Science.gov

Sample records for kinase regulates root

  1. PHYTOCHROME KINASE SUBSTRATE1 regulates root phototropism and gravitropism.

    PubMed

    Boccalandro, Hernán E; De Simone, Silvia N; Bergmann-Honsberger, Ariane; Schepens, Isabelle; Fankhauser, Christian; Casal, Jorge J

    2008-01-01

    Light promotes the expression of PHYTOCHROME KINASE SUBSTRATE1 (PKS1) in the root of Arabidopsis thaliana, but the function of PKS1 in this organ is unknown. Unilateral blue light induced a negative root phototropic response mediated by phototropin 1 in wild-type seedlings. This response was absent in pks1 mutants. In the wild type, unilateral blue light enhanced PKS1 expression in the subapical region of the root several hours before bending was detectable. The negative phototropism and the enhanced PKS1 expression in response to blue light required phytochrome A (phyA). In addition, the pks1 mutation enhanced the root gravitropic response when vertically oriented seedlings were placed horizontally. The negative regulation of gravitropism by PKS1 occurred even in dark-grown seedlings and did not require phyA. Blue light also failed to induce negative phototropism in pks1 under reduced gravitational stimulation, indicating that the effect of pks1 on phototropism is not simply the consequence of the counteracting effect of enhanced gravitropism. We propose a model where the background level of PKS1 reduces gravitropism. After a phyA-dependent increase in its expression, PKS1 positively affects root phototropism and both effects contribute to negative curvature in response to unilateral blue light.

  2. PINOID kinase regulates root gravitropism through modulation of PIN2-dependent basipetal auxin transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sukumar, Poornima; Edwards, Karin S; Rahman, Abidur; Delong, Alison; Muday, Gloria K

    2009-06-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is a key regulatory mechanism governing polar auxin transport. We characterized the auxin transport and gravitropic phenotypes of the pinoid-9 (pid-9) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tested the hypothesis that phosphorylation mediated by PID kinase and dephosphorylation regulated by the ROOTS CURL IN NAPHTHYLPHTHALAMIC ACID1 (RCN1) protein might antagonistically regulate root auxin transport and gravity response. Basipetal indole-3-acetic acid transport and gravitropism are reduced in pid-9 seedlings, while acropetal transport and lateral root development are unchanged. Treatment of wild-type seedlings with the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine phenocopies the reduced auxin transport and gravity response of pid-9, while pid-9 is resistant to inhibition by staurosporine. Staurosporine and the phosphatase inhibitor, cantharidin, delay the asymmetric expression of DR5revGFP (green fluorescent protein) at the root tip after gravistimulation. Gravity response defects of rcn1 and pid-9 are partially rescued by treatment with staurosporine and cantharidin, respectively. The pid-9 rcn1 double mutant has a more rapid gravitropic response than rcn1. These data are consistent with a reciprocal regulation of gravitropism by RCN1 and PID. Furthermore, the effect of staurosporine is lost in pinformed2 (pin2). Our data suggest that reduced PID kinase function inhibits gravitropism and basipetal indole-3-acetic acid transport. However, in contrast to PID overexpression studies, we observed wild-type asymmetric membrane distribution of the PIN2 protein in both pid-9 and wild-type root tips, although PIN2 accumulates in endomembrane structures in pid-9 roots. Similarly, staurosporine-treated plants expressing a PIN2GFP fusion exhibit endomembrane accumulation of PIN2GFP, but no changes in membrane asymmetries were detected. Our data suggest that PID plays a limited role in root development; loss of PID activity alters auxin

  3. PHYTOCHROME KINASE SUBSTRATE1 Regulates Root Phototropism and Gravitropism1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Boccalandro, Hernán E.; De Simone, Silvia N.; Bergmann-Honsberger, Ariane; Schepens, Isabelle; Fankhauser, Christian; Casal, Jorge J.

    2008-01-01

    Light promotes the expression of PHYTOCHROME KINASE SUBSTRATE1 (PKS1) in the root of Arabidopsis thaliana, but the function of PKS1 in this organ is unknown. Unilateral blue light induced a negative root phototropic response mediated by phototropin 1 in wild-type seedlings. This response was absent in pks1 mutants. In the wild type, unilateral blue light enhanced PKS1 expression in the subapical region of the root several hours before bending was detectable. The negative phototropism and the enhanced PKS1 expression in response to blue light required phytochrome A (phyA). In addition, the pks1 mutation enhanced the root gravitropic response when vertically oriented seedlings were placed horizontally. The negative regulation of gravitropism by PKS1 occurred even in dark-grown seedlings and did not require phyA. Blue light also failed to induce negative phototropism in pks1 under reduced gravitational stimulation, indicating that the effect of pks1 on phototropism is not simply the consequence of the counteracting effect of enhanced gravitropism. We propose a model where the background level of PKS1 reduces gravitropism. After a phyA-dependent increase in its expression, PKS1 positively affects root phototropism and both effects contribute to negative curvature in response to unilateral blue light. PMID:18024556

  4. Local and Systemic Regulation of Plant Root System Architecture and Symbiotic Nodulation by a Receptor-Like Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Huault, Emeline; Laffont, Carole; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Ratet, Pascal; Duc, Gérard; Frugier, Florian

    2014-01-01

    In plants, root system architecture is determined by the activity of root apical meristems, which control the root growth rate, and by the formation of lateral roots. In legumes, an additional root lateral organ can develop: the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodule. We identified in Medicago truncatula ten allelic mutants showing a compact root architecture phenotype (cra2) independent of any major shoot phenotype, and that consisted of shorter roots, an increased number of lateral roots, and a reduced number of nodules. The CRA2 gene encodes a Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Kinase (LRR-RLK) that primarily negatively regulates lateral root formation and positively regulates symbiotic nodulation. Grafting experiments revealed that CRA2 acts through different pathways to regulate these lateral organs originating from the roots, locally controlling the lateral root development and nodule formation systemically from the shoots. The CRA2 LRR-RLK therefore integrates short- and long-distance regulations to control root system architecture under non-symbiotic and symbiotic conditions. PMID:25521478

  5. The soybean root-specific protein kinase GmWNK1 regulates stress-responsive ABA signaling on the root system architecture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingxiang; Suo, Haicui; Zheng, Yan; Liu, Kaidong; Zhuang, Chuxiong; Kahle, Kristopher T; Ma, Hong; Yan, Xiaolong

    2010-10-01

    In humans, members of the WNK protein kinase family are osmosensitive regulators of cell volume homeostasis and epithelial ion transport, and mutation of these proteins causes a rare inherited form of hypertension due to increased renal NaCl re-absorption. A related class of kinases was recently discovered in plants, but their functions are largely unknown. We have identified a root-specific WNK kinase homolog, GmWNK1, in soybean (Glycine max). GmWNK1 expression was detected in the root, specifically in root cells associated with lateral root formation, and was down-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA), as well as by mannitol, sucrose, polyethylene glycol and NaCl. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that GmWNK1 interacts with another soybean protein, GmCYP707A1, which is a key ABA 8'-hydroxylase that functions in ABA catabolism. Furthermore, 35S-GmWNK1 transgenic soybean plants had reduced lateral root number and length compared with wild-type, suggesting a role of GmWNK1 in the regulation of root system architecture. We propose that GmWNK1 functions to fine-tune ABA-dependent ABA homeostasis, thereby mediating the regulation of the root system architecture by ABA and osmotic signals. The study has revealed a new function of a plant WNK1 gene from the important staple crop soybean, and has identified a new component of a regulatory pathway that is involved not only in ABA signaling, but also in the repression of lateral root formation by an ABA-dependent mechanism distinct from known ABA signaling pathways. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. PINOID Kinase Regulates Root Gravitropism through Modulation of PIN2-Dependent Basipetal Auxin Transport in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sukumar, Poornima; Edwards, Karin S.; Rahman, Abidur; DeLong, Alison; Muday, Gloria K.

    2009-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is a key regulatory mechanism governing polar auxin transport. We characterized the auxin transport and gravitropic phenotypes of the pinoid-9 (pid-9) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tested the hypothesis that phosphorylation mediated by PID kinase and dephosphorylation regulated by the ROOTS CURL IN NAPHTHYLPHTHALAMIC ACID1 (RCN1) protein might antagonistically regulate root auxin transport and gravity response. Basipetal indole-3-acetic acid transport and gravitropism are reduced in pid-9 seedlings, while acropetal transport and lateral root development are unchanged. Treatment of wild-type seedlings with the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine phenocopies the reduced auxin transport and gravity response of pid-9, while pid-9 is resistant to inhibition by staurosporine. Staurosporine and the phosphatase inhibitor, cantharidin, delay the asymmetric expression of DR5∷revGFP (green fluorescent protein) at the root tip after gravistimulation. Gravity response defects of rcn1 and pid-9 are partially rescued by treatment with staurosporine and cantharidin, respectively. The pid-9 rcn1 double mutant has a more rapid gravitropic response than rcn1. These data are consistent with a reciprocal regulation of gravitropism by RCN1 and PID. Furthermore, the effect of staurosporine is lost in pinformed2 (pin2). Our data suggest that reduced PID kinase function inhibits gravitropism and basipetal indole-3-acetic acid transport. However, in contrast to PID overexpression studies, we observed wild-type asymmetric membrane distribution of the PIN2 protein in both pid-9 and wild-type root tips, although PIN2 accumulates in endomembrane structures in pid-9 roots. Similarly, staurosporine-treated plants expressing a PIN2∷GFP fusion exhibit endomembrane accumulation of PIN2∷GFP, but no changes in membrane asymmetries were detected. Our data suggest that PID plays a limited role in root development; loss of PID activity alters

  7. Light-regulated root gravitropism: a role for, and characterization of, a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase homolog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Y. T.; Feldman, L. J.

    1997-01-01

    Roots of many species grow downward (orthogravitropism) only when illuminated. Previous work suggests that this is a calcium-regulated response and that both calmodulin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases participate in transducing gravity and light stimuli. A genomic sequence has been obtained for a calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase homolog (MCK1) expressed in root caps, the site of perception for both light and gravity. This homolog consists of 7265 base pairs and contains 11 exons and 10 introns. Since MCK1 is expressed constitutively in both light and dark, it is unlikely that the light directly affects MCK1 expression, though the activity of the protein may be affected by light. In cultivars showing light-regulated gravitropism, we hypothesize that MCK1, or a homolog, functions in establishing the auxin asymmetry necessary for orthogravitropism.

  8. Light-regulated root gravitropism: a role for, and characterization of, a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase homolog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Y. T.; Feldman, L. J.

    1997-01-01

    Roots of many species grow downward (orthogravitropism) only when illuminated. Previous work suggests that this is a calcium-regulated response and that both calmodulin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases participate in transducing gravity and light stimuli. A genomic sequence has been obtained for a calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase homolog (MCK1) expressed in root caps, the site of perception for both light and gravity. This homolog consists of 7265 base pairs and contains 11 exons and 10 introns. Since MCK1 is expressed constitutively in both light and dark, it is unlikely that the light directly affects MCK1 expression, though the activity of the protein may be affected by light. In cultivars showing light-regulated gravitropism, we hypothesize that MCK1, or a homolog, functions in establishing the auxin asymmetry necessary for orthogravitropism.

  9. The WAG1 and WAG2 protein kinases negatively regulate root waving in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Santner, Aaron A; Watson, John C

    2006-03-01

    The WAG1 and WAG2 genes of Arabidopsis thaliana encode protein-serine/threonine kinases that are closely related to PINOID. In order to determine what roles WAG1 and WAG2 play in seedling development, we used a reverse genetics approach to study the wag1, wag2 and wag1/wag2 mutant phenotypes for clues. Although the wag mutants do not contain detectable amounts of the corresponding mRNA, they are wild type in most respects. However, wag1/wag2 double mutants exhibit a pronounced wavy root phenotype when grown vertically on agar plates, a phenotype observed in wild-type plants only on plates inclined to angles less than 90 degrees. The wag1 and wag2 mutants also demonstrate enhanced root waving, but to a lesser extent. Moreover, the double mutant roots are more resistant to the effects of N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid on the inhibition of root curling, raising the possibility that transport of auxin is affected in the wag mutants. Promoter fusions to the gusA reporter gene demonstrate that the WAG promoters are most active in root tips, consistent with the observed phenotypes in the wag mutants.

  10. Characterization of a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase homolog from maize roots showing light-regulated gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Y. T.; Hidaka, H.; Feldman, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Roots of many species respond to gravity (gravitropism) and grow downward only if illuminated. This light-regulated root gravitropism is phytochrome-dependent, mediated by calcium, and inhibited by KN-93, a specific inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II). A cDNA encoding MCK1, a maize homolog of mammalian CaMK, has been isolated from roots of maize (Zea mays L.). The MCK1 gene is expressed in root tips, the site of perception for both light and gravity. Using the [35S]CaM gel-overlay assay we showed that calmodulin-binding activity of the MCK1 is abolished by 50 microM KN-93, but binding is not affected by 5 microM KN-93, paralleling physiological findings that light-regulated root gravitropism is inhibited by 50 microM KN-93, but not by 5 microM KN-93. KN-93 inhibits light-regulated gravitropism by interrupting transduction of the light signal, not light perception, suggesting that MCK1 may play a role in transducing light. This is the first report suggesting a physiological function for a CaMK homolog in light signal transduction.

  11. Pinoid kinase regulates root gravitropism through modulation of PIN2-dependent basipetal auxin transport in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muday, Gloria; Sukumar, Poornima; Edwards, Karin; Delong, Alison; Rahman, Abidur

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is a key regulatory mechanism governing polar auxin transport. We tested the hypothesis that PINOID (PID)-mediated phosphorylation and RCN1- regulated dephosphorylation might antagonistically regulate auxin transport and gravity response in seedling roots. Here we show that basipetal IAA transport and gravitropism are reduced in pid mutant seedlings, while acropetal transport and lateral root development are unchanged. Treatment of wild-type seedlings with the protein kinase inhibitor, staurosporine, phenocopied the reduced auxin transport and gravity response of pid-9 and reduced formation of asymmetric DR5-revGFP expression at the root tip after reorientation relative to gravity. Gravitropism and auxin transport in pid are resistant to further inhibition by staurosporine. Gravity response defects of rcn1 and pid-9 are partially rescued by treatment with staurosporine or the phosphatase inhibitor, cantharidin, respectively, and in the pid-9 rcn1 double mutant. Furthermore, the effect of staurosporine is lost in pin2, and a PIN2::GFP fusion protein accumulates in endomembrane compartments after staurosporine treatment. In the pid-9 mutant, immunological techniques find a similar PIN2 localization. These data suggest that staurosporine inhibits gravitropism and basipetal IAA transport by blocking PID action and altering PIN2 localization and support the model that PID and RCN1 reciprocally regulate root gravitropic curvature.

  12. Activation of calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK), the central regulator of plant root endosymbiosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sylvia; Parniske, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The key molecular event during the development of arbuscular mycorrhiza and the root nodule symbiosis is the activation of calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK). Its regulation is complex and involves positive as well as negative regulation facilitated by autophosphorylation of two conserved sites. Deregulated versions of CCaMK are sufficient for mediating both organogenesis and infection processes. Epistasis tests demonstrated that a main function of signaling components upstream of calcium spiking is the activation of CCaMK. Despite CCaMK being a central signaling hub, specificity for both symbioses exists, resulting in differential transcriptional gene expression patterns. While the specificity upstream of CCaMK can be conceptualized by the specific perception of rhizobial and fungal lipo-chitooligosaccharides via cognate LysM receptors, the mechanisms conferring transcriptional specificity downstream of CCaMK are likely conferred by a variety of transcriptional regulators, mediating symbiosis appropriate gene regulation.

  13. Inhibitory effects of KN-93, an inhibitor of Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, on light-regulated root gravitropism in maize.

    PubMed

    Lu Y-T; Feldman, L J; Hidaka, H

    1993-01-01

    Light is essential for root gravitropism in Zea mays L., cultivar Merit. It is hypothesized that calcium mediates this light-regulated response. KN-93, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMK II), inhibits light-regulated root gravitropism but does not affect light perception. We hypothesize that CaMK II, or a homologue, operates late in the light/gravity signal transduction chain. Here we provide evidence suggesting a possible physiological involvement of CaMK II in root gravitropism in plants.

  14. Inhibitory effects of KN-93, an inhibitor of Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, on light-regulated root gravitropism in maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, L. J.; Hidaka, H.

    1993-01-01

    Light is essential for root gravitropism in Zea mays L., cultivar Merit. It is hypothesized that calcium mediates this light-regulated response. KN-93, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMK II), inhibits light-regulated root gravitropism but does not affect light perception. We hypothesize that CaMK II, or a homologue, operates late in the light/gravity signal transduction chain. Here we provide evidence suggesting a possible physiological involvement of CaMK II in root gravitropism in plants.

  15. Inhibitory effects of KN-93, an inhibitor of Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, on light-regulated root gravitropism in maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, L. J.; Hidaka, H.

    1993-01-01

    Light is essential for root gravitropism in Zea mays L., cultivar Merit. It is hypothesized that calcium mediates this light-regulated response. KN-93, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMK II), inhibits light-regulated root gravitropism but does not affect light perception. We hypothesize that CaMK II, or a homologue, operates late in the light/gravity signal transduction chain. Here we provide evidence suggesting a possible physiological involvement of CaMK II in root gravitropism in plants.

  16. The CBL-Interacting Protein Kinase CIPK23 Regulates HAK5-Mediated High-Affinity K+ Uptake in Arabidopsis Roots.

    PubMed

    Ragel, Paula; Ródenas, Reyes; García-Martín, Elena; Andrés, Zaida; Villalta, Irene; Nieves-Cordones, Manuel; Rivero, Rosa M; Martínez, Vicente; Pardo, Jose M; Quintero, Francisco J; Rubio, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Plant growth and development requires efficient acquisition of essential elements. Potassium (K(+)) is an important macronutrient present in the soil solution at a wide range of concentrations. Regulation of the K(+) uptake systems in the roots is essential to secure K(+) supply. It has been shown in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that when the external K(+) concentration is very low (<10 µm), K(+) nutrition depends exclusively on the high-affinity K(+) transporter5 (HAK5). Low-K(+)-induced transcriptional activation of the gene encoding HAK5 has been previously reported. Here, we show the posttranscriptional regulation of HAK5 transport activity by phosphorylation. Expression in a heterologous system showed that the Ca(2+) sensors calcineurin B-like (CBL1), CBL8, CBL9, and CBL10, together with CBL-interacting protein kinase23 (CIPK23), activated HAK5 in vivo. This activation produced an increase in the affinity and the Vmax of K(+) transport. In vitro experiments show that the N terminus of HAK5 is phosphorylated by CIPK23. This supports the idea that phosphorylation of HAK5 induces a conformational change that increases its affinity for K(+). Experiments of K(+) (Rb(+)) uptake and growth measurements in low-K(+) medium with Arabidopsis single mutants hak5, akt1, and cipk23, double mutants hak5 akt1, hak5 cipk23, and akt1 cipk23, and the triple mutant hak5 akt1 cipk23 confirmed the regulatory role of CIPK23 in planta.

  17. A Novel Plant Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor Kinase Regulates the Response of Medicago truncatula Roots to Salt Stress[W

    PubMed Central

    de Lorenzo, Laura; Merchan, Francisco; Laporte, Philippe; Thompson, Richard; Clarke, Jonathan; Sousa, Carolina; Crespi, Martín

    2009-01-01

    In plants, a diverse group of cell surface receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) plays a fundamental role in sensing external signals to regulate gene expression. Roots explore the soil environment to optimize their growth via complex signaling cascades, mainly analyzed in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, legume roots have significant physiological differences, notably their capacity to establish symbiotic interactions. These major agricultural crops are affected by environmental stresses such as salinity. Here, we report the identification of a leucine-rich repeat RLK gene, Srlk, from the legume Medicago truncatula. Srlk is rapidly induced by salt stress in roots, and RNA interference (RNAi) assays specifically targeting Srlk yielded transgenic roots whose growth was less inhibited by the presence of salt in the medium. Promoter-β-glucuronidase fusions indicate that this gene is expressed in epidermal root tissues in response to salt stress. Two Srlk-TILLING mutants also failed to limit root growth in response to salt stress and accumulated fewer sodium ions than controls. Furthermore, early salt-regulated genes are downregulated in Srlk-RNAi roots and in the TILLING mutant lines when submitted to salt stress. We propose a role for Srlk in the regulation of the adaptation of M. truncatula roots to salt stress. PMID:19244136

  18. Involvement of YODA and mitogen activated protein kinase 6 in Arabidopsis post-embryogenic root development through auxin up-regulation and cell division plane orientation

    PubMed Central

    Smékalová, Veronika; Luptovčiak, Ivan; Komis, George; Šamajová, Olga; Ovečka, Miroslav; Doskočilová, Anna; Takáč, Tomáš; Vadovič, Pavol; Novák, Ondřej; Pechan, Tibor; Ziemann, Anja; Košútová, Petra; Šamaj, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Summary The role of YODA MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASE KINASE 4 (MAPKKK4) upstream of MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 6 (MPK6) was studied during post-embryonic root development of Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss- and gain-of-function mutants of YODA (yda1 and ΔNyda1) were characterized in terms of root patterning, endogenous auxin content and global proteomes.We surveyed morphological and cellular phenotypes of yda1 and ΔNyda1 mutants suggesting possible involvement of auxin. Endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were up-regulated in both mutants. Proteomic analysis revealed up-regulation of auxin biosynthetic enzymes tryptophan synthase and nitrilases in these mutants. The expression, abundance and phosphorylation of MPK3, MPK6 and MICROTUBULE ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 65–1 (MAP65-1) were characterized by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analyses and interactions between MAP65-1, microtubules and MPK6 were resolved by quantitative co-localization studies and co-immunoprecipitations.yda1 and ΔNyda1 mutants showed disoriented cell divisions in primary and lateral roots, abortive cytokinesis, and differential subcellular localization of MPK6 and MAP65-1. They also showed deregulated expression of TANGLED1 (TAN1), PHRAGMOPLAST ORIENTING KINESIN 1 (POK1), and GAMMA TUBULIN COMPLEX PROTEIN 4 (GCP4).The findings that MPK6 localized to preprophase bands (PPBs) and phragmoplasts while the mpk6-4 mutant transformed with MPK6AEF (alanine (A)–glutamic acid (E)–phenylanine (F)) showed a root phenotype similar to that of yda1 demonstrated that MPK6 is an important player downstream of YODA. These data indicate that YODA and MPK6 are involved in post-embryonic root development through an auxin-dependent mechanism regulating cell division and mitotic microtubule (PPB and phragmoplast) organization. PMID:24923680

  19. The receptor-like kinases GSO1 and GSO2 together regulate root growth in Arabidopsis through control of cell division and cell fate specification.

    PubMed

    Racolta, Adriana; Bryan, Anthony C; Tax, Frans E

    2014-02-01

    The root apical meristem of Arabidopsis is established post-embryonically as the main source of root cells, and its activity is maintained by complex bidirectional signaling between stem cells and mature cells. The receptor-like kinases GASSHO1 (GSO1) and GSO2 have been shown to regulate aerial epidermal function and seedling growth in Arabidopsis. Here we show that gso1; gso2 seedlings also have root growth and patterning defects. Analyses of mutant root morphology indicate abnormal numbers of cells in longitudinal files and radial cell layers, as well as aberrant stem cell division planes. gso1; gso2 double mutants misexpress markers for stem cells and differentiated root cell types. In addition, gso1; gso2 root growth defects, but not marker missexpression or patterning phenotypes, are rescued by growth on media containing metabolizable sugars. We conclude that GSO1 and GSO2 function together in intercellular signaling to positively regulate cell proliferation, differentiation of root cell types, and stem cell identity. In addition, GSO1 and GSO2 control seedling root growth by modulating sucrose response after germination. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Arabidopsis phosphatidylinositol monophosphate 5-kinase 2 is involved in root gravitropism through regulation of polar auxin transport by affecting the cycling of PIN proteins.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yu; Jia, Wen-Jing; Chu, Yu-Jia; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2012-03-01

    Phosphatidylinositol monophosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) catalyzes the synthesis of PI-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)) by phosphorylation of PI-4-phosphate at the 5 position of the inositol ring, and is involved in regulating multiple developmental processes and stress responses. We here report on the functional characterization of Arabidopsis PIP5K2, which is expressed during lateral root initiation and elongation, and whose expression is enhanced by exogenous auxin. The knockout mutant pip5k2 shows reduced lateral root formation, which could be recovered with exogenous auxin, and interestingly, delayed root gravity response that could not be recovered with exogenous auxin. Crossing with the DR5-GUS marker line and measurement of free IAA content confirmed the reduced auxin accumulation in pip5k2. In addition, analysis using the membrane-selective dye FM4-64 revealed the decelerated vesicle trafficking caused by PtdIns(4,5)P(2) reduction, which hence results in suppressed cycling of PIN proteins (PIN2 and 3), and delayed redistribution of PIN2 and auxin under gravistimulation in pip5k2 roots. On the contrary, PtdIns(4,5)P(2) significantly enhanced the vesicle trafficking and cycling of PIN proteins. These results demonstrate that PIP5K2 is involved in regulating lateral root formation and root gravity response, and reveal a critical role of PIP5K2/PtdIns(4,5)P(2) in root development through regulation of PIN proteins, providing direct evidence of crosstalk between the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway and auxin response, and new insights into the control of polar auxin transport.

  1. A root-specific wall-associated kinase gene, HvWAK1, regulates root growth and is highly divergent in barley and other cereals.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravneet; Singh, Kashmir; Singh, Jaswinder

    2013-06-01

    Wall-associated receptor-like kinases (WAKs) are important candidates for directly linking the extracellular matrix with intracellular compartments and are involved in developmental processes and stress response. WAK gene family has been identified in plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the WAK1 gene from barley cv. Golden Promise, mapped to chromosome 5H. Three BAC clones corresponding to the WAK fragment were sequenced and the full-length WAK1 gene was characterized. The gene has three exons and two short introns with a coding region of 2,178 bp encoding a protein of 725 amino acids. A regulatory region was analyzed in -1,000 bp sequence upstream to start codon. Using conserved domains database and SMART, various conserved domains such as GUB WAK Bind, epidermal growth factor CA, and protein kinase C as well as other regions like signal peptides, active sites, and transmembrane domains were identified. The gene organization of HvWAK1 was compared with wheat (TaWAK1) and Arabidopsis (AtWAK1), suggesting that the WAK1 gene organization has remained highly conserved. Nonetheless, WAK1 was found to be highly divergent when compared with sequences available from barley cv. Haruna Nijo (50 %), rice (46 %), wheat (21 %), Arabidopsis (25 %), and maize (19 %). This divergence may have facilitated a better adaptation to surrounding environments due to its role in communication between the extracellular matrix, cell, and outer environment. Semiquantitative RT-PCR-based expression analysis indicates HvWAK1 expression is specific to roots. Significant differences in root growth between GP wild type and GP-Ds mutant seedlings were observed under control and salt stress conditions.

  2. The regulation of exon-specific brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression by protein kinase C in rat cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Norimitsu; Yoshida, Yosuke; Nakamura, Yoki; Hidaka, Nobue; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Nakata, Yoshihiro

    2013-05-06

    Although brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is localized in primary sensory neurons and has crucial roles in nociceptive transduction, the mechanisms involved in regulation of BDNF exon-specific mRNA expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons have yet to be determined. Rat primary cultures of DRG neurons were stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), a potent activator of protein kinase C (PKC), which resulted in the robust expression of both BDNF mRNA and protein. Among each BDNF mRNA exon, it was found that exons I, IV and VI were especially induced after PMA stimulation. The induction of these exons was significantly blocked by Gö6983 (a broad spectrum PKC inhibitor), Gö6976 (a conventional PKCs and PKCμ inhibitor), and rottlerin (a PKCδ inhibitor), but not by a PKCε inhibitor. The effect of PMA on exons I and VI was blocked by either U0126 (a MAP kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor) or SB202190 (a p38 inhibitor), and PMA's effect on exon IV was inhibited by U0126 but not by SB202190. Furthermore, the activation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) was associated with the induction of exons I and IV, and the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) contributed to the induction of exons I, IV and VI. These results show that the activation of PKCs induces the expression of BDNF mRNA exons I, IV and VI through exon-specific mechanisms, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, CREB and NF-κB, in cultured DRG neurons. These data suggest multiple pathways in the expression of BDNF in nociceptive sensory neurons.

  3. The CBL-Interacting Protein Kinase CIPK23 Regulates HAK5-Mediated High-Affinity K+ Uptake in Arabidopsis Roots1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ragel, Paula; Ródenas, Reyes; García-Martín, Elena; Andrés, Zaida; Villalta, Irene; Nieves-Cordones, Manuel; Martínez, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth and development requires efficient acquisition of essential elements. Potassium (K+) is an important macronutrient present in the soil solution at a wide range of concentrations. Regulation of the K+ uptake systems in the roots is essential to secure K+ supply. It has been shown in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that when the external K+ concentration is very low (<10 µm), K+ nutrition depends exclusively on the high-affinity K+ transporter5 (HAK5). Low-K+-induced transcriptional activation of the gene encoding HAK5 has been previously reported. Here, we show the posttranscriptional regulation of HAK5 transport activity by phosphorylation. Expression in a heterologous system showed that the Ca2+ sensors calcineurin B-like (CBL1), CBL8, CBL9, and CBL10, together with CBL-interacting protein kinase23 (CIPK23), activated HAK5 in vivo. This activation produced an increase in the affinity and the Vmax of K+ transport. In vitro experiments show that the N terminus of HAK5 is phosphorylated by CIPK23. This supports the idea that phosphorylation of HAK5 induces a conformational change that increases its affinity for K+. Experiments of K+ (Rb+) uptake and growth measurements in low-K+ medium with Arabidopsis single mutants hak5, akt1, and cipk23, double mutants hak5 akt1, hak5 cipk23, and akt1 cipk23, and the triple mutant hak5 akt1 cipk23 confirmed the regulatory role of CIPK23 in planta. PMID:26474642

  4. Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

  5. PiHOG1, a stress regulator MAP kinase from the root endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica, confers salinity stress tolerance in rice plants

    PubMed Central

    Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Verma, Nidhi; Oelmüller, Ralf; Dua, Meenakshi; Nevo, Eviatar; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this study, yeast HOG1 homologue from the root endophyte Piriformospora indica (PiHOG1) was isolated and functionally characterized. Functional expression of PiHOG1 in S. cerevisiae ∆hog1 mutant restored osmotolerance under high osmotic stress. Knockdown (KD) transformants of PiHOG1 generated by RNA interference in P. indica showed that genes for the HOG pathway, osmoresponse and salinity tolerance were less stimulated in KD-PiHOG1 compared to the wild-type under salinity stress. Furthermore, KD lines are impaired in the colonization of rice roots under salinity stress of 200 mM NaCl, and the biomass of the host plants, their shoot and root lengths, root number, photosynthetic pigment and proline contents were reduced as compared to rice plants colonized by WT P. indica. Therefore, PiHOG1 is critical for root colonisation, salinity tolerance and the performance of the host plant under salinity stress. Moreover, downregulation of PiHOG1 resulted not only in reduced and delayed phosphorylation of the remaining PiHOG1 protein in colonized salinity-stressed rice roots, but also in the downregulation of the upstream MAP kinase genes PiPBS2 and PiSSK2 involved in salinity tolerance signalling in the fungus. Our data demonstrate that PiHOG1 is not only involved in the salinity response of P. indica, but also helping host plant to overcome salinity stress. PMID:27849025

  6. Adenosine kinase modulates root gravitropism and cap morphogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Young, Li-Sen; Harrison, Benjamin R; Narayana Murthy, U M; Moffatt, Barbara A; Gilroy, Simon; Masson, Patrick H

    2006-10-01

    Adenosine kinase (ADK) is a key enzyme that regulates intra- and extracellular levels of adenosine, thereby modulating methyltransferase reactions, production of polyamines and secondary compounds, and cell signaling in animals. Unfortunately, little is known about ADK's contribution to the regulation of plant growth and development. Here, we show that ADK is a modulator of root cap morphogenesis and gravitropism. Upon gravistimulation, soluble ADK levels and activity increase in the root tip. Mutation in one of two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ADK genes, ADK1, results in cap morphogenesis defects, along with alterations in root sensitivity to gravistimulation and slower kinetics of root gravitropic curvature. The kinetics defect can be partially rescued by adding spermine to the growth medium, whereas the defects in cap morphogenesis and gravitropic sensitivity cannot. The root morphogenesis and gravitropism defects of adk1-1 are accompanied by altered expression of the PIN3 auxin efflux facilitator in the cap and decreased expression of the auxin-responsive DR5-GUS reporter. Furthermore, PIN3 fails to relocalize to the bottom membrane of statocytes upon gravistimulation. Consequently, adk1-1 roots cannot develop a lateral auxin gradient across the cap, necessary for the curvature response. Interestingly, adk1-1 does not affect gravity-induced cytoplasmic alkalinization of the root statocytes, suggesting either that ADK1 functions between cytoplasmic alkalinization and PIN3 relocalization in a linear pathway or that the pH and PIN3-relocalization responses to gravistimulation belong to distinct branches of the pathway. Our data are consistent with a role for ADK and the S-adenosyl-L-methionine pathway in the control of root gravitropism and cap morphogenesis.

  7. Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase Genes in Corn Roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takezawa, D.; Patil, S.; Bhatia, A.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1996-01-01

    Two cDNAs encoding Ca-2(+) - Dependent Protein Kinases (CDPKs), Corn Root Protein Kinase 1 and 2 (CRPK 1, CRPK 2) were isolated from the root tip library of corn (Zea mays L., cv. Merit) and their nucleotide sequences were determined. Deduced amino acid sequences of both the clones have features characteristic of plant CDPKS, including all 11 conserved serine/threonine kinase subdomains, a junction domain and a calmodulin-like domain with four Ca-2(+), -binding sites. Northern analysis revealed that CRPKI mRNA is preferentially expressed in roots, especially in the root tip; whereas, the expression of CRPK2 mRNA was very low in all the tissues tested. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that CRPKI mRNA is highly expressed in the root apex, as compared to other parts of the root. Partially purified CDPK from the root tip phosphorylates syntide-2, a common peptide substrate for plant CDPKs, and the phosphorylation was stimulated 7-fold by the addition of Ca-2(+). Our results show that two CDPK isoforms are expressed in corn roots and they may be involved in the Ca-2(+)-dependent signal transduction process.

  8. Strigolactones are regulators of root development.

    PubMed

    Koltai, Hinanit

    2011-05-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) have been defined as a new group of plant hormones or their derivatives that suppress lateral shoot branching. Recently, a new role for SLs was discovered, in the regulation of root development. Strigolactones were shown to alter root architecture and affect root-hair elongation. Here, I review the recent findings regarding the effects of SLs on root growth and development, and their association with changes in auxin flux. The networking between SLs and other plant hormones that regulate root development is also presented. Strigolactone regulation of plant development suggests that they are coordinators of shoot and root development and mediators of plant responses to environmental conditions.

  9. Underground tuning: quantitative regulation of root growth.

    PubMed

    Satbhai, Santosh B; Ristova, Daniela; Busch, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    Plants display a high degree of phenotypic plasticity that allows them to tune their form and function to changing environments. The plant root system has evolved mechanisms to anchor the plant and to efficiently explore soils to forage for soil resources. Key to this is an enormous capacity for plasticity of multiple traits that shape the distribution of roots in the soil. Such root system architecture-related traits are determined by root growth rates, root growth direction, and root branching. In this review, we describe how the root system is constituted, and which mechanisms, pathways, and genes mainly regulate plasticity of the root system in response to environmental variation.

  10. An atlas of human kinase regulation.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, David; Jonikas, Mindaugas; Lawrence, Robert T; El Debs, Bachir; Selkrig, Joel; Typas, Athanasios; Villén, Judit; Santos, Silvia Dm; Beltrao, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    The coordinated regulation of protein kinases is a rapid mechanism that integrates diverse cues and swiftly determines appropriate cellular responses. However, our understanding of cellular decision-making has been limited by the small number of simultaneously monitored phospho-regulatory events. Here, we have estimated changes in activity in 215 human kinases in 399 conditions derived from a large compilation of phosphopeptide quantifications. This atlas identifies commonly regulated kinases as those that are central in the signaling network and defines the logic relationships between kinase pairs. Co-regulation along the conditions predicts kinase-complex and kinase-substrate associations. Additionally, the kinase regulation profile acts as a molecular fingerprint to identify related and opposing signaling states. Using this atlas, we identified essential mediators of stem cell differentiation, modulators of Salmonella infection, and new targets of AKT1. This provides a global view of human phosphorylation-based signaling and the necessary context to better understand kinase-driven decision-making. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  11. Cell wall-associated ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC 10, a proline-rich receptor-like kinase, is a negative modulator of Arabidopsis root hair growth

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Youra; Lee, Hyodong; Lee, Young-Sook; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell growth is restricted by the cell wall, and cell wall dynamics act as signals for the cytoplasmic and nuclear events of cell growth. Among various receptor kinases, ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC 10 (RHS10) belongs to a poorly known receptor kinase subfamily with a proline-rich extracellular domain. Here, we report that RHS10 defines the root hair length of Arabidopsis thaliana by negatively regulating hair growth. RHS10 modulates the duration of root hair growth rather than the growth rate. As poplar and rice RHS10 orthologs also showed a root hair-inhibitory function, this receptor kinase-mediated function appears to be conserved in angiosperms. RHS10 showed a strong association with the cell wall, most probably through its extracellular proline-rich domain (ECD). Deletion analysis of the ECD demonstrated that a minimal extracellular part, which includes a few proline residues, is required for RHS10-mediated root hair inhibition. RHS10 suppressed the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the root, which are necessary for root hair growth. A yeast two-hybrid screening identified an RNase (RNS2) as a putative downstream target of RHS10. Accordingly, RHS10 overexpression decreased and RHS10 loss increased RNA levels in the hair-growing root region. Our results suggest that RHS10 mediates cell wall-associated signals to maintain proper root hair length, at least in part by regulating RNA catabolism and ROS accumulation. PMID:26884603

  12. Morphine activates the E twenty six-like transcription factor-1/serum response factor pathway via extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 in F11 cells derived from dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Kathrin; Solinski, Hans Jürgen; Boekhoff, Ingrid; Gudermann, Thomas; Breit, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Morphine-induced signaling via opioid receptors (ORs) in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, the spinal cord, and various brain regions has been shown to modulate gene activity. Hitherto, little attention has been paid to extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2 (ERK-1/2)-mediated activation of the serum response factor (SRF) and ternary complex factors (TCFs) such as the E twenty six-like transcription factor-1 (ELK-1) in this context. Using TCF/SRF-dependent reporter gene constructs, a specific ERK-1/2 inhibitor and a dominant-negative ELK-1 mutant, we show herein that morphine activates ELK-1 via ERK-1/2 in DRG-derived F11 cells endogenously expressing μ and δ ORs. Previous studies with glioma cell lines such as NG108-15 cells attributed morphine-induced gene expression to the activation of the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). Thus, we also analyzed morphine-dependent activation of CREB in F11 and NG108-15 cells. In contrast to the CREB stimulation found in NG108-15 cells, we observed an inhibitory effect of morphine in F11 cells, indicating cell type-specific regulation of CREB by morphine. To obtain data about putative target genes of morphine-induced ELK-1/SRF activation, we analyzed mRNA levels of 15 ELK-1/SRF-dependent genes in cultured rat DRG neurons and F11 cells. We identified the early growth response protein-4 (EGR-4) as the strongest up-regulated gene in both cell types and observed ELK-1 activity-dependent activation of an EGR-4-driven reporter in F11 cells. Overall, we reveal an important role of ELK-1 for morphine-dependent gene induction in DRG-derived cells and propose that ELK-1 and EGR-4 contribute to the effects of morphine on neuronal plasticity.

  13. Spatial gradients in kinase cascade regulation.

    PubMed

    Kazmierczak, B; Lipniacki, T

    2010-11-01

    The spatiotemporal kinetics of proteins and other substrates regulate cell fate and signaling. In this study, we consider a reaction-diffusion model of interaction of membrane receptors with a two-step kinase cascade. The receptors activate the 'up-stream' kinase, which may diffuse over cell volume and activate the 'down-stream' kinase, which is also diffusing. Both kinase species and receptors are inactivated by uniformly distributed phosphatases. The positive feedback, key to the considered dynamics, arises since the up-stream kinase activates the receptors. Such a mutual interaction is characteristic for immune cell receptors. Based on the proposed model, we demonstrated that cell sensitivity (measured as a critical value of phosphatase activity at which cell maybe activated) increases with decreasing motility of receptor-interacting kinases and with increasing polarity of receptors distribution. These two effects are cooperating, the effect of receptors localisation close to one pole of the cell grows with the decreasing kinase diffusion and vanishes in the infinite diffusion limit. As the cell sensitivity increases with decreasing diffusion of receptor-interacting kinase, the overall activity of the down-stream kinase increases with its diffusion. In conclusion, the analysis of the proposed model shows that, for the fixed substrate interaction rates, spatial distribution of the surface receptors together with the motility of intracellular kinases control cell signalling and sensitivity to extracellular signals. The increase of the cell sensitivity can be achieved by (i) localisation of receptors in a small subdomain of the cell membrane, (ii) lowering the motility of receptor-interacting kinase, (iii) increasing the motility of down-stream kinases which distribute the signal over the whole cell.

  14. Effects of DA-9701, a Novel Prokinetic Agent, on Phosphorylated Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Expression in the Dorsal Root Ganglion and Spinal Cord Induced by Colorectal Distension in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Pyo; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Hang Lak; Jun, Dae Won; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon; Hwang, Se Jin; Lee, Seo Eun

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims DA-9701, a standardized extract of Pharbitis Semen and Corydalis Tuber, is a new prokinetic agent that exhibits an analgesic effect on the abdomen. We investigated whether DA-9701 affects visceral pain induced by colorectal distension (CRD) in rats. Methods A total of 21 rats were divided into three groups: group A (no CRD+no drug), group B (CRD+no drug), and group C (CRD+DA-9701). Expression of pain-related factors, substance P (SP), c-fos, and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord was determined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. Results The proportions of neurons in the DRG and spinal cord expressing SP, c-fos, and p-ERK were higher in group B than in group A. In the group C, the proportion of neurons in the DRG and spinal cord expressing p-ERK was lower than that in group B. Western blot results for p-ERK in the spinal cord indicated a higher level of expression in group B than in group A and a lower level of expression in group C than in group B. Conclusions DA-9701 may decrease visceral pain via the downregulation of p-ERK in the DRG and spinal cord. PMID:24672654

  15. Regulation of polar auxin transport by protein and lipid kinases

    PubMed Central

    Jaillais, Yvon

    2016-01-01

    The directional transport of auxin, known as polar auxin transport, allows asymmetric distribution of this hormone in different cells and tissues. This system creates local auxin maxima, minima and gradients that are instrumental in both organ initiation and shape determination. As such, polar auxin transport is crucial for all aspects of plant development but also for environmental interaction, notably in shaping plant architecture to its environment. Cell-to-cell auxin transport is mediated by a network of auxin carriers that are regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. Here we review our current knowledge on some aspects of the ‘non-genomic’ regulation of auxin transport, putting an emphasis on how phosphorylation by protein and lipid kinases controls the polarity, intracellular trafficking, stability and activity of auxin carriers. We describe the role of several AGC kinases, including PINOID, D6PK and the blue light photoreceptor phot1, in phosphorylating auxin carriers from the PIN and ABCB families. We also highlight the function of some Receptor-Like Kinases (RLK) and two-component histidine kinase receptors in polar auxin transport, noticing that there are likely RLKs involved in coordinating auxin distribution yet to be discovered. In addition, we describe the emerging role of phospholipid phosphorylation in polarity establishment and intracellular trafficking of PIN proteins. We outline these various phosphorylation mechanisms in the context of primary and lateral root development, leaf cell shape acquisition as well as root gravitropism and shoot phototropism. PMID:27242371

  16. Up-regulation of low-threshold tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ current via activation of a cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway in nociceptor-like rat dorsal root ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Scroggs, R S

    2011-07-14

    The effects of forskolin on low-threshold tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-r) Na(+) currents was studied in small diameter (average ≈ 25 μm) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells. All DRG cells included in the study were categorized as type-2 or non-type-2 based on the expression of a low-threshold A-current. In all type-2 and some non-type-2 DRG cells held at -80 mV, the adenylyl cyclase (AC) activator forskolin (10 μM) up-regulated TTX-r Na(+) currents evoked with steps to -55 mV through -35 mV (low-threshold current). Up-regulation of low-threshold current by forskolin was mimicked by the protein kinase A (PKA) agonist Sp-cAMPs and the inflammatory mediator serotonin, and blocked by the PKA antagonist Rp-cAMPs. Forskolin-induced up-regulation of low-threshold current evoked from a holding potential of -60 mV was blocked by 40 ms steps to 0 mV, which presumably induced a long lasting inactivation of the low-threshold channels. Reducing to 3 ms the duration of steps to 0 mV, significantly increased the number of DRG cells where low-threshold current was up-regulated by forskolin, presumably by reducing the long-lasting inactivation of the low-threshold channels. In the same cells, high-threshold current, evoked by 40 ms or 3 ms steps to 0 mV, was consistently up-regulated by forskolin. The selective Na(V)1.8 channel blocker A-803467 markedly blocked high-threshold current but not low-threshold current. The different voltage protocols observed to activate and inactivate the low- and high-threshold currents, and the observation that A-803467 blocked high- but not low-threshold current suggests that the two currents were mediated by different channels, possibly Na(V)1.8 and Na(V)1.9, respectively. Inflammatory mediators may simultaneously up-regulate Na(V)1.8 and Na(V)1.9 channels in the same nociceptor via a AC/PKA signaling pathway, increasing nociceptor signaling strength, and lowering nociceptor threshold, respectively.

  17. Brassinosteroids Regulate Root Growth, Development, and Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhuoyun; Li, Jia

    2016-01-04

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are natural plant hormones critical for growth and development. BR deficient or signaling mutants show significantly shortened root phenotypes. However, for a long time, it was thought that these phenotypes were solely caused by reduced cell elongation in the mutant roots. Functions of BRs in regulating root development have been largely neglected. Nonetheless, recent detailed analyses, revealed that BRs are not only involved in root cell elongation but are also involved in many aspects of root development, such as maintenance of meristem size, root hair formation, lateral root initiation, gravitropic response, mycorrhiza formation, and nodulation in legume species. In this review, current findings on the functions of BRs in mediating root growth, development, and symbiosis are discussed.

  18. Differential regulation of rice mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MKK) by abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kundan; Rao, Kudupudi Prabhakara; Sharma, Pallavi; Sinha, Alok Krishna

    2008-10-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinase cascade plays a crucial role in various biotic and abiotic stresses, hormones, cell division and developmental processes. MAP kinase kinase being integral part of this cascade performs an important function of integrating upstream signals to mitogen activated protein kinase for further appropriate cellular responses. We here report cloning of five MAP kinase kinase members from Oryza sativa indica cultivar var. Pusa Basmati 1, namely MAP kinase kinases 1, 3, 4, 6 and 10-2. All these members, except MKK10-2 possess fully canonical motif structures of MAP kinase kinase. The deduced amino acid sequence showed changes at certain position within japonica and indica variety of rice. Analysis of transcript regulation by quantitative real time PCR revealed that these five members are differentially regulated by cold, heat, salinity and drought stresses. MAP kinase kinases 4 and 6 are strongly regulated by cold and salt stresses while MAP kinase kinase 1 is regulated by salt and drought stresses. MAP kinase kinase 10-2 is regulated only by cold stress. The study provides the indication of involvement of specific MAP kinase kinase in different abiotic stress signaling and also possible cross talks that exist during the signaling processes.

  19. CLE peptides regulate lateral root development in response to nitrogen nutritional status of plants.

    PubMed

    Araya, Takao; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Takahashi, Hideki

    2014-05-23

    CLE (CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION (ESR)) peptides control meristem functions in plants. Our recent study highlights the critical role of a peptide-receptor signaling module composed of nitrogen (N)-responsive CLE peptides and the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase in controlling lateral root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. CLE1, -3, -4 and -7 are expressed in root pericycle cells in Arabidopsis roots under N-limited growth conditions. Overexpression of these CLE genes inhibits lateral root emergence from the primary root. The inhibitory action of N-responsive CLE peptides on lateral root development requires the function of CLV1 expressed in phloem companion cells in roots, suggesting that downstream signals are transferred through phloem for systemic regulation of root system architecture. An additional mechanism downstream of CLV1 feedback-regulates transcript levels of N-responsive CLE genes in roots for fine-tuning the signal amplitude.

  20. CLE peptides regulate lateral root development in response to nitrogen nutritional status of plants.

    PubMed

    Araya, Takao; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Takahashi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    CLE (CLAVATA3/embryo surrounding region (ESR)) peptides control meristem functions in plants. Our recent study highlights the critical role of a peptide-receptor signaling module composed of nitrogen (N)-responsive CLE peptides and the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase in controlling lateral root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. CLE1, -3, -4 and -7 are expressed in root pericycle cells in Arabidopsis roots under N-limited growth conditions. Overexpression of these CLE genes inhibits lateral root emergence from the primary root. The inhibitory action of N-responsive CLE peptides on lateral root development requires the function of CLV1 expressed in phloem companion cells in roots, suggesting that downstream signals are transferred through phloem for systemic regulation of root system architecture. An additional mechanism downstream of CLV1 feedback-regulates transcript levels of N-responsive CLE genes in roots for fine-tuning the signal amplitude.

  1. A MAP Kinase Kinase Interacts with SymRK and Regulates Nodule Organogenesis in Lotus japonicus[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Zhu, Hui; Ke, Danxia; Cai, Kai; Wang, Chao; Gou, Honglan; Hong, Zonglie; Zhang, Zhongming

    2012-01-01

    The symbiosis receptor kinase, SymRK, is required for root nodule development. A SymRK-interacting protein (SIP2) was found to form protein complex with SymRK in vitro and in planta. The interaction between SymRK and SIP2 is conserved in legumes. The SIP2 gene was expressed in all Lotus japonicus tissues examined. SIP2 represents a typical plant mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) and exhibited autophosphorylation and transphosphorylation activities. Recombinant SIP2 protein could phosphorylate casein and the Arabidopsis thaliana MAP kinase MPK6. SymRK and SIP2 could not use one another as a substrate for phosphorylation. Instead, SymRK acted as an inhibitor of SIP2 kinase when MPK6 was used as a substrate, suggesting that SymRK may serve as a negative regulator of the SIP2 signaling pathway. Knockdown expression of SIP2 via RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in drastic reduction of nodules formed in transgenic hairy roots. A significant portion of SIP2 RNAi hairy roots failed to form a nodule. In these roots, the expression levels of SIP2 and three marker genes for infection thread and nodule primordium formation were downregulated drastically, while the expression of two other MAPKK genes were not altered. These observations demonstrate an essential role of SIP2 in the early symbiosis signaling and nodule organogenesis. PMID:22353370

  2. Adenosine Kinase Modulates Root Gravitropism and Cap Morphogenesis in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Young, Li-Sen; Harrison, Benjamin R.; U.M., Narayana Murthy; Moffatt, Barbara A.; Gilroy, Simon; Masson, Patrick H.

    2006-01-01

    Adenosine kinase (ADK) is a key enzyme that regulates intra- and extracellular levels of adenosine, thereby modulating methyltransferase reactions, production of polyamines and secondary compounds, and cell signaling in animals. Unfortunately, little is known about ADK's contribution to the regulation of plant growth and development. Here, we show that ADK is a modulator of root cap morphogenesis and gravitropism. Upon gravistimulation, soluble ADK levels and activity increase in the root tip. Mutation in one of two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ADK genes, ADK1, results in cap morphogenesis defects, along with alterations in root sensitivity to gravistimulation and slower kinetics of root gravitropic curvature. The kinetics defect can be partially rescued by adding spermine to the growth medium, whereas the defects in cap morphogenesis and gravitropic sensitivity cannot. The root morphogenesis and gravitropism defects of adk1-1 are accompanied by altered expression of the PIN3 auxin efflux facilitator in the cap and decreased expression of the auxin-responsive DR5-GUS reporter. Furthermore, PIN3 fails to relocalize to the bottom membrane of statocytes upon gravistimulation. Consequently, adk1-1 roots cannot develop a lateral auxin gradient across the cap, necessary for the curvature response. Interestingly, adk1-1 does not affect gravity-induced cytoplasmic alkalinization of the root statocytes, suggesting either that ADK1 functions between cytoplasmic alkalinization and PIN3 relocalization in a linear pathway or that the pH and PIN3-relocalization responses to gravistimulation belong to distinct branches of the pathway. Our data are consistent with a role for ADK and the S-adenosyl-l-methionine pathway in the control of root gravitropism and cap morphogenesis. PMID:16891550

  3. Gene expression regulation in roots under drought.

    PubMed

    Janiak, Agnieszka; Kwaśniewski, Mirosław; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-02-01

    Stress signalling and regulatory networks controlling expression of target genes are the basis of plant response to drought. Roots are the first organs exposed to water deficiency in the soil and are the place of drought sensing. Signalling cascades transfer chemical signals toward the shoot and initiate molecular responses that lead to the biochemical and morphological changes that allow plants to be protected against water loss and to tolerate stress conditions. Here, we present an overview of signalling network and gene expression regulation pathways that are actively induced in roots under drought stress. In particular, the role of several transcription factor (TF) families, including DREB, AP2/ERF, NAC, bZIP, MYC, CAMTA, Alfin-like and Q-type ZFP, in the regulation of root response to drought are highlighted. The information provided includes available data on mutual interactions between these TFs together with their regulation by plant hormones and other signalling molecules. The most significant downstream target genes and molecular processes that are controlled by the regulatory factors are given. These data are also coupled with information about the influence of the described regulatory networks on root traits and root development which may translate to enhanced drought tolerance. This is the first literature survey demonstrating the gene expression regulatory machinery that is induced by drought stress, presented from the perspective of roots.

  4. PAS kinase: a nutrient sensing regulator of glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    DeMille, Desiree; Grose, Julianne H

    2013-11-01

    Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) kinase (PASK, PASKIN, and PSK) is a member of the group of nutrient sensing protein kinases. These protein kinases sense the energy or nutrient status of the cell and regulate cellular metabolism appropriately. PAS kinase responds to glucose availability and regulates glucose homeostasis in yeast, mice, and man. Despite this pivotal role, the molecular mechanisms of PAS kinase regulation and function are largely unknown. This review focuses on what is known about PAS kinase, including its conservation from yeast to man, identified substrates, associated phenotypes and role in metabolic disease.

  5. PINOID functions in root phototropism as a negative regulator.

    PubMed

    Haga, Ken; Sakai, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    The PINOID (PID) family, which belongs to AGCVIII kinases, is known to be involved in the regulation of auxin efflux transporter PIN-formed (PIN) proteins through changes in the phosphorylation status. Recently, we demonstrated that the PID family is necessary for phytochrome-mediated phototropic enhancement in Arabidopsis hypocotyls and that the downregulation of PID expression by red-light pretreatment results in the promotion of the PIN-mediated auxin gradient during phototropic responses. However, whether PID participates in root phototropism in Arabidopsis seedlings has not been well studied. Here, we demonstrated that negative root phototropic responses are enhanced in the pid quadruple mutant and are severely impaired in transgenic plants expressing PID constitutively. The results indicate that the PID family functions in a negative root phototropism as a negative regulator. On the other hand, analysis with PID fused to a yellow fluorescent protein, VENUS, showed that unilateral blue-light irradiation causes a lower accumulation of PID proteins on the shaded side than on the irradiated side. This result suggests that the blue-light-mediated asymmetrical distribution of PID proteins may be one of the critical responses in phototropin-mediated signals during a negative root phototropism. Alternatively, such a transverse gradient of PID proteins may result from gravitropic stimulation produced by phototropic bending.

  6. PINOID functions in root phototropism as a negative regulator

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Ken; Sakai, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    The PINOID (PID) family, which belongs to AGCVIII kinases, is known to be involved in the regulation of auxin efflux transporter PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins through changes in the phosphorylation status. Recently, we demonstrated that the PID family is necessary for phytochrome-mediated phototropic enhancement in Arabidopsis hypocotyls and that the downregulation of PID expression by red-light pretreatment results in the promotion of the PIN-mediated auxin gradient during phototropic responses. However, whether PID participates in root phototropism in Arabidopsis seedlings has not been well studied. Here, we demonstrated that negative root phototropic responses are enhanced in the pid quadruple mutant and are severely impaired in transgenic plants expressing PID constitutively. The results indicate that the PID family functions in a negative root phototropism as a negative regulator. On the other hand, analysis with PID fused to a yellow fluorescent protein, VENUS, showed that unilateral blue-light irradiation causes a lower accumulation of PID proteins on the shaded side than on the irradiated side. This result suggests that the blue-light-mediated asymmetrical distribution of PID proteins may be one of the critical responses in phototropin-mediated signals during a negative root phototropism. Alternatively, such a transverse gradient of PID proteins may result from gravitropic stimulation produced by phototropic bending. PMID:26039488

  7. Contribution of Malic Enzyme, Pyruvate Kinase, Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase, and the Krebs Cycle to Respiration and Biosynthesis and to Intracellular pH Regulation during Hypoxia in Maize Root Tips Observed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry1

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Shaune; Nguyen, Bich-Ty; Do, Binh; Roberts, Justin K.M.

    1998-01-01

    In vivo pyruvate synthesis by malic enzyme (ME) and pyruvate kinase and in vivo malate synthesis by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and the Krebs cycle were measured by 13C incorporation from [1-13C]glucose into glucose-6-phosphate, alanine, glutamate, aspartate, and malate. These metabolites were isolated from maize (Zea mays L.) root tips under aerobic and hypoxic conditions. 13C-Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to discern the positional isotopic distribution within each metabolite. This information was applied to a simple precursor-product model that enabled calculation of specific metabolic fluxes. In respiring root tips, ME was found to contribute only approximately 3% of the pyruvate synthesized, whereas pyruvate kinase contributed the balance. The activity of ME increased greater than 6-fold early in hypoxia, and then declined coincident with depletion of cytosolic malate and aspartate. We found that in respiring root tips, anaplerotic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity was high relative to ME, and therefore did not limit synthesis of pyruvate by ME. The significance of in vivo pyruvate synthesis by ME is discussed with respect to malate and pyruvate utilization by isolated mitochondria and intracellular pH regulation under hypoxia. PMID:9501140

  8. Microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4: structure, function, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Naz, Farha; Anjum, Farah; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2013-11-01

    MAP/Microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4 (MARK4) belongs to the family of serine/threonine kinases that phosphorylate the microtubule-associated proteins (MAP) causing their detachment from the microtubules thereby increasing microtubule dynamics and facilitating cell division, cell cycle control, cell polarity determination, cell shape alterations, etc. The MARK4 gene encodes two alternatively spliced isoforms, L and S that differ in their C-terminal region. These isoforms are differentially regulated in human tissues including central nervous system. MARK4L is a 752-residue-long polypeptide that is divided into three distinct domains: (1) protein kinase domain (59-314), (2) ubiquitin-associated domain (322-369), and (3) kinase-associated domain (703-752) plus 54 residues (649-703) involved in the proper folding and function of the enzyme. In addition, residues 65-73 are considered to be the ATP-binding domain and Lys88 is considered as ATP-binding site. Asp181 has been proposed to be the active site of MARK4 that is activated by phosphorylation of Thr214 side chain. The isoform MARK4S is highly expressed in the normal brain and is presumably involved in neuronal differentiation. On the other hand, the isoform MARK4L is upregulated in hepatocarcinoma cells and gliomas suggesting its involvement in cell cycle. Several biological functions are also associated with MARK4 including microtubule bundle formation, nervous system development, and positive regulation of programmed cell death. Therefore, MARK4 is considered as the most suitable target for structure-based rational drug design. Our sequence, structure- and function-based analysis should be helpful for better understanding of mechanisms of regulation of microtubule dynamics and MARK4 associated diseases.

  9. Diacylglycerol kinase θ: regulation and stability.

    PubMed

    Tu-Sekine, Becky; Goldschmidt, Hana; Petro, Elizabeth; Raben, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    Given the well-established roles of diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) in a variety of signaling cascades, it is not surprising that there is an increasing interest in understanding their physiological roles and mechanisms that regulate their cellular levels. One class of enzymes capable of coordinately regulating the levels of these two lipids is the diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs). These enzymes catalyze the transfer of the γ-phosphate of ATP to the hydroxyl group of DAG, which generates PtdOH while reducing DAG. As these enzymes reciprocally modulate the relative levels of these two signaling lipids, it is essential to understand the regulation and roles of these enzymes in various tissues. One system where these enzymes play important roles is the nervous system. Of the ten mammalian DGKs, eight of them are readily detected in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS): DGK-α, DGK-β, DGK-γ, DGK-η, DGK-ζ, DGK-ι, DGK-ε, and DGK-θ. Despite the increasing interest in DGKs, little is known about their regulation. We have focused some attention on understanding the enzymology and regulation of one of these DGK isoforms, DGK-θ. We recently showed that DGK-θ is regulated by an accessory protein containing polybasic regions. We now report that this accessory protein is required for the previously reported broadening of the pH profile observed in cell lysates in response to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer). Our data further reveal DGK-θ is regulated by magnesium and zinc, and sensitive to the known DGK inhibitor R599022. These data outline new parameters involved in regulating DGK-θ.

  10. The calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK7 acts on root hydraulic conductivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Guowei; Boudsocq, Marie; Hem, Sonia; Vialaret, Jérôme; Rossignol, Michel; Maurel, Christophe; Santoni, Véronique

    2015-07-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of plant roots (Lp(r)) is determined in large part by the activity of aquaporins. Mechanisms occurring at the post-translational level, in particular phosphorylation of aquaporins of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein 2 (PIP2) subfamily, are thought to be of critical importance for regulating root water transport. However, knowledge of protein kinases and phosphatases acting on aquaporin function is still scarce. In the present work, we investigated the Lp(r) of knockout Arabidopsis plants for four Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases. cpk7 plants showed a 30% increase in Lp(r) because of a higher aquaporin activity. A quantitative proteomic analysis of wild-type and cpk7 plants revealed that PIP gene expression and PIP protein quantity were not correlated and that CPK7 has no effect on PIP2 phosphorylation. In contrast, CPK7 exerts a negative control on the cellular abundance of PIP1s, which likely accounts for the higher Lp(r) of cpk7. In addition, this study revealed that the cellular amount of a few additional proteins including membrane transporters is controlled by CPK7. The overall work provides evidence for CPK7-dependent stability of specific membrane proteins.

  11. Branching Out in Roots: Uncovering Form, Function, and Regulation1

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Jonathan A.; Rasmussen, Amanda; Traini, Richard; Voß, Ute; Sturrock, Craig; Mooney, Sacha J.; Wells, Darren M.; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    Root branching is critical for plants to secure anchorage and ensure the supply of water, minerals, and nutrients. To date, research on root branching has focused on lateral root development in young seedlings. However, many other programs of postembryonic root organogenesis exist in angiosperms. In cereal crops, the majority of the mature root system is composed of several classes of adventitious roots that include crown roots and brace roots. In this Update, we initially describe the diversity of postembryonic root forms. Next, we review recent advances in our understanding of the genes, signals, and mechanisms regulating lateral root and adventitious root branching in the plant models Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa). While many common signals, regulatory components, and mechanisms have been identified that control the initiation, morphogenesis, and emergence of new lateral and adventitious root organs, much more remains to be done. We conclude by discussing the challenges and opportunities facing root branching research. PMID:25136060

  12. Regulation of tomato Prf by Pto-like protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Mucyn, Tatiana S; Wu, Ai-Jiuan; Balmuth, Alexi L; Arasteh, Julia Maryam; Rathjen, John P

    2009-04-01

    Tomato Prf encodes a nucleotide-binding domain shared by Apaf-1, certain R proteins, and CED-4 fused to C-terminal leucine-rich repeats (NBARC-LRR) protein that is required for bacterial immunity to Pseudomonas syringae and sensitivity to the organophosphate fenthion. The signaling pathways involve two highly related protein kinases. Pto kinase mediates direct recognition of the bacterial effector proteins AvrPto or AvrPtoB. Fen kinase is required for fenthion sensitivity and recognition of bacterial effectors related to AvrPtoB. The role of Pto and its association with Prf has been characterized but Fen is poorly described. We show that, similar to Pto, Fen requires N-myristoylation and kinase activity for signaling and interacts with the N-terminal domain of Prf. Thus, the mechanisms of activation of Prf by the respective protein kinases are similar. Prf-Fen interaction is underlined by coregulatory mechanisms in which Prf negatively regulates Fen, most likely by controlling kinase activity. We further characterized negative regulation of Prf by Pto, and show that regulation is mediated by the previously described negative regulatory patch. Remarkably, the effectors released negative regulation of Prf in a manner dependent on Pto kinase activity. The data suggest a model in which Prf associates generally with Pto-like kinases in tightly regulated complexes, which are activated by effector-mediated disruption of negative regulation. Release of negative regulation may be a general feature of activation of NBARC-LRR proteins by cognate effectors.

  13. Feedback Regulation of Kinase Signaling Pathways by AREs and GREs

    PubMed Central

    Vlasova-St. Louis, Irina; Bohjanen, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental signals, kinases phosphorylate numerous proteins, including RNA-binding proteins such as the AU-rich element (ARE) binding proteins, and the GU-rich element (GRE) binding proteins. Posttranslational modifications of these proteins lead to a significant changes in the abundance of target mRNAs, and affect gene expression during cellular activation, proliferation, and stress responses. In this review, we summarize the effect of phosphorylation on the function of ARE-binding proteins ZFP36 and ELAVL1 and the GRE-binding protein CELF1. The networks of target mRNAs that these proteins bind and regulate include transcripts encoding kinases and kinase signaling pathways (KSP) components. Thus, kinase signaling pathways are involved in feedback regulation, whereby kinases regulate RNA-binding proteins that subsequently regulate mRNA stability of ARE- or GRE-containing transcripts that encode components of KSP. PMID:26821046

  14. Feedback Regulation of Kinase Signaling Pathways by AREs and GREs.

    PubMed

    Vlasova-St Louis, Irina; Bohjanen, Paul R

    2016-01-25

    In response to environmental signals, kinases phosphorylate numerous proteins, including RNA-binding proteins such as the AU-rich element (ARE) binding proteins, and the GU-rich element (GRE) binding proteins. Posttranslational modifications of these proteins lead to a significant changes in the abundance of target mRNAs, and affect gene expression during cellular activation, proliferation, and stress responses. In this review, we summarize the effect of phosphorylation on the function of ARE-binding proteins ZFP36 and ELAVL1 and the GRE-binding protein CELF1. The networks of target mRNAs that these proteins bind and regulate include transcripts encoding kinases and kinase signaling pathways (KSP) components. Thus, kinase signaling pathways are involved in feedback regulation, whereby kinases regulate RNA-binding proteins that subsequently regulate mRNA stability of ARE- or GRE-containing transcripts that encode components of KSP.

  15. Regulation of Macropinocytosis by Diacylglycerol Kinase ζ.

    PubMed

    Ard, Ryan; Mulatz, Kirk; Pomoransky, Julia L; Parks, Robin J; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Bell, John C; Gee, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Macropinosomes arise from the closure of plasma membrane ruffles to bring about the non-selective uptake of nutrients and solutes into cells. The morphological changes underlying ruffle formation and macropinosome biogenesis are driven by actin cytoskeleton rearrangements under the control of the Rho GTPase Rac1. We showed previously that Rac1 is activated by diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid. Here, we show DGKζ is required for optimal macropinocytosis induced by growth factor stimulation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Time-lapse imaging of live cells and quantitative analysis revealed DGKζ was associated with membrane ruffles and nascent macropinosomes. Macropinocytosis was attenuated in DGKζ-null cells, as determined by live imaging and vaccinia virus uptake experiments. Moreover, macropinosomes that did form in DGKζ-null cells were smaller than those found in wild type cells. Rescue of this defect required DGKζ catalytic activity, consistent with it also being required for Rac1 activation. A constitutively membrane bound DGKζ mutant substantially increased the size of macropinosomes and potentiated the effect of a constitutively active Rac1 mutant on macropinocytosis. Collectively, our results suggest DGKζ functions in concert with Rac1 to regulate macropinocytosis.

  16. LIM kinases: function, regulation and association with human disease.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rebecca W; Olson, Michael F

    2007-06-01

    The LIM kinase family consists of just two members: LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) and LIM kinase 2 (LIMK2). With uniquely organised signalling domains, LIM kinases are regulated by several upstream signalling pathways, principally acting downstream of Rho GTPases to influence the architecture of the actin cytoskeleton by regulating the activity of the cofilin family proteins cofilin1, cofilin2 and destrin. Although the LIM kinases are very homologous, particularly when comparing kinase domains, there is emerging evidence that each may be subject to different regulatory pathways and may contribute to both distinct and overlapping cellular and developmental functions. Normal central nervous system development is reliant upon the presence of LIMK1, and its deletion has been implicated in the development of the human genetic disorder Williams syndrome. Normal testis development, on the other hand, is disrupted by the deletion of LIMK2. In addition, the possible involvement of each kinase in cardiovascular disorders as well as cancer has recently emerged. The LIM kinases have been proposed to play an important role in tumour-cell invasion and metastasis; fine-tuning the balance between phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated cofilin may be a significant determinant of tumour-cell metastatic potential. In this review, we outline the structure, regulation and function of LIM kinases and their functions at cellular and organismal levels, as well as their possible contributions to human disease.

