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Sample records for kinase signaling antagonizes

  1. MAP kinase signaling antagonizes PAR-1 function during polarization of the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo.

    PubMed

    Spilker, Annina C; Rabilotta, Alexia; Zbinden, Caroline; Labbé, Jean-Claude; Gotta, Monica

    2009-11-01

    PAR proteins (partitioning defective) are major regulators of cell polarity and asymmetric cell division. One of the par genes, par-1, encodes a Ser/Thr kinase that is conserved from yeast to mammals. In Caenorhabditis elegans, par-1 governs asymmetric cell division by ensuring the polar distribution of cell fate determinants. However the precise mechanisms by which PAR-1 regulates asymmetric cell division in C. elegans remain to be elucidated. We performed a genomewide RNAi screen and identified six genes that specifically suppress the embryonic lethal phenotype associated with mutations in par-1. One of these suppressors is mpk-1, the C. elegans homolog of the conserved mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase ERK. Loss of function of mpk-1 restored embryonic viability, asynchronous cell divisions, the asymmetric distribution of cell fate specification markers, and the distribution of PAR-1 protein in par-1 mutant embryos, indicating that this genetic interaction is functionally relevant for embryonic development. Furthermore, disrupting the function of other components of the MAPK signaling pathway resulted in suppression of par-1 embryonic lethality. Our data therefore indicates that MAP kinase signaling antagonizes PAR-1 signaling during early C. elegans embryonic polarization.

  2. A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway mediates and PTEN antagonizes tumor necrosis factor inhibition of insulin signaling through insulin receptor substrate-1

    PubMed Central

    Ozes, Osman Nidai; Akca, Hakan; Mayo, Lindsey D.; Gustin, Jason A.; Maehama, Tomohiko; Dixon, Jack E.; Donner, David B.

    2001-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) by the insulin receptor permits this docking protein to interact with signaling proteins that promote insulin action. Serine phosphorylation uncouples IRS-1 from the insulin receptor, thereby inhibiting its tyrosine phosphorylation and insulin signaling. For this reason, there is great interest in identifying serine/threonine kinases for which IRS-1 is a substrate. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibited insulin-promoted tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and activated the Akt/protein kinase B serine-threonine kinase, a downstream target for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). The effect of TNF on insulin-promoted tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 was blocked by inhibition of PI 3-kinase and the PTEN tumor suppessor, which dephosphorylates the lipids that mediate PI 3-kinase functions, whereas constitutively active Akt impaired insulin-promoted IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Conversely, TNF inhibition of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation was blocked by kinase dead Akt. Inhibition of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation by TNF was blocked by rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a downstream target of Akt. mTOR induced the serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Ser-636/639), and such phosphorylation was inhibited by rapamycin. These results suggest that TNF impairs insulin signaling through IRS-1 by activation of a PI 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway, which is antagonized by PTEN. PMID:11287630

  3. Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) Promotes Dishevelled Protein Degradation via Autophagy and Antagonizes Wnt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Minzhang; Xue, Hua; Cao, Weipeng; Li, Wenxia; Chen, Hua; Liu, Bofeng; Ma, Benyu; Yan, Xiaohua; Chen, Ye-Guang

    2016-06-10

    Wnt signaling plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and cancer development. Dishevelled (Dvl) is an essential and central component in Wnt signaling, and its stability and activity is tightly regulated. It has been shown that Dvl can be degraded via both the proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways. Here we report that receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) negatively regulates Dishevelled stability and Wnt signaling. RACK1 interacts with Dvl proteins and promotes their lysosomal degradation, and this effect is enhanced by autophagy induction. RACK1 also interacts with LC3 and enhances the association of LC3 with Dvl2, thereby leading to degradation of Dvl proteins through autophagy. These findings reveal a novel regulatory function of RACK1 in Wnt signaling by modulating Dvl stability. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Inhibition of Dengue Virus Replication by a Class of Small-Molecule Compounds That Antagonize Dopamine Receptor D4 and Downstream Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jessica L.; Stein, David A.; Shum, David; Fischer, Matthew A.; Radu, Constantin; Bhinder, Bhavneet; Djaballah, Hakim; Nelson, Jay A.; Früh, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue viruses (DENV) are endemic pathogens of tropical and subtropical regions that cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. To date, no vaccines or antiviral therapeutics have been approved for combating DENV-associated disease. In this paper, we describe a class of tricyclic small-molecule compounds—dihydrodibenzothiepines (DHBTs), identified through high-throughput screening—with potent inhibitory activity against DENV serotype 2. SKI-417616, a highly active representative of this class, displayed activity against all four serotypes of DENV, as well as against a related flavivirus, West Nile virus (WNV), and an alphavirus, Sindbis virus (SINV). This compound was characterized to determine its mechanism of antiviral activity. Investigation of the stage of the viral life cycle affected revealed that an early event in the life cycle is inhibited. Due to the structural similarity of the DHBTs to known antagonists of the dopamine and serotonin receptors, we explored the roles of two of these receptors, serotonin receptor 2A (5HTR2A) and the D4 dopamine receptor (DRD4), in DENV infection. Antagonism of DRD4 and subsequent downstream phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-related kinase (ERK) were found to impact DENV infection negatively, and blockade of signaling through this network was confirmed as the mechanism of anti-DENV activity for this class of compounds. IMPORTANCE The dengue viruses are mosquito-borne, reemerging human pathogens that are the etiological agents of a spectrum of febrile diseases. Currently, there are no approved therapeutic treatments for dengue-associated disease, nor is there a vaccine. This study identifies a small molecule, SKI-417616, with potent anti-dengue virus activity. Further analysis revealed that SKI-417616 acts through antagonism of the host cell dopamine D4 receptor and subsequent repression of the ERK phosphorylation pathway. These results suggest that SKI-417616, or other

  5. Inhibition of dengue virus replication by a class of small-molecule compounds that antagonize dopamine receptor d4 and downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jessica L; Stein, David A; Shum, David; Fischer, Matthew A; Radu, Constantin; Bhinder, Bhavneet; Djaballah, Hakim; Nelson, Jay A; Früh, Klaus; Hirsch, Alec J

    2014-05-01

    Dengue viruses (DENV) are endemic pathogens of tropical and subtropical regions that cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. To date, no vaccines or antiviral therapeutics have been approved for combating DENV-associated disease. In this paper, we describe a class of tricyclic small-molecule compounds-dihydrodibenzothiepines (DHBTs), identified through high-throughput screening-with potent inhibitory activity against DENV serotype 2. SKI-417616, a highly active representative of this class, displayed activity against all four serotypes of DENV, as well as against a related flavivirus, West Nile virus (WNV), and an alphavirus, Sindbis virus (SINV). This compound was characterized to determine its mechanism of antiviral activity. Investigation of the stage of the viral life cycle affected revealed that an early event in the life cycle is inhibited. Due to the structural similarity of the DHBTs to known antagonists of the dopamine and serotonin receptors, we explored the roles of two of these receptors, serotonin receptor 2A (5HTR2A) and the D4 dopamine receptor (DRD4), in DENV infection. Antagonism of DRD4 and subsequent downstream phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-related kinase (ERK) were found to impact DENV infection negatively, and blockade of signaling through this network was confirmed as the mechanism of anti-DENV activity for this class of compounds. The dengue viruses are mosquito-borne, reemerging human pathogens that are the etiological agents of a spectrum of febrile diseases. Currently, there are no approved therapeutic treatments for dengue-associated disease, nor is there a vaccine. This study identifies a small molecule, SKI-417616, with potent anti-dengue virus activity. Further analysis revealed that SKI-417616 acts through antagonism of the host cell dopamine D4 receptor and subsequent repression of the ERK phosphorylation pathway. These results suggest that SKI-417616, or other compounds targeting the same

  6. Tumor suppressor protein C53 antagonizes checkpoint kinases to promote cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai; Wu, Jianchun; He, Chen; Yang, Wending; Li, Honglin

    2009-04-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)/cyclin B1 complex is the driving force for mitotic entry, and its activation is tightly regulated by the G2/M checkpoint. We originally reported that a novel protein C53 (also known as Cdk5rap3 and LZAP) potentiates DNA damage-induced cell death by modulating the G2/M checkpoint. More recently, Wang et al. (2007) found that C53/LZAP may function as a tumor suppressor by way of inhibiting NF-kappaB signaling. We report here the identification of C53 protein as a novel regulator of Cdk1 activation. We found that knockdown of C53 protein causes delayed Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry. During DNA damage response, activation of checkpoint kinase 1 and 2 (Chk1 and Chk2) is partially inhibited by C53 overexpression. Intriguingly, we found that C53 interacts with Chk1 and antagonizes its function. Moreover, a portion of C53 protein is localized at the centrosome, and centrosome-targeting C53 potently promotes local Cdk1 activation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that C53 is a novel negative regulator of checkpoint response. By counteracting Chk1, C53 promotes Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry in both unperturbed cell-cycle progression and DNA damage response.

  7. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-δ inhibitor CAL-101 shows promising preclinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by antagonizing intrinsic and extrinsic cellular survival signals

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Sarah E. M.; Gordon, Amber L.; Wagner, Amy J.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Zhao, Weiqiang; Flynn, Joseph M.; Jones, Jeffrey; Andritsos, Leslie; Puri, Kamal D.; Lannutti, Brian J.; Giese, Neill A.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wei, Lai; Byrd, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Targeted therapy with imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) prompted a new treatment paradigm. Unlike CML, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) lacks an aberrant fusion protein kinase but instead displays increased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity. To date, PI3K inhibitor development has been limited because of the requirement of this pathway for many essential cellular functions. Identification of the hematopoietic-selective isoform PI3K-δ unlocks a new therapeutic potential for B-cell malignancies. Herein, we demonstrate that PI3K has increased enzymatic activity and that PI3K-δ is expressed in CLL cells. A PI3K-δ selective inhibitor CAL-101 promoted apoptosis in primary CLL cells ex vivo in a dose- and time-dependent fashion that was independent of common prognostic markers. CAL-101–mediated cytotoxicity was caspase dependent and was not diminished by coculture on stromal cells. In addition, CAL-101 abrogated protection from spontaneous apoptosis induced by B cell–activating factors CD40L, TNF-α, and fibronectin. In contrast to malignant cells, CAL-101 does not promote apoptosis in normal T cells or natural killer cells, nor does it diminish antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. However, CAL-101 did decrease activated T-cell production of various inflammatory and antiapoptotic cytokines. Collectively, these studies provide rationale for the clinical development of CAL-101 as a first-in-class targeted therapy for CLL and related B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:20522708

  8. Guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A signaling antagonizes phosphoinositide hydrolysis, Ca2+ release, and activation of protein kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kailash N.

    2014-01-01

    Thus far, three related natriuretic peptides (NPs) and three distinct sub-types of cognate NP receptors have been identified and characterized based on the specific ligand binding affinities, guanylyl cyclase activity, and generation of intracellular cGMP. Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) specifically bind and activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) shows specificity to activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-B (GC-B/NPRB). All three NPs bind to natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPRC), which is also known as clearance or silent receptor. The NPRA is considered the principal biologically active receptor of NP family; however, the molecular signaling mechanisms of NP receptors are not well understood. The activation of NPRA and NPRB produces the intracellular second messenger cGMP, which serves as the major signaling molecule of all three NPs. The activation of NPRB in response to CNP also produces the intracellular cGMP; however, at lower magnitude than that of NPRA, which is activated by ANP and BNP. In addition to enhanced accumulation of intracellular cGMP in response to all three NPs, the levels of cAMP, Ca2+ and inositol triphosphate (IP3) have also been reported to be altered in different cells and tissue types. Interestingly, ANP has been found to lower the concentrations of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3; however, NPRC has been proposed to increase the levels of these metabolic signaling molecules. The mechanistic studies of decreased and/or increased levels of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3 in response to NPs and their receptors have not yet been clearly established. This review focuses on the signaling mechanisms of ANP/NPRA and their biological effects involving an increased level of intracellular accumulation of cGMP and a decreased level of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3 in different cells and tissue systems. PMID:25202235

  9. Guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A signaling antagonizes phosphoinositide hydrolysis, Ca(2+) release, and activation of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Kailash N

    2014-01-01

    Thus far, three related natriuretic peptides (NPs) and three distinct sub-types of cognate NP receptors have been identified and characterized based on the specific ligand binding affinities, guanylyl cyclase activity, and generation of intracellular cGMP. Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) specifically bind and activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) shows specificity to activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-B (GC-B/NPRB). All three NPs bind to natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPRC), which is also known as clearance or silent receptor. The NPRA is considered the principal biologically active receptor of NP family; however, the molecular signaling mechanisms of NP receptors are not well understood. The activation of NPRA and NPRB produces the intracellular second messenger cGMP, which serves as the major signaling molecule of all three NPs. The activation of NPRB in response to CNP also produces the intracellular cGMP; however, at lower magnitude than that of NPRA, which is activated by ANP and BNP. In addition to enhanced accumulation of intracellular cGMP in response to all three NPs, the levels of cAMP, Ca(2+) and inositol triphosphate (IP3) have also been reported to be altered in different cells and tissue types. Interestingly, ANP has been found to lower the concentrations of cAMP, Ca(2+), and IP3; however, NPRC has been proposed to increase the levels of these metabolic signaling molecules. The mechanistic studies of decreased and/or increased levels of cAMP, Ca(2+), and IP3 in response to NPs and their receptors have not yet been clearly established. This review focuses on the signaling mechanisms of ANP/NPRA and their biological effects involving an increased level of intracellular accumulation of cGMP and a decreased level of cAMP, Ca(2+), and IP3 in different cells and tissue systems.

  10. A tumor suppressor C53 protein antagonizes checkpoint kinases to promote cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hai; Wu, Jianchun; He, Chen; Yang, Wending; Li, Honglin

    2009-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)/cyclin B1 complex is the driving force for mitotic entry, and its activation is tightly regulated by the G2/M checkpoint. We originally reported that a novel protein C53 (also known as Cdk5rap3 and LZAP) potentiates DNA damage-induced cell death by modulating the G2/M checkpoint (1). More recently, Wang et al (2007) found that C53/LZAP may function as a tumor suppressor via inhibiting NF-κB signaling (2). We report here identification of C53 protein as a novel regulator of Cdk1 activation. We found that knockdown of C53 protein causes delayed Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry. During DNA damage response, activation of checkpoint kinase 1 and 2 (Chk1 and Chk2) is partially inhibited by C53 overexrepsssion. Intriguingly, we found that C53 interacts with checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) and antagonizes its function. Moreover, a portion of C53 protein is localized at the centrosome, and centrosome-targeting C53 potently promotes local Cdk1 activation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that C53 is a novel negative regulator of checkpoint response. By counteracting Chk1, C53 promotes Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry in both unperturbed cell cycle progression and DNA damage response. PMID:19223857

  11. Small molecule stabilization of the KSR inactive state antagonizes oncogenic Ras signalling

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Neil S.; scopton, Alex P.; Dar, Arvin C.

    2016-01-01

    Deregulation of the Ras–mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is an early event in many different cancers and a key driver of resistance to targeted therapies1. Sustained signalling through this pathway is caused most often by mutations in K-Ras, which biochemically favours the stabilization of active RAF signalling complexes2. Kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) is a MAPK scaffold3–5 that is subject to allosteric regulation through dimerization with RAF6,7. Direct targeting of KSR could have important therapeutic implications for cancer; however, testing this hypothesis has been difficult owing to a lack of small-molecule antagonists of KSR function. Guided by KSR mutations that selectively suppress oncogenic, but not wild-type, Ras signalling, we developed a class of compounds that stabilize a previously unrecognized inactive state of KSR. These compounds, exemplified by APS-2-79, modulate KSR-dependent MAPK signalling by antagonizing RAF heterodimerization as well as the conformational changes required for phosphorylation and activation of KSR-bound MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase). Furthermore, APS-2-79 increased the potency of several MEK inhibitors specifically within Ras-mutant cell lines by antagonizing release of negative feedback signalling, demonstrating the potential of targeting KSR to improve the efficacy of current MAPK inhibitors. These results reveal conformational switching in KSR as a druggable regulator of oncogenic Ras, and further suggest co-targeting of enzymatic and scaffolding activities within Ras–MAPK signalling complexes as a therapeutic strategy for overcoming Ras-driven cancers. PMID:27556948

  12. Antagonism of nerve growth factor-TrkA signaling and the relief of pain.

    PubMed

    Mantyh, Patrick W; Koltzenburg, Martin; Mendell, Lorne M; Tive, Leslie; Shelton, David L

    2011-07-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) was originally discovered as a neurotrophic factor essential for the survival of sensory and sympathetic neurons during development. However, in the adult NGF has been found to play an important role in nociceptor sensitization after tissue injury. The authors outline mechanisms by which NGF activation of its cognate receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase A receptor, regulates a host of ion channels, receptors, and signaling molecules to enhance acute and chronic pain. The authors also document that peripherally restricted antagonism of NGF-tropomyosin-related kinase A receptor signaling is effective for controlling human pain while appearing to maintain normal nociceptor function. Understanding whether there are any unexpected adverse events and how humans may change their behavior and use of the injured/degenerating tissue after significant pain relief without sedation will be required to fully appreciate the patient populations that may benefit from these therapies targeting NGF.

  13. Antagonism of Nerve Growth Factor-TrkA Signaling and the Relief of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mantyh, Patrick W.; Koltzenburg, Martin; Mendell, Lorne M.; Tive, Leslie; Shelton, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) was originally discovered as a neurotrophic factor essential for the survival of sensory and sympathetic neurons during development. However in the adult, NGF has been found to play an important role in nociceptor sensitization following tissue injury. Here we outline mechanisms by which NGF activation of its cognate receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase A receptor, regulates a host of ion channels, receptors, and signaling molecules to enhance acute and chronic pain. Further, we document that peripherally restricted antagonism of NGF-tropomyosin-related kinase A receptor signaling is effective for controlling human pain while appearing to maintain normal nociceptor function. Understanding whether there are any unexpected adverse events as well as how humans may change their behavior and use of the injured/degenerating tissue following significant pain relief without sedation will be required to fully appreciate the patient populations that may benefit from these therapies targeting NGF. PMID:21602663

  14. Porcine Deltacoronavirus Nsp5 Antagonizes Type I Interferon Signaling by Cleaving STAT2.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinyu; Wang, Dang; Zhou, Junwei; Pan, Ting; Chen, Jiyao; Yang, Yuting; Lv, Mengting; Ye, Xu; Peng, Guiqing; Fang, Liurong; Xiao, Shaobo

    2017-03-01

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging swine enteropathogenic coronavirus. The first outbreak of PDCoV was announced from the United States in 2014, followed by reports in Asia. The nonstructural protein nsp5 is a 3C-like protease of coronavirus and our previous study showed that PDCoV nsp5 inhibits type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we found that PDCoV nsp5 significantly inhibited IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter activity and transcription of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), suggesting that PDCoV nsp5 also suppresses IFN signaling. Detailed analysis showed that nsp5 cleaved signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2), but not Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2), STAT1 and interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9), key molecules of the JAK-STAT pathway. STAT2 cleavage was dependent on the protease activity of nsp5. Interestingly, nsp5 cleaved STAT2 at two sites, glutamine (Q) 685 and Q758, and similar cleavage was observed in PDCoV-infected cells. As expected, cleaved STAT2 impaired the ability to induce ISGs, demonstrating that STAT2 cleavage is an important mechanism utilized by PDCoV nsp5 to antagonize IFN signaling. We also discussed the substrate selection and binding mode of PDCoV nsp5 by homologous modeling of PDCoV nsp5 with the two cleaved peptide substrates. Taken together, our study demonstrates that PDCoV nsp5 antagonizes type I IFN signaling by cleaving STAT2 and provides structural insights to comprehend the cleavage mechanism of PDCoV nsp5, revealing a potential new function for PDCoV nsp5 in type I IFN signaling.IMPORTANCE The 3C-like protease encoded by nsp5 is a major protease of coronaviruses; thus it is an attractive target for development of anti-coronavirus drugs. Previous studies have revealed that the 3C-like protease of coronaviruses, including PDCoV and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), antagonizes type I IFN production by targeting NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO). Here

  15. Antagonism of SET using OP449 enhances the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and overcome drug resistance in myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anupriya; MacKenzie, Ryan J.; Pippa, Raffaella; Eide, Christopher A.; Oddo, Jessica; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Sears, Rosalie; Vitek, Michael P.; Odero, María D.; Christensen, Dale; Druker, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The SET oncoprotein, a potent inhibitor of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), is overexpressed in leukemia. We evaluated the efficacy of SET antagonism in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, a murine leukemia model, and primary patient samples using OP449, a specific, cell-penetrating peptide that antagonizes SET's inhibition of PP2A. Experimental Design In vitro cytotoxicity and specificity of OP449 in CML and AML cell lines and primary samples were measured using proliferation, apoptosis and colonogenic assays. Efficacy of target inhibition by OP449 is evaluated by immunoblotting and PP2A assay. In vivo antitumor efficacy of OP449 was measured in human HL-60 xenografted murine model. Results We observed that OP449 inhibited growth of CML cells including those from patients with blastic phase disease and patients harboring highly drug-resistant BCR-ABL1 mutations. Combined treatment with OP449 and ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors was significantly more cytotoxic to K562 cells and primary CD34+ CML cells. SET protein levels remained unchanged with OP449 treatment, but BCR-ABL1-mediated downstream signaling was significantly inhibited with the degradation of key signaling molecules such as BCR-ABL1, STAT5, and AKT. Similarly, AML cell lines and primary patient samples with various genetic lesions showed inhibition of cell growth after treatment with OP449 alone or in combination with respective kinase inhibitors. Finally, OP449 reduced the tumor burden of mice xenografted with human leukemia cells. Conclusions We demonstrate a novel therapeutic paradigm of SET antagonism using OP449 in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of CML and AML. PMID:24436473

  16. Bimodal antagonism of PKA signalling by ARHGAP36

    PubMed Central

    Eccles, Rebecca L.; Czajkowski, Maciej T.; Barth, Carolin; Müller, Paul Markus; McShane, Erik; Grunwald, Stephan; Beaudette, Patrick; Mecklenburg, Nora; Volkmer, Rudolf; Zühlke, Kerstin; Dittmar, Gunnar; Selbach, Matthias; Hammes, Annette; Daumke, Oliver; Klussmann, Enno; Urbé, Sylvie; Rocks, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase A is a key mediator of cAMP signalling downstream of G-protein-coupled receptors, a signalling pathway conserved in all eukaryotes. cAMP binding to the regulatory subunits (PKAR) relieves their inhibition of the catalytic subunits (PKAC). Here we report that ARHGAP36 combines two distinct inhibitory mechanisms to antagonise PKA signalling. First, it blocks PKAC activity via a pseudosubstrate motif, akin to the mechanism employed by the protein kinase inhibitor proteins. Second, it targets PKAC for rapid ubiquitin-mediated lysosomal degradation, a pathway usually reserved for transmembrane receptors. ARHGAP36 thus dampens the sensitivity of cells to cAMP. We show that PKA inhibition by ARHGAP36 promotes derepression of the Hedgehog signalling pathway, thereby providing a simple rationale for the upregulation of ARHGAP36 in medulloblastoma. Our work reveals a new layer of PKA regulation that may play an important role in development and disease. PMID:27713425

  17. Bimodal antagonism of PKA signalling by ARHGAP36.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Rebecca L; Czajkowski, Maciej T; Barth, Carolin; Müller, Paul Markus; McShane, Erik; Grunwald, Stephan; Beaudette, Patrick; Mecklenburg, Nora; Volkmer, Rudolf; Zühlke, Kerstin; Dittmar, Gunnar; Selbach, Matthias; Hammes, Annette; Daumke, Oliver; Klussmann, Enno; Urbé, Sylvie; Rocks, Oliver

    2016-10-07

    Protein kinase A is a key mediator of cAMP signalling downstream of G-protein-coupled receptors, a signalling pathway conserved in all eukaryotes. cAMP binding to the regulatory subunits (PKAR) relieves their inhibition of the catalytic subunits (PKAC). Here we report that ARHGAP36 combines two distinct inhibitory mechanisms to antagonise PKA signalling. First, it blocks PKAC activity via a pseudosubstrate motif, akin to the mechanism employed by the protein kinase inhibitor proteins. Second, it targets PKAC for rapid ubiquitin-mediated lysosomal degradation, a pathway usually reserved for transmembrane receptors. ARHGAP36 thus dampens the sensitivity of cells to cAMP. We show that PKA inhibition by ARHGAP36 promotes derepression of the Hedgehog signalling pathway, thereby providing a simple rationale for the upregulation of ARHGAP36 in medulloblastoma. Our work reveals a new layer of PKA regulation that may play an important role in development and disease.

  18. Stra13 regulates satellite cell activation by antagonizing Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong; Li, Li; Vercherat, Cécile; Gulbagci, Neriman Tuba; Acharjee, Sujata; Li, Jiali; Chung, Teng-Kai; Thin, Tin Htwe; Taneja, Reshma

    2007-01-01

    Satellite cells play a critical role in skeletal muscle regeneration in response to injury. Notch signaling is vital for satellite cell activation and myogenic precursor cell expansion but inhibits myogenic differentiation. Thus, precise spatial and temporal regulation of Notch activity is necessary for efficient muscle regeneration. We report that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Stra13 modulates Notch signaling in regenerating muscle. Upon injury, Stra13−/− mice exhibit increased cellular proliferation, elevated Notch signaling, a striking regeneration defect characterized by degenerated myotubes, increased mononuclear cells, and fibrosis. Stra13−/− primary myoblasts also exhibit enhanced Notch activity, increased proliferation, and defective differentiation. Inhibition of Notch signaling ex vivo and in vivo ameliorates the phenotype of Stra13−/− mutants. We demonstrate in vitro that Stra13 antagonizes Notch activity and reverses the Notch-imposed inhibition of myogenesis. Thus, Stra13 plays an important role in postnatal myogenesis by attenuating Notch signaling to reduce myoblast proliferation and promote myogenic differentiation. PMID:17502421

  19. USP15 attenuates IGF-I signaling by antagonizing Nedd4-induced IRS-2 ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Toshiaki; Yoshihara, Hidehito; Furuta, Haruka; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Iemura, Shun-Ichiro; Natsume, Tohru; Nakatsu, Yusuke; Kamata, Hideaki; Asano, Tomoichiro; Komada, Masayuki; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2017-03-11

    Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) are phosphorylated by IGF-I receptor tyrosine kinase in a ligand-dependent manner. In turn, they bind to and activate effector proteins such as PI3K, leading to various cell responses including cell proliferation. We had reported that ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 induces mono-ubiquitination of IRS-2, thereby enhancing IRS-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, leading to increased IGF signaling and mitogenic activity. Here we show that ubiquitin-specific protease 15 (USP15) antagonizes the effect of Nedd4 on IRS-2. We identified USP15 as a protein that preferentially bound to IRS-2 when IRS-2 was conjugated with ubiquitin. In HEK293 cells, Nedd4 overexpression induced IRS-2 ubiquitination, which was decreased by USP15 co-expression while increased by USP15 knockdown. Nedd4 overexpression enhanced IGF-I-dependent IRS-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, and USP15 co-expression suppressed it. Conversely, USP15 knockdown increased IRS-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and downstream signaling in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. We concluded that USP15 attenuates IGF-I signaling by antagonizing Nedd4-induced IRS-2 ubiquitination.

