOS4 functions upstream of ethylene and auxin in root hair development. The possible role of SOS4 in ethylene and auxin biosynthesis is discussed.

  13. Cytokinin as a positional cue regulating lateral root spacing in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ling; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Schmülling, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    The root systems of plants have developed adaptive architectures to exploit soil resources. The formation of lateral roots (LRs) contributes to root system architecture. Roots of plants with a lower cytokinin status form LR primordia (LRP) in unusually close proximity, indicating a role for the hormone in regulating the positioning of LRs along the main root axis. Data obtained from cytokinin-synthesis mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana combined with gene expression analysis indicate that cytokinin synthesis by IPT5 and LOG4 occurring early during LRP initiation generates a local cytokinin signal abbreviating LRP formation in neighbouring pericycle cells. In addition, IPT3, IPT5, and IPT7 contribute to cytokinin synthesis in the vicinity of existing LRP, thus suppressing initiation of new LRs. Interestingly, mutation of CYP735A genes required for trans-zeatin biosynthesis caused strong defects in LR positioning, indicating an important role for this cytokinin metabolite in regulating LR spacing. Further it is shown that cytokinin and a known regulator of LR spacing, the receptor-like kinase ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY4 (ACR4), operate in a non-hierarchical manner but might exert reciprocal control at the transcript level. Taken together, the results suggest that cytokinin acts as a paracrine hormonal signal in regulating root system architecture.

  14. A MAP kinase of the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum is essential for root penetration and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, A; García-MacEira, F I; Méglecz, E; Roncero, M I

    2001-03-01

    The soil-borne vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum infects a wide variety of plant species by directly penetrating roots, invading the cortex and colonizing the vascular tissue. We have identified fmk1, encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of F. oxysporum that belongs to the yeast and fungal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (YERK1) subfamily. Targeted mutants of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici carrying an inactivated copy of fmk1 have lost pathogenicity on tomato plants but show normal vegetative growth and conidiation in culture. Colonies of the fmk1 mutants are easily wettable, and hyphae are impaired in breaching the liquid-air interface, suggesting defects in surface hydrophobicity. Fmk1 mutants also show reduced invasive growth on tomato fruit tissue and drastically reduced transcript levels of pl1 encoding the cell wall-degrading enzyme pectate lyase. Conidia of the mutants germinating in the tomato rhizosphere fail to differentiate penetration hyphae, resulting in greatly impaired root attachment. The orthologous MAPK gene Pmk1 from the rice leaf pathogen Magnaporthe grisea complements invasive growth and partially restores surface hydrophobicity, root attachment and pathogenicity in an fmk1 mutant. These results demonstrate that FMK1 controls several key steps in the pathogenesis of F. oxysporum and suggest a fundamentally conserved role for the corresponding MAPK pathway in soil-borne and foliar plant pathogens.

  15. Atypical protein kinase Clambda binds and regulates p70 S6 kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Akimoto, K; Nakaya, M; Yamanaka, T; Tanaka, J; Matsuda, S; Weng, Q P; Avruch, J; Ohno, S

    1998-01-01

    p70 S6 kinase (p70 S6K) has been implicated in the regulation of cell cycle progression. However, the mechanism of its activation is not fully understood. In the present work, evidence is provided that an atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isotype, PKClambda, is indispensable, but not sufficient, for the activation of p70 S6K. Both the regulatory and kinase domains of PKClambda associate directly with p70 S6K. Overexpression of the kinase domain without kinase activity or the regulatory domain of PKClambda results in the suppression of the serum-induced activation of p70 S6K. In addition, two types of dominant-negative mutants of PKClambda, as well as a kinase-deficient mutant of p70 S6K, suppress serum-induced DNA synthesis and E2F activation. The overexpresion of the active form of PKClambda, however, fails to activate p70 S6K. These results suggest that PKClambda is a mediator in the regulation of p70 S6K activity and plays an important role in cell cycle progression. PMID:9761742

  16. Analysis of genes developmentally regulated during storage root formation of sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masaru; Takahata, Yasuhiro; Nakatani, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    To identify the genes involved in storage root formation of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), we performed a simplified differential display analysis on adventitious roots at different developmental stages of the storage root. The expression patterns were confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR analyses. As a result, 10 genes were identified as being developmentally regulated and were named SRF1-SRF10. The expression of SRF1, SRF2, SRF3, SRF5, SRF6, SRF7, and SRF9 increased during storage root formation, whereas the expression of SRF4, SRF8, and SRF10 decreased. For further characterization, a full-length cDNA of SRF6 was isolated from the cDNA library of the storage root. SRF6 encoded a receptor-like kinase (RLK), which was structurally similar to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) II RLK family of Arabidopsis thaliana. RNA gel blot analysis showed that the mRNA of SRF6 was most abundantly expressed in the storage roots, although a certain amount of expression was also observed in other vegetative organs. Tissue print mRNA blot analysis of the storage root showed that the mRNA of SRF6 was localized around the primary cambium and meristems in the xylem, which consist of actively dividing cells and cause the thickening of the storage root.

  17. 75 FR 30300 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Root River, Racine, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Root River, Racine, WI AGENCY: Coast... Street Bridge at Mile 0.31 and the State Street Bridge at Mile 0.53 over the Root River, at Racine,...

  18. CZK3, a MAP kinase kinase kinase homolog in Cercospora zeae-maydis, regulates cercosporin biosynthesis, fungal development, and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shim, Won-Bo; Dunkle, Larry D

    2003-09-01

    The fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis causes gray leaf spot of maize and produces cercosporin, a photosensitizing perylenequinone with toxic activity against a broad spectrum of organisms. However, little is known about the biosynthetic pathway or factors that regulate cercosporin production. Analysis of a cDNA subtraction library comprised of genes that are up-regulated during cercosporin synthesis revealed a sequence highly similar to mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in other fungi. Sequencing and conceptual translation of the full-length genomic sequence indicated that the gene, which we designated CZK3, contains a 4,119-bp open reading frame devoid of introns and encodes a 1,373-amino acid sequence that is highly similar to Wis4, a MAP kinase kinase kinase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Targeted disruption of CZK3 suppressed expression of genes predicted to participate in cercosporin biosynthesis and abolished cercosporin production. The disrupted mutants grew faster on agar media than the wild type but were deficient in conidiation and elicited only small chlorotic spots on inoculated maize leaves compared with rectangular necrotic lesions incited by the wild type. Complementation of disruptants with the CZK3 open reading frame and flanking sequences restored wild-type levels of conidiation, growth rate, and virulence as well as the ability to produce cercosporin. The results suggest that cercosporin is a virulence factor in C. zeae-maydis during maize pathogenesis, but the pleiotropic effects of CZK3 disruption precluded definitive conclusions.

  19. Structure, Regulation, Signaling, and Targeting of Abl Kinases in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abl kinases are prototypic cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases and are involved in a variety of chromosomal aberrations in different cancers. This causes the expression of Abl fusion proteins, such as Bcr-Abl, that are constitutively activated and drivers of tumorigenesis. Over the past decades, biochemical and functional studies on the molecular mechanisms of Abl regulation have gone hand in hand with progression of our structural understanding of autoinhibited and active Abl conformations. In parallel, Abl oncoproteins have become prime molecular targets for cancer therapy, using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)–competitive kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib. Abl-targeting drugs serve as a paradigm for our understanding of kinase inhibitor action, specificity, and resistance development. In this review article, I will review the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the regulation of Abl kinase activity and how oncogenic Abl fusions signal. Furthermore, past and ongoing efforts to target Abl oncoproteins using ATP-competitive and allosteric inhibitors, as well as future possibilities using combination therapy, will be discussed. PMID:23226581

  20. Kinase regulation by hydrophobic spine assembly in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiancheng; Ahuja, Lalima G; Meharena, Hiruy S; Kannan, Natarajan; Kornev, Alexandr P; Taylor, Susan S; Shaw, Andrey S

    2015-01-01

    A new model of kinase regulation based on the assembly of hydrophobic spines has been proposed. Changes in their positions can explain the mechanism of kinase activation. Here, we examined mutations in human cancer for clues about the regulation of the hydrophobic spines by focusing initially on mutations to Phe. We identified a selected number of Phe mutations in a small group of kinases that included BRAF, ABL1, and the epidermal growth factor receptor. Testing some of these mutations in BRAF, we found that one of the mutations impaired ATP binding and catalytic activity but promoted noncatalytic allosteric functions. Other Phe mutations functioned to promote constitutive catalytic activity. One of these mutations revealed a previously underappreciated hydrophobic surface that functions to position the dynamic regulatory αC-helix. This supports the key role of the C-helix as a signal integration motif for coordinating multiple elements of the kinase to create an active conformation. The importance of the hydrophobic space around the αC-helix was further tested by studying a V600F mutant, which was constitutively active in the absence of the negative charge that is associated with the common V600E mutation. Many hydrophobic mutations strategically localized along the C-helix can thus drive kinase activation.

  1. A Receptor-Like Kinase Mediates Ammonium Homeostasis and Is Important for the Polar Growth of Root Hairs in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ling; Ma, Xiaonan; Zhang, Guozeng; Song, Shufei; Zhou, Yun; Gao, Lijie; Miao, Yuchen; Song, Chun-Peng

    2014-01-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) is both a necessary nutrient and an important signal in plants, but can be toxic in excess. Ammonium sensing and regulatory mechanisms in plant cells have not been fully elucidated. To decipher the complex network of NH4+ signaling, we analyzed [Ca2+]cyt-associated protein kinase (CAP) genes, which encode signaling components that undergo marked changes in transcription levels in response to various stressors. We demonstrated that CAP1, a tonoplast-localized receptor-like kinase, regulates root hair tip growth by maintaining cytoplasmic Ca2+ gradients. A CAP1 knockout mutant (cap1-1) produced elevated levels of cytoplasmic NH4+. Furthermore, root hair growth of cap1-1 was inhibited on Murashige and Skoog medium, but NH4+ depletion reestablished the Ca2+ gradient necessary for normal growth. The lower net NH4+ influx across the vacuolar membrane and relatively alkaline cytosolic pH of cap1-1 root hairs implied that mutation of CAP1 increased NH4+ accumulation in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, CAP1 functionally complemented the npr1 (nitrogen permease reactivator protein) kinase yeast mutant, which is defective in high-affinity NH4+ uptake via MEP2 (methylammonium permease 2), distinguishing CAP1 as a cytosolic modulator of NH4+ levels that participates in NH4+ homeostasis-regulated root hair growth by modulating tip-focused cytoplasmic Ca2+ gradients. PMID:24769480

  2. Wheat CBL-interacting protein kinase 25 negatively regulates salt tolerance in transgenic wheat

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xia; Sun, Tao; Wang, Xiatian; Su, Peipei; Ma, Jingfei; He, Guangyuan; Yang, Guangxiao

    2016-01-01

    CBL-interacting protein kinases are involved in plant responses to abiotic stresses, including salt stress. However, the negative regulating mechanism of this gene family in response to salinity is less reported. In this study, we evaluated the role of TaCIPK25 in regulating salt response in wheat. Under conditions of high salinity, TaCIPK25 expression was markedly down-regulated in roots. Overexpression of TaCIPK25 resulted in hypersensitivity to Na+ and superfluous accumulation of Na+ in transgenic wheat lines. TaCIPK25 expression did not decline in transgenic wheat and remained at an even higher level than that in wild-type wheat controls under high-salinity treatment. Furthermore, transmembrane Na+/H+ exchange was impaired in the root cells of transgenic wheat. These results suggested that TaCIPK25 negatively regulated salt response in wheat. Additionally, yeast-one-hybrid, β-glucuronidase activity and DNA-protein-interaction-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays showed that the transcription factor TaWRKY9 bound W-box in the TaCIPK25 promoter region. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays showed concomitantly inverted expression patterns of TaCIPK25 and TaWRKY9 in wheat roots under salt treatment, ABA application and inhibition of endogenous ABA condition. Overall, based on our results, in a salt stress condition, the negative salt response in wheat involved TaCIPK25 with the expression regulated by TaWRKY9. PMID:27358166

  3. An Nfic-hedgehog signaling cascade regulates tooth root development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Feng, Jifan; Li, Jingyuan; Zhao, Hu; Ho, Thach-Vu; Chai, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Coordination between the Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) and apical papilla (AP) is crucial for proper tooth root development. The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway and Nfic are both involved in tooth root development; however, their relationship has yet to be elucidated. Here, we establish a timecourse of mouse molar root development by histological staining of sections, and we demonstrate that Hh signaling is active before and during root development in the AP and HERS using Gli1 reporter mice. The proper pattern of Hh signaling activity in the AP is crucial for the proliferation of dental mesenchymal cells, because either inhibition with Hh inhibitors or constitutive activation of Hh signaling activity in transgenic mice leads to decreased proliferation in the AP and shorter roots. Moreover, Hh activity is elevated in Nfic−/− mice, a root defect model, whereas RNA sequencing and in situ hybridization show that the Hh attenuator Hhip is downregulated. ChIP and RNAscope analyses suggest that Nfic binds to the promoter region of Hhip. Treatment of Nfic−/− mice with Hh inhibitor partially restores cell proliferation, AP growth and root development. Taken together, our results demonstrate that an Nfic-Hhip-Hh signaling pathway is crucial for apical papilla growth and proper root formation. This discovery provides insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating tooth root development. PMID:26293299

  4. A molecular ruler regulates cytoskeletal remodelling by the Rho kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truebestein, Linda; Elsner, Daniel J.; Fuchs, Elisabeth; Leonard, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    The Rho-associated coiled-coil kinases (ROCK) are essential regulators of the actin cytoskeleton; however, the structure of a full-length ROCK is unknown and the mechanisms by which its kinase activity is controlled are not well understood. Here we determine the low-resolution structure of human ROCK2 using electron microscopy, revealing it to be a constitutive dimer, 120 nm in length, with a long coiled-coil tether linking the kinase and membrane-binding domains. We find, in contrast to previous reports, that ROCK2 activity does not appear to be directly regulated by binding to membranes, RhoA, or by phosphorylation. Instead, we show that changing the length of the tether modulates ROCK2 function in cells, suggesting that it acts as a molecular ruler. We present a model in which ROCK activity is restricted to a discrete region of the actin cytoskeleton, governed by the length of its coiled-coil. This represents a new type of spatial control, and hence a new paradigm for kinase regulation. PMID:26620183

  5. Protein kinase C-associated kinase regulates NF-κB activation through inducing IKK activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Schifano, Matthew; Oleksyn, David; Jordan, Craig T; Ryan, Daniel; Insel, Richard; Zhao, Jiyong; Chen, Luojing

    2014-10-01

    Activation of the transcription factor NF-κB induced by extracellular stimuli requires IKKα and IKKβ kinase activity. How IKKα and IKKβ are activated by various upstream signaling molecules is not fully understood. We previously showed that protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK, also known as DIK/RIP4), which belongs to the receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase family, mediates the B cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF)-induced NF-κB activation in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines. Here we have investigated the mechanism underlying NF-κB activation regulated by PKK. Our results suggest that PKK can activate both the classical and the alternative NF-κB activation pathways. PKK associates with IKKα and IKKβ in mammalian cells and induces activation of both IKKα and IKKβ via phosphorylation of their serine residues 176/180 and 177/181, respectively. Unlike other members of the RIP family that activate NF-κB through a kinase-independent pathway, PKK appears to activate IKK and NF-κB mainly in a kinase-dependent manner. Suppression of PKK expression by RNA interference inhibits phosphorylation of IKKα and IKKβ as well as activation of NF-κB in human cancer cell lines. Thus, PKK regulates NF-κB activation by modulating activation of IKKα and IKKβ in mammalian cells. We propose that PKK may provide a critical link between IKK activation and various upstream signaling cascades, and may represent a potential target for inhibiting abnormal NF-κB activation in human cancers.

  6. A Legume TOR Protein Kinase Regulates Rhizobium Symbiosis and Is Essential for Infection and Nodule Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Lourdes; Quinto, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase regulates metabolism, growth, and life span in yeast, animals, and plants in coordination with nutrient status and environmental conditions. The nutrient-dependent nature of TOR functionality makes this kinase a putative regulator of symbiotic associations involving nutrient acquisition. However, TOR’s role in these processes remains to be understood. Here, we uncovered the role of TOR during the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)-Rhizobium tropici (Rhizobium) symbiotic interaction. TOR was expressed in all tested bean tissues, with higher transcript levels in the root meristems and senesced nodules. We showed TOR promoter expression along the progressing infection thread and in the infected cells of mature nodules. Posttranscriptional gene silencing of TOR using RNA interference (RNAi) showed that this gene is involved in lateral root elongation and root cell organization and also alters the density, size, and number of root hairs. The suppression of TOR transcripts also affected infection thread progression and associated cortical cell divisions, resulting in a drastic reduction of nodule numbers. TOR-RNAi resulted in reduced reactive oxygen species accumulation and altered CyclinD1 and CyclinD3 expression, which are crucial factors for infection thread progression and nodule organogenesis. Enhanced expression of TOR-regulated ATG genes in TOR-RNAi roots suggested that TOR plays a role in the recognition of Rhizobium as a symbiont. Together, these data suggest that TOR plays a vital role in the establishment of root nodule symbiosis in the common bean. PMID:27698253

  7. Arabidopsis thaliana mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 is involved in seed formation and modulation of primary and lateral root development

    PubMed Central

    Guevara-García, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) cascades are signal transduction modules highly conserved in all eukaryotes regulating various aspects of plant biology, including stress responses and developmental programmes. In this study, we characterized the role of MAPK 6 (MPK6) in Arabidopsis embryo development and in post-embryonic root system architecture. We found that the mpk6 mutation caused altered embryo development giving rise to three seed phenotypes that, post-germination, correlated with alterations in root architecture. In the smaller seed class, mutant seedlings failed to develop the primary root, possibly as a result of an earlier defect in the division of the hypophysis cell during embryo development, but they had the capacity to develop adventitious roots to complete their life cycle. In the larger class, the MPK6 loss of function did not cause any evident alteration in seed morphology, but the embryo and the mature seed were bigger than the wild type. Seedlings developed from these bigger seeds were characterized by a primary root longer than that of the wild type, accompanied by significantly increased lateral root initiation and more and longer root hairs. Apparently, the increment in primary root growth resulted from an enhanced cell production and cell elongation. Our data demonstrated that MPK6 plays an important role during embryo development and acts as a repressor of primary and lateral root development. PMID:24218326

  8. Mnk Kinases in Cytokine Signaling and Regulation of Cytokine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sonali; Platanias, Leonidas C.

    2013-01-01

    The kinases Mnk1 and Mnk2 are activated downstream of the p38 MAPK and MEK/ERK signaling pathways. Extensive work over the years has shown that these kinases control phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and regulate engagement of other effector elements, including hnRNPA1 and PSF. Mnk kinases are ubiquitously expressed and play critical roles in signaling for various cytokine receptors, while there is emerging evidence that they have important functions as mediators of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. In this review the mechanisms of activation of MNK pathways by cytokine receptors are addressed and their roles in diverse cytokine-dependent biological processes are reviewed. The clinical-translational implications of such work and the relevance of future development of specific MNK inhibitors for the treatment of malignancies and auto-immune disorders are discussed. PMID:23710261

  9. Kinase regulation by sulfur and selenium containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Sanmartín, Carmen; Plano, Daniel; Font, María; Palop, Juan Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Kinases are enzymes that are involved in a wide-range of cellular targets such as cell proliferation, metabolism, survival and apoptosis. Aberrations in the activity of the kinases have been linked to many human diseases such as diabetes, inflammation and cancer. The discovery of more than 518 kinases encoded by the human genome has spurred the development of rapid screening techniques for potential drugs against these enzymes and these have been identified as interesting targets for medicinal chemistry programs, especially in cancer therapy. On the other hand, sulfur and selenium have been increasingly recognized as essential elements in biology and medicine. Converging data from epidemiological and clinical studies have highlighted these elements as effective chemopreventive agents, particularly against various types of cancer (prostate, lung, breast, leukemia, colon, skin, lymphome, thyroid, pancreas, liver). These elements act through a wide range of potential mechanisms where one identified signal pathway event is kinase modulation, which is common for the two elements and emerges as a valid target. The kinases modulated by sulfur and selenium derivatives include MAP, ERK, JNK, Akt, Cdc2, Cyclin B1 and Cdc25c amongst others. Although both of the elements in question are in the same group in the periodic table and have similar biochemistries, there are relevant differences related to redox potentials, stabilities, oxidation states and anticancer activity. Literature data suggest that the replacement of sulfur by selenium in established cancer chemopreventive agents results in more effective chemopreventive analogs. In view of the multi-target kinase mechanisms in preventing cellular transformation, as well as the differences and similarities between them, in this review we focus on the development of new structures that contain selenium and/or sulfur and discuss our understanding of the regulation of antitumoral effects with emphasis on kinase modulation

  10. Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity from pig kidney cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Pawelczyk, T; Olson, M S

    1992-01-01

    The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinase in the purified PDH complex from pig kidney is sensitive to changes in ionic strength. The enzyme has optimum activity within a small range of ionic strength (0.03-0.05 M). An increase in ionic strength from 0.04 M to 0.2 M lowers the activity of PDH kinase by 32% and decreases the Km for ATP from 25 microM to 10 microM. At constant ionic strength (0.15 M) the enzyme has optimum activity over a broad pH range (7.2-8.0). The PDH kinase is stimulated 2.2-fold by 20 mM-K+, whereas Na+ even at high concentration (80 mM) has no effect on the enzyme activity. The stimulation of PDH kinase by K+ is not dependent on pH and ionic strength. PDH kinase is inhibited by HPO4(2-) in the presence of K+, whereas HPO4(2-) has no effect on the activity of this enzyme in the absence of K+. HPO4(2-) at concentrations of 2 and 10 mM inhibits PDH kinase by 28% and 55% respectively. The magnitude of this inhibition is not dependent on the ATP/ADP ratio. Inhibition by HPO4(2-) in the concentration range 0-10 mM is non-competitive with respect to ATP, and becomes mixed-type at concentrations over 10 mM. The Ki for HPO4(2-) is 10 mM. When HPO4(2-) is replaced by SO4(2-), the same effects on the activity of PDH kinase are observed. PDH kinase is also inhibited by Cl-. In the presence of 80 mM-Cl- the PDH kinase is inhibited by 40%. The inhibition by Cl- is not dependent on K+. In conclusion, we postulate that changes in phosphate concentrations may play a significant role in the regulation of PDH kinase activity in vivo. PMID:1463442

  11. Melatonin Regulates Root Architecture by Modulating Auxin Response in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chengzhen; Li, Aifu; Yu, Hua; Li, Wenzhen; Liang, Chengzhi; Guo, Sandui; Zhang, Rui; Chu, Chengcai

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that melatonin acts as an important regulator in controlling root growth and development, but the underlying molecular mechanism driving this relationship remains undetermined. In this study, we demonstrated that melatonin acts as a potent molecule to govern root architecture in rice. Treatments with melatonin significantly inhibited embryonic root growth, and promoted lateral root formation and development. Genome-wide expression profiling by RNA-sequencing revealed auxin-related genes were significantly activated under melatonin treatment. Moreover, several transcription factors and candidate cis-regulatory elements involved in root growth and developments, as well as auxin-related processes, were over-represented in both co-up and -down differentially expressed genes, suggesting that melatonin-mediated root growth occurs in an auxin signal pathway-dependent manner. Further, gravitropic response analysis determined that melatonin affects auxin-regulated processes in rice root. These data show that melatonin shapes root architecture by directly or indirectly activating the auxin signaling pathway. PMID:28223997

  12. The regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, S C; Woods, A; Jones, N A; Davison, M D; Carling, D

    2000-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) cascade is activated by an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio within the cell. AMPK is regulated allosterically by AMP and by reversible phosphorylation. Threonine-172 within the catalytic subunit (alpha) of AMPK (Thr(172)) was identified as the major site phosphorylated by the AMP-activated protein kinase kinase (AMPKK) in vitro. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to study the role of phosphorylation of Thr(172) on AMPK activity. Mutation of Thr(172) to an aspartic acid residue (T172D) in either alpha1 or alpha2 resulted in a kinase complex with approx. 50% the activity of the corresponding wild-type complex. The activity of wild-type AMPK decreased by greater than 90% following treatment with protein phosphatases, whereas the activity of the T172D mutant complex fell by only 10-15%. Mutation of Thr(172) to an alanine residue (T172A) almost completely abolished kinase activity. These results indicate that phosphorylation of Thr(172) accounts for most of the activation by AMPKK, but that other sites are involved. In support of this we have shown that AMPKK phosphorylates at least two other sites on the alpha subunit and one site on the beta subunit. Furthermore, we provide evidence that phosphorylation of Thr(172) may be involved in the sensitivity of the AMPK complex to AMP. PMID:10642499

  13. Cell fate regulation governed by a repurposed bacterial histidine kinase

    DOE PAGES

    Childers, W. Seth; Xu, Qingping; Mann, Thomas H.; ...

    2014-10-28

    One of the simplest organisms to divide asymmetrically is the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. The DivL pseudo-histidine kinase, positioned at one cell pole, regulates cell-fate by controlling the activation of the global transcription factor CtrA via an interaction with the response regulator (RR) DivK. DivL uniquely contains a tyrosine at the histidine phosphorylation site, and can achieve these regulatory functions in vivo without kinase activity. Determination of the DivL crystal structure and biochemical analysis of wild-type and site-specific DivL mutants revealed that the DivL PAS domains regulate binding specificity for DivK~P over DivK, which is modulated by an allosteric intramolecular interactionmore » between adjacent domains. We discovered that DivL's catalytic domains have been repurposed as a phosphospecific RR input sensor, thereby reversing the flow of information observed in conventional histidine kinase (HK)-RR systems and coupling a complex network of signaling proteins for cell-fate regulation.« less

  14. Cell fate regulation governed by a repurposed bacterial histidine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Childers, W. Seth; Xu, Qingping; Mann, Thomas H.; Mathews, Irimpan I.; Blair, Jimmy A.; Deacon, Ashley M.; Shapiro, Lucy; Stock, Ann M.

    2014-10-28

    One of the simplest organisms to divide asymmetrically is the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. The DivL pseudo-histidine kinase, positioned at one cell pole, regulates cell-fate by controlling the activation of the global transcription factor CtrA via an interaction with the response regulator (RR) DivK. DivL uniquely contains a tyrosine at the histidine phosphorylation site, and can achieve these regulatory functions in vivo without kinase activity. Determination of the DivL crystal structure and biochemical analysis of wild-type and site-specific DivL mutants revealed that the DivL PAS domains regulate binding specificity for DivK~P over DivK, which is modulated by an allosteric intramolecular interaction between adjacent domains. We discovered that DivL's catalytic domains have been repurposed as a phosphospecific RR input sensor, thereby reversing the flow of information observed in conventional histidine kinase (HK)-RR systems and coupling a complex network of signaling proteins for cell-fate regulation.

  15. Spatially coordinated kinase signaling regulates local axon degeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mark; Maloney, Janice A; Kallop, Dara Y; Atwal, Jasvinder K; Tam, Stephen J; Baer, Kristin; Kissel, Holger; Kaminker, Joshua S; Lewcock, Joseph W; Weimer, Robby M; Watts, Ryan J

    2012-09-26

    In addition to being a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease, axon degeneration is used during development of the nervous system to prune unwanted connections. In development, axon degeneration is tightly regulated both temporally and spatially. Here, we provide evidence that degeneration cues are transduced through various kinase pathways functioning in spatially distinct compartments to regulate axon degeneration. Intriguingly, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) acts centrally, likely modulating gene expression in the cell body to regulate distally restricted axon degeneration. Through a combination of genetic and pharmacological manipulations, including the generation of an analog-sensitive kinase allele mutant mouse for GSK3β, we show that the β isoform of GSK3, not the α isoform, is essential for developmental axon pruning in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, we identify the dleu2/mir15a/16-1 cluster, previously characterized as a regulator of B-cell proliferation, and the transcription factor tbx6, as likely downstream effectors of GSK3β in axon degeneration.

  16. Regulation of Aurora-A kinase on the mitotic spindle.

    PubMed

    Kufer, Thomas A; Nigg, Erich A; Silljé, Herman H W

    2003-12-01

    The error-free segregation of duplicated chromosomes during cell division is essential for the maintenance of an intact genome. This process is brought about by a highly dynamic bipolar array of microtubules, the mitotic spindle. The formation and function of the mitotic spindle during M-phase of the cell cycle is regulated by protein phosphorylation, involving multiple protein kinases and phosphatases. Prominent among the enzymes implicated in spindle assembly is the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase Aurora-A. In several common human tumors, Aurora-A is overexpressed, and deregulation of this kinase was shown to result in mitotic defects and aneuploidy. Moreover, recent genetic evidence directly links the human Aurora-A gene to cancer susceptibility. Several of the physiological substrates of Aurora-A presumably await identification, but recent studies are beginning to shed light on the regulation of this critical mitotic kinase. Here, we review these findings with particular emphasis on the role of TPX2, a prominent spindle component implicated in a Ran-GTP-mediated spindle assembly pathway.

  17. Src tyrosine kinase regulates adhesion and chemotaxis in Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Hai T.; Azab, Abdel Kareem; Farag, Mena; Jia, Xiaoying; Melhem, Molly M.; Runnels, Judith; Roccaro, Aldo M.; Azab, Feda; Sacco, Antonio; Leleu, Xavier; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Ghobrial, Irene M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM) is a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma characterized by widespread involvement of the bone marrow. Despite different options of therapy, WM is still incurable. Src tyrosine kinase was shown to play a central role in the regulation of a variety of biological processes such as cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, and survival, in solid tumors. We sought to determine whether the protein tyrosine kinase Src regulates adhesion, migration and survival in WM. Experimental Design We have tested the expression of Src tyrosine kinase in WM and normal cells, and tested the effect of its specific inhibitor AZD-530 on adhesion, migration, cell cycle and survival of WM cell line and patient samples. Moreover, we tested its effect on sytockeletal and cell cycle signaling in WM. Results We demonstrated that Src is over expressed in WM cells compared to control B cells. And that the use of the Src inhibitor AZD0530 led to significant inhibition of adhesion, migration and cytosekletal signaling induced by SDF1. Moreover, inhibition of Src activity induced G1 cell cycle arrest; however, it had minimal effect on survival of WM cells, and no significant effect on survival of normal cells. Conclusions Taken together, these studies delineate the role of Src kinase activity in WM and provide the framework for future clinical trials using Src inhibitors in combination with other drugs to improve the outcome of patients with WM. PMID:19755386

  18. The New Role for an Old Kinase: Protein Kinase CK2 Regulates Metal Ion Transport

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Adam J.; Wu, Ming J.

    2016-01-01

    The pleiotropic serine/threonine protein kinase CK2 was the first kinase discovered. It is renowned for its role in cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis. The complexity of this kinase is well reflected by the findings of past decades in terms of its heterotetrameric structure, subcellular location, constitutive activity and the extensive catalogue of substrates. With the advent of non-biased high-throughput functional genomics such as genome-wide deletion mutant screening, novel aspects of CK2 functionality have been revealed. Our recent discoveries using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cells demonstrate that CK2 regulates metal toxicity. Extensive literature search reveals that there are few but elegant works on the role of CK2 in regulating the sodium and zinc channels. As both CK2 and metal ions are key players in cell biology and oncogenesis, understanding the details of CK2’s regulation of metal ion homeostasis has a direct bearing on cancer research. In this review, we aim to garner the recent data and gain insights into the role of CK2 in metal ion transport. PMID:28009816

  19. PERK–KIPK–KCBP signalling negatively regulates root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Tania V.; Haasen, Katrina E.; Aldea-Brydges, May Grace; Sun, He; Zayed, Yara; Indriolo, Emily; Goring, Daphne R.

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis proline-rich, extensin-like receptor-like kinases (PERKs) are a small group of receptor-like kinases that are thought to act as sensors at the cell wall through their predicted proline-rich extracellular domains. In this study, we focused on the characterization of a subclade of three Arabidopsis predicted PERK genes, PERK8, -9, and -10, for which no functions were known. Yeast two-hybrid interaction studies were conducted with the PERK8,- 9, and -10 cytosolic kinase domains, and two members of the Arabidopsis AGC VIII kinase family were identified as interacting proteins: AGC1-9 and the closely related kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein (KCBP)-interacting protein kinase (KIPK). As KIPK has been identified previously as an interactor of KCBP, these interactions were also examined further and confirmed in this study. Finally, T-DNA mutants for each gene were screened for altered phenotypes under different conditions, and from these screens, a role for the PERK, KIPK, and KCBP genes in negatively regulating root growth was uncovered. PMID:25262228

  20. Protein kinase A regulates the osteogenic activity of Osterix.

    PubMed

    He, Siyuan; Choi, You Hee; Choi, Joong-Kook; Yeo, Chang-Yeol; Chun, ChangJu; Lee, Kwang Youl

    2014-10-01

    Osterix belongs to the SP gene family and is a core transcription factor responsible for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Activation of protein kinase A (PKA), a serine/threonine kinase, is essential for controlling bone formation and BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation. However, the relationship between Osterix and PKA is still unclear. In this report, we investigated the precise role of the PKA pathway in regulating Osterix during osteoblast differentiation. We found that PKA increased the protein level of Osterix; PKA phosphorylated Osterix, increased protein stability, and enhanced the transcriptional activity of Osterix. These results suggest that Osterix is a novel target of PKA, and PKA modulates osteoblast differentiation partially through the regulation of Osterix.

  1. Spontaneous symbiotic reprogramming of plant roots triggered by receptor-like kinases.

    PubMed

    Ried, Martina Katharina; Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; Parniske, Martin

    2014-11-25

    Symbiosis Receptor-like Kinase (SYMRK) is indispensable for the development of phosphate-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) as well as nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis, but the mechanisms that discriminate between the two distinct symbiotic developmental fates have been enigmatic. In this study, we show that upon ectopic expression, the receptor-like kinase genes Nod Factor Receptor 1 (NFR1), NFR5, and SYMRK initiate spontaneous nodule organogenesis and nodulation-related gene expression in the absence of rhizobia. Furthermore, overexpressed NFR1 or NFR5 associated with endogenous SYMRK in roots of the legume Lotus japonicus. Epistasis tests revealed that the dominant active SYMRK allele initiates signalling independently of either the NFR1 or NFR5 gene and upstream of a set of genes required for the generation or decoding of calcium-spiking in both symbioses. Only SYMRK but not NFR overexpression triggered the expression of AM-related genes, indicating that the receptors play a key role in the decision between AM- or root nodule symbiosis-development.

  2. Spontaneous symbiotic reprogramming of plant roots triggered by receptor-like kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ried, Martina Katharina; Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; Parniske, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Symbiosis Receptor-like Kinase (SYMRK) is indispensable for the development of phosphate-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) as well as nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis, but the mechanisms that discriminate between the two distinct symbiotic developmental fates have been enigmatic. In this study, we show that upon ectopic expression, the receptor-like kinase genes Nod Factor Receptor 1 (NFR1), NFR5, and SYMRK initiate spontaneous nodule organogenesis and nodulation-related gene expression in the absence of rhizobia. Furthermore, overexpressed NFR1 or NFR5 associated with endogenous SYMRK in roots of the legume Lotus japonicus. Epistasis tests revealed that the dominant active SYMRK allele initiates signalling independently of either the NFR1 or NFR5 gene and upstream of a set of genes required for the generation or decoding of calcium-spiking in both symbioses. Only SYMRK but not NFR overexpression triggered the expression of AM-related genes, indicating that the receptors play a key role in the decision between AM- or root nodule symbiosis-development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03891.001 PMID:25422918

  3. Nonmuscle Myosin IIA Regulates Platelet Contractile Forces Through Rho Kinase and Myosin Light-Chain Kinase.

    PubMed

    Feghhi, Shirin; Tooley, Wes W; Sniadecki, Nathan J

    2016-10-01

    Platelet contractile forces play a major role in clot retraction and help to hold hemostatic clots against the vessel wall. Platelet forces are produced by its cytoskeleton, which is composed of actin and nonmuscle myosin filaments. In this work, we studied the role of Rho kinase, myosin light-chain kinase, and myosin in the generation of contractile forces by using pharmacological inhibitors and arrays of flexible microposts to measure platelet forces. When platelets were seeded onto microposts, they formed aggregates on the tips of the microposts. Forces produced by the platelets in the aggregates were measured by quantifying the deflection of the microposts, which bent in proportion to the force of the platelets. Platelets were treated with small molecule inhibitors of myosin activity: Y-27632 to inhibit the Rho kinase (ROCK), ML-7 to inhibit myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK), and blebbistatin to inhibit myosin ATPase activity. ROCK inhibition reduced platelet forces, demonstrating the importance of the assembly of actin and myosin phosphorylation in generating contractile forces. Similarly, MLCK inhibition caused weaker platelet forces, which verifies that myosin phosphorylation is needed for force generation in platelets. Platelets treated with blebbistatin also had weaker forces, which indicates that myosin's ATPase activity is necessary for platelet forces. Our studies demonstrate that myosin ATPase activity and the regulation of actin-myosin assembly by ROCK and MLCK are needed for the generation of platelet forces. Our findings illustrate and explain the importance of myosin for clot compaction in hemostasis and thrombosis.

  4. Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase and Kinase Specificity in Regulation of SRC and Breast Tumor Kinase* ♦

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Gaofeng; Aleem, Saadat; Yang, Ming; Miller, W. Todd; Tonks, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant evidence to the contrary, the view that phosphatases are “nonspecific” still pervades the field. Systems biology approaches to defining how signal transduction pathways are integrated at the level of whole organisms also often downplay the contribution of phosphatases, defining them as “erasers” that serve merely to restore the system to its basal state. Here, we present a study that counteracts the idea of “nonspecific phosphatases.” We have characterized two structurally similar and functionally related kinases, BRK and SRC, which are regulated by combinations of activating autophosphorylation and inhibitory C-terminal sites of tyrosine phosphorylation. We demonstrated specificity at the level of the kinases in that SRMS phosphorylated the C terminus of BRK, but not SRC; in contrast, CSK is the kinase responsible for C-terminal phosphorylation of SRC, but not BRK. For the phosphatases, we observed that RNAi-mediated suppression of PTP1B resulted in opposing effects on the activity of BRK and SRC and have defined the mechanisms underlying this specificity. PTP1B inhibited BRK by directly dephosphorylating the Tyr-342 autophosphorylation site. In contrast, PTP1B potentiated SRC activity, but not by dephosphorylating SRC itself directly; instead, PTP1B regulated the interaction between CBP/PAG and CSK. SRC associated with, and phosphorylated, the transmembrane protein CBP/PAG at Tyr-317, resulting in CSK recruitment. We identified PAG as a substrate of PTP1B, and dephosphorylation abolished recruitment of the inhibitory kinase CSK. Overall, these findings illustrate how the combinatorial effects of PTKs and PTPs may be integrated to regulate signaling, with both classes of enzymes displaying exquisite specificity. PMID:25897081

  5. Spatial regulation of Raf kinase signaling by RKTG

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lin; Xie, Xiaoduo; Ding, Qiurong; Luo, Xiaolin; He, Jing; Fan, Fengjuan; Liu, Weizhong; Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yan

    2007-01-01

    Subcellular compartmentalization has become an important theme in cell signaling such as spatial regulation of Ras by RasGRP1 and MEK/ERK by Sef. Here, we report spatial regulation of Raf kinase by RKTG (Raf kinase trapping to Golgi). RKTG is a seven-transmembrane protein localized at the Golgi apparatus. RKTG expression inhibits EGF-stimulated ERK and RSK phosphorylation, blocks NGF-mediated PC12 cell differentiation, and antagonizes Ras- and Raf-1-stimulated Elk-1 transactivation. Through interaction with Raf-1, RKTG changes the localization of Raf-1 from cytoplasm to the Golgi apparatus, blocks EGF-stimulated Raf-1 membrane translocation, and reduces the interaction of Raf-1 with Ras and MEK1. In RKTG-null mice, the basal ERK phosphorylation level is increased in the brain and liver. In RKTG-deleted mouse embryonic fibroblasts, EGF-induced ERK phosphorylation is enhanced. Collectively, our results reveal a paradigm of spatial regulation of Raf kinase by RKTG via sequestrating Raf-1 to the Golgi apparatus and thereby inhibiting the ERK signaling pathway. PMID:17724343

  6. Spatial Regulation of Root Growth: Placing the Plant TOR Pathway in a Developmental Perspective.

    PubMed

    Barrada, Adam; Montané, Marie-Hélène; Robaglia, Christophe; Menand, Benoît

    2015-08-19

    Plant cells contain specialized structures, such as a cell wall and a large vacuole, which play a major role in cell growth. Roots follow an organized pattern of development, making them the organs of choice for studying the spatio-temporal regulation of cell proliferation and growth in plants. During root growth, cells originate from the initials surrounding the quiescent center, proliferate in the division zone of the meristem, and then increase in length in the elongation zone, reaching their final size and differentiation stage in the mature zone. Phytohormones, especially auxins and cytokinins, control the dynamic balance between cell division and differentiation and therefore organ size. Plant growth is also regulated by metabolites and nutrients, such as the sugars produced by photosynthesis or nitrate assimilated from the soil. Recent literature has shown that the conserved eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase pathway plays an important role in orchestrating plant growth. We will summarize how the regulation of cell proliferation and cell expansion by phytohormones are at the heart of root growth and then discuss recent data indicating that the TOR pathway integrates hormonal and nutritive signals to orchestrate root growth.

  7. Spatial Regulation of Root Growth: Placing the Plant TOR Pathway in a Developmental Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Barrada, Adam; Montané, Marie-Hélène; Robaglia, Christophe; Menand, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells contain specialized structures, such as a cell wall and a large vacuole, which play a major role in cell growth. Roots follow an organized pattern of development, making them the organs of choice for studying the spatio-temporal regulation of cell proliferation and growth in plants. During root growth, cells originate from the initials surrounding the quiescent center, proliferate in the division zone of the meristem, and then increase in length in the elongation zone, reaching their final size and differentiation stage in the mature zone. Phytohormones, especially auxins and cytokinins, control the dynamic balance between cell division and differentiation and therefore organ size. Plant growth is also regulated by metabolites and nutrients, such as the sugars produced by photosynthesis or nitrate assimilated from the soil. Recent literature has shown that the conserved eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase pathway plays an important role in orchestrating plant growth. We will summarize how the regulation of cell proliferation and cell expansion by phytohormones are at the heart of root growth and then discuss recent data indicating that the TOR pathway integrates hormonal and nutritive signals to orchestrate root growth. PMID:26295391

  8. Prostaglandin E2 negatively regulates AMP-activated protein kinase via protein kinase A signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Koji; Cao, Xia; Yamauchi, Masako; Kozaki, Yasuko; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kambe, Fukushi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated possible involvement of prostaglandin (PG) E2 in regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). When osteoblastic MG63 cells were cultured in serum-deprived media, Thr-172 phosphorylation of AMPK alpha-subunit was markedly increased. Treatment of the cells with PGE2 significantly reduced the phosphorylation. Ser-79 phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a direct target for AMPK, was also reduced by PGE2. On the other hand, PGE2 reciprocally increased Ser-485 phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit that could be associated with inhibition of AMPK activity. These effects of PGE2 were mimicked by PGE2 receptor EP2 and EP4 agonists and forskolin, but not by EP1 and EP3 agonists, and the effects were suppressed by an adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 and a protein kinase A inhibitor H89. Additionally, the PGE2 effects were duplicated in primary calvarial osteoblasts. Together, the present study demonstrates that PGE2 negatively regulates AMPK activity via activation of protein kinase A signaling pathway.

  9. Focal adhesion kinase negatively regulates neuronal insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit; Bisht, Bharti; Dey, Chinmoy Sankar

    2012-06-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a non-receptor protein kinase, is known to be a phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activator and thus widely implicated in regulation of cell survival and cancer. In recent years FAK has also been strongly implicated as a crucial regulator of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues like skeletal muscle and liver, where decrease in its expression/activity has been shown to lead to insulin resistance. However, in the present study we report an altogether different role of FAK in regulation of insulin/PI3K signaling in neurons, the post-mitotic cells. An aberrant increase in FAK tyrosine phosphorylation was observed in insulin resistant Neuro-2a (N2A) cells. Downregulation of FAK expression utilizing RNAi mediated gene silencing in insulin resistant N2A cells completely ameliorated the impaired insulin/PI3K signaling and glucose uptake. FAK silencing in primary cortical neurons also showed marked enhancement in glucose uptake. The results thus suggest that in neurons FAK acts as a negative regulator of insulin/PI3K signaling. Interestingly, the available literature also demonstrates cell-type specific functions of FAK in neurons. FAK that is well known for its cell survival effects has been shown to be involved in neurodegeneration. Along with these previous reports, present findings highlight a novel and critical role of FAK in neurons. Moreover, as this implicates differential regulation of insulin/PI3K pathway by FAK in peripheral tissues and neuronal cells, it strongly suggests precaution while considering FAK modulators as possible therapeutics.

  10. The lipid kinase PIP5K1C regulates pain signaling and sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Brittany D.; Loo, Lipin; Street, Sarah E.; Ma, Anqi; Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Stashko, Michael A.; Jin, Jian; Janzen, William P.; Frye, Stephen V.; Zylka, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Numerous pain-producing (pronociceptive) receptors signal via phosphatidylinositol 4,5- bisphosphate (PIP2) hydrolysis. However, it is currently unknown which lipid kinases generate PIP2 in nociceptive dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and if these kinases regulate pronociceptive receptor signaling. Here, we found that phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5 kinase type 1C (PIP5K1C) is expressed at higher levels than any other PIP5K and, based on experiments with Pip5k1c+/− mice, generates at least half of all PIP2 in DRG neurons. Additionally, Pip5k1c haploinsufficiency reduces pronociceptive receptor signaling and TRPV1 sensitization in DRG neurons as well as thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in mouse models of chronic pain. We identified a novel small molecule inhibitor of PIP5K1C (UNC3230) in a high-throughput screen. UNC3230 lowered PIP2 levels in DRG neurons and attenuated hypersensitivity when administered intrathecally or into the hindpaw. Our studies reveal that PIP5K1C regulates PIP2- dependent nociceptive signaling and suggest that PIP5K1C is a novel therapeutic target for chronic pain. PMID:24853942

  11. Root growth regulation and gravitropism in maize roots does not require the epidermis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, T.; Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    We have earlier published observations showing that endogenous alterations in growth rate during gravitropism in maize roots (Zea mays L.) are unaffected by the orientation of cuts which remove epidermal and cortical tissue in the growing zone (Bjorkman and Cleland, 1988, Planta 176, 513-518). We concluded that the epidermis and cortex are not essential for transporting a growth-regulating signal in gravitropism or straight growth, nor for regulating the rate of tissue expansion. This conclusion has been challenged by Yang et al. (1990, Planta 180, 530-536), who contend that a shallow girdle around the entire perimeter of the root blocks gravitropic curvature and that this inhibition is the result of a requirement for epidermal cells to transport the growth-regulating signal. In this paper we demonstrate that the entire epidermis can be removed without blocking gravitropic curvature and show that the position of narrow girdles does not affect the location of curvature. We therefore conclude that the epidermis is not required for transport of a growth-regulating substance from the root cap to the growing zone, nor does it regulate the growth rate of the elongating zone of roots.

  12. A Bacillus subtilis sensor kinase involved in triggering biofilm formation on the roots of tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Cao, Shugeng; Chai, Yunrong; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto; Guo, Jian-hua; Losick, Richard

    2012-08-01

    The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is widely used in agriculture as a biocontrol agent able to protect plants from a variety of pathogens. Protection is thought to involve the formation of bacterial communities - biofilms - on the roots of the plants. Here we used confocal microscopy to visualize biofilms on the surface of the roots of tomato seedlings and demonstrated that biofilm formation requires genes governing the production of the extracellular matrix that holds cells together. We further show that biofilm formation was dependent on the sensor histidine kinase KinD and in particular on an extracellular CACHE domain implicated in small molecule sensing. Finally, we report that exudates of tomato roots strongly stimulated biofilm formation ex planta and that an abundant small molecule in the exudates, (L) -malic acid, was able to stimulate biofilm formation at high concentrations in a manner that depended on the KinD CACHE domain. We propose that small signalling molecules released by the roots of tomato plants are directly or indirectly recognized by KinD, triggering biofilm formation.

  13. Rho kinase regulates neurite outgrowth of hippocampal neurons via calcium dependent cytoskeleton regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Zhisheng; Cai, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jifeng; Liu, Nannuan; Chen, Jing; Tan, Minghui; Lin, Hongsheng; Guo, Guoqing

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether calcium is involved in downstream signal transduction in neurite outgrowth regulated by Rho kinase. Methods: In vitro primary hippocampal neurons were cultured and treated with Rho kinase agonist (LPA) or antagonist (Y-27632). Then, the cytoskeleton and neurite outgrowth were observed. After addition of calcium antagonist BAPTA/AM to reduce intracellular calcium, the cytoskeleton distribution and neurite outgrowth were observed. Results: The activation or inhibition of Rho kinase could significantly alter the number and length of neurites of hippocampal neurons. Rho kinase regulated the cytoskeleton to regulate the neurite outgrowth, and LPA could significantly increase intracellular calcium. After BAPTA/AM treatment, the length and branch number of neurites of neurons reduced markedly. BAPTA/AM was able to reduce intracellular calcium and decrease neuronal cytoskeleton. Treatment with both BAPTA/AM and LPA could stop the retraction of neurites, but the length and branch number of neurites remained unchanged after treatment with Y-27632 and LPA. Conclusion: Calcium may affect the cytoskeleton arrangement to regulate neurite outgrowth, and calcium is involved in the downstream signal transduction of Rho kinase regulated neurite outgrowth of hippocampal neurons. PMID:28337305

  14. Brassinosteroid regulated kinases (BRKs) that mediate brassinosteroid signal transduction and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhi-Yong; Tang, Wenqiang

    2013-09-24

    The present invention identifies a novel family of kinases regulated by brassinosteroids, referred to as BRKs (brassinosteroid regulated kinases) or BSKs (brassinosteroid signaling kinases). The present invention provides methods for modulating the response of a plant cell to a brassinosteroid using BRKs.

  15. TRIPTYCHON, not CAPRICE, participates in feedback regulation of SCM expression in the Arabidopsis root epidermis.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Su-Hwan; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root epidermal cells decide their fates (root-hair cell and non-hair cell) according to their position. SCRAMBLED (SCM), an atypical leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR RLK) mediates the positional information to the epidermal cells enabling them to adopt the proper fate. Via feedback regulation, the SCM protein accumulates preferentially in cells adopting the root-hair cell fate. In this study, we determine that TRY, but not the related factor CPC, is responsible for this preferential SCM accumulation. We observed severe reduction of SCM::GUS expression in the try-82 mutant root, but not in the cpc-1 mutant. Furthermore, the overexpression of TRY by CaMV35S promoter caused an increase in the expression of SCM::GUS in the root epidermis. Intriguingly, the overexpression of CPC by CaMV35S promoter repressed the expression of SCM::GUS. Together, these results suggest that TRY plays a unique role in generating the appropriate spatial expression of SCM.

  16. Casein Kinase 1 Functions as both Penultimate and Ultimate Kinase in Regulating Cdc25A Destruction

    PubMed Central

    Honaker, Yuchi; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

    2010-01-01

    The Cdc25A protein phosphatase drives cell cycle transitions by activating cyclin-dependent protein kinases. Failure to regulate Cdc25A leads to deregulated cell cycle progression, bypass of cell cycle checkpoints and genome instability. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis plays an important role in balancing Cdc25A levels. Cdc25A contains a DS82G motif whose phosphorylation is targeted by β-TrCP E3 ligase during interphase. Targeting of β-TrCP to Cdc25A requires phosphorylation of serines 79 (S79) and 82 (S82). Here, we report that casein kinase 1 alpha (CK1α) phosphorylates Cdc25A on both S79 and S82 in a hierarchical manner requiring prior phosphorylation of serine 76 by Chk1 or GSK-3β. This facilitates β-TrCP binding and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of Cdc25A throughout interphase and following exposure to genotoxic stress. The priming of Cdc25A by at least three kinases (Chk1, GSK-3β, CK1α), some of which also require priming, ensures diverse extra- and intra-cellular signals interface with Cdc25A to precisely control cell division. PMID:20348946

  17. Evolutionary Roots of Arginase Expression and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Dzik, Jolanta Maria

    2014-01-01

    Two main types of macrophage functions are known: classical (M1), producing nitric oxide, NO, and M2, in which arginase activity is primarily expressed. Ornithine, the product of arginase, is a substrate for synthesis of polyamines and collagen, important for growth and ontogeny of animals. M2 macrophages, expressing high level of mitochondrial arginase, have been implicated in promoting cell division and deposition of collagen during ontogeny and wound repair. Arginase expression is the default mode of tissue macrophages, but can also be amplified by signals, such as IL-4/13 or transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) that accelerates wound healing and tissue repair. In worms, the induction of collagen gene is coupled with induction of immune response genes, both depending on the same TGF-β-like pathway. This suggests that the main function of M2 “heal” type macrophages is originally connected with the TGF-β superfamily of proteins, which are involved in regulation of tissue and organ differentiation in embryogenesis. Excretory–secretory products of metazoan parasites are able to induce M2-type of macrophage responses promoting wound healing without participation of Th2 cytokines IL-4/IL-13. The expression of arginase in lower animals can be induced by the presence of parasite antigens and TGF-β signals leading to collagen synthesis. This also means that the main proteins, which, in primitive metazoans, are involved in regulation of tissue and organ differentiation in embryogenesis are produced by innate immunity. The signaling function of NO is known already from the sponge stage of animal evolution. The cytotoxic role of NO molecule appeared later, as documented in immunity of marine mollusks and some insects. This implies that the M2-wound healing promoting function predates the defensive role of NO, a characteristic of M1 macrophages. Understanding when and how the M1 and M2 activities came to be in animals is useful for understanding how macrophage

  18. Molecular mechanisms regulating protein kinase Czeta turnover and cellular transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Le Good, J Ann; Brindley, David N

    2004-01-01

    The regulation of protein kinase C (PKC)zeta in relation to its turnover, cell growth and transformation was investigated in Rat2 fibroblasts by over-expressing wild-type or mutant forms of PKCzeta. Deletion of the pseudosubstrate site (PSS) produced the most active mutant (PKCzeta Delta PSS), but mutants designed to mimic phosphorylated PKCzeta had lower specific activities in an in vitro assay. The mutant lacking phosphorylation at the Thr-560 site (T560A) had similar specific activity to wild-type PKCzeta. The T560A mutant also protected PKCzeta against proteolysis, whereas phosphorylation at Thr-410 targeted it towards proteosomal degradation. Blocking proteosomal degradation with lactacystin caused the accumulation of full-length PKCzeta Delta PSS, T410E, PKCzeta Delta PSS T410/560E, PKCzeta and T560A. Expressed PKCzeta activity was paralleled by extracellular-regulated protein kinase activation, increased cell division, serum-independent growth and focus formation. These foci were seen for cells expressing higher PKCzeta activity (PKCzeta Delta PSS, PKCzeta Delta PSS T410/560E and T560A mutants), but these fibroblasts did not show significant anchorage-independent growth. This work provides novel information concerning the role of the PSS and phosphorylation sites in regulating the activity and turnover of an atypical PKC and shows how this activity can induce cell transformation with respect to focus formation. PMID:14580237

  19. TRPM7 is regulated by halides through its kinase domain

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haijie; Zhang, Zheng; Lis, Annette; Penner, Reinhold; Fleig, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a divalent-selective cation channel fused to an atypical α-kinase. TRPM7 is a key regulator of cell growth and proliferation, processes accompanied by mandatory cell volume changes. Osmolarity-induced cell volume alterations regulate TRPM7 through molecular crowding of solutes that affect channel activity, including magnesium (Mg2+), Mg-nucleotides and a further unidentified factor. Here, we assess whether chloride and related halides can act as negative feedback regulators of TRPM7. We find that chloride and bromide inhibit heterologously expressed TRPM7 in synergy with intracellular Mg2+ ([Mg2+]i) and this is facilitated through the ATP-binding site of the channel’s kinase domain. The synergistic block of TRPM7 by chloride and Mg2+ is not reversed during divalent-free or acidic conditions, indicating a change in protein conformation that leads to channel inactivation. Iodide has the strongest inhibitory effect on TRPM7 at physiological [Mg2+]i. Iodide also inhibits endogenous TRPM7-like currents as assessed in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, where upregulation of SLC5A5 sodium-iodide symporter enhances iodide uptake and inhibits cell proliferation. These results indicate that chloride could be an important factor in modulating TRPM7 during osmotic stress and implicate TRPM7 as a possible molecular mechanism contributing to the anti-proliferative characteristics of intracellular iodide accumulation in cancer cells. PMID:23471296

  20. Ack kinase regulates CTP synthase filaments during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Strochlic, Todd I; Stavrides, Kevin P; Thomas, Sam V; Nicolas, Emmanuelle; O'Reilly, Alana M; Peterson, Jeffrey R

    2014-11-01

    The enzyme CTP synthase (CTPS) dynamically assembles into macromolecular filaments in bacteria, yeast, Drosophila, and mammalian cells, but the role of this morphological reorganization in regulating CTPS activity is controversial. During Drosophila oogenesis, CTPS filaments are transiently apparent in ovarian germline cells during a period of intense genomic endoreplication and stockpiling of ribosomal RNA. Here, we demonstrate that CTPS filaments are catalytically active and that their assembly is regulated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase DAck, the Drosophila homologue of mammalian Ack1 (activated cdc42-associated kinase 1), which we find also localizes to CTPS filaments. Egg chambers from flies deficient in DAck or lacking DAck catalytic activity exhibit disrupted CTPS filament architecture and morphological defects that correlate with reduced fertility. Furthermore, ovaries from these flies exhibit reduced levels of total RNA, suggesting that DAck may regulate CTP synthase activity. These findings highlight an unexpected function for DAck and provide insight into a novel pathway for the developmental control of an essential metabolic pathway governing nucleotide biosynthesis.

  1. Auxin and epigenetic regulation of SKP2B, an F-box that represses lateral root formation.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Concepción; Ramirez-Parra, Elena; Casimiro, Ilda; Otero, Sofía; Desvoyes, Bénédicte; De Rybel, Bert; Beeckman, Tom; Casero, Pedro; Gutierrez, Crisanto; C Del Pozo, Juan

    2012-10-01

    In plants, lateral roots originate from pericycle founder cells that are specified at regular intervals along the main root. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SKP2B (for S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein2B), an F-box protein, negatively regulates cell cycle and lateral root formation as it represses meristematic and founder cell divisions. According to its function, SKP2B is expressed in founder cells, lateral root primordia and the root apical meristem. We identified a novel motif in the SKP2B promoter that is required for its specific root expression and auxin-dependent induction in the pericycle cells. Next to a transcriptional control by auxin, SKP2B expression is regulated by histone H3.1/H3.3 deposition in a CAF-dependent manner. The SKP2B promoter and the 5' end of the transcribed region are enriched in H3.3, which is associated with active chromatin states, over H3.1. Furthermore, the SKP2B promoter is also regulated by H3 acetylation in an auxin- and IAA14-dependent manner, reinforcing the idea that epigenetics represents an important regulatory mechanism during lateral root formation.

  2. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ regulates RhoA activation via a kinase-independent scaffolding mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ard, Ryan; Mulatz, Kirk; Abramovici, Hanan; Maillet, Jean-Christian; Fottinger, Alexandra; Foley, Tanya; Byham, Michèle-Renée; Iqbal, Tasfia Ahmed; Yoneda, Atsuko; Couchman, John R; Parks, Robin J; Gee, Stephen H

    2012-10-01

    Rho GTPases share a common inhibitor, Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDI), which regulates their expression levels, membrane localization, and activation state. The selective dissociation of individual Rho GTPases from RhoGDI ensures appropriate responses to cellular signals, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid, selectively dissociates Rac1 by stimulating PAK1-mediated phosphorylation of RhoGDI on Ser-101/174. Similarly, phosphorylation of RhoGDI on Ser-34 by protein kinase Cα (PKCα) selectively releases RhoA. Here we show DGKζ is required for RhoA activation and Ser-34 phosphorylation, which were decreased in DGKζ-deficient fibroblasts and rescued by wild-type DGKζ or a catalytically inactive mutant. DGKζ bound directly to the C-terminus of RhoA and the regulatory arm of RhoGDI and was required for efficient interaction of PKCα and RhoA. DGKζ-null fibroblasts had condensed F-actin bundles and altered focal adhesion distribution, indicative of aberrant RhoA signaling. Two targets of the RhoA effector ROCK showed reduced phosphorylation in DGKζ-null cells. Collectively our findings suggest DGKζ functions as a scaffold to assemble a signaling complex that functions as a RhoA-selective, GDI dissociation factor. As a regulator of Rac1 and RhoA activity, DGKζ is a critical factor linking changes in lipid signaling to actin reorganization.