  17. A Molecular Brake in the Kinase Hinge Region Regulates the Activity of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen,H.; Ma, J.; Li, W.; Eliseenkova, A.; Xu, C.; Neubert, T.; Miller, W.; Mohammadi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) cause cancer and skeletal disorders. Comparison of the crystal structures of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated wild-type FGFR2 kinase domains with those of seven unphosphorylated pathogenic mutants reveals an autoinhibitory 'molecular brake' mediated by a triad of residues in the kinase hinge region of all FGFRs. Structural analysis shows that many other RTKs, including PDGFRs, VEGFRs, KIT, CSF1R, FLT3, TEK, and TIE, are also subject to regulation by this brake. Pathogenic mutations activate FGFRs and other RTKs by disengaging the brake either directly or indirectly.

  18. Rooting depths regulate the global water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Fan, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystem productivity and evapotranspiration fluxes are fundamental regulators of the global carbon and water cycles. Where and how much plants grow is largely determined by atmospheric conditions and soil water availability. It is the reliance of ecosystems on soil water that links their fate tightly to precipitation and groundwater reach. Here, we explore the controls on plant root uptake imposed by climate at the large scale and by groundwater accessibility at the local drainage scale, aiming to untangle the spatial and temporal global patterns of rain-fed and groundwater-fed ecosystems. To this end, we use observed atmospheric and productivity conditions to model the seasonal evolution of root uptake and soil moisture profiles and their coupling to the water table, with a global groundwater-soil-vegetation framework at the 1km resolution. Results indicate highly variable uptake-depth across seasonal and local hydrologic gradients, and a far more common occurrence of deep (>5m) uptake than previous thought. Implications to future environmental change are briefly discussed.

  19. Receptor-like kinase ACR4 restricts formative cell divisions in the Arabidopsis root.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Ive; Vassileva, Valya; De Rybel, Bert; Levesque, Mitchell P; Grunewald, Wim; Van Damme, Daniël; Van Noorden, Giel; Naudts, Mirande; Van Isterdael, Gert; De Clercq, Rebecca; Wang, Jean Y; Meuli, Nicholas; Vanneste, Steffen; Friml, Jirí; Hilson, Pierre; Jürgens, Gerd; Ingram, Gwyneth C; Inzé, Dirk; Benfey, Philip N; Beeckman, Tom

    2008-10-24

    During the development of multicellular organisms, organogenesis and pattern formation depend on formative divisions to specify and maintain pools of stem cells. In higher plants, these activities are essential to shape the final root architecture because the functioning of root apical meristems and the de novo formation of lateral roots entirely rely on it. We used transcript profiling on sorted pericycle cells undergoing lateral root initiation to identify the receptor-like kinase ACR4 of Arabidopsis as a key factor both in promoting formative cell divisions in the pericycle and in constraining the number of these divisions once organogenesis has been started. In the root tip meristem, ACR4 shows a similar action by controlling cell proliferation activity in the columella cell lineage. Thus, ACR4 function reveals a common mechanism of formative cell division control in the main root tip meristem and during lateral root initiation.

  20. Structure and dynamic regulation of Src-family kinases.

    PubMed

    Engen, J R; Wales, T E; Hochrein, J M; Meyn, M A; Banu Ozkan, S; Bahar, I; Smithgall, T E

    2008-10-01

    Src-family kinases are modular signaling proteins involved in a diverse array of cellular processes. All members of the Src family share the same domain organization, with modular SH3, SH2 and kinase domains followed by a C-terminal negative regulatory tail. X-ray crystallographic analyses of several Src family members have revealed critical roles for the SH3 and SH2 domains in the down-regulation of the kinase domain. This review focuses on biological, biophysical, and computational studies that reveal conformationally distinct active states within this unique kinase family.

  1. Globular body production, their anatomy, DNase gel analysis and NDP kinase activity in root tips of Poncirus trifoliata L.

    PubMed

    Tzatzani, Thiresia-Teresa; Dimassi-Theriou, Kortessa; Yupsanis, Traianos; Bosabalidis, Artemios; Therios, Ioannis; Sarropoulou, Virginia

    2013-10-01

    Green globular bodies were developed from Poncirus trifoliata L. root tip explants as a response to addition in the substrate of different growth regulators. From the globular bodies, shoots initiated and grew. Median section of the globular bodies reveals that they are composed of parenchyma cells and originate from the pericycle. The activity of DNases during shoot formation from globular bodies was influenced by the type and concentration of plant growth regulators that were added in the nutrient substrate. Peptide bands formation was also influenced by the increase of BA concentration. Consequently, BA, NAA and IAA combination influenced 5'-triphosphonucleosides (NTPs) appearance and activity in the presence of metal. Peptide bands resulted from the electrophoretic analysis of endogenous protein phosphorylation, proved to be catalytic subunits of NDP kinases, as they all phosphorylate diphosphonucleosides. The enzymes DNases and NDP kinases could be used as a scientific tool for the study of shoot formation from P. trifoliata L. green globular bodies.

  2. Screening of kinase inhibitors targeting BRAF for regulating autophagy based on kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingmei; Xue, Dongbo; Wang, Xiaochun; Lu, Ming; Gao, Bo; Qiao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify agents that regulate autophagy. A total of 544 differentially expressed genes were screened from the intersection set of GSE2435 and GSE31040, which was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and 19 differentially expressed kinases were selected according to a 'protein kinase database'. Gene ontology‑biological process (GO-BP) enrichment analysis revealed that the 19 kinases were mainly associated with phosphorylation. The protein-protein interaction network exhibited 30 differentially expressed genes that interacted with BRAF, and GO-BP enrichment analysis showed the function of these genes were mainly involved in cell death and apoptosis. The kinase-kinase inhibitor regulatory network identified16 kinase inhibitors that specifically inhibited BRAF. Previous studies indicated that sorafenib is capable of regulating autophagy and regorafenib has also been reported; however, there have been no studies regarding the regulation of autophagy by afatinib, selumetinib, PD318088, axitinib, TAK-733, GDC-0980, GSK2126458, PLX-4720, AS703026, trametinib, GDC-0941 and PF-04217903. Thus, these kinase inhibitors are potential targets for further study on the regulation of autophagy in the future.

  3. Regulation of heart muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ronald H.; Randle, Philip J.; Denton, Richard M.

    1974-01-01

    1. The activity of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase was assayed by the incorporation of [32P]phosphate from [γ-32P]ATP into the dehydrogenase complex. There was a very close correlation between this incorporation and the loss of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity with all preparations studied. 2. Nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP (at 100μm) and cyclic 3′:5′-nucleotides (at 10μm) had no significant effect on kinase activity. 3. The Km for thiamin pyrophosphate in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was 0.76μm. Sodium pyrophosphate, adenylyl imidodiphosphate, ADP and GTP were competitive inhibitors against thiamin pyrophosphate in the dehydrogenase reaction. 4. The Km for ATP of the intrinsic kinase assayed in three preparations of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase was in the range 13.9–25.4μm. Inhibition by ADP and adenylyl imidodiphosphate was predominantly competitive, but there was nevertheless a definite non-competitive element. Thiamin pyrophosphate and sodium pyrophosphate were uncompetitive inhibitors against ATP. It is suggested that ADP and adenylyl imidodiphosphate inhibit the kinase mainly by binding to the ATP site and that the adenosine moiety may be involved in this binding. It is suggested that thiamin pyrophosphate, sodium pyrophosphate, adenylyl imidodiphosphate and ADP may inhibit the kinase by binding through pyrophosphate or imidodiphosphate moieties at some site other than the ATP site. It is not known whether this is the coenzyme-binding site in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction. 5. The Km for pyruvate in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was 35.5μm. 2-Oxobutyrate and 3-hydroxypyruvate but not glyoxylate were also substrates; all three compounds inhibited pyruvate oxidation. 6. In preparations of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase free of thiamin pyrophosphate, pyruvate inhibited the kinase reaction at all concentrations in the range 25–500μm. The inhibition was uncompetitive. In the presence of thiamin pyrophosphate

  4. Kinase cascades regulating entry into apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P

    1997-01-01

    All cells are constantly exposed to conflicting environment cues that signal cell survival or cell death. Survival signals are delivered by autocrine or paracrine factors that actively suppress a default death pathway. In addition to survival factor withdrawal, cell death can be triggered by environmental stresses such as heat, UV light, and hyperosmolarity or by dedicated death receptors (e.g., FAS/APO-1 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF] receptors) that are counterparts of growth factor or survival receptors at the cell surface. One of the ways that cells integrate conflicting exogenous stimuli is by phosphorylation (or dephosphorylation) of cellular constituents by interacting cascades of serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases (and phosphatases). Survival factors (e.g., growth factors and mitogens) activate receptor tyrosine kinases and selected mitogen-activated, cyclin-dependent, lipid-activated, nucleic acid-dependent, and cyclic AMP-dependent kinases to promote cell survival and proliferation, whereas environmental stress (or death factors such as FAS/APO-1 ligand and TNF-alpha) activates different members of these kinase families to inhibit cell growth and, under some circumstances, promote apoptotic cell death. Because individual kinase cascades can interact with one another, they are able to integrate conflicting exogenous stimuli and provide a link between cell surface receptors and the biochemical pathways leading to cell proliferation or cell death. PMID:9106363

  5. Auxin fluxes in the root apex co-regulate gravitropism and lateral root initiation.

    PubMed

    Lucas, M; Godin, C; Jay-Allemand, C; Laplaze, L

    2008-01-01

    Root architecture plays an important role in water and nutrient acquisition and in the ability of the plant to adapt to the soil. Lateral root development is the main determinant of the shape of the root system and is controlled by external factors such as nutrient concentration. Here it is shown that lateral root initiation and root gravitropism, two processes that are regulated by auxin, are co-regulated in Arabidopsis. A mathematical model was generated that can predict the effects of gravistimulations on lateral root initiation density and suggests that lateral root initiation is controlled by an inhibitory fields mechanism. Moreover, gene transactivation experiments suggest a mechanism involving a single auxin transport route for both responses. Finally, co-regulation may offer a selective advantage by optimizing soil exploration as supported by a simple quantitative analysis.

  6. Phenotyping jasmonate regulation of root growth.

    PubMed

    Kellermeier, Fabian; Amtmann, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Root architecture is a complex and highly plastic feature of higher plants. Direct treatments with jasmonates and alterations in jasmonate signaling have been shown to elicit a range of root phenotypes. Here, we describe a fast, noninvasive, and semiautomatic method to monitor root architectural responses to environmental stimuli using plant tissue culture and the software tool EZ-RHIZO.

  7. Protein Kinase Activity of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Regulates Cytokine-Dependent Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Green, Benjamin D.; Barry, Emma F.; Ma, Yuefang; Woodcock, Joanna; Fitter, Stephen; Zannettino, Andrew C. W.; Pitson, Stuart M.; Hughes, Timothy P.; Lopez, Angel F.; Shepherd, Peter R.; Wei, Andrew H.; Ekert, Paul G.; Guthridge, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The dual specificity protein/lipid kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), promotes growth factor-mediated cell survival and is frequently deregulated in cancer. However, in contrast to canonical lipid-kinase functions, the role of PI3K protein kinase activity in regulating cell survival is unknown. We have employed a novel approach to purify and pharmacologically profile protein kinases from primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells that phosphorylate serine residues in the cytoplasmic portion of cytokine receptors to promote hemopoietic cell survival. We have isolated a kinase activity that is able to directly phosphorylate Ser585 in the cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin 3 (IL-3) and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptors and shown it to be PI3K. Physiological concentrations of cytokine in the picomolar range were sufficient for activating the protein kinase activity of PI3K leading to Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival but did not activate PI3K lipid kinase signaling or promote proliferation. Blockade of PI3K lipid signaling by expression of the pleckstrin homology of Akt1 had no significant impact on the ability of picomolar concentrations of cytokine to promote hemopoietic cell survival. Furthermore, inducible expression of a mutant form of PI3K that is defective in lipid kinase activity but retains protein kinase activity was able to promote Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival in the absence of cytokine. Blockade of p110α by RNA interference or multiple independent PI3K inhibitors not only blocked Ser585 phosphorylation in cytokine-dependent cells and primary human AML blasts, but also resulted in a block in survival signaling and cell death. Our findings demonstrate a new role for the protein kinase activity of PI3K in phosphorylating the cytoplasmic tail of the GM-CSF and IL-3 receptors to selectively regulate cell survival highlighting the importance of targeting such pathways in

  8. Myosin 3A Kinase Activity Is Regulated by Phosphorylation of the Kinase Domain Activation Loop*

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Omar A.; Unrath, William C.; Stevens, Stanley M.; Manor, Uri; Kachar, Bechara; Yengo, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Class III myosins are unique members of the myosin superfamily in that they contain both a motor and kinase domain. We have found that motor activity is decreased by autophosphorylation, although little is known about the regulation of the kinase domain. We demonstrate by mass spectrometry that Thr-178 and Thr-184 in the kinase domain activation loop and two threonines in the loop 2 region of the motor domain are autophosphorylated (Thr-908 and Thr-919). The kinase activity of MYO3A 2IQ with the phosphomimic (T184E) or phosphoblock (T184A) mutations demonstrates that kinase activity is reduced 30-fold as a result of the T184A mutation, although the Thr-178 site only had a minor impact on kinase activity. Interestingly, the actin-activated ATPase activity of MYO3A 2IQ is slightly reduced as a result of the T178A and T184A mutations suggesting coupling between motor and kinase domains. Full-length GFP-tagged T184A and T184E MYO3A constructs transfected into COS7 cells do not disrupt the ability of MYO3A to localize to filopodia structures. In addition, we demonstrate that T184E MYO3A reduces filopodia elongation in the presence of espin-1, whereas T184A enhances filopodia elongation in a similar fashion to kinase-dead MYO3A. Our results suggest that as MYO3A accumulates at the tips of actin protrusions, autophosphorylation of Thr-184 enhances kinase activity resulting in phosphorylation of the MYO3A motor and reducing motor activity. The differential regulation of the kinase and motor activities allows for MYO3A to precisely self-regulate its concentration in the actin bundle-based structures of cells. PMID:24214986

  9. Root gravitropism and root hair development constitute coupled developmental responses regulated by auxin homeostasis in the Arabidopsis root apex.

    PubMed

    Rigas, Stamatis; Ditengou, Franck Anicet; Ljung, Karin; Daras, Gerasimos; Tietz, Olaf; Palme, Klaus; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

    2013-03-01

    Active polar transport establishes directional auxin flow and the generation of local auxin gradients implicated in plant responses and development. Auxin modulates gravitropism at the root tip and root hair morphogenesis at the differentiation zone. Genetic and biochemical analyses provide evidence for defective basipetal auxin transport in trh1 roots. The trh1, pin2, axr2 and aux1 mutants, and transgenic plants overexpressing PIN1, all showing impaired gravity response and root hair development, revealed ectopic PIN1 localization. The auxin antagonist hypaphorine blocked root hair elongation and caused moderate agravitropic root growth, also leading to PIN1 mislocalization. These results suggest that auxin imbalance leads to proximal and distal developmental defects in Arabidopsis root apex, associated with agravitropic root growth and root hair phenotype, respectively, providing evidence that these two auxin-regulated processes are coupled. Cell-specific subcellular localization of TRH1-YFP in stele and epidermis supports TRH1 engagement in auxin transport, and hence impaired function in trh1 causes dual defects of auxin imbalance. The interplay between intrinsic cues determining root epidermal cell fate through the TTG/GL2 pathway and environmental cues including abiotic stresses modulates root hair morphogenesis. As a consequence of auxin imbalance in Arabidopsis root apex, ectopic PIN1 mislocalization could be a risk aversion mechanism to trigger root developmental responses ensuring root growth plasticity. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinase genes respond to phosphate deficiency for root hair elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yukika; Kusano, Hiroaki; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Aoyama, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Plants drastically alter their root system architecture to adapt to different underground growth conditions. During phosphate (Pi) deficiency, most plants including Arabidopsis thaliana enhance the development of lateral roots and root hairs, resulting in bushy and hairy roots. To elucidate the signal pathway specific for the root hair elongation response to Pi deficiency, we investigated the expression of type-B phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) genes, as a quantitative factor for root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. At young seedling stages, the PIP5K3 and PIP5K4 genes responded to Pi deficiency in steady-state transcript levels via PHR1-binding sequences (P1BSs) in their upstream regions. Both pip5k3 and pip5k4 single mutants, which exhibit short-root-hair phenotypes, remained responsive to Pi deficiency for root hair elongation; however the pip5k3pip5k4 double mutant exhibited shorter root hairs than the single mutants, and lost responsiveness to Pi deficiency at young seedling stages. In the tactical complementation line in which modified PIP5K3 and PIP5K4 genes with base substitutions in their P1BSs were co-introduced into the double mutant, root hairs of young seedlings had normal lengths under Pi-sufficient conditions, but were not responsive to Pi deficiency. From these results, we conclude that a Pi-deficiency signal is transferred to the pathway for root hair elongation via the PIP5K genes.

  11. Protein Kinases of the Hippo Pathway: Regulation and Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Avruch, Joseph; Zhou, Dawang; Fitamant, Julien; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Mou, Fan; Barrufet, Laura Regué

    2012-01-01

    The “Hippo” signaling pathway has emerged as a major regulator of cell proliferation and survival in metazoans. The pathway, as delineated by genetic and biochemical studies in Drosophila, consists of a kinase cascade regulated by cell-cell contact and cell polarity that inhibits the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie and its proliferative, anti-differentiation, antiapoptotic transcriptional program. The core pathway components are the GC kinase Hippo, which phosphorylates the noncatalytic polypeptide Mats/Mob1 and, with the assistance of the scaffold protein Salvador, phosphorylates the ndr-family kinase Lats. In turn phospho-Lats, after binding to phospho-Mats, autoactivates and phosphorylates Yorkie, resulting in its nuclear exit. Hippo also uses the scaffold protein Furry and a different Mob protein to control another ndr-like kinase, the morphogenetic regulator Tricornered. Architecturally homologous kinase cascades consisting of a GC kinase, a Mob protein, a scaffolding polypeptide and an ndr-like kinase are well described in yeast; in S. cerevisiae e.g., the MEN pathway promotes mitotic exit whereas the RAM network, using a different GC kinase, Mob protein, scaffold and ndr-like kinase, regulates cell polarity and morphogenesis. In mammals, the Hippo orthologues Mst1 and Mst2 utilize the Salvador ortholog WW45/Sav1 and other scaffolds to regulate the kinases Lats1/Lats2 and ndr1/ndr2. As in Drosophila, murine Mst1/Mst2, in a redundant manner, negatively regulate the Yorkie ortholog YAP in the epithelial cells of the liver and gut; loss of both Mst1 and Mst2 results in hyperproliferation and tumorigenesis that can be largely negated by reduction or elimination of YAP. Despite this conservation, considerable diversification in pathway composition and regulation is already evident; in skin e.g., YAP phosphorylation is independent of Mst1Mst2 and Lats1Lats2. Moreover, in lymphoid cells, Mst1/Mst2, under the control of the Rap1 GTPase and independent of YAP

  12. RAF protein-serine/threonine kinases: Structure and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors block MEK activation in cells containing oncogenic B-RAF. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors can lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity. -- Abstract: A-RAF, B-RAF, and C-RAF are a family of three protein-serine/threonine kinases that participate in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade. This cascade participates in the regulation of a large variety of processes including apoptosis, cell cycle progression, differentiation, proliferation, and transformation to the cancerous state. RAS mutations occur in 15-30% of all human cancers, and B-RAF mutations occur in 30-60% of melanomas, 30-50% of thyroid cancers, and 5-20% of colorectal cancers. Activation of the RAF kinases requires their interaction with RAS-GTP along with dephosphorylation and also phosphorylation by SRC family protein-tyrosine kinases and other protein-serine/threonine kinases. The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. RAF kinase inhibitors are effective in blocking MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation in cells containing the oncogenic B-RAF Val600Glu activating mutation. RAF kinase inhibitors lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity in cells containing wild-type B-RAF and wild-type or activated mutant RAS. C-RAF plays a key role in this paradoxical increase in downstream MEK-ERK activation.

  13. Comparative phytohormone profiles, lipid kinase and lipid phosphatase activities in barley aleurone, coleoptile, and root tissues.

    PubMed

    Meringer, Maria V; Villasuso, Ana L; Pasquaré, Susana J; Giusto, Norma M; Machado, Estela E; Racagni, Graciela E

    2012-09-01

    We analyzed lipid kinase and lipid phosphatase activities and determined endogenous phytohormone levels by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in root and coleoptile tissues following germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seeds. The enzymes showing highest activity in aleurone cells were diacylglycerol kinase (DAG-k, EC 2.7.1.107) and phosphatidate kinase (PA-k). The ratio of gibberellins (GAs) to abscisic acid (ABA) was 2-fold higher in aleurone than in coleoptile or root tissues. In coleoptiles, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4-k, EC 2.7.1.67) showed the highest enzyme activity, and jasmonic acid (JA) level was higher than in aleurone. In roots, activities of PI4-k, DAG-k, and PA-k were similar, and salicylic acid (SA) showed the highest concentration. In the assays to evaluate the hydrolysis of DGPP (diacylglycerol pyrophosphate) and PA (phosphatidic acid) we observed that PA hydrolysis by LPPs (lipid phosphate phosphatases) was not modified; however, the diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase (DGPPase) was strikingly higher in coleoptile and root tissues than to aleurone. Relevance of these findings in terms of signaling responses and seedling growth is discussed.

  14. Cytokinin as a positional cue regulating lateral root spacing in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ling; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Schmülling, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    The root systems of plants have developed adaptive architectures to exploit soil resources. The formation of lateral roots (LRs) contributes to root system architecture. Roots of plants with a lower cytokinin status form LR primordia (LRP) in unusually close proximity, indicating a role for the hormone in regulating the positioning of LRs along the main root axis. Data obtained from cytokinin-synthesis mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana combined with gene expression analysis indicate that cytokinin synthesis by IPT5 and LOG4 occurring early during LRP initiation generates a local cytokinin signal abbreviating LRP formation in neighbouring pericycle cells. In addition, IPT3, IPT5, and IPT7 contribute to cytokinin synthesis in the vicinity of existing LRP, thus suppressing initiation of new LRs. Interestingly, mutation of CYP735A genes required for trans-zeatin biosynthesis caused strong defects in LR positioning, indicating an important role for this cytokinin metabolite in regulating LR spacing. Further it is shown that cytokinin and a known regulator of LR spacing, the receptor-like kinase ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY4 (ACR4), operate in a non-hierarchical manner but might exert reciprocal control at the transcript level. Taken together, the results suggest that cytokinin acts as a paracrine hormonal signal in regulating root system architecture.

  15. Role of cytokinin in the regulation of root gravitropism.

    PubMed

    Aloni, Roni; Langhans, Markus; Aloni, Erez; Ullrich, Cornelia I

    2004-11-01

    The models explaining root gravitropism propose that the growth response of plants to gravity is regulated by asymmetric distribution of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA). Since cytokinin has a negative regulatory role in root growth, we suspected that it might function as an inhibitor of tropic root elongation during gravity response. Therefore, we examined the free-bioactive-cytokinin-dependent ARR5::GUS expression pattern in root tips of transformants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., visualized high cytokinin concentrations in the root cap with specific monoclonal antibodies, and complemented the analyses by external application of cytokinin. Our findings show that mainly the statocytes of the cap produce cytokinin, which may contribute to the regulation of root gravitropism. The homogenous symmetric expression of the cytokinin-responsive promoter in vertical root caps rapidly changed within less than 30 min of gravistimulation into an asymmetrical activation pattern, visualized as a lateral, distinctly stained, concentrated spot on the new lower root side of the cap cells. This asymmetric cytokinin distribution obviously caused initiation of a downward curvature near the root apex during the early rapid phase of gravity response, by inhibiting elongation at the lower side and promoting growth at the upper side of the distal elongation zone closely behind the root cap. Exogenous cytokinin applied to vertical roots induced root bending towards the application site, confirming the suspected inhibitory effect of cytokinin in root gravitropism. Our results suggest that the early root graviresponse is controlled by cytokinin. We conclude that both cytokinin and auxin are key hormones that regulate root gravitropism.

  16. Regulated protein kinases and phosphatases in cell cycle decisions.

    PubMed

    Novak, Bela; Kapuy, Orsolya; Domingo-Sananes, Maria Rosa; Tyson, John J

    2010-12-01

    Many aspects of cell physiology are controlled by protein kinases and phosphatases, which together determine the phosphorylation state of targeted substrates. Some of these target proteins are themselves kinases or phosphatases or other components of a regulatory network characterized by feedback and feed-forward loops. In this review we describe some common regulatory motifs involving kinases, phosphatases, and their substrates, focusing particularly on bistable switches involved in cellular decision processes. These general principles are applied to cell cycle transitions, with special emphasis on the roles of regulated phosphatases in orchestrating progression from one phase to the next of the DNA replication-division cycle.

  17. Regulated protein kinases and phosphatases in cell cycle decisions

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Bela; Kapuy, Orsolya; Domingo-Sananes, Maria Rosa; Tyson, John J

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of cell physiology are controlled by protein kinases and phosphatases, which together determine the phosphorylation state of targeted substrates. Some of these target proteins are themselves kinases or phosphatases or other components of a regulatory network characterized by feedback and feed-forward loops. In this review we describe some common regulatory motifs involving kinases, phosphatases, and their substrates, focusing particularly on bistable switches involved in cellular decision processes. These general principles are applied to cell cycle transitions, with special emphasis on the roles of regulated phosphatases in orchestrating progression from one phase to the next of the DNA replication-division cycle. PMID:20678910

  18. SOS4, a pyridoxal kinase gene, is required for root hair development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huazhong; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-06-01

    Root hair development in plants is controlled by many genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors. A number of genes have been shown to be important for root hair formation. Arabidopsis salt overly sensitive 4 mutants were originally identified by screening for NaCl-hypersensitive growth. The SOS4 (Salt Overly Sensitive 4) gene was recently isolated by map-based cloning and shown to encode a pyridoxal (PL) kinase involved in the production of PL-5-phosphate, which is an important cofactor for various enzymes and a ligand for certain ion transporters. The root growth of sos4 mutants is slower than that of the wild type. Microscopic observations revealed that sos4 mutants do not have root hairs in the maturation zone. The sos4 mutations block the initiation of most root hairs, and impair the tip growth of those that are initiated. The root hairless phenotype of sos4 mutants was complemented by the wild-type SOS4 gene. SOS4 promoter-beta-glucuronidase analysis showed that SOS4 is expressed in the root hair and other hair-like structures. Consistent with SOS4 function as a PL kinase, in vitro application of pyridoxine and pyridoxamine, but not PL, partially rescued the root hair defect in sos4 mutants. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid treatments promoted root hair formation in both wild-type and sos4 plants, indicating that genetically SOS4 functions upstream of ethylene and auxin in root hair development. The possible role of SOS4 in ethylene and auxin biosynthesis is discussed.

  19. A Legume TOR Protein Kinase Regulates Rhizobium Symbiosis and Is Essential for Infection and Nodule Development.

    PubMed

    Nanjareddy, Kalpana; Blanco, Lourdes; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Alvarado-Affantranger, Xóchitl; Quinto, Carmen; Sánchez, Federico; Lara, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase regulates metabolism, growth, and life span in yeast, animals, and plants in coordination with nutrient status and environmental conditions. The nutrient-dependent nature of TOR functionality makes this kinase a putative regulator of symbiotic associations involving nutrient acquisition. However, TOR's role in these processes remains to be understood. Here, we uncovered the role of TOR during the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)-Rhizobium tropici (Rhizobium) symbiotic interaction. TOR was expressed in all tested bean tissues, with higher transcript levels in the root meristems and senesced nodules. We showed TOR promoter expression along the progressing infection thread and in the infected cells of mature nodules. Posttranscriptional gene silencing of TOR using RNA interference (RNAi) showed that this gene is involved in lateral root elongation and root cell organization and also alters the density, size, and number of root hairs. The suppression of TOR transcripts also affected infection thread progression and associated cortical cell divisions, resulting in a drastic reduction of nodule numbers. TOR-RNAi resulted in reduced reactive oxygen species accumulation and altered CyclinD1 and CyclinD3 expression, which are crucial factors for infection thread progression and nodule organogenesis. Enhanced expression of TOR-regulated ATG genes in TOR-RNAi roots suggested that TOR plays a role in the recognition of Rhizobium as a symbiont. Together, these data suggest that TOR plays a vital role in the establishment of root nodule symbiosis in the common bean. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Protein kinaseregulates vaccinia-related kinase 1 in DNA damage–induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Choon-Ho; Choi, Bo-Hwa; Jeong, Min-Woo; Kim, Sangjune; Kim, Wanil; Song, Yun Seon; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2011-01-01

    Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) is a novel serine/threonine kinase that plays an important role in cell proliferation. However, little is known about the upstream regulators of VRK1 activity. Here we provide evidence for a role of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) in the regulation of murine VRK1. We show that PKCδ interacts with VRK1, phosphorylates the Ser-355 residue in the putative regulatory region, and negatively regulates its kinase activity in vitro. Intriguingly, PKCδ-induced cell death was facilitated by phosphorylation of VRK1 when cells were exposed to a DNA-damaging agent. In addition, p53 played a critical role in the regulation of DNA damage–induced cell death accompanied by PKCδ-mediated modulation of VRK1. In p53-deficient cells, PKCδ-mediated phosphorylation of VRK1 had no effect on cell viability. However, cells overexpressing p53 exhibited significant reduction of cell viability when cotransfected with both VRK1 and PKCδ. Taken together, these results indicate that PKCδ regulates phosphorylation and down-regulation of VRK1, thereby contributing to cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:21346188

  1. A MAP kinase of the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum is essential for root penetration and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, A; García-MacEira, F I; Méglecz, E; Roncero, M I

    2001-03-01

    The soil-borne vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum infects a wide variety of plant species by directly penetrating roots, invading the cortex and colonizing the vascular tissue. We have identified fmk1, encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of F. oxysporum that belongs to the yeast and fungal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (YERK1) subfamily. Targeted mutants of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici carrying an inactivated copy of fmk1 have lost pathogenicity on tomato plants but show normal vegetative growth and conidiation in culture. Colonies of the fmk1 mutants are easily wettable, and hyphae are impaired in breaching the liquid-air interface, suggesting defects in surface hydrophobicity. Fmk1 mutants also show reduced invasive growth on tomato fruit tissue and drastically reduced transcript levels of pl1 encoding the cell wall-degrading enzyme pectate lyase. Conidia of the mutants germinating in the tomato rhizosphere fail to differentiate penetration hyphae, resulting in greatly impaired root attachment. The orthologous MAPK gene Pmk1 from the rice leaf pathogen Magnaporthe grisea complements invasive growth and partially restores surface hydrophobicity, root attachment and pathogenicity in an fmk1 mutant. These results demonstrate that FMK1 controls several key steps in the pathogenesis of F. oxysporum and suggest a fundamentally conserved role for the corresponding MAPK pathway in soil-borne and foliar plant pathogens.

  2. Atypical protein kinase Clambda binds and regulates p70 S6 kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Akimoto, K; Nakaya, M; Yamanaka, T; Tanaka, J; Matsuda, S; Weng, Q P; Avruch, J; Ohno, S

    1998-01-01

    p70 S6 kinase (p70 S6K) has been implicated in the regulation of cell cycle progression. However, the mechanism of its activation is not fully understood. In the present work, evidence is provided that an atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isotype, PKClambda, is indispensable, but not sufficient, for the activation of p70 S6K. Both the regulatory and kinase domains of PKClambda associate directly with p70 S6K. Overexpression of the kinase domain without kinase activity or the regulatory domain of PKClambda results in the suppression of the serum-induced activation of p70 S6K. In addition, two types of dominant-negative mutants of PKClambda, as well as a kinase-deficient mutant of p70 S6K, suppress serum-induced DNA synthesis and E2F activation. The overexpresion of the active form of PKClambda, however, fails to activate p70 S6K. These results suggest that PKClambda is a mediator in the regulation of p70 S6K activity and plays an important role in cell cycle progression. PMID:9761742

  3. Regulation and Function of the Ipl1/Aurora Kinase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    S., et al., The Budding Yeast Iplip/Aurora Protein Kinase Regulates Mitotic Spindle Disassembly. I. Cell Biol., 2003. 160: 329-339. 9. Desai, A., et...Two Sacchromyces cerevisiae kinesin-related gene-products required for mitotic spindle assembly. J. Cell Biol., 1992. 118:109-120 9 Appendix Training ...destabilizing kinesin, are delayed in spindle breakdown similar to ipll mutants. It is possible that Ipllp regulates spindle breakdown by directly regulating

  4. Analysis of genes developmentally regulated during storage root formation of sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masaru; Takahata, Yasuhiro; Nakatani, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    To identify the genes involved in storage root formation of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), we performed a simplified differential display analysis on adventitious roots at different developmental stages of the storage root. The expression patterns were confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR analyses. As a result, 10 genes were identified as being developmentally regulated and were named SRF1-SRF10. The expression of SRF1, SRF2, SRF3, SRF5, SRF6, SRF7, and SRF9 increased during storage root formation, whereas the expression of SRF4, SRF8, and SRF10 decreased. For further characterization, a full-length cDNA of SRF6 was isolated from the cDNA library of the storage root. SRF6 encoded a receptor-like kinase (RLK), which was structurally similar to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) II RLK family of Arabidopsis thaliana. RNA gel blot analysis showed that the mRNA of SRF6 was most abundantly expressed in the storage roots, although a certain amount of expression was also observed in other vegetative organs. Tissue print mRNA blot analysis of the storage root showed that the mRNA of SRF6 was localized around the primary cambium and meristems in the xylem, which consist of actively dividing cells and cause the thickening of the storage root.

  5. 75 FR 30300 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Root River, Racine, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Root River, Racine, WI AGENCY: Coast... Street Bridge at Mile 0.31 and the State Street Bridge at Mile 0.53 over the Root River, at Racine,...

  6. Kinase activity ranking using phosphoproteomics data (KARP) quantifies the contribution of protein kinases to the regulation of cell viability.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Edmund H; Casado, Pedro; Rajeeve, Vinothini; Cutillas, Pedro R

    2017-09-01

    Cell survival is regulated by a signaling network driven by the activity of protein kinases; however, determining the contribution that each kinase in the network makes to such regulation remains challenging. Here, we report a computational approach that uses mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics data to rank protein kinases based on their contribution to cell regulation. We found that the scores returned by this algorithm, which we have termed kinase activity ranking using phosphoproteomics data (KARP), were a quantitative measure of the contribution that individual kinases make to the signaling output. Application of KARP to the analysis of eight hematological cell lines revealed that cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1/2, casein kinase (CK) 2, extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), and p21-activated kinase (PAK) were the most frequently highly ranked kinases in these cell models. The patterns of kinase activation were cell-line specific yet showed a significant association with cell viability as a function of kinase inhibitor treatment. Thus, our study exemplifies KARP as an untargeted approach to empirically and systematically identify regulatory kinases within signaling networks. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Structure, Regulation, Signaling, and Targeting of Abl Kinases in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abl kinases are prototypic cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases and are involved in a variety of chromosomal aberrations in different cancers. This causes the expression of Abl fusion proteins, such as Bcr-Abl, that are constitutively activated and drivers of tumorigenesis. Over the past decades, biochemical and functional studies on the molecular mechanisms of Abl regulation have gone hand in hand with progression of our structural understanding of autoinhibited and active Abl conformations. In parallel, Abl oncoproteins have become prime molecular targets for cancer therapy, using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)–competitive kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib. Abl-targeting drugs serve as a paradigm for our understanding of kinase inhibitor action, specificity, and resistance development. In this review article, I will review the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the regulation of Abl kinase activity and how oncogenic Abl fusions signal. Furthermore, past and ongoing efforts to target Abl oncoproteins using ATP-competitive and allosteric inhibitors, as well as future possibilities using combination therapy, will be discussed. PMID:23226581

  8. Kinase Regulation by Hydrophobic Spine Assembly in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Lalima G.; Meharena, Hiruy S.; Kannan, Natarajan; Kornev, Alexandr P.

    2014-01-01

    A new model of kinase regulation based on the assembly of hydrophobic spines has been proposed. Changes in their positions can explain the mechanism of kinase activation. Here, we examined mutations in human cancer for clues about the regulation of the hydrophobic spines by focusing initially on mutations to Phe. We identified a selected number of Phe mutations in a small group of kinases that included BRAF, ABL1, and the epidermal growth factor receptor. Testing some of these mutations in BRAF, we found that one of the mutations impaired ATP binding and catalytic activity but promoted noncatalytic allosteric functions. Other Phe mutations functioned to promote constitutive catalytic activity. One of these mutations revealed a previously underappreciated hydrophobic surface that functions to position the dynamic regulatory αC-helix. This supports the key role of the C-helix as a signal integration motif for coordinating multiple elements of the kinase to create an active conformation. The importance of the hydrophobic space around the αC-helix was further tested by studying a V600F mutant, which was constitutively active in the absence of the negative charge that is associated with the common V600E mutation. Many hydrophobic mutations strategically localized along the C-helix can thus drive kinase activation. PMID:25348715

  9. Kinase regulation by hydrophobic spine assembly in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiancheng; Ahuja, Lalima G; Meharena, Hiruy S; Kannan, Natarajan; Kornev, Alexandr P; Taylor, Susan S; Shaw, Andrey S

    2015-01-01

    A new model of kinase regulation based on the assembly of hydrophobic spines has been proposed. Changes in their positions can explain the mechanism of kinase activation. Here, we examined mutations in human cancer for clues about the regulation of the hydrophobic spines by focusing initially on mutations to Phe. We identified a selected number of Phe mutations in a small group of kinases that included BRAF, ABL1, and the epidermal growth factor receptor. Testing some of these mutations in BRAF, we found that one of the mutations impaired ATP binding and catalytic activity but promoted noncatalytic allosteric functions. Other Phe mutations functioned to promote constitutive catalytic activity. One of these mutations revealed a previously underappreciated hydrophobic surface that functions to position the dynamic regulatory αC-helix. This supports the key role of the C-helix as a signal integration motif for coordinating multiple elements of the kinase to create an active conformation. The importance of the hydrophobic space around the αC-helix was further tested by studying a V600F mutant, which was constitutively active in the absence of the negative charge that is associated with the common V600E mutation. Many hydrophobic mutations strategically localized along the C-helix can thus drive kinase activation.

  10. CZK3, a MAP kinase kinase kinase homolog in Cercospora zeae-maydis, regulates cercosporin biosynthesis, fungal development, and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shim, Won-Bo; Dunkle, Larry D

    2003-09-01

    The fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis causes gray leaf spot of maize and produces cercosporin, a photosensitizing perylenequinone with toxic activity against a broad spectrum of organisms. However, little is known about the biosynthetic pathway or factors that regulate cercosporin production. Analysis of a cDNA subtraction library comprised of genes that are up-regulated during cercosporin synthesis revealed a sequence highly similar to mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in other fungi. Sequencing and conceptual translation of the full-length genomic sequence indicated that the gene, which we designated CZK3, contains a 4,119-bp open reading frame devoid of introns and encodes a 1,373-amino acid sequence that is highly similar to Wis4, a MAP kinase kinase kinase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Targeted disruption of CZK3 suppressed expression of genes predicted to participate in cercosporin biosynthesis and abolished cercosporin production. The disrupted mutants grew faster on agar media than the wild type but were deficient in conidiation and elicited only small chlorotic spots on inoculated maize leaves compared with rectangular necrotic lesions incited by the wild type. Complementation of disruptants with the CZK3 open reading frame and flanking sequences restored wild-type levels of conidiation, growth rate, and virulence as well as the ability to produce cercosporin. The results suggest that cercosporin is a virulence factor in C. zeae-maydis during maize pathogenesis, but the pleiotropic effects of CZK3 disruption precluded definitive conclusions.

  11. Receptor kinase complex transmits RALF peptide signal to inhibit root growth in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Changqing; Li, Xiushan; Chen, Jia; Chen, Weijun; Li, Bin; Li, Chiyu; Wang, Long; Li, Jianglin; Zhao, Xiaoying; Lin, Jianzhong; Liu, Xuanming; Luan, Sheng; Yu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A number of hormones work together to control plant cell growth. Rapid Alkalinization Factor 1 (RALF1), a plant-derived small regulatory peptide, inhibits cell elongation through suppression of rhizosphere acidification in plants. Although a receptor-like kinase, FERONIA (FER), has been shown to act as a receptor for RALF1, the signaling mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we identified a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase (RPM1-induced protein kinase, RIPK), a plasma membrane-associated member of the RLCK-VII subfamily, that is recruited to the receptor complex through interacting with FER in response to RALF1. RALF1 triggers the phosphorylation of both FER and RIPK in a mutually dependent manner. Genetic analysis of the fer-4 and ripk mutants reveals RIPK, as well as FER, to be required for RALF1 response in roots. The RALF1–FER–RIPK interactions may thus represent a mechanism for peptide signaling in plants. PMID:27930296

  12. An Nfic-hedgehog signaling cascade regulates tooth root development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Feng, Jifan; Li, Jingyuan; Zhao, Hu; Ho, Thach-Vu; Chai, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Coordination between the Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) and apical papilla (AP) is crucial for proper tooth root development. The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway and Nfic are both involved in tooth root development; however, their relationship has yet to be elucidated. Here, we establish a timecourse of mouse molar root development by histological staining of sections, and we demonstrate that Hh signaling is active before and during root development in the AP and HERS using Gli1 reporter mice. The proper pattern of Hh signaling activity in the AP is crucial for the proliferation of dental mesenchymal cells, because either inhibition with Hh inhibitors or constitutive activation of Hh signaling activity in transgenic mice leads to decreased proliferation in the AP and shorter roots. Moreover, Hh activity is elevated in Nfic−/− mice, a root defect model, whereas RNA sequencing and in situ hybridization show that the Hh attenuator Hhip is downregulated. ChIP and RNAscope analyses suggest that Nfic binds to the promoter region of Hhip. Treatment of Nfic−/− mice with Hh inhibitor partially restores cell proliferation, AP growth and root development. Taken together, our results demonstrate that an Nfic-Hhip-Hh signaling pathway is crucial for apical papilla growth and proper root formation. This discovery provides insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating tooth root development. PMID:26293299

  13. Wheat CBL-interacting protein kinase 25 negatively regulates salt tolerance in transgenic wheat

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xia; Sun, Tao; Wang, Xiatian; Su, Peipei; Ma, Jingfei; He, Guangyuan; Yang, Guangxiao

    2016-01-01

    CBL-interacting protein kinases are involved in plant responses to abiotic stresses, including salt stress. However, the negative regulating mechanism of this gene family in response to salinity is less reported. In this study, we evaluated the role of TaCIPK25 in regulating salt response in wheat. Under conditions of high salinity, TaCIPK25 expression was markedly down-regulated in roots. Overexpression of TaCIPK25 resulted in hypersensitivity to Na+ and superfluous accumulation of Na+ in transgenic wheat lines. TaCIPK25 expression did not decline in transgenic wheat and remained at an even higher level than that in wild-type wheat controls under high-salinity treatment. Furthermore, transmembrane Na+/H+ exchange was impaired in the root cells of transgenic wheat. These results suggested that TaCIPK25 negatively regulated salt response in wheat. Additionally, yeast-one-hybrid, β-glucuronidase activity and DNA-protein-interaction-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays showed that the transcription factor TaWRKY9 bound W-box in the TaCIPK25 promoter region. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays showed concomitantly inverted expression patterns of TaCIPK25 and TaWRKY9 in wheat roots under salt treatment, ABA application and inhibition of endogenous ABA condition. Overall, based on our results, in a salt stress condition, the negative salt response in wheat involved TaCIPK25 with the expression regulated by TaWRKY9. PMID:27358166

  14. A Receptor-Like Kinase Mediates Ammonium Homeostasis and Is Important for the Polar Growth of Root Hairs in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ling; Ma, Xiaonan; Zhang, Guozeng; Song, Shufei; Zhou, Yun; Gao, Lijie; Miao, Yuchen; Song, Chun-Peng

    2014-01-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) is both a necessary nutrient and an important signal in plants, but can be toxic in excess. Ammonium sensing and regulatory mechanisms in plant cells have not been fully elucidated. To decipher the complex network of NH4+ signaling, we analyzed [Ca2+]cyt-associated protein kinase (CAP) genes, which encode signaling components that undergo marked changes in transcription levels in response to various stressors. We demonstrated that CAP1, a tonoplast-localized receptor-like kinase, regulates root hair tip growth by maintaining cytoplasmic Ca2+ gradients. A CAP1 knockout mutant (cap1-1) produced elevated levels of cytoplasmic NH4+. Furthermore, root hair growth of cap1-1 was inhibited on Murashige and Skoog medium, but NH4+ depletion reestablished the Ca2+ gradient necessary for normal growth. The lower net NH4+ influx across the vacuolar membrane and relatively alkaline cytosolic pH of cap1-1 root hairs implied that mutation of CAP1 increased NH4+ accumulation in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, CAP1 functionally complemented the npr1 (nitrogen permease reactivator protein) kinase yeast mutant, which is defective in high-affinity NH4+ uptake via MEP2 (methylammonium permease 2), distinguishing CAP1 as a cytosolic modulator of NH4+ levels that participates in NH4+ homeostasis-regulated root hair growth by modulating tip-focused cytoplasmic Ca2+ gradients. PMID:24769480

  15. Kinases, tails and more: regulation of PTEN function by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Rita; Barata, João T

    2015-05-01

    Phosphorylation regulates the conformation, stability, homo- and heterotypic protein interactions, localization, and activity of the tumor suppressor PTEN. From a simple picture, at the beginning of this millennium, recognizing that CK2 phosphorylated PTEN at the C-terminus and thereby impacted on PTEN stability and activity, research has led to a significantly more complex scenario today, where for instance GSK3, Plk3, ATM, ROCK or Src-family kinases are also gaining the spotlight in this evolving play. Here, we review the current knowledge on the kinases that phosphorylate PTEN, and on the impact that specific phosphorylation events have on PTEN function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Legume TOR Protein Kinase Regulates Rhizobium Symbiosis and Is Essential for Infection and Nodule Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Lourdes; Quinto, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase regulates metabolism, growth, and life span in yeast, animals, and plants in coordination with nutrient status and environmental conditions. The nutrient-dependent nature of TOR functionality makes this kinase a putative regulator of symbiotic associations involving nutrient acquisition. However, TOR’s role in these processes remains to be understood. Here, we uncovered the role of TOR during the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)-Rhizobium tropici (Rhizobium) symbiotic interaction. TOR was expressed in all tested bean tissues, with higher transcript levels in the root meristems and senesced nodules. We showed TOR promoter expression along the progressing infection thread and in the infected cells of mature nodules. Posttranscriptional gene silencing of TOR using RNA interference (RNAi) showed that this gene is involved in lateral root elongation and root cell organization and also alters the density, size, and number of root hairs. The suppression of TOR transcripts also affected infection thread progression and associated cortical cell divisions, resulting in a drastic reduction of nodule numbers. TOR-RNAi resulted in reduced reactive oxygen species accumulation and altered CyclinD1 and CyclinD3 expression, which are crucial factors for infection thread progression and nodule organogenesis. Enhanced expression of TOR-regulated ATG genes in TOR-RNAi roots suggested that TOR plays a role in the recognition of Rhizobium as a symbiont. Together, these data suggest that TOR plays a vital role in the establishment of root nodule symbiosis in the common bean. PMID:27698253

  17. A molecular ruler regulates cytoskeletal remodelling by the Rho kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truebestein, Linda; Elsner, Daniel J.; Fuchs, Elisabeth; Leonard, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    The Rho-associated coiled-coil kinases (ROCK) are essential regulators of the actin cytoskeleton; however, the structure of a full-length ROCK is unknown and the mechanisms by which its kinase activity is controlled are not well understood. Here we determine the low-resolution structure of human ROCK2 using electron microscopy, revealing it to be a constitutive dimer, 120 nm in length, with a long coiled-coil tether linking the kinase and membrane-binding domains. We find, in contrast to previous reports, that ROCK2 activity does not appear to be directly regulated by binding to membranes, RhoA, or by phosphorylation. Instead, we show that changing the length of the tether modulates ROCK2 function in cells, suggesting that it acts as a molecular ruler. We present a model in which ROCK activity is restricted to a discrete region of the actin cytoskeleton, governed by the length of its coiled-coil. This represents a new type of spatial control, and hence a new paradigm for kinase regulation. PMID:26620183

  18. Redox regulation of root apical meristem organization: connecting root development to its environment.

    PubMed

    De Tullio, Mario C; Jiang, Keni; Feldman, Lewis J

    2010-05-01

    Post-embryonic root growth relies on the proliferative activity of the root apical meristem (RAM), consisting, in part, of cells with juvenile characteristics (stem cells). It is generally, but erroneously held that the RAM indefinitely produces new cells throughout the lifespan of a plant, resulting in indeterminate root growth. On the contrary, convincing data, mainly from the lab of Thomas L. Rost, show in all species analyzed so far, including Arabidopsis, that RAM organization changes over time in parallel with both a cessation of the production of new cells, and a consequent reduction in root growth, even under optimal conditions. In addition, RAM organization evolved to become highly plastic and dynamic in response to environmental triggers (e.g. water and nutrient availability, pollutants). Under unfavourable conditions, the RAM is rapidly reorganized, and, as a result of the cessation of new cell production at the root tip, root growth is altered, and lateral root production is enhanced, thus providing the plant additional strategies to overcome the stress. It is now becoming increasingly clear that this environment-responsive developmental plasticity is linked to reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, antioxidants, and related enzymes, which form part of a complex signalling module specifically operating in the regulation of RAM functioning, in strict relationship with hormonal control of root development exerted by auxin, gibberellins and cytokinins. In turn, such redox/hormone crosstalk regulates gene expression. 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Protein kinase C-associated kinase regulates NF-κB activation through inducing IKK activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Schifano, Matthew; Oleksyn, David; Jordan, Craig T; Ryan, Daniel; Insel, Richard; Zhao, Jiyong; Chen, Luojing

    2014-10-01

    Activation of the transcription factor NF-κB induced by extracellular stimuli requires IKKα and IKKβ kinase activity. How IKKα and IKKβ are activated by various upstream signaling molecules is not fully understood. We previously showed that protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK, also known as DIK/RIP4), which belongs to the receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase family, mediates the B cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF)-induced NF-κB activation in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines. Here we have investigated the mechanism underlying NF-κB activation regulated by PKK. Our results suggest that PKK can activate both the classical and the alternative NF-κB activation pathways. PKK associates with IKKα and IKKβ in mammalian cells and induces activation of both IKKα and IKKβ via phosphorylation of their serine residues 176/180 and 177/181, respectively. Unlike other members of the RIP family that activate NF-κB through a kinase-independent pathway, PKK appears to activate IKK and NF-κB mainly in a kinase-dependent manner. Suppression of PKK expression by RNA interference inhibits phosphorylation of IKKα and IKKβ as well as activation of NF-κB in human cancer cell lines. Thus, PKK regulates NF-κB activation by modulating activation of IKKα and IKKβ in mammalian cells. We propose that PKK may provide a critical link between IKK activation and various upstream signaling cascades, and may represent a potential target for inhibiting abnormal NF-κB activation in human cancers.

  20. Melatonin Regulates Root Architecture by Modulating Auxin Response in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chengzhen; Li, Aifu; Yu, Hua; Li, Wenzhen; Liang, Chengzhi; Guo, Sandui; Zhang, Rui; Chu, Chengcai

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that melatonin acts as an important regulator in controlling root growth and development, but the underlying molecular mechanism driving this relationship remains undetermined. In this study, we demonstrated that melatonin acts as a potent molecule to govern root architecture in rice. Treatments with melatonin significantly inhibited embryonic root growth, and promoted lateral root formation and development. Genome-wide expression profiling by RNA-sequencing revealed auxin-related genes were significantly activated under melatonin treatment. Moreover, several transcription factors and candidate cis-regulatory elements involved in root growth and developments, as well as auxin-related processes, were over-represented in both co-up and -down differentially expressed genes, suggesting that melatonin-mediated root growth occurs in an auxin signal pathway-dependent manner. Further, gravitropic response analysis determined that melatonin affects auxin-regulated processes in rice root. These data show that melatonin shapes root architecture by directly or indirectly activating the auxin signaling pathway. PMID:28223997

  1. Auxin: a master regulator in plant root development.

    PubMed

    Saini, Shivani; Sharma, Isha; Kaur, Navdeep; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2013-06-01

    The demand for increased crop productivity and the predicted challenges related to plant survival under adverse environmental conditions have renewed the interest in research in root biology. Various physiological and genetic studies have provided ample evidence in support of the role of plant growth regulators in root development. The biosynthesis and transport of auxin and its signaling play a crucial role in controlling root growth and development. The univocal role of auxin in root development has established it as a master regulator. Other plant hormones, such as cytokinins, brassinosteroids, ethylene, abscisic acid, gibberellins, jasmonic acid, polyamines and strigolactones interact either synergistically or antagonistically with auxin to trigger cascades of events leading to root morphogenesis and development. In recent years, the availability of biological resources, development of modern tools and experimental approaches have led to the advancement of knowledge in root development. Research in the areas of hormone signal perception, understanding network of events involved in hormone action and the transport of plant hormones has added a new dimension to root biology. The present review highlights some of the important conceptual developments in the interplay of auxin and other plant hormones and associated downstream events affecting root development.

  2. Bidirectional Regulation of Neutrophil Migration by MAP Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaowen; Ma, Bo; Malik, Asrar B.; Tang, Haiyang; Yang, Tao; Sun, Bo; Wang, Gang; Minshall, Richard D.; Li, Yan; Zhao, Yong; Ye, Richard D.; Xu, Jingsong

    2012-01-01

    To kill invading bacteria, neutrophils must interpret spatial cues, migrate, and reach target sites. Although initiation of chemotactic migration has been extensively studied, little is known about its termination. Here we report that two mitogen-activated protein kinases played opposing roles in neutrophil trafficking. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) potentiated G protein-coupled receptor kinase GRK2 activity and inhibited neutrophil migration, whereas p38 MAPK acted as a non-canonical GRK that phosphorylated the formyl peptide receptor FPR1 and facilitated neutrophil migration by blocking GRK2 function. Therefore, the dynamic balance between Erk and p38 MAPK controls neutrophil “stop” and “go” behaviors, ensuring neutrophils precisely reach their final destination as the first line of host-defense. PMID:22447027

  3. Mnk Kinases in Cytokine Signaling and Regulation of Cytokine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sonali; Platanias, Leonidas C.

    2013-01-01

    The kinases Mnk1 and Mnk2 are activated downstream of the p38 MAPK and MEK/ERK signaling pathways. Extensive work over the years has shown that these kinases control phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and regulate engagement of other effector elements, including hnRNPA1 and PSF. Mnk kinases are ubiquitously expressed and play critical roles in signaling for various cytokine receptors, while there is emerging evidence that they have important functions as mediators of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. In this review the mechanisms of activation of MNK pathways by cytokine receptors are addressed and their roles in diverse cytokine-dependent biological processes are reviewed. The clinical-translational implications of such work and the relevance of future development of specific MNK inhibitors for the treatment of malignancies and auto-immune disorders are discussed. PMID:23710261

  4. Arabidopsis thaliana mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 is involved in seed formation and modulation of primary and lateral root development

    PubMed Central

    Guevara-García, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) cascades are signal transduction modules highly conserved in all eukaryotes regulating various aspects of plant biology, including stress responses and developmental programmes. In this study, we characterized the role of MAPK 6 (MPK6) in Arabidopsis embryo development and in post-embryonic root system architecture. We found that the mpk6 mutation caused altered embryo development giving rise to three seed phenotypes that, post-germination, correlated with alterations in root architecture. In the smaller seed class, mutant seedlings failed to develop the primary root, possibly as a result of an earlier defect in the division of the hypophysis cell during embryo development, but they had the capacity to develop adventitious roots to complete their life cycle. In the larger class, the MPK6 loss of function did not cause any evident alteration in seed morphology, but the embryo and the mature seed were bigger than the wild type. Seedlings developed from these bigger seeds were characterized by a primary root longer than that of the wild type, accompanied by significantly increased lateral root initiation and more and longer root hairs. Apparently, the increment in primary root growth resulted from an enhanced cell production and cell elongation. Our data demonstrated that MPK6 plays an important role during embryo development and acts as a repressor of primary and lateral root development. PMID:24218326

  5. Kinase regulation by sulfur and selenium containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Sanmartín, Carmen; Plano, Daniel; Font, María; Palop, Juan Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Kinases are enzymes that are involved in a wide-range of cellular targets such as cell proliferation, metabolism, survival and apoptosis. Aberrations in the activity of the kinases have been linked to many human diseases such as diabetes, inflammation and cancer. The discovery of more than 518 kinases encoded by the human genome has spurred the development of rapid screening techniques for potential drugs against these enzymes and these have been identified as interesting targets for medicinal chemistry programs, especially in cancer therapy. On the other hand, sulfur and selenium have been increasingly recognized as essential elements in biology and medicine. Converging data from epidemiological and clinical studies have highlighted these elements as effective chemopreventive agents, particularly against various types of cancer (prostate, lung, breast, leukemia, colon, skin, lymphome, thyroid, pancreas, liver). These elements act through a wide range of potential mechanisms where one identified signal pathway event is kinase modulation, which is common for the two elements and emerges as a valid target. The kinases modulated by sulfur and selenium derivatives include MAP, ERK, JNK, Akt, Cdc2, Cyclin B1 and Cdc25c amongst others. Although both of the elements in question are in the same group in the periodic table and have similar biochemistries, there are relevant differences related to redox potentials, stabilities, oxidation states and anticancer activity. Literature data suggest that the replacement of sulfur by selenium in established cancer chemopreventive agents results in more effective chemopreventive analogs. In view of the multi-target kinase mechanisms in preventing cellular transformation, as well as the differences and similarities between them, in this review we focus on the development of new structures that contain selenium and/or sulfur and discuss our understanding of the regulation of antitumoral effects with emphasis on kinase modulation

  6. Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity from pig kidney cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Pawelczyk, T; Olson, M S

    1992-01-01

    The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinase in the purified PDH complex from pig kidney is sensitive to changes in ionic strength. The enzyme has optimum activity within a small range of ionic strength (0.03-0.05 M). An increase in ionic strength from 0.04 M to 0.2 M lowers the activity of PDH kinase by 32% and decreases the Km for ATP from 25 microM to 10 microM. At constant ionic strength (0.15 M) the enzyme has optimum activity over a broad pH range (7.2-8.0). The PDH kinase is stimulated 2.2-fold by 20 mM-K+, whereas Na+ even at high concentration (80 mM) has no effect on the enzyme activity. The stimulation of PDH kinase by K+ is not dependent on pH and ionic strength. PDH kinase is inhibited by HPO4(2-) in the presence of K+, whereas HPO4(2-) has no effect on the activity of this enzyme in the absence of K+. HPO4(2-) at concentrations of 2 and 10 mM inhibits PDH kinase by 28% and 55% respectively. The magnitude of this inhibition is not dependent on the ATP/ADP ratio. Inhibition by HPO4(2-) in the concentration range 0-10 mM is non-competitive with respect to ATP, and becomes mixed-type at concentrations over 10 mM. The Ki for HPO4(2-) is 10 mM. When HPO4(2-) is replaced by SO4(2-), the same effects on the activity of PDH kinase are observed. PDH kinase is also inhibited by Cl-. In the presence of 80 mM-Cl- the PDH kinase is inhibited by 40%. The inhibition by Cl- is not dependent on K+. In conclusion, we postulate that changes in phosphate concentrations may play a significant role in the regulation of PDH kinase activity in vivo. PMID:1463442

  7. Back to the roots of regulated necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, our knowledge of how cells die by regulated pathways of necrosis has increased tremendously. In this issue, Distéfano et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201605110) provide yet another milestone in our understanding of regulated necrosis as they identify a ferroptosis-like cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:28108525

  8. The regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, S C; Woods, A; Jones, N A; Davison, M D; Carling, D

    2000-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) cascade is activated by an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio within the cell. AMPK is regulated allosterically by AMP and by reversible phosphorylation. Threonine-172 within the catalytic subunit (alpha) of AMPK (Thr(172)) was identified as the major site phosphorylated by the AMP-activated protein kinase kinase (AMPKK) in vitro. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to study the role of phosphorylation of Thr(172) on AMPK activity. Mutation of Thr(172) to an aspartic acid residue (T172D) in either alpha1 or alpha2 resulted in a kinase complex with approx. 50% the activity of the corresponding wild-type complex. The activity of wild-type AMPK decreased by greater than 90% following treatment with protein phosphatases, whereas the activity of the T172D mutant complex fell by only 10-15%. Mutation of Thr(172) to an alanine residue (T172A) almost completely abolished kinase activity. These results indicate that phosphorylation of Thr(172) accounts for most of the activation by AMPKK, but that other sites are involved. In support of this we have shown that AMPKK phosphorylates at least two other sites on the alpha subunit and one site on the beta subunit. Furthermore, we provide evidence that phosphorylation of Thr(172) may be involved in the sensitivity of the AMPK complex to AMP. PMID:10642499

  9. Cell fate regulation governed by a repurposed bacterial histidine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Childers, W. Seth; Xu, Qingping; Mann, Thomas H.; Mathews, Irimpan I.; Blair, Jimmy A.; Deacon, Ashley M.; Shapiro, Lucy; Stock, Ann M.

    2014-10-28

    One of the simplest organisms to divide asymmetrically is the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. The DivL pseudo-histidine kinase, positioned at one cell pole, regulates cell-fate by controlling the activation of the global transcription factor CtrA via an interaction with the response regulator (RR) DivK. DivL uniquely contains a tyrosine at the histidine phosphorylation site, and can achieve these regulatory functions in vivo without kinase activity. Determination of the DivL crystal structure and biochemical analysis of wild-type and site-specific DivL mutants revealed that the DivL PAS domains regulate binding specificity for DivK~P over DivK, which is modulated by an allosteric intramolecular interaction between adjacent domains. We discovered that DivL's catalytic domains have been repurposed as a phosphospecific RR input sensor, thereby reversing the flow of information observed in conventional histidine kinase (HK)-RR systems and coupling a complex network of signaling proteins for cell-fate regulation.

  10. Cell fate regulation governed by a repurposed bacterial histidine kinase

    DOE PAGES

    Childers, W. Seth; Xu, Qingping; Mann, Thomas H.; ...

    2014-10-28

    One of the simplest organisms to divide asymmetrically is the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. The DivL pseudo-histidine kinase, positioned at one cell pole, regulates cell-fate by controlling the activation of the global transcription factor CtrA via an interaction with the response regulator (RR) DivK. DivL uniquely contains a tyrosine at the histidine phosphorylation site, and can achieve these regulatory functions in vivo without kinase activity. Determination of the DivL crystal structure and biochemical analysis of wild-type and site-specific DivL mutants revealed that the DivL PAS domains regulate binding specificity for DivK~P over DivK, which is modulated by an allosteric intramolecular interactionmore » between adjacent domains. We discovered that DivL's catalytic domains have been repurposed as a phosphospecific RR input sensor, thereby reversing the flow of information observed in conventional histidine kinase (HK)-RR systems and coupling a complex network of signaling proteins for cell-fate regulation.« less

  11. Spatially coordinated kinase signaling regulates local axon degeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mark; Maloney, Janice A; Kallop, Dara Y; Atwal, Jasvinder K; Tam, Stephen J; Baer, Kristin; Kissel, Holger; Kaminker, Joshua S; Lewcock, Joseph W; Weimer, Robby M; Watts, Ryan J

    2012-09-26

    In addition to being a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease, axon degeneration is used during development of the nervous system to prune unwanted connections. In development, axon degeneration is tightly regulated both temporally and spatially. Here, we provide evidence that degeneration cues are transduced through various kinase pathways functioning in spatially distinct compartments to regulate axon degeneration. Intriguingly, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) acts centrally, likely modulating gene expression in the cell body to regulate distally restricted axon degeneration. Through a combination of genetic and pharmacological manipulations, including the generation of an analog-sensitive kinase allele mutant mouse for GSK3β, we show that the β isoform of GSK3, not the α isoform, is essential for developmental axon pruning in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, we identify the dleu2/mir15a/16-1 cluster, previously characterized as a regulator of B-cell proliferation, and the transcription factor tbx6, as likely downstream effectors of GSK3β in axon degeneration.

  12. Regulation of Aurora-A kinase on the mitotic spindle.

    PubMed

    Kufer, Thomas A; Nigg, Erich A; Silljé, Herman H W

    2003-12-01

    The error-free segregation of duplicated chromosomes during cell division is essential for the maintenance of an intact genome. This process is brought about by a highly dynamic bipolar array of microtubules, the mitotic spindle. The formation and function of the mitotic spindle during M-phase of the cell cycle is regulated by protein phosphorylation, involving multiple protein kinases and phosphatases. Prominent among the enzymes implicated in spindle assembly is the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase Aurora-A. In several common human tumors, Aurora-A is overexpressed, and deregulation of this kinase was shown to result in mitotic defects and aneuploidy. Moreover, recent genetic evidence directly links the human Aurora-A gene to cancer susceptibility. Several of the physiological substrates of Aurora-A presumably await identification, but recent studies are beginning to shed light on the regulation of this critical mitotic kinase. Here, we review these findings with particular emphasis on the role of TPX2, a prominent spindle component implicated in a Ran-GTP-mediated spindle assembly pathway.

  13. The molecular regulation of Janus kinase (JAK) activation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Janus Kinase (JAK) family members serve essential roles as the intracellular signalling effectors of cytokine receptors. This family, comprising JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and TYK2, was first described more than 20 years ago, but the complexities underlying their activation, regulation and pleiotropic signalling functions are still being explored. Here, we review the current knowledge of their physiological functions and the causative role of activating and inactivating JAK mutations in human diseases, including haematopoietic malignancies, immunodeficiency and inflammatory diseases. At the molecular level, recent studies have greatly advanced our knowledge of the structures and organisation of the component FERM-SH2, pseudokinase and kinase domains within the JAKs, the mechanism of JAK activation and, in particular, the role of the pseudokinase domain as a suppressor of the adjacent tyrosine kinase domain's catalytic activity. We also review recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of negative regulation exerted by the SH2 domain containing proteins, SOCS (Suppressors of Cytokine Signalling) proteins and Lnk. These recent advances highlight the diversity of regulatory mechanisms utilised by the JAK family to maintain signalling fidelity, and suggest alternative therapeutic strategies to complement existing ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors. PMID:25057888

  14. Kinase-dependent Regulation of Monoamine Neurotransmitter Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of neurotransmission by the monoamines dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT) is critical for normal nervous system function. Precise temporal and spatial control of this signaling in mediated in large part by the actions of monoamine transporters (DAT, NET, and SERT, respectively). These transporters act to recapture their respective neurotransmitters after release, and disruption of clearance and reuptake has significant effects on physiology and behavior and has been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. To ensure adequate and dynamic control of these transporters, multiple modes of control have evolved to regulate their activity and trafficking. Central to many of these modes of control are the actions of protein kinases, whose actions can be direct or indirectly mediated by kinase-modulated protein interactions. Here, we summarize the current state of our understanding of how protein kinases regulate monoamine transporters through changes in activity, trafficking, phosphorylation state, and interacting partners. We highlight genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological evidence for kinase-linked control of DAT, NET, and SERT and, where applicable, provide evidence for endogenous activators of these pathways. We hope our discussion can lead to a more nuanced and integrated understanding of how neurotransmitter transporters are controlled and may contribute to disorders that feature perturbed monoamine signaling, with an ultimate goal of developing better therapeutic strategies. PMID:27591044

  15. Src tyrosine kinase regulates adhesion and chemotaxis in Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Hai T.; Azab, Abdel Kareem; Farag, Mena; Jia, Xiaoying; Melhem, Molly M.; Runnels, Judith; Roccaro, Aldo M.; Azab, Feda; Sacco, Antonio; Leleu, Xavier; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Ghobrial, Irene M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM) is a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma characterized by widespread involvement of the bone marrow. Despite different options of therapy, WM is still incurable. Src tyrosine kinase was shown to play a central role in the regulation of a variety of biological processes such as cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, and survival, in solid tumors. We sought to determine whether the protein tyrosine kinase Src regulates adhesion, migration and survival in WM. Experimental Design We have tested the expression of Src tyrosine kinase in WM and normal cells, and tested the effect of its specific inhibitor AZD-530 on adhesion, migration, cell cycle and survival of WM cell line and patient samples. Moreover, we tested its effect on sytockeletal and cell cycle signaling in WM. Results We demonstrated that Src is over expressed in WM cells compared to control B cells. And that the use of the Src inhibitor AZD0530 led to significant inhibition of adhesion, migration and cytosekletal signaling induced by SDF1. Moreover, inhibition of Src activity induced G1 cell cycle arrest; however, it had minimal effect on survival of WM cells, and no significant effect on survival of normal cells. Conclusions Taken together, these studies delineate the role of Src kinase activity in WM and provide the framework for future clinical trials using Src inhibitors in combination with other drugs to improve the outcome of patients with WM. PMID:19755386

  16. Back to the roots of regulated necrosis.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Vladimir; Linkermann, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, our knowledge of how cells die by regulated pathways of necrosis has increased tremendously. In this issue, Distéfano et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201605110) provide yet another milestone in our understanding of regulated necrosis as they identify a ferroptosis-like cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2017 Todorov and Linkermann.