  20. Kinase signalling in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Kathryn R; Jones, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in numerous signal transduction pathways and aberrant activity of specific kinases have been identified in multiple cell and mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD), as well as in human HD brain. The balance and integration of a network of kinase signalling pathways is paramount for the regulation of a wide range of cellular and physiological processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, inflammation, neuronal plasticity and apoptosis. Unbalanced activity within these pathways provides a potential mechanism for many of the pathological phenotypes associated with HD, such as transcriptional dysregulation, inflammation and ultimately neurodegeneration. The characterisation of aberrant kinase signalling regulation in HD has been inconsistent and may be a result of failure to consider integration between multiple signalling pathways, as well as alterations that may occur over time with both age and disease progression. Collating the information about the effect of mHTT on signalling pathways demonstrates that it has wide ranging effects on multiple pro- and anti-apoptotic kinases, resulting in the dysregulation of numerous complex interactions within a dynamic network.

  1. TNF and MAP kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sabio, Guadalupe; Davis, Roger J.

    2014-01-01

    The binding of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) to cell surface receptors engages multiple signal transduction pathways, including three groups of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases: extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); the cJun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs); and the p38 MAP kinases. These MAP kinase signalling pathways induce a secondary response by increasing the expression of several inflammatory cytokines (including TNFα) that contribute to the biological activity of TNFα. MAP kinases therefore function both upstream and down-stream of signalling by TNFα receptors. Here we review mechanisms that mediate these actions of MAP kinases during the response to TNFα. PMID:24647229

  2. Antagonism between retinoic acid and fibroblast growth factor signaling during limb development.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Thomas J; Zhao, Xianling; Sandell, Lisa L; Evans, Sylvia M; Trainor, Paul A; Duester, Gregg

    2013-05-30

    The vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) provides patterning information during vertebrate embryogenesis, but the mechanism through which RA influences limb development is unclear. During patterning of the limb proximodistal axis (upper limb to digits), avian studies suggest that a proximal RA signal generated in the trunk antagonizes a distal fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signal. However, mouse and zebrafish genetic studies suggest that loss of RA suppresses forelimb initiation. Here, using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that limb proximodistal patterning is not RA dependent, thus indicating that RA-FGF antagonism does not occur along the proximodistal axis of the limb. Instead, our studies show that RA-FGF antagonism acts prior to limb budding along the anteroposterior axis of the trunk lateral plate mesoderm to provide a patterning cue that guides formation of the forelimb field. These findings reconcile disparate ideas regarding RA-FGF antagonism and provide insight into how endogenous RA programs the early embryo.

  3. Pathway illuminated: visualizing protein kinase C signaling.

    PubMed

    Violin, Jonathan D; Newton, Alexandra C

    2003-12-01

    Protein kinase C has been at the center of cell signaling since the discovery 25 years ago that it transduces signals that promote phospholipid hydrolysis. In recent years, the use of genetically encoded fluorescent reporters has enabled studies of the regulation of protein kinase C signaling in living cells. Advances in imaging techniques have unveiled unprecedented detail of the signal processing mechanics of protein kinase C, from the second messengers calcium and diacylglycerol that regulate protein kinase C activity, to the locations and kinetics of different protein kinase C isozymes, to the spatial and temporal dynamics of substrate phosphorylation by this key enzyme. This review discusses how fluorescence imaging studies have illuminated the fidelity with which protein kinase C transduces rapidly changing extracellular information into intracellular phosphorylation signals.

  4. AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP signalling via phosphorylation-induced activation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4B

    PubMed Central

    Johanns, M.; Lai, Y.-C.; Hsu, M.-F.; Jacobs, R.; Vertommen, D.; Van Sande, J.; Dumont, J. E.; Woods, A.; Carling, D.; Hue, L.; Viollet, B.; Foretz, M; Rider, M H

    2016-01-01

    Biguanides such as metformin have previously been shown to antagonize hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling independently of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) via direct inhibition of adenylate cyclase by AMP. Here we show that incubation of hepatocytes with the small-molecule AMPK activator 991 decreases glucagon-stimulated cAMP accumulation, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity and downstream PKA target phosphorylation. Moreover, incubation of hepatocytes with 991 increases the Vmax of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) without affecting intracellular adenine nucleotide concentrations. The effects of 991 to decrease glucagon-stimulated cAMP concentrations and activate PDE4B are lost in hepatocytes deleted for both catalytic subunits of AMPK. PDE4B is phosphorylated by AMPK at three sites, and by site-directed mutagenesis, Ser304 phosphorylation is important for activation. In conclusion, we provide a new mechanism by which AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon signalling via phosphorylation-induced PDE4B activation. PMID:26952277

  5. Insulin antagonizes ischemia-induced Thr172 phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha-subunits in heart via hierarchical phosphorylation of Ser485/491.

    PubMed

    Horman, Sandrine; Vertommen, Didier; Heath, Richard; Neumann, Dietbert; Mouton, Véronique; Woods, Angela; Schlattner, Uwe; Wallimann, Theo; Carling, David; Hue, Louis; Rider, Mark H

    2006-03-03

    Previous studies showed that insulin antagonizes AMP-activated protein kinase activation by ischemia and that protein kinase B might be implicated. Here we investigated whether the direct phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase by protein kinase B might participate in this effect. Protein kinase B phosphorylated recombinant bacterially expressed AMP-activated protein kinase heterotrimers at Ser(485) of the alpha1-subunits. In perfused rat hearts, phosphorylation of the alpha1/alpha2 AMP-activated protein kinase subunits on Ser(485)/Ser(491) was increased by insulin and insulin pretreatment decreased the phosphorylation of the alpha-subunits at Thr(172) in a subsequent ischemic episode. It is proposed that the effect of insulin to antagonize AMP-activated protein kinase activation involves a hierarchical mechanism whereby Ser(485)/Ser(491) phosphorylation by protein kinase B reduces subsequent phosphorylation of Thr(172) by LKB1 and the resulting activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

  6. Spatial regulation of Raf kinase signaling by RKTG

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lin; Xie, Xiaoduo; Ding, Qiurong; Luo, Xiaolin; He, Jing; Fan, Fengjuan; Liu, Weizhong; Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yan

    2007-01-01

    Subcellular compartmentalization has become an important theme in cell signaling such as spatial regulation of Ras by RasGRP1 and MEK/ERK by Sef. Here, we report spatial regulation of Raf kinase by RKTG (Raf kinase trapping to Golgi). RKTG is a seven-transmembrane protein localized at the Golgi apparatus. RKTG expression inhibits EGF-stimulated ERK and RSK phosphorylation, blocks NGF-mediated PC12 cell differentiation, and antagonizes Ras- and Raf-1-stimulated Elk-1 transactivation. Through interaction with Raf-1, RKTG changes the localization of Raf-1 from cytoplasm to the Golgi apparatus, blocks EGF-stimulated Raf-1 membrane translocation, and reduces the interaction of Raf-1 with Ras and MEK1. In RKTG-null mice, the basal ERK phosphorylation level is increased in the brain and liver. In RKTG-deleted mouse embryonic fibroblasts, EGF-induced ERK phosphorylation is enhanced. Collectively, our results reveal a paradigm of spatial regulation of Raf kinase by RKTG via sequestrating Raf-1 to the Golgi apparatus and thereby inhibiting the ERK signaling pathway. PMID:17724343

  7. Antagonism of purinergic signalling improves recovery from traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Miller, William J.; Chen, Yung-Chia; Nibley, Philip; Patel, Tapan P.; Goletiani, Cezar; Morrison, Barclay; Kutzing, Melinda K.; Firestein, Bonnie L.; Sul, Jai-Yoon; Haydon, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    The recent public awareness of the incidence and possible long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury only heightens the need to develop effective approaches for treating this neurological disease. In this report, we identify a new therapeutic target for traumatic brain injury by studying the role of astrocytes, rather than neurons, after neurotrauma. We use in vivo multiphoton imaging and show that mechanical forces during trauma trigger intercellular calcium waves throughout the astrocytes, and these waves are mediated by purinergic signalling. Subsequent in vitro screening shows that astrocyte signalling through the ‘mechanical penumbra’ affects the activity of neural circuits distant from the injury epicentre, and a reduction in the intercellular calcium waves within astrocytes restores neural activity after injury. In turn, the targeting of different purinergic receptor populations leads to a reduction in hippocampal cell death in mechanically injured organotypic slice cultures. Finally, the most promising therapeutic candidate from our in vitro screen (MRS 2179, a P2Y1 receptor antagonist) also improves histological and cognitive outcomes in a preclinical model of traumatic brain injury. This work shows the potential of studying astrocyte signalling after trauma to yield new and effective therapeutic targets for treating traumatic brain injury. PMID:23293266

  8. Ci antagonizes Hippo signaling in the somatic cells of the ovary to drive germline stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaoyi; Kan, Lijuan; Chen, Yan; Zheng, Xiudeng; Li, Weini; Zhang, Wenxin; Cao, Lei; Lin, Xiaohui; Ji, Shanming; Huang, Shoujun; Zhang, Guoqiang; Liu, Xiaohui; Tao, Yi; Wu, Shian; Chen, Dahua

    2015-10-01

    Many stem cell populations are tightly regulated by their local microenvironment (niche), which comprises distinct types of stromal cells. However, little is known about mechanisms by which niche subgroups coordinately determine the stem cell fate. Here we identify that Yki, the key Hippo pathway component, is essential for escort cell (EC) function in promoting germline differentiation in Drosophila ovary. We found that Hedgehog (Hh) signals emanating primarily from cap cells support the function of ECs, where Cubitus interruptus (Ci), the Hh signaling effector, acts to inhibit Hippo kinase cascade activity. Mechanistically, we found that Ci competitively interacts with Hpo and impairs the Hpo-Wts signaling complex formation, thereby promoting Yki nuclear localization. The actions of Ci ensure effective Yki signaling to antagonize Sd/Tgi/Vg-mediated default repression in ECs. This study uncovers a mechanism explaining how subgroups of niche cells coordinate to determine the stem cell fate via Hh-Hippo signaling crosstalk, and enhances our understanding of mechanistic regulations of the oncogenic Yki/YAP signaling.

  9. Non-canonical antagonism of PI3K by the kinase Itpkb delays thymocyte β-selection and renders it Notch-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Westernberg, Luise; Conche, Claire; Huang, Yina Hsing; Rigaud, Stephanie; Deng, Yisong; Siegemund, Sabine; Mukherjee, Sayak; Nosaka, Lyn'Al; Das, Jayajit; Sauer, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    β-selection is the most pivotal event determining αβ T cell fate. Here, surface-expression of a pre-T cell receptor (pre-TCR) induces thymocyte metabolic activation, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Besides the pre-TCR, β-selection also requires co-stimulatory signals from Notch receptors - key cell fate determinants in eukaryotes. Here, we show that this Notch-dependence is established through antagonistic signaling by the pre-TCR/Notch effector, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and by inositol-trisphosphate 3-kinase B (Itpkb). Canonically, PI3K is counteracted by the lipid-phosphatases Pten and Inpp5d/SHIP-1. In contrast, Itpkb dampens pre-TCR induced PI3K/Akt signaling by producing IP4, a soluble antagonist of the Akt-activating PI3K-product PIP3. Itpkb-/- thymocytes are pre-TCR hyperresponsive, hyperactivate Akt, downstream mTOR and metabolism, undergo an accelerated β-selection and can develop to CD4+CD8+ cells without Notch. This is reversed by inhibition of Akt, mTOR or glucose metabolism. Thus, non-canonical PI3K-antagonism by Itpkb restricts pre-TCR induced metabolic activation to enforce coincidence-detection of pre-TCR expression and Notch-engagement. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10786.001 PMID:26880557

  10. Src Family Kinase Inhibitors Antagonize the Toxicity of Multiple Serotypes of Botulinum Neurotoxin in Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Motor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, James C.; Nuss, Jonathan E.; Wanner, Laura M.; Peyser, Brian D.; Du, Hao T.; Gomba, Glenn Y.; Kota, Krishna P.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Gussio, Rick; Kane, Christopher D.; Tessarollo, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the causative agents of botulism, are potent inhibitors of neurotransmitter release from motor neurons. There are currently no drugs to treat BoNT intoxication after the onset of the disease symptoms. In this study, we explored how modulation of key host pathways affects the process of BoNT intoxication in human motor neurons, focusing on Src family kinase (SFK) signaling. Motor neurons derived from human embryonic stem (hES) cells were treated with a panel of SFK inhibitors and intoxicated with BoNT serotypes A, B, or E (which are responsible for >95 % of human botulism cases). Subsequently, it was found that bosutinib, dasatinib, KX2-391, PP1, PP2, Src inhibitor-1, and SU6656 significantly antagonized all three of the serotypes. Furthermore, the data indicated that the treatment of hES-derived motor neurons with multiple SFK inhibitors increased the antagonistic effect synergistically. Mechanistically, the small molecules appear to inhibit BoNTs by targeting host pathways necessary for intoxication and not by directly inhibiting the toxins’ proteolytic activity. Importantly, the identified inhibitors are all well-studied with some in clinical trials while others are FDA-approved drugs. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of targeting host neuronal pathways, rather than the toxin’s enzymatic components, to antagonize multiple BoNT serotypes in motor neurons. PMID:25782580

  11. Protein Scaffolds in MAP Kinase Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Matthew D.; Sacks, David B.

    2009-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway allows cells to interpret external signals and respond in an appropriate way. Diverse cellular functions, ranging from differentiation and proliferation to migration and inflammation, are regulated by MAPK signalling. Therefore, cells have developed mechanisms by which this single pathway modulates numerous cellular responses from a wide range of activating factors. This specificity is achieved by several mechanisms, including temporal and spatial control of MAPK signalling components. Key to this control are protein scaffolds, which are multidomain proteins that interact with components of the MAPK cascade in order to assemble signalling complexes. Studies conducted on different scaffolds, in different biological systems, have shown that scaffolds exert substantial control over MAPK signalling, influencing the signal intensity, time course and, importantly, the cellular responses. Protein scaffolds, therefore, are integral elements in the modulation of the MAPK network in fundamental physiological processes. PMID:19091303

  12. Coop functions as a corepressor of Pangolin and antagonizes Wingless signaling.

    PubMed

    Song, Haiyun; Goetze, Sandra; Bischof, Johannes; Spichiger-Haeusermann, Chloe; Kuster, Marco; Brunner, Erich; Basler, Konrad

    2010-05-01

    Wingless (Wg) signaling regulates expression of its target genes via Pangolin and Armadillo, and their interacting cofactors. In the absence of Wg, Pangolin mediates transcriptional repression. In the presence of Wg, Pangolin, Armadillo, and a cohort of coactivators mediate transcriptional activation. Here we uncover Coop (corepressor of Pan) as a Pangolin-interacting protein. Coop and Pangolin form a complex on DNA containing a Pangolin/TCF-binding motif. Overexpression of Coop specifically represses Wg target genes, while loss of Coop function causes derepression. Finally, we show that Coop antagonizes the binding of Armadillo to Pangolin, providing a mechanism for Coop-mediated repression of Wg target gene transcription.

  13. Coop functions as a corepressor of Pangolin and antagonizes Wingless signaling

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haiyun; Goetze, Sandra; Bischof, Johannes; Spichiger-Haeusermann, Chloe; Kuster, Marco; Brunner, Erich; Basler, Konrad

    2010-01-01

    Wingless (Wg) signaling regulates expression of its target genes via Pangolin and Armadillo, and their interacting cofactors. In the absence of Wg, Pangolin mediates transcriptional repression. In the presence of Wg, Pangolin, Armadillo, and a cohort of coactivators mediate transcriptional activation. Here we uncover Coop (corepressor of Pan) as a Pangolin-interacting protein. Coop and Pangolin form a complex on DNA containing a Pangolin/TCF-binding motif. Overexpression of Coop specifically represses Wg target genes, while loss of Coop function causes derepression. Finally, we show that Coop antagonizes the binding of Armadillo to Pangolin, providing a mechanism for Coop-mediated repression of Wg target gene transcription. PMID:20439429

  14. UV-B detected by the UVR8 photoreceptor antagonizes auxin signaling and plant shade avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Scott; Velanis, Christos N.; Jenkins, Gareth I.; Franklin, Keara A.

    2014-01-01

    Plants detect different facets of their radiation environment via specific photoreceptors to modulate growth and development. UV-B is perceived by the photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8). The molecular mechanisms linking UVR8 activation to plant growth are not fully understood, however. When grown in close proximity to neighboring vegetation, shade-intolerant plants initiate dramatic stem elongation to overtop competitors. Here we show that UV-B, detected by UVR8, provides an unambiguous sunlight signal that inhibits shade avoidance responses in Arabidopsis thaliana by antagonizing the phytohormones auxin and gibberellin. UV-B triggers degradation of the transcription factors PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 and PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 5 and stabilizes growth-repressing DELLA proteins, inhibiting auxin biosynthesis via a dual mechanism. Our findings show that UVR8 signaling is closely integrated with other photoreceptor pathways to regulate auxin signaling and plant growth in sunlight. PMID:25071218

  15. PPM1A Regulates Antiviral Signaling by Antagonizing TBK1-Mediated STING Phosphorylation and Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zexing; Liu, Ge; Sun, Liwei; Teng, Yan; Guo, Xuejiang; Jia, Jianhang; Sha, Jiahao; Yang, Xiao; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao

    2015-01-01

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING, also known as MITA and ERIS) is critical in protecting the host against DNA pathogen invasion. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of STING remains unclear. Here, we show that PPM1A negatively regulates antiviral signaling by targeting STING in its phosphatase activity-dependent manner, and in a line with this, PPM1A catalytically dephosphorylates STING and TBK1 in vitro. Importantly, we provide evidence that whereas TBK1 promotes STING aggregation in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, PPM1A antagonizes STING aggregation by dephosphorylating both STING and TBK1, emphasizing that phosphorylation is crucial for the efficient activation of STING. Our findings demonstrate a novel regulatory circuit in which STING and TBK1 reciprocally regulate each other to enable efficient antiviral signaling activation, and PPM1A dephosphorylates STING and TBK1, thereby balancing this antiviral signal transduction. PMID:25815785

  16. TORC2 Signaling Is Antagonized by Protein Phosphatase 2A and the Far Complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Pracheil, Tammy; Thornton, Janet; Liu, Zhengchang

    2012-01-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase, a central regulator of eukaryotic cell growth, exists in two essential, yet distinct, TOR kinase complexes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: rapamycin-sensitive TORC1 and rapamycin-insensitive TORC2. Lst8, a component of both TOR complexes, is essential for cell viability. However, it is unclear whether the essential function of Lst8 is linked to TORC1, TORC2, or both. To that end, we carried out a genetic screen to isolate lst8 deletion suppressor mutants. Here we report that mutations in SAC7 and FAR11 suppress lethality of lst8Δ and TORC2-deficient (tor2-21) mutations but not TORC1 inactivation, suggesting that the essential function of Lst8 is linked only to TORC2. More importantly, characterization of lst8Δ bypass mutants reveals a role for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in the regulation of TORC2 signaling. We show that Far11, a member of the Far3-7-8-9-10-11 complex involved in pheromone-induced cell cycle arrest, interacts with Tpd3 and Pph21, conserved components of PP2A, and deletions of components of the Far3-7-8-9-10-11 complex and PP2A rescue growth defects in lst8Δ and tor2-21 mutants. In addition, loss of the regulatory B′ subunit of PP2A Rts1 or Far11 restores phosphorylation to the TORC2 substrate Slm1 in a tor2-21 mutant. Mammalian Far11 orthologs FAM40A/B exist in a complex with PP2A known as STRIPAK, suggesting a conserved functional association of PP2A and Far11. Antagonism of TORC2 signaling by PP2A-Far11 represents a novel regulatory mechanism for controlling spatial cell growth of yeast. PMID:22298706

  17. Zebrafish Naked 1 and Naked 2 antagonize both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Van Raay, Terence J.; Coffey, Robert J.; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna

    2007-01-01

    Wnt signaling controls a wide range of developmental processes and its aberrant regulation can lead to disease. To better understand the regulation of this pathway, we identified zebrafish homologues of Naked Cuticle (Nkd), Nkd1 and Nkd2, which have previously been shown to inhibit canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Zebrafish nkd1 expression increases substantially after the mid-blastula transition in a pattern mirroring that of activated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling, being expressed in both the ventrolateral blastoderm margin and also in the axial mesendoderm. In contrast, zebrafish nkd2 is maternally and ubiquitously expressed. Overexpression of Nkd1 or Nkd2a suppressed canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling at multiple stages of early zebrafish development and also exacerbated the cyclopia and axial mesendoderm convergence and extension (C&E) defect in the non-canonical Wnt/PCP mutant silberblick (slb/wnt11). Thus, Nkds are sufficient to antagonize both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. Reducing Nkd function using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in increased expression of canonical Wnt/β-catenin target genes. Finally, reducing Nkd1 function in slb mutants suppressed the axial mesendoderm C&E defect. These data indicate that zebrafish Nkd1 and Nkd2 function to limit both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:17689523

  18. Tyr(less) kinase signaling during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Elowe, Sabine

    2017-04-18

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is rare, representing only about 0.5% of phosphorylations in the cell under basal conditions. While mitogenic tyrosine kinase signaling has been extensively explored, the role of phosphotyrosine signaling across the cell cycle and in particular during mitosis is poorly understood. Two recent, independent studies tackled this question from different angles to reveal exciting new insights into the role of this modification during cell division. Caron et al. (1) exploited mitotic phosphoproteomics data sets to determine the extent of mitotic tyrosine phosphorylation, and St-Denis et al. (2) identified protein tyrosine phosphatases from all subfamilies as regulators of mitotic progression or spindle formation. These studied collectively revealed that tyrosine phosphorylation may play a more prominent and active role in mitotic progression than previously appreciated.

  19. LIMB DEFECTS INDUCED BY RETINOIC ACID SIGNALING ANTAGONISM AND SYNTHESIS INHIBITION ARE CONSISTENT WITH ETHANOL-INDUCED LIMB DEFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limb defects induced by retinoic acid signaling antagonism and synthesis inhibition are consistent with ethanol-induced limb defects

    Johnson CS1, Sulik KK1,2, Hunter, ES III3
    1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC....

  20. LIMB DEFECTS INDUCED BY RETINOIC ACID SIGNALING ANTAGONISM AND SYNTHESIS INHIBITION ARE CONSISTENT WITH ETHANOL-INDUCED LIMB DEFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limb defects induced by retinoic acid signaling antagonism and synthesis inhibition are consistent with ethanol-induced limb defects

    Johnson CS1, Sulik KK1,2, Hunter, ES III3
    1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC....