  3. Myosin light chain kinase regulates cell polarization independently of membrane tension or Rho kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Sunny S.; Diz-Muñoz, Alba; Weiner, Orion D.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cells polarize to a single front and rear to achieve rapid actin-based motility, but the mechanisms preventing the formation of multiple fronts are unclear. We developed embryonic zebrafish keratocytes as a model system for investigating establishment of a single axis. We observed that, although keratocytes from 2 d postfertilization (dpf) embryos resembled canonical fan-shaped keratocytes, keratocytes from 4 dpf embryos often formed multiple protrusions despite unchanged membrane tension. Using genomic, genetic, and pharmacological approaches, we determined that the multiple-protrusion phenotype was primarily due to increased myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression. MLCK activity influences cell polarity by increasing myosin accumulation in lamellipodia, which locally decreases protrusion lifetime, limiting lamellipodial size and allowing for multiple protrusions to coexist within the context of membrane tension limiting protrusion globally. In contrast, Rho kinase (ROCK) regulates myosin accumulation at the cell rear and does not determine protrusion size. These results suggest a novel MLCK-specific mechanism for controlling cell polarity via regulation of myosin activity in protrusions. PMID:25918227

  4. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Regulate OPG through Inhibition of PDGFRβ

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Mei Lin; Lin, Jian-Ming; Bava, Usha; Callon, Karen; Cornish, Jillian; Naot, Dorit; Grey, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Nilotinib and imatinib are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). In vitro, imatinib and nilotinib inhibit osteoclastogenesis, and in patients they reduce levels of bone resorption. One of the mechanisms that might underlie these effects is an increase in the production of osteoprotegerin (OPG). In the current work we report that platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) signaling regulates OPG production in vitro. In addition, we have shown that TKIs have effects on RANKL signaling through inhibition of the PDGFRβ and other target receptors. These findings have implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which TKIs affect osteoclastogenesis, and the role of PDGFRβ signaling in regulating osteoclastogenesis. Further studies are indicated to confirm the clinical effects of PDGFRβ-inhibitors and to elaborate the intracellular pathways that underpin these effects. PMID:27737004

  5. Protein Kinase D Regulates Cell Death Pathways in Experimental Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jingzhen; Liu, Yannan; Tan, Tanya; Guha, Sushovan; Gukovsky, Ilya; Gukovskaya, Anna; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation and acinar cell necrosis are two major pathological responses of acute pancreatitis, a serious disorder with no current therapies directed to its molecular pathogenesis. Serine/threonine protein kinase D family, which includes PKD/PKD1, PKD2, and PKD3, has been increasingly implicated in the regulation of multiple physiological and pathophysiological effects. We recently reported that PKD/PKD1, the predominant PKD isoform expressed in rat pancreatic acinar cells, mediates early events of pancreatitis including NF-κB activation and inappropriate intracellular digestive enzyme activation. In current studies, we investigated the role and mechanisms of PKD/PKD1 in the regulation of necrosis in pancreatic acinar cells by using two novel small molecule PKD inhibitors CID755673 and CRT0066101 and molecular approaches in in vitro and in vivo experimental models of acute pancreatitis. Our results demonstrated that both CID755673 and CRT0066101 are PKD-specific inhibitors and that PKD/PKD1 inhibition by either the chemical inhibitors or specific PKD/PKD1 siRNAs attenuated necrosis while promoting apoptosis induced by pathological doses of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK) in pancreatic acinar cells. Conversely, up-regulation of PKD expression in pancreatic acinar cells increased necrosis and decreased apoptosis. We further showed that PKD/PKD1 regulated several key cell death signals including inhibitors of apoptotic proteins, caspases, receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 to promote necrosis. PKD/PKD1 inhibition by CID755673 significantly ameliorated necrosis and severity of pancreatitis in an in vivo experimental model of acute pancreatitis. Thus, our studies indicate that PKD/PKD1 is a key mediator of necrosis in acute pancreatitis and that PKD/PKD1 may represent a potential therapeutic target in acute pancreatitis. PMID:22470346

  6. Tyrosine kinase FYN negatively regulates NOX4 in cardiac remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Shouji; Kuroda, Junya; Zhai, Peiyong; Liu, Tong; Ikeda, Shohei; Nagarajan, Narayani; Yokota, Takashi; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Hsu, Chiao-Po; Li, Hong; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (Noxes) produce ROS that regulate cell growth and death. NOX4 expression in cardiomyocytes (CMs) plays an important role in cardiac remodeling and injury, but the posttranslational mechanisms that modulate this enzyme are poorly understood. Here, we determined that FYN, a Src family tyrosine kinase, interacts with the C-terminal domain of NOX4. FYN and NOX4 colocalized in perinuclear mitochondria, ER, and nuclear fractions in CMs, and FYN expression negatively regulated NOX4-induced O2– production and apoptosis in CMs. Mechanistically, we found that direct phosphorylation of tyrosine 566 on NOX4 was critical for this FYN-mediated negative regulation. Transverse aortic constriction activated FYN in the left ventricle (LV), and FYN-deficient mice displayed exacerbated cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction and increased ROS production and apoptosis. Deletion of Nox4 rescued the exaggerated LV remodeling in FYN-deficient mice. Furthermore, FYN expression was markedly decreased in failing human hearts, corroborating its role as a regulator of cardiac cell death and ROS production. In conclusion, FYN is activated by oxidative stress and serves as a negative feedback regulator of NOX4 in CMs during cardiac remodeling. PMID:27525436

  7. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Regulates Seed Dormancy in Barley.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Kubo, Yuta; Nakamura, Masako; Ichimura, Kazuya; Seo, Shigemi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ando, Tsuyu; Hensel, Goetz; Sameri, Mohammad; Stein, Nils; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-03-21

    Seed dormancy has fundamental importance in plant survival and crop production; however, the mechanisms regulating dormancy remain unclear [1-3]. Seed dormancy levels generally decrease during domestication to ensure that crops successfully germinate in the field. However, reduction of seed dormancy can cause devastating losses in cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seed (grain) on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Understanding the mechanisms of dormancy can facilitate breeding of crop varieties with the appropriate levels of seed dormancy [4-8]. Barley is a model crop [9, 10] and has two major seed dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTLs), SD1 and SD2, on chromosome 5H [11-19]. We detected a QTL designated Qsd2-AK at SD2 as the single major determinant explaining the difference in seed dormancy between the dormant cultivar "Azumamugi" (Az) and the non-dormant cultivar "Kanto Nakate Gold" (KNG). Using map-based cloning, we identified the causal gene for Qsd2-AK as Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 (MKK3). The dormant Az allele of MKK3 is recessive; the N260T substitution in this allele decreases MKK3 kinase activity and appears to be causal for Qsd2-AK. The N260T substitution occurred in the immediate ancestor allele of the dormant allele, and the established dormant allele became prevalent in barley cultivars grown in East Asia, where the rainy season and harvest season often overlap. Our findings show fine-tuning of seed dormancy during domestication and provide key information for improving pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in barley and wheat.

  8. Glucose regulates diacylglycerol intracellular levels and protein kinase C activity by modulating diacylglycerol kinase subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Miele, Claudia; Paturzo, Flora; Teperino, Raffaele; Sakane, Fumio; Fiory, Francesca; Oriente, Francesco; Ungaro, Paola; Valentino, Rossella; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2007-11-02

    Although chronic hyperglycemia reduces insulin sensitivity and leads to impaired glucose utilization, short term exposure to high glucose causes cellular responses positively regulating its own metabolism. We show that exposure of L6 myotubes overexpressing human insulin receptors to 25 mm glucose for 5 min decreased the intracellular levels of diacylglycerol (DAG). This was paralleled by transient activation of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) and of insulin receptor signaling. Following 30-min exposure, however, both DAG levels and DGK activity returned close to basal levels. Moreover, the acute effect of glucose on DAG removal was inhibited by >85% by the DGK inhibitor R59949. DGK inhibition was also accompanied by increased protein kinase C-alpha (PKCalpha) activity, reduced glucose-induced insulin receptor activation, and GLUT4 translocation. Glucose exposure transiently redistributed DGK isoforms alpha and delta, from the prevalent cytosolic localization to the plasma membrane fraction. However, antisense silencing of DGKdelta, but not of DGKalpha expression, was sufficient to prevent the effect of high glucose on PKCalpha activity, insulin receptor signaling, and glucose uptake. Thus, the short term exposure of skeletal muscle cells to glucose causes a rapid induction of DGK, followed by a reduction of PKCalpha activity and transactivation of the insulin receptor signaling. The latter may mediate, at least in part, glucose induction of its own metabolism.

  9. Neuronal leucine-rich repeat 1 negatively regulates anaplastic lymphoma kinase in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Shunpei; Takatori, Atsushi; Ogura, Atsushi; Kohashi, Kenichi; Souzaki, Ryota; Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Hossain, Md. Shamim; Ohira, Miki; Nakamura, Yohko; Nakagawara, Akira

    2016-01-01

    In neuroblastoma (NB), one of the most common paediatric solid tumours, activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is often associated with poor outcomes. Although genetic studies have identified copy number alteration and nonsynonymous mutations of ALK, the regulatory mechanism of ALK signalling at protein levels is largely elusive. Neuronal leucine-rich repeat 1 (NLRR1) is a type 1 transmembrane protein that is highly expressed in unfavourable NB and potentially influences receptor tyrosine kinase signalling. Here, we showed that NLRR1 and ALK exhibited a mutually exclusive expression pattern in primary NB tissues by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, dorsal root ganglia of Nlrr1+/+ and Nlrr1−/− mice displayed the opposite expression patterns of Nlrr1 and Alk. Of interest, NLRR1 physically interacted with ALK in vitro through its extracellular region. Notably, the NLRR1 ectodomain impaired ALK phosphorylation and proliferation of ALK-mutated NB cells. A newly identified cleavage of the NLRR1 ectodomain also supported NLRR1-mediated ALK signal regulation in trans. Thus, we conclude that NLRR1 appears to be an extracellular negative regulator of ALK signalling in NB and neuronal development. Our findings may be beneficial to comprehend NB heterogeneity and to develop a novel therapy against unfavourable NB. PMID:27604320

  10. p38 MAP kinase regulates circadian rhythms in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Vrailas-Mortimer, Alysia D; Ryan, Sarah M; Avey, Matthew J; Mortimer, Nathan T; Dowse, Harold; Sanyal, Subhabrata

    2014-12-01

    The large repertoire of circadian rhythms in diverse organisms depends on oscillating central clock genes, input pathways for entrainment, and output pathways for controlling rhythmic behaviors. Stress-activated p38 MAP Kinases (p38K), although sparsely investigated in this context, show circadian rhythmicity in mammalian brains and are considered part of the circadian output machinery in Neurospora. We find that Drosophila p38Kb is expressed in clock neurons, and mutants in p38Kb either are arrhythmic or have a longer free-running periodicity, especially as they age. Paradoxically, similar phenotypes are observed through either transgenic inhibition or activation of p38Kb in clock neurons, suggesting a requirement for optimal p38Kb function for normal free-running circadian rhythms. We also find that p38Kb genetically interacts with multiple downstream targets to regulate circadian locomotor rhythms. More specifically, p38Kb interacts with the period gene to regulate period length and the strength of rhythmicity. In addition, we show that p38Kb suppresses the arrhythmic behavior associated with inhibition of a second p38Kb target, the transcription factor Mef2. Finally, we find that manipulating p38K signaling in free-running conditions alters the expression of another downstream target, MNK/Lk6, which has been shown to cycle with the clock and to play a role in regulating circadian rhythms. These data suggest that p38Kb may affect circadian locomotor rhythms through the regulation of multiple downstream pathways.

  11. Pyruvate Kinase M2: A Potential Target for Regulating Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Filho, Jose C.; Pålsson-McDermott, Eva M.

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase (PK) is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the last step of glycolysis. Of the four PK isoforms expressed in mammalian cells, PKM2 has generated the most interest due to its impact on changes in cellular metabolism observed in cancer as well as in activated immune cells. As our understanding of dysregulated metabolism in cancer develops, and in light of the growing field of immunometabolism, intense efforts are in place to define the mechanism by which PKM2 regulates the metabolic profile of cancer as well as of immune cells. The enzymatic activity of PKM2 is heavily regulated by endogenous allosteric effectors as well as by intracellular signaling pathways, affecting both the enzymatic activity of PKM2 as a PK and the regulation of the recently described non-canonical nuclear functions of PKM2. We here review the current literature on PKM2 and its regulation, and discuss the potential for this protein as a therapeutic target in inflammatory disorders. PMID:27148264

  12. Structural plasticity and catalysis regulation of a thermosensor histidine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Albanesi, Daniela; Martín, Mariana; Trajtenberg, Felipe; Mansilla, María C.; Haouz, Ahmed; Alzari, Pedro M.; de Mendoza, Diego; Buschiazzo, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Temperature sensing is essential for the survival of living cells. A major challenge is to understand how a biological thermometer processes thermal information to optimize cellular functions. Using structural and biochemical approaches, we show that the thermosensitive histidine kinase, DesK, from Bacillus subtilis is cold-activated through specific interhelical rearrangements in its central four-helix bundle domain. As revealed by the crystal structures of DesK in different functional states, the plasticity of this helical domain influences the catalytic activities of the protein, either by modifying the mobility of the ATP-binding domains for autokinase activity or by modulating binding of the cognate response regulator to sustain the phosphotransferase and phosphatase activities. The structural and biochemical data suggest a model in which the transmembrane sensor domain of DesK promotes these structural changes through conformational signals transmitted by the membrane-connecting two-helical coiled-coil, ultimately controlling the alternation between output autokinase and phosphatase activities. The structural comparison of the different DesK variants indicates that incoming signals can take the form of helix rotations and asymmetric helical bends similar to those reported for other sensing systems, suggesting that a similar switching mechanism could be operational in a wide range of sensor histidine kinases. PMID:19805278

  13. Abl family kinases regulate FcγR-mediated phagocytosis in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Greuber, Emileigh K; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2012-12-01

    Phagocytosis of Ab-coated pathogens is mediated through FcγRs, which activate intracellular signaling pathways to drive actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. Abl and Arg define a family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases that regulate actin-dependent processes in a variety of cell types, including those important in the adaptive immune response. Using pharmacological inhibition as well as dominant negative and knockout approaches, we demonstrate a role for the Abl family kinases in phagocytosis by macrophages and define a mechanism whereby Abl kinases regulate this process. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from mice lacking Abl and Arg kinases exhibit inefficient phagocytosis of sheep erythrocytes and zymosan particles. Treatment with the Abl kinase inhibitors imatinib and GNF-2 or overexpression of kinase-inactive forms of the Abl family kinases also impairs particle internalization in murine macrophages, indicating Abl kinase activity is required for efficient phagocytosis. Further, Arg kinase is present at the phagocytic cup, and Abl family kinases are activated by FcγR engagement. The regulation of phagocytosis by Abl family kinases is mediated in part by the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Loss of Abl and Arg expression or treatment with Abl inhibitors reduced Syk phosphorylation in response to FcγR ligation. The link between Abl family kinases and Syk may be direct, as purified Arg kinase phosphorylates Syk in vitro. Further, overexpression of membrane-targeted Syk in cells treated with Abl kinase inhibitors partially rescues the impairment in phagocytosis. Together, these findings reveal that Abl family kinases control the efficiency of phagocytosis in part through the regulation of Syk function.

  14. Localization and regulation of mouse pantothenate kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Roberta; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Lykidis, Athanasios; Rock, Charles O; Jackowski, Suzanne

    2007-10-02

    Coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis is initiated by pantothenate kinase (PanK) and CoA levels are controlled through differential expression and feedback regulation of PanK isoforms. PanK2 is a mitochondrial protein in humans, but comparative genomics revealed that acquisition of a mitochondrial targeting signal was limited to primates. Human and mouse PanK2 possessed similar biochemical properties, with inhibition by acetyl-CoA and activation by palmitoylcarnitine. Mouse PanK2 localized in the cytosol, and the expression of PanK2 was higher in human brain compared to mouse brain. Differences in expression and subcellular localization should be considered in developing a mouse model for human PanK2 deficiency.

  15. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Molecular Switches Regulating CNS Axon Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Vigneswara, Vasanthy; Kundi, Sarina; Ahmed, Zubair

    2012-01-01

    The poor or lack of injured adult central nervous system (CNS) axon regeneration results in devastating consequences and poor functional recovery. The interplay between the intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributes to robust inhibition of axon regeneration of injured CNS neurons. The insufficient or lack of trophic support for injured neurons is considered as one of the major obstacles contributing to their failure to survive and regrow their axons after injury. In the CNS, many of the signalling pathways associated with neuronal survival and axon regeneration are regulated by several classes of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) that respond to a variety of ligands. This paper highlights and summarises the most relevant recent findings pertinent to different classes of the RTK family of molecules, with a particular focus on elucidating their role in CNS axon regeneration. PMID:22848811

  16. Parkin Regulates the Activity of Pyruvate Kinase M2*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kun; Li, Fanzhou; Han, Haichao; Chen, Yue; Mao, Zebin; Luo, Jianyuan; Zhao, Yingming; Zheng, Bin; Gu, Wei; Zhao, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Parkin, a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is mutated in most cases of autosomal recessive early onset Parkinson disease. It was discovered that Parkin is also mutated in glioblastoma and other human malignancies and that it inhibits tumor cell growth. Here, we identified pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) as a unique substrate for parkin through biochemical purification. We found that parkin interacts with PKM2 both in vitro and in vivo, and this interaction dramatically increases during glucose starvation. Ubiquitylation of PKM2 by parkin does not affect its stability but decreases its enzymatic activity. Parkin regulates the glycolysis pathway and affects the cell metabolism. Our studies revealed the novel important roles of parkin in tumor cell metabolism and provided new insight for therapy of Parkinson disease. PMID:26975375

  17. Regulation of NADPH Oxidase 5 by Protein Kinase C Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Yu, Yanfang; Haigh, Steven; Johnson, John; Lucas, Rudolf; Stepp, David W.; Fulton, David J. R.

    2014-01-01

    NADPH oxidase5 (Nox5) is a novel Nox isoform which has recently been recognized as having important roles in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, fetal ventricular septal defect and cancer. The activity of Nox5 and production of reactive oxygen species is regulated by intracellular calcium levels and phosphorylation. However, the kinases that phosphorylate Nox5 remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that the phosphorylation of Nox5 is PKC dependent, but this contention was based on the use of pharmacological inhibitors and the isoforms of PKC involved remain unknown. Thus, the major goals of this study were to determine whether PKC can directly regulate Nox5 phosphorylation and activity, to identify which isoforms are involved in the process, and to understand the functional significance of this pathway in disease. We found that a relatively specific PKCα inhibitor, Ro-32-0432, dose-dependently inhibited PMA-induced superoxide production from Nox5. PMA-stimulated Nox5 activity was significantly reduced in cells with genetic silencing of PKCα and PKCε, enhanced by loss of PKCδ and the silencing of PKCθ expression was without effect. A constitutively active form of PKCα robustly increased basal and PMA-stimulated Nox5 activity and promoted the phosphorylation of Nox5 on Ser490, Thr494, and Ser498. In contrast, constitutively active PKCε potently inhibited both basal and PMA-dependent Nox5 activity. Co-IP and in vitro kinase assay experiments demonstrated that PKCα directly binds to Nox5 and modifies Nox5 phosphorylation and activity. Exposure of endothelial cells to high glucose significantly increased PKCα activation, and enhanced Nox5 derived superoxide in a manner that was in prevented by a PKCα inhibitor, Go 6976. In summary, our study reveals that PKCα is the primary isoform mediating the activation of Nox5 and this maybe of significance in our understanding of the vascular complications of diabetes

  18. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulates degranulation in human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Odemuyiwa, Solomon O; Ilarraza, Ramses; Davoine, Francis; Logan, Michael R; Shayeganpour, Anooshirvan; Wu, Yingqi; Majaesic, Carina; Adamko, Darryl J; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige

    2015-04-01

    Degranulation from eosinophils in response to secretagogue stimulation is a regulated process that involves exocytosis of granule proteins through specific signalling pathways. One potential pathway is dependent on cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and its effector molecules, p35 and p39, which play a central role in neuronal cell exocytosis by phosphorylating Munc18, a regulator of SNARE binding. Emerging evidence suggests a role for Cdk5 in exocytosis in immune cells, although its role in eosinophils is not known. We sought to examine the expression of Cdk5 and its activators in human eosinophils, and to assess the role of Cdk5 in eosinophil degranulation. We used freshly isolated human eosinophils and analysed the expression of Cdk5, p35, p39 and Munc18c by Western blot, RT-PCR, flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation. Cdk5 kinase activity was determined following eosinophil activation. Cdk5 inhibitors were used (roscovitine, AT7519 and small interfering RNA) to determine its role in eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) secretion. Cdk5 was expressed in association with Munc18c, p35 and p39, and phosphorylated following human eosinophil activation with eotaxin/CCL11, platelet-activating factor, and secretory IgA-Sepharose. Cdk5 inhibitors (roscovitine, AT7519) reduced EPX release when cells were stimulated by PMA or secretory IgA. In assays using small interfering RNA knock-down of Cdk5 expression in human eosinophils, we observed inhibition of EPX release. Our findings suggest that in activated eosinophils, Cdk5 is phosphorylated and binds to Munc18c, resulting in Munc18c release from syntaxin-4, allowing SNARE binding and vesicle fusion, with subsequent eosinophil degranulation. Our work identifies a novel role for Cdk5 in eosinophil mediator release by agonist-induced degranulation.

  19. Serum and Glucocorticoid Regulated Kinase 1 in Sodium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yiyun; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Yuqin; Wang, Liya; Huang, Shisi; Jin, Fan

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed serum and glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) is tightly regulated by osmotic and hormonal signals, including glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Recently, SGK1 has been implicated as a signal hub for the regulation of sodium transport. SGK1 modulates the activities of multiple ion channels and carriers, such as epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.5), sodium hydrogen exchangers 1 and 3 (NHE1 and NHE3), sodium-chloride symporter (NCC), and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (NKCC2); as well as the sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase) and type A natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR-A). Accordingly, SGK1 is implicated in the physiology and pathophysiology of Na+ homeostasis. Here, we focus particularly on recent findings of SGK1’s involvement in Na+ transport in renal sodium reabsorption, hormone-stimulated salt appetite and fluid balance and discuss the abnormal SGK1-mediated Na+ reabsorption in hypertension, heart disease, edema with diabetes, and embryo implantation failure. PMID:27517916

  20. Inositol Hexakisphosphate Kinase 3 Regulates Metabolism and Lifespan in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moritoh, Yusuke; Oka, Masahiro; Yasuhara, Yoshitaka; Hozumi, Hiroyuki; Iwachidow, Kimihiko; Fuse, Hiromitsu; Tozawa, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 3 (IP6K3) generates inositol pyrophosphates, which regulate diverse cellular functions. However, little is known about its own physiological role. Here, we show the roles of IP6K3 in metabolic regulation. We detected high levels of both mouse and human IP6K3 mRNA in myotubes and muscle tissues. In human myotubes, IP6K3 was upregulated by dexamethasone treatment, which is known to inhibit glucose metabolism. Furthermore, Ip6k3 expression was elevated under diabetic, fasting, and disuse conditions in mouse skeletal muscles. Ip6k3−/− mice demonstrated lower blood glucose, reduced circulating insulin, deceased fat mass, lower body weight, increased plasma lactate, enhanced glucose tolerance, lower glucose during an insulin tolerance test, and reduced muscle Pdk4 expression under normal diet conditions. Notably, Ip6k3 deletion extended animal lifespan with concomitant reduced phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein in the heart. In contrast, Ip6k3−/− mice showed unchanged skeletal muscle mass and no resistance to the effects of high fat diet. The current observations suggest novel roles of IP6K3 in cellular regulation, which impact metabolic control and lifespan. PMID:27577108

  1. Rho kinase acts as a downstream molecule to participate in protein kinaseregulation of vascular reactivity after hemorrhagic shock in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Zhu, Yu; Zang, Jia-tao; Peng, Xiao-yong; Lan, Dan; Yang, Guang-ming; Xu, Jing; Liu, Liang-ming

    2014-09-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that Rho kinase and protein kinase C (PKC) played important parts in the regulation of vascular reactivity after shock. Using superior mesenteric arteries (SMAs) from hemorrhagic shock rats and hypoxia-treated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), relationship of PKCε regulation of vascular reactivity to Rho kinase, as well as the signal transduction after shock, was investigated. The results showed that inhibition of Rho kinase with the Rho kinase-specific inhibitor Y-27632 antagonized the PKCε-specific agonist carbachol and highly expressed PKCε-induced increase of vascular reactivity in SMAs and VSMCs, whereas inhibition of PKCε with its specific inhibitory peptide did not antagonize the Rho kinase agonist (U-46619)-induced increase of vascular reactivity in SMAs and VSMCs. Activation of PKCε or highly expressed PKCε upregulated the activity of Rho kinase and the phosphorylation of PKC-dependent phosphatase inhibitor 17 (CPI-17), zipper interacting protein kinase (ZIPK), and integrin-linked kinase (ILK), whereas activation of Rho kinase increased only CPI-17 phosphorylation. The specific neutralization antibodies of ZIPK and ILK antagonized PKCε-induced increases in the activity of Rho kinase, but CPI-17 neutralization antibody did not antagonize this effect. These results suggested that Rho kinase takes part in the regulation of PKCε on vascular reactivity after shock. Rho kinase is downstream of PKCε. Protein kinase Cε activates Rho kinase via ZIPK and ILK; CPI-17 is downstream of Rho kinase.

  2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 controls root growth in Arabidopsis by modulating Ca2+ -based Na+ flux in root cell under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuan; Wang, Chi-wen; Wang, Wen-le; Jiang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MPK6) in Na(+) toxicity and inhibition of root growth in Arabidopsis under NaCl stress. In this study, we found that root elongation in seedlings of the loss-of-function mutants mpk6-2 and mpk6-3 was less sensitive to NaCl or Na-glutamate, but not to KCl or mannitol, as compared with that of wild-type (WT) seedlings. The less sensitive characteristic was eliminated by adding the Ca(2+) chelator EGTA or the Ca(2+) channel inhibitor LaCl3, but not the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187. This suggested that the tolerance of mpk6 to Na(+) toxicity was Ca(2+)-dependent. We measured plasma membrane (PM) Na(+)-conducted currents (NCCs) in root cells. Increased concentrations of NaCl increased the inward NCCs while decreased the outward NCCs in WT root cells, attended by a positive shift in membrane potential. In mpk6 root cells, NaCl significantly increased outward but not inward NCCs, accompanied by a negative shift in membrane potential. That is, mpk6 decreased NaCl-induced the Na(+) accumulation by modifying PM Na(+) flux in root cells. Observations of aequorin luminescence revealed a NaCl-induced increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) in mpk6 root cells, resulting from PM Ca(2+) influx. An increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) was required to alleviate the NaCl-increased Na(+) content and Na(+)/K(+) ratio in mpk6 roots. Together, these results show that mpk6 accumulated less Na(+) in response to NaCl because of the increased cytosolic Ca(2+) level in root cells; thus, its root elongation was less inhibited than that of WT by NaCl.

  3. ATM/ATR-dependent Tyr15 phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases in response to hydroxyurea in Vicia faba root meristem cells.

    PubMed

    Winnicki, Konrad

    2013-10-01

    DNA damage or stalled replication forks activate cell cycle checkpoints. However, the regulation of metabolic pathways that are responsible for maintenance of genome integrity in plants is still largely unknown. Present research on Vicia faba root meristem cells indicates that inhibitory phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) at Tyr15 plays a prominent role during blockage of cell cycle in response to genotoxic stress. Phosphorylation of P-loop in Cdks takes place in ATM/ATR-dependent manner. Although, Tyr15 phosphorylation upon hydroxyurea (HU) treatment was found in most cells classified to G1 and S phase, interestingly, the number of phoshpo-Tyr15-positive cells decreases in G2 phase. Presented data confirm much similarity in regulation of Cdks functions under genotoxic stress between plants and animals; however, they may also substantiate evolutionarily developed differences especially in regulation of G2/M transition between these two kingdoms.

  4. Expression of tyrosine kinase receptors in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons in the presence of monosialoganglioside and skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Guixiang; Li, Jianmin; Liu, Huaxiang; Li, Zhenzhong

    2012-10-01

    The neurotrophic factor-like activity of monosialoganglioside (GM1) has been shown to activate tyrosine kinase receptors (Trk). Targets of neuronal innervation play a vital role in regulating the survival and differentiation of innervating neurotrophin-responsive neurons. Both GM1 and target skeletal muscle (SKM) cells are essential for the maintenance of the function of neurons. However, much less is known about the effects of GM1 or/and target SKM cells on the expression of Trk receptors in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Here we have tested what extent to the expression of TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC receptors in primary cultured of DRG neurons in absence or presence of GM1 or/and SKM cells. In this experiment, we found that: (1) GM1 promoted expression of TrkA and TrkB but not TrkC in primary cultured DRG neurons; (2) target SKM cells promoted expression of TrkC but not TrkA and TrkB in neuromuscular cocultures without GM1 treatment; and (3) GM1 and target SKM cells had additional effects on expression of these three Trk receptors. The results of the present study offered new clues for a better understanding of the association of GM1 and target SKM on the expression of Trk receptors.

  5. Rho kinase regulates fragmentation and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, Kelly A.; Stone, Nicole L.; Pittman, Randall N. . E-mail: pittman@pharm.med.upenn.edu

    2006-01-01

    During the execution phase of apoptosis, a cell undergoes cytoplasmic and nuclear changes that prepare it for death and phagocytosis. The end-point of the execution phase is condensation into a single apoptotic body or fragmentation into multiple apoptotic bodies. Fragmentation is thought to facilitate phagocytosis; however, mechanisms regulating fragmentation are unknown. An isoform of Rho kinase, ROCK-I, drives membrane blebbing through its activation of actin-myosin contraction; this raises the possibility that ROCK-I may regulate other execution phase events, such as cellular fragmentation. Here, we show that COS-7 cells fragment into a number of small apoptotic bodies during apoptosis; treating with ROCK inhibitors (Y-27632 or H-1152) prevents fragmentation. Latrunculin B and blebbistatin, drugs that interfere with actin-myosin contraction, also inhibit fragmentation. During apoptosis, ROCK-I is cleaved and activated by caspases, while ROCK-II is not activated, but rather translocates to a cytoskeletal fraction. siRNA knock-down of ROCK-I but not ROCK-II inhibits fragmentation of dying cells, consistent with ROCK-I being required for apoptotic fragmentation. Finally, cells dying in the presence of the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 are not efficiently phagocytized. These data show that ROCK plays an essential role in fragmentation and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.

  6. Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Ray, Ramesh M; Johnson, Leonard R

    2014-03-01

    Homeostasis of the gastrointestinal epithelium is dependent upon a balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are well known for their role in cell proliferation. Previous studies from our group have shown that polyamine-depletion of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) decreases cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) activity, increases p53 and p21Cip1 protein levels, induces G1 arrest, and protects cells from camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis. Although emerging evidence suggests that members of the Cdk family are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, their roles directing apoptosis of IEC-6 cells are not known. In this study, we report that inhibition of Cdk1, 2, and 9 (with the broad range Cdk inhibitor, AZD5438) in proliferating IEC-6 cells triggered DNA damage, activated p53 signaling, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis. By contrast, inhibition of Cdk2 (with NU6140) increased p53 protein and activity, inhibited proliferation, but had no effect on apoptosis. Notably, AZD5438 sensitized, whereas, NU6140 rescued proliferating IEC-6 cells from CPT-induced apoptosis. However, in colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells with mutant p53, treatment with either AZD5438 or NU6140 blocked proliferation, albeit more robustly with AZD5438. Both Cdk inhibitors induced apoptosis in Caco-2 cells in a p53-independent manner. In serum starved quiescent IEC-6 cells, both AZD5438 and NU6140 decreased TNF-α/CPT-induced activation of p53 and, consequently, rescued cells from apoptosis, indicating that sustained Cdk activity is required for apoptosis of quiescent cells. Furthermore, AZD5438 partially reversed the protective effect of polyamine depletion whereas NU6140 had no effect. Together, these results demonstrate that Cdks possess opposing roles in the control of apoptosis in quiescent and proliferating cells. In addition, Cdk inhibitors uncouple proliferation from apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner.

  7. Complex regulation of Arabidopsis AGR1/PIN2-mediated root gravitropic response and basipetal auxin transport by cantharidin-sensitive protein phosphatases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Heungsop; Shin, Hwa-Soo; Guo, Zibiao; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Masson, Patrick H.; Chen, Rujin

    2005-01-01

    Polar auxin transport, mediated by two distinct plasma membrane-localized auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins/complexes, plays an important role in many plant growth and developmental processes including tropic responses to gravity and light, development of lateral roots and patterning in embryogenesis. We have previously shown that the Arabidopsis AGRAVITROPIC 1/PIN2 gene encodes an auxin efflux component regulating root gravitropism and basipetal auxin transport. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying the function of AGR1/PIN2 is largely unknown. Recently, protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases, respectively, have been implicated in regulating polar auxin transport and root gravitropism. Here, we examined the effects of chemical inhibitors of protein phosphatases on root gravitropism and basipetal auxin transport, as well as the expression pattern of AGR1/PIN2 gene and the localization of AGR1/PIN2 protein. We also examined the effects of inhibitors of vesicle trafficking and protein kinases. Our data suggest that protein phosphatases, sensitive to cantharidin and okadaic acid, are likely involved in regulating AGR1/PIN2-mediated root basipetal auxin transport and gravitropism, as well as auxin response in the root central elongation zone (CEZ). BFA-sensitive vesicle trafficking may be required for the cycling of AGR1/PIN2 between plasma membrane and the BFA compartment, but not for the AGR1/PIN2-mediated root basipetal auxin transport and auxin response in CEZ cells.

  8. mTOR regulates skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo through kinase-dependent and kinase-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yejing; Wu, Ai-Luen; Warnes, Christine; Liu, Jianming; Zhang, Chongben; Kawasome, Hideki; Terada, Naohiro; Boppart, Marni D; Schoenherr, Christopher J; Chen, Jie

    2009-12-01

    Rapamycin-sensitive signaling is required for skeletal muscle differentiation and remodeling. In cultured myoblasts, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been reported to regulate differentiation at different stages through distinct mechanisms, including one that is independent of mTOR kinase activity. However, the kinase-independent function of mTOR remains controversial, and no in vivo studies have examined those mTOR myogenic mechanisms previously identified in vitro. In this study, we find that rapamycin impairs injury-induced muscle regeneration. To validate the role of mTOR with genetic evidence and to probe the mechanism of mTOR function, we have generated and characterized transgenic mice expressing two mutants of mTOR under the control of human skeletal actin (HSA) promoter: rapamycin-resistant (RR) and RR/kinase-inactive (RR/KI). Our results show that muscle regeneration in rapamycin-administered mice is restored by RR-mTOR expression. In the RR/KI-mTOR mice, nascent myofiber formation during the early phase of regeneration proceeds in the presence of rapamycin, but growth of the regenerating myofibers is blocked by rapamycin. Igf2 mRNA levels increase drastically during early regeneration, which is sensitive to rapamycin in wild-type muscles but partially resistant to rapamycin in both RR- and RR/KI-mTOR muscles, consistent with mTOR regulation of Igf2 expression in a kinase-independent manner. Furthermore, systemic ablation of S6K1, a target of mTOR kinase, results in impaired muscle growth but normal nascent myofiber formation during regeneration. Therefore, mTOR regulates muscle regeneration through kinase-independent and kinase-dependent mechanisms at the stages of nascent myofiber formation and myofiber growth, respectively.

  9. Reciprocal regulation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 and mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-3

    SciTech Connect

    Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Mauro, Laura J.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2008-11-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-3 (MKP-3) is a putative tumor suppressor. When transiently overexpressed, MKP-3 dephosphorylates and inactivates extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Little is known about the roles of endogenous MKP-3, however. We previously showed that MKP-3 is upregulated in cell lines that express oncogenic Ras. Here we tested the roles of endogenous MKP-3 in modulating ERK1/2 under conditions of chronic stimulation of the Ras/Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 pathway by expression of oncogenic Ras. We used two cell lines: H-ras MCF10A, breast epithelial cells engineered to express H-Ras, and DLD-1, colon cancer cells that express endogenous Ki-Ras. First, we found that MKP-3 acts in a negative feedback loop to suppress basal ERK1/2 when oncogenic Ras stimulates the Ras/Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 cascade. ERK1/2 was required to maintain elevated MKP-3, indicative of a negative feedback loop. Accordingly, knockdown of MKP-3, via siRNA, increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Second, by using siRNA, we found that MKP-3 helps establish the sensitivity of ERK1/2 to extracellular activators by limiting the duration of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Third, we found that the regulation of ERK1/2 by MKP-3 is countered by the complex regulation of MKP-3 by ERK1/2. Potent ERK1/2 activators stimulated the loss of MKP-3 within 30 min due to an ERK1/2-dependent decrease in MKP-3 protein stability. MKP-3 levels recovered within 120 min due to ERK1/2-dependent resynthesis. Preventing MKP-3 resynthesis, via siRNA, prolonged ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Altogether, these results suggest that under the pressure of oncogenic Ras expression, MKP-3 reins in ERK1/2 by serving in ERK1/2-dependent negative feedback pathways.

  10. CEP5 and XIP1/CEPR1 regulate lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Ianto; Smith, Stephanie; Stes, Elisabeth; De Rybel, Bert; Staes, An; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Njo, Maria Fransiska; Dedeyne, Lise; Demol, Hans; Lavenus, Julien; Audenaert, Dominique; Gevaert, Kris; Beeckman, Tom; De Smet, Ive

    2016-01-01

    Roots explore the soil for water and nutrients through the continuous production of lateral roots. Lateral roots are formed at regular distances in a steadily elongating organ, but how future sites for lateral root formation become established is not yet understood. Here, we identified C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE 5 (CEP5) as a novel, auxin-repressed and phloem pole-expressed signal assisting in the formation of lateral roots. In addition, based on genetic and expression data, we found evidence for the involvement of its proposed receptor, XYLEM INTERMIXED WITH PHLOEM 1 (XIP1)/CEP RECEPTOR 1 (CEPR1), during the process of lateral root initiation. In conclusion, we report here on the existence of a peptide ligand−receptor kinase interaction that impacts lateral root initiation. Our results represent an important step towards the understanding of the cellular communication implicated in the early phases of lateral root formation. PMID:27296247

  11. Nutrient and hormonal regulation of pyruvate kinase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Noguchi, T

    1999-01-01

    Mammalian pyruvate kinase (PK), a key glycolytic enzyme, has two genes named PKL and PKM, which produce the L- and R-type isoenzymes by means of alternative promoters, and the M1-and M2-types by mutually exclusive alternative splicing respectively. The expression of these genes is tissue-specific and under developmental, dietary and hormonal control. The L-type isoenzyme (L-PK) gene contains multiple regulatory elements necessary for regulation in the 5' flanking region, up to position -170. Both L-II and L-III elements are required for stimulation of L-PK gene transcription by carbohydrates such as glucose and fructose, although the L-III element is itself responsive to carbohydrates. The L-II element is also responsible for the gene regulation by polyunsaturated fatty acids. Nuclear factor-1 proteins and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, which bind to the L-II element, may also be involved in carbohydrate and polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of the L-PK gene respectively. However, the L-III-element-binding protein that is involved in carbohydrate regulation remains to be clarified, although involvement by an upstream stimulating factor has been proposed. Available evidence suggests that the carbohydrate signalling pathway to the L-PK gene includes a glucose metabolite, possibly glucose 6-phosphate or xylulose 5-phosphate, as well as phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mechanisms. In addition, at least five regulatory elements have been identified in the 5' flanking region of the PKM gene up to position -279. Sp1-family proteins bind to two proximal elements, but the binding of proteins to other elements have not yet been clarified. Glucose may stimulate the transcription of the PKM gene via hexosamine derivatives. Sp1 may be involved in this regulation via its dephosphorylation, although the carbohydrate response element has not been determined precisely in the PKM gene. Thus glucose stimulates transcription of the PKM gene by the mechanism which is probably

  12. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase regulates hepatitis C virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Gwon-Soo; Jeon, Jae-Han; Choi, Yeon-Kyung; Jang, Se Young; Park, Soo Young; Kim, Sung-Woo; Byun, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Sungwoo; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lee, In-Kyu; Kang, Yu Na; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    During replication, hepatitis C virus (HCV) utilizes macromolecules produced by its host cell. This process requires host cellular metabolic reprogramming to favor elevated levels of aerobic glycolysis. Therefore, we evaluated whether pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), a mitochondrial enzyme that promotes aerobic glycolysis, can regulate HCV replication. Levels of c-Myc, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), PDK1, PDK3, glucokinase, and serine biosynthetic enzymes were compared between HCV-infected and uninfected human liver and Huh-7.5 cells infected with or without HCV. Protein and mRNA expression of c-Myc, HIF-1α, and glycolytic enzymes were significantly higher in HCV-infected human liver and hepatocytes than in uninfected controls. This increase was accompanied by upregulation of serine biosynthetic enzymes, suggesting cellular metabolism was altered toward facilitated nucleotide synthesis essential for HCV replication. JQ1, a c-Myc inhibitor, and dichloroacetate (DCA), a PDK inhibitor, decreased the expression of glycolytic and serine synthetic enzymes in HCV-infected hepatocytes, resulting in suppressed viral replication. Furthermore, when co-administered with IFN-α or ribavirin, DCA further inhibited viral replication. In summary, HCV reprograms host cell metabolism to favor glycolysis and serine biosynthesis; this is mediated, at least in part, by increased PDK activity, which provides a surplus of nucleotide precursors. Therefore, blocking PDK activity might have therapeutic benefits against HCV replication. PMID:27471054

  13. Regulation of protein kinase C by the cytoskeletal protein calponin.

    PubMed

    Leinweber, B; Parissenti, A M; Gallant, C; Gangopadhyay, S S; Kirwan-Rhude, A; Leavis, P C; Morgan, K G

    2000-12-22

    Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that, upon agonist activation, calponin co-immunoprecipitates and co-localizes with protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon) in vascular smooth muscle cells. In the present study we demonstrate that calponin binds directly to the regulatory domain of PKC both in overlay assays and, under native conditions, by sedimentation with lipid vesicles. Calponin was found to bind to the C2 region of both PKCepsilon and PKCalpha with possible involvement of C1B. The C2 region of PKCepsilon binds to the calponin repeats with a requirement for the region between amino acids 160 and 182. We have also found that calponin can directly activate PKC autophosphorylation. By using anti-phosphoantibodies to residue Ser-660 of PKCbetaII, we found that calponin, in a lipid-independent manner, increased auto-phosphorylation of PKCalpha, -epsilon, and -betaII severalfold compared with control conditions. Similarly, calponin was found to increase the amount of (32)P-labeled phosphate incorporated into PKC from [gamma-(32)P]ATP. We also observed that calponin addition strongly increased the incorporation of radiolabeled phosphate into an exogenous PKC peptide substrate, suggesting an activation of enzyme activity. Thus, these results raise the possibility that calponin may function in smooth muscle to regulate PKC activity by facilitating the phosphorylation of PKC.

  14. Cytoskeletal Modulation of Lipid Interactions Regulates Lck Kinase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Chichili, Gurunadh R.; Cail, Robert C.; Rodgers, William

    2012-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton promotes clustering of proteins associated with cholesterol-dependent rafts, but its effect on lipid interactions that form and maintain rafts is not understood. We addressed this question by determining the effect of disrupting the cytoskeleton on co-clustering of dihexadecyl-(C16)-anchored DiO and DiI, which co-enrich in ordered lipid environments such as rafts. Co-clustering was assayed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in labeled T cells, where rafts function in the phosphoregulation of the Src family kinase Lck. Our results show that probe co-clustering was sensitive to depolymerization of actin filaments with latrunculin B (Lat B), inhibition of myosin II with blebbistatin, and treatment with neomycin to sequester phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Cytoskeletal effects on lipid interactions were not restricted to order-preferring label because co-clustering of C16-anchored DiO with didodecyl (C12)-anchored DiI, which favors disordered lipids, was also reduced by Lat B and blebbistatin. Furthermore, conditions that disrupted probe co-clustering resulted in activation of Lck. These data show that the cytoskeleton globally modulates lipid interactions in the plasma membrane, and this property maintains rafts that function in Lck regulation. PMID:22613726

  15. IκB Kinase 2 Regulates TPL-2 Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases 1 and 2 by Direct Phosphorylation of TPL-2 Serine 400

    PubMed Central

    Roget, Karine; Ben-Addi, Abduelhakem; Mambole-Dema, Agnes; Gantke, Thorsten; Yang, Huei-Ting; Janzen, Julia; Morrice, Nick; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL-2) functions as a MEK-1/2 kinase, which is essential for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK-1/2) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and for inducing the production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1β. In unstimulated cells, association of TPL-2 with NF-κB1 p105 prevents TPL-2 phosphorylation of MEK-1/2. LPS stimulation of TPL-2 MEK-1/2 kinase activity requires TPL-2 release from p105. This is triggered by IκB kinase 2 (IKK-2) phosphorylation of the p105 PEST region, which promotes p105 ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. LPS activation of ERK-1/2 additionally requires transphosphorylation of TPL-2 on serine 400 in its C terminus, which controls TPL-2 signaling to ERK-1/2 independently of p105. However, the identity of the protein kinase responsible for TPL-2 serine 400 phosphorylation remained unknown. In the present study, we show that TPL-2 serine 400 phosphorylation is mediated by IKK2. The IKK complex therefore regulates two of the key regulatory steps required for TPL-2 activation of ERK-1/2, underlining the close linkage of ERK-1/2 MAP kinase activation to upregulation of NF-κB-dependent transcription. PMID:22988300

  16. A developmentally regulated MAP kinase activated by hydration in tobacco pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C; Voronin, V; Touraev, A; Vicente, O; Heberle-Bors, E

    1997-01-01

    A novel mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway has been identified in tobacco. This pathway is developmentally regulated during pollen maturation and is activated by hydration during pollen germination. Analysis of different stages of pollen development showed that transcriptional and translational induction of MAP kinase synthesis occurs at the mid-bicellular stage of pollen maturation. However, the MAP kinase is stored in an inactive form in the mature, dry pollen grain. Kinase activation is very rapid after hydration of the dry pollen, peaking at approximately 5 min and decreasing thereafter. Immunoprecipitation of the kinase activity by an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody is consistent with the activation of a MAP kinase. The kinetics of activation suggest that the MAP kinase plays a role in the activation of the pollen grain after hydration rather than in pollen tube growth. PMID:9401129

  17. Protein kinase regulation of a cloned epithelial Na+ channel

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    We examined the regulation of a cloned epithelial Na+ channel (alpha beta gamma-rENaC) by protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC). Experiments were performed in Xenopus oocytes and in planar lipid bilayers. At a holding potential of -100 mV, amiloride-sensitive current averaged -1,279 +/- 111 nA (n = 7) in alpha beta gamma-rENaC- expressing oocytes. Currents in water-injected oocytes were essentially unresponsive to 10 microM amiloride. A 1-h stimulation of PKC with 100 nM of PMA inhibited whole-cell currents in Xenopus oocytes to 17.1 +/- 1.8, and 22.1 +/- 2.6% of control (n = 7), at holding potentials of - 100 and +40 mV, respectively. Direct injection of purified PKC resulted in similar inhibition to that observed with PMA. Additionally, the inactive phorbol ester, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, 4-O-methyl, was without effect on alpha beta gamma-rENaC currents. Pretreatment with the microtubule inhibitor colchicine (100 microM) did not modify the inhibitory effect of PMA; however, pretreatment with 20 microM cytochalasin B decreased the inhibitory action of PMA to < 20% of that previously observed. In vitro-synthesized alpha beta gamma-rENaC formed an amiloride-sensitive Na(+)-selective channel when incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. Addition of PKC, diacyl-glycerol, and Mg-ATP to the side opposite that which amiloride blocked, decreased the channel's open probability (Po) from 0.44 +/- 0.06 to 0.13 +/- 0.03 (n = 9). To study the effects of PKA on alpha beta gamma-rENaC expressed in Xenopus oocytes, cAMP levels were elevated with 10 microM forskolin and 1 mM isobutyl-methyl-xanthine. This cAMP-elevating cocktail did not cause any stimulation of alpha beta gamma-rENaC currents in either the inward or outward directions. This lack of activation was also observed in oocytes preinhibited with PMA and in oocytes pretreated with cytochalasin B and PMA. Neither alpha-rENaC nor alpha beta gamma-rENaC incorporated into planar lipid bilayers could be

  18. The Y’s that bind: negative regulators of Src family kinase activity in platelets

    PubMed Central

    NEWMAN, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Members of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases play important roles in platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge regarding how Src family kinase activity is regulated in general, to describe what is known about mechanisms underlying SFK activation in platelets, and to discuss platelet proteins that contribute to SFK inactivation, particularly those that use phosphotyrosine-containing sequences to recruit phosphatases and kinases to sites of SFK activity. PMID:19630799

  19. PREX1 Protein Function Is Negatively Regulated Downstream of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Activation by p21-activated Kinases (PAKs).

    PubMed

    Barrows, Douglas; He, John Z; Parsons, Ramon

    2016-09-16

    Downstream of receptor tyrosine kinase and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) stimulation, the phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3)-dependent Rac exchange factor (PREX) family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) activates Rho GTPases, leading to important roles for PREX proteins in numerous cellular processes and diseases, including cancer. PREX1 and PREX2 GEF activity is activated by the second messengers PIP3 and Gβγ, and further regulation of PREX GEF activity occurs by phosphorylation. Stimulation of receptor tyrosine kinases by neuregulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) leads to the phosphorylation of PREX1; however, the kinases that phosphorylate PREX1 downstream of these ligands are not known. We recently reported that the p21-activated kinases (PAKs), which are activated by GTP-bound Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), mediate the phosphorylation of PREX2 after insulin receptor activation. Here we show that certain phosphorylation events on PREX1 after insulin, neuregulin, and IGF1 treatment are PAK-dependent and lead to a reduction in PREX1 binding to PIP3 Like PREX2, PAK-mediated phosphorylation also negatively regulates PREX1 GEF activity. Furthermore, the onset of PREX1 phosphorylation was delayed compared with the phosphorylation of AKT, supporting a model of negative feedback downstream of PREX1 activation. We also found that the phosphorylation of PREX1 after isoproterenol and prostaglandin E2-mediated GPCR activation is partially PAK-dependent and likely also involves protein kinase A, which is known to reduce PREX1 function. Our data point to multiple mechanisms of PREX1 negative regulation by PAKs within receptor tyrosine kinase and GPCR-stimulated signaling pathways that have important roles in diseases such as diabetes and cancer.

  20. The protein activator of protein kinase R, PACT/RAX, negatively regulates protein kinase R during mouse anterior pituitary development.

    PubMed

    Dickerman, Benjamin K; White, Christine L; Kessler, Patricia M; Sadler, Anthony J; Williams, Bryan R G; Sen, Ganes C

    2015-12-01

    The murine double-stranded RNA-binding protein termed protein kinase R (PKR)-associated protein X (RAX) and the human homolog, protein activator of PKR (PACT), were originally characterized as activators of PKR. Mice deficient in RAX show reproductive and developmental defects, including reduced body size, craniofacial defects and anterior pituitary hypoplasia. As these defects are not observed in PKR-deficient mice, the phenotype has been attributed to PKR-independent activities of RAX. Here we further investigated the involvement of PKR in the physiological function of RAX, by generating rax(-/-) mice deficient in PKR, or carrying a kinase-inactive mutant of PKR (K271R) or an unphosphorylatable mutant of the PKR substrate eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 α subunit (eIF2α) (S51A). Ablating PKR expression rescued the developmental and reproductive deficiencies in rax(-/-) mice. Generating rax(-/-) mice with a kinase-inactive mutant of PKR resulted in similar rescue, confirming that the rax(-/-) defects are PKR dependent; specifically that the kinase activity of PKR was required for these defects. Moreover, generating rax(-/-) mice that were heterozygous for an unphosphorylatable mutant eIF2α provides partial rescue of the rax(-/-) defect, consistent with mutation of one copy of the Eif2s1 gene. These observations were further investigated in vitro by reducing RAX expression in anterior pituitary cells, resulting in increased PKR activity and induction of the PKR-regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1). These results demonstrate that PKR kinase activity is required for onset of the rax(-/-) phenotype, implying an unexpected function for RAX as a negative regulator of PKR in the context of postnatal anterior pituitary tissue, and identify a critical role for the regulation of PKR activity for normal development.

  1. Balancing Water Uptake and Loss through the Coordinated Regulation of Stomatal and Root Development

    PubMed Central

    Hepworth, Christopher; Turner, Carla; Landim, Marcela Guimaraes; Cameron, Duncan; Gray, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Root development is influenced by nutrient and water availabilities. Plants are able to adjust many attributes of their root in response to environmental signals including the size and shape of the primary root, lateral roots and root hairs. Here we investigated the response of roots to changes in the levels of leaf transpiration associated with altered stomatal frequency. We found that plants with high stomatal density and conductance produce a larger rooting area and as a result have enhanced phosphate uptake capacity whereas plants with low stomatal conductance produce a smaller root. Manipulating the growth environment of plants indicated that enhanced root growth is most likely a result of an increased demand for water rather than phosphate. Plants manipulated to have an increase or reduction in root hair growth show a reduction or increase respectively, in stomatal conductance and density. Our results demonstrate that plants can balance their water uptake and loss through coordinated regulation of both stomatal and root development. PMID:27275842

  2. Arabidopsis ABA-Activated Kinase MAPKKK18 is Regulated by Protein Phosphatase 2C ABI1 and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway.

    PubMed

    Mitula, Filip; Tajdel, Malgorzata; Cieśla, Agata; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Kulik, Anna; Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal; Dobrowolska, Grazyna; Sadowski, Jan; Ludwików, Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events play an important role in the transmission of the ABA signal. Although SnRK2 [sucrose non-fermenting1-related kinase2] protein kinases and group A protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C)-type phosphatases constitute the core ABA pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are also involved in plant response to ABA. However, little is known about the interplay between MAPKs and PP2Cs or SnRK2 in the regulation of ABA pathways. In this study, an effort was made to elucidate the role of MAP kinase kinase kinase18 (MKKK18) in relation to ABA signaling and response. The MKKK18 knockout lines showed more vigorous root growth, decreased abaxial stomatal index and increased stomatal aperture under normal growth conditions, compared with the control wild-type Columbia line. In addition to transcriptional regulation of the MKKK18 promoter by ABA, we demonstrated using in vitro and in vivo kinase assays that the kinase activity of MKKK18 was regulated by ABA. Analysis of the cellular localization of MKKK18 showed that the active kinase was targeted specifically to the nucleus. Notably, we identified abscisic acid insensitive 1 (ABI1) PP2C as a MKKK18-interacting protein, and demonstrated that ABI1 inhibited its activity. Using a cell-free degradation assay, we also established that MKKK18 was unstable and was degraded by the proteasome pathway. The rate of MKKK18 degradation was delayed in the ABI1 knockout line. Overall, we provide evidence that ABI1 regulates the activity and promotes proteasomal degradation of MKKK18.

  3. Arabidopsis ABA-Activated Kinase MAPKKK18 is Regulated by Protein Phosphatase 2C ABI1 and the Ubiquitin–Proteasome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mitula, Filip; Tajdel, Malgorzata; Cieśla, Agata; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Kulik, Anna; Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal; Dobrowolska, Grazyna; Sadowski, Jan; Ludwików, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events play an important role in the transmission of the ABA signal. Although SnRK2 [sucrose non-fermenting1-related kinase2] protein kinases and group A protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C)-type phosphatases constitute the core ABA pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are also involved in plant response to ABA. However, little is known about the interplay between MAPKs and PP2Cs or SnRK2 in the regulation of ABA pathways. In this study, an effort was made to elucidate the role of MAP kinase kinase kinase18 (MKKK18) in relation to ABA signaling and response. The MKKK18 knockout lines showed more vigorous root growth, decreased abaxial stomatal index and increased stomatal aperture under normal growth conditions, compared with the control wild-type Columbia line. In addition to transcriptional regulation of the MKKK18 promoter by ABA, we demonstrated using in vitro and in vivo kinase assays that the kinase activity of MKKK18 was regulated by ABA. Analysis of the cellular localization of MKKK18 showed that the active kinase was targeted specifically to the nucleus. Notably, we identified abscisic acid insensitive 1 (ABI1) PP2C as a MKKK18-interacting protein, and demonstrated that ABI1 inhibited its activity. Using a cell-free degradation assay, we also established that MKKK18 was unstable and was degraded by the proteasome pathway. The rate of MKKK18 degradation was delayed in the ABI1 knockout line. Overall, we provide evidence that ABI1 regulates the activity and promotes proteasomal degradation of MKKK18. PMID:26443375

  4. MAP Kinase-Mediated Negative Regulation of Symbiotic Nodule Formation in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hojin; Laffont, Carole; Frugier, Florian; Hwang, Ildoo

    2017-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades play critical roles in various cellular events in plants, including stress responses, innate immunity, hormone signaling, and cell specificity. MAPK-mediated stress signaling is also known to negatively regulate nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interactions, but the molecular mechanism of the MAPK signaling cascades underlying the symbiotic nodule development remains largely unknown. We show that the MtMKK5-MtMPK3/6 signaling module negatively regulates the early symbiotic nodule formation, probably upstream of ERN1 (ERF Required for Nodulation 1) and NSP1 (Nod factor Signaling Pathway 1) in Medicago truncatula. The overexpression of MtMKK5 stimulated stress and defense signaling pathways but also reduced nodule formation in M. truncatula roots. Conversely, a MAPK specific inhibitor, U0126, enhanced nodule formation and the expression of an early nodulation marker gene, MtNIN. We found that MtMKK5 directly activates MtMPK3/6 by phosphorylating the TEY motif within the activation loop and that the MtMPK3/6 proteins physically interact with the early nodulation-related transcription factors ERN1 and NSP1. These data suggest that the stress signaling-mediated MtMKK5/MtMPK3/6 module suppresses symbiotic nodule development via the action of early nodulation transcription factors. PMID:28152300

  5. Cell Type-Specific Gene Expression Analyses by RNA Sequencing Reveal Local High Nitrate-Triggered Lateral Root Initiation in Shoot-Borne Roots of Maize by Modulating Auxin-Related Cell Cycle Regulation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Peng; Eggert, Kai; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Li, Chunjian; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a unique plasticity of their root system architecture to flexibly exploit heterogeneously distributed mineral elements from soil. Local high concentrations of nitrate trigger lateral root initiation in adult shoot-borne roots of maize (Zea mays) by increasing the frequency of early divisions of phloem pole pericycle cells. Gene expression profiling revealed that, within 12 h of local high nitrate induction, cell cycle activators (cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclin B) were up-regulated, whereas repressors (Kip-related proteins) were down-regulated in the pericycle of shoot-borne roots. In parallel, a ubiquitin protein ligase S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein1-cullin-F-box proteinS-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein 2B-related proteasome pathway participated in cell cycle control. The division of pericycle cells was preceded by increased levels of free indole-3-acetic acid in the stele, resulting in DR5-red fluorescent protein-marked auxin response maxima at the phloem poles. Moreover, laser-capture microdissection-based gene expression analyses indicated that, at the same time, a significant local high nitrate induction of the monocot-specific PIN-FORMED9 gene in phloem pole cells modulated auxin efflux to pericycle cells. Time-dependent gene expression analysis further indicated that local high nitrate availability resulted in PIN-FORMED9-mediated auxin efflux and subsequent cell cycle activation, which culminated in the initiation of lateral root primordia. This study provides unique insights into how adult maize roots translate information on heterogeneous nutrient availability into targeted root developmental responses. PMID:26198256

  6. Cell Type-Specific Gene Expression Analyses by RNA Sequencing Reveal Local High Nitrate-Triggered Lateral Root Initiation in Shoot-Borne Roots of Maize by Modulating Auxin-Related Cell Cycle Regulation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng; Eggert, Kai; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Li, Chunjian; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Plants have evolved a unique plasticity of their root system architecture to flexibly exploit heterogeneously distributed mineral elements from soil. Local high concentrations of nitrate trigger lateral root initiation in adult shoot-borne roots of maize (Zea mays) by increasing the frequency of early divisions of phloem pole pericycle cells. Gene expression profiling revealed that, within 12 h of local high nitrate induction, cell cycle activators (cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclin B) were up-regulated, whereas repressors (Kip-related proteins) were down-regulated in the pericycle of shoot-borne roots. In parallel, a ubiquitin protein ligase S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein1-cullin-F-box protein(S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein 2B)-related proteasome pathway participated in cell cycle control. The division of pericycle cells was preceded by increased levels of free indole-3-acetic acid in the stele, resulting in DR5-red fluorescent protein-marked auxin response maxima at the phloem poles. Moreover, laser-capture microdissection-based gene expression analyses indicated that, at the same time, a significant local high nitrate induction of the monocot-specific PIN-FORMED9 gene in phloem pole cells modulated auxin efflux to pericycle cells. Time-dependent gene expression analysis further indicated that local high nitrate availability resulted in PIN-FORMED9-mediated auxin efflux and subsequent cell cycle activation, which culminated in the initiation of lateral root primordia. This study provides unique insights into how adult maize roots translate information on heterogeneous nutrient availability into targeted root developmental responses.

  7. Engineering the expression level of cytosolic nucleoside diphosphate kinase in transgenic Solanum tuberosum roots alters growth, respiration and carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dorion, Sonia; Clendenning, Audrey; Rivoal, Jean

    2017-03-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the γ-phosphate from a donor nucleoside triphosphate to an acceptor nucleoside diphosphate. In this study we used a targeted metabolomic approach and measurement of physiological parameters to report the effects of the genetic manipulation of cytosolic NDPK (NDPK1) expression on physiology and carbon metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum) roots. Sense and antisense NDPK1 constructs were introduced in potato using Agrobacterium rhizogenes to generate a population of root clones displaying a 40-fold difference in NDPK activity. Root growth, O2 uptake, flux of carbon between sucrose and CO2 , levels of reactive oxygen species and some tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates were positively correlated with levels of NDPK1 expression. In addition, NDPK1 levels positively affected UDP-glucose and cellulose contents. The activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, a key enzyme in starch synthesis, was higher in antisense roots than in roots overexpressing NDPK1. Further analyses demonstrated that ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was more oxidized, and therefore less active, in sense clones than antisense clones. Consequently, antisense NDPK1 roots accumulated more starch and the starch to cellulose ratio was negatively affected by the level of NDPK1. These data support the idea that modulation of NDPK1 affects the distribution of carbon between starch and cellulose biosynthetic pathways.

  8. AOP-1 interacts with cardiac-specific protein kinase TNNI3K and down-regulates its kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Dong-Qing; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Zhao; Cao, Hui-Qing; Wang, Lai-Yuan; Shi, Na; Meng, Xian-Min

    2007-11-01

    In the present study, a yeast two-hybrid screening system was used to identify the interaction partners of cardiac troponin I-interacting kinase (TNNI3K) that might serve as regulators or targets, and thus in turn to gain some insights on the roles of TNNI3K. After screening the adult heart cDNA library with a bait construct encoding the ANK motif of TNNI3K, antioxidant protein 1 (AOP-1) was isolated. The interaction between TNNI3K and AOP-1 was confirmed by the in vitro binding assay and coexpression experiments in vivo. The colocalization of TNNI3K and AOP-1 was clarified by confocal immunofluorescence. Moreover, coexpression of AOP-1 inhibited TNNI3K kinase activity in the in vitro kinase assay.

  9. Differential Transcriptional Regulation in Roots of Tomato Near-Isogenic Lines in Response to Rapid-Onset Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    Arms, Erin M.; Yan, Zhanghang; St.Clair, Dina A.