  17. Diacylglycerol kinase regulation of protein kinase D during oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury

    SciTech Connect

    Song Jun; Li Jing; Mourot, Joshua M.; Mark Evers, B.; Chung, Dai H.

    2008-10-17

    We recently demonstrated that protein kinase D (PKD) exerts a protective function during oxidative stress-induced intestinal epithelial cell injury; however, the exact role of DAG kinase (DGK){zeta}, an isoform expressed in intestine, during this process is unknown. We sought to determine the role of DGK during oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury and whether DGK acts as an upstream regulator of PKD. Inhibition of DGK with R59022 compound or DGK{zeta} siRNA transfection decreased H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced RIE-1 cell apoptosis as measured by DNA fragmentation and increased PKD phosphorylation. Overexpression of kinase-dead DGK{zeta} also significantly increased PKD phosphorylation. Additionally, endogenous nuclear DGK{zeta} rapidly translocated to the cytoplasm following H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. Our findings demonstrate that DGK is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury. PKD activation is induced by DGK{zeta}, suggesting DGK is an upstream regulator of oxidative stress-induced activation of the PKD signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells.

  18. The New Role for an Old Kinase: Protein Kinase CK2 Regulates Metal Ion Transport

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Adam J.; Wu, Ming J.

    2016-01-01

    The pleiotropic serine/threonine protein kinase CK2 was the first kinase discovered. It is renowned for its role in cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis. The complexity of this kinase is well reflected by the findings of past decades in terms of its heterotetrameric structure, subcellular location, constitutive activity and the extensive catalogue of substrates. With the advent of non-biased high-throughput functional genomics such as genome-wide deletion mutant screening, novel aspects of CK2 functionality have been revealed. Our recent discoveries using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cells demonstrate that CK2 regulates metal toxicity. Extensive literature search reveals that there are few but elegant works on the role of CK2 in regulating the sodium and zinc channels. As both CK2 and metal ions are key players in cell biology and oncogenesis, understanding the details of CK2’s regulation of metal ion homeostasis has a direct bearing on cancer research. In this review, we aim to garner the recent data and gain insights into the role of CK2 in metal ion transport. PMID:28009816

  19. PERK–KIPK–KCBP signalling negatively regulates root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Tania V.; Haasen, Katrina E.; Aldea-Brydges, May Grace; Sun, He; Zayed, Yara; Indriolo, Emily; Goring, Daphne R.

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis proline-rich, extensin-like receptor-like kinases (PERKs) are a small group of receptor-like kinases that are thought to act as sensors at the cell wall through their predicted proline-rich extracellular domains. In this study, we focused on the characterization of a subclade of three Arabidopsis predicted PERK genes, PERK8, -9, and -10, for which no functions were known. Yeast two-hybrid interaction studies were conducted with the PERK8,- 9, and -10 cytosolic kinase domains, and two members of the Arabidopsis AGC VIII kinase family were identified as interacting proteins: AGC1-9 and the closely related kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein (KCBP)-interacting protein kinase (KIPK). As KIPK has been identified previously as an interactor of KCBP, these interactions were also examined further and confirmed in this study. Finally, T-DNA mutants for each gene were screened for altered phenotypes under different conditions, and from these screens, a role for the PERK, KIPK, and KCBP genes in negatively regulating root growth was uncovered. PMID:25262228

  20. Protein kinase A regulates the osteogenic activity of Osterix.

    PubMed

    He, Siyuan; Choi, You Hee; Choi, Joong-Kook; Yeo, Chang-Yeol; Chun, ChangJu; Lee, Kwang Youl

    2014-10-01

    Osterix belongs to the SP gene family and is a core transcription factor responsible for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Activation of protein kinase A (PKA), a serine/threonine kinase, is essential for controlling bone formation and BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation. However, the relationship between Osterix and PKA is still unclear. In this report, we investigated the precise role of the PKA pathway in regulating Osterix during osteoblast differentiation. We found that PKA increased the protein level of Osterix; PKA phosphorylated Osterix, increased protein stability, and enhanced the transcriptional activity of Osterix. These results suggest that Osterix is a novel target of PKA, and PKA modulates osteoblast differentiation partially through the regulation of Osterix.

  1. Shoot-derived cytokinins systemically regulate root nodulation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takema; Suzaki, Takuya; Soyano, Takashi; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2014-09-19

    Legumes establish symbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia) in root nodules to obtain nitrogen. Legumes control nodule number through long-distance communication between roots and shoots, maintaining the proper symbiotic balance. Rhizobial infection triggers the production of mobile CLE-RS1/2 peptides in Lotus japonicus roots; the perception of the signal by receptor kinase HAR1 in shoots presumably induces the production of an unidentified shoot-derived inhibitor (SDI) that translocates to roots and blocks further nodule development. Here we show that, CLE-RS1/2-HAR1 signalling activates the production of shoot-derived cytokinins, which have an SDI-like capacity to systemically suppress nodulation. In addition, we show that LjIPT3 is involved in nodulation-related cytokinin production in shoots. The expression of LjIPT3 is activated in an HAR1-dependent manner. We further demonstrate shoot-to-root long-distance transport of cytokinin in L. japonicus seedlings. These findings add essential components to our understanding of how legumes control nodulation to balance nutritional requirements and energy status.

  2. Spatial Regulation of Root Growth: Placing the Plant TOR Pathway in a Developmental Perspective.

    PubMed

    Barrada, Adam; Montané, Marie-Hélène; Robaglia, Christophe; Menand, Benoît

    2015-08-19

    Plant cells contain specialized structures, such as a cell wall and a large vacuole, which play a major role in cell growth. Roots follow an organized pattern of development, making them the organs of choice for studying the spatio-temporal regulation of cell proliferation and growth in plants. During root growth, cells originate from the initials surrounding the quiescent center, proliferate in the division zone of the meristem, and then increase in length in the elongation zone, reaching their final size and differentiation stage in the mature zone. Phytohormones, especially auxins and cytokinins, control the dynamic balance between cell division and differentiation and therefore organ size. Plant growth is also regulated by metabolites and nutrients, such as the sugars produced by photosynthesis or nitrate assimilated from the soil. Recent literature has shown that the conserved eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase pathway plays an important role in orchestrating plant growth. We will summarize how the regulation of cell proliferation and cell expansion by phytohormones are at the heart of root growth and then discuss recent data indicating that the TOR pathway integrates hormonal and nutritive signals to orchestrate root growth.

  3. Spatial Regulation of Root Growth: Placing the Plant TOR Pathway in a Developmental Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Barrada, Adam; Montané, Marie-Hélène; Robaglia, Christophe; Menand, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells contain specialized structures, such as a cell wall and a large vacuole, which play a major role in cell growth. Roots follow an organized pattern of development, making them the organs of choice for studying the spatio-temporal regulation of cell proliferation and growth in plants. During root growth, cells originate from the initials surrounding the quiescent center, proliferate in the division zone of the meristem, and then increase in length in the elongation zone, reaching their final size and differentiation stage in the mature zone. Phytohormones, especially auxins and cytokinins, control the dynamic balance between cell division and differentiation and therefore organ size. Plant growth is also regulated by metabolites and nutrients, such as the sugars produced by photosynthesis or nitrate assimilated from the soil. Recent literature has shown that the conserved eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase pathway plays an important role in orchestrating plant growth. We will summarize how the regulation of cell proliferation and cell expansion by phytohormones are at the heart of root growth and then discuss recent data indicating that the TOR pathway integrates hormonal and nutritive signals to orchestrate root growth. PMID:26295391

  4. Root-derived CLE glycopeptides control nodulation by direct binding to HAR1 receptor kinase.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Satoru; Shinohara, Hidefumi; Mori, Tomoko; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Leguminous plants establish a symbiosis with rhizobia to enable nitrogen fixation in root nodules under the control of the presumed root-to-shoot-to-root negative feedback called autoregulation of nodulation. In Lotus japonicus, autoregulation is mediated by CLE-RS genes that are specifically expressed in the root, and the receptor kinase HAR1 that functions in the shoot. However, the mature functional structures of CLE-RS gene products and the molecular nature of CLE-RS/HAR1 signalling governed by these spatially distant components remain elusive. Here we show that CLE-RS2 is a post-translationally arabinosylated glycopeptide derived from the CLE domain. Chemically synthesized CLE-RS glycopeptides cause significant suppression of nodulation and directly bind to HAR1 in an arabinose-chain and sequence-dependent manner. In addition, CLE-RS2 glycopeptide specifically produced in the root is found in xylem sap collected from the shoot. We propose that CLE-RS glycopeptides are the long sought mobile signals responsible for the initial step of autoregulation of nodulation.

  5. Spontaneous symbiotic reprogramming of plant roots triggered by receptor-like kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ried, Martina Katharina; Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; Parniske, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Symbiosis Receptor-like Kinase (SYMRK) is indispensable for the development of phosphate-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) as well as nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis, but the mechanisms that discriminate between the two distinct symbiotic developmental fates have been enigmatic. In this study, we show that upon ectopic expression, the receptor-like kinase genes Nod Factor Receptor 1 (NFR1), NFR5, and SYMRK initiate spontaneous nodule organogenesis and nodulation-related gene expression in the absence of rhizobia. Furthermore, overexpressed NFR1 or NFR5 associated with endogenous SYMRK in roots of the legume Lotus japonicus. Epistasis tests revealed that the dominant active SYMRK allele initiates signalling independently of either the NFR1 or NFR5 gene and upstream of a set of genes required for the generation or decoding of calcium-spiking in both symbioses. Only SYMRK but not NFR overexpression triggered the expression of AM-related genes, indicating that the receptors play a key role in the decision between AM- or root nodule symbiosis-development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03891.001 PMID:25422918

  6. Spontaneous symbiotic reprogramming of plant roots triggered by receptor-like kinases.

    PubMed

    Ried, Martina Katharina; Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; Parniske, Martin

    2014-11-25

    Symbiosis Receptor-like Kinase (SYMRK) is indispensable for the development of phosphate-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) as well as nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis, but the mechanisms that discriminate between the two distinct symbiotic developmental fates have been enigmatic. In this study, we show that upon ectopic expression, the receptor-like kinase genes Nod Factor Receptor 1 (NFR1), NFR5, and SYMRK initiate spontaneous nodule organogenesis and nodulation-related gene expression in the absence of rhizobia. Furthermore, overexpressed NFR1 or NFR5 associated with endogenous SYMRK in roots of the legume Lotus japonicus. Epistasis tests revealed that the dominant active SYMRK allele initiates signalling independently of either the NFR1 or NFR5 gene and upstream of a set of genes required for the generation or decoding of calcium-spiking in both symbioses. Only SYMRK but not NFR overexpression triggered the expression of AM-related genes, indicating that the receptors play a key role in the decision between AM- or root nodule symbiosis-development.

  7. RNA interference identifies a calcium-dependent protein kinase involved in Medicago truncatula root development.

    PubMed

    Ivashuta, Sergey; Liu, Jinyuan; Liu, Junqi; Lohar, Dasharath P; Haridas, Sajeet; Bucciarelli, Bruna; VandenBosch, Kathryn A; Vance, Carroll P; Harrison, Maria J; Gantt, J Stephen

    2005-11-01

    Changes in cellular or subcellular Ca2+ concentrations play essential roles in plant development and in the responses of plants to their environment. However, the mechanisms through which Ca2+ acts, the downstream signaling components, as well as the relationships among the various Ca2+-dependent processes remain largely unknown. Using an RNA interference-based screen for gene function in Medicago truncatula, we identified a gene that is involved in root development. Silencing Ca2+-dependent protein kinase1 (CDPK1), which is predicted to encode a Ca2+-dependent protein kinase, resulted in significantly reduced root hair and root cell lengths. Inactivation of CDPK1 is also associated with significant diminution of both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbiotic colonization. Additionally, microarray analysis revealed that silencing CDPK1 alters cell wall and defense-related gene expression. We propose that M. truncatula CDPK1 is a key component of one or more signaling pathways that directly or indirectly modulates cell expansion or cell wall synthesis, possibly altering defense gene expression and symbiotic interactions.

  8. Spatial regulation of Raf kinase signaling by RKTG

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lin; Xie, Xiaoduo; Ding, Qiurong; Luo, Xiaolin; He, Jing; Fan, Fengjuan; Liu, Weizhong; Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yan

    2007-01-01

    Subcellular compartmentalization has become an important theme in cell signaling such as spatial regulation of Ras by RasGRP1 and MEK/ERK by Sef. Here, we report spatial regulation of Raf kinase by RKTG (Raf kinase trapping to Golgi). RKTG is a seven-transmembrane protein localized at the Golgi apparatus. RKTG expression inhibits EGF-stimulated ERK and RSK phosphorylation, blocks NGF-mediated PC12 cell differentiation, and antagonizes Ras- and Raf-1-stimulated Elk-1 transactivation. Through interaction with Raf-1, RKTG changes the localization of Raf-1 from cytoplasm to the Golgi apparatus, blocks EGF-stimulated Raf-1 membrane translocation, and reduces the interaction of Raf-1 with Ras and MEK1. In RKTG-null mice, the basal ERK phosphorylation level is increased in the brain and liver. In RKTG-deleted mouse embryonic fibroblasts, EGF-induced ERK phosphorylation is enhanced. Collectively, our results reveal a paradigm of spatial regulation of Raf kinase by RKTG via sequestrating Raf-1 to the Golgi apparatus and thereby inhibiting the ERK signaling pathway. PMID:17724343

  9. Nonmuscle Myosin IIA Regulates Platelet Contractile Forces Through Rho Kinase and Myosin Light-Chain Kinase.

    PubMed

    Feghhi, Shirin; Tooley, Wes W; Sniadecki, Nathan J

    2016-10-01

    Platelet contractile forces play a major role in clot retraction and help to hold hemostatic clots against the vessel wall. Platelet forces are produced by its cytoskeleton, which is composed of actin and nonmuscle myosin filaments. In this work, we studied the role of Rho kinase, myosin light-chain kinase, and myosin in the generation of contractile forces by using pharmacological inhibitors and arrays of flexible microposts to measure platelet forces. When platelets were seeded onto microposts, they formed aggregates on the tips of the microposts. Forces produced by the platelets in the aggregates were measured by quantifying the deflection of the microposts, which bent in proportion to the force of the platelets. Platelets were treated with small molecule inhibitors of myosin activity: Y-27632 to inhibit the Rho kinase (ROCK), ML-7 to inhibit myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK), and blebbistatin to inhibit myosin ATPase activity. ROCK inhibition reduced platelet forces, demonstrating the importance of the assembly of actin and myosin phosphorylation in generating contractile forces. Similarly, MLCK inhibition caused weaker platelet forces, which verifies that myosin phosphorylation is needed for force generation in platelets. Platelets treated with blebbistatin also had weaker forces, which indicates that myosin's ATPase activity is necessary for platelet forces. Our studies demonstrate that myosin ATPase activity and the regulation of actin-myosin assembly by ROCK and MLCK are needed for the generation of platelet forces. Our findings illustrate and explain the importance of myosin for clot compaction in hemostasis and thrombosis.

  10. Plant Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors of the KRP Family: Potent Inhibitors of Root-Knot Nematode Feeding Sites in Plant Roots.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Paulo; de Almeida Engler, Janice

    2017-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne spp., are distributed worldwide and impose severe economic damage to many agronomically important crops. The plant cell cycle machinery is considered one of the pivotal components for the formation of nematode feeding sites (NFSs) or galls. These feeding sites contain five to nine hypertrophied giant cells (GC) resulting from developmental reprogramming of host root cells by this pathogen. GC undergo synchronous waves of mitotic activity uncoupled from cytokinesis giving rise to large multinucleate cells. As development of the NFS progresses, multiple rounds of DNA synthesis occur in the nuclei of GC, coupled with nuclear and cellular expansion. These cells are highly metabolically active and provide the nematode with nutrients necessary for its development and completion of its life cycle. In Arabidopsis seven cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) belonging to the interactors/inhibitors of the cyclin dependent kinases (ICK) family, also referred as Kip-Related Proteins (KRPs) have been identified. Interactions of KRPs with CDK/Cyclin complexes decrease CDK activity, affecting both cell cycle progression and DNA content in a concentration-dependent manner. We performed the functional analysis of all Arabidopsis KRP gene members during RKN interaction in Arabidopsis to obtain more insight into their role during gall development. We demonstrated that three members of this family (KRP2, KRP5, and KRP6) were highly expressed in galls and were important for cell cycle regulation during NFS development as shown by their different modes of action. We also pointed out that cell cycle inhibition through overexpression of all members of the KRP family can affect NFS development and consequently compromise the nematode's life cycle. In this review we summarized our recent understanding of the KRP family of genes, and their role in controlling cell cycle progression at the RKN feeding site.

  11. Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase and Kinase Specificity in Regulation of SRC and Breast Tumor Kinase* ♦

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Gaofeng; Aleem, Saadat; Yang, Ming; Miller, W. Todd; Tonks, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant evidence to the contrary, the view that phosphatases are “nonspecific” still pervades the field. Systems biology approaches to defining how signal transduction pathways are integrated at the level of whole organisms also often downplay the contribution of phosphatases, defining them as “erasers” that serve merely to restore the system to its basal state. Here, we present a study that counteracts the idea of “nonspecific phosphatases.” We have characterized two structurally similar and functionally related kinases, BRK and SRC, which are regulated by combinations of activating autophosphorylation and inhibitory C-terminal sites of tyrosine phosphorylation. We demonstrated specificity at the level of the kinases in that SRMS phosphorylated the C terminus of BRK, but not SRC; in contrast, CSK is the kinase responsible for C-terminal phosphorylation of SRC, but not BRK. For the phosphatases, we observed that RNAi-mediated suppression of PTP1B resulted in opposing effects on the activity of BRK and SRC and have defined the mechanisms underlying this specificity. PTP1B inhibited BRK by directly dephosphorylating the Tyr-342 autophosphorylation site. In contrast, PTP1B potentiated SRC activity, but not by dephosphorylating SRC itself directly; instead, PTP1B regulated the interaction between CBP/PAG and CSK. SRC associated with, and phosphorylated, the transmembrane protein CBP/PAG at Tyr-317, resulting in CSK recruitment. We identified PAG as a substrate of PTP1B, and dephosphorylation abolished recruitment of the inhibitory kinase CSK. Overall, these findings illustrate how the combinatorial effects of PTKs and PTPs may be integrated to regulate signaling, with both classes of enzymes displaying exquisite specificity. PMID:25897081

  12. Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase and Kinase Specificity in Regulation of SRC and Breast Tumor Kinase.

    PubMed

    Fan, Gaofeng; Aleem, Saadat; Yang, Ming; Miller, W Todd; Tonks, Nicholas K

    2015-06-26

    Despite significant evidence to the contrary, the view that phosphatases are "nonspecific" still pervades the field. Systems biology approaches to defining how signal transduction pathways are integrated at the level of whole organisms also often downplay the contribution of phosphatases, defining them as "erasers" that serve merely to restore the system to its basal state. Here, we present a study that counteracts the idea of "nonspecific phosphatases." We have characterized two structurally similar and functionally related kinases, BRK and SRC, which are regulated by combinations of activating autophosphorylation and inhibitory C-terminal sites of tyrosine phosphorylation. We demonstrated specificity at the level of the kinases in that SRMS phosphorylated the C terminus of BRK, but not SRC; in contrast, CSK is the kinase responsible for C-terminal phosphorylation of SRC, but not BRK. For the phosphatases, we observed that RNAi-mediated suppression of PTP1B resulted in opposing effects on the activity of BRK and SRC and have defined the mechanisms underlying this specificity. PTP1B inhibited BRK by directly dephosphorylating the Tyr-342 autophosphorylation site. In contrast, PTP1B potentiated SRC activity, but not by dephosphorylating SRC itself directly; instead, PTP1B regulated the interaction between CBP/PAG and CSK. SRC associated with, and phosphorylated, the transmembrane protein CBP/PAG at Tyr-317, resulting in CSK recruitment. We identified PAG as a substrate of PTP1B, and dephosphorylation abolished recruitment of the inhibitory kinase CSK. Overall, these findings illustrate how the combinatorial effects of PTKs and PTPs may be integrated to regulate signaling, with both classes of enzymes displaying exquisite specificity. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. ABL Tyrosine Kinases: Evolution of Function, Regulation, and Specificity*

    PubMed Central

    Colicelli, John

    2010-01-01

    ABL-family proteins comprise one of the best conserved branches of the tyrosine kinases. Each ABL protein contains an SH3-SH2-TK (Src homology 3–Src homology 2–tyrosine kinase) domain cassette, which confers autoregulated kinase activity and is common among nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. This cassette is coupled to an actin-binding and -bundling domain, which makes ABL proteins capable of connecting phosphoregulation with actin-filament reorganization. Two vertebrate paralogs, ABL1 and ABL2, have evolved to perform specialized functions. ABL1 includes nuclear localization signals and a DNA binding domain through which it mediates DNA damage-repair functions, whereas ABL2 has additional binding capacity for actin and for microtubules to enhance its cytoskeletal remodeling functions. Several types of posttranslational modifications control ABL catalytic activity, subcellular localization, and stability, with consequences for both cytoplasmic and nuclear ABL functions. Binding partners provide additional regulation of ABL catalytic activity, substrate specificity, and downstream signaling. Information on ABL regulatory mechanisms is being mined to provide new therapeutic strategies against hematopoietic malignancies caused by BCR-ABL1 and related leukemogenic proteins. PMID:20841568

  14. Prostaglandin E2 negatively regulates AMP-activated protein kinase via protein kinase A signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Koji; Cao, Xia; Yamauchi, Masako; Kozaki, Yasuko; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kambe, Fukushi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated possible involvement of prostaglandin (PG) E2 in regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). When osteoblastic MG63 cells were cultured in serum-deprived media, Thr-172 phosphorylation of AMPK alpha-subunit was markedly increased. Treatment of the cells with PGE2 significantly reduced the phosphorylation. Ser-79 phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a direct target for AMPK, was also reduced by PGE2. On the other hand, PGE2 reciprocally increased Ser-485 phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit that could be associated with inhibition of AMPK activity. These effects of PGE2 were mimicked by PGE2 receptor EP2 and EP4 agonists and forskolin, but not by EP1 and EP3 agonists, and the effects were suppressed by an adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 and a protein kinase A inhibitor H89. Additionally, the PGE2 effects were duplicated in primary calvarial osteoblasts. Together, the present study demonstrates that PGE2 negatively regulates AMPK activity via activation of protein kinase A signaling pathway.

  15. Root growth regulation and gravitropism in maize roots does not require the epidermis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, T.; Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    We have earlier published observations showing that endogenous alterations in growth rate during gravitropism in maize roots (Zea mays L.) are unaffected by the orientation of cuts which remove epidermal and cortical tissue in the growing zone (Bjorkman and Cleland, 1988, Planta 176, 513-518). We concluded that the epidermis and cortex are not essential for transporting a growth-regulating signal in gravitropism or straight growth, nor for regulating the rate of tissue expansion. This conclusion has been challenged by Yang et al. (1990, Planta 180, 530-536), who contend that a shallow girdle around the entire perimeter of the root blocks gravitropic curvature and that this inhibition is the result of a requirement for epidermal cells to transport the growth-regulating signal. In this paper we demonstrate that the entire epidermis can be removed without blocking gravitropic curvature and show that the position of narrow girdles does not affect the location of curvature. We therefore conclude that the epidermis is not required for transport of a growth-regulating substance from the root cap to the growing zone, nor does it regulate the growth rate of the elongating zone of roots.

  16. Root growth regulation and gravitropism in maize roots does not require the epidermis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, T.; Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    We have earlier published observations showing that endogenous alterations in growth rate during gravitropism in maize roots (Zea mays L.) are unaffected by the orientation of cuts which remove epidermal and cortical tissue in the growing zone (Bjorkman and Cleland, 1988, Planta 176, 513-518). We concluded that the epidermis and cortex are not essential for transporting a growth-regulating signal in gravitropism or straight growth, nor for regulating the rate of tissue expansion. This conclusion has been challenged by Yang et al. (1990, Planta 180, 530-536), who contend that a shallow girdle around the entire perimeter of the root blocks gravitropic curvature and that this inhibition is the result of a requirement for epidermal cells to transport the growth-regulating signal. In this paper we demonstrate that the entire epidermis can be removed without blocking gravitropic curvature and show that the position of narrow girdles does not affect the location of curvature. We therefore conclude that the epidermis is not required for transport of a growth-regulating substance from the root cap to the growing zone, nor does it regulate the growth rate of the elongating zone of roots.

  17. Regulation of phytochrome message abundance in root caps of maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. M.; Pao, L. I.; Feldman, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    In many cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.) red light affects root development via the photomorphogenetic pigment phytochrome. The site of perception for the light is the root cap. In the maize cultivar Merit, we investigated phytochrome-mediated events in the cap. We established that the message encoded by the phyA1 gene was most abundant in dark-grown tissue and was asymmetrically distributed in the root cap, with greatest expression in the cells which make up the central columella core of the cap. Phytochrome message was negatively autoregulated in a specific region within the root cap. This autoregulation was sensitive to very-low-fluence red light, and thus was characterized as a phytochrome-mediated, very-low-fluence event. The kinetics of message reaccumulation in the dark were also examined and compared to the kinetics of the light requirement for root gravitropism in this cultivar. Similarly, the degree of autoregulation present in two other maize cultivars with different light requirements for gravitropic sensitivity was investigated. It appears that the Merit cultivar expresses a condition of hypersensitivity to phytochrome-mediated light regulation in root tissues. We conclude that phytochrome regulates many activities within the cap, but the degree to which these activities share common phytochrome-mediated steps is not known.

  18. Focal adhesion kinase negatively regulates neuronal insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit; Bisht, Bharti; Dey, Chinmoy Sankar

    2012-06-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a non-receptor protein kinase, is known to be a phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activator and thus widely implicated in regulation of cell survival and cancer. In recent years FAK has also been strongly implicated as a crucial regulator of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues like skeletal muscle and liver, where decrease in its expression/activity has been shown to lead to insulin resistance. However, in the present study we report an altogether different role of FAK in regulation of insulin/PI3K signaling in neurons, the post-mitotic cells. An aberrant increase in FAK tyrosine phosphorylation was observed in insulin resistant Neuro-2a (N2A) cells. Downregulation of FAK expression utilizing RNAi mediated gene silencing in insulin resistant N2A cells completely ameliorated the impaired insulin/PI3K signaling and glucose uptake. FAK silencing in primary cortical neurons also showed marked enhancement in glucose uptake. The results thus suggest that in neurons FAK acts as a negative regulator of insulin/PI3K signaling. Interestingly, the available literature also demonstrates cell-type specific functions of FAK in neurons. FAK that is well known for its cell survival effects has been shown to be involved in neurodegeneration. Along with these previous reports, present findings highlight a novel and critical role of FAK in neurons. Moreover, as this implicates differential regulation of insulin/PI3K pathway by FAK in peripheral tissues and neuronal cells, it strongly suggests precaution while considering FAK modulators as possible therapeutics.

  19. Oscillatory Dynamics of the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Shankaran, Harish; Wiley, H. S.

    2010-12-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is a central signaling pathway in development and disease and is regulated by multiple negative and positive feedback loops. Recent studies have shown negative feedback from ERK to upstream regulators can give rise to biochemical oscillations with a periodicity of between 15-30 minutes. Feedback due to the stimulated transcription of negative regulators of the ERK pathway can also give rise to transcriptional oscillations with a periodicity of 1-2h. The biological significance of these oscillations is not clear, but recent evidence suggests that transcriptional oscillations participate in developmental processes, such as somite formation. Biochemical oscillations are more enigmatic, but could provide a mechanism for encoding different types of inputs into a common signaling pathway.

  20. The lipid kinase PIP5K1C regulates pain signaling and sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Brittany D.; Loo, Lipin; Street, Sarah E.; Ma, Anqi; Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Stashko, Michael A.; Jin, Jian; Janzen, William P.; Frye, Stephen V.; Zylka, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Numerous pain-producing (pronociceptive) receptors signal via phosphatidylinositol 4,5- bisphosphate (PIP2) hydrolysis. However, it is currently unknown which lipid kinases generate PIP2 in nociceptive dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and if these kinases regulate pronociceptive receptor signaling. Here, we found that phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5 kinase type 1C (PIP5K1C) is expressed at higher levels than any other PIP5K and, based on experiments with Pip5k1c+/− mice, generates at least half of all PIP2 in DRG neurons. Additionally, Pip5k1c haploinsufficiency reduces pronociceptive receptor signaling and TRPV1 sensitization in DRG neurons as well as thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in mouse models of chronic pain. We identified a novel small molecule inhibitor of PIP5K1C (UNC3230) in a high-throughput screen. UNC3230 lowered PIP2 levels in DRG neurons and attenuated hypersensitivity when administered intrathecally or into the hindpaw. Our studies reveal that PIP5K1C regulates PIP2- dependent nociceptive signaling and suggest that PIP5K1C is a novel therapeutic target for chronic pain. PMID:24853942

  1. Developmental and nutritional regulation of isoflavone secretion from soybean roots.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Yamazaki, Yumi; Yamashita, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Seiji; Nakayama, Toru; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavones play important roles in plant-microbe interactions in rhizospheres. Soybean roots secrete daidzein and genistein to attract rhizobia. Despite the importance of isoflavones in plant-microbe interactions, little is known about the developmental and nutritional regulation of isoflavone secretion from soybean roots. In this study, soybeans were grown in hydroponic culture, and isoflavone contents in tissues, isoflavone secretion from the roots, and the expression of isoflavone conjugates hydrolyzing beta-glucosidase (ICHG) were investigated. Isoflavone contents did not show strong growth-dependent changes, while secretion of daidzein from the roots dramatically changed, with higher secretion during vegetative stages. Coordinately, the expression of ICHG also peaked at vegetative stages. Nitrogen deficiency resulted in 8- and 15-fold increases in secretion of daidzein and genistein, respectively, with no induction of ICHG. Taken together, these results suggest that large amounts of isoflavones were secreted during vegetative stages via the hydrolysis of (malonyl)glucosides with ICHG.

  2. Lim kinase regulates the development of olfactory and neuromuscular synapses.

    PubMed

    Ang, Lay-Hong; Chen, Weitao; Yao, Ying; Ozawa, Rie; Tao, Enxiang; Yonekura, Junichiro; Uemura, Tadashi; Keshishian, Haig; Hing, Huey

    2006-05-01

    Lim Kinase (Limk) belongs to a phylogenetically conserved family of serine/threonine kinases, which have been shown to be potent regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. Despite accumulating evidence of its biochemical actions, its in vivo function has remained poorly understood. The association of the Limk1 gene with Williams Syndrome indicates that proteins of this family play a role in the nervous system. To unravel the cellular and molecular functions of Limk, we have either knocked out or activated the Limk gene in Drosophila. At the neuromuscular junction, loss of Limk leads to enlarged terminals, while increasing the activity of Limk leads to stunted terminals with fewer synaptic boutons. In the antennal lobe, loss of Limk abolishes the ability of p21-activated kinase (Pak) to alter glomerular development. In contrast, increase in Limk function leads to ectopic glomeruli, a phenotype suppressible by the coexpression of a hyperactive Cofilin gene. These results establish Limk as a critical regulator of Cofilin function and synapse development, and a downstream effector of Pak in vivo.

  3. Rho kinase regulates neurite outgrowth of hippocampal neurons via calcium dependent cytoskeleton regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Zhisheng; Cai, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jifeng; Liu, Nannuan; Chen, Jing; Tan, Minghui; Lin, Hongsheng; Guo, Guoqing

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether calcium is involved in downstream signal transduction in neurite outgrowth regulated by Rho kinase. Methods: In vitro primary hippocampal neurons were cultured and treated with Rho kinase agonist (LPA) or antagonist (Y-27632). Then, the cytoskeleton and neurite outgrowth were observed. After addition of calcium antagonist BAPTA/AM to reduce intracellular calcium, the cytoskeleton distribution and neurite outgrowth were observed. Results: The activation or inhibition of Rho kinase could significantly alter the number and length of neurites of hippocampal neurons. Rho kinase regulated the cytoskeleton to regulate the neurite outgrowth, and LPA could significantly increase intracellular calcium. After BAPTA/AM treatment, the length and branch number of neurites of neurons reduced markedly. BAPTA/AM was able to reduce intracellular calcium and decrease neuronal cytoskeleton. Treatment with both BAPTA/AM and LPA could stop the retraction of neurites, but the length and branch number of neurites remained unchanged after treatment with Y-27632 and LPA. Conclusion: Calcium may affect the cytoskeleton arrangement to regulate neurite outgrowth, and calcium is involved in the downstream signal transduction of Rho kinase regulated neurite outgrowth of hippocampal neurons. PMID:28337305

  4. A Bacillus subtilis sensor kinase involved in triggering biofilm formation on the roots of tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Cao, Shugeng; Chai, Yunrong; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto; Guo, Jian-hua; Losick, Richard

    2012-08-01

    The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is widely used in agriculture as a biocontrol agent able to protect plants from a variety of pathogens. Protection is thought to involve the formation of bacterial communities - biofilms - on the roots of the plants. Here we used confocal microscopy to visualize biofilms on the surface of the roots of tomato seedlings and demonstrated that biofilm formation requires genes governing the production of the extracellular matrix that holds cells together. We further show that biofilm formation was dependent on the sensor histidine kinase KinD and in particular on an extracellular CACHE domain implicated in small molecule sensing. Finally, we report that exudates of tomato roots strongly stimulated biofilm formation ex planta and that an abundant small molecule in the exudates, (L) -malic acid, was able to stimulate biofilm formation at high concentrations in a manner that depended on the KinD CACHE domain. We propose that small signalling molecules released by the roots of tomato plants are directly or indirectly recognized by KinD, triggering biofilm formation.

  5. Auxin steers root cell expansion via apoplastic pH regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Barbez, Elke; Dünser, Kai; Gaidora, Angelika; Lendl, Thomas; Busch, Wolfgang

    2017-06-13

    Plant cells are embedded within cell walls, which provide structural integrity, but also spatially constrain cells, and must therefore be modified to allow cellular expansion. The long-standing acid growth theory postulates that auxin triggers apoplast acidification, thereby activating cell wall-loosening enzymes that enable cell expansion in shoots. Interestingly, this model remains heavily debated in roots, because of both the complex role of auxin in plant development as well as technical limitations in investigating apoplastic pH at cellular resolution. Here, we introduce 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS) as a suitable fluorescent pH indicator for assessing apoplastic pH, and thus acid growth, at a cellular resolution in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Using HPTS, we demonstrate that cell wall acidification triggers cellular expansion, which is correlated with a preceding increase of auxin signaling. Reduction in auxin levels, perception, or signaling abolishes both the extracellular acidification and cellular expansion. These findings jointly suggest that endogenous auxin controls apoplastic acidification and the onset of cellular elongation in roots. In contrast, an endogenous or exogenous increase in auxin levels induces a transient alkalinization of the extracellular matrix, reducing cellular elongation. The receptor-like kinase FERONIA is required for this physiological process, which affects cellular root expansion during the gravitropic response. These findings pinpoint a complex, presumably concentration-dependent role for auxin in apoplastic pH regulation, steering the rate of root cell expansion and gravitropic response.

  6. Auxin steers root cell expansion via apoplastic pH regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Dünser, Kai; Gaidora, Angelika; Lendl, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Plant cells are embedded within cell walls, which provide structural integrity, but also spatially constrain cells, and must therefore be modified to allow cellular expansion. The long-standing acid growth theory postulates that auxin triggers apoplast acidification, thereby activating cell wall-loosening enzymes that enable cell expansion in shoots. Interestingly, this model remains heavily debated in roots, because of both the complex role of auxin in plant development as well as technical limitations in investigating apoplastic pH at cellular resolution. Here, we introduce 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS) as a suitable fluorescent pH indicator for assessing apoplastic pH, and thus acid growth, at a cellular resolution in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Using HPTS, we demonstrate that cell wall acidification triggers cellular expansion, which is correlated with a preceding increase of auxin signaling. Reduction in auxin levels, perception, or signaling abolishes both the extracellular acidification and cellular expansion. These findings jointly suggest that endogenous auxin controls apoplastic acidification and the onset of cellular elongation in roots. In contrast, an endogenous or exogenous increase in auxin levels induces a transient alkalinization of the extracellular matrix, reducing cellular elongation. The receptor-like kinase FERONIA is required for this physiological process, which affects cellular root expansion during the gravitropic response. These findings pinpoint a complex, presumably concentration-dependent role for auxin in apoplastic pH regulation, steering the rate of root cell expansion and gravitropic response. PMID:28559333

  7. TRIPTYCHON, not CAPRICE, participates in feedback regulation of SCM expression in the Arabidopsis root epidermis.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Su-Hwan; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root epidermal cells decide their fates (root-hair cell and non-hair cell) according to their position. SCRAMBLED (SCM), an atypical leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR RLK) mediates the positional information to the epidermal cells enabling them to adopt the proper fate. Via feedback regulation, the SCM protein accumulates preferentially in cells adopting the root-hair cell fate. In this study, we determine that TRY, but not the related factor CPC, is responsible for this preferential SCM accumulation. We observed severe reduction of SCM::GUS expression in the try-82 mutant root, but not in the cpc-1 mutant. Furthermore, the overexpression of TRY by CaMV35S promoter caused an increase in the expression of SCM::GUS in the root epidermis. Intriguingly, the overexpression of CPC by CaMV35S promoter repressed the expression of SCM::GUS. Together, these results suggest that TRY plays a unique role in generating the appropriate spatial expression of SCM.

  8. Brassinosteroid regulated kinases (BRKs) that mediate brassinosteroid signal transduction and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhi-Yong; Tang, Wenqiang

    2013-09-24

    The present invention identifies a novel family of kinases regulated by brassinosteroids, referred to as BRKs (brassinosteroid regulated kinases) or BSKs (brassinosteroid signaling kinases). The present invention provides methods for modulating the response of a plant cell to a brassinosteroid using BRKs.

  9. Evolutionary Roots of Arginase Expression and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Dzik, Jolanta Maria

    2014-01-01

    Two main types of macrophage functions are known: classical (M1), producing nitric oxide, NO, and M2, in which arginase activity is primarily expressed. Ornithine, the product of arginase, is a substrate for synthesis of polyamines and collagen, important for growth and ontogeny of animals. M2 macrophages, expressing high level of mitochondrial arginase, have been implicated in promoting cell division and deposition of collagen during ontogeny and wound repair. Arginase expression is the default mode of tissue macrophages, but can also be amplified by signals, such as IL-4/13 or transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) that accelerates wound healing and tissue repair. In worms, the induction of collagen gene is coupled with induction of immune response genes, both depending on the same TGF-β-like pathway. This suggests that the main function of M2 “heal” type macrophages is originally connected with the TGF-β superfamily of proteins, which are involved in regulation of tissue and organ differentiation in embryogenesis. Excretory–secretory products of metazoan parasites are able to induce M2-type of macrophage responses promoting wound healing without participation of Th2 cytokines IL-4/IL-13. The expression of arginase in lower animals can be induced by the presence of parasite antigens and TGF-β signals leading to collagen synthesis. This also means that the main proteins, which, in primitive metazoans, are involved in regulation of tissue and organ differentiation in embryogenesis are produced by innate immunity. The signaling function of NO is known already from the sponge stage of animal evolution. The cytotoxic role of NO molecule appeared later, as documented in immunity of marine mollusks and some insects. This implies that the M2-wound healing promoting function predates the defensive role of NO, a characteristic of M1 macrophages. Understanding when and how the M1 and M2 activities came to be in animals is useful for understanding how macrophage

  10. Glycerol Affects Root Development through Regulation of Multiple Pathways in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yonghong; Wang, Jinfang; Zhou, Yongming

    2014-01-01

    Glycerol metabolism has been well studied biochemically. However, the means by which glycerol functions in plant development is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the effects of glycerol on root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Exogenous glycerol inhibited primary root growth and altered lateral root development in wild-type plants. These phenotypes appeared concurrently with increased endogenous glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and H2O2 contents in seedlings, and decreased phosphate levels in roots. Upon glycerol treatment, G3P level and root development did not change in glycerol kinase mutant gli1, but G3P level increased in gpdhc1 and fad-gpdh mutants, which resulted in more severely impaired root development. Overexpression of the FAD-GPDH gene attenuated the alterations in G3P, phosphate and H2O2 levels, leading to increased tolerance to exogenous glycerol, which suggested that FAD-GPDH plays an important role in modulating this response. Free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content increased by 46%, and DR5pro::GUS staining increased in the stele cells of the root meristem under glycerol treatment, suggesting that glycerol likely alters normal auxin distribution. Decreases in PIN1 and PIN7 expression, β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining in plants expressing PIN7pro::GUS and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence in plants expressing PIN7pro::PIN7-GFP were observed, indicating that polar auxin transport in the root was downregulated under glycerol treatment. Analyses with auxin-related mutants showed that TIR1 and ARF7 were involved in regulating root growth under glycerol treatment. Glycerol-treated plants showed significant reductions in root meristem size and cell number as revealed by CYCB1;1pro::GUS staining. Furthermore, the expression of CDKA and CYCB1 decreased significantly in treated plants compared with control plants, implying possible alterations in cell cycle progression. Our data demonstrated that glycerol

  11. Casein Kinase 1 Functions as both Penultimate and Ultimate Kinase in Regulating Cdc25A Destruction

    PubMed Central

    Honaker, Yuchi; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

    2010-01-01

    The Cdc25A protein phosphatase drives cell cycle transitions by activating cyclin-dependent protein kinases. Failure to regulate Cdc25A leads to deregulated cell cycle progression, bypass of cell cycle checkpoints and genome instability. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis plays an important role in balancing Cdc25A levels. Cdc25A contains a DS82G motif whose phosphorylation is targeted by β-TrCP E3 ligase during interphase. Targeting of β-TrCP to Cdc25A requires phosphorylation of serines 79 (S79) and 82 (S82). Here, we report that casein kinase 1 alpha (CK1α) phosphorylates Cdc25A on both S79 and S82 in a hierarchical manner requiring prior phosphorylation of serine 76 by Chk1 or GSK-3β. This facilitates β-TrCP binding and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of Cdc25A throughout interphase and following exposure to genotoxic stress. The priming of Cdc25A by at least three kinases (Chk1, GSK-3β, CK1α), some of which also require priming, ensures diverse extra- and intra-cellular signals interface with Cdc25A to precisely control cell division. PMID:20348946

  12. Auxin regulates distal stem cell differentiation in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhaojun; Friml, Jirí

    2010-06-29

    The stem cell niche in the root meristem is critical for the development of the plant root system. The plant hormone auxin acts as a versatile trigger in many developmental processes, including the regulation of root growth, but its role in the control of the stem cell activity remains largely unclear. Here we show that local auxin levels, determined by biosynthesis and intercellular transport, mediate maintenance or differentiation of distal stem cells in the Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Genetic analysis shows that auxin acts upstream of the major regulators of the stem cell activity, the homeodomain transcription factor WOX5, and the AP-2 transcription factor PLETHORA. Auxin signaling for differentiation of distal stem cells requires the transcriptional repressor IAA17/AXR3 as well as the ARF10 and ARF16 auxin response factors. ARF10 and ARF16 activities repress the WOX5 transcription and restrict it to the quiescent center, where WOX5, in turn, is needed for the activity of PLETHORA. Our investigations reveal that long-distance auxin signals act upstream of the short-range network of transcriptional factors to mediate the differentiation of distal stem cells in roots.

  13. Ack kinase regulates CTP synthase filaments during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Strochlic, Todd I; Stavrides, Kevin P; Thomas, Sam V; Nicolas, Emmanuelle; O'Reilly, Alana M; Peterson, Jeffrey R

    2014-11-01

    The enzyme CTP synthase (CTPS) dynamically assembles into macromolecular filaments in bacteria, yeast, Drosophila, and mammalian cells, but the role of this morphological reorganization in regulating CTPS activity is controversial. During Drosophila oogenesis, CTPS filaments are transiently apparent in ovarian germline cells during a period of intense genomic endoreplication and stockpiling of ribosomal RNA. Here, we demonstrate that CTPS filaments are catalytically active and that their assembly is regulated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase DAck, the Drosophila homologue of mammalian Ack1 (activated cdc42-associated kinase 1), which we find also localizes to CTPS filaments. Egg chambers from flies deficient in DAck or lacking DAck catalytic activity exhibit disrupted CTPS filament architecture and morphological defects that correlate with reduced fertility. Furthermore, ovaries from these flies exhibit reduced levels of total RNA, suggesting that DAck may regulate CTP synthase activity. These findings highlight an unexpected function for DAck and provide insight into a novel pathway for the developmental control of an essential metabolic pathway governing nucleotide biosynthesis.

  14. Molecular mechanisms regulating protein kinase Czeta turnover and cellular transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Le Good, J Ann; Brindley, David N

    2004-01-01

    The regulation of protein kinase C (PKC)zeta in relation to its turnover, cell growth and transformation was investigated in Rat2 fibroblasts by over-expressing wild-type or mutant forms of PKCzeta. Deletion of the pseudosubstrate site (PSS) produced the most active mutant (PKCzeta Delta PSS), but mutants designed to mimic phosphorylated PKCzeta had lower specific activities in an in vitro assay. The mutant lacking phosphorylation at the Thr-560 site (T560A) had similar specific activity to wild-type PKCzeta. The T560A mutant also protected PKCzeta against proteolysis, whereas phosphorylation at Thr-410 targeted it towards proteosomal degradation. Blocking proteosomal degradation with lactacystin caused the accumulation of full-length PKCzeta Delta PSS, T410E, PKCzeta Delta PSS T410/560E, PKCzeta and T560A. Expressed PKCzeta activity was paralleled by extracellular-regulated protein kinase activation, increased cell division, serum-independent growth and focus formation. These foci were seen for cells expressing higher PKCzeta activity (PKCzeta Delta PSS, PKCzeta Delta PSS T410/560E and T560A mutants), but these fibroblasts did not show significant anchorage-independent growth. This work provides novel information concerning the role of the PSS and phosphorylation sites in regulating the activity and turnover of an atypical PKC and shows how this activity can induce cell transformation with respect to focus formation. PMID:14580237

  15. TRPM7 is regulated by halides through its kinase domain

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haijie; Zhang, Zheng; Lis, Annette; Penner, Reinhold; Fleig, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a divalent-selective cation channel fused to an atypical α-kinase. TRPM7 is a key regulator of cell growth and proliferation, processes accompanied by mandatory cell volume changes. Osmolarity-induced cell volume alterations regulate TRPM7 through molecular crowding of solutes that affect channel activity, including magnesium (Mg2+), Mg-nucleotides and a further unidentified factor. Here, we assess whether chloride and related halides can act as negative feedback regulators of TRPM7. We find that chloride and bromide inhibit heterologously expressed TRPM7 in synergy with intracellular Mg2+ ([Mg2+]i) and this is facilitated through the ATP-binding site of the channel’s kinase domain. The synergistic block of TRPM7 by chloride and Mg2+ is not reversed during divalent-free or acidic conditions, indicating a change in protein conformation that leads to channel inactivation. Iodide has the strongest inhibitory effect on TRPM7 at physiological [Mg2+]i. Iodide also inhibits endogenous TRPM7-like currents as assessed in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, where upregulation of SLC5A5 sodium-iodide symporter enhances iodide uptake and inhibits cell proliferation. These results indicate that chloride could be an important factor in modulating TRPM7 during osmotic stress and implicate TRPM7 as a possible molecular mechanism contributing to the anti-proliferative characteristics of intracellular iodide accumulation in cancer cells. PMID:23471296

  16. Auxin and epigenetic regulation of SKP2B, an F-box that represses lateral root formation.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Concepción; Ramirez-Parra, Elena; Casimiro, Ilda; Otero, Sofía; Desvoyes, Bénédicte; De Rybel, Bert; Beeckman, Tom; Casero, Pedro; Gutierrez, Crisanto; C Del Pozo, Juan

    2012-10-01

    In plants, lateral roots originate from pericycle founder cells that are specified at regular intervals along the main root. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SKP2B (for S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein2B), an F-box protein, negatively regulates cell cycle and lateral root formation as it represses meristematic and founder cell divisions. According to its function, SKP2B is expressed in founder cells, lateral root primordia and the root apical meristem. We identified a novel motif in the SKP2B promoter that is required for its specific root expression and auxin-dependent induction in the pericycle cells. Next to a transcriptional control by auxin, SKP2B expression is regulated by histone H3.1/H3.3 deposition in a CAF-dependent manner. The SKP2B promoter and the 5' end of the transcribed region are enriched in H3.3, which is associated with active chromatin states, over H3.1. Furthermore, the SKP2B promoter is also regulated by H3 acetylation in an auxin- and IAA14-dependent manner, reinforcing the idea that epigenetics represents an important regulatory mechanism during lateral root formation.

  17. WNK kinases regulate thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransport.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Ling; Angell, Jordan; Mitchell, Rose; Ellison, David H

    2003-04-01

    Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) is an autosomal dominant disorder of hyperkalemia and hypertension. Mutations in two members of the WNK kinase family, WNK1 and WNK4, cause the disease. WNK1 mutations are believed to increase WNK1 expression; the effect of WNK4 mutations remains unknown. The clinical phenotype of PHAII is opposite to Gitelman syndrome, a disease caused by dysfunction of the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter. We tested the hypothesis that WNK kinases regulate the mammalian thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC). Mouse WNK4 was cloned and expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without NCC. Coexpression with WNK4 suppressed NCC activity by more than 85%. This effect did not result from defects in NCC synthesis or processing, but was associated with an 85% reduction in NCC abundance at the plasma membrane. Unlike WNK4, WNK1 did not affect NCC activity directly. WNK1, however, completely prevented WNK4 inhibition of NCC. Some WNK4 mutations that cause PHAII retained NCC-inhibiting activity, but the Q562E WNK4 demonstrated diminished activity, suggesting that some PHAII mutations lead to loss of NCC inhibition. Gain-of-function WNK1 mutations would be expected to inhibit WNK4 activity, thereby activating NCC, contributing to the PHAII phenotype. Together, these results identify WNK kinases as a previously unrecognized sodium regulatory pathway of the distal nephron. This pathway likely contributes to normal and pathological blood pressure homeostasis.

  18. Regulation of macropinocytosis by p21-activated kinase-1.

    PubMed

    Dharmawardhane, S; Schürmann, A; Sells, M A; Chernoff, J; Schmid, S L; Bokoch, G M

    2000-10-01

    The process of macropinocytosis is an essential aspect of normal cell function, contributing to both growth and motile processes of cells. p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are targets for activated Rac and Cdc42 guanosine 5'-triphosphatases and have been shown to regulate the actin-myosin cytoskeleton. In fibroblasts PAK1 localizes to areas of membrane ruffling, as well as to amiloride-sensitive pinocytic vesicles. Expression of a PAK1 kinase autoinhibitory domain blocked both platelet-derived growth factor- and RacQ61L-stimulated uptake of 70-kDa dextran particles, whereas an inactive version of this domain did not, indicating that PAK kinase activity is required for normal growth factor-induced macropinocytosis. The mechanisms by which PAK modulate macropinocytosis were examined in NIH3T3 cell lines expressing various PAK1 constructs under the control of a tetracycline-responsive transactivator. Cells expressing PAK1 (H83,86L), a mutant that dramatically stimulates formation of dorsal membrane ruffles, exhibited increased macropinocytic uptake of 70-kDa dextran particles in the absence of additional stimulation. This effect was not antagonized by coexpression of dominant-negative Rac1-T17N. In the presence of platelet-derived growth factor, both PAK1 (H83,86L) and a highly kinase active PAK1 (T423E) mutant dramatically enhanced the uptake of 70-kDa dextran. Neither wild-type PAK1 nor vector controls exhibited enhanced macropinocytosis, nor did PAK1 (H83,86L) affect clathrin-dependent endocytic mechanisms. Active versions of PAK1 enhanced both growth factor-stimulated 70-kDa dextran uptake and efflux, suggesting that PAK1 activity modulated pinocytic vesicle cycling. These data indicate that PAK1 plays an important regulatory role in the process of macropinocytosis, perhaps related to the requirement for PAK in directed cell motility.

  19. Creatine kinase in cell cycle regulation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yong-Bin

    2016-08-01

    The phosphocreatine-creatine kinase (CK) shuttle system is increasingly recognized as a fundamental mechanism for ATP homeostasis in both excitable and non-excitable cells. Many intracellular processes are ATP dependent. Cell division is a process requiring a rapid rate of energy turnover. Cell cycle regulation is also a key point to understanding the mechanisms underlying cancer progression. It has been known for about 40 years that aberrant CK levels are associated with various cancers and for over 30 years that CK is involved in mitosis regulation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been investigated sufficiently until recently. By maintaining ATP at sites of high-energy demand, CK can regulate cell cycle progression by affecting the intracellular energy status as well as by influencing signaling pathways that are essential to activate cell division and cytoskeleton reorganization. Aberrant CK levels may impair cell viability under normal or stressed conditions and induce cell death. The involvement of CK in cell cycle regulation and cellular energy metabolism makes it a potential diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target in cancer. To understand the multiple physiological/pathological functions of CK, it is necessary to identify CK-binding partners and regulators including proteins, non-coding RNAs and participating endogenous small molecular weight chemical compounds. This review will focus on molecular mechanisms of CK in cell cycle regulation and cancer progression. It will also discuss the implications of recent mechanistic studies, the emerging problems and future challenges of the multifunctional enzyme CK.

  20. Myosin light chain kinase regulates cell polarization independently of membrane tension or Rho kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Sunny S.; Diz-Muñoz, Alba; Weiner, Orion D.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cells polarize to a single front and rear to achieve rapid actin-based motility, but the mechanisms preventing the formation of multiple fronts are unclear. We developed embryonic zebrafish keratocytes as a model system for investigating establishment of a single axis. We observed that, although keratocytes from 2 d postfertilization (dpf) embryos resembled canonical fan-shaped keratocytes, keratocytes from 4 dpf embryos often formed multiple protrusions despite unchanged membrane tension. Using genomic, genetic, and pharmacological approaches, we determined that the multiple-protrusion phenotype was primarily due to increased myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression. MLCK activity influences cell polarity by increasing myosin accumulation in lamellipodia, which locally decreases protrusion lifetime, limiting lamellipodial size and allowing for multiple protrusions to coexist within the context of membrane tension limiting protrusion globally. In contrast, Rho kinase (ROCK) regulates myosin accumulation at the cell rear and does not determine protrusion size. These results suggest a novel MLCK-specific mechanism for controlling cell polarity via regulation of myosin activity in protrusions. PMID:25918227

  1. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ regulates RhoA activation via a kinase-independent scaffolding mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ard, Ryan; Mulatz, Kirk; Abramovici, Hanan; Maillet, Jean-Christian; Fottinger, Alexandra; Foley, Tanya; Byham, Michèle-Renée; Iqbal, Tasfia Ahmed; Yoneda, Atsuko; Couchman, John R; Parks, Robin J; Gee, Stephen H

    2012-10-01

    Rho GTPases share a common inhibitor, Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDI), which regulates their expression levels, membrane localization, and activation state. The selective dissociation of individual Rho GTPases from RhoGDI ensures appropriate responses to cellular signals, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid, selectively dissociates Rac1 by stimulating PAK1-mediated phosphorylation of RhoGDI on Ser-101/174. Similarly, phosphorylation of RhoGDI on Ser-34 by protein kinase Cα (PKCα) selectively releases RhoA. Here we show DGKζ is required for RhoA activation and Ser-34 phosphorylation, which were decreased in DGKζ-deficient fibroblasts and rescued by wild-type DGKζ or a catalytically inactive mutant. DGKζ bound directly to the C-terminus of RhoA and the regulatory arm of RhoGDI and was required for efficient interaction of PKCα and RhoA. DGKζ-null fibroblasts had condensed F-actin bundles and altered focal adhesion distribution, indicative of aberrant RhoA signaling. Two targets of the RhoA effector ROCK showed reduced phosphorylation in DGKζ-null cells. Collectively our findings suggest DGKζ functions as a scaffold to assemble a signaling complex that functions as a RhoA-selective, GDI dissociation factor. As a regulator of Rac1 and RhoA activity, DGKζ is a critical factor linking changes in lipid signaling to actin reorganization.

  2. Tricornered Kinase Regulates Synapse Development by Regulating the Levels of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Rajalaxmi; Barber, Kara; Buckley, Amanda; Cho, Phillip; Egbejimi, Anuoluwapo; Wairkar, Yogesh P

    2015-01-01

    Precise regulation of synapses during development is essential to ensure accurate neural connectivity and function of nervous system. Many signaling pathways, including the mTOR (mechanical Target of Rapamycin) pathway operate in neurons to maintain genetically determined number of synapses during development. mTOR, a kinase, is shared between two functionally distinct multi-protein complexes- mTORC1 and mTORC2, that act downstream of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). We and others have suggested an important role for TSC in synapse development at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapses. In addition, our data suggested that the regulation of the NMJ synapse numbers in Drosophila largely depends on signaling via mTORC2. In the present study, we further this observation by identifying Tricornered (Trc) kinase, a serine/threonine kinase as a likely mediator of TSC signaling. trc genetically interacts with Tsc2 to regulate the number of synapses. In addition, Tsc2 and trc mutants exhibit a dramatic reduction in synaptic levels of WASP, an important regulator of actin polymerization. We show that Trc regulates the WASP levels largely, by regulating the transcription of WASP. Finally, we show that overexpression of WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein) in trc mutants can suppress the increase in the number of synapses observed in trc mutants, suggesting that WASP regulates synapses downstream of Trc. Thus, our data provide a novel insight into how Trc may regulate the genetic program that controls the number of synapses during development.

  3. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Regulate OPG through Inhibition of PDGFRβ

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Mei Lin; Lin, Jian-Ming; Bava, Usha; Callon, Karen; Cornish, Jillian; Naot, Dorit; Grey, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Nilotinib and imatinib are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). In vitro, imatinib and nilotinib inhibit osteoclastogenesis, and in patients they reduce levels of bone resorption. One of the mechanisms that might underlie these effects is an increase in the production of osteoprotegerin (OPG). In the current work we report that platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) signaling regulates OPG production in vitro. In addition, we have shown that TKIs have effects on RANKL signaling through inhibition of the PDGFRβ and other target receptors. These findings have implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which TKIs affect osteoclastogenesis, and the role of PDGFRβ signaling in regulating osteoclastogenesis. Further studies are indicated to confirm the clinical effects of PDGFRβ-inhibitors and to elaborate the intracellular pathways that underpin these effects. PMID:27737004

  4. ROOT DETERMINED NODULATION1 Is Required for M. truncatula CLE12, But Not CLE13, Peptide Signaling through the SUNN Receptor Kinase1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Elise

    2017-01-01

    The combinatorial interaction of a receptor kinase and a modified CLE peptide is involved in several developmental processes in plants, including autoregulation of nodulation (AON), which allows legumes to limit the number of root nodules formed based on available nitrogen and previous rhizobial colonization. Evidence supports the modification of CLE peptides by enzymes of the hydroxyproline O-arabinosyltransferase (HPAT/RDN) family. Here, we show by grafting and genetic analysis in Medicago truncatula that, in the AON pathway, RDN1, functioning in the root, acts upstream of the receptor kinase SUNN, functioning in the shoot. As expected for a glycosyltransferase, we found that RDN1 and RDN2 proteins are localized to the Golgi, as was shown previously for AtHPAT1. Using composite plants with transgenic hairy roots, we show that RDN1 and RDN2 orthologs from dicots as well as a related RDN gene from rice (Oryza sativa) can rescue the phenotype of rdn1-2 when expressed constitutively, but the less related MtRDN3 cannot. The timing of the induction of MtCLE12 and MtCLE13 peptide genes (negative regulators of AON) in nodulating roots is not altered by the mutation of RDN1 or SUNN, although expression levels are higher. Plants with transgenic roots constitutively expressing MtCLE12 require both RDN1 and SUNN to prevent nodule formation, while plants constitutively expressing MtCLE13 require only SUNN, suggesting that the two CLEs have different requirements for function. Combined with previous work, these data support a model in which RDN1 arabinosylates MtCLE12, and this modification is necessary for the transport and/or reception of the AON signal by the SUNN kinase. PMID:28592666

  5. Protein Kinase D Regulates Cell Death Pathways in Experimental Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jingzhen; Liu, Yannan; Tan, Tanya; Guha, Sushovan; Gukovsky, Ilya; Gukovskaya, Anna; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation and acinar cell necrosis are two major pathological responses of acute pancreatitis, a serious disorder with no current therapies directed to its molecular pathogenesis. Serine/threonine protein kinase D family, which includes PKD/PKD1, PKD2, and PKD3, has been increasingly implicated in the regulation of multiple physiological and pathophysiological effects. We recently reported that PKD/PKD1, the predominant PKD isoform expressed in rat pancreatic acinar cells, mediates early events of pancreatitis including NF-κB activation and inappropriate intracellular digestive enzyme activation. In current studies, we investigated the role and mechanisms of PKD/PKD1 in the regulation of necrosis in pancreatic acinar cells by using two novel small molecule PKD inhibitors CID755673 and CRT0066101 and molecular approaches in in vitro and in vivo experimental models of acute pancreatitis. Our results demonstrated that both CID755673 and CRT0066101 are PKD-specific inhibitors and that PKD/PKD1 inhibition by either the chemical inhibitors or specific PKD/PKD1 siRNAs attenuated necrosis while promoting apoptosis induced by pathological doses of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK) in pancreatic acinar cells. Conversely, up-regulation of PKD expression in pancreatic acinar cells increased necrosis and decreased apoptosis. We further showed that PKD/PKD1 regulated several key cell death signals including inhibitors of apoptotic proteins, caspases, receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 to promote necrosis. PKD/PKD1 inhibition by CID755673 significantly ameliorated necrosis and severity of pancreatitis in an in vivo experimental model of acute pancreatitis. Thus, our studies indicate that PKD/PKD1 is a key mediator of necrosis in acute pancreatitis and that PKD/PKD1 may represent a potential therapeutic target in acute pancreatitis. PMID:22470346

  6. Tyrosine kinase FYN negatively regulates NOX4 in cardiac remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Shouji; Kuroda, Junya; Zhai, Peiyong; Liu, Tong; Ikeda, Shohei; Nagarajan, Narayani; Yokota, Takashi; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Hsu, Chiao-Po; Li, Hong; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (Noxes) produce ROS that regulate cell growth and death. NOX4 expression in cardiomyocytes (CMs) plays an important role in cardiac remodeling and injury, but the posttranslational mechanisms that modulate this enzyme are poorly understood. Here, we determined that FYN, a Src family tyrosine kinase, interacts with the C-terminal domain of NOX4. FYN and NOX4 colocalized in perinuclear mitochondria, ER, and nuclear fractions in CMs, and FYN expression negatively regulated NOX4-induced O2– production and apoptosis in CMs. Mechanistically, we found that direct phosphorylation of tyrosine 566 on NOX4 was critical for this FYN-mediated negative regulation. Transverse aortic constriction activated FYN in the left ventricle (LV), and FYN-deficient mice displayed exacerbated cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction and increased ROS production and apoptosis. Deletion of Nox4 rescued the exaggerated LV remodeling in FYN-deficient mice. Furthermore, FYN expression was markedly decreased in failing human hearts, corroborating its role as a regulator of cardiac cell death and ROS production. In conclusion, FYN is activated by oxidative stress and serves as a negative feedback regulator of NOX4 in CMs during cardiac remodeling. PMID:27525436

  7. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Regulates Seed Dormancy in Barley.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Kubo, Yuta; Nakamura, Masako; Ichimura, Kazuya; Seo, Shigemi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ando, Tsuyu; Hensel, Goetz; Sameri, Mohammad; Stein, Nils; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-03-21

    Seed dormancy has fundamental importance in plant survival and crop production; however, the mechanisms regulating dormancy remain unclear [1-3]. Seed dormancy levels generally decrease during domestication to ensure that crops successfully germinate in the field. However, reduction of seed dormancy can cause devastating losses in cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seed (grain) on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Understanding the mechanisms of dormancy can facilitate breeding of crop varieties with the appropriate levels of seed dormancy [4-8]. Barley is a model crop [9, 10] and has two major seed dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTLs), SD1 and SD2, on chromosome 5H [11-19]. We detected a QTL designated Qsd2-AK at SD2 as the single major determinant explaining the difference in seed dormancy between the dormant cultivar "Azumamugi" (Az) and the non-dormant cultivar "Kanto Nakate Gold" (KNG). Using map-based cloning, we identified the causal gene for Qsd2-AK as Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 (MKK3). The dormant Az allele of MKK3 is recessive; the N260T substitution in this allele decreases MKK3 kinase activity and appears to be causal for Qsd2-AK. The N260T substitution occurred in the immediate ancestor allele of the dormant allele, and the established dormant allele became prevalent in barley cultivars grown in East Asia, where the rainy season and harvest season often overlap. Our findings show fine-tuning of seed dormancy during domestication and provide key information for improving pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in barley and wheat.

  8. Glucose regulates diacylglycerol intracellular levels and protein kinase C activity by modulating diacylglycerol kinase subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Miele, Claudia; Paturzo, Flora; Teperino, Raffaele; Sakane, Fumio; Fiory, Francesca; Oriente, Francesco; Ungaro, Paola; Valentino, Rossella; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2007-11-02

    Although chronic hyperglycemia reduces insulin sensitivity and leads to impaired glucose utilization, short term exposure to high glucose causes cellular responses positively regulating its own metabolism. We show that exposure of L6 myotubes overexpressing human insulin receptors to 25 mm glucose for 5 min decreased the intracellular levels of diacylglycerol (DAG). This was paralleled by transient activation of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) and of insulin receptor signaling. Following 30-min exposure, however, both DAG levels and DGK activity returned close to basal levels. Moreover, the acute effect of glucose on DAG removal was inhibited by >85% by the DGK inhibitor R59949. DGK inhibition was also accompanied by increased protein kinase C-alpha (PKCalpha) activity, reduced glucose-induced insulin receptor activation, and GLUT4 translocation. Glucose exposure transiently redistributed DGK isoforms alpha and delta, from the prevalent cytosolic localization to the plasma membrane fraction. However, antisense silencing of DGKdelta, but not of DGKalpha expression, was sufficient to prevent the effect of high glucose on PKCalpha activity, insulin receptor signaling, and glucose uptake. Thus, the short term exposure of skeletal muscle cells to glucose causes a rapid induction of DGK, followed by a reduction of PKCalpha activity and transactivation of the insulin receptor signaling. The latter may mediate, at least in part, glucose induction of its own metabolism.

  9. Neuronal leucine-rich repeat 1 negatively regulates anaplastic lymphoma kinase in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Shunpei; Takatori, Atsushi; Ogura, Atsushi; Kohashi, Kenichi; Souzaki, Ryota; Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Hossain, Md. Shamim; Ohira, Miki; Nakamura, Yohko; Nakagawara, Akira

    2016-01-01

    In neuroblastoma (NB), one of the most common paediatric solid tumours, activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is often associated with poor outcomes. Although genetic studies have identified copy number alteration and nonsynonymous mutations of ALK, the regulatory mechanism of ALK signalling at protein levels is largely elusive. Neuronal leucine-rich repeat 1 (NLRR1) is a type 1 transmembrane protein that is highly expressed in unfavourable NB and potentially influences receptor tyrosine kinase signalling. Here, we showed that NLRR1 and ALK exhibited a mutually exclusive expression pattern in primary NB tissues by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, dorsal root ganglia of Nlrr1+/+ and Nlrr1−/− mice displayed the opposite expression patterns of Nlrr1 and Alk. Of interest, NLRR1 physically interacted with ALK in vitro through its extracellular region. Notably, the NLRR1 ectodomain impaired ALK phosphorylation and proliferation of ALK-mutated NB cells. A newly identified cleavage of the NLRR1 ectodomain also supported NLRR1-mediated ALK signal regulation in trans. Thus, we conclude that NLRR1 appears to be an extracellular negative regulator of ALK signalling in NB and neuronal development. Our findings may be beneficial to comprehend NB heterogeneity and to develop a novel therapy against unfavourable NB. PMID:27604320

  10. [Gene expression and activity regulation of two calmodulin binding protein kinases in tobacco seedling].