  1. Wnt signalling antagonizes stress granule assembly through a Dishevelled-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Pabitra K.; Murawala, Prayag; Sawale, Pravin T.; Sahoo, Manas R.; Tripathi, Mukesh M.; Gaikwad, Swati R.; Seshadri, Vasudevan; Joseph, Jomon

    2012-01-01

    Summary Cells often respond to diverse environmental stresses by inducing stress granules (SGs) as an adaptive mechanism. SGs are generally assembled as a result of aggregation of mRNAs stalled in a translational pre-initiation complex, mediated by a set of RNA-binding proteins such as G3BP and TIA-1. SGs may serve as triage centres for storage, translation re-initiation or degradation of specific mRNAs. However, the mechanism involved in the modulation of their assembly/disassembly is unclear. Here we report that Wnt signalling negatively regulates SG assembly through Dishevelled (Dvl), a cytoplasmic Wnt effector. Overexpression of Dvl2, an isoform of Dvl, leads to impairment of SG assembly through a DEP domain dependent mechanism. Intriguingly, the Dvl2 mutant K446M, which corresponds to an analogous mutation in Drosophila Dishevelled DEP domain (dsh1) that results in defective PCP pathway, fails to antagonize SG assembly. Furthermore, we show that Dvl2 exerts the antagonistic effect on SG assembly through a mechanism involving Rac1-mediated inhibition of RhoA. Dvl2 interacts with G3BP, a downstream component of Ras signalling involved in SG assembly, and functional analysis suggests a model wherein the Dvl-Rac1-RhoA axis regulates G3BP's SG-nucleating activity. Collectively, these results define an antagonistic effect of Wnt signalling on SG assembly, and reveal a novel role for Wnt/Dvl pathway in the modulation of mRNA functions. PMID:23213403

  2. Message in a bottle: lessons learned from antagonism of STING signalling during RNA virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Maringer, Kevin; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana

    2014-01-01

    STING has emerged in recent years as an important signalling adaptor in the activation of type I interferon responses during infection with DNA viruses and bacteria. An increasing body of evidence suggests that STING also modulates responses to RNA viruses, though the mechanisms remain less clear. In this review, we give a brief overview of the ways in which STING facilitates sensing of RNA viruses. These include modulation of RIG-I-dependent responses through STING's interaction with MAVS, and more speculative mechanisms involving the DNA sensor cGAS and sensing of membrane remodelling events. We then provide an in-depth literature review to summarise the known mechanisms by which RNA viruses of the families Flaviviridae and Coronaviridae evade sensing through STING. Our own work has shown that the NS2B/3 protease complex of the flavivirus dengue virus binds and cleaves STING, and that an inability to degrade murine STING may contribute to host restriction in this virus. We contrast this to the mechanism employed by the distantly related hepacivirus hepatitis C virus, in which STING is bound and inactivated by the NS4B protein. Finally, we discuss STING antagonism in the coronaviruses SARS coronavirus and human coronavirus NL63, which disrupt K63-linked polyubiquitination and dimerisation of STING (both of which are required for STING-mediated activation of IRF-3) via their papain-like proteases. We draw parallels with less-well characterised mechanisms of STING antagonism in related viruses, and place our current knowledge in the context of species tropism restrictions that potentially affect the emergence of new human pathogens. PMID:25212897

  3. Agonism, Antagonism, and Inverse Agonism Bias at the Ghrelin Receptor Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    M'Kadmi, Céline; Leyris, Jean-Philippe; Onfroy, Lauriane; Galés, Céline; Saulière, Aude; Gagne, Didier; Damian, Marjorie; Mary, Sophie; Maingot, Mathieu; Denoyelle, Séverine; Verdié, Pascal; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; Banères, Jean-Louis; Marie, Jacky

    2015-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor GHS-R1a mediates ghrelin-induced growth hormone secretion, food intake, and reward-seeking behaviors. GHS-R1a signals through Gq, Gi/o, G13, and arrestin. Biasing GHS-R1a signaling with specific ligands may lead to the development of more selective drugs to treat obesity or addiction with minimal side effects. To delineate ligand selectivity at GHS-R1a signaling, we analyzed in detail the efficacy of a panel of synthetic ligands activating the different pathways associated with GHS-R1a in HEK293T cells. Besides β-arrestin2 recruitment and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, we monitored activation of a large panel of G protein subtypes using a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assay with G protein-activation biosensors. We first found that unlike full agonists, Gq partial agonists were unable to trigger β-arrestin2 recruitment and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Using G protein-activation biosensors, we then demonstrated that ghrelin promoted activation of Gq, Gi1, Gi2, Gi3, Goa, Gob, and G13 but not Gs and G12. Besides, we identified some GHS-R1a ligands that preferentially activated Gq and antagonized ghrelin-mediated Gi/Go activation. Finally, we unambiguously demonstrated that in addition to Gq, GHS-R1a also promoted constitutive activation of G13. Importantly, we identified some ligands that were selective inverse agonists toward Gq but not of G13. This demonstrates that bias at GHS-R1a signaling can occur not only with regard to agonism but also to inverse agonism. Our data, combined with other in vivo studies, may facilitate the design of drugs selectively targeting individual signaling pathways to treat only the therapeutically relevant function. PMID:26363071

  4. C3 toxin activates the stress signaling pathways, JNK and p38, but antagonizes the activation of AP-1 in rat-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Beltman, J; Erickson, J R; Martin, G A; Lyons, J F; Cook, S J

    1999-02-05

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) stimulates the c-Fos serum response element (SRE) by activating two distinct signal pathways regulated by the small GTPases, Ras and RhoA. Ras activates the ERK cascade leading to phosphorylation of the transcription factors Elk-1 and Sap1a at the Ets/TCF site. RhoA regulates an undefined pathway required for the activation of the SRF/CArG site. Here we have examined the role of the Ras and RhoA pathways in activation of the SRE and c-Fos expression in Rat-1 cells. Pertussis toxin and PD98059 strongly inhibited LPA-stimulated c-Fos expression and activation of a SRE:Luc reporter. C3 toxin completely inhibited RhoA function, partially inhibited SRE:Luc activity, but had no effect on LPA-stimulated c-Fos expression. Thus, in a physiological context the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway, but not RhoA, is required for LPA-stimulated c-Fos expression in Rat-1 cells. C3 toxin stimulated the stress-activated protein kinases JNK and p38 and potentiated c-Jun expression and phosphorylation; these properties were shared by another cellular stress agonist the protein kinase C inhibitor Ro-31-8220. However, C3 toxin alone or in combination with growth factors did not stimulate AP-1:Luc activity and actually antagonized the synergistic activation of AP-1:Luc observed in response to co-stimulation with growth factors and Ro-31-8220. These data indicate that C3 toxin is a cellular stress which antagonizes activation of AP-1 at a point downstream of stress-activated kinase activation or immediate-early gene induction.

  5. The Many Faces of the Flavivirus NS5 Protein in Antagonism of Type I Interferon Signaling.

    PubMed

    Best, Sonja M

    2017-02-01

    The vector-borne flaviviruses cause severe disease in humans on every inhabited continent on earth. Their transmission by arthropods, particularly mosquitoes, facilitates large emergence events such as witnessed with Zika virus (ZIKV) or West Nile virus in the Americas. Every vector-borne flavivirus examined thus far that causes disease in humans, from dengue virus to ZIKV, antagonizes the host type I interferon (IFN-I) response by preventing JAK-STAT signaling, suggesting that suppression of this pathway is an important determinant of infection. The most direct and potent viral inhibitor of this pathway is the nonstructural protein NS5. However, the mechanisms utilized by NS5 from different flaviviruses are often quite different, sometimes despite close evolutionary relationships between viruses. The varied mechanisms of NS5 as an IFN-I antagonist are also surprising given that the evolution of NS5 is restrained by the requirement to maintain function of two enzymatic activities critical for virus replication, the methyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. This review discusses the different strategies used by flavivirus NS5 to evade the antiviral effects of IFN-I and how this information can be used to better model disease and develop antiviral countermeasures. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Brassinosteroid signal transduction from receptor kinases to transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Wuk; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2010-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are growth-promoting steroid hormones in plants. Genetic studies in Arabidopsis illustrated the essential roles of BRs in a wide range of developmental processes and helped identify many genes involved in BR biosynthesis and signal transduction. Recently, proteomic studies identified missing links. Together, these approaches established the BR signal transduction cascade, which includes BR perception by the BRI1 receptor kinase at the cell surface, activation of BRI1/BAK1 kinase complex by transphosphorylation, subsequent phosphorylation of the BSK kinases, activation of the BSU1 phosphatase, dephosphorylation and inactivation of the BIN2 kinase, and accumulation of unphosphorylated BZR transcription factors in the nucleus. Mass spectrometric analyses are providing detailed information on the phosphorylation events involved in each step of signal relay. Thus, the BR signaling pathway provides a paradigm for understanding receptor kinase-mediated signal transduction as well as tools for the genetic improvement of the productivity of crop plants.

  7. Angiotensin II increases phosphodiesterase 5A expression in vascular smooth muscle cells: A mechanism by which angiotensin II antagonizes cGMP signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongsoo; Aizawa, Toru; Wei, Heng; Pi, Xinchun; Rybalkin, Sergei D.; Berk, Bradford C.; Yan, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) and nitric oxide (NO)/natriuretic peptide (NP) signaling pathways mutually regulate each other. Imbalance of Ang II and NO/NP has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many vascular diseases. cGMP functions as a key mediator in the interaction between Ang II and NO/NP. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 5A (PDE5A) is important in modulating cGMP signaling by hydrolyzing cGMP in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Therefore, we examined whether Ang II negatively modulates intracellular cGMP signaling in VSMC by regulating PDE5A. Ang II rapidly and transiently increased PDE5A mRNA levels in rat aortic VSMC. Upregulation of PDE5A mRNA was associated with a time-dependent increase of both PDE5 protein expression and activity. Increased PDE5A mRNA level was transcription-dependent and mediated by the Ang II type 1 receptor. Ang II-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) was essential for Ang II-induced PDE5A upregulation. Pretreatment of VSMC with Ang II inhibited C-type NP (CNP) stimulated cGMP signaling, such as cGMP dependent protein kinase (PKG)-mediated phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated-phosphoprotein (VASP). Ang II-mediated inhibition of PKG was blocked when PDE5 activity was decreased by selective PDE5 inhibitors, suggesting that upregulation of PDE5A expression is an important mechanism for Ang II to attenuate cGMP signaling. PDE5A may also play a critical role in the growth promoting effects of Ang II because inhibition of PDE5A activity significantly decreased Ang II-stimulated VSMC growth. These observations establish a new mechanism by which Ang II antagonizes cGMP signaling and stimulates VSMC growth. PMID:15623434

  8. Heart failure-specific changes in protein kinase signalling.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Kristina; Stathopoulou, Konstantina; Schmid, Evelyn; Eder, Petra; Cuello, Friederike

    2014-06-01

    Among the myriad of molecular alterations occurring in heart failure development, aggravation of the disease is often attributed to global or local changes in protein kinase activity, thus making protein kinases attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Since protein kinases do not only have maladaptive roles, but also contribute to the physiological integrity of cells, it is a challenging task to circumvent undesired inhibition of protein kinase activity. Identification of posttranslational modifications and/or protein-protein interactions that are exclusively apparent under pathophysiological conditions provides exciting information for alternative non-kinase inhibitory treatment strategies that eliminate maladaptive functions of a protein kinase, but preserve the beneficial ones. Here, we focus on the disease-specific regulation of a number of protein kinases, namely, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II isoform δ (CaMKIIδ), G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), protein kinase D (PKD) and protein kinase C isoform β2 (PKCβ2), which are embedded in complex signal transduction pathways implicated in heart failure development, and discuss potential avenues for novel treatment strategies to combat heart disease.

  9. Role of Jak kinases and STATs in cytokine signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Leonard, W J

    2001-04-01

    The Janus family tyrosine kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak-STAT) signaling pathway is broadly used by interferons and type I cytokines. These cytokines and interferons activate Janus family tyrosine kinases (Jak kinases), which in turn phosphorylate and thereby activate STAT proteins. Before activation, STAT proteins are cytosolic proteins; after activation, however, they are translocated to the nucleus where they function as transcription factors. This review summarizes salient features of the Jak-STAT pathway and focuses on the functional role of the different Jak kinases and STATs in vivo.

  10. Inactivation of Smad-Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling by Ca2+-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II

    PubMed Central

    Wicks, Stephen J.; Lui, Stephen; Abdel-Wahab, Nadia; Mason, Roger M.; Chantry, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Members of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family transduce signals through Smad proteins. Smad signaling can be regulated by the Ras/Erk/mitogen-activated protein pathway in response to receptor tyrosine kinase activation and the gamma interferon pathway and also by the functional interaction of Smad2 with Ca2+-calmodulin. Here we report that Smad–TGF-β-dependent transcriptional responses are prevented by expression of a constitutively activated Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (Cam kinase II). Smad2 is a target substrate for Cam kinase II in vitro at serine-110, -240, and -260. Cam kinase II induces in vivo phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad4 and, to a lesser extent, Smad3. A phosphopeptide antiserum raised against Smad2 phosphoserine-240 reacted with Smad2 in vivo when coexpressed with Cam kinase II and by activation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor, the epidermal growth factor receptor, HER2 (c-erbB2), and the TGF-β receptor. Furthermore, Cam kinase II blocked nuclear accumulation of a Smad2 and induced Smad2-Smad4 hetero-oligomerization independently of TGF-β receptor activation, while preventing TGF-β-dependent Smad2-Smad3 interactions. These findings provide a novel cross-talk mechanism by which Ca2+-dependent kinases activated downstream of multiple growth factor receptors antagonize cell responses to TGF-β. PMID:11027280

  11. Feedback Regulation of Kinase Signaling Pathways by AREs and GREs

    PubMed Central

    Vlasova-St. Louis, Irina; Bohjanen, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental signals, kinases phosphorylate numerous proteins, including RNA-binding proteins such as the AU-rich element (ARE) binding proteins, and the GU-rich element (GRE) binding proteins. Posttranslational modifications of these proteins lead to a significant changes in the abundance of target mRNAs, and affect gene expression during cellular activation, proliferation, and stress responses. In this review, we summarize the effect of phosphorylation on the function of ARE-binding proteins ZFP36 and ELAVL1 and the GRE-binding protein CELF1. The networks of target mRNAs that these proteins bind and regulate include transcripts encoding kinases and kinase signaling pathways (KSP) components. Thus, kinase signaling pathways are involved in feedback regulation, whereby kinases regulate RNA-binding proteins that subsequently regulate mRNA stability of ARE- or GRE-containing transcripts that encode components of KSP. PMID:26821046

  12. Feedback Regulation of Kinase Signaling Pathways by AREs and GREs.

    PubMed

    Vlasova-St Louis, Irina; Bohjanen, Paul R

    2016-01-25

    In response to environmental signals, kinases phosphorylate numerous proteins, including RNA-binding proteins such as the AU-rich element (ARE) binding proteins, and the GU-rich element (GRE) binding proteins. Posttranslational modifications of these proteins lead to a significant changes in the abundance of target mRNAs, and affect gene expression during cellular activation, proliferation, and stress responses. In this review, we summarize the effect of phosphorylation on the function of ARE-binding proteins ZFP36 and ELAVL1 and the GRE-binding protein CELF1. The networks of target mRNAs that these proteins bind and regulate include transcripts encoding kinases and kinase signaling pathways (KSP) components. Thus, kinase signaling pathways are involved in feedback regulation, whereby kinases regulate RNA-binding proteins that subsequently regulate mRNA stability of ARE- or GRE-containing transcripts that encode components of KSP.

  13. Flavonoids inhibit the platelet TxA2 signalling pathway and antagonize TxA2 receptors (TP) in platelets and smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, José A; Navarro-Nuñez, Leyre; Lozano, María L; Martínez, Constantino; Vicente, Vicente; Gibbins, Jonathan M; Rivera, José

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject Flavonoids are largely recognized as potential inhibitors of platelet function, through nonspecific mechanisms such as antioxidant activity and/or inhibition of several enzymes and signalling proteins. In addition, we, and few others, have shown that certain antiaggregant flavonoids may behave as specific TXA2 receptor (TP) ligands in platelets. Whether flavonoids interact with TP isoforms in other cell types is not known, and direct evidence that flavonoid–TP interaction inhibits signalling downstream TP has not been shown. What this study adds This study first demonstrates that certain flavonoids behave as ligands for both TP isoforms, not only in platelets, but also in human myometrium and in TP-transfected HEK 293T cells. Differences in the effect of certain flavonoids in platelet signalling, induced by either U46619 or thrombin, suggest that abrogation of downstream TP signalling is related to their specific blockage of the TP, rather than to a nonspecific effect on tyrosine kinases or other signalling proteins. Aims Flavonoids may affect platelet function by several mechanisms, including antagonism of TxA2 receptors (TP). These TP are present in many tissues and modulate different signalling cascades. We explored whether flavonoids affect platelet TP signalling, and if they bind to TP expressed in other cell types. Methods Platelets were treated with flavonoids, or other selected inhibitors, and then stimulated with U46619. Similar assays were performed in aspirinized platelets activated with thrombin. Effects on calcium release were analysed by fluorometry and changes in whole protein tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of ERK 1/2 by Western blot analysis. The binding of flavonoids to TP in platelets, human myometrium and TPα- and TPβ-transfected HEK 293T cells was explored using binding assays and the TP antagonist 3H-SQ29548. Results Apigenin, genistein, luteolin and quercetin impaired U46619-induced calcium

  14. p66SHC Promotes Apoptosis and Antagonizes Mitogenic Signaling in T Cells†

    PubMed Central

    Pacini, Sonia; Pellegrini, Michela; Migliaccio, Enrica; Patrussi, Laura; Ulivieri, Cristina; Ventura, Andrea; Carraro, Fabio; Naldini, Antonella; Lanfrancone, Luisa; Pelicci, Piergiuseppe; Baldari, Cosima T.

    2004-01-01

    Of the three Shc isoforms, p66Shc is responsible for fine-tuning p52/p46Shc signaling to Ras and has been implicated in apoptotic responses to oxidative stress. Here we show that human peripheral blood lymphocytes and mouse thymocytes and splenic T cells acquire the capacity to express p66Shc in response to apoptogenic stimulation. Using a panel of T-cell transfectants and p66Shc−/− T cells, we show that p66Shc expression results in increased susceptibility to apoptogenic stimuli, which depends on Ser36 phosphorylation and correlates with an altered balance in apoptosis-regulating gene expression. Furthermore, p66Shc blunts mitogenic responses to T-cell receptor engagement, at least in part by transdominant inhibition of p52Shc signaling to Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinases, in an S36-dependent manner. The data highlight a novel interplay between p66Shc and p52Shc in the control of T-cell fate. PMID:14749389

  15. The Roles of NDR Protein Kinases in Hippo Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Hergovich, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo tumour suppressor pathway has emerged as a critical regulator of tissue growth through controlling cellular processes such as cell proliferation, death, differentiation and stemness. Traditionally, the core cassette of the Hippo pathway includes the MST1/2 protein kinases, the LATS1/2 protein kinases, and the MOB1 scaffold signal transducer, which together regulate the transcriptional co-activator functions of the proto-oncoproteins YAP and TAZ through LATS1/2-mediated phosphorylation of YAP/TAZ. Recent research has identified additional kinases, such as NDR1/2 (also known as STK38/STK38L) and MAP4Ks, which should be considered as novel members of the Hippo core cassette. While these efforts helped to expand our understanding of Hippo core signalling, they also began to provide insights into the complexity and redundancy of the Hippo signalling network. Here, we focus on summarising our current knowledge of the regulation and functions of mammalian NDR kinases, discussing parallels between the NDR pathways in Drosophila and mammals. Initially, we provide a general overview of the cellular functions of NDR kinases in cell cycle progression, centrosome biology, apoptosis, autophagy, DNA damage signalling, immunology and neurobiology. Finally, we put particular emphasis on discussing NDR1/2 as YAP kinases downstream of MST1/2 and MOB1 signalling in Hippo signalling. PMID:27213455

  16. Rac-1 and Raf-1 kinases, components of distinct signaling pathways, activate myotonic dystrophy protein kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.; Wang, W.; Walch, E. T.; Dunne, P. W.; Epstein, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) is a serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus on human chromosome 19q13.3. It is a close relative of other kinases that interact with members of the Rho family of small GTPases. We show here that the actin cytoskeleton-linked GTPase Rac-1 binds to DMPK, and coexpression of Rac-1 and DMPK activates its transphosphorylation activity in a GTP-sensitive manner. DMPK can also bind Raf-1 kinase, the Ras-activated molecule of the MAP kinase pathway. Purified Raf-1 kinase phosphorylates and activates DMPK. The interaction of DMPK with these distinct signals suggests that it may play a role as a nexus for cross-talk between their respective pathways and may partially explain the remarkable pleiotropy of DM.

  17. gp120 envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency viruses competitively antagonize signaling by coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5.

    PubMed

    Madani, N; Kozak, S L; Kavanaugh, M P; Kabat, D

    1998-07-07

    Signal transductions by the dual-function CXCR4 and CCR5 chemokine receptors/HIV type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptors were electrophysiologically monitored in Xenopus laevis oocytes that also coexpressed the viral receptor CD4 and a G protein-coupled inward-rectifying K+ channel (Kir 3.1). Large Kir 3.1-dependent currents generated in response to the corresponding chemokines (SDF-1alpha for CXCR4 and MIP-1alpha; MIP-1beta and RANTES for CCR5) were blocked by pertussis toxin, suggesting involvement of inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Prolonged exposures to chemokines caused substantial but incomplete desensitization of responses with time constants of 5-7 min and recovery time constants of 12-19 min. CXCR4 and CCR5 exhibited heterologous desensitization in this oocyte system, suggesting possible inhibition of a common downstream step in their signaling pathways. In contrast to chemokines, perfusion with monomeric or oligomeric preparations of the glycoprotein of Mr 120, 000 (gp120) derived from several isolates of HIV-1 did not activate signaling by CXCR4 or CCR5 regardless of CD4 coexpression. However, adsorption of the gp120 from a T-cell-tropic virus resulted in CD4-dependent antagonism of CXCR4 response to SDF-1alpha, whereas gp120 from macrophage-tropic viruses caused CD4-dependent antagonism of CCR5 response to MIP-1alpha. These antagonisms could be partially overcome by high concentrations of chemokines and were specific for coreceptors of the corresponding HIV-1 isolates, suggesting that they resulted from direct interactions of gp120-CD4 complexes with coreceptors and that they did not involve the desensitization pathway. These results indicate that monomeric or oligomeric gp120s specifically antagonize CXCR4 and CCR5 signaling in response to chemokines, but they do not exclude the possibility that gp120s might also function as weak agonists in some cells. The gp120-mediated disruption of CXCR4 and CCR5 signaling may contribute to AIDS pathogenesis.

  18. Perspective: Dynamics of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling complexes.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Bruce J

    2012-08-14

    Textbook descriptions of signal transduction complexes provide a static snapshot view of highly dynamic events. Despite enormous strides in identifying the key components of signaling complexes and the underlying mechanisms of signal transduction, our understanding of the dynamic behavior of these complexes has lagged behind. Using the example of receptor tyrosine kinases, this perspective takes a fresh look at the dynamics of the system and their potential impact on signal processing.

  19. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Antagonizes JAK/STAT3 Signaling via nsp5, Which Induces STAT3 Degradation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liping; Wang, Rong; Ma, Zexu; Xiao, Yueqiang; Nan, Yuchen; Wang, Yu; Lin, Shaoli; Zhang, Yan-Jin

    2017-02-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a pleiotropic signaling mediator of many cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10. STAT3 is known to play critical roles in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, immunity and inflammatory responses. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection on the STAT3 signaling since PRRSV induces a weak protective immune response in host animals. We report here that PRRSV infection of MARC-145 cells and primary porcine pulmonary alveolar macrophages led to significant reduction of STAT3 protein level. Several strains of both PRRSV type 1 and type 2 led to a similar reduction of STAT3 protein level but had a minimal effect on its transcripts. The PRRSV-mediated STAT3 reduction was in a dose-dependent manner as the STAT3 level decreased, along with incremental amounts of PRRSV inocula. Further study showed that nonstructural protein 5 (nsp5) of PRRSV induced the STAT3 degradation by increasing its polyubiquitination level and shortening its half-life from 24 h to ∼3.5 h. The C-terminal domain of nsp5 was shown to be required for the STAT3 degradation. Moreover, the STAT3 signaling in the cells transfected with nsp5 plasmid was significantly inhibited. These results indicate that PRRSV antagonizes the STAT3 signaling by accelerating STAT3 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway. This study provides insight into the PRRSV interference with the JAK/STAT3 signaling, leading to perturbation of the host innate and adaptive immune responses. The typical features of immune responses in PRRSV-infected pigs are delayed onset and low levels of virus neutralizing antibodies, as well as weak cell-mediated immunity. Lymphocyte development and differentiation rely on cytokines, many of which signal through the JAK/STAT signaling pathway to exert their biological effects. Here, we discovered that PRRSV antagonizes the

  20. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase: the key switch mechanism in insulin signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, P R; Withers, D J; Siddle, K

    1998-01-01

    Insulin plays a key role in regulating a wide range of cellular processes. However, until recently little was known about the signalling pathways that are involved in linking the insulin receptor with downstream responses. It is now apparent that the activation of class 1a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) is necessary and in some cases sufficient to elicit many of insulin's effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. The lipid products of PI 3-kinase act as both membrane anchors and allosteric regulators, serving to localize and activate downstream enzymes and their protein substrates. One of the major ways these lipid products of PI 3-kinase act in insulin signalling is by binding to pleckstrin homology (PH) domains of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase (PDK) and protein kinase B (PKB) and in the process regulating the phosphorylation of PKB by PDK. Using mechanisms such as this, PI 3-kinase is able to act as a molecular switch to regulate the activity of serine/threonine-specific kinase cascades important in mediating insulin's effects on endpoint responses. PMID:9677303

  1. Flavivirus Antagonism of Type I Interferon Signaling Reveals Prolidase as a Regulator of IFNAR1 Surface Expression.

    PubMed

    Lubick, Kirk J; Robertson, Shelly J; McNally, Kristin L; Freedman, Brett A; Rasmussen, Angela L; Taylor, R Travis; Walts, Avram D; Tsuruda, Seitaro; Sakai, Mizuki; Ishizuka, Mariko; Boer, Elena F; Foster, Erin C; Chiramel, Abhilash I; Addison, Conrad B; Green, Richard; Kastner, Daniel L; Katze, Michael G; Holland, Steven M; Forlino, Antonella; Freeman, Alexandra F; Boehm, Manfred; Yoshii, Kentaro; Best, Sonja M

    2015-07-08

    Type I interferon (IFN-α/β or IFN-I) signals through two receptor subunits, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, to orchestrate sterile and infectious immunity. Cellular pathways that regulate IFNAR1 are often targeted by viruses to suppress the antiviral effects of IFN-I. Here we report that encephalitic flaviviruses, including tick-borne encephalitis virus and West Nile virus, antagonize IFN-I signaling by inhibiting IFNAR1 surface expression. Loss of IFNAR1 was associated with binding of the viral IFN-I antagonist, NS5, to prolidase (PEPD), a cellular dipeptidase implicated in primary immune deficiencies in humans. Prolidase was required for IFNAR1 maturation and accumulation, activation of IFNβ-stimulated gene induction, and IFN-I-dependent viral control. Human fibroblasts derived from patients with genetic prolidase deficiency exhibited decreased IFNAR1 surface expression and reduced IFNβ-stimulated signaling. Thus, by understanding flavivirus IFN-I antagonism, prolidase is revealed as a central regulator of IFN-I responses.

  2. Receptor kinase signaling pathways in plant-microbe interactions.

    PubMed

    Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; Ried, Martina K; Binder, Andreas; Parniske, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) function in diverse signaling pathways, including the responses to microbial signals in symbiosis and defense. This versatility is achieved with a common overall structure: an extracytoplasmic domain (ectodomain) and an intracellular protein kinase domain involved in downstream signal transduction. Various surfaces of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) ectodomain superstructure are utilized for interaction with the cognate ligand in both plant and animal receptors. RLKs with lysin-motif (LysM) ectodomains confer recognitional specificity toward N-acetylglucosamine-containing signaling molecules, such as chitin, peptidoglycan (PGN), and rhizobial nodulation factor (NF), that induce immune or symbiotic responses. Signaling downstream of RLKs does not follow a single pattern; instead, the detailed analysis of brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, innate immunity, and symbiosis revealed at least three largely nonoverlapping pathways. In this review, we focus on RLKs involved in plant-microbe interactions and contrast the signaling pathways leading to symbiosis and defense.

  3. The FGFRL1 receptor is shed from cell membranes, binds fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), and antagonizes FGF signaling in Xenopus embryos.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Florian; Zhuang, Lei; Beyeler, Michael; Kälin, Roland E; Mullis, Primus E; Brändli, André W; Trueb, Beat

    2010-01-15

    FGFRL1 (fibroblast growth factor receptor like 1) is the fifth and most recently discovered member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family. With up to 50% amino acid similarity, its extracellular domain closely resembles that of the four conventional FGFRs. Its intracellular domain, however, lacks the split tyrosine kinase domain needed for FGF-mediated signal transduction. During embryogenesis of the mouse, FGFRL1 is essential for the development of parts of the skeleton, the diaphragm muscle, the heart, and the metanephric kidney. Since its discovery, it has been hypothesized that FGFRL1 might act as a decoy receptor for FGF ligands. Here we present several lines of evidence that support this notion. We demonstrate that the FGFRL1 ectodomain is shed from the cell membrane of differentiating C2C12 myoblasts and from HEK293 cells by an as yet unidentified protease, which cuts the receptor in the membrane-proximal region. As determined by ligand dot blot analysis, cell-based binding assays, and surface plasmon resonance analysis, the soluble FGFRL1 ectodomain as well as the membrane-bound receptor are capable of binding to some FGF ligands with high affinity, including FGF2, FGF3, FGF4, FGF8, FGF10, and FGF22. We furthermore show that ectopic expression of FGFRL1 in Xenopus embryos antagonizes FGFR signaling during early development. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence that FGFRL1 is indeed a decoy receptor for FGFs.