    2017-01-01

    Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is susceptible to abiotic stresses, including drought and chilling stress, while its wild relative (Solanum habrochaites) exhibits tolerance to many abiotic stresses. Chilling roots to 6°C induces rapid-onset water stress by impeding water movement from roots to shoots. Wild S. habrochaites responds to root chilling by closing stomata and maintaining shoot turgor, while cultivated tomato fails to close stomata and wilts. This phenotypic response (shoot turgor maintenance under root chilling) is controlled by a major QTL stm9 on chromosome 9 from S. habrochaites that was previously high-resolution mapped to a 0.32 cM region, but its effects on transcriptional regulation were unknown. Here we used paired near isogenic lines (NILs) differing only for the presence or absence of the S. habrochaites introgression containing stm9 in an otherwise S. lycopersicum background to investigate global transcriptional regulation in response to rapid-onset water stress induced by root chilling. NIL175 contains the S. habrochaites introgression and exhibits tolerance to root chilling stress, while NIL163 does not contain the introgression and is susceptible. RNA from roots of the two NILs was obtained at five time points during exposure to root chilling and mRNA-Seq performed. Differential expression analysis and hierarchical clustering of transcript levels were used to determine patterns of and changes in mRNA levels. Our results show that the transcriptional response of roots exposed to chilling stress is complex, with both overlapping and unique responses in tolerant and susceptible lines. In general, susceptible NIL 163 had a more complex transcriptional response to root chilling, while NIL175 exhibited a more targeted response to the imposed stress. Our evidence suggests that both the tolerant and susceptible NILs may be primed for response to root-chilling, with many of these response genes located on chromosome 9. Furthermore

  10. Multiple phytohormones promote root hair elongation by regulating a similar set of genes in the root epidermis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shan; Huang, Linli; Yan, An; Liu, Yihua; Liu, Bohan; Yu, Chunyan; Zhang, Aidong; Schiefelbein, John; Gan, Yinbo

    2016-01-01

    Multiple phytohormones, including auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin, play vital roles in regulating cell development in the root epidermis. However, their interactions in specific root hair cell developmental stages are largely unexplored. To bridge this gap, we employed genetic and pharmacological approaches as well as transcriptional analysis in order to dissect their distinct and overlapping roles in root hair initiation and elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that among auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin, only ethylene induces ectopic root hair cells in wild-type plants, implying a special role of ethylene in the hair initiation stage. In the subsequent elongation stage, however, auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin enhance root hair tip growth equally. Our data also suggest that the effect of cytokinin is independent from auxin and ethylene in this process. Exogenous cytokinin restores root hair elongation when the auxin and ethylene signal is defective, whereas auxin and ethylene also sustain elongation in the absence of the cytokinin signal. Notably, transcriptional analyses demonstrated that auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin regulate a similar set of root hair-specific genes. Together these analyses provide important clues regarding the mechanism of hormonal interactions and regulation in the formation of single-cell structures. PMID:27799284

  11. Glucagon receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 via cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Youwei; Cypess, Aaron M.; Muse, Evan D.; Wu, Cui-Rong; Unson, Cecilia G.; Merrifield, R. B.; Sakmar, Thomas P.

    2001-01-01

    We prepared a stable cell line expressing the glucagon receptor to characterize the effect of Gs-coupled receptor stimulation on extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity. Glucagon treatment of the cell line caused a dose-dependent increase in cAMP concentration, activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and transient release of intracellular calcium. Glucagon treatment also caused rapid dose-dependent phosphorylation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK kinase (MEK1/2) and ERK1/2. Inhibition of either PKA or MEK1/2 blocked ERK1/2 activation by glucagon. However, no significant activation of several upstream activators of MEK, including Ras, Rap1, and Raf, was observed in response to glucagon treatment. In addition, chelation of intracellular calcium reduced glucagon-mediated ERK1/2 activation. In transient transfection experiments, glucagon receptor mutants that bound glucagon but failed to increase intracellular cAMP and calcium concentrations showed no glucagon-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation. We conclude that glucagon-induced MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation is mediated by PKA and that an increase in intracellular calcium concentration is required for maximal ERK activation. PMID:11517300

  12. Dissecting the regulation of fructan metabolism in chicory (Cichorium intybus) hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Ute; Greiner, Steffen; Steininger, Heike; Meyer, Alain Denis; Corbière-Divialle, Hélène; Harms, Karsten; Rausch, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen per cent of higher plants accumulate fructans. Plant development, nutritional status and stress exposure all affect fructan metabolism, and while fructan biochemistry is well understood, knowledge of its regulation has remained fragmentary. Here, we have explored chicory (Cichorium intybus) hairy root cultures (HRCs) to study the regulation of fructan metabolism in sink tissues in response to environmental cues. In standard medium (SM), HRCs did not accumulate inulin. However, upon transfer to high-carbon (C)/low-nitrogen (N) medium, expression of sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) was strongly induced and inulin accumulated. Upon return to SM, inulin was degraded, together with a coordinate decline of 1-SST and 1-FFT expression. In HRCs, cold-induced expression of fructan 1-exohydrolases (1-FEH I and IIa) was similar to cold induction in taproots, even in the absence of accumulated inulin. For high-C/low-N induction of 1-SST and 1-FFT, and cold induction of 1-FEH I and IIa, the signaling pathways were addressed. While 1-SST and 1-FFT induction was similarly prevented by inhibitors of Ca(2+) signaling, protein kinases and phosphatases, cold induction of 1-FEH I and IIa revealed distinct signaling pathways. In summary, this study has established chicory HRCs as a convenient experimental system with which to study the regulation of fructan active enzyme (FAZY) expression in heterotrophic cells.

  13. Small molecule modulators of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinases, the key regulators of protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Manali; Kulkarni, Abhijeet; Pal, Jayanta K

    2013-11-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha kinases (eIF-2α kinases) are key mediators of stress response in cells. In mammalian cells, there are four eIF-2α kinases, namely HRI (Heme-Regulated Inhibitor), PKR (RNA-dependent Protein Kinase), PERK (PKR-like ER Kinase) and GCN2 (General Control Non-derepressible 2). These kinases get activated during diverse cytoplasmic stress conditions and phosphorylate the alpha-subunit of eIF2, leading to global protein synthesis inhibition. Therefore, eIF-2α kinases play a vital role in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and cell signaling. Deregulation of eIF-2α kinases and protein synthesis has been linked to numerous pathological conditions such as certain cancers, anemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, modulation of these kinases by small molecules holds a great therapeutic promise. In this review we have compiled the available information on inhibitors and activators of these four eIF-2α kinases. The review concludes with a note on the selectivity issue of currently available modulators and future perspectives for the design of specific small molecule probes.

  14. Caveolin-1 regulates shear stress-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, H.; Go, Y. M.; Darji, R.; Choi, J. W.; Lisanti, M. P.; Maland, M. C.; Jo, H.

    2000-01-01

    Fluid shear stress activates a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), by mechanisms dependent on cholesterol in the plasma membrane in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Caveolae are microdomains of the plasma membrane that are enriched with cholesterol, caveolin, and signaling molecules. We hypothesized that caveolin-1 regulates shear activation of ERK. Because caveolin-1 is not exposed to the outside, cells were minimally permeabilized by Triton X-100 (0.01%) to deliver a neutralizing, polyclonal caveolin-1 antibody (pCav-1) inside the cells. pCav-1 then bound to caveolin-1 and inhibited shear activation of ERK but not c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Epitope mapping studies showed that pCav-1 binds to caveolin-1 at two regions (residues 1-21 and 61-101). When the recombinant proteins containing the epitopes fused to glutathione-S-transferase (GST-Cav(1-21) or GST-Cav(61-101)) were preincubated with pCav-1, only GST-Cav(61-101) reversed the inhibitory effect of the antibody on shear activation of ERK. Other antibodies, including m2234, which binds to caveolin-1 residues 1-21, had no effect on shear activation of ERK. Caveolin-1 residues 61-101 contain the scaffolding and oligomerization domains, suggesting that binding of pCav-1 to these regions likely disrupts the clustering of caveolin-1 or its interaction with signaling molecules involved in the shear-sensitive ERK pathway. We suggest that caveolae-like domains play a critical role in the mechanosensing and/or mechanosignal transduction of the ERK pathway.

  15. Scaffold Proteins Regulating Extracellular Regulated Kinase Function in Cardiac Hypertrophy and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Sheikh, Farah

    2016-01-01

    The mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway is a central downstream signaling pathway that is activated in cardiac muscle cells during mechanical and agonist-mediated hypertrophy. Studies in genetic mouse models deficient in ERK-associated MAPK components pathway have further reinforced a direct role for this pathway in stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy and disease. However, more recent studies have highlighted that these signaling pathways may exert their regulatory functions in a more compartmentalized manner in cardiac muscle. Emerging data has uncovered specific MAPK scaffolding proteins that tether MAPK/ERK signaling specifically at the sarcomere and plasma membrane in cardiac muscle and show that deficiencies in these scaffolding proteins alter ERK activity and phosphorylation, which are then critical in altering the cardiac myocyte response to stress-induced hypertrophy and disease progression. In this review, we provide insights on ERK-associated scaffolding proteins regulating cardiac myofilament function and their impact on cardiac hypertrophy and disease. PMID:26973524

  16. Regulation of casein kinase 2 by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Agostinis, P; Goris, J; Pinna, L A; Merlevede, W

    1987-01-01

    The effects of various polycation-stimulated (PCS) phosphatases and of the active catalytic subunit of the ATPMg-dependent (AMDc) protein phosphatase on the activity of casein kinase 2 (CK-2) were investigated by using the synthetic peptide substrate Ser-Glu-Glu-Glu-Glu-Glu, whose phosphorylated derivative is entirely insensitive to these protein phosphatases. Previous dephosphorylation of native CK-2 enhances its specific activity 2-3-fold. Such an effect, accounted for by an increase in Vmax, is more readily promoted by the PCS phosphatases than by the AMDc phosphatase. The phosphate incorporated by autophosphorylation could not be removed by the protein phosphatases, suggesting the involvement of phosphorylation site(s) other than the one(s) affected by intramolecular autophosphorylation. The activation of CK-2 by the phosphatase pretreatment is neutralized during the kinase assay; the mechanism of this phenomenon, which is highly dependent on the kinase concentration, is discussed. Images Fig. 4. PMID:2829841

  17. Regulation of casein kinase 2 by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Agostinis, P; Goris, J; Pinna, L A; Merlevede, W

    1987-12-15

    The effects of various polycation-stimulated (PCS) phosphatases and of the active catalytic subunit of the ATPMg-dependent (AMDc) protein phosphatase on the activity of casein kinase 2 (CK-2) were investigated by using the synthetic peptide substrate Ser-Glu-Glu-Glu-Glu-Glu, whose phosphorylated derivative is entirely insensitive to these protein phosphatases. Previous dephosphorylation of native CK-2 enhances its specific activity 2-3-fold. Such an effect, accounted for by an increase in Vmax, is more readily promoted by the PCS phosphatases than by the AMDc phosphatase. The phosphate incorporated by autophosphorylation could not be removed by the protein phosphatases, suggesting the involvement of phosphorylation site(s) other than the one(s) affected by intramolecular autophosphorylation. The activation of CK-2 by the phosphatase pretreatment is neutralized during the kinase assay; the mechanism of this phenomenon, which is highly dependent on the kinase concentration, is discussed.

  18. Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich kinase: A novel regulator of intestinal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yutao; Merlin, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Recently, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been the subject of considerable research, with increasing attention being paid to the loss of intestinal epithelial cell barrier function as a mechanism of pathogenesis. Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) is involved in regulating barrier function. SPAK is known to interact with inflammation-related kinases (such as p38, JNK, NKCC1, PKCtheta;, WNK and MLCK), and with transcription factor AP-1, resulting in diverse biological phenomena, including cell differentiation, cell transformation and proliferation, cytoskeleton rearrangement, and regulation of chloride transport. This review examines the involvement of Ste20-like kinases and downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways in the pathogenesis and control of intestinal inflammation. The primary focus will be on the molecular features of intestinal inflammation, with an emphasis on the interaction between SPAK and other molecules, and the effect of these interactions on homeostatic maintenance, cell volume regulation and increased cell permeability in intestinal inflammation. PMID:18985800

  19. The S-Domain Receptor Kinase Arabidopsis Receptor Kinase2 and the U Box/Armadillo Repeat-Containing E3 Ubiquitin Ligase9 Module Mediates Lateral Root Development under Phosphate Starvation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Deb, Srijani; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Wewala, Gayathri; Widdup, Ellen; Samuel, Marcus A

    2014-08-01

    When plants encounter nutrient-limiting conditions in the soil, the root architecture is redesigned to generate numerous lateral roots (LRs) that increase the surface area of roots, promoting efficient uptake of these deficient nutrients. Of the many essential nutrients, reduced availability of inorganic phosphate has a major impact on plant growth because of the requirement of inorganic phosphate for synthesis of organic molecules, such as nucleic acids, ATP, and phospholipids, that function in various crucial metabolic activities. In our screens to identify a potential role for the S-domain receptor kinase1-6 and its interacting downstream signaling partner, the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plant U box/armadillo repeat-containing E3 ligase9 (AtPUB9), we identified a role for this module in regulating LR development under phosphate-starved conditions. Our results show that Arabidopsis double mutant plants lacking AtPUB9 and Arabidopsis Receptor Kinase2 (AtARK2; ark2-1/pub9-1) display severely reduced LRs when grown under phosphate-starved conditions. Under these starvation conditions, these plants accumulated very low to no auxin in their primary root and LR tips as observed through expression of the auxin reporter DR5::uidA transgene. Exogenous auxin was sufficient to rescue the LR developmental defects in the ark2-1/pub9-1 lines, indicating a requirement of auxin accumulation for this process. Our subcellular localization studies with tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension-cultured cells indicate that interaction between ARK2 and AtPUB9 results in accumulation of AtPUB9 in the autophagosomes. Inhibition of autophagy in wild-type plants resulted in reduction of LR development and auxin accumulation under phosphate-starved conditions, suggesting a role for autophagy in regulating LR development. Thus, our study has uncovered a previously unknown signaling module (ARK2-PUB9) that is required for auxin-mediated LR development under phosphate-starved conditions.

  20. Atypical protein kinase C regulates primary dendrite specification of cerebellar Purkinje cells by localizing Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Koji; Kani, Shuichi; Shimizu, Takashi; Bae, Young-Ki; Abe, Takaya; Hibi, Masahiko

    2010-12-15

    Neurons have highly polarized structures that determine what parts of the soma elaborate the axon and dendrites. However, little is known about the mechanisms that establish neuronal polarity in vivo. Cerebellar Purkinje cells extend a single primary dendrite from the soma that ramifies into a highly branched dendritic arbor. We used the zebrafish cerebellum to investigate the mechanisms by which Purkinje cells acquire these characteristics. To examine dendritic morphogenesis in individual Purkinje cells, we marked the cell membrane using a Purkinje cell-specific promoter to drive membrane-targeted fluorescent proteins. We found that zebrafish Purkinje cells initially extend multiple neurites from the soma and subsequently retract all but one, which becomes the primary dendrite. In addition, the Golgi apparatus specifically locates to the root of the primary dendrite, and its localization is already established in immature Purkinje cells that have multiple neurites. Inhibiting secretory trafficking through the Golgi apparatus reduces dendritic growth, suggesting that the Golgi apparatus is involved in the dendritic morphogenesis. We also demonstrated that in a mutant of an atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), Prkci, Purkinje cells retain multiple primary dendrites and show disrupted localization of the Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, a mosaic inhibition of Prkci in Purkinje cells recapitulates the aPKC mutant phenotype. These results suggest that the aPKC cell autonomously controls the Golgi localization and thereby regulates the specification of the primary dendrite of Purkinje cells.

  1. Lack of Csk-mediated negative regulation in a unicellular SRC kinase.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Kira P; Suga, Hiroshi; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki; Miller, W Todd

    2012-10-16

    Phosphotyrosine-based signaling plays a vital role in cellular communication in multicellular organisms. Unexpectedly, unicellular choanoflagellates (the closest phylogenetic group to metazoans) possess numbers of tyrosine kinases that are comparable to those in complex metazoans. Here, we have characterized tyrosine kinases from the filasterean Capsaspora owczarzaki, a unicellular protist representing the sister group to choanoflagellates and metazoans. Two Src-like tyrosine kinases have been identified in C. owczarzaki (CoSrc1 and CoSrc2), both of which have the arrangement of SH3, SH2, and catalytic domains seen in mammalian Src kinases. In Capsaspora cells, CoSrc1 and CoSrc2 localize to punctate structures in filopodia that may represent primordial focal adhesions. We have cloned, expressed, and purified both enzymes. CoSrc1 and CoSrc2 are active tyrosine kinases. Mammalian Src kinases are normally regulated in a reciprocal fashion by autophosphorylation in the activation loop (which increases activity) and by Csk-mediated phosphorylation of the C-terminal tail (which inhibits activity). Similar to mammalian Src kinases, the enzymatic activities of CoSrc1 and CoSrc2 are increased by autophosphorylation in the activation loop. We have identified a Csk-like kinase (CoCsk) in the genome of C. owczarzaki. We cloned, expressed, and purified CoCsk and found that it has no measurable tyrosine kinase activity. Furthermore, CoCsk does not phosphorylate or regulate CoSrc1 or CoSrc2 in cells or in vitro, and CoSrc1 and CoSrc2 are active in Capsaspora cell lysates. Thus, the function of Csk as a negative regulator of Src family kinases appears to have arisen with the emergence of metazoans.

  2. Integrated stress response of vertebrates is regulated by four eIF2α kinases

    PubMed Central

    Taniuchi, Shusuke; Miyake, Masato; Tsugawa, Kazue; Oyadomari, Miho; Oyadomari, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    The integrated stress response (ISR) is a cytoprotective pathway initiated upon phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) residue designated serine-51, which is critical for translational control in response to various stress conditions. Four eIF2α kinases, namely heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI), protein kinase R (PKR), PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, (PERK) and general control non-depressible 2 (GCN2), have been identified thus far, and they are known to be activated by heme depletion, viral infection, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and amino acid starvation, respectively. Because eIF2α is phosphorylated under various stress conditions, the existence of an additional eIF2α kinase has been suggested. To validate the existence of the unidentified eIF2α kinase, we constructed an eIF2α kinase quadruple knockout cells (4KO cells) in which the four known eIF2α kinase genes were deleted using the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. Phosphorylation of eIF2α was completely abolished in the 4KO cells by various stress stimulations. Our data suggests that the four known eIF2α kinases are sufficient for ISR and that there are no additional eIF2α kinases in vertebrates. PMID:27633668

  3. Novel protein kinase signaling systems regulating lifespan identified by small molecule library screening using Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Spindler, Stephen R; Li, Rui; Dhahbi, Joseph M; Yamakawa, Amy; Sauer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinase signaling cascades control most aspects of cellular function. The ATP binding domains of signaling protein kinases are the targets of most available inhibitors. These domains are highly conserved from mammals to flies. Herein we describe screening of a library of small molecule inhibitors of protein kinases for their ability to increase Drosophila lifespan. We developed an assay system which allowed screening using the small amounts of materials normally present in commercial chemical libraries. The studies identified 17 inhibitors, the majority of which targeted tyrosine kinases associated with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), the insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGFI) receptors. Comparison of the protein kinase signaling effects of the inhibitors in vitro defined a consensus intracellular signaling profile which included decreased signaling by p38MAPK (p38), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and protein kinase C (PKC). If confirmed, many of these kinases will be novel additions to the signaling cascades known to regulate metazoan longevity.

  4. Role of diacylglycerol-regulated protein kinase C isotypes in growth factor activation of the Raf-1 protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, H; Smola, U; Wixler, V; Eisenmann-Tappe, I; Diaz-Meco, M T; Moscat, J; Rapp, U; Cooper, G M

    1997-01-01

    The Raf protein kinases function downstream of Ras guanine nucleotide-binding proteins to transduce intracellular signals from growth factor receptors. Interaction with Ras recruits Raf to the plasma membrane, but the subsequent mechanism of Raf activation has not been established. Previous studies implicated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in Raf activation; therefore, we investigated the role of the epsilon isotype of protein kinase C (PKC), which is stimulated by PC-derived diacylglycerol, as a Raf activator. A dominant negative mutant of PKC epsilon inhibited both proliferation of NIH 3T3 cells and activation of Raf in COS cells. Conversely, overexpression of active PKC epsilon stimulated Raf kinase activity in COS cells and overcame the inhibitory effects of dominant negative Ras in NIH 3T3 cells. PKC epsilon also stimulated Raf kinase in baculovirus-infected Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells and was able to directly activate Raf in vitro. Consistent with its previously reported activity as a Raf activator in vitro, PKC alpha functioned similarly to PKC epsilon in both NIH 3T3 and COS cell assays. In addition, constitutively active mutants of both PKC alpha and PKC epsilon overcame the inhibitory effects of dominant negative mutants of the other PKC isotype, indicating that these diacylglycerol-regulated PKCs function as redundant activators of Raf-1 in vivo. PMID:9001227

  5. Down-Regulation of the Met Receptor Tyrosine Kinase by Presenilin-dependent Regulated Intramembrane Proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Foveau, Bénédicte; Ancot, Frédéric; Leroy, Catherine; Petrelli, Annalisa; Reiss, Karina; Vingtdeux, Valérie; Giordano, Silvia; Fafeur, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) acts through the membrane-anchored Met receptor tyrosine kinase to induce invasive growth. Deregulation of this signaling is associated with tumorigenesis and involves, in most cases, overexpression of the receptor. We demonstrate that Met is processed in epithelial cells by presenilin-dependent regulated intramembrane proteolysis (PS-RIP) independently of ligand stimulation. The proteolytic process involves sequential cleavage by metalloproteases and the γ-secretase complex, leading to generation of labile fragments. In normal epithelial cells, although expression of cleavable Met by PS-RIP is down-regulated, uncleavable Met displayed membrane accumulation and induced ligand-independent motility and morphogenesis. Inversely, in transformed cells, the Met inhibitory antibody DN30 is able to promote Met PS-RIP, resulting in down-regulation of the receptor and inhibition of the Met-dependent invasive growth. This demonstrates the original involvement of a proteolytic process in degradation of the Met receptor implicated in negative regulation of invasive growth. PMID:19297528

  6. Tyrosine phosphorylation on spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is differentially regulated in human and murine platelets by protein kinase C isoforms.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Lorena; Bhavanasi, Dheeraj; Dangelmaier, Carol; Manne, Bhanu Kanth; Badolia, Rachit; Borgognone, Alessandra; Tsygankov, Alexander Y; McKenzie, Steven E; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2013-10-04

    Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms differentially regulate platelet functional responses downstream of glycoprotein VI (GPVI) signaling, but the role of PKCs regulating upstream effectors such as Syk is not known. We investigated the role of PKC on Syk tyrosine phosphorylation using the pan-PKC inhibitor GF109203X (GFX). GPVI-mediated phosphorylation on Syk Tyr-323, Tyr-352, and Tyr-525/526 was rapidly dephosphorylated, but GFX treatment inhibited this dephosphorylation on Tyr-525/526 in human platelets but not in wild type murine platelets. GFX treatment did not affect tyrosine phosphorylation on FcRγ chain or Src family kinases. Phosphorylation of Lat Tyr-191 and PLCγ2 Tyr-759 was also increased upon treatment with GFX. We evaluated whether secreted ADP is required for such dephosphorylation. Exogenous addition of ADP to GFX-treated platelets did not affect tyrosine phosphorylation on Syk. FcγRIIA- or CLEC-2-mediated Syk tyrosine phosphorylation was also potentiated with GFX in human platelets. Because potentiation of Syk phosphorylation is not observed in murine platelets, PKC-deficient mice cannot be used to identify the PKC isoform regulating Syk phosphorylation. We therefore used selective inhibitors of PKC isoforms. Only PKCβ inhibition resulted in Syk hyperphosphorylation similar to that in platelets treated with GFX. This result indicates that PKCβ is the isoform responsible for Syk negative regulation in human platelets. In conclusion, we have elucidated a novel pathway of Syk regulation by PKCβ in human platelets.

  7. Auxin and Epigenetic Regulation of SKP2B, an F-Box That Represses Lateral Root Formation1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Manzano, Concepción; Ramirez-Parra, Elena; Casimiro, Ilda; Otero, Sofía; Desvoyes, Bénédicte; De Rybel, Bert; Beeckman, Tom; Casero, Pedro; Gutierrez, Crisanto; C. del Pozo, Juan

    2012-01-01

    In plants, lateral roots originate from pericycle founder cells that are specified at regular intervals along the main root. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SKP2B (for S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein2B), an F-box protein, negatively regulates cell cycle and lateral root formation as it represses meristematic and founder cell divisions. According to its function, SKP2B is expressed in founder cells, lateral root primordia and the root apical meristem. We identified a novel motif in the SKP2B promoter that is required for its specific root expression and auxin-dependent induction in the pericycle cells. Next to a transcriptional control by auxin, SKP2B expression is regulated by histone H3.1/H3.3 deposition in a CAF-dependent manner. The SKP2B promoter and the 5′ end of the transcribed region are enriched in H3.3, which is associated with active chromatin states, over H3.1. Furthermore, the SKP2B promoter is also regulated by H3 acetylation in an auxin- and IAA14-dependent manner, reinforcing the idea that epigenetics represents an important regulatory mechanism during lateral root formation. PMID:22837358

  8. Light regulation of the growth response in corn root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, M. O.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Roots of Merit variety corn (Zea mays L.) require red light for orthogravitropic curvature. Experiments were undertaken to identify the step in the pathway from gravity perception to asymmetric growth on which light may act. Red light was effective in inducing gravitropism whether it was supplied concomitant with or as long as 30 minutes after the gravity stimulus (GS). The presentation time was the same whether the GS was supplied in red light or in darkness. Red light given before the GS slightly enhanced the rate of curvature but had little effect on the lag time or on the final curvature. This enhancement was expanded by a delay between the red light pulse and the GS. These results indicate that gravity perception and at least the initial transduction steps proceed in the dark. Light may regulate the final growth (motor) phase of gravitropism. The time required for full expression of the light enhancement of curvature is consistent with its involvement in some light-stimulated biosynthetic event.

  9. CLE-CLAVATA1 peptide-receptor signaling module regulates the expansion of plant root systems in a nitrogen-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Araya, Takao; Miyamoto, Mayu; Wibowo, Juliarni; Suzuki, Akinori; Kojima, Soichi; Tsuchiya, Yumiko N; Sawa, Shinichiro; Fukuda, Hiroo; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Takahashi, Hideki

    2014-02-04

    Morphological plasticity of root systems is critically important for plant survival because it allows plants to optimize their capacity to take up water and nutrients from the soil environment. Here we show that a signaling module composed of nitrogen (N)-responsive CLE (CLAVATA3/ESR-related) peptides and the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase is expressed in the root vasculature in Arabidopsis thaliana and plays a crucial role in regulating the expansion of the root system under N-deficient conditions. CLE1, -3, -4, and -7 were induced by N deficiency in roots, predominantly expressed in root pericycle cells, and their overexpression repressed the growth of lateral root primordia and their emergence from the primary root. In contrast, clv1 mutants showed progressive outgrowth of lateral root primordia into lateral roots under N-deficient conditions. The clv1 phenotype was reverted by introducing a CLV1 promoter-driven CLV1:GFP construct producing CLV1:GFP fusion proteins in phloem companion cells of roots. The overaccumulation of CLE2, -3, -4, and -7 in clv1 mutants suggested the amplitude of the CLE peptide signals being feedback-regulated by CLV1. When CLE3 was overexpressed under its own promoter in wild-type plants, the length of lateral roots was negatively correlated with increasing CLE3 mRNA levels; however, this inhibitory action of CLE3 was abrogated in the clv1 mutant background. Our findings identify the N-responsive CLE-CLV1 signaling module as an essential mechanism restrictively controlling the expansion of the lateral root system in N-deficient environments.

  10. Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCK): structure, regulation, and functions.

    PubMed

    Julian, Linda; Olson, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCK) were originally identified as effectors of the RhoA small GTPase. (1)(-) (5) They belong to the AGC family of serine/threonine kinases (6) and play vital roles in facilitating actomyosin cytoskeleton contractility downstream of RhoA and RhoC activation. Since their discovery, ROCK kinases have been extensively studied, unveiling their manifold functions in processes including cell contraction, migration, apoptosis, survival, and proliferation. Two mammalian ROCK homologs have been identified, ROCK1 (also called ROCK I, ROKβ, Rho-kinase β, or p160ROCK) and ROCK2 (also known as ROCK II, ROKα, or Rho kinase), hereafter collectively referred to as ROCK. In this review, we will focus on the structure, regulation, and functions of ROCK.

  11. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M.H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  12. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M. H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites. PMID:22116026

  13. Molecular mimicry regulates ABA signaling by SnRK2 kinases and PP2C phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X Edward; West, Graham M; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M H Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

    2012-01-06

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  14. Self-regulation of exopolysaccharide production in Bacillus subtilis by a tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Elsholz, Alexander K W; Wacker, Sarah A; Losick, Richard

    2014-08-01

    We report that the Bacillus subtilis exopolysaccharide (EPS) is a signaling molecule that controls its own production. EPS synthesis depends on a tyrosine kinase that consists of a membrane component (EpsA) and a kinase component (EpsB). EPS interacts with the extracellular domain of EpsA, which is a receptor, to control kinase activity. In the absence of EPS, the kinase is inactivated by autophosphorylation. The presence of EPS inhibits autophosphorylation and instead promotes the phosphorylation of a glycosyltransferase in the biosynthetic pathway, thereby stimulating the production of EPS. Thus, EPS production is subject to a positive feedback loop that ties its synthesis to its own concentration. Tyrosine kinase-mediated self-regulation could be a widespread feature of the control of exopolysaccharide production in bacteria.

  15. Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Activated Protein Kinase 2 Regulates Actin Polymerization and Vascular Leak in Ventilator Associated Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Damarla, Mahendra; Hasan, Emile; Boueiz, Adel; Le, Anne; Pae, Hyun Hae; Montouchet, Calypso; Kolb, Todd; Simms, Tiffany; Myers, Allen; Kayyali, Usamah S.; Gaestel, Matthias; Peng, Xinqi; Reddy, Sekhar P.; Damico, Rachel; Hassoun, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation, a fundamental therapy for acute lung injury, worsens pulmonary vascular permeability by exacting mechanical stress on various components of the respiratory system causing ventilator associated lung injury. We postulated that MK2 activation via p38 MAP kinase induced HSP25 phosphorylation, in response to mechanical stress, leading to actin stress fiber formation and endothelial barrier dysfunction. We sought to determine the role of p38 MAP kinase and its downstream effector MK2 on HSP25 phosphorylation and actin stress fiber formation in ventilator associated lung injury. Wild type and MK2−/− mice received mechanical ventilation with high (20 ml/kg) or low (7 ml/kg) tidal volumes up to 4 hrs, after which lungs were harvested for immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and lung permeability assays. High tidal volume mechanical ventilation resulted in significant phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, MK2, HSP25, actin polymerization, and an increase in pulmonary vascular permeability in wild type mice as compared to spontaneous breathing or low tidal volume mechanical ventilation. However, pretreatment of wild type mice with specific p38 MAP kinase or MK2 inhibitors abrogated HSP25 phosphorylation and actin polymerization, and protected against increased lung permeability. Finally, MK2−/− mice were unable to phosphorylate HSP25 or increase actin polymerization from baseline, and were resistant to increases in lung permeability in response to HVT MV. Our results suggest that p38 MAP kinase and its downstream effector MK2 mediate lung permeability in ventilator associated lung injury by regulating HSP25 phosphorylation and actin cytoskeletal remodeling. PMID:19240800

  16. Kinase activity of OsBRI1 is essential for brassinosteroids to regulate rice growth and development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinfeng; Wu, Chenxi; Yuan, Shoujiang; Yin, Liang; Sun, Wei; Zhao, Qinglei; Zhao, Baohua; Li, Xueyong

    2013-02-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid hormones that participate in multiple biological processes. In this paper, we characterized a classic rice mutant Fn189 (dwarf54, d54) showing semi-dwarf stature and erect leaves. The coleoptile elongation and root growth was less affected in Fn189 than wild-type plant by the exogenous application of eBL, the most active form of BRs. Lamina joint inclination assay and morphological analysis in darkness further showed that Fn189 mutant plant was insensitive to exogenous eBL. Through map-based cloning, Fn189 was found to be a novel allelic mutant of the DWARF 61 (D61) gene, which encodes the putative BRs receptor OsBRI1. A single base mutation caused the I834F substitution in the OsBRI1 kinase domain. Consequently, kinase activity of OsBRI1 was found to decrease dramatically. Taken together, the kinase activity of OsBRI1 is essential for brassinosteroids to regulate normal plant growth and development in rice.

  17. A Sugar-Inducible Protein Kinase, VvSK1, Regulates Hexose Transport and Sugar Accumulation in Grapevine Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lecourieux, Fatma; Lecourieux, David; Vignault, Céline; Delrot, Serge

    2010-01-01

    In grapevine (Vitis vinifera), as in many crops, soluble sugar content is a major component of yield and economical value. This paper identifies and characterizes a Glycogen Synthase Kinase3 protein kinase, cloned from a cDNA library of grape Cabernet Sauvignon berries harvested at the ripening stage. This gene, called VvSK1, was mainly expressed in flowers, berries, and roots. In the berries, it was strongly expressed at postvéraison, when the berries accumulate glucose, fructose, and abscisic acid. In grapevine cell suspensions, VvSK1 transcript abundance is increased by sugars and abscisic acid. In transgenic grapevine cells overexpressing VvSK1, the expression of four monosaccharide transporters (VvHT3, VvHT4, VvHT5, and VvHT6) was up-regulated, the rate of glucose uptake was increased 3- to 5-fold, and the amount of glucose and sucrose accumulation was more than doubled, while the starch amount was not affected. This work provides, to our knowledge, the first example of the control of sugar uptake and accumulation by a sugar-inducible protein kinase. PMID:19923236

  18. A differentially regulated AP2/ERF transcription factor gene cluster acts downstream of a MAP kinase cascade to modulate terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Paul, Priyanka; Singh, Sanjay K; Patra, Barunava; Sui, Xueyi; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Yuan, Ling

    2017-02-01

    Catharanthus roseus produces bioactive terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), including the chemotherapeutics, vincristine and vinblastine. Transcriptional regulation of TIA biosynthesis is not fully understood. The jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive AP2/ERF transcription factor (TF), ORCA3, and its regulator, CrMYC2, play key roles in TIA biosynthesis. ORCA3 forms a physical cluster with two uncharacterized AP2/ERFs, ORCA4 and 5. Here, we report that (1) the ORCA gene cluster is differentially regulated; (2) ORCA4, while overlapping functionally with ORCA3, modulates an additional set of TIA genes. Unlike ORCA3, ORCA4 overexpression resulted in dramatic increase of TIA accumulation in C. roseus hairy roots. In addition, CrMYC2 is capable of activating ORCA3 and co-regulating TIA pathway genes concomitantly with ORCA3. The ORCA gene cluster and CrMYC2 act downstream of a MAP kinase cascade that includes a previously uncharacterized MAP kinase kinase, CrMAPKK1. Overexpression of CrMAPKK1 in C. roseus hairy roots upregulated TIA pathways genes and increased TIA accumulation. This work provides detailed characterization of a TF gene cluster and advances our understanding of the transcriptional and post-translational regulatory mechanisms that govern TIA biosynthesis in C. roseus.

  19. [Regulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase activity].

    PubMed

    Haga, T; Haga, K; Kameyama, K; Nakata, H

    1994-09-01

    Recent progress on the activation of G protein-coupled receptor kinases is reviewed. beta-Adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK) is activated by G protein beta gamma -subunits, which interact with the carboxyl terminal portion of beta ARK. Muscarinic receptor m2-subtypes are phosphorylated by beta ARK1 in the central part of the third intracellular loop (I3). Phosphorylation of I3-GST fusion protein by beta ARK1 is synergistically stimulated by the beta gamma -subunits and mastoparan or a peptide corresponding to portions adjacent to the transmembrane segments of m2-receptors or by beta gamma -subunits and the agonist-bound I3-deleted m2 variant. These results indicate that agonist-bound receptors serve as both substrates and activators of beta ARK.

  20. Fission Yeast Receptor of Activated C Kinase (RACK1) Ortholog Cpc2 Regulates Mitotic Commitment through Wee1 Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Andrés; Franco, Alejandro; Soto, Teresa; Vicente, Jero; Gacto, Mariano; Cansado, José

    2010-01-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Wee1-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation of the highly conserved Cdc2/Cdk1 kinase determines the mitotic onset when cells have reached a defined size. The receptor of activated C kinase (RACK1) is a scaffolding protein strongly conserved among eukaryotes which binds to other proteins to regulate multiple processes in mammalian cells, including the modulation of cell cycle progression during G1/S transition. We have recently described that Cpc2, the fission yeast ortholog to RACK1, controls from the ribosome the activation of MAPK cascades and the cellular defense against oxidative stress by positively regulating the translation of specific genes whose products participate in the above processes. Intriguingly, mutants lacking Cpc2 display an increased cell size at division, suggesting the existence of a specific cell cycle defect at the G2/M transition. In this work we show that protein levels of Wee1 mitotic inhibitor are increased in cells devoid of Cpc2, whereas the levels of Cdr2, a Wee1 inhibitor, are down-regulated in the above mutant. On the contrary, the kinetics of G1/S transition was virtually identical both in control and Cpc2-less strains. Thus, our results suggest that in fission yeast Cpc2/RACK1 positively regulates from the ribosome the mitotic onset by modulating both the protein levels and the activity of Wee1. This novel mechanism of translational control of cell cycle progression might be conserved in higher eukaryotes. PMID:20974849

  1. Serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 regulates neutrophil clearance during inflammation resolution.

    PubMed

    Burgon, Joseph; Robertson, Anne L; Sadiku, Pranvera; Wang, Xingang; Hooper-Greenhill, Edward; Prince, Lynne R; Walker, Paul; Hoggett, Emily E; Ward, Jonathan R; Farrow, Stuart N; Zuercher, William J; Jeffrey, Philip; Savage, Caroline O; Ingham, Philip W; Hurlstone, Adam F; Whyte, Moira K B; Renshaw, Stephen A

    2014-02-15

    The inflammatory response is integral to maintaining health by functioning to resist microbial infection and repair tissue damage. Large numbers of neutrophils are recruited to inflammatory sites to neutralize invading bacteria through phagocytosis and the release of proteases and reactive oxygen species into the extracellular environment. Removal of the original inflammatory stimulus must be accompanied by resolution of the inflammatory response, including neutrophil clearance, to prevent inadvertent tissue damage. Neutrophil apoptosis and its temporary inhibition by survival signals provides a target for anti-inflammatory therapeutics, making it essential to better understand this process. GM-CSF, a neutrophil survival factor, causes a significant increase in mRNA levels for the known anti-apoptotic protein serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1). We have characterized the expression patterns and regulation of SGK family members in human neutrophils and shown that inhibition of SGK activity completely abrogates the antiapoptotic effect of GM-CSF. Using a transgenic zebrafish model, we have disrupted sgk1 gene function and shown this specifically delays inflammation resolution, without altering neutrophil recruitment to inflammatory sites in vivo. These data suggest SGK1 plays a key role in regulating neutrophil survival signaling and thus may prove a valuable therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory disease.

  2. Serum and Glucocorticoid Regulated Kinase 1 (SGK1) Regulates Neutrophil Clearance During Inflammation Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Burgon, Joseph; Robertson, Anne L.; Sadiku, Pranvera; Wang, Xingang; Hooper-Greenhill, Edward; Prince, Lynne R.; Walker, Paul; Hoggett, Emily E.; Ward, Jonathan R.; Farrow, Stuart N.; Zuercher, William J.; Jeffrey, Philip; Savage, Caroline O.; Ingham, Philip W.; Hurlstone, Adam F.; Whyte, Moira K. B.; Renshaw, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    The inflammatory response is integral to maintaining health, by functioning to resist microbial infection and repair tissue damage. Large numbers of neutrophils are recruited to inflammatory sites to neutralise invading bacteria through phagocytosis and the release of proteases and reactive oxygen species into the extracellular environment. Removal of the original inflammatory stimulus must be accompanied by resolution of the inflammatory response, including neutrophil clearance, to prevent inadvertent tissue damage. Neutrophil apoptosis and its temporary inhibition by survival signals provides a target for anti-inflammatory therapeutics, making it essential to better understand this process. GM-CSF, a neutrophil survival factor, causes a significant increase in mRNA levels for the known anti-apoptotic protein Serum and Glucocorticoid Regulated Kinase 1 (SGK1). We have characterised the expression patterns and regulation of SGK family members in human neutrophils, and shown that inhibition of SGK activity completely abrogates the anti-apoptotic effect of GM-CSF. Using a transgenic zebrafish model, we have disrupted sgk1 gene function and shown this specifically delays inflammation resolution, without altering neutrophil recruitment to inflammatory sites in vivo. These data suggest SGK1 plays a key role in regulating neutrophil survival signalling, and thus may prove a valuable therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory disease. PMID:24431232

  3. Protein Kinase Pathways That Regulate Neuronal Survival and Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK) in- hnMF sfrs E2 n E2,aemrel ncreased in parallel with enhanced expression of the GABAA hibitor KN93 to...purified by cesium chloride gra- neurons were placed in conditioned medium and the medium was dient ultracentrifugation. The viral titer was determined...membrane de- rifled by cesium chloride gradient ultracentrifugation. The viral titer polarization) and serum for their survival in vitro (20, 21, 24

  4. Root transcriptome of two contrasting indica rice cultivars uncovers regulators of root development and physiological responses

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Alka; Kumar, Pramod; Gautam, Vibhav; Rengasamy, Balakrishnan; Adhikari, Bijan; Udayakumar, Makarla; Sarkar, Ananda K.

    2016-01-01

    The huge variation in root system architecture (RSA) among different rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars is conferred by their genetic makeup and different growth or climatic conditions. Unlike model plant Arabidopsis, the molecular basis of such variation in RSA is very poorly understood in rice. Cultivars with stable variation are valuable resources for identification of genes involved in RSA and related physiological traits. We have screened for RSA and identified two such indica rice cultivars, IR-64 (OsAS83) and IET-16348 (OsAS84), with stable contrasting RSA. OsAS84 produces robust RSA with more crown roots, lateral roots and root hairs than OsAS83. Using comparative root transcriptome analysis of these cultivars, we identified genes related to root development and different physiological responses like abiotic stress responses, hormone signaling, and nutrient acquisition or transport. The two cultivars differ in their response to salinity/dehydration stresses, phosphate/nitrogen deficiency, and different phytohormones. Differential expression of genes involved in salinity or dehydration response, nitrogen (N) transport, phosphate (Pi) starvation signaling, hormone signaling and root development underlies more resistance of OsAS84 towards abiotic stresses, Pi or N deficiency and its robust RSA. Thus our study uncovers gene-network involved in root development and abiotic stress responses in rice. PMID:28000793

  5. Secreted protein kinases regulate cyst burden during chronic toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nathaniel G; Wang, Qiuling; Sibley, L David

    2017-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that secretes a large number of protein kinases and pseudokinases from its rhoptry organelles. Although some rhoptry kinases (ROPKs) act as virulence factors, many remain uncharacterized. In this study, predicted ROPKs were assessed for bradyzoite expression then prioritized for a reverse genetic analysis in the type II strain Pru that is amenable to targeted disruption. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we engineered C-terminally epitope tagged ROP21 and ROP27 and demonstrated their localization to the parasitophorous vacuole and cyst matrix. ROP21 and ROP27 were not secreted from microneme, rhoptry, or dense granule organelles, but rather were located in small vesicles consistent with a constitutive pathway. Using CRISPR/Cas9, the genes for ROP21, ROP27, ROP28, and ROP30 were deleted individually and in combination, and the mutant parasites were assessed for growth and their ability to form tissue cysts in mice. All knockouts lines were normal for in vitro growth and bradyzoite differentiation, but a combined ∆rop21/∆rop17 knockout led to a 50% reduction in cyst burden in vivo. Our findings question the existing annotation of ROPKs based solely on bioinformatic techniques and yet highlight the importance of secreted kinases in determining the severity of chronic toxoplasmosis.

  6. Regulation of therapeutic resistance in cancers by receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei-Kuang; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2016-01-01

    In response to DNA damage lesions due to cellular stress, DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are activated to promote cell survival and genetic stability or unrepaired lesion-induced cell death. Current cancer treatments predominantly utilize DNA damaging agents, such as irradiation and chemotherapy drugs, to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce cell death through the activation of DDR. However, a portion of cancer patients is reported to develop therapeutic resistance to these DDR-inducing agents. One significant resistance mechanism in cancer cells is oncogenic kinase overexpression, which promotes cell survival by enhancing DNA damage repair pathways and evading cell cycle arrest. Among the oncogenic kinases, overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is reported in many of solid tumors, and numerous clinical trials targeting RTKs are currently in progress. As the emerging trend in cancer treatment combines DNA damaging agents and RTK inhibitors, it is important to understand the substrates of RTKs relative to the DDR pathways. In addition, alteration of RTK expression and their phosphorylated substrates can serve as biomarkers to stratify patients for combination therapies. In this review, we summarize the deleterious effects of RTKs on the DDR pathways and the emerging biomarkers for personalized therapy. PMID:27186434

  7. Paxillin-kinase-linker tyrosine phosphorylation regulates directional cell migration.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianxin A; Deakin, Nicholas O; Turner, Christopher E

    2009-11-01

    Directed cell migration requires the coordination of growth factor and cell adhesion signaling and is of fundamental importance during embryonic development, wound repair, and pathological conditions such as tumor metastasis. Herein, we demonstrate that the ArfGAP, paxillin-kinase-linker (PKL/GIT2), is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulation, in an adhesion dependent manner and is necessary for directed cell migration. Using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, knockout cells and kinase mutants, FAK, and Src family kinases were shown to mediate PDGF-dependent PKL tyrosine phosphorylation. In fibroblasts, expression of a PKL mutant lacking the principal tyrosine phosphorylation sites resulted in loss of wound-induced cell polarization as well as directional migration. PKL phosphorylation was necessary for PDGF-stimulated PKL binding to the focal adhesion protein paxillin and expression of paxillin or PKL mutants defective in their respective binding motifs recapitulated the polarization defects. RNA interference or expression of phosphorylation mutants of PKL resulted in disregulation of PDGF-stimulated Rac1 and PAK activities, reduction of Cdc42 and Erk signaling, as well as mislocalization of betaPIX. Together these studies position PKL as an integral component of growth factor and cell adhesion cross-talk signaling, controlling the development of front-rear cell polarity and directional cell migration.

  8. Ligand-Induced Asymmetry in Histidine Sensor Kinase Complex Regulates Quorum Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Neiditch,M.; Federle, M.; Pompeani, A.; Kelly, R.; Swem, D.; Jeffrey, P.; Bassler, B.; Hughson, F.

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria sense their environment using receptors of the histidine sensor kinase family, but how kinase activity is regulated by ligand binding is not well understood. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a secreted signaling molecule originally identified in studies of the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, regulates quorum-sensing responses and allows communication between different bacterial species. AI-2 signal transduction in V. harveyi requires the integral membrane receptor LuxPQ, comprised of periplasmic binding protein (LuxP) and histidine sensor kinase (LuxQ) subunits. Combined X-ray crystallographic and functional studies show that AI-2 binding causes a major conformational change within LuxP, which in turn stabilizes a quaternary arrangement in which two LuxPQ monomers are asymmetrically associated. We propose that formation of this asymmetric quaternary structure is responsible for repressing the kinase activity of both LuxQ subunits and triggering the transition of V. harveyi into quorum-sensing mode.

  9. WNK2 Kinase Is a Novel Regulator of Essential Neuronal Cation-Chloride Cotransporters*

    PubMed Central

    Rinehart, Jesse; Vázquez, Norma; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Hodson, Caleb A.; Ring, Aaron M.; Gulcicek, Erol E.; Louvi, Angeliki; Bobadilla, Norma A.; Gamba, Gerardo; Lifton, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    NKCC1 and KCC2, related cation-chloride cotransporters (CCC), regulate cell volume and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurotranmission by modulating the intracellular concentration of chloride [Cl−]. These CCCs are oppositely regulated by serine-threonine phosphorylation, which activates NKCC1 but inhibits KCC2. The kinase(s) that performs this function in the nervous system are not known with certainty. WNK1 and WNK4, members of the WNK (with no lysine [K]) kinase family, either directly or via the downstream SPAK/OSR1 Ste20-type kinases, regulate the furosemide-sensitive NKCC2 and the thiazide-sensitive NCC, kidney-specific CCCs. What role the novel WNK2 kinase plays in this regulatory cascade, if any, is unknown. Here, we show that WNK2, unlike other WNKs, is not expressed in kidney; rather, it is a neuron-enriched kinase primarily expressed in neocortical pyramidal cells, thalamic relay cells, and cerebellar granule and Purkinje cells in both the developing and adult brain. Bumetanide-sensitive and Cl−-dependent 86Rb+ uptake assays in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed that WNK2 promotes Cl− accumulation by reciprocally activating NKCC1 and inhibiting KCC2 in a kinase-dependent manner, effectively bypassing normal tonicity requirements for cotransporter regulation. TiO2 enrichment and tandem mass spectrometry studies demonstrate WNK2 forms a protein complex in the mammalian brain with SPAK, a known phosphoregulator of NKCC1. In this complex, SPAK is phosphorylated at Ser-383, a consensus WNK recognition site. These findings suggest a role for WNK2 in the regulation of CCCs in the mammalian brain, with implications for both cell volume regulation and/or GABAergic signaling. PMID:21733846

  10. Role of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors in the Regulation of the Mitotic Checkpoint Kinase Bub1

    PubMed Central

    Breit, Claudia; Bange, Tanja; Petrovic, Arsen; Weir, John R.; Müller, Franziska; Vogt, Doro; Musacchio, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors microtubule attachment to kinetochores to ensure accurate sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. The SAC members Bub1 and BubR1 are paralogs that underwent significant functional specializations during evolution. We report an in-depth characterization of the kinase domains of Bub1 and BubR1. BubR1 kinase domain binds nucleotides but is unable to deliver catalytic activity in vitro. Conversely, Bub1 is an active kinase regulated by intra-molecular phosphorylation at the P+1 loop. The crystal structure of the phosphorylated Bub1 kinase domain illustrates a hitherto unknown conformation of the P+1 loop docked into the active site of the Bub1 kinase. Both Bub1 and BubR1 bind Bub3 constitutively. A hydrodynamic characterization of Bub1:Bub3 and BubR1:Bub3 demonstrates both complexes to have 1:1 stoichiometry, with no additional oligomerization. Conversely, Bub1:Bub3 and BubR1:Bub3 combine to form a heterotetramer. Neither BubR1:Bub3 nor Knl1, the kinetochore receptor of Bub1:Bub3, modulate the kinase activity of Bub1 in vitro, suggesting autonomous regulation of the Bub1 kinase domain. We complement our study with an analysis of the Bub1 substrates. Our results contribute to the mechanistic characterization of a crucial cell cycle checkpoint. PMID:26658523

  11. Malaria Protein Kinase CK2 (PfCK2) Shows Novel Mechanisms of Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Graciotti, Michele; Alam, Mahmood; Solyakov, Lev; Schmid, Ralf; Burley, Glenn; Bottrill, Andrew R.; Doerig, Christian; Cullis, Paul; Tobin, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    Casein kinase 2 (protein kinase CK2) is a conserved eukaryotic serine/theronine kinase with multiple substrates and roles in the regulation of cellular processes such as cellular stress, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Here we report a detailed analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum CK2, PfCK2, demonstrating that this kinase, like the mammalian orthologue, is a dual specificity kinase able to phosphorylate at both serine and tyrosine. However, unlike the human orthologue that is auto-phosphorylated on tyrosine within the activation loop, PfCK2 shows no activation loop auto-phosphorylation but rather is auto-phosphorylated at threonine 63 within subdomain I. Phosphorylation at this site in PfCK2 is shown here to regulate the intrinsic kinase activity of PfCK2. Furthermore, we generate an homology model of PfCK2 in complex with the known selective protein kinase CK2 inhibitor, quinalizarin, and in so doing identify key co-ordinating residues in the ATP binding pocket that could aid in designing selective inhibitors to PfCK2. PMID:24658579

  12. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A.; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems. PMID:24904600

  13. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems.

  14. A mechanism for regulation of chloroplast LHC II kinase by plastoquinol and thioredoxin.

    PubMed

    Puthiyaveetil, Sujith

    2011-06-23

    State transitions are acclimatory responses to changes in light quality in photosynthesis. They involve the redistribution of absorbed excitation energy between photosystems I and II. In plants and green algae, this redistribution is produced by reversible phosphorylation of the chloroplast light harvesting complex II (LHC II). The LHC II kinase is activated by reduced plastoquinone (PQ) in photosystem II-specific low light. In high light, when PQ is also reduced, LHC II kinase becomes inactivated by thioredoxin. Based on newly identified amino acid sequence features of LHC II kinase and other considerations, a mechanism is suggested for its redox regulation.

  15. Protein kinase C-zeta and protein kinase B regulate distinct steps of insulin endocytosis and intracellular sorting.

    PubMed

    Fiory, Francesca; Oriente, Francesco; Miele, Claudia; Romano, Chiara; Trencia, Alessandra; Alberobello, Anna Teresa; Esposito, Iolanda; Valentino, Rossella; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2004-03-19

    We have investigated the molecular mechanisms regulating insulin internalization and intracellular sorting. Insulin internalization was decreased by 50% upon incubation of the cells with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. PI3K inhibition also reduced insulin degradation and intact insulin release by 50 and 75%, respectively. Insulin internalization was reduced by antisense inhibition of protein kinase C-zeta (PKCzeta) expression and by overexpression of a dominant negative PKCzeta mutant (DN-PKCzeta). Conversely, overexpression of PKCzeta increased insulin internalization as a function of the PKCzeta levels achieved in the cells. Expression of wild-type protein kinase B (PKB)-alpha or of a constitutively active form (myr-PKB) did not significantly alter insulin internalization and degradation but produced a 100% increase of intact insulin release. Inhibition of PKB by a dominant negative mutant (DN-PKB) or by the pharmacological inhibitor ML-9 reduced intact insulin release by 75% with no effect on internalization and degradation. In addition, overexpression of Rab5 completely rescued the effect of PKCzeta inhibition on insulin internalization but not that of PKB inhibition on intact insulin recycling. Indeed, PKCzeta bound to and activated Rab5. Thus, PI3K controls different steps within the insulin endocytic itinerary. PKCzeta appears to mediate the PI3K effect on insulin internalization in a Rab5-dependent manner, whereas PKB directs intracellular sorting toward intact insulin release.

  16. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) Signaling via Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (Gsk-3) Regulates DNA Methylation of Imprinted Loci*

    PubMed Central

    Popkie, Anthony P.; Zeidner, Leigh C.; Albrecht, Ashley M.; D'Ippolito, Anthony; Eckardt, Sigrid; Newsom, David E.; Groden, Joanna; Doble, Bradley W.; Aronow, Bruce; McLaughlin, K. John; White, Peter; Phiel, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (Gsk-3) isoforms, Gsk-3α and Gsk-3β, are constitutively active, largely inhibitory kinases involved in signal transduction. Underscoring their biological significance, altered Gsk-3 activity has been implicated in diabetes, Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of both Gsk-3α and Gsk-3β in mouse embryonic stem cells results in reduced expression of the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a2, causing misexpression of the imprinted genes Igf2, H19, and Igf2r and hypomethylation of their corresponding imprinted control regions. Treatment of wild-type embryonic stem cells and neural stem cells with the Gsk-3 inhibitor, lithium, phenocopies the DNA hypomethylation at these imprinted loci. We show that inhibition of Gsk-3 by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated activation of Akt also results in reduced DNA methylation at these imprinted loci. Finally, we find that N-Myc is a potent Gsk-3-dependent regulator of Dnmt3a2 expression. In summary, we have identified a signal transduction pathway that is capable of altering the DNA methylation of imprinted loci. PMID:21047779

  17. Calmodulin-dependent kinase II regulates osteoblast differentiation through regulation of Osterix.

    PubMed

    Choi, You Hee; Choi, Jun-Ha; Oh, Jae-Wook; Lee, Kwang-Youl

    2013-03-08

    Osterix (Osx), a zinc-finger transcription factor, is required for osteoblast differentiation and new bone formation during embryonic development. Calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) acts as a key regulator of osteoblast differentiation. However, the precise molecular signaling mechanisms between Osterix and CaMKII are not known. In this study, we focused on the relationship between Osterix and CaMKII during osteoblast differentiation. We examined the role of the CaMKII pathway in the regulation of protein levels and its transcriptional activity on Osterix. We showed that CaMKII interacts with Osterix by increasing the protein levels and enhancing the transcriptional activity of Osterix. Conversely, CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 decreases the protein levels and increases the stability of Osterix. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of CaMKII decreased the protein levels and transcriptional activity of Osterix. These results suggest that Osterix is a novel target of CaMKII and the activity of Osterix can be modulated by a novel mechanism involving CaMKII during osteoblast differentiation.

  18. Signaling, Regulation, and Specificity of the Type II p21-activated Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Byung Hak; Morse, Elizabeth M.; Turk, Benjamin E.; Boggon, Titus J.

    2015-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of six serine/threonine kinases that act as key effectors of RHO family GTPases in mammalian cells. PAKs are subdivided into two groups: type I PAKs (PAK1, PAK2, and PAK3) and type II PAKs (PAK4, PAK5, and PAK6). Although these groups are involved in common signaling pathways, recent work indicates that the two groups have distinct modes of regulation and have both unique and common substrates. Here, we review recent insights into the molecular level details that govern regulation of type II PAK signaling. We also consider mechanisms by which signal transduction is regulated at the level of substrate specificity. Finally, we discuss the implications of these studies for clinical targeting of these kinases. PMID:25855792

  19. Regulation of Greatwall kinase by protein stabilization and nuclear localization

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tomomi M; Wang, Ling; Fisher, Laura A; Eckerdt, Frank D; Peng, Aimin

    2014-01-01

    Greatwall (Gwl) functions as an essential mitotic kinase by antagonizing protein phosphatase 2A. In this study we identified Hsp90, Cdc37 and members of the importin α and β families as the major binding partners of Gwl. Both Hsp90/Cdc37 chaperone and importin complexes associated with the N-terminal kinase domain of Gwl, whereas an intact glycine-rich loop at the N-terminus of Gwl was essential for binding of Hsp90/Cdc37 but not importins. We found that Hsp90 inhibition led to destabilization of Gwl, a mechanism that may partially contribute to the emerging role of Hsp90 in cell cycle progression and the anti-proliferative potential of Hsp90 inhibition. Moreover, in agreement with its importin association, Gwl exhibited nuclear localization in interphase Xenopus S3 cells, and dynamic nucleocytoplasmic distribution during mitosis. We identified KR456/457 as the locus of importin binding and the functional NLS of Gwl. Mutation of this site resulted in exclusion of Gwl from the nucleus. Finally, we showed that the Gwl nuclear localization is indispensable for the biochemical function of Gwl in promoting mitotic entry. PMID:25483093

  20. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase p85beta regulates invadopodium formation

    PubMed Central

    Cariaga-Martínez, Ariel E.; Cortés, Isabel; García, Esther; Pérez-García, Vicente; Pajares, María J.; Idoate, Miguel A.; Redondo-Muñóz, Javier; Antón, Inés M.; Carrera, Ana C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The acquisition of invasiveness is characteristic of tumor progression. Numerous genetic changes are associated with metastasis, but the mechanism by which a cell becomes invasive remains unclear. Expression of p85β, a regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase, markedly increases in advanced carcinoma, but its mode of action is unknown. We postulated that p85β might facilitate cell invasion. We show that p85β localized at cell adhesions in complex with focal adhesion kinase and enhanced stability and maturation of cell adhesions. In addition, p85β induced development at cell adhesions of an F-actin core that extended several microns into the cell z-axis resembling the skeleton of invadopodia. p85β lead to F-actin polymerization at cell adhesions by recruiting active Cdc42/Rac at these structures. In accordance with p85β function in invadopodium-like formation, p85β levels increased in metastatic melanoma and p85β depletion reduced invadopodium formation and invasion. These results show that p85β enhances invasion by inducing cell adhesion development into invadopodia-like structures explaining the metastatic potential of tumors with increased p85β levels. PMID:25217619

  1. Negative regulation of ErbB family receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, C; Carraway, K L

    2004-01-26

    Receptors of the EGF receptor or ErbB family of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases are frequently overexpressed in a variety of solid tumours, and the aberrant activation of their tyrosine kinase activities is thought to contribute to tumour growth and progression. Much effort has been put into developing inhibitors of ErbB receptors, and both antibody and small-molecule approaches have exhibited clinical success. Recently, a number of endogenous negative regulatory proteins have been identified that suppress the signalling activity of ErbB receptors in cells. These include intracellular RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligases such as cbl and Nrdp1 that mediate ErbB receptor degradation, and may include a wide variety of secreted and transmembrane proteins that suppress receptor activation by growth factor ligands. It will be of interest to determine the extent to which tumour cells suppress these pathways to promote their progression, and whether restoration of endogenous receptor-negative regulatory pathways may be exploited for therapeutic benefit.

  2. Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro independently of nerve growth factor supplementation or its nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, K.T.; Seabright, R.; Logan, A.; Lilly, A.J.; Khanim, F.; Bunce, C.M.; Johnson, W.E.B.

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates nerve growth. {yields} Extracellular Nm23H1 provides pathfinding cues to growth cones. {yields} The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NDP kinase activity. {yields} The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NGF. -- Abstract: The nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, Nm23H1, is a highly expressed during neuronal development, whilst induced over-expression in neuronal cells results in increased neurite outgrowth. Extracellular Nm23H1 affects the survival, proliferation and differentiation of non-neuronal cells. Therefore, this study has examined whether extracellular Nm23H1 regulates nerve growth. We have immobilised recombinant Nm23H1 proteins to defined locations of culture plates, which were then seeded with explants of embryonic chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or dissociated adult rat DRG neurons. The substratum-bound extracellular Nm23H1 was stimulatory for neurite outgrowth from chick DRG explants in a concentration-dependent manner. On high concentrations of Nm23H1, chick DRG neurite outgrowth was extensive and effectively limited to the location of the Nm23H1, i.e. neuronal growth cones turned away from adjacent collagen-coated substrata. Nm23H1-coated substrata also significantly enhanced rat DRG neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth in comparison to collagen-coated substrata. These effects were independent of NGF supplementation. Recombinant Nm23H1 (H118F), which does not possess NDP kinase activity, exhibited the same activity as the wild-type protein. Hence, a novel neuro-stimulatory activity for extracellular Nm23H1 has been identified in vitro, which may function in developing neuronal systems.