    PubMed

    Hua, Wei; Li, Rong-Jun; Liang, Shu-Ping; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2005-06-01

    Two different calmodulin-binding protein kinase cDNAs (NtCBK1/2) have been isolated from tobacco. To understand the CBK protein activity regulation, we compared the activity regulation of NtCBK1 and NtCBK2 by pH, Mg(2+) concentration and Na(+) concentration. We found the autophosphorylation of NtCBK1/2 reached the maximum in pH 7.5 and 8 respectively; Mg(2+) and Na(+) shown different effects on the activity of NtCBKs, high and low Mg(2+) concentrations both inhibited the activity of NtCBKs, but Na+ had little effect on the kinase activity. In addition, to obtain further insight about the physiological roles of individual NtCBKs, we detected the expression profiles of CBKs. The results revealed different patterns of expression of NtCBK1 and NtCBK2. Both are largely expressed in leaf and flower; but in stem and root, NtCBK1 gene had stronger expression than NtCBK2. NtCBK2 expression was induced by GA treatment, while NtCBK1 expression remained unchanged under GA treatment. Expression of both NtCBK1 and NtCBK2 increased in response to salt stress, the former to a greater extent, and both expressions did not change under high/low temperature, drought, NAA and ABA treatments.

  11. p38 MAP kinase regulates circadian rhythms in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Vrailas-Mortimer, Alysia D; Ryan, Sarah M; Avey, Matthew J; Mortimer, Nathan T; Dowse, Harold; Sanyal, Subhabrata

    2014-12-01

    The large repertoire of circadian rhythms in diverse organisms depends on oscillating central clock genes, input pathways for entrainment, and output pathways for controlling rhythmic behaviors. Stress-activated p38 MAP Kinases (p38K), although sparsely investigated in this context, show circadian rhythmicity in mammalian brains and are considered part of the circadian output machinery in Neurospora. We find that Drosophila p38Kb is expressed in clock neurons, and mutants in p38Kb either are arrhythmic or have a longer free-running periodicity, especially as they age. Paradoxically, similar phenotypes are observed through either transgenic inhibition or activation of p38Kb in clock neurons, suggesting a requirement for optimal p38Kb function for normal free-running circadian rhythms. We also find that p38Kb genetically interacts with multiple downstream targets to regulate circadian locomotor rhythms. More specifically, p38Kb interacts with the period gene to regulate period length and the strength of rhythmicity. In addition, we show that p38Kb suppresses the arrhythmic behavior associated with inhibition of a second p38Kb target, the transcription factor Mef2. Finally, we find that manipulating p38K signaling in free-running conditions alters the expression of another downstream target, MNK/Lk6, which has been shown to cycle with the clock and to play a role in regulating circadian rhythms. These data suggest that p38Kb may affect circadian locomotor rhythms through the regulation of multiple downstream pathways.

  12. Pyruvate Kinase M2: A Potential Target for Regulating Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Filho, Jose C.; Pålsson-McDermott, Eva M.

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase (PK) is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the last step of glycolysis. Of the four PK isoforms expressed in mammalian cells, PKM2 has generated the most interest due to its impact on changes in cellular metabolism observed in cancer as well as in activated immune cells. As our understanding of dysregulated metabolism in cancer develops, and in light of the growing field of immunometabolism, intense efforts are in place to define the mechanism by which PKM2 regulates the metabolic profile of cancer as well as of immune cells. The enzymatic activity of PKM2 is heavily regulated by endogenous allosteric effectors as well as by intracellular signaling pathways, affecting both the enzymatic activity of PKM2 as a PK and the regulation of the recently described non-canonical nuclear functions of PKM2. We here review the current literature on PKM2 and its regulation, and discuss the potential for this protein as a therapeutic target in inflammatory disorders. PMID:27148264

  13. Regulation of ERK Kinase by MEK1 Kinase Inhibition in the Brain*

    PubMed Central

    Tassin, Tara C.; Benavides, David R.; Plattner, Florian; Nishi, Akinori; Bibb, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Metabotropic (slow) and ionotropic (fast) neurotransmission are integrated by intracellular signal transduction mechanisms involving protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation to achieve experience-dependent alterations in brain circuitry. ERK is an important effector of both slow and fast forms of neurotransmission and has been implicated in normal brain function and CNS diseases. Here we characterize phosphorylation of the ERK-activating protein kinase MEK1 by Cdk5, ERK, and Cdk1 in vitro in intact mouse brain tissue and in the context of an animal behavioral paradigm of stress. Cdk5 only phosphorylates Thr-292, whereas ERK and Cdk1 phosphorylate both Thr-292 and Thr-286 MEK1. These sites interact in a kinase-specific manner and inhibit the ability of MEK1 to activate ERK. Thr-292 and Thr-286 MEK1 are phosphorylated in most mouse brain regions to stoichiometries of ∼5% or less. Phosphorylation of Thr-292 MEK1 is regulated by cAMP-dependent signaling in mouse striatum in a manner consistent with negative feedback inhibition in response to ERK activation. Protein phosphatase 1 and 2A contribute to the maintenance of the basal phosphorylation state of both Thr-292 and Thr-286 MEK1 and that of ERK. Activation of the NMDA class of ionotropic glutamate receptors reduces inhibitory MEK1 phosphorylation, whereas forced swim, a paradigm of acute stress, attenuates Thr-292 MEK1 phosphorylation. Together, the data indicate that these inhibitory MEK1 sites phosphorylated by Cdk5 and ERK1 serve as mechanistic points of convergence for the regulation of ERK signaling by both slow and fast neurotransmission. PMID:25971971

  14. Structural plasticity and catalysis regulation of a thermosensor histidine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Albanesi, Daniela; Martín, Mariana; Trajtenberg, Felipe; Mansilla, María C.; Haouz, Ahmed; Alzari, Pedro M.; de Mendoza, Diego; Buschiazzo, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Temperature sensing is essential for the survival of living cells. A major challenge is to understand how a biological thermometer processes thermal information to optimize cellular functions. Using structural and biochemical approaches, we show that the thermosensitive histidine kinase, DesK, from Bacillus subtilis is cold-activated through specific interhelical rearrangements in its central four-helix bundle domain. As revealed by the crystal structures of DesK in different functional states, the plasticity of this helical domain influences the catalytic activities of the protein, either by modifying the mobility of the ATP-binding domains for autokinase activity or by modulating binding of the cognate response regulator to sustain the phosphotransferase and phosphatase activities. The structural and biochemical data suggest a model in which the transmembrane sensor domain of DesK promotes these structural changes through conformational signals transmitted by the membrane-connecting two-helical coiled-coil, ultimately controlling the alternation between output autokinase and phosphatase activities. The structural comparison of the different DesK variants indicates that incoming signals can take the form of helix rotations and asymmetric helical bends similar to those reported for other sensing systems, suggesting that a similar switching mechanism could be operational in a wide range of sensor histidine kinases. PMID:19805278

  15. Abl family kinases regulate FcγR-mediated phagocytosis in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Greuber, Emileigh K; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2012-12-01

    Phagocytosis of Ab-coated pathogens is mediated through FcγRs, which activate intracellular signaling pathways to drive actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. Abl and Arg define a family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases that regulate actin-dependent processes in a variety of cell types, including those important in the adaptive immune response. Using pharmacological inhibition as well as dominant negative and knockout approaches, we demonstrate a role for the Abl family kinases in phagocytosis by macrophages and define a mechanism whereby Abl kinases regulate this process. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from mice lacking Abl and Arg kinases exhibit inefficient phagocytosis of sheep erythrocytes and zymosan particles. Treatment with the Abl kinase inhibitors imatinib and GNF-2 or overexpression of kinase-inactive forms of the Abl family kinases also impairs particle internalization in murine macrophages, indicating Abl kinase activity is required for efficient phagocytosis. Further, Arg kinase is present at the phagocytic cup, and Abl family kinases are activated by FcγR engagement. The regulation of phagocytosis by Abl family kinases is mediated in part by the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Loss of Abl and Arg expression or treatment with Abl inhibitors reduced Syk phosphorylation in response to FcγR ligation. The link between Abl family kinases and Syk may be direct, as purified Arg kinase phosphorylates Syk in vitro. Further, overexpression of membrane-targeted Syk in cells treated with Abl kinase inhibitors partially rescues the impairment in phagocytosis. Together, these findings reveal that Abl family kinases control the efficiency of phagocytosis in part through the regulation of Syk function.

  16. Parkin Regulates the Activity of Pyruvate Kinase M2*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kun; Li, Fanzhou; Han, Haichao; Chen, Yue; Mao, Zebin; Luo, Jianyuan; Zhao, Yingming; Zheng, Bin; Gu, Wei; Zhao, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Parkin, a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is mutated in most cases of autosomal recessive early onset Parkinson disease. It was discovered that Parkin is also mutated in glioblastoma and other human malignancies and that it inhibits tumor cell growth. Here, we identified pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) as a unique substrate for parkin through biochemical purification. We found that parkin interacts with PKM2 both in vitro and in vivo, and this interaction dramatically increases during glucose starvation. Ubiquitylation of PKM2 by parkin does not affect its stability but decreases its enzymatic activity. Parkin regulates the glycolysis pathway and affects the cell metabolism. Our studies revealed the novel important roles of parkin in tumor cell metabolism and provided new insight for therapy of Parkinson disease. PMID:26975375

  17. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Molecular Switches Regulating CNS Axon Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Vigneswara, Vasanthy; Kundi, Sarina; Ahmed, Zubair

    2012-01-01

    The poor or lack of injured adult central nervous system (CNS) axon regeneration results in devastating consequences and poor functional recovery. The interplay between the intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributes to robust inhibition of axon regeneration of injured CNS neurons. The insufficient or lack of trophic support for injured neurons is considered as one of the major obstacles contributing to their failure to survive and regrow their axons after injury. In the CNS, many of the signalling pathways associated with neuronal survival and axon regeneration are regulated by several classes of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) that respond to a variety of ligands. This paper highlights and summarises the most relevant recent findings pertinent to different classes of the RTK family of molecules, with a particular focus on elucidating their role in CNS axon regeneration. PMID:22848811

  18. Localization and regulation of mouse pantothenate kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Roberta; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Lykidis, Athanasios; Rock, Charles O; Jackowski, Suzanne

    2007-10-02

    Coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis is initiated by pantothenate kinase (PanK) and CoA levels are controlled through differential expression and feedback regulation of PanK isoforms. PanK2 is a mitochondrial protein in humans, but comparative genomics revealed that acquisition of a mitochondrial targeting signal was limited to primates. Human and mouse PanK2 possessed similar biochemical properties, with inhibition by acetyl-CoA and activation by palmitoylcarnitine. Mouse PanK2 localized in the cytosol, and the expression of PanK2 was higher in human brain compared to mouse brain. Differences in expression and subcellular localization should be considered in developing a mouse model for human PanK2 deficiency.

  19. MEK kinases are regulated by EGF and selectively interact with Rac/Cdc42.

    PubMed Central

    Fanger, G R; Johnson, N L; Johnson, G L

    1997-01-01

    MEK kinases (MEKKs) 1, 2, 3 and 4 are members of sequential kinase pathways that regulate MAP kinases including c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs) and extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs). Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy of COS cells demonstrated differential MEKK subcellular localization: MEKK1 was nuclear and in post-Golgi vesicular-like structures; MEKK2 and 4 were localized to distinct Golgi-associated vesicles that were dispersed by brefeldin A. MEKK1 and 2 were activated by EGF, and kinase-inactive mutants of each MEKK partially inhibited EGF-stimulated JNK activity. Kinase-inactive MEKK1, but not MEKK2, 3 or 4, strongly inhibited EGF-stimulated ERK activity. In contrast to MEKK2 and 3, MEKK1 and 4 specifically associated with Rac and Cdc42 and kinase-inactive mutants blocked Rac/Cdc42 stimulation of JNK activity. Inhibitory mutants of MEKK1-4 did not affect p21-activated kinase (PAK) activation of JNK, indicating that the PAK-regulated JNK pathway is independent of MEKKs. Thus, in different cellular locations, specific MEKKs are required for the regulation of MAPK family members, and MEKK1 and 4 are involved in the regulation of JNK activation by Rac/Cdc42 independent of PAK. Differential MEKK subcellular distribution and interaction with small GTP-binding proteins provides a mechanism to regulate MAP kinase responses in localized regions of the cell and to different upstream stimuli. PMID:9305638

  20. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulates degranulation in human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Odemuyiwa, Solomon O; Ilarraza, Ramses; Davoine, Francis; Logan, Michael R; Shayeganpour, Anooshirvan; Wu, Yingqi; Majaesic, Carina; Adamko, Darryl J; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige

    2015-04-01

    Degranulation from eosinophils in response to secretagogue stimulation is a regulated process that involves exocytosis of granule proteins through specific signalling pathways. One potential pathway is dependent on cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and its effector molecules, p35 and p39, which play a central role in neuronal cell exocytosis by phosphorylating Munc18, a regulator of SNARE binding. Emerging evidence suggests a role for Cdk5 in exocytosis in immune cells, although its role in eosinophils is not known. We sought to examine the expression of Cdk5 and its activators in human eosinophils, and to assess the role of Cdk5 in eosinophil degranulation. We used freshly isolated human eosinophils and analysed the expression of Cdk5, p35, p39 and Munc18c by Western blot, RT-PCR, flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation. Cdk5 kinase activity was determined following eosinophil activation. Cdk5 inhibitors were used (roscovitine, AT7519 and small interfering RNA) to determine its role in eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) secretion. Cdk5 was expressed in association with Munc18c, p35 and p39, and phosphorylated following human eosinophil activation with eotaxin/CCL11, platelet-activating factor, and secretory IgA-Sepharose. Cdk5 inhibitors (roscovitine, AT7519) reduced EPX release when cells were stimulated by PMA or secretory IgA. In assays using small interfering RNA knock-down of Cdk5 expression in human eosinophils, we observed inhibition of EPX release. Our findings suggest that in activated eosinophils, Cdk5 is phosphorylated and binds to Munc18c, resulting in Munc18c release from syntaxin-4, allowing SNARE binding and vesicle fusion, with subsequent eosinophil degranulation. Our work identifies a novel role for Cdk5 in eosinophil mediator release by agonist-induced degranulation.

  1. Regulation of NADPH Oxidase 5 by Protein Kinase C Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Yu, Yanfang; Haigh, Steven; Johnson, John; Lucas, Rudolf; Stepp, David W.; Fulton, David J. R.

    2014-01-01

    NADPH oxidase5 (Nox5) is a novel Nox isoform which has recently been recognized as having important roles in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, fetal ventricular septal defect and cancer. The activity of Nox5 and production of reactive oxygen species is regulated by intracellular calcium levels and phosphorylation. However, the kinases that phosphorylate Nox5 remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that the phosphorylation of Nox5 is PKC dependent, but this contention was based on the use of pharmacological inhibitors and the isoforms of PKC involved remain unknown. Thus, the major goals of this study were to determine whether PKC can directly regulate Nox5 phosphorylation and activity, to identify which isoforms are involved in the process, and to understand the functional significance of this pathway in disease. We found that a relatively specific PKCα inhibitor, Ro-32-0432, dose-dependently inhibited PMA-induced superoxide production from Nox5. PMA-stimulated Nox5 activity was significantly reduced in cells with genetic silencing of PKCα and PKCε, enhanced by loss of PKCδ and the silencing of PKCθ expression was without effect. A constitutively active form of PKCα robustly increased basal and PMA-stimulated Nox5 activity and promoted the phosphorylation of Nox5 on Ser490, Thr494, and Ser498. In contrast, constitutively active PKCε potently inhibited both basal and PMA-dependent Nox5 activity. Co-IP and in vitro kinase assay experiments demonstrated that PKCα directly binds to Nox5 and modifies Nox5 phosphorylation and activity. Exposure of endothelial cells to high glucose significantly increased PKCα activation, and enhanced Nox5 derived superoxide in a manner that was in prevented by a PKCα inhibitor, Go 6976. In summary, our study reveals that PKCα is the primary isoform mediating the activation of Nox5 and this maybe of significance in our understanding of the vascular complications of diabetes

  2. Serum and Glucocorticoid Regulated Kinase 1 in Sodium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yiyun; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Yuqin; Wang, Liya; Huang, Shisi; Jin, Fan

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed serum and glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) is tightly regulated by osmotic and hormonal signals, including glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Recently, SGK1 has been implicated as a signal hub for the regulation of sodium transport. SGK1 modulates the activities of multiple ion channels and carriers, such as epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.5), sodium hydrogen exchangers 1 and 3 (NHE1 and NHE3), sodium-chloride symporter (NCC), and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (NKCC2); as well as the sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase) and type A natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR-A). Accordingly, SGK1 is implicated in the physiology and pathophysiology of Na+ homeostasis. Here, we focus particularly on recent findings of SGK1’s involvement in Na+ transport in renal sodium reabsorption, hormone-stimulated salt appetite and fluid balance and discuss the abnormal SGK1-mediated Na+ reabsorption in hypertension, heart disease, edema with diabetes, and embryo implantation failure. PMID:27517916

  3. Inositol Hexakisphosphate Kinase 3 Regulates Metabolism and Lifespan in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moritoh, Yusuke; Oka, Masahiro; Yasuhara, Yoshitaka; Hozumi, Hiroyuki; Iwachidow, Kimihiko; Fuse, Hiromitsu; Tozawa, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 3 (IP6K3) generates inositol pyrophosphates, which regulate diverse cellular functions. However, little is known about its own physiological role. Here, we show the roles of IP6K3 in metabolic regulation. We detected high levels of both mouse and human IP6K3 mRNA in myotubes and muscle tissues. In human myotubes, IP6K3 was upregulated by dexamethasone treatment, which is known to inhibit glucose metabolism. Furthermore, Ip6k3 expression was elevated under diabetic, fasting, and disuse conditions in mouse skeletal muscles. Ip6k3−/− mice demonstrated lower blood glucose, reduced circulating insulin, deceased fat mass, lower body weight, increased plasma lactate, enhanced glucose tolerance, lower glucose during an insulin tolerance test, and reduced muscle Pdk4 expression under normal diet conditions. Notably, Ip6k3 deletion extended animal lifespan with concomitant reduced phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein in the heart. In contrast, Ip6k3−/− mice showed unchanged skeletal muscle mass and no resistance to the effects of high fat diet. The current observations suggest novel roles of IP6K3 in cellular regulation, which impact metabolic control and lifespan. PMID:27577108

  4. Rho kinase acts as a downstream molecule to participate in protein kinaseregulation of vascular reactivity after hemorrhagic shock in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Zhu, Yu; Zang, Jia-tao; Peng, Xiao-yong; Lan, Dan; Yang, Guang-ming; Xu, Jing; Liu, Liang-ming

    2014-09-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that Rho kinase and protein kinase C (PKC) played important parts in the regulation of vascular reactivity after shock. Using superior mesenteric arteries (SMAs) from hemorrhagic shock rats and hypoxia-treated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), relationship of PKCε regulation of vascular reactivity to Rho kinase, as well as the signal transduction after shock, was investigated. The results showed that inhibition of Rho kinase with the Rho kinase-specific inhibitor Y-27632 antagonized the PKCε-specific agonist carbachol and highly expressed PKCε-induced increase of vascular reactivity in SMAs and VSMCs, whereas inhibition of PKCε with its specific inhibitory peptide did not antagonize the Rho kinase agonist (U-46619)-induced increase of vascular reactivity in SMAs and VSMCs. Activation of PKCε or highly expressed PKCε upregulated the activity of Rho kinase and the phosphorylation of PKC-dependent phosphatase inhibitor 17 (CPI-17), zipper interacting protein kinase (ZIPK), and integrin-linked kinase (ILK), whereas activation of Rho kinase increased only CPI-17 phosphorylation. The specific neutralization antibodies of ZIPK and ILK antagonized PKCε-induced increases in the activity of Rho kinase, but CPI-17 neutralization antibody did not antagonize this effect. These results suggested that Rho kinase takes part in the regulation of PKCε on vascular reactivity after shock. Rho kinase is downstream of PKCε. Protein kinase Cε activates Rho kinase via ZIPK and ILK; CPI-17 is downstream of Rho kinase.

  5. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 controls root growth in Arabidopsis by modulating Ca2+ -based Na+ flux in root cell under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuan; Wang, Chi-wen; Wang, Wen-le; Jiang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MPK6) in Na(+) toxicity and inhibition of root growth in Arabidopsis under NaCl stress. In this study, we found that root elongation in seedlings of the loss-of-function mutants mpk6-2 and mpk6-3 was less sensitive to NaCl or Na-glutamate, but not to KCl or mannitol, as compared with that of wild-type (WT) seedlings. The less sensitive characteristic was eliminated by adding the Ca(2+) chelator EGTA or the Ca(2+) channel inhibitor LaCl3, but not the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187. This suggested that the tolerance of mpk6 to Na(+) toxicity was Ca(2+)-dependent. We measured plasma membrane (PM) Na(+)-conducted currents (NCCs) in root cells. Increased concentrations of NaCl increased the inward NCCs while decreased the outward NCCs in WT root cells, attended by a positive shift in membrane potential. In mpk6 root cells, NaCl significantly increased outward but not inward NCCs, accompanied by a negative shift in membrane potential. That is, mpk6 decreased NaCl-induced the Na(+) accumulation by modifying PM Na(+) flux in root cells. Observations of aequorin luminescence revealed a NaCl-induced increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) in mpk6 root cells, resulting from PM Ca(2+) influx. An increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) was required to alleviate the NaCl-increased Na(+) content and Na(+)/K(+) ratio in mpk6 roots. Together, these results show that mpk6 accumulated less Na(+) in response to NaCl because of the increased cytosolic Ca(2+) level in root cells; thus, its root elongation was less inhibited than that of WT by NaCl.

  6. The Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase MIK2/LRR-KISS connects cell wall integrity sensing, root growth and response to abiotic and biotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Van der Does, Dieuwertje; Boutrot, Freddy; Engelsdorf, Timo; Rhodes, Jack; McKenna, Joseph F; Vernhettes, Samantha; Koevoets, Iko; Tintor, Nico; Veerabagu, Manikandan; Miedes, Eva; Segonzac, Cécile; Roux, Milena; Breda, Alice S; Hardtke, Christian S; Molina, Antonio; Rep, Martijn; Testerink, Christa; Mouille, Grégory; Höfte, Herman; Hamann, Thorsten; Zipfel, Cyril

    2017-06-01

    Plants actively perceive and respond to perturbations in their cell walls which arise during growth, biotic and abiotic stresses. However, few components involved in plant cell wall integrity sensing have been described to date. Using a reverse-genetic approach, we identified the Arabidopsis thaliana leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase MIK2 as an important regulator of cell wall damage responses triggered upon cellulose biosynthesis inhibition. Indeed, loss-of-function mik2 alleles are strongly affected in immune marker gene expression, jasmonic acid production and lignin deposition. MIK2 has both overlapping and distinct functions with THE1, a malectin-like receptor kinase previously proposed as cell wall integrity sensor. In addition, mik2 mutant plants exhibit enhanced leftward root skewing when grown on vertical plates. Notably, natural variation in MIK2 (also named LRR-KISS) has been correlated recently to mild salt stress tolerance, which we could confirm using our insertional alleles. Strikingly, both the increased root skewing and salt stress sensitivity phenotypes observed in the mik2 mutant are dependent on THE1. Finally, we found that MIK2 is required for resistance to the fungal root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Together, our data identify MIK2 as a novel component in cell wall integrity sensing and suggest that MIK2 is a nexus linking cell wall integrity sensing to growth and environmental cues.

  7. Regulation and functions of sphingosine kinases in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Lauren; Kordula, Tomasz; Spiegel, Sarah; Milstien, Sheldon

    2009-01-01

    It has long been known that sphingolipids, especially sphingomyelin, a principal component of myelin, are highly enriched in the central nervous system and are structural components of all eukaryotic cell membranes. In the last few years, substantial evidence has accumulated from studies of many types of cells demonstrating that in addition to their structural roles, their breakdown products form a new class of signaling molecules with potent and myriad regulatory effects on essentially every cell in the body. While the sphingolipid metabolites sphingosine and its precursor ceramide have been associated with cell growth arrest and apoptosis, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) enhances proliferation, differentiation, and cell survival as well as regulates many physiological and pathological processes. The relative levels of these three interconvertible sphingolipid metabolites, and thus cell fate, are strongly influenced by the activity of sphingosine kinases, of which there are two isoforms, designated SphK1 and SphK2, the enzymes that phosphorylate sphingosine to produce S1P. Not much is yet known of the importance of S1P in the central nervous system. Therefore, this review is focused on current knowledge of regulation of SphK1 and SphK2 on both transcriptional and post-translational levels and the functions of these isozymes and their product S1P and its receptors in the central nervous system. PMID:18485923

  8. Rho kinase regulates fragmentation and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, Kelly A.; Stone, Nicole L.; Pittman, Randall N. . E-mail: pittman@pharm.med.upenn.edu

    2006-01-01

    During the execution phase of apoptosis, a cell undergoes cytoplasmic and nuclear changes that prepare it for death and phagocytosis. The end-point of the execution phase is condensation into a single apoptotic body or fragmentation into multiple apoptotic bodies. Fragmentation is thought to facilitate phagocytosis; however, mechanisms regulating fragmentation are unknown. An isoform of Rho kinase, ROCK-I, drives membrane blebbing through its activation of actin-myosin contraction; this raises the possibility that ROCK-I may regulate other execution phase events, such as cellular fragmentation. Here, we show that COS-7 cells fragment into a number of small apoptotic bodies during apoptosis; treating with ROCK inhibitors (Y-27632 or H-1152) prevents fragmentation. Latrunculin B and blebbistatin, drugs that interfere with actin-myosin contraction, also inhibit fragmentation. During apoptosis, ROCK-I is cleaved and activated by caspases, while ROCK-II is not activated, but rather translocates to a cytoskeletal fraction. siRNA knock-down of ROCK-I but not ROCK-II inhibits fragmentation of dying cells, consistent with ROCK-I being required for apoptotic fragmentation. Finally, cells dying in the presence of the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 are not efficiently phagocytized. These data show that ROCK plays an essential role in fragmentation and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.

  9. ATM/ATR-dependent Tyr15 phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases in response to hydroxyurea in Vicia faba root meristem cells.

    PubMed

    Winnicki, Konrad

    2013-10-01

    DNA damage or stalled replication forks activate cell cycle checkpoints. However, the regulation of metabolic pathways that are responsible for maintenance of genome integrity in plants is still largely unknown. Present research on Vicia faba root meristem cells indicates that inhibitory phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) at Tyr15 plays a prominent role during blockage of cell cycle in response to genotoxic stress. Phosphorylation of P-loop in Cdks takes place in ATM/ATR-dependent manner. Although, Tyr15 phosphorylation upon hydroxyurea (HU) treatment was found in most cells classified to G1 and S phase, interestingly, the number of phoshpo-Tyr15-positive cells decreases in G2 phase. Presented data confirm much similarity in regulation of Cdks functions under genotoxic stress between plants and animals; however, they may also substantiate evolutionarily developed differences especially in regulation of G2/M transition between these two kingdoms.

  10. Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Ray, Ramesh M; Johnson, Leonard R

    2014-03-01

    Homeostasis of the gastrointestinal epithelium is dependent upon a balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are well known for their role in cell proliferation. Previous studies from our group have shown that polyamine-depletion of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) decreases cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) activity, increases p53 and p21Cip1 protein levels, induces G1 arrest, and protects cells from camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis. Although emerging evidence suggests that members of the Cdk family are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, their roles directing apoptosis of IEC-6 cells are not known. In this study, we report that inhibition of Cdk1, 2, and 9 (with the broad range Cdk inhibitor, AZD5438) in proliferating IEC-6 cells triggered DNA damage, activated p53 signaling, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis. By contrast, inhibition of Cdk2 (with NU6140) increased p53 protein and activity, inhibited proliferation, but had no effect on apoptosis. Notably, AZD5438 sensitized, whereas, NU6140 rescued proliferating IEC-6 cells from CPT-induced apoptosis. However, in colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells with mutant p53, treatment with either AZD5438 or NU6140 blocked proliferation, albeit more robustly with AZD5438. Both Cdk inhibitors induced apoptosis in Caco-2 cells in a p53-independent manner. In serum starved quiescent IEC-6 cells, both AZD5438 and NU6140 decreased TNF-α/CPT-induced activation of p53 and, consequently, rescued cells from apoptosis, indicating that sustained Cdk activity is required for apoptosis of quiescent cells. Furthermore, AZD5438 partially reversed the protective effect of polyamine depletion whereas NU6140 had no effect. Together, these results demonstrate that Cdks possess opposing roles in the control of apoptosis in quiescent and proliferating cells. In addition, Cdk inhibitors uncouple proliferation from apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner.

  11. Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Ray, Ramesh M.; Johnson, Leonard R.

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis of the gastrointestinal epithelium is dependent upon a balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are well known for their role in cell proliferation. Previous studies from our group have shown that polyamine-depletion of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) decreases cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) activity, increases p53 and p21Cip1 protein levels, induces G1 arrest, and protects cells from camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis. Although emerging evidence suggests that members of the Cdk family are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, their roles directing apoptosis of IEC-6 cells are not known. In this study, we report that inhibition of Cdk1, 2, and 9 (with the broad range Cdk inhibitor, AZD5438) in proliferating IEC-6 cells triggered DNA damage, activated p53 signaling, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis. By contrast, inhibition of Cdk2 (with NU6140) increased p53 protein and activity, inhibited proliferation, but had no effect on apoptosis. Notably, AZD5438 sensitized, whereas, NU6140 rescued proliferating IEC-6 cells from CPT-induced apoptosis. However, in colon carcinoma (Caco2) cells with mutant p53, treatment with either AZD5438 or NU6140 blocked proliferation, albeit more robustly with AZD5438. Both Cdk inhibitors induced apoptosis in Caco2 cells in a p53-independent manner. In serum starved quiescent IEC-6 cells, both AZD5438 and NU6140 decreased TNF- /CPT-induced activation of p53 and, consequently, rescued cells from apoptosis, indicating that sustained Cdk activity is required for apoptosis of quiescent cells. Furthermore, AZD5438 partially reversed the protective effect of polyamine depletion whereas NU6140 had no effect. Together, these results demonstrate that Cdks possess opposing roles in the control of apoptosis in quiescent and proliferating cells. In addition, Cdk inhibitors uncouple proliferation from apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:24242917

  12. Expression of tyrosine kinase receptors in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons in the presence of monosialoganglioside and skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Guixiang; Li, Jianmin; Liu, Huaxiang; Li, Zhenzhong

    2012-10-01

    The neurotrophic factor-like activity of monosialoganglioside (GM1) has been shown to activate tyrosine kinase receptors (Trk). Targets of neuronal innervation play a vital role in regulating the survival and differentiation of innervating neurotrophin-responsive neurons. Both GM1 and target skeletal muscle (SKM) cells are essential for the maintenance of the function of neurons. However, much less is known about the effects of GM1 or/and target SKM cells on the expression of Trk receptors in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Here we have tested what extent to the expression of TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC receptors in primary cultured of DRG neurons in absence or presence of GM1 or/and SKM cells. In this experiment, we found that: (1) GM1 promoted expression of TrkA and TrkB but not TrkC in primary cultured DRG neurons; (2) target SKM cells promoted expression of TrkC but not TrkA and TrkB in neuromuscular cocultures without GM1 treatment; and (3) GM1 and target SKM cells had additional effects on expression of these three Trk receptors. The results of the present study offered new clues for a better understanding of the association of GM1 and target SKM on the expression of Trk receptors.

  13. Complex regulation of Arabidopsis AGR1/PIN2-mediated root gravitropic response and basipetal auxin transport by cantharidin-sensitive protein phosphatases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Heungsop; Shin, Hwa-Soo; Guo, Zibiao; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Masson, Patrick H.; Chen, Rujin

    2005-01-01

    Polar auxin transport, mediated by two distinct plasma membrane-localized auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins/complexes, plays an important role in many plant growth and developmental processes including tropic responses to gravity and light, development of lateral roots and patterning in embryogenesis. We have previously shown that the Arabidopsis AGRAVITROPIC 1/PIN2 gene encodes an auxin efflux component regulating root gravitropism and basipetal auxin transport. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying the function of AGR1/PIN2 is largely unknown. Recently, protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases, respectively, have been implicated in regulating polar auxin transport and root gravitropism. Here, we examined the effects of chemical inhibitors of protein phosphatases on root gravitropism and basipetal auxin transport, as well as the expression pattern of AGR1/PIN2 gene and the localization of AGR1/PIN2 protein. We also examined the effects of inhibitors of vesicle trafficking and protein kinases. Our data suggest that protein phosphatases, sensitive to cantharidin and okadaic acid, are likely involved in regulating AGR1/PIN2-mediated root basipetal auxin transport and gravitropism, as well as auxin response in the root central elongation zone (CEZ). BFA-sensitive vesicle trafficking may be required for the cycling of AGR1/PIN2 between plasma membrane and the BFA compartment, but not for the AGR1/PIN2-mediated root basipetal auxin transport and auxin response in CEZ cells.

  14. Complex regulation of Arabidopsis AGR1/PIN2-mediated root gravitropic response and basipetal auxin transport by cantharidin-sensitive protein phosphatases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Heungsop; Shin, Hwa-Soo; Guo, Zibiao; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Masson, Patrick H.; Chen, Rujin

    2005-01-01

    Polar auxin transport, mediated by two distinct plasma membrane-localized auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins/complexes, plays an important role in many plant growth and developmental processes including tropic responses to gravity and light, development of lateral roots and patterning in embryogenesis. We have previously shown that the Arabidopsis AGRAVITROPIC 1/PIN2 gene encodes an auxin efflux component regulating root gravitropism and basipetal auxin transport. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying the function of AGR1/PIN2 is largely unknown. Recently, protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases, respectively, have been implicated in regulating polar auxin transport and root gravitropism. Here, we examined the effects of chemical inhibitors of protein phosphatases on root gravitropism and basipetal auxin transport, as well as the expression pattern of AGR1/PIN2 gene and the localization of AGR1/PIN2 protein. We also examined the effects of inhibitors of vesicle trafficking and protein kinases. Our data suggest that protein phosphatases, sensitive to cantharidin and okadaic acid, are likely involved in regulating AGR1/PIN2-mediated root basipetal auxin transport and gravitropism, as well as auxin response in the root central elongation zone (CEZ). BFA-sensitive vesicle trafficking may be required for the cycling of AGR1/PIN2 between plasma membrane and the BFA compartment, but not for the AGR1/PIN2-mediated root basipetal auxin transport and auxin response in CEZ cells.

  15. Regulation of μ and δ opioid receptor functions: involvement of cyclin-dependent kinase 5

    PubMed Central

    Beaudry, H; Mercier-Blais, A-A; Delaygue, C; Lavoie, C; Parent, J-L; Neugebauer, W; Gendron, L

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Phosphorylation of δ opioid receptors (DOP receptors) by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) was shown to regulate the trafficking of this receptor. Therefore, we aimed to determine the role of CDK5 in regulating DOP receptors in rats treated with morphine or with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). As μ (MOP) and DOP receptors are known to be co-regulated, we also sought to determine if CDK5-mediated regulation of DOP receptors also affects MOP receptor functions. Experimental Approach The role of CDK5 in regulating opioid receptors in CFA- and morphine-treated rats was studied using roscovitine as a CDK inhibitor and a cell-penetrant peptide mimicking the second intracellular loop of DOP receptors (C11-DOPri2). Opioid receptor functions were assessed in vivo in a series of behavioural experiments and correlated by measuring ERK1/2 activity in dorsal root ganglia homogenates. Key Results Chronic roscovitine treatment reduced the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects of deltorphin II (Dlt II) in morphine- and CFA-treated rats respectively. Repeated administrations of C11-DOPri2 also robustly decreased Dlt II-induced analgesia. Interestingly, DAMGO-induced analgesia was significantly increased by roscovitine and C11-DOPri2. Concomitantly, in roscovitine-treated rats the Dlt II-induced ERK1/2 activation was decreased, whereas the DAMGO-induced ERK1/2 activation was increased. An acute roscovitine treatment had no effect on Dlt II- or DAMGO-induced analgesia. Conclusions and Implications Together, our results demonstrate that CDK5 is a key player in the regulation of DOP receptors in morphine- and CFA-treated rats and that the regulation of DOP receptors by CDK5 is sufficient to modulate MOP receptor functions through an indirect process. PMID:25598508

  16. CEP5 and XIP1/CEPR1 regulate lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Ianto; Smith, Stephanie; Stes, Elisabeth; De Rybel, Bert; Staes, An; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Njo, Maria Fransiska; Dedeyne, Lise; Demol, Hans; Lavenus, Julien; Audenaert, Dominique; Gevaert, Kris; Beeckman, Tom; De Smet, Ive

    2016-01-01

    Roots explore the soil for water and nutrients through the continuous production of lateral roots. Lateral roots are formed at regular distances in a steadily elongating organ, but how future sites for lateral root formation become established is not yet understood. Here, we identified C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE 5 (CEP5) as a novel, auxin-repressed and phloem pole-expressed signal assisting in the formation of lateral roots. In addition, based on genetic and expression data, we found evidence for the involvement of its proposed receptor, XYLEM INTERMIXED WITH PHLOEM 1 (XIP1)/CEP RECEPTOR 1 (CEPR1), during the process of lateral root initiation. In conclusion, we report here on the existence of a peptide ligand−receptor kinase interaction that impacts lateral root initiation. Our results represent an important step towards the understanding of the cellular communication implicated in the early phases of lateral root formation. PMID:27296247

  17. Reciprocal regulation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 and mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-3

    SciTech Connect

    Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Mauro, Laura J.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2008-11-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-3 (MKP-3) is a putative tumor suppressor. When transiently overexpressed, MKP-3 dephosphorylates and inactivates extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Little is known about the roles of endogenous MKP-3, however. We previously showed that MKP-3 is upregulated in cell lines that express oncogenic Ras. Here we tested the roles of endogenous MKP-3 in modulating ERK1/2 under conditions of chronic stimulation of the Ras/Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 pathway by expression of oncogenic Ras. We used two cell lines: H-ras MCF10A, breast epithelial cells engineered to express H-Ras, and DLD-1, colon cancer cells that express endogenous Ki-Ras. First, we found that MKP-3 acts in a negative feedback loop to suppress basal ERK1/2 when oncogenic Ras stimulates the Ras/Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 cascade. ERK1/2 was required to maintain elevated MKP-3, indicative of a negative feedback loop. Accordingly, knockdown of MKP-3, via siRNA, increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Second, by using siRNA, we found that MKP-3 helps establish the sensitivity of ERK1/2 to extracellular activators by limiting the duration of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Third, we found that the regulation of ERK1/2 by MKP-3 is countered by the complex regulation of MKP-3 by ERK1/2. Potent ERK1/2 activators stimulated the loss of MKP-3 within 30 min due to an ERK1/2-dependent decrease in MKP-3 protein stability. MKP-3 levels recovered within 120 min due to ERK1/2-dependent resynthesis. Preventing MKP-3 resynthesis, via siRNA, prolonged ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Altogether, these results suggest that under the pressure of oncogenic Ras expression, MKP-3 reins in ERK1/2 by serving in ERK1/2-dependent negative feedback pathways.

  18. mTOR regulates skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo through kinase-dependent and kinase-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yejing; Wu, Ai-Luen; Warnes, Christine; Liu, Jianming; Zhang, Chongben; Kawasome, Hideki; Terada, Naohiro; Boppart, Marni D; Schoenherr, Christopher J; Chen, Jie

    2009-12-01

    Rapamycin-sensitive signaling is required for skeletal muscle differentiation and remodeling. In cultured myoblasts, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been reported to regulate differentiation at different stages through distinct mechanisms, including one that is independent of mTOR kinase activity. However, the kinase-independent function of mTOR remains controversial, and no in vivo studies have examined those mTOR myogenic mechanisms previously identified in vitro. In this study, we find that rapamycin impairs injury-induced muscle regeneration. To validate the role of mTOR with genetic evidence and to probe the mechanism of mTOR function, we have generated and characterized transgenic mice expressing two mutants of mTOR under the control of human skeletal actin (HSA) promoter: rapamycin-resistant (RR) and RR/kinase-inactive (RR/KI). Our results show that muscle regeneration in rapamycin-administered mice is restored by RR-mTOR expression. In the RR/KI-mTOR mice, nascent myofiber formation during the early phase of regeneration proceeds in the presence of rapamycin, but growth of the regenerating myofibers is blocked by rapamycin. Igf2 mRNA levels increase drastically during early regeneration, which is sensitive to rapamycin in wild-type muscles but partially resistant to rapamycin in both RR- and RR/KI-mTOR muscles, consistent with mTOR regulation of Igf2 expression in a kinase-independent manner. Furthermore, systemic ablation of S6K1, a target of mTOR kinase, results in impaired muscle growth but normal nascent myofiber formation during regeneration. Therefore, mTOR regulates muscle regeneration through kinase-independent and kinase-dependent mechanisms at the stages of nascent myofiber formation and myofiber growth, respectively.

  19. Target of Rapamycin Regulates Development and Ribosomal RNA Expression through Kinase Domain in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Maozhi; Qiu, Shuqing; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Feng, Li; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Datla, Raju

    2011-01-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) is a central regulator of cell growth, cell death, nutrition, starvation, hormone, and stress responses in diverse eukaryotes. However, very little is known about TOR signaling and the associated functional domains in plants. We have taken a genetic approach to dissect TOR functions in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and report here that the kinase domain is essential for the role of TOR in embryogenesis and 45S rRNA expression. Twelve new T-DNA insertion mutants, spanning 14.2 kb of TOR-encoding genomic region, have been characterized. Nine of these share expression of defective kinase domain and embryo arrest at 16 to 32 cell stage. However, three T-DNA insertion lines affecting FATC domain displayed normal embryo development, indicating that FATC domain was dispensable in Arabidopsis. Genetic complementation showed that the TOR kinase domain alone in tor-10/tor-10 mutant background can rescue early embryo lethality and restore normal development. Overexpression of full-length TOR or kinase domain in Arabidopsis displayed developmental abnormalities in meristem, leaf, root, stem, flowering time, and senescence. We further show that TOR, especially the kinase domain, plays a role in ribosome biogenesis by activating 45S rRNA production. Of the six putative nuclear localization sequences in the kinase domain, nuclear localization sequence 6 was identified to confer TOR nuclear targeting in transient expression assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that the HEAT repeat domain binds to 45S rRNA promoter and the 5′ external transcribed spacer elements motif. Together, these results show that TOR controls the embryogenesis, postembryonic development, and 45S rRNA production through its kinase domain in Arabidopsis. PMID:21266656

  20. Regulation of Src and Csk Nonreceptor Tyrosine Kinases in the Filasterean Ministeria vibrans

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The development of the phosphotyrosine-based signaling system predated the evolution of multicellular animals. Single-celled choanoflagellates, the closest living relatives to metazoans, possess numerous tyrosine kinases, including Src family nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Choanoflagellates also have Csk (C-terminal Src kinase), the enzyme that regulates Src in metazoans; however, choanoflagellate Csk kinases fail to repress the cognate Src. Here, we have cloned and characterized Src and Csk kinases from Ministeria vibrans, a filasterean (the sister group to metazoans and choanoflagellates). The two Src kinases (MvSrc1 and MvSrc2) are enzymatically active Src kinases, although they have low activity toward mammalian cellular proteins. Unexpectedly, MvSrc2 has significant Ser/Thr kinase activity. The Csk homologue (MvCsk) is enzymatically inactive and fails to repress MvSrc activity. We suggest that the low activity of MvCsk is due to sequences in the SH2–kinase interface, and we show that a point mutation in this region partially restores MvCsk activity. The inactivity of filasterean Csk kinases is consistent with a model in which the stringent regulation of Src family kinases arose more recently in evolution, after the split between choanoflagellates and multicellular animals. PMID:24520931

  1. Regulation of Src and Csk nonreceptor tyrosine kinases in the filasterean Ministeria vibrans.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Kira P; Craddock, Barbara P; Suga, Hiroshi; Miller, W Todd

    2014-03-04

    The development of the phosphotyrosine-based signaling system predated the evolution of multicellular animals. Single-celled choanoflagellates, the closest living relatives to metazoans, possess numerous tyrosine kinases, including Src family nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Choanoflagellates also have Csk (C-terminal Src kinase), the enzyme that regulates Src in metazoans; however, choanoflagellate Csk kinases fail to repress the cognate Src. Here, we have cloned and characterized Src and Csk kinases from Ministeria vibrans, a filasterean (the sister group to metazoans and choanoflagellates). The two Src kinases (MvSrc1 and MvSrc2) are enzymatically active Src kinases, although they have low activity toward mammalian cellular proteins. Unexpectedly, MvSrc2 has significant Ser/Thr kinase activity. The Csk homologue (MvCsk) is enzymatically inactive and fails to repress MvSrc activity. We suggest that the low activity of MvCsk is due to sequences in the SH2-kinase interface, and we show that a point mutation in this region partially restores MvCsk activity. The inactivity of filasterean Csk kinases is consistent with a model in which the stringent regulation of Src family kinases arose more recently in evolution, after the split between choanoflagellates and multicellular animals.

  2. Regulation of protein kinase C by the cytoskeletal protein calponin.

    PubMed

    Leinweber, B; Parissenti, A M; Gallant, C; Gangopadhyay, S S; Kirwan-Rhude, A; Leavis, P C; Morgan, K G

    2000-12-22

    Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that, upon agonist activation, calponin co-immunoprecipitates and co-localizes with protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon) in vascular smooth muscle cells. In the present study we demonstrate that calponin binds directly to the regulatory domain of PKC both in overlay assays and, under native conditions, by sedimentation with lipid vesicles. Calponin was found to bind to the C2 region of both PKCepsilon and PKCalpha with possible involvement of C1B. The C2 region of PKCepsilon binds to the calponin repeats with a requirement for the region between amino acids 160 and 182. We have also found that calponin can directly activate PKC autophosphorylation. By using anti-phosphoantibodies to residue Ser-660 of PKCbetaII, we found that calponin, in a lipid-independent manner, increased auto-phosphorylation of PKCalpha, -epsilon, and -betaII severalfold compared with control conditions. Similarly, calponin was found to increase the amount of (32)P-labeled phosphate incorporated into PKC from [gamma-(32)P]ATP. We also observed that calponin addition strongly increased the incorporation of radiolabeled phosphate into an exogenous PKC peptide substrate, suggesting an activation of enzyme activity. Thus, these results raise the possibility that calponin may function in smooth muscle to regulate PKC activity by facilitating the phosphorylation of PKC.

  3. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase regulates hepatitis C virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Gwon-Soo; Jeon, Jae-Han; Choi, Yeon-Kyung; Jang, Se Young; Park, Soo Young; Kim, Sung-Woo; Byun, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Sungwoo; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lee, In-Kyu; Kang, Yu Na; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    During replication, hepatitis C virus (HCV) utilizes macromolecules produced by its host cell. This process requires host cellular metabolic reprogramming to favor elevated levels of aerobic glycolysis. Therefore, we evaluated whether pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), a mitochondrial enzyme that promotes aerobic glycolysis, can regulate HCV replication. Levels of c-Myc, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), PDK1, PDK3, glucokinase, and serine biosynthetic enzymes were compared between HCV-infected and uninfected human liver and Huh-7.5 cells infected with or without HCV. Protein and mRNA expression of c-Myc, HIF-1α, and glycolytic enzymes were significantly higher in HCV-infected human liver and hepatocytes than in uninfected controls. This increase was accompanied by upregulation of serine biosynthetic enzymes, suggesting cellular metabolism was altered toward facilitated nucleotide synthesis essential for HCV replication. JQ1, a c-Myc inhibitor, and dichloroacetate (DCA), a PDK inhibitor, decreased the expression of glycolytic and serine synthetic enzymes in HCV-infected hepatocytes, resulting in suppressed viral replication. Furthermore, when co-administered with IFN-α or ribavirin, DCA further inhibited viral replication. In summary, HCV reprograms host cell metabolism to favor glycolysis and serine biosynthesis; this is mediated, at least in part, by increased PDK activity, which provides a surplus of nucleotide precursors. Therefore, blocking PDK activity might have therapeutic benefits against HCV replication. PMID:27471054

  4. Cytoskeletal Modulation of Lipid Interactions Regulates Lck Kinase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Chichili, Gurunadh R.; Cail, Robert C.; Rodgers, William

    2012-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton promotes clustering of proteins associated with cholesterol-dependent rafts, but its effect on lipid interactions that form and maintain rafts is not understood. We addressed this question by determining the effect of disrupting the cytoskeleton on co-clustering of dihexadecyl-(C16)-anchored DiO and DiI, which co-enrich in ordered lipid environments such as rafts. Co-clustering was assayed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in labeled T cells, where rafts function in the phosphoregulation of the Src family kinase Lck. Our results show that probe co-clustering was sensitive to depolymerization of actin filaments with latrunculin B (Lat B), inhibition of myosin II with blebbistatin, and treatment with neomycin to sequester phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Cytoskeletal effects on lipid interactions were not restricted to order-preferring label because co-clustering of C16-anchored DiO with didodecyl (C12)-anchored DiI, which favors disordered lipids, was also reduced by Lat B and blebbistatin. Furthermore, conditions that disrupted probe co-clustering resulted in activation of Lck. These data show that the cytoskeleton globally modulates lipid interactions in the plasma membrane, and this property maintains rafts that function in Lck regulation. PMID:22613726

  5. The Role of Specific Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Cascades in the Regulation of Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Pulak R.; Stocco, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) comprise a family of serine/threonine kinases that are activated by a large variety of extracellular stimuli and play integral roles in controlling many cellular processes, from the cell surface to the nucleus. The MAPK family includes four distinct MAPK cascades, that is, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase or stress-activated protein kinase, and ERK5. These MAPKs are essentially operated through three-tiered consecutive phosphorylation events catalyzed by a MAPK kinase kinase, a MAPK kinase, and a MAPK. MAPKs lie in protein kinase cascades. The MAPK signaling pathways have been demonstrated to be associated with events regulating the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and steroidogenesis in steroidogenic tissues. However, it has become clear that the regulation of MAPK-dependent StAR expression and steroid synthesis is a complex process and is context dependent. This paper summarizes the current level of understanding concerning the roles of the MAPK signaling cascades in the regulation of StAR expression and steroidogenesis in different steroidogenic cell models. PMID:21637381

  6. Hypothalamic AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Regulates Glucose Production

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Clair S.; Lam, Carol K.L.; Chari, Madhu; Cheung, Grace W.C.; Kokorovic, Andrea; Gao, Sun; Leclerc, Isabelle; Rutter, Guy A.; Lam, Tony K.T.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The fuel sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hypothalamus regulates energy homeostasis by sensing nutritional and hormonal signals. However, the role of hypothalamic AMPK in glucose production regulation remains to be elucidated. We hypothesize that bidirectional changes in hypothalamic AMPK activity alter glucose production. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS To introduce bidirectional changes in hypothalamic AMPK activity in vivo, we first knocked down hypothalamic AMPK activity in male Sprague-Dawley rats by either injecting an adenovirus expressing the dominant-negative form of AMPK (Ad-DN AMPKα2 [D157A]) or infusing AMPK inhibitor compound C directly into the mediobasal hypothalamus. Next, we independently activated hypothalamic AMPK by delivering either an adenovirus expressing the constitutive active form of AMPK (Ad-CA AMPKα1312 [T172D]) or the AMPK activator AICAR. The pancreatic (basal insulin)-euglycemic clamp technique in combination with the tracer-dilution methodology was used to assess the impact of alternations in hypothalamic AMPK activity on changes in glucose kinetics in vivo. RESULTS Injection of Ad-DN AMPK into the hypothalamus knocked down hypothalamic AMPK activity and led to a significant suppression of glucose production with no changes in peripheral glucose uptake during the clamps. In parallel, hypothalamic infusion of AMPK inhibitor compound C lowered glucose production as well. Conversely, molecular and pharmacological activation of hypothalamic AMPK negated the ability of hypothalamic nutrients to lower glucose production. CONCLUSIONS These data indicate that changes in hypothalamic AMPK activity are sufficient and necessary for hypothalamic nutrient-sensing mechanisms to alter glucose production in vivo. PMID:20682691

  7. Balancing Water Uptake and Loss through the Coordinated Regulation of Stomatal and Root Development

    PubMed Central

    Hepworth, Christopher; Turner, Carla; Landim, Marcela Guimaraes; Cameron, Duncan; Gray, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Root development is influenced by nutrient and water availabilities. Plants are able to adjust many attributes of their root in response to environmental signals including the size and shape of the primary root, lateral roots and root hairs. Here we investigated the response of roots to changes in the levels of leaf transpiration associated with altered stomatal frequency. We found that plants with high stomatal density and conductance produce a larger rooting area and as a result have enhanced phosphate uptake capacity whereas plants with low stomatal conductance produce a smaller root. Manipulating the growth environment of plants indicated that enhanced root growth is most likely a result of an increased demand for water rather than phosphate. Plants manipulated to have an increase or reduction in root hair growth show a reduction or increase respectively, in stomatal conductance and density. Our results demonstrate that plants can balance their water uptake and loss through coordinated regulation of both stomatal and root development. PMID:27275842

  8. IκB Kinase 2 Regulates TPL-2 Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases 1 and 2 by Direct Phosphorylation of TPL-2 Serine 400

    PubMed Central

    Roget, Karine; Ben-Addi, Abduelhakem; Mambole-Dema, Agnes; Gantke, Thorsten; Yang, Huei-Ting; Janzen, Julia; Morrice, Nick; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL-2) functions as a MEK-1/2 kinase, which is essential for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK-1/2) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and for inducing the production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1β. In unstimulated cells, association of TPL-2 with NF-κB1 p105 prevents TPL-2 phosphorylation of MEK-1/2. LPS stimulation of TPL-2 MEK-1/2 kinase activity requires TPL-2 release from p105. This is triggered by IκB kinase 2 (IKK-2) phosphorylation of the p105 PEST region, which promotes p105 ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. LPS activation of ERK-1/2 additionally requires transphosphorylation of TPL-2 on serine 400 in its C terminus, which controls TPL-2 signaling to ERK-1/2 independently of p105. However, the identity of the protein kinase responsible for TPL-2 serine 400 phosphorylation remained unknown. In the present study, we show that TPL-2 serine 400 phosphorylation is mediated by IKK2. The IKK complex therefore regulates two of the key regulatory steps required for TPL-2 activation of ERK-1/2, underlining the close linkage of ERK-1/2 MAP kinase activation to upregulation of NF-κB-dependent transcription. PMID:22988300

  9. Crystal structure of the kinase domain of serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 in complex with AMP PNP.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baoguang; Lehr, Ruth; Smallwood, Angela M; Ho, Thau F; Maley, Kathleen; Randall, Tanya; Head, Martha S; Koretke, Kristin K; Schnackenberg, Christine G

    2007-12-01

    Serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) is a serine/threonine protein kinase of the AGC family which participates in the control of epithelial ion transport and is implicated in proliferation and apoptosis. We report here the 1.9 A crystal structure of the catalytic domain of inactive human SGK1 in complex with AMP-PNP. SGK1 exists as a dimer formed by two intermolecular disulfide bonds between Cys258 in the activation loop and Cys193. Although most of the SGK1 structure closely resembles the common protein kinase fold, the structure around the active site is unique when compared to most protein kinases. The alphaC helix is not present in this inactive form of SGK1 crystal structure; instead, the segment corresponding to the C helix forms a beta-strand that is stabilized by the N-terminal segment of the activation loop through a short antiparallel beta-sheet. Since the differences from other kinases occur around the ATP binding site, this structure can provide valuable insight into the design of selective and highly potent ATP-competitive inhibitors of SGK1 kinase.

  10. A developmentally regulated MAP kinase activated by hydration in tobacco pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C; Voronin, V; Touraev, A; Vicente, O; Heberle-Bors, E

    1997-01-01

    A novel mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway has been identified in tobacco. This pathway is developmentally regulated during pollen maturation and is activated by hydration during pollen germination. Analysis of different stages of pollen development showed that transcriptional and translational induction of MAP kinase synthesis occurs at the mid-bicellular stage of pollen maturation. However, the MAP kinase is stored in an inactive form in the mature, dry pollen grain. Kinase activation is very rapid after hydration of the dry pollen, peaking at approximately 5 min and decreasing thereafter. Immunoprecipitation of the kinase activity by an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody is consistent with the activation of a MAP kinase. The kinetics of activation suggest that the MAP kinase plays a role in the activation of the pollen grain after hydration rather than in pollen tube growth. PMID:9401129

  11. Protein kinase regulation of a cloned epithelial Na+ channel

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    We examined the regulation of a cloned epithelial Na+ channel (alpha beta gamma-rENaC) by protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC). Experiments were performed in Xenopus oocytes and in planar lipid bilayers. At a holding potential of -100 mV, amiloride-sensitive current averaged -1,279 +/- 111 nA (n = 7) in alpha beta gamma-rENaC- expressing oocytes. Currents in water-injected oocytes were essentially unresponsive to 10 microM amiloride. A 1-h stimulation of PKC with 100 nM of PMA inhibited whole-cell currents in Xenopus oocytes to 17.1 +/- 1.8, and 22.1 +/- 2.6% of control (n = 7), at holding potentials of - 100 and +40 mV, respectively. Direct injection of purified PKC resulted in similar inhibition to that observed with PMA. Additionally, the inactive phorbol ester, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, 4-O-methyl, was without effect on alpha beta gamma-rENaC currents. Pretreatment with the microtubule inhibitor colchicine (100 microM) did not modify the inhibitory effect of PMA; however, pretreatment with 20 microM cytochalasin B decreased the inhibitory action of PMA to < 20% of that previously observed. In vitro-synthesized alpha beta gamma-rENaC formed an amiloride-sensitive Na(+)-selective channel when incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. Addition of PKC, diacyl-glycerol, and Mg-ATP to the side opposite that which amiloride blocked, decreased the channel's open probability (Po) from 0.44 +/- 0.06 to 0.13 +/- 0.03 (n = 9). To study the effects of PKA on alpha beta gamma-rENaC expressed in Xenopus oocytes, cAMP levels were elevated with 10 microM forskolin and 1 mM isobutyl-methyl-xanthine. This cAMP-elevating cocktail did not cause any stimulation of alpha beta gamma-rENaC currents in either the inward or outward directions. This lack of activation was also observed in oocytes preinhibited with PMA and in oocytes pretreated with cytochalasin B and PMA. Neither alpha-rENaC nor alpha beta gamma-rENaC incorporated into planar lipid bilayers could be

  12. The Y’s that bind: negative regulators of Src family kinase activity in platelets

    PubMed Central

    NEWMAN, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Members of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases play important roles in platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge regarding how Src family kinase activity is regulated in general, to describe what is known about mechanisms underlying SFK activation in platelets, and to discuss platelet proteins that contribute to SFK inactivation, particularly those that use phosphotyrosine-containing sequences to recruit phosphatases and kinases to sites of SFK activity. PMID:19630799

  13. The protein activator of protein kinase R, PACT/RAX, negatively regulates protein kinase R during mouse anterior pituitary development.

    PubMed

    Dickerman, Benjamin K; White, Christine L; Kessler, Patricia M; Sadler, Anthony J; Williams, Bryan R G; Sen, Ganes C

    2015-12-01

    The murine double-stranded RNA-binding protein termed protein kinase R (PKR)-associated protein X (RAX) and the human homolog, protein activator of PKR (PACT), were originally characterized as activators of PKR. Mice deficient in RAX show reproductive and developmental defects, including reduced body size, craniofacial defects and anterior pituitary hypoplasia. As these defects are not observed in PKR-deficient mice, the phenotype has been attributed to PKR-independent activities of RAX. Here we further investigated the involvement of PKR in the physiological function of RAX, by generating rax(-/-) mice deficient in PKR, or carrying a kinase-inactive mutant of PKR (K271R) or an unphosphorylatable mutant of the PKR substrate eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 α subunit (eIF2α) (S51A). Ablating PKR expression rescued the developmental and reproductive deficiencies in rax(-/-) mice. Generating rax(-/-) mice with a kinase-inactive mutant of PKR resulted in similar rescue, confirming that the rax(-/-) defects are PKR dependent; specifically that the kinase activity of PKR was required for these defects. Moreover, generating rax(-/-) mice that were heterozygous for an unphosphorylatable mutant eIF2α provides partial rescue of the rax(-/-) defect, consistent with mutation of one copy of the Eif2s1 gene. These observations were further investigated in vitro by reducing RAX expression in anterior pituitary cells, resulting in increased PKR activity and induction of the PKR-regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1). These results demonstrate that PKR kinase activity is required for onset of the rax(-/-) phenotype, implying an unexpected function for RAX as a negative regulator of PKR in the context of postnatal anterior pituitary tissue, and identify a critical role for the regulation of PKR activity for normal development.

  14. PREX1 Protein Function Is Negatively Regulated Downstream of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Activation by p21-activated Kinases (PAKs).

    PubMed

    Barrows, Douglas; He, John Z; Parsons, Ramon

    2016-09-16

    Downstream of receptor tyrosine kinase and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) stimulation, the phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3)-dependent Rac exchange factor (PREX) family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) activates Rho GTPases, leading to important roles for PREX proteins in numerous cellular processes and diseases, including cancer. PREX1 and PREX2 GEF activity is activated by the second messengers PIP3 and Gβγ, and further regulation of PREX GEF activity occurs by phosphorylation. Stimulation of receptor tyrosine kinases by neuregulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) leads to the phosphorylation of PREX1; however, the kinases that phosphorylate PREX1 downstream of these ligands are not known. We recently reported that the p21-activated kinases (PAKs), which are activated by GTP-bound Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), mediate the phosphorylation of PREX2 after insulin receptor activation. Here we show that certain phosphorylation events on PREX1 after insulin, neuregulin, and IGF1 treatment are PAK-dependent and lead to a reduction in PREX1 binding to PIP3 Like PREX2, PAK-mediated phosphorylation also negatively regulates PREX1 GEF activity. Furthermore, the onset of PREX1 phosphorylation was delayed compared with the phosphorylation of AKT, supporting a model of negative feedback downstream of PREX1 activation. We also found that the phosphorylation of PREX1 after isoproterenol and prostaglandin E2-mediated GPCR activation is partially PAK-dependent and likely also involves protein kinase A, which is known to reduce PREX1 function. Our data point to multiple mechanisms of PREX1 negative regulation by PAKs within receptor tyrosine kinase and GPCR-stimulated signaling pathways that have important roles in diseases such as diabetes and cancer.

  15. The protein activator of protein kinase R, PACT/RAX, negatively regulates protein kinase R during mouse anterior pituitary development

    PubMed Central

    Dickerman, Benjamin K.; White, Christine L.; Kessler, Patricia M.; Sadler, Anthony J.; Williams, Bryan R.G.; Sen, Ganes C.

    2015-01-01

    The murine double-stranded RNA-binding protein RAX and the human homolog PACT were originally characterized as activators of protein kinase R (PKR). Mice deficient in RAX show reproductive and developmental defects, including reduced body size, craniofacial defects and anterior pituitary hypoplasia. As these defects are not observed in PKR-deficient mice, the phenotype has been attributed to PKR-independent activities of RAX. Here we further investigated the involvement of PKR in the physiological function of RAX, by generating rax−/− mice deficient in PKR, or carrying a kinase-inactive mutant of PKR (K271R) or an unphosphorylatable mutant of the PKR substrate eIF2α (S51A). Ablating PKR expression rescued the developmental and reproductive deficiencies in rax−/− mice. Generating rax−/− mice with a kinase-inactive mutant of PKR resulted in similar rescue, confirming that the rax−/− defects are PKR dependent; specifically that the kinase activity of PKR was required for these defects. Moreover, generating rax−/− mice that were heterozygous for an unphosphorylatable mutant eIF2α provides partial rescue of the rax−/− defect, consistent with mutation of one copy of the Eif2s1 gene. These observations were further investigated in vitro by reducing RAX expression in anterior pituitary cells, resulting in increased PKR activity and induction of the PKR-regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1. These results demonstrate that PKR kinase activity is required for onset of the rax−/− phenotype, implying an unexpected function for RAX as a negative regulator of PKR in the context of postnatal anterior pituitary tissue, and identify a critical role for the regulation of PKR activity for normal development. PMID:26414443

  16. Arabidopsis ABA-Activated Kinase MAPKKK18 is Regulated by Protein Phosphatase 2C ABI1 and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway.

    PubMed

    Mitula, Filip; Tajdel, Malgorzata; Cieśla, Agata; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Kulik, Anna; Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal; Dobrowolska, Grazyna; Sadowski, Jan; Ludwików, Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events play an important role in the transmission of the ABA signal. Although SnRK2 [sucrose non-fermenting1-related kinase2] protein kinases and group A protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C)-type phosphatases constitute the core ABA pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are also involved in plant response to ABA. However, little is known about the interplay between MAPKs and PP2Cs or SnRK2 in the regulation of ABA pathways. In this study, an effort was made to elucidate the role of MAP kinase kinase kinase18 (MKKK18) in relation to ABA signaling and response. The MKKK18 knockout lines showed more vigorous root growth, decreased abaxial stomatal index and increased stomatal aperture under normal growth conditions, compared with the control wild-type Columbia line. In addition to transcriptional regulation of the MKKK18 promoter by ABA, we demonstrated using in vitro and in vivo kinase assays that the kinase activity of MKKK18 was regulated by ABA. Analysis of the cellular localization of MKKK18 showed that the active kinase was targeted specifically to the nucleus. Notably, we identified abscisic acid insensitive 1 (ABI1) PP2C as a MKKK18-interacting protein, and demonstrated that ABI1 inhibited its activity. Using a cell-free degradation assay, we also established that MKKK18 was unstable and was degraded by the proteasome pathway. The rate of MKKK18 degradation was delayed in the ABI1 knockout line. Overall, we provide evidence that ABI1 regulates the activity and promotes proteasomal degradation of MKKK18.

  17. Arabidopsis ABA-Activated Kinase MAPKKK18 is Regulated by Protein Phosphatase 2C ABI1 and the Ubiquitin–Proteasome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mitula, Filip; Tajdel, Malgorzata; Cieśla, Agata; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Kulik, Anna; Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal; Dobrowolska, Grazyna; Sadowski, Jan; Ludwików, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events play an important role in the transmission of the ABA signal. Although SnRK2 [sucrose non-fermenting1-related kinase2] protein kinases and group A protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C)-type phosphatases constitute the core ABA pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are also involved in plant response to ABA. However, little is known about the interplay between MAPKs and PP2Cs or SnRK2 in the regulation of ABA pathways. In this study, an effort was made to elucidate the role of MAP kinase kinase kinase18 (MKKK18) in relation to ABA signaling and response. The MKKK18 knockout lines showed more vigorous root growth, decreased abaxial stomatal index and increased stomatal aperture under normal growth conditions, compared with the control wild-type Columbia line. In addition to transcriptional regulation of the MKKK18 promoter by ABA, we demonstrated using in vitro and in vivo kinase assays that the kinase activity of MKKK18 was regulated by ABA. Analysis of the cellular localization of MKKK18 showed that the active kinase was targeted specifically to the nucleus. Notably, we identified abscisic acid insensitive 1 (ABI1) PP2C as a MKKK18-interacting protein, and demonstrated that ABI1 inhibited its activity. Using a cell-free degradation assay, we also established that MKKK18 was unstable and was degraded by the proteasome pathway. The rate of MKKK18 degradation was delayed in the ABI1 knockout line. Overall, we provide evidence that ABI1 regulates the activity and promotes proteasomal degradation of MKKK18. PMID:26443375

  18. HDA18 Affects Cell Fate in Arabidopsis Root Epidermis via Histone Acetylation at Four Kinase Genes[W

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cui; Li, Lin-Chen; Chen, Wen-Qian; Chen, Xian; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Bai, Shu-Nong

    2013-01-01

    The differentiation of hair (H) and non-hair (N) cells in the Arabidopsis thaliana root epidermis is dependent on positional relationships with underlying cortical cells. We previously found that histone acetylation relays positional information and that a mutant altered in the histone deacetylase gene family member HISTONE DEACETYLASE 18 (HDA18) exhibits altered H and N epidermal cell patterning. Here, we report that HDA18 has in vitro histone deacetylase activity and that both mutation and overexpression of HDA18 led to cells at the N position having H fate. The HDA18 protein physically interacted with histones related to a specific group of kinase genes, which are demonstrated in this study to be components of a positional information relay system. Both down- and upregulation of HDA18 increased transcription of the targeted kinase genes. Interestingly, the acetylation levels of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9), histone 3 lysine 14 (H3K14) and histone 3 lysine 18 (H3K18) at the kinase genes were differentially affected by down- or upregulation of HDA18, which explains why the transcription levels of the four HDA18-target kinase genes increased in all lines with altered HDA18 expression. Our results reveal the surprisingly complex mechanism by which HDA18 affects cellular patterning in Arabidopsis root epidermis. PMID:23362208

  19. MAP Kinase-Mediated Negative Regulation of Symbiotic Nodule Formation in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hojin; Laffont, Carole; Frugier, Florian; Hwang, Ildoo

    2017-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades play critical roles in various cellular events in plants, including stress responses, innate immunity, hormone signaling, and cell specificity. MAPK-mediated stress signaling is also known to negatively regulate nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interactions, but the molecular mechanism of the MAPK signaling cascades underlying the symbiotic nodule development remains largely unknown. We show that the MtMKK5-MtMPK3/6 signaling module negatively regulates the early symbiotic nodule formation, probably upstream of ERN1 (ERF Required for Nodulation 1) and NSP1 (Nod factor Signaling Pathway 1) in Medicago truncatula. The overexpression of MtMKK5 stimulated stress and defense signaling pathways but also reduced nodule formation in M. truncatula roots. Conversely, a MAPK specific inhibitor, U0126, enhanced nodule formation and the expression of an early nodulation marker gene, MtNIN. We found that MtMKK5 directly activates MtMPK3/6 by phosphorylating the TEY motif within the activation loop and that the MtMPK3/6 proteins physically interact with the early nodulation-related transcription factors ERN1 and NSP1. These data suggest that the stress signaling-mediated MtMKK5/MtMPK3/6 module suppresses symbiotic nodule development via the action of early nodulation transcription factors. PMID:28152300

  20. Cell Type-Specific Gene Expression Analyses by RNA Sequencing Reveal Local High Nitrate-Triggered Lateral Root Initiation in Shoot-Borne Roots of Maize by Modulating Auxin-Related Cell Cycle Regulation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng; Eggert, Kai; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Li, Chunjian; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Plants have evolved a unique plasticity of their root system architecture to flexibly exploit heterogeneously distributed mineral elements from soil. Local high concentrations of nitrate trigger lateral root initiation in adult shoot-borne roots of maize (Zea mays) by increasing the frequency of early divisions of phloem pole pericycle cells. Gene expression profiling revealed that, within 12 h of local high nitrate induction, cell cycle activators (cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclin B) were up-regulated, whereas repressors (Kip-related proteins) were down-regulated in the pericycle of shoot-borne roots. In parallel, a ubiquitin protein ligase S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein1-cullin-F-box protein(S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein 2B)-related proteasome pathway participated in cell cycle control. The division of pericycle cells was preceded by increased levels of free indole-3-acetic acid in the stele, resulting in DR5-red fluorescent protein-marked auxin response maxima at the phloem poles. Moreover, laser-capture microdissection-based gene expression analyses indicated that, at the same time, a significant local high nitrate induction of the monocot-specific PIN-FORMED9 gene in phloem pole cells modulated auxin efflux to pericycle cells. Time-dependent gene expression analysis further indicated that local high nitrate availability resulted in PIN-FORMED9-mediated auxin efflux and subsequent cell cycle activation, which culminated in the initiation of lateral root primordia. This study provides unique insights into how adult maize roots translate information on heterogeneous nutrient availability into targeted root developmental responses.