  4. Tyrosine kinase signaling and the emergence of multicellularity

    PubMed Central

    Miller, W. Todd

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is an essential element of signal transduction in multicellular animals. Although tyrosine kinases were originally regarded as specific to the metazoan lineage, it is now clear that they evolved prior to the split between unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes (≈ 600 million years ago). Genome analyses of choanoflagellates and other protists show an abundance of tyrosine kinases that rivals the most complex animals. Some of these kinases are orthologs of metazoan enzymes (e.g., Src), but others display unique domain compositions not seen in any metazoan. Biochemical experiments have highlighted similarities and differences between the unicellular and multicellular tyrosine kinases. In particular, it appears that the complex systems of kinase autoregulation may have evolved later in the metazoan lineage. PMID:22480439

  5. WNT5a is required for normal ovarian follicle development and antagonizes gonadotropin responsiveness in granulosa cells by suppressing canonical WNT signaling

    PubMed Central

    Abedini, Atefeh; Zamberlam, Gustavo; Lapointe, Evelyne; Tourigny, Catherine; Boyer, Alexandre; Paquet, Marilène; Hayashi, Kanako; Honda, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Akira; Price, Christopher; Boerboom, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the roles of the canonical wingless-type MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus) integration site family (WNT) signaling pathway in the regulation of ovarian follicle growth and steroidogenesis are now established, noncanonical WNT signaling in the ovary has been largely overlooked. Noncanonical WNTs, including WNT5a and WNT11, are expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) and are differentially regulated throughout follicle development, but their physiologic roles remain unknown. Using conditional gene targeting, we found that GC-specific inactivation of Wnt5a (but not Wnt11) results in the female subfertility associated with increased follicular atresia and decreased rates of ovulation. Microarray analyses have revealed that WNT5a acts to down-regulate the expression of FSH-responsive genes in vitro, and corresponding increases in the expression of these genes have been found in the GCs of conditional knockout mice. Unexpectedly, we found that WNT5a regulates its target genes not by signaling via the WNT/Ca2+ or planar cell polarity pathways, but rather by inhibiting the canonical pathway, causing both β-catenin (CTNNB1) and cAMP responsive element binding (CREB) protein levels to decrease via a glycogen synthase kinase-3β-dependent mechanism. We further found that WNT5a prevents follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing protein from up-regulating the CTNNB1 and CREB proteins and their target genes, indicating that WNT5a functions as a physiologic inhibitor of gonadotropin signaling. Together, these findings identify WNT5a as a key regulator of follicle development and gonadotropin responsiveness.—Abedini, A., Zamberlam, G., Lapointe, E., Tourigny, C., Boyer, A., Paquet, M., Hayashi, K., Honda, H., Kikuchi, A., Price, C., Boerboom, D. WNT5a is required for normal ovarian follicle development and antagonizes gonadotropin responsiveness in granulosa cells by suppressing canonical WNT signaling. PMID:26667040

  6. Signal Transduction in Histidine Kinases: Insights from New Structures

    PubMed Central

    Bhate, Manasi P.; Molnar, Kathleen S.; Goulian, Mark; DeGrado, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Histidine kinases (HKs) are major players in bacterial signaling. There has been an explosion of new HK crystal structures in the last five years. We globally analyze the structures of HKs to yield insights into the mechanisms by which signals are transmitted to and across protein structures in this family. We interpret known enzymological data in the context of new structural data to show how asymmetry across the dimer interface is a key feature of signal transduction in HKs, and discuss how different HK domains undergo asymmetric-to-symmetric transitions during signal transduction and catalysis. A thermodynamic framework for signaling that encompasses these various properties is presented and the consequences of weak thermodynamic coupling are discussed. The synthesis of observations from enzymology, structural biology, protein engineering and thermodynamics paves the way for a deeper molecular understanding of histidine kinase signal transduction. PMID:25982528

  7. Re-evaluation of thyroid hormone signaling antagonism of tetrabromobisphenol A for validating the T3-induced Xenopus metamorphosis assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Li, Yuanyuan; Qin, Zhanfen; Wei, Wuji

    2017-02-01

    We developed the T3-induced Xenopus metamorphosis assay, which is supposed to be able to sensitively detect thyroid hormone (TH) signaling disruption of chemicals. The present study aimed to validate the T3-induced Xenopus metamorphosis assay by re-evaluating the TH signaling antagonism of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a known TH signaling disruptor. According to the assay we developed, Xenopus tadpoles at stage 52 were exposed to 10-500nmol/L TBBPA in the presence of 1nmol/L T3. After 96hr of exposure, TBBPA in the range of 10-500nmol/L was found to significantly inhibit T3-induced morphological changes of Xenopus tadpoles in a concentration-dependent manner in term of body weight and four morphological endpoints including head area (HA), mouth width (MW), unilateral brain width/brain length (ULBW/BL), and hind-limb length/snout-vent length (HLL/SVL). The results show that these endpoints we developed are sensitive for characterizing the antagonistic effects of TBBPA on T3-induced metamorphosis. Following a 24-hr exposure, we found that TBBPA antagonized expression of T3-induced TH-response genes in the tail, which is consistent with previous findings in the intestine. We propose that the tail can be used as an alternative tissue to the intestine for examining molecular endpoints for evaluating TH signaling disruption. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the T3-induced Xenopus metamorphosis assay we developed is an ideal in vivo assay for detecting TH signaling disruption.

  8. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Beale, Elmus G

    2008-01-01

    5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been called "the metabolic master switch" because of its central role in regulating fuel homeostasis. AMPK, a heterotrimeric serine/threonine protein kinase composed of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, is activated by upstream kinases and by 5'-AMP in response to various nutritional and stress signals. Downstream effects include regulation of metabolism, protein synthesis, cell growth, and mediation of the actions of a number of hormones, including leptin. However, AMPK research represents a young and growing field; hence, there are many unanswered questions regarding the control and action of AMPK. This review presents evidence for the existence of AMPK signaling pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans, a genetically tractable model organism that has yet to be fully exploited to elucidate AMPK signaling mechanisms.

  9. Protein Tyrosine Kinase Signaling During Oocyte Maturation and Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Lynda K.; Carroll, David J.; Kinsey, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The oocyte is a highly specialized cell capable of accumulating and storing energy supplies as well as maternal transcripts and pre-positioned signal transduction components needed for zygotic development, undergoing meiosis under control of paracrine signals from the follicle, fusing with a single sperm during fertilization, and zygotic development. The oocyte accomplishes this diverse series of events by establishing an array of signal transduction pathway components that include a select collection of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) that are expressed at levels significantly higher than most other cell types. This array of PTKs includes cytosolic kinases such as SRC-family PTKs (FYN and YES), and FAK kinases, as well as FER. These kinases typically exhibit distinct patterns of localization and in some cases are translocated from one subcellular compartment to another during meiosis. Significant differences exist in the extent to which PTK-mediated pathways are used by oocytes from species that fertilize externally versus internally. The PTK activation profiles as well as calcium signaling pattern seems to correlate with the extent to which a rapid block to polyspermy is required by the biology of each species. Suppression of each of the SRC-family PTKs as well as FER kinase results in failure of meiotic maturation or zygote development, indicating that these PTKs are important for oocyte quality and developmental potential. Future studies will hopefully reveal the extent to which these factors impact clinical assisted reproductive techniques in domestic animals and humans. PMID:21681843

  10. WNT5a is required for normal ovarian follicle development and antagonizes gonadotropin responsiveness in granulosa cells by suppressing canonical WNT signaling.

    PubMed

    Abedini, Atefeh; Zamberlam, Gustavo; Lapointe, Evelyne; Tourigny, Catherine; Boyer, Alexandre; Paquet, Marilène; Hayashi, Kanako; Honda, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Akira; Price, Christopher; Boerboom, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Whereas the roles of the canonical wingless-type MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus) integration site family (WNT) signaling pathway in the regulation of ovarian follicle growth and steroidogenesis are now established, noncanonical WNT signaling in the ovary has been largely overlooked. Noncanonical WNTs, including WNT5a and WNT11, are expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) and are differentially regulated throughout follicle development, but their physiologic roles remain unknown. Using conditional gene targeting, we found that GC-specific inactivation ofWnt5a(but notWnt11) results in the female subfertility associated with increased follicular atresia and decreased rates of ovulation. Microarray analyses have revealed that WNT5a acts to down-regulate the expression of FSH-responsive genesin vitro, and corresponding increases in the expression of these genes have been found in the GCs of conditional knockout mice. Unexpectedly, we found that WNT5a regulates its target genes not by signalingviathe WNT/Ca(2+)or planar cell polarity pathways, but rather by inhibiting the canonical pathway, causing both β-catenin (CTNNB1) and cAMP responsive element binding (CREB) protein levels to decreaseviaa glycogen synthase kinase-3β-dependent mechanism. We further found that WNT5a prevents follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing protein from up-regulating the CTNNB1 and CREB proteins and their target genes, indicating that WNT5a functions as a physiologic inhibitor of gonadotropin signaling. Together, these findings identify WNT5a as a key regulator of follicle development and gonadotropin responsiveness.-Abedini, A., Zamberlam, G., Lapointe, E., Tourigny, C., Boyer, A., Paquet, M., Hayashi, K., Honda, H., Kikuchi, A., Price, C., Boerboom, D. WNT5a is required for normal ovarian follicle development and antagonizes gonadotropin responsiveness in granulosa cells by suppressing canonical WNT signaling.

  11. Targeting kinase signaling pathways with constrained peptide scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Hanold, Laura E; Fulton, Melody D; Kennedy, Eileen J

    2017-02-07

    Kinases are amongst the largest families in the human proteome and serve as critical mediators of a myriad of cell signaling pathways. Since altered kinase activity is implicated in a variety of pathological diseases, kinases have become a prominent class of proteins for targeted inhibition. Although numerous small molecule and antibody-based inhibitors have already received clinical approval, several challenges may still exist with these strategies including resistance, target selection, inhibitor potency and in vivo activity profiles. Constrained peptide inhibitors have emerged as an alternative strategy for kinase inhibition. Distinct from small molecule inhibitors, peptides can provide a large binding surface area that allows them to bind shallow protein surfaces rather than defined pockets within the target protein structure. By including chemical constraints within the peptide sequence, additional benefits can be bestowed onto the peptide scaffold such as improved target affinity and target selectivity, cell permeability and proteolytic resistance. In this review, we highlight examples of diverse chemistries that are being employed to constrain kinase-targeting peptide scaffolds and highlight their application to modulate kinase signaling as well as their potential clinical implications.

  12. New functional activity of aripiprazole revealed: Robust antagonism of D2 dopamine receptor-stimulated Gβγ signaling.

    PubMed

    Brust, Tarsis F; Hayes, Michael P; Roman, David L; Watts, Val J

    2015-01-01

    The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is generally considered to be a primary target in the treatment of schizophrenia. First generation antipsychotic drugs (e.g. haloperidol) are antagonists of the DRD2, while second generation antipsychotic drugs (e.g. olanzapine) antagonize DRD2 and 5HT2A receptors. Notably, both these classes of drugs may cause side effects associated with D2 receptor antagonism (e.g. hyperprolactemia and extrapyramidal symptoms). The novel, "third generation" antipsychotic drug, aripiprazole is also used to treat schizophrenia, with the remarkable advantage that its tendency to cause extrapyramidal symptoms is minimal. Aripiprazole is considered a partial agonist of the DRD2, but it also has partial agonist/antagonist activity for other GPCRs. Further, aripiprazole has been reported to have a unique activity profile in functional assays with the DRD2. In the present study the molecular pharmacology of aripiprazole was further examined in HEK cell models stably expressing the DRD2 and specific isoforms of adenylyl cyclase to assess functional responses of Gα and Gβγ subunits. Additional studies examined the activity of aripiprazole in DRD2-mediated heterologous sensitization of adenylyl cyclase and cell-based dynamic mass redistribution (DMR). Aripiprazole displayed a unique functional profile for modulation of G proteins, being a partial agonist for Gαi/o and a robust antagonist for Gβγ signaling. Additionally, aripiprazole was a weak partial agonist for both heterologous sensitization and dynamic mass redistribution.

  13. Approaches to identify kinase dependencies in cancer signalling networks.

    PubMed

    Dermit, Maria; Dokal, Arran; Cutillas, Pedro R

    2017-09-01

    Cells integrate extracellular signals into appropriate responses through a complex network of biochemical reactions driven by the activity of protein and lipid kinases, among other proteins. In order to understand this complexity, new approaches, both experimental and computational, have recently been developed with the aim to identify regulatory kinases and infer their activation status in the context of their signalling network. Here, we review such approaches with particular focus on those based on phosphoproteomics. Integration of kinase activity measurements inferred from phosphoproteomics data with other 'omics' datasets is starting to be used to identify regulatory nodes in biochemical networks. These methodologies may in the future be used to identify patient-specific targets and thus advance personalised cancer medicine. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  14. Mnk Kinases in Cytokine Signaling and Regulation of Cytokine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sonali; Platanias, Leonidas C.

    2013-01-01

    The kinases Mnk1 and Mnk2 are activated downstream of the p38 MAPK and MEK/ERK signaling pathways. Extensive work over the years has shown that these kinases control phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and regulate engagement of other effector elements, including hnRNPA1 and PSF. Mnk kinases are ubiquitously expressed and play critical roles in signaling for various cytokine receptors, while there is emerging evidence that they have important functions as mediators of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. In this review the mechanisms of activation of MNK pathways by cytokine receptors are addressed and their roles in diverse cytokine-dependent biological processes are reviewed. The clinical-translational implications of such work and the relevance of future development of specific MNK inhibitors for the treatment of malignancies and auto-immune disorders are discussed. PMID:23710261

  15. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling determines kidney size.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Kang; Nagai, Kojiro; Chen, Jianchun; Plieth, David; Hino, Masayo; Xu, Jinxian; Sha, Feng; Ikizler, T Alp; Quarles, C Chad; Threadgill, David W; Neilson, Eric G; Harris, Raymond C

    2015-06-01

    Kidney size adaptively increases as mammals grow and in response to the loss of 1 kidney. It is not clear how kidneys size themselves or if the processes that adapt kidney mass to lean body mass also mediate renal hypertrophy following unilateral nephrectomy (UNX). Here, we demonstrated that mice harboring a proximal tubule-specific deletion of Pten (Pten(ptKO)) have greatly enlarged kidneys as the result of persistent activation of the class I PI3K/mTORC2/AKT pathway and an increase of the antiproliferative signals p21(Cip1/WAF) and p27(Kip1). Administration of rapamycin to Pten(ptKO) mice diminished hypertrophy. Proximal tubule-specific deletion of Egfr in Pten(ptKO) mice also attenuated class I PI3K/mTORC2/AKT signaling and reduced the size of enlarged kidneys. In Pten(ptKO) mice, UNX further increased mTORC1 activation and hypertrophy in the remaining kidney; however, mTORC2-dependent AKT phosphorylation did not increase further in the remaining kidney of Pten(ptKO) mice, nor was it induced in the remaining kidney of WT mice. After UNX, renal blood flow and amino acid delivery to the remaining kidney rose abruptly, followed by increased amino acid content and activation of a class III PI3K/mTORC1/S6K1 pathway. Thus, our findings demonstrate context-dependent roles for EGFR-modulated class I PI3K/mTORC2/AKT signaling in the normal adaptation of kidney size and PTEN-independent, nutrient-dependent class III PI3K/mTORC1/S6K1 signaling in the compensatory enlargement of the remaining kidney following UNX.

  16. Primary cilia and coordination of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Søren T; Clement, Christian A; Satir, Peter; Pedersen, Lotte B

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles that coordinate signalling pathways in cell-cycle control, migration, differentiation and other cellular processes critical during development and for tissue homeostasis. Accordingly, defects in assembly or function of primary cilia lead to a plethora of developmental disorders and pathological conditions now known as ciliopathies. In this review, we summarize the current status of the role of primary cilia in coordinating receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling pathways. Further, we present potential mechanisms of signalling crosstalk and networking in the primary cilium and discuss how defects in ciliary RTK signalling are linked to human diseases and disorders. PMID:21956154

  17. Adenylate Kinase and AMP Signaling Networks: Metabolic Monitoring, Signal Communication and Body Energy Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Dzeja, Petras; Terzic, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Adenylate kinase and downstream AMP signaling is an integrated metabolic monitoring system which reads the cellular energy state in order to tune and report signals to metabolic sensors. A network of adenylate kinase isoforms (AK1-AK7) are distributed throughout intracellular compartments, interstitial space and body fluids to regulate energetic and metabolic signaling circuits, securing efficient cell energy economy, signal communication and stress response. The dynamics of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer regulates multiple intracellular and extracellular energy-dependent and nucleotide signaling processes, including excitation-contraction coupling, hormone secretion, cell and ciliary motility, nuclear transport, energetics of cell cycle, DNA synthesis and repair, and developmental programming. Metabolomic analyses indicate that cellular, interstitial and blood AMP levels are potential metabolic signals associated with vital functions including body energy sensing, sleep, hibernation and food intake. Either low or excess AMP signaling has been linked to human disease such as diabetes, obesity and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies indicate that derangements in adenylate kinase-mediated energetic signaling due to mutations in AK1, AK2 or AK7 isoforms are associated with hemolytic anemia, reticular dysgenesis and ciliary dyskinesia. Moreover, hormonal, food and antidiabetic drug actions are frequently coupled to alterations of cellular AMP levels and associated signaling. Thus, by monitoring energy state and generating and distributing AMP metabolic signals adenylate kinase represents a unique hub within the cellular homeostatic network. PMID:19468337

  18. Tumor suppressor Fbxw7 antagonizes WNT signaling by targeting β-catenin for degradation in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian-Xin; Sun, Cheng-Yi; Tian, She; Yu, Chao; Chen, Mei-Yuan; Zhang, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest solid malignancies associated with aberrant Wnt signaling activation. Fbxw7 mutations have been implicated in the development of pancreatic cancer, whereas the exact mechanism of this ubiquitin ligase as a tumor suppressor remains unclear in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Here, we describe that Fbxw7 is downregulated upon pancreatic cancer development. Depletion of Fbxw7 results in tumor suppression in pancreatic cancer cells, while Fbxw7 overexpression inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Considering the negative correlation between Fbxw7 and β-catenin, we find that Fbxw7 antagonizes Wnt signaling through targeting β-catenin for its degradation. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of Fbxw7 on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation is mainly executed by the destruction of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We also reveal that c-myc, a widely accepted target of Fbxw7, is also transcriptionally regulated by the Fbxw7/β-catenin axis in pancreatic cancer cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that Fbxw7 is a novel regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling-dependent regulation of pancreatic cancer cell growth and invasion, and inactivation of Fbxw7 in pancreatic cancer tissues might be the reason for the aberrant activation of Wnt signaling.

  19. Receptor tyrosine kinase signaling: a view from quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Dengjel, Joern; Kratchmarova, Irina; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2009-10-01

    Growth factor receptor signaling via receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is one of the basic cellular communication principals found in all metazoans. Extracellular signals are transferred via membrane spanning receptors into the cytoplasm, reversible tyrosine phosphorylation being the hallmark of all RTKs. In recent years proteomic approaches have yielded detailed descriptions of cellular signaling events. Quantitative proteomics is able to characterize the exact position and strength of post-translational modifications (PTMs) providing essential information for understanding the molecular basis of signal transduction. Numerous new post-translational modification sites have been identified by quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. In addition, plentiful new players in signal transduction have been identified underlining the complexity and the modular architecture of most signaling networks. In this review, we outline the principles of signal transduction via RTKs and highlight some of the new insights obtained from proteomic approaches such as protein microarrays and quantitative mass spectrometry.

  20. Cdk5: An Emerging Kinase in Pain Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Tej Kumar; Zipp, Lisa; Letterio, John J

    2015-01-01

    Pain is an important survival mechanism for an organism. It can turn into severe mental and physical disorder however, if the molecular and/or cellular pathways involved in pain signaling are altered. Chronic pain is characterized by an altered pain perception that includes allodynia (a response to a normally non-noxious stimulus) and hyperalgesia (an exaggerated response to a normally noxious stimulus). Past few years of pain research has been mainly focused on precise understanding of the molecular and cellular nociceptive signatures altered during chronic pain, so that more effective pain relievers can be developed. The importance of protein kinases in normal cellular homeostasis and disease pathogenesis has evolved rapidly in the past few decades. The recent advancement defining the role of multiple protein kinases in regulating neuronal plasticity and pain sensitization has gained enough attention of pharmaceutical industry to develop specific and selective kinase inhibitors as analgesics. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is one such emerging kinase in pain biology. We will discuss here the recent advancement and therapeutic potential of Cdk5 in pain signaling.

  1. Sequential antagonism of early and late Wnt-signaling by zebrafish colgate promotes dorsal and anterior fates.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Roopa M; Henion, Paul D

    2004-03-01

    The establishment of the vertebrate body plan involves patterning of the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm along the dorsoventral and antero-posterior axes. Interactions among numerous signaling molecules from several multigene families, including Wnts, have been implicated in regulating these processes. Here we provide evidence that the zebrafish colgate(b382) (col) mutation results in increased Wnt signaling that leads to defects in dorsal and anterior development. col mutants display early defects in dorsoventral patterning manifested by a decrease in the expression of dorsal shield-specific markers and ectopic expression of ventrolaterally expressed genes during gastrulation. In addition to these early patterning defects, col mutants display a striking regional posteriorization within the neuroectoderm, resulting in a reduction in anterior fates and an expansion of posterior fates within the forebrain and midbrain-hindbrain regions. We are able to correlate these phenotypes to the overactivation of Wnt signaling in col mutants. The early dorsal and anterior patterning phenotypes of the col mutant embryos are selectively rescued by inactivation of Wnt8 function by morpholino translational interference. In contrast, the regionalized neuroectoderm posterioriorization phenotype is selectively rescued by morpholino-mediated inactivation of Wnt8b. These results suggest that col-mediated antagonism of early and late Wnt-signaling activity during gastrulation is normally required sequentially for both early dorsoventral patterning and the specification and patterning of regional fates within the anterior neuroectoderm.

  2. An interdigit signalling centre instructs coordinate phalanx-joint formation governed by 5′Hoxd–Gli3 antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bau-Lin; Trofka, Anna; Furusawa, Aki; Norrie, Jacqueline L.; Rabinowitz, Adam H.; Vokes, Steven A.; Mark Taketo, M.; Zakany, Jozsef; Mackem, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The number of phalanges and joints are key features of digit ‘identity' and are central to limb functionality and evolutionary adaptation. Prior chick work indicated that digit phalanges and their associated joints arise in a different manner than the more sparsely jointed long bones, and their identity is regulated by differential signalling from adjacent interdigits. Currently, there is no genetic evidence for this model, and the molecular mechanisms governing digit joint specification remain poorly understood. Using genetic approaches in mouse, here we show that functional 5′Hoxd–Gli3 antagonism acts indirectly, through Bmp signalling from the interdigital mesenchyme, to regulate specification of joint progenitors, which arise in conjunction with phalangeal precursors at the digit tip. Phalanx number, although co-regulated, can be uncoupled from joint specification. We propose that 5′Hoxd genes and Gli3 are part of an interdigital signalling centre that sets net Bmp signalling levels from different interdigits to coordinately regulate phalanx and joint formation. PMID:27713395

  3. Implications of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in glioma.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vimal; Bhaskara, Vasantha Kumar; Babu, Phanithi Prakash

    2016-02-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system tumors. Gliomas originate from astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neural stem cells or their precursors. According to WHO classification, gliomas are classified into four different malignant grades ranging from grade I to grade IV based on histopathological features and related molecular aberrations. The induction and maintenance of these tumors can be attributed largely to aberrant signaling networks. In this regard, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) network has been widely studied and is reported to be severely altered in glial tumors. Mutations in MAPK pathways most frequently affect RAS and B-RAF in the ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 pathways leading to malignant transformation. Also, it is linked to both inherited and sequential accumulations of mutations that control receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-activated signal transduction pathways, cell cycle growth arrest pathways, and nonresponsive cell death pathways. Genetic alterations that modulate RTK signaling can also alter several downstream pathways, including RAS-mediated MAP kinases along with JNK pathways, which ultimately regulate cell proliferation and cell death. The present review focuses on recent literature regarding important deregulations in the RTK-activated MAPK pathway during gliomagenesis and progression.

  4. Novel links in the plant TOR kinase signaling network

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yan; Sheen, Jen

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient and energy sensing and signaling mechanisms constitute the most ancient and fundamental regulatory networks to control growth and development in all life forms. The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase is modulated by diverse nutrient, energy, hormone and stress inputs and plays a central role in regulating cell proliferation, growth, metabolism and stress responses from yeasts to plants and animals. Recent chemical, genetic, genomic and metabolomic analyses have enabled significant progress toward molecular understanding of the TOR signaling network in multicellular plants. This review discusses the applications of new chemical tools to probe plant TOR functions and highlights recent findings and predictions on TOR-mediate biological processes. Special focus is placed on novel and evolutionarily conserved TOR kinase effectors as positive and negative signaling regulators that control transcription, translation and metabolism to support cell proliferation, growth and maintenance from embryogenesis to senescence in the plant system. PMID:26476687

  5. Novel links in the plant TOR kinase signaling network.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yan; Sheen, Jen

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient and energy sensing and signaling mechanisms constitute the most ancient and fundamental regulatory networks to control growth and development in all life forms. The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase is modulated by diverse nutrient, energy, hormone and stress inputs and plays a central role in regulating cell proliferation, growth, metabolism and stress responses from yeasts to plants and animals. Recent chemical, genetic, genomic and metabolomic analyses have enabled significant progress toward molecular understanding of the TOR signaling network in multicellular plants. This review discusses the applications of new chemical tools to probe plant TOR functions and highlights recent findings and predictions on TOR-mediate biological processes. Special focus is placed on novel and evolutionarily conserved TOR kinase effectors as positive and negative signaling regulators that control transcription, translation and metabolism to support cell proliferation, growth and maintenance from embryogenesis to senescence in the plant system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic variation in insulin-induced kinase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Isabel Xiaorong; Ramrattan, Girish; Cheung, Vivian G

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in sensitivity to insulin contribute to disease susceptibility including diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Cellular responses to insulin are well studied. However, which steps in these response pathways differ across individuals remains largely unknown. Such knowledge is needed to guide more precise therapeutic interventions. Here, we studied insulin response and found extensive individual variation in the activation of key signaling factors, including ERK whose induction differs by more than 20-fold among our subjects. This variation in kinase activity is propagated to differences in downstream gene expression response to insulin. By genetic analysis, we identified cis-acting DNA variants that influence signaling response, which in turn affects downstream changes in gene expression and cellular phenotypes, such as protein translation and cell proliferation. These findings show that polymorphic differences in signal transduction contribute to individual variation in insulin response, and suggest kinase modulators as promising therapeutics for diseases characterized by insulin resistance. PMID:26202599

  7. Lipoxin A4 antagonizes the mitogenic effects of leukotriene D4 in human renal mesangial cells. Differential activation of MAP kinases through distinct receptors.