  3. mTOR independent regulation of macroautophagy by Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 via Beclin-1

    PubMed Central

    Manzoni, Claudia; Mamais, Adamantios; Roosen, Dorien A.; Dihanich, Sybille; Soutar, Marc P. M.; Plun-Favreau, Helene; Bandopadhyay, Rina; Hardy, John; Tooze, Sharon A.; Cookson, Mark R.; Lewis, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    Leucine rich repeat kinase 2 is a complex enzyme with both kinase and GTPase activities, closely linked to the pathogenesis of several human disorders including Parkinson’s disease, Crohn’s disease, leprosy and cancer. LRRK2 has been implicated in numerous cellular processes; however its physiological function remains unclear. Recent reports suggest that LRRK2 can act to regulate the cellular catabolic process of macroautophagy, although the precise mechanism whereby this occurs has not been identified. To investigate the signalling events through which LRRK2 acts to influence macroautophagy, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/Unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) and Beclin-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways were evaluated in astrocytic cell models in the presence and absence of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors. Chemical inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity resulted in the stimulation of macroautophagy in a non-canonical fashion, independent of mTOR and ULK1, but dependent upon the activation of Beclin 1-containing class III PI3-kinase. PMID:27731364

  4. Aromatic amino acid biosynthesis: regulation of shikimate kinase in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Ely, B; Pittard, J

    1979-01-01

    Starvation of cells of Escherichia coli K-12 for the aromatic amino acids results in an increased rate of synthesis of shikimate kinase activity. The two controlling amino acids are tyrosine and tryptophan, and starvation for both results in derepression. The product of the regulator gene tyrR also participates in this control, and shikimate kinase synthesis was depressed in tyrR mutants. Chromatography of cell extracts on diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex allowed partial separation of two shikimate kinase enzymes and demonstrated that only one of these subject to specific repression control involving tyrR. By contrast, chromatography of cell extracts with G-75 or G-200 columns revealed a singl-molecular-weight species of shikimate kinase activity with an apparent molecular weight of 20,000. The levels of shikimate kinase in a series of partial diploid strains indicated that aroL, the structural gene for the tyrR-controlled shikimate kinase enzyme, is located on the E. coli chromosome between the structural genes proC and purE. By means of localized mutagenesis, an aroL mutant of E. coli was isolated. The mutant was an aromatic prototroph and, by the criterion of column chromatography, appeared to have only a single functional species of shikimate kinase enzyme. PMID:222728

  5. Auxins differentially regulate root system architecture and cell cycle protein levels in maize seedlings.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de la Cruz, Enrique; García-Ramírez, Elpidio; Vázquez-Ramos, Jorge M; Reyes de la Cruz, Homero; López-Bucio, José

    2015-03-15

    Maize (Zea mays) root system architecture has a complex organization, with adventitious and lateral roots determining its overall absorptive capacity. To generate basic information about the earlier stages of root development, we compared the post-embryonic growth of maize seedlings germinated in water-embedded cotton beds with that of plants obtained from embryonic axes cultivated in liquid medium. In addition, the effect of four different auxins, namely indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on root architecture and levels of the heat shock protein HSP101 and the cell cycle proteins CKS1, CYCA1 and CDKA1 were analyzed. Our data show that during the first days after germination, maize seedlings develop several root types with a simultaneous and/or continuous growth. The post-embryonic root development started with the formation of the primary root (PR) and seminal scutellar roots (SSR) and then continued with the formation of adventitious crown roots (CR), brace roots (BR) and lateral roots (LR). Auxins affected root architecture in a dose-response fashion; whereas NAA and IBA mostly stimulated crown root formation, 2,4-D showed a strong repressing effect on growth. The levels of HSP101, CKS1, CYCA1 and CDKA in root and leaf tissues were differentially affected by auxins and interestingly, HSP101 registered an auxin-inducible and root specific expression pattern. Taken together, our results show the timing of early branching patterns of maize and indicate that auxins regulate root development likely through modulation of the HSP101 and cell cycle proteins.

  6. Lyn tyrosine kinase regulates thrombopoietin-induced proliferation of hematopoietic cell lines and primary megakaryocytic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Lannutti, Brian J; Drachman, Jonathan G

    2004-05-15

    In this study we demonstrate that thrombopoietin (TPO)-stimulated Src family kinases (SFKs) inhibit cellular proliferation and megakaryocyte differentiation. Using the Src kinase inhibitors pyrolopyrimidine 1 and 2 (PP1, PP2), we show that TPO-dependent proliferation of BaF3/Mpl cells was enhanced at concentrations that are specific for SFKs. Similarly, proliferation is increased after introducing a dominant-negative form of Lyn into BaF3/Mpl cells. Murine marrow cells from Lyn-deficient mice or wild-type mice cultured in the presence of the Src inhibitor, PP1, yielded a greater number of mature megakaryocytes and increased nuclear ploidy. Truncation and targeted mutation of the Mpl cytoplasmic domain indicate that Y112 is critical for Lyn activation. Examining the molecular mechanism for this antiproliferative effect, we determined that SFK inhibitors did not affect tyrosine phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), Shc, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5, or STAT3. In contrast, pretreatment of cells with PP2 increased Erk1/2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK]) phosphorylation and in vitro kinase activity, particularly after prolonged TPO stimulation. Taken together, our results show that Mpl stimulation results in the activation of Lyn kinase, which appears to limit the proliferative response through a signaling cascade that regulates MAPK activity. These data suggest that SFKs modify the rate of TPO-induced proliferation and are likely to affect cell cycle regulation during megakaryocytopoiesis.

  7. Cell cycle-dependent regulation of Aurora kinase B mRNA by the Microprocessor complex.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eunsun; Seong, Youngmo; Seo, Jae Hong; Kwon, Young-Soo; Song, Hoseok

    2014-03-28

    Aurora kinase B regulates the segregation of chromosomes and the spindle checkpoint during mitosis. In this study, we showed that the Microprocessor complex, which is responsible for the processing of the primary transcripts during the generation of microRNAs, destabilizes the mRNA of Aurora kinase B in human cells. The Microprocessor-mediated cleavage kept Aurora kinase B at a low level and prevented premature entrance into mitosis. The cleavage was reduced during mitosis leading to the accumulation of Aurora kinase B mRNA and protein. In addition to Aurora kinase B mRNA, the processing of other primary transcripts of miRNAs were also decreased during mitosis. We found that the cleavage was dependent on an RNA helicase, DDX5, and the association of DDX5 and DDX17 with the Microprocessor was reduced during mitosis. Thus, we propose a novel mechanism by which the Microprocessor complex regulates stability of Aurora kinase B mRNA and cell cycle progression.

  8. Integrin-mediated Ras–Extracellular Regulated Kinase (ERK) Signaling Regulates Interferon γ Production in Human Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mainiero, Fabrizio; Gismondi, Angela; Soriani, Alessandra; Cippitelli, Marco; Palmieri, Gabriella; Jacobelli, Jordan; Piccoli, Mario; Frati, Luigi; Santoni, Angela

    1998-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that integrin engagement results in the activation of biochemical signaling events important for regulating different cell functions, such as migration, adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and specific gene expression. Here, we report that β1 integrin ligation on human natural killer (NK) cells results in the activation of Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Formation of Shc–growth factor receptor–bound protein 2 (Grb2) and Shc–proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2–Grb2 complexes are the receptor-proximal events accompanying the β1 integrin–mediated Ras activation. In addition, we demonstrate that ligation of β1 integrins results in the stimulation of interferon γ (IFN-γ) production, which is under the control of extracellular signal–regulated kinase 2 activation. Overall, our data indicate that β1 integrins, by delivering signals capable of triggering IFN-γ production, may function as NK-activating receptors. PMID:9763606

  9. Lipopolysaccharide Activation of the TPL-2/MEK/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade Is Regulated by IκB Kinase-Induced Proteolysis of NF-κB1 p105†

    PubMed Central

    Beinke, S.; Robinson, M. J.; Hugunin, M.; Ley, S. C.

    2004-01-01

    The MEK kinase TPL-2 (also known as Cot) is required for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade in macrophages and consequent upregulation of genes involved in innate immune responses. In resting cells, TPL-2 forms a stoichiometric complex with NF-κB1 p105, which negatively regulates its MEK kinase activity. Here, it is shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of primary macrophages causes the release of both long and short forms of TPL-2 from p105 and that TPL-2 MEK kinase activity is restricted to this p105-free pool. Activation of TPL-2, MEK, and ERK by LPS is also demonstrated to require proteasome-mediated proteolysis. p105 is known to be proteolysed by the proteasome following stimulus-induced phosphorylation of two serines in its PEST region by the IκB kinase (IKK) complex. Expression of a p105 point mutant, which is not susceptible to signal-induced proteolysis, in RAW264.7 macrophages impairs LPS-induced release of TPL-2 from p105 and its subsequent activation of MEK. Furthermore, expression of wild-type but not mutant p105 reconstitutes LPS stimulation of MEK and ERK phosphorylation in primary NF-κB1-deficient macrophages. Consistently, pharmacological blockade of IKK inhibits LPS-induced release of TPL-2 from p105 and TPL-2 activation. These data show that IKK-induced p105 proteolysis is essential for LPS activation of TPL-2, thus revealing a novel function of IKK in the regulation of the ERK MAP kinase cascade. PMID:15485931

  10. β-Adrenergic stimulation activates protein kinase Cε and induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Cai, Hongyan; Liu, Hua; Guo, Tao

    2015-06-01

    The cardiac adrenergic signaling pathway is important in the induction of cardiac hypertrophy. The cardiac adrenergic pathway involves two main branches, phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) and the adenylate cyclase (cAMPase)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways. It is hypothesized that PLC/PKC and cAMPase/PKA are activated by the α‑adrenergic receptor (αAR) and the β‑adrenergic receptor (βAR), respectively. Previous studies have demonstrated that exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), a guanine exchange factor, activates phospholipase Cε. It is possible that there are βAR‑activated PKC pathways mediated by Epac and PLC. In the present study, the role of Epac and PLC in βAR activated PKC pathways in cardiomyocytes was investigated. It was found that PKCε activation and translocation were induced by the βAR agonist, isoproterenol (Iso). Epac agonist 8‑CPT‑2'OMe‑cAMP also enhanced PKCε activation. βAR stimulation activated PKCε in the cardiomyocytes and was regulated by Epac. Iso‑induced change in PKCε was not affected in the cardiomyocytes, which were infected with adenovirus coding rabbit muscle cAMP‑dependent protein kinase inhibitor. However, Iso‑induced PKCε activation was inhibited by the PLC inhibitor, U73122. The results suggested that Iso‑induced PKCε activation was independent of PKA, but was regulated by PLC. To further investigate the downstream signal target of PKCε activation, the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (pERK)1/2 and the levels of ERK phosphorylation was analyzed. The results revealed that Iso‑induced PKCε activation led to an increase in the expression of pERK1/2. ERK phosphorylation was inhibited by the PKCε inhibitor peptide. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the βAR is able to activate PKCε dependent on Epac and PLC, but independent of PKA.

  11. Protein Kinase C Regulates Ionic Conductance in Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons: Electrophysiological Effects of Phorbol Esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraban, Jay M.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Alger, Bradley E.

    1985-04-01

    The vertebrate central nervous system contains very high concentrations of protein kinase C, a calcium-and phospholipid-stimulated phosphorylating enzyme. Phorbol esters, compounds with inflammatory and tumor-promoting properties, bind to and activate this enzyme. To clarify the role of protein kinase C in neuronal function, we have localized phorbol ester receptors in the rat hippocampus by autoradiography and examined the electrophysiological effects of phorbol esters on hippocampal pyramidal neurons in vitro. Phorbol esters blocked a calcium-dependent potassium conductance. In addition, phorbol esters blocked the late hyperpolarization elicited by synaptic stimulation even though other synaptic potentials were not affected. The potencies of several phorbol esters in exerting these actions paralleled their affinities for protein kinase C, suggesting that protein kinase C regulates membrane ionic conductance.

  12. Natural variation in Drosophila melanogaster diapause due to the insulin-regulated PI3-kinase

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Karen D.; Busto, Macarena; Suster, Maximiliano L.; So, Anthony K.-C.; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda; Leevers, Sally J.; Sokolowski, Marla B.

    2006-01-01

    This study links natural variation in a Drosophila melanogaster overwintering strategy, diapause, to the insulin-regulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) gene, Dp110. Variation in diapause, a reproductive arrest, was associated with Dp110 by using Dp110 deletions and genomic rescue fragments in transgenic flies. Deletions of Dp110 increased the proportion of individuals in diapause, whereas expression of Dp110 in the nervous system, but not including the visual system, decreased it. The roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase for both diapause in D. melanogaster and dauer formation in Caenorhabditis elegans suggest a conserved role for this kinase in both reproductive and developmental arrests in response to environmental stresses. PMID:17043223

  13. PUB1 Interacts with the Receptor Kinase DMI2 and Negatively Regulates Rhizobial and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbioses through Its Ubiquitination Activity in Medicago truncatula1

    PubMed Central

    Camut, Sylvie; Camps, Céline; Rembliere, Céline; de Carvalho-Niebel, Fernanda; Timmers, Ton; Gasciolli, Virginie; Thompson, Richard; Lefebvre, Benoit; Cullimore, Julie; Hervé, Christine

    2016-01-01

    PUB1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which interacts with and is phosphorylated by the LYK3 symbiotic receptor kinase, negatively regulates rhizobial infection and nodulation during the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Medicago truncatula. In this study, we show that PUB1 also interacts with and is phosphorylated by DOES NOT MAKE INFECTIONS 2, the key symbiotic receptor kinase of the common symbiosis signaling pathway, required for both the rhizobial and the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) endosymbioses. We also show here that PUB1 expression is activated during successive stages of root colonization by Rhizophagus irregularis that is compatible with its interaction with DOES NOT MAKE INFECTIONS 2. Through characterization of a mutant, pub1-1, affected by the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of PUB1, we have shown that the ubiquitination activity of PUB1 is required to negatively modulate successive stages of infection and development of rhizobial and AM symbioses. In conclusion, PUB1 represents, to our knowledge, a novel common component of symbiotic signaling integrating signal perception through interaction with and phosphorylation by two key symbiotic receptor kinases, and downstream signaling via its ubiquitination activity to fine-tune both rhizobial and AM root endosymbioses. PMID:26839127

  14. Melatonin Regulates Root Meristem by Repressing Auxin Synthesis and Polar Auxin Transport in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiannan; An, Bang; Wei, Yunxie; Reiter, Russel J.; Shi, Haitao; Luo, Hongli; He, Chaozu

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays important roles in regulating both biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, biological rhythms, plant growth and development. Sharing the same substrate (tryptophan) for the biosynthesis, melatonin and auxin also have similar effects in plant development. However, the specific function of melatonin in modulating plant root growth and the relationship between melatonin and auxin as well as underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we found high concentration of melatonin remarkably inhibited root growth in Arabidopsis by reducing root meristem size. Further studies showed that melatonin negatively regulated auxin biosynthesis, the expression of PINFORMED (PIN) proteins as well as auxin response in Arabidopsis. Moreover, the root growth of the triple mutant pin1pin3pin7 was more tolerant than that of wild-type in response to melatonin treatment, suggesting the essential role of PIN1/3/7 in melatonin-mediated root growth. Combination treatment of melatonin and 5-Triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) did not enhance melatonin-mediated reduction of root meristem size, indicating that polar auxin transport (PAT) may be necessary for the regulation of root meristem size by melatonin treatment. Taken together, this study indicates that melatonin regulates root growth in Arabidopsis, through auxin synthesis and polar auxin transport, at least partially. PMID:28018411

  15. How do kinases contribute to tonicity-dependent regulation of the transcription factor NFAT5?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    NFAT5 plays a critical role in maintaining the renal functions. Its dis-regulation in the kidney leads to or is associated with certain renal diseases or disorders, most notably the urinary concentration defect. Hypertonicity, which the kidney medulla is normally exposed to, activates NFAT5 through phosphorylation of a signaling molecule or NFAT5 itself. Hypotonicity inhibits NFAT5 through a similar mechanism. More than a dozen of protein and lipid kinases have been identified to contribute to tonicity-dependent regulation of NFAT5. Hypertonicity activates NFAT5 by increasing its nuclear localization and transactivating activity in the early phase and protein abundance in the late phase. The known mechanism for inhibition of NFAT5 by hypotonicity is a decrease of nuclear NFAT5. The present article reviews the effect of each kinase on NFAT5 nuclear localization, transactivation and protein abundance, and the relationship among these kinases, if known. Cyclosporine A and tacrolimus suppress immune reactions by inhibiting the phosphatase calcineurin-dependent activation of NFAT1. It is hoped that this review would stimulate the interest to seek explanations from the NFAT5 regulatory pathways for certain clinical presentations and to explore novel therapeutic approaches based on the pathways. On the basic science front, this review raises two interesting questions. The first one is how these kinases can specifically signal to NFAT5 in the context of hypertonicity or hypotonicity, because they also regulate other cellular activities and even opposite activities in some cases. The second one is why these many kinases, some of which might have redundant functions, are needed to regulate NFAT5 activity. This review reiterates the concept of signaling through cooperation. Cells need these kinases working in a coordinated way to provide the signaling specificity that is lacking in the individual one. Redundancy in regulation of NFAT5 is a critical strategy for cells to

  16. Regulated exocytosis contributes to protein kinase C potentiation of vanilloid receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Morenilla-Palao, Cruz; Planells-Cases, Rosa; García-Sanz, Nuria; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2004-06-11

    The vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1) plays a key role in the perception of peripheral thermal and inflammatory pain. TRPV1 expression and channel activity are notably up-regulated by proalgesic agents. The transduction pathways involved in TRPV1 sensitization are still elusive. We have used a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify proteins that associate with the N terminus of TRPV1. We report that two vesicular proteins, Snapin and synaptotagmin IX (Syt IX), strongly interact in vitro and in vivo with the TRPV1 N-terminal domain. In primary dorsal root ganglion neurons, TRPV1 co-distributes in vesicles with Syt IX and the vesicular protein synaptobrevin. Neither Snapin nor Syt IX affected channel function, but they notably inhibited protein kinase C (PKC)-induced potentiation of TRPV1 channel activity with a potency that rivaled the blockade evoked by botulinum neurotoxin A, a potent blocker of neuronal exocytosis. Noteworthily, we found that PKC activation induced a rapid delivery of functional TRPV1 channels to the plasma membrane. Botulinum neurotoxin A blocked the TRPV1 membrane translocation induced by PKC that was activated with a phorbol ester or the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5. Therefore, our results indicate that PKC signaling promotes at least in part the SNARE-dependent exocytosis of TRPV1 to the cell surface. Taken together, these findings imply that activity-dependent delivery of channels to the neuronal surface may contribute to the buildup and maintenance of thermal inflammatory hyperalgesia in peripheral nociceptor terminals.

  17. Flow-dependent regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: role of protein kinases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boo, Yong Chool; Jo, Hanjoong

    2003-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells are directly and continuously exposed to fluid shear stress generated by blood flow. Shear stress regulates endothelial structure and function by controlling expression of mechanosensitive genes and production of vasoactive factors such as nitric oxide (NO). Though it is well known that shear stress stimulates NO production from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear and controversial. Shear-induced production of NO involves Ca2+/calmodulin-independent mechanisms, including phosphorylation of eNOS at several sites and its interaction with other proteins, including caveolin and heat shock protein-90. There have been conflicting results as to which protein kinases-protein kinase A, protein kinase B (Akt), other Ser/Thr protein kinases, or tyrosine kinases-are responsible for shear-dependent eNOS regulation. The functional significance of each phosphorylation site is still unclear. We have attempted to summarize the current status of understanding in shear-dependent eNOS regulation.

  18. Decursin inhibits growth of human bladder and colon cancer cells via apoptosis, G1-phase cell cycle arrest and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Se-Jung; Choi, Young Deuk; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2010-04-01

    Decursin, a pyranocoumarin isolated from the Korean Angelica gigas root, has demonstrated anti-cancer properties. In the present study, we found that decursin inhibited cell viability in cultured human urinary bladder cancer 235J cells and colon cancer HCT116 cells. The inhibited proliferation was due to apoptotic induction, because both cells treated with decursin dose-dependently showed a sub-G1 phase accumulation and an increased cytoplasmic DNA-histone complex. Cell death caused by decursin was also associated with the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 and the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic molecules cytochrome c, caspase 3 and Bax. Treatment of both types of cancer cells with decursin resulted in G1-phase cell cycle arrest, as revealed by FACS analyses. In addition, decursin increased protein levels of p21WAF1 with a decrease in cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). Furthermore, decursin induced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in both cancer cell lines, with the notable exceptions of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase. Finally, pretreatment with ERK-specific inhibitor PD98059 reversed decursin-induced p21WAF1 expression and decursin-inhibited cell growth. Thus, these findings suggest that decursin has potential therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of bladder and colon cancer.

  19. S-nitrosylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) regulates its kinase activity and dendrite growth during neuronal development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Yu, Pei-Chun; Tsang, Anthony H K; Chen, Yu; Fu, Amy K Y; Fu, Wing-Yu; Chung, Kenny K; Ip, Nancy Y

    2010-10-27

    Precise regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family, is critical for proper neuronal development and functions. Cdk5 is activated through its association with the neuron-specific activator p35 or p39. Nonetheless, how its kinase activity is regulated in neurons is not well understood. In this study, we found that Cdk5 activity is regulated by S-nitrosylation, a post-translational modification of protein that affects a plethora of neuronal functions. S-nitrosylation of Cdk5 occurs at Cys83, which is one of the critical amino acids within the ATP-binding pocket of the kinase. Upon S-nitrosylation, Cdk5 exhibits reduced kinase activity, whereas mutation of Cys83 to Ala on Cdk5 renders the kinase refractory to such inhibition. Importantly, S-nitrosylated Cdk5 can be detected in the mouse brain, and blocking the S-nitrosylation of Cdk5 in cultured hippocampal neurons enhances dendritic growth and branching. Together, our findings reveal an important role of S-nitrosylation in regulating Cdk5 kinase activity and dendrite growth in neurons during development.

  20. Src family kinase activity regulates adhesion, spreading and migration of pancreatic endocrine tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Di Florio, Alessia; Capurso, Gabriele; Milione, Massimo; Panzuto, Francesco; Geremia, Raffaele; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Sette, Claudio

    2007-03-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumours (PETs) are rare and 'indolent' neoplasms that usually develop metastatic lesions and exhibit poor response to standard medical treatments. Few studies have investigated pathways responsible for PET cell growth and invasion and no alternative therapeutic strategies have been proposed. In a recent microarray analysis for genes up-regulated in PETs, we have described the up-regulation of soluble Src family tyrosine kinases in this neoplasia, which may represent potentially promising candidates for therapy. Herein, we have investigated the expression and function of Src family kinases in PETS and PET cell lines. Western blot analysis indicated that Src is highly abundant in the PET cell lines CM and QGP-1. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses showed that Src is up-regulated also in human PET lesions. Pharmacological inhibition of Src family kinases by the specific inhibitor PP2 strongly interfered with adhesion, spreading and migration of PET cell lines. Accordingly, the actin cytoskeleton was profoundly altered after inhibition of Src kinases, whereas even prolonged incubation with PP2 exerted no effect on cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis of PET cells. A transient increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of a subset of proteins was observed in QGP-1 cells adhering to the plate, with a peak at 75 min after seeding, when approximately 80% of cells were attached. Inhibition of Src kinases caused a dramatic reduction in the phosphorylation of proteins with different molecular weight that were isolated from the cell extracts by anti-phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitation or pull-down with the SH2 domain of Src. Among them, the docking protein p130Cas interacted with Src and is a major substrate of the Src kinases in QGP-1 cells undergoing adhesion. Our results suggest that Src kinases play a specific role during adhesion, spreading and migration of PET cells and may indicate therapeutical approaches directed to limiting the metastatic

  1. Runx3-regulated expression of two Ntrk3 transcript variants in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Yuuki; Masuda, Tomoyuki; Ozaki, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Shiga, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Somatosensation is divided into proprioception and cutaneous sensation. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons project their fibers toward peripheral targets including muscles and skin, and centrally to the spinal cord. Proprioceptive DRG neurons transmit information from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs to the spinal cord. We previously showed that Runt-related transcription factor 3 (Runx3) is expressed in these neurons and their projections to the ventral spinal cord and muscle spindles are lost in Runx3-deficient (Runx3(-/-) ) mouse embryos. Although Runx3 is likely to contribute to the fate decision and projection of proprioceptive DRG neurons, the precise roles for Runx3 in these phenomena are unknown. To identify genes regulated by Runx3 in embryonic DRGs, we performed microarray analyses using cDNAs isolated from wild-type and Runx3(-/-) DRGs of embryonic day (E) 12.5 and selected two transcript variants of the tyrosine kinase receptor C (TrkC) gene. These variants, Ntrk3 variant 1 (Ntrk3-v1) and variant 2 (Ntrk3-v2), encode full-length and truncated receptors of neurotrophin-3, respectively. Using double in situ hybridization, we found that most of Ntrk3-v1 mRNA expression in E14.5 DRGs depended on Runx3 but that more than half of Ntrk3-v2 mRNA one were expressed in a Runx3-independent manner. Furthermore, our data revealed that the rate of Ntrk3-v1 and Ntrk3-v2 colocalization in DRGs changed from E14.5 to E18.5. Together, our data suggest that Runx3 may play a crucial role in the development of DRGs by regulating the expression of Ntrk3 variants and that DRG neurons expressing Ntrk3-v1 but not Ntrk3-v2 may differentiate into proprioceptive ones.

  2. Phosphorylation of FEZ1 by Microtubule Affinity Regulating Kinases regulates its function in presynaptic protein trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Butkevich, Eugenia; Härtig, Wolfgang; Nikolov, Miroslav; Erck, Christian; Grosche, Jens; Urlaub, Henning; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Klopfenstein, Dieter R.; Chua, John Jia En

    2016-01-01

    Adapters bind motor proteins to cargoes and therefore play essential roles in Kinesin-1 mediated intracellular transport. The regulatory mechanisms governing adapter functions and the spectrum of cargoes recognized by individual adapters remain poorly defined. Here, we show that cargoes transported by the Kinesin-1 adapter FEZ1 are enriched for presynaptic components and identify that specific phosphorylation of FEZ1 at its serine 58 regulatory site is mediated by microtubule affinity-regulating kinases (MARK/PAR-1). Loss of MARK/PAR-1 impairs axonal transport, with adapter and cargo abnormally co-aggregating in neuronal cell bodies and axons. Presynaptic specializations are markedly reduced and distorted in FEZ1 and MARK/PAR-1 mutants. Strikingly, abnormal co-aggregates of unphosphorylated FEZ1, Kinesin-1 and its putative cargoes are present in brains of transgenic mice modelling aspects of Alzheimer’s disease, a neurodegenerative disorder exhibiting impaired axonal transport and altered MARK activity. Our findings suggest that perturbed FEZ1-mediated synaptic delivery of proteins arising from abnormal signalling potentially contributes to the process of neurodegeneration. PMID:27247180

  3. Regulation of DNA damage-induced apoptosis by the c-Abl tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhi-Min; Huang, Yinyin; Ishiko, Takatoshi; Kharbanda, Surender; Weichselbaum, Ralph; Kufe, Donald

    1997-01-01

    Activation of the c-Abl protein tyrosine kinase by certain DNA-damaging agents contributes to down-regulation of Cdk2 and G1 arrest by a p53-dependent mechanism. The present work investigates the potential role of c-Abl in apoptosis induced by DNA damage. Transient transfection studies with wild-type, but not kinase-inactive, c-Abl demonstrate induction of apoptosis. Cells that stably express inactive c-Abl exhibit resistance to ionizing radiation-induced loss of clonogenic survival and apoptosis. Cells null for c-abl are also impaired in the apoptotic response to ionizing radiation. We further show that cells deficient in p53 undergo apoptosis in response to expression of c-Abl and exhibit decreases in radiation-induced apoptosis when expressing inactive c-Abl. These findings suggest that c-Abl kinase regulates DNA damage-induced apoptosis. PMID:9037071

  4. Regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by TPL-2 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Tsakiri, Niki; Kierdorf, Katrin; Brender, Christine; Ben-Addi, Abduelhakem; Veldhoen, Marc; Tsichlis, Philip N.; Stockinger, Brigitta; O’Garra, Anne; Prinz, Marco; Kollias, George; Ley, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    TPL-2 expression is required for efficient polarization of naïve T cells to Th1 effector cells in vitro, and for Th1-mediated immune responses. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of TPL-2 in Th17 cells. TPL-2 was found to be dispensable for Th17 cell differentiation in vitro, and for the initial priming of Th17 cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a Th17 cell-mediated disease model for multiple sclerosis. Nevertheless, TPL-2-deficient mice were protected from EAE, which correlated with reduced immune cell infiltration, demyelination and axonal damage in the CNS. Adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated that there was no T cell-intrinsic function for TPL-2 in EAE, and that TPL-2 signaling was not required in radiation-sensitive hematopoietic cells. Rather, TPL-2 signaling in radiation-resistant stromal cells promoted the effector phase of the disease. Importantly, using a newly generated mouse strain expressing a kinase-inactive form of TPL-2, we demonstrated that stimulation of EAE was dependent on TPL-2’s catalytic activity, and not its adaptor function to stabilize the associated ubiquitin-binding protein ABIN-2. Our data therefore raise the possibility that small molecule inhibitors of TPL-2 may be beneficial in multiple sclerosis therapy. PMID:24639351

  5. New findings in the mechanisms regulating polar growth in root hair cells.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Root hairs cells are highly polarized cellular structures resulting from tip growth of specific root epidermal cells. Root-hair morphogenesis involves many aspects regulating tip growth such as exocytosis, ion flux, calcium homeostasis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cytoskeleton. These cells are excellent models for studying polar growth and can be challenged with many extracellular factors affecting the pattern of growth named Nod factors, elicitors, hormones, etc. The general scenery is that the well described tip-high intracellular Ca(2+) gradient plays a central role in regulating tip growth. On the other hand, ROS plays a key role in various processes, for example hypersensitive response, root hair development, hormone action, gravitropism and stress responses. However, ROS has recently emerged as a key player together with calcium in regulating polar growth, not only in root hair cells but also in pollen tubes, filamentous fungi and fucoid cells. Furthermore, Ca(2+)-permeable channel modulation by ROS has been demonstrated in Vicia faba guard cells and Arabidopsis root hairs. Recently, root hair cells were shown to experiment ROS, pH and calcium oscillations coupled to growth oscillation. These recent findings allow considering that root hair cells present a similar pattern of growth as described for pollen tubes.

  6. Cellular context–mediated Akt dynamics regulates MAP kinase signaling thresholds during angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hellesøy, Monica; Lorens, James B.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of new blood vessels by sprouting angiogenesis is tightly regulated by contextual cues that affect angiogeneic growth factor signaling. Both constitutive activation and loss of Akt kinase activity in endothelial cells impair angiogenesis, suggesting that Akt dynamics mediates contextual microenvironmental regulation. We explored the temporal regulation of Akt in endothelial cells during formation of capillary-like networks induced by cell–cell contact with vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and vSMC-associated VEGF. Expression of constitutively active Akt1 strongly inhibited network formation, whereas hemiphosphorylated Akt1 epi-alleles with reduced kinase activity had an intermediate inhibitory effect. Conversely, inhibition of Akt signaling did not affect endothelial cell migration or morphogenesis in vSMC cocultures that generate capillary-like structures. We found that endothelial Akt activity is transiently blocked by proteasomal degradation in the presence of SMCs during the initial phase of capillary-like structure formation. Suppressed Akt activity corresponded to the increased endothelial MAP kinase signaling that was required for angiogenic endothelial morphogenesis. These results reveal a regulatory principle by which cellular context regulates Akt protein dynamics, which determines MAP kinase signaling thresholds necessary drive a morphogenetic program during angiogenesis. PMID:26023089

  7. Impact of Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases on the Regulation of Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Pompeo, Frédérique; Foulquier, Elodie; Galinier, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria possess many kinases that catalyze phosphorylation of proteins on diverse amino acids including arginine, cysteine, histidine, aspartate, serine, threonine, and tyrosine. These protein kinases regulate different physiological processes in response to environmental modifications. For example, in response to nutritional stresses, the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis can differentiate into an endospore; the initiation of sporulation is controlled by the master regulator Spo0A, which is activated by phosphorylation. Spo0A phosphorylation is carried out by a multi-component phosphorelay system. These phosphorylation events on histidine and aspartate residues are labile, highly dynamic and permit a temporal control of the sporulation initiation decision. More recently, another kind of phosphorylation, more stable yet still dynamic, on serine or threonine residues, was proposed to play a role in spore maintenance and spore revival. Kinases that perform these phosphorylation events mainly belong to the Hanks family and could regulate spore dormancy and spore germination. The aim of this mini review is to focus on the regulation of sporulation in B. subtilis by these serine and threonine phosphorylation events and the kinases catalyzing them. PMID:27148245

  8. Making the Auroras glow: regulation of Aurora A and B kinase function by interacting proteins

    PubMed Central

    Carmena, Mar; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Earnshaw, William C

    2009-01-01

    The conserved Aurora family of protein kinases have emerged as crucial regulators of mitosis and cytokinesis. Despite their high degree of homology, Aurora A and B have very distinctive localisations and functions: Aurora A associates with the spindle poles to regulate entry into mitosis, centrosome maturation and spindle assembly; Aurora B is a member of the Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC) that transfers from the inner centromere in early mitosis to the spindle midzone, equatorial cortex and midbody in late mitosis and cytokinesis. Aurora B functions include regulation of chromosome–microtubule interactions, cohesion, spindle stability and cytokinesis. This review will focus on how interacting proteins make this functional diversity possible by targeting the kinases to different subcellular locations and regulating their activity. PMID:19836940

  9. Making the Auroras glow: regulation of Aurora A and B kinase function by interacting proteins.

    PubMed

    Carmena, Mar; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Earnshaw, William C

    2009-12-01

    The conserved Aurora family of protein kinases have emerged as crucial regulators of mitosis and cytokinesis. Despite their high degree of homology, Aurora A and B have very distinctive localisations and functions: Aurora A associates with the spindle poles to regulate entry into mitosis, centrosome maturation and spindle assembly; Aurora B is a member of the Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC) that transfers from the inner centromere in early mitosis to the spindle midzone, equatorial cortex and midbody in late mitosis and cytokinesis. Aurora B functions include regulation of chromosome-microtubule interactions, cohesion, spindle stability and cytokinesis. This review will focus on how interacting proteins make this functional diversity possible by targeting the kinases to different subcellular locations and regulating their activity.

  10. Ethylene-auxin interactions regulate lateral root initiation and emergence in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ivanchenko, Maria G; Muday, Gloria K; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2008-07-01

    Plant root systems display considerable plasticity in response to endogenous and environmental signals. Auxin stimulates pericycle cells within elongating primary roots to enter de novo organogenesis, leading to the establishment of new lateral root meristems. Crosstalk between auxin and ethylene in root elongation has been demonstrated, but interactions between these hormones in root branching are not well characterized. We find that enhanced ethylene synthesis, resulting from the application of low concentrations of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), promotes the initiation of lateral root primordia. Treatment with higher doses of ACC strongly inhibits the ability of pericycle cells to initiate new lateral root primordia, but promotes the emergence of existing lateral root primordia: behaviour that is also seen in the eto1 mutation. These effects are correlated with decreased pericycle cell length and increased lateral root primordia cell width. When auxin is applied simultaneously with ACC, ACC is unable to prevent the auxin stimulation of lateral root formation in the root tissues formed prior to ACC exposure. However, in root tissues formed after transfer to ACC, in which elongation is reduced, auxin does not rescue the ethylene inhibition of primordia initiation, but instead increases it by several fold. Mutations that block auxin responses, slr1 and arf7 arf19, render initiation of lateral root primordia insensitive to the promoting effect of low ethylene levels, and mutations that inhibit ethylene-stimulated auxin biosynthesis, wei2 and wei7, reduce the inhibitory effect of higher ethylene levels, consistent with ethylene regulating root branching through interactions with auxin.

  11. Regulation of Postsynaptic Structure and Function by an A-Kinase Anchoring Protein-Membrane Associated Guanylate Kinase Scaffolding Complex

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Holly R.; Gibson, Emily S.; Benke, Timothy A.; Dell'Acqua, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) 79/150 is a scaffold protein found in dendritic spines that recruits the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and protein phosphatase 2B-calcineurin (CaN) to membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK)-linked AMPA receptors (AMPAR) to control receptor phosphorylation and synaptic plasticity. However, AKAP79/150 may also coordinate regulation of AMPAR activity with spine structure directly through MAGUK binding and membrane-cytoskeletal interactions of its N-terminal targeting domain. In cultured hippocampal neurons, we observed that rat AKAP150 expression was low early in development but then increased coincident with spine formation and maturation. Overexpression of human AKAP79 in immature or mature neurons increased the number of dendritic filopodia and spines and enlarged spine area. However, RNAi knockdown of AKAP150 decreased dendritic spine area only in mature neurons. Importantly, AKAP79 overexpression in immature neurons increased AMPAR postsynaptic localization and activity. Neither the AKAP79 PKA nor CaN anchoring domain was required for increasing dendritic protrusion numbers, spine area or AMPAR synaptic localization; however, an internal region identified as the MAGUK binding domain was found to be essential as shown by expression of a MAGUK binding mutant that formed mainly filopodia and decreased AMPAR synaptic localization and activity. Expression of the AKAP79 N-terminal targeting domain alone also increased filopodia numbers but not spine area. Overall, these results demonstrate a novel structural role for AKAP79/150 where the N-terminal targeting domain induces dendritic filopodia and binding to MAGUKs promotes spine enlargement and AMPAR recruitment. PMID:19535604

  12. Down-regulation apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 gene reduced the Litopenaeus vannamei hemocyte apoptosis in WSSV infection.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Feng-Hua; Chen, Yong-Gui; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Yue, Hai-Tao; Bi, Hai-Tao; Yuan, Kai; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, is crucial in various cellular responses. In the present study, we identified and characterized an ASK1 homolog from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvASK1). The full-length cDNA of LvASK1 was 5400 bp long, with an open reading frame encoding a putative 1420 amino acid protein. LvASK1 was highly expressed in muscle, hemocyte, eyestalk and heart. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of the LvASK1 was upregulated during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The knocked-down expression of LvASK1 by RNA interference significantly reduced the apoptotic ratio of the hemocytes collected from WSSV-infected L. vannamei. Furthermore, the down-regulation of LvASK1 also decreased the cumulative mortality of WSSV-infected L. vannamei. These results suggested that down-regulation of LvASK1 decreased the apoptotic rate of hemocytes in WSSV-infected shrimp, and that it could contribute to the reduction of cumulative mortality in WSSV-infected L. vannamei.

  13. Strigolactones' ability to regulate root development may be executed by induction of the ethylene pathway.

    PubMed

    Koltai, Hinanit

    2011-07-01

    The newly defined phytohormones strigolactones (SLs) were recently shown to act as regulators of root development. Their positive effect on root-hair (RH) elongation enabled examination of their cross talk with auxin and ethylene. Analysis of wild-type plants and hormone-signaling mutants combined with hormonal treatments suggested that SLs and ethylene regulate RH elongation via a common regulatory pathway, in which ethylene is epistatic to SLs. The SL and auxin hormonal pathways were suggested to converge for regulation of RH elongation; this convergence was suggested to be mediated via the ethylene pathway, and to include regulation of auxin transport.

  14. Activity and regulation by growth factors of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III (elongation factor 2-kinase) in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Parmer, T G; Ward, M D; Yurkow, E J; Vyas, V H; Kearney, T J; Hait, W N

    1999-01-01

    Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III (CaM kinase III, elongation factor-2 kinase) is a unique member of the Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase family. Activation of CaM kinase III leads to the selective phosphorylation of elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) and transient inhibition of protein synthesis. Recent cloning and sequencing of CaM kinase III revealed that this enzyme represents a new superfamily of protein kinases. The activity of CaM kinase III is selectively activated in proliferating cells; inhibition of the kinase blocked cells in G0/G1-S and decreased viability. To determine the significance of CaM kinase III in breast cancer, we measured the activity of the kinase in human breast cancer cell lines as well as in fresh surgical specimens. The specific activity of CaM kinase III in human breast cancer cell lines was equal to or greater than that seen in a variety of cell lines with similar rates of proliferation. The specific activity of CaM kinase III was markedly increased in human breast tumour specimens compared with that of normal adjacent breast tissue. The activity of this enzyme was regulated by breast cancer mitogens. In serum-deprived MDA-MB-231 cells, the combination of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulated cell proliferation and activated CaM kinase III to activities observed in the presence of 10% serum. Inhibition of enzyme activity blocked cell proliferation induced by growth factors. In MCF-7 cells separated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, CaM kinase III was increased in S-phase over that of other phases of the cell cycle. In summary, the activity of Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase III is controlled by breast cancer mitogens and appears to be constitutively activated in human breast cancer. These results suggest that CaM kinase III may contribute an important link between growth factor/receptor interactions, protein synthesis and the induction of cellular proliferation in human breast

  15. Ethylene regulates lateral root formation and auxin transport in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Sangeeta; Ivanchenko, Maria G; Muday, Gloria K

    2008-01-01

    Lateral root branching is a genetically defined and environmentally regulated process. Auxin is required for lateral root formation, and mutants that are altered in auxin synthesis, transport or signaling often have lateral root defects. Crosstalk between auxin and ethylene in root elongation has been demonstrated, but interactions between these hormones in the regulation of Arabidopsis lateral root formation are not well characterized. This study utilized Arabidopsis mutants altered in ethylene signaling and synthesis to explore the role of ethylene in lateral root formation. We find that enhanced ethylene synthesis or signaling, through the eto1-1 and ctr1-1 mutations, or through the application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), negatively impacts lateral root formation, and is reversible by treatment with the ethylene antagonist, silver nitrate. In contrast, mutations that block ethylene responses, etr1-3 and ein2-5, enhance root formation and render it insensitive to the effect of ACC, even though these mutants have reduced root elongation at high ACC doses. ACC treatments or the eto1-1 mutation significantly enhance radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transport in both the acropetal and the basipetal directions. ein2-5 and etr1-3 have less acropetal IAA transport, and transport is no longer regulated by ACC. DR5-GUS reporter expression is also altered by ACC treatment, which is consistent with transport differences. The aux1-7 mutant, which has a defect in an IAA influx protein, is insensitive to the ethylene inhibition of root formation. aux1-7 also has ACC-insensitive acropetal and basipetal IAA transport, as well as altered DR5-GUS expression, which is consistent with ethylene altering AUX1-mediated IAA uptake, and thereby blocking lateral root formation. PMID:18363780

  16. Regulation of root hair initiation and expansin gene expression in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    The expression of two Arabidopsis expansin genes (AtEXP7 and AtEXP18) is tightly linked to root hair initiation; thus, the regulation of these genes was studied to elucidate how developmental, hormonal, and environmental factors orchestrate root hair formation. Exogenous ethylene and auxin, as well as separation of the root from the medium, stimulated root hair formation and the expression of these expansin genes. The effects of exogenous auxin and root separation on root hair formation required the ethylene signaling pathway. By contrast, blocking the endogenous ethylene pathway, either by genetic mutations or by a chemical inhibitor, did not affect normal root hair formation and expansin gene expression. These results indicate that the normal developmental pathway for root hair formation (i.e., not induced by external stimuli) is independent of the ethylene pathway. Promoter analyses of the expansin genes show that the same promoter elements that determine cell specificity also determine inducibility by ethylene, auxin, and root separation. Our study suggests that two distinctive signaling pathways, one developmental and the other environmental/hormonal, converge to modulate the initiation of the root hair and the expression of its specific expansin gene set.

  17. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase Kinase α Is Expressed by Monocytic Cells and Regulates the Activation Profile

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Christopher B.; Deszo, Eric L.; Hartman, Matthew E.; York, Jason M.; Kelley, Keith W.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages are capable of assuming numerous phenotypes in order to adapt to endogenous and exogenous challenges but many of the factors that regulate this process are still unknown. We report that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase α (CaMKKα) is expressed in human monocytic cells and demonstrate that its inhibition blocks type-II monocytic cell activation and promotes classical activation. Affinity chromatography with paramagnetic beads isolated an approximately 50 kDa protein from nuclear lysates of U937 human monocytic cells activated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). This protein was identified as CaMKKα by mass spectrometry and Western analysis. The function of CaMKKα in monocyte activation was examined using the CaMKKα inhibitors (STO-609 and forskolin) and siRNA knockdown. Inhibition of CaMKKα, enhanced PMA-dependent CD86 expression and reduced CD11b expression. In addition, inhibition was associated with decreased translocation of CaMKKα to the nucleus. Finally, to further examine monocyte activation profiles, TNFα and IL-10 secretion were studied. CaMKKα inhibition attenuated PMA-dependent IL-10 production and enhanced TNFα production indicating a shift from type-II to classical monocyte activation. Taken together, these findings indicate an important new role for CaMKKα in the differentiation of monocytic cells. PMID:18270593

  18. Complex regulation of prolyl-4-hydroxylases impacts root hair expansion.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Silvia M; Ricardi, Martiniano M; Poulsen, Christian Peter; Oikawa, Ai; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Halim, Adnan; Mangano, Silvina; Denita Juarez, Silvina Paola; Marzol, Eliana; Salgado Salter, Juan D; Dorosz, Javier Gloazzo; Borassi, Cecilia; Möller, Svenning Rune; Buono, Rafael; Ohsawa, Yukiko; Matsuoka, Ken; Otegui, Marisa S; Scheller, Henrik V; Geshi, Naomi; Petersen, Bent Larsen; Iusem, Norberto D; Estevez, José M

    2015-05-01

    Root hairs are single cells that develop by tip growth, a process shared with pollen tubes, axons, and fungal hyphae. However, structural plant cell walls impose constraints to accomplish tip growth. In addition to polysaccharides, plant cell walls are composed of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), which include several groups of O-glycoproteins, including extensins (EXTs). Proline hydroxylation, an early post-translational modification (PTM) of HRGPs catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs), defines their subsequent O-glycosylation sites. In this work, our genetic analyses prove that P4H5, and to a lesser extent P4H2 and P4H13, are pivotal for root hair tip growth. Second, we demonstrate that P4H5 has in vitro preferred specificity for EXT substrates rather than for other HRGPs. Third, by P4H promoter and protein swapping approaches, we show that P4H2 and P4H13 have interchangeable functions but cannot replace P4H5. These three P4Hs are shown to be targeted to the secretory pathway, where P4H5 forms dimers with P4H2 and P4H13. Finally, we explore the impact of deficient proline hydroxylation on the cell wall architecture. Taken together, our results support a model in which correct peptidyl-proline hydroxylation on EXTs, and possibly in other HRGPs, is required for proper cell wall self-assembly and hence root hair elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  19. GTP binding to the ROC domain of DAP-kinase regulates its function through intramolecular signalling.

    PubMed

    Carlessi, Rodrigo; Levin-Salomon, Vered; Ciprut, Sara; Bialik, Shani; Berissi, Hanna; Albeck, Shira; Peleg, Yoav; Kimchi, Adi

    2011-09-01

    Death-associated protein kinase (DAPk) was recently suggested by sequence homology to be a member of the ROCO family of proteins. Here, we show that DAPk has a functional ROC (Ras of complex proteins) domain that mediates homo-oligomerization and GTP binding through a defined P-loop motif. Upon binding to GTP, the ROC domain negatively regulates the catalytic activity of DAPk and its cellular effects. Mechanistically, GTP binding enhances an inhibitory autophosphorylation at a distal site that suppresses kinase activity. This study presents a new mechanism of intramolecular signal transduction, by which GTP binding operates in cis to affect the catalytic activity of a distal domain in the protein.

  20. PROTEIN KINASE B/AKT IS A NOVEL CYSTEINE STRING PROTEIN KINASE THAT REGULATES EXOCYTOSIS RELEASE KINETICS AND QUANTAL SIZE

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Gareth J. O.; Barclay, Jeff W.; Prescott, Gerald R.; Jo, Sung-Ro; Burgoyne, Robert D.; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Morgan, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Protein kinase B/Akt has been implicated in the insulin-dependent exocytosis of GLUT4-containing vesicles, and, more recently, insulin secretion. To determine if Akt also regulates insulin-independent exocytosis, we used adrenal chromaffin cells, a popular neuronal model. Akt1 was the predominant isoform expressed in chromaffin cells, although lower levels of Akt2 and Akt3 were also found. Secretory stimuli in both intact and permeabilized cells induced Akt phosphorylation on serine-473, and the time course of Ca2+-induced Akt phosphorylation was similar to that of exocytosis in permeabilized cells. To determine if Akt modulated exocytosis, we transfected chromaffin cells with Akt constructs and monitored catecholamine release by amperometry. Wild-type Akt had no effect on the overall number of exocytotic events, but slowed the kinetics of catecholamine release from individual vesicles, resulting in an increased quantal size. This effect was due to phosphorylation by Akt, as it was not seen in cells transfected with kinase-dead mutant Akt. As overexpression of cysteine string protein (CSP) results in a similar alteration in release kinetics and quantal size, we determined if CSP was an Akt substrate. In vitro 32P-phosphorylation studies revealed that Akt phosphorylates CSP on serine-10. Using phospho-serine10-specific antisera, we found that both transfected and endogenous cellular CSP is phosphorylated by Akt on this residue. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel role for Akt phosphorylation in regulating the late stages of exocytosis and suggest that this is achieved via the phosphorylation of CSP on serine-10. PMID:16243840

  1. Regulation of atypical MAP kinases ERK3 and ERK4 by the phosphatase DUSP2

    PubMed Central

    Perander, Maria; Al-Mahdi, Rania; Jensen, Thomas C.; Nunn, Jennifer A. L.; Kildalsen, Hanne; Johansen, Bjarne; Gabrielsen, Mads; Keyse, Stephen M.; Seternes, Ole-Morten

    2017-01-01

    The atypical MAP kinases ERK3 and ERK4 are activated by phosphorylation of a serine residue lying within the activation loop signature sequence S-E-G. However, the regulation of ERK3 and ERK4 phosphorylation and activity is poorly understood. Here we report that the inducible nuclear dual-specificity MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP) DUSP2, a known regulator of the ERK and p38 MAPKs, is unique amongst the MKP family in being able to bind to both ERK3 and ERK4. This interaction is mediated by a conserved common docking (CD) domain within the carboxyl-terminal domains of ERK3 and ERK4 and the conserved kinase interaction motif (KIM) located within the non-catalytic amino terminus of DUSP2. This interaction is direct and results in the dephosphorylation of ERK3 and ERK4 and the stabilization of DUSP2. In the case of ERK4 its ability to stabilize DUSP2 requires its kinase activity. Finally, we demonstrate that expression of DUSP2 inhibits ERK3 and ERK4-mediated activation of its downstream substrate MK5. We conclude that the activity of DUSP2 is not restricted to the classical MAPK pathways and that DUSP2 can also regulate the atypical ERK3/4-MK5 signalling pathway in mammalian cells. PMID:28252035

  2. Light regulates attachment, exopolysaccharide production, and nodulation in Rhizobium leguminosarum through a LOV-histidine kinase photoreceptor.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, Hernán R; Posadas, Diana M; Paris, Gastón; Carrica, Mariela del Carmen; Frederickson, Marcus; Pietrasanta, Lía Isabel; Bogomolni, Roberto A; Zorreguieta, Angeles; Goldbaum, Fernando A

    2012-07-24

    Rhizobium leguminosarum is a soil bacterium that infects root hairs and induces the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on leguminous plants. Light, oxygen, and voltage (LOV)-domain proteins are blue-light receptors found in higher plants and many algae, fungi, and bacteria. The genome of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841, a pea-nodulating endosymbiont, encodes a sensor histidine kinase containing a LOV domain at the N-terminal end (R-LOV-HK). R-LOV-HK has a typical LOV domain absorption spectrum with broad bands in the blue and UV-A regions and shows a truncated photocycle. Here we show that the R-LOV-HK protein regulates attachment to an abiotic surface and production of flagellar proteins and exopolysaccharide in response to light. Also, illumination of bacterial cultures before inoculation of pea roots increases the number of nodules per plant and the number of intranodular bacteroids. The effects of light on nodulation are dependent on a functional lov gene. The results presented in this work suggest that light, sensed by R-LOV-HK, is an important environmental factor that controls adaptive responses and the symbiotic efficiency of R. leguminosarum.

  3. Integration of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1-Mediated Stress Signaling with the Akt/Protein Kinase B-IκB Kinase Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Puckett, Mary C.; Goldman, Erinn H.; Cockrell, Lisa M.; Huang, Bei; Kasinski, Andrea L.; Du, Yuhong; Wang, Cun-Yu; Lin, Anning; Ichijo, Hidenori; Khuri, Fadlo

    2013-01-01

    Cellular processes are tightly controlled through well-coordinated signaling networks that respond to conflicting cues, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signals, and survival factors to ensure proper cell function. We report here a direct interaction between inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), unveiling a critical node at the junction of survival, inflammation, and stress signaling networks. IKK can be activated by growth factor stimulation or tumor necrosis factor alpha engagement. IKK forms a complex with and phosphorylates ASK1 at a sensor site, Ser967, leading to the recruitment of 14-3-3, counteracts stress signal-triggered ASK1 activation, and suppresses ASK1-mediated functions. An inhibitory role of IKK in JNK signaling has been previously reported to depend on NF-κB-mediated gene expression. Our data suggest that IKK has a dual role: a transcription-dependent and a transcription-independent action in controlling the ASK1-JNK axis, coupling IKK to ROS and ER stress response. Direct phosphorylation of ASK1 by IKK also defines a novel IKK phosphorylation motif. Because of the intimate involvement of ASK1 in diverse diseases, the IKK/ASK1 interface offers a promising target for therapeutic development. PMID:23530055

  4. NO homeostasis is a key regulator of early nitrate perception and root elongation in maize*

    PubMed Central

    Quaggiotti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Crop plant development is strongly dependent on nitrogen availability in the soil and on the efficiency of its recruitment by roots. For this reason, the understanding of the molecular events underlying root adaptation to nitrogen fluctuations is a primary goal to develop biotechnological tools for sustainable agriculture. However, knowledge about molecular responses to nitrogen availability is derived mainly from the study of model species. Nitric oxide (NO) has been recently proposed to be implicated in plant responses to environmental stresses, but its exact role in the response of plants to nutritional stress is still under evaluation. In this work, the role of NO production by maize roots after nitrate perception was investigated by focusing on the regulation of transcription of genes involved in NO homeostasis and by measuring NO production in roots. Moreover, its involvement in the root growth response to nitrate was also investigated. The results provide evidence that NO is produced by nitrate reductase as an early response to nitrate supply and that the coordinated induction of non-symbiotic haemoglobins (nsHbs) could finely regulate the NO steady state. This mechanism seems to be implicated on the modulation of the root elongation in response to nitrate perception. Moreover, an improved agar-plate system for growing maize seedlings was developed. This system, which allows localized treatments to be performed on specific root portions, gave the opportunity to discern between localized and systemic effects of nitrate supply to roots. PMID:24220653

  5. Role of the GacS Sensor Kinase in the Regulation of Volatile Production by Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xu; Cordovez, Viviane; Etalo, Desalegn W.; van der Voort, Menno; Raaijmakers, Jos M.

    2016-01-01

    In plant-associated Pseudomonas species, the production of several secondary metabolites and exoenzymes is regulated by the GacS/GacA two-component regulatory system (the Gac-system). Here, we investigated if a mutation in the GacS sensor kinase affects the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in P. fluorescens SBW25 (Pf.SBW25) and how this impacts on VOCs-mediated growth promotion and induced systemic resistance of Arabidopsis and tobacco. A total of 205 VOCs were detected by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry for Pf. SBW25 and the gacS-mutant grown on two different media for 3 and 6 days. Discriminant function analysis followed by hierarchical clustering revealed 24 VOCs that were significantly different in their abundance between Pf.SBW25 and the gacS-mutant, which included three acyclic alkenes (3-nonene, 4-undecyne, 1-undecene). These alkenes were significantly reduced by the gacS mutation independently of the growth media and of the incubation time. For Arabidopsis, both Pf.SBW25 and the gacS-mutant enhanced, via VOCs, root and shoot biomass, induced systemic resistance against leaf infections by P. syringae and rhizosphere acidification to the same extent. For tobacco, however, VOCs-mediated effects on shoot and root growth were significantly different between Pf.SBW25 and the gacS-mutant. While Pf.SBW25 inhibited tobacco root growth, the gacS-mutant enhanced root biomass and lateral root formation relative to the non-treated control plants. Collectively these results indicate that the sensor kinase GacS is involved in the regulation of VOCs production in Pf.SBW25, affecting plant growth in a plant species-dependent manner. PMID:27917180

  6. Plant microRNAs: key regulators of root architecture and biotic interactions.

    PubMed

    Couzigou, Jean-Malo; Combier, Jean-Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Contents 22 I. 22 II. 24 III. 25 IV. 27 V. 29 VI. 10 31 References 32 SUMMARY: Plants have evolved a remarkable faculty of adaptation to deal with various and changing environmental conditions. In this context, the roots have taken over nutritional aspects and the root system architecture can be modulated in response to nutrient availability or biotic interactions with soil microorganisms. This adaptability requires a fine tuning of gene expression. Indeed, root specification and development are highly complex processes requiring gene regulatory networks involved in hormonal regulations and cell identity. Among the different molecular partners governing root development, microRNAs (miRNAs) are key players for the fast regulation of gene expression. miRNAs are small RNAs involved in most developmental processes and are required for the normal growth of organisms, by the negative regulation of key genes, such as transcription factors and hormone receptors. Here, we review the known roles of miRNAs in root specification and development, from the embryonic roots to the establishment of root symbioses, highlighting the major roles of miRNAs in these processes.

  7. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha phosphorylates and regulates the osteogenic activity of Osterix.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Jeong, Hyung Min; Choi, You Hee; Lee, Sung Ho; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Lee, Kwang Youl

    2013-05-10

    Osteoblast-specific transcription factor Osterix is a zinc-finger transcription factor that required for osteoblast differentiation and new bone formation. The function of Osterix can be modulated by post-translational modification. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha (GSK3α) is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a role in the Wnt signaling pathways and is implicated in the control of several regulatory proteins and transcription factors. In the present study, we investigated how GSK3α regulates Osterix during osteoblast differentiation. Wide type GSK3α up-regulated the protein level, protein stability and transcriptional activity of Osterix. These results suggest that GSK3α regulates osteogenic activity of Osterix.

  8. Regulation of persistent sodium currents by glycogen synthase kinase 3 encodes daily rhythms of neuronal excitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Jodi R.; Dewoskin, Daniel; McMeekin, Laura J.; Cowell, Rita M.; Forger, Daniel B.; Gamble, Karen L.

    2016-11-01

    How neurons encode intracellular biochemical signalling cascades into electrical signals is not fully understood. Neurons in the central circadian clock in mammals provide a model system to investigate electrical encoding of biochemical timing signals. Here, using experimental and modelling approaches, we show how the activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) contributes to neuronal excitability through regulation of the persistent sodium current (INaP). INaP exhibits a day/night difference in peak magnitude and is regulated by GSK3. Using mathematical modelling, we predict and confirm that GSK3 activation of INaP affects the action potential afterhyperpolarization, which increases the spontaneous firing rate without affecting the resting membrane potential. Together, these results demonstrate a crucial link between the molecular circadian clock and electrical activity, providing examples of kinase regulation of electrical activity and the propagation of intracellular signals in neuronal networks.

  9. Regulation of persistent sodium currents by glycogen synthase kinase 3 encodes daily rhythms of neuronal excitability

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Jodi R.; DeWoskin, Daniel; McMeekin, Laura J.; Cowell, Rita M.; Forger, Daniel B.; Gamble, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    How neurons encode intracellular biochemical signalling cascades into electrical signals is not fully understood. Neurons in the central circadian clock in mammals provide a model system to investigate electrical encoding of biochemical timing signals. Here, using experimental and modelling approaches, we show how the activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) contributes to neuronal excitability through regulation of the persistent sodium current (INaP). INaP exhibits a day/night difference in peak magnitude and is regulated by GSK3. Using mathematical modelling, we predict and confirm that GSK3 activation of INaP affects the action potential afterhyperpolarization, which increases the spontaneous firing rate without affecting the resting membrane potential. Together, these results demonstrate a crucial link between the molecular circadian clock and electrical activity, providing examples of kinase regulation of electrical activity and the propagation of intracellular signals in neuronal networks. PMID:27841351

  10. Phosphorylation of the Kinase Domain Regulates Autophosphorylation of Myosin IIIA and Its Translocation in Microvilli

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Motor activity of myosin III is regulated by autophosphorylation. To investigate the role of the kinase activity on the transporter function of myosin IIIA (Myo3A), we identified the phosphorylation sites of kinase domain (KD), which is responsible for the regulation of kinase activity and thus motor function. Using mass spectrometry, we identified six phosphorylation sites in the KD, which are highly conserved among class III myosins and Ste20-related misshapen (Msn) kinases. Two predominant sites, Thr184 and Thr188, in KD are important for phosphorylation of the KD as well as the motor domain, which regulates the affinity for actin. In the Caco2 cells, the full-length human Myo3A (hMyo3AFull) markedly enlarged the microvilli, although it did not show discrete localization within the microvilli. On the other hand, hMyo3AFull(T184A) and hMyo3AFull(T188A) both showed clear localization at the microvilli tips. Our results suggest that Myo3A induces large actin bundle formation to form microvilli, and phosphorylation of KD at Thr184 and Thr188 is critical for the kinase activity of Myo3A, and regulation of Myo3A translocation to the tip of microvilli. Retinal extracts potently dephosphorylate both KD and motor domain without IQ motifs (MDIQo), which was inhibited by okadaic acid (OA) with nanomolar range and by tautomycetin (TMC) with micromolar range. The results suggest that Myo3A phosphatase is protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A). Supporting this result, recombinant PP2Ac potently dephosphorylates both KD and MDIQo. We propose that the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation mechanism plays an essential role in mediating the transport and actin bundle formation and stability functions of hMyo3A. PMID:25402663

  11. EBNA3C regulates p53 through induction of Aurora kinase B.

    PubMed

    Jha, Hem C; Yang, Karren; El-Naccache, Darine W; Sun, Zhiguo; Robertson, Erle S

    2015-03-20

    In multicellular organisms p53 maintains genomic integrity through activation of DNA repair, and apoptosis. EBNA3C can down regulate p53 transcriptional activity. Aurora kinase (AK) B phosphorylates p53, which leads to degradation of p53. Aberrant expression of AK-B is a hallmark of numerous human cancers. Therefore changes in the activities of p53 due to AK-B and EBNA3C expression is important for understanding EBV-mediated cell transformation. Here we show that the activities of p53 and its homolog p73 are dysregulated in EBV infected primary cells which can contribute to increased cell transformation. Further, we showed that the ETS-1 binding site is crucial for EBNA3C-mediated up-regulation of AK-B transcription. Further, we determined the Ser 215 residue of p53 is critical for functional regulation by AK-B and EBNA3C and that the kinase domain of AK-B which includes amino acid residues 106, 111 and 205 was important for p53 regulation. AK-B with a mutation at residue 207 was functionally similar to wild type AK-B in terms of its kinase activities and knockdown of AK-B led to enhanced p73 expression independent of p53. This study explores an additional mechanism by which p53 is regulated by AK-B and EBNA3C contributing to EBV-induced B-cell transformation.

  12. The transcription factor RUNX2 regulates receptor tyrosine kinase expression in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Boregowda, Rajeev K.; Medina, Daniel J.; Markert, Elke; Bryan, Michael A.; Chen, Wenjin; Chen, Suzie; Rabkin, Anna; Vido, Michael J.; Gunderson, Samuel I.; Chekmareva, Marina; Foran, David J.; Lasfar, Ahmed; Goydos, James S.; Cohen-Solal, Karine A.