  1. Cell Type-Specific Gene Expression Analyses by RNA Sequencing Reveal Local High Nitrate-Triggered Lateral Root Initiation in Shoot-Borne Roots of Maize by Modulating Auxin-Related Cell Cycle Regulation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Peng; Eggert, Kai; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Li, Chunjian; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a unique plasticity of their root system architecture to flexibly exploit heterogeneously distributed mineral elements from soil. Local high concentrations of nitrate trigger lateral root initiation in adult shoot-borne roots of maize (Zea mays) by increasing the frequency of early divisions of phloem pole pericycle cells. Gene expression profiling revealed that, within 12 h of local high nitrate induction, cell cycle activators (cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclin B) were up-regulated, whereas repressors (Kip-related proteins) were down-regulated in the pericycle of shoot-borne roots. In parallel, a ubiquitin protein ligase S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein1-cullin-F-box proteinS-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein 2B-related proteasome pathway participated in cell cycle control. The division of pericycle cells was preceded by increased levels of free indole-3-acetic acid in the stele, resulting in DR5-red fluorescent protein-marked auxin response maxima at the phloem poles. Moreover, laser-capture microdissection-based gene expression analyses indicated that, at the same time, a significant local high nitrate induction of the monocot-specific PIN-FORMED9 gene in phloem pole cells modulated auxin efflux to pericycle cells. Time-dependent gene expression analysis further indicated that local high nitrate availability resulted in PIN-FORMED9-mediated auxin efflux and subsequent cell cycle activation, which culminated in the initiation of lateral root primordia. This study provides unique insights into how adult maize roots translate information on heterogeneous nutrient availability into targeted root developmental responses. PMID:26198256

  2. Differential Transcriptional Regulation in Roots of Tomato Near-Isogenic Lines in Response to Rapid-Onset Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    Arms, Erin M.; Yan, Zhanghang; St.Clair, Dina A.

    2017-01-01

    Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is susceptible to abiotic stresses, including drought and chilling stress, while its wild relative (Solanum habrochaites) exhibits tolerance to many abiotic stresses. Chilling roots to 6°C induces rapid-onset water stress by impeding water movement from roots to shoots. Wild S. habrochaites responds to root chilling by closing stomata and maintaining shoot turgor, while cultivated tomato fails to close stomata and wilts. This phenotypic response (shoot turgor maintenance under root chilling) is controlled by a major QTL stm9 on chromosome 9 from S. habrochaites that was previously high-resolution mapped to a 0.32 cM region, but its effects on transcriptional regulation were unknown. Here we used paired near isogenic lines (NILs) differing only for the presence or absence of the S. habrochaites introgression containing stm9 in an otherwise S. lycopersicum background to investigate global transcriptional regulation in response to rapid-onset water stress induced by root chilling. NIL175 contains the S. habrochaites introgression and exhibits tolerance to root chilling stress, while NIL163 does not contain the introgression and is susceptible. RNA from roots of the two NILs was obtained at five time points during exposure to root chilling and mRNA-Seq performed. Differential expression analysis and hierarchical clustering of transcript levels were used to determine patterns of and changes in mRNA levels. Our results show that the transcriptional response of roots exposed to chilling stress is complex, with both overlapping and unique responses in tolerant and susceptible lines. In general, susceptible NIL 163 had a more complex transcriptional response to root chilling, while NIL175 exhibited a more targeted response to the imposed stress. Our evidence suggests that both the tolerant and susceptible NILs may be primed for response to root-chilling, with many of these response genes located on chromosome 9. Furthermore

  3. Sulfur nutrient availability regulates root elongation by affecting root indole-3-acetic acid levels and the stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Wu, Yu; Gao, Lei; Ma, Jun; Li, Chuan-You; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2014-12-01

    Sulfur is an essential macronutrient for plants with numerous biological functions. However, the influence of sulfur nutrient availability on the regulation of root development remains largely unknown. Here, we report the response of Arabidopsis thaliana L. root development and growth to different levels of sulfate, demonstrating that low sulfate levels promote the primary root elongation. By using various reporter lines, we examined in vivo IAA level and distribution, cell division, and root meristem in response to different sulfate levels. Meanwhile the dynamic changes of in vivo cysteine, glutathione, and IAA levels were measured. Root cysteine, glutathione, and IAA levels are positively correlated with external sulfate levels in the physiological range, which eventually affect root system architecture. Low sulfate levels also downregulate the genes involved in auxin biosynthesis and transport, and elevate the accumulation of PLT1 and PLT2. This study suggests that sulfate level affects the primary root elongation by regulating the endogenous auxin level and root stem cell niche maintenance. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Multiple phytohormones promote root hair elongation by regulating a similar set of genes in the root epidermis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shan; Huang, Linli; Yan, An; Liu, Yihua; Liu, Bohan; Yu, Chunyan; Zhang, Aidong; Schiefelbein, John; Gan, Yinbo

    2016-01-01

    Multiple phytohormones, including auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin, play vital roles in regulating cell development in the root epidermis. However, their interactions in specific root hair cell developmental stages are largely unexplored. To bridge this gap, we employed genetic and pharmacological approaches as well as transcriptional analysis in order to dissect their distinct and overlapping roles in root hair initiation and elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that among auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin, only ethylene induces ectopic root hair cells in wild-type plants, implying a special role of ethylene in the hair initiation stage. In the subsequent elongation stage, however, auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin enhance root hair tip growth equally. Our data also suggest that the effect of cytokinin is independent from auxin and ethylene in this process. Exogenous cytokinin restores root hair elongation when the auxin and ethylene signal is defective, whereas auxin and ethylene also sustain elongation in the absence of the cytokinin signal. Notably, transcriptional analyses demonstrated that auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin regulate a similar set of root hair-specific genes. Together these analyses provide important clues regarding the mechanism of hormonal interactions and regulation in the formation of single-cell structures. PMID:27799284

  5. Dissecting the regulation of fructan metabolism in chicory (Cichorium intybus) hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Ute; Greiner, Steffen; Steininger, Heike; Meyer, Alain Denis; Corbière-Divialle, Hélène; Harms, Karsten; Rausch, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen per cent of higher plants accumulate fructans. Plant development, nutritional status and stress exposure all affect fructan metabolism, and while fructan biochemistry is well understood, knowledge of its regulation has remained fragmentary. Here, we have explored chicory (Cichorium intybus) hairy root cultures (HRCs) to study the regulation of fructan metabolism in sink tissues in response to environmental cues. In standard medium (SM), HRCs did not accumulate inulin. However, upon transfer to high-carbon (C)/low-nitrogen (N) medium, expression of sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) was strongly induced and inulin accumulated. Upon return to SM, inulin was degraded, together with a coordinate decline of 1-SST and 1-FFT expression. In HRCs, cold-induced expression of fructan 1-exohydrolases (1-FEH I and IIa) was similar to cold induction in taproots, even in the absence of accumulated inulin. For high-C/low-N induction of 1-SST and 1-FFT, and cold induction of 1-FEH I and IIa, the signaling pathways were addressed. While 1-SST and 1-FFT induction was similarly prevented by inhibitors of Ca(2+) signaling, protein kinases and phosphatases, cold induction of 1-FEH I and IIa revealed distinct signaling pathways. In summary, this study has established chicory HRCs as a convenient experimental system with which to study the regulation of fructan active enzyme (FAZY) expression in heterotrophic cells.

  6. AOP-1 interacts with cardiac-specific protein kinase TNNI3K and down-regulates its kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Dong-Qing; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Zhao; Cao, Hui-Qing; Wang, Lai-Yuan; Shi, Na; Meng, Xian-Min

    2007-11-01

    In the present study, a yeast two-hybrid screening system was used to identify the interaction partners of cardiac troponin I-interacting kinase (TNNI3K) that might serve as regulators or targets, and thus in turn to gain some insights on the roles of TNNI3K. After screening the adult heart cDNA library with a bait construct encoding the ANK motif of TNNI3K, antioxidant protein 1 (AOP-1) was isolated. The interaction between TNNI3K and AOP-1 was confirmed by the in vitro binding assay and coexpression experiments in vivo. The colocalization of TNNI3K and AOP-1 was clarified by confocal immunofluorescence. Moreover, coexpression of AOP-1 inhibited TNNI3K kinase activity in the in vitro kinase assay.

  7. Engineering the expression level of cytosolic nucleoside diphosphate kinase in transgenic Solanum tuberosum roots alters growth, respiration and carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dorion, Sonia; Clendenning, Audrey; Rivoal, Jean

    2017-03-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the γ-phosphate from a donor nucleoside triphosphate to an acceptor nucleoside diphosphate. In this study we used a targeted metabolomic approach and measurement of physiological parameters to report the effects of the genetic manipulation of cytosolic NDPK (NDPK1) expression on physiology and carbon metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum) roots. Sense and antisense NDPK1 constructs were introduced in potato using Agrobacterium rhizogenes to generate a population of root clones displaying a 40-fold difference in NDPK activity. Root growth, O2 uptake, flux of carbon between sucrose and CO2 , levels of reactive oxygen species and some tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates were positively correlated with levels of NDPK1 expression. In addition, NDPK1 levels positively affected UDP-glucose and cellulose contents. The activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, a key enzyme in starch synthesis, was higher in antisense roots than in roots overexpressing NDPK1. Further analyses demonstrated that ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was more oxidized, and therefore less active, in sense clones than antisense clones. Consequently, antisense NDPK1 roots accumulated more starch and the starch to cellulose ratio was negatively affected by the level of NDPK1. These data support the idea that modulation of NDPK1 affects the distribution of carbon between starch and cellulose biosynthetic pathways. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Phosphorylation of Dgk1 Diacylglycerol Kinase by Casein Kinase II Regulates Phosphatidic Acid Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yixuan; Hassaninasab, Azam; Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M

    2016-12-16

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Dgk1 diacylglycerol (DAG) kinase catalyzes the CTP-dependent phosphorylation of DAG to form phosphatidic acid (PA). The enzyme in conjunction with Pah1 PA phosphatase controls the levels of PA and DAG for the synthesis of triacylglycerol and membrane phospholipids, the growth of the nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and the formation of lipid droplets. Little is known about how DAG kinase activity is regulated by posttranslational modification. In this work, we examined the phosphorylation of Dgk1 DAG kinase by casein kinase II (CKII). When phosphate groups were globally reduced using nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, Triton X-100-solubilized membranes from DGK1-overexpressing cells showed a 7.7-fold reduction in DAG kinase activity; the reduced enzyme activity could be increased 5.5-fold by treatment with CKII. Dgk1(1-77) expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli was phosphorylated by CKII on a serine residue, and its phosphorylation was dependent on time as well as on the concentrations of CKII, ATP, and Dgk1(1-77). We used site-specific mutagenesis, coupled with phosphorylation analysis and phosphopeptide mapping, to identify Ser-45 and Ser-46 of Dgk1 as the CKII target sites, with Ser-46 being the major phosphorylation site. In vivo, the S46A and S45A/S46A mutations of Dgk1 abolished the stationary phase-dependent stimulation of DAG kinase activity. In addition, the phosphorylation-deficient mutations decreased Dgk1 function in PA production and in eliciting pah1Δ phenotypes, such as the expansion of the nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membrane, reduced lipid droplet formation, and temperature sensitivity. This work demonstrates that the CKII-mediated phosphorylation of Dgk1 regulates its function in the production of PA. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Glucagon receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 via cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Youwei; Cypess, Aaron M.; Muse, Evan D.; Wu, Cui-Rong; Unson, Cecilia G.; Merrifield, R. B.; Sakmar, Thomas P.

    2001-01-01

    We prepared a stable cell line expressing the glucagon receptor to characterize the effect of Gs-coupled receptor stimulation on extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity. Glucagon treatment of the cell line caused a dose-dependent increase in cAMP concentration, activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and transient release of intracellular calcium. Glucagon treatment also caused rapid dose-dependent phosphorylation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK kinase (MEK1/2) and ERK1/2. Inhibition of either PKA or MEK1/2 blocked ERK1/2 activation by glucagon. However, no significant activation of several upstream activators of MEK, including Ras, Rap1, and Raf, was observed in response to glucagon treatment. In addition, chelation of intracellular calcium reduced glucagon-mediated ERK1/2 activation. In transient transfection experiments, glucagon receptor mutants that bound glucagon but failed to increase intracellular cAMP and calcium concentrations showed no glucagon-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation. We conclude that glucagon-induced MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation is mediated by PKA and that an increase in intracellular calcium concentration is required for maximal ERK activation. PMID:11517300

  10. Recent Progress on Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1): Expression, Regulation, Downstream Signaling and Cancer Suppressive Function

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Ren-You; Li, Hua-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Liver kinase B1 (LKB1), known as a serine/threonine kinase, has been identified as a critical cancer suppressor in many cancer cells. It is a master upstream kinase of 13 AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related protein kinases, and possesses versatile biological functions. LKB1 gene is mutated in many cancers, and its protein can form different protein complexes with different cellular localizations in various cell types. The expression of LKB1 can be regulated through epigenetic modification, transcriptional regulation and post-translational modification. LKB1 dowcnstream pathways mainly include AMPK, microtubule affinity regulating kinase (MARK), salt-inducible kinase (SIK), sucrose non-fermenting protein-related kinase (SNRK) and brain selective kinase (BRSK) signalings, etc. This review, therefore, mainly discusses recent studies about the expression, regulation, downstream signaling and cancer suppressive function of LKB1, which can be helpful for better understanding of this molecular and its significance in cancers. PMID:25244018

  11. Individual tree differences confound effects of growth regulators in rooting sugar maple softwood cuttings

    Treesearch

    John R. Donnelly

    1971-01-01

    Softwood stem cuttings from three mature sugar maple trees were treated with several types and concentrations of growth regulators. Lack of statistical significance was due to extreme variability in tree response: low levels of auxin stimulated rooting in two study trees, while auxins inhibited rooting in the other tree. It is postulated that variations in rooting...

  12. Caveolin-1 regulates shear stress-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, H.; Go, Y. M.; Darji, R.; Choi, J. W.; Lisanti, M. P.; Maland, M. C.; Jo, H.

    2000-01-01

    Fluid shear stress activates a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), by mechanisms dependent on cholesterol in the plasma membrane in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Caveolae are microdomains of the plasma membrane that are enriched with cholesterol, caveolin, and signaling molecules. We hypothesized that caveolin-1 regulates shear activation of ERK. Because caveolin-1 is not exposed to the outside, cells were minimally permeabilized by Triton X-100 (0.01%) to deliver a neutralizing, polyclonal caveolin-1 antibody (pCav-1) inside the cells. pCav-1 then bound to caveolin-1 and inhibited shear activation of ERK but not c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Epitope mapping studies showed that pCav-1 binds to caveolin-1 at two regions (residues 1-21 and 61-101). When the recombinant proteins containing the epitopes fused to glutathione-S-transferase (GST-Cav(1-21) or GST-Cav(61-101)) were preincubated with pCav-1, only GST-Cav(61-101) reversed the inhibitory effect of the antibody on shear activation of ERK. Other antibodies, including m2234, which binds to caveolin-1 residues 1-21, had no effect on shear activation of ERK. Caveolin-1 residues 61-101 contain the scaffolding and oligomerization domains, suggesting that binding of pCav-1 to these regions likely disrupts the clustering of caveolin-1 or its interaction with signaling molecules involved in the shear-sensitive ERK pathway. We suggest that caveolae-like domains play a critical role in the mechanosensing and/or mechanosignal transduction of the ERK pathway.

  13. Caveolin-1 regulates shear stress-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, H.; Go, Y. M.; Darji, R.; Choi, J. W.; Lisanti, M. P.; Maland, M. C.; Jo, H.

    2000-01-01

    Fluid shear stress activates a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), by mechanisms dependent on cholesterol in the plasma membrane in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Caveolae are microdomains of the plasma membrane that are enriched with cholesterol, caveolin, and signaling molecules. We hypothesized that caveolin-1 regulates shear activation of ERK. Because caveolin-1 is not exposed to the outside, cells were minimally permeabilized by Triton X-100 (0.01%) to deliver a neutralizing, polyclonal caveolin-1 antibody (pCav-1) inside the cells. pCav-1 then bound to caveolin-1 and inhibited shear activation of ERK but not c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Epitope mapping studies showed that pCav-1 binds to caveolin-1 at two regions (residues 1-21 and 61-101). When the recombinant proteins containing the epitopes fused to glutathione-S-transferase (GST-Cav(1-21) or GST-Cav(61-101)) were preincubated with pCav-1, only GST-Cav(61-101) reversed the inhibitory effect of the antibody on shear activation of ERK. Other antibodies, including m2234, which binds to caveolin-1 residues 1-21, had no effect on shear activation of ERK. Caveolin-1 residues 61-101 contain the scaffolding and oligomerization domains, suggesting that binding of pCav-1 to these regions likely disrupts the clustering of caveolin-1 or its interaction with signaling molecules involved in the shear-sensitive ERK pathway. We suggest that caveolae-like domains play a critical role in the mechanosensing and/or mechanosignal transduction of the ERK pathway.

  14. Flavonols Mediate Root Phototropism and Growth through Regulation of Proliferation-to-Differentiation Transition.

    PubMed

    Silva-Navas, Javier; Moreno-Risueno, Miguel A; Manzano, Concepción; Téllez-Robledo, Bárbara; Navarro-Neila, Sara; Carrasco, Víctor; Pollmann, Stephan; Gallego, F Javier; Del Pozo, Juan C

    2016-06-01

    Roots normally grow in darkness, but they may be exposed to light. After perceiving light, roots bend to escape from light (root light avoidance) and reduce their growth. How root light avoidance responses are regulated is not well understood. Here, we show that illumination induces the accumulation of flavonols in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. During root illumination, flavonols rapidly accumulate at the side closer to light in the transition zone. This accumulation promotes asymmetrical cell elongation and causes differential growth between the two sides, leading to root bending. Furthermore, roots illuminated for a long period of time accumulate high levels of flavonols. This high flavonol content decreases both auxin signaling and PLETHORA gradient as well as superoxide radical content, resulting in reduction of cell proliferation. In addition, cytokinin and hydrogen peroxide, which promote root differentiation, induce flavonol accumulation in the root transition zone. As an outcome of prolonged light exposure and flavonol accumulation, root growth is reduced and a different root developmental zonation is established. Finally, we observed that these differentiation-related pathways are required for root light avoidance. We propose that flavonols function as positional signals, integrating hormonal and reactive oxygen species pathways to regulate root growth direction and rate in response to light. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  15. Scaffold Proteins Regulating Extracellular Regulated Kinase Function in Cardiac Hypertrophy and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Sheikh, Farah

    2016-01-01

    The mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway is a central downstream signaling pathway that is activated in cardiac muscle cells during mechanical and agonist-mediated hypertrophy. Studies in genetic mouse models deficient in ERK-associated MAPK components pathway have further reinforced a direct role for this pathway in stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy and disease. However, more recent studies have highlighted that these signaling pathways may exert their regulatory functions in a more compartmentalized manner in cardiac muscle. Emerging data has uncovered specific MAPK scaffolding proteins that tether MAPK/ERK signaling specifically at the sarcomere and plasma membrane in cardiac muscle and show that deficiencies in these scaffolding proteins alter ERK activity and phosphorylation, which are then critical in altering the cardiac myocyte response to stress-induced hypertrophy and disease progression. In this review, we provide insights on ERK-associated scaffolding proteins regulating cardiac myofilament function and their impact on cardiac hypertrophy and disease. PMID:26973524

  16. Site-specific phosphorylation of L-form starch phosphorylase by the protein kinase activity from sweet potato roots.

    PubMed

    Young, Guang-Huar; Chen, Han-Min; Lin, Chi-Tsai; Tseng, Kuang-Ching; Wu, Jiann-Shing; Juang, Rong-Huay

    2006-02-01

    A 78-amino acid insertion (L78) is found in the low-affinity type (L-form) of starch phosphorylase (L-SP, EC 2.4.1.1). This insertion blocks the starch-binding site on the L-SP molecule, and it decreases the binding affinity of L-SP toward starch. The computational analysis of the amino acid sequence on L78 predicts several phosphorylation sites at its Ser residues. Indeed, from the immunoblotting results using antibodies against phosphoamino acids, we observed that the purified L-SP from mature sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) roots is phosphorylated. This observation led us to the detection of a protein kinase activity in the protein fraction of the crude extract from the sweet potato roots. The kinase was partially purified by liquid chromatography, and its native molecular mass was estimated as 338 kDa. An expressed peptide (L78P) containing the essential part of L78 was intensively phosphorylated by the kinase. However, H-SP (the high-affinity isomer of SP lacking the L78 insertion) and the proteolytic modified L-SP, which lost its L78 fragment, could not be phosphorylated. Furthermore, using L78P mutants by site-directed mutagenesis at Ser residues on L78, we demonstrate that only one Ser residue on L78 is phosphorylated by the kinase. These results imply that this kinase is specific to L-SP, or more precisely, to the L78 insertion. The in vitro phosphorylated L-SP shows higher sensitivity to proteolytic modification, but has no change in its kinetic parameters.

  17. Small molecule modulators of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinases, the key regulators of protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Manali; Kulkarni, Abhijeet; Pal, Jayanta K

    2013-11-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha kinases (eIF-2α kinases) are key mediators of stress response in cells. In mammalian cells, there are four eIF-2α kinases, namely HRI (Heme-Regulated Inhibitor), PKR (RNA-dependent Protein Kinase), PERK (PKR-like ER Kinase) and GCN2 (General Control Non-derepressible 2). These kinases get activated during diverse cytoplasmic stress conditions and phosphorylate the alpha-subunit of eIF2, leading to global protein synthesis inhibition. Therefore, eIF-2α kinases play a vital role in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and cell signaling. Deregulation of eIF-2α kinases and protein synthesis has been linked to numerous pathological conditions such as certain cancers, anemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, modulation of these kinases by small molecules holds a great therapeutic promise. In this review we have compiled the available information on inhibitors and activators of these four eIF-2α kinases. The review concludes with a note on the selectivity issue of currently available modulators and future perspectives for the design of specific small molecule probes.

  18. Sequential conformational transitions and α-helical supercoiling regulate a sensor histidine kinase.

    PubMed

    Berntsson, Oskar; Diensthuber, Ralph P; Panman, Matthijs R; Björling, Alexander; Gustavsson, Emil; Hoernke, Maria; Hughes, Ashley J; Henry, Léocadie; Niebling, Stephan; Takala, Heikki; Ihalainen, Janne A; Newby, Gemma; Kerruth, Silke; Heberle, Joachim; Liebi, Marianne; Menzel, Andreas; Henning, Robert; Kosheleva, Irina; Möglich, Andreas; Westenhoff, Sebastian

    2017-08-18

    Sensor histidine kinases are central to sensing in bacteria and in plants. They usually contain sensor, linker, and kinase modules and the structure of many of these components is known. However, it is unclear how the kinase module is structurally regulated. Here, we use nano- to millisecond time-resolved X-ray scattering to visualize the solution structural changes that occur when the light-sensitive model histidine kinase YF1 is activated by blue light. We find that the coiled coil linker and the attached histidine kinase domains undergo a left handed rotation within microseconds. In a much slower second step, the kinase domains rearrange internally. This structural mechanism presents a template for signal transduction in sensor histidine kinases.Sensor histidine kinases (SHK) consist of sensor, linker and kinase modules and different models for SHK signal transduction have been proposed. Here the authors present nano- to millisecond time-resolved X-ray scattering measurements, which reveal a structural mechanism for kinase domain activation in SHK.

  19. Creating Order from Chaos: Cellular Regulation by Kinase Anchoring

    PubMed Central

    Scott, John D.; Dessauer, Carmen W.; Tasken, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    Second messenger responses rely on where and when the enzymes that propagate these signals become active. Spatial and temporal organization of certain signaling enzymes is controlled in part by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). This family of regulatory proteins was originally classified on the basis of their ability to compartmentalize the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (also known as protein kinase A, or PKA). However, it is now recognized that AKAPs position G protein–coupled receptors, adenylyl cyclases, G proteins, and their effector proteins in relation to protein kinases and signal termination enzymes such as phosphodiesterases and protein phosphatases. This arrangement offers a simple and efficient means to limit the scope, duration, and directional flow of information to sites deep within the cell. This review focuses on the pros and cons of reagents that define the biological role of kinase anchoring inside cells and discusses recent advances in our understanding of anchored second messenger signaling in the cardiovascular and immune systems. PMID:23043438

  20. Propofol up-regulates Mas receptor expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lijun; Xun, Junmei; Jiang, Xinghua; Tan, Rong

    2013-08-01

    Mas is a functional binding site for angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7), a critical component of the renin-angiotensin system that is involved in processing nociceptive information. A recent study reported the localization of Mas in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and demonstrated that Ang-(1-7) produced a dose-dependent peripheral antinociceptive effect in rats through the Mas receptor by an opioid-independent mechanism. In the present study, we for the first time examined the effect of propofol on Mas expression in cultured DRG neurons. We treated rat DRG neurons with propofol at different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 or 10 microM) for different length of time (0.5, 1, 2, 4 or 6 h) with or without transcription inhibitor actinomycin D or different kinase inhibitors. Propofol increased the Mas receptormRNA level in a statistically significant dose- and time-dependent manner within 4 h, which led to dose-dependent up-regulation of the Mas receptor protein level as well as Ang-(1-7) binding on the cell membrane. Actinomycin D (1 mg/ml) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor PD169316 (25 microM) completely abolished the effect of propofol on Mas receptor expression in DRG neurons. In conclusion, we demonstrate that propofol markedly up-regulates Mas receptor expression at the transcription level in DRG neurons by a p38 MAPK-dependent mechanism. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms of action of propofol in peripheral antinociception, and suggests a new regulatory mechanism on the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in the peripheral nervous system.

  1. RGF1 INSENSITIVE 1 to 5, a group of LRR receptor-like kinases, are essential for the perception of root meristem growth factor 1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yang; Lu, Xiaoting; Zi, Quaner; Xun, Qingqing; Zhang, Jingjie; Wu, Yujun; Shi, Hongyong; Wei, Zhuoyun; Zhao, Baolin; Zhang, Xiaoyue; He, Kai; Gou, Xiaoping; Li, Chuanyou; Li, Jia

    2016-06-01

    RGF1, a secreted peptide hormone, plays key roles in root meristem development in Arabidopsis. Previous studies indicated that a functional RGF1 needs to be sulfated at a tyrosine residue by a tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase and that RGF1 regulates the root meristem activity mainly via two downstream transcription factors, PLETHORA 1 (PLT1) and PLT2. How extracellular RGF1 is perceived by a plant cell, however, is unclear. Using genetic approaches, we discovered a clade of leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases, designated as RGF1 INSENSITIVE 1 (RGI1) to RGI5, serving as receptors of RGF1. Two independent rgi1 rgi2 rgi3 rgi4 rgi5 quintuple mutants display a consistent short primary root phenotype with a small size of meristem. An rgi1 rgi2 rgi3 rgi4 quadruple mutant shows a significantly reduced sensitivity to RGF1, and the quintuple mutant is completely insensitive to RGF1. The expression of PLT1 and PLT2 is almost undetectable in the quintuple mutant. Ectopic expression of PLT2 driven by an RGI2 promoter in the quintuple mutant greatly rescued its root meristem defects. One of the RGIs, RGI1, was subsequently analyzed biochemically in detail. In vitro dot blotting and pull-down analyses indicated that RGI1 can physically interact with RGF1. Exogenous application of RGF1 can quickly and simultaneously induce the phosphorylation and ubiquitination of RGI1, indicating that RGI1 can perceive and transduce the RGF1 peptide signal. Yet, the activated RGI1 is likely turned over rapidly. These results demonstrate that RGIs, acting as the receptors of RGF1, play essential roles in RGF1-PLT-mediated root meristem development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  2. Impaired adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signalling in dorsal root ganglia neurons is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and peripheral neuropathy in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Darrell R.; Saleh, Ali; Schapansky, Jason; Marquez, Alexandra; Gomes, Suzanne; Akude, Eli; Morrow, Dwane; Calcutt, Nigel A.; Fernyhough, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in sensory neurons and may contribute to distal axonopathy in animal models of diabetic neuropathy. The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) signalling axis senses the metabolic demands of cells and regulates mitochondrial function. Studies in muscle, liver and cardiac tissues have shown that the activity of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and PGC-1α is decreased under hyperglycaemia. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that deficits in adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/PGC-1α signalling in sensory neurons underlie impaired axonal plasticity, suboptimal mitochondrial function and development of neuropathy in rodent models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Phosphorylation and expression of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/PGC-1α and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex proteins were downregulated in dorsal root ganglia of both streptozotocin-diabetic rats and db/db mice. Adenoviral-mediated manipulation of endogenous adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activity using mutant proteins modulated neurotrophin-directed neurite outgrowth in cultures of sensory neurons derived from adult rats. Addition of resveratrol to cultures of sensory neurons derived from rats after 3–5 months of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, significantly elevated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase levels, enhanced neurite outgrowth and normalized mitochondrial inner membrane polarization in axons. The bioenergetics profile (maximal oxygen consumption rate, coupling efficiency, respiratory control ratio and spare respiratory capacity) was aberrant in cultured sensory neurons from streptozotocin-diabetic rats and was corrected by resveratrol treatment. Finally, resveratrol treatment for the last 2 months of a 5-month period of diabetes reversed thermal hypoalgesia and attenuated foot skin

  3. Regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2 Thr-160 phosphorylation and activity by mitogen-activated protein kinase in late G1 phase.

    PubMed Central

    Chiariello, M; Gomez, E; Gutkind, J S

    2000-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, p42(MAPK) and p44(MAPK), are central components of growth-promoting signalling pathways. However, how stimulation of MAP kinases culminates in cell-cycle progression is still poorly understood. Here we show that mitogenic stimulation of NIH 3T3 cells causes a sustained activation of MAP kinases, which lasts until cells begin progressing through the G(1)/S boundary. Furthermore, we observed that disruption of the MAP-kinase pathway with a selective MEK (MAP kinase/extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase kinase) inhibitor, PD98059, prevents the activation of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2 and DNA synthesis, even when added during late G(1) phase, once the known mechanisms by which MAP kinase controls G(1) progression, accumulation of G(1) cyclins and degradation of Cdk inhibitors have already taken place. Moreover, we provide evidence indicating that MAP kinases control Cdk2 Thr-160 activating phosphorylation and function, possibly by regulating the activity of a Cdk-activating kinase, thus promoting the re-initiation of DNA synthesis. These findings suggest the existence of a novel mechanism whereby signal-transducing pathways converging on MAP kinases can affect the cell-cycle machinery and, ultimately, participate in cell-growth control. PMID:10903150

  4. Regulation of casein kinase 2 by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Agostinis, P; Goris, J; Pinna, L A; Merlevede, W

    1987-01-01

    The effects of various polycation-stimulated (PCS) phosphatases and of the active catalytic subunit of the ATPMg-dependent (AMDc) protein phosphatase on the activity of casein kinase 2 (CK-2) were investigated by using the synthetic peptide substrate Ser-Glu-Glu-Glu-Glu-Glu, whose phosphorylated derivative is entirely insensitive to these protein phosphatases. Previous dephosphorylation of native CK-2 enhances its specific activity 2-3-fold. Such an effect, accounted for by an increase in Vmax, is more readily promoted by the PCS phosphatases than by the AMDc phosphatase. The phosphate incorporated by autophosphorylation could not be removed by the protein phosphatases, suggesting the involvement of phosphorylation site(s) other than the one(s) affected by intramolecular autophosphorylation. The activation of CK-2 by the phosphatase pretreatment is neutralized during the kinase assay; the mechanism of this phenomenon, which is highly dependent on the kinase concentration, is discussed. Images Fig. 4. PMID:2829841

  5. Regulation of casein kinase 2 by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Agostinis, P; Goris, J; Pinna, L A; Merlevede, W

    1987-12-15

    The effects of various polycation-stimulated (PCS) phosphatases and of the active catalytic subunit of the ATPMg-dependent (AMDc) protein phosphatase on the activity of casein kinase 2 (CK-2) were investigated by using the synthetic peptide substrate Ser-Glu-Glu-Glu-Glu-Glu, whose phosphorylated derivative is entirely insensitive to these protein phosphatases. Previous dephosphorylation of native CK-2 enhances its specific activity 2-3-fold. Such an effect, accounted for by an increase in Vmax, is more readily promoted by the PCS phosphatases than by the AMDc phosphatase. The phosphate incorporated by autophosphorylation could not be removed by the protein phosphatases, suggesting the involvement of phosphorylation site(s) other than the one(s) affected by intramolecular autophosphorylation. The activation of CK-2 by the phosphatase pretreatment is neutralized during the kinase assay; the mechanism of this phenomenon, which is highly dependent on the kinase concentration, is discussed.

  6. Root jasmonates signaling regulates folivore-induced shoot metabolites and increases Nicotiana attenuata resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fragoso, Variluska; Rothe, Eva; Baldwin, Ian T.; Kim, Sang-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Summary While JA signaling is widely accepted as mediating plant resistance to herbivores, and the importance of the roots in plant defenses is recently being recognized, the function of root-JA production or perception in aboveground plant defense remains unstudied. To restrain JA impairment to the roots, we micrografted wild type Nicotiana attenuata shoots to the roots of transgenic plants impaired in JA signaling, and evaluated ecological relevant traits under glasshouse and field conditions. Root-JA synthesis, conjugation, and perception are involved in regulating nicotine production in roots. Strikingly, roots regulated leaf JA and ABA levels, which in turn, explain differences in nicotine transport from the roots to the shoot via the transpiration stream. Root-JA signaling also regulates the accumulation of other shoot metabolites; these account for plant resistance against a generalist, Spodoptera littoralis, and a specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta. In N. attenuata’s native habitat, silencing root-JA synthesis increased the shoot damage inflicted by Empoasca leafhoppers, which are able to select natural jasmonate mutants. Silencing JA perception in roots also increased damage by Tupiocoris notatus. Thus, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts: root jasmonate signaling profoundly tailors leaf defense responses to aboveground attack. PMID:24580101

  7. Protein Kinase N2 Regulates AMP-Kinase Signaling and Insulin Responsiveness of Glucose Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Maxwell A; Riedl, Isabelle; Massart, Julie; Åhlin, Marcus; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-07-18

    Insulin resistance is central to the development of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders. As skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of whole body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, regulation of glucose metabolism in this tissue is of particular importance. While Rho GTPases and many of their affecters influence skeletal muscle metabolism, there is a paucity of information on the protein kinase N (PKN) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. We investigated the impact of PKN2 on insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in primary human skeletal muscle cells in vitro and mouse tibialis anterior muscle in vivo. PKN2 knockdown in vitro decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, incorporation into glycogen, and oxidation. PKN2 siRNA increased 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, while stimulating fatty acid oxidation and incorporation into triglycerides, and decreasing protein synthesis. At the transcriptional level, PKN2 knockdown increased expression of PGC1α and SREBP1c and their target genes. In mature skeletal muscle, in vivo PKN2 knockdown decreased glucose uptake and increased AMPK phosphorylation. Thus, PKN2 alters key signaling pathways and transcriptional networks to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Identification of PKN2 as a novel regulator of insulin and AMPK signaling may provide an avenue for manipulation of skeletal muscle metabolism. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism.

  8. Apelin Increases Cardiac Contractility via Protein Kinase Cε- and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase-Dependent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Perjés, Ábel; Skoumal, Réka; Tenhunen, Olli; Kónyi, Attila; Simon, Mihály; Horváth, Iván G.; Kerkelä, Risto; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Szokodi, István

    2014-01-01

    Background Apelin, the endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled apelin receptor, is an important regulator of the cardiovascular homoeostasis. We previously demonstrated that apelin is one of the most potent endogenous stimulators of cardiac contractility; however, its underlying signaling mechanisms remain largely elusive. In this study we characterized the contribution of protein kinase C (PKC), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) to the positive inotropic effect of apelin. Methods and Results In isolated perfused rat hearts, apelin increased contractility in association with activation of prosurvival kinases PKC and ERK1/2. Apelin induced a transient increase in the translocation of PKCε, but not PKCα, from the cytosol to the particulate fraction, and a sustained increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the left ventricle. Suppression of ERK1/2 activation diminished the apelin-induced increase in contractility. Although pharmacological inhibition of PKC attenuated the inotropic response to apelin, it had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Moreover, the apelin-induced positive inotropic effect was significantly decreased by inhibition of MLCK, a kinase that increases myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. Conclusions Apelin increases cardiac contractility through parallel and independent activation of PKCε and ERK1/2 signaling in the adult rat heart. Additionally MLCK activation represents a downstream mechanism in apelin signaling. Our data suggest that, in addition to their role in cytoprotection, modest activation of PKCε and ERK1/2 signaling improve contractile function, therefore these pathways represent attractive possible targets in the treatment of heart failure. PMID:24695532

  9. Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich kinase: A novel regulator of intestinal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yutao; Merlin, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Recently, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been the subject of considerable research, with increasing attention being paid to the loss of intestinal epithelial cell barrier function as a mechanism of pathogenesis. Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) is involved in regulating barrier function. SPAK is known to interact with inflammation-related kinases (such as p38, JNK, NKCC1, PKCtheta;, WNK and MLCK), and with transcription factor AP-1, resulting in diverse biological phenomena, including cell differentiation, cell transformation and proliferation, cytoskeleton rearrangement, and regulation of chloride transport. This review examines the involvement of Ste20-like kinases and downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways in the pathogenesis and control of intestinal inflammation. The primary focus will be on the molecular features of intestinal inflammation, with an emphasis on the interaction between SPAK and other molecules, and the effect of these interactions on homeostatic maintenance, cell volume regulation and increased cell permeability in intestinal inflammation. PMID:18985800

  10. Atypical protein kinase C regulates primary dendrite specification of cerebellar Purkinje cells by localizing Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Koji; Kani, Shuichi; Shimizu, Takashi; Bae, Young-Ki; Abe, Takaya; Hibi, Masahiko

    2010-12-15

    Neurons have highly polarized structures that determine what parts of the soma elaborate the axon and dendrites. However, little is known about the mechanisms that establish neuronal polarity in vivo. Cerebellar Purkinje cells extend a single primary dendrite from the soma that ramifies into a highly branched dendritic arbor. We used the zebrafish cerebellum to investigate the mechanisms by which Purkinje cells acquire these characteristics. To examine dendritic morphogenesis in individual Purkinje cells, we marked the cell membrane using a Purkinje cell-specific promoter to drive membrane-targeted fluorescent proteins. We found that zebrafish Purkinje cells initially extend multiple neurites from the soma and subsequently retract all but one, which becomes the primary dendrite. In addition, the Golgi apparatus specifically locates to the root of the primary dendrite, and its localization is already established in immature Purkinje cells that have multiple neurites. Inhibiting secretory trafficking through the Golgi apparatus reduces dendritic growth, suggesting that the Golgi apparatus is involved in the dendritic morphogenesis. We also demonstrated that in a mutant of an atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), Prkci, Purkinje cells retain multiple primary dendrites and show disrupted localization of the Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, a mosaic inhibition of Prkci in Purkinje cells recapitulates the aPKC mutant phenotype. These results suggest that the aPKC cell autonomously controls the Golgi localization and thereby regulates the specification of the primary dendrite of Purkinje cells.

  11. Down-Regulation of the Met Receptor Tyrosine Kinase by Presenilin-dependent Regulated Intramembrane Proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Foveau, Bénédicte; Ancot, Frédéric; Leroy, Catherine; Petrelli, Annalisa; Reiss, Karina; Vingtdeux, Valérie; Giordano, Silvia; Fafeur, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) acts through the membrane-anchored Met receptor tyrosine kinase to induce invasive growth. Deregulation of this signaling is associated with tumorigenesis and involves, in most cases, overexpression of the receptor. We demonstrate that Met is processed in epithelial cells by presenilin-dependent regulated intramembrane proteolysis (PS-RIP) independently of ligand stimulation. The proteolytic process involves sequential cleavage by metalloproteases and the γ-secretase complex, leading to generation of labile fragments. In normal epithelial cells, although expression of cleavable Met by PS-RIP is down-regulated, uncleavable Met displayed membrane accumulation and induced ligand-independent motility and morphogenesis. Inversely, in transformed cells, the Met inhibitory antibody DN30 is able to promote Met PS-RIP, resulting in down-regulation of the receptor and inhibition of the Met-dependent invasive growth. This demonstrates the original involvement of a proteolytic process in degradation of the Met receptor implicated in negative regulation of invasive growth. PMID:19297528

  12. The S-Domain Receptor Kinase Arabidopsis Receptor Kinase2 and the U Box/Armadillo Repeat-Containing E3 Ubiquitin Ligase9 Module Mediates Lateral Root Development under Phosphate Starvation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Deb, Srijani; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Wewala, Gayathri; Widdup, Ellen; Samuel, Marcus A

    2014-08-01

    When plants encounter nutrient-limiting conditions in the soil, the root architecture is redesigned to generate numerous lateral roots (LRs) that increase the surface area of roots, promoting efficient uptake of these deficient nutrients. Of the many essential nutrients, reduced availability of inorganic phosphate has a major impact on plant growth because of the requirement of inorganic phosphate for synthesis of organic molecules, such as nucleic acids, ATP, and phospholipids, that function in various crucial metabolic activities. In our screens to identify a potential role for the S-domain receptor kinase1-6 and its interacting downstream signaling partner, the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plant U box/armadillo repeat-containing E3 ligase9 (AtPUB9), we identified a role for this module in regulating LR development under phosphate-starved conditions. Our results show that Arabidopsis double mutant plants lacking AtPUB9 and Arabidopsis Receptor Kinase2 (AtARK2; ark2-1/pub9-1) display severely reduced LRs when grown under phosphate-starved conditions. Under these starvation conditions, these plants accumulated very low to no auxin in their primary root and LR tips as observed through expression of the auxin reporter DR5::uidA transgene. Exogenous auxin was sufficient to rescue the LR developmental defects in the ark2-1/pub9-1 lines, indicating a requirement of auxin accumulation for this process. Our subcellular localization studies with tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension-cultured cells indicate that interaction between ARK2 and AtPUB9 results in accumulation of AtPUB9 in the autophagosomes. Inhibition of autophagy in wild-type plants resulted in reduction of LR development and auxin accumulation under phosphate-starved conditions, suggesting a role for autophagy in regulating LR development. Thus, our study has uncovered a previously unknown signaling module (ARK2-PUB9) that is required for auxin-mediated LR development under phosphate-starved conditions.

  13. Auxin and Epigenetic Regulation of SKP2B, an F-Box That Represses Lateral Root Formation1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Manzano, Concepción; Ramirez-Parra, Elena; Casimiro, Ilda; Otero, Sofía; Desvoyes, Bénédicte; De Rybel, Bert; Beeckman, Tom; Casero, Pedro; Gutierrez, Crisanto; C. del Pozo, Juan

    2012-01-01

    In plants, lateral roots originate from pericycle founder cells that are specified at regular intervals along the main root. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SKP2B (for S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein2B), an F-box protein, negatively regulates cell cycle and lateral root formation as it represses meristematic and founder cell divisions. According to its function, SKP2B is expressed in founder cells, lateral root primordia and the root apical meristem. We identified a novel motif in the SKP2B promoter that is required for its specific root expression and auxin-dependent induction in the pericycle cells. Next to a transcriptional control by auxin, SKP2B expression is regulated by histone H3.1/H3.3 deposition in a CAF-dependent manner. The SKP2B promoter and the 5′ end of the transcribed region are enriched in H3.3, which is associated with active chromatin states, over H3.1. Furthermore, the SKP2B promoter is also regulated by H3 acetylation in an auxin- and IAA14-dependent manner, reinforcing the idea that epigenetics represents an important regulatory mechanism during lateral root formation. PMID:22837358

  14. Antagonistic Regulation of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Cell Surface Expression by Protein Kinases WNK4 and Spleen Tyrosine Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Ana Isabel; Matos, Paulo; Moniz, Sónia; Luz, Simão; Amaral, Margarida D.; Farinha, Carlos M.; Jordan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Members of the WNK (with-no-lysine [K]) subfamily of protein kinases regulate various ion channels involved in sodium, potassium, and chloride homeostasis by either inducing their phosphorylation or regulating the number of channel proteins expressed at the cell surface. Here, we describe findings demonstrating that the cell surface expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is also regulated by WNK4 in mammalian cells. This effect of WNK4 is independent of the presence of kinase and involves interaction with and inhibition of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), which phosphorylates Tyr512 in the first nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1) of CFTR. Transfection of catalytically active Syk into CFTR-expressing baby hamster kidney cells reduces the cell surface expression of CFTR, whereas that of WNK4 promotes it. This is shown by biotinylation of cell surface proteins, immunofluorescence microscopy, and functional efflux assays. Mutation of Tyr512 to either glutamic acid or phenylalanine is sufficient to alter CFTR surface levels. In human airway epithelial cells, downregulation of endogenous Syk and WNK4 confirms their roles as physiologic regulators of CFTR surface expression. Together, our results show that Tyr512 phosphorylation is a novel signal regulating the prevalence of CFTR at the cell surface and that WNK4 and Syk perform an antagonistic role in this process. PMID:21807898

  15. Lack of Csk-mediated negative regulation in a unicellular SRC kinase.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Kira P; Suga, Hiroshi; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki; Miller, W Todd

    2012-10-16

    Phosphotyrosine-based signaling plays a vital role in cellular communication in multicellular organisms. Unexpectedly, unicellular choanoflagellates (the closest phylogenetic group to metazoans) possess numbers of tyrosine kinases that are comparable to those in complex metazoans. Here, we have characterized tyrosine kinases from the filasterean Capsaspora owczarzaki, a unicellular protist representing the sister group to choanoflagellates and metazoans. Two Src-like tyrosine kinases have been identified in C. owczarzaki (CoSrc1 and CoSrc2), both of which have the arrangement of SH3, SH2, and catalytic domains seen in mammalian Src kinases. In Capsaspora cells, CoSrc1 and CoSrc2 localize to punctate structures in filopodia that may represent primordial focal adhesions. We have cloned, expressed, and purified both enzymes. CoSrc1 and CoSrc2 are active tyrosine kinases. Mammalian Src kinases are normally regulated in a reciprocal fashion by autophosphorylation in the activation loop (which increases activity) and by Csk-mediated phosphorylation of the C-terminal tail (which inhibits activity). Similar to mammalian Src kinases, the enzymatic activities of CoSrc1 and CoSrc2 are increased by autophosphorylation in the activation loop. We have identified a Csk-like kinase (CoCsk) in the genome of C. owczarzaki. We cloned, expressed, and purified CoCsk and found that it has no measurable tyrosine kinase activity. Furthermore, CoCsk does not phosphorylate or regulate CoSrc1 or CoSrc2 in cells or in vitro, and CoSrc1 and CoSrc2 are active in Capsaspora cell lysates. Thus, the function of Csk as a negative regulator of Src family kinases appears to have arisen with the emergence of metazoans.

  16. Integrated stress response of vertebrates is regulated by four eIF2α kinases

    PubMed Central

    Taniuchi, Shusuke; Miyake, Masato; Tsugawa, Kazue; Oyadomari, Miho; Oyadomari, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    The integrated stress response (ISR) is a cytoprotective pathway initiated upon phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) residue designated serine-51, which is critical for translational control in response to various stress conditions. Four eIF2α kinases, namely heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI), protein kinase R (PKR), PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, (PERK) and general control non-depressible 2 (GCN2), have been identified thus far, and they are known to be activated by heme depletion, viral infection, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and amino acid starvation, respectively. Because eIF2α is phosphorylated under various stress conditions, the existence of an additional eIF2α kinase has been suggested. To validate the existence of the unidentified eIF2α kinase, we constructed an eIF2α kinase quadruple knockout cells (4KO cells) in which the four known eIF2α kinase genes were deleted using the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. Phosphorylation of eIF2α was completely abolished in the 4KO cells by various stress stimulations. Our data suggests that the four known eIF2α kinases are sufficient for ISR and that there are no additional eIF2α kinases in vertebrates. PMID:27633668

  17. Novel protein kinase signaling systems regulating lifespan identified by small molecule library screening using Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Spindler, Stephen R; Li, Rui; Dhahbi, Joseph M; Yamakawa, Amy; Sauer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinase signaling cascades control most aspects of cellular function. The ATP binding domains of signaling protein kinases are the targets of most available inhibitors. These domains are highly conserved from mammals to flies. Herein we describe screening of a library of small molecule inhibitors of protein kinases for their ability to increase Drosophila lifespan. We developed an assay system which allowed screening using the small amounts of materials normally present in commercial chemical libraries. The studies identified 17 inhibitors, the majority of which targeted tyrosine kinases associated with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), the insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGFI) receptors. Comparison of the protein kinase signaling effects of the inhibitors in vitro defined a consensus intracellular signaling profile which included decreased signaling by p38MAPK (p38), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and protein kinase C (PKC). If confirmed, many of these kinases will be novel additions to the signaling cascades known to regulate metazoan longevity.

  18. Light regulation of the growth response in corn root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, M. O.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Roots of Merit variety corn (Zea mays L.) require red light for orthogravitropic curvature. Experiments were undertaken to identify the step in the pathway from gravity perception to asymmetric growth on which light may act. Red light was effective in inducing gravitropism whether it was supplied concomitant with or as long as 30 minutes after the gravity stimulus (GS). The presentation time was the same whether the GS was supplied in red light or in darkness. Red light given before the GS slightly enhanced the rate of curvature but had little effect on the lag time or on the final curvature. This enhancement was expanded by a delay between the red light pulse and the GS. These results indicate that gravity perception and at least the initial transduction steps proceed in the dark. Light may regulate the final growth (motor) phase of gravitropism. The time required for full expression of the light enhancement of curvature is consistent with its involvement in some light-stimulated biosynthetic event.

  19. Light regulation of the growth response in corn root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, M. O.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Roots of Merit variety corn (Zea mays L.) require red light for orthogravitropic curvature. Experiments were undertaken to identify the step in the pathway from gravity perception to asymmetric growth on which light may act. Red light was effective in inducing gravitropism whether it was supplied concomitant with or as long as 30 minutes after the gravity stimulus (GS). The presentation time was the same whether the GS was supplied in red light or in darkness. Red light given before the GS slightly enhanced the rate of curvature but had little effect on the lag time or on the final curvature. This enhancement was expanded by a delay between the red light pulse and the GS. These results indicate that gravity perception and at least the initial transduction steps proceed in the dark. Light may regulate the final growth (motor) phase of gravitropism. The time required for full expression of the light enhancement of curvature is consistent with its involvement in some light-stimulated biosynthetic event.

  20. Role of diacylglycerol-regulated protein kinase C isotypes in growth factor activation of the Raf-1 protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, H; Smola, U; Wixler, V; Eisenmann-Tappe, I; Diaz-Meco, M T; Moscat, J; Rapp, U; Cooper, G M

    1997-01-01

    The Raf protein kinases function downstream of Ras guanine nucleotide-binding proteins to transduce intracellular signals from growth factor receptors. Interaction with Ras recruits Raf to the plasma membrane, but the subsequent mechanism of Raf activation has not been established. Previous studies implicated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in Raf activation; therefore, we investigated the role of the epsilon isotype of protein kinase C (PKC), which is stimulated by PC-derived diacylglycerol, as a Raf activator. A dominant negative mutant of PKC epsilon inhibited both proliferation of NIH 3T3 cells and activation of Raf in COS cells. Conversely, overexpression of active PKC epsilon stimulated Raf kinase activity in COS cells and overcame the inhibitory effects of dominant negative Ras in NIH 3T3 cells. PKC epsilon also stimulated Raf kinase in baculovirus-infected Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells and was able to directly activate Raf in vitro. Consistent with its previously reported activity as a Raf activator in vitro, PKC alpha functioned similarly to PKC epsilon in both NIH 3T3 and COS cell assays. In addition, constitutively active mutants of both PKC alpha and PKC epsilon overcame the inhibitory effects of dominant negative mutants of the other PKC isotype, indicating that these diacylglycerol-regulated PKCs function as redundant activators of Raf-1 in vivo. PMID:9001227

  1. Tyrosine phosphorylation on spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is differentially regulated in human and murine platelets by protein kinase C isoforms.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Lorena; Bhavanasi, Dheeraj; Dangelmaier, Carol; Manne, Bhanu Kanth; Badolia, Rachit; Borgognone, Alessandra; Tsygankov, Alexander Y; McKenzie, Steven E; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2013-10-04

    Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms differentially regulate platelet functional responses downstream of glycoprotein VI (GPVI) signaling, but the role of PKCs regulating upstream effectors such as Syk is not known. We investigated the role of PKC on Syk tyrosine phosphorylation using the pan-PKC inhibitor GF109203X (GFX). GPVI-mediated phosphorylation on Syk Tyr-323, Tyr-352, and Tyr-525/526 was rapidly dephosphorylated, but GFX treatment inhibited this dephosphorylation on Tyr-525/526 in human platelets but not in wild type murine platelets. GFX treatment did not affect tyrosine phosphorylation on FcRγ chain or Src family kinases. Phosphorylation of Lat Tyr-191 and PLCγ2 Tyr-759 was also increased upon treatment with GFX. We evaluated whether secreted ADP is required for such dephosphorylation. Exogenous addition of ADP to GFX-treated platelets did not affect tyrosine phosphorylation on Syk. FcγRIIA- or CLEC-2-mediated Syk tyrosine phosphorylation was also potentiated with GFX in human platelets. Because potentiation of Syk phosphorylation is not observed in murine platelets, PKC-deficient mice cannot be used to identify the PKC isoform regulating Syk phosphorylation. We therefore used selective inhibitors of PKC isoforms. Only PKCβ inhibition resulted in Syk hyperphosphorylation similar to that in platelets treated with GFX. This result indicates that PKCβ is the isoform responsible for Syk negative regulation in human platelets. In conclusion, we have elucidated a novel pathway of Syk regulation by PKCβ in human platelets.

  2. CLE-CLAVATA1 peptide-receptor signaling module regulates the expansion of plant root systems in a nitrogen-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Araya, Takao; Miyamoto, Mayu; Wibowo, Juliarni; Suzuki, Akinori; Kojima, Soichi; Tsuchiya, Yumiko N; Sawa, Shinichiro; Fukuda, Hiroo; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Takahashi, Hideki

    2014-02-04

    Morphological plasticity of root systems is critically important for plant survival because it allows plants to optimize their capacity to take up water and nutrients from the soil environment. Here we show that a signaling module composed of nitrogen (N)-responsive CLE (CLAVATA3/ESR-related) peptides and the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase is expressed in the root vasculature in Arabidopsis thaliana and plays a crucial role in regulating the expansion of the root system under N-deficient conditions. CLE1, -3, -4, and -7 were induced by N deficiency in roots, predominantly expressed in root pericycle cells, and their overexpression repressed the growth of lateral root primordia and their emergence from the primary root. In contrast, clv1 mutants showed progressive outgrowth of lateral root primordia into lateral roots under N-deficient conditions. The clv1 phenotype was reverted by introducing a CLV1 promoter-driven CLV1:GFP construct producing CLV1:GFP fusion proteins in phloem companion cells of roots. The overaccumulation of CLE2, -3, -4, and -7 in clv1 mutants suggested the amplitude of the CLE peptide signals being feedback-regulated by CLV1. When CLE3 was overexpressed under its own promoter in wild-type plants, the length of lateral roots was negatively correlated with increasing CLE3 mRNA levels; however, this inhibitory action of CLE3 was abrogated in the clv1 mutant background. Our findings identify the N-responsive CLE-CLV1 signaling module as an essential mechanism restrictively controlling the expansion of the lateral root system in N-deficient environments.

  3. Light-regulated gravitropism in seedling roots of maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, L. J.; Briggs, W. R.

    1987-01-01

    Red light-induced changes in the gravitropism of roots of Zea mays variety Merit is a very low fluence response with a threshold of 10(-9) moles per square meter and is not reversible by far red light. Blue light also affects root gravitropism but the sensitivity of roots to blue is 50 to 100 times less than to an equal fluence of red. In Z. mays Merit we conclude that phytochrome is the sole pigment associated with light-induced changes in root gravitropism.

  4. Light-Regulated Gravitropism in Seedling Roots of Maize 1

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Lewis J.; Briggs, Winslow R.

    1987-01-01

    Red light-induced changes in the gravitropism of roots of Zea mays variety Merit is a very low fluence response with a threshold of 10−9 moles per square meter and is not reversible by far red light. Blue light also affects root gravitropism but the sensitivity of roots to blue is 50 to 100 times less than to an equal fluence of red. In Z. mays Merit we conclude that phytochrome is the sole pigment associated with light-induced changes in root gravitropism. PMID:11539030

  5. Light-regulated gravitropism in seedling roots of maize.

    PubMed

    Feldman, L J; Briggs, W R

    1987-01-01

    Red light-induced changes in the gravitropism of roots of Zea mays variety Merit is a very low fluence response with a threshold of 10(-9) moles per square meter and is not reversible by far red light. Blue light also affects root gravitropism but the sensitivity of roots to blue is 50 to 100 times less than to an equal fluence of red. In Z. mays Merit we conclude that phytochrome is the sole pigment associated with light-induced changes in root gravitropism.

  6. Post-Transcriptional Regulation of MKK4-A Stress Signaling Kinase Implicated in the Regulation of Metastatic Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    REPORTABLE OUTCOMES: Reportable outcomes that have resulted from this research to include: DISSERTATION: ictoria L. Robinson : Post-transcriptional...manuscript by Robinson et al. is provided in the following Appendix. TRANSLATIONAL REGULATION OF MAP KINASE KINASE 4 (MKK4) EXPRESSION Victoria L... Robinson ‡, Ore Shalhav‡, Kristen Otto‡, Tomoko Kawai§, Myriam Gorospe§, and Carrie W. Rinker-Schaeffer‡¶ From the ‡Department of Surgery, Section of

  7. Self-regulation of exopolysaccharide production in Bacillus subtilis by a tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Elsholz, Alexander K W; Wacker, Sarah A; Losick, Richard

    2014-08-01

    We report that the Bacillus subtilis exopolysaccharide (EPS) is a signaling molecule that controls its own production. EPS synthesis depends on a tyrosine kinase that consists of a membrane component (EpsA) and a kinase component (EpsB). EPS interacts with the extracellular domain of EpsA, which is a receptor, to control kinase activity. In the absence of EPS, the kinase is inactivated by autophosphorylation. The presence of EPS inhibits autophosphorylation and instead promotes the phosphorylation of a glycosyltransferase in the biosynthetic pathway, thereby stimulating the production of EPS. Thus, EPS production is subject to a positive feedback loop that ties its synthesis to its own concentration. Tyrosine kinase-mediated self-regulation could be a widespread feature of the control of exopolysaccharide production in bacteria.

  8. Molecular mimicry regulates ABA signaling by SnRK2 kinases and PP2C phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X Edward; West, Graham M; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M H Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

    2012-01-06

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  9. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M. H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites. PMID:22116026

  10. Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCK): structure, regulation, and functions.

    PubMed

    Julian, Linda; Olson, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCK) were originally identified as effectors of the RhoA small GTPase. (1)(-) (5) They belong to the AGC family of serine/threonine kinases (6) and play vital roles in facilitating actomyosin cytoskeleton contractility downstream of RhoA and RhoC activation. Since their discovery, ROCK kinases have been extensively studied, unveiling their manifold functions in processes including cell contraction, migration, apoptosis, survival, and proliferation. Two mammalian ROCK homologs have been identified, ROCK1 (also called ROCK I, ROKβ, Rho-kinase β, or p160ROCK) and ROCK2 (also known as ROCK II, ROKα, or Rho kinase), hereafter collectively referred to as ROCK. In this review, we will focus on the structure, regulation, and functions of ROCK.

  11. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M.H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  12. A differentially regulated AP2/ERF transcription factor gene cluster acts downstream of a MAP kinase cascade to modulate terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Paul, Priyanka; Singh, Sanjay K; Patra, Barunava; Sui, Xueyi; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Yuan, Ling

    2017-02-01

    Catharanthus roseus produces bioactive terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), including the chemotherapeutics, vincristine and vinblastine. Transcriptional regulation of TIA biosynthesis is not fully understood. The jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive AP2/ERF transcription factor (TF), ORCA3, and its regulator, CrMYC2, play key roles in TIA biosynthesis. ORCA3 forms a physical cluster with two uncharacterized AP2/ERFs, ORCA4 and 5. Here, we report that (1) the ORCA gene cluster is differentially regulated; (2) ORCA4, while overlapping functionally with ORCA3, modulates an additional set of TIA genes. Unlike ORCA3, ORCA4 overexpression resulted in dramatic increase of TIA accumulation in C. roseus hairy roots. In addition, CrMYC2 is capable of activating ORCA3 and co-regulating TIA pathway genes concomitantly with ORCA3. The ORCA gene cluster and CrMYC2 act downstream of a MAP kinase cascade that includes a previously uncharacterized MAP kinase kinase, CrMAPKK1. Overexpression of CrMAPKK1 in C. roseus hairy roots upregulated TIA pathways genes and increased TIA accumulation. This work provides detailed characterization of a TF gene cluster and advances our understanding of the transcriptional and post-translational regulatory mechanisms that govern TIA biosynthesis in C. roseus.

  13. Root transcriptome of two contrasting indica rice cultivars uncovers regulators of root development and physiological responses

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Alka; Kumar, Pramod; Gautam, Vibhav; Rengasamy, Balakrishnan; Adhikari, Bijan; Udayakumar, Makarla; Sarkar, Ananda K.

    2016-01-01

    The huge variation in root system architecture (RSA) among different rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars is conferred by their genetic makeup and different growth or climatic conditions. Unlike model plant Arabidopsis, the molecular basis of such variation in RSA is very poorly understood in rice. Cultivars with stable variation are valuable resources for identification of genes involved in RSA and related physiological traits. We have screened for RSA and identified two such indica rice cultivars, IR-64 (OsAS83) and IET-16348 (OsAS84), with stable contrasting RSA. OsAS84 produces robust RSA with more crown roots, lateral roots and root hairs than OsAS83. Using comparative root transcriptome analysis of these cultivars, we identified genes related to root development and different physiological responses like abiotic stress responses, hormone signaling, and nutrient acquisition or transport. The two cultivars differ in their response to salinity/dehydration stresses, phosphate/nitrogen deficiency, and different phytohormones. Differential expression of genes involved in salinity or dehydration response, nitrogen (N) transport, phosphate (Pi) starvation signaling, hormone signaling and root development underlies more resistance of OsAS84 towards abiotic stresses, Pi or N deficiency and its robust RSA. Thus our study uncovers gene-network involved in root development and abiotic stress responses in rice. PMID:28000793

  14. Serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 regulates neutrophil clearance during inflammation resolution.

    PubMed

    Burgon, Joseph; Robertson, Anne L; Sadiku, Pranvera; Wang, Xingang; Hooper-Greenhill, Edward; Prince, Lynne R; Walker, Paul; Hoggett, Emily E; Ward, Jonathan R; Farrow, Stuart N; Zuercher, William J; Jeffrey, Philip; Savage, Caroline O; Ingham, Philip W; Hurlstone, Adam F; Whyte, Moira K B; Renshaw, Stephen A

    2014-02-15

    The inflammatory response is integral to maintaining health by functioning to resist microbial infection and repair tissue damage. Large numbers of neutrophils are recruited to inflammatory sites to neutralize invading bacteria through phagocytosis and the release of proteases and reactive oxygen species into the extracellular environment. Removal of the original inflammatory stimulus must be accompanied by resolution of the inflammatory response, including neutrophil clearance, to prevent inadvertent tissue damage. Neutrophil apoptosis and its temporary inhibition by survival signals provides a target for anti-inflammatory therapeutics, making it essential to better understand this process. GM-CSF, a neutrophil survival factor, causes a significant increase in mRNA levels for the known anti-apoptotic protein serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1). We have characterized the expression patterns and regulation of SGK family members in human neutrophils and shown that inhibition of SGK activity completely abrogates the antiapoptotic effect of GM-CSF. Using a transgenic zebrafish model, we have disrupted sgk1 gene function and shown this specifically delays inflammation resolution, without altering neutrophil recruitment to inflammatory sites in vivo. These data suggest SGK1 plays a key role in regulating neutrophil survival signaling and thus may prove a valuable therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory disease.