    PubMed

    McMahon, B; Stenson, C; McPhillips, F; Fanning, A; Brady, H R; Godson, C

    2000-09-08

    The lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids leukotrienes and lipoxins are well defined regulators of hemeodynamics and leukocyte recruitment in inflammatory conditions. Here, we describe a novel bioaction of lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)), namely inhibition of leukotriene D(4) (LTD(4))-induced human renal mesangial cell proliferation, and investigate the signal transduction mechanisms involved. LXA(4) blocked LTD(4)-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity in parallel to inhibition of LTD(4)-induced mesangial cell proliferation. Screening of a human mesangial cell cDNA library revealed expression of the recently described cys-leukotriene(1)/LTD(4) receptor. LTD(4)-induced mesangial cell proliferation required both extracellular-related signal regulated kinase (erk) and PI 3-kinase activation and may involve platelet-derived growth factor receptor transactivation. LTD(4)-stimulated the MAP kinases erk and p38 via a pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive pathway dependent on PI 3-kinase and protein kinase C activation. On screening a cDNA library, mesangial cells were found to express the previously described LXA(4) receptor. In contrast to LTD(4), LXA(4) showed differential activation of erk and p38. LXA(4) activation of erk was insensitive to PTX and PI 3-kinase inhibition, whereas LXA(4) activation of p38 was sensitive to PTX and could be blocked by the LTD(4) receptor antagonist SKF 104353. These data suggest that LXA(4) stimulation of the MAP kinase superfamily involves two distinct receptors: one shared with LTD(4) and coupled to a PTX-sensitive G protein (G(i)) and a second coupled via an alternative G protein, such as G(q) or G(12), to erk activation. These data expand on the spectrum of LXA(4) bioactions within an inflammatory milieu.

  8. Placental-Specific sFLT-1 e15a Protein Is Increased in Preeclampsia, Antagonizes Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling, and Has Antiangiogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Kirsten R; Kaitu'u-Lino, Tu'uhevaha J; Hastie, Roxanne; Hannan, Natalie J; Ye, Louie; Binder, Natalie; Cannon, Ping; Tuohey, Laura; Johns, Terrance G; Shub, Alexis; Tong, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    In preeclampsia, the antiangiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT-1) is released from placenta into the maternal circulation, causing endothelial dysfunction and organ injury. A recently described splice variant, sFLT-1 e15a, is primate specific and the most abundant placentally derived sFLT-1. Therefore, it may be the major sFLT-1 isoform contributing to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. sFLT-1 e15a protein remains poorly characterized: its bioactivity has not been comprehensively examined, and serum levels in normal and preeclamptic pregnancy have not been reported. We generated and validated an sFLT-1 e15a-specific ELISA to further characterize serum levels during pregnancy, and in the presence of preeclampsia. Furthermore, we performed assays to examine the bioactivity and antiangiogenic properties of sFLT-1 e15a protein. sFLT-1 e15a was expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast, and serum levels rose across pregnancy. Strikingly, serum levels were increased 10-fold in preterm preeclampsia compared with normotensive controls. We confirmed sFLT-1 e15a is bioactive and is able to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor signaling of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and block downstream Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, sFLT-1 e15a has antiangiogenic properties. sFLT-1 e15a decreased endothelial cell migration, invasion, and inhibited endothelial cell tube formation. Administering sFLT-1 e15a blocked vascular endothelial growth factor induced sprouts from mouse aortic rings ex vivo. We have demonstrated that sFLT-1 e15a is increased in preeclampsia, antagonizes vascular endothelial growth factor signaling, and has antiangiogenic activity. Future development of diagnostics and therapeutics for preeclampsia should consider targeting placentally derived sFLT-1 e15a. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. p21-activated kinase signaling in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gururaj, Anupama E; Rayala, Suresh K; Kumar, Rakesh

    2005-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases signal through a number of cellular pathways fundamental to growth, differentiation and apoptosis. A wealth of information has accumulated at an impressive pace in the recent past, both with regard to previously identified targets for p21-activated kinases that regulate the actin cytoskeleton and cellular stress pathways and with regard to newly identified targets and their role in cancer. Emerging data also provide new clues towards a previously unappreciated link between these various cellular processes. The present review attempts to provide a quick tutorial to the reader about the evolving significance of p21-activated kinases and small GTPases in breast cancer, using information from mouse models, tissue culture studies, and human materials. PMID:15642175

  10. Structure, Regulation, Signaling, and Targeting of Abl Kinases in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abl kinases are prototypic cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases and are involved in a variety of chromosomal aberrations in different cancers. This causes the expression of Abl fusion proteins, such as Bcr-Abl, that are constitutively activated and drivers of tumorigenesis. Over the past decades, biochemical and functional studies on the molecular mechanisms of Abl regulation have gone hand in hand with progression of our structural understanding of autoinhibited and active Abl conformations. In parallel, Abl oncoproteins have become prime molecular targets for cancer therapy, using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)–competitive kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib. Abl-targeting drugs serve as a paradigm for our understanding of kinase inhibitor action, specificity, and resistance development. In this review article, I will review the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the regulation of Abl kinase activity and how oncogenic Abl fusions signal. Furthermore, past and ongoing efforts to target Abl oncoproteins using ATP-competitive and allosteric inhibitors, as well as future possibilities using combination therapy, will be discussed. PMID:23226581

  11. A role for ceramide, but not diacylglycerol, in the antagonism of insulin signal transduction by saturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Jose Antonio; Knotts, Trina A; Wang, Li-Ping; Li, Guibin; Dobrowsky, Rick T; Florant, Gregory L; Summers, Scott A

    2003-03-21

    Multiple studies suggest that lipid oversupply to skeletal muscle contributes to the development of insulin resistance, perhaps by promoting the accumulation of lipid metabolites capable of inhibiting signal transduction. Herein we demonstrate that exposing muscle cells to particular saturated free fatty acids (FFAs), but not mono-unsaturated FFAs, inhibits insulin stimulation of Akt/protein kinase B, a serine/threonine kinase that is a central mediator of insulin-stimulated anabolic metabolism. These saturated FFAs concomitantly induced the accumulation of ceramide and diacylglycerol, two products of fatty acyl-CoA that have been shown to accumulate in insulin-resistant tissues and to inhibit early steps in insulin signaling. Preventing de novo ceramide synthesis negated the antagonistic effect of saturated FFAs toward Akt/protein kinase B. Moreover, inducing ceramide buildup recapitulated and augmented the inhibitory effect of saturated FFAs. By contrast, diacylglycerol proved dispensable for these FFA effects. Collectively these results identify ceramide as a necessary and sufficient intermediate linking saturated fats to the inhibition of insulin signaling.

  12. New functional activity of aripiprazole revealed: robust antagonism of D2 dopamine receptor-stimulated Gβγ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Brust, Tarsis F.; Hayes, Michael P.; Roman, David L.; Watts, Val J.

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is generally considered to be a primary target in the treatment of schizophrenia. First generation antipsychotic drugs (e.g. haloperidol) are antagonists of the DRD2, while second generation antipsychotic drugs (e.g. olanzapine) antagonize DRD2 and 5HT2A receptors. Notably, both these classes of drugs may cause side effects associated with D2 receptor antagonism (e.g. hyperprolactemia and extrapyramidal symptoms). The novel, “third generation” antipsychotic drug, aripiprazole is also used to treat schizophrenia, with the remarkable advantage that its tendency to cause extrapyramidal symptoms is minimal. Aripiprazole is considered a partial agonist of the DRD2, but it also has partial agonist/antagonist activity for other GPCRs. Further, aripiprazole has been reported to have a unique activity profile in functional assays with the DRD2. In the present study the molecular pharmacology of aripiprazole was further examined in HEK cell models stably expressing the DRD2 and specific isoforms of adenylyl cyclase to assess functional responses of Gα and Gβγ subunits. Additional studies examined the activity of aripiprazole in DRD2-mediated heterologous sensitization of adenylyl cyclase and cell-based dynamic mass redistribution (DMR). Aripiprazole displayed a unique functional profile for modulation of G proteins, being a partial agonist for Gαi/o and a robust antagonist for Gβγ signaling. Additionally, aripiprazole was a weak partial agonist for both heterologous sensitization and dynamic mass redistribution. PMID:25449598

  13. Sphingosine kinase-mediated calcium signaling by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    van Koppen, C J; Meyer zu Heringdorf, D; Alemany, R; Jakobs, K H

    2001-04-27

    Based on the finding that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can induce Ca2+ mobilization, apparently independent of the phospholipase C (PLC)/inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) pathway, we investigated whether sphingosine kinase, which generates sphingosine-1-phosphate (SPP), is involved in calcium signaling by mAChR and other GPCRs. Inhibition of sphingosine kinase by DL-threo-dihydrosphingosine and N,/N-dimethylsphingosine markedly inhibited [Ca2+]i increases elicited by M2 and M3 mAChRs in HEK-293 cells without affecting PLC activation. Activation of M2 and M3 mAChR rapidly and transiently stimulated production of SPP. Furthermore, microinjection of SPP into HEK-293 cells induced rapid and transient Ca2+ mobilization. Pretreatment of HEK-293 cells with the calcium chelator BAPTA/AM fully blocked mAChR-induced SPP production. On the other hand, incubation of HEK-293 cells with calcium ionophores activated SPP production. Similar findings were obtained for formyl peptide and P2Y2 purinergic receptors in HL-60 cells. On the basis of these studies we propose, that following initial IP3 production by receptor-mediated PLC activation, a local discrete increase in [Ca2+]i induces sphingosine kinase stimulation, which ultimately leads to full calcium mobilization. Thus, sphingosine kinase activation most likely represents an amplification system for calcium signaling by mAChRs and other GPCRs.

  14. Follistatin antagonizes activin signaling and acts with notum to direct planarian head regeneration.

    PubMed

    Roberts-Galbraith, Rachel H; Newmark, Phillip A

    2013-01-22

    Animals establish their body plans in embryogenesis, but only a few animals can recapitulate this signaling milieu for regeneration after injury. In planarians, a pluripotent stem cell population and perpetual signaling of polarity axes collaborate to direct a steady replacement of cells during homeostasis and to power robust regeneration after even severe injuries. Several studies have documented the roles of conserved signaling pathways in maintaining and resetting axial polarity in planarians, but it is unclear how planarians reestablish polarity signaling centers after injury and whether these centers serve to influence identity decisions of stem cell progeny during their differentiation. Here we find that a planarian Follistatin homolog directs regeneration of anterior identity by opposing an Activin/ActR-1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. Follistatin and Notum, a Wnt inhibitor, are mutually required to reestablish an anterior signaling center that expresses both cues. Furthermore, we show that the direction of cells down particular differentiation paths requires regeneration of this anterior signaling center. Just as its amphibian counterpart in the organizer signals body plan and cell fate during embryogenesis, planarian Follistatin promotes reestablishment of anterior polarity during regeneration and influences specification of cell types in the head and beyond.

  15. Lefty Blocks a Subset of TGFβ Signals by Antagonizing EGF-CFC Coreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Simon K; Olale, Felix; Brivanlou, Ali H

    2004-01-01

    Members of the EGF-CFC family play essential roles in embryonic development and have been implicated in tumorigenesis. The TGFβ signals Nodal and Vg1/GDF1, but not Activin, require EGF-CFC coreceptors to activate Activin receptors. We report that the TGFβ signaling antagonist Lefty also acts through an EGF-CFC-dependent mechanism. Lefty inhibits Nodal and Vg1 signaling, but not Activin signaling. Lefty genetically interacts with EGF-CFC proteins and competes with Nodal for binding to these coreceptors. Chimeras between Activin and Nodal or Vg1 identify a 14 amino acid region that confers independence from EGF-CFC coreceptors and resistance to Lefty. These results indicate that coreceptors are targets for both TGFβ agonists and antagonists and suggest that subtle sequence variations in TGFβ signals result in greater ligand diversity. PMID:14966532

  16. Lefty blocks a subset of TGFbeta signals by antagonizing EGF-CFC coreceptors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Simon K; Olale, Felix; Brivanlou, Ali H; Schier, Alexander F

    2004-02-01

    Members of the EGF-CFC family play essential roles in embryonic development and have been implicated in tumorigenesis. The TGFbeta signals Nodal and Vg1/GDF1, but not Activin, require EGF-CFC coreceptors to activate Activin receptors. We report that the TGFbeta signaling antagonist Lefty also acts through an EGF-CFC-dependent mechanism. Lefty inhibits Nodal and Vg1 signaling, but not Activin signaling. Lefty genetically interacts with EGF-CFC proteins and competes with Nodal for binding to these coreceptors. Chimeras between Activin and Nodal or Vg1 identify a 14 amino acid region that confers independence from EGF-CFC coreceptors and resistance to Lefty. These results indicate that coreceptors are targets for both TGFbeta agonists and antagonists and suggest that subtle sequence variations in TGFbeta signals result in greater ligand diversity.

  17. Receptor tyrosine kinases: mechanisms of activation and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Stevan R.; Miller, W. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are essential components of signal transduction pathways that mediate cell-to-cell communication. These single-pass transmembrane receptors, which bind polypeptide ligands — mainly growth factors — play key roles in processes such as cellular growth, differentiation, metabolism and motility. Recent progress has been achieved towards an understanding of the precise (and varied) mechanisms by which RTKs are activated by ligand binding and by which signals are propagated from the activated receptors to downstream targets in the cell. PMID:17306972

  18. Canonical Wnt signaling is antagonized by noncanonical Wnt5a in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuzugullu, Haluk; Benhaj, Khemais; Ozturk, Nuri; Senturk, Serif; Celik, Emine; Toylu, Asli; Tasdemir, Nilgun; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Erdal, Esra; Akcali, Kamil Can; Atabey, Nese; Ozturk, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Background β-catenin mutations that constitutively activate the canonical Wnt signaling have been observed in a subset of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). These mutations are associated with chromosomal stability, low histological grade, low tumor invasion and better patient survival. We hypothesized that canonical Wnt signaling is selectively activated in well-differentiated, but repressed in poorly differentiated HCCs. To this aim, we characterized differentiation status of HCC cell lines and compared their expression status of Wnt pathway genes, and explored their activity of canonical Wnt signaling. Results We classified human HCC cell lines into "well-differentiated" and "poorly differentiated" subtypes, based on the expression of hepatocyte lineage, epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Poorly differentiated cell lines lost epithelial and hepatocyte lineage markers, and overexpressed mesenchymal markers. Also, they were highly motile and invasive. We compared the expression of 45 Wnt pathway genes between two subtypes. TCF1 and TCF4 factors, and LRP5 and LRP6 co-receptors were ubiquitously expressed. Likewise, six Frizzled receptors, and canonical Wnt3 ligand were expressed in both subtypes. In contrast, canonical ligand Wnt8b and noncanonical ligands Wnt4, Wnt5a, Wnt5b and Wnt7b were expressed selectively in well- and poorly differentiated cell lines, respectively. Canonical Wnt signaling activity, as tested by a TCF reporter assay was detected in 80% of well-differentiated, contrary to 14% of poorly differentiated cell lines. TCF activity generated by ectopic mutant β-catenin was weak in poorly differentiated SNU449 cell line, suggesting a repressive mechanism. We tested Wnt5a as a candidate antagonist. It strongly inhibited canonical Wnt signaling that is activated by mutant β-catenin in HCC cell lines. Conclusion Differential expression of Wnt ligands in HCC cells is associated with selective activation of canonical Wnt signaling in well

  19. Protein kinase A signaling as an anti-aging target.

    PubMed

    Enns, Linda C; Ladiges, Warren

    2010-07-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) is a multi-unit protein kinase that mediates signal transduction of G-protein-coupled receptors through its activation by adenyl cyclase (AC)-mediated cAMP. The vital importance of PKA signaling to cellular function is reflected in the widespread expression of PKA subunit genes. As one of its many functions, PKA plays a key role in the regulation of metabolism and triglyceride storage. The PKA pathway has become of great interest to the study of aging, since mutations that cause a reduction in PKA signaling have been shown to extend lifespan in yeast, and to both delay the incidence and severity of age-related disease, and to promote leanness and longevity, in mice. There is increasing interest in the potential for the inhibition or redistribution of adiposity to attenuate aging, since obesity is associated with impaired function of most organ systems, and is a strong risk factor for shortened life span. Its association with coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cancer, sleep apnea and osteoarthritis is leading to its accession as a major cause of global ill health. Therefore, gene signaling pathways such as PKA that promote adiposity are potential inhibitory targets for aging intervention. Since numerous plant compounds have been found that both prevent adipogenesis and inhibit PKA signaling, a focused investigation into their effects on biological systems and the corresponding molecular mechanisms would be of high relevance to the discovery of novel and non-toxic compounds that promote healthy aging.

  20. Ghrelin augments murine T-cell proliferation by activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase C signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Ho; Patel, Kalpesh; Tae, Hyun Jin; Lustig, Ana; Kim, Jie Wan; Mattson, Mark P.; Taub, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Thymic atrophy occurs during normal aging, and is accelerated by exposure to chronic stressors that elevate glucocorticoid levelsand impair the naïve T cell output. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin was recently shown to attenuate age-associated thymic atrophy. Here, we report that ghrelin enhances the proliferation of murine CD4+ primary T cells and a CD4+ T-cell line. Ghrelin induced activation of the ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways, via upstream activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and protein kinase C, to enhance T-cell proliferation. Moreover, ghrelin induced expression of the cell cycle proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and retinoblastoma phosphorylation. Finally, ghrelin activated the above-mentioned signaling pathways and stimulated thymocyte proliferation in young and older mice in vivo. PMID:25447526

  1. Primary cilia and coordination of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Søren T; Clement, Christian A; Satir, Peter; Pedersen, Lotte B

    2012-01-01

    Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles that coordinate signalling pathways in cell-cycle control, migration, differentiation and other cellular processes critical during development and for tissue homeostasis. Accordingly, defects in assembly or function of primary cilia lead to a plethora of developmental disorders and pathological conditions now known as ciliopathies. In this review, we summarize the current status of the role of primary cilia in coordinating receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling pathways. Further, we present potential mechanisms of signalling crosstalk and networking in the primary cilium and discuss how defects in ciliary RTK signalling are linked to human diseases and disorders. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. 2,2′-Pyridylisatogen tosylate antagonizes P2Y1 receptor signaling without affecting nucleotide binding

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhan-Guo; Mamedova, Liaman; Tchilibon, Susanna; Gross, Ariel S.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of 2,2′-pyridylisatogen tosylate (PIT) on the human P2Y1 receptor and on other recombinant P2Y receptors has been studied. We first examined the modulation by PIT of the agonist-induced accumulation of inositol phosphates. PIT blocked 2-methylthio-ADP (2-MeSADP)-induced accumulation of inositol phosphates in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells stably expressing human P2Y1 receptors in a non-competitive and concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 for reduction of the maximal agonist effect was 0.14 μM. In contrast, MRS2179, a competitive P2Y1 receptor antagonist, parallel-shifted the agonist concentration–response curve to the right. PIT also concentration-dependently blocked the P2Y1 receptor signaling induced by the endogenous agonists, ADP and ATP. A simple structural analogue of PIT was synthesized and found to be inactive as a P2Y1 receptor antagonist, suggesting that the nitroxyl group of PIT is a necessary structural component for P2Y1 receptor antagonism. We next examined the possible modulation of the binding of the newly available antagonist radioligand for the P2Y1 receptor, [3H] MRS2279. It was found that PIT (0.01–10 μM) did not inhibit [3H] MRS2279 binding to the human P2Y1 receptor. PIT (10 μM) had no effect on the competition for [3H] MRS2279 binding by agonists, ADP and ATP, suggesting that its antagonism of the P2Y1 receptor may be allosteric. PIT had no significant effect on agonist activation of other P2Y receptors, including P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, P2Y11 and P2Y12 receptors. Thus, PIT selectively and non-competitively blocked P2Y1 receptor signaling without affecting nucleotide binding. PMID:15193995

  3. Targeted inhibition of Src kinase signaling attenuates pancreatic tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Nagathihalli S.; Smith, J. Joshua; Revetta, Frank; Washington, M. Kay; Merchant, Nipun B.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated Src expression correlates with malignant potential and metastatic disease in many tumors including pancreas cancer. We sought to characterize the molecular effects of Src kinase inhibition with dasatinib (BMS-354825) a novel, multi-targeted kinase inhibitor that targets Src family kinases, in pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). We identified sensitive and resistant PDA cell lines to dasatinib treatment and tested the molecular effects of Src inhibition in vitro and in vivo. We show for the first time that cellular localization of Src expression impacts survival in patients with PDA. Pancreas tumors with increased membranous expression of Src result in decreased survival compared with tumors that have increased cytoplasmic Src expression. Src kinase inhibition with dasatinib markedly inhibits cell proliferation, migration, invasion, cell cycle progression and anchorage independent growth and stimulates apoptosis. This is accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of Src, FAK, paxillin, AKT, STAT3, ERK, JNK and MAPK, as well as decreased cyclinD1 expression in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, siRNA to Src results in significant decrease in cell proliferation, invasion and migration of pancreas cancer cells. Dasatinib treatment also inhibits in vivo pancreas tumor growth. Mechanisms of resistance to Src inhibition appear to be related to a lack of inhibition of STAT3 and MAPK signaling. These results establish a mechanistic rationale for Src inhibition with dasatinib as a therapeutic target in the treatment of pancreas cancer and identify potential biomarkers of resistance to Src inhibition. PMID:20682659

  4. Mitochondrial kinases in cell signaling: Facts and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Antico Arciuch, Valeria G; Alippe, Yael; Carreras, María Cecilia; Poderoso, Juan José

    2009-11-30

    Phylogenetic studies had shown that evolution of mitochondria occurred in parallel with the maturation of kinases implicated in growth and final size of modern organisms. In the last years, different reports confirmed that MAPKs, Akt, PKA and PKC are present in mitochondria, particularly in the intermembrane space and inner membrane where they meet mitochondrial constitutive upstream activators. Although a priori phosphorylation is the apparent aim of translocation, new perspectives indicate that kinase activation depends on redox status as determined by the mitochondrial production of oxygen species. We observed that the degree of mitochondrial oxidation of ERK Cys(38) and Cys(214) discriminates the kinase to be phosphorylated and determines translocation to the nuclear compartment and proliferation, or accumulation in mitochondria and arrest. Otherwise, transcriptional gene regulation by Akt depends on Cys(60) and Cys(310) oxidation to sulfenic and sulfonic acids. It is concluded that the interactions between kinases and mitochondria control cell signaling pathways and participate in the modulation of cell proliferation and arrest, tissue protection, tumorigenesis and cancer progression.

  5. ZnRF3 Induces Apoptosis of Gastric Cancer Cells by Antagonizing Wnt and Hedgehog Signaling.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongzhen; Cai, Aizhen; Xi, Hongqing; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Lin

    2015-11-01

    A large proportion of malignant cancers of the stomach are gastric adenocarcinoma type. In spite of many studies, the molecular basis for this cancer is still unclear. Deregulated cell proliferative signaling via Wnt/β-catenin and Hedgehog pathways is considered important in the pathogenesis of many cancers including the gastric cancer. Recent studies identified ZnRF3 protein, which is a E3-ubiquitin ligase and which is either deleted or mutated in cancers, to inhibit Wnt signaling. However, the significance of ZnRF3 in the control of gastric cancer and whether it also regulates Hedgehog signaling pathway, is not known. In the present study, we assessed the expression of ZnRF3 in gastric tumors and paracancerous tissues from 58 patients (44 male and 14 female) of different ages and related this to patient survival. We observed a clear relationship between ZnRF3 expression in paracancerous tissue and tumor size. Also, ZnRF3 expression was much higher in tumors from aged patients. Male patients showed higher mortality than the females. Mechanistic studies using normal gastric cells (GES1) and gastric cancer cells (MGC-803) infected with either AdZnRF3 or AdGFP viral vectors, revealed that ZnRF3 overexpression causes significantly more apoptosis and lowered proliferation of cancer cells. ZnRF3 overexpression led to greatly reduced levels of Lgr5, a component of Wnt signaling and also Gli1, a component of Hedgehog signaling. Thus, ZnRF3 negatively influences both the Wnt and Hedgehog proliferative pathways, and probably this way it negatively regulates cancer progression. These results suggest the importance of normal ZnRF3 function in checking the progression of cancer cell growth and indicate that a lack of this protein can lead to poorer clinical outcomes for gastric cancer patients.

  6. Analysis of CaM-kinase signaling in cells.

    PubMed

    Wayman, Gary A; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi; Davare, Monika A; Soderling, Thomas R

    2011-07-01

    A change in intracellular free calcium is a common signaling mechanism that modulates a wide array of physiological processes in most cells. Responses to increased intracellular Ca(2+) are often mediated by the ubiquitous protein calmodulin (CaM) that upon binding Ca(2+) can interact with and alter the functionality of numerous proteins including a family of protein kinases referred to as CaM-kinases (CaMKs). Of particular interest are multifunctional CaMKs, such as CaMKI, CaMKII, CaMKIV and CaMKK, that can phosphorylate multiple downstream targets. This review will outline several protocols we have used to identify which members and/or isoforms of this CaMK family mediate specific cellular responses with a focus on studies in neurons. Many previous studies have relied on a single approach such as pharmacological inhibitors or transfected dominant-negative kinase constructs. Since each of these protocols has its limitations, that will be discussed, we emphasize the necessity to use multiple, independent approaches in mapping out cellular signaling pathways. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd.