    2016-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases-based autocrine loops largely contribute to activate the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways in melanoma. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in generating these autocrine loops are still largely unknown. In the present study, we examine the role of the transcription factor RUNX2 in the regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) expression in melanoma. We have demonstrated that RUNX2-deficient melanoma cells display a significant decrease in three receptor tyrosine kinases, EGFR, IGF-1R and PDGFRβ. In addition, we found co-expression of RUNX2 and another RTK, AXL, in both melanoma cells and melanoma patient samples. We observed a decrease in phosphoAKT2 (S474) and phosphoAKT (T308) levels when RUNX2 knock down resulted in significant RTK down regulation. Finally, we showed a dramatic up regulation of RUNX2 expression with concomitant up-regulation of EGFR, IGF-1R and AXL in melanoma cells resistant to the BRAF V600E inhibitor PLX4720. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that RUNX2 might be a key player in RTK-based autocrine loops and a mediator of resistance to BRAF V600E inhibitors involving RTK up regulation in melanoma. PMID:27102439

  13. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinases (CaMKKs) Effects on AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Regulation of Chicken Sperm Functions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi Mong Diep; Combarnous, Yves; Praud, Christophe; Duittoz, Anne; Blesbois, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Sperm require high levels of energy to ensure motility and acrosome reaction (AR) accomplishment. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been demonstrated to be strongly involved in the control of these properties. We address here the question of the potential role of calcium mobilization on AMPK activation and function in chicken sperm through the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinases (CaMKKs) mediated pathway. The presence of CaMKKs and their substrates CaMKI and CaMKIV was evaluated by western-blotting and indirect immunofluorescence. Sperm were incubated in presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+, or of CaMKKs inhibitor (STO-609). Phosphorylations of AMPK, CaMKI, and CaMKIV, as well as sperm functions were evaluated. We demonstrate the presence of both CaMKKs (α and β), CaMKI and CaMKIV in chicken sperm. CaMKKα and CaMKI were localized in the acrosome, the midpiece, and at much lower fluorescence in the flagellum, whereas CaMKKβ was mostly localized in the flagellum and much less in the midpiece and the acrosome. CaMKIV was only present in the flagellum. The presence of extracellular calcium induced an increase in kinases phosphorylation and sperm activity. STO-609 reduced AMPK phosphorylation in the presence of extracellular Ca2+ but not in its absence. STO-609 did not affect CaMKIV phosphorylation but decreased CaMKI phosphorylation and this inhibition was quicker in the presence of extracellular Ca2+ than in its absence. STO-609 efficiently inhibited sperm motility and AR, both in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca2+. Our results show for the first time the presence of CaMKKs (α and β) and one of its substrate, CaMKI in different subcellular compartments in germ cells, as well as the changes in the AMPK regulation pathway, sperm motility and AR related to Ca2+ entry in sperm through the Ca2+/CaM/CaMKKs/CaMKI pathway. The Ca2+/CaMKKs/AMPK pathway is activated only under conditions of extracellular Ca2+ entry in the cells

  14. Ubp8 and SAGA Regulate Snf1 AMP Kinase Activity ▿

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Marenda A.; Koutelou, Evangelia; Hirsch, Calley; Akdemir, Kadir; Schibler, Andria; Barton, Michelle Craig; Dent, Sharon Y. R.

    2011-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications of histone proteins play important roles in the modulation of gene expression. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) 2-MDa SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5) complex, a well-studied multisubunit histone modifier, regulates gene expression through Gcn5-mediated histone acetylation and Ubp8-mediated histone deubiquitination. Using a proteomics approach, we determined that the SAGA complex also deubiquitinates nonhistone proteins, including Snf1, an AMP-activated kinase. Ubp8-mediated deubiquitination of Snf1 affects the stability and phosphorylation state of Snf1, thereby affecting Snf1 kinase activity. Others have reported that Gal83 is phosphorylated by Snf1, and we found that deletion of UBP8 causes decreased phosphorylation of Gal83, which is consistent with the effects of Ubp8 loss on Snf1 kinase functions. Overall, our data indicate that SAGA modulates the posttranslational modifications of Snf1 in order to fine-tune gene expression levels. PMID:21628526

  15. MADS-box transcription factor AGL21 regulates lateral root development and responds to multiple external and physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin-Hui; Miao, Zi-Qing; Qi, Guo-Feng; Wu, Jie; Cai, Xiao-Teng; Mao, Jie-Li; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2014-11-01

    Plant root system morphology is dramatically influenced by various environmental cues. The adaptation of root system architecture to environmental constraints, which mostly depends on the formation and growth of lateral roots, is an important agronomic trait. Lateral root development is regulated by the external signals coordinating closely with intrinsic signaling pathways. MADS-box transcription factors are known key regulators of the transition to flowering and flower development. However, their functions in root development are still poorly understood. Here we report that AGL21, an AGL17-clade MADS-box gene, plays a crucial role in lateral root development. AGL21 was highly expressed in root, particularly in the root central cylinder and lateral root primordia. AGL21 overexpression plants produced more and longer lateral roots while agl21 mutants showed impaired lateral root development, especially under nitrogen-deficient conditions. AGL21 was induced by many plant hormones and environmental stresses, suggesting a function of this gene in root system plasticity in response to various signals. Furthermore, AGL21 was found positively regulating auxin accumulation in lateral root primordia and lateral roots by enhancing local auxin biosynthesis, thus stimulating lateral root initiation and growth. We propose that AGL21 may be involved in various environmental and physiological signals-mediated lateral root development and growth.

  16. Calcium and calcium-dependent protein kinases are involved in nitric oxide- and auxin-induced adventitious root formation in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Lanteri, María Luciana; Pagnussat, Gabriela Carolina; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    A few years ago it was demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP are involved in the auxin response during adventitious root (AR) formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). More recently, a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade was shown to be induced by IAA in a NO-dependent, but cGMP-independent, pathway. In the present study, the involvement of Ca2+ and the regulation of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) activity during IAA- and NO-induced AR formation was evaluated in cucumber explants. The effectiveness of several broad-spectrum Ca2+ channel inhibitors and Ca2+ chelators in affecting AR formation induced by IAA or NO was also examined. Results indicate that the explants response to IAA and NO depends on the availability of both intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ pools. Protein extracts from cucumber hypocotyls were assayed for CDPK activity by using histone IIIS or syntide 2 as substrates for in-gel or in vitro assays, respectively. The activity of a 50 kDa CDPK was detected after 1 d of either NO or IAA treatments and it extended up to the third day of treatment. This CDPK activity was affected in both extracts from NO- and IAA-treated explants in the presence of the specific NO-scavenger cPTIO, suggesting that NO is required for its maximal and sustained activity. The in-gel and the in vitro CDPK activity, as well as the NO- or IAA-induced AR formation, were inhibited by calmodulin antagonists. Furthermore, the induction of CDPK activity by NO and IAA was shown to be reliant on the activity of the enzyme guanylate cyclase.

  17. Expression and activation of platelet-derived growth factor β receptor, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Altamura, Gennaro; Uberti, Barbara Degli; Galiero, Giorgio; Martano, Manuela; Pirro, Antonella; Russo, Marco; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    Canine mammary tumours are frequent neoplasms mostly affecting intact female dogs, for which no 100% efficient therapy is available. Platelet derived growth factor β receptor (PDGFβR) is a tyrosine kinase receptor (TKR) with a potential role in human breast cancer and a series of canine tumours. In this study we demonstrated, for the first time, expression of PDGFβR and its downstream transduction molecules, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), as well as their activated forms in canine mammary tumours by both biochemical analysis and immunohistochemistry. PDGFβR was expressed and hyperphosphorylated in the majority of tumour samples and tumour derived cell lines. Additionally, both MEK and ERK were expressed and activated in cell lines as well as biopsies. TKR inhibitors (TKRi) are currently under investigation as possible therapy in human breast and several canine tumours, thus our in vivo and in vitro findings pave the way for future studies aimed at establishing a potential therapeutic employment of TKRi for the treatment of canine mammary cancer.

  18. Protein phosphatase and kinase activities possibly involved in exocytosis regulation in Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Kissmehl, R; Treptau, T; Hofer, H W; Plattner, H

    1996-07-01

    cannot phosphorylate P63, whereas either PKG or the casein kinase phosphorylate P63 in vitro. On the basis of these findings we propose that a protein phosphatase/kinase system is involved in the regulation of exocytosis in P. tetraurelia cells.

  19. Transcriptional regulation of kinases downstream of the T cell receptor: another immunomodulatory mechanism of glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoids affect peripheral immune responses, including modulation of T-cell activation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The quantity and quality of T-cell receptor (TCR)-triggered intracellular signals modulate T-cell function. Thus, glucocorticoids may affect T cells by interfering with the TCR signaling cascade. The purpose of the study was to search for glucocorticoid-modulated kinases downstream of the TCR. Methods Gene modulation in lymphoid cells either treated with glucocorticoids or from glucocorticoid-treated mice was studied using a RNase protection assay, real-time PCR, and western blotting. The sensitivity of genetically modified thymocytes to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis was studied by performing hypotonic propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. The Student’s t-test was employed for statistical evaluation. Results We found that transcription of Itk, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase of the Tec family, was up-regulated in a mouse T-cell hybridoma by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. In contrast, dexamethasone down-regulated the expression of Txk, a Tec kinase that functions redundantly with Itk, and Lck, the Src kinase immediately downstream of the TCR. We investigated the expression of Itk, Txk, and Lck in thymocytes and mature lymphocytes following in vitro and in vivo dexamethasone treatment at different time points and doses. Kinase expression was differentially modulated and followed distinct kinetics. Itk was up-regulated in all cell types and conditions tested. Txk was strongly up-regulated in mature lymphocytes but only weakly up-regulated or non-modulated in thymocytes in vitro or in vivo, respectively. Conversely, Lck was down-regulated in thymocytes, but not modulated or up-regulated in mature lymphocytes in the different experimental conditions. This complex behaviour correlates with the presence of both positive and negative glucocorticoid responsive elements (GRE and nGRE, respectively) in the Itk, Txk

  20. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 activation in endothelial cells exposed to cyclic strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, M.; Takei, T.; Mills, I.; Kito, H.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/ERK2) are activated and might play a role in enhanced proliferation and morphological change induced by strain. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were subjected to an average of 6 or 10% strain at a rate of 60 cycles/min for up to 4 h. Cyclic strain caused strain- and time-dependent phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2. Peak phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2 induced by 10% strain were at 10 min. A specific ERK1/ERK2 kinase inhibitor, PD-98059, inhibited phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2 but did not inhibit the increased cell proliferation and cell alignment induced by strain. Treatment of BAEC with 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1, 4-benzohydroquinone, to deplete inositol trisphosphate-sensitive calcium storage, and gadolinium chloride, a Ca2+ channel blocker, did not inhibit the activation of ERK1/ERK2. Strain-induced ERK1/ERK2 activation was partly inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin C and completely inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. These data suggest that 1) ERK1/ERK2 are not critically involved in the strain-induced cell proliferation and orientation, 2) strain-dependent activation of ERK1/ERK2 is independent of intracellular and extracellular calcium mobilization, and 3) protein kinase C activation and tyrosine kinase regulate strain-induced activation of ERK1/ERK2.

  1. Lipid-Mediated Regulation of Embedded Receptor Kinases via Parallel Allosteric Relays.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Madhubrata; Wang, Loo Chien; Ramesh, Ranita; Morgan, Leslie K; Kenney, Linda J; Anand, Ganesh S

    2017-02-28

    Membrane-anchored receptors are essential cellular signaling elements for stimulus sensing, propagation, and transmission inside cells. However, the contributions of lipid interactions to the function and dynamics of embedded receptor kinases have not been described in detail. In this study, we used amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, a sensitive biophysical approach, to probe the dynamics of a membrane-embedded receptor kinase, EnvZ, together with functional assays to describe the role of lipids in receptor kinase function. Our results reveal that lipids play an important role in regulating receptor function through interactions with transmembrane segments, as well as through peripheral interactions with nonembedded domains. Specifically, the lipid membrane allosterically modulates the activity of the embedded kinase by altering the dynamics of a glycine-rich motif that is critical for phosphotransfer from ATP. This allostery in EnvZ is independent of membrane composition and involves direct interactions with transmembrane and periplasmic segments, as well as peripheral interactions with nonembedded domains of the protein. In the absence of the membrane-spanning regions, lipid allostery is propagated entirely through peripheral interactions. Whereas lipid allostery impacts the phosphotransferase function of the kinase, extracellular stimulus recognition is mediated via a four-helix bundle subdomain located in the cytoplasm, which functions as the osmosensing core through osmolality-dependent helical stabilization. Our findings emphasize the functional modularity in a membrane-embedded kinase, separated into membrane association, phosphotransferase function, and stimulus recognition. These components are integrated through long-range communication relays, with lipids playing an essential role in regulation.

  2. Ethylene acts as a negative regulator of glucose induced lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manjul; Gupta, Aditi; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Plants, being sessile organisms, are more exposed to the hazards of constantly changing environmental conditions globally. During the lifetime of a plant, the root system encounters various challenges such as obstacles, pathogens, high salinity, water logging, nutrient scarcity etc. The developmental plasticity of the root system provides brilliant adaptability to plants to counter the changes exerted by both external as well as internal cues and achieve an optimized growth status. Phytohormones are one of the major intrinsic factors regulating all aspects of plant growth and development both independently as well as through complex signal integrations at multiple levels. We have previously shown that glucose (Glc) and brassinosteroid (BR) signalings interact extensively to regulate lateral root (LR) development in Arabidopsis. (1) Auxin efflux as well as influx and downstream signaling components are also involved in Glc-BR regulation of LR emergence. Here, we provide evidence for involvement of ethylene signaling machinery downstream to Glc and BR in regulation of LR emergence.

  3. Ethylene acts as a negative regulator of glucose induced lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manjul; Gupta, Aditi; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Plants, being sessile organisms, are more exposed to the hazards of constantly changing environmental conditions globally. During the lifetime of a plant, the root system encounters various challenges such as obstacles, pathogens, high salinity, water logging, nutrient scarcity etc. The developmental plasticity of the root system provides brilliant adaptability to plants to counter the changes exerted by both external as well as internal cues and achieve an optimized growth status. Phytohormones are one of the major intrinsic factors regulating all aspects of plant growth and development both independently as well as through complex signal integrations at multiple levels. We have previously shown that glucose (Glc) and brassinosteroid (BR) signalings interact extensively to regulate lateral root (LR) development in Arabidopsis.1 Auxin efflux as well as influx and downstream signaling components are also involved in Glc-BR regulation of LR emergence. Here, we provide evidence for involvement of ethylene signaling machinery downstream to Glc and BR in regulation of LR emergence. PMID:26236960

  4. Serine/Threonine Kinase 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinase-1 (PDK1) as a Key Regulator of Cell Migration and Cancer Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Di Blasio, Laura; Gagliardi, Paolo A.; Puliafito, Alberto; Primo, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Dissecting the cellular signaling that governs the motility of eukaryotic cells is one of the fundamental tasks of modern cell biology, not only because of the large number of physiological processes in which cell migration is crucial, but even more so because of the pathological ones, in particular tumor invasion and metastasis. Cell migration requires the coordination of at least four major processes: polarization of intracellular signaling, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and membrane extension, focal adhesion and integrin signaling and contractile forces generation and rear retraction. Among the molecular components involved in the regulation of locomotion, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway has been shown to exert fundamental role. A pivotal node of such pathway is represented by the serine/threonine kinase 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDPK1 or PDK1). PDK1, and the majority of its substrates, belong to the AGC family of kinases (related to cAMP-dependent protein kinase 1, cyclic Guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C), and control a plethora of cellular processes, downstream either to PI3K or to other pathways, such as RAS GTPase-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase). Interestingly, PDK1 has been demonstrated to be crucial for the regulation of each step of cell migration, by activating several proteins such as protein kinase B/Akt (PKB/Akt), myotonic dystrophy-related CDC42-binding kinases alpha (MRCKα), Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1), phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLCγ1) and β3 integrin. Moreover, PDK1 regulates cancer cell invasion as well, thus representing a possible target to prevent cancer metastasis in human patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the various mechanisms by which PDK1 controls the cell migration process, from cell polarization to actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion regulation, and finally, to discuss the evidence supporting a

  5. Chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in tobacco: differential regulation by calmodulin isoforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Z.; Xia, M.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1998-01-01

    cDNA clones of chimeric Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) from tobacco (TCCaMK-1 and TCCaMK-2) were isolated and characterized. The polypeptides encoded by TCCaMK-1 and TCCaMK-2 have 15 different amino acid substitutions, yet they both contain a total of 517 amino acids. Northern analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner during anther development. Messenger RNA was detected when tobacco bud sizes were between 0.5 cm and 1.0 cm. The appearance of mRNA coincided with meiosis and became undetectable at later stages of anther development. The reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification assay using isoform-specific primers showed that both of the CCaMK mRNAs were expressed in anther with similar expression patterns. The CCaMK protein expressed in Escherichia coli showed Ca2+-dependent autophosphorylation and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent substrate phosphorylation. Calmodulin isoforms (PCM1 and PCM6) had differential effects on the regulation of autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation of tobacco CCaMK, but not lily CCaMK. The evolutionary tree of plant serine/threonine protein kinases revealed that calmodulin-dependent kinases form one subgroup that is distinctly different from Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) and other serine/threonine kinases in plants.

  6. Sucrose-induced Receptor Kinase SIRK1 Regulates a Plasma Membrane Aquaporin in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xu Na; Sanchez Rodriguez, Clara; Pertl-Obermeyer, Heidi; Obermeyer, Gerhard; Schulze, Waltraud X.

    2013-01-01

    The transmembrane receptor kinase family is the largest protein kinase family in Arabidopsis, and it contains the highest fraction of proteins with yet uncharacterized functions. Here, we present functions of SIRK1, a receptor kinase that was previously identified with rapid transient phosphorylation after sucrose resupply to sucrose-starved seedlings. SIRK1 was found to be an active kinase with increasing activity in the presence of an external sucrose supply. In sirk1 T-DNA insertional mutants, the sucrose-induced phosphorylation patterns of several membrane proteins were strongly reduced; in particular, pore-gating phosphorylation sites in aquaporins were affected. SIRK1-GFP fusions were found to directly interact with aquaporins in affinity pull-down experiments on microsomal membrane vesicles. Furthermore, protoplast swelling assays of sirk1 mutants and SIRK1-GFP expressing lines confirmed a direct functional interaction of receptor kinase SIRK1 and aquaporins as substrates for phosphorylation. A lack of SIRK1 expression resulted in the failure of mutant protoplasts to control water channel activity upon changes in external sucrose concentrations. We propose that SIRK1 is involved in the regulation of sucrose-specific osmotic responses through direct interaction with and activation of an aquaporin via phosphorylation and that the duration of this response is controlled by phosphorylation-dependent receptor internalization. PMID:23820729

  7. Protein kinase NII and the regulation of rDNA transcription in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Belenguer, P; Baldin, V; Mathieu, C; Prats, H; Bensaid, M; Bouche, G; Amalric, F

    1989-01-01

    Transcription of ribosomal RNA genes is generally accepted to correlate with cell growth. Using primary cultures of adult bovine aortic endothelial (ABAE) cells, we have shown that transcription of rDNA in confluent cells falls to 5% of the transcription level in growing cells. Protein kinase NII appears to be a limiting factor to promote rDNA transcription in isolated nuclei of confluent cells. Protein kinase NII was detected by immunocytochemistry in the cytoplasm, nuclei and nucleoli of growing cells while it was no longer present in nucleoli of confluent cells. The kinase activity, in isolated nuclei, was estimated by endogenous phosphorylation of a specific substrate, nucleolin. A 10% residual activity was present in confluent cell nuclei compared to growing cell nuclei. Concomitantly, the transcription 'in vitro' of rDNA in the corresponding nuclei was also highly reduced (by 85%). Addition of exogenous protein kinase NII to confluent cell nuclei induced a strong increase in the phosphorylation of specific proteins including nucleolin. In parallel, the transcription of rDNA was increased by a factor of 5, to nearly the level observed in nuclei prepared from growing cells. These data suggest that, in confluent cells, factors necessary for rDNA transcription machinery are present but inactive in the nucleolus and that the phosphorylation of one or several of these factors (nucleolin, topoisomerase I,...) by protein kinase NII is a key event in the regulation of rDNA transcription. Images PMID:2780290

  8. A lipid-regulated docking site on vinculin for protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Wolfgang H; Tigges, Ulrich; Zieseniss, Anke; Jockusch, Brigitte M

    2002-03-01

    During cell spreading, binding of actin-organizing proteins to acidic phospholipids and phosphorylation are important for localization and activity of these proteins at nascent cell-matrix adhesion sites. Here, we report on a transient interaction between the lipid-dependent protein kinase Calpha and vinculin, an early component of these sites, during spreading of HeLa cells on collagen. In vitro binding of protein kinase Calpha to vinculin tail was found dependent on free calcium and acidic phospholipids but independent of a functional kinase domain. The interaction was enhanced by conditions that favor the oligomerization of vinculin. Phosphorylation by protein kinase Calpha reached 1.5 mol of phosphate/mol of vinculin tail and required the C-terminal hydrophobic hairpin, a putative phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-binding site. Mass spectroscopy of peptides derived from in vitro phosphorylated vinculin tail identified phosphorylation of serines 1033 and 1045. Inhibition of C-terminal phospholipid binding at the vinculin tail by mutagenesis or deletion reduced the rate of phosphorylation to < or =50%. We suggest a possible mechanism whereby phospholipid-regulated conformational changes in vinculin may lead to exposure of a docking site for protein kinase Calpha and subsequent phosphorylation of vinculin and/or vinculin interaction partners, thereby affecting the formation of cell adhesion complexes.

  9. Emdogain-regulated gene expression in palatal fibroblasts requires TGF-βRI kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Stähli, Alexandra; Bosshardt, Dieter; Sculean, Anton; Gruber, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide microarrays have suggested that Emdogain regulates TGF-β target genes in gingival and palatal fibroblasts. However, definitive support for this contention and the extent to which TGF-β signaling contributes to the effects of Emdogain has remained elusive. We therefore studied the role of the TGF-β receptor I (TGF-βRI) kinase to mediate the effect of Emdogain on palatal fibroblasts. Palatal fibroblasts were exposed to Emdogain with and without the inhibitor for TGF-βRI kinase, SB431542. Emdogain caused 39 coding genes to be differentially expressed in palatal fibroblasts by microarray analysis (p<0.05; >10-fold). Importantly, in the presence of the TGF-βRI kinase inhibitor SB431542, Emdogain failed to cause any significant changes in gene expression. Consistent with this mechanism, three independent TGF-βRI kinase inhibitors and a TGF-β neutralizing antibody abrogated the increased expression of IL-11, a selected Emdogain target gene. The MAPK inhibitors SB203580 and U0126 lowered the impact of Emdogain on IL-11 expression. The data support that TGF-βRI kinase activity is necessary to mediate the effects of Emdogain on gene expression in vitro.

  10. PP2A-3 interacts with ACR4 and regulates formative cell division in the Arabidopsis root.

    PubMed

    Yue, Kun; Sandal, Priyanka; Williams, Elisabeth L; Murphy, Evan; Stes, Elisabeth; Nikonorova, Natalia; Ramakrishna, Priya; Czyzewicz, Nathan; Montero-Morales, Laura; Kumpf, Robert; Lin, Zhefeng; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Iqbal, Mudassar; Van Bel, Michiel; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Meyer, Matthew R; Gadeyne, Astrid; Zipfel, Cyril; De Jaeger, Geert; Van Montagu, Marc; Van Damme, Daniël; Gevaert, Kris; Rao, A Gururaj; Beeckman, Tom; De Smet, Ive

    2016-02-02

    In plants, the generation of new cell types and tissues depends on coordinated and oriented formative cell divisions. The plasma membrane-localized receptor kinase ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY 4 (ACR4) is part of a mechanism controlling formative cell divisions in the Arabidopsis root. Despite its important role in plant development, very little is known about the molecular mechanism with which ACR4 is affiliated and its network of interactions. Here, we used various complementary proteomic approaches to identify ACR4-interacting protein candidates that are likely regulators of formative cell divisions and that could pave the way to unraveling the molecular basis behind ACR4-mediated signaling. We identified PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A-3 (PP2A-3), a catalytic subunit of PP2A holoenzymes, as a previously unidentified regulator of formative cell divisions and as one of the first described substrates of ACR4. Our in vitro data argue for the existence of a tight posttranslational regulation in the associated biochemical network through reciprocal regulation between ACR4 and PP2A-3 at the phosphorylation level.

  11. RALFL34 regulates formative cell divisions in Arabidopsis pericycle during lateral root initiation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Evan; Vu, Lam Dai; Van den Broeck, Lisa; Lin, Zhefeng; Ramakrishna, Priya; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Gaudinier, Allison; Goh, Tatsuaki; Slane, Daniel; Beeckman, Tom; Inzé, Dirk; Brady, Siobhan M; Fukaki, Hidehiro; De Smet, Ive

    2016-08-01

    In plants, many signalling molecules, such as phytohormones, miRNAs, transcription factors, and small signalling peptides, drive growth and development. However, very few small signalling peptides have been shown to be necessary for lateral root development. Here, we describe the role of the peptide RALFL34 during early events in lateral root development, and demonstrate its specific importance in orchestrating formative cell divisions in the pericycle. Our results further suggest that this small signalling peptide acts on the transcriptional cascade leading to a new lateral root upstream of GATA23, an important player in lateral root formation. In addition, we describe a role for ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs (ERFs) in regulating RALFL34 expression. Taken together, we put forward RALFL34 as a new, important player in lateral root initiation.

  12. RALFL34 regulates formative cell divisions in Arabidopsis pericycle during lateral root initiation

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Evan; Vu, Lam Dai; Van den Broeck, Lisa; Lin, Zhefeng; Ramakrishna, Priya; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Gaudinier, Allison; Goh, Tatsuaki; Slane, Daniel; Beeckman, Tom; Inzé, Dirk; Brady, Siobhan M.; Fukaki, Hidehiro; De Smet, Ive

    2016-01-01

    In plants, many signalling molecules, such as phytohormones, miRNAs, transcription factors, and small signalling peptides, drive growth and development. However, very few small signalling peptides have been shown to be necessary for lateral root development. Here, we describe the role of the peptide RALFL34 during early events in lateral root development, and demonstrate its specific importance in orchestrating formative cell divisions in the pericycle. Our results further suggest that this small signalling peptide acts on the transcriptional cascade leading to a new lateral root upstream of GATA23, an important player in lateral root formation. In addition, we describe a role for ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs (ERFs) in regulating RALFL34 expression. Taken together, we put forward RALFL34 as a new, important player in lateral root initiation. PMID:27521602

  13. Cell cycle dependent regulation of deoxycytidine kinase, deoxyguanosine kinase, and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase I activity in MOLT-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Fyrberg, A; Mirzaee, S; Lotfi, K

    2006-01-01

    Activation of nucleoside analogues is dependent on kinases and 5'-nucleotidases and the balance between the activity of these enzymes. The purpose of this study was to analyze deoxycytidine kinase, deoxyguanosine kinase, and 4 different 5'-nucleotidases during cell cycle progression in MOLT-4 cells. The activity of both kinases was cell cycle dependent and increased during proliferation while the activity of cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase I decreased. We could show that the kinase activity was higher than the total nucleotidase activity, which was unchanged or decreased during cell cycle progression. These data may be important in designing modern combination therapy with nucleoside analogues.

  14. Arabidopsis RopGEF4 and RopGEF10 are important for FERONIA-mediated developmental but not environmental regulation of root hair growth.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Qiang; Li, En; Ge, Fu-Rong; Li, Sha; Wang, Qun; Zhang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Yan

    2013-12-01

    We investigated a genetic pathway in root hair development in Arabidopsis thaliana, involving the receptor-like kinase FERONIA (FER), two guanine nucleotide exchange factors for ROPs (RopGEF4 and RopGEF10), and the small GTPase Rho of plants (ROPs). Loss- and gain-of-function analyses demonstrated distinct roles of RopGEF4 and RopGEF10 such that RopGEF4 is only important for root hair elongation, while RopGEF10 mainly contributes to root hair initiation. Domain dissection by truncation and domain-swapping experiments indicated that their functional distinctions were mainly contributed by the noncatalytic domains. Using fluorescent ratio imaging, we showed that functional loss of RopGEF4 and RopGEF10 additively reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments demonstrated that RopGEF4 and RopGEF10 had the same interaction specificity as ROPs, suggesting common downstream components. We further showed that the promoting effects of environmental cues such as exogenous auxin and phosphate limitation on root hair development depended on FER. However, although functional loss of RopGEF4 and RopGEF10 largely abolished FER-induced ROS production, it did not compromise the responses to FER-mediated environmental cues on root hair development. Our results demonstrated that RopGEF4 and RopGEF10 are genetic components in FER-mediated, developmentally (but not environmentally) regulated, root hair growth.

  15. Regulation of ion channels and transporters by AMP-activated kinase (AMPK)

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Florian; Föller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The energy-sensing AMP-activated kinase AMPK ensures survival of energy-depleted cells by stimulating ATP production and limiting ATP utilization. Both energy production and energy consumption are profoundly influenced by transport processes across the cell membane including channels, carriers and pumps. Accordingly, AMPK is a powerful regulator of transport across the cell membrane. AMPK regulates diverse K+ channels, Na+ channels, Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ channels, Cl- channels, gap junctional channels, glucose carriers, Na+/H+-exchanger, monocarboxylate-, phosphate-, creatine-, amino acid-, peptide- and osmolyte-transporters, Na+/Ca2+-exchanger, H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase. AMPK activates ubiquitin ligase Nedd4–2, which labels several plasma membrane proteins for degradation. AMPK further regulates transport proteins by inhibition of Rab GTPase activating protein (GAP) TBC1D1. It stimulates phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase PIKfyve and inhibits phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) via glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Moreover, it stabilizes F-actin as well as downregulates transcription factor NF-κB. All those cellular effects serve to regulate transport proteins. PMID:24366036

  16. Expression and regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Giambelluca, Miriam S; Cloutier, Nathalie; Rollet-Labelle, Emmanuelle; Boilard, Eric; Pouliot, Marc

    2013-11-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase involved in the regulation of cellular processes ranging from glycogen metabolism to cell cycle regulation. Its two known isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues throughout the body and exert distinct but often overlapping functions. GSK-3 is typically active in resting cells, inhibition by phosphorylation of Ser21 (GSK-3α) or Ser9 (GSK-3β) being the most common regulatory mechanism. GSK-3 activity has been linked recently with immune system function, yet little is known about the role of this enzyme in neutrophils, the most abundant leukocyte type. In the present study, we examined GSK-3 expression and regulation in human neutrophils. GSK-3α was found to be the predominant isoform, it was constitutively expressed and cell stimulation with different agonists did not alter its expression. Stimulation by fMLP, LPS, GM-CSF, Fcγ receptor engagement, or adenosine A2A receptor engagement all resulted in phosphorylation of Ser21. The use of metabolic inhibitors revealed that combinations of Src kinase, PKC, PI3K/AKT, ERK/RSK and PKA signaling pathways could mediate phosphorylation, depending on the agonist. Neither PLC nor p38 were involved. We conclude that GSK-3α is the main isoform expressed in neutrophils and that many different pathways can converge to inhibit GSK-3α activity via Ser21-phosphorylation. GSK-3α thus might be a hub of cellular regulation.

  17. Protein kinase C in the immune system: from signalling to chromatin regulation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Pek Siew; Sutton, Christopher Ray; Rao, Sudha

    2015-12-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) form a key family of enzymes involved in signalling pathways that specifically phosphorylates substrates at serine/threonine residues. Phosphorylation by PKC is important in regulating a variety of cellular events such as cell proliferation and the regulation of gene expression. In the immune system, PKCs are involved in regulating signal transduction pathways important for both innate and adaptive immunity, ultimately resulting in the expression of key immune genes. PKCs act as mediators during immune cell signalling through the immunological synapse. PKCs are traditionally known to be cytoplasmic signal transducers and are well embedded in the signalling pathways of cells to mediate the cells' response to a stimulus from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. PKCs are also found to transduce signals within the nucleus, a process that is distinct from the cytoplasmic signalling pathway. There is now growing evidence suggesting that PKC can directly regulate gene expression programmes through a non-traditional role as nuclear kinases. In this review, we will focus on the role of PKCs as key cytoplasmic signal transducers in immune cell signalling, as well as its role in nuclear signal transduction. We will also highlight recent evidence for its newly discovered regulatory role in the nucleus as a chromatin-associated kinase.

  18. Role and regulation of Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta in bovine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Belenky, Michael; Breitbart, Haim

    2017-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a master switch that regulates a multitude of cellular pathways, including the acrosome reaction in sperm. In epididymal sperm cells, for example, GSK-3 activity correlates with inhibition of motility-yet no direct pathways connecting GSK-3 activation with loss of motility have been described. Indeed, the details of how GSK-3 is regulated during sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction remains obscure. To this end, we addressed the involvement of the GSK-3 beta isoform in several known pathways that contribute to motility and the acrosome reaction. We established that Protein kinase A (PKA) is the main regulator of GSK-3β in sperm, as pre-treatment of cells with a GSK-3 inhibitor prior to addition of H89, an inhibitor of PKA, attenuated the motility loss induced by blocking PKA activity. Both induced and spontaneous acrosome reactions also occurred less frequently in sperm treated with GSK-3 inhibitors. Finally, we observed a slow decline in phosphorylation of GSK-3β on Ser 9, which represents an inhibited state, during sperm capacitation; this phenotype is reversed during the induced acrosome reaction, in parallel to activation of Protein phosphatase 1. These results suggest that maintenance of sperm motility and acrosome reaction timing are mediated by PKA through the regulation of GSK-3 beta activity. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 84: 8-18, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Interdomain allosteric regulation of Polo kinase by Aurora B and Map205 is required for cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Kachaner, David; Pinson, Xavier; El Kadhi, Khaled Ben; Normandin, Karine; Talje, Lama; Lavoie, Hugo; Lépine, Guillaume; Carréno, Sébastien; Kwok, Benjamin H; Hickson, Gilles R; Archambault, Vincent

    2014-10-27

    Drosophila melanogaster Polo and its human orthologue Polo-like kinase 1 fulfill essential roles during cell division. Members of the Polo-like kinase (Plk) family contain an N-terminal kinase domain (KD) and a C-terminal Polo-Box domain (PBD), which mediates protein interactions. How Plks are regulated in cytokinesis is poorly understood. Here we show that phosphorylation of Polo by Aurora B is required for cytokinesis. This phosphorylation in the activation loop of the KD promotes the dissociation of Polo from the PBD-bound microtubule-associated protein Map205, which acts as an allosteric inhibitor of Polo kinase activity. This mechanism allows the release of active Polo from microtubules of the central spindle and its recruitment to the site of cytokinesis. Failure in Polo phosphorylation results in both early and late cytokinesis defects. Importantly, the antagonistic regulation of Polo by Aurora B and Map205 in cytokinesis reveals that interdomain allosteric mechanisms can play important roles in controlling the cellular functions of Plks.

  20. Lovastatin inhibits the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase pathway in immortalized rat brain neuroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cerezo-Guisado, Maria Isabel; GarcíA-Román, Natalia; García-MaríN, Luis Jesús; Álvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Bragado, Maria Julia; Lorenzo, Maria Jesús

    2006-01-01

    We have shown previously that lovastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methyl- glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, induces apoptosis in spontaneously immortalized rat brain neuroblasts. In the present study, we analysed the intracellular signal transduction pathways by which lovastatin induces neuroblast apoptosis. We showed that lovastatin efficiently inhibited Ras activation, which was associ-ated with a significant decrease in ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) phosphorylation. Lovastatin also decreased CREB phosphorylation and CREB-mediated gene expression. The effects of lovastatin on the Ras/ERK1/2/CREB pathway were time- and concentration-dependent and fully prevented by meva-lonate. In addition, we showed that two MEK [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK kinase] inhibitors, PD98059 and PD184352, were poor inducers of apoptosis in serum-treated neuroblasts. However, these inhibitors significantly increased apop-tosis induced by lovastatin treatment. Furthermore, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of both MEK and phosphoinos-itide 3-kinase activities was able to induce neuroblast apoptosis with similar efficacy as lovastatin. Our results suggest that lovast-atin triggers neuroblast apoptosis by regulating several signalling pathways, including the Ras/ERK1/2 pathway. These findings might also contribute to elucidate the intracellular mechanisms involved in the central nervous system side effects associated with statin therapy. PMID:16952276

  1. Protein kinase CK2: structure, regulation and role in cellular decisions of life and death.

    PubMed Central

    Litchfield, David W

    2003-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 ('casein kinase II') has traditionally been classified as a messenger-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is typically found in tetrameric complexes consisting of two catalytic (alpha and/or alpha') subunits and two regulatory beta subunits. Accumulated biochemical and genetic evidence indicates that CK2 has a vast array of candidate physiological targets and participates in a complex series of cellular functions, including the maintenance of cell viability. This review summarizes current knowledge of the structural and enzymic features of CK2, and discusses advances that challenge traditional views of this enzyme. For example, the recent demonstrations that individual CK2 subunits exist outside tetrameric complexes and that CK2 displays dual-specificity kinase activity raises new prospects for the precise elucidation of its regulation and cellular functions. This review also discusses a number of the mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of CK2 in cells, and will highlight emerging insights into the role of CK2 in cellular decisions of life and death. In this latter respect, recent evidence suggests that CK2 can exert an anti-apoptotic role by protecting regulatory proteins from caspase-mediated degradation. The mechanistic basis of the observation that CK2 is essential for viability may reside in part in this ability to protect cellular proteins from caspase action. Furthermore, this anti-apoptotic function of CK2 may contribute to its ability to participate in transformation and tumorigenesis. PMID:12396231

  2. MEK1/2 dual-specificity protein kinases: Structure and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEK1 is activated by phosphorylation of S218 and S222 in its activation segment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEK1 activation requires KSR, which functions as a scaffold and a protein kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S212 phosphorylation in the MEK1 activation segment is inhibitory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEK1 and MEK2 contain a catalytic and a regulatory spine. -- Abstract: MEK1 and MEK2 are related protein kinases that participate in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade. This cascade participates in the regulation of a large variety of processes including apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell migration, differentiation, metabolism, and proliferation. Moreover, oncogenic mutations in RAS or B-RAF are responsible for a large proportion of human cancers. MEK1 is activated by phosphorylation of S218 and S222 in its activation segment as catalyzed by RAF kinases in an intricate process that involves a KSR scaffold. Besides functioning as a scaffold, the kinase activity of KSR is also required for MEK activation. MEK1 regulation is unusual in that S212 phosphorylation in its activation segment is inhibitory. Moreover, active ERK catalyzes a feedback inhibitory phosphorylation of MEK1 T292 that serves to downregulate the pathway.

  3. Polo kinase regulates the localization and activity of the chromosomal passenger complex in meiosis and mitosis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Carmena, Mar; Lombardia, Miguel Ortiz; Ogawa, Hiromi; Earnshaw, William C

    2014-11-01

    Cell cycle progression is regulated by members of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), Polo and Aurora families of protein kinases. The levels of expression and localization of the key regulatory kinases are themselves subject to very tight control. There is increasing evidence that crosstalk between the mitotic kinases provides for an additional level of regulation. We have previously shown that Aurora B activates Polo kinase at the centromere in mitosis, and that the interaction between Polo and the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) component INCENP is essential in this activation. In this report, we show that Polo kinase is required for the correct localization and activity of the CPC in meiosis and mitosis. Study of the phenotype of different polo allele combinations compared to the effect of chemical inhibition revealed significant differences in the localization and activity of the CPC in diploid tissues. Our results shed new light on the mechanisms that control the activity of Aurora B in meiosis and mitosis.

  4. Long-distance signals positively regulate the expression of iron uptake genes in tobacco roots.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Yusuke; Hodoshima, Hirotaka; Shimada, Hiroaki; Shoji, Kazuhiro; Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Goto, Fumiyuki

    2007-12-01

    Long-distance signals generated in shoots are thought to be associated with the regulation of iron uptake from roots; however, the signaling mechanism is still unknown. To elucidate whether the signal regulates iron uptake genes in roots positively or negatively, we analyzed the expressions of two representative iron uptake genes: NtIRT1 and NtFRO1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) roots, after shoots were manipulated in vitro. When iron-deficient leaves were treated with Fe(II)-EDTA, the expressions of both genes were significantly reduced; nevertheless iron concentration in the roots maintained a similar level to that in roots grown under iron-deficient conditions. Next, all leaves from tobacco plants grown under the iron-deficient condition were excised. The expression of two genes were quickly reduced below half within 2 h after the leaf excision and gradually disappeared by the end of a 24-h period. The NtIRT1 expression was compared among the plants whose leaves were cut off in various patterns. The expression increased in proportion to the dry weight of iron-deficient leaves, although no relation was observed between the gene expression and the position of excised leaves. Interestingly, the NtIRT1 expression in hairy roots increased under the iron-deficient condition, suggesting that roots also have the signaling mechanism of iron status as well as shoots. Taken together, these results indicate that the long-distance signal generated in iron-deficient tissues including roots is a major factor in positive regulation of the expression of NtIRT1 and NtFRO1 in roots, and that the strength of the signal depends on the size of plants.

  5. ABA Suppresses Root Hair Growth via the OBP4 Transcriptional Regulator1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Ayako; Schäfer, Sabine; Breuer, Christian; Shibata, Michitaro; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Matsui, Minami

    2017-01-01

    Plants modify organ growth and tune morphogenesis in response to various endogenous and environmental cues. At the cellular level, organ growth is often adjusted by alterations in cell growth, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this control remain poorly understood. In this study, we identify the DNA BINDING WITH ONE FINGER (DOF)-type transcription regulator OBF BINDING PROTEIN4 (OBP4) as a repressor of cell growth. Ectopic expression of OBP4 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inhibits cell growth, resulting in severe dwarfism and the repression of genes involved in the regulation of water transport, root hair development, and stress responses. Among the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors known to control root hair growth, OBP4 binds the ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE6-LIKE2 (RSL2) promoter to repress its expression. The accumulation of OBP4 proteins is detected in expanding root epidermal cells, and its expression level is increased by the application of abscisic acid (ABA) at concentrations sufficient to inhibit root hair growth. ABA-dependent induction of OBP4 is associated with the reduced expression of RSL2. Furthermore, ectopic expression of OBP4 or loss of RSL2 function results in ABA-insensitive root hair growth. Taken together, our results suggest that OBP4-mediated transcriptional repression of RSL2 contributes to the ABA-dependent inhibition of root hair growth in Arabidopsis. PMID:28167701

  6. Aurora-B and Rho-kinase/ROCK, the two cleavage furrow kinases, independently regulate the progression of cytokinesis: possible existence of a novel cleavage furrow kinase phosphorylates ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM).

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Tomoya; Goto, Hidemasa; Izawa, Ichiro; Mizutani, Hitoshi; Inagaki, Masaki

    2005-02-01

    Cytokinesis is regulated by several protein kinases, such as Aurora-B and Rho-kinase/ROCK. We have indicated that these two kinases are the cleavage furrow (CF) kinases that accumulate at the cleavage furrow and phosphorylate several intermediate filament (IF) proteins into two daughter cells. It has been reported that Aurora-B phosphorylates MgcRacGAP to functionally convert to a RhoGAP during cytokinesis. Therefore, we investigated here the relationship between Aurora-B and Rho-kinase/ROCK in cytokinesis, by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) technique. Aurora-B depletion did not alter the cleavage furrow-specific localization of Rho-kinase/ROCK and vice versa. Treatment of Aurora-B or Rho-kinase/ROCK siRNA increased multinucleate cells, and the effect of double depletion was additive. Aurora-B depletion induced the reduction of cleavage furrow-specific phosphorylation of vimentin at Ser72 but not vimentin at Ser71, myosin light chain (MLC) at Ser19, and myosin binding subunit of myosin phosphatase (MBS) at Ser852. In contrast, Rho-kinase/ROCK depletion led to the reduction of cleavage furrow-specific phosphorylation of MLC at Ser19, MBS at Ser852, and vimentin at Ser71 but not vimentin at Ser72. Cleavage furrow-specific ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) phosphorylation was not altered in the Aurora-B- and/or Rho-kinase/ROCK-depleted cells. In addition, C3 or toxin B treatment did not abolish ERM phosphorylation at the cleavage furrow in cells attaining cytokinesis. These results suggest that Aurora-B and Rho-kinase/ROCK regulate the progression of cytokinesis without communicating to each other, and there may exist a novel protein kinase which phosphorylates ERM at the cleavage furrow.

  7. Insights into the regulation of 5-HT2A serotonin receptors by scaffolding proteins and kinases.

    PubMed

    Allen, John A; Yadav, Prem N; Roth, Bryan L

    2008-11-01

    5-HT(2A) serotonin receptors are essential molecular targets for the actions of LSD-like hallucinogens and atypical antipsychotic drugs. 5-HT(2A) serotonin receptors also mediate a variety of physiological processes in peripheral and central nervous systems including platelet aggregation, smooth muscle contraction, and the modulation of mood and perception. Scaffolding proteins have emerged as important regulators of 5-HT(2A) receptors and our recent studies suggest multiple scaffolds exist for 5-HT(2A) receptors including PSD95, arrestin, and caveolin. In addition, a novel interaction has emerged between p90 ribosomal S6 kinase and 5-HT(2A) receptors which attenuates receptor signaling. This article reviews our recent studies and emphasizes the role of scaffolding proteins and kinases in the regulation of 5-HT(2A) trafficking, targeting and signaling.

  8. G protein-coupled receptor kinase GRK5 phosphorylates moesin and regulates metastasis in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Prabir Kumar; Zhang, Yushan; Coomes, Alexandra S; Kim, Wan-Ju; Stupay, Rachel; Lynch, Lauren D; Atkinson, Tamieka; Kim, Jae I; Nie, Zhongzhen; Daaka, Yehia

    2014-07-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRK) regulate diverse cellular functions ranging from metabolism to growth and locomotion. Here, we report an important contributory role for GRK5 in human prostate cancer. Inhibition of GRK5 kinase activity attenuated the migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells and, concordantly, increased cell attachment and focal adhesion formation. Mass spectrometric analysis of the phosphoproteome revealed the cytoskeletal-membrane attachment protein moesin as a putative GRK5 substrate. GRK5 regulated the subcellular distribution of moesin and colocalized with moesin at the cell periphery. We identified amino acid T66 of moesin as a principal GRK5 phosphorylation site and showed that enforcing the expression of a T66-mutated moesin reduced cell spreading. In a xenograft model of human prostate cancer, GRK5 silencing reduced tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Taken together, our results established GRK5 as a key contributor to the growth and metastasis of prostate cancer.

  9. Phosphoinositide lipid phosphatases: natural regulators of phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Harris, Stephanie J; Parry, Richard V; Westwick, John; Ward, Stephen G

    2008-02-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway has been implicated in a range of T lymphocyte cellular functions, particularly growth, proliferation, cytokine secretion, and survival. Dysregulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent signaling and function in leukocytes, including B and T lymphocytes, has been implicated in many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. As befits a pivotal signaling cascade, several mechanisms exist to ensure that the pathway is tightly regulated. This minireview focuses on two lipid phosphatases, viz. the 3'-phosphatase PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and SHIP (Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase). We discuss their role in regulating T lymphocyte signaling as well their potential as future therapeutic targets.

  10. Autophosphorylation of p110delta phosphoinositide 3-kinase: a new paradigm for the regulation of lipid kinases in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Vanhaesebroeck, B; Higashi, K; Raven, C; Welham, M; Anderson, S; Brennan, P; Ward, S G; Waterfield, M D

    1999-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are lipid kinases which also possess an in vitro protein kinase activity towards themselves or their adaptor proteins. The physiological relevance of these phosphorylations is unclear at present. Here, the protein kinase activity of the tyrosine kinase-linked PI3K, p110delta, is characterized and its functional impact assessed. In vitro autophosphorylation of p110delta completely down-regulates its lipid kinase activity. The single site of autophosphorylation was mapped to Ser1039 at the C-terminus of p110delta. Antisera specific for phospho-Ser1039 revealed a very low level of phosphorylation of this residue in cell lines. However, p110delta that is recruited to activated receptors (such as CD28 in T cells) shows a time-dependent increase in Ser1039 phosphorylation and a concomitant decrease in associated lipid kinase activity. Treatment of cells with okadaic acid, an inhibitor of Ser/Thr phosphatases, also dramatically increases the level of Ser1039-phosphorylated p110delta. LY294002 and wortmannin blocked these in vivo increases in Ser1039 phosphorylation, consistent with the notion that PI3Ks, and possibly p110delta itself, are involved in the in vivo phosphorylation of p110delta. In summary, we show that PI3Ks are subject to regulatory phosphorylations in vivo similar to those identified under in vitro conditions, identifying a new level of control of these signalling molecules. PMID:10064595

  11. Plant Nitrogen Acquisition Under Low Availability: Regulation of Uptake and Root Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Kiba, Takatoshi; Krapp, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability is a major factor determining plant growth and productivity. Plants acquire nitrogen nutrients from the soil through their roots mostly in the form of ammonium and nitrate. Since these nutrients are scarce in natural soils, plants have evolved adaptive responses to cope with the environment. One of the most important responses is the regulation of nitrogen acquisition efficiency. This review provides an update on the molecular determinants of two major drivers of the nitrogen acquisition efficiency: (i) uptake activity (e.g. high-affinity nitrogen transporters) and (ii) root architecture (e.g. low-nitrogen-availability-specific regulators of primary and lateral root growth). Major emphasis is laid on the regulation of these determinants by nitrogen supply at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, which enables plants to optimize nitrogen acquisition efficiency under low nitrogen availability. PMID:27025887

  12. Plant Nitrogen Acquisition Under Low Availability: Regulation of Uptake and Root Architecture.

    PubMed

    Kiba, Takatoshi; Krapp, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen availability is a major factor determining plant growth and productivity. Plants acquire nitrogen nutrients from the soil through their roots mostly in the form of ammonium and nitrate. Since these nutrients are scarce in natural soils, plants have evolved adaptive responses to cope with the environment. One of the most important responses is the regulation of nitrogen acquisition efficiency. This review provides an update on the molecular determinants of two major drivers of the nitrogen acquisition efficiency: (i) uptake activity (e.g. high-affinity nitrogen transporters) and (ii) root architecture (e.g. low-nitrogen-availability-specific regulators of primary and lateral root growth). Major emphasis is laid on the regulation of these determinants by nitrogen supply at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, which enables plants to optimize nitrogen acquisition efficiency under low nitrogen availability.

  13. Hormonally up-regulated neu-associated kinase: A novel target for breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Joelle N; Neely, Benjamin A; Yeh, Elizabeth S

    2017-02-09

    Hormonally up-regulated neu-associated Kinase (Hunk) is a protein kinase that was originally identified in the murine mammary gland and has been shown to be highly expressed in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 positive (HER2(+)/ErbB2(+)) breast cancer cell lines as well as MMTV-neu derived mammary tumor cell lines. However, the physiological role of Hunk has been largely elusive since its identification. Though Hunk is predicted to be a Serine/Threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinase with homology to the SNF1/AMPK family of protein kinases, there are no known Hunk substrates that have been identified to date. Recent work demonstrates a role for Hunk in HER2(+)/ErbB2(+) breast cancer progression, including drug resistance to HER2/ErbB2 inhibitors, with Hunk potentially acting downstream of HER2/ErbB2 and the PI3K/Akt pathway. These studies have collectively shown that Hunk plays a vital role in promoting mammary tumorigenesis, as Hunk knockdown via shRNA in xenograft tumor models or crossing MMTV-neu or Pten-deficient genetically engineered mouse models into a Hunk knockout (Hunk-/-) background impairs mammary tumor growth in vivo. Because the majority of HER2(+)/ErbB2(+) breast cancer patients acquire drug resistance to HER2/ErbB2 inhibitors, the characterization of novel drug targets like Hunk that have the potential to simultaneously suppress tumorigenesis and potentially enhance efficacy of current therapeutics is an important facet of drug development. Therefore, work aimed at uncovering specific regulatory functions for Hunk that could contribute to this protein kinase's role in both tumorigenesis and drug resistance will be informative. This review focuses on what is currently known about this under-studied protein kinase, and how targeting Hunk may prove to be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  14. The TAO kinase KIN-18 regulates contractility and establishment of polarity in the C. elegans embryo.

    PubMed

    Spiga, Fabio M; Prouteau, Manoel; Gotta, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarity is crucial for many aspects of cell and developmental biology. Cytoskeleton remodeling plays an essential role in the establishment of cell polarity. In the Caenorhabditis elegans one-cell embryo, while the actomyosin cytoskeleton is required for asymmetric localization of the PAR proteins, anterior PAR proteins exert a feedback regulation on contractility. Here we identify the TAO kinase KIN-18 as a regulator of cortical contractility in the early embryo. KIN-18 negatively regulates cortical contractions in a RHO-1 dependent manner and regulates RHO-1 cortical localization. KIN-18 contributes to polarity establishment by regulating the position of the boundary between anterior and posterior PAR proteins. Although KIN-18 is involved in polarity establishment, depletion of KIN-18 restores contractions in a par-3 mutant indicating that kin-18 is epistatic to par-3. We suggest a model in which KIN-18 provides a link between the cytoskeleton remodeling and polarity machineries, uncovering a role for TAO kinases in the regulation of cell polarity.

  15. Body weight management effect of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) root is associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Daih-Huang; Hung, Ming-Chi; Hung, Chao-Ming; Liu, Li-Min; Chen, Fu-An; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2012-10-01

    Burdock (Arcticum lappa L.) root is used in folk medicine and also as a vegetable in Asian countries. In the present study, burdock root treatment significantly reduced body weight in rats. To evaluate the bioactive compounds, we successively extracted the burdock root with ethanol (AL-1), and fractionated it with n-hexane (AL-2), ethyl acetate (AL-3), n-butanol (AL-4), and water (AL-5). Among these fractions, AL-2 contained components with the most effective hypolipidemic potential in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. AL-2 decreased the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and inhibited the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) by stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through the LKB1 pathway. Three active compounds were identified from the AL-2, namely α-linolenic acid, methyl α-linolenate, and methyl oleate. These results suggest that burdock root is expected to be useful for body weight management.

  16. The mucolipidosis IV Ca2+ channel TRPML1 (MCOLN1) is regulated by the TOR kinase

    PubMed Central

    Onyenwoke, Rob U.; Sexton, Jonathan Z.; Yan, Feng; Díaz, María Cristina Huertas; Forsberg, Lawrence J.; Major, Michael B.; Brenman, Jay E.

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a complex pathway regulated by numerous signalling events that recycles macromolecules and may be perturbed in lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). During autophagy, aberrant regulation of the lysosomal Ca2+ efflux channel TRPML1 [transient receptor potential mucolipin 1 (MCOLN1)], also known as MCOLN1, is solely responsible for the human LSD mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV); however, the exact mechanisms involved in the development of the pathology of this LSD are unknown. In the present study, we provide evidence that the target of rapamycin (TOR), a nutrient-sensitive protein kinase that negatively regulates autophagy, directly targets and inactivates the TRPML1 channel and thereby functional autophagy, through phosphorylation. Further, mutating these phosphorylation sites to unphosphorylatable residues proved to block TOR regulation of the TRPML1 channel. These findings suggest a mechanism for how TOR activity may regulate the TRPML1 channel. PMID:26195823

  17. The microtubule affinity regulating kinase MARK4 promotes axoneme extension during early ciliogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Stefanie; Schmidt, Kerstin N.; Reymann, Jürgen; Gilbert, Daniel F.; Neuner, Annett; Hub, Birgit; Carvalho, Ricardo; Wiedemann, Philipp; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Erfle, Holger; Klingmüller, Ursula; Boutros, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Despite the critical contributions of cilia to embryonic development and human health, key regulators of cilia formation await identification. In this paper, a functional RNA interference–based screen linked 30 novel protein kinases with ciliogenesis. Of them, we have studied the role of the microtubule (MT)-associated protein/MT affinity regulating kinase 4 (MARK4) in depth. MARK4 associated with the basal body and ciliary axoneme in human and murine cell lines. Ultrastructural and functional analyses established that MARK4 kinase activity was required for initiation of axoneme extension. We identified the mother centriolar protein ODF2 as an interaction partner of MARK4 and showed that ODF2 localization to the centriole partially depended on MARK4. Our data indicated that, upon MARK4 or ODF2 knockdown, the ciliary program arrested before the complete removal of the CP110–Cep97 inhibitory complex from the mother centriole, suggesting that these proteins act at this level of axonemal extension. We propose that MARK4 is a critical positive regulator of early steps in ciliogenesis. PMID:23400999

  18. The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase Arg regulates gastrulation via control of actin organization.

    PubMed

    Bonacci, Gustavo; Fletcher, Jason; Devani, Madhav; Dwivedi, Harsh; Keller, Ray; Chang, Chenbei

    2012-04-01

    Coordinated cell movements are crucial for vertebrate gastrulation and are controlled by multiple signals. Although many factors are shown to mediate non-canonical Wnt pathways to regulate cell polarity and intercalation during gastrulation, signaling molecules acting in other pathways are less investigated and the connections between various signals and cytoskeleton are not well understood. In this study, we show that the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase Arg modulates gastrulation movements through control of actin remodeling. Arg is expressed in the dorsal mesoderm at the onset of gastrulation, and both gain- and loss-of-function of Arg disrupted axial development in Xenopus embryos. Arg controlled migration of anterior mesendoderm, influenced cell decision on individual versus collective migration, and modulated spreading and protrusive activities of anterior mesendodermal cells. Arg also regulated convergent extension of the trunk mesoderm by influencing cell intercalation behaviors. Arg modulated actin organization to control dynamic F-actin distribution at the cell-cell contact or in membrane protrusions. The functions of Arg required an intact tyrosine kinase domain but not the actin-binding motifs in its carboxyl terminus. Arg acted downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases to regulate phosphorylation of endogenous CrkII and paxillin, adaptor proteins involved in activation of Rho family GTPases and actin reorganization. Our data demonstrate that Arg is a crucial cytoplasmic signaling molecule that controls dynamic actin remodeling and mesodermal cell behaviors during Xenopus gastrulation.

  19. Abelson kinase acts as a robust, multifunctional scaffold in regulating embryonic morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Edward M.; Spracklen, Andrew J.; Bilancia, Colleen G.; Sumigray, Kaelyn D.; Allred, S. Colby; Nowotarski, Stephanie H.; Schaefer, Kristina N.; Ritchie, Benjamin J.; Peifer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abelson family kinases (Abls) are key regulators of cell behavior and the cytoskeleton during development and in leukemia. Abl’s SH3, SH2, and tyrosine kinase domains are joined via a linker to an F-actin–binding domain (FABD). Research on Abl’s roles in cell culture led to several hypotheses for its mechanism of action: 1) Abl phosphorylates other proteins, modulating their activity, 2) Abl directly regulates the cytoskeleton via its cytoskeletal interaction domains, and/or 3) Abl is a scaffold for a signaling complex. The importance of these roles during normal development remains untested. We tested these mechanistic hypotheses during Drosophila morphogenesis using a series of mutants to examine Abl’s many cell biological roles. Strikingly, Abl lacking the FABD fully rescued morphogenesis, cell shape change, actin regulation, and viability, whereas kinase-dead Abl, although reduced in function, retained substantial rescuing ability in some but not all Abl functions. We also tested the function of four conserved motifs in the linker region, revealing a key role for a conserved PXXP motif known to bind Crk and Abi. We propose that Abl acts as a robust multidomain scaffold with different protein motifs and activities contributing differentially to diverse cellular behaviors. PMID:27385341

  20. Focal adhesion kinase regulates neuronal growth, synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Monje, Francisco J; Kim, Eun-Jung; Pollak, Daniela D; Cabatic, Maureen; Li, Lin; Baston, Arthur; Lubec, Gert

    2012-01-01

    The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase abundantly expressed in the mammalian brain and highly enriched in neuronal growth cones. Inhibitory and facilitatory activities of FAK on neuronal growth have been reported and its role in neuritic outgrowth remains controversial. Unlike other tyrosine kinases, such as the neurotrophin receptors regulating neuronal growth and plasticity, the relevance of FAK for learning and memory in vivo has not been clearly defined yet. A comprehensive study aimed at determining the role of FAK in neuronal growth, neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons and in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory was therefore undertaken using the mouse model. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments indicated that FAK is a critical regulator of hippocampal cell morphology. FAK mediated neurotrophin-induced neuritic outgrowth and FAK inhibition affected both miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials and activity-dependent hippocampal long-term potentiation prompting us to explore the possible role of FAK in spatial learning and memory in vivo. Our data indicate that FAK has a growth-promoting effect, is importantly involved in the regulation of the synaptic function and mediates in vivo hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory.

  1. Cell cycle regulation of Greatwall kinase nuclear localization facilitates mitotic progression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Galan, Jacob A.; Normandin, Karine; Bonneil, Éric; Hickson, Gilles R.; Roux, Philippe P.; Thibault, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Cell division requires the coordination of critical protein kinases and phosphatases. Greatwall (Gwl) kinase activity inactivates PP2A-B55 at mitotic entry to promote the phosphorylation of cyclin B–Cdk1 substrates, but how Gwl is regulated is poorly understood. We found that the subcellular localization of Gwl changed dramatically during the cell cycle in Drosophila. Gwl translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in prophase. We identified two critical nuclear localization signals in the central, poorly characterized region of Gwl, which are required for its function. The Polo kinase associated with and phosphorylated Gwl in this region, promoting its binding to 14-3-3ε and its localization to the cytoplasm in prophase. Our results suggest that cyclin B–Cdk1 phosphorylation of Gwl is also required for its nuclear exclusion by a distinct mechanism. We show that the nucleo-cytoplasmic regulation of Gwl is essential for its functions in vivo and propose that the spatial regulation of Gwl at mitotic entry contributes to the mitotic switch. PMID:23857770

  2. Inhibition of Apoptosis-Regulated Signaling Kinase-1 and Prevention of Congestive Heart Failure by Estrogen

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Minoru; Matter, Christian M.; Ogita, Hisakazu; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Wang, Chao-Yung; Dorn, Gerald W.; Liao, James K.