  15. Serum and Glucocorticoid Regulated Kinase 1 (SGK1) Regulates Neutrophil Clearance During Inflammation Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Burgon, Joseph; Robertson, Anne L.; Sadiku, Pranvera; Wang, Xingang; Hooper-Greenhill, Edward; Prince, Lynne R.; Walker, Paul; Hoggett, Emily E.; Ward, Jonathan R.; Farrow, Stuart N.; Zuercher, William J.; Jeffrey, Philip; Savage, Caroline O.; Ingham, Philip W.; Hurlstone, Adam F.; Whyte, Moira K. B.; Renshaw, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    The inflammatory response is integral to maintaining health, by functioning to resist microbial infection and repair tissue damage. Large numbers of neutrophils are recruited to inflammatory sites to neutralise invading bacteria through phagocytosis and the release of proteases and reactive oxygen species into the extracellular environment. Removal of the original inflammatory stimulus must be accompanied by resolution of the inflammatory response, including neutrophil clearance, to prevent inadvertent tissue damage. Neutrophil apoptosis and its temporary inhibition by survival signals provides a target for anti-inflammatory therapeutics, making it essential to better understand this process. GM-CSF, a neutrophil survival factor, causes a significant increase in mRNA levels for the known anti-apoptotic protein Serum and Glucocorticoid Regulated Kinase 1 (SGK1). We have characterised the expression patterns and regulation of SGK family members in human neutrophils, and shown that inhibition of SGK activity completely abrogates the anti-apoptotic effect of GM-CSF. Using a transgenic zebrafish model, we have disrupted sgk1 gene function and shown this specifically delays inflammation resolution, without altering neutrophil recruitment to inflammatory sites in vivo. These data suggest SGK1 plays a key role in regulating neutrophil survival signalling, and thus may prove a valuable therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory disease. PMID:24431232

  16. Transcriptional Regulation of Flotillins by the Extracellularly Regulated Kinases and Retinoid X Receptor Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Banning, Antje; Ockenga, Wymke; Finger, Fabian; Siebrasse, Philipp; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2012-01-01

    Flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 are important regulators of signal transduction pathways such as growth factor signaling. Flotillin expression is increased under pathological conditions such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. Despite their importance for signal transduction, very little is known about the transcriptional regulation of flotillins. Here, we analyzed the expression of flotillins at transcriptional level and identified flotillins as downstream targets of the mitogen activated kinases ERK1/2. The promoter activity of flotillins was increased upon growth factor stimulation in a MAPK dependent manner. Overexpression of serum response factor or early growth response gene 1 resulted in increased flotillin mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, both promoter activity and expression of endogenous flotillins were increased upon treatment with retinoic acid or by overexpression of the retinoid X receptor and its binding partners RARα and PPARγ. Our data indicate that the expression of flotillins, which can be detected in all cultured cells, is fine-tuned in response to various external stimuli. This regulation may be critical for the outcome of signaling cascades in which flotillins are known to be involved. PMID:23029064

  17. Estrogen receptor β regulates endometriotic cell survival through serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Monsivais, Diana; Dyson, Matthew T; Yin, Ping; Navarro, Antonia; Coon, John S; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Bulun, Serdar E

    2016-05-01

    To determine the expression and biological roles of serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK1) in tissues and cells from patients with endometriosis and from healthy control subjects. Case-control. University research setting. Premenopausal women. Endometriotic tissues were obtained from women with ovarian endometriosis, and normal endometrial tissues were obtained from women undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions. Expression levels of SGK1, the role of SGK1 in endometriosis pathology, and regulation of SGK1 by estrogen receptor (ER) β. Transcript and protein levels of SGK1 were significantly higher in endometriotic tissues and cells compared with normal endometrium. SGK1 mRNA and protein levels were stimulated by E2, by the ERβ-selective agonist diarylpropionitrile, and by prostaglandin E2. SGK1 was transcriptionally regulated by ERβ based on small interfering RNA knockdown and chromatin immunoprecipitation of ERβ followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. SGK1 knockdown led to increased cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and SGK1 activation was correlated with the phosphorylation of FOXO3a, a proapoptotic factor. ERβ leads to SGK1 overexpression in endometriosis, which contributes to the survival of endometriotic lesions through inhibition of apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Sugar-Inducible Protein Kinase, VvSK1, Regulates Hexose Transport and Sugar Accumulation in Grapevine Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lecourieux, Fatma; Lecourieux, David; Vignault, Céline; Delrot, Serge

    2010-01-01

    In grapevine (Vitis vinifera), as in many crops, soluble sugar content is a major component of yield and economical value. This paper identifies and characterizes a Glycogen Synthase Kinase3 protein kinase, cloned from a cDNA library of grape Cabernet Sauvignon berries harvested at the ripening stage. This gene, called VvSK1, was mainly expressed in flowers, berries, and roots. In the berries, it was strongly expressed at postvéraison, when the berries accumulate glucose, fructose, and abscisic acid. In grapevine cell suspensions, VvSK1 transcript abundance is increased by sugars and abscisic acid. In transgenic grapevine cells overexpressing VvSK1, the expression of four monosaccharide transporters (VvHT3, VvHT4, VvHT5, and VvHT6) was up-regulated, the rate of glucose uptake was increased 3- to 5-fold, and the amount of glucose and sucrose accumulation was more than doubled, while the starch amount was not affected. This work provides, to our knowledge, the first example of the control of sugar uptake and accumulation by a sugar-inducible protein kinase. PMID:19923236

  19. Kinase activity of OsBRI1 is essential for brassinosteroids to regulate rice growth and development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinfeng; Wu, Chenxi; Yuan, Shoujiang; Yin, Liang; Sun, Wei; Zhao, Qinglei; Zhao, Baohua; Li, Xueyong

    2013-02-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid hormones that participate in multiple biological processes. In this paper, we characterized a classic rice mutant Fn189 (dwarf54, d54) showing semi-dwarf stature and erect leaves. The coleoptile elongation and root growth was less affected in Fn189 than wild-type plant by the exogenous application of eBL, the most active form of BRs. Lamina joint inclination assay and morphological analysis in darkness further showed that Fn189 mutant plant was insensitive to exogenous eBL. Through map-based cloning, Fn189 was found to be a novel allelic mutant of the DWARF 61 (D61) gene, which encodes the putative BRs receptor OsBRI1. A single base mutation caused the I834F substitution in the OsBRI1 kinase domain. Consequently, kinase activity of OsBRI1 was found to decrease dramatically. Taken together, the kinase activity of OsBRI1 is essential for brassinosteroids to regulate normal plant growth and development in rice.

  20. [Regulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase activity].

    PubMed

    Haga, T; Haga, K; Kameyama, K; Nakata, H

    1994-09-01

    Recent progress on the activation of G protein-coupled receptor kinases is reviewed. beta-Adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK) is activated by G protein beta gamma -subunits, which interact with the carboxyl terminal portion of beta ARK. Muscarinic receptor m2-subtypes are phosphorylated by beta ARK1 in the central part of the third intracellular loop (I3). Phosphorylation of I3-GST fusion protein by beta ARK1 is synergistically stimulated by the beta gamma -subunits and mastoparan or a peptide corresponding to portions adjacent to the transmembrane segments of m2-receptors or by beta gamma -subunits and the agonist-bound I3-deleted m2 variant. These results indicate that agonist-bound receptors serve as both substrates and activators of beta ARK.

  1. Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Activated Protein Kinase 2 Regulates Actin Polymerization and Vascular Leak in Ventilator Associated Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Damarla, Mahendra; Hasan, Emile; Boueiz, Adel; Le, Anne; Pae, Hyun Hae; Montouchet, Calypso; Kolb, Todd; Simms, Tiffany; Myers, Allen; Kayyali, Usamah S.; Gaestel, Matthias; Peng, Xinqi; Reddy, Sekhar P.; Damico, Rachel; Hassoun, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation, a fundamental therapy for acute lung injury, worsens pulmonary vascular permeability by exacting mechanical stress on various components of the respiratory system causing ventilator associated lung injury. We postulated that MK2 activation via p38 MAP kinase induced HSP25 phosphorylation, in response to mechanical stress, leading to actin stress fiber formation and endothelial barrier dysfunction. We sought to determine the role of p38 MAP kinase and its downstream effector MK2 on HSP25 phosphorylation and actin stress fiber formation in ventilator associated lung injury. Wild type and MK2−/− mice received mechanical ventilation with high (20 ml/kg) or low (7 ml/kg) tidal volumes up to 4 hrs, after which lungs were harvested for immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and lung permeability assays. High tidal volume mechanical ventilation resulted in significant phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, MK2, HSP25, actin polymerization, and an increase in pulmonary vascular permeability in wild type mice as compared to spontaneous breathing or low tidal volume mechanical ventilation. However, pretreatment of wild type mice with specific p38 MAP kinase or MK2 inhibitors abrogated HSP25 phosphorylation and actin polymerization, and protected against increased lung permeability. Finally, MK2−/− mice were unable to phosphorylate HSP25 or increase actin polymerization from baseline, and were resistant to increases in lung permeability in response to HVT MV. Our results suggest that p38 MAP kinase and its downstream effector MK2 mediate lung permeability in ventilator associated lung injury by regulating HSP25 phosphorylation and actin cytoskeletal remodeling. PMID:19240800

  2. Protein Kinase Pathways That Regulate Neuronal Survival and Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    kinase 3 inactivation. Char- sants, phenytoin and carbamazepine. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 286, acterization of dominant-negative mutant of PKB. J. Biol...Asted, A. A. Ansari. 1995. Fetal neural transplantation for Parkinson and A. Bjorklund. 1986. Behavioral effects of human fetal do- disease. In...Bilateral fetal mesencephalic 63. Yayon, A., M. Klagsbrun, J. D. Esko, P. Leder, and D. M. grafting in two patients with Parkinsonism induced by 1-methyl

  3. Fission yeast receptor of activated C kinase (RACK1) ortholog Cpc2 regulates mitotic commitment through Wee1 kinase.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Andrés; Franco, Alejandro; Soto, Teresa; Vicente, Jero; Gacto, Mariano; Cansado, José

    2010-12-31

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Wee1-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation of the highly conserved Cdc2/Cdk1 kinase determines the mitotic onset when cells have reached a defined size. The receptor of activated C kinase (RACK1) is a scaffolding protein strongly conserved among eukaryotes which binds to other proteins to regulate multiple processes in mammalian cells, including the modulation of cell cycle progression during G(1)/S transition. We have recently described that Cpc2, the fission yeast ortholog to RACK1, controls from the ribosome the activation of MAPK cascades and the cellular defense against oxidative stress by positively regulating the translation of specific genes whose products participate in the above processes. Intriguingly, mutants lacking Cpc2 display an increased cell size at division, suggesting the existence of a specific cell cycle defect at the G(2)/M transition. In this work we show that protein levels of Wee1 mitotic inhibitor are increased in cells devoid of Cpc2, whereas the levels of Cdr2, a Wee1 inhibitor, are down-regulated in the above mutant. On the contrary, the kinetics of G(1)/S transition was virtually identical both in control and Cpc2-less strains. Thus, our results suggest that in fission yeast Cpc2/RACK1 positively regulates from the ribosome the mitotic onset by modulating both the protein levels and the activity of Wee1. This novel mechanism of translational control of cell cycle progression might be conserved in higher eukaryotes.

  4. Fission Yeast Receptor of Activated C Kinase (RACK1) Ortholog Cpc2 Regulates Mitotic Commitment through Wee1 Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Andrés; Franco, Alejandro; Soto, Teresa; Vicente, Jero; Gacto, Mariano; Cansado, José

    2010-01-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Wee1-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation of the highly conserved Cdc2/Cdk1 kinase determines the mitotic onset when cells have reached a defined size. The receptor of activated C kinase (RACK1) is a scaffolding protein strongly conserved among eukaryotes which binds to other proteins to regulate multiple processes in mammalian cells, including the modulation of cell cycle progression during G1/S transition. We have recently described that Cpc2, the fission yeast ortholog to RACK1, controls from the ribosome the activation of MAPK cascades and the cellular defense against oxidative stress by positively regulating the translation of specific genes whose products participate in the above processes. Intriguingly, mutants lacking Cpc2 display an increased cell size at division, suggesting the existence of a specific cell cycle defect at the G2/M transition. In this work we show that protein levels of Wee1 mitotic inhibitor are increased in cells devoid of Cpc2, whereas the levels of Cdr2, a Wee1 inhibitor, are down-regulated in the above mutant. On the contrary, the kinetics of G1/S transition was virtually identical both in control and Cpc2-less strains. Thus, our results suggest that in fission yeast Cpc2/RACK1 positively regulates from the ribosome the mitotic onset by modulating both the protein levels and the activity of Wee1. This novel mechanism of translational control of cell cycle progression might be conserved in higher eukaryotes. PMID:20974849

  5. Regulation of therapeutic resistance in cancers by receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei-Kuang; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2016-01-01

    In response to DNA damage lesions due to cellular stress, DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are activated to promote cell survival and genetic stability or unrepaired lesion-induced cell death. Current cancer treatments predominantly utilize DNA damaging agents, such as irradiation and chemotherapy drugs, to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce cell death through the activation of DDR. However, a portion of cancer patients is reported to develop therapeutic resistance to these DDR-inducing agents. One significant resistance mechanism in cancer cells is oncogenic kinase overexpression, which promotes cell survival by enhancing DNA damage repair pathways and evading cell cycle arrest. Among the oncogenic kinases, overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is reported in many of solid tumors, and numerous clinical trials targeting RTKs are currently in progress. As the emerging trend in cancer treatment combines DNA damaging agents and RTK inhibitors, it is important to understand the substrates of RTKs relative to the DDR pathways. In addition, alteration of RTK expression and their phosphorylated substrates can serve as biomarkers to stratify patients for combination therapies. In this review, we summarize the deleterious effects of RTKs on the DDR pathways and the emerging biomarkers for personalized therapy. PMID:27186434

  6. Secreted protein kinases regulate cyst burden during chronic toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nathaniel G; Wang, Qiuling; Sibley, L David

    2017-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that secretes a large number of protein kinases and pseudokinases from its rhoptry organelles. Although some rhoptry kinases (ROPKs) act as virulence factors, many remain uncharacterized. In this study, predicted ROPKs were assessed for bradyzoite expression then prioritized for a reverse genetic analysis in the type II strain Pru that is amenable to targeted disruption. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we engineered C-terminally epitope tagged ROP21 and ROP27 and demonstrated their localization to the parasitophorous vacuole and cyst matrix. ROP21 and ROP27 were not secreted from microneme, rhoptry, or dense granule organelles, but rather were located in small vesicles consistent with a constitutive pathway. Using CRISPR/Cas9, the genes for ROP21, ROP27, ROP28, and ROP30 were deleted individually and in combination, and the mutant parasites were assessed for growth and their ability to form tissue cysts in mice. All knockouts lines were normal for in vitro growth and bradyzoite differentiation, but a combined ∆rop21/∆rop17 knockout led to a 50% reduction in cyst burden in vivo. Our findings question the existing annotation of ROPKs based solely on bioinformatic techniques and yet highlight the importance of secreted kinases in determining the severity of chronic toxoplasmosis.

  7. Ligand-Induced Asymmetry in Histidine Sensor Kinase Complex Regulates Quorum Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Neiditch,M.; Federle, M.; Pompeani, A.; Kelly, R.; Swem, D.; Jeffrey, P.; Bassler, B.; Hughson, F.

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria sense their environment using receptors of the histidine sensor kinase family, but how kinase activity is regulated by ligand binding is not well understood. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a secreted signaling molecule originally identified in studies of the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, regulates quorum-sensing responses and allows communication between different bacterial species. AI-2 signal transduction in V. harveyi requires the integral membrane receptor LuxPQ, comprised of periplasmic binding protein (LuxP) and histidine sensor kinase (LuxQ) subunits. Combined X-ray crystallographic and functional studies show that AI-2 binding causes a major conformational change within LuxP, which in turn stabilizes a quaternary arrangement in which two LuxPQ monomers are asymmetrically associated. We propose that formation of this asymmetric quaternary structure is responsible for repressing the kinase activity of both LuxQ subunits and triggering the transition of V. harveyi into quorum-sensing mode.

  8. Per-Arnt-Sim Kinase (PASK): An Emerging Regulator of Mammalian Glucose and Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan-dan; Zhang, Ji-gang; Wang, Yu-zhu; Liu, Ying; Liu, Gao-lin; Li, Xiao-yu

    2015-09-07

    Per-Arnt-Sim Kinase (PASK) is an evolutionarily-conserved nutrient-responsive protein kinase that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism, mitochondrial respiration, phosphorylation, and gene expression. Recent data suggests that mammalian PAS kinase is involved in glucose metabolism and acts on pancreatic islet α/β cells and glycogen synthase (GS), affecting insulin secretion and blood glucose levels. In addition, PASK knockout mice (PASK-/-) are protected from obesity, liver triglyceride accumulation, and insulin resistance when fed a high-fat diet, implying that PASK may be a new target for metabolic syndrome (MetS) treatment as well as the cellular nutrients and energy sensors-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the targets of rapamycin (m-TOR). In this review, we will briefly summarize the regulation of PASK on mammalian glucose and lipid metabolism and its possible mechanism, and further explore the potential targets for MetS therapy.

  9. Per-Arnt-Sim Kinase (PASK): An Emerging Regulator of Mammalian Glucose and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan-dan; Zhang, Ji-gang; Wang, Yu-zhu; Liu, Ying; Liu, Gao-lin; Li, Xiao-yu

    2015-01-01

    Per-Arnt-Sim Kinase (PASK) is an evolutionarily-conserved nutrient-responsive protein kinase that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism, mitochondrial respiration, phosphorylation, and gene expression. Recent data suggests that mammalian PAS kinase is involved in glucose metabolism and acts on pancreatic islet α/β cells and glycogen synthase (GS), affecting insulin secretion and blood glucose levels. In addition, PASK knockout mice (PASK-/-) are protected from obesity, liver triglyceride accumulation, and insulin resistance when fed a high-fat diet, implying that PASK may be a new target for metabolic syndrome (MetS) treatment as well as the cellular nutrients and energy sensors—adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the targets of rapamycin (m-TOR). In this review, we will briefly summarize the regulation of PASK on mammalian glucose and lipid metabolism and its possible mechanism, and further explore the potential targets for MetS therapy. PMID:26371032

  10. WNK2 Kinase Is a Novel Regulator of Essential Neuronal Cation-Chloride Cotransporters*

    PubMed Central

    Rinehart, Jesse; Vázquez, Norma; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Hodson, Caleb A.; Ring, Aaron M.; Gulcicek, Erol E.; Louvi, Angeliki; Bobadilla, Norma A.; Gamba, Gerardo; Lifton, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    NKCC1 and KCC2, related cation-chloride cotransporters (CCC), regulate cell volume and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurotranmission by modulating the intracellular concentration of chloride [Cl−]. These CCCs are oppositely regulated by serine-threonine phosphorylation, which activates NKCC1 but inhibits KCC2. The kinase(s) that performs this function in the nervous system are not known with certainty. WNK1 and WNK4, members of the WNK (with no lysine [K]) kinase family, either directly or via the downstream SPAK/OSR1 Ste20-type kinases, regulate the furosemide-sensitive NKCC2 and the thiazide-sensitive NCC, kidney-specific CCCs. What role the novel WNK2 kinase plays in this regulatory cascade, if any, is unknown. Here, we show that WNK2, unlike other WNKs, is not expressed in kidney; rather, it is a neuron-enriched kinase primarily expressed in neocortical pyramidal cells, thalamic relay cells, and cerebellar granule and Purkinje cells in both the developing and adult brain. Bumetanide-sensitive and Cl−-dependent 86Rb+ uptake assays in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed that WNK2 promotes Cl− accumulation by reciprocally activating NKCC1 and inhibiting KCC2 in a kinase-dependent manner, effectively bypassing normal tonicity requirements for cotransporter regulation. TiO2 enrichment and tandem mass spectrometry studies demonstrate WNK2 forms a protein complex in the mammalian brain with SPAK, a known phosphoregulator of NKCC1. In this complex, SPAK is phosphorylated at Ser-383, a consensus WNK recognition site. These findings suggest a role for WNK2 in the regulation of CCCs in the mammalian brain, with implications for both cell volume regulation and/or GABAergic signaling. PMID:21733846

  11. Role of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors in the Regulation of the Mitotic Checkpoint Kinase Bub1

    PubMed Central

    Breit, Claudia; Bange, Tanja; Petrovic, Arsen; Weir, John R.; Müller, Franziska; Vogt, Doro; Musacchio, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors microtubule attachment to kinetochores to ensure accurate sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. The SAC members Bub1 and BubR1 are paralogs that underwent significant functional specializations during evolution. We report an in-depth characterization of the kinase domains of Bub1 and BubR1. BubR1 kinase domain binds nucleotides but is unable to deliver catalytic activity in vitro. Conversely, Bub1 is an active kinase regulated by intra-molecular phosphorylation at the P+1 loop. The crystal structure of the phosphorylated Bub1 kinase domain illustrates a hitherto unknown conformation of the P+1 loop docked into the active site of the Bub1 kinase. Both Bub1 and BubR1 bind Bub3 constitutively. A hydrodynamic characterization of Bub1:Bub3 and BubR1:Bub3 demonstrates both complexes to have 1:1 stoichiometry, with no additional oligomerization. Conversely, Bub1:Bub3 and BubR1:Bub3 combine to form a heterotetramer. Neither BubR1:Bub3 nor Knl1, the kinetochore receptor of Bub1:Bub3, modulate the kinase activity of Bub1 in vitro, suggesting autonomous regulation of the Bub1 kinase domain. We complement our study with an analysis of the Bub1 substrates. Our results contribute to the mechanistic characterization of a crucial cell cycle checkpoint. PMID:26658523

  12. Malaria Protein Kinase CK2 (PfCK2) Shows Novel Mechanisms of Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Graciotti, Michele; Alam, Mahmood; Solyakov, Lev; Schmid, Ralf; Burley, Glenn; Bottrill, Andrew R.; Doerig, Christian; Cullis, Paul; Tobin, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    Casein kinase 2 (protein kinase CK2) is a conserved eukaryotic serine/theronine kinase with multiple substrates and roles in the regulation of cellular processes such as cellular stress, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Here we report a detailed analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum CK2, PfCK2, demonstrating that this kinase, like the mammalian orthologue, is a dual specificity kinase able to phosphorylate at both serine and tyrosine. However, unlike the human orthologue that is auto-phosphorylated on tyrosine within the activation loop, PfCK2 shows no activation loop auto-phosphorylation but rather is auto-phosphorylated at threonine 63 within subdomain I. Phosphorylation at this site in PfCK2 is shown here to regulate the intrinsic kinase activity of PfCK2. Furthermore, we generate an homology model of PfCK2 in complex with the known selective protein kinase CK2 inhibitor, quinalizarin, and in so doing identify key co-ordinating residues in the ATP binding pocket that could aid in designing selective inhibitors to PfCK2. PMID:24658579

  13. A mechanism for regulation of chloroplast LHC II kinase by plastoquinol and thioredoxin.

    PubMed

    Puthiyaveetil, Sujith

    2011-06-23

    State transitions are acclimatory responses to changes in light quality in photosynthesis. They involve the redistribution of absorbed excitation energy between photosystems I and II. In plants and green algae, this redistribution is produced by reversible phosphorylation of the chloroplast light harvesting complex II (LHC II). The LHC II kinase is activated by reduced plastoquinone (PQ) in photosystem II-specific low light. In high light, when PQ is also reduced, LHC II kinase becomes inactivated by thioredoxin. Based on newly identified amino acid sequence features of LHC II kinase and other considerations, a mechanism is suggested for its redox regulation.

  14. [Involvement of cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1/CDC28 in regulation of cell cycle].

    PubMed

    Koltovaya, N A

    2013-07-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of enzymes essential for the progression of the cells through the cell cycle in eukaryotes. Moreover, genetic stability-maintaining processes, such as checkpoint control and DNA repair, require the phosphorylation of a wide variety of target substrates by CDK. In budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the key role in the cell cycle progression is played by CDK1/CDC28 kinase. This enzyme is the most thoroughly investigated. In this review the involvement of CDC28 kinase in regulation of the cell cycle is discussed in the light of newly obtained data.

  15. Structural basis of autoregulatory scaffolding by apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1

    PubMed Central

    Weijman, Johannes F.; Kumar, Abhishek; Jamieson, Sam A.; King, Chontelle M.; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Ledgerwood, Elizabeth C.; Murphy, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinases (ASK1–3) are apical kinases of the p38 and JNK MAP kinase pathways. They are activated by diverse stress stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, cytokines, and osmotic stress; however, a molecular understanding of how ASK proteins are controlled remains obscure. Here, we report a biochemical analysis of the ASK1 kinase domain in conjunction with its N-terminal thioredoxin-binding domain, along with a central regulatory region that links the two. We show that in solution the central regulatory region mediates a compact arrangement of the kinase and thioredoxin-binding domains and the central regulatory region actively primes MKK6, a key ASK1 substrate, for phosphorylation. The crystal structure of the central regulatory region reveals an unusually compact tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) region capped by a cryptic pleckstrin homology domain. Biochemical assays show that both a conserved surface on the pleckstrin homology domain and an intact TPR region are required for ASK1 activity. We propose a model in which the central regulatory region promotes ASK1 activity via its pleckstrin homology domain but also facilitates ASK1 autoinhibition by bringing the thioredoxin-binding and kinase domains into close proximity. Such an architecture provides a mechanism for control of ASK-type kinases by diverse activators and inhibitors and demonstrates an unexpected level of autoregulatory scaffolding in mammalian stress-activated MAP kinase signaling. PMID:28242696

  16. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A.; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems. PMID:24904600

  17. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems.

  18. Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 mediates regulation of chondrocyte differentiation by parathyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Zhen, X; Wei, L; Wu, Q; Zhang, Y; Chen, Q

    2001-02-16

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and its related peptide regulate endochondral ossification by inhibiting chondrocyte differentiation toward hypertrophy. However, the intracellular pathway for transducing PTH/PTH-related peptide signals in chondrocytes remains unclear. Here, we show that this pathway is mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38. Incubation of hypertrophic chondrocytes with PTH (1-34) induces an inhibition of p38 kinase activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of protein kinase C prevents PTH-induced p38 MAPK inhibition, whereas inhibition of protein kinase A has no effect. Thus, protein kinase C, but not protein kinase A, is required for the inhibition of p38 MAPK by PTH. Treatment of hypertrophic chondrocytes by PTH or by p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 up-regulates Bcl-2, suggesting that Bcl-2 lies downstream of p38 MAPK in the PTH signaling pathway. Inhibition of p38 MAPK in hypertrophic chondrocytes by either PTH, SB303580, or both together leads to a decrease of hypertrophic marker type X collagen mRNA and an increase of the expression of prehypertrophic marker cartilage matrix protein. Therefore, inhibition of p38 converts a hypertrophic cell phenotype to a prehypertrophic one, thereby preventing precocious chondrocyte hypertrophy. Taken together, these data suggest a major role for p38 MAPK in transmitting PTH signals to regulate chondrocyte differentiation.

  19. Calmodulin-dependent kinase II regulates osteoblast differentiation through regulation of Osterix.

    PubMed

    Choi, You Hee; Choi, Jun-Ha; Oh, Jae-Wook; Lee, Kwang-Youl

    2013-03-08

    Osterix (Osx), a zinc-finger transcription factor, is required for osteoblast differentiation and new bone formation during embryonic development. Calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) acts as a key regulator of osteoblast differentiation. However, the precise molecular signaling mechanisms between Osterix and CaMKII are not known. In this study, we focused on the relationship between Osterix and CaMKII during osteoblast differentiation. We examined the role of the CaMKII pathway in the regulation of protein levels and its transcriptional activity on Osterix. We showed that CaMKII interacts with Osterix by increasing the protein levels and enhancing the transcriptional activity of Osterix. Conversely, CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 decreases the protein levels and increases the stability of Osterix. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of CaMKII decreased the protein levels and transcriptional activity of Osterix. These results suggest that Osterix is a novel target of CaMKII and the activity of Osterix can be modulated by a novel mechanism involving CaMKII during osteoblast differentiation.

  20. Haloperidol and Clozapine Differentially Affect the Expression of Arrestins, Receptor Kinases, and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mohamed Rafiuddin; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.; Dalby, Kevin N.; Benovic, Jeffrey L.; Gurevich, Eugenia V.

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine and other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the major target of antipsychotic drugs. GPCRs undergo desensitization via activation-dependent phosphorylation by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) followed by arrestin binding. Arrestins and GRKs are major regulators of GPCR signaling. We elucidated changes in expression of two arrestins and four GRKs following chronic (21 days) treatment with haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) or clozapine (20 mg/kg i.p.) 2 or 24 h after the last injection in 11 brain regions. Haloperidol decreased GRK3 in ventrolateral caudate-putamen and transiently down-regulated GRK5 in globus pallidus and caudal caudate-putamen. Clozapine also caused a short-term suppression of the GRK5 expression in the caudal caudate-putamen and globus pallidus, but, unlike haloperidol, elevated GRK5 in the caudal caudate-putamen after 24 h. Unlike haloperidol, clozapine decreased arrestin2 and GRK3 in hippocampus and GRK3 in globus pallidus but increased arrestin2 in the core of nucleus accumbens and ventrolateral caudate-putamen and GRK2 in prefrontal cortex. Clozapine, but not haloperidol, induced long-term activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 2 in ventrolateral caudate-putamen and transient in prefrontal cortex. The data demonstrate that haloperidol and clozapine differentially affect the expression of arrestins and GRKs and ERK activity, which may play a role in determining their clinical profile. PMID:18178904

  1. Protein kinase C-zeta and protein kinase B regulate distinct steps of insulin endocytosis and intracellular sorting.

    PubMed

    Fiory, Francesca; Oriente, Francesco; Miele, Claudia; Romano, Chiara; Trencia, Alessandra; Alberobello, Anna Teresa; Esposito, Iolanda; Valentino, Rossella; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2004-03-19

    We have investigated the molecular mechanisms regulating insulin internalization and intracellular sorting. Insulin internalization was decreased by 50% upon incubation of the cells with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. PI3K inhibition also reduced insulin degradation and intact insulin release by 50 and 75%, respectively. Insulin internalization was reduced by antisense inhibition of protein kinase C-zeta (PKCzeta) expression and by overexpression of a dominant negative PKCzeta mutant (DN-PKCzeta). Conversely, overexpression of PKCzeta increased insulin internalization as a function of the PKCzeta levels achieved in the cells. Expression of wild-type protein kinase B (PKB)-alpha or of a constitutively active form (myr-PKB) did not significantly alter insulin internalization and degradation but produced a 100% increase of intact insulin release. Inhibition of PKB by a dominant negative mutant (DN-PKB) or by the pharmacological inhibitor ML-9 reduced intact insulin release by 75% with no effect on internalization and degradation. In addition, overexpression of Rab5 completely rescued the effect of PKCzeta inhibition on insulin internalization but not that of PKB inhibition on intact insulin recycling. Indeed, PKCzeta bound to and activated Rab5. Thus, PI3K controls different steps within the insulin endocytic itinerary. PKCzeta appears to mediate the PI3K effect on insulin internalization in a Rab5-dependent manner, whereas PKB directs intracellular sorting toward intact insulin release.

  2. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) Signaling via Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (Gsk-3) Regulates DNA Methylation of Imprinted Loci*

    PubMed Central

    Popkie, Anthony P.; Zeidner, Leigh C.; Albrecht, Ashley M.; D'Ippolito, Anthony; Eckardt, Sigrid; Newsom, David E.; Groden, Joanna; Doble, Bradley W.; Aronow, Bruce; McLaughlin, K. John; White, Peter; Phiel, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (Gsk-3) isoforms, Gsk-3α and Gsk-3β, are constitutively active, largely inhibitory kinases involved in signal transduction. Underscoring their biological significance, altered Gsk-3 activity has been implicated in diabetes, Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of both Gsk-3α and Gsk-3β in mouse embryonic stem cells results in reduced expression of the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a2, causing misexpression of the imprinted genes Igf2, H19, and Igf2r and hypomethylation of their corresponding imprinted control regions. Treatment of wild-type embryonic stem cells and neural stem cells with the Gsk-3 inhibitor, lithium, phenocopies the DNA hypomethylation at these imprinted loci. We show that inhibition of Gsk-3 by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated activation of Akt also results in reduced DNA methylation at these imprinted loci. Finally, we find that N-Myc is a potent Gsk-3-dependent regulator of Dnmt3a2 expression. In summary, we have identified a signal transduction pathway that is capable of altering the DNA methylation of imprinted loci. PMID:21047779

  3. Src Family Kinases and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Regulate Pluripotent Cell Differentiation in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Boon Siang Nicholas; Kwek, Joly; Wong, Chong Kum Edwin; Saner, Nicholas J.; Yap, Charlotte; Felquer, Fernando; Morris, Michael B.; Gardner, David K.; Rathjen, Peter D.; Rathjen, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Multiple pluripotent cell populations, which together comprise the pluripotent cell lineage, have been identified. The mechanisms that control the progression between these populations are still poorly understood. The formation of early primitive ectoderm-like (EPL) cells from mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells provides a model to understand how one such transition is regulated. EPL cells form from mES cells in response to l-proline uptake through the transporter Slc38a2. Using inhibitors of cell signaling we have shown that Src family kinases, p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and GSK3β are required for the transition between mES and EPL cells. ERK1/2, c-Src and GSK3β are likely to be enforcing a receptive, primed state in mES cells, while Src family kinases and p38 MAPK are involved in the establishment of EPL cells. Inhibition of these pathways prevented the acquisition of most, but not all, features of EPL cells, suggesting that other pathways are required. L-proline activation of differentiation is mediated through metabolism and changes to intracellular metabolite levels, specifically reactive oxygen species. The implication of multiple signaling pathways in the process suggests a model in which the context of Src family kinase activation determines the outcomes of pluripotent cell differentiation. PMID:27723793

  4. IKKβ regulates essential functions of the vascular endothelium through kinase-dependent and -independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ashida, Noboru; SenBanerjee, Sucharita; Kodama, Shohta; Foo, Shi Yin; Coggins, Matthew; Spencer, Joel A.; Zamiri, Parisa; Shen, Dongxiao; Li, Ling; Sciuto, Tracey; Dvorak, Ann; Gerszten, Robert E.; Lin, Charles P.; Karin, Michael; Rosenzweig, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Vascular endothelium provides a selective barrier between the blood and tissues, participates in wound healing and angiogenesis, and regulates tissue recruitment of inflammatory cells. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB transcription factors are pivotal regulators of survival and inflammation, and have been suggested as potential therapeutic targets in cancer and inflammatory diseases. Here we show that mice lacking IKKβ, the primary kinase mediating NF-κB activation, are smaller than littermates and born at less than the expected Mendelian frequency in association with hypotrophic and hypovascular placentae. IKKβ-deleted endothelium manifests increased vascular permeability and reduced migration. Surprisingly, we find that these defects result from loss of kinase-independent effects of IKKβ on activation of the serine-threonine kinase, Akt. Together, these data demonstrate essential roles for IKKβ in regulating endothelial permeability and migration, as well as an unanticipated connection between IKKβ and Akt signalling. PMID:21587235

  5. Signaling, Regulation, and Specificity of the Type II p21-activated Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Byung Hak; Morse, Elizabeth M.; Turk, Benjamin E.; Boggon, Titus J.

    2015-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of six serine/threonine kinases that act as key effectors of RHO family GTPases in mammalian cells. PAKs are subdivided into two groups: type I PAKs (PAK1, PAK2, and PAK3) and type II PAKs (PAK4, PAK5, and PAK6). Although these groups are involved in common signaling pathways, recent work indicates that the two groups have distinct modes of regulation and have both unique and common substrates. Here, we review recent insights into the molecular level details that govern regulation of type II PAK signaling. We also consider mechanisms by which signal transduction is regulated at the level of substrate specificity. Finally, we discuss the implications of these studies for clinical targeting of these kinases. PMID:25855792

  6. Regulation of Greatwall kinase by protein stabilization and nuclear localization

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tomomi M; Wang, Ling; Fisher, Laura A; Eckerdt, Frank D; Peng, Aimin

    2014-01-01

    Greatwall (Gwl) functions as an essential mitotic kinase by antagonizing protein phosphatase 2A. In this study we identified Hsp90, Cdc37 and members of the importin α and β families as the major binding partners of Gwl. Both Hsp90/Cdc37 chaperone and importin complexes associated with the N-terminal kinase domain of Gwl, whereas an intact glycine-rich loop at the N-terminus of Gwl was essential for binding of Hsp90/Cdc37 but not importins. We found that Hsp90 inhibition led to destabilization of Gwl, a mechanism that may partially contribute to the emerging role of Hsp90 in cell cycle progression and the anti-proliferative potential of Hsp90 inhibition. Moreover, in agreement with its importin association, Gwl exhibited nuclear localization in interphase Xenopus S3 cells, and dynamic nucleocytoplasmic distribution during mitosis. We identified KR456/457 as the locus of importin binding and the functional NLS of Gwl. Mutation of this site resulted in exclusion of Gwl from the nucleus. Finally, we showed that the Gwl nuclear localization is indispensable for the biochemical function of Gwl in promoting mitotic entry. PMID:25483093

  7. Cell cycle regulation by the NEK family of protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Fry, Andrew M; O'Regan, Laura; Sabir, Sarah R; Bayliss, Richard

    2012-10-01

    Genetic screens for cell division cycle mutants in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans led to the discovery of never-in-mitosis A (NIMA), a serine/threonine kinase that is required for mitotic entry. Since that discovery, NIMA-related kinases, or NEKs, have been identified in most eukaryotes, including humans where eleven genetically distinct proteins named NEK1 to NEK11 are expressed. Although there is no evidence that human NEKs are essential for mitotic entry, it is clear that several NEK family members have important roles in cell cycle control. In particular, NEK2, NEK6, NEK7 and NEK9 contribute to the establishment of the microtubule-based mitotic spindle, whereas NEK1, NEK10 and NEK11 have been implicated in the DNA damage response. Roles for NEKs in other aspects of mitotic progression, such as chromatin condensation, nuclear envelope breakdown, spindle assembly checkpoint signalling and cytokinesis have also been proposed. Interestingly, NEK1 and NEK8 also function within cilia, the microtubule-based structures that are nucleated from basal bodies. This has led to the current hypothesis that NEKs have evolved to coordinate microtubule-dependent processes in both dividing and non-dividing cells. Here, we review the functions of the human NEKs, with particular emphasis on those family members that are involved in cell cycle control, and consider their potential as therapeutic targets in cancer.

  8. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase p85beta regulates invadopodium formation

    PubMed Central

    Cariaga-Martínez, Ariel E.; Cortés, Isabel; García, Esther; Pérez-García, Vicente; Pajares, María J.; Idoate, Miguel A.; Redondo-Muñóz, Javier; Antón, Inés M.; Carrera, Ana C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The acquisition of invasiveness is characteristic of tumor progression. Numerous genetic changes are associated with metastasis, but the mechanism by which a cell becomes invasive remains unclear. Expression of p85β, a regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase, markedly increases in advanced carcinoma, but its mode of action is unknown. We postulated that p85β might facilitate cell invasion. We show that p85β localized at cell adhesions in complex with focal adhesion kinase and enhanced stability and maturation of cell adhesions. In addition, p85β induced development at cell adhesions of an F-actin core that extended several microns into the cell z-axis resembling the skeleton of invadopodia. p85β lead to F-actin polymerization at cell adhesions by recruiting active Cdc42/Rac at these structures. In accordance with p85β function in invadopodium-like formation, p85β levels increased in metastatic melanoma and p85β depletion reduced invadopodium formation and invasion. These results show that p85β enhances invasion by inducing cell adhesion development into invadopodia-like structures explaining the metastatic potential of tumors with increased p85β levels. PMID:25217619

  9. Auxins differentially regulate root system architecture and cell cycle protein levels in maize seedlings.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de la Cruz, Enrique; García-Ramírez, Elpidio; Vázquez-Ramos, Jorge M; Reyes de la Cruz, Homero; López-Bucio, José

    2015-03-15

    Maize (Zea mays) root system architecture has a complex organization, with adventitious and lateral roots determining its overall absorptive capacity. To generate basic information about the earlier stages of root development, we compared the post-embryonic growth of maize seedlings germinated in water-embedded cotton beds with that of plants obtained from embryonic axes cultivated in liquid medium. In addition, the effect of four different auxins, namely indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on root architecture and levels of the heat shock protein HSP101 and the cell cycle proteins CKS1, CYCA1 and CDKA1 were analyzed. Our data show that during the first days after germination, maize seedlings develop several root types with a simultaneous and/or continuous growth. The post-embryonic root development started with the formation of the primary root (PR) and seminal scutellar roots (SSR) and then continued with the formation of adventitious crown roots (CR), brace roots (BR) and lateral roots (LR). Auxins affected root architecture in a dose-response fashion; whereas NAA and IBA mostly stimulated crown root formation, 2,4-D showed a strong repressing effect on growth. The levels of HSP101, CKS1, CYCA1 and CDKA in root and leaf tissues were differentially affected by auxins and interestingly, HSP101 registered an auxin-inducible and root specific expression pattern. Taken together, our results show the timing of early branching patterns of maize and indicate that auxins regulate root development likely through modulation of the HSP101 and cell cycle proteins.

  10. Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro independently of nerve growth factor supplementation or its nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, K.T.; Seabright, R.; Logan, A.; Lilly, A.J.; Khanim, F.; Bunce, C.M.; Johnson, W.E.B.

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates nerve growth. {yields} Extracellular Nm23H1 provides pathfinding cues to growth cones. {yields} The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NDP kinase activity. {yields} The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NGF. -- Abstract: The nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, Nm23H1, is a highly expressed during neuronal development, whilst induced over-expression in neuronal cells results in increased neurite outgrowth. Extracellular Nm23H1 affects the survival, proliferation and differentiation of non-neuronal cells. Therefore, this study has examined whether extracellular Nm23H1 regulates nerve growth. We have immobilised recombinant Nm23H1 proteins to defined locations of culture plates, which were then seeded with explants of embryonic chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or dissociated adult rat DRG neurons. The substratum-bound extracellular Nm23H1 was stimulatory for neurite outgrowth from chick DRG explants in a concentration-dependent manner. On high concentrations of Nm23H1, chick DRG neurite outgrowth was extensive and effectively limited to the location of the Nm23H1, i.e. neuronal growth cones turned away from adjacent collagen-coated substrata. Nm23H1-coated substrata also significantly enhanced rat DRG neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth in comparison to collagen-coated substrata. These effects were independent of NGF supplementation. Recombinant Nm23H1 (H118F), which does not possess NDP kinase activity, exhibited the same activity as the wild-type protein. Hence, a novel neuro-stimulatory activity for extracellular Nm23H1 has been identified in vitro, which may function in developing neuronal systems.

  11. Melatonin Regulates Root Meristem by Repressing Auxin Synthesis and Polar Auxin Transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiannan; An, Bang; Wei, Yunxie; Reiter, Russel J; Shi, Haitao; Luo, Hongli; He, Chaozu

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays important roles in regulating both biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, biological rhythms, plant growth and development. Sharing the same substrate (tryptophan) for the biosynthesis, melatonin and auxin also have similar effects in plant development. However, the specific function of melatonin in modulating plant root growth and the relationship between melatonin and auxin as well as underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we found high concentration of melatonin remarkably inhibited root growth in Arabidopsis by reducing root meristem size. Further studies showed that melatonin negatively regulated auxin biosynthesis, the expression of PINFORMED (PIN) proteins as well as auxin response in Arabidopsis. Moreover, the root growth of the triple mutant pin1pin3pin7 was more tolerant than that of wild-type in response to melatonin treatment, suggesting the essential role of PIN1/3/7 in melatonin-mediated root growth. Combination treatment of melatonin and 5-Triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) did not enhance melatonin-mediated reduction of root meristem size, indicating that polar auxin transport (PAT) may be necessary for the regulation of root meristem size by melatonin treatment. Taken together, this study indicates that melatonin regulates root growth in Arabidopsis, through auxin synthesis and polar auxin transport, at least partially.

  12. Melatonin Regulates Root Meristem by Repressing Auxin Synthesis and Polar Auxin Transport in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiannan; An, Bang; Wei, Yunxie; Reiter, Russel J.; Shi, Haitao; Luo, Hongli; He, Chaozu

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays important roles in regulating both biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, biological rhythms, plant growth and development. Sharing the same substrate (tryptophan) for the biosynthesis, melatonin and auxin also have similar effects in plant development. However, the specific function of melatonin in modulating plant root growth and the relationship between melatonin and auxin as well as underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we found high concentration of melatonin remarkably inhibited root growth in Arabidopsis by reducing root meristem size. Further studies showed that melatonin negatively regulated auxin biosynthesis, the expression of PINFORMED (PIN) proteins as well as auxin response in Arabidopsis. Moreover, the root growth of the triple mutant pin1pin3pin7 was more tolerant than that of wild-type in response to melatonin treatment, suggesting the essential role of PIN1/3/7 in melatonin-mediated root growth. Combination treatment of melatonin and 5-Triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) did not enhance melatonin-mediated reduction of root meristem size, indicating that polar auxin transport (PAT) may be necessary for the regulation of root meristem size by melatonin treatment. Taken together, this study indicates that melatonin regulates root growth in Arabidopsis, through auxin synthesis and polar auxin transport, at least partially. PMID:28018411

  13. Integrin-mediated Ras–Extracellular Regulated Kinase (ERK) Signaling Regulates Interferon γ Production in Human Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mainiero, Fabrizio; Gismondi, Angela; Soriani, Alessandra; Cippitelli, Marco; Palmieri, Gabriella; Jacobelli, Jordan; Piccoli, Mario; Frati, Luigi; Santoni, Angela

    1998-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that integrin engagement results in the activation of biochemical signaling events important for regulating different cell functions, such as migration, adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and specific gene expression. Here, we report that β1 integrin ligation on human natural killer (NK) cells results in the activation of Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Formation of Shc–growth factor receptor–bound protein 2 (Grb2) and Shc–proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2–Grb2 complexes are the receptor-proximal events accompanying the β1 integrin–mediated Ras activation. In addition, we demonstrate that ligation of β1 integrins results in the stimulation of interferon γ (IFN-γ) production, which is under the control of extracellular signal–regulated kinase 2 activation. Overall, our data indicate that β1 integrins, by delivering signals capable of triggering IFN-γ production, may function as NK-activating receptors. PMID:9763606

  14. mTOR independent regulation of macroautophagy by Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 via Beclin-1

    PubMed Central

    Manzoni, Claudia; Mamais, Adamantios; Roosen, Dorien A.; Dihanich, Sybille; Soutar, Marc P. M.; Plun-Favreau, Helene; Bandopadhyay, Rina; Hardy, John; Tooze, Sharon A.; Cookson, Mark R.; Lewis, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    Leucine rich repeat kinase 2 is a complex enzyme with both kinase and GTPase activities, closely linked to the pathogenesis of several human disorders including Parkinson’s disease, Crohn’s disease, leprosy and cancer. LRRK2 has been implicated in numerous cellular processes; however its physiological function remains unclear. Recent reports suggest that LRRK2 can act to regulate the cellular catabolic process of macroautophagy, although the precise mechanism whereby this occurs has not been identified. To investigate the signalling events through which LRRK2 acts to influence macroautophagy, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/Unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) and Beclin-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways were evaluated in astrocytic cell models in the presence and absence of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors. Chemical inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity resulted in the stimulation of macroautophagy in a non-canonical fashion, independent of mTOR and ULK1, but dependent upon the activation of Beclin 1-containing class III PI3-kinase. PMID:27731364

  15. Aromatic amino acid biosynthesis: regulation of shikimate kinase in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Ely, B; Pittard, J

    1979-01-01

    Starvation of cells of Escherichia coli K-12 for the aromatic amino acids results in an increased rate of synthesis of shikimate kinase activity. The two controlling amino acids are tyrosine and tryptophan, and starvation for both results in derepression. The product of the regulator gene tyrR also participates in this control, and shikimate kinase synthesis was depressed in tyrR mutants. Chromatography of cell extracts on diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex allowed partial separation of two shikimate kinase enzymes and demonstrated that only one of these subject to specific repression control involving tyrR. By contrast, chromatography of cell extracts with G-75 or G-200 columns revealed a singl-molecular-weight species of shikimate kinase activity with an apparent molecular weight of 20,000. The levels of shikimate kinase in a series of partial diploid strains indicated that aroL, the structural gene for the tyrR-controlled shikimate kinase enzyme, is located on the E. coli chromosome between the structural genes proC and purE. By means of localized mutagenesis, an aroL mutant of E. coli was isolated. The mutant was an aromatic prototroph and, by the criterion of column chromatography, appeared to have only a single functional species of shikimate kinase enzyme. PMID:222728

  16. Lyn tyrosine kinase regulates thrombopoietin-induced proliferation of hematopoietic cell lines and primary megakaryocytic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Lannutti, Brian J; Drachman, Jonathan G

    2004-05-15

    In this study we demonstrate that thrombopoietin (TPO)-stimulated Src family kinases (SFKs) inhibit cellular proliferation and megakaryocyte differentiation. Using the Src kinase inhibitors pyrolopyrimidine 1 and 2 (PP1, PP2), we show that TPO-dependent proliferation of BaF3/Mpl cells was enhanced at concentrations that are specific for SFKs. Similarly, proliferation is increased after introducing a dominant-negative form of Lyn into BaF3/Mpl cells. Murine marrow cells from Lyn-deficient mice or wild-type mice cultured in the presence of the Src inhibitor, PP1, yielded a greater number of mature megakaryocytes and increased nuclear ploidy. Truncation and targeted mutation of the Mpl cytoplasmic domain indicate that Y112 is critical for Lyn activation. Examining the molecular mechanism for this antiproliferative effect, we determined that SFK inhibitors did not affect tyrosine phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), Shc, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5, or STAT3. In contrast, pretreatment of cells with PP2 increased Erk1/2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK]) phosphorylation and in vitro kinase activity, particularly after prolonged TPO stimulation. Taken together, our results show that Mpl stimulation results in the activation of Lyn kinase, which appears to limit the proliferative response through a signaling cascade that regulates MAPK activity. These data suggest that SFKs modify the rate of TPO-induced proliferation and are likely to affect cell cycle regulation during megakaryocytopoiesis.

  17. Cell cycle-dependent regulation of Aurora kinase B mRNA by the Microprocessor complex.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eunsun; Seong, Youngmo; Seo, Jae Hong; Kwon, Young-Soo; Song, Hoseok

    2014-03-28

    Aurora kinase B regulates the segregation of chromosomes and the spindle checkpoint during mitosis. In this study, we showed that the Microprocessor complex, which is responsible for the processing of the primary transcripts during the generation of microRNAs, destabilizes the mRNA of Aurora kinase B in human cells. The Microprocessor-mediated cleavage kept Aurora kinase B at a low level and prevented premature entrance into mitosis. The cleavage was reduced during mitosis leading to the accumulation of Aurora kinase B mRNA and protein. In addition to Aurora kinase B mRNA, the processing of other primary transcripts of miRNAs were also decreased during mitosis. We found that the cleavage was dependent on an RNA helicase, DDX5, and the association of DDX5 and DDX17 with the Microprocessor was reduced during mitosis. Thus, we propose a novel mechanism by which the Microprocessor complex regulates stability of Aurora kinase B mRNA and cell cycle progression.

  18. β-Adrenergic stimulation activates protein kinase Cε and induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Cai, Hongyan; Liu, Hua; Guo, Tao

    2015-06-01

    The cardiac adrenergic signaling pathway is important in the induction of cardiac hypertrophy. The cardiac adrenergic pathway involves two main branches, phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) and the adenylate cyclase (cAMPase)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways. It is hypothesized that PLC/PKC and cAMPase/PKA are activated by the α‑adrenergic receptor (αAR) and the β‑adrenergic receptor (βAR), respectively. Previous studies have demonstrated that exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), a guanine exchange factor, activates phospholipase Cε. It is possible that there are βAR‑activated PKC pathways mediated by Epac and PLC. In the present study, the role of Epac and PLC in βAR activated PKC pathways in cardiomyocytes was investigated. It was found that PKCε activation and translocation were induced by the βAR agonist, isoproterenol (Iso). Epac agonist 8‑CPT‑2'OMe‑cAMP also enhanced PKCε activation. βAR stimulation activated PKCε in the cardiomyocytes and was regulated by Epac. Iso‑induced change in PKCε was not affected in the cardiomyocytes, which were infected with adenovirus coding rabbit muscle cAMP‑dependent protein kinase inhibitor. However, Iso‑induced PKCε activation was inhibited by the PLC inhibitor, U73122. The results suggested that Iso‑induced PKCε activation was independent of PKA, but was regulated by PLC. To further investigate the downstream signal target of PKCε activation, the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (pERK)1/2 and the levels of ERK phosphorylation was analyzed. The results revealed that Iso‑induced PKCε activation led to an increase in the expression of pERK1/2. ERK phosphorylation was inhibited by the PKCε inhibitor peptide. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the βAR is able to activate PKCε dependent on Epac and PLC, but independent of PKA.

  19. Brassinosteroid-regulated GSK3/Shaggy-like Kinases Phosphorylate Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Kinases, Which Control Stomata Development in Arabidopsis thaliana*

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mamoona; Rozhon, Wilfried; Bigeard, Jean; Pflieger, Delphine; Husar, Sigrid; Pitzschke, Andrea; Teige, Markus; Jonak, Claudia; Hirt, Heribert; Poppenberger, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid hormones that coordinate fundamental developmental programs in plants. In this study we show that in addition to the well established roles of BRs in regulating cell elongation and cell division events, BRs also govern cell fate decisions during stomata development in Arabidopsis thaliana. In wild-type A. thaliana, stomatal distribution follows the one-cell spacing rule; that is, adjacent stomata are spaced by at least one intervening pavement cell. This rule is interrupted in BR-deficient and BR signaling-deficient A. thaliana mutants, resulting in clustered stomata. We demonstrate that BIN2 and its homologues, GSK3/Shaggy-like kinases involved in BR signaling, can phosphorylate the MAPK kinases MKK4 and MKK5, which are members of the MAPK module YODA-MKK4/5-MPK3/6 that controls stomata development and patterning. BIN2 phosphorylates a GSK3/Shaggy-like kinase recognition motif in MKK4, which reduces MKK4 activity against its substrate MPK6 in vitro. In vivo we show that MKK4 and MKK5 act downstream of BR signaling because their overexpression rescued stomata patterning defects in BR-deficient plants. A model is proposed in which GSK3-mediated phosphorylation of MKK4 and MKK5 enables for a dynamic integration of endogenous or environmental cues signaled by BRs into cell fate decisions governed by the YODA-MKK4/5-MPK3/6 module. PMID:23341468

  20. Lipopolysaccharide Activation of the TPL-2/MEK/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade Is Regulated by IκB Kinase-Induced Proteolysis of NF-κB1 p105†

    PubMed Central

    Beinke, S.; Robinson, M. J.; Hugunin, M.; Ley, S. C.

    2004-01-01

    The MEK kinase TPL-2 (also known as Cot) is required for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade in macrophages and consequent upregulation of genes involved in innate immune responses. In resting cells, TPL-2 forms a stoichiometric complex with NF-κB1 p105, which negatively regulates its MEK kinase activity. Here, it is shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of primary macrophages causes the release of both long and short forms of TPL-2 from p105 and that TPL-2 MEK kinase activity is restricted to this p105-free pool. Activation of TPL-2, MEK, and ERK by LPS is also demonstrated to require proteasome-mediated proteolysis. p105 is known to be proteolysed by the proteasome following stimulus-induced phosphorylation of two serines in its PEST region by the IκB kinase (IKK) complex. Expression of a p105 point mutant, which is not susceptible to signal-induced proteolysis, in RAW264.7 macrophages impairs LPS-induced release of TPL-2 from p105 and its subsequent activation of MEK. Furthermore, expression of wild-type but not mutant p105 reconstitutes LPS stimulation of MEK and ERK phosphorylation in primary NF-κB1-deficient macrophages. Consistently, pharmacological blockade of IKK inhibits LPS-induced release of TPL-2 from p105 and TPL-2 activation. These data show that IKK-induced p105 proteolysis is essential for LPS activation of TPL-2, thus revealing a novel function of IKK in the regulation of the ERK MAP kinase cascade. PMID:15485931

  1. Protein Kinase C Regulates Ionic Conductance in Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons: Electrophysiological Effects of Phorbol Esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraban, Jay M.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Alger, Bradley E.

    1985-04-01

    The vertebrate central nervous system contains very high concentrations of protein kinase C, a calcium-and phospholipid-stimulated phosphorylating enzyme. Phorbol esters, compounds with inflammatory and tumor-promoting properties, bind to and activate this enzyme. To clarify the role of protein kinase C in neuronal function, we have localized phorbol ester receptors in the rat hippocampus by autoradiography and examined the electrophysiological effects of phorbol esters on hippocampal pyramidal neurons in vitro. Phorbol esters blocked a calcium-dependent potassium conductance. In addition, phorbol esters blocked the late hyperpolarization elicited by synaptic stimulation even though other synaptic potentials were not affected. The potencies of several phorbol esters in exerting these actions paralleled their affinities for protein kinase C, suggesting that protein kinase C regulates membrane ionic conductance.

  2. Natural variation in Drosophila melanogaster diapause due to the insulin-regulated PI3-kinase

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Karen D.; Busto, Macarena; Suster, Maximiliano L.; So, Anthony K.-C.; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda; Leevers, Sally J.; Sokolowski, Marla B.

    2006-01-01

    This study links natural variation in a Drosophila melanogaster overwintering strategy, diapause, to the insulin-regulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) gene, Dp110. Variation in diapause, a reproductive arrest, was associated with Dp110 by using Dp110 deletions and genomic rescue fragments in transgenic flies. Deletions of Dp110 increased the proportion of individuals in diapause, whereas expression of Dp110 in the nervous system, but not including the visual system, decreased it. The roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase for both diapause in D. melanogaster and dauer formation in Caenorhabditis elegans suggest a conserved role for this kinase in both reproductive and developmental arrests in response to environmental stresses. PMID:17043223

  3. PUB1 Interacts with the Receptor Kinase DMI2 and Negatively Regulates Rhizobial and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbioses through Its Ubiquitination Activity in Medicago truncatula1

    PubMed Central

    Camut, Sylvie; Camps, Céline; Rembliere, Céline; de Carvalho-Niebel, Fernanda; Timmers, Ton; Gasciolli, Virginie; Thompson, Richard; Lefebvre, Benoit; Cullimore, Julie; Hervé, Christine

    2016-01-01

    PUB1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which interacts with and is phosphorylated by the LYK3 symbiotic receptor kinase, negatively regulates rhizobial infection and nodulation during the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Medicago truncatula. In this study, we show that PUB1 also interacts with and is phosphorylated by DOES NOT MAKE INFECTIONS 2, the key symbiotic receptor kinase of the common symbiosis signaling pathway, required for both the rhizobial and the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) endosymbioses. We also show here that PUB1 expression is activated during successive stages of root colonization by Rhizophagus irregularis that is compatible with its interaction with DOES NOT MAKE INFECTIONS 2. Through characterization of a mutant, pub1-1, affected by the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of PUB1, we have shown that the ubiquitination activity of PUB1 is required to negatively modulate successive stages of infection and development of rhizobial and AM symbioses. In conclusion, PUB1 represents, to our knowledge, a novel common component of symbiotic signaling integrating signal perception through interaction with and phosphorylation by two key symbiotic receptor kinases, and downstream signaling via its ubiquitination activity to fine-tune both rhizobial and AM root endosymbioses. PMID:26839127

  4. Regulated exocytosis contributes to protein kinase C potentiation of vanilloid receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Morenilla-Palao, Cruz; Planells-Cases, Rosa; García-Sanz, Nuria; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2004-06-11

    The vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1) plays a key role in the perception of peripheral thermal and inflammatory pain. TRPV1 expression and channel activity are notably up-regulated by proalgesic agents. The transduction pathways involved in TRPV1 sensitization are still elusive. We have used a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify proteins that associate with the N terminus of TRPV1. We report that two vesicular proteins, Snapin and synaptotagmin IX (Syt IX), strongly interact in vitro and in vivo with the TRPV1 N-terminal domain. In primary dorsal root ganglion neurons, TRPV1 co-distributes in vesicles with Syt IX and the vesicular protein synaptobrevin. Neither Snapin nor Syt IX affected channel function, but they notably inhibited protein kinase C (PKC)-induced potentiation of TRPV1 channel activity with a potency that rivaled the blockade evoked by botulinum neurotoxin A, a potent blocker of neuronal exocytosis. Noteworthily, we found that PKC activation induced a rapid delivery of functional TRPV1 channels to the plasma membrane. Botulinum neurotoxin A blocked the TRPV1 membrane translocation induced by PKC that was activated with a phorbol ester or the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5. Therefore, our results indicate that PKC signaling promotes at least in part the SNARE-dependent exocytosis of TRPV1 to the cell surface. Taken together, these findings imply that activity-dependent delivery of channels to the neuronal surface may contribute to the buildup and maintenance of thermal inflammatory hyperalgesia in peripheral nociceptor terminals.

  5. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Is Positively Regulated by Protein Kinase Cζ-Mediated Phosphorylation Induced by Wnt Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Tejeda-Muñoz, Nydia; González-Aguilar, Héctor; Santoyo-Ramos, Paula; Castañeda-Patlán, M. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The molecular events that drive Wnt-induced regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) activity are poorly defined. In this study, we found that protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) and GSK-3β interact mainly in colon cancer cells. Wnt stimulation induced a rapid GSK-3β redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nuclei in malignant cells and a transient PKC-mediated phosphorylation of GSK-3β at a different site from serine 9. In addition, while Wnt treatment induced a decrease in PKC-mediated phosphorylation of GSK-3β in nonmalignant cells, in malignant cells, this phosphorylation was increased. Pharmacological inhibition and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of PKCζ abolished all of these effects, but unexpectedly, it also abolished the constitutive basal activity of GSK-3β. In vitro activity assays demonstrated that GSK-3β phosphorylation mediated by PKCζ enhanced GSK-3β activity. We mapped Ser147 of GSK-3β as the site phosphorylated by PKCζ, i.e., its mutation into alanine abolished GSK-3β activity, resulting in β-catenin stabilization and increased transcriptional activity, whereas phosphomimetic replacement of Ser147 by glutamic acid maintained GSK-3β basal activity. Thus, we found that PKCζ phosphorylates GSK-3β at Ser147 to maintain its constitutive activity in resting cells and that Wnt stimulation modifies the phosphorylation of Ser147 to regulate GSK-3β activity in opposite manners in normal and malignant colon cells. PMID:26711256

  6. How do kinases contribute to tonicity-dependent regulation of the transcription factor NFAT5?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    NFAT5 plays a critical role in maintaining the renal functions. Its dis-regulation in the kidney leads to or is associated with certain renal diseases or disorders, most notably the urinary concentration defect. Hypertonicity, which the kidney medulla is normally exposed to, activates NFAT5 through phosphorylation of a signaling molecule or NFAT5 itself. Hypotonicity inhibits NFAT5 through a similar mechanism. More than a dozen of protein and lipid kinases have been identified to contribute to tonicity-dependent regulation of NFAT5. Hypertonicity activates NFAT5 by increasing its nuclear localization and transactivating activity in the early phase and protein abundance in the late phase. The known mechanism for inhibition of NFAT5 by hypotonicity is a decrease of nuclear NFAT5. The present article reviews the effect of each kinase on NFAT5 nuclear localization, transactivation and protein abundance, and the relationship among these kinases, if known. Cyclosporine A and tacrolimus suppress immune reactions by inhibiting the phosphatase calcineurin-dependent activation of NFAT1. It is hoped that this review would stimulate the interest to seek explanations from the NFAT5 regulatory pathways for certain clinical presentations and to explore novel therapeutic approaches based on the pathways. On the basic science front, this review raises two interesting questions. The first one is how these kinases can specifically signal to NFAT5 in the context of hypertonicity or hypotonicity, because they also regulate other cellular activities and even opposite activities in some cases. The second one is why these many kinases, some of which might have redundant functions, are needed to regulate NFAT5 activity. This review reiterates the concept of signaling through cooperation. Cells need these kinases working in a coordinated way to provide the signaling specificity that is lacking in the individual one. Redundancy in regulation of NFAT5 is a critical strategy for cells to

  7. How do kinases contribute to tonicity-dependent regulation of the transcription factor NFAT5?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoming

    2016-01-06

    NFAT5 plays a critical role in maintaining the renal functions. Its dis-regulation in the kidney leads to or is associated with certain renal diseases or disorders, most notably the urinary concentration defect. Hypertonicity, which the kidney medulla is normally exposed to, activates NFAT5 through phosphorylation of a signaling molecule or NFAT5 itself. Hypotonicity inhibits NFAT5 through a similar mechanism. More than a dozen of protein and lipid kinases have been identified to contribute to tonicity-dependent regulation of NFAT5. Hypertonicity activates NFAT5 by increasing its nuclear localization and transactivating activity in the early phase and protein abundance in the late phase. The known mechanism for inhibition of NFAT5 by hypotonicity is a decrease of nuclear NFAT5. The present article reviews the effect of each kinase on NFAT5 nuclear localization, transactivation and protein abundance, and the relationship among these kinases, if known. Cyclosporine A and tacrolimus suppress immune reactions by inhibiting the phosphatase calcineurin-dependent activation of NFAT1. It is hoped that this review would stimulate the interest to seek explanations from the NFAT5 regulatory pathways for certain clinical presentations and to explore novel therapeutic approaches based on the pathways. On the basic science front, this review raises two interesting questions. The first one is how these kinases can specifically signal to NFAT5 in the context of hypertonicity or hypotonicity, because they also regulate other cellular activities and even opposite activities in some cases. The second one is why these many kinases, some of which might have redundant functions, are needed to regulate NFAT5 activity. This review reiterates the concept of signaling through cooperation. Cells need these kinases working in a coordinated way to provide the signaling specificity that is lacking in the individual one. Redundancy in regulation of NFAT5 is a critical strategy for cells to

  8. Targeting Abl kinases to regulate vascular leak during sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Alicia N; Aman, Jurjan; van Nieuw Amerongen, Geerten P; Dudek, Steven M

    2015-05-01

    The vascular endothelium separates circulating fluid and inflammatory cells from the surrounding tissues. Vascular leak occurs in response to wide-spread inflammatory processes, such as sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome, because of the formation of gaps between endothelial cells. Although these disorders are leading causes of mortality in the intensive care unit, no medical therapies exist to restore endothelial cell barrier function. Recent evidence highlights a key role for the Abl family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases in regulating vascular barrier integrity. These kinases have well-described roles in cancer progression and neuronal morphogenesis, but their functions in the vasculature have remained enigmatic until recently. The Abl family kinases, c-Abl (Abl1) and Abl related gene (Arg, Abl2), phosphorylate several cytoskeletal effectors that mediate vascular permeability, including nonmuscle myosin light chain kinase, cortactin, vinculin, and β-catenin. They also regulate cell-cell and cell-matrix junction dynamics, and the formation of actin-based cellular protrusions in multiple cell types. In addition, both c-Abl and Arg are activated by hyperoxia and contribute to oxidant-induced endothelial cell injury. These numerous roles of Abl kinases in endothelial cells and the current clinical usage of imatinib and other Abl kinase inhibitors have spurred recent interest in repurposing these drugs for the treatment of vascular barrier dysfunction. This review will describe the structure and function of Abl kinases with an emphasis on their roles in mediating vascular barrier integrity. We will also provide a critical evaluation of the potential for exploiting Abl kinase inhibition as a novel therapy for inflammatory vascular leak syndromes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Flow-dependent regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: role of protein kinases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boo, Yong Chool; Jo, Hanjoong

    2003-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells are directly and continuously exposed to fluid shear stress generated by blood flow. Shear stress regulates endothelial structure and function by controlling expression of mechanosensitive genes and production of vasoactive factors such as nitric oxide (NO). Though it is well known that shear stress stimulates NO production from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear and controversial. Shear-induced production of NO involves Ca2+/calmodulin-independent mechanisms, including phosphorylation of eNOS at several sites and its interaction with other proteins, including caveolin and heat shock protein-90. There have been conflicting results as to which protein kinases-protein kinase A, protein kinase B (Akt), other Ser/Thr protein kinases, or tyrosine kinases-are responsible for shear-dependent eNOS regulation. The functional significance of each phosphorylation site is still unclear. We have attempted to summarize the current status of understanding in shear-dependent eNOS regulation.

  10. Flow-dependent regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: role of protein kinases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boo, Yong Chool; Jo, Hanjoong

    2003-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells are directly and continuously exposed to fluid shear stress generated by blood flow. Shear stress regulates endothelial structure and function by controlling expression of mechanosensitive genes and production of vasoactive factors such as nitric oxide (NO). Though it is well known that shear stress stimulates NO production from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear and controversial. Shear-induced production of NO involves Ca2+/calmodulin-independent mechanisms, including phosphorylation of eNOS at several sites and its interaction with other proteins, including caveolin and heat shock protein-90. There have been conflicting results as to which protein kinases-protein kinase A, protein kinase B (Akt), other Ser/Thr protein kinases, or tyrosine kinases-are responsible for shear-dependent eNOS regulation. The functional significance of each phosphorylation site is still unclear. We have attempted to summarize the current status of understanding in shear-dependent eNOS regulation.

  11. Decursin inhibits growth of human bladder and colon cancer cells via apoptosis, G1-phase cell cycle arrest and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Se-Jung; Choi, Young Deuk; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2010-04-01

    Decursin, a pyranocoumarin isolated from the Korean Angelica gigas root, has demonstrated anti-cancer properties. In the present study, we found that decursin inhibited cell viability in cultured human urinary bladder cancer 235J cells and colon cancer HCT116 cells. The inhibited proliferation was due to apoptotic induction, because both cells treated with decursin dose-dependently showed a sub-G1 phase accumulation and an increased cytoplasmic DNA-histone complex. Cell death caused by decursin was also associated with the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 and the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic molecules cytochrome c, caspase 3 and Bax. Treatment of both types of cancer cells with decursin resulted in G1-phase cell cycle arrest, as revealed by FACS analyses. In addition, decursin increased protein levels of p21WAF1 with a decrease in cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). Furthermore, decursin induced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in both cancer cell lines, with the notable exceptions of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase. Finally, pretreatment with ERK-specific inhibitor PD98059 reversed decursin-induced p21WAF1 expression and decursin-inhibited cell growth. Thus, these findings suggest that decursin has potential therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of bladder and colon cancer.