  7. Spatiotemporal antagonism in mesenchymal-epithelial signaling in sweat versus hair fate decision

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Catherine P.; Polak, Lisa; Keyes, Brice E.; Fuchs, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    The gain of eccrine sweat glands in hairy body skin has empowered humans to run marathons and tolerate temperature extremes. Epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk is integral to the diverse patterning of skin appendages, but the molecular events underlying their specification remain largely unknown. Using genome-wide analyses and functional studies, we show that sweat glands are specified by mesenchymal-derived bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and fibroblast growth factors that signal to epithelial buds and suppress epithelial-derived sonic hedgehog (SHH) production. Conversely, hair follicles are specified when mesenchymal BMP signaling is blocked, permitting SHH production. Fate determination is confined to a critical developmental window and is regionally specified in mice. In contrast, a shift from hair to gland fates is achieved in humans when a spike in BMP silences SHH during the final embryonic wave(s) of bud morphogenesis. PMID:28008008

  8. The Androgen Receptor Antagonizes Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Epidermal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kretzschmar, Kai; Cottle, Denny L; Schweiger, Pawel J; Watt, Fiona M

    2015-01-01

    Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in adult mouse epidermis leads to expansion of the stem cell compartment and redirects keratinocytes in the interfollicular epidermis and sebaceous glands (SGs) to differentiate along the hair follicle (HF) lineages. Here we demonstrate that during epidermal development and homeostasis there is reciprocal activation of the androgen receptor (AR) and β-catenin in cells of the HF bulb. AR activation reduced β-catenin-dependent transcription, blocked β-catenin-induced induction of HF growth, and prevented β-catenin-mediated conversion of SGs into HFs. Conversely, AR inhibition enhanced the effects of β-catenin activation, promoting HF proliferation and differentiation, culminating in the formation of benign HF tumors and a complete loss of SG identity. We conclude that AR signaling has a key role in epidermal stem cell fate selection by modulating responses to β-catenin in adult mouse skin. PMID:26121213

  9. OTULIN Antagonizes LUBAC Signaling by Specifically Hydrolyzing Met1-Linked Polyubiquitin

    PubMed Central

    Keusekotten, Kirstin; Elliott, Paul Ronald; Glockner, Laura; Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Damgaard, Rune Busk; Kulathu, Yogesh; Wauer, Tobias; Hospenthal, Manuela Kathrin; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads; Krappmann, Daniel; Hofmann, Kay; Komander, David

    2013-01-01

    Summary The linear ubiquitin (Ub) chain assembly complex (LUBAC) is an E3 ligase that specifically assembles Met1-linked (also known as linear) Ub chains that regulate nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling. Deubiquitinases (DUBs) are key regulators of Ub signaling, but a dedicated DUB for Met1 linkages has not been identified. Here, we reveal a previously unannotated human DUB, OTULIN (also known as FAM105B), which is exquisitely specific for Met1 linkages. Crystal structures of the OTULIN catalytic domain in complex with diubiquitin reveal Met1-specific Ub-binding sites and a mechanism of substrate-assisted catalysis in which the proximal Ub activates the catalytic triad of the protease. Mutation of Ub Glu16 inhibits OTULIN activity by reducing kcat 240-fold. OTULIN overexpression or knockdown affects NF-κB responses to LUBAC, TNFα, and poly(I:C) and sensitizes cells to TNFα-induced cell death. We show that OTULIN binds LUBAC and that overexpression of OTULIN prevents TNFα-induced NEMO association with ubiquitinated RIPK1. Our data suggest that OTULIN regulates Met1-polyUb signaling. PMID:23746843

  10. Numb-Associated Kinase Interacts with the Phosphotyrosine Binding Domain of Numb and Antagonizes the Function of Numb In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Cheng-ting; Wang, Shuwen; Rothenberg, Michael; Jan, Lily Y.; Jan, Yuh Nung

    1998-01-01

    During asymmetric cell division, the membrane-associated Numb protein localizes to a crescent in the mitotic progenitor and is segregated predominantly to one of the two daughter cells. We have identified a putative serine/threonine kinase, Numb-associated kinase (Nak), which interacts physically with the phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain of Numb. The PTB domains of Shc and insulin receptor substrate bind to an NPXY motif which is not present in the region of Nak that interacts with Numb PTB domain. We found that the Numb PTB domain but not the Shc PTB domain interacts with Nak through a peptide of 11 amino acids, implicating a novel and specific protein-protein interaction. Overexpression of Nak in the sensory organs causes both daughters of a normally asymmetric cell division to adopt the same cell fate, a transformation similar to the loss of numb function phenotype and opposite the cell fate transformation caused by overexpression of Numb. The frequency of cell fate transformation is sensitive to the numb gene dosage, as expected from the physical interaction between Nak and Numb. These findings indicate that Nak may play a role in cell fate determination during asymmetric cell divisions. PMID:9418906

  11. Mitogen Activated Protein kinase signal transduction pathways in the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Maroni, Paul D; Koul, Sweaty; Meacham, Randall B; Koul, Hari K

    2004-01-01

    The biochemistry of the mitogen activated protein kinases ERK, JNK, and p38 have been studied in prostate physiology in an attempt to elucidate novel mechanisms and pathways for the treatment of prostatic disease. We reviewed articles examining mitogen-activated protein kinases using prostate tissue or cell lines. As with other tissue types, these signaling modules are links/transmitters for important pathways in prostate cells that can result in cellular survival or apoptosis. While the activation of the ERK pathway appears to primarily result in survival, the roles of JNK and p38 are less clear. Manipulation of these pathways could have important implications for the treatment of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy. PMID:15219238

  12. ERK1 and ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinases affect Ras-dependent cell signaling differentially

    PubMed Central

    Vantaggiato, Chiara; Formentini, Ivan; Bondanza, Attilio; Bonini, Chiara; Naldini, Luigi; Brambilla, Riccardo

    2006-01-01

    Background The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases p44ERK1 and p42ERK2 are crucial components of the regulatory machinery underlying normal and malignant cell proliferation. A currently accepted model maintains that ERK1 and ERK2 are regulated similarly and contribute to intracellular signaling by phosphorylating a largely common subset of substrates, both in the cytosol and in the nucleus. Results Here, we show that ablation of ERK1 in mouse embryo fibroblasts and NIH 3T3 cells by gene targeting and RNA interference results in an enhancement of ERK2-dependent signaling and in a significant growth advantage. By contrast, knockdown of ERK2 almost completely abolishes normal and Ras-dependent cell proliferation. Ectopic expression of ERK1 but not of ERK2 in NIH 3T3 cells inhibits oncogenic Ras-mediated proliferation and colony formation. These phenotypes are independent of the kinase activity of ERK1, as expression of a catalytically inactive form of ERK1 is equally effective. Finally, ectopic expression of ERK1 but not ERK2 is sufficient to attenuate Ras-dependent tumor formation in nude mice. Conclusion These results reveal an unexpected interplay between ERK1 and ERK2 in transducing Ras-dependent cell signaling and proliferation. Whereas ERK2 seems to have a positive role in controlling normal and Ras-dependent cell proliferation, ERK1 probably affects the overall signaling output of the cell by antagonizing ERK2 activity. PMID:16805921

  13. Blueberry treatment antagonizes C-2 ceramide-induced stress signaling in muscarinic receptor-transfected COS-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Joseph, James A; Bielinski, Donna F; Fisher, Derek R

    2010-03-24

    Previous research has shown that muscarinic receptors (MAChRs) show loss of sensitivity in aging and AD and are selectively sensitive to oxidative stress (OS). Thus, COS-7 cells transfected (tn) with MAChR subtype M1 show > OS sensitivity [as reflected in the ability of the cell to extrude or sequester Ca(2+) following depolarization (recovery) by oxotremorine (oxo) and exposure to dopamine (DA) or amyloid beta (Abeta)] than M3-transfected COS-7 cells. Blueberry (BB) extract pretreatment prevented these deficits. Research has also indicated that C2 ceramide (Cer) has several age-related negative cellular effects (e.g., OS). When these cells were treated with Cer, the significant decrements in the ability of both types of tn cells to initially respond to oxo were antagonized by BB treatment. Present experiments assessed signaling mechanisms involved in BB protection in the presence or absence of DA, Abeta, and/or Cer in this model. Thus, control or BB-treated M1 and M3 tn COS-7 cells were exposed to DA or Abeta(42) in the presence or absence of Cer. Primarily, results showed that the effects of DA or Abeta(42) were to increase stress (e.g., PKCgamma, p38MAPK) and protective signals (e.g., pMAPK). Cer also appeared to raise several of the stress and protective signals in the absence of the other stressors, including PKCgamma, pJNK, pNfkappaB, p53, and p38MAPK, while not significantly altering MAPK, or Akt. pArc was, however, increased by Cer in both types of transfected cells. The protective effects of BB when combined with Cer generally showed greater protection when BB extract was applied prior to Cer, except for one protective signal (pArc) where a greater effect was seen in the M3 cells exposed to Abeta(42.) In the absence of the Abeta(42) or DA, for several of the stress signals (e.g., pNfkappaB, p53), BB lowered their Cer-induced increases in M1- and M3-transfected cells. We are exploring these interactions further, but it is clear that increases in ceramide

  14. H2S- and NO-Signaling Pathways in Alzheimer's Amyloid Vasculopathy: Synergism or Antagonism?

    PubMed Central

    Salmina, Alla B.; Komleva, Yulia K.; Szijártó, István A.; Gorina, Yana V.; Lopatina, Olga L.; Gertsog, Galina E.; Filipovic, Milos R.; Gollasch, Maik

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's type of neurodegeneration dramatically affects H2S and NO synthesis and interactions in the brain, which results in dysregulated vasomotor function, brain tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxia, development of perivascular inflammation, promotion of Aβ deposition, and impairment of neurogenesis/angiogenesis. H2S- and NO-signaling pathways have been described to offer protection against Alzheimer's amyloid vasculopathy and neurodegeneration. This review describes recent developments of the increasing relevance of H2S and NO in Alzheimer's disease (AD). More studies are however needed to fully determine their potential use as therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's and other forms of vascular dementia. PMID:26696896

  15. Oscillatory Dynamics of the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Shankaran, Harish; Wiley, H. S.

    2010-12-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is a central signaling pathway in development and disease and is regulated by multiple negative and positive feedback loops. Recent studies have shown negative feedback from ERK to upstream regulators can give rise to biochemical oscillations with a periodicity of between 15-30 minutes. Feedback due to the stimulated transcription of negative regulators of the ERK pathway can also give rise to transcriptional oscillations with a periodicity of 1-2h. The biological significance of these oscillations is not clear, but recent evidence suggests that transcriptional oscillations participate in developmental processes, such as somite formation. Biochemical oscillations are more enigmatic, but could provide a mechanism for encoding different types of inputs into a common signaling pathway.

  16. The Dual Syk/JAK Inhibitor Cerdulatinib Antagonizes B-cell Receptor and Microenvironmental Signaling in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Blunt, Matthew D; Koehrer, Stefan; Dobson, Rachel C; Larrayoz, Marta; Wilmore, Sarah; Hayman, Alice; Parnell, Jack; Smith, Lindsay D; Davies, Andrew; Johnson, Peter W M; Conley, Pamela B; Pandey, Anjali; Strefford, Jonathan C; Stevenson, Freda K; Packham, Graham; Forconi, Francesco; Coffey, Greg P; Burger, Jan A; Steele, Andrew J

    2016-10-03

    Purpose: B-cell receptor (BCR)-associated kinase inhibitors, such as ibrutinib, have revolutionized the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, these agents are not curative, and resistance is already emerging in a proportion of patients. IL4, expressed in CLL lymph nodes, can augment BCR signaling and reduce the effectiveness of BCR kinase inhibitors. Therefore, simultaneous targeting of the IL4- and BCR signaling pathways by cerdulatinib, a novel dual Syk/JAK inhibitor currently in clinical trials (NCT01994382), may improve treatment responses in patients.Experimental Design: PBMCs from patients with CLL were treated in vitro with cerdulatinib alone or in combination with venetoclax. Cell death, chemokine, and cell signaling assay were performed and analyzed by flow cytometry, immunoblotting, q-PCR, and ELISA as indicated.Results: At concentrations achievable in patients, cerdulatinib inhibited BCR- and IL4-induced downstream signaling in CLL cells using multiple readouts and prevented anti-IgM- and nurse-like cell (NLC)-mediated CCL3/CCL4 production. Cerdulatinib induced apoptosis of CLL cells, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and particularly in IGHV-unmutated samples with greater BCR signaling capacity and response to IL4, or samples expressing higher levels of sIgM, CD49d(+), or ZAP70(+) Cerdulatinib overcame anti-IgM, IL4/CD40L, or NLC-mediated protection by preventing upregulation of MCL-1 and BCL-XL; however, BCL-2 expression was unaffected. Furthermore, in samples treated with IL4/CD40L, cerdulatinib synergized with venetoclax in vitro to induce greater apoptosis than either drug alone.Conclusion: Cerdulatinib is a promising therapeutic for the treatment of CLL either alone or in combination with venetoclax, with the potential to target critical survival pathways in this currently incurable disease. Clin Cancer Res; 1-12. ©2016 AACR.

  17. Interferon production and signaling pathways are antagonized during henipavirus infection of fruit bat cell lines.

    PubMed

    Virtue, Elena R; Marsh, Glenn A; Baker, Michelle L; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2011-01-01

    Bats are natural reservoirs for a spectrum of infectious zoonotic diseases including the recently emerged henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses). Henipaviruses have been observed both naturally and experimentally to cause serious and often fatal disease in many different mammal species, including humans. Interestingly, infection of the flying fox with henipaviruses occurs in the absence of clinical disease. The extreme variation in the disease pattern between humans and bats has led to an investigation into the effects of henipavirus infection on the innate immune response in bat cell lines. We report that henipavirus infection does not result in the induction of interferon expression, and the viruses also inhibit interferon signaling. We also confirm that the interferon production and signaling block in bat cells is not due to differing viral protein expression levels between human and bat hosts. This information, in addition to the known lack of clinical signs in bats following henipavirus infection, suggests that bats control henipavirus infection by an as yet unidentified mechanism, not via the interferon response. This is the first report of henipavirus infection in bat cells specifically investigating aspects of the innate immune system.

  18. Increasing Notch signaling antagonizes PRC2-mediated silencing to promote reprograming of germ cells into neurons

    PubMed Central

    Seelk, Stefanie; Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene; Hargitai, Balázs; Hajduskova, Martina; Gutnik, Silvia; Tursun, Baris; Ciosk, Rafal

    2016-01-01

    Cell-fate reprograming is at the heart of development, yet very little is known about the molecular mechanisms promoting or inhibiting reprograming in intact organisms. In the C. elegans germline, reprograming germ cells into somatic cells requires chromatin perturbation. Here, we describe that such reprograming is facilitated by GLP-1/Notch signaling pathway. This is surprising, since this pathway is best known for maintaining undifferentiated germline stem cells/progenitors. Through a combination of genetics, tissue-specific transcriptome analysis, and functional studies of candidate genes, we uncovered a possible explanation for this unexpected role of GLP-1/Notch. We propose that GLP-1/Notch promotes reprograming by activating specific genes, silenced by the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), and identify the conserved histone demethylase UTX-1 as a crucial GLP-1/Notch target facilitating reprograming. These findings have wide implications, ranging from development to diseases associated with abnormal Notch signaling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15477.001 PMID:27602485

  19. Interferon Production and Signaling Pathways Are Antagonized during Henipavirus Infection of Fruit Bat Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Virtue, Elena R.; Marsh, Glenn A.; Baker, Michelle L.; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2011-01-01

    Bats are natural reservoirs for a spectrum of infectious zoonotic diseases including the recently emerged henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses). Henipaviruses have been observed both naturally and experimentally to cause serious and often fatal disease in many different mammal species, including humans. Interestingly, infection of the flying fox with henipaviruses occurs in the absence of clinical disease. The extreme variation in the disease pattern between humans and bats has led to an investigation into the effects of henipavirus infection on the innate immune response in bat cell lines. We report that henipavirus infection does not result in the induction of interferon expression, and the viruses also inhibit interferon signaling. We also confirm that the interferon production and signaling block in bat cells is not due to differing viral protein expression levels between human and bat hosts. This information, in addition to the known lack of clinical signs in bats following henipavirus infection, suggests that bats control henipavirus infection by an as yet unidentified mechanism, not via the interferon response. This is the first report of henipavirus infection in bat cells specifically investigating aspects of the innate immune system. PMID:21811620

  20. Rnf11 sequestration of Smurf2 on membranes antagonizes Smad7 down-regulation of TGFβ signaling.

    PubMed

    Malonis, Ryan J; Fu, Wenxiang; Jelcic, Mark J; Thompson, Marae; Canter, Brian S; Tsikitis, Mary; Esteva, Francisco J; Sánchez, Irma

    2017-03-14

    The activity of the E3 ligase, Smurf2, is antagonized by an intra-molecular, auto-inhibitory interaction between its C2 and Hect domains. Relief of Smurf2 auto-inhibition is induced by TGFβ and is mediated by the inhibitory SMAD, Smad7. In a proteomic screen for endo-membrane interactants of the RING-domain E3 ligase, Rnf11, we identified Smurf2, among a cohort of Hect E3 ligases previously implicated in TGFβ signaling. Reconstitution of the Smurf2/Rnf11 complex in vitro unexpectedly revealed robust Smurf2 E3 ligase activity, with biochemical properties previously restricted to the Smurf2/Smad7 complex. Using in vitro binding assays, we find that Rnf11 can directly compete with Smad7 for Smurf2 and that binding is mutually exclusive and dependent on a proline-rich domain. Moreover, we found that co-expression of Rnf11 and Smurf2 dramatically reduced Smurf2 ubiquitylation in the cell. This effect is strictly dependent on complex formation and sorting determinants that regulate the association of Rnf11 with membranes. Rnf11 is over-expressed in certain tumors, and, importantly, we find that depletion of this protein down-regulated gene expression of several TGFβ-responsive genes, dampened cell proliferation, and dramatically reduced cell migration in response to TGFβ. Our data suggest for the first time that choice of binding partners for Smurf2 can sustain or repress TGFβ signaling and Rnf11 may promote TGFβ-induced cell migration.

  1. Signals fly when kinases meet Rho-of-plants (ROP) small G-proteins.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Attila; Lajkó, Dézi Bianka

    2015-08-01

    Rho-type small GTP-binding plant proteins function as two-state molecular switches in cellular signalling. There is accumulating evidence that Rho-of-plants (ROP) signalling is positively controlled by plant receptor kinases, through the ROP guanine nucleotide exchange factor proteins. These signalling modules regulate cell polarity, cell shape, hormone responses, and pathogen defence, among other things. Other ROP-regulatory proteins might also be subjected to protein phosphorylation by cellular kinases (e.g., mitogen-activated protein kinases or calcium-dependent protein kinases), in order to integrate various cellular signalling pathways with ROP GTPase-dependent processes. In contrast to the role of kinases in upstream ROP regulation, much less is known about the potential link between ROP GTPases and downstream kinase signalling. In other eukaryotes, Rho-type G-protein-activated kinases are widespread and have a key role in many cellular processes. Recent data indicate the existence of structurally different ROP-activated kinases in plants, but their ROP-dependent biological functions still need to be validated. In addition to these direct interactions, ROPs may also indirectly control the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases or calcium-dependent protein kinases. These kinases may therefore function as upstream as well as downstream kinases in ROP-mediated signalling pathways, such as the phosphatidylinositol monophosphate kinases involved in cell polarity establishment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rho kinase acts as a downstream molecule to participate in protein kinase Cε regulation of vascular reactivity after hemorrhagic shock in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Zhu, Yu; Zang, Jia-tao; Peng, Xiao-yong; Lan, Dan; Yang, Guang-ming; Xu, Jing; Liu, Liang-ming

    2014-09-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that Rho kinase and protein kinase C (PKC) played important parts in the regulation of vascular reactivity after shock. Using superior mesenteric arteries (SMAs) from hemorrhagic shock rats and hypoxia-treated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), relationship of PKCε regulation of vascular reactivity to Rho kinase, as well as the signal transduction after shock, was investigated. The results showed that inhibition of Rho kinase with the Rho kinase-specific inhibitor Y-27632 antagonized the PKCε-specific agonist carbachol and highly expressed PKCε-induced increase of vascular reactivity in SMAs and VSMCs, whereas inhibition of PKCε with its specific inhibitory peptide did not antagonize the Rho kinase agonist (U-46619)-induced increase of vascular reactivity in SMAs and VSMCs. Activation of PKCε or highly expressed PKCε upregulated the activity of Rho kinase and the phosphorylation of PKC-dependent phosphatase inhibitor 17 (CPI-17), zipper interacting protein kinase (ZIPK), and integrin-linked kinase (ILK), whereas activation of Rho kinase increased only CPI-17 phosphorylation. The specific neutralization antibodies of ZIPK and ILK antagonized PKCε-induced increases in the activity of Rho kinase, but CPI-17 neutralization antibody did not antagonize this effect. These results suggested that Rho kinase takes part in the regulation of PKCε on vascular reactivity after shock. Rho kinase is downstream of PKCε. Protein kinase Cε activates Rho kinase via ZIPK and ILK; CPI-17 is downstream of Rho kinase.

  3. Inhibition of Tyrosine Kinase Signaling After Trauma-Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jarrar, Doraid; Wang, Ping; Song, Grace Y.; Cioffi, William G.; Bland, Kirby I.; Chaudry, Irshad H.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine whether administration of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor after trauma-hemorrhage has any beneficial effects on cardiovascular parameters and hepatocellular function and on survival rate after subsequent sepsis. Background Increased inflammatory cytokine release and concomitant activation of intracellular signaling pathways contributes to multiple organ dysfunction and increased susceptibility to subsequent sepsis after severe hemorrhagic shock. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a midline laparotomy (i.e., soft-tissue trauma induced) and were then bled to and maintained at a mean arterial pressure of 40 mmHg until 40% of the maximal shed blood volume was returned in the form of Ringer’s lactate. The rats were then resuscitated with four times the shed blood volume in the form of Ringer’s lactate during a 60-minute period. A tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG 556 (7.5 mg/kg), or vehicle was administered intraperitoneally at the middle of resuscitation. At 24 hours after resuscitation, various in vivo parameters such as heart performance, cardiac index, and hepatocellular function (i.e., the maximum velocity and the overall efficiency of indocyanine green clearance) were determined. Phosphorylation state of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p44/42 and p38 in the liver was assessed by Western blot analysis. In additional groups of rats, sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture at 20 hours after hemorrhage. The necrotic cecum was excised 10 hours thereafter, and the survival rate was monitored for a period of 10 days. Results AG 556 treatment restored the depressed cardiovascular and hepatocellular functions after trauma-hemorrhage and resuscitation, which was associated with reduced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases p44/42 and p38. Moreover, treatment with AG 556 significantly increased the survival rate of rats after trauma-hemorrhage and induction of subsequent sepsis compared with vehicle-treated rats

  4. Prostaglandin E2 negatively regulates AMP-activated protein kinase via protein kinase A signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Koji; Cao, Xia; Yamauchi, Masako; Kozaki, Yasuko; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kambe, Fukushi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated possible involvement of prostaglandin (PG) E2 in regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). When osteoblastic MG63 cells were cultured in serum-deprived media, Thr-172 phosphorylation of AMPK alpha-subunit was markedly increased. Treatment of the cells with PGE2 significantly reduced the phosphorylation. Ser-79 phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a direct target for AMPK, was also reduced by PGE2. On the other hand, PGE2 reciprocally increased Ser-485 phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit that could be associated with inhibition of AMPK activity. These effects of PGE2 were mimicked by PGE2 receptor EP2 and EP4 agonists and forskolin, but not by EP1 and EP3 agonists, and the effects were suppressed by an adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 and a protein kinase A inhibitor H89. Additionally, the PGE2 effects were duplicated in primary calvarial osteoblasts. Together, the present study demonstrates that PGE2 negatively regulates AMPK activity via activation of protein kinase A signaling pathway.