    2008-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have shown gender differences in the incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF); however, the role of estrogen in CHF is not known. We hypothesize that estrogen prevents cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the development of CHF. Methods and Results 17β-Estradiol (E2, 0.5 mg/60-day release) or placebo pellet was implanted subcutaneously into male Gαq transgenic (Gq) mice. After 8 weeks, E2 treatment decreased the extent of cardiac hypertrophy and dilation and improved contractility in Gq mice. E2 treatment also attenuated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity and superoxide anion production via downregulation of Rac1. This correlated with reduced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes of Gq mice. The antioxidative properties of E2 were also associated with increased expression of thioredoxin (Trx), Trx reductases, and Trx reductase activity in the hearts of Gq mice. Furthermore, the activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 and its downstream effectors, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, in the hearts of Gq mice was reduced by long-term E2 treatment. Indeed, E2 (10 nmol/L)-treated cardiomyocytes were much more resistant to angiotensin II–induced apoptosis. These antiapoptotic and cardioprotective effects of E2 were blocked by an estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI 182,780) and by a Trx reductase inhibitor (azelaic acid). Conclusions These findings indicate that long-term E2 treatment improves CHF by antioxidative mechanisms that involve the upregulation of Trx and inhibition of Rac1-mediated attenuated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 /c-Jun N-terminal kinase/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase–mediated apoptosis. These results suggest that estrogen may be a useful adjunctive therapy for patients with CHF. PMID:17562954

  3. Regulation of a plant SNF1-related protein kinase by glucose-6-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Toroser, D.; Plaut, Z.; Huber, S.C.

    2000-05-01

    One of the major protein kinases (PK{sub III}) that phosphorylates serine-158 of spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), which is responsible for light/dark modulation of activity, is known to be a member of the SNF1-related family of protein kinases. In the present study, the authors have developed a fluorescence-based continuous assay for measurement of PK{sub III} activity. Using the continuous assay, along with the fixed-time-point {sup 32}P-incorporation assay, they demonstrate that PK{sub III} activity is inhibited by glucose-6-phosphate (Glc-6-P). Relative inhibition by Glc-6-P was increased by decreasing pH from 8.5 to 5.5 and by reducing the concentration of Mg{sup 2+} in the assay from 10 to 2 nM. Under likely physiological conditions (PH 7.0 and 2 mM Mg{sup 2+}), 10 nM Glc-6-P inhibited kinase activity approximately 70%. Inhibition by Glc-6-P could not be ascribed to contaminants in the commercial preparations. Other metabolites inhibited PK{sub III} in the following order: Glc-6-P > mannose-6-P, fructose-1,6P{sub 2} > ribose-5-P, 3-PGA, fructose-6-P. Inorganic phosphate, Glc, and AMP were not inhibitory, and free Glc did not reverse the inhibition by Glc-6-P. Because SNF1-related protein kinases are thought to function broadly in the regulation of enzyme activity and gene expression, Glc-6-P inhibition of PK{sub III} activity potentially provides a mechanism for metabolic regulation of the reactions catalyzed by these important protein kinases.

  4. Critical role of glycogen synthase kinase-3ß in regulating the avian heterophil response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microarray-assisted gene expression screen of chicken heterophils revealed glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß), a multifunctional Ser/Thr kinase, to be consistently up-regulated 30-180 min following stimulation with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). The present study was ...

  5. p21-activated kinase 4 regulates mitotic spindle positioning and orientation.

    PubMed

    Bompard, Guillaume; Morin, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    During mitosis, microtubules (MTs) are massively rearranged into three sets of highly dynamic MTs that are nucleated from the centrosomes to form the mitotic spindle. Tight regulation of spindle positioning in the dividing cell and chromosome alignment at the center of the metaphase spindle are required to ensure perfect chromosome segregation and to position the cytokinetic furrow that will specify the two daughter cells. Spindle positioning requires regulation of MT dynamics, involving depolymerase activities together with cortical and kinetochore-mediated pushing and pulling forces acting on astral MTs and kinetochore fibres. These forces rely on MT motor activities. Cortical pulling forces exerted on astral MTs depend upon dynein/dynactin complexes and are essential in both symmetric and asymmetric cell division. A well-established spindle positioning pathway regulating the cortical targeting of dynein/dynactin involves the conserved LGN (Leu-Gly-Asn repeat-enriched-protein) and NuMA (microtubule binding nuclear mitotic apparatus protein) complex. Spindle orientation is also regulated by integrin-mediated cell adhesion and actin retraction fibres that respond to mechanical stress and are influenced by the microenvironment of the dividing cell. Altering the capture of astral MTs or modulating pulling forces affects spindle position, which can impair cell division, differentiation and embryogenesis. In this general scheme, the activity of mitotic kinases such as Auroras and Plk1 (Polo-like kinase 1) is crucial. Recently, the p21-activated kinases (PAKs) emerged as novel important players in mitotic progression. In our recent article, we demonstrated that PAK4 regulates spindle positioning in symmetric cell division. In this commentary, and in light of recent published studies, we discuss how PAK4 could participate in the regulation of mechanisms involved in spindle positioning and orientation.

  6. TAA1-regulated local auxin biosynthesis in the root-apex transition zone mediates the aluminum-induced inhibition of root growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Geng, Xiaoyu; He, Chunmei; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Rong; Horst, Walter J; Ding, Zhaojun

    2014-07-01

    The transition zone (TZ) of the root apex is the perception site of Al toxicity. Here, we show that exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to Al induces a localized enhancement of auxin signaling in the root-apex TZ that is dependent on TAA1, which encodes a Trp aminotransferase and regulates auxin biosynthesis. TAA1 is specifically upregulated in the root-apex TZ in response to Al treatment, thus mediating local auxin biosynthesis and inhibition of root growth. The TAA1-regulated local auxin biosynthesis in the root-apex TZ in response to Al stress is dependent on ethylene, as revealed by manipulating ethylene homeostasis via the precursor of ethylene biosynthesis 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, the inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis aminoethoxyvinylglycine, or mutant analysis. In response to Al stress, ethylene signaling locally upregulates TAA1 expression and thus auxin responses in the TZ and results in auxin-regulated root growth inhibition through a number of auxin response factors (ARFs). In particular, ARF10 and ARF16 are important in the regulation of cell wall modification-related genes. Our study suggests a mechanism underlying how environmental cues affect root growth plasticity through influencing local auxin biosynthesis and signaling.

  7. Protein Kinase C Overactivity Impairs Prefrontal Cortical Regulation of Working Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birnbaum, S. G.; Yuan, P. X.; Wang, M.; Vijayraghavan, S.; Bloom, A. K.; Davis, D. J.; Gobeske, K. T.; Sweatt, J. D.; Manji, H. K.; Arnsten, A. F. T.

    2004-10-01

    The prefrontal cortex is a higher brain region that regulates thought, behavior, and emotion using representational knowledge, operations often referred to as working memory. We tested the influence of protein kinase C (PKC) intracellular signaling on prefrontal cortical cognitive function and showed that high levels of PKC activity in prefrontal cortex, as seen for example during stress exposure, markedly impair behavioral and electrophysiological measures of working memory. These data suggest that excessive PKC activation can disrupt prefrontal cortical regulation of behavior and thought, possibly contributing to signs of prefrontal cortical dysfunction such as distractibility, impaired judgment, impulsivity, and thought disorder.

  8. Regulation and function of syk tyrosine kinase in mast cell signaling and beyond.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Rodrigo Orlandini

    2011-01-01

    The protein tyrosine kinase Syk plays a critical role in FcεRI signaling in mast cells. Binding of Syk to phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (p-ITAM) of the receptor subunits results in conformational changes and tyrosine phosphorylation at multiple sites that leads to activation of Syk. The phosphorylated tyrosines throughout the molecule play an important role in the regulation of Syk-mediated signaling. Reconstitution of receptor-mediated signaling in Syk(-/-) cells by wild-type Syk or mutants which have substitution of these tyrosines with phenylalanine together with in vitro assays has been useful strategies to understand the regulation and function of Syk.

  9. Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Sty1 in Regulation of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α Kinases in Response to Environmental Stress in Schizosaccharomyces pombe▿

    PubMed Central

    Berlanga, Juan José; Rivero, Damariz; Martín, Ruth; Herrero, Saturnino; Moreno, Sergio; de Haro, César

    2010-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Sty1 is essential for the regulation of transcriptional responses that promote cell survival in response to different types of environmental stimuli in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In fission yeast, three distinct eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) kinases, two mammalian HRI-related protein kinases (Hri1 and Hri2) and the Gcn2 ortholog, regulate protein synthesis in response to cellular stress conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that both Hri1 and Hri2 exhibited an autokinase activity, specifically phosphorylated eIF2α, and functionally replaced the endogenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gcn2. We further show that Gcn2, but not Hri1 or Hri2, is activated early after exposure to hydrogen peroxide and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Cells lacking Gcn2 exhibit a later activation of Hri2. The activated MAPK Sty1 negatively regulates Gcn2 and Hri2 activities under oxidative stress but not in response to MMS. In contrast, Hri2 is the primary activated eIF2α kinase in response to heat shock. In this case, the activation of Sty1 appears to be transitory and does not contribute to the modulation of the eIF2α kinase stress pathway. In strains lacking Hri2, a type 2A protein phosphatase is activated soon after heat shock to reduce eIF2α phosphorylation. Finally, the MAPK Sty1, but not the eIF2α kinases, is essential for survival upon oxidative stress or heat shock, but not upon MMS treatment. These findings point to a regulatory coordination between the Sty1 MAPK and eIF2α kinase pathways for a particular range of stress responses. PMID:19880757

  10. Retinoblastoma cancer suppressor gene product is a substrate of the cell cycle regulator cdc2 kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, B T; Gruenwald, S; Morla, A O; Lee, W H; Wang, J Y

    1991-01-01

    The retinoblastoma gene product (RB) is a nuclear protein which has been shown to function as a tumor suppressor. It is phosphorylated from S to M phase of the cell cycle and dephosphorylated in G1. This suggests that the function of RB is regulated by its phosphorylation in the cell cycle. Ten phosphotryptic peptides are found in human RB proteins. The pattern of RB phosphorylation does not change from S to M phases of the cell cycle. Hypophosphorylated RB prepared from insect cells infected with an RB-recombinant baculovirus is used as a substrate for in vitro phosphorylation reactions. Of several protein kinases tested, only cdc2 kinase phosphorylates RB efficiently and all 10 peptides can be phosphorylated by cdc2 in vitro. Removal of cdc2 from mitotic cell extracts by immunoprecipitation causes a concomitant depletion of RB kinase activity. These results indicate that cdc2 or a kinase with similar substrate specificity is involved in the cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of the RB protein. Images PMID:2009861

  11. Protein Kinase D Regulates RhoA Activity via Rhotekin Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Pusapati, Ganesh V.; Eiseler, Tim; Rykx, An; Vandoninck, Sandy; Derua, Rita; Waelkens, Etienne; Van Lint, Johan; von Wichert, Götz; Seufferlein, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The members of the protein kinase D (PKD) family of serine/threonine kinases are major targets for tumor-promoting phorbol esters, G protein-coupled receptors, and activated protein kinase C isoforms (PKCs). The expanding list of cellular processes in which PKDs exert their function via phosphorylation of various substrates include proliferation, apoptosis, migration, angiogenesis, and vesicle trafficking. Therefore, identification of novel PKD substrates is necessary to understand the profound role of this kinase family in signal transduction. Here, we show that rhotekin, an effector of RhoA GTPase, is a novel substrate of PKD. We identified Ser-435 in rhotekin as the potential site targeted by PKD in vivo. Expression of a phosphomimetic S435E rhotekin mutant resulted in an increase of endogenous active RhoA GTPase levels. Phosphorylation of rhotekin by PKD2 modulates the anchoring of the RhoA in the plasma membrane. Consequently, the S435E rhotekin mutant displayed enhanced stress fiber formation when expressed in serum-starved fibroblasts. Our data thus identify a novel role of PKD as a regulator of RhoA activity and actin stress fiber formation through phosphorylation of rhotekin. PMID:22228765

  12. snf1lk encodes a protein kinase that may function in cell cycle regulation.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Angela; Huang, Guo-Ying; Huang, Gui-Yi; Nguyen, Ngoc-Thinh; Reuter, Sean; McBride, Jennifer L; Ruiz, Joseph C

    2004-06-01

    msk, myocardial SNF1-like kinase, was originally isolated in a screen for kinases expressed during early cardiogenesis in the mouse. msk maps to the proximal end of mouse chromosome 17 in a region that is syntenic with human chromosome 21q22.3, where the gene for SNF1LK, a predicted protein that shares 80% identity at the amino acid level with Msk, is located. Accordingly, msk has been redesignated snf1lk. Interestingly, the region encompassing the SNF1LK locus has been implicated in congenital heart defects often observed in patients with Down syndrome. snf1lk is also expressed in skeletal muscle progenitor cells of the somite beginning at 9.5 dpc. These data suggest a more general role for snf1lk in the earliest stages of muscle growth and/or differentiation. Consistent with a role in cell cycling, we observe that Chinese hamster ovary cells that express a tetracycline-inducible SNF1LK kinase domain do not divide, but undergo additional rounds of replication to yield 8N and 16N cells. These data suggest a possible function for SNF1LK in G2/M regulation. We show data that indicate that SNF1LK does not share functional homology with other SNF1-related kinases, but represents a new subclass with novel molecular activities.

  13. Lyn tyrosine kinase regulates androgen receptor expression and activity in castrate-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zardan, A; Nip, K M; Thaper, D; Toren, P; Vahid, S; Beraldi, E; Fazli, L; Lamoureux, F; Gust, K M; Cox, M E; Bishop, J L; Zoubeidi, A

    2014-01-01

    Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progression is a complex process by which prostate cells acquire the ability to survive and proliferate in the absence or under very low levels of androgens. Most CRPC tumors continue to express the androgen receptor (AR) as well as androgen-responsive genes owing to reactivation of AR. Protein tyrosine kinases have been implicated in supporting AR activation under castrate conditions. Here we report that Lyn tyrosine kinase expression is upregulated in CRPC human specimens compared with hormone naive or normal tissue. Lyn overexpression enhanced AR transcriptional activity both in vitro and in vivo and accelerated CRPC. Reciprocally, specific targeting of Lyn resulted in a decrease of AR transcriptional activity in vitro and in vivo and prolonged time to castration. Mechanistically, we found that targeting Lyn kinase induces AR dissociation from the molecular chaperone Hsp90, leading to its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. This work indicates a novel mechanism of regulation of AR stability and transcriptional activity by Lyn and justifies further investigation of the Lyn tyrosine kinase as a therapeutic target for the treatment of CRPC. PMID:25133482

  14. Cross-regulation between Aurora B and Citron kinase controls midbody architecture in cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Callum; Bassi, Zuni I; Debski, Janusz; Gottardo, Marco; Callaini, Giuliano; Dadlez, Michal; D'Avino, Pier Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Cytokinesis culminates in the final separation, or abscission, of the two daughter cells at the end of cell division. Abscission relies on an organelle, the midbody, which forms at the intercellular bridge and is composed of various proteins arranged in a precise stereotypic pattern. The molecular mechanisms controlling midbody organization and function, however, are obscure. Here we show that proper midbody architecture requires cross-regulation between two cell division kinases, Citron kinase (CIT-K) and Aurora B, the kinase component of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC). CIT-K interacts directly with three CPC components and is required for proper midbody architecture and the orderly arrangement of midbody proteins, including the CPC. In addition, we show that CIT-K promotes Aurora B activity through phosphorylation of the INCENP CPC subunit at the TSS motif. In turn, Aurora B controls CIT-K localization and association with its central spindle partners through phosphorylation of CIT-K's coiled coil domain. Our results identify, for the first time, a cross-regulatory mechanism between two kinases during cytokinesis, which is crucial for establishing the stereotyped organization of midbody proteins.

  15. Cross-regulation between Aurora B and Citron kinase controls midbody architecture in cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Callum; Bassi, Zuni I.; Debski, Janusz; Gottardo, Marco; Callaini, Giuliano; Dadlez, Michal; D'Avino, Pier Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinesis culminates in the final separation, or abscission, of the two daughter cells at the end of cell division. Abscission relies on an organelle, the midbody, which forms at the intercellular bridge and is composed of various proteins arranged in a precise stereotypic pattern. The molecular mechanisms controlling midbody organization and function, however, are obscure. Here we show that proper midbody architecture requires cross-regulation between two cell division kinases, Citron kinase (CIT-K) and Aurora B, the kinase component of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC). CIT-K interacts directly with three CPC components and is required for proper midbody architecture and the orderly arrangement of midbody proteins, including the CPC. In addition, we show that CIT-K promotes Aurora B activity through phosphorylation of the INCENP CPC subunit at the TSS motif. In turn, Aurora B controls CIT-K localization and association with its central spindle partners through phosphorylation of CIT-K's coiled coil domain. Our results identify, for the first time, a cross-regulatory mechanism between two kinases during cytokinesis, which is crucial for establishing the stereotyped organization of midbody proteins. PMID:27009191

  16. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 exhibits oncogenic activity in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ziwei; Yang, Yang; Xie, Songbo; Li, Dengwen; Liu, Min; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has an extremely grim prognosis, with an overall 5-year survival rate less than 5%, as a result of its rapid metastasis and late diagnosis. To combat this disease, it is crucial to better understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to its pathogenesis. Herein, we report that apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer tissues and that its expression correlates with the histological grade of pancreatic cancer. The expression of ASK1 is also elevated in pancreatic cancer cell lines at both protein and mRNA levels. In addition, ASK1 promotes the proliferation and stimulates the tumorigenic capacity of pancreatic cancer cells. These functions of ASK1 are abrogated by pharmacological inhibition of its kinase activity or by introduction of a kinase-dead mutation, suggesting that the kinase activity of ASK1 is required for its role in pancreatic cancer. However, the alteration of ASK1 expression or activity does not significantly affect the migration or invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. Collectively, these findings reveal a critical role for ASK1 in the development of pancreatic cancer and have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of this malignancy. PMID:27655673

  17. Local Transcriptional Control of YUCCA Regulates Auxin Promoted Root-Growth Inhibition in Response to Aluminium Stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangchao; Gao, Shan; Tian, Huiyu; Wu, Wenwen; Robert, Hélène S; Ding, Zhaojun

    2016-10-01

    Auxin is necessary for the inhibition of root growth induced by aluminium (Al) stress, however the molecular mechanism controlling this is largely unknown. Here, we report that YUCCA (YUC), which encodes flavin monooxygenase-like proteins, regulates local auxin biosynthesis in the root apex transition zone (TZ) in response to Al stress. Al stress up-regulates YUC3/5/7/8/9 in the root-apex TZ, which we show results in the accumulation of auxin in the root-apex TZ and root-growth inhibition during the Al stress response. These Al-dependent changes in the regulation of YUCs in the root-apex TZ and YUC-regulated root growth inhibition are dependent on ethylene signalling. Increasing or disruption of ethylene signalling caused either enhanced or reduced up-regulation, respectively, of YUCs in root-apex TZ in response to Al stress. In addition, ethylene enhanced root growth inhibition under Al stress was strongly alleviated in yuc mutants or by co-treatment with yucasin, an inhibitor of YUC activity, suggesting a downstream role of YUCs in this process. Moreover, ethylene-insensitive 3 (EIN3) is involved into the direct regulation of YUC9 transcription in this process. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) functions as a transcriptional activator for YUC5/8/9. PIF4 promotes Al-inhibited primary root growth by regulating the local expression of YUCs and auxin signal in the root-apex TZ. The Al-induced expression of PIF4 in root TZ acts downstream of ethylene signalling. Taken together, our results highlight a regulatory cascade for YUCs-regulated local auxin biosynthesis in the root-apex TZ mediating root growth inhibition in response to Al stress.

  18. Local Transcriptional Control of YUCCA Regulates Auxin Promoted Root-Growth Inhibition in Response to Aluminium Stress in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Huiyu; Wu, Wenwen; Ding, Zhaojun

    2016-01-01

    Auxin is necessary for the inhibition of root growth induced by aluminium (Al) stress, however the molecular mechanism controlling this is largely unknown. Here, we report that YUCCA (YUC), which encodes flavin monooxygenase-like proteins, regulates local auxin biosynthesis in the root apex transition zone (TZ) in response to Al stress. Al stress up-regulates YUC3/5/7/8/9 in the root-apex TZ, which we show results in the accumulation of auxin in the root-apex TZ and root-growth inhibition during the Al stress response. These Al-dependent changes in the regulation of YUCs in the root-apex TZ and YUC-regulated root growth inhibition are dependent on ethylene signalling. Increasing or disruption of ethylene signalling caused either enhanced or reduced up-regulation, respectively, of YUCs in root-apex TZ in response to Al stress. In addition, ethylene enhanced root growth inhibition under Al stress was strongly alleviated in yuc mutants or by co-treatment with yucasin, an inhibitor of YUC activity, suggesting a downstream role of YUCs in this process. Moreover, ethylene-insensitive 3 (EIN3) is involved into the direct regulation of YUC9 transcription in this process. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) functions as a transcriptional activator for YUC5/8/9. PIF4 promotes Al-inhibited primary root growth by regulating the local expression of YUCs and auxin signal in the root-apex TZ. The Al–induced expression of PIF4 in root TZ acts downstream of ethylene signalling. Taken together, our results highlight a regulatory cascade for YUCs-regulated local auxin biosynthesis in the root-apex TZ mediating root growth inhibition in response to Al stress. PMID:27716807

  19. Wntless Regulates Dentin Apposition and Root Elongation in the Mandibular Molar

    PubMed Central

    Bae, C.H.; Kim, T.H.; Ko, S.O.; Lee, J.C.; Yang, X.

    2015-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays an essential role in the dental epithelium and mesenchyme during tooth morphogenesis. However, it remains unclear if Wnt ligands, produced from dental mesenchyme, are necessary for odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation. Here, we show that odontoblast-specific disruption of Wntless (Wls), a chaperon protein that regulates Wnt sorting and secretion, leads to severe defects in dentin formation and root elongation. Dentin thickness decreased remarkably and pulp chambers enlarged in the mandibular molars of OC-Cre;WlsCO/CO mice. Although the initial odontoblast differentiation was normal in the mutant crown, odontoblasts became cuboidal and dentin thickness was reduced. In immunohistochemistry, Wnt10a, β-catenin, type I collagen, and dentin sialoprotein were significantly down-regulated in the odontoblasts of mutant crown. In addition, roots were short and root canals were widened. Cell proliferation was reduced in the developing root apex of mutant molars. Furthermore, Wnt10a and Axin2 expression was remarkably decreased in the odontoblasts of mutant roots. Deletion of the Wls gene in odontoblasts appears to reduce canonical Wnt activity, leading to inhibition of odontoblast maturation and root elongation. PMID:25595365

  20. Wntless regulates dentin apposition and root elongation in the mandibular molar.

    PubMed

    Bae, C H; Kim, T H; Ko, S O; Lee, J C; Yang, X; Cho, E S

    2015-03-01

    Wnt signaling plays an essential role in the dental epithelium and mesenchyme during tooth morphogenesis. However, it remains unclear if Wnt ligands, produced from dental mesenchyme, are necessary for odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation. Here, we show that odontoblast-specific disruption of Wntless (Wls), a chaperon protein that regulates Wnt sorting and secretion, leads to severe defects in dentin formation and root elongation. Dentin thickness decreased remarkably and pulp chambers enlarged in the mandibular molars of OC-Cre;Wls(CO/CO) mice. Although the initial odontoblast differentiation was normal in the mutant crown, odontoblasts became cuboidal and dentin thickness was reduced. In immunohistochemistry, Wnt10a, β-catenin, type I collagen, and dentin sialoprotein were significantly down-regulated in the odontoblasts of mutant crown. In addition, roots were short and root canals were widened. Cell proliferation was reduced in the developing root apex of mutant molars. Furthermore, Wnt10a and Axin2 expression was remarkably decreased in the odontoblasts of mutant roots. Deletion of the Wls gene in odontoblasts appears to reduce canonical Wnt activity, leading to inhibition of odontoblast maturation and root elongation.

  1. Two Polo-like kinase 4 binding domains in Asterless perform distinct roles in regulating kinase stability

    PubMed Central

    Klebba, Joseph E.; Galletta, Brian J.; Nye, Jonathan; Plevock, Karen M.; Buster, Daniel W.; Hollingsworth, Natalie A.; Slep, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Plk4 (Polo-like kinase 4) and its binding partner Asterless (Asl) are essential, conserved centriole assembly factors that induce centriole amplification when overexpressed. Previous studies found that Asl acts as a scaffolding protein; its N terminus binds Plk4’s tandem Polo box cassette (PB1-PB2) and targets Plk4 to centrioles to initiate centriole duplication. However, how Asl overexpression drives centriole amplification is unknown. In this paper, we investigated the Asl–Plk4 interaction in Drosophila melanogaster cells. Surprisingly, the N-terminal region of Asl is not required for centriole duplication, but a previously unidentified Plk4-binding domain in the C terminus is required. Mechanistic analyses of the different Asl regions revealed that they act uniquely during the cell cycle: the Asl N terminus promotes Plk4 homodimerization and autophosphorylation during interphase, whereas the Asl C terminus stabilizes Plk4 during mitosis. Therefore, Asl affects Plk4 in multiple ways to regulate centriole duplication. Asl not only targets Plk4 to centrioles but also modulates Plk4 stability and activity, explaining the ability of overexpressed Asl to drive centriole amplification. PMID:25688134

  2. Regulation of transport across cell membranes by the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1.

    PubMed

    Lang, Florian; Stournaras, Christos; Alesutan, Ioana

    2014-02-01

    The serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) is genomically upregulated by cell stress including energy depletion and hyperosmotic shock as well as a variety of hormones including glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and TGFβ. SGK1 is activated by insulin, growth factors and oxidative stress via phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PDK1 and mTOR. SGK1 is a powerful stimulator of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, carriers (e.g., NCC, NKCC, NHE1, NHE3, SGLT1, several amino acid transporters) and ion channels (e.g., ENaC, SCN5A, TRPV4-6, ORAI1/STIM1, ROMK, KCNE1/KCNQ1, GluR6, CFTR). Mechanisms employed by SGK1 in transport regulation include direct phosphorylation of target transport proteins, phosphorylation and thus activation of other transport regulating kinases, stabilization of membrane proteins by phosphorylation and thus inactivation of the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2, as well as stimulation of transport protein expression by upregulation transcription factors (e.g., nuclear factor kappa-B [NFκB]) and by fostering of protein translation. SGK1 sensitivity of pump, carrier and channel activities participate in the regulation of epithelial transport, cardiac and neuronal excitability, degranulation, platelet function, migration, cell proliferation and apoptosis. SGK1-sensitive functions do not require the presence of SGK1 but are markedly upregulated by SGK1. Accordingly, the phenotype of SGK1 knockout mice is mild. The mice are, however, less sensitive to excessive activation of transport by glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, insulin and inflammation. Moreover, excessive SGK1 activity contributes to the pathophysiology of hypertension, obesity, diabetes, thrombosis, stroke, inflammation, autoimmune disease, fibrosis and tumor growth.

  3. Translational Regulation of the DOUBLETIME/CKIδ/ε Kinase by LARK Contributes to Circadian Period Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanmei; McNeil, Gerard P.; Jackson, F. Rob

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila homolog of Casein Kinase I δ/ε, DOUBLETIME (DBT), is required for Wnt, Hedgehog, Fat and Hippo signaling as well as circadian clock function. Extensive studies have established a critical role of DBT in circadian period determination. However, how DBT expression is regulated remains largely unexplored. In this study, we show that translation of dbt transcripts are directly regulated by a rhythmic RNA-binding protein (RBP) called LARK (known as RBM4 in mammals). LARK promotes translation of specific alternative dbt transcripts in clock cells, in particular the dbt-RC transcript. Translation of dbt-RC exhibits circadian changes under free-running conditions, indicative of clock regulation. Translation of a newly identified transcript, dbt-RE, is induced by light in a LARK-dependent manner and oscillates under light/dark conditions. Altered LARK abundance affects circadian period length, and this phenotype can be modified by different dbt alleles. Increased LARK delays nuclear degradation of the PERIOD (PER) clock protein at the beginning of subjective day, consistent with the known role of DBT in PER dynamics. Taken together, these data support the idea that LARK influences circadian period and perhaps responses of the clock to light via the regulated translation of DBT. Our study is the first to investigate translational control of the DBT kinase, revealing its regulation by LARK and a novel role of this RBP in Drosophila circadian period modulation. PMID:25211129

  4. Protein Kinase C Beta Regulates the D2-Like Dopamine Autoreceptor

    PubMed Central

    Luderman, Kathryn D.; Chen, Rong; Ferris, Mark J.; Jones, Sara R.; Gnegy, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study was the regulation of the D2-like dopamine autoreceptor (D2 autoreceptor) by protein kinase Cβ, a member of the protein kinase C (PKC) family. Together with the dopamine transporter, the D2 autoreceptor regulates the level of extracellular dopamine and thus dopaminergic signaling. PKC regulates neuronal signaling via several mechanisms, including desensitizing autoreceptors to increase the release of several different neurotransmitters. Here, using both PKCβ−/− mice and specific PKCβ inhibitors, we demonstrated that a lack of PKCβ activity enhanced the D2 autoreceptor-stimulated decrease in dopamine release following both chemical and electrical stimulations. Inhibition of PKCβ increased surface localization of D2R in mouse striatal synaptosomes, which could underlie the greater sensitivity to quinpirole following inhibition of PKCβ. PKCβ−/− mice displayed greater sensitivity to the quinpirole-induced suppression of locomotor activity, demonstrating that the regulation of the D2 autoreceptor by PKCβ is physiologically significant. Overall, we have found that PKCβ downregulates the D2 autoreceptor, providing an additional layer of regulation for dopaminergic signaling. We propose that in the absence of PKCβ activity, surface D2 autoreceptor localization and thus D2 autoreceptor signaling is increased, leading to less dopamine in the extracellular space and attenuated dopaminergic signaling. PMID:25446677

  5. A novel microfluidic assay reveals a key role for protein kinase C δ in regulating human neutrophil-endothelium interaction.

    PubMed

    Soroush, Fariborz; Zhang, Ting; King, Devon J; Tang, Yuan; Deosarkar, Sudhir; Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Kilpatrick, Laurie E; Kiani, Mohammad F

    2016-11-01

    A key step in neutrophil-mediated tissue damage is the migration of activated neutrophils across the vascular endothelium. Previously, we identified protein kinase C δ as a critical regulator of neutrophil migration in sepsis but did not identify specific steps in migration. In this study, we used our novel biomimetic microfluidic assay to delineate systematically the mechanism by which protein kinase C δ regulates individual steps in human neutrophil-endothelial interaction during inflammation. The biomimetic microfluidic assay includes a network of vascular channels, produced from in vivo images connected to a tissue compartment through a porous barrier. HUVECs cultured in vascular channels formed a complete lumen under physiologic shear flow. HUVECs were pretreated with TNF-α ± a protein kinase C δ inhibitor, and the tissue compartment was filled with a chemoattractant (fMLP or IL-8). Under physiologic shear flow, the role of protein kinase C δ on spatial and temporal neutrophil adherence/migration was quantified. Protein kinase C δ inhibition significantly reduced neutrophil adhesion in response to fMLP and IL-8 only under low shear rate and near bifurcations. Protein kinase C δ inhibition also decreased adherence to nonactivated HUVECs in response to fMLP or IL-8. Protein kinase C δ inhibition reduced neutrophil migration into the tissue compartment in response to fMLP and to a lesser degree, to IL-8. Antibody-coated microparticles demonstrated that protein kinase C δ inhibition down-regulated E-selectin and ICAM-1 but not VCAM-1 expression. With the use of a physiologically relevant in vitro model system, we demonstrate that protein kinase C δ plays an important role in the regulation of neutrophil adherence/migration during inflammation and identifies key steps regulated by protein kinase C δ in neutrophil-endothelial interactions.

  6. Copper regulates primary root elongation through PIN1-mediated auxin redistribution.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hong-Mei; Xu, Heng-Hao; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2013-05-01

    The heavy metal copper (Cu) is an essential microelement required for normal plant growth and development, but it inhibits primary root growth when in excess. The mechanism underlying how excess Cu functions in this process remains to be further elucidated. Here, we report that a higher concentration of CuSO4 inhibited primary root elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings by affecting both the elongation and meristem zones. In the meristem zone, meristematic cell division potential was reduced by excess Cu. Further experiments showed that Cu can modulate auxin distribution, resulting in higher auxin activities in both the elongation and meristem zones of Cu-treated roots based on DR5::GUS expression patterns. This Cu-mediated auxin redistribution was shown to be responsible for Cu-mediated inhibition of primary root elongation. Additional genetic and physiological data demonstrated that it was PINFORMED1 (PIN1), but not PIN2 or AUXIN1 (AUX1), that regulated this process. However, Cu-induced hydrogen peroxide accumulation did not contribute to Cu-induced auxin redistribution for inhibition of root elongation. When the possible role of ethylene in this process was analyzed, Cu had a similar impact on the root elongation of both the wild type and the ein2-1 mutant, implying that Cu-mediated inhibition of primary root elongation was not due to the ethylene signaling pathway.

  7. ERECTA and BAK1 Receptor Like Kinases Interact to Regulate Immune Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jordá, Lucía; Sopeña-Torres, Sara; Escudero, Viviana; Nuñez-Corcuera, Beatriz; Delgado-Cerezo, Magdalena; Torii, Keiko U; Molina, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ERECTA (ER) receptor-like kinase (RLK) regulates Arabidopsis thaliana organ growth, and inflorescence and stomatal development by interacting with the ERECTA-family genes (ERf) paralogs, ER-like 1 (ERL1) and ERL2, and the receptor-like protein (RLP) TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM). ER also controls immune responses and resistance to pathogens such as the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pto) and the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina BMM (PcBMM). We found that er null-mutant plants overexpressing an ER dominant-negative version lacking the cytoplasmic kinase domain (ERΔK) showed an enhanced susceptibility to PcBMM, suggesting that ERΔK associates and forms inactive complexes with additional RLKs/RLPs required for PcBMM resistance. Genetic analyses demonstrated that ER acts in a combinatorial specific manner with ERL1, ERL2, and TMM to control PcBMM resistance. Moreover, BAK1 (BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-associated kinase 1) RLK, which together with ERf/TMM regulates stomatal patterning and resistance to Pto, was also found to have an unequal contribution with ER in regulating immune responses and resistance to PcBMM. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana further demonstrated BAK1-ER protein interaction. The secreted epidermal pattern factor peptides (EPF1 and EPF2), which are perceived by ERf members to specify stomatal patterning, do not seem to regulate ER-mediated immunity to PcBMM, since their inducible overexpression in A. thaliana did not impact on PcBMM resistance. Our results indicate that the multiproteic receptorsome formed by ERf, TMM and BAK1 modulates A. thaliana resistance to PcBMM, and suggest that the cues underlying ERf/TMM/BAK1-mediated immune responses are distinct from those regulating stomatal pattering.

  8. ERECTA and BAK1 Receptor Like Kinases Interact to Regulate Immune Responses in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Jordá, Lucía; Sopeña-Torres, Sara; Escudero, Viviana; Nuñez-Corcuera, Beatriz; Delgado-Cerezo, Magdalena; Torii, Keiko U.; Molina, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ERECTA (ER) receptor-like kinase (RLK) regulates Arabidopsis thaliana organ growth, and inflorescence and stomatal development by interacting with the ERECTA-family genes (ERf) paralogs, ER-like 1 (ERL1) and ERL2, and the receptor-like protein (RLP) TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM). ER also controls immune responses and resistance to pathogens such as the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pto) and the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina BMM (PcBMM). We found that er null-mutant plants overexpressing an ER dominant-negative version lacking the cytoplasmic kinase domain (ERΔK) showed an enhanced susceptibility to PcBMM, suggesting that ERΔK associates and forms inactive complexes with additional RLKs/RLPs required for PcBMM resistance. Genetic analyses demonstrated that ER acts in a combinatorial specific manner with ERL1, ERL2, and TMM to control PcBMM resistance. Moreover, BAK1 (BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-associated kinase 1) RLK, which together with ERf/TMM regulates stomatal patterning and resistance to Pto, was also found to have an unequal contribution with ER in regulating immune responses and resistance to PcBMM. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana further demonstrated BAK1-ER protein interaction. The secreted epidermal pattern factor peptides (EPF1 and EPF2), which are perceived by ERf members to specify stomatal patterning, do not seem to regulate ER-mediated immunity to PcBMM, since their inducible overexpression in A. thaliana did not impact on PcBMM resistance. Our results indicate that the multiproteic receptorsome formed by ERf, TMM and BAK1 modulates A. thaliana resistance to PcBMM, and suggest that the cues underlying ERf/TMM/BAK1-mediated immune responses are distinct from those regulating stomatal pattering. PMID:27446127

  9. Osterix regulates tooth root formation in a site-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Kim, T H; Bae, C H; Lee, J C; Kim, J E; Yang, X; de Crombrugghe, B; Cho, E S

    2015-03-01

    Bone and dentin share similar biochemical compositions and physiological properties. Dentin, a major tooth component, is formed by odontoblasts; in contrast, bone is produced by osteoblasts. Osterix (Osx), a zinc finger-containing transcription factor, has been identified as an essential regulator of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. However, it has been difficult to establish whether Osx functions in odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation. To understand the role of Osx in dentin formation, we analyzed mice in which Osx was subjected to tissue-specific ablation under the control of either the Col1a1 or the OC promoter. Two independent Osx conditional knockout mice exhibited similar molar abnormalities. Although no phenotype was found in the crowns of these teeth, both mutant lines exhibited short molar roots due to impaired root elongation. Furthermore, the interradicular dentin in these mice showed severe hypoplastic features, which were likely caused by disruptions in odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation. These phenotypes were closely related to the temporospatial expression pattern of Osx during tooth development. These findings indicate that Osx is required for root formation by regulating odontoblast differentiation, maturation, and root elongation. Cumulatively, our data strongly indicate that Osx is a site-specific regulator in tooth root formation.

  10. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade MKK7-MPK6 Plays Important Roles in Plant Development and Regulates Shoot Branching by Phosphorylating PIN1 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Wu, Xiaowei; Cai, Yueyue; Zhang, Yuanya; Wang, Yingchun; Li, Jiayang; Wang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidences exhibit that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/MPK) signaling pathways are connected with many aspects of plant development. The complexity of MAPK cascades raises challenges not only to identify the MAPK module in planta but also to define the specific role of an individual module. So far, our knowledge of MAPK signaling has been largely restricted to a small subset of MAPK cascades. Our previous study has characterized an Arabidopsis bushy and dwarf1 (bud1) mutant, in which the MAP Kinase Kinase 7 (MKK7) was constitutively activated, resulting in multiple phenotypic alterations. In this study, we found that MPK3 and MPK6 are the substrates for phosphorylation by MKK7 in planta. Genetic analysis showed that MKK7-MPK6 cascade is specifically responsible for the regulation of shoot branching, hypocotyl gravitropism, filament elongation, and lateral root formation, while MKK7-MPK3 cascade is mainly involved in leaf morphology. We further demonstrated that the MKK7-MPK6 cascade controls shoot branching by phosphorylating Ser 337 on PIN1, which affects the basal localization of PIN1 in xylem parenchyma cells and polar auxin transport in the primary stem. Our results not only specify the functions of the MKK7-MPK6 cascade but also reveal a novel mechanism for PIN1 phosphorylation, establishing a molecular link between the MAPK cascade and auxin-regulated plant development. PMID:27618482

  11. Role of Interaction and Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase B in Regulation of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Function by cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase A

    PubMed Central

    Borthwick, Lee A.; Kerbiriou, Mathieu; Taylor, Christopher J.; Cozza, Giorgio; Lascu, Ioan; Postel, Edith H.; Cassidy, Diane; Trouvé, Pascal; Mehta, Anil; Robson, Louise; Muimo, Richmond

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis results from mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and ATP-regulated chloride channel. Here, we demonstrate that nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDPK-B, NM23-H2) forms a functional complex with CFTR. In airway epithelia forskolin/IBMX significantly increases NDPK-B co-localisation with CFTR whereas PKA inhibitors attenuate complex formation. Furthermore, an NDPK-B derived peptide (but not its NDPK-A equivalent) disrupts the NDPK-B/CFTR complex in vitro (19-mers comprising amino acids 36–54 from NDPK-B or NDPK-A). Overlay (Far-Western) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) analysis both demonstrate that NDPK-B binds CFTR within its first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1, CFTR amino acids 351–727). Analysis of chloride currents reflective of CFTR or outwardly rectifying chloride channels (ORCC, DIDS-sensitive) showed that the 19-mer NDPK-B peptide (but not its NDPK-A equivalent) reduced both chloride conductances. Additionally, the NDPK-B (but not NDPK-A) peptide also attenuated acetylcholine-induced intestinal short circuit currents. In silico analysis of the NBD1/NDPK-B complex reveals an extended interaction surface between the two proteins. This binding zone is also target of the 19-mer NDPK-B peptide, thus confirming its capability to disrupt NDPK-B/CFTR complex. We propose that NDPK-B forms part of the complex that controls chloride currents in epithelia. PMID:26950439

  12. Dynamic phosphorylation of Histone Deacetylase 1 by Aurora kinases during mitosis regulates zebrafish embryos development

    PubMed Central

    Loponte, Sara; Segré, Chiara V.; Senese, Silvia; Miccolo, Claudia; Santaguida, Stefano; Deflorian, Gianluca; Citro, Simona; Mattoscio, Domenico; Pisati, Federica; Moser, Mirjam A.; Visintin, Rosella; Seiser, Christian; Chiocca, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the removal of acetyl molecules from histone and non-histone substrates playing important roles in chromatin remodeling and control of gene expression. Class I HDAC1 is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression, cellular proliferation and differentiation during development; it is also regulated by many post-translational modifications (PTMs). Herein we characterize a new mitosis-specific phosphorylation of HDAC1 driven by Aurora kinases A and B. We show that this phosphorylation affects HDAC1 enzymatic activity and it is critical for the maintenance of a proper proliferative and developmental plan in a complex organism. Notably, we find that Aurora-dependent phosphorylation of HDAC1 regulates histone acetylation by modulating the expression of genes directly involved in the developing zebrafish central nervous system. Our data represent a step towards the comprehension of HDAC1 regulation by its PTM code, with important implications in unravelling its roles both in physiology and pathology. PMID:27458029

  13. Protein kinase Darkener of apricot and its substrate EF1γ regulate organelle transport along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Serpinskaya, Anna S; Tuphile, Karine; Rabinow, Leonard; Gelfand, Vladimir I

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of organelle transport along microtubules is important for proper distribution of membrane organelles and protein complexes in the cytoplasm. RNAi-mediated knockdown in cultured Drosophila S2 cells demonstrates that two microtubule-binding proteins, a unique isoform of Darkener of apricot (DOA) protein kinase, and its substrate, translational elongation factor EF1γ, negatively regulate transport of several classes of membrane organelles along microtubules. Inhibition of transport by EF1γ requires its phosphorylation by DOA on serine 294. Together, our results indicate a new role for two proteins that have not previously been implicated in regulation of the cytoskeleton. These results further suggest that the biological role of some of the proteins binding to the microtubule track is to regulate cargo transport along these tracks.

  14. Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) regulates multipotent neural progenitor proliferation.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ichiro; Paucar, Andres A; Bajpai, Ruchi; Dougherty, Joseph D; Zewail, Amani; Kelly, Theresa K; Kim, Kevin J; Ou, Jing; Groszer, Matthias; Imura, Tetsuya; Freije, William A; Nelson, Stanley F; Sofroniew, Michael V; Wu, Hong; Liu, Xin; Terskikh, Alexey V; Geschwind, Daniel H; Kornblum, Harley I

    2005-08-01

    Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) was previously identified in a screen for genes enriched in neural progenitors. Here, we demonstrate expression of MELK by progenitors in developing and adult brain and that MELK serves as a marker for self-renewing multipotent neural progenitors (MNPs) in cultures derived from the developing forebrain and in transgenic mice. Overexpression of MELK enhances (whereas knockdown diminishes) the ability to generate neurospheres from MNPs, indicating a function in self-renewal. MELK down-regulation disrupts the production of neurogenic MNP from glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive progenitors in vitro. MELK expression in MNP is cell cycle regulated and inhibition of MELK expression down-regulates the expression of B-myb, which is shown to also mediate MNP proliferation. These findings indicate that MELK is necessary for proliferation of embryonic and postnatal MNP and suggest that it regulates the transition from GFAP-expressing progenitors to rapid amplifying progenitors in the postnatal brain.

  15. Integrin-linked kinase regulates the niche of quiescent epidermal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Morgner, Jessica; Ghatak, Sushmita; Jakobi, Tobias; Dieterich, Christoph; Aumailley, Monique; Wickström, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells reside in specialized niches that are critical for their function. Quiescent hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are confined within the bulge niche, but how the molecular composition of the niche regulates stem cell behaviour is poorly understood. Here we show that integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a key regulator of the bulge extracellular matrix microenvironment, thereby governing the activation and maintenance of HFSCs. ILK mediates deposition of inverse laminin (LN)-332 and LN-511 gradients within the basement membrane (BM) wrapping the hair follicles. The precise BM composition tunes activities of Wnt and transforming growth factor-β pathways and subsequently regulates HFSC activation. Notably, reconstituting an optimal LN microenvironment restores the altered signalling in ILK-deficient cells. Aberrant stem cell activation in ILK-deficient epidermis leads to increased replicative stress, predisposing the tissue to carcinogenesis. Overall, our findings uncover a critical role for the BM niche in regulating stem cell activation and thereby skin homeostasis. PMID:26349061

  16. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin by kidney proximal tubule cells is regulated by phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Brunskill, N J; Stuart, J; Tobin, A B; Walls, J; Nahorski, S

    1998-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin is an important function of the kidney proximal tubule epithelium. We have measured endocytosis of [125I]-albumin in opossum kidney cells and examined the regulation of this process by phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). Albumin endocytosis was inhibited by both wortmannin (IC50 6.9 nM) and LY294002 (IC50 6.5 microM) at concentrations that suggested the involvement of PI 3-kinase in its regulation. Recycling rates were unaffected. We transfected OK cells with either a wild-type p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase, or a dominant negative form of the p85 subunit (Deltap85) using the LacSwitch expression system. Transfects were screened by immunoblotting with anti-PI 3-kinase antibodies. Under basal conditions, transfects demonstrated no expression of p85 or Deltap85, but expression was briskly induced by treatment of the cells with IPTG (EC50 13.7 microM). Inhibition of PI 3-kinase activity by Deltap85 was confirmed by in vitro kinase assay of anti-phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates from transfected cells stimulated with insulin. Expression of Deltap85 resulted in marked inhibition of albumin endocytosis, predominantly as a result of reduction of the Vmax of the transport process. Expression of p85 had no significant effect on albumin uptake. The results demonstrate that PI 3-kinase regulates an early step in the receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin by kidney proximal tubular cells. PMID:9593770

  17. CEP genes regulate root and shoot development in response to environmental cues and are specific to seed plants.

    PubMed

    Delay, Christina; Imin, Nijat; Djordjevic, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    The manifestation of repetitive developmental programmes during plant growth can be adjusted in response to various environmental cues. During root development, this means being able to precisely control root growth and lateral root development. Small signalling peptides have been found to play roles in many aspects of root development. One member of the CEP (C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE) gene family has been shown to arrest root growth. Here we report that CEP genes are widespread among seed plants but are not present in land plants that lack true branching roots or root vasculature. We have identified 10 additional CEP genes in Arabidopsis. Expression analysis revealed that CEP genes are regulated by environmental cues such as nitrogen limitation, increased salt levels, increased osmotic strength, and increased CO2 levels in both roots and shoots. Analysis of synthetic CEP variants showed that both peptide sequence and modifications of key amino acids affect CEP biological activity. Analysis of several CEP over-expression lines revealed distinct roles for CEP genes in root and shoot development. A cep3 knockout mutant showed increased root and shoot growth under a range of abiotic stress, nutrient, and light conditions. We demonstrate that CEPs are negative regulators of root development, slowing primary root growth and reducing lateral root formation. We propose that CEPs are negative regulators that mediate environmental influences on plant development.

  18. Final Report: Regulation and Function of Two Cell Wall protein Genes in Me Dicago Roots and Root Nodules, August 1, 1995 - January 31, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, James B.

    2000-05-08

    During the period of DOE funding we synthesized several PRP peptides, generated rabbit antisera against two PRP repeats found in early nodulin PRPs, and developed confocal microscopy methods for root immunohistochemistry. Using the antibodies, we completed extensive descriptive studies of PRP deposition in medic and alfalfa roots showing that PRPs deposition is developmentally regulated in roots and spatially restricted within the walls of specific root tissues. Domain-specific antibodies were isolated from polyclonal sera using peptide affinity chromatography and were then used to demonstrate that nodule-specific epitopes are shared by several nodule-specific proteins. The following provides a more detailed summary of this work.

  19. HAWAIIAN SKIRT regulates the quiescent center-independent meristem activity in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Sol; Choe, Goh; Sebastian, Jose; Ryu, Kook Hui; Mao, Linyong; Fei, Zhangjun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2016-06-01

    Root apical meristem (RAM) drives post-embryonic root growth by constantly supplying cells through mitosis. It is composed of stem cells and their derivatives, the transit-amplifying (TA) cells. Stem cell organization and its maintenance in the RAM are well characterized, however, their relationships with TA cells remain unclear. SHORTROOT (SHR) is critical for root development. It patterns cell types and promotes the post-embryonic root growth. Defective root growth in the shr has been ascribed to the lack of quiescent center (QC), which maintains the surrounding stem cells. However, our recent investigation indicated that SHR maintains TA cells independently of QC by modulating PHABULOSA (PHB) through miRNA165/6. PHB controls TA cell activity by modulating cytokinin levels and type B Arabidopsis Response Regulator activity, in a dosage-dependent manner. To further understand TA cell regulation, we conducted a shr suppressor screen. With an extensive mutagenesis screen followed by genome sequencing of a pooled F2 population, we discovered two suppressor alleles with mutations in HAWAIIAN SKIRT (HWS). HWS, encoding an F-box protein with kelch domain, is expressed, partly depending on SHR, in the root cap and in the pericycle of the differentiation zone. Interestingly, root growth in the shr hws was more active than the wild-type roots for the first 7 days after germination, without recovering QC. Contrary to shr phb, shr hws did not show a recovery of cytokinin signaling. These indicate that HWS affects QC-independent TA cell activities through a pathway distinctive from PHB.

  20. Kinase-Dependent and -Independent Roles of EphA2 in the Regulation of Prostate Cancer Invasion and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Maria Letizia; Parri, Matteo; Angelucci, Adriano; Onnis, Barbara; Bianchini, Francesca; Giannoni, Elisa; Raugei, Giovanni; Calorini, Lido; Rucci, Nadia; Teti, Anna; Bologna, Mauro; Chiarugi, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Ligand-activated Eph tyrosine kinases regulate cellular repulsion, morphology, adhesion, and motility. EphA2 kinase is frequently up-regulated in several different types of cancers, including prostate, breast, colon, and lung carcinomas, as well as in melanoma. The existing data do not clarify whether EphA2 receptor phosphorylation or its simple overexpression, which likely leads to Eph kinase-independent responses, plays a role in the progression of malignant prostate cancer. In this study, we address the role of EphA2 tyrosine phosphorylation in prostate carcinoma cell adhesion, motility, invasion, and formation of metastases. Tumor cells expressing kinase-deficient EphA2 mutants, as well as an EphA2 variant lacking the cytoplasmic domain, are defective in ephrinA1-mediated cell rounding, retraction fiber formation, de-adhesion from the extracellular matrix, RhoA and Rac1 GTPase regulation, three-dimensional matrix invasion, and in vivo metastasis, suggesting a key role for EphA2 kinase activity. Nevertheless, EphA2 regulation of cell motility and invasion, as well as the formation of bone and visceral tumor colonies, reveals a component of both EphA2 kinase-dependent and -independent features. These results uncover a differential requirement for EphA2 kinase activity in the regulation of prostate carcinoma metastasis outcome, suggesting that although the kinase activity of EphA2 is required for the regulation of cell adhesion and cytoskeletal rearrangement, some distinct kinase-dependent and -independent pathways likely cooperate to drive cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis outcome. PMID:19264906

  1. Akt Regulates TNFα Synthesis Downstream of RIP1 Kinase Activation during Necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Colleen R.; Ahuja, Ruchita; Osafo-Addo, Awo D.; Barrows, Douglas; Kettenbach, Arminja; Skidan, Igor; Teng, Xin; Cuny, Gregory D.; Gerber, Scott; Degterev, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    Necroptosis is a regulated form of necrotic cell death that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases including intestinal inflammation and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). In this work, we investigated the signaling mechanisms controlled by the necroptosis mediator receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP1) kinase. We show that Akt kinase activity is critical for necroptosis in L929 cells and plays a key role in TNFα production. During necroptosis, Akt is activated in a RIP1 dependent fashion through its phosphorylation on Thr308. In L929 cells, this activation requires independent signaling inputs from both growth factors and RIP1. Akt controls necroptosis through downstream targeting of mammalian Target of Rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Akt activity, mediated in part through mTORC1, links RIP1 to JNK activation and autocrine production of TNFα. In other cell types, such as mouse lung fibroblasts and macrophages, Akt exhibited control over necroptosis-associated TNFα production without contributing to cell death. Overall, our results provide new insights into the mechanism of necroptosis and the role of Akt kinase in both cell death and inflammatory regulation. PMID:23469174

  2. Akt Regulates TNFα synthesis downstream of RIP1 kinase activation during necroptosis.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Colleen R; Ahuja, Ruchita; Osafo-Addo, Awo D; Barrows, Douglas; Kettenbach, Arminja; Skidan, Igor; Teng, Xin; Cuny, Gregory D; Gerber, Scott; Degterev, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    Necroptosis is a regulated form of necrotic cell death that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases including intestinal inflammation and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). In this work, we investigated the signaling mechanisms controlled by the necroptosis mediator receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP1) kinase. We show that Akt kinase activity is critical for necroptosis in L929 cells and plays a key role in TNFα production. During necroptosis, Akt is activated in a RIP1 dependent fashion through its phosphorylation on Thr308. In L929 cells, this activation requires independent signaling inputs from both growth factors and RIP1. Akt controls necroptosis through downstream targeting of mammalian Target of Rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Akt activity, mediated in part through mTORC1, links RIP1 to JNK activation and autocrine production of TNFα. In other cell types, such as mouse lung fibroblasts and macrophages, Akt exhibited control over necroptosis-associated TNFα production without contributing to cell death. Overall, our results provide new insights into the mechanism of necroptosis and the role of Akt kinase in both cell death and inflammatory regulation.

  3. TCR-induced Akt serine 473 phosphorylation is regulated by protein kinase C-alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lifen; Qiao, Guilin; Ying, Haiyan; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Fei

    2010-09-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Conventional PKC positively regulates TCR-induced phosphorylation of Akt. {yields} PKC-alpha is the PDK-2 responsible for phosphorylating Akt at Ser{sup 473} upon TCR stimulation. {yields} Knockdown of PKC-alpha decreases TCR-induced Akt phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Akt signaling plays a central role in T cell functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis, and regulatory T cell development. Phosphorylation at Ser{sup 473} in the hydrophobic motif, along with Thr{sup 308} in its activation loop, is considered necessary for Akt function. It is widely accepted that phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK-1) phosphorylates Akt at Thr{sup 308}, but the kinase(s) responsible for phosphorylating Akt at Ser{sup 473} (PDK-2) remains elusive. The existence of PDK-2 is considered to be specific to cell type and stimulus. PDK-2 in T cells in response to TCR stimulation has not been clearly defined. In this study, we found that conventional PKC positively regulated TCR-induced Akt Ser{sup 473} phosphorylation. PKC-alpha purified from T cells can phosphorylate Akt at Ser{sup 473} in vitro upon TCR stimulation. Knockdown of PKC-alpha in T-cell-line Jurkat cells reduced TCR-induced phosphorylation of Akt as well as its downstream targets. Thus our results suggest that PKC-alpha is a candidate for PDK-2 in T cells upon TCR stimulation.

  4. Differences in kinase-mediated regulation of cell cycle progression in normal and transformed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Stevenson, A.P.; Kraemer, P.M.; Bustos, L.D.; Dickson, J.A.; Bradbury, E.M. )

    1993-01-01

    Staurosporine (Stsp), a general protein kinase inhibitor, was used to investigate the role of kinase-mediated mechanisms in regulating mammalian cell proliferation. Low levels of Stsp (1-2nM) prevented nontransformed cells from entering S phase, indicating that protein phosphorylation processes are essential for commitment of DNA replication in normal cells. Cells resumed cycling when Stsp was removed. The period of sensitivity of nontransformed human diploid fibroblasts to low levels of the drug commenced 3 h later than the G0/G1 boundary and extended through the G1/S boundary. The initial block point at 3 h corresponds neither to the serum nor the amino acid restriction point. In contrast, neither low nor high concentrations (100nm) of Stsp affected G1 progression of transformed cells. High drug concentrations blocked normal cells in G1 and G2 but affected only G2-progression in transformed cells. These results indicate that kinase-mediated regulation of DNA replication is lost as a result of neoplastic transformation, but the G2-arrest mechanism remains intact.

  5. Rassf5 and Ndr kinases regulate neuronal polarity through Par3 phosphorylation in a novel pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Kong, Eryan; Jin, Jing; Hergovich, Alexander; Püschel, Andreas W

    2014-08-15

    The morphology and polarized growth of cells depend on pathways that control the asymmetric distribution of regulatory factors. The evolutionarily conserved Ndr kinases play important roles in cell polarity and morphogenesis in yeast and invertebrates but it is unclear whether they perform a similar function in mammalian cells. Here, we analyze the function of mammalian Ndr1 and Ndr2 (also known as STK38 or STK38L, respectively) in the establishment of polarity in neurons. We show that they act downstream of the tumor suppressor Rassf5 and upstream of the polarity protein Par3 (also known as PARD3). Rassf5 and Ndr1 or Ndr2 are required during the polarization of hippocampal neurons to prevent the formation of supernumerary axons. Mechanistically, the Ndr kinases act by phosphorylating Par3 at Ser383 to inhibit its interaction with dynein, thereby polarizing the distribution of Par3 and reinforcing axon specification. Our results identify a novel Rassf5-Ndr-Par3 signaling cascade that regulates the transport of Par3 during the establishment of neuronal polarity. Their role in neuronal polarity suggests that Ndr kinases perform a conserved function as regulators of cell polarity.

  6. Changes in dynamics upon oligomerization regulate substrate binding and allostery in amino acid kinase family members.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Enrique; Crehuet, Ramon; Bahar, Ivet

    2011-09-01

    Oligomerization is a functional requirement for many proteins. The interfacial interactions and the overall packing geometry of the individual monomers are viewed as important determinants of the thermodynamic stability and allosteric regulation of oligomers. The present study focuses on the role of the interfacial interactions and overall contact topology in the dynamic features acquired in the oligomeric state. To this aim, the collective dynamics of enzymes belonging to the amino acid kinase family both in dimeric and hexameric forms are examined by means of an elastic network model, and the softest collective motions (i.e., lowest frequency or global modes of motions) favored by the overall architecture are analyzed. Notably, the lowest-frequency modes accessible to the individual subunits in the absence of multimerization are conserved to a large extent in the oligomer, suggesting that the oligomer takes advantage of the intrinsic dynamics of the individual monomers. At the same time, oligomerization stiffens the interfacial regions of the monomers and confers new cooperative modes that exploit the rigid-body translational and rotational degrees of freedom of the intact monomers. The present study sheds light on the mechanism of cooperative inhibition of hexameric N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase by arginine and on the allosteric regulation of UMP kinases. It also highlights the significance of the particular quaternary design in selectively determining the oligomer dynamics congruent with required ligand-binding and allosteric activities.

  7. Algal dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase, triacylglycerol accumulation regulator1, regulates accumulation of triacylglycerol in nitrogen or sulfur deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Masataka; Sawaragi, Yuri; Shinkawa, Haruka; Yamano, Takashi; Ando, Akira; Kato, Misako; Hirono, Masafumi; Sato, Naoki; Fukuzawa, Hideya

    2015-06-01

    Although microalgae accumulate triacylglycerol (TAG) and starch in response to nutrient-deficient conditions, the regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. We report here the identification and characterization of a kinase, triacylglycerol accumulation regulator1 (TAR1), that is a member of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Yet another kinase1 (Yak1) subfamily in the dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase family in a green alga (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii). The kinase domain of TAR1 showed auto- and transphosphorylation activities. A TAR1-defective mutant, tar1-1, accumulated TAG to levels 0.5- and 0.1-fold of those of a wild-type strain in sulfur (S)- and nitrogen (N)-deficient conditions, respectively. In N-deficient conditions, tar1-1 showed more pronounced arrest of cell division than the wild type, had increased cell size and cell dry weight, and maintained chlorophyll and photosynthetic activity, which were not observed in S-deficient conditions. In N-deficient conditions, global changes in expression levels of N deficiency-responsive genes in N assimilation and tetrapyrrole metabolism were noted between tar1-1 and wild-type cells. These results indicated that TAR1 is a regulator of TAG accumulation in S- and N-deficient conditions, and it functions in cell growth and repression of photosynthesis in conditions of N deficiency.

  8. PfIRR Interacts with HrIGF-I and Activates the MAP-kinase and PI3-kinase Signaling Pathways to Regulate Glycogen Metabolism in Pinctada fucata

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yu; He, Mao-xian

    2016-01-01

    The insulin-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways are major intracellular signaling modules and conserved among eukaryotes that are known to regulate diverse cellular processes. However, they have not been investigated in the mollusk species Pinctada fucata. Here, we demonstrate that insulin-related peptide receptor of P. fucata (pfIRR) interacts with human recombinant insulin-like growth factor I (hrIGF-I), and stimulates the MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways in P. fucata oocytes. We also show that inhibition of pfIRR by the inhibitor PQ401 significantly attenuates the basal and hrIGF-I-induced phosphorylation of MAPK and PI3K/Akt at amino acid residues threonine 308 and serine 473. Furthermore, our experiments show that there is cross-talk between the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways, in which MAPK kinase positively regulates the PI3K pathway, and PI3K positively regulates the MAPK cascade. Intramuscular injection of hrIGF-I stimulates the PI3K and MAPK pathways to increase the expression of pfirr, protein phosphatase 1, glucokinase, and the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase, decreases the mRNA expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, decreases glucose levels in hemocytes, and increases glycogen levels in digestive glands. These results suggest that the MAPK and PI3K pathways in P. fucata transmit the hrIGF-I signal to regulate glycogen metabolism. PMID:26911653

  9. Erythropoietin inhibits osmotic swelling of retinal glial cells by Janus kinase- and extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2-mediated release of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Krügel, K; Wurm, A; Linnertz, R; Pannicke, T; Wiedemann, P; Reichenbach, A; Bringmann, A

    2010-02-17

    The volume homeostasis of retinal glial cells is mediated by an autocrine purinergic mechanism of ion channel opening which is activated in response to a decrease in the extracellular osmolarity. Here, we show that erythropoietin (EPO) prevents the osmotic swelling of glial somata in retinal slices and of isolated glial cells from control and diabetic rats, with a half-maximal effect at approximately 0.01 nM. The downstream signaling evoked by EPO includes a release of vascular endothelial growth factor from the cells which was blocked by Janus kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 inhibitors. Transactivation of kinase insert domain-containing receptor/fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (KDR/flk-1) evokes a calcium-dependent, exocytotic release of glutamate, followed by activation of group I/II metabotropic glutamate receptors which results in calcium-independent release of ATP and adenosine from the cells. The final step in this cascade is the activation of adenosine A(1) receptors which results in protein kinase A- and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated opening of potassium and chloride channels. EPO receptor protein was immunohistochemically localized to the inner retina and photoreceptor inner segments. In isolated glial cells, EPO receptor protein is selectively localized to fibers which traverse the inner nuclear layer in situ. Inhibition of glial swelling might contribute to the neuroprotective action of EPO in the retina under pathological conditions.