  12. Runx3-regulated expression of two Ntrk3 transcript variants in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Yuuki; Masuda, Tomoyuki; Ozaki, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Shiga, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Somatosensation is divided into proprioception and cutaneous sensation. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons project their fibers toward peripheral targets including muscles and skin, and centrally to the spinal cord. Proprioceptive DRG neurons transmit information from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs to the spinal cord. We previously showed that Runt-related transcription factor 3 (Runx3) is expressed in these neurons and their projections to the ventral spinal cord and muscle spindles are lost in Runx3-deficient (Runx3(-/-) ) mouse embryos. Although Runx3 is likely to contribute to the fate decision and projection of proprioceptive DRG neurons, the precise roles for Runx3 in these phenomena are unknown. To identify genes regulated by Runx3 in embryonic DRGs, we performed microarray analyses using cDNAs isolated from wild-type and Runx3(-/-) DRGs of embryonic day (E) 12.5 and selected two transcript variants of the tyrosine kinase receptor C (TrkC) gene. These variants, Ntrk3 variant 1 (Ntrk3-v1) and variant 2 (Ntrk3-v2), encode full-length and truncated receptors of neurotrophin-3, respectively. Using double in situ hybridization, we found that most of Ntrk3-v1 mRNA expression in E14.5 DRGs depended on Runx3 but that more than half of Ntrk3-v2 mRNA one were expressed in a Runx3-independent manner. Furthermore, our data revealed that the rate of Ntrk3-v1 and Ntrk3-v2 colocalization in DRGs changed from E14.5 to E18.5. Together, our data suggest that Runx3 may play a crucial role in the development of DRGs by regulating the expression of Ntrk3 variants and that DRG neurons expressing Ntrk3-v1 but not Ntrk3-v2 may differentiate into proprioceptive ones.

  13. Spatiotemporal aspect of cytokinin-auxin interaction in hormonal regulation of the root meristem

    PubMed Central

    Kuderová, Alena

    2009-01-01

    Hormonal regulation of root development is a long known phenomenon. In the past decades, the molecular mechanisms of individual hormonal pathways and their impact on root development have been studied. Recent genetic and molecular studies suggest importance of interactions of the individual hormonal pathways and their components. In our paper1 we show impact of endogenous cytokinin on the root architecture and its interaction with auxin in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this addendum we discuss our results in the light of significant recent papers that deal with cytokinin-auxin interactions and we point out spatiotemporal specificity of these interactions in the root development. PMID:19649199

  14. Phosphorylation of FEZ1 by Microtubule Affinity Regulating Kinases regulates its function in presynaptic protein trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Butkevich, Eugenia; Härtig, Wolfgang; Nikolov, Miroslav; Erck, Christian; Grosche, Jens; Urlaub, Henning; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Klopfenstein, Dieter R.; Chua, John Jia En

    2016-01-01

    Adapters bind motor proteins to cargoes and therefore play essential roles in Kinesin-1 mediated intracellular transport. The regulatory mechanisms governing adapter functions and the spectrum of cargoes recognized by individual adapters remain poorly defined. Here, we show that cargoes transported by the Kinesin-1 adapter FEZ1 are enriched for presynaptic components and identify that specific phosphorylation of FEZ1 at its serine 58 regulatory site is mediated by microtubule affinity-regulating kinases (MARK/PAR-1). Loss of MARK/PAR-1 impairs axonal transport, with adapter and cargo abnormally co-aggregating in neuronal cell bodies and axons. Presynaptic specializations are markedly reduced and distorted in FEZ1 and MARK/PAR-1 mutants. Strikingly, abnormal co-aggregates of unphosphorylated FEZ1, Kinesin-1 and its putative cargoes are present in brains of transgenic mice modelling aspects of Alzheimer’s disease, a neurodegenerative disorder exhibiting impaired axonal transport and altered MARK activity. Our findings suggest that perturbed FEZ1-mediated synaptic delivery of proteins arising from abnormal signalling potentially contributes to the process of neurodegeneration. PMID:27247180

  15. Src family kinase activity regulates adhesion, spreading and migration of pancreatic endocrine tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Di Florio, Alessia; Capurso, Gabriele; Milione, Massimo; Panzuto, Francesco; Geremia, Raffaele; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Sette, Claudio

    2007-03-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumours (PETs) are rare and 'indolent' neoplasms that usually develop metastatic lesions and exhibit poor response to standard medical treatments. Few studies have investigated pathways responsible for PET cell growth and invasion and no alternative therapeutic strategies have been proposed. In a recent microarray analysis for genes up-regulated in PETs, we have described the up-regulation of soluble Src family tyrosine kinases in this neoplasia, which may represent potentially promising candidates for therapy. Herein, we have investigated the expression and function of Src family kinases in PETS and PET cell lines. Western blot analysis indicated that Src is highly abundant in the PET cell lines CM and QGP-1. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses showed that Src is up-regulated also in human PET lesions. Pharmacological inhibition of Src family kinases by the specific inhibitor PP2 strongly interfered with adhesion, spreading and migration of PET cell lines. Accordingly, the actin cytoskeleton was profoundly altered after inhibition of Src kinases, whereas even prolonged incubation with PP2 exerted no effect on cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis of PET cells. A transient increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of a subset of proteins was observed in QGP-1 cells adhering to the plate, with a peak at 75 min after seeding, when approximately 80% of cells were attached. Inhibition of Src kinases caused a dramatic reduction in the phosphorylation of proteins with different molecular weight that were isolated from the cell extracts by anti-phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitation or pull-down with the SH2 domain of Src. Among them, the docking protein p130Cas interacted with Src and is a major substrate of the Src kinases in QGP-1 cells undergoing adhesion. Our results suggest that Src kinases play a specific role during adhesion, spreading and migration of PET cells and may indicate therapeutical approaches directed to limiting the metastatic

  16. S-nitrosylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) regulates its kinase activity and dendrite growth during neuronal development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Yu, Pei-Chun; Tsang, Anthony H K; Chen, Yu; Fu, Amy K Y; Fu, Wing-Yu; Chung, Kenny K; Ip, Nancy Y

    2010-10-27

    Precise regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family, is critical for proper neuronal development and functions. Cdk5 is activated through its association with the neuron-specific activator p35 or p39. Nonetheless, how its kinase activity is regulated in neurons is not well understood. In this study, we found that Cdk5 activity is regulated by S-nitrosylation, a post-translational modification of protein that affects a plethora of neuronal functions. S-nitrosylation of Cdk5 occurs at Cys83, which is one of the critical amino acids within the ATP-binding pocket of the kinase. Upon S-nitrosylation, Cdk5 exhibits reduced kinase activity, whereas mutation of Cys83 to Ala on Cdk5 renders the kinase refractory to such inhibition. Importantly, S-nitrosylated Cdk5 can be detected in the mouse brain, and blocking the S-nitrosylation of Cdk5 in cultured hippocampal neurons enhances dendritic growth and branching. Together, our findings reveal an important role of S-nitrosylation in regulating Cdk5 kinase activity and dendrite growth in neurons during development.

  17. Production of recombinant human apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Volynets, Galyna P; Gorbatiuk, Oksana B; Kukharenko, Oleksandr P; Usenko, Mariya O; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M

    2016-10-01

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mediator of the MAPK signaling cascade, which regulates different cellular processes including apoptosis, cell survival, and differentiation. The increased activity of ASK1 is associated with a number of human diseases and this protein kinase is considered as promising therapeutic target. In the present study, the kinase domain of human ASK1 was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) in soluble form. The expression level of ASK1 was around 0.3-0.47 g per 1 L after using auto-induction protocol or IPTG induction. A one-step on column method for the efficient purification of recombinant ASK1 was performed. Our approach yields sufficient amount of recombinant ASK1, which can be used for inhibitor screening assays and different crystallographic studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation of DNA damage-induced apoptosis by the c-Abl tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhi-Min; Huang, Yinyin; Ishiko, Takatoshi; Kharbanda, Surender; Weichselbaum, Ralph; Kufe, Donald

    1997-01-01

    Activation of the c-Abl protein tyrosine kinase by certain DNA-damaging agents contributes to down-regulation of Cdk2 and G1 arrest by a p53-dependent mechanism. The present work investigates the potential role of c-Abl in apoptosis induced by DNA damage. Transient transfection studies with wild-type, but not kinase-inactive, c-Abl demonstrate induction of apoptosis. Cells that stably express inactive c-Abl exhibit resistance to ionizing radiation-induced loss of clonogenic survival and apoptosis. Cells null for c-abl are also impaired in the apoptotic response to ionizing radiation. We further show that cells deficient in p53 undergo apoptosis in response to expression of c-Abl and exhibit decreases in radiation-induced apoptosis when expressing inactive c-Abl. These findings suggest that c-Abl kinase regulates DNA damage-induced apoptosis. PMID:9037071

  19. New findings in the mechanisms regulating polar growth in root hair cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Root hairs cells are highly polarized cellular structures resulting from tip growth of specific root epidermal cells. Root-hair morphogenesis involves many aspects regulating tip growth such as exocitosis, ion flux, calcium homeostasis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cytoskeleton. These cells are excellent models for studying polar growth and can be challenged with many extracellular factors affecting the pattern of growth named Nod factors, elicitors, hormones, etc. The general scenery is that the well described tip-high intracellular Ca2+ gradient plays a central role in regulating tip growth. On the other hand, ROS plays a key role in various processes, for example hypersensitive response, root hair development, hormone action, gravitropism and stress responses. However, ROS has recently emerged as a key player together with calcium in regulating polar growth, not only in root hair cells but also in pollen tubes, filamentous fungi and fucoid cells. Furthermore, Ca2+-permeable channel modulation by ROS has been demonstrated in Vicia faba guard cells and Arabidopsis root hairs. Recently, root hair cells were shown to experiment ROS, pH and calcium oscillations coupled to growth oscillation. These recent findings allow considering that root hair cells present a similar pattern of growth as described for pollen tubes. PMID:19568333

  20. New findings in the mechanisms regulating polar growth in root hair cells.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Root hairs cells are highly polarized cellular structures resulting from tip growth of specific root epidermal cells. Root-hair morphogenesis involves many aspects regulating tip growth such as exocytosis, ion flux, calcium homeostasis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cytoskeleton. These cells are excellent models for studying polar growth and can be challenged with many extracellular factors affecting the pattern of growth named Nod factors, elicitors, hormones, etc. The general scenery is that the well described tip-high intracellular Ca(2+) gradient plays a central role in regulating tip growth. On the other hand, ROS plays a key role in various processes, for example hypersensitive response, root hair development, hormone action, gravitropism and stress responses. However, ROS has recently emerged as a key player together with calcium in regulating polar growth, not only in root hair cells but also in pollen tubes, filamentous fungi and fucoid cells. Furthermore, Ca(2+)-permeable channel modulation by ROS has been demonstrated in Vicia faba guard cells and Arabidopsis root hairs. Recently, root hair cells were shown to experiment ROS, pH and calcium oscillations coupled to growth oscillation. These recent findings allow considering that root hair cells present a similar pattern of growth as described for pollen tubes.

  1. Transcriptional regulation in maize roots under aluminum stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aluminum toxicity in acid soils is a major factor limiting crop yields. The importance of this topic is underscored by the intensive research focused on the mechanisms underlying plant Al tolerance. A major tolerance mechanism identified in several plant species is the exclusion of Al from the root ...

  2. Ethylene-auxin interactions regulate lateral root initiation and emergence in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ivanchenko, Maria G; Muday, Gloria K; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2008-07-01

    Plant root systems display considerable plasticity in response to endogenous and environmental signals. Auxin stimulates pericycle cells within elongating primary roots to enter de novo organogenesis, leading to the establishment of new lateral root meristems. Crosstalk between auxin and ethylene in root elongation has been demonstrated, but interactions between these hormones in root branching are not well characterized. We find that enhanced ethylene synthesis, resulting from the application of low concentrations of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), promotes the initiation of lateral root primordia. Treatment with higher doses of ACC strongly inhibits the ability of pericycle cells to initiate new lateral root primordia, but promotes the emergence of existing lateral root primordia: behaviour that is also seen in the eto1 mutation. These effects are correlated with decreased pericycle cell length and increased lateral root primordia cell width. When auxin is applied simultaneously with ACC, ACC is unable to prevent the auxin stimulation of lateral root formation in the root tissues formed prior to ACC exposure. However, in root tissues formed after transfer to ACC, in which elongation is reduced, auxin does not rescue the ethylene inhibition of primordia initiation, but instead increases it by several fold. Mutations that block auxin responses, slr1 and arf7 arf19, render initiation of lateral root primordia insensitive to the promoting effect of low ethylene levels, and mutations that inhibit ethylene-stimulated auxin biosynthesis, wei2 and wei7, reduce the inhibitory effect of higher ethylene levels, consistent with ethylene regulating root branching through interactions with auxin.

  3. Identification of genes regulated by histone acetylation during root development in Populus trichocarpa.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xujun; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Bing; Yang, Chuanping; Li, Shujuan

    2016-02-04

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are key enzymes catalyzing the removal of acetyl groups from histones. HDACs act in concert with histone acetyltransferases (HATs) to regulate histone acetylation status, which modifies chromatin structure, affecting gene transcription and thus regulating multiple biological processes such as plant growth and development. Over a decade, certain HDACs in herbaceous plants have been deeply studied. However, functions of HDACs in woody plants are not well understood. Histone deacetylase specific inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) was used to investigate the role of HDACs in organogenesis of roots and root development in Populus trochocarpa. The adventitious roots were regenerated and grown on medium supplemented with 0, 1, and 2.5 μM TSA. TSA treatment delayed root regeneration and inhibited primary root growth. To examine the genes modified by TSA in the regenerated roots, tag-based digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed using Illumina HiSeqTM 2000. Approximately 4.5 million total clean tags were mapped per library. The distinct clean tags for the three libraries corresponding to 0, 1 and 2.5 μM TSA treatment were 166167, 143103 and 153507, from which 38.45%, 31.84% and 38.88% were mapped unambiguously to the unigene database, respectively. Most of the tags were expressed at similar levels, showing a < 5-fold difference after 1 μM and 2.5 μM TSA treatments and the maximum fold-change of the tag copy number was around 20. The expression levels of many genes in roots were significantly altered by TSA. A total of 36 genes were up-regulated and 1368 genes were down-regulated after 1 μM TSA treatment, while 166 genes were up-regulated and 397 genes were down-regulated after 2.5 μM TSA treatment. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway analyses indicated that the differentially expressed genes were related to many kinds of molecular functions and biological processes. The genes encoding key enzymes catalyzing gibberellin biosynthesis

  4. Strigolactones' ability to regulate root development may be executed by induction of the ethylene pathway.

    PubMed

    Koltai, Hinanit

    2011-07-01

    The newly defined phytohormones strigolactones (SLs) were recently shown to act as regulators of root development. Their positive effect on root-hair (RH) elongation enabled examination of their cross talk with auxin and ethylene. Analysis of wild-type plants and hormone-signaling mutants combined with hormonal treatments suggested that SLs and ethylene regulate RH elongation via a common regulatory pathway, in which ethylene is epistatic to SLs. The SL and auxin hormonal pathways were suggested to converge for regulation of RH elongation; this convergence was suggested to be mediated via the ethylene pathway, and to include regulation of auxin transport.

  5. Regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by TPL-2 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Tsakiri, Niki; Kierdorf, Katrin; Brender, Christine; Ben-Addi, Abduelhakem; Veldhoen, Marc; Tsichlis, Philip N.; Stockinger, Brigitta; O’Garra, Anne; Prinz, Marco; Kollias, George; Ley, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    TPL-2 expression is required for efficient polarization of naïve T cells to Th1 effector cells in vitro, and for Th1-mediated immune responses. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of TPL-2 in Th17 cells. TPL-2 was found to be dispensable for Th17 cell differentiation in vitro, and for the initial priming of Th17 cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a Th17 cell-mediated disease model for multiple sclerosis. Nevertheless, TPL-2-deficient mice were protected from EAE, which correlated with reduced immune cell infiltration, demyelination and axonal damage in the CNS. Adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated that there was no T cell-intrinsic function for TPL-2 in EAE, and that TPL-2 signaling was not required in radiation-sensitive hematopoietic cells. Rather, TPL-2 signaling in radiation-resistant stromal cells promoted the effector phase of the disease. Importantly, using a newly generated mouse strain expressing a kinase-inactive form of TPL-2, we demonstrated that stimulation of EAE was dependent on TPL-2’s catalytic activity, and not its adaptor function to stabilize the associated ubiquitin-binding protein ABIN-2. Our data therefore raise the possibility that small molecule inhibitors of TPL-2 may be beneficial in multiple sclerosis therapy. PMID:24639351

  6. [Regulation effects of grafting on cinnamic acid and vanillin in eggplant root exudates].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-li; Zhou, Bao-li; Wang, Ru-hua; Fu, Ya-wen

    2008-11-01

    Cinnamic acid and vanillin are the allelochemicals commonly existed in eggplant root exudates. With pot culture experiment, the regulation effects of grafting on the cinnamic acid and vanillin in eggplant root exudates were studied, and the results showed that grafting decreased the amount of the two substances, especially of vanillin, in eggplants root system. The maximum reduction amount of cinnamic acid reached 68.96%, and that of vanillin reached 100%. Under the stress of exotic cinnamic acid and vanillin, especially of exotic cinnamic acid, grafting relieved the autotoxicity of the two substances on eggplants. Compared with own-rooted eggplant, grafted eggplant had a higher plant height and a larger stem diameter, its leaf chlorophyll content increased by 5.26%-13.12%, root electric conductivity and MDA content decreased, and root SOD activity enhanced.

  7. Abscisic acid is a negative regulator of root gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Han, Woong; Rong, Honglin; Zhang, Hanma; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon

    2009-01-23

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in root gravitropism and has led to an intense debate over whether ABA acts similar to auxin by translating the gravitational signal into directional root growth. While tremendous advances have been made in the past two decades in establishing the role of auxin in root gravitropism, little progress has been made in characterizing the role of ABA in this response. In fact, roots of plants that have undetectable levels of ABA and that display a normal gravitropic response have raised some serious doubts about whether ABA plays any role in root gravitropism. Here, we show strong evidence that ABA plays a role opposite to that of auxin and that it is a negative regulator of the gravitropic response of Arabidopsis roots.

  8. Light- and clock-dependent regulation of ribosomal S6 kinase activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Greg Q; Lee, Boyoung; Hsieh, Fortune; Obrietan, Karl

    2004-02-01

    Recent work has revealed that signalling via the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway couples light to entrainment of the circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Given that many effects of the MAPK pathway are mediated by intermediate kinases, it was of interest to identify kinase targets of ERK in the SCN. One potential target is the family of 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs). In this study, we examined light-induced regulation of RSK-1 in the SCN. Immunohistochemical and Western analysis were used to show that photic stimulation during the early and late night triggered the phosphorylation of RSK-1 at two sites that are targeted by ERK. This increase in the phosphorylation state of RSK-1 corresponded with an approximate fourfold increase in kinase activity. Light exposure during the subjective day did not increase the phosphorylated form of RSK-1, indicating that the capacity of light to stimulate RSK-1 activation is phase-restricted. Double immunofluorescent labelling of SCN tissue revealed the colocalized expression of the activated form of ERK with the phosphorylated form of RSK-1 following a light pulse. In vivo pharmacological inhibition of light-induced MAPK pathway activation blocked RSK-1 phosphorylation, indicating that RSK-1 activity is regulated by the MAPK pathway. PDK-1, a coregulator of RSK-1, is also expressed in the SCN and is likely to contribute to RSK-1 activity. RSK-1 phosphorylation was also rhythmically regulated within a subset of phospho-ERK-expressing cells. Together these results identify RSK-1 as a light- and clock-regulated kinase and raise the possibility that it contributes to entrainment and timing of the circadian pacemaker.

  9. Auxin Controls Arabidopsis Adventitious Root Initiation by Regulating Jasmonic Acid Homeostasis[W

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Laurent; Mongelard, Gaëlle; Floková, Kristýna; Păcurar, Daniel I.; Novák, Ondřej; Staswick, Paul; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Păcurar, Monica; Demailly, Hervé; Geiss, Gaia; Bellini, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Vegetative shoot-based propagation of plants, including mass propagation of elite genotypes, is dependent on the development of shoot-borne roots, which are also called adventitious roots. Multiple endogenous and environmental factors control the complex process of adventitious rooting. In the past few years, we have shown that the auxin response factors ARF6 and ARF8, targets of the microRNA miR167, are positive regulators of adventitious rooting, whereas ARF17, a target of miR160, is a negative regulator. We showed that these genes have overlapping expression profiles during adventitious rooting and that they regulate each other’s expression at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels by modulating the homeostasis of miR160 and miR167. We demonstrate here that this complex network of transcription factors regulates the expression of three auxin-inducible Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3) genes, GH3.3, GH3.5, and GH3.6, encoding acyl-acid-amido synthetases. We show that these three GH3 genes are required for fine-tuning adventitious root initiation in the Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl, and we demonstrate that they act by modulating jasmonic acid homeostasis. We propose a model in which adventitious rooting is an adaptive developmental response involving crosstalk between the auxin and jasmonate regulatory pathways. PMID:22730403

  10. Ethylene regulates lateral root formation and auxin transport in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Sangeeta; Ivanchenko, Maria G; Muday, Gloria K

    2008-01-01

    Lateral root branching is a genetically defined and environmentally regulated process. Auxin is required for lateral root formation, and mutants that are altered in auxin synthesis, transport or signaling often have lateral root defects. Crosstalk between auxin and ethylene in root elongation has been demonstrated, but interactions between these hormones in the regulation of Arabidopsis lateral root formation are not well characterized. This study utilized Arabidopsis mutants altered in ethylene signaling and synthesis to explore the role of ethylene in lateral root formation. We find that enhanced ethylene synthesis or signaling, through the eto1-1 and ctr1-1 mutations, or through the application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), negatively impacts lateral root formation, and is reversible by treatment with the ethylene antagonist, silver nitrate. In contrast, mutations that block ethylene responses, etr1-3 and ein2-5, enhance root formation and render it insensitive to the effect of ACC, even though these mutants have reduced root elongation at high ACC doses. ACC treatments or the eto1-1 mutation significantly enhance radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transport in both the acropetal and the basipetal directions. ein2-5 and etr1-3 have less acropetal IAA transport, and transport is no longer regulated by ACC. DR5-GUS reporter expression is also altered by ACC treatment, which is consistent with transport differences. The aux1-7 mutant, which has a defect in an IAA influx protein, is insensitive to the ethylene inhibition of root formation. aux1-7 also has ACC-insensitive acropetal and basipetal IAA transport, as well as altered DR5-GUS expression, which is consistent with ethylene altering AUX1-mediated IAA uptake, and thereby blocking lateral root formation. PMID:18363780

  11. Making the Auroras glow: regulation of Aurora A and B kinase function by interacting proteins

    PubMed Central

    Carmena, Mar; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Earnshaw, William C

    2009-01-01

    The conserved Aurora family of protein kinases have emerged as crucial regulators of mitosis and cytokinesis. Despite their high degree of homology, Aurora A and B have very distinctive localisations and functions: Aurora A associates with the spindle poles to regulate entry into mitosis, centrosome maturation and spindle assembly; Aurora B is a member of the Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC) that transfers from the inner centromere in early mitosis to the spindle midzone, equatorial cortex and midbody in late mitosis and cytokinesis. Aurora B functions include regulation of chromosome–microtubule interactions, cohesion, spindle stability and cytokinesis. This review will focus on how interacting proteins make this functional diversity possible by targeting the kinases to different subcellular locations and regulating their activity. PMID:19836940

  12. Making the Auroras glow: regulation of Aurora A and B kinase function by interacting proteins.

    PubMed

    Carmena, Mar; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Earnshaw, William C

    2009-12-01

    The conserved Aurora family of protein kinases have emerged as crucial regulators of mitosis and cytokinesis. Despite their high degree of homology, Aurora A and B have very distinctive localisations and functions: Aurora A associates with the spindle poles to regulate entry into mitosis, centrosome maturation and spindle assembly; Aurora B is a member of the Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC) that transfers from the inner centromere in early mitosis to the spindle midzone, equatorial cortex and midbody in late mitosis and cytokinesis. Aurora B functions include regulation of chromosome-microtubule interactions, cohesion, spindle stability and cytokinesis. This review will focus on how interacting proteins make this functional diversity possible by targeting the kinases to different subcellular locations and regulating their activity.

  13. Impact of Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases on the Regulation of Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Pompeo, Frédérique; Foulquier, Elodie; Galinier, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria possess many kinases that catalyze phosphorylation of proteins on diverse amino acids including arginine, cysteine, histidine, aspartate, serine, threonine, and tyrosine. These protein kinases regulate different physiological processes in response to environmental modifications. For example, in response to nutritional stresses, the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis can differentiate into an endospore; the initiation of sporulation is controlled by the master regulator Spo0A, which is activated by phosphorylation. Spo0A phosphorylation is carried out by a multi-component phosphorelay system. These phosphorylation events on histidine and aspartate residues are labile, highly dynamic and permit a temporal control of the sporulation initiation decision. More recently, another kind of phosphorylation, more stable yet still dynamic, on serine or threonine residues, was proposed to play a role in spore maintenance and spore revival. Kinases that perform these phosphorylation events mainly belong to the Hanks family and could regulate spore dormancy and spore germination. The aim of this mini review is to focus on the regulation of sporulation in B. subtilis by these serine and threonine phosphorylation events and the kinases catalyzing them. PMID:27148245

  14. Cellular context–mediated Akt dynamics regulates MAP kinase signaling thresholds during angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hellesøy, Monica; Lorens, James B.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of new blood vessels by sprouting angiogenesis is tightly regulated by contextual cues that affect angiogeneic growth factor signaling. Both constitutive activation and loss of Akt kinase activity in endothelial cells impair angiogenesis, suggesting that Akt dynamics mediates contextual microenvironmental regulation. We explored the temporal regulation of Akt in endothelial cells during formation of capillary-like networks induced by cell–cell contact with vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and vSMC-associated VEGF. Expression of constitutively active Akt1 strongly inhibited network formation, whereas hemiphosphorylated Akt1 epi-alleles with reduced kinase activity had an intermediate inhibitory effect. Conversely, inhibition of Akt signaling did not affect endothelial cell migration or morphogenesis in vSMC cocultures that generate capillary-like structures. We found that endothelial Akt activity is transiently blocked by proteasomal degradation in the presence of SMCs during the initial phase of capillary-like structure formation. Suppressed Akt activity corresponded to the increased endothelial MAP kinase signaling that was required for angiogenic endothelial morphogenesis. These results reveal a regulatory principle by which cellular context regulates Akt protein dynamics, which determines MAP kinase signaling thresholds necessary drive a morphogenetic program during angiogenesis. PMID:26023089

  15. Regulation of root hair initiation and expansin gene expression in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    The expression of two Arabidopsis expansin genes (AtEXP7 and AtEXP18) is tightly linked to root hair initiation; thus, the regulation of these genes was studied to elucidate how developmental, hormonal, and environmental factors orchestrate root hair formation. Exogenous ethylene and auxin, as well as separation of the root from the medium, stimulated root hair formation and the expression of these expansin genes. The effects of exogenous auxin and root separation on root hair formation required the ethylene signaling pathway. By contrast, blocking the endogenous ethylene pathway, either by genetic mutations or by a chemical inhibitor, did not affect normal root hair formation and expansin gene expression. These results indicate that the normal developmental pathway for root hair formation (i.e., not induced by external stimuli) is independent of the ethylene pathway. Promoter analyses of the expansin genes show that the same promoter elements that determine cell specificity also determine inducibility by ethylene, auxin, and root separation. Our study suggests that two distinctive signaling pathways, one developmental and the other environmental/hormonal, converge to modulate the initiation of the root hair and the expression of its specific expansin gene set.

  16. Down-regulation apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 gene reduced the Litopenaeus vannamei hemocyte apoptosis in WSSV infection.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Feng-Hua; Chen, Yong-Gui; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Yue, Hai-Tao; Bi, Hai-Tao; Yuan, Kai; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, is crucial in various cellular responses. In the present study, we identified and characterized an ASK1 homolog from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvASK1). The full-length cDNA of LvASK1 was 5400 bp long, with an open reading frame encoding a putative 1420 amino acid protein. LvASK1 was highly expressed in muscle, hemocyte, eyestalk and heart. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of the LvASK1 was upregulated during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The knocked-down expression of LvASK1 by RNA interference significantly reduced the apoptotic ratio of the hemocytes collected from WSSV-infected L. vannamei. Furthermore, the down-regulation of LvASK1 also decreased the cumulative mortality of WSSV-infected L. vannamei. These results suggested that down-regulation of LvASK1 decreased the apoptotic rate of hemocytes in WSSV-infected shrimp, and that it could contribute to the reduction of cumulative mortality in WSSV-infected L. vannamei.

  17. Regulation of Postsynaptic Structure and Function by an A-Kinase Anchoring Protein-Membrane Associated Guanylate Kinase Scaffolding Complex

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Holly R.; Gibson, Emily S.; Benke, Timothy A.; Dell'Acqua, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) 79/150 is a scaffold protein found in dendritic spines that recruits the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and protein phosphatase 2B-calcineurin (CaN) to membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK)-linked AMPA receptors (AMPAR) to control receptor phosphorylation and synaptic plasticity. However, AKAP79/150 may also coordinate regulation of AMPAR activity with spine structure directly through MAGUK binding and membrane-cytoskeletal interactions of its N-terminal targeting domain. In cultured hippocampal neurons, we observed that rat AKAP150 expression was low early in development but then increased coincident with spine formation and maturation. Overexpression of human AKAP79 in immature or mature neurons increased the number of dendritic filopodia and spines and enlarged spine area. However, RNAi knockdown of AKAP150 decreased dendritic spine area only in mature neurons. Importantly, AKAP79 overexpression in immature neurons increased AMPAR postsynaptic localization and activity. Neither the AKAP79 PKA nor CaN anchoring domain was required for increasing dendritic protrusion numbers, spine area or AMPAR synaptic localization; however, an internal region identified as the MAGUK binding domain was found to be essential as shown by expression of a MAGUK binding mutant that formed mainly filopodia and decreased AMPAR synaptic localization and activity. Expression of the AKAP79 N-terminal targeting domain alone also increased filopodia numbers but not spine area. Overall, these results demonstrate a novel structural role for AKAP79/150 where the N-terminal targeting domain induces dendritic filopodia and binding to MAGUKs promotes spine enlargement and AMPAR recruitment. PMID:19535604

  18. Receptor tyrosine kinase signaling regulates replication of the peste des petits ruminants virus.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, K; Chaubey, K K; Singh, S V; Kumar, N

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we found out that blocking the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling in Vero cells by tryphostin AG879 impairs the in vitro replication of the peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). A reduced virus replication in Trk1-knockdown (siRNA) Vero cells confirmed the essential role of RTK in the virus replication, in particular a specific regulation of viral RNA synthesis. These data represent the first evidence that the RTK signaling regulates replication of a morbillivirus.

  19. Antioxidant regulation of protein kinase C in cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishna, Rayudu; Gundimeda, Usha

    2002-12-01

    Besides scavenging free radicals, antioxidants inhibit signaling enzymes such as protein kinase C (PKC) that play a crucial role in tumor promotion. By having different oxidation susceptible regions, PKC can respond to both oxidant tumor promoters and cancer-preventive antioxidants to elicit opposite cellular responses. Oxidant tumor promoters activate PKC by reacting with zinc-thiolates present within the regulatory domain. In contrast, the oxidized forms of some cancer-preventive agents, such as polyphenolics (ellagic acid, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and curcumin) and selenocompounds, can inactivate PKC by oxidizing the vicinal thiols present within the catalytic domain. This brings an efficient counteractive mechanism to block the signal transduction induced by tumor promoters at the first step itself. Because prostate cancer prevention clinical trials in large human population are under way, we have focused more on understanding the cancer-preventive mechanism of selenium. Methylselenol, the postulated cancer-preventive metabolite, has no direct effect on PKC activity. However, methylseleninic acid, locally generated by the reaction of membrane methylselenol with PKC-bound tumor-promoting fatty acid hydroperoxides, selectively inactivates PKC. This mechanism clarifies how the volatile methylselenol that is present in a low concentration induces the inactivation of PKC selectively in the promoting precancer cells. Selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase reverses selenium-induced inactivation of PKC, suggesting that selenoproteins may serve as a safeguard against the toxicity induced by selenometabolites. Moreover, this also explains how a resistance to selenium develops in advanced malignant cells. The redox-mediated inactivation of PKC may, at least in part, be responsible for the antioxidant-induced inhibition of tumor promotion and cell growth, as well as for the induction of cell death.

  20. Redox Regulation of the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yingying; Wang, Qilong; Song, Ping; Zhu, Yi; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2010-01-01

    Redox state is a critical determinant of cell function, and any major imbalances can cause severe damage or death. Objectives The aim of this study is to determine if AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a cellular energy sensor, is activated by oxidants generated by Berberine in endothelial cells (EC). Methods Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were exposed to Berberine. AMPK activity and reactive oxygen species were monitored after the incubation. Results In BAEC, Berberine caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of AMPK at Thr172 and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) at Ser79, a well characterized downstream target of AMPK. Concomitantly, Berberine increased peroxynitrite, a potent oxidant formed by simultaneous generation of superoxide and nitric oxide. Pre-incubation of BAEC with anti-oxidants markedly attenuated Berberine-enhanced phosphorylation of both AMPK and ACC. Consistently, adenoviral expression of superoxide dismutase and pretreatment of L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME; a non-selective NOS inhibitor) blunted Berberine-induced phosphorylation of AMPK. Furthermore, mitochondria-targeted tempol (mito-tempol) pretreatment or expression of uncoupling protein attenuated AMPK activation caused by Berberine. Depletion of mitochondria abolished the effects of Berberine on AMPK in EC. Finally, Berberine significantly increased the phosphorylation of LKB1 at Ser307 and gene silencing of LKB1 attenuated Berberine-enhanced AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation in BAEC. Conclusion Our results suggest that mitochondria-derived superoxide anions and peroxynitrite are required for Berberine-induced AMPK activation in endothelial cells. PMID:21079763

  1. Pin1At regulates PIN1 polar localization and root gravitropism.

    PubMed

    Xi, Wanyan; Gong, Ximing; Yang, Qiaoyun; Yu, Hao; Liou, Yih-Cherng

    2016-01-21

    Root gravitropism allows plants to establish root systems and its regulation depends on polar auxin transport mediated by PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transporters. PINOID (PID) and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A (PP2A) act antagonistically on reversible phosphorylation of PINs. This regulates polar PIN distribution and auxin transport. Here we show that a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1At regulates root gravitropism. Downregulation of Pin1At suppresses root agravitropic phenotypes of pp2aa and 35S:PID, while overexpression of Pin1At affects root gravitropic responses and enhances the pp2aa agravitropic phenotype. Pin1At also affects auxin transport and polar localization of PIN1 in stele cells, which is mediated by PID and PP2A. Furthermore, Pin1At catalyses the conformational change of the phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs of PIN1. Thus, Pin1At mediates the conformational dynamics of PIN1 and affects PID- and PP2A-mediated regulation of PIN1 polar localization, which correlates with the regulation of root gravitropism.

  2. Pin1At regulates PIN1 polar localization and root gravitropism

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Wanyan; Gong, Ximing; Yang, Qiaoyun; Yu, Hao; Liou, Yih-Cherng

    2016-01-01

    Root gravitropism allows plants to establish root systems and its regulation depends on polar auxin transport mediated by PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transporters. PINOID (PID) and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A (PP2A) act antagonistically on reversible phosphorylation of PINs. This regulates polar PIN distribution and auxin transport. Here we show that a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1At regulates root gravitropism. Downregulation of Pin1At suppresses root agravitropic phenotypes of pp2aa and 35S:PID, while overexpression of Pin1At affects root gravitropic responses and enhances the pp2aa agravitropic phenotype. Pin1At also affects auxin transport and polar localization of PIN1 in stele cells, which is mediated by PID and PP2A. Furthermore, Pin1At catalyses the conformational change of the phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs of PIN1. Thus, Pin1At mediates the conformational dynamics of PIN1 and affects PID- and PP2A-mediated regulation of PIN1 polar localization, which correlates with the regulation of root gravitropism. PMID:26791759

  3. Molecular dynamics reveal a novel kinase-substrate interface that regulates protein translation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming S; Wang, Die; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Yim, Howard C H; Irving, Aaron T; Williams, Bryan R G; Sadler, Anthony J

    2014-12-01

    A key control point in gene expression is the initiation of protein translation, with a universal stress response being constituted by inhibitory phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). In humans, four kinases sense diverse physiological stresses to regulate eIF2α to control cell differentiation, adaptation, and survival. Here we develop a computational molecular model of eIF2α and one of its kinases, the protein kinase R, to simulate the dynamics of their interaction. Predictions generated by coarse-grained dynamics simulations suggest a novel mode of action. Experimentation substantiates these predictions, identifying a previously unrecognized interface in the protein complex, which is constituted by dynamic residues in both eIF2α and its kinases that are crucial to regulate protein translation. These findings call for a reinterpretation of the current mechanism of action of the eIF2α kinases and demonstrate the value of conducting computational analysis to evaluate protein function. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [Participation of adenylate kinase in the regulation of chloroplasts energy exchange].

    PubMed

    Kartashev, I M

    2009-01-01

    The influence of adenylate kinase on the rates of glucose-6-phosphate synthesis and ferricyanide reduction in a system containing chloroplasts, hexokinase, and ADP at low concentration during photophosphorylation has been studied. It has been found that the addition of adenylate kinase into the reaction medium under phosphorylation results in a simultaneous increase in the rate of ferricyanide reduction and glucose-6-phosphate synthesis. In this case, the ratio of glucose-6-phosphate formed to the quantity of ferricyanide reduced was close to unity as the concentration of adenylate kinase in the medium increased. The concentrations of glucose-6-phosphate and ferricyanide reduced in the system sharply increased with time; at the same time, no significant decrease in ADP concentration and AMP accumulation by the methods available was found. Hence, the limiting factors in these reactions are not the concentrations but the rates of diffusion of the substrates. Presumably, diffusion limitations in the system are eliminated owing to the participation of adenylate kinase. The results obtained are discussed in terms of the model according to which the regulation of the diffusion of adenine nucleotides and the control of regeneration of ATP according to its requirements in correlation with other regulation mechanisms can occur in chloroplasts upon adenylate kinase functioning by direct and reverse connection of the shuttle type.

  5. Food for thought: how nutrients regulate root system architecture.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Zaigham; Amtmann, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The spatial arrangement of the plant root system (root system architecture, RSA) is very sensitive to edaphic and endogenous signals that report on the nutrient status of soil and plant. Signalling pathways underpinning RSA responses to individual nutrients, particularly nitrate and phosphate, have been unravelled. Researchers have now started to investigate interactive effects between two or more nutrients on RSA. Several proteins enabling crosstalk between signalling pathways have recently been identified. RSA is potentially an important trait for sustainable and/or marginal agriculture. It is generally assumed that RSA responses are adaptive and optimise nutrient uptake in a given environment, but hard evidence for this paradigm is still sparse. Here we summarize recent advances made in these areas of research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of N-Formyl Peptide Receptor Signaling and Trafficking by Arrestin-Src Kinase Interaction.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Brant M; Marjon, Nicole A; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    Arrestins were originally described as proteins recruited to ligand-activated, phosphorylated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to attenuate G protein-mediated signaling. It was later revealed that arrestins also mediate GPCR internalization and recruit a number of signaling proteins including, but not limited to, Src family kinases, ERK1/2, and JNK3. GPCR-arrestin binding and trafficking control the spatial and temporal activity of these multi-protein complexes. In previous reports, we concluded that N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR)-mediated apoptosis, which occurs upon receptor stimulation in the absence of arrestins, is associated with FPR accumulation in perinuclear recycling endosomes. Under these conditions, inhibition of Src kinase and ERK1/2 prevented FPR-mediated apoptosis. To better understand the role of Src kinase in this process, in the current study we employed a previously described arrestin-2 (arr2) mutant deficient in Src kinase binding (arr2-P91G/P121E). Unlike wild type arrestin, arr2-P91G/P121E did not inhibit FPR-mediated apoptosis, suggesting that Src binding to arrestin-2 prevents apoptotic signaling. However, in cells expressing this mutant, FPR-mediated apoptosis was still blocked by inhibition of Src kinase activity, suggesting that activation of Src independent of arrestin-2 binding is involved in FPR-mediated apoptosis. Finally, while Src kinase inhibition prevented FPR-mediated-apoptosis in the presence of arr2-P91G/P121E, it did not prevent FPR-arr2-P91G/P121E accumulation in the perinuclear recycling endosome. On the contrary, inhibition of Src kinase activity mediated the accumulation of activated FPR-wild type arrestin-2 in recycling endosomes without initiating FPR-mediated apoptosis. Based on these observations, we conclude that Src kinase has two independent roles following FPR activation that regulate both FPR-arrestin-2 signaling and trafficking.

  7. Regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EKI1-encoded Ethanolamine Kinase by Zinc Depletion*

    PubMed Central

    Kersting, Michael C.; Carman, George M.

    2006-01-01

    Ethanolamine kinase catalyzes the committed step in the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine via the CDP-ethanolamine branch of the Kennedy pathway. Regulation of the EKI1-encoded ethanolamine kinase by the essential nutrient zinc was examined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The level of ethanolamine kinase activity increased when zinc was depleted from the growth medium. This regulation correlated with increases in the CDP-ethanolamine pathway intermediates phosphoethanolamine and CDP-ethanolamine, and an increase in the methylated derivative of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine. The β-galactosidase activity driven by the PEKI1-lacZ reporter gene was elevated in zinc-depleted cells, indicating that the increase in ethanolamine kinase activity was attributed to a transcriptional mechanism. The expression level of PEKI1-lacZ reporter gene activity in the zrt1Δzrt2Δ mutant (defective in plasma membrane zinc transport) cells grown with zinc was similar to the activity expressed in wild-type cells grown without zinc. This indicated that EKI1 expression was sensitive to intracellular zinc. The zinc-mediated regulation of EKI1 expression was attenuated in the zap1Δ mutant defective in the zinc-regulated transcription factor Zap1p. Direct interactions between Zap1p and putative zinc-responsive elements in the EKI1 promoter were demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Mutations of these elements to a nonconsensus sequence abolished Zap1p-DNA interactions. Taken together, this work demonstrated that the zinc-mediated regulation of ethanolamine kinase and the synthesis of phospholipids via the CDP-ethanolamine branch of the Kennedy pathway were controlled in part by Zap1p. PMID:16551612

  8. Regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EKI1-encoded ethanolamine kinase by zinc depletion.

    PubMed

    Kersting, Michael C; Carman, George M

    2006-05-12

    Ethanolamine kinase catalyzes the committed step in the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine via the CDP-ethanolamine branch of the Kennedy pathway. Regulation of the EKI1-encoded ethanolamine kinase by the essential nutrient zinc was examined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The level of ethanolamine kinase activity increased when zinc was depleted from the growth medium. This regulation correlated with increases in the CDP-ethanolamine pathway intermediates phosphoethanolamine and CDP-ethanolamine, and an increase in the methylated derivative of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine. The beta-galactosidase activity driven by the P(EKI1)-lacZ reporter gene was elevated in zinc-depleted cells, indicating that the increase in ethanolamine kinase activity was attributed to a transcriptional mechanism. The expression level of P(EKI1)-lacZ reporter gene activity in the zrt1deltazrt2delta mutant (defective in plasma membrane zinc transport) cells grown with zinc was similar to the activity expressed in wild-type cells grown without zinc. This indicated that EKI1 expression was sensitive to intracellular zinc. The zinc-mediated regulation of EKI1 expression was attenuated in the zap1delta mutant defective in the zinc-regulated transcription factor Zap1p. Direct interactions between Zap1p and putative zinc-responsive elements in the EKI1 promoter were demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Mutations of these elements to a nonconsensus sequence abolished Zap1p-DNA interactions. Taken together, this work demonstrated that the zinc-mediated regulation of ethanolamine kinase and the synthesis of phospholipids via the CDP-ethanolamine branch of the Kennedy pathway were controlled in part by Zap1p.

  9. Complex regulation of prolyl-4-hydroxylases impacts root hair expansion.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Silvia M; Ricardi, Martiniano M; Poulsen, Christian Peter; Oikawa, Ai; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Halim, Adnan; Mangano, Silvina; Denita Juarez, Silvina Paola; Marzol, Eliana; Salgado Salter, Juan D; Dorosz, Javier Gloazzo; Borassi, Cecilia; Möller, Svenning Rune; Buono, Rafael; Ohsawa, Yukiko; Matsuoka, Ken; Otegui, Marisa S; Scheller, Henrik V; Geshi, Naomi; Petersen, Bent Larsen; Iusem, Norberto D; Estevez, José M

    2015-05-01

    Root hairs are single cells that develop by tip growth, a process shared with pollen tubes, axons, and fungal hyphae. However, structural plant cell walls impose constraints to accomplish tip growth. In addition to polysaccharides, plant cell walls are composed of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), which include several groups of O-glycoproteins, including extensins (EXTs). Proline hydroxylation, an early post-translational modification (PTM) of HRGPs catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs), defines their subsequent O-glycosylation sites. In this work, our genetic analyses prove that P4H5, and to a lesser extent P4H2 and P4H13, are pivotal for root hair tip growth. Second, we demonstrate that P4H5 has in vitro preferred specificity for EXT substrates rather than for other HRGPs. Third, by P4H promoter and protein swapping approaches, we show that P4H2 and P4H13 have interchangeable functions but cannot replace P4H5. These three P4Hs are shown to be targeted to the secretory pathway, where P4H5 forms dimers with P4H2 and P4H13. Finally, we explore the impact of deficient proline hydroxylation on the cell wall architecture. Taken together, our results support a model in which correct peptidyl-proline hydroxylation on EXTs, and possibly in other HRGPs, is required for proper cell wall self-assembly and hence root hair elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  10. Activity and regulation by growth factors of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III (elongation factor 2-kinase) in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Parmer, T G; Ward, M D; Yurkow, E J; Vyas, V H; Kearney, T J; Hait, W N

    1999-01-01

    Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III (CaM kinase III, elongation factor-2 kinase) is a unique member of the Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase family. Activation of CaM kinase III leads to the selective phosphorylation of elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) and transient inhibition of protein synthesis. Recent cloning and sequencing of CaM kinase III revealed that this enzyme represents a new superfamily of protein kinases. The activity of CaM kinase III is selectively activated in proliferating cells; inhibition of the kinase blocked cells in G0/G1-S and decreased viability. To determine the significance of CaM kinase III in breast cancer, we measured the activity of the kinase in human breast cancer cell lines as well as in fresh surgical specimens. The specific activity of CaM kinase III in human breast cancer cell lines was equal to or greater than that seen in a variety of cell lines with similar rates of proliferation. The specific activity of CaM kinase III was markedly increased in human breast tumour specimens compared with that of normal adjacent breast tissue. The activity of this enzyme was regulated by breast cancer mitogens. In serum-deprived MDA-MB-231 cells, the combination of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulated cell proliferation and activated CaM kinase III to activities observed in the presence of 10% serum. Inhibition of enzyme activity blocked cell proliferation induced by growth factors. In MCF-7 cells separated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, CaM kinase III was increased in S-phase over that of other phases of the cell cycle. In summary, the activity of Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase III is controlled by breast cancer mitogens and appears to be constitutively activated in human breast cancer. These results suggest that CaM kinase III may contribute an important link between growth factor/receptor interactions, protein synthesis and the induction of cellular proliferation in human breast

  11. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase Kinase α Is Expressed by Monocytic Cells and Regulates the Activation Profile

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Christopher B.; Deszo, Eric L.; Hartman, Matthew E.; York, Jason M.; Kelley, Keith W.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages are capable of assuming numerous phenotypes in order to adapt to endogenous and exogenous challenges but many of the factors that regulate this process are still unknown. We report that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase α (CaMKKα) is expressed in human monocytic cells and demonstrate that its inhibition blocks type-II monocytic cell activation and promotes classical activation. Affinity chromatography with paramagnetic beads isolated an approximately 50 kDa protein from nuclear lysates of U937 human monocytic cells activated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). This protein was identified as CaMKKα by mass spectrometry and Western analysis. The function of CaMKKα in monocyte activation was examined using the CaMKKα inhibitors (STO-609 and forskolin) and siRNA knockdown. Inhibition of CaMKKα, enhanced PMA-dependent CD86 expression and reduced CD11b expression. In addition, inhibition was associated with decreased translocation of CaMKKα to the nucleus. Finally, to further examine monocyte activation profiles, TNFα and IL-10 secretion were studied. CaMKKα inhibition attenuated PMA-dependent IL-10 production and enhanced TNFα production indicating a shift from type-II to classical monocyte activation. Taken together, these findings indicate an important new role for CaMKKα in the differentiation of monocytic cells. PMID:18270593

  12. Regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by CDP-diacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Nickels, J T; Buxeda, R J; Carman, G M

    1994-04-15

    Regulation of the 45- and 55-kDa forms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae membrane-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinase (ATP:phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphotransferase) by phospholipids was examined using Triton X-100/phospholipid-mixed micelles. CDP-diacylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol inhibited 45-kDa PI 4-kinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Kinetic analyses of the 45-kDa PI 4-kinase showed that phosphatidylglycerol was a competitive inhibitor with respect to PI (Ki = 2 mol %), and CDP-diacylglycerol was a mixed type of inhibitor with respect to PI (Ki = 4 mol %) and MgATP (Ki = 5 mol %). 55-kDa PI 4-kinase activity was not significantly affected by phospholipids. The physiological relevance of CDP-diacylglycerol inhibition of 45-kDa PI 4-kinase activity was examined using plasma membranes from inositol auxotrophic (ino1) cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that 45-kDa PI 4-kinase expression in plasma membranes was not affected by inositol starvation of ino1 cells. However, both 45-kDa PI 4-kinase activity and its product PI 4-phosphate were reduced in plasma membranes from inositol-starved ino1 cells. The CDP-diacylglycerol concentration (9.6 mol %) in plasma membranes of inositol-starved ino1 cells was 12-fold higher than its concentration (0.8 mol %) in plasma membranes of inositol-supplemented cells. Plasma membranes of inositol-starved ino1 cells also had increased levels of phosphatidate, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cardiolipin. However, these phospholipids did not affect pure 45-kDa PI 4-kinase activity. The concentration of CDP-diacylglycerol in plasma membranes of inositol-starved ino1 cells was in the range of the inhibitor constants determined for CDP-diacylglycerol by kinetic analyses using pure 45-kDa PI 4-kinase. These results raised the suggestion that 45-kDa PI 4-kinase activity may be regulated in vivo by CDP-diacylglycerol.

  13. NO homeostasis is a key regulator of early nitrate perception and root elongation in maize*

    PubMed Central

    Quaggiotti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Crop plant development is strongly dependent on nitrogen availability in the soil and on the efficiency of its recruitment by roots. For this reason, the understanding of the molecular events underlying root adaptation to nitrogen fluctuations is a primary goal to develop biotechnological tools for sustainable agriculture. However, knowledge about molecular responses to nitrogen availability is derived mainly from the study of model species. Nitric oxide (NO) has been recently proposed to be implicated in plant responses to environmental stresses, but its exact role in the response of plants to nutritional stress is still under evaluation. In this work, the role of NO production by maize roots after nitrate perception was investigated by focusing on the regulation of transcription of genes involved in NO homeostasis and by measuring NO production in roots. Moreover, its involvement in the root growth response to nitrate was also investigated. The results provide evidence that NO is produced by nitrate reductase as an early response to nitrate supply and that the coordinated induction of non-symbiotic haemoglobins (nsHbs) could finely regulate the NO steady state. This mechanism seems to be implicated on the modulation of the root elongation in response to nitrate perception. Moreover, an improved agar-plate system for growing maize seedlings was developed. This system, which allows localized treatments to be performed on specific root portions, gave the opportunity to discern between localized and systemic effects of nitrate supply to roots. PMID:24220653

  14. Plant microRNAs: key regulators of root architecture and biotic interactions.

    PubMed

    Couzigou, Jean-Malo; Combier, Jean-Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Contents 22 I. 22 II. 24 III. 25 IV. 27 V. 29 VI. 10 31 References 32 SUMMARY: Plants have evolved a remarkable faculty of adaptation to deal with various and changing environmental conditions. In this context, the roots have taken over nutritional aspects and the root system architecture can be modulated in response to nutrient availability or biotic interactions with soil microorganisms. This adaptability requires a fine tuning of gene expression. Indeed, root specification and development are highly complex processes requiring gene regulatory networks involved in hormonal regulations and cell identity. Among the different molecular partners governing root development, microRNAs (miRNAs) are key players for the fast regulation of gene expression. miRNAs are small RNAs involved in most developmental processes and are required for the normal growth of organisms, by the negative regulation of key genes, such as transcription factors and hormone receptors. Here, we review the known roles of miRNAs in root specification and development, from the embryonic roots to the establishment of root symbioses, highlighting the major roles of miRNAs in these processes.

  15. Functional Adaptation of a Plant Receptor- Kinase Paved the Way for the Evolution of Intracellular Root Symbioses with Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Markmann, Katharina; Giczey, Gábor; Parniske, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses (RNS) occur in two major forms—Actinorhiza and legume-rhizobium symbiosis—which differ in bacterial partner, intracellular infection pattern, and morphogenesis. The phylogenetic restriction of nodulation to eurosid angiosperms indicates a common and recent evolutionary invention, but the molecular steps involved are still obscure. In legumes, at least seven genes—including the symbiosis receptor-kinase gene SYMRK—are essential for the interaction with rhizobia bacteria and for the Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis with phosphate-acquiring fungi, which is widespread in occurrence and believed to date back to the earliest land plants. We show that SYMRK is also required for Actinorhiza symbiosis of the cucurbit Datisca glomerata with actinobacteria of the genus Frankia, revealing a common genetic basis for both forms of RNS. We found that SYMRK exists in at least three different structural versions, of which the shorter forms from rice and tomato are sufficient for AM, but not for functional endosymbiosis with bacteria in the legume Lotus japonicus. Our data support the idea that SYMRK sequence evolution was involved in the recruitment of a pre-existing signalling network from AM, paving the way for the evolution of intracellular root symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. PMID:18318603

  16. The extracellular-regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5) promotes cell proliferation through the down-regulation of inhibitors of cyclin dependent protein kinases (CDKs).

    PubMed

    Perez-Madrigal, Diana; Finegan, Katherine G; Paramo, Blanca; Tournier, Cathy

    2012-12-01

    Activation of the extracellular-regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5) has been associated with mitogenic signal transduction. However, conflicting findings have challenged the idea that ERK5 is a critical regulator of cell proliferation. We have addressed this issue by testing the effect of the conditional loss of ERK5 in primary fibroblasts. We have discovered that ERK5 suppressed the expression of the cyclin dependent protein kinase (CDKs) inhibitors, p21 and p27, by decreasing mRNA and protein stability, respectively. As a result, low level CDK2 activity detected in ERK5-deficient cells correlated with a defect in G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle. Similarly, we found that the malignant MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line was dependent on ERK5 to proliferate. We propose that ERK5 blocks p21 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells via a mechanism that implicates c-Myc-dependent transcriptional regulation of the miR-17-92 cluster. Together with evidence that cancer patients with poor prognosis display a high level of expression of components of the ERK5 signaling pathway, these findings support the hypothesis that ERK5 can be a potential target for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. GTP binding to the ROC domain of DAP-kinase regulates its function through intramolecular signalling.

    PubMed

    Carlessi, Rodrigo; Levin-Salomon, Vered; Ciprut, Sara; Bialik, Shani; Berissi, Hanna; Albeck, Shira; Peleg, Yoav; Kimchi, Adi

    2011-09-01

    Death-associated protein kinase (DAPk) was recently suggested by sequence homology to be a member of the ROCO family of proteins. Here, we show that DAPk has a functional ROC (Ras of complex proteins) domain that mediates homo-oligomerization and GTP binding through a defined P-loop motif. Upon binding to GTP, the ROC domain negatively regulates the catalytic activity of DAPk and its cellular effects. Mechanistically, GTP binding enhances an inhibitory autophosphorylation at a distal site that suppresses kinase activity. This study presents a new mechanism of intramolecular signal transduction, by which GTP binding operates in cis to affect the catalytic activity of a distal domain in the protein.

  18. c-Jun regulates phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 transcription: implication for Akt and protein kinase C activities and melanoma tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Bergami, Pablo; Kim, Hyungsoo; Dewing, Antimone; Goydos, James; Aaronson, Stuart; Ronai, Ze'ev

    2010-01-08

    Mutations in N-RAS and B-RAF, which commonly occur in melanomas, result in constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling. Active ERK increases expression and activity of the c-Jun transcription factor, linking ERK and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) cascades. Here, we show that c-Jun regulates transcription of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) with a concomitant impact on Akt and protein kinase C (PKC) activity and related substrates. Inhibition of c-Jun reduces PDK1 expression and attenuates Akt and PKC activity, which can be restored by exogenous PDK1. c-Jun regulation of PDK1 in melanoma contributes to growth rate and the ability to form tumors in mice. Correspondingly, increased levels of c-Jun in melanoma cell lines coincide with up-regulation of PDK1 and phosphorylation of PKC and Akt. The identification of c-Jun as a transcriptional regulator of PDK1 expression highlights key mechanisms underlying c-Jun oncogenic activity, and provides new insight into the nature of up-regulated Akt and PKC in melanoma.

  19. Regulation of atypical MAP kinases ERK3 and ERK4 by the phosphatase DUSP2

    PubMed Central

    Perander, Maria; Al-Mahdi, Rania; Jensen, Thomas C.; Nunn, Jennifer A. L.; Kildalsen, Hanne; Johansen, Bjarne; Gabrielsen, Mads; Keyse, Stephen M.; Seternes, Ole-Morten

    2017-01-01

    The atypical MAP kinases ERK3 and ERK4 are activated by phosphorylation of a serine residue lying within the activation loop signature sequence S-E-G. However, the regulation of ERK3 and ERK4 phosphorylation and activity is poorly understood. Here we report that the inducible nuclear dual-specificity MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP) DUSP2, a known regulator of the ERK and p38 MAPKs, is unique amongst the MKP family in being able to bind to both ERK3 and ERK4. This interaction is mediated by a conserved common docking (CD) domain within the carboxyl-terminal domains of ERK3 and ERK4 and the conserved kinase interaction motif (KIM) located within the non-catalytic amino terminus of DUSP2. This interaction is direct and results in the dephosphorylation of ERK3 and ERK4 and the stabilization of DUSP2. In the case of ERK4 its ability to stabilize DUSP2 requires its kinase activity. Finally, we demonstrate that expression of DUSP2 inhibits ERK3 and ERK4-mediated activation of its downstream substrate MK5. We conclude that the activity of DUSP2 is not restricted to the classical MAPK pathways and that DUSP2 can also regulate the atypical ERK3/4-MK5 signalling pathway in mammalian cells. PMID:28252035

  20. Light regulates attachment, exopolysaccharide production, and nodulation in Rhizobium leguminosarum through a LOV-histidine kinase photoreceptor.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, Hernán R; Posadas, Diana M; Paris, Gastón; Carrica, Mariela del Carmen; Frederickson, Marcus; Pietrasanta, Lía Isabel; Bogomolni, Roberto A; Zorreguieta, Angeles; Goldbaum, Fernando A

    2012-07-24

    Rhizobium leguminosarum is a soil bacterium that infects root hairs and induces the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on leguminous plants. Light, oxygen, and voltage (LOV)-domain proteins are blue-light receptors found in higher plants and many algae, fungi, and bacteria. The genome of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841, a pea-nodulating endosymbiont, encodes a sensor histidine kinase containing a LOV domain at the N-terminal end (R-LOV-HK). R-LOV-HK has a typical LOV domain absorption spectrum with broad bands in the blue and UV-A regions and shows a truncated photocycle. Here we show that the R-LOV-HK protein regulates attachment to an abiotic surface and production of flagellar proteins and exopolysaccharide in response to light. Also, illumination of bacterial cultures before inoculation of pea roots increases the number of nodules per plant and the number of intranodular bacteroids. The effects of light on nodulation are dependent on a functional lov gene. The results presented in this work suggest that light, sensed by R-LOV-HK, is an important environmental factor that controls adaptive responses and the symbiotic efficiency of R. leguminosarum.

  1. Light regulates attachment, exopolysaccharide production, and nodulation in Rhizobium leguminosarum through a LOV-histidine kinase photoreceptor

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Hernán R.; Posadas, Diana M.; Paris, Gastón; Carrica, Mariela del Carmen; Frederickson, Marcus; Pietrasanta, Lía Isabel; Bogomolni, Roberto A.; Zorreguieta, Angeles; Goldbaum, Fernando A.

    2012-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum is a soil bacterium that infects root hairs and induces the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on leguminous plants. Light, oxygen, and voltage (LOV)-domain proteins are blue-light receptors found in higher plants and many algae, fungi, and bacteria. The genome of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841, a pea-nodulating endosymbiont, encodes a sensor histidine kinase containing a LOV domain at the N-terminal end (R-LOV-HK). R-LOV-HK has a typical LOV domain absorption spectrum with broad bands in the blue and UV-A regions and shows a truncated photocycle. Here we show that the R-LOV-HK protein regulates attachment to an abiotic surface and production of flagellar proteins and exopolysaccharide in response to light. Also, illumination of bacterial cultures before inoculation of pea roots increases the number of nodules per plant and the number of intranodular bacteroids. The effects of light on nodulation are dependent on a functional lov gene. The results presented in this work suggest that light, sensed by R-LOV-HK, is an important environmental factor that controls adaptive responses and the symbiotic efficiency of R. leguminosarum. PMID:22773814

  2. MADS-box transcription factor AGL21 regulates lateral root development and responds to multiple external and physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin-Hui; Miao, Zi-Qing; Qi, Guo-Feng; Wu, Jie; Cai, Xiao-Teng; Mao, Jie-Li; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2014-11-01

    Plant root system morphology is dramatically influenced by various environmental cues. The adaptation of root system architecture to environmental constraints, which mostly depends on the formation and growth of lateral roots, is an important agronomic trait. Lateral root development is regulated by the external signals coordinating closely with intrinsic signaling pathways. MADS-box transcription factors are known key regulators of the transition to flowering and flower development. However, their functions in root development are still poorly understood. Here we report that AGL21, an AGL17-clade MADS-box gene, plays a crucial role in lateral root development. AGL21 was highly expressed in root, particularly in the root central cylinder and lateral root primordia. AGL21 overexpression plants produced more and longer lateral roots while agl21 mutants showed impaired lateral root development, especially under nitrogen-deficient conditions. AGL21 was induced by many plant hormones and environmental stresses, suggesting a function of this gene in root system plasticity in response to various signals. Furthermore, AGL21 was found positively regulating auxin accumulation in lateral root primordia and lateral roots by enhancing local auxin biosynthesis, thus stimulating lateral root initiation and growth. We propose that AGL21 may be involved in various environmental and physiological signals-mediated lateral root development and growth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS.

  3. PROTEIN KINASE B/AKT IS A NOVEL CYSTEINE STRING PROTEIN KINASE THAT REGULATES EXOCYTOSIS RELEASE KINETICS AND QUANTAL SIZE

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Gareth J. O.; Barclay, Jeff W.; Prescott, Gerald R.; Jo, Sung-Ro; Burgoyne, Robert D.; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Morgan, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Protein kinase B/Akt has been implicated in the insulin-dependent exocytosis of GLUT4-containing vesicles, and, more recently, insulin secretion. To determine if Akt also regulates insulin-independent exocytosis, we used adrenal chromaffin cells, a popular neuronal model. Akt1 was the predominant isoform expressed in chromaffin cells, although lower levels of Akt2 and Akt3 were also found. Secretory stimuli in both intact and permeabilized cells induced Akt phosphorylation on serine-473, and the time course of Ca2+-induced Akt phosphorylation was similar to that of exocytosis in permeabilized cells. To determine if Akt modulated exocytosis, we transfected chromaffin cells with Akt constructs and monitored catecholamine release by amperometry. Wild-type Akt had no effect on the overall number of exocytotic events, but slowed the kinetics of catecholamine release from individual vesicles, resulting in an increased quantal size. This effect was due to phosphorylation by Akt, as it was not seen in cells transfected with kinase-dead mutant Akt. As overexpression of cysteine string protein (CSP) results in a similar alteration in release kinetics and quantal size, we determined if CSP was an Akt substrate. In vitro 32P-phosphorylation studies revealed that Akt phosphorylates CSP on serine-10. Using phospho-serine10-specific antisera, we found that both transfected and endogenous cellular CSP is phosphorylated by Akt on this residue. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel role for Akt phosphorylation in regulating the late stages of exocytosis and suggest that this is achieved via the phosphorylation of CSP on serine-10. PMID:16243840

  4. Role of the GacS Sensor Kinase in the Regulation of Volatile Production by Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xu; Cordovez, Viviane; Etalo, Desalegn W.; van der Voort, Menno; Raaijmakers, Jos M.

    2016-01-01

    In plant-associated Pseudomonas species, the production of several secondary metabolites and exoenzymes is regulated by the GacS/GacA two-component regulatory system (the Gac-system). Here, we investigated if a mutation in the GacS sensor kinase affects the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in P. fluorescens SBW25 (Pf.SBW25) and how this impacts on VOCs-mediated growth promotion and induced systemic resistance of Arabidopsis and tobacco. A total of 205 VOCs were detected by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry for Pf. SBW25 and the gacS-mutant grown on two different media for 3 and 6 days. Discriminant function analysis followed by hierarchical clustering revealed 24 VOCs that were significantly different in their abundance between Pf.SBW25 and the gacS-mutant, which included three acyclic alkenes (3-nonene, 4-undecyne, 1-undecene). These alkenes were significantly reduced by the gacS mutation independently of the growth media and of the incubation time. For Arabidopsis, both Pf.SBW25 and the gacS-mutant enhanced, via VOCs, root and shoot biomass, induced systemic resistance against leaf infections by P. syringae and rhizosphere acidification to the same extent. For tobacco, however, VOCs-mediated effects on shoot and root growth were significantly different between Pf.SBW25 and the gacS-mutant. While Pf.SBW25 inhibited tobacco root growth, the gacS-mutant enhanced root biomass and lateral root formation relative to the non-treated control plants. Collectively these results indicate that the sensor kinase GacS is involved in the regulation of VOCs production in Pf.SBW25, affecting plant growth in a plant species-dependent manner. PMID:27917180

  5. Regulation of root hair cell differentiation by R3 MYB transcription factors in tomato and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Wada, Takuji

    2014-01-01

    CAPRICE (CPC) encodes a small protein with an R3 MYB motif and regulates root hair and trichome cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Six additional CPC-like MYB proteins including TRIPTYCHON (TRY), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC2 (ETC2), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC3/CPC-LIKE MYB3 (ETC3/CPL3), TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL1), and TRICHOMELESS2/CPC-LIKE MYB4 (TCL2/CPL4) also have the ability to regulate root hair and/or trichome cell differentiation in Arabidopsis. In this review, we describe our latest findings on how CPC-like MYB transcription factors regulate root hair cell differentiation. Recently, we identified the tomato SlTRY gene as an ortholog of the Arabidopsis TRY gene. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants harboring SlTRY produced more root hairs, a phenotype similar to that of 35S::CPC transgenic plants. CPC is also known to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Anthocyanin accumulation was repressed in the SlTRY transgenic plants, suggesting that SlTRY can also influence anthocyanin biosynthesis. We concluded that tomato and Arabidopsis partially use similar transcription factors for root hair cell differentiation, and that a CPC-like R3 MYB may be a key common regulator of plant root-hair development.

  6. A Small GTPase Activator Protein Interacts with Cytoplasmic Phytochromes in Regulating Root Development*

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong Ho; Cho, Man-Ho; Kim, Tae-Lim; Yoo, Jihye; Kim, Jeong-Il; Han, Yun-Jeong; Song, Pill-Soon; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Bhoo, Seong Hee; Hahn, Tae-Ryong

    2010-01-01

    Phytochromes enable plants to sense light information and regulate developmental responses. Phytochromes interact with partner proteins to transmit light signals to downstream components for plant development. PIRF1 (phytochrome-interacting ROP guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (RopGEF 1)) functions as a light-signaling switch regulating root development through the activation of ROPs (Rho-like GTPase of plant) in the cytoplasm. In vitro pulldown and yeast two-hybrid assays confirmed the interaction between PIRF1 and phytochromes. PIRF1 interacted with the N-terminal domain of phytochromes through its conserved PRONE (plant-specific ROP nucleotide exchanger) region. PIRF1 also interacted with ROPs and activated them in a phytochrome-dependent manner. The Pr form of phytochrome A enhanced the RopGEF activity of PIRF1, whereas the Pfr form inhibited it. A bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis demonstrated that PIRF1 was localized in the cytoplasm and bound to the phytochromes in darkness but not in light. PIRF1 loss of function mutants (pirf1) of Arabidopsis thaliana showed a longer root phenotype in the dark. In addition, both PIRF1 overexpression mutants (PIRF1-OX) and phytochrome-null mutants (phyA-211 and phyB-9) showed retarded root elongation and irregular root hair formation, suggesting that PIRF1 is a negative regulator of phytochrome-mediated primary root development. We propose that phytochrome and ROP signaling are interconnected through PIRF1 in regulating the root growth and development in Arabidopsis. PMID:20551316

  7. Fis regulates the competitiveness of Pseudomonas putida on barley roots by inducing biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Jakovleva, Julia; Teppo, Annika; Velts, Anna; Saumaa, Signe; Moor, Hanna; Kivisaar, Maia; Teras, Riho

    2012-03-01

    An important link between the environment and the physiological state of bacteria is the regulation of the transcription of a large number of genes by global transcription factors. One of the global regulators, Fis (factor for inversion stimulation), is well studied in Escherichia coli, but the role of this protein in pseudomonads has only been examined briefly. According to studies in Enterobacteriaceae, Fis regulates positively the flagellar movement of bacteria. In pseudomonads, flagellar movement is an important trait for the colonization of plant roots. Therefore we were interested in the role of the Fis protein in Pseudomonas putida, especially the possible regulation of the colonization of plant roots. We observed that Fis reduced the migration of P. putida onto the apices of barley roots and thereby the competitiveness of bacteria on the roots. Moreover, we observed that overexpression of Fis drastically reduced swimming motility and facilitated P. putida biofilm formation, which could be the reason for the decreased migration of bacteria onto the root apices. It is possible that the elevated expression of Fis is important in the adaptation of P. putida during colonization of plant roots by promoting biofilm formation when the migration of bacteria is no longer favoured.