  5. Integration of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1-Mediated Stress Signaling with the Akt/Protein Kinase B-IκB Kinase Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Puckett, Mary C.; Goldman, Erinn H.; Cockrell, Lisa M.; Huang, Bei; Kasinski, Andrea L.; Du, Yuhong; Wang, Cun-Yu; Lin, Anning; Ichijo, Hidenori; Khuri, Fadlo

    2013-01-01

    Cellular processes are tightly controlled through well-coordinated signaling networks that respond to conflicting cues, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signals, and survival factors to ensure proper cell function. We report here a direct interaction between inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), unveiling a critical node at the junction of survival, inflammation, and stress signaling networks. IKK can be activated by growth factor stimulation or tumor necrosis factor alpha engagement. IKK forms a complex with and phosphorylates ASK1 at a sensor site, Ser967, leading to the recruitment of 14-3-3, counteracts stress signal-triggered ASK1 activation, and suppresses ASK1-mediated functions. An inhibitory role of IKK in JNK signaling has been previously reported to depend on NF-κB-mediated gene expression. Our data suggest that IKK has a dual role: a transcription-dependent and a transcription-independent action in controlling the ASK1-JNK axis, coupling IKK to ROS and ER stress response. Direct phosphorylation of ASK1 by IKK also defines a novel IKK phosphorylation motif. Because of the intimate involvement of ASK1 in diverse diseases, the IKK/ASK1 interface offers a promising target for therapeutic development. PMID:23530055

  6. Plant cell wall signalling and receptor-like kinases.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Sebastian

    2017-02-15

    Communication between the extracellular matrix and the cell interior is essential for all organisms as intrinsic and extrinsic cues have to be integrated to co-ordinate development, growth, and behaviour. This applies in particular to plants, the growth and shape of which is governed by deposition and remodelling of the cell wall, a rigid, yet dynamic, extracellular network. It is thus generally assumed that cell wall surveillance pathways exist to monitor the state of the wall and, if needed, elicit compensatory responses such as altered expression of cell wall remodelling and biosynthesis genes. Here, I highlight recent advances in the field of cell wall signalling in plants, with emphasis on the role of plasma membrane receptor-like kinase complexes. In addition, possible roles for cell wall-mediated signalling beyond the maintenance of cell wall integrity are discussed. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. Phosphoinositide kinase signaling controls ER-PM cross-talk

    PubMed Central

    Omnus, Deike J.; Manford, Andrew G.; Bader, Jakob M.; Emr, Scott D.; Stefan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane lipid dynamics must be precisely regulated for normal cellular function, and disruptions in lipid homeostasis are linked to the progression of several diseases. However, little is known about the sensory mechanisms for detecting membrane composition and how lipid metabolism is regulated in response to membrane stress. We find that phosphoinositide (PI) kinase signaling controls a conserved PDK-TORC2-Akt signaling cascade as part of a homeostasis network that allows the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to modulate essential responses, including Ca2+-regulated lipid biogenesis, upon plasma membrane (PM) stress. Furthermore, loss of ER-PM junctions impairs this protective response, leading to PM integrity defects upon heat stress. Thus PI kinase–mediated ER-PM cross-talk comprises a regulatory system that ensures cellular integrity under membrane stress conditions. PMID:26864629

  8. Proteomic discovery of host kinase signaling in bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Erik; Mostertz, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases acts as a reversible molecular switch in signal transduction, providing a mechanism for the control of protein function in cellular processes. During microbial infection, cellular signaling essentially contributes to immune control to restrict the dissemination of invading pathogens within the host organism. However, pathogenic microbes compete for the control of host signaling to create a beneficial environment for successful invasion and infection. Although efforts to achieve a better understanding of the host–pathogen interaction and its molecular consequences have been made, there is urgent need for a comprehensive characterization of infection‐related host signaling processes. System‐wide and hypothesis‐free analysis of phosphorylation‐mediated host signaling during host–microbe interactions by mass spectrometry (MS)‐based methods is not only promising in view of a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of the infection but also may result in the identification of novel host targets for preventive or therapeutic intervention. Here, we review state‐of‐the‐art MS‐based techniques for the system‐wide identification and quantitation of protein phosphorylation and compare them to array‐based phosphoprotein analyses. We also provide an overview of how phosphoproteomics and kinomics have contributed to our understanding of protein kinase‐driven phosphorylation networks that operate during host–microbe interactions. PMID:27440122

  9. Signal transduction in podocytes—spotlight on receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, Jochen; Sever, Sanja; Faul, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian kidney filtration barrier is a complex multicellular, multicomponent structure that maintains homeostasis by regulating electrolytes, acid–base balance, and blood pressure (via maintenance of salt and water balance). To perform these multiple functions, podocytes—an important component of the filtration apparatus—must process a series of intercellular signals. Integrating these signals with diverse cellular responses enables a coordinated response to various conditions. Although mature podocytes are terminally differentiated and cannot proliferate, they are able to respond to growth factors. It is possible that the initial response of podocytes to growth factors is beneficial and protective, and might include the induction of hypertrophic cell growth. However, extended and/or uncontrolled growth factor signalling might be maladaptive and could result in the induction of apoptosis and podocyte loss. Growth factors signal via the activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) on their target cells and around a quarter of the 58 RTK family members that are encoded in the human genome have been identified in podocytes. Pharmacological inhibitors of many RTKs exist and are currently used in experimental and clinical cancer therapy. The identification of pathological RTK-mediated signal transduction pathways in podocytes could provide a starting point for the development of novel therapies for glomerular disorders. PMID:24394191

  10. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase mediated signaling in lobster olfactory receptor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Elizabeth A.; Bobkov, Yuriy; Pezier, Adeline; Ache, Barry W.

    2010-01-01

    In vertebrates and some invertebrates, odorant molecules bind to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to initiate signal transduction. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity has been implicated physiologically in olfactory signal transduction, suggesting a potential role for a GPCR-activated class I PI3K. Using isoform-specific antibodies, we identified a protein in the olfactory signal transduction compartment of lobster ORNs that is antigenically similar to mammalian PI3Kγ and cloned a gene for a PI3K with amino acid homology with PI3Kβ. The lobster olfactory PI3K co-immunoprecipitates with the G protein α and β subunits, and an odorant-evoked increase in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate can be detected in the signal transduction compartment of the ORNs. PI3Kγ and β isoform-specific inhibitors reduce the odorant-evoked output of lobster ORNs in vivo. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that PI3K is indeed activated by odorant receptors in lobster ORNs and further support the potential involvement of G protein activated PI3K signaling in olfactory transduction. PMID:20132480

  11. Phosphorylation of the Kinase Interaction Motif in Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Phosphatase-4 Mediates Cross-talk between Protein Kinase A and MAP Kinase Signaling Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Robin J.; Delavaine, Laurent; Cejudo-Marín, Rocío; Stewart, Graeme; Staples, Christopher J.; Didmon, Mark P.; Trinidad, Antonio Garcia; Alonso, Andrés; Pulido, Rafael; Keyse, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    MAP kinase phosphatase 4 (DUSP9/MKP-4) plays an essential role during placental development and is one of a subfamily of three closely related cytoplasmic dual-specificity MAPK phosphatases, which includes the ERK-specific enzymes DUSP6/MKP-3 and DUSP7/MKP-X. However, unlike DUSP6/MKP-3, DUSP9/MKP-4 also inactivates the p38α MAP kinase both in vitro and in vivo. Here we demonstrate that inactivation of both ERK1/2 and p38α by DUSP9/MKP-4 is mediated by a conserved arginine-rich kinase interaction motif located within the amino-terminal non-catalytic domain of the protein. Furthermore, DUSP9/MKP-4 is unique among these cytoplasmic MKPs in containing a conserved PKA consensus phosphorylation site 55RRXSer-58 immediately adjacent to the kinase interaction motif. DUSP9/MKP-4 is phosphorylated on Ser-58 by PKA in vitro, and phosphorylation abrogates the binding of DUSP9/MKP-4 to both ERK2 and p38α MAP kinases. In addition, although mutation of Ser-58 to either alanine or glutamic acid does not affect the intrinsic catalytic activity of DUSP9/MKP-4, phospho-mimetic (Ser-58 to Glu) substitution inhibits both the interaction of DUSP9/MKP-4 with ERK2 and p38α in vivo and its ability to dephosphorylate and inactivate these MAP kinases. Finally, the use of a phospho-specific antibody demonstrates that endogenous DUSP9/MKP-4 is phosphorylated on Ser-58 in response to the PKA agonist forskolin and is also modified in placental tissue. We conclude that DUSP9/MKP-4 is a bona fide target of PKA signaling and that attenuation of DUSP9/MKP-4 function can mediate cross-talk between the PKA pathway and MAPK signaling through both ERK1/2 and p38α in vivo. PMID:21908610

  12. Corneal Wound Healing Requires IKB kinase β Signaling in Keratocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Mongan, Maureen; Meng, Qinghang; Wang, Qin; Kao, Winston; Xia, Ying

    2016-01-01

    IkB kinase β (IKKβ) is a key signaling kinase for inflammatory responses, but it also plays diverse cell type-specific roles that are not yet fully understood. Here we investigated the role of IKKβ in the cornea using IkkβΔCS mice in which the Ikkβ gene was specifically deleted in the corneal stromal keratocytes. The IkkβΔCS corneas had normal morphology, transparency and thickness; however, they did not heal well from mild alkali burn injury. In contrast to the IkkβF/F corneas that restored transparency in 2 weeks after injury, over 50% of the IkkβΔCS corneas failed to fully recover. They instead developed recurrent haze with increased stromal thickness, severe inflammation and apoptosis. This pathogenesis correlated with sustained myofibroblast transformation with increased α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression, higher levels of senescence β-Gal activity and scar tissue formation at the late stage of wound healing. In addition, the IkkβΔCS corneas displayed elevated expression of hemo-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a marker of oxidative stress, and activation of stress signaling pathways with increased JNK, c-Jun and SMAD2/3 phosphorylation. These data suggest that IKKβ in keratocytes is required to repress oxidative stress and attenuate fibrogenesis and senescence in corneal wound healing. PMID:26987064

  13. Antagonistic interactions between the cAMP-dependent protein kinase and Tor signaling pathways modulate cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Vidhya; Herman, Paul K

    2011-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells integrate information from multiple sources to respond appropriately to changes in the environment. Here, we examined the relationship between two signaling pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are essential for the coordination of cell growth with nutrient availability. These pathways involve the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and Tor proteins, respectively. Although these pathways control a similar set of processes important for growth, it was not clear how their activities were integrated in vivo. The experiments here examined this coordination and, in particular, tested whether the PKA pathway was primarily a downstream effector of the TORC1 signaling complex. Using a number of reporters for the PKA pathway, we found that the inhibition of TORC1 did not result in diminished PKA signaling activity. To the contrary, decreased TORC1 signaling was generally associated with elevated levels of PKA activity. Similarly, TORC1 activity appeared to increase in response to lower levels of PKA signaling. Consistent with these observations, we found that diminished PKA signaling partially suppressed the growth defects associated with decreased TORC1 activity. In all, these data suggested that the PKA and TORC1 pathways were functioning in parallel to promote cell growth and that each pathway might restrain, either directly or indirectly, the activity of the other. The potential significance of this antagonism for the regulation of cell growth and overall fitness is discussed.

  14. Activation of cold-sensing transient receptor potential melastatin subtype 8 antagonizes vasoconstriction and hypertension through attenuating RhoA/Rho kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Yang, Tao; Wang, Peijian; Ma, Shuangtao; Zhu, Zhenyu; Pu, Yunfei; Li, Li; Zhao, Yu; Xiong, Shiqiang; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2014-06-01

    Environmental cold is a nonmodifiable hypertension risk factor. Transient receptor potential melastatin subtype 8 (TRPM8) is a cold-sensing cation channel that can be activated by menthol, a compound with a naturally cold sensation in mint. Little is known about the effect of TRPM8 activation on vascular function and blood pressure. Here, we report that TRPM8 is abundantly expressed in the vasculature. TRPM8 activation by menthol attenuated vasoconstriction via RhoA/Rho kinase pathway inhibition in wild-type mice, but the effect was absent in TRPM8(-/-) mice. Chronic dietary menthol blunted mesenteric arterial constriction and lowered blood pressure in genetic hypertensive rats via inhibition of RhoA/Rho kinase expression and activity in the vivo study. TRPM8 effect was associated with inhibition of intracellular calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, RhoA/Rho kinase activity, and sustained arterial contraction in the vitro study. Importantly, 8-week chronic menthol capsule treatment moderately lowered systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive individuals compared with the placebo group. Furthermore, chronic menthol capsule administration also improved flow-mediated dilatation in prehypertensive individuals, but not in the placebo group. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that TRPM8 activation by menthol benefits vascular function and blood pressure by inhibiting calcium signaling-mediated RhoA/Rho kinase activation in the vasculature. These findings add to the evidence that long-term dietary menthol treatment had favorable effects on hypertension treatment.

  15. Protein tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways contribute to differences in heterophil-mediated innate immune responsiveness between two lines of broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation mediates signal transduction of cellular processes, with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulating virtually all signaling events. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) super-family consists of three conserved pathways that convert receptor activation into ce...

  16. Janus kinase-2 signaling mediates apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Mascareno, Eduardo; Beckles, Daniel L; Siddiqui, M A Q

    2005-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that activation Jak2, which is prominently involved in the up-regulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), constitutes a focal point in relaying signals triggered by a Angiotensin II (Ang II) and hypoxia/reoxygenation separately to cause an enhanced susceptibility of cardiac myocyte to apoptotic cell death. Ang II-treated adult cardiomyocytes in culture exhibited an increased level of apoptosis that accompanied activation of pro-apoptotic as well as anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. We observed increased phosphorylation of Jak2 kinase, Stat1, JNK, with increased expression of Bax protein, followed by an increase in caspase-1 and caspase-3 activity. Activation of these pro-apoptotic pathways was blocked by the Jak2 pharmacological inhibitor, Tyrphostin AG490. We also observed an increase in phosphorylation of cardioprotective pathway components, namely S6 ribosomal protein, and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27). Likewise, the oxidative stress, via the hypoxia/reoxygenation treatment of rat adult cardiomyocytes, produced apoptosis that was dependent upon activation of Jak2. The apoptotic response was not only reduced by Losartan, an inverse agonist of the AT1, receptor, but by treatment with AG490 as well. Taken together, these observations provide clear evidence in favor of Jak2 signaling as mediator of the apoptotic response in cardiomyocytes. However, there was a concomitant induction of cytoprotective signaling that presumably provides a negative feed-back to the deleterious effects of the agonist.

  17. Endosomal Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Is Essential for Canonical GPCR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yasunori; Rutaganira, Florentine U; Jullié, Damien; Shokat, Kevan M; von Zastrow, Mark

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the largest family of signaling receptors, are critically regulated by endosomal trafficking, suggesting that endosomes might provide new strategies for manipulating GPCR signaling. Here we test this hypothesis by focusing on class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (Vps34), which is an essential regulator of endosomal trafficking. We verify that Vps34 is required for recycling of the β2-adrenoceptor (β2AR), a prototypical GPCR, and then investigate the effects of Vps34 inhibition on the canonical cAMP response elicited by β2AR activation. Vps34 inhibition impairs the ability of cells to recover this response after prolonged activation, which is in accord with the established role of recycling in GPCR resensitization. In addition, Vps34 inhibition also attenuates the short-term cAMP response, and its effect begins several minutes after initial agonist application. These results establish Vps34 as an essential determinant of both short-term and long-term canonical GPCR signaling, and support the potential utility of the endosomal system as a druggable target for signaling.

  18. Coupling of mammalian target of rapamycin with phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway regulates protein phosphatase 2A- and glycogen synthase kinase-3 -dependent phosphorylation of Tau.

    PubMed

    Meske, Volker; Albert, Frank; Ohm, Thomas Georg

    2008-01-04

    Tau is an important microtubule-stabilizing protein in neurons. In its hyperphosphorylated form, Tau protein loses its ability to bind to microtubules and then accumulates and is part of pathological lesions characterizing tauopathies, e.g. Alzheimer disease. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), antagonized by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), regulates Tau phosphorylation at many sites. Diabetes mellitus is linked to an increased risk of developing Alzheimer disease. This could be partially caused by dysregulated GSK-3beta. In a long term experiment (-16 h) using primary murine neuron cultures, we interfered in the insulin/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) (LY294002 treatment and insulin boost) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) (AICAR and rapamycin treatment) signaling pathways and examined consequent changes in the activities of PP2A, GSK-3beta, and Tau phosphorylation. We found that the coupling of PI3K with mTor signaling, in conjunction with a regulatory interaction between PP2A and GSK-3beta, changed activities of both enzymes always in the same direction. These balanced responses seem to ensure the steady Tau phosphorylation at GSK/PP2A-dependent sites observed over a long period of time (>/=6 h). This may help in preventing severe changes in Tau phosphorylation under conditions when neurons undergo transient fluctuations either in insulin or nutrient supply. On the other hand, the investigation of Tau protein at Ser-262 showed that interference in the insulin/PI3K and mTor signaling potentially influenced the Tau phosphorylation status at sites where only one of two enzymes (in this case PP2A) is involved in the regulation.

  19. Antagonism of Stem Cell Factor/c-kit Signaling Attenuates Neonatal Chronic Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Young, Karen C; Torres, Eneida; Hehre, Dorothy; Wu, Shu; Suguihara, Cleide; Hare, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that c-kit positive cells are present in the remodeled pulmonary vasculature bed of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Whether stem cell factor (SCF)/ c-kit regulated pathways potentiate pulmonary vascular remodeling is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that attenuated c-kit signaling would decrease chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling by decreasing pulmonary vascular cell mitogenesis. Methods Neonatal FVB/NJ mice treated with non-immune IgG (PL), or c-kit neutralizing antibody (ACK2) as well as c-kit mutant mice (WBB6F1- Kit W− v/ +) and their congenic controls, were exposed to normoxia (FiO2=0.21) or hypoxia (FiO2=0.12) for two weeks. Following this exposure, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), pulmonary vascular cell proliferation and remodeling were evaluated. Results As compared to chronically hypoxic controls, c-kit mutant mice had decreased RVSP, RVH, pulmonary vascular remodeling and proliferation. Consistent with these findings, administration of ACK2 to neonatal mice with chronic hypoxia-induced PH decreased RVSP, RVH, pulmonary vascular cell proliferation and remodeling. This attenuation in PH was accompanied by decreased extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation. Conclusion SCF/c-kit signaling may potentiate chronic hypoxia-induced vascular remodeling by modulating ERK activation. Inhibition of c-kit activity may be a potential strategy to alleviate PH. PMID:26705118

  20. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ antagonizes lipopolysaccharide-stimulated proliferation, migration and inflammatory signaling in human glioblastoma U87 cells.

    PubMed

    Bedini, Andrea; Baiula, Monica; Vincelli, Gabriele; Formaggio, Francesco; Lombardi, Sara; Caprini, Marco; Spampinato, Santi

    2017-09-15

    Glioblastoma is among the most aggressive brain tumors and has an exceedingly poor prognosis. Recently, the importance of the tumor microenvironment in glioblastoma cell growth and progression has been emphasized. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and endogenous ligands originating from dying cells or the extracellular matrix involved in host defense and in inflammation. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have gained interest in anti-tumor drug discovery due to the role that they directly or indirectly play by transactivating other receptors, causing cell migration and proliferation. A proteomic analysis showed that the nociceptin receptor (NOPr) is among the GPCRs significantly expressed in glioblastoma cells, including U87 cells. We describe a novel role of the peptide nociceptin (N/OFQ), the endogenous ligand of the NOPr that counteracts cell migration, proliferation and increase in IL-1β mRNA elicited by LPS via TLR4 in U87 glioblastoma cells. Signaling pathways through which N/OFQ inhibits LPS-mediated cell migration and elevation of [Ca(2+)]i require β-arrestin 2 and are sensitive to TNFR-associated factor 6, c-Src and protein kinase C (PKC). LPS-induced cell proliferation and increase in IL-1β mRNA are counteracted by N/OFQ via β-arrestin 2, PKC and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2; furthermore, the contributions of the transcription factors NF-kB and AP-1 were investigated. Independent of LPS, N/OFQ induces a significant increase in cell apoptosis. Contrary to what was observed in other cell models, a prolonged exposure to this endotoxin did not promote any tolerance of the cellular effects above described, including NOPr down-regulation while N/OFQ loses its inhibitory role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Breast Cancer Chemoresistance Mechanisms Through PI 3-Kinase and Akt Signaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Boston, MA 02215 8. PERFORMING...stabilizes axin and antagonizes Wnt signalling. Nature, 2009. 461:614-20. 11. Quinn, J.E., Kennedy, R.D., Mullan, P.B., Gilmore, P.M., Carty , M., Johnston

  2. Temporal quantitation of mutant Kit tyrosine kinase signaling attenuated by a novel thiophene kinase inhibitor OSI-930.

    PubMed

    Petti, Filippo; Thelemann, April; Kahler, Jen; McCormack, Siobhan; Castaldo, Linda; Hunt, Tony; Nuwaysir, Lydia; Zeiske, Lynn; Haack, Herbert; Sullivan, Laura; Garton, Andrew; Haley, John D

    2005-08-01

    OSI-930, a potent thiophene inhibitor of the Kit, KDR, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, was used to selectively inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation downstream of juxtamembrane mutant Kit in the mast cell leukemia line HMC-1. Inhibition of Kit kinase activity resulted in a rapid dephosphorylation of Kit and inhibition of the downstream signaling pathways. Attenuation of Ras-Raf-Erk (phospho-Erk, phospho-p38), phosphatidyl inositol-3' kinase (phospho-p85, phospho-Akt, phospho-S6), and signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling pathways (phospho-STAT3/5/6) were measured by affinity liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, by immunoblot, and by tissue microarrays of fixed cell pellets. To more globally define additional components of Kit signaling temporally altered by kinase inhibition, a novel multiplex quantitative isobaric peptide labeling approach was used. This approach allowed clustering of proteins by temporal expression patterns. Kit kinase, which dephosphorylates rapidly upon kinase inhibition, was shown to regulate both Shp-1 and BDP-1 tyrosine phosphatases and the phosphatase-interacting protein PSTPIP2. Interactions with SH2 domain adapters [growth factor receptor binding protein 2 (Grb2), Cbl, Slp-76] and SH3 domain adapters (HS1, cortactin, CD2BP3) were attenuated by inhibition of Kit kinase activity. Functional crosstalk between Kit and the non-receptor tyrosine kinases Fes/Fps, Fer, Btk, and Syk was observed. Inhibition of Kit modulated phosphorylation-dependent interactions with pathways controlling focal adhesion (paxillin, leupaxin, p130CAS, FAK1, the Src family kinase Lyn, Wasp, Fhl-3, G25K, Ack-1, Nap1, SH3P12/ponsin) and septin-actin complexes (NEDD5, cdc11, actin). The combined use of isobaric protein quantitation and expression clustering, immunoblot, and tissue microarray strategies allowed temporal measurement signaling pathways modulated by mutant Kit inhibition in a model of mast cell

  3. Insulin receptor kinase-independent signaling via tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphatase PHLPP1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Manchao; Riedel, Heimo

    2009-05-01

    Most insulin responses correlate well with insulin receptor (IR) Tyr kinase activation; however, critical exceptions to this concept have been presented. Specific IR mutants and stimulatory IR antibodies demonstrate a lack of correlation between IR kinase activity and specific insulin responses in numerous independent studies. IR conformation changes in response to insulin observed with various IR antibodies define an IR kinase-independent signal that alters the C-terminus. IR-related receptors in lower eukaryotes that lack a Tyr kinase point to an alternative mechanism of IR signaling earlier in evolution. However, the implied IR kinase-independent signaling mechanism remained obscure at the molecular level. Here we begin to define the molecular basis of an IR-dependent but IR kinase-independent insulin signal that is equally transmitted by a kinase-inactive mutant IR. This insulin signal results in Tyr phosphorylation and catalytic activation of phosphatase PHLPP1 via a PI 3-kinase-independent, wortmannin-insensitive signaling pathway. Dimerized SH2B1/PSM is a critical activator of the IR kinase and the resulting established insulin signal. In contrast it is an inhibitor of the IR kinase-independent insulin signal and disruption of SH2B1/PSM dimer binding to IR potentiates this signal. Dephosphorylation of Akt2 by PHLPP1 provides an alternative, SH2B1/PSM-regulated insulin-signaling pathway from IR to Akt2 of opposite polarity and distinct from the established PI 3-kinase-dependent signaling pathway via IRS proteins. In combination, both pathways should allow the opposing regulation of Akt2 activity at two phosphorylation sites to specifically define the insulin signal in the background of interfering Akt-regulating signals, such as those controlling cell proliferation and survival.

  4. Signalling to cancer cell invasion through PAK family kinases.

    PubMed

    Whale, Andrew; Hashim, Fariesha Nur; Fram, Sally; Jones, Gareth E; Wells, Claire M

    2011-01-01

    Cancer cell metastasis involves a series of changes in cell behaviour, driven by oncogenic transformation, that leads to local tissue invasion, migration through extracellular matrix, entry into the vascular or lymphatic system and colonisation of distant sites. It is well established that the Rho family GTPases Rho, Rac and Cdc42 orchestrate many of the processes required during metastasis. The Rho family GTPases regulate cellular behaviour through their interaction with downstream effector proteins. The p-21 activated kinases (PAKs), effector proteins for Rac and Cdc42, are known to be important regulators of cell migration and invasion. There are six mammalian PAKs which can be divided into two groups: group I PAKs (PAK1-3) and group II PAKs (PAK4-6). Although the two PAK groups are architecturally similar there are differences in their mode of regulation suggesting their cellular functions are likely to be different. This review will focus on the latest evidence relating to the role of PAK family kinases in the cell signalling pathways that drive cancer cell migration and invasion.

  5. Brassinosteroid regulated kinases (BRKs) that mediate brassinosteroid signal transduction and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhi-Yong; Tang, Wenqiang

    2013-09-24

    The present invention identifies a novel family of kinases regulated by brassinosteroids, referred to as BRKs (brassinosteroid regulated kinases) or BSKs (brassinosteroid signaling kinases). The present invention provides methods for modulating the response of a plant cell to a brassinosteroid using BRKs.

  6. Extracellular signal regulated kinase 5 mediates signals triggered by the novel tumor promoter palytoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Charlson, Aaron T.; Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2009-12-01

    Palytoxin is classified as a non-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-type skin tumor because it does not bind to or activate protein kinase C. Palytoxin is thus a novel tool for investigating alternative signaling pathways that may affect carcinogenesis. We previously showed that palytoxin activates three major members of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, extracellular signal regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. Here we report that palytoxin also activates another MAPK family member, called ERK5, in HeLa cells and in keratinocytes derived from initiated mouse skin (308 cells). By contrast, TPA does not activate ERK5 in these cell lines. The major cell surface receptor for palytoxin is the Na+,K+-ATPase. Accordingly, ouabain blocked the ability of palytoxin to activate ERK5. Ouabain alone did not activate ERK5. ERK5 thus represents a divergence in the signaling pathways activated by these two agents that bind to the Na+,K+-ATPase. Cycloheximide, okadaic acid, and sodium orthovanadate did not mimic the effect of palytoxin on ERK5. These results indicate that the stimulation of ERK5 by palytoxin is not simply due to inhibition of protein synthesis or inhibition of serine/threonine or tyrosine phosphatases. Therefore, the mechanism by which palytoxin activates ERK5 differs from that by which it activates ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Finally, studies that used pharmacological inhibitors and shRNA to block ERK5 action indicate that ERK5 contributes to palytoxin-stimulated c-Fos gene expression. These results suggest that ERK5 can act as an alternative mediator for transmitting diverse tumor promoter-stimulated signals.

  7. Commitment to the CD4 lineage mediated by extracellular signal-related kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase and lck signaling.

    PubMed

    Sharp, L L; Hedrick, S M

    1999-12-15

    The development of T cells results in a concordance between the specificity of the TCR for MHC class I and class II molecules and the expression of CD8 and CD4 coreceptors. Based on analogy to simple metazoan models of organ development and lineage commitment, we sought to determine whether extracellular signal-related kinase (Erk) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway signaling acts as an inductive signal for the CD4 lineage. Here, we show that, by altering the intracellular signaling involving the Erk/MAP kinase pathway, T cells with specificity for MHC class I can be diverted to express CD4, and, conversely, T cells with specificity for MHC class II can be diverted to express CD8. Furthermore, we find that activation of the src-family tyrosine kinase, p56lck is an upstream mediator of lineage commitment. These results suggest a simple mechanism for lineage commitment in T cell development.

  8. Kinase Signaling in Apoptosis Induced by Saturated Fatty Acids in Pancreatic β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Šrámek, Jan; Němcová-Fürstová, Vlasta; Kovář, Jan

    2016-09-12

    Pancreatic β-cell failure and death is considered to be one of the main factors responsible for type 2 diabetes. It is caused by, in addition to hyperglycemia, chronic exposure to increased concentrations of fatty acids, mainly saturated fatty acids. Molecular mechanisms of apoptosis induction by saturated fatty acids in β-cells are not completely clear. It has been proposed that kinase signaling could be involved, particularly, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), protein kinase C (PKC), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and Akt kinases and their pathways. In this review, we discuss these kinases and their signaling pathways with respect to their possible role in apoptosis induction by saturated fatty acids in pancreatic β-cells.

  9. Novel protein kinase signaling systems regulating lifespan identified by small molecule library screening using Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Spindler, Stephen R; Li, Rui; Dhahbi, Joseph M; Yamakawa, Amy; Sauer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinase signaling cascades control most aspects of cellular function. The ATP binding domains of signaling protein kinases are the targets of most available inhibitors. These domains are highly conserved from mammals to flies. Herein we describe screening of a library of small molecule inhibitors of protein kinases for their ability to increase Drosophila lifespan. We developed an assay system which allowed screening using the small amounts of materials normally present in commercial chemical libraries. The studies identified 17 inhibitors, the majority of which targeted tyrosine kinases associated with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), the insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGFI) receptors. Comparison of the protein kinase signaling effects of the inhibitors in vitro defined a consensus intracellular signaling profile which included decreased signaling by p38MAPK (p38), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and protein kinase C (PKC). If confirmed, many of these kinases will be novel additions to the signaling cascades known to regulate metazoan longevity.

  10. AGCVIII Kinases: at the crossroads of cellular signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    AGCVIII kinases regulate diverse developmental and cellular processes in plants. As putative mediators of secondary messengers, AGCVIII kinases potentially integrate developmental and environmental cues into specific cellular responses through substrate phosphorylation. Here we discuss the functiona...

  11. Structural assembly of the signaling competent ERK2-RSK1 heterodimeric protein kinase complex.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Anita; Gógl, Gergő; Glatz, Gábor; Garai, Ágnes; Zeke, András; Varga, János; Dudás, Erika; Jeszenői, Norbert; Bodor, Andrea; Hetényi, Csaba; Reményi, Attila

    2015-03-03

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) bind and activate their downstream kinase substrates, MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Notably, extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylates ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1), which promotes cellular growth. Here, we determined the crystal structure of an RSK1 construct in complex with its activator kinase. The structure captures the kinase-kinase complex in a precatalytic state where the activation loop of the downstream kinase (RSK1) faces the enzyme's (ERK2) catalytic site. Molecular dynamics simulation was used to show how this heterodimer could shift into a signaling-competent state. This structural analysis combined with biochemical and cellular studies on MAPK→MAPKAPK signaling showed that the interaction between the MAPK binding linear motif (residing in a disordered kinase domain extension) and the ERK2 "docking" groove plays the major role in making an encounter complex. This interaction holds kinase domains proximal as they "readjust," whereas generic kinase domain surface contacts bring them into a catalytically competent state.

  12. Targeting B-cell receptor signaling kinases in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: the promise of entospletinib

    PubMed Central

    Sharman, Jeff; Di Paolo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The B-cell receptor signaling pathway has emerged as an important therapeutic target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell malignancies. Novel agents have been developed targeting the signaling enzymes spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta. This review discusses the rationale for targeting these enzymes, as well as the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting their role as therapeutic targets, with a particular focus on SYK inhibition with entospletinib. PMID:27247756

  13. Schizosaccharomyces pombe AGC family kinase Gad8p forms a conserved signaling module with TOR and PDK1-like kinases

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Tomohiko; Kubo, Yoshiya; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2003-01-01

    The TOR protein is a phosphoinositide kinase-related kinase widely conserved among eukaryotes. Fission yeast tor1 encodes an ortholog of TOR, which is required for sexual development and growth under stressed conditions. We isolated gad8, which encodes a Ser/Thr kinase of the AGC family, as a high-copy suppressor of the sterility of a tor1 mutant. Disruption of gad8 caused phenotypes similar to those of tor1 disruption. Gad8p was less phosphorylated and its kinase activity was undetectable in tor1Δ cells. Three amino acid residues corresponding to conserved phosphorylation sites in the AGC family kinases, namely Thr387 in the activation loop, Ser527 in the turn motif and Ser546 in the hydrophobic motif, were important for the kinase activity of Gad8p. Tor1p was responsible for the phosphorylation of Ser527 and Ser546, whereas Ksg1p, a PDK1-like kinase, appeared to phosphorylate Thr387 directly. Altogether, Tor1p, Ksg1p and Gad8p appear to constitute a signaling module for sexual development and growth under stressed conditions in fission yeast, which resembles the mTOR–PDK1–S6K1 system in mammals and may represent a basic signaling module ubiquitous in eukaryotes. PMID:12805221

  14. Structural assembly of the signaling competent ERK2–RSK1 heterodimeric protein kinase complex

    PubMed Central

    Alexa, Anita; Gógl, Gergő; Glatz, Gábor; Garai, Ágnes; Zeke, András; Varga, János; Dudás, Erika; Jeszenői, Norbert; Bodor, Andrea; Hetényi, Csaba; Reményi, Attila

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) bind and activate their downstream kinase substrates, MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Notably, extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylates ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1), which promotes cellular growth. Here, we determined the crystal structure of an RSK1 construct in complex with its activator kinase. The structure captures the kinase–kinase complex in a precatalytic state where the activation loop of the downstream kinase (RSK1) faces the enzyme's (ERK2) catalytic site. Molecular dynamics simulation was used to show how this heterodimer could shift into a signaling-competent state. This structural analysis combined with biochemical and cellular studies on MAPK→MAPKAPK signaling showed that the interaction between the MAPK binding linear motif (residing in a disordered kinase domain extension) and the ERK2 “docking” groove plays the major role in making an encounter complex. This interaction holds kinase domains proximal as they “readjust,” whereas generic kinase domain surface contacts bring them into a catalytically competent state. PMID:25730857

  15. CaM Kinase II-dependent pathophysiological signalling in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hua; Liu, Depei; Garcia, Joe G N

    2008-01-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM Kinase II) is a known modulator of cardiac pathophysiology. The present review uniquely focuses on novel CaM Kinase II-mediated endothelial cell signalling which, under pathophysiological conditions, may indirectly modulate cardiac functions via alterations in endothelial or endocardial responses. CaM Kinase II has four different isoforms and various splicing variants for each isoform. The endothelial cell CaM Kinase II isoforms are sensitive to KN93 and a threonine 286-mutated inhibitory peptide. In macrovascular endothelial cells derived from aortas, CaM Kinase II mediates redox-sensitive upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and oscillatory shear stress, and a rapid activation of eNOS in response to bradykinin. In endothelial cells derived from lung microvessels, CaM Kinase II mediates barrier dysfunction, particularly when activated by thrombin. In brain capillary endothelial cells, CaM Kinase II lies upstream of voltage-gated potassium channels and hypoxia-induced cell swelling. In both macrovascular and microvascular endothelial cells, CaM Kinase II mediates actin cytoskeleton reorganization via distinct p38 MAPK/HSP27 and ERK1/2/MLCK signalling pathways, respectively. Although understanding of endothelium-specific CaM Kinase II signalling is nascent, data accumulated so far have demonstrated a potentially significant role of CaM Kinase II in endothelial cell pathophysiology.

  16. Decorin Antagonizes the Angiogenic Network

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Thomas; Painter, Hannah; Buraschi, Simone; Owens, Rick T.; Lisanti, Michael P.; Schaefer, Liliana; Iozzo, Renato V.

    2012-01-01

    Decorin, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, inhibits tumor growth by antagonizing multiple receptor tyrosine kinases including EGFR and Met. Here, we investigated decorin during normoxic angiogenic signaling. An angiogenic PCR array revealed a profound decorin-evoked transcriptional inhibition of pro-angiogenic genes, such as HIF1A. Decorin evoked a reduction of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in MDA-231 breast carcinoma cells expressing constitutively-active HIF-1α. Suppression of Met with decorin or siRNA evoked a similar reduction of VEGFA by attenuating downstream β-catenin signaling. These data establish a noncanonical role for β-catenin in regulating VEGFA expression. We found that exogenous decorin induced expression of thrombospondin-1 and TIMP3, two powerful angiostatic agents. In contrast, decorin suppressed both the expression and enzymatic activity of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9 and MMP-2, two pro-angiogenic proteases. Our data establish a novel duality for decorin as a suppressor of tumor angiogenesis under normoxia by simultaneously down-regulating potent pro-angiogenic factors and inducing endogenous anti-angiogenic agents. PMID:22194599

  17. c-Jun controls the efficiency of MAP kinase signaling by transcriptional repression of MAP kinase phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Sprowles, Amy; Wu Yimi; Kung, H.-J.; Wisdom, Ron . E-mail: ronald.wisdom@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu

    2005-08-15

    The mammalian JNK signaling pathway regulates the transcriptional response of cells to environmental stress, including UV irradiation. This signaling pathway is composed of a classical MAP kinase cascade; activation results in phosphorylation of the transcription factor substrates c-Jun and ATF2, and leads to changes in gene expression. The defining components of this pathway are conserved in the fission yeast S. pombe, where the genetic studies have shown that the ability of the JNK homolog Spc1 to be activated in response to UV irradiation is dependent on the presence of the transcription factor substrate Atf1. We have used genetic analysis to define the role of c-Jun in activation of the mammalian JNK signaling pathway. Our results show that optimal activation of JNK requires the presence of its transcription factor substrate c-Jun. Mutational analysis shows that the ability of c-Jun to support efficient activation of JNK requires the ability of Jun to bind DNA, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism. Consistent with this, we show that c-Jun represses the expression of several MAP kinase phosphatases. In the absence of c-Jun, the increased expression of MAP kinase phosphatases leads to impaired activation of the ERK, JNK, and p38 MAP kinases after pathway activation. The results show that one function of c-Jun is to regulate the efficiency of signaling by the ERK, p38, and JNK MAP kinases, a function that is likely to affect cellular responses to many different stimuli.

  18. Brassinosteroids inhibit pathogen-associated molecular pattern–triggered immune signaling independent of the receptor kinase BAK1

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Catherine; Boutrot, Freddy; Segonzac, Cécile; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; Chinchilla, Delphine; Rathjen, John P.; de Vries, Sacco C.; Zipfel, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    Plants and animals use innate immunity as a first defense against pathogens, a costly yet necessary tradeoff between growth and immunity. In Arabidopsis, the regulatory leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) BAK1 combines with the LRR-RLKs FLS2 and EFR in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and the LRR-RLK BRI1 in brassinosteroid (BR)-mediated growth. Therefore, a potential tradeoff between these pathways mediated by BAK1 is often postulated. Here, we show a unidirectional inhibition of FLS2-mediated immune signaling by BR perception. Unexpectedly, this effect occurred downstream or independently of complex formation with BAK1 and associated downstream phosphorylation. Thus, BAK1 is not rate-limiting in these pathways. BRs also inhibited signaling triggered by the BAK1-independent recognition of the fungal PAMP chitin. Our results suggest a general mechanism operative in plants in which BR-mediated growth directly antagonizes innate immune signaling. PMID:22087006

  19. Jun N-terminal kinase signaling makes a face

    PubMed Central

    Hursh, Deborah A.; Stultz, Brian G.; Park, Sung Yeon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT decapentaplegic (dpp), the Drosophila ortholog of BMP 2/4, directs ventral adult head morphogenesis through expression in the peripodial epithelium of the eye-antennal disc. This dpp expressing domain exerts effects both on the peripodial epithelium, and the underlying disc proper epithelium. We have uncovered a role for the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in dpp-mediated ventral head development. JNK activity is required for dpp's action on the disc proper, but in the absence of dpp expression, excessive JNK activity is produced, leading to specific loss of maxillary palps. In this review we outline our hypotheses on how dpp acts by both short range and longer range mechanisms to direct head morphogenesis and speculate on the dual role of JNK signaling in this process. Finally, we describe the regulatory control of dpp expression in the eye-antennal disc, and pose the problem of how the various expression domains of a secreted protein can be targeted to their specific functions. PMID:27384866

  20. Tec kinase signaling in T cells is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the Tec pleckstrin homology domain.

    PubMed

    Yang, W C; Ching, K A; Tsoukas, C D; Berg, L J

    2001-01-01

    Tec, the prototypical member of the Tec family of tyrosine kinases, is abundantly expressed in T cells and other hemopoietic cell types. Although the functions of Itk and Txk have recently been investigated, little is known about the role of Tec in T cells. Using antisense oligonucleotide treatment to deplete Tec protein from primary T cells, we demonstrate that Tec plays a role in TCR signaling leading to IL-2 gene induction. Interestingly, Tec kinases are the only known family of tyrosine kinases containing a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Using several PH domain mutants overexpressed in Jurkat T cells, we show that the Tec PH domain is required for Tec-mediated IL-2 gene induction and TCR-mediated Tec tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, we show that Tec colocalizes with the TCR after TCR cross-linking, and that both the Tec PH and Src homology (SH) 2 domains play a role in this association. Wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, abolishes Tec-mediated IL-2 gene induction and Tec tyrosine phosphorylation, and partially suppresses Tec colocalization with the activated TCR. Thus, our data implicate the Tec kinase PH domain and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in Tec signaling downstream of the TCR.

  1. 8-Cl-cAMP antagonizes mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and cell growth stimulation induced by epidermal growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Budillon, A; Gennaro, E Di; Caraglia, M; Barbarulo, D; Abbruzzese, A; Tagliaferri, P

    1999-01-01

    The growth factor-activated mitogenic pathways are often disregulated in tumour cells and, therefore, they can provide specific molecular targets for novel anti-tumour approaches. 8-Chloro-cAMP (8-Cl-cAMP), a synthetic cAMP analogue, is a novel anti-tumour agent that has recently undergone clinical evaluation. We investigated the effects of 8-CI-cAMP on the epidermal growth factor (EGF)/EGF receptor (EGF-R) signalling in human epidermoid cancer KB cells, which are responsive to the mitogenic stimulus of EGF. We found that the growth-promoting activity of EGF was completely abolished when EGF treatment was performed in combination with 8-CI-cAMP. The inhibition of the EGF-induced proliferation by 8-CI-cAMP was paralleled by the blockade of the EGF-stimulated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), ERK-1 and ERK-2. Conversely, we found an increase of EGF-R expression and EGF-R tyrosine phosphorylation when KB cells were growth inhibited by 8-Cl-cAMP. Moreover, the activity of Raf-1 and MEK-1 protein kinases, the activators upstream MAPK in the phosphorylation cascade induced by EGF, was not modified in 8-Cl-cAMP-treated cells. We concluded that the impairment of KB cell response to EGF, induced by 8-Cl-cAMP, resides in the specific inhibition of MAPK/ERKs activity while the function of the upstream elements in the EGF-R signalling is preserved. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10584873

  2. dpl-1 DP and efl-1 E2F act with lin-35 Rb to antagonize Ras signaling in C. elegans vulval development.

    PubMed

    Ceol, C J; Horvitz, H R

    2001-03-01

    The synthetic multivulva (synMuv) genes define two functionally redundant pathways that antagonize RTK/Ras signaling during Caenorhabditis elegans vulval induction. The synMuv gene lin-35 encodes a protein similar to the mammalian tumor suppressor pRB and has been proposed to act as a transcriptional repressor. Studies using mammalian cells have shown that pRB can prevent cell cycle progression by inhibiting DP/E2F-mediated transcriptional activation. We identified C. elegans genes that encode proteins similar to DP or E2F. Loss-of-function mutations in two of these genes, dpl-1 DP and efl-1 E2F, caused the same vulval abnormalities as do lin-35 Rb loss-of-function mutations. We propose that rather than being inhibited by lin-35 Rb, dpl-1 DP and efl-1 E2F act with lin-35 Rb in transcriptional repression to antagonize RTK/Ras signaling during vulval development.

  3. 17β-Estradiol Rapidly Increases KATP Activity in GnRH via a Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunguang; Kelly, Martin J.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.

    2010-01-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2) both inhibits and excites GnRH neurons via presynaptic as well as postsynaptic mechanisms. Although it has been demonstrated that E2 can alter the excitability of GnRH neurons via direct actions, the intracellular signaling cascades mediating these actions are not well understood. Previously we have shown that the activity of one of the critical ion channels needed for maintaining GnRH neurons in a hyperpolarized state, the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) channel, is augmented by E2 in ovariectomized females. However, the mRNA expression of the KATP channel subunits Kir6.2 and SUR1 are unchanged with in vivo E2 treatment. Therefore, to elucidate the cellular signaling mechanism(s) modulating the channel activity, we did whole-cell patch-clamp recording of enhanced green fluorescent protein-GnRH neurons from ovariectomized female mice to study the acute effects of E2. E2 dose-dependently (EC50 = 0.6 nM) enhanced the diazoxide (channel opener)-activated KATP channel currents by 1.2- to 2.0-fold, which was antagonized by ICI 182,780. E2-BSA was equally as effective as E2, whereas E2 had no effect. The protein kinase A (PKA) activator forskolin mimicked the effects of E2, whereas the PKA inhibitor H89 and the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I blocked the effects of E2. Similar to E2, STX, a membrane estrogen receptor (ER) agonist that does not bind to ERα or ERβ, also potentiated the diazoxide-induced KATP channel current by 1.5-fold. Therefore, E2 can potentiate KATP channel activity in GnRH neurons through a membrane ER-activated PKC-PKA signaling pathway. PMID:20660067

  4. PSM/SH2-B distributes selected mitogenic receptor signals to distinct components in the PI3-kinase and MAP kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Deng, Youping; Xu, Hu; Riedel, Heimo

    2007-02-15

    The Pro-rich, PH, and SH2 domain containing mitogenic signaling adapter PSM/SH2-B has been implicated as a cellular partner of various mitogenic receptor tyrosine kinases and related signaling mechanisms. Here, we report in a direct comparison of three peptide hormones, that PSM participates in the assembly of distinct mitogenic signaling complexes in response to insulin or IGF-I when compared to PDGF in cultured normal fibroblasts. The complex formed in response to insulin or IGF-I involves the respective peptide hormone receptor and presumably the established components leading to MAP kinase activation. However, our data suggest an alternative link from the PDGF receptor via PSM directly to MEK1/2 and consequently also to p44/42 activation, possibly through a scaffold protein. At least two PSM domains participate, the SH2 domain anticipated to link PSM to the respective receptor and the Pro-rich region in an association with an unidentified downstream component resulting in direct MEK1/2 and p44/42 regulation. The PDGF receptor signaling complex formed in response to PDGF involves PI 3-kinase in addition to the same components and interactions as described for insulin or IGF-I. PSM associates with PI 3-kinase via p85 and in addition the PSM PH domain participates in the regulation of PI 3-kinase activity, presumably through membrane interaction. In contrast, the PSM Pro-rich region appears to participate only in the MAP kinase signal. Both pathways contribute to the mitogenic response as shown by cell proliferation, survival, and focus formation. PSM regulates p38 MAP kinase activity in a pathway unrelated to the mitogenic response.

  5. Targeting Bruton's tyrosine kinase signaling as an emerging therapeutic agent of B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Xia, Bing; Qu, Fulian; Yuan, Tian; Zhang, Yizhuo

    2015-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is central to the development and function of B cells. BCR signaling has emerged as a pivotal pathway and a key driver of numerous B-cell lymphomas. Disruption of BCR signaling can be lethal to malignant B cells. Recently, kinase inhibitors that target BCR signaling have induced notable clinical responses. These inhibitors include spleen tyrosine kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, phosphoinositide 3'-kinase and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). Ibrutinib, an oral irreversible BTK inhibitor, has emerged as a promising targeted therapy for patients with B-cell malignancies. The present review discusses the current understanding of BTK-mediated BCR signaling in the biology and pathobiology of normal and malignant B cells, and the cellular interaction with the tumor microenvironment. The data on ibrutinib in the preclinical and clinical settings is also discussed, and perspectives for the future use of ibrutinib are outlined.

  6. Targeting Bruton's tyrosine kinase signaling as an emerging therapeutic agent of B-cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    XIA, BING; QU, FULIAN; YUAN, TIAN; ZHANG, YIZHUO

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is central to the development and function of B cells. BCR signaling has emerged as a pivotal pathway and a key driver of numerous B-cell lymphomas. Disruption of BCR signaling can be lethal to malignant B cells. Recently, kinase inhibitors that target BCR signaling have induced notable clinical responses. These inhibitors include spleen tyrosine kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, phosphoinositide 3′-kinase and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). Ibrutinib, an oral irreversible BTK inhibitor, has emerged as a promising targeted therapy for patients with B-cell malignancies. The present review discusses the current understanding of BTK-mediated BCR signaling in the biology and pathobiology of normal and malignant B cells, and the cellular interaction with the tumor microenvironment. The data on ibrutinib in the preclinical and clinical settings is also discussed, and perspectives for the future use of ibrutinib are outlined. PMID:26788133

  7. Crosstalk between integrin and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in breast carcinoma progression.

    PubMed

    Soung, Young Hwa; Clifford, John L; Chung, Jun

    2010-05-01

    This review explored the mechanism of breast carcinoma progression by focusing on integrins and receptor tyrosine kinases (or growth factor receptors). While the primary role of integrins was previously thought to be solely as mediators of adhesive interactions between cells and extracellular matrices, it is now believed that integrins also regulate signaling pathways that control cancer cell growth, survival, and invasion. A large body of evidence suggests that the cooperation between integrin and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling regulates certain signaling functions that are important for cancer progression. Recent developments on the crosstalk between integrins and receptor tyrosine kinases, and its implication in mammary tumor progression, are discussed.

  8. The Outcomes of Concentration-Specific Interactions between Salicylate and Jasmonate Signaling Include Synergy, Antagonism, and Oxidative Stress Leading to Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Mur, Luis A.J.; Kenton, Paul; Atzorn, Rainer; Miersch, Otto; Wasternack, Claus

    2006-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been proposed to antagonize jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signaling. We report, however, that in salicylate hydroxylase-expressing tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants, where SA levels were reduced, JA levels were not elevated during a hypersensitive response elicited by Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola. The effects of cotreatment with various concentrations of SA and JA were assessed in tobacco and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). These suggested that there was a transient synergistic enhancement in the expression of genes associated with either JA (PDF1.2 [defensin] and Thi1.2 [thionin]) or SA (PR1 [PR1a-β-glucuronidase in tobacco]) signaling when both signals were applied at low (typically 10–100 μm) concentrations. Antagonism was observed at more prolonged treatment times or at higher concentrations. Similar results were also observed when adding the JA precursor, α-linolenic acid with SA. Synergic effects on gene expression and plant stress were NPR1- and COI1-dependent, SA- and JA-signaling components, respectively. Electrolyte leakage and Evans blue staining indicated that application of higher concentrations of SA + JA induced plant stress or death and elicited the generation of apoplastic reactive oxygen species. This was indicated by enhancement of hydrogen peroxide-responsive AoPR10-β-glucuronidase expression, suppression of plant stress/death using catalase, and direct hydrogen peroxide measurements. Our data suggests that the outcomes of JA-SA interactions could be tailored to pathogen/pest attack by the relative concentration of each hormone. PMID:16377744

  9. The Role of Specific Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Cascades in the Regulation of Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Pulak R.; Stocco, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) comprise a family of serine/threonine kinases that are activated by a large variety of extracellular stimuli and play integral roles in controlling many cellular processes, from the cell surface to the nucleus. The MAPK family includes four distinct MAPK cascades, that is, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase or stress-activated protein kinase, and ERK5. These MAPKs are essentially operated through three-tiered consecutive phosphorylation events catalyzed by a MAPK kinase kinase, a MAPK kinase, and a MAPK. MAPKs lie in protein kinase cascades. The MAPK signaling pathways have been demonstrated to be associated with events regulating the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and steroidogenesis in steroidogenic tissues. However, it has become clear that the regulation of MAPK-dependent StAR expression and steroid synthesis is a complex process and is context dependent. This paper summarizes the current level of understanding concerning the roles of the MAPK signaling cascades in the regulation of StAR expression and steroidogenesis in different steroidogenic cell models. PMID:21637381

  10. Apelin Increases Cardiac Contractility via Protein Kinase Cε- and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase-Dependent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Perjés, Ábel; Skoumal, Réka; Tenhunen, Olli; Kónyi, Attila; Simon, Mihály; Horváth, Iván G.; Kerkelä, Risto; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Szokodi, István

    2014-01-01

    Background Apelin, the endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled apelin receptor, is an important regulator of the cardiovascular homoeostasis. We previously demonstrated that apelin is one of the most potent endogenous stimulators of cardiac contractility; however, its underlying signaling mechanisms remain largely elusive. In this study we characterized the contribution of protein kinase C (PKC), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) to the positive inotropic effect of apelin. Methods and Results In isolated perfused rat hearts, apelin increased contractility in association with activation of prosurvival kinases PKC and ERK1/2. Apelin induced a transient increase in the translocation of PKCε, but not PKCα, from the cytosol to the particulate fraction, and a sustained increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the left ventricle. Suppression of ERK1/2 activation diminished the apelin-induced increase in contractility. Although pharmacological inhibition of PKC attenuated the inotropic response to apelin, it had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Moreover, the apelin-induced positive inotropic effect was significantly decreased by inhibition of MLCK, a kinase that increases myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. Conclusions Apelin increases cardiac contractility through parallel and independent activation of PKCε and ERK1/2 signaling in the adult rat heart. Additionally MLCK activation represents a downstream mechanism in apelin signaling. Our data suggest that, in addition to their role in cytoprotection, modest activation of PKCε and ERK1/2 signaling improve contractile function, therefore these pathways represent attractive possible targets in the treatment of heart failure. PMID:24695532

  11. Src kinases and ERK activate distinct responses to Stitcher receptor tyrosine kinase signaling during wound healing in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Tsarouhas, Vasilios; Yao, Liqun; Samakovlis, Christos

    2014-04-15

    Metazoans have evolved efficient mechanisms for epidermal repair and survival following injury. Several cellular responses and key signaling molecules that are involved in wound healing have been identified in Drosophila, but the coordination of cytoskeletal rearrangements and the activation of gene expression during barrier repair are poorly understood. The Ret-like receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Stitcher (Stit, also known as Cad96Ca) regulates both re-epithelialization and transcriptional activation by Grainy head (Grh) to induce restoration of the extracellular barrier. Here, we describe the immediate downstream effectors of Stit signaling in vivo. Drk (Downstream of receptor kinase) and Src family tyrosine kinases bind to the same docking site in the Stit intracellular domain. Drk is required for the full activation of transcriptional responses but is dispensable for re-epithelialization. By contrast, Src family kinases (SFKs) control both the assembly of a contractile actin ring at the wound periphery and Grh-dependent activation of barrier-repair genes. Our analysis