  10. Identification and expression of a soybean nodule-enhanced PEP-carboxylase kinase gene (NE-PpcK) that shows striking up-/down-regulation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenxin; Zhou, You; Chollet, Raymond

    2003-05-01

    Various isoforms of plant phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC (Ppc)) are controlled post-translationally by an intricate interaction between allosteric regulation and reversible protein phosphorylation. In leaves and root nodules of legumes, these changes in PEPC phosphorylation state are governed primarily by PEPC-kinase (PpcK), a novel, 'minimal but functional' Ser/Thr kinase. To date, this plant-specific kinase has been investigated in molecular terms exclusively in non-leguminous plants, such as Crassulacean-acid-metabolism (CAM) species and Arabidopsis. As an important extension of our earlier biochemical studies on this dedicated kinase and PEPC phosphorylation in soybean (Glycine max) nodules, we now report the molecular cloning of the first legume PpcK from a soybean nodule cDNA library, which encodes a functional, 31.0 kDa PpcK polypeptide. Besides displaying organ, developmental, and spatial expression properties that are strikingly up-regulated in mature nodules, the expression pattern of this transcript is distinct from that of a second soybean PpcK isogene (GmPpcK). The steady-state abundance of this former, nodule-enhanced transcript (NE-PpcK) is markedly influenced by photosynthate supply from the shoots. This latter up-/down-regulation of NE-PpcK transcript level occurs in vivo in concert with the corresponding changes in the nodule PpcK activity, the phosphorylation-state of PEPC, and the abundance of a previously identified, nodule-enhanced transcript (GmPEPC7) that encodes the target enzyme (NE-Ppc). Furthermore, genomic Southern analysis and inspection of the public database indicate that there are at least three distinct PpcK and Ppc isogenes in soybean. Collectively, these and recent findings with Arabidopsis implicate the existence of multiple PpcK-Ppc'expression-partners' in plants, exemplified by NE-PpcK and NE-Ppc in the soybean nodule.

  11. H3S10 phosphorylation-mediated transcriptional regulation by Aurora kinase A.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Ryeon; Kim, Kee-Beom; Chae, Yun-Cheol; Park, Jin Woo; Seo, Sang-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Histone H3S10 phosphorylation has been known as a cell cycle-specific marker and has a role in transcriptional activation. Various kinases phosphorylate H3S10 in different species, however, the role of the mitotic serine/threonine protein kinase Aurora A (AURKA) is largely unknown. Here we present evidence that AURKA phosphorylates H3S10 and activates target gene transcription. We show that down-regulation of AURKA level during leukemia cell differentiation results in decreased H3S10 phosphorylation level. We further show that AURKA is recruited to target gene promoters and activates transcription via H3S10 phosphorylation. Furthermore, this recruitment can be disrupted by the AURKA inhibitor Alisertib and results in H3K9-me2 recruitment by G9a.

  12. MAP kinase-mediated stress relief that precedes and regulates the timing of transcriptional induction.

    PubMed

    Proft, Markus; Struhl, Kevin

    2004-08-06

    In yeast, hyperosmotic stress causes an immediate dissociation of most proteins from chromatin, presumably because cells are unprepared for, and initially unresponsive to, increased ion concentrations in the nucleus. Osmotic stress activates Hog1 MAP kinase, which phosphorylates at least two proteins located at the plasma membrane, the Nha1 Na+/H+ antiporter and the Tok1 potassium channel. Hog1 phosphorylation stimulates Nha1 activity, and this is crucial for the rapid reassociation of proteins with their target sites in chromatin. This initial response to hyperosmolarity precedes and temporally regulates the activation of stress-response genes that depends on Hog1 phosphorylation of transcription factors in the nucleus. Thus, a single MAP kinase coordinates temporally, spatially, and mechanistically distinct responses to stress, thereby providing very rapid stress relief that facilitates subsequent changes in gene expression that permit long-term adaptation to harsh environmental conditions.

  13. Polo kinase Cdc5 is a central regulator of meiosis I.

    PubMed

    Attner, Michelle A; Miller, Matthew P; Ee, Ly-sha; Elkin, Sheryl K; Amon, Angelika

    2013-08-27

    During meiosis, two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation yield four haploid gametes from one diploid cell. The Polo kinase Cdc5 is required for meiotic progression, but how Cdc5 coordinates multiple cell-cycle events during meiosis I is not understood. Here we show that CDC5-dependent phosphorylation of Rec8, a subunit of the cohesin complex that links sister chromatids, is required for efficient cohesin removal from chromosome arms, which is a prerequisite for meiosis I chromosome segregation. CDC5 also establishes conditions for centromeric cohesin removal during meiosis II by promoting the degradation of Spo13, a protein that protects centromeric cohesin during meiosis I. Despite CDC5's central role in meiosis I, the protein kinase is dispensable during meiosis II and does not even phosphorylate its meiosis I targets during the second meiotic division. We conclude that Cdc5 has evolved into a master regulator of the unique meiosis I chromosome segregation pattern.

  14. Epigenetic regulation of diacylglycerol kinase alpha promotes radiation-induced fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Christoph; Veldwijk, Marlon R.; Oakes, Christopher C.; Seibold, Petra; Slynko, Alla; Liesenfeld, David B.; Rabionet, Mariona; Hanke, Sabrina A.; Wenz, Frederik; Sperk, Elena; Benner, Axel; Rösli, Christoph; Sandhoff, Roger; Assenov, Yassen; Plass, Christoph; Herskind, Carsten; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmezer, Peter; Popanda, Odilia

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a fundamental part of cancer treatment but its use is limited by the onset of late adverse effects in the normal tissue, especially radiation-induced fibrosis. Since the molecular causes for fibrosis are largely unknown, we analyse if epigenetic regulation might explain inter-individual differences in fibrosis risk. DNA methylation profiling of dermal fibroblasts obtained from breast cancer patients prior to irradiation identifies differences associated with fibrosis. One region is characterized as a differentially methylated enhancer of diacylglycerol kinase alpha (DGKA). Decreased DNA methylation at this enhancer enables recruitment of the profibrotic transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1) and facilitates radiation-induced DGKA transcription in cells from patients later developing fibrosis. Conversely, inhibition of DGKA has pronounced effects on diacylglycerol-mediated lipid homeostasis and reduces profibrotic fibroblast activation. Collectively, DGKA is an epigenetically deregulated kinase involved in radiation response and may serve as a marker and therapeutic target for personalized radiotherapy. PMID:26964756

  15. Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase-1 regulates behavioral responses via GSK3 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, A; Latapy, C; Xu, J; Snyder, S H; Beaulieu, J-M

    2014-03-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a prominent enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism, also has a major role in brain function. It is physiologically regulated by the kinase Akt, which phosphorylates GSK3 to inhibit catalytic activity. Inositol hexakisphosphate-1 (IP6K1) generates the inositol pyrophosphate diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (IP7), which physiologically inhibits Akt leading to enhanced GSK3 activity. We report that IP6K1 binds and stimulates GSK3 enzymatic activity in a non-catalytic fashion. Physiological relevance is evident in the inhibition of GSK3 activity in the brains of IP6K1-deleted mice. Behavioral alterations of IP6K1 knockout mice resemble those of GSK3 mutants. Accordingly, modulation of IP6K1-GSK3β interaction may exert beneficial effects in psychiatric disorders involving GSK3.

  16. The Warburg Effect Mediator Pyruvate Kinase M2 Expression and Regulation in the Retina

    PubMed Central

    Rajala, Raju V. S.; Rajala, Ammaji; Kooker, Christopher; Wang, Yuhong; Anderson, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    The tumor form of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation and gives rise to the Warburg effect. The Warburg effect defines a pro-oncogenic metabolism switch such that cancer cells take up more glucose than normal tissue and favor incomplete oxidation of glucose, even in the presence of oxygen. Retinal photoreceptors are highly metabolic and their energy consumption is equivalent to that of a multiplying tumor cell. In the present study, we found that PKM2 is the predominant isoform in both rod- and cone-dominant retina, and that it undergoes a light-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation. We also discovered that PKM2 phosphorylation is signaled through photobleaching of rhodopsin. Our findings suggest that phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation promotes PKM2 phosphorylation. Light and tyrosine phosphorylation appear to regulate PKM2 to provide a metabolic advantage to photoreceptor cells, thereby promoting cell survival. PMID:27883057

  17. A kinase interacting protein (AKIP1) is a key regulator of cardiac stress

    PubMed Central

    Sastri, Mira; Haushalter, Kristofer J.; Panneerselvam, Mathivadhani; Chang, Philip; Fridolfsson, Heidi; Finley, J. Cameron; Ng, Daniel; Schilling, Jan M.; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Day, Michele E.; Hakozaki, Hiro; Petrosyan, Susanna; Koller, Antonius; King, Charles C.; Darshi, Manjula; Blumenthal, Donald K.; Ali, Sameh Saad; Roth, David M.; Patel, Hemal H.; Taylor, Susan S.

    2013-01-01

    cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulates a myriad of functions in the heart, including cardiac contractility, myocardial metabolism, and gene expression. However, a molecular integrator of the PKA response in the heart is unknown. Here, we show that the PKA adaptor A-kinase interacting protein 1 (AKIP1) is up-regulated in cardiac myocytes in response to oxidant stress. Mice with cardiac gene transfer of AKIP1 have enhanced protection to ischemic stress. We hypothesized that this adaptation to stress was mitochondrial-dependent. AKIP1 interacted with the mitochondrial localized apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) under both normal and oxidant stress. When cardiac myocytes or whole hearts are exposed to oxidant and ischemic stress, levels of both AKIP1 and AIF were enhanced. AKIP1 is preferentially localized to interfibrillary mitochondria and up-regulated in this cardiac mitochondrial subpopulation on ischemic injury. Mitochondria isolated from AKIP1 gene-transferred hearts showed increased mitochondrial localization of AKIP1, decreased reactive oxygen species generation, enhanced calcium tolerance, decreased mitochondrial cytochrome C release, and enhance phosphorylation of mitochondrial PKA substrates on ischemic stress. These observations highlight AKIP1 as a critical molecular regulator and a therapeutic control point for stress adaptation in the heart. PMID:23319652

  18. Protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase pathways regulate lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide synthase activity in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, A; Pendreigh, R H; Plevin, R

    1995-01-01

    1. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and gamma-interferon (IFN gamma) alone or in combination stimulated the induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and increased the expression of the 130 kDa isoform of NOS. 2. LPS-induced NOS activity was reduced by incubation with CD14 neutralising antibodies and abolished in macrophages deprived of serum. 3. LPS stimulated a small increase in protein kinase C (PKC) activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages which was dependent on the presence of serum. However, IFN gamma did not potentiate LPS-stimulated PKC activity. 4. The protein kinase C inhibitor, Ro-318220, abolished both LPS- and IFN gamma-stimulated protein kinase C activity and the induction of NOS activity. 5. LPS- and IFN gamma-induced NOS activity was reduced by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genestein. Genestein also reduced LPS-stimulated protein kinase C activity but did not affect the response to the protein kinase C activator, tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA). 6. Nicotinamide, an inhibitor of poly-ADP ribosylation, abolished LPS- and IFN gamma-induced NOS activity. 7. Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of a factor which stimulates nucleotide exchange activity on the 21 kDa ADP-ribosylation factor, ARF, reduced LPS- and IFN gamma-induced NOS activity by approximately 80%. 8. These results suggest the involvement of protein kinase C, tyrosine kinase and poly-ADP ribosylation pathways in the regulation of the induction of nitric oxide synthase in RAW 264.7 macrophages by LPS and IFN gamma. Images Figure 2 PMID:7533621

  19. Diacylglycerol kinase-zeta localization in skeletal muscle is regulated by phosphorylation and interaction with syntrophins.

    PubMed

    Abramovici, Hanan; Hogan, Angela B; Obagi, Christopher; Topham, Matthew K; Gee, Stephen H

    2003-11-01

    Syntrophins are scaffolding proteins that link signaling molecules to dystrophin and the cytoskeleton. We previously reported that syntrophins interact with diacylglycerol kinase-zeta (DGK-zeta), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid. Here, we show syntrophins and DGK-zeta form a complex in skeletal muscle whose translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane is regulated by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of the DGK-zeta MARCKS domain. DGK-zeta mutants that do not bind syntrophins were mislocalized, and an activated mutant of this sort induced atypical changes in the actin cytoskeleton, indicating syntrophins are important for localizing DGK-zeta and regulating its activity. Consistent with a role in actin organization, DGK-zeta and syntrophins were colocalized with filamentous (F)-actin and Rac in lamellipodia and ruffles. Moreover, extracellular signal-related kinase-dependent phosphorylation of DGK-zeta regulated its association with the cytoskeleton. In adult muscle, DGK-zeta was colocalized with syntrophins on the sarcolemma and was concentrated at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), whereas in type IIB fibers it was found exclusively at NMJs. DGK-zeta was reduced at the sarcolemma of dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse myofibers but was specifically retained at NMJs, indicating that dystrophin is important for the sarcolemmal but not synaptic localization of DGK-zeta. Together, our findings suggest syntrophins localize DGK-zeta signaling complexes at specialized domains of muscle cells, which may be critical for the proper control of lipid-signaling pathways regulating actin organization. In dystrophic muscle, mislocalized DGK-zeta may cause abnormal cytoskeletal changes that contribute to disease pathogenesis.

  20. Regulation of a Myb transcription factor by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 in Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chao-Cheng; Su, Li-Hsin; Huang, Yu-Chang; Pan, Yu-Jiao; Sun, Chin-Hung

    2012-02-03

    The protozoan Giardia lamblia parasitizes the human small intestine to cause diseases. It undergoes differentiation into infectious cysts by responding to intestinal stimulation. How the activated signal transduction pathways relate to encystation stimulation remain largely unknown. During encystation, genes encoding cyst wall proteins (CWPs) are coordinately up-regulated by a Myb2 transcription factor. Because cell differentiation is linked to cell cycle regulation, we tried to understand the role of cell cycle regulators, cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), in encystation. We found that the recombinant Myb2 was phosphorylated by Cdk-associated complexes and the levels of phosphorylation increased significantly during encystation. We have identified a putative cdk gene (cdk2) by searching the Giardia genome database. Cdk2 was found to localize in the cytoplasm with higher expression during encystation. Interestingly, overexpression of Cdk2 resulted in a significant increase of the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. In addition, the Cdk2-associated complexes can phosphorylate Myb2 and the levels of phosphorylation increased significantly during encystation. Mutations of important catalytic residues of Cdk2 resulted in a significant decrease of kinase activity and ability of inducing cyst formation. Addition of a Cdk inhibitor, purvalanol A, significantly decreased the Cdk2 kinase activity and the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Our results suggest that the Cdk2 pathway may be involved in phosphorylation of Myb2, leading to activation of the Myb2 function and up-regulation of cwp genes during encystation. The results provide insights into the use of Cdk inhibitory drugs in disruption of Giardia differentiation into cysts.

  1. MicroRNA let-7b regulates genomic balance by targeting Aurora B kinase.

    PubMed

    Mäki-Jouppila, Jenni Heidi Eveliina; Pruikkonen, Sofia; Tambe, Mahesh Balasaheb; Aure, Miriam Ragle; Halonen, Tuuli; Salmela, Anna-Leena; Laine, Leena; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Kallio, Marko Johannes

    2015-06-01

    The let-7 microRNA (miRNA) family has been implicated in the regulation of diverse cellular processes and disease pathogenesis. In cancer, loss-of-function of let-7 miRNAs has been linked to tumorigenesis via increased expression of target oncogenes. Excessive proliferation rate of tumor cells is often associated with deregulation of mitotic proteins. Here, we show that let-7b contributes to the maintenance of genomic balance via targeting Aurora B kinase, a key regulator of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Our results indicate that let-7b binds to Aurora B kinase 3'UTR reducing mRNA and protein expression of the kinase. In cells, excess let-7b induced mitotic defects characteristic to Aurora B perturbation including increased rate of polyploidy and multipolarity, and premature SAC inactivation that leads to forced exit from chemically induced mitotic arrest. Moreover, the frequency of aneuploid HCT-116 cells was significantly increased upon let-7b overexpression compared to controls. Interestingly, together with a chemical Aurora B inhibitor, let-7b had an additive effect on polyploidy induction in HeLa cells. In breast cancer patients, reduced let-7b expression was found to be associated with increased Aurora B expression in grade 3 tumors. Furthermore, let-7b was found downregulated in the most aggressive forms of breast cancer determined by clinicopathological parameters. Together, our findings suggest that let-7b contributes to the fidelity of cell division via regulation of Aurora B. Moreover, the loss of let-7b in aggressive tumors may drive tumorigenesis by up-regulation of Aurora B and other targets of the miRNA, which further supports the role of let-7b in tumor suppression.

  2. The Golgi apparatus regulates cGMP-dependent protein kinase I compartmentation and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shin; Chen, Jingsi; Cornog, Katherine H; Zhang, Huili; Roberts, Jesse D

    2015-06-01

    cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (PKGI) is an important effector of cGMP signaling that regulates vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype and proliferation. PKGI has been detected in the perinuclear region of cells, and recent data indicate that proprotein convertases (PCs) typically resident in the Golgi apparatus (GA) can stimulate PKGI proteolysis and generate a kinase fragment that localizes to the nucleus and regulates gene expression. However, the role of the endomembrane system in PKGI compartmentation and processing is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that PKGI colocalizes with endoplasmic reticulum (ER), ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, GA cisterna, and trans-Golgi network proteins in pulmonary artery SMC and cell lines. Moreover, PKGI localizes with furin, a trans-Golgi network-resident PC known to cleave PKGI. ER protein transport influences PKGI localization because overexpression of a constitutively inactive Sar1 transgene caused PKGI retention in the ER. Additionally, PKGI appears to reside within the GA because PKGI immunoreactivity was determined to be resistant to cytosolic proteinase K treatment in live cells. The GA appears to play a role in PKGI proteolysis because overexpression of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-associated cGMP kinase substrate, not only tethered heterologous PKGI-β to the ER and decreased its localization to the GA, but also diminished PKGI proteolysis and nuclear translocation. Also, inhibiting intra-GA protein transport with monensin was observed to decrease PKGI cleavage. These studies detail a role for the endomembrane system in regulating PKGI compartmentation and proteolysis. Moreover, they support the investigation of mechanisms regulating PKGI-dependent nuclear cGMP signaling in the pulmonary vasculature with Golgi dysfunction.

  3. Berberine regulates AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathways and inhibits colon tumorigenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Weidong; Hua, Baojin; Saud, Shakir M; Lin, Hongsheng; Hou, Wei; Matter, Matthias S; Jia, Libin; Colburn, Nancy H; Young, Matthew R

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer, a leading cause of cancer death, has been linked to inflammation and obesity. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes and anti-tumor properties. In the azoxymethane initiated and dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) promoted colorectal carcinogenesis mouse model, berberine treated mice showed a 60% reduction in tumor number (P = 0.009), a 48% reduction in tumors <2 mm, (P = 0.05); 94% reduction in tumors 2-4 mm, (P = 0.001), and 100% reduction in tumors >4 mm (P = 0.02) compared to vehicle treated mice. Berberine also decreased AOM/DSS induced Ki-67 and COX-2 expression. In vitro analysis showed that in addition to its anti-proliferation activity, berberine also induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines. Berberine activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a major regulator of metabolic pathways, and inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a downstream target of AMPK. Furthermore, 4E-binding protein-1 and p70 ribosomal S6 kinases, downstream targets of mTOR, were down regulated by berberine treatment. Berberine did not affect Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) activity or the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Berberine inhibited Nuclear Factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activity, reduced the expression of cyclin D1 and survivin, induced phosphorylation of p53 and increased caspase-3 cleavage in vitro. Berberine inhibition of mTOR activity and p53 phosphorylation was found to be AMPK dependent, while inhibition NF-κB was AMPK independent. In vivo, berberine also activated AMPK, inhibited mTOR and p65 phosphorylation and activated caspase-3 cleavage. Our data suggests that berberine suppresses colon epithelial proliferation and tumorigenesis via AMPK dependent inhibition of mTOR activity and AMPK independent inhibition of NF-κB.

  4. Protein kinase C -dependent regulation of synaptosomal glutamate uptake under conditions of hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Krisanova, Natalia; Borisov, Arseniy; Sivko, Roman

    Glutamate is not only the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS, but also a potent neurotoxin. Excessive concentration of ambient glutamate over activates glutamate receptors and causes neurotoxicity. Uptake of glutamate from the extracellular space into nerve cells was mediated by sodium-dependent glutamate transporters located in the plasma membrane. It was shown that the activity of glutamate transporters in rat brain nerve terminals was decreased after hypergravity (centrifugation of rats in special containers at 10 G for 1 hour). This decrease may result from the reduction in the number of glutamate transporters expressed in the plasma membrane of nerve terminals after hypergravity that was regulated by protein kinase C. The possibility of the involvement of protein kinase C in the regulation of the activity of glutamate transporters was assessed under conditions of hypergravity. The effect of protein kinase C inhibitor GF 109 203X on synaptosomal L-[14C]glutamate uptake was analysed. It was shown that the inhibitor decreased L-[14C]glutamate uptake by 15 % in control but did not influence it after hypergravity. In control, the initial velocity of L-[14C]glutamate uptake in the presence of the inhibitor decreased from 2.5 ± 0.2 nmol x min-1 x mg-1 of proteins to 2.17 ± 0.1 nmol x min-1 x mg-1 of proteins, whereas after hypergravity this value lowered from 2.05 ± 0.1 nmol x min-1 x mg-1 of proteins to 2.04 ± 0.1 nmol x min-1 x mg-1 of proteins. Thus, protein kinase C -dependent alteration in the cell surface expression of glutamate transporters may be one of the causes of a decrease in the activity of glutamate transporters after hypergravity.

  5. Calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK31 interacts with arsenic transporter AtNIP1;1 and regulates arsenite uptake in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Yang, Lei; Zheng, Qinsong; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Bin; Ge, Haiman; Yang, Yonghua; Zhao, Fugeng; Luan, Sheng; Lan, Wenzhi

    2017-01-01

    Although arsenite [As(III)] is non-essential and toxic for plants, it is effectively absorbed through various transporters into the roots. Here we identified a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK31) response for As(III) tolerance in Arabidopsis. We identified CPK31 as an interacting protein of a nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP1;1), an aquaporin involved in As(III) uptake. Similarly to the nip1;1 mutants, the loss-of-function mutants of CPK31 improved the tolerance against As(III) but not As(V), and accumulated less As(III) in roots than that of the wild-type plants. The promoter-β-glucuronidase and quantitative Real-Time PCR analysis revealed that CPK31 displayed overlapping expression profiles with NIP1;1 in the roots, suggesting that they might function together in roots. Indeed, the cpk31 nip1;1 double mutants exhibited stronger As(III) tolerance than cpk31 mutants, but similar to nip1;1 mutants, supporting the idea that CPK31 might serve as an upstream regulator of NIP1;1. Furthermore, transient CPK31 overexpression induced by dexamethasone caused the decrease in As(III) tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis lines. These findings reveal that CPK31 is a key factor in As(III) response in plants. PMID:28296918

  6. The role of focal adhesion kinase in the regulation of cellular mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The regulation of mechanical properties is necessary for cell invasion into connective tissue or intra- and extravasation through the endothelium of blood or lymph vessels. Cell invasion is important for the regulation of many healthy processes such as immune response reactions and wound healing. In addition, cell invasion plays a role in disease-related processes such as tumor metastasis and autoimmune responses. Until now the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in regulating mechanical properties of cells and its impact on cell invasion efficiency is still not well known. Thus, this review focuses on mechanical properties regulated by FAK in comparison to the mechano-regulating protein vinculin. Moreover, it points out the connection between cancer cell invasion and metastasis and FAK by showing that FAK regulates cellular mechanical properties required for cellular motility. Furthermore, it sheds light on the indirect interaction of FAK with vinculin by binding to paxillin, which then impairs the binding of paxillin to vinculin. In addition, this review emphasizes whether FAK fulfills regulatory functions similar to vinculin. In particular, it discusses the differences and the similarities between FAK and vinculin in regulating the biomechanical properties of cells. Finally, this paper highlights that both focal adhesion proteins, vinculin and FAK, synergize their functions to regulate the mechanical properties of cells such as stiffness and contractile forces. Subsequently, these mechanical properties determine cellular invasiveness into tissues and provide a source sink for future drug developments to inhibit excessive cell invasion and hence, metastases formation.

  7. Root jasmonic acid synthesis and perception regulate folivore-induced shoot metabolites and increase Nicotiana attenuata resistance.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Variluska; Rothe, Eva; Baldwin, Ian T; Kim, Sang-Gyu

    2014-06-01

    While jasmonic acid (JA) signaling is widely accepted as mediating plant resistance to herbivores, and the importance of the roots in plant defenses is recently being recognized, the role of root JA in the defense of above-ground parts remains unstudied. To restrict JA impairment to the roots, we micrografted wildtype Nicotiana attenuata shoots to the roots of transgenic plants impaired in JA signaling and evaluated ecologically relevant traits in the glasshouse and in nature. Root JA synthesis and perception are involved in regulating nicotine production in roots. Strikingly, systemic root JA regulated local leaf JA and abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations, which were associated with differences in nicotine transport from roots to leaves via the transpiration stream. Root JA signaling also regulated the accumulation of other shoot metabolites; together these account for differences in resistance against a generalist, Spodoptera littoralis, and a specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta. In N. attenuata's native habitat, silencing root JA synthesis increased the shoot damage inflicted by Empoasca leafhoppers, which are able to select natural jasmonate mutants. Silencing JA perception in roots also increased damage by Tupiocoris notatus. We conclude that attack from above-ground herbivores recruits root JA signaling to launch the full complement of plant defense responses.

  8. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis unravels the existence of crucial genes regulating primary metabolism during adventitious root formation in Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed

    Ahkami, Amirhossein; Scholz, Uwe; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Strickert, Marc; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Druege, Uwe; Reinhardt, Didier; Nouri, Eva; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-01-01

    To identify specific genes determining the initiation and formation of adventitious roots (AR), a microarray-based transcriptome analysis in the stem base of the cuttings of Petunia hybrida (line W115) was conducted. A microarray carrying 24,816 unique, non-redundant annotated sequences was hybridized to probes derived from different stages of AR formation. After exclusion of wound-responsive and root-regulated genes, 1,354 of them were identified which were significantly and specifically induced during various phases of AR formation. Based on a recent physiological model distinguishing three metabolic phases in AR formation, the present paper focuses on the response of genes related to particular metabolic pathways. Key genes involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism such as those mediating apoplastic sucrose unloading were induced at the early sink establishment phase of AR formation. Transcriptome changes also pointed to a possible role of trehalose metabolism and SnRK1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1- related protein kinase) in sugar sensing during this early step of AR formation. Symplastic sucrose unloading and nucleotide biosynthesis were the major processes induced during the later recovery and maintenance phases. Moreover, transcripts involved in peroxisomal beta-oxidation were up-regulated during different phases of AR formation. In addition to metabolic pathways, the analysis revealed the activation of cell division at the two later phases and in particular the induction of G1-specific genes in the maintenance phase. Furthermore, results point towards a specific demand for certain mineral nutrients starting in the recovery phase.

  9. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis Unravels the Existence of Crucial Genes Regulating Primary Metabolism during Adventitious Root Formation in Petunia hybrida

    PubMed Central

    Ahkami, Amirhossein; Scholz, Uwe; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Strickert, Marc; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Druege, Uwe; Reinhardt, Didier; Nouri, Eva; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-01-01

    To identify specific genes determining the initiation and formation of adventitious roots (AR), a microarray-based transcriptome analysis in the stem base of the cuttings of Petunia hybrida (line W115) was conducted. A microarray carrying 24,816 unique, non-redundant annotated sequences was hybridized to probes derived from different stages of AR formation. After exclusion of wound-responsive and root-regulated genes, 1,354 of them were identified which were significantly and specifically induced during various phases of AR formation. Based on a recent physiological model distinguishing three metabolic phases in AR formation, the present paper focuses on the response of genes related to particular metabolic pathways. Key genes involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism such as those mediating apoplastic sucrose unloading were induced at the early sink establishment phase of AR formation. Transcriptome changes also pointed to a possible role of trehalose metabolism and SnRK1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1- related protein kinase) in sugar sensing during this early step of AR formation. Symplastic sucrose unloading and nucleotide biosynthesis were the major processes induced during the later recovery and maintenance phases. Moreover, transcripts involved in peroxisomal beta-oxidation were up-regulated during different phases of AR formation. In addition to metabolic pathways, the analysis revealed the activation of cell division at the two later phases and in particular the induction of G1-specific genes in the maintenance phase. Furthermore, results point towards a specific demand for certain mineral nutrients starting in the recovery phase. PMID:24978694

  10. Gravity-regulated differential auxin transport from columella to lateral root cap cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenschlager, Iris; Wolff, Patricia; Wolverton, Chris; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.; Sandberg, Goran; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Mike; Palme, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Gravity-induced root curvature has long been considered to be regulated by differential distribution of the plant hormone auxin. However, the cells establishing these gradients, and the transport mechanisms involved, remain to be identified. Here, we describe a GFP-based auxin biosensor to monitor auxin during Arabidopsis root gravitropism at cellular resolution. We identify elevated auxin levels at the root apex in columella cells, the site of gravity perception, and an asymmetric auxin flux from these cells to the lateral root cap (LRC) and toward the elongation zone after gravistimulation. We differentiate between an efflux-dependent lateral auxin transport from columella to LRC cells, and an efflux- and influx-dependent basipetal transport from the LRC to the elongation zone. We further demonstrate that endogenous gravitropic auxin gradients develop even in the presence of an exogenous source of auxin. Live-cell auxin imaging provides unprecedented insights into gravity-regulated auxin flux at cellular resolution, and strongly suggests that this flux is a prerequisite for root gravitropism.

  11. Regulation of ascorbic acid biosynthesis and recycling during root development in carrot (Daucus carota L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Long; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Wang, Feng; Li, Meng-Yao; Tan, Guo-Fei; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-09-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA), also known as vitamin C, is an essential nutrient in fruits and vegetables. The fleshy root of carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a good source of AsA for humans. However, the metabolic pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of AsA content during root development in carrot have not been elucidated. To gain insights into the regulation of AsA accumulation and to identify the key genes involved in the AsA metabolism, we cloned and analyzed the expression of 21 related genes during carrot root development. The results indicate that AsA accumulation in the carrot root is regulated by intricate pathways, of which the l-galactose pathway may be the major pathway for AsA biosynthesis. Transcript levels of the genes encoding l-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase and l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase were strongly correlated with AsA levels during root development. Data from this research may be used to assist breeding for improved nutrition, quality, and stress tolerance in carrots.

  12. Gravity-regulated differential auxin transport from columella to lateral root cap cells

    PubMed Central

    Ottenschläger, Iris; Wolff, Patricia; Wolverton, Chris; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.; Sandberg, Göran; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Mike; Palme, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Gravity-induced root curvature has long been considered to be regulated by differential distribution of the plant hormone auxin. However, the cells establishing these gradients, and the transport mechanisms involved, remain to be identified. Here, we describe a GFP-based auxin biosensor to monitor auxin during Arabidopsis root gravitropism at cellular resolution. We identify elevated auxin levels at the root apex in columella cells, the site of gravity perception, and an asymmetric auxin flux from these cells to the lateral root cap (LRC) and toward the elongation zone after gravistimulation. We differentiate between an efflux-dependent lateral auxin transport from columella to LRC cells, and an efflux- and influx-dependent basipetal transport from the LRC to the elongation zone. We further demonstrate that endogenous gravitropic auxin gradients develop even in the presence of an exogenous source of auxin. Live-cell auxin imaging provides unprecedented insights into gravity-regulated auxin flux at cellular resolution, and strongly suggests that this flux is a prerequisite for root gravitropism. PMID:12594336

  13. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase-mediated Glycolytic Metabolic Shift in the Dorsal Root Ganglion Drives Painful Diabetic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Habibur; Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Kim, Jong-Heon; Nam, Youngpyo; Lee, Maan Gee; Go, Younghoon; Harris, Robert A; Park, Dong Ho; Kook, Hyun; Lee, In-Kyu; Suk, Kyoungho

    2016-03-11

    The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is a highly vulnerable site in diabetic neuropathy. Under diabetic conditions, the DRG is subjected to tissue ischemia or lower ambient oxygen tension that leads to aberrant metabolic functions. Metabolic dysfunctions have been documented to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diverse pain hypersensitivities. However, the contribution of diabetes-induced metabolic dysfunctions in the DRG to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy remains ill-explored. In this study, we report that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK2 and PDK4), key regulatory enzymes in glucose metabolism, mediate glycolytic metabolic shift in the DRG leading to painful diabetic neuropathy. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes substantially enhanced the expression and activity of the PDKs in the DRG, and the genetic ablation of Pdk2 and Pdk4 attenuated the hyperglycemia-induced pain hypersensitivity. Mechanistically, Pdk2/4 deficiency inhibited the diabetes-induced lactate surge, expression of pain-related ion channels, activation of satellite glial cells, and infiltration of macrophages in the DRG, in addition to reducing central sensitization and neuroinflammation hallmarks in the spinal cord, which probably accounts for the attenuated pain hypersensitivity. Pdk2/4-deficient mice were partly resistant to the diabetes-induced loss of peripheral nerve structure and function. Furthermore, in the experiments using DRG neuron cultures, lactic acid treatment enhanced the expression of the ion channels and compromised cell viability. Finally, the pharmacological inhibition of DRG PDKs or lactic acid production substantially attenuated diabetes-induced pain hypersensitivity. Taken together, PDK2/4 induction and the subsequent lactate surge induce the metabolic shift in the diabetic DRG, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy.

  14. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase-mediated Glycolytic Metabolic Shift in the Dorsal Root Ganglion Drives Painful Diabetic Neuropathy*

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Habibur; Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Kim, Jong-Heon; Nam, Youngpyo; Lee, Maan Gee; Go, Younghoon; Harris, Robert A.; Park, Dong Ho; Kook, Hyun; Lee, In-Kyu; Suk, Kyoungho

    2016-01-01

    The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is a highly vulnerable site in diabetic neuropathy. Under diabetic conditions, the DRG is subjected to tissue ischemia or lower ambient oxygen tension that leads to aberrant metabolic functions. Metabolic dysfunctions have been documented to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diverse pain hypersensitivities. However, the contribution of diabetes-induced metabolic dysfunctions in the DRG to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy remains ill-explored. In this study, we report that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK2 and PDK4), key regulatory enzymes in glucose metabolism, mediate glycolytic metabolic shift in the DRG leading to painful diabetic neuropathy. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes substantially enhanced the expression and activity of the PDKs in the DRG, and the genetic ablation of Pdk2 and Pdk4 attenuated the hyperglycemia-induced pain hypersensitivity. Mechanistically, Pdk2/4 deficiency inhibited the diabetes-induced lactate surge, expression of pain-related ion channels, activation of satellite glial cells, and infiltration of macrophages in the DRG, in addition to reducing central sensitization and neuroinflammation hallmarks in the spinal cord, which probably accounts for the attenuated pain hypersensitivity. Pdk2/4-deficient mice were partly resistant to the diabetes-induced loss of peripheral nerve structure and function. Furthermore, in the experiments using DRG neuron cultures, lactic acid treatment enhanced the expression of the ion channels and compromised cell viability. Finally, the pharmacological inhibition of DRG PDKs or lactic acid production substantially attenuated diabetes-induced pain hypersensitivity. Taken together, PDK2/4 induction and the subsequent lactate surge induce the metabolic shift in the diabetic DRG, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy. PMID:26769971

  15. The protein kinase LKB1 negatively regulates bone morphogenetic protein receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Erna; Edlund, Karolina; Kahata, Kaoru; Zieba, Agata; Morén, Anita; Watanabe, Yukihide; Voytyuk, Iryna; Botling, Johan; Söderberg, Ola; Micke, Patrick; Pyrowolakis, George; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2016-01-01

    The protein kinase LKB1 regulates cell metabolism and growth and is implicated in intestinal and lung cancer. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates cell differentiation during development and tissue homeostasis. We demonstrate that LKB1 physically interacts with BMP type I receptors and requires Smad7 to promote downregulation of the receptor. Accordingly, LKB1 suppresses BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation and affects BMP signaling in Drosophila wing longitudinal vein morphogenesis. LKB1 protein expression and Smad1 phosphorylation analysis in a cohort of non-small cell lung cancer patients demonstrated a negative correlation predominantly in a subset enriched in adenocarcinomas. Lung cancer patient data analysis indicated strong correlation between LKB1 loss-of-function mutations and high BMP2 expression, and these two events further correlated with expression of a gene subset functionally linked to apoptosis and migration. This new mechanism of BMP receptor regulation by LKB1 has ramifications in physiological organogenesis and disease. PMID:26701726

  16. The C-terminal tail of protein kinase D2 and protein kinase D3 regulates their intracellular distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Papazyan, Romeo; Rozengurt, Enrique; Rey, Osvaldo . E-mail: orey@mednet.ucla.edu

    2006-04-14

    We generated a set of GFP-tagged chimeras between protein kinase D2 (PKD2) and protein kinase D3 (PKD3) to examine in live cells the contribution of their C-terminal region to their intracellular localization. We found that the catalytic domain of PKD2 and PKD3 can localize to the nucleus when expressed without other kinase domains. However, when the C-terminal tail of PKD2 was added to its catalytic domain, the nuclear localization of the resulting protein was inhibited. In contrast, the nuclear localization of the CD of PKD3 was not inhibited by its C-terminal tail. Furthermore, the exchange of the C-terminal tail of PKD2 and PKD3 in the full-length proteins was sufficient to exchange their intracellular localization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the short C-terminal tail of these kinases plays a critical role in determining their cytoplasmic/nuclear localization.

  17. Homeodomain-Interacting Protein Kinase (HPK-1) regulates stress responses and ageing in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Berber, Slavica; Wood, Mallory; Llamosas, Estelle; Thaivalappil, Priya; Lee, Karen; Liao, Bing Mana; Chew, Yee Lian; Rhodes, Aaron; Yucel, Duygu; Crossley, Merlin; Nicholas, Hannah R

    2016-01-01

    Proteins of the Homeodomain-Interacting Protein Kinase (HIPK) family regulate an array of processes in mammalian systems, such as the DNA damage response, cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has a single HIPK homologue called HPK-1. Previous studies have implicated HPK-1 in longevity control and suggested that this protein may be regulated in a stress-dependent manner. Here we set out to expand these observations by investigating the role of HPK-1 in longevity and in the response to heat and oxidative stress. We find that levels of HPK-1 are regulated by heat stress, and that HPK-1 contributes to survival following heat or oxidative stress. Additionally, we show that HPK-1 is required for normal longevity, with loss of HPK-1 function leading to a faster decline of physiological processes that reflect premature ageing. Through microarray analysis, we have found that HPK-1-regulated genes include those encoding proteins that serve important functions in stress responses such as Phase I and Phase II detoxification enzymes. Consistent with a role in longevity assurance, HPK-1 also regulates the expression of age-regulated genes. Lastly, we show that HPK-1 functions in the same pathway as DAF-16 to regulate longevity and reveal a new role for HPK-1 in development. PMID:26791749

  18. A Potassium-Dependent Oxygen Sensing Pathway Regulates Plant Root Hydraulics.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Zaigham; Canut, Matthieu; Tournaire-Roux, Colette; Martinière, Alexandre; Boursiac, Yann; Loudet, Olivier; Maurel, Christophe

    2016-09-22

    Aerobic organisms survive low oxygen (O2) through activation of diverse molecular, metabolic, and physiological responses. In most plants, root water permeability (in other words, hydraulic conductivity, Lpr) is downregulated under O2 deficiency. Here, we used a quantitative genetics approach in Arabidopsis to clone Hydraulic Conductivity of Root 1 (HCR1), a Raf-like MAPKKK that negatively controls Lpr. HCR1 accumulates and is functional under combined O2 limitation and potassium (K(+)) sufficiency. HCR1 regulates Lpr and hypoxia responsive genes, through the control of RAP2.12, a key transcriptional regulator of the core anaerobic response. A substantial variation of HCR1 in regulating Lpr is observed at the Arabidopsis species level. Thus, by combinatorially integrating two soil signals, K(+) and O2 availability, HCR1 modulates the resilience of plants to multiple flooding scenarios.

  19. The transglutaminase type 2 and pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 interplay in autophagy regulation.

    PubMed

    Altuntas, Sara; Rossin, Federica; Marsella, Claudia; D'Eletto, Manuela; Diaz-Hidalgo, Laura; Farrace, Maria Grazia; Campanella, Michelangelo; Antonioli, Manuela; Fimia, Gian Maria; Piacentini, Mauro

    2015-12-29

    Autophagy is a self-degradative physiological process by which the cell removes worn-out or damaged components. Constant at basal level it may become highly active in response to cellular stress. The type 2 transglutaminase (TG2), which accumulates under stressful cell conditions, plays an important role in the regulation of autophagy and cells lacking this enzyme display impaired autophagy/mitophagy and a consequent shift their metabolism to glycolysis. To further define the molecular partners of TG2 involved in these cellular processes, we analysed the TG2 interactome under normal and starved conditions discovering that TG2 interacts with various proteins belonging to different functional categories. Herein we show that TG2 interacts with pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), a rate limiting enzyme of glycolysis which is responsible for maintaining a glycolytic phenotype in malignant cells and displays non metabolic functions, including transcriptional co-activation and protein kinase activity. Interestingly, the ablation of PKM2 led to the decrease of intracellular TG2's transamidating activity paralleled by an increase of its tyrosine phosphorylation. Along with this, a significant decrease of ULK1 and Beclin1 was also recorded, thus suggesting a block in the upstream regulation of autophagosome formation. These data suggest that the PKM2/TG2 interplay plays an important role in the regulation of autophagy in particular under cellular stressful conditions such as those displayed by cancer cells.

  20. Regulation of blood-testis barrier by actin binding proteins and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Tang, Elizabeth I.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2016-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis since the onset of spermatogenesis coincides with the establishment of a functional barrier in rodents and humans. It is also noted that a delay in the assembly of a functional BTB following treatment of neonatal rats with drugs such as diethylstilbestrol or adjudin also delays the first wave of spermiation. While the BTB is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers, it undergoes extensive remodeling, in particular at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle to facilitate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes connected in clones across the immunological barrier. Without this timely transport of preleptotene spermatocytes derived from type B spermatogonia, meiosis will be arrested, causing aspermatogenesis. Yet the biology and regulation of the BTB remains largely unexplored since the morphological studies in the 1970s. Recent studies, however, have shed new light on the biology of the BTB. Herein, we critically evaluate some of these findings, illustrating that the Sertoli cell BTB is regulated by actin binding proteins (ABPs), likely supported by non-receptor protein kinases, to modulate the organization of actin microfilament bundles at the site. Furthermore, microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeleton is also working in concert with the actin-based cytoskeleton to confer BTB dynamics. This timely review provides an update on the unique biology and regulation of the BTB based on the latest findings in the field, focusing on the role of ABPs and non-receptor protein kinases. PMID:26628556

  1. Inhibition of serum and glucocorticoid regulated kinase-1 as novel therapy for cardiac arrhythmia disorders.

    PubMed

    Bezzerides, Vassilios J; Zhang, Aifeng; Xiao, Ling; Simonson, Bridget; Khedkar, Santosh A; Baba, Shiro; Ottaviano, Filomena; Lynch, Stacey; Hessler, Katherine; Rigby, Alan C; Milan, David; Das, Saumya; Rosenzweig, Anthony

    2017-03-23

    Alterations in sodium flux (INa) play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias and may also contribute to the development of cardiomyopathies. We have recently demonstrated a critical role for the regulation of the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.5 in the heart by the serum and glucocorticoid regulated kinase-1 (SGK1). Activation of SGK1 in the heart causes a marked increase in both the peak and late sodium currents leading to prolongation of the action potential duration and an increased propensity to arrhythmia. Here we show that SGK1 directly regulates NaV1.5 channel function, and genetic inhibition of SGK1 in a zebrafish model of inherited long QT syndrome rescues the long QT phenotype. Using computer-aided drug discovery coupled with in vitro kinase assays, we identified a novel class of SGK1 inhibitors. Our lead SGK1 inhibitor (5377051) selectively inhibits SGK1 in cultured cardiomyocytes, and inhibits phosphorylation of an SGK1-specific target as well as proliferation in the prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP. Finally, 5377051 can reverse SGK1's effects on NaV1.5 and shorten the action potential duration in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes from a patient with a gain-of-function mutation in Nav 1.5 (Long QT3 syndrome). Our data suggests that SGK1 inhibitors warrant further investigation in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias.

  2. The transglutaminase type 2 and pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 interplay in autophagy regulation

    PubMed Central

    Altuntas, Sara; Rossin, Federica; Marsella, Claudia; D'Eletto, Manuela; Hidalgo, Laura Diaz; Farrace, Maria Grazia; Campanella, Michelangelo; Antonioli, Manuela; Fimia, Gian Maria; Piacentini, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a self-degradative physiological process by which the cell removes worn-out or damaged components. Constant at basal level it may become highly active in response to cellular stress. The type 2 transglutaminase (TG2), which accumulates under stressful cell conditions, plays an important role in the regulation of autophagy and cells lacking this enzyme display impaired autophagy/mitophagy and a consequent shift their metabolism to glycolysis. To further define the molecular partners of TG2 involved in these cellular processes, we analysed the TG2 interactome under normal and starved conditions discovering that TG2 interacts with various proteins belonging to different functional categories. Herein we show that TG2 interacts with pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), a rate limiting enzyme of glycolysis which is responsible for maintaining a glycolytic phenotype in malignant cells and displays non metabolic functions, including transcriptional co-activation and protein kinase activity. Interestingly, the ablation of PKM2 led to the decrease of intracellular TG2's transamidating activity paralleled by an increase of its tyrosine phosphorylation. Along with this, a significant decrease of ULK1 and Beclin1 was also recorded, thus suggesting a block in the upstream regulation of autophagosome formation. These data suggest that the PKM2/TG2 interplay plays an important role in the regulation of autophagy in particular under cellular stressful conditions such as those displayed by cancer cells. PMID:26702927

  3. Tyrosine phosphorylation of type Igamma phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase by Src regulates an integrin-talin switch.

    PubMed

    Ling, Kun; Doughman, Renee L; Iyer, Vidhya V; Firestone, Ari J; Bairstow, Shawn F; Mosher, Deane F; Schaller, Michael D; Anderson, Richard A

    2003-12-22

    Engagement of integrin receptors with the extracellular matrix induces the formation of focal adhesions (FAs). Dynamic regulation of FAs is necessary for cells to polarize and migrate. Key interactions between FA scaffolding and signaling proteins are dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation. However, the precise role of tyrosine phosphorylation in FA development and maturation is poorly defined. Here, we show that phosphorylation of type Igamma phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (PIPKIgamma661) on tyrosine 644 (Y644) is critical for its interaction with talin, and consequently, localization to FAs. PIPKIgamma661 is specifically phosphorylated on Y644 by Src. Phosphorylation is regulated by focal adhesion kinase, which enhances the association between PIPKIgamma661 and Src. The phosphorylation of Y644 results in an approximately 15-fold increase in binding affinity to the talin head domain and blocks beta-integrin binding to talin. This defines a novel phosphotyrosine-binding site on the talin F3 domain and a "molecular switch" for talin binding between PIPKIgamma661 and beta-integrin that may regulate dynamic FA turnover.

  4. Decoding the Interactions Regulating the Active State Mechanics of Eukaryotic Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Meharena, Hiruy S.; Fan, Xiaorui; Ahuja, Lalima G.; Keshwani, Malik M.; McClendon, Christopher L.; Chen, Angela M.; Adams, Joseph A.; Taylor, Susan S.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic protein kinases regulate most cellular functions by phosphorylating targeted protein substrates through a highly conserved catalytic core. In the active state, the catalytic core oscillates between open, intermediate, and closed conformations. Currently, the intramolecular interactions that regulate the active state mechanics are not well understood. Here, using cAMP-dependent protein kinase as a representative model coupled with biochemical, biophysical, and computational techniques, we define a set of highly conserved electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions working harmoniously to regulate these mechanics. These include the previously identified salt bridge between a lysine from the β3-strand and a glutamate from the αC-helix as well as an electrostatic interaction between the phosphorylated activation loop and αC-helix and an ensemble of hydrophobic residues of the Regulatory spine and Shell. Moreover, for over three decades it was thought that the highly conserved β3-lysine was essential for phosphoryl transfer, but our findings show that the β3-lysine is not required for phosphoryl transfer but is essential for the active state mechanics. PMID:27902690

  5. Regulation of blood-testis barrier by actin binding proteins and protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Tang, Elizabeth I; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-03-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis, since the onset of meiosis and spermiogenesis coincides with the establishment of a functional barrier in rodents and humans. It is also noted that a delay in the assembly of a functional BTB following treatment of neonatal rats with drugs such as diethylstilbestrol or adjudin also delays the first wave of spermiation. While the BTB is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers, it undergoes extensive remodeling, in particular, at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle to facilitate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes connected in clones across the immunological barrier. Without this timely transport of preleptotene spermatocytes derived from type B spermatogonia, meiosis will be arrested, causing aspermatogenesis. Yet the biology and regulation of the BTB remains largely unexplored since the morphological studies in the 1970s. Recent studies, however, have shed new light on the biology of the BTB. Herein, we critically evaluate some of these findings, illustrating that the Sertoli cell BTB is regulated by actin-binding proteins (ABPs), likely supported by non-receptor protein kinases, to modulate the organization of actin microfilament bundles at the site. Furthermore, microtubule-based cytoskeleton is also working in concert with the actin-based cytoskeleton to confer BTB dynamics. This timely review provides an update on the unique biology and regulation of the BTB based on the latest findings in the field, focusing on the role of ABPs and non-receptor protein kinases.

  6. Differential roles of the glycogen-binding domains of beta subunits in regulation of the Snf1 kinase complex.

    PubMed

    Mangat, Simmanjeet; Chandrashekarappa, Dakshayini; McCartney, Rhonda R; Elbing, Karin; Schmidt, Martin C

    2010-01-01

    Members of the AMP-activated protein kinase family, including the Snf1 kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are activated under conditions of nutrient stress. AMP-activated protein kinases are heterotrimeric complexes composed of a catalytic alpha subunit and regulatory beta and gamma subunits. In this study, the role of the beta subunits in the regulation of Snf1 activity was examined. Yeasts express three isoforms of the AMP-activated protein kinase consisting of Snf1 (alpha), Snf4 (gamma), and one of three alternative beta subunits, either Sip1, Sip2, or Gal83. The Gal83 isoform of the Snf1 complex is the most abundant and was analyzed in the greatest detail. All three beta subunits contain a conserved domain referred to as the glycogen-binding domain. The deletion of this domain from Gal83 results in a deregulation of the Snf1 kinase, as judged by a constitutive activity independent of glucose availability. In contrast, the deletion of this homologous domain from the Sip1 and Sip2 subunits had little effect on Snf1 kinase regulation. Therefore, the different Snf1 kinase isoforms are regulated through distinct mechanisms, which may contribute to their specialized roles in different stress response pathways. In addition, the beta subunits are subjected to phosphorylation. The responsible kinases were identified as being Snf1 and casein kinase II. The significance of the phosphorylation is unclear since the deletion of the region containing the phosphorylation sites in Gal83 had little effect on the regulation of Snf1 in response to glucose limitation.

  7. Differential Roles of the Glycogen-Binding Domains of β Subunits in Regulation of the Snf1 Kinase Complex▿

    PubMed Central

    Mangat, Simmanjeet; Chandrashekarappa, Dakshayini; McCartney, Rhonda R.; Elbing, Karin; Schmidt, Martin C.

    2010-01-01

    Members of the AMP-activated protein kinase family, including the Snf1 kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are activated under conditions of nutrient stress. AMP-activated protein kinases are heterotrimeric complexes composed of a catalytic α subunit and regulatory β and γ subunits. In this study, the role of the β subunits in the regulation of Snf1 activity was examined. Yeasts express three isoforms of the AMP-activated protein kinase consisting of Snf1 (α), Snf4 (γ), and one of three alternative β subunits, either Sip1, Sip2, or Gal83. The Gal83 isoform of the Snf1 complex is the most abundant and was analyzed in the greatest detail. All three β subunits contain a conserved domain referred to as the glycogen-binding domain. The deletion of this domain from Gal83 results in a deregulation of the Snf1 kinase, as judged by a constitutive activity independent of glucose availability. In contrast, the deletion of this homologous domain from the Sip1 and Sip2 subunits had little effect on Snf1 kinase regulation. Therefore, the different Snf1 kinase isoforms are regulated through distinct mechanisms, which may contribute to their specialized roles in different stress response pathways. In addition, the β subunits are subjected to phosphorylation. The responsible kinases were identified as being Snf1 and casein kinase II. The significance of the phosphorylation is unclear since the deletion of the region containing the phosphorylation sites in Gal83 had little effect on the regulation of Snf1 in response to glucose limitation. PMID:19897735

  8. Regulation of the activity of protein kinases by endogenous heat stable protein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Szmigielski, A

    1985-01-01

    Protein kinase activities are regulated by endogenous thermostable protein inhibitors. Type I inhibitor is a protein of MW 22,000-24,000 which inhibits specifically cyclic AMP-(cAMP) dependent protein kinase (APK) as a competitive inhibitor of catalytic subunits of the enzyme. Type I inhibitor activity changes inversely according to the activation of adenylate cyclase and the changes in cAMP content in tissues. It seems that type I inhibitor serves as a factor preventing spontaneous cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in unstimulated cell. The other thermostable protein which inhibits APK activity has been found in Sertoli cell-enriched testis (testis inhibitor). Physiological role of the testis inhibitor is unknown. Type II inhibitor is a protein of MW 15,000 which blocks phosphorylation mediated by cAMP and cyclic GMP (cGMP) dependent (APK and GPK) and cyclic nucleotide independent protein kinases as a competitive inhibitor of substrate proteins. Activity of this inhibitor specifically changes in reciprocal manner to the changes in cGMP content. It seems that type II inhibitor serves as a factor preventing the phosphorylation catalyzed by GPK when cGMP content is low. Stimulation of guanylate cyclase and activation of GPK is followed by a decrease of type II inhibitor activity. This change in relationship between activities of GPK and type II inhibitor allows for effective phosphorylation catalyzed by this enzyme when cGMP content is increased.

  9. Pathological Role of Serum- and Glucocorticoid-Regulated Kinase 1 in Adverse Ventricular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Das, Saumya; Aiba, Takeshi; Rosenberg, Michael; Hessler, Katherine; Xiao, Chunyang; Quintero, Pablo A.; Ottaviano, Filomena G.; Knight, Ashley C.; Graham, Evan L.; Boström, Pontus; Morissette, Michael R.; del Monte, Federica; Begley, Michael J.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Rosenzweig, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Background Heart failure is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality. Cardiac PI3-kinase signaling promotes cardiomyocyte survival and function but is paradoxically activated in heart failure, suggesting chronic activation of this pathway may become maladaptive. Here we investigated the downstream PI3-kinase effector, SGK1 (serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase-1), in heart failure and its complications. Methods and Results We found that cardiac SGK1 is activated in human and murine heart failure. We investigated the role of SGK1 in the heart using cardiac-specific expression of constitutively-active or dominant-negative SGK1. Cardiac-specific activation of SGK1 in mice increased mortality, cardiac dysfunction, and ventricular arrhythmias. The pro-arrhythmic effects of SGK1 were linked to biochemical and functional changes in the cardiac sodium channel and could be reversed by treatment with ranolazine, a blocker of the late sodium current. Conversely, cardiac-specific inhibition of SGK1 protected mice after hemodynamic stress from fibrosis, heart failure, and sodium channel alterations. Conclusions SGK1 appears both necessary and sufficient for key features of adverse ventricular remodeling and may provide a novel therapeutic target in cardiac disease. PMID:23019294

  10. Diacylglycerol kinase α regulates tubular recycling endosome biogenesis and major histocompatibility complex class I recycling.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shuwei; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2014-11-14

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) presents intracellular-derived peptides to cytotoxic T lymphocytes and its subcellular itinerary is important in regulating the immune response. While a number of diacylglycerol kinase isoforms have been implicated in clathrin-dependent internalization, MHC I lacks the typical motifs known to mediate clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Here we show that depletion of diacylglycerol kinase α (DGKα), a kinase devoid of a clathrin-dependent adaptor protein complex 2 binding site, caused a delay in MHC I recycling to the plasma membrane without affecting the rate of MHC I internalization. We demonstrate that DGKα knock-down causes accumulation of intracellular and surface MHC I, resulting from decreased degradation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that DGKα is required for the generation of phosphatidic acid required for tubular recycling endosome (TRE) biogenesis. Moreover, we show that DGKα forms a complex with the TRE hub protein, MICAL-L1. Given that MICAL-L1 and the F-BAR-containing membrane-tubulating protein Syndapin2 associate selectively with phosphatidic acid, we propose a positive feedback loop in which DGKα generates phosphatidic acid to drive its own recruitment to TRE via its interaction with MICAL-L1. Our data support a novel role for the involvement of DGKα in TRE biogenesis and MHC I recycling.

  11. The AMPK-related kinase SNARK regulates muscle mass and myocyte survival

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Sarah J.; Rivas, Donato A.; So, Kawai; Koh, Ho-Jin; Queiroz, André Lima; Hirshman, Michael F.; Fielding, Roger A.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is critical for sustaining health; however, the mechanisms responsible for muscle loss with aging and chronic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, are poorly understood. We found that expression of a member of the AMPK-related kinase family, the SNF1-AMPK-related kinase (SNARK, also known as NUAK2), increased with muscle cell differentiation. SNARK expression increased in skeletal muscles from young mice exposed to metabolic stress and in muscles from healthy older human subjects. The regulation of SNARK expression in muscle with differentiation and physiological stress suggests that SNARK may function in the maintenance of muscle mass. Consistent with this hypothesis, decreased endogenous SNARK expression (using siRNA) in cultured muscle cells resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased cell survival under conditions of metabolic stress. Likewise, muscle-specific transgenic animals expressing a SNARK dominant-negative inactive mutant (SDN) had increased myonuclear apoptosis and activation of apoptotic mediators in muscle. Moreover, animals expressing SDN had severe, age-accelerated muscle atrophy and increased adiposity, consistent with sarcopenic obesity. Reduced SNARK activity, in vivo and in vitro, caused downregulation of the Rho kinase signaling pathway, a key mediator of cell survival. These findings reveal a critical role for SNARK in myocyte survival and the maintenance of muscle mass with age. PMID:26690705

  12. Phosphorylation of the TAL1 oncoprotein by the extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase ERK1.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, J T; Cobb, M H; Baer, R

    1993-01-01

    Alteration of the TAL1 gene is the most common genetic lesion found in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. TAL1 encodes phosphoproteins, pp42TAL1 and pp22TAL1, that represent phosphorylated versions of the full-length (residues 1 to 331) and truncated (residues 176 to 331) TAL1 gene products, respectively. Both proteins contain the basic helix-loop-helix motif, a DNA-binding and protein dimerization motif common to several known transcriptional regulatory factors. We now report that serine residue 122 (S122) is a major phosphorylation site of pp42TAL1 in leukemic cell lines and transfected COS1 cells. In vivo phosphorylation of S122 is induced by epidermal growth factor with a rapid time course that parallels activation of the ERK/MAP2 protein kinases. Moreover, S122 is readily phosphorylated in vitro by the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase ERK1. These data suggest that TAL1 residue S122 serves as an in vivo substrate for ERK/MAP2 kinases such as ERK1. Therefore, S122 phosphorylation may provide a mechanism whereby the properties of TAL1 polypeptides can be modulated by extracellular stimuli. Images PMID:8423803

  13. The ROR2 tyrosine kinase receptor regulates dendritic spine morphogenesis in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Iván E; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-07-01

    Wnt signaling regulates synaptic development and function and contributes to the fine-tuning of the molecular and morphological differentiation of synapses. We have shown previously that Wnt5a activates non-canonical Wnt signaling to stimulate postsynaptic differentiation in excitatory hippocampal neurons promoting the clustering of the postsynaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 and the development of dendritic spines. At least three different kinds of Wnt receptors have been associated with Wnt5a signaling: seven trans-membrane Frizzled receptors and the tyrosine kinase receptors Ryk and ROR2. We report here that ROR2 is distributed in the dendrites of hippocampal neurons in close proximity to synaptic contacts and it is contained in dendritic spine protrusions. We demonstrate that ROR2 is necessary to maintain dendritic spine number and morphological distribution in cultured hippocampal neurons. ROR2 overexpression increased dendritic spine growth without affecting the density of dendritic spine protrusions in a form dependent on its extracellular Wnt binding cysteine rich domain (CRD) and kinase domain. Overexpression of dominant negative ROR2 lacking the extracellular CRD decreased spine density and the proportion of mushroom like spines, while ROR2 lacking the C-terminal and active kinase domains only affected spine morphology. Our results indicate a crucial role of the ROR2 in the formation and maturation of the postsynaptic dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons.

  14. Biglycan- and Sphingosine Kinase-1 Signaling Crosstalk Regulates the Synthesis of Macrophage Chemoattractants

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Louise Tzung-Harn; Nastase, Madalina-Viviana; Roedig, Heiko; Zeng-Brouwers, Jinyang; Poluzzi, Chiara; Schwalm, Stephanie; Fork, Christian; Tredup, Claudia; Brandes, Ralf P.; Wygrecka, Malgorzata; Huwiler, Andrea; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Schaefer, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    In its soluble form, the extracellular matrix proteoglycan biglycan triggers the synthesis of the macrophage chemoattractants, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand CCL2 and CCL5 through selective utilization of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their adaptor molecules. However, the respective downstream signaling events resulting in biglycan-induced CCL2 and CCL5 production have not yet been defined. Here, we show that biglycan stimulates the production and activation of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) in a TLR4- and Toll/interleukin (IL)-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon (IFN)-β (TRIF)-dependent manner in murine primary macrophages. We provide genetic and pharmacological proof that SphK1 is a crucial downstream mediator of biglycan-triggered CCL2 and CCL5 mRNA and protein expression. This is selectively driven by biglycan/SphK1-dependent phosphorylation of the nuclear factor NF-κB p65 subunit, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Importantly, in vivo overexpression of soluble biglycan causes Sphk1-dependent enhancement of renal CCL2 and CCL5 and macrophage recruitment into the kidney. Our findings describe the crosstalk between biglycan- and SphK1-driven extracellular matrix- and lipid-signaling. Thus, SphK1 may represent a new target for therapeutic intervention in biglycan-evoked inflammatory conditions. PMID:28282921

  15. Neuroprotection of brain-derived neurotrophic factor against hypoxic injury in vitro requires activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaomei; Zhou, Hui; Luo, Xiaoli; Li, Shengfu; Yu, Dan; Hua, Jiping; Mu, Dezhi; Mao, Meng

    2008-01-01

    Intrauterine asphyxia is one of the major contributors for perinatal death, mental and physical disorders of surviving children. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) provides a promising solution to hypoxic injury due to its survival-promoting effects. In an attempt to identify possible molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective role of BDNF, we studied extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3-K) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. We demonstrated that BDNF protected cortical neurons against hypoxic injury in vitro via activation of both the ERK and PI-3-K pathways but not the p38 MAPK pathway. We also showed that both hypoxic stimuli and exogenous BDNF treatment phosphorylated the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and that CREB phosphorylation induced by BDNF was mediated via the ERK pathway in cultured cortical neurons.

  16. Modulation of Kv3.4 channel N-type inactivation by protein kinase C shapes the action potential in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Ritter, David M; Ho, Cojen; O'Leary, Michael E; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Fast inactivation of heterologously expressed Kv3.4 channels is dramatically slowed upon phosphorylation of the channel's N-terminal (N-type) inactivation gate by protein kinase C (PKC). However, the presence and physiological importance of this exquisite modulation in excitable tissues were unknown. Here, we employed minimally invasive cell-attached patch-clamping, single-cell qPCR and specific siRNAs to unambiguously demonstrate that fast-inactivating Kv3.4 channels underlie a robust high voltage-activated A-type K(+) current (I(AHV)) in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons from 7-day-old rats. We also show that PKC activation with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) causes a 4-fold slowing of Kv3.4 channel inactivation and, consequently, accelerates the repolarization of the action potential (AP) by 22%, which shortens the AP duration by 14%. G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists eliminate I(AHV) fast inactivation in a membrane-delimited manner, suggesting a Kv3.4 channel signalling complex. Preincubation of the neurons with the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide II inhibits the effect of GPCR agonists and PDBu. Furthermore, activation of PKC via GPCR agonists recapitulates the effects of PDBu on the AP. Finally, transfection of the neurons with Kv3.4 siRNA prolongs the AP by 25% and abolishes the GPCR agonist-induced acceleration of the AP repolarization. These results show that Kv3.4 channels help shape the repolarization of the nociceptor AP, and that modulation of Kv3.4 channel N-type inactivation by PKC regulates AP repolarization and duration. We propose that the dramatic modulation of I(AHV) fast inactivation by PKC represents a novel mechanism of neural plasticity with potentially significant implications in the transition from acute to chronic pain.

  17. Calcium-regulated in vivo protein phosphorylation in Zea mays L. root tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghothama, K. G.; Reddy, A. S.; Friedmann, M.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1987-01-01

    Calcium dependent protein phosphorylation was studied in corn (Zea mays L.) root tips. Prior to in vivo protein phosphorylation experiments, the effect of calcium, ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N-N' -tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and calcium ionophore (A-23187) on phosphorus uptake was studied. Calcium increased phosphorus uptake, whereas EGTA and A-23187 decreased it. Consequently, phosphorus concentration in the media was adjusted so as to attain similar uptake in different treatments. Phosphoproteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Distinct changes in phosphorylation were observed following altered calcium levels. Calcium depletion in root tips with EGTA and A-23187 decreased protein phosphorylation. However, replenishment of calcium following EGTA and ionophore pretreatment enhanced phosphorylation of proteins. Preloading of the root tips with 32P in the presence of EGTA and A-23187 followed by a ten minute calcium treatment, resulted in increased phosphorylation indicating the involvement of calcium, calcium and calmodulin-dependent kinases. Calmodulin antagonist W-7 was effective in inhibiting calcium-promoted phosphorylation. These studies suggest a physiological role for calcium-dependent phosphorylation in calcium-mediated processes in plants.

  18. Cytokinins negatively regulate the root iron uptake machinery in Arabidopsis through a growth-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Séguéla, Mathilde; Briat, Jean-François; Vert, Grégory; Curie, Catherine

    2008-07-01

    Plants display a number of biochemical and developmental responses to low iron availability in order to increase iron uptake from the soil. The ferric-chelate reductase FRO2 and the ferrous iron transporter IRT1 control iron entry from the soil into the root epidermis. In Arabidopsis, expression of IRT1 and FRO2 is tightly controlled to maintain iron homeostasis, and involves local and long-distance signals, as well as transcriptional and post-transcriptional events. FIT encodes a putative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that regulates iron uptake responses in Arabidopsis. Here, we uncover a new regulation of the root iron uptake genes. We show that IRT1, FRO2 and FIT are repressed by the exogenous addition of cytokinins (CKs), and that this repression acts at the level of transcript accumulation, and depends on the AHK3 and CRE1 CK receptors. The CKs and iron-deficiency signals act through distinct pathways to regulate the soil iron uptake genes, as (i) CK repression is independent of the iron status, (ii) IRT1 and FRO2 downregulation is unchanged in a fit loss-of-function mutant, indicating that FIT does not mediate CK repression, and (iii) the iron-regulated genes AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4 are not downregulated by CKs. We show that root growth-inhibitory conditions, such as abiotic stresses (mannitol, NaCl) and hormonal treatments (auxin, abscissic acid), repress the iron starvation response genes. We propose that CKs control the root iron uptake machinery through a root growth dependent pathway in order to adapt nutrient uptake to the demand of the plant.

  19. AtrbohD and AtrbohF positively regulate abscisic acid-inhibited primary root growth by affecting Ca2+ signalling and auxin response of roots in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yiheng; Sun, Lirong; Song, Yalin; Wang, Limin; Liu, Liping; Zhang, Liyue; Liu, Bo; Li, Ning; Miao, Chen; Hao, Fushun

    2013-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) originating from the NADPH oxidases AtrbohD and AtrbohF play an important role in abscisic acid (ABA)-inhibited primary root growth in Arabidopsis. However, the mechanisms underlying this process remain elusive. In this study, the double mutant atrbohD1/F1 and atrbohD2/F2, in which both AtrbohD and AtrbohF were disrupted, were less sensitive to ABA suppression of root cell elongation than wild-type (WT) plants. Furthermore, the double mutants showed impaired ABA responses in roots, including ROS generation, cytosolic Ca(2+) increases, and activation of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-permeable channels compared with WT. Exogenous H2O2 can activate the Ca(2+) currents in roots of atrbohD1/F1. In addition, exogenous application of the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid effectively promoted ABA inhibition of root growth of the mutants relative to that of WT. The ABA-induced decreases in auxin sensitivity of the root tips were more pronounced in WT than in atrbohD1/F1. These findings suggest that both AtrbohD and AtrbohF are essential for ABA-promoted ROS production in roots. ROS activate Ca(2+) signalling and reduce auxin sensitivity of roots, thus positively regulating ABA-inhibited primary root growth in Arabidopsis.

  20. AtMYB93 is an endodermis-specific transcriptional regulator of lateral root development in arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Daniel J; Coates, Juliet C

    2014-01-01

    Plant root systems are critical for survival, acting as the primary interface for nutrient and water acquisition, as well as anchoring the plant to the ground. As plants grow, their root systems become more elaborate, which is largely mediated by the formation of root branches, or lateral roots. Lateral roots initiate deep within the root in the pericycle cell layer, and their development is controlled by a wide range of internal signaling factors and environmental cues, as well as mechanical feedback from the surrounding cells. The endodermal cell layer, which overlies the pericycle, has emerged as an important tissue regulating LR initiation and formation. We recently identified the AtMYB93 transcription factor as a negative regulator of lateral root development in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, AtMYB93 expression is highly restricted to the few endodermal cells overlying developing lateral root primordia, suggesting that this transcriptional regulator might play a key role in mediating the effect of the endodermis on lateral root development. Here we discuss our recent findings in the wider context of root system development - with a particular focus on the role of the endodermis - and propose several potential models to explain AtMYB93 function during lateral root organogenesis.

  1. Extracellular signal regulated kinase 5 mediates signals triggered by the novel tumor promoter palytoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Charlson, Aaron T.; Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2009-12-01

    Palytoxin is classified as a non-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-type skin tumor because it does not bind to or activate protein kinase C. Palytoxin is thus a novel tool for investigating alternative signaling pathways that may affect carcinogenesis. We previously showed that palytoxin activates three major members of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, extracellular signal regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. Here we report that palytoxin also activates another MAPK family member, called ERK5, in HeLa cells and in keratinocytes derived from initiated mouse skin (308 cells). By contrast, TPA does not activate ERK5 in these cell lines. The major cell surface receptor for palytoxin is the Na+,K+-ATPase. Accordingly, ouabain blocked the ability of palytoxin to activate ERK5. Ouabain alone did not activate ERK5. ERK5 thus represents a divergence in the signaling pathways activated by these two agents that bind to the Na+,K+-ATPase. Cycloheximide, okadaic acid, and sodium orthovanadate did not mimic the effect of palytoxin on ERK5. These results indicate that the stimulation of ERK5 by palytoxin is not simply due to inhibition of protein synthesis or inhibition of serine/threonine or tyrosine phosphatases. Therefore, the mechanism by which palytoxin activates ERK5 differs from that by which it activates ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Finally, studies that used pharmacological inhibitors and shRNA to block ERK5 action indicate that ERK5 contributes to palytoxin-stimulated c-Fos gene expression. These results suggest that ERK5 can act as an alternative mediator for transmitting diverse tumor promoter-stimulated signals.

  2. Zinc differentially regulates mitogen-activated protein kinases in human T cells.

    PubMed

    Hönscheid, Andrea; Dubben, Svenja; Rink, Lothar; Haase, Hajo

    2012-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient with remarkable importance for immunity, in particular for T-cell function. This is, at least in part, based on an involvement of zinc ions in immune cell signal transduction; dynamic changes of the intracellular free zinc concentration have recently been recognized as signaling events. Because the molecular targets of zinc signals remain incompletely understood, we investigated the impact of elevated intracellular free zinc on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity and MAPK-dependent cytokine production in human T-cells. p38 was activated by treatment with zinc and the ionophore pyrithione, whereas ERK1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases were unaffected. In contrast, after T-cell receptor stimulation with antibodies against CD3, ERK1/2-phosphorylation was selectively suppressed by intracellular zinc. Mechanisms that had been shown to mediate zinc-effects in other cells, such as activation of the Src kinase Lck, inhibition of the protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45 or MAPK phosphatases and cyclic nucleotide/protein kinase A signaling were not involved. This indicates that the differential impact of zinc on the MAPK families in T-cells is mediated by mechanisms that differ from the ones observed in other cell types. Further investigation of the activation of p38 by zinc demonstrated that this MAPK is responsible for the zinc-mediated activation of CREB and mRNA expression of the Th1 cytokines interferon-gamma and interleukin-2. In conclusion, regulation of MAPK activity contributes to the impact of zinc on T-cell function.

  3. Multiple kinase pathways regulate voltage-dependent Ca++ influx and migration in oligodendrocyte precursor cells

    PubMed Central

    Paez, PM; Fulton, DJ; Spreur, V; Handley, V; Campagnoni, AT

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that voltage-operated Ca++ channels (VOCCs) play a fundamental role in the development of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Since direct phosphorylation by different kinases is one of the most important mechanisms involved in VOCC modulation, the aim of this study was to evaluate the participation of serine-threonine (Ser/Thr) kinases and tyrosine kinases (TK) on Ca++ influx mediated by VOCCs in OPCs. Calcium imaging revealed that OPCs exhibited Ca++ influx following plasma membrane depolarization via L-type VOCCs. Furthermore, VOCC-mediated Ca++ influx declined with OPC differentiation, indicating that VOCCs are developmentally regulated in OPCs. PKC activation significantly increased VOCC activity in OPCs, while PKA activation produced the opposite effect. The results also indicated that OPC morphological changes induced by PKC activation were partially mediated by VOCCs. Our data clearly suggest that TKs exert an activating influence on VOCC function in OPCs. Furthermore, using the PDGF response as a model to probe the role of TK receptors (TKr) on OPCs Ca++ uptake, we found that TKr activation potentiated Ca++ influx after membrane depolarization. Interestingly, this TKr modulation of VOCCs appeared to be essential for the PDGF enhancement of OPC migration rate, since cell motility was completely blocked by TKr antagonists, as well as VOCC inhibitors, in migration assays. The present study strongly demonstrates that PKC and TKrs enhance Ca++ influx induced by depolarization in OPCs, while PKA has an inhibitory effect. These kinases modulate voltage-operated Ca++ uptake in OPCs and participate in the modulation of process extension and migration. PMID:20445068

  4. Src and FAK kinases cooperate to phosphorylate paxillin kinase linker, stimulate its focal adhesion localization, and regulate cell spreading and protrusiveness.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael C; Cary, Leslie A; Jamieson, Jennifer S; Cooper, Jonathan A; Turner, Christopher E

    2005-09-01

    The ArfGAP paxillin kinase linker (PKL)/G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein (GIT)2 has been implicated in regulating cell spreading and motility through its transient recruitment of the p21-activated kinase (PAK) to focal adhesions. The Nck-PAK-PIX-PKL protein complex is recruited to focal adhesions by paxillin upon integrin engagement and Rac activation. In this report, we identify tyrosine-phosphorylated PKL as a protein that associates with the SH3-SH2 adaptor Nck, in a Src-dependent manner, after cell adhesion to fibronectin. Both cell adhesion and Rac activation stimulated PKL tyrosine phosphorylation. PKL is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues 286/392/592 by Src and/or FAK and these sites are required for PKL localization to focal adhesions and for paxillin binding. The absence of either FAK or Src-family kinases prevents PKL phosphorylation and suppresses localization of PKL but not GIT1 to focal adhesions after Rac activation. Expression of an activated FAK mutant in the absence of Src-family kinases partially restores PKL localization, suggesting that Src activation of FAK is required for PKL phosphorylation and localization. Overexpression of the nonphosphorylated GFP-PKL Triple YF mutant stimulates cell spreading and protrusiveness, similar to overexpression of a paxillin mutant that does not bind PKL, suggesting that failure to recruit PKL to focal adhesions interferes with normal cell spreading and motility.

  5. Structure, function, and evolution of plant NIMA-related kinases: implication for phosphorylation-dependent microtubule regulation.

    PubMed

    Takatani, Shogo; Otani, Kento; Kanazawa, Mai; Takahashi, Taku; Motose, Hiroyasu

    2015-11-01

    Microtubules are highly dynamic structures that control the spatiotemporal pattern of cell growth and division. Microtubule dynamics are regulated by reversible protein phosphorylation involving both protein kinases and phosphatases. Never in mitosis A (NIMA)-related kinases (NEKs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases that regulate microtubule-related mitotic events in fungi and animal cells (e.g. centrosome separation and spindle formation). Although plants contain multiple members of the NEK family, their functions remain elusive. Recent studies revealed that NEK6 of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates cell expansion and morphogenesis through β-tubulin phosphorylation and microtubule destabilization. In addition, plant NEK members participate in organ development and stress responses. The present phylogenetic analysis indicates that plant NEK genes are diverged from a single NEK6-like gene, which may share a common ancestor with other kinases involved in the control of microtubule organization. On the contrary, another mitotic kinase, polo-like kinase, might have been lost during the evolution of land plants. We propose that plant NEK members have acquired novel functions to regulate cell growth, microtubule organization, and stress responses.

  6. The Histidine Kinase BinK Is a Negative Regulator of Biofilm Formation and Squid Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, John F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial colonization of animal epithelial tissue is a dynamic process that relies on precise molecular communication. Colonization of Euprymna scolopes bobtail squid by Vibrio fischeri bacteria requires bacterial aggregation in host mucus as the symbiont transitions from a planktonic lifestyle in seawater to a biofilm-associated state in the host. We have identified a gene, binK (biofilm inhibitor kinase; VF_A0360), which encodes an orphan hybrid histidine kinase that negatively regulates the V. fischeri symbiotic biofilm (Syp) in vivo and in vitro. We identified binK mutants as exhibiting a colonization advantage in a global genetic screen, a phenotype that we confirmed in controlled competition experiments. Bacterial biofilm aggregates in the host are larger in strains lacking BinK, whereas overexpression of BinK suppresses biofilm formation and squid colonization. Signaling through BinK is required for temperature modulation of biofilm formation at 28°C. Furthermore, we present evidence that BinK acts upstream of SypG, the σ54-dependent transcriptional regulator of the syp biofilm locus. The BinK effects are dependent on intact signaling in the RscS-Syp biofilm pathway. Therefore, we propose that BinK antagonizes the signal from RscS and serves as an integral component in V. fischeri biofilm regulation. IMPORTANCE Bacterial lifestyle transitions underlie the colonization of animal hosts from environmental reservoirs. Formation of matrix-enclosed, surface-associated aggregates (biofilms) is common in beneficial and pathogenic associations, but investigating the genetic basis of biofilm development in live animal hosts remains a significant challenge. Using the bobtail squid light organ as a model, we analyzed putative colonization factors and identified a histidine kinase that negatively regulates biofilm formation at the host interface. This work reveals a novel in vivo biofilm regulator that influences the transition of bacteria from their

  7. Protein kinase B/Akt1 inhibits autophagy by down-regulating UVRAG expression

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wonseok; Ju, Ji-hyun; Lee, Kyung-min; Nam, KeeSoo; Oh, Sunhwa; Shin, Incheol

    2013-02-01

    Autophagy, or autophagocytosis, is a selective intracellular degradative process involving the cell's own lysosomal apparatus. An essential component in cell development, homeostasis, repair and resistance to stress, autophagy may result in either cell death or survival. The targeted region of the cell is sequestered within a membrane structure, the autophagosome, for regulation of the catabolic process. A key factor in both autophagosome formation and autophagosome maturation is a protein encoded by the ultraviolet irradiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG). Conversely, the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt), which regulates survival in various cancers, inhibits autophagy through mTOR activation. We found that Akt1 may also directly inhibit autophagy by down-regulating UVRAG both in a 293T transient transfection system and breast cancer cells stably expressing Akt1. The UVRAG with mutations at putative Akt1-phosphorylation sites were still inhibited by Akt1, and dominant-negative Akt1 also inhibited UVRAG expression, suggesting that Akt1 down-regulates UVRAG by a kinase activity-independent mechanism. We showed that Akt1 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells down-regulated UVRAG transcription. Cells over-expressing Akt1 were more resistant than control cells to ultraviolet light-induced autophagy and exhibited the associated reduction in cell viability. Levels of the autophagosome indicator protein LC3B-II and mRFP-GFP-LC3 were reduced in cells that over-expressing Akt1. Inhibiting Akt1 by siRNA or reintroducing UVRAG gene rescued the level of LC3B-II in UV-irradiation. Altogether, these data suggest that Akt1 may inhibit autophagy by decreasing UVRAG expression, which also sensitizes cancer cells to UV irradiation.

  8. Regulation of sialidase production in Clostridium perfringens by the orphan sensor histidine kinase ReeS.

    PubMed

    Hiscox, Thomas J; Harrison, Paul F; Chakravorty, Anjana; Choo, Jocelyn M; Ohtani, Kaori; Shimizu, Tohru; Cheung, Jackie K; Rood, Julian I

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is ubiquitous in nature and is often found as a commensal of the human and animal gastrointestinal tract. It is the primary etiological agent of clostridial myonecrosis, or gas gangrene, a serious infection that results in extensive tissue necrosis due to the action of one or more potent extracellular toxins. α-toxin and perfringolysin O are the major extracellular toxins involved in the pathogenesis of gas gangrene, but histotoxic strains of C. perfringens, such as strain 13, also produce many degradative enzymes such as collagenases, hyaluronidases, sialidases and the cysteine protease, α-clostripain. The production of many of these toxins is regulated either directly or indirectly by the global VirSR two-component signal transduction system. By isolating a chromosomal mutant and carrying out microarray analysis we have identified an orphan sensor histidine kinase, which we have named ReeS (regulator of extracellular enzymes sensor). Expression of the sialidase genes nanI and nanJ was down-regulated in a reeS mutant. Since complementation with the wild-type reeS gene restored nanI and nanJ expression to wild-type levels, as shown by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and sialidase assays we concluded that ReeS positively regulates the expression of these sialidase genes. However, mutation of the reeS gene had no significant effect on virulence in the mouse myonecrosis model. Sialidase production in C. perfringens has been previously shown to be regulated by both the VirSR system and RevR. In this report, we have analyzed a previously unknown sensor histidine kinase, ReeS, and have shown that it also is involved in controlling the expression of sialidase genes, adding further complexity to the regulatory network that controls sialidase production in C. perfringens.

  9. Regulation of Sialidase Production in Clostridium perfringens by the Orphan Sensor Histidine Kinase ReeS

    PubMed Central

    Hiscox, Thomas J.; Harrison, Paul F.; Chakravorty, Anjana; Choo, Jocelyn M.; Ohtani, Kaori; Shimizu, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is ubiquitous in nature and is often found as a commensal of the human and animal gastrointestinal tract. It is the primary etiological agent of clostridial myonecrosis, or gas gangrene, a serious infection that results in extensive tissue necrosis due to the action of one or more potent extracellular toxins. α-toxin and perfringolysin O are the major extracellular toxins involved in the pathogenesis of gas gangrene, but histotoxic strains of C. perfringens, such as strain 13, also produce many degradative enzymes such as collagenases, hyaluronidases, sialidases and the cysteine protease, α-clostripain. The production of many of these toxins is regulated either directly or indirectly by the global VirSR two-component signal transduction system. By isolating a chromosomal mutant and carrying out microarray analysis we have identified an orphan sensor histidine kinase, which we have named ReeS (regulator of extracellular enzymes sensor). Expression of the sialidase genes nanI and nanJ was down-regulated in a reeS mutant. Since complementation with the wild-type reeS gene restored nanI and nanJ expression to wild-type levels, as shown by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and sialidase assays we concluded that ReeS positively regulates the expression of these sialidase genes. However, mutation of the reeS gene had no significant effect on virulence in the mouse myonecrosis model. Sialidase production in C. perfringens has been previously shown to be regulated by both the VirSR system and RevR. In this report, we have analyzed a previously unknown sensor histidine kinase, ReeS, and have shown that it also is involved in controlling the expression of sialidase genes, adding further complexity to the regulatory network that controls sialidase production in C. perfringens. PMID:24023881

  10. Research progress of the role and mechanism of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5) pathway in pathological pain*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li-na; Sun, Li-hong; Wang, Min; Yan, Min

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5), also known as big mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), is an important member of ERK family, which is a subfamily of the large MAPK family. ERK5 is expressed in many tissues, including the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and the spinal cord. In this review, we focus on elaborating ERK5-associated pathway in pathological pain, in which the ERK5/CREB (cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-response element-binding protein) pathway plays a crucial role in the transduction of pain signal and contributes to pain hypersensitivity. ERK5 activation in the spinal dorsal horn occurs mainly in microglia. The activation of ERK5 can be mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. We also elaborate the relationship between ERK5 activation and nerve growth factor-tyrosine kinase A (NGF-TrkA), and the connection between ERK5 activation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in pathological pain in detail. PMID:27704743

  11. Modulation of Brahma expression by the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase pathway is associated with changes in melanoma proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Aanchal; Saladi, Srinivas Vinod; Trivedi, Archit R; Aras, Shweta; Qi, Huiling; Jayanthy, Ashika; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi; de la Serna, Ivana L

    2014-12-01

    Brahma (BRM) and Brahma-related gene 1(BRG1) are catalytic subunits of SWItch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes. BRM is epigenetically silenced in a wide-range of tumors. Mutations in the v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) gene occur frequently in melanoma and lead to constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway. We tested the hypothesis that BRM expression is modulated by oncogenic BRAF and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in melanocytes and melanoma cells. Expression of oncogenic BRAF in melanocytes and melanoma cells that are wild-type for BRAF decreased BRM expression and increased BRG1 expression. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) or selective inhibition of BRAF in melanoma cells that harbor oncogenic BRAF increased BRM expression and decreased BRG1 expression. Increased BRM expression was associated with increased histone acetylation on the BRM promoter. Over-expression of BRM in melanoma cells that harbor oncogenic BRAF promoted changes in cell cycle progression and apoptosis consistent with a tumor suppressive role. Upon inhibition of BRAF(V600E) with PLX4032, BRM promoted survival. PLX4032 induced changes in BRM function were correlated with increased acetylation of the BRM protein. This study provides insights into the epigenetic consequences of inhibiting oncogenic BRAF in melanoma through modulation of SWI/SNF subunit expression and function.

  12. Identifying a Kinase Network Regulating FGF14:Nav1.6 Complex Assembly Using Split-Luciferase Complementation

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wei-Chun; Nenov, Miroslav N.; Shavkunov, Alexander; Panova, Neli; Zhan, Ming; Laezza, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Kinases play fundamental roles in the brain. Through complex signaling pathways, kinases regulate the strength of protein:protein interactions (PPI) influencing cell cycle, signal transduction, and electrical activity of neurons. Changes induced by kinases on neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity and brain connectivity are linked to complex brain disorders, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these cellular events remain for the most part elusive. To further our understanding of brain disease, new methods for rapidly surveying kinase pathways in the cellular context are needed. The bioluminescence-based luciferase complementation assay (LCA) is a powerful, versatile toolkit for the exploration of PPI. LCA relies on the complementation of two firefly luciferase protein fragments that are functionally reconstituted into the full luciferase enzyme by two interacting binding partners. Here, we applied LCA in live cells to assay 12 kinase pathways as regulators of the PPI complex formed by the voltage-gated sodium channel, Nav1.6, a transmembrane ion channel that elicits the action potential in neurons and mediates synaptic transmission, and its multivalent accessory protein, the fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14). Through extensive dose-dependent validations of structurally-diverse kinase inhibitors and hierarchical clustering, we identified the PI3K/Akt pathway, the cell-cycle regulator Wee1 kinase, and protein kinase C (PKC) as prospective regulatory nodes of neuronal excitability through modulation of the FGF14:Nav1.6 complex. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis shows convergence of these pathways on glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and functional assays demonstrate that inhibition of GSK3 impairs excitability of hippocampal neurons. This combined approach provides a versatile toolkit for rapidly surveying PPI signaling, allowing the discovery of new modular pathways centered on GSK3 that might be the basis for functional alterations between the normal and

  13. Transcriptional profiling of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) roots indicates down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis and up-regulation of starch biosynthesis at an early stage of storage root formation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The number of fibrous roots that develop into storage roots determines sweetpotato yield. The aim of the present study was to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the initiation of storage root formation, by performing a detailed transcriptomic analysis of initiating storage roots using next-generation sequencing platforms. A two-step approach was undertaken: (1) generating a database for the sweetpotato root transcriptome using 454-Roche sequencing of a cDNA library created from pooled samples of two root types: fibrous and initiating storage roots; (2) comparing the expression profiles of initiating storage roots and fibrous roots, using the Illumina Genome Analyzer to sequence cDNA libraries of the two root types and map the data onto the root transcriptome database. Results Use of the 454-Roche platform generated a total of 524,607 reads, 85.6% of which were clustered into 55,296 contigs that matched 40,278 known genes. The reads, generated by the Illumina Genome Analyzer, were found to map to 31,284 contigs out of the 55,296 contigs serving as the database. A total of 8,353 contigs were found to exhibit differential expression between the two root types (at least 2.5-fold change). The Illumina-based differential expression results were validated for nine putative genes using quantitative real-time PCR. The differential expression profiles indicated down-regulation of classical root functions, such as transport, as well as down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis in initiating storage roots, and up-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and starch biosynthesis. In addition, data indicated delicate control of regulators of meristematic tissue identity and maintenance, associated with the initiation of storage root formation. Conclusions This study adds a valuable resource of sweetpotato root transcript sequences to available data, facilitating the identification of genes of interest. This resource enabled us to identify genes that are involved

  14. Abscisic acid- and stress-induced highly proline-rich glycoproteins regulate root growth in rice.

    PubMed

    Tseng, I-Chieh; Hong, Chwan-Yang; Yu, Su-May; Ho, Tuan-Hua David

    2013-09-01

    In the root of rice (Oryza sativa), abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, salinity, or water deficit stress induces the expression of a family of four genes, REPETITIVE PROLINE-RICH PROTEIN (RePRP). These genes encode two subclasses of novel proline-rich glycoproteins with highly repetitive PX₁PX₂ motifs, RePRP1 and RePRP2. RePRP orthologs exist only in monocotyledonous plants, and their functions are virtually unknown. Rice RePRPs are heavily glycosylated with arabinose and glucose on multiple hydroxyproline residues. They are significantly different from arabinogalactan proteins that have glycan chains composed of arabinose and galactose. Transient and stable expressions of RePRP-green fluorescent protein reveal that a fraction of this protein is localized to the plasma membrane. In rice roots, ABA treatment increases RePRP expression preferentially in the elongation zone. Overexpression of RePRP in transgenic rice reduces root cell elongation in the absence of ABA, similar to the effect of ABA on wild-type roots. Conversely, simultaneous knockdown of the expression of RePRP1 and RePRP2 reduces the root sensitivity to ABA, indicating that RePRP proteins play an essential role in ABA/stress regulation of root growth and development. Moreover, rice RePRPs specifically interact with a polysaccharide, arabinogalactan, in a dosage-dependent manner. It is suggested that RePRP1 and RePRP2 are functionally redundant suppressors of root cell expansion and probably act through interactions with cell wall components near the plasma membrane.

  15. A new calmodulin-binding motif for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase regulation.

    PubMed

    Franco-Echevarría, Elsa; Baños-Sanz, Jose I; Monterroso, Begoña; Round, Adam; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; González, Beatriz

    2014-11-01

    IP3-3K [Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase] is a key enzyme that catalyses the synthesis of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, using Ins(1,4,5)P3 and ATP as substrates. Both inositides, substrate and product, present crucial roles in the cell. Ins(1,4,5)P3 is a key point in Ca2+ metabolism that promotes Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and together with Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 regulates Ca2+ homoeostasis. In addition, Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 is involved in immune cell development. It has been proved that Ca2+/CaM (calmodulin) regulates the activity of IP3-3K, via direct interaction between both enzymes. Although we have extensive structural knowledge of the kinase domains of the three IP3-3K isoforms, no structural information is available about the interaction between IP3-3K and Ca2+/CaM. In the present paper we describe the crystal structure of the complex between human Ca2+/CaM and the CaM-binding region of human IP3-3K isoform A (residues 158-183) and propose a model for a complex including the kinase domain. The structure obtained allowed us to identify all of the key residues involved in the interaction, which have been evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis, pull-down and fluorescence anisotropy experiments. The results allowed the identification of a new CaM-binding motif, expanding our knowledge about how CaM interacts with its partners.

  16. LIM Kinase, a Newly Identified Regulator of Presynaptic Remodeling by Rod Photoreceptors After Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiwei; Townes-Anderson, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Rod photoreceptors retract their axon terminals and develop neuritic sprouts in response to retinal detachment and reattachment, respectively. This study examines the role of LIM kinase (LIMK), a component of RhoA and Rac pathways, in the presynaptic structural remodeling of rod photoreceptors. Methods Phosphorylated LIMK (p-LIMK), the active form of LIMK, was examined in salamander retina with Western blot and confocal microscopy. Axon length within the first 7 hours and process growth after 3 days of culture were assessed in isolated rod photoreceptors treated with inhibitors of upstream regulators ROCK and p21-activated kinase (Pak) (Y27632 and IPA-3) and a direct LIMK inhibitor (BMS-5). Porcine retinal explants were also treated with BMS-5 and analyzed 24 hours after detachment. Because Ca2+ influx contributes to axonal retraction, L-type channels were blocked in some experiments with nicardipine. Results Phosphorylated LIMK is present in rod terminals during retraction and in newly formed processes. Axonal retraction over 7 hours was significantly reduced by inhibition of LIMK or its regulators, ROCK and Pak. Process growth was reduced by LIMK or Pak inhibition especially at the basal (axon-bearing) region of the rod cells. Combining Ca2+ channel and LIMK inhibition had no additional effect on retraction but did further inhibit sprouting after 3 days. In detached porcine retina, LIMK inhibition reduced rod axonal retraction and improved retinal morphology. Conclusions Thus structural remodeling, in the form of either axonal retraction or neuritic growth, requires LIMK activity. LIM kinase inhibition may have therapeutic potential for reducing pathologic rod terminal plasticity after retinal injury. PMID:26658506

  17. Regulation of root morphogenesis in arbuscular mycorrhizae: what role do fungal exudates, phosphate, sugars and hormones play in lateral root formation?

    PubMed Central

    Fusconi, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AMs) form a widespread root–fungus symbiosis that improves plant phosphate (Pi) acquisition and modifies the physiology and development of host plants. Increased branching is recognized as a general feature of AM roots, and has been interpreted as a means of increasing suitable sites for colonization. Fungal exudates, which are involved in the dialogue between AM fungi and their host during the pre-colonization phase, play a well-documented role in lateral root (LR) formation. In addition, the increased Pi content of AM plants, in relation to Pi-starved controls, as well as changes in the delivery of carbohydrates to the roots and modulation of phytohormone concentration, transport and sensitivity, are probably involved in increasing root system branching. Scope This review discusses the possible causes of increased branching in AM plants. The differential root responses to Pi, sugars and hormones of potential AM host species are also highlighted and discussed in comparison with those of the non-host Arabidopsis thaliana. Conclusions Fungal exudates are probably the main compounds regulating AM root morphogenesis during the first colonization steps, while a complex network of interactions governs root development in established AMs. Colonization and high Pi act synergistically to increase root branching, and sugar transport towards the arbusculated cells may contribute to LR formation. In addition, AM colonization and high Pi generally increase auxin and cytokinin and decrease ethylene and strigolactone levels. With the exception of cytokinins, which seem to regulate mainly the root:shoot biomass ratio, these hormones play a leading role in governing root morphogenesis, with strigolactones and ethylene blocking LR formation in the non-colonized, Pi-starved plants, and auxin inducing them in colonized plants, or in plants grown under high Pi conditions. PMID:24227446

  18. Glycosylation of a Fasciclin-Like Arabinogalactan-Protein (SOS5) Mediates Root Growth and Seed Mucilage Adherence via a Cell Wall Receptor-Like Kinase (FEI1/FEI2) Pathway in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Debarati; Tian, Lu; Debrosse, Tayler; Poirier, Emily; Emch, Kirk; Herock, Hayley; Travers, Andrew; Showalter, Allan M.

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental processes that underpin plant growth and development depend crucially on the action and assembly of the cell wall, a dynamic structure that changes in response to both developmental and environmental cues. While much is known about cell wall structure and biosynthesis, much less is known about the functions of the individual wall components, particularly with respect to their potential roles in cellular signaling. Loss-of-function mutants of two arabinogalactan-protein (AGP)-specific galactosyltransferases namely, GALT2 and GALT5, confer pleiotropic growth and development phenotypes indicating the important contributions of carbohydrate moieties towards AGP function. Notably, galt2galt5 double mutants displayed impaired root growth and root tip swelling in response to salt, likely as a result of decreased cellulose synthesis. These mutants phenocopy a salt-overly sensitive mutant called sos5, which lacks a fasciclin-like AGP (SOS5/FLA4) as well as a fei1fei2 double mutant, which lacks two cell wall-associated leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases. Additionally, galt2gal5 as well as sos5 and fei2 showed reduced seed mucilage adherence. Quintuple galt2galt5sos5fei1fei2 mutants were produced and provided evidence that these genes act in a single, linear genetic pathway. Further genetic and biochemical analysis of the quintuple mutant demonstrated involvement of these genes with the interplay between cellulose biosynthesis and two plant growth regulators, ethylene and ABA, in modulating root cell wall integrity. PMID:26731606

  19. Arabidopsis SUMO E3 ligase AtMMS21 regulates root meristem development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shengchun; Qi, Yanli

    2010-01-01

    The small ubiquitin modifier (SUMO) conjugation/deconjugation is an important regulatory progress in plant development and responses to abiotic stresses. However, much less is known about the roles of sumoylation in plant root development. Cytokinin and auxin play crucial roles in determining the balance between cell proliferation and cell differentiation in Arabidopsis roots. The SUMO E3 ligase AtMMS21 is a homologue of human NSE2/MMS21, which modulates DNA damage and DNA repair in human cells. This addendum summarizes our recent paper on the AtMMS21 mediating cytokinin signaling to regulate the root meristem cell proliferation. The mms21-1 roots had reduced responses to exogenous cytokinins and decreased expression of the cytokinin-induced genes ARR3, ARR4, ARR5 and ARR7, compared with the wild type. Furthermore, the expression of CRE1 and ARR1, which are both the receptor and positive regulator of cytokinin signaling, was also reduced in the mms21-1 mutant plants. PMID:20592809

  20. Sequential induction of auxin efflux and influx carriers regulates lateral root emergence

    PubMed Central

    Péret, Benjamin; Middleton, Alistair M; French, Andrew P; Larrieu, Antoine; Bishopp, Anthony; Njo, Maria; Wells, Darren M; Porco, Silvana; Mellor, Nathan; Band, Leah R; Casimiro, Ilda; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Vanneste, Steffen; Sairanen, Ilkka; Mallet, Romain; Sandberg, Göran; Ljung, Karin; Beeckman, Tom; Benkova, Eva; Friml, Jiří; Kramer, Eric; King, John R; De Smet, Ive; Pridmore, Tony; Owen, Markus; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2013-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, lateral roots originate from pericycle cells deep within the primary root. New lateral root primordia (LRP) have to emerge through several overlaying tissues. Here, we report that auxin produced in new LRP is transported towards the outer tissues where it triggers cell separation by inducing both the auxin influx carrier LAX3 and cell-wall enzymes. LAX3 is expressed in just two cell files overlaying new LRP. To understand how this striking pattern of LAX3 expression is regulated, we developed a mathematical model that captures the network regulating its expression and auxin transport within realistic three-dimensional cell and tissue geometries. Our model revealed that, for the LAX3 spatial expression to be robust to natural variations in root tissue geometry, an efflux carrier is required—later identified to be PIN3. To prevent LAX3 from being transiently expressed in multiple cell files, PIN3 and LAX3 must be induced consecutively, which we later demonstrated to be the case. Our study exemplifies how mathematical models can be used to direct experiments to elucidate complex developmental processes. PMID:24150423

  1. The Fps/Fes kinase regulates leucocyte recruitment and extravasation during inflammation.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Sean A; Mewburn, Jeffrey D; Truesdell, Peter; Greer, Peter A

    2007-12-01

    Fps/Fes and Fer comprise a distinct subfamily of cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinases, and have both been implicated in the regulation of innate immunity. Previous studies showed that Fps/Fes-knockout mice were hypersensitive to systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, and Fer-deficient mice displayed enhanced recruitment of leucocytes in response to localized LPS challenge. We show here for the first time, a role for Fps in the regulation of leucocyte recruitment to areas of inflammation. Using the cremaster muscle intravital microscopy model, we observed increased leucocyte adherence to venules, and increased rates and degrees of transendothelial migration in Fps/Fes-knockout mice relative to wild-type animals subsequent to localized LPS challenge. There was also a decreased vessel wall shear rate in the post-capillary venules of LPS-challenged Fps/Fes-knockout mice, and an increase in neutrophil migration into the peritoneal cavity subsequent to thioglycollate challenge. Using flow cytometry to quantify the expression of surface molecules, we observed prolonged expression of the selectin ligand PSGL-1 on peripheral blood neutrophils from Fps/Fes-knockout mice stimulated ex vivo with LPS. These observations provide important insights into the observed in vivo behaviour of leucocytes in LPS-challenged Fps/Fes-knockout mice and provide evidence that the Fps/Fes kinase plays an important role in the innate immune response.

  2. Active zone proteins are transported via distinct mechanisms regulated by Par-1 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Kara R.; Sherman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of synapses underlies a plethora of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease. Presynaptic specialization called the active zone plays a critical role in the communication with postsynaptic neuron. While the role of many proteins at the active zones in synaptic communication is relatively well studied, very little is known about how these proteins are transported to the synapses. For example, are there distinct mechanisms for the transport of active zone components or are they all transported in the same transport vesicle? Is active zone protein transport regulated? In this report we show that overexpression of Par-1/MARK kinase, a protein whose misregulation has been implicated in Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and neurodegenerative disorders, lead to a specific block in the transport of an active zone protein component- Bruchpilot at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Consistent with a block in axonal transport, we find a decrease in number of active zones and reduced neurotransmission in flies overexpressing Par-1 kinase. Interestingly, we find that Par-1 acts independently of Tau-one of the most well studied substrates of Par-1, revealing a presynaptic function for Par-1 that is independent of Tau. Thus, our study strongly suggests that there are distinct mechanisms that transport components of active zones and that they are tightly regulated. PMID:28222093

  3. Extracellular regulated kinase phosphorylates mitofusin 1 to control mitochondrial morphology and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Pyakurel, Aswin; Savoia, Claudia; Hess, Daniel; Scorrano, Luca

    2015-04-16

    Controlled changes in mitochondrial morphology participate in cellular signaling cascades. However, the molecular mechanisms modifying mitochondrial shape are largely unknown. Here we show that the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade member extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylates the pro-fusion protein mitofusin (MFN) 1, modulating its participation in apoptosis and mitochondrial fusion. Phosphoproteomic and biochemical analyses revealed that MFN1 is phosphorylated at an atypical ERK site in its heptad repeat (HR) 1 domain. This site proved essential to mediate MFN1-dependent mitochondrial elongation and apoptosis regulation by the MEK/ERK cascade. A mutant mimicking constitutive MFN1 phosphorylation was less efficient in oligomerizing and mitochondria tethering but bound more avidly to the proapoptotic BCL-2 family member BAK, facilitating its activation and cell death. Moreover, neuronal apoptosis following oxygen glucose deprivation and MEK/ERK activation required an intact MFN1(T562). Our data identify MFN1 as an ERK target to modulate mitochondrial shape and apoptosis.

  4. Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 4 (PDK4) gene expression by glucocorticoids and insulin.

    PubMed

    Connaughton, Sara; Chowdhury, Farhana; Attia, Ramy R; Song, Shulan; Zhang, Yi; Elam, Marshall B; Cook, George A; Park, Edwards A

    2010-02-05

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA in mitochondria and is a key regulatory enzyme in the oxidation of glucose to acetyl-CoA. Phosphorylation of PDC by the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK) inhibits its activity. The expression of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) gene is increased in fasting and other conditions associated with the switch from the utilization of glucose to fatty acids as an energy source. Transcription of the PDK4 gene is elevated by glucocorticoids and inhibited by insulin. In this study, we have investigated the factors involved in the regulation of the PDK4 gene by these hormones. Glucocorticoids stimulate PDK4 through two glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding sites located more than 6000 base pairs upstream of the transcriptional start site. Insulin inhibits the glucocorticoid induction in part by causing dissociation of the GR from the promoter. Previously, we found that the estrogen related receptor alpha (ERRalpha) stimulates the expression of PDK4. Here, we determined that one of the ERRalpha binding sites contributes to the insulin inhibition of PDK4. A binding site for the forkhead transcription factor (FoxO1) is adjacent to the ERRalpha binding sites. FoxO1 participates in the glucocorticoid induction of PDK4 and the regulation of this gene by insulin. Our data demonstrate that glucocorticoids and insulin each modulate PDK4 gene expression through complex hormone response units that contain multiple factors.

  5. Regulation of collagen fibrillogenesis by cell-surface expression of kinase dead DDR2.

    PubMed

    Blissett, Angela R; Garbellini, Derek; Calomeni, Edward P; Mihai, Cosmin; Elton, Terry S; Agarwal, Gunjan

    2009-01-23

    The assembly of collagen fibers, the major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), governs a variety of physiological processes. Collagen fibrillogenesis is a tightly controlled process in which several factors, including collagen binding proteins, have a crucial role. Discoidin domain receptors (DDR1 and DDR2) are receptor tyrosine kinases that bind to and are phosphorylated upon collagen binding. The phosphorylation of DDRs is known to activate matrix metalloproteases, which in turn cleave the ECM. In our earlier studies, we established a novel mechanism of collagen regulation by DDRs; that is, the extracellular domain (ECD) of DDR2, when used as a purified, soluble protein, inhibits collagen fibrillogenesis in-vitro. To extend this novel observation, the current study investigates how the DDR2-ECD, when expressed as a membrane-anchored, cell-surface protein, affects collagen fibrillogenesis by cells. We generated a mouse osteoblast cell line that stably expresses a kinase-deficient form of DDR2, termed DDR2/-KD, on its cell surface. Transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and hydroxyproline assays demonstrated that the expression of DDR2/-KD reduced the rate and abundance of collagen deposition and induced significant morphological changes in the resulting fibers. Taken together, our observations extend the functional roles that DDR2 and possibly other membrane-anchored, collagen-binding proteins can play in the regulation of cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and in the remodeling of the extracellular matrix.

  6. ROCK1 via LIM kinase regulates growth, maturation and actin based functions in mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Reuben; Shi, Jianjian; Ghosh, Joydeep; Munugalavadla, Veerendra; Sims, Emily; Martin, Holly; Wei, Lei; Mali, Raghuveer Singh

    2016-01-01

    Understanding mast cell development is essential due to their critical role in regulating immunity and autoimmune diseases. Here, we show how Rho kinases (ROCK) regulate mast cell development and can function as therapeutic targets for treating allergic diseases. Rock1 deficiency results in delayed maturation of bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs) in response to IL-3 stimulation and reduced growth in response to stem cell factor (SCF) stimulation. Further, integrin-mediated adhesion and migration, and IgE-mediated degranulation are all impaired in Rock1-deficient BMMCs. To understand the mechanism behind altered mast cell development in Rock1−/− BMMCs, we analyzed the activation of ROCK and its downstream targets including LIM kinase (LIMK). We observed reduced activation of ROCK, LIMK, AKT and ERK1/2 in Rock1-deficient BMMCs in response to SCF stimulation. Further, loss of either Limk1 or Limk2 also demonstrated altered BMMC maturation and growth; combined deletion of both Limk1 and Limk2 resulted in further reduction in BMMC maturation and growth. In passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model, deficiency of Rock1 or treatment with ROCK inhibitor Fasudil protected mice against IgE-mediated challenge. Our results identify ROCK/LIMK pathway as a novel therapeutic target for treating allergic diseases involving mast cells. PMID:26943578

  7. Spatial regulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase during chemotactic cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Alan K.; Baldor, Linda C.; Hogan, Brian P.

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) has a paradoxical role in cell motility, having been shown to both facilitate and inhibit actin cytoskeletal dynamics and cell migration. In an effort to understand this dichotomy, we show here that PKA is regulated in subcellular space during cell migration. Immunofluorescence microscopy and biochemical enrichment of pseudopodia showed that type II regulatory subunits of PKA and PKA activity are enriched in protrusive cellular structures formed during chemotaxis. This enrichment correlates with increased phosphorylation of key cytoskeletal substrates for PKA, including the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and the protein tyrosine phosphatase containing a PEST motif. Importantly, inhibition of PKA activity or its ability to interact with A kinase anchoring proteins inhibited the activity of the Rac GTPase within pseudopodia. This effect correlated with both decreased guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity and increased GTPase activating protein activity. Finally, inhibition of PKA anchoring, like inhibition of total PKA activity, inhibited pseudopod formation and chemotactic cell migration. These data demonstrate that spatial regulation of PKA via anchoring is an important facet of normal chemotactic cell movement. PMID:16176981

  8. Spatial regulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase during chemotactic cell migration.

    PubMed

    Howe, Alan K; Baldor, Linda C; Hogan, Brian P

    2005-10-04

    Historically, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) has a paradoxical role in cell motility, having been shown to both facilitate and inhibit actin cytoskeletal dynamics and cell migration. In an effort to understand this dichotomy, we show here that PKA is regulated in subcellular space during cell migration. Immunofluorescence microscopy and biochemical enrichment of pseudopodia showed that type II regulatory subunits of PKA and PKA activity are enriched in protrusive cellular structures formed during chemotaxis. This enrichment correlates with increased phosphorylation of key cytoskeletal substrates for PKA, including the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and the protein tyrosine phosphatase containing a PEST motif. Importantly, inhibition of PKA activity or its ability to interact with A kinase anchoring proteins inhibited the activity of the Rac GTPase within pseudopodia. This effect correlated with both decreased guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity and increased GTPase activating protein activity. Finally, inhibition of PKA anchoring, like inhibition of total PKA activity, inhibited pseudopod formation and chemotactic cell migration. These data demonstrate that spatial regulation of PKA via anchoring is an important facet of normal chemotactic cell movement.

  9. Nik-related kinase regulates trophoblast proliferation and placental development by modulating AKT phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Yuka; Nam, Jin-Min; Ohashi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Nik-related kinase (Nrk) is a Ser/Thr kinase and was initially discovered as a molecule that was predominantly detected in skeletal muscles during development. A recent study using Nrk-null mice suggested the importance of Nrk in proper placental development; however, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that differentiated trophoblasts from murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) endogenously expressed Nrk and that Nrk disruption led to the enhanced proliferation of differentiated trophoblasts. This phenomenon may reflect the overproliferation of trophoblasts that has been reported in enlarged placentas of Nrk-null mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 was upregulated in Nrk-null trophoblasts and that inhibition of AKT phosphorylation cancelled the enhanced proliferation observed in differentiated Nrk-null trophoblasts. These results indicated that the upregulation of AKT phosphorylation was the possible cause of enhanced proliferation observed in Nrk-null trophoblasts. The upregulation of AKT phosphorylation was also confirmed in enlarged Nrk-null placentas in vivo, suggesting that proper regulation of AKT by Nrk was important for normal placental development. In addition, our detailed analysis on phosphorylation status of AKT isoforms in newly established trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) revealed that different levels of upregulation of AKT phosphorylation were occurred in Nrk-null TSCs depending on AKT isoforms. These results further support the importance of Nrk in proper development of trophoblast lineage cells and indicate the possible application of TSCs for the analysis of differently regulated activation mechanisms of AKT isoforms.

  10. Thy1 (CD90) controls adipogenesis by regulating activity of the Src family kinase, Fyn

    PubMed Central

    Woeller, Collynn F.; O’Loughlin, Charles W.; Pollock, Stephen J.; Thatcher, Thomas H.; Feldon, Steven E.; Phipps, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide obesity rates are at epidemic levels, and new insight into the regulation of obesity and adipogenesis are required. Thy1 (CD90), a cell surface protein with an enigmatic function, is expressed on subsets of fibroblasts and stem cells. We used a diet-induced obesity model to show that Thy1-null mice gain weight at a faster rate and gain 30% more weight than control C57BL/6 mice. During adipogenesis, Thy1 expression is lost in mouse 3T3-L1 cells. Overexpression of Thy1 blocked adipocyte formation and reduced mRNA and protein expression of an adipocyte marker, fatty acid-binding protein 4, by 5-fold. Although preadipocyte fibroblasts expressed Thy1 mRNA and protein, adipocytes from mouse and human fat tissue had almost undetectable Thy1 levels. Thy1 decreases the activity of the adipogenic transcription factor PPARγ by more than 60% as shown by PPARγ-dependent reporter assays. Using both genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we show Thy1 expression dampens PPARγ by inhibiting the activity of the Src-family kinase, Fyn. Thus, these studies reveal Thy1 blocks adipogenesis and PPARγ by inhibiting Fyn and support the idea that Thy1 is a novel therapeutic target in obesity.—Woeller, C. F., O’Loughlin, C. W., Pollock, S. J., Thatcher, T. H., Feldon, S. E., Phipps, R. P. Thy1 (CD90) controls adipogenesis by regulating activity of the Src family kinase, Fyn. PMID:25416548

  11. New Kinase Regulation Mechanism Found in HipBA: a Bacterial Persistence Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Evdokimov, A.; Voznesensky, I; Fennell, K; Anderson, M; Smith, J; Fisher, D

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial persistence is the ability of individual cells to randomly enter a period of dormancy during which the cells are protected against antibiotics. In Escherichia coli, persistence is regulated by the activity of a protein kinase HipA and its DNA-binding partner HipB, which is a strong inhibitor of both HipA activity and hip operon transcription. The crystal structure of the HipBA complex was solved by application of the SAD technique to a mercury derivative. In this article, the fortuitous and interesting effect of mercury soaks on the native HipBA crystals is discussed as well as the intriguing tryptophan-binding pocket found on the HipA surface. A HipA-regulation model is also proposed that is consistent with the available structural and biochemical data.

  12. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 phosphorylates kinesin light chains and negatively regulates kinesin-based motility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfini, Gerardo; Szebenyi, Gyorgyi; Elluru, Ravindhra; Ratner, Nancy; Brady, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    Membrane-bounded organelles (MBOs) are delivered to different domains in neurons by fast axonal transport. The importance of kinesin for fast antero grade transport is well established, but mechanisms for regulating kinesin-based motility are largely unknown. In this report, we provide biochemical and in vivo evidence that kinesin light chains (KLCs) interact with and are in vivo substrates for glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Active GSK3 inhibited anterograde, but not retrograde, transport in squid axoplasm and reduced the amount of kinesin bound to MBOs. Kinesin microtubule binding and microtubule-stimulated ATPase activities were unaffected by GSK3 phosphorylation of KLCs. Active GSK3 was also localized preferentially to regions known to be sites of membrane delivery. These data suggest that GSK3 can regulate fast anterograde axonal transport and targeting of cargos to specific subcellular domains in neurons.

  13. Phospholipase Cdelta3 regulates RhoA/Rho kinase signaling and neurite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Kouchi, Zen; Igarashi, Takahiro; Shibayama, Nami; Inanobe, Shunichi; Sakurai, Kazuyuki; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Fukuda, Toshifumi; Yanagi, Shigeru; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Fukami, Kiyoko

    2011-03-11

    Phospholipase Cδ3 (PLCδ3) is a key enzyme regulating phosphoinositide metabolism; however, its physiological function remains unknown. Because PLCδ3 is highly enriched in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex, we examined the role of PLCδ3 in neuronal migration and outgrowth. PLCδ3 knockdown (KD) inhibits neurite formation of cerebellar granule cells, and application of PLCδ3KD using in utero electroporation in the developing brain results in the retardation of the radial migration of neurons in the cerebral cortex. In addition, PLCδ3KD inhibits axon and dendrite outgrowth in primary cortical neurons. PLCδ3KD also suppresses neurite formation of Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells induced by serum withdrawal or treatment with retinoic acid. This inhibition is released by the reintroduction of wild-type PLCδ3. Interestingly, the H393A mutant lacking phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolyzing activity generates supernumerary protrusions, and a constitutively active mutant promotes extensive neurite outgrowth, indicating that PLC activity is important for normal neurite outgrowth. The introduction of dominant negative RhoA (RhoA-DN) or treatment with Y-27632, a Rho kinase-specific inhibitor, rescues the neurite extension in PLCδ3KD Neuro2a cells. Similar effects were also detected in primary cortical neurons. Furthermore, the RhoA expression level was significantly decreased by serum withdrawal or retinoic acid in control cells, although this decrease was not observed in PLCδ3KD cells. We also found that exogenous expression of PLCδ3 down-regulated RhoA protein, and constitutively active PLCδ3 promotes the RhoA down-regulation more significantly than PLCδ3 upon differentiation. These results indicate that PLCδ3 negatively regulates RhoA expression, inhibits RhoA/Rho kinase signaling, and thereby promotes neurite extension.

  14. Transcriptional regulation of pig GYS1 gene by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilin; Wang, Yan; Zhong, Tao; Guo, Jiazhong; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wang, Linjie

    2017-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase and has important roles in glycogen metabolism biosynthesis. Studies have revealed that GSK3β can directly regulate the glycogen synthase activity, yet little is known about the regulation of GSK3β on GYS1 gene transcription. Here, we show that overexpression of GSK3β decreased the mRNA expression level of GYS1. Then we cloned approximately 1.5 kb of pig GYS1 gene promoter region, generated sequential deletion constructs, and evaluated their activity. A gradual increase of the promoter activity was seen with increasing length of the promoter sequence, reaching its highest activity to the sequence corresponding to nt -350 to +224, and then decreased. However, the activities of constructed promoter fragments show different responses to GSK3β co-transfection. By analyzing a series of GYS1 promoter reporter constructs, we have defined two crucial regions (-1488 to -539, -350 to -147) that are responsible for GSK3β-induced transcriptional repression. Furthermore, the ChIP results revealed that only the first and second NF-κB sites of GYS1 promoter could bind to p65, and overexpression of GSK3β induced a significant decrease in p65 binding to the second NF-κB binding site, suggesting that GSK3β may regulate expression of GYS1 gene through binding to the second rather than the first NF-κB site. These data suggest that the NF-κB plays important roles in the transcriptional activity of pig GYS1 gene regulated by GSK3β.

  15. Inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 enhances endochondral bone formation by increasing chondrocyte survival

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, G J; Zhang, Q-S; Diallo, C; Matsuzawa, A; Ichijo, H; Steinbeck, M J; Freeman, T A

    2014-01-01

    Endochondral ossification is the result of chondrocyte differentiation, hypertrophy, death and replacement by bone. The careful timing and progression of this process is important for normal skeletal bone growth and development, as well as fracture repair. Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is activated by reactive oxygen species and other cellular stress events. Activation of ASK1 initiates a signaling cascade known to regulate diverse cellular events including cytokine and growth factor signaling, cell cycle regulation, cellular differentiation, hypertrophy, survival and apoptosis. ASK1 is highly expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes, but the role of ASK1 in skeletal tissues has not been investigated. Herein, we report that ASK1 knockout (KO) mice display alterations in normal growth plate morphology, which include a shorter proliferative zone and a lengthened hypertrophic zone. These changes in growth plate dynamics result in accelerated long bone mineralization and an increased formation of trabecular bone, which can be attributed to an increased resistance of terminally differentiated chondrocytes to undergo cell death. Interestingly, under normal cell culture conditions, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from ASK1 KO mice show no differences in either MAPK signaling or osteogenic or chondrogenic differentiation when compared with wild-type (WT) MEFs. However, when cultured with stress activators, H2O2 or staurosporine, the KO cells show enhanced survival, an associated decrease in the activation of proteins involved in death signaling pathways and a reduction in markers of terminal differentiation. Furthermore, in both WT mice treated with the ASK1 inhibitor, NQDI-1, and ASK1 KO mice endochondral bone formation was increased in an ectopic ossification model. These findings highlight a previously unrealized role for ASK1 in regulating endochondral bone formation. Inhibition of ASK1 has

  16. Ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase (FTR) links the regulation of oxygenic photosynthesis to deeply rooted bacteria.

    PubMed

    Balsera, Monica; Uberegui, Estefania; Susanti, Dwi; Schmitz, Ruth A; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Schürmann, Peter; Buchanan, Bob B

    2013-02-01

    Uncovered in studies on photosynthesis 35 years ago, redox regulation has been extended to all types of living cells. We understand a great deal about the occurrence, function, and mechanism of action of this mode of regulation, but we know little about its origin and its evolution. To help fill this gap, we have taken advantage of available genome sequences that make it possible to trace the phylogenetic roots of members of the system that was originally described for chloroplasts-ferredoxin, ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase (FTR), and thioredoxin as well as target enzymes. The results suggest that: (1) the catalytic subunit, FTRc, originated in deeply rooted microaerophilic, chemoautotrophic bacteria where it appears to function in regulating CO(2) fixation by the reverse citric acid cycle; (2) FTRc was incorporated into oxygenic photosynthetic organisms without significant structural change except for addition of a variable subunit (FTRv) seemingly to protect the Fe-S cluster against oxygen; (3) new Trxs and target enzymes were systematically added as evolution proceeded from bacteria through the different types of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms; (4) an oxygenic type of regulation preceded classical light-dark regulation in the regulation of enzymes of CO(2) fixation by the Calvin-Benson cycle; (5) FTR is not universally present in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, and in certain early representatives is seemingly functionally replaced by NADP-thioredoxin reductase; and (6) FTRc underwent structural diversification to meet the ecological needs of a variety of bacteria and archaea.

  17. Light is a positive regulator of strigolactone levels in tomato roots.

    PubMed

    Koltai, Hinanit; Cohen, Maja; Chesin, Ori; Mayzlish-Gati, Einav; Bécard, Guillaume; Puech, Virginie; Ben Dor, Bruria; Resnick, Natalie; Wininger, Smadar; Kapulnik, Yoram

    2011-11-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) or closely related molecules were recently identified as phytohormones, acting as long-distance branching factors that suppress growth of pre-formed axillary buds in the shoot. The SL signaling pathways and light appear to be connected, as SLs were shown to induce light-regulated pathways and to mimic light-adapted plant growth. However, it is not yet clear how light affects SL levels. Here, we examined the effect of different light intensities on SL levels in tomato roots. The results show that light intensity, above a certain threshold, is a positive regulator of SL levels and of Sl-CCD7 transcription; Sl-CCD7 is involved in SLs biosynthesis in tomato. Moreover, SL accumulation in plant roots is shown to be a time-dependent process. At least some of the similar effects of light and SLs on plant responses might result from a positive effect of light on SL levels.

  18. Auxin: a major player in the shoot-to-root regulation of root Fe-stress physiological responses to Fe deficiency in cucumber plants.

    PubMed

    Bacaicoa, Eva; Mora, Verónica; Zamarreño, Angel María; Fuentes, Marta; Casanova, Esther; García-Mina, José María

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of IAA and ABA in the shoot-to-root regulation of the expression of the main Fe-stress physiological root responses in cucumber plants subjected to shoot Fe functional deficiency. Changes in the expression of the genes CsFRO1, CsIRT1, CsHA1 and CsHA2 (coding for Fe(III)-chelate reductase (FCR), the Fe(II) transporter and H+-ATPase, respectively) and in the enzyme activity of FCR and the acidification capacity were measured. We studied first the ability of exogenous applications of IAA and ABA to induce these Fe-stress root responses in plants grown in Fe-sufficient conditions. The results showed that IAA was able to activate these responses at the transcriptional and functional levels, whereas the results with ABA were less conclusive. Thereafter, we explored the role of IAA in plants with or without shoot Fe functional deficiency in the presence of two types of IAA inhibitors, affecting either IAA polar transport (TIBA) or IAA functionality (PCIB). The results showed that IAA is involved in the regulation at the transcriptional and functional levels of both Fe root acquisition (FCR, Fe(II) transport) and rhizosphere acidification (H+-ATPase), although through different, and probably complementary, mechanisms. These results suggest that IAA is involved in the shoot-to-root regulation of the expression of Fe-stress physiological root responses.