  8. Spatio-temporal regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling by protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, M; Mandl, M; Keyse, S M

    2006-11-01

    ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) is a MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), which regulates diverse physiological functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, transformation and survival. It is now clear that in addition to the duration and magnitude of signalling through this MAPK pathway, the spatial restriction of MAPK activity plays a key role in determining the physiological outcome of signalling. Recent work has led to the discovery of MAPK-binding proteins, which contain either nuclear localization signals or nuclear export signals. These include MAPK activators and specific protein phosphatases, which may act to both regulate MAPK activity and the subcellular localization of their substrate. This represents a mechanism by which signalling in response to extracellular stimuli may be modulated in terms of both magnitude/duration and spatial restriction thus allowing differential access of the activated MAPK to target proteins and the interpretation of this information by cells to determine an appropriate physiological response.

  9. Regulation of persistent sodium currents by glycogen synthase kinase 3 encodes daily rhythms of neuronal excitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Jodi R.; Dewoskin, Daniel; McMeekin, Laura J.; Cowell, Rita M.; Forger, Daniel B.; Gamble, Karen L.

    2016-11-01

    How neurons encode intracellular biochemical signalling cascades into electrical signals is not fully understood. Neurons in the central circadian clock in mammals provide a model system to investigate electrical encoding of biochemical timing signals. Here, using experimental and modelling approaches, we show how the activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) contributes to neuronal excitability through regulation of the persistent sodium current (INaP). INaP exhibits a day/night difference in peak magnitude and is regulated by GSK3. Using mathematical modelling, we predict and confirm that GSK3 activation of INaP affects the action potential afterhyperpolarization, which increases the spontaneous firing rate without affecting the resting membrane potential. Together, these results demonstrate a crucial link between the molecular circadian clock and electrical activity, providing examples of kinase regulation of electrical activity and the propagation of intracellular signals in neuronal networks.

  10. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha phosphorylates and regulates the osteogenic activity of Osterix.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Jeong, Hyung Min; Choi, You Hee; Lee, Sung Ho; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Lee, Kwang Youl

    2013-05-10

    Osteoblast-specific transcription factor Osterix is a zinc-finger transcription factor that required for osteoblast differentiation and new bone formation. The function of Osterix can be modulated by post-translational modification. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha (GSK3α) is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a role in the Wnt signaling pathways and is implicated in the control of several regulatory proteins and transcription factors. In the present study, we investigated how GSK3α regulates Osterix during osteoblast differentiation. Wide type GSK3α up-regulated the protein level, protein stability and transcriptional activity of Osterix. These results suggest that GSK3α regulates osteogenic activity of Osterix.

  11. Regulation of persistent sodium currents by glycogen synthase kinase 3 encodes daily rhythms of neuronal excitability

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Jodi R.; DeWoskin, Daniel; McMeekin, Laura J.; Cowell, Rita M.; Forger, Daniel B.; Gamble, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    How neurons encode intracellular biochemical signalling cascades into electrical signals is not fully understood. Neurons in the central circadian clock in mammals provide a model system to investigate electrical encoding of biochemical timing signals. Here, using experimental and modelling approaches, we show how the activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) contributes to neuronal excitability through regulation of the persistent sodium current (INaP). INaP exhibits a day/night difference in peak magnitude and is regulated by GSK3. Using mathematical modelling, we predict and confirm that GSK3 activation of INaP affects the action potential afterhyperpolarization, which increases the spontaneous firing rate without affecting the resting membrane potential. Together, these results demonstrate a crucial link between the molecular circadian clock and electrical activity, providing examples of kinase regulation of electrical activity and the propagation of intracellular signals in neuronal networks. PMID:27841351

  12. Plant dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase optimizes light-regulated growth and development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Yu; Wu, Yi-Chen; Pu, Hsin-Yi; Wang, Ying; Jang, Geng-Jen; Wu, Shu-Hsing

    2017-09-01

    Light controls vegetative and reproductive development of plants. For a plant, sensing the light input properly ensures coordination with the ever-changing environment. Previously, we found that LIGHT-REGULATED WD1 (LWD1) and LWD2 regulate the circadian clock and photoperiodic flowering. Here, we identified Arabidopsis YET ANOTHER KINASE1 (AtYAK1), an evolutionarily conserved protein and a member of dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinases (DYRKs), as an interacting protein of LWDs. Our study revealed that AtYAK1 is an important regulator for various light responses, including the circadian clock, photomorphogenesis and reproductive development. AtYAK1 could antagonize the function of LWDs in regulating the circadian clock and photoperiodic flowering. By examining phenotypes of atyak1, we found that AtYAK1 regulated light-induced period-length shortening and photomorphogenic development. Moreover, AtYAK1 mediated plant fertility especially under inferior light conditions including low light and short-day length. This study discloses a new regulator connecting environmental light to plant growth. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. EBNA3C regulates p53 through induction of Aurora kinase B.

    PubMed

    Jha, Hem C; Yang, Karren; El-Naccache, Darine W; Sun, Zhiguo; Robertson, Erle S

    2015-03-20

    In multicellular organisms p53 maintains genomic integrity through activation of DNA repair, and apoptosis. EBNA3C can down regulate p53 transcriptional activity. Aurora kinase (AK) B phosphorylates p53, which leads to degradation of p53. Aberrant expression of AK-B is a hallmark of numerous human cancers. Therefore changes in the activities of p53 due to AK-B and EBNA3C expression is important for understanding EBV-mediated cell transformation. Here we show that the activities of p53 and its homolog p73 are dysregulated in EBV infected primary cells which can contribute to increased cell transformation. Further, we showed that the ETS-1 binding site is crucial for EBNA3C-mediated up-regulation of AK-B transcription. Further, we determined the Ser 215 residue of p53 is critical for functional regulation by AK-B and EBNA3C and that the kinase domain of AK-B which includes amino acid residues 106, 111 and 205 was important for p53 regulation. AK-B with a mutation at residue 207 was functionally similar to wild type AK-B in terms of its kinase activities and knockdown of AK-B led to enhanced p73 expression independent of p53. This study explores an additional mechanism by which p53 is regulated by AK-B and EBNA3C contributing to EBV-induced B-cell transformation.

  14. The transcription factor RUNX2 regulates receptor tyrosine kinase expression in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Boregowda, Rajeev K.; Medina, Daniel J.; Markert, Elke; Bryan, Michael A.; Chen, Wenjin; Chen, Suzie; Rabkin, Anna; Vido, Michael J.; Gunderson, Samuel I.; Chekmareva, Marina; Foran, David J.; Lasfar, Ahmed; Goydos, James S.; Cohen-Solal, Karine A.

    2016-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases-based autocrine loops largely contribute to activate the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways in melanoma. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in generating these autocrine loops are still largely unknown. In the present study, we examine the role of the transcription factor RUNX2 in the regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) expression in melanoma. We have demonstrated that RUNX2-deficient melanoma cells display a significant decrease in three receptor tyrosine kinases, EGFR, IGF-1R and PDGFRβ. In addition, we found co-expression of RUNX2 and another RTK, AXL, in both melanoma cells and melanoma patient samples. We observed a decrease in phosphoAKT2 (S474) and phosphoAKT (T308) levels when RUNX2 knock down resulted in significant RTK down regulation. Finally, we showed a dramatic up regulation of RUNX2 expression with concomitant up-regulation of EGFR, IGF-1R and AXL in melanoma cells resistant to the BRAF V600E inhibitor PLX4720. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that RUNX2 might be a key player in RTK-based autocrine loops and a mediator of resistance to BRAF V600E inhibitors involving RTK up regulation in melanoma. PMID:27102439

  15. The transcription factor RUNX2 regulates receptor tyrosine kinase expression in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Boregowda, Rajeev K; Medina, Daniel J; Markert, Elke; Bryan, Michael A; Chen, Wenjin; Chen, Suzie; Rabkin, Anna; Vido, Michael J; Gunderson, Samuel I; Chekmareva, Marina; Foran, David J; Lasfar, Ahmed; Goydos, James S; Cohen-Solal, Karine A

    2016-05-17

    Receptor tyrosine kinases-based autocrine loops largely contribute to activate the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways in melanoma. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in generating these autocrine loops are still largely unknown. In the present study, we examine the role of the transcription factor RUNX2 in the regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) expression in melanoma. We have demonstrated that RUNX2-deficient melanoma cells display a significant decrease in three receptor tyrosine kinases, EGFR, IGF-1R and PDGFRβ. In addition, we found co-expression of RUNX2 and another RTK, AXL, in both melanoma cells and melanoma patient samples. We observed a decrease in phosphoAKT2 (S474) and phosphoAKT (T308) levels when RUNX2 knock down resulted in significant RTK down regulation. Finally, we showed a dramatic up regulation of RUNX2 expression with concomitant up-regulation of EGFR, IGF-1R and AXL in melanoma cells resistant to the BRAF V600E inhibitor PLX4720. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that RUNX2 might be a key player in RTK-based autocrine loops and a mediator of resistance to BRAF V600E inhibitors involving RTK up regulation in melanoma.

  16. Integration of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1-Mediated Stress Signaling with the Akt/Protein Kinase B-IκB Kinase Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Puckett, Mary C.; Goldman, Erinn H.; Cockrell, Lisa M.; Huang, Bei; Kasinski, Andrea L.; Du, Yuhong; Wang, Cun-Yu; Lin, Anning; Ichijo, Hidenori; Khuri, Fadlo

    2013-01-01

    Cellular processes are tightly controlled through well-coordinated signaling networks that respond to conflicting cues, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signals, and survival factors to ensure proper cell function. We report here a direct interaction between inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), unveiling a critical node at the junction of survival, inflammation, and stress signaling networks. IKK can be activated by growth factor stimulation or tumor necrosis factor alpha engagement. IKK forms a complex with and phosphorylates ASK1 at a sensor site, Ser967, leading to the recruitment of 14-3-3, counteracts stress signal-triggered ASK1 activation, and suppresses ASK1-mediated functions. An inhibitory role of IKK in JNK signaling has been previously reported to depend on NF-κB-mediated gene expression. Our data suggest that IKK has a dual role: a transcription-dependent and a transcription-independent action in controlling the ASK1-JNK axis, coupling IKK to ROS and ER stress response. Direct phosphorylation of ASK1 by IKK also defines a novel IKK phosphorylation motif. Because of the intimate involvement of ASK1 in diverse diseases, the IKK/ASK1 interface offers a promising target for therapeutic development. PMID:23530055

  17. Ethylene acts as a negative regulator of glucose induced lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manjul; Gupta, Aditi; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Plants, being sessile organisms, are more exposed to the hazards of constantly changing environmental conditions globally. During the lifetime of a plant, the root system encounters various challenges such as obstacles, pathogens, high salinity, water logging, nutrient scarcity etc. The developmental plasticity of the root system provides brilliant adaptability to plants to counter the changes exerted by both external as well as internal cues and achieve an optimized growth status. Phytohormones are one of the major intrinsic factors regulating all aspects of plant growth and development both independently as well as through complex signal integrations at multiple levels. We have previously shown that glucose (Glc) and brassinosteroid (BR) signalings interact extensively to regulate lateral root (LR) development in Arabidopsis. (1) Auxin efflux as well as influx and downstream signaling components are also involved in Glc-BR regulation of LR emergence. Here, we provide evidence for involvement of ethylene signaling machinery downstream to Glc and BR in regulation of LR emergence.

  18. Ethylene acts as a negative regulator of glucose induced lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manjul; Gupta, Aditi; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Plants, being sessile organisms, are more exposed to the hazards of constantly changing environmental conditions globally. During the lifetime of a plant, the root system encounters various challenges such as obstacles, pathogens, high salinity, water logging, nutrient scarcity etc. The developmental plasticity of the root system provides brilliant adaptability to plants to counter the changes exerted by both external as well as internal cues and achieve an optimized growth status. Phytohormones are one of the major intrinsic factors regulating all aspects of plant growth and development both independently as well as through complex signal integrations at multiple levels. We have previously shown that glucose (Glc) and brassinosteroid (BR) signalings interact extensively to regulate lateral root (LR) development in Arabidopsis.1 Auxin efflux as well as influx and downstream signaling components are also involved in Glc-BR regulation of LR emergence. Here, we provide evidence for involvement of ethylene signaling machinery downstream to Glc and BR in regulation of LR emergence. PMID:26236960

  19. Ubp8 and SAGA Regulate Snf1 AMP Kinase Activity ▿

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Marenda A.; Koutelou, Evangelia; Hirsch, Calley; Akdemir, Kadir; Schibler, Andria; Barton, Michelle Craig; Dent, Sharon Y. R.

    2011-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications of histone proteins play important roles in the modulation of gene expression. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) 2-MDa SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5) complex, a well-studied multisubunit histone modifier, regulates gene expression through Gcn5-mediated histone acetylation and Ubp8-mediated histone deubiquitination. Using a proteomics approach, we determined that the SAGA complex also deubiquitinates nonhistone proteins, including Snf1, an AMP-activated kinase. Ubp8-mediated deubiquitination of Snf1 affects the stability and phosphorylation state of Snf1, thereby affecting Snf1 kinase activity. Others have reported that Gal83 is phosphorylated by Snf1, and we found that deletion of UBP8 causes decreased phosphorylation of Gal83, which is consistent with the effects of Ubp8 loss on Snf1 kinase functions. Overall, our data indicate that SAGA modulates the posttranslational modifications of Snf1 in order to fine-tune gene expression levels. PMID:21628526

  20. An Overlapping Kinase and Phosphatase Docking Site Regulates Activity of the Retinoblastoma Protein

    PubMed Central

    Hirschi, Alexander; Cecchini, Matthew; Steinhardt, Rachel C.; Dick, Frederick A.; Rubin, Seth M.

    2010-01-01

    The phosphorylation state and corresponding activity of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb) are modulated by a balance of kinase and phosphatase activities. Here we characterize the association of Rb with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c). A crystal structure identifies an enzyme-docking site in the Rb C-terminal domain that is required for efficient PP1c activity towards Rb. The phosphatase-docking site overlaps with the known docking site for Cyclin dependent kinase, and PP1 competition with Cdk-Cyclins for Rb binding is sufficient to retain Rb activity and block cell cycle advancement. These results provide the first detailed molecular insights into Rb activation and establish a novel mechanism for Rb regulation in which kinase and phosphatase compete for substrate docking. PMID:20694007

  1. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinases (CaMKKs) Effects on AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Regulation of Chicken Sperm Functions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi Mong Diep; Combarnous, Yves; Praud, Christophe; Duittoz, Anne; Blesbois, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Sperm require high levels of energy to ensure motility and acrosome reaction (AR) accomplishment. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been demonstrated to be strongly involved in the control of these properties. We address here the question of the potential role of calcium mobilization on AMPK activation and function in chicken sperm through the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinases (CaMKKs) mediated pathway. The presence of CaMKKs and their substrates CaMKI and CaMKIV was evaluated by western-blotting and indirect immunofluorescence. Sperm were incubated in presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+, or of CaMKKs inhibitor (STO-609). Phosphorylations of AMPK, CaMKI, and CaMKIV, as well as sperm functions were evaluated. We demonstrate the presence of both CaMKKs (α and β), CaMKI and CaMKIV in chicken sperm. CaMKKα and CaMKI were localized in the acrosome, the midpiece, and at much lower fluorescence in the flagellum, whereas CaMKKβ was mostly localized in the flagellum and much less in the midpiece and the acrosome. CaMKIV was only present in the flagellum. The presence of extracellular calcium induced an increase in kinases phosphorylation and sperm activity. STO-609 reduced AMPK phosphorylation in the presence of extracellular Ca2+ but not in its absence. STO-609 did not affect CaMKIV phosphorylation but decreased CaMKI phosphorylation and this inhibition was quicker in the presence of extracellular Ca2+ than in its absence. STO-609 efficiently inhibited sperm motility and AR, both in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca2+. Our results show for the first time the presence of CaMKKs (α and β) and one of its substrate, CaMKI in different subcellular compartments in germ cells, as well as the changes in the AMPK regulation pathway, sperm motility and AR related to Ca2+ entry in sperm through the Ca2+/CaM/CaMKKs/CaMKI pathway. The Ca2+/CaMKKs/AMPK pathway is activated only under conditions of extracellular Ca2+ entry in the cells

  2. RALFL34 regulates formative cell divisions in Arabidopsis pericycle during lateral root initiation

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Evan; Vu, Lam Dai; Van den Broeck, Lisa; Lin, Zhefeng; Ramakrishna, Priya; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Gaudinier, Allison; Goh, Tatsuaki; Slane, Daniel; Beeckman, Tom; Inzé, Dirk; Brady, Siobhan M.; Fukaki, Hidehiro; De Smet, Ive

    2016-01-01

    In plants, many signalling molecules, such as phytohormones, miRNAs, transcription factors, and small signalling peptides, drive growth and development. However, very few small signalling peptides have been shown to be necessary for lateral root development. Here, we describe the role of the peptide RALFL34 during early events in lateral root development, and demonstrate its specific importance in orchestrating formative cell divisions in the pericycle. Our results further suggest that this small signalling peptide acts on the transcriptional cascade leading to a new lateral root upstream of GATA23, an important player in lateral root formation. In addition, we describe a role for ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs (ERFs) in regulating RALFL34 expression. Taken together, we put forward RALFL34 as a new, important player in lateral root initiation. PMID:27521602

  3. RALFL34 regulates formative cell divisions in Arabidopsis pericycle during lateral root initiation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Evan; Vu, Lam Dai; Van den Broeck, Lisa; Lin, Zhefeng; Ramakrishna, Priya; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Gaudinier, Allison; Goh, Tatsuaki; Slane, Daniel; Beeckman, Tom; Inzé, Dirk; Brady, Siobhan M; Fukaki, Hidehiro; De Smet, Ive

    2016-08-01

    In plants, many signalling molecules, such as phytohormones, miRNAs, transcription factors, and small signalling peptides, drive growth and development. However, very few small signalling peptides have been shown to be necessary for lateral root development. Here, we describe the role of the peptide RALFL34 during early events in lateral root development, and demonstrate its specific importance in orchestrating formative cell divisions in the pericycle. Our results further suggest that this small signalling peptide acts on the transcriptional cascade leading to a new lateral root upstream of GATA23, an important player in lateral root formation. In addition, we describe a role for ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs (ERFs) in regulating RALFL34 expression. Taken together, we put forward RALFL34 as a new, important player in lateral root initiation.

  4. Transcriptional regulation of kinases downstream of the T cell receptor: another immunomodulatory mechanism of glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoids affect peripheral immune responses, including modulation of T-cell activation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The quantity and quality of T-cell receptor (TCR)-triggered intracellular signals modulate T-cell function. Thus, glucocorticoids may affect T cells by interfering with the TCR signaling cascade. The purpose of the study was to search for glucocorticoid-modulated kinases downstream of the TCR. Methods Gene modulation in lymphoid cells either treated with glucocorticoids or from glucocorticoid-treated mice was studied using a RNase protection assay, real-time PCR, and western blotting. The sensitivity of genetically modified thymocytes to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis was studied by performing hypotonic propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. The Student’s t-test was employed for statistical evaluation. Results We found that transcription of Itk, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase of the Tec family, was up-regulated in a mouse T-cell hybridoma by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. In contrast, dexamethasone down-regulated the expression of Txk, a Tec kinase that functions redundantly with Itk, and Lck, the Src kinase immediately downstream of the TCR. We investigated the expression of Itk, Txk, and Lck in thymocytes and mature lymphocytes following in vitro and in vivo dexamethasone treatment at different time points and doses. Kinase expression was differentially modulated and followed distinct kinetics. Itk was up-regulated in all cell types and conditions tested. Txk was strongly up-regulated in mature lymphocytes but only weakly up-regulated or non-modulated in thymocytes in vitro or in vivo, respectively. Conversely, Lck was down-regulated in thymocytes, but not modulated or up-regulated in mature lymphocytes in the different experimental conditions. This complex behaviour correlates with the presence of both positive and negative glucocorticoid responsive elements (GRE and nGRE, respectively) in the Itk, Txk

  5. Expression and activation of platelet-derived growth factor β receptor, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Altamura, Gennaro; Uberti, Barbara Degli; Galiero, Giorgio; Martano, Manuela; Pirro, Antonella; Russo, Marco; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    Canine mammary tumours are frequent neoplasms mostly affecting intact female dogs, for which no 100% efficient therapy is available. Platelet derived growth factor β receptor (PDGFβR) is a tyrosine kinase receptor (TKR) with a potential role in human breast cancer and a series of canine tumours. In this study we demonstrated, for the first time, expression of PDGFβR and its downstream transduction molecules, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), as well as their activated forms in canine mammary tumours by both biochemical analysis and immunohistochemistry. PDGFβR was expressed and hyperphosphorylated in the majority of tumour samples and tumour derived cell lines. Additionally, both MEK and ERK were expressed and activated in cell lines as well as biopsies. TKR inhibitors (TKRi) are currently under investigation as possible therapy in human breast and several canine tumours, thus our in vivo and in vitro findings pave the way for future studies aimed at establishing a potential therapeutic employment of TKRi for the treatment of canine mammary cancer.

  6. PP2A-3 interacts with ACR4 and regulates formative cell division in the Arabidopsis root.

    PubMed

    Yue, Kun; Sandal, Priyanka; Williams, Elisabeth L; Murphy, Evan; Stes, Elisabeth; Nikonorova, Natalia; Ramakrishna, Priya; Czyzewicz, Nathan; Montero-Morales, Laura; Kumpf, Robert; Lin, Zhefeng; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Iqbal, Mudassar; Van Bel, Michiel; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Meyer, Matthew R; Gadeyne, Astrid; Zipfel, Cyril; De Jaeger, Geert; Van Montagu, Marc; Van Damme, Daniël; Gevaert, Kris; Rao, A Gururaj; Beeckman, Tom; De Smet, Ive

    2016-02-02

    In plants, the generation of new cell types and tissues depends on coordinated and oriented formative cell divisions. The plasma membrane-localized receptor kinase ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY 4 (ACR4) is part of a mechanism controlling formative cell divisions in the Arabidopsis root. Despite its important role in plant development, very little is known about the molecular mechanism with which ACR4 is affiliated and its network of interactions. Here, we used various complementary proteomic approaches to identify ACR4-interacting protein candidates that are likely regulators of formative cell divisions and that could pave the way to unraveling the molecular basis behind ACR4-mediated signaling. We identified PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A-3 (PP2A-3), a catalytic subunit of PP2A holoenzymes, as a previously unidentified regulator of formative cell divisions and as one of the first described substrates of ACR4. Our in vitro data argue for the existence of a tight posttranslational regulation in the associated biochemical network through reciprocal regulation between ACR4 and PP2A-3 at the phosphorylation level.

  7. Functions and regulation of the Polo-like kinase Cdc5 in the absence and presence of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Botchkarev, Vladimir V; Haber, James E

    2017-08-02

    Polo-like kinases are essential cell cycle regulators that are conserved from yeast to humans. Unlike higher eukaryotes, who express multiple Polo-like kinase family members that perform many important functions, budding yeast express only a single Polo-like kinase, Cdc5, which is the homolog of mammalian cell cycle master regulator Polo-like kinase 1. Cdc5 is a fascinating multifaceted protein that is programmed to target its many substrates in a timely, sequential manner to ensure proper cell cycle progression. Over the years, many lessons about Polo-like kinase 1 have been learned by studying Cdc5 in budding yeast. Cdc5 has been well documented in regulating mitotic entry, chromosome segregation, mitotic exit, and cytokinesis. Cdc5 also plays important roles during cell division after DNA damage. Here, we briefly review the many functions of Cdc5 and its regulation in the absence and presence of DNA damage.

  8. Push-pull strategy in the regulation of postembryonic root development.

    PubMed

    Choe, Goh; Lee, Ji-Young

    2017-02-01

    Unlike animals, plants continue to grow throughout their lives. The stem cell niche, protected in meristems of shoots and roots, enables this process. In the root, stem cells produce precursors for highly organized cell types via asymmetric cell divisions. These precursors, which are "transit-amplifying cells," actively divide for several rounds before entering into differentiation programs. In this review, we highlight positive feedback regulation between shoot- and root-ward signals during the postembryonic root growth, which is reminiscent of a "push-pull strategy" in business parlance. This property of molecular networks underlies the regulation of stem cells and their organizer, the "quiescent center," as well as of the signaling between stem cell niche, transit-amplifying cells, and beyond. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lipid-Mediated Regulation of Embedded Receptor Kinases via Parallel Allosteric Relays.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Madhubrata; Wang, Loo Chien; Ramesh, Ranita; Morgan, Leslie K; Kenney, Linda J; Anand, Ganesh S

    2017-02-28

    Membrane-anchored receptors are essential cellular signaling elements for stimulus sensing, propagation, and transmission inside cells. However, the contributions of lipid interactions to the function and dynamics of embedded receptor kinases have not been described in detail. In this study, we used amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, a sensitive biophysical approach, to probe the dynamics of a membrane-embedded receptor kinase, EnvZ, together with functional assays to describe the role of lipids in receptor kinase function. Our results reveal that lipids play an important role in regulating receptor function through interactions with transmembrane segments, as well as through peripheral interactions with nonembedded domains. Specifically, the lipid membrane allosterically modulates the activity of the embedded kinase by altering the dynamics of a glycine-rich motif that is critical for phosphotransfer from ATP. This allostery in EnvZ is independent of membrane composition and involves direct interactions with transmembrane and periplasmic segments, as well as peripheral interactions with nonembedded domains of the protein. In the absence of the membrane-spanning regions, lipid allostery is propagated entirely through peripheral interactions. Whereas lipid allostery impacts the phosphotransferase function of the kinase, extracellular stimulus recognition is mediated via a four-helix bundle subdomain located in the cytoplasm, which functions as the osmosensing core through osmolality-dependent helical stabilization. Our findings emphasize the functional modularity in a membrane-embedded kinase, separated into membrane association, phosphotransferase function, and stimulus recognition. These components are integrated through long-range communication relays, with lipids playing an essential role in regulation.

  10. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 activation in endothelial cells exposed to cyclic strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, M.; Takei, T.; Mills, I.; Kito, H.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/ERK2) are activated and might play a role in enhanced proliferation and morphological change induced by strain. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were subjected to an average of 6 or 10% strain at a rate of 60 cycles/min for up to 4 h. Cyclic strain caused strain- and time-dependent phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2. Peak phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2 induced by 10% strain were at 10 min. A specific ERK1/ERK2 kinase inhibitor, PD-98059, inhibited phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2 but did not inhibit the increased cell proliferation and cell alignment induced by strain. Treatment of BAEC with 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1, 4-benzohydroquinone, to deplete inositol trisphosphate-sensitive calcium storage, and gadolinium chloride, a Ca2+ channel blocker, did not inhibit the activation of ERK1/ERK2. Strain-induced ERK1/ERK2 activation was partly inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin C and completely inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. These data suggest that 1) ERK1/ERK2 are not critically involved in the strain-induced cell proliferation and orientation, 2) strain-dependent activation of ERK1/ERK2 is independent of intracellular and extracellular calcium mobilization, and 3) protein kinase C activation and tyrosine kinase regulate strain-induced activation of ERK1/ERK2.

  11. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 activation in endothelial cells exposed to cyclic strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, M.; Takei, T.; Mills, I.; Kito, H.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/ERK2) are activated and might play a role in enhanced proliferation and morphological change induced by strain. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were subjected to an average of 6 or 10% strain at a rate of 60 cycles/min for up to 4 h. Cyclic strain caused strain- and time-dependent phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2. Peak phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2 induced by 10% strain were at 10 min. A specific ERK1/ERK2 kinase inhibitor, PD-98059, inhibited phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2 but did not inhibit the increased cell proliferation and cell alignment induced by strain. Treatment of BAEC with 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1, 4-benzohydroquinone, to deplete inositol trisphosphate-sensitive calcium storage, and gadolinium chloride, a Ca2+ channel blocker, did not inhibit the activation of ERK1/ERK2. Strain-induced ERK1/ERK2 activation was partly inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin C and completely inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. These data suggest that 1) ERK1/ERK2 are not critically involved in the strain-induced cell proliferation and orientation, 2) strain-dependent activation of ERK1/ERK2 is independent of intracellular and extracellular calcium mobilization, and 3) protein kinase C activation and tyrosine kinase regulate strain-induced activation of ERK1/ERK2.

  12. Protein phosphatase and kinase activities possibly involved in exocytosis regulation in Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Kissmehl, R; Treptau, T; Hofer, H W; Plattner, H

    1996-07-01

    cannot phosphorylate P63, whereas either PKG or the casein kinase phosphorylate P63 in vitro. On the basis of these findings we propose that a protein phosphatase/kinase system is involved in the regulation of exocytosis in P. tetraurelia cells.

  13. Calcium and calcium-dependent protein kinases are involved in nitric oxide- and auxin-induced adventitious root formation in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Lanteri, María Luciana; Pagnussat, Gabriela Carolina; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    A few years ago it was demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP are involved in the auxin response during adventitious root (AR) formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). More recently, a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade was shown to be induced by IAA in a NO-dependent, but cGMP-independent, pathway. In the present study, the involvement of Ca2+ and the regulation of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) activity during IAA- and NO-induced AR formation was evaluated in cucumber explants. The effectiveness of several broad-spectrum Ca2+ channel inhibitors and Ca2+ chelators in affecting AR formation induced by IAA or NO was also examined. Results indicate that the explants response to IAA and NO depends on the availability of both intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ pools. Protein extracts from cucumber hypocotyls were assayed for CDPK activity by using histone IIIS or syntide 2 as substrates for in-gel or in vitro assays, respectively. The activity of a 50 kDa CDPK was detected after 1 d of either NO or IAA treatments and it extended up to the third day of treatment. This CDPK activity was affected in both extracts from NO- and IAA-treated explants in the presence of the specific NO-scavenger cPTIO, suggesting that NO is required for its maximal and sustained activity. The in-gel and the in vitro CDPK activity, as well as the NO- or IAA-induced AR formation, were inhibited by calmodulin antagonists. Furthermore, the induction of CDPK activity by NO and IAA was shown to be reliant on the activity of the enzyme guanylate cyclase.

  14. Long-distance signals positively regulate the expression of iron uptake genes in tobacco roots.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Yusuke; Hodoshima, Hirotaka; Shimada, Hiroaki; Shoji, Kazuhiro; Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Goto, Fumiyuki

    2007-12-01

    Long-distance signals generated in shoots are thought to be associated with the regulation of iron uptake from roots; however, the signaling mechanism is still unknown. To elucidate whether the signal regulates iron uptake genes in roots positively or negatively, we analyzed the expressions of two representative iron uptake genes: NtIRT1 and NtFRO1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) roots, after shoots were manipulated in vitro. When iron-deficient leaves were treated with Fe(II)-EDTA, the expressions of both genes were significantly reduced; nevertheless iron concentration in the roots maintained a similar level to that in roots grown under iron-deficient conditions. Next, all leaves from tobacco plants grown under the iron-deficient condition were excised. The expression of two genes were quickly reduced below half within 2 h after the leaf excision and gradually disappeared by the end of a 24-h period. The NtIRT1 expression was compared among the plants whose leaves were cut off in various patterns. The expression increased in proportion to the dry weight of iron-deficient leaves, although no relation was observed between the gene expression and the position of excised leaves. Interestingly, the NtIRT1 expression in hairy roots increased under the iron-deficient condition, suggesting that roots also have the signaling mechanism of iron status as well as shoots. Taken together, these results indicate that the long-distance signal generated in iron-deficient tissues including roots is a major factor in positive regulation of the expression of NtIRT1 and NtFRO1 in roots, and that the strength of the signal depends on the size of plants.

  15. Arabidopsis RopGEF4 and RopGEF10 are important for FERONIA-mediated developmental but not environmental regulation of root hair growth.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Qiang; Li, En; Ge, Fu-Rong; Li, Sha; Wang, Qun; Zhang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Yan

    2013-12-01

    We investigated a genetic pathway in root hair development in Arabidopsis thaliana, involving the receptor-like kinase FERONIA (FER), two guanine nucleotide exchange factors for ROPs (RopGEF4 and RopGEF10), and the small GTPase Rho of plants (ROPs). Loss- and gain-of-function analyses demonstrated distinct roles of RopGEF4 and RopGEF10 such that RopGEF4 is only important for root hair elongation, while RopGEF10 mainly contributes to root hair initiation. Domain dissection by truncation and domain-swapping experiments indicated that their functional distinctions were mainly contributed by the noncatalytic domains. Using fluorescent ratio imaging, we showed that functional loss of RopGEF4 and RopGEF10 additively reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments demonstrated that RopGEF4 and RopGEF10 had the same interaction specificity as ROPs, suggesting common downstream components. We further showed that the promoting effects of environmental cues such as exogenous auxin and phosphate limitation on root hair development depended on FER. However, although functional loss of RopGEF4 and RopGEF10 largely abolished FER-induced ROS production, it did not compromise the responses to FER-mediated environmental cues on root hair development. Our results demonstrated that RopGEF4 and RopGEF10 are genetic components in FER-mediated, developmentally (but not environmentally) regulated, root hair growth.

  16. Serine/Threonine Kinase 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinase-1 (PDK1) as a Key Regulator of Cell Migration and Cancer Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Di Blasio, Laura; Gagliardi, Paolo A.; Puliafito, Alberto; Primo, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Dissecting the cellular signaling that governs the motility of eukaryotic cells is one of the fundamental tasks of modern cell biology, not only because of the large number of physiological processes in which cell migration is crucial, but even more so because of the pathological ones, in particular tumor invasion and metastasis. Cell migration requires the coordination of at least four major processes: polarization of intracellular signaling, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and membrane extension, focal adhesion and integrin signaling and contractile forces generation and rear retraction. Among the molecular components involved in the regulation of locomotion, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway has been shown to exert fundamental role. A pivotal node of such pathway is represented by the serine/threonine kinase 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDPK1 or PDK1). PDK1, and the majority of its substrates, belong to the AGC family of kinases (related to cAMP-dependent protein kinase 1, cyclic Guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C), and control a plethora of cellular processes, downstream either to PI3K or to other pathways, such as RAS GTPase-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase). Interestingly, PDK1 has been demonstrated to be crucial for the regulation of each step of cell migration, by activating several proteins such as protein kinase B/Akt (PKB/Akt), myotonic dystrophy-related CDC42-binding kinases alpha (MRCKα), Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1), phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLCγ1) and β3 integrin. Moreover, PDK1 regulates cancer cell invasion as well, thus representing a possible target to prevent cancer metastasis in human patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the various mechanisms by which PDK1 controls the cell migration process, from cell polarization to actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion regulation, and finally, to discuss the evidence supporting a

  17. Chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in tobacco: differential regulation by calmodulin isoforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Z.; Xia, M.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1998-01-01

    cDNA clones of chimeric Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) from tobacco (TCCaMK-1 and TCCaMK-2) were isolated and characterized. The polypeptides encoded by TCCaMK-1 and TCCaMK-2 have 15 different amino acid substitutions, yet they both contain a total of 517 amino acids. Northern analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner during anther development. Messenger RNA was detected when tobacco bud sizes were between 0.5 cm and 1.0 cm. The appearance of mRNA coincided with meiosis and became undetectable at later stages of anther development. The reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification assay using isoform-specific primers showed that both of the CCaMK mRNAs were expressed in anther with similar expression patterns. The CCaMK protein expressed in Escherichia coli showed Ca2+-dependent autophosphorylation and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent substrate phosphorylation. Calmodulin isoforms (PCM1 and PCM6) had differential effects on the regulation of autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation of tobacco CCaMK, but not lily CCaMK. The evolutionary tree of plant serine/threonine protein kinases revealed that calmodulin-dependent kinases form one subgroup that is distinctly different from Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) and other serine/threonine kinases in plants.

  18. Sucrose-induced Receptor Kinase SIRK1 Regulates a Plasma Membrane Aquaporin in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xu Na; Sanchez Rodriguez, Clara; Pertl-Obermeyer, Heidi; Obermeyer, Gerhard; Schulze, Waltraud X.

    2013-01-01

    The transmembrane receptor kinase family is the largest protein kinase family in Arabidopsis, and it contains the highest fraction of proteins with yet uncharacterized functions. Here, we present functions of SIRK1, a receptor kinase that was previously identified with rapid transient phosphorylation after sucrose resupply to sucrose-starved seedlings. SIRK1 was found to be an active kinase with increasing activity in the presence of an external sucrose supply. In sirk1 T-DNA insertional mutants, the sucrose-induced phosphorylation patterns of several membrane proteins were strongly reduced; in particular, pore-gating phosphorylation sites in aquaporins were affected. SIRK1-GFP fusions were found to directly interact with aquaporins in affinity pull-down experiments on microsomal membrane vesicles. Furthermore, protoplast swelling assays of sirk1 mutants and SIRK1-GFP expressing lines confirmed a direct functional interaction of receptor kinase SIRK1 and aquaporins as substrates for phosphorylation. A lack of SIRK1 expression resulted in the failure of mutant protoplasts to control water channel activity upon changes in external sucrose concentrations. We propose that SIRK1 is involved in the regulation of sucrose-specific osmotic responses through direct interaction with and activation of an aquaporin via phosphorylation and that the duration of this response is controlled by phosphorylation-dependent receptor internalization. PMID:23820729

  19. Emdogain-regulated gene expression in palatal fibroblasts requires TGF-βRI kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Stähli, Alexandra; Bosshardt, Dieter; Sculean, Anton; Gruber, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide microarrays have suggested that Emdogain regulates TGF-β target genes in gingival and palatal fibroblasts. However, definitive support for this contention and the extent to which TGF-β signaling contributes to the effects of Emdogain has remained elusive. We therefore studied the role of the TGF-β receptor I (TGF-βRI) kinase to mediate the effect of Emdogain on palatal fibroblasts. Palatal fibroblasts were exposed to Emdogain with and without the inhibitor for TGF-βRI kinase, SB431542. Emdogain caused 39 coding genes to be differentially expressed in palatal fibroblasts by microarray analysis (p<0.05; >10-fold). Importantly, in the presence of the TGF-βRI kinase inhibitor SB431542, Emdogain failed to cause any significant changes in gene expression. Consistent with this mechanism, three independent TGF-βRI kinase inhibitors and a TGF-β neutralizing antibody abrogated the increased expression of IL-11, a selected Emdogain target gene. The MAPK inhibitors SB203580 and U0126 lowered the impact of Emdogain on IL-11 expression. The data support that TGF-βRI kinase activity is necessary to mediate the effects of Emdogain on gene expression in vitro.

  20. Mechanisms regulating phosphoinositide 3-kinase signalling in insulin-sensitive tissues.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, P R

    2005-01-01

    A great deal of evidence has accumulated indicating that the activity of PI 3-kinase is necessary, and in some cases sufficient, for a wide range of insulin's actions in the cell. Most biochemical, genetic and pharmacological studies have focused on identifying potential roles for the class-Ia PI 3-kinases which are rapidly activated following insulin stimulation. However, recent evidence indicates the alpha isoform of class-II PI 3-kinase (PI3K-C2alpha) may also play a role as insulin causes a very rapid activation of this as well. The basic mechanisms by which insulin activates the various members of the PI 3-kinase family are increasingly well understood and these studies reveal multiple mechanisms for modulating the activity and functionality of PI 3-kinase and for down regulating the signals they generate. These include inhibitory phosphorylation events, lipid phosphatases such as PTEN and SHIP2 and inhibitor proteins of the suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) family. The current review will focus on these mechanisms and how defects in these might contribute to the development of insulin resistance.

  1. Chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in tobacco: differential regulation by calmodulin isoforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Z.; Xia, M.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1998-01-01

    cDNA clones of chimeric Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) from tobacco (TCCaMK-1 and TCCaMK-2) were isolated and characterized. The polypeptides encoded by TCCaMK-1 and TCCaMK-2 have 15 different amino acid substitutions, yet they both contain a total of 517 amino acids. Northern analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner during anther development. Messenger RNA was detected when tobacco bud sizes were between 0.5 cm and 1.0 cm. The appearance of mRNA coincided with meiosis and became undetectable at later stages of anther development. The reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification assay using isoform-specific primers showed that both of the CCaMK mRNAs were expressed in anther with similar expression patterns. The CCaMK protein expressed in Escherichia coli showed Ca2+-dependent autophosphorylation and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent substrate phosphorylation. Calmodulin isoforms (PCM1 and PCM6) had differential effects on the regulation of autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation of tobacco CCaMK, but not lily CCaMK. The evolutionary tree of plant serine/threonine protein kinases revealed that calmodulin-dependent kinases form one subgroup that is distinctly different from Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) and other serine/threonine kinases in plants.

  2. A lipid-regulated docking site on vinculin for protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Wolfgang H; Tigges, Ulrich; Zieseniss, Anke; Jockusch, Brigitte M

    2002-03-01

    During cell spreading, binding of actin-organizing proteins to acidic phospholipids and phosphorylation are important for localization and activity of these proteins at nascent cell-matrix adhesion sites. Here, we report on a transient interaction between the lipid-dependent protein kinase Calpha and vinculin, an early component of these sites, during spreading of HeLa cells on collagen. In vitro binding of protein kinase Calpha to vinculin tail was found dependent on free calcium and acidic phospholipids but independent of a functional kinase domain. The interaction was enhanced by conditions that favor the oligomerization of vinculin. Phosphorylation by protein kinase Calpha reached 1.5 mol of phosphate/mol of vinculin tail and required the C-terminal hydrophobic hairpin, a putative phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-binding site. Mass spectroscopy of peptides derived from in vitro phosphorylated vinculin tail identified phosphorylation of serines 1033 and 1045. Inhibition of C-terminal phospholipid binding at the vinculin tail by mutagenesis or deletion reduced the rate of phosphorylation to < or =50%. We suggest a possible mechanism whereby phospholipid-regulated conformational changes in vinculin may lead to exposure of a docking site for protein kinase Calpha and subsequent phosphorylation of vinculin and/or vinculin interaction partners, thereby affecting the formation of cell adhesion complexes.

  3. Protein kinase NII and the regulation of rDNA transcription in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Belenguer, P; Baldin, V; Mathieu, C; Prats, H; Bensaid, M; Bouche, G; Amalric, F

    1989-01-01

    Transcription of ribosomal RNA genes is generally accepted to correlate with cell growth. Using primary cultures of adult bovine aortic endothelial (ABAE) cells, we have shown that transcription of rDNA in confluent cells falls to 5% of the transcription level in growing cells. Protein kinase NII appears to be a limiting factor to promote rDNA transcription in isolated nuclei of confluent cells. Protein kinase NII was detected by immunocytochemistry in the cytoplasm, nuclei and nucleoli of growing cells while it was no longer present in nucleoli of confluent cells. The kinase activity, in isolated nuclei, was estimated by endogenous phosphorylation of a specific substrate, nucleolin. A 10% residual activity was present in confluent cell nuclei compared to growing cell nuclei. Concomitantly, the transcription 'in vitro' of rDNA in the corresponding nuclei was also highly reduced (by 85%). Addition of exogenous protein kinase NII to confluent cell nuclei induced a strong increase in the phosphorylation of specific proteins including nucleolin. In parallel, the transcription of rDNA was increased by a factor of 5, to nearly the level observed in nuclei prepared from growing cells. These data suggest that, in confluent cells, factors necessary for rDNA transcription machinery are present but inactive in the nucleolus and that the phosphorylation of one or several of these factors (nucleolin, topoisomerase I,...) by protein kinase NII is a key event in the regulation of rDNA transcription. Images PMID:2780290

  4. The Arabidopsis Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 20 (MKKK20) Acts Upstream of MKK3 and MPK18 in Two Separate Signaling Pathways Involved in Root Microtubule Functions.

    PubMed

    Benhamman, Rachid; Bai, Fangwen; Drory, Samuel B; Loubert-Hudon, Audrey; Ellis, Brian; Matton, Daniel P

    2017-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling networks represent important means of signal transduction in plants and other eukaryotes, controlling intracellular signaling by linking perception of environmental or developmental cues to downstream targets. In the Arabidopsis MEKK subfamily, the MKKK19, 20, and 21 form a highly supported clade with the Solanaceous Fertilization-Related Kinases. In Arabidopsis, little is known about this group, except for MKKK20, which is involved in osmotic stress. Using a directed MKKK-MKK yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screen, MKKK20 was found to interact only with MKK3, while a MKKK20 large-scale Y2H screen retrieved MPK18 as a direct interactant. In vitro phosphorylation assays showed that MKKK20 phosphorylates both MKK3 and MPK18. However, when all three kinases are combined, no synergistic effect is observed on MPK18 phosphorylation, suggesting a direct access to MPK18, consistent with the absence of interaction between MKK3 and MPK18 in protein-protein interaction assays. Since mpk18 mutant plants were previously shown to be defective in microtubule-related functions, phenotypes of mkkk20 single and mkkk20/mpk18 double mutants were investigated to determine if MKKK20 acts upstream of MPK18. This was the case, as mkkk20 root length was shorter than WT in media containing microtubule-disrupting drugs as previously observed for mpk18 plants. Surprisingly, mkk3 plants were also similarly affected, suggesting the presence of two non-complementary pathways involved in Arabidopsis cortical microtubule function, the first including MKKK20, MKK3 and an unknown MPK; the second, a non-canonical MAPK cascade made of MKKK20 and MPK18 that bypasses the need for an MKK intermediate.

  5. ABA Suppresses Root Hair Growth via the OBP4 Transcriptional Regulator1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Ayako; Schäfer, Sabine; Breuer, Christian; Shibata, Michitaro; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Matsui, Minami

    2017-01-01

    Plants modify organ growth and tune morphogenesis in response to various endogenous and environmental cues. At the cellular level, organ growth is often adjusted by alterations in cell growth, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this control remain poorly understood. In this study, we identify the DNA BINDING WITH ONE FINGER (DOF)-type transcription regulator OBF BINDING PROTEIN4 (OBP4) as a repressor of cell growth. Ectopic expression of OBP4 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inhibits cell growth, resulting in severe dwarfism and the repression of genes involved in the regulation of water transport, root hair development, and stress responses. Among the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors known to control root hair growth, OBP4 binds the ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE6-LIKE2 (RSL2) promoter to repress its expression. The accumulation of OBP4 proteins is detected in expanding root epidermal cells, and its expression level is increased by the application of abscisic acid (ABA) at concentrations sufficient to inhibit root hair growth. ABA-dependent induction of OBP4 is associated with the reduced expression of RSL2. Furthermore, ectopic expression of OBP4 or loss of RSL2 function results in ABA-insensitive root hair growth. Taken together, our results suggest that OBP4-mediated transcriptional repression of RSL2 contributes to the ABA-dependent inhibition of root hair growth in Arabidopsis. PMID:28167701

  6. Regulation of Root Greening by Light and Auxin/Cytokinin Signaling in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Baba, Shinsuke; Obayashi, Takeshi; Sato, Mayuko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Keränen, Mika; Aro, Eva-Mari; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Keiko; Masuda, Tatsuru

    2012-01-01

    Tight coordination between plastid differentiation and plant development is best evidenced by the synchronized development of photosynthetic tissues and the biogenesis of chloroplasts. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana roots demonstrate accelerated chlorophyll accumulation and chloroplast development when they are detached from shoots. However, this phenomenon is repressed by auxin treatment. Mutant analyses suggest that auxin transported from the shoot represses root greening via the function of INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID14, AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7 (ARF7), and ARF19. Cytokinin signaling, on the contrary, is required for chlorophyll biosynthesis in roots. The regulation by auxin/cytokinin is dependent on the transcription factor LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5), which is required for the expression of key chlorophyll biosynthesis genes in roots. The expression of yet another root greening transcription factor, GOLDEN2-LIKE2 (GLK2), was found to be regulated in opposing directions by auxin and cytokinin. Furthermore, both the hormone signaling and the GLK transcription factors modified the accumulation of HY5 in roots. Overexpression of GLKs in the hy5 mutant provided evidence that GLKs require HY5 to maximize their activities in root greening. We conclude that the combination of HY5 and GLKs, functioning downstream of light and auxin/cytokinin signaling pathways, is responsible for coordinated expression of the key genes in chloroplast biogenesis. PMID:22415275

  7. Role and regulation of Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta in bovine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Belenky, Michael; Breitbart, Haim

    2017-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a master switch that regulates a multitude of cellular pathways, including the acrosome reaction in sperm. In epididymal sperm cells, for example, GSK-3 activity correlates with inhibition of motility-yet no direct pathways connecting GSK-3 activation with loss of motility have been described. Indeed, the details of how GSK-3 is regulated during sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction remains obscure. To this end, we addressed the involvement of the GSK-3 beta isoform in several known pathways that contribute to motility and the acrosome reaction. We established that Protein kinase A (PKA) is the main regulator of GSK-3β in sperm, as pre-treatment of cells with a GSK-3 inhibitor prior to addition of H89, an inhibitor of PKA, attenuated the motility loss induced by blocking PKA activity. Both induced and spontaneous acrosome reactions also occurred less frequently in sperm treated with GSK-3 inhibitors. Finally, we observed a slow decline in phosphorylation of GSK-3β on Ser 9, which represents an inhibited state, during sperm capacitation; this phenotype is reversed during the induced acrosome reaction, in parallel to activation of Protein phosphatase 1. These results suggest that maintenance of sperm motility and acrosome reaction timing are mediated by PKA through the regulation of GSK-3 beta activity. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 84: 8-18, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Protein kinase D regulates several aspects of development in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Maier, Dieter; Nagel, Anja C; Gloc, Helena; Hausser, Angelika; Kugler, Sabrina J; Wech, Irmgard; Preiss, Anette

    2007-06-25

    Protein Kinase D (PKD) is an effector of diacylglycerol-regulated signaling pathways. Three isoforms are known in mammals that have been linked to diverse cellular functions including regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, motility and secretory transport from the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. In Drosophila, there is a single PKD orthologue, whose broad expression implicates a more general role in development. We have employed tissue specific overexpression of various PKD variants as well as tissue specific RNAi, in order to investigate the function of the PKD gene in Drosophila. Apart from a wild type (WT), a kinase dead (kd) and constitutively active (SE) Drosophila PKD variant, we also analyzed two human isoforms hPKD2 and hPKD3 for their capacity to substitute PKD activity in the fly. Overexpression of either WT or kd-PKD variants affected primarily wing vein development. However, overexpression of SE-PKD and PKD RNAi was deleterious. We observed tissue loss, wing defects and degeneration of the retina. The latter phenotype conforms to a role of PKD in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics. Strongest phenotypes were larval to pupal lethality. RNAi induced phenotypes could be rescued by a concurrent overexpression of Drosophila wild type PKD or either human isoform hPKD2 and hPKD3. Our data confirm the hypothesis that Drosophila PKD is a multifunctional kinase involved in diverse processes such as regulation of the cytoskeleton, cell proliferation and death as well as differentiation of various fly tissues.

  9. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton by Rho kinase controls antigen presentation by CD1d1

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Richard M.; Khan, Masood A.; Shi, Jianjian; Kapur, Reuben; Wei, Lei; Bailey, Jennifer C.; Liu, Jianyun; Brutkiewicz, Randy R.

    2012-01-01

    CD1d molecules are major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecules that present lipid antigens to Natural Killer T (NKT) cells. Although we have previously shown that several different cell signaling molecules can play a role in the control of antigen presentation by CD1d, a defined mechanism by which a cell signaling pathway regulates CD1d function has been unclear. In the current study, we have found that the Rho kinases, ROCK1 and ROCK2, negatively regulate both human and mouse CD1d-mediated antigen presentation. Inhibition of ROCK pharmacologically, through specific ROCK1 and ROCK2 shRNA, or by using dendritic cells generated from ROCK1-deficient mice all resulted in enhanced CD1d-mediated antigen presentation compared to controls. ROCK regulates the actin cytoskeleton by phosphorylating LIM kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates cofilin, prohibiting actin fiber depolymerization. Treatment of antigen presenting cells with the actin filament depolymerizing agent, cytochalasin D, as well as knockdown of LIM kinase by shRNA, resulted in enhanced antigen presentation to NKT cells by CD1d, consistent with our ROCK inhibition data. Therefore, our overall results reveal a model whereby CD1d-mediated antigen presentation is negatively regulated by ROCK via its effects on the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:22798677

  10. Expression and regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Giambelluca, Miriam S; Cloutier, Nathalie; Rollet-Labelle, Emmanuelle; Boilard, Eric; Pouliot, Marc

    2013-11-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase involved in the regulation of cellular processes ranging from glycogen metabolism to cell cycle regulation. Its two known isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues throughout the body and exert distinct but often overlapping functions. GSK-3 is typically active in resting cells, inhibition by phosphorylation of Ser21 (GSK-3α) or Ser9 (GSK-3β) being the most common regulatory mechanism. GSK-3 activity has been linked recently with immune system function, yet little is known about the role of this enzyme in neutrophils, the most abundant leukocyte type. In the present study, we examined GSK-3 expression and regulation in human neutrophils. GSK-3α was found to be the predominant isoform, it was constitutively expressed and cell stimulation with different agonists did not alter its expression. Stimulation by fMLP, LPS, GM-CSF, Fcγ receptor engagement, or adenosine A2A receptor engagement all resulted in phosphorylation of Ser21. The use of metabolic inhibitors revealed that combinations of Src kinase, PKC, PI3K/AKT, ERK/RSK and PKA signaling pathways could mediate phosphorylation, depending on the agonist. Neither PLC nor p38 were involved. We conclude that GSK-3α is the main isoform expressed in neutrophils and that many different pathways can converge to inhibit GSK-3α activity via Ser21-phosphorylation. GSK-3α thus might be a hub of cellular regulation.

  11. Regulation of ion channels and transporters by AMP-activated kinase (AMPK)

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Florian; Föller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The energy-sensing AMP-activated kinase AMPK ensures survival of energy-depleted cells by stimulating ATP production and limiting ATP utilization. Both energy production and energy consumption are profoundly influenced by transport processes across the cell membane including channels, carriers and pumps. Accordingly, AMPK is a powerful regulator of transport across the cell membrane. AMPK regulates diverse K+ channels, Na+ channels, Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ channels, Cl- channels, gap junctional channels, glucose carriers, Na+/H+-exchanger, monocarboxylate-, phosphate-, creatine-, amino acid-, peptide- and osmolyte-transporters, Na+/Ca2+-exchanger, H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase. AMPK activates ubiquitin ligase Nedd4–2, which labels several plasma membrane proteins for degradation. AMPK further regulates transport proteins by inhibition of Rab GTPase activating protein (GAP) TBC1D1. It stimulates phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase PIKfyve and inhibits phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) via glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Moreover, it stabilizes F-actin as well as downregulates transcription factor NF-κB. All those cellular effects serve to regulate transport proteins. PMID:24366036

  12. Protein kinase C in the immune system: from signalling to chromatin regulation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Pek Siew; Sutton, Christopher Ray; Rao, Sudha

    2015-12-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) form a key family of enzymes involved in signalling pathways that specifically phosphorylates substrates at serine/threonine residues. Phosphorylation by PKC is important in regulating a variety of cellular events such as cell proliferation and the regulation of gene expression. In the immune system, PKCs are involved in regulating signal transduction pathways important for both innate and adaptive immunity, ultimately resulting in the expression of key immune genes. PKCs act as mediators during immune cell signalling through the immunological synapse. PKCs are traditionally known to be cytoplasmic signal transducers and are well embedded in the signalling pathways of cells to mediate the cells' response to a stimulus from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. PKCs are also found to transduce signals within the nucleus, a process that is distinct from the cytoplasmic signalling pathway. There is now growing evidence suggesting that PKC can directly regulate gene expression programmes through a non-traditional role as nuclear kinases. In this review, we will focus on the role of PKCs as key cytoplasmic signal transducers in immune cell signalling, as well as its role in nuclear signal transduction. We will also highlight recent evidence for its newly discovered regulatory role in the nucleus as a chromatin-associated kinase.

  13. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activating kinase 1/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4-mediated inhibition of SKOV3ip.1 ovarian cancer metastasis involves growth arrest and p21 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Lotan, Tamara; Hickson, Jonathan; Souris, Jeffrey; Huo, Dezheng; Taylor, Jennifer; Li, Terry; Otto, Kristen; Yamada, Seiko Diane; Macleod, Kay; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W

    2008-04-01

    In many patients without clinical metastases, cancer cells have already escaped from the primary tumor and entered a distant organ. A long-standing question in metastasis research is why some disseminated cancer cells fail to complete steps of metastatic colonization for extended periods of time. Our laboratory identified c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activating kinase 1/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (JNKK1/MKK4) as a metastasis suppressor protein in a mouse xenograft model of experimental i.p. ovarian cancer metastasis. In this model, expression of JNKK1/MKK4 via activation of p38 delays formation of >or=1-mm implants and prolongs animal survival. Here, we elucidate the time course of this delay as well as the biological mechanisms underpinning it. Using the Gompertz function to model the net accumulation of experimental omental metastases, we show that MKK4-expressing implants arise, on average, 30 days later than controls. Quantitative real-time PCR shows that MKK4 expression does not have a substantial effect on the number of cancer cells initially adhering to the omentum, and terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling analysis shows that there is no increase in apoptosis in these cells. Instead, immunohistochemical quantitation of cell cycle proteins reveals that MKK4-expressing cells fail to proliferate once they reach the omentum and up-regulate p21, a cell cycle inhibitor. Consistent with the time course data, in vitro kinase assays and in vivo passaging of cell lines derived from macroscopic metastases show that the eventual outgrowth of MKK4-expressing cells is not due to a discrete selection event. Rather, the population of MKK4-expressing cells eventually uniformly adapts to the consequences of up-regulated MKK4 signaling.

  14. Phenotypic screening identifies Axl kinase as a negative regulator of an alveolar epithelial cell phenotype.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Naoya; Kubo, Hiroshi; Maciewicz, Rose A

    2017-09-01

    Loss of epithelial barrier integrity is implicated in a number of human lung diseases. However, the molecular pathways underlying this process are poorly understood. In a phenotypic screen, we identified Axl kinase as a negative regulator of epithelial phenotype and function. Furthermore, suppression of Axl activity by a small molecule kinase inhibitor or downregulation of Axl expression by small interfering RNA led to: (1) the increase in epithelial surfactant protein expression; (2) a cell morphology transition from front-rear polarity to cuboidal shape; (3) the cytoskeletal re-organization resulting in decreased cell mobility; and (4) the acquisition of epithelial junctions. Loss of Axl activity reduced activation of the Axl canonical pathway members, Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 and resulted in the loss of gene expression of a unique profile of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition transcription factors including SNAI2, HOXA5, TBX2 or TBX3. Finally, we observed that Axl was activated in hyperplasia of epithelial cells in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis where epithelial barrier integrity was lost. These results suggest that the Axl kinase signaling pathway is associated with the loss integrity of alveolar epithelium in pathological remodeling of human lung diseases.

  15. Lovastatin inhibits the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase pathway in immortalized rat brain neuroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cerezo-Guisado, Maria Isabel; GarcíA-Román, Natalia; García-MaríN, Luis Jesús; Álvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Bragado, Maria Julia; Lorenzo, Maria Jesús

    2006-01-01

    We have shown previously that lovastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methyl- glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, induces apoptosis in spontaneously immortalized rat brain neuroblasts. In the present study, we analysed the intracellular signal transduction pathways by which lovastatin induces neuroblast apoptosis. We showed that lovastatin efficiently inhibited Ras activation, which was associ-ated with a significant decrease in ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) phosphorylation. Lovastatin also decreased CREB phosphorylation and CREB-mediated gene expression. The effects of lovastatin on the Ras/ERK1/2/CREB pathway were time- and concentration-dependent and fully prevented by meva-lonate. In addition, we showed that two MEK [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK kinase] inhibitors, PD98059 and PD184352, were poor inducers of apoptosis in serum-treated neuroblasts. However, these inhibitors significantly increased apop-tosis induced by lovastatin treatment. Furthermore, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of both MEK and phosphoinos-itide 3-kinase activities was able to induce neuroblast apoptosis with similar efficacy as lovastatin. Our results suggest that lovast-atin triggers neuroblast apoptosis by regulating several signalling pathways, including the Ras/ERK1/2 pathway. These findings might also contribute to elucidate the intracellular mechanisms involved in the central nervous system side effects associated with statin therapy. PMID:16952276

  16. Protein kinase CK2: structure, regulation and role in cellular decisions of life and death.

    PubMed Central

    Litchfield, David W

    2003-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 ('casein kinase II') has traditionally been classified as a messenger-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is typically found in tetrameric complexes consisting of two catalytic (alpha and/or alpha') subunits and two regulatory beta subunits. Accumulated biochemical and genetic evidence indicates that CK2 has a vast array of candidate physiological targets and participates in a complex series of cellular functions, including the maintenance of cell viability. This review summarizes current knowledge of the structural and enzymic features of CK2, and discusses advances that challenge traditional views of this enzyme. For example, the recent demonstrations that individual CK2 subunits exist outside tetrameric complexes and that CK2 displays dual-specificity kinase activity raises new prospects for the precise elucidation of its regulation and cellular functions. This review also discusses a number of the mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of CK2 in cells, and will highlight emerging insights into the role of CK2 in cellular decisions of life and death. In this latter respect, recent evidence suggests that CK2 can exert an anti-apoptotic role by protecting regulatory proteins from caspase-mediated degradation. The mechanistic basis of the observation that CK2 is essential for viability may reside in part in this ability to protect cellular proteins from caspase action. Furthermore, this anti-apoptotic function of CK2 may contribute to its ability to participate in transformation and tumorigenesis. PMID:12396231

  17. Interdomain allosteric regulation of Polo kinase by Aurora B and Map205 is required for cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Kachaner, David; Pinson, Xavier; El Kadhi, Khaled Ben; Normandin, Karine; Talje, Lama; Lavoie, Hugo; Lépine, Guillaume; Carréno, Sébastien; Kwok, Benjamin H; Hickson, Gilles R; Archambault, Vincent

    2014-10-27

    Drosophila melanogaster Polo and its human orthologue Polo-like kinase 1 fulfill essential roles during cell division. Members of the Polo-like kinase (Plk) family contain an N-terminal kinase domain (KD) and a C-terminal Polo-Box domain (PBD), which mediates protein interactions. How Plks are regulated in cytokinesis is poorly understood. Here we show that phosphorylation of Polo by Aurora B is required for cytokinesis. This phosphorylation in the activation loop of the KD promotes the dissociation of Polo from the PBD-bound microtubule-associated protein Map205, which acts as an allosteric inhibitor of Polo kinase activity. This mechanism allows the release of active Polo from microtubules of the central spindle and its recruitment to the site of cytokinesis. Failure in Polo phosphorylation results in both early and late cytokinesis defects. Importantly, the antagonistic regulation of Polo by Aurora B and Map205 in cytokinesis reveals that interdomain allosteric mechanisms can play important roles in controlling the cellular functions of Plks.

  18. MEK1/2 dual-specificity protein kinases: Structure and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEK1 is activated by phosphorylation of S218 and S222 in its activation segment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEK1 activation requires KSR, which functions as a scaffold and a protein kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S212 phosphorylation in the MEK1 activation segment is inhibitory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEK1 and MEK2 contain a catalytic and a regulatory spine. -- Abstract: MEK1 and MEK2 are related protein kinases that participate in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade. This cascade participates in the regulation of a large variety of processes including apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell migration, differentiation, metabolism, and proliferation. Moreover, oncogenic mutations in RAS or B-RAF are responsible for a large proportion of human cancers. MEK1 is activated by phosphorylation of S218 and S222 in its activation segment as catalyzed by RAF kinases in an intricate process that involves a KSR scaffold. Besides functioning as a scaffold, the kinase activity of KSR is also required for MEK activation. MEK1 regulation is unusual in that S212 phosphorylation in its activation segment is inhibitory. Moreover, active ERK catalyzes a feedback inhibitory phosphorylation of MEK1 T292 that serves to downregulate the pathway.

  19. Serine/Threonine/Tyrosine Protein Kinase Phosphorylates Oleosin, a Regulator of Lipid Metabolic Functions1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Parthibane, Velayoudame; Iyappan, Ramachandiran; Vijayakumar, Anitha; Venkateshwari, Varadarajan; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2012-01-01

    Plant oils are stored in oleosomes or oil bodies, which are surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids embedded with oleosin proteins that stabilize the structure. Recently, a structural protein, Oleosin3 (OLE3), was shown to exhibit both monoacylglycerol acyltransferase and phospholipase A2 activities. The regulation of these distinct dual activities in a single protein is unclear. Here, we report that a serine/threonine/tyrosine protein kinase phosphorylates oleosin. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis, we demonstrate that this kinase interacts with OLE3 and that the fluorescence was associated with chloroplasts. Oleosin-green fluorescent protein fusion protein was exclusively associated with the chloroplasts. Phosphorylated OLE3 exhibited reduced monoacylglycerol acyltransferase and increased phospholipase A2 activities. Moreover, phosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol activated oleosin phosphorylation, whereas lysophosphatidylcholine, oleic acid, and Ca2+ inhibited phosphorylation. In addition, recombinant peanut (Arachis hypogaea) kinase was determined to predominantly phosphorylate serine residues, specifically serine-18 in OLE3. Phosphorylation levels of OLE3 during seed germination were determined to be higher than in developing peanut seeds. These findings provide direct evidence for the in vivo substrate selectivity of the dual-specificity kinase and demonstrate that the bifunctional activities of oleosin are regulated by phosphorylation. PMID:22434039

  20. Cell cycle dependent regulation of deoxycytidine kinase, deoxyguanosine kinase, and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase I activity in MOLT-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Fyrberg, A; Mirzaee, S; Lotfi, K

    2006-01-01

    Activation of nucleoside analogues is dependent on kinases and 5'-nucleotidases and the balance between the activity of these enzymes. The purpose of this study was to analyze deoxycytidine kinase, deoxyguanosine kinase, and 4 different 5'-nucleotidases during cell cycle progression in MOLT-4 cells. The activity of both kinases was cell cycle dependent and increased during proliferation while the activity of cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase I decreased. We could show that the kinase activity was higher than the total nucleotidase activity, which was unchanged or decreased during cell cycle progression. These data may be important in designing modern combination therapy with nucleoside analogues.

  1. Polo kinase regulates the localization and activity of the chromosomal passenger complex in meiosis and mitosis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Carmena, Mar; Lombardia, Miguel Ortiz; Ogawa, Hiromi; Earnshaw, William C

    2014-11-01

    Cell cycle progression is regulated by members of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), Polo and Aurora families of protein kinases. The levels of expression and localization of the key regulatory kinases are themselves subject to very tight control. There is increasing evidence that crosstalk between the mitotic kinases provides for an additional level of regulation. We have previously shown that Aurora B activates Polo kinase at the centromere in mitosis, and that the interaction between Polo and the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) component INCENP is essential in this activation. In this report, we show that Polo kinase is required for the correct localization and activity of the CPC in meiosis and mitosis. Study of the phenotype of different polo allele combinations compared to the effect of chemical inhibition revealed significant differences in the localization and activity of the CPC in diploid tissues. Our results shed new light on the mechanisms that control the activity of Aurora B in meiosis and mitosis.

  2. Clarifying binding difference of ATP and ADP to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 by using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianzhong

    2017-04-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 is a promising target for designs and development of anticancer drugs. Molecular dynamics simulations and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann method were applied to study binding difference of ADP and ATP to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2. The results prove that the binding ability of ATP to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 is stronger than that of ADP. Principal component analysis performed by using molecular dynamics trajectories suggests that binding of ADP and ATP to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 change motion directions of two helices α1 and α2. Residue-based free energy decomposition method was adopted to calculate contributions of separate residues to associations of ADP and ATP with extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2. The results show that ADP and ATP produce strong CH-π interactions with five residues Ile29, Val37, Ala50, Leu105, and Leu154. In addition, five hydrogen bonding interactions of ADP and ATP with residues Lys52, Gln103, Asp104, and Met106 also stabilize bindings of ADP and ATP to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2. Overall, the CH-π interactions of ATP with five residues Ile29, Val37, Ala50, Leu105, and Leu154 are stronger than ADP. This study is expected to contribute a significant theoretical hint for designs of anticancer drugs targeting extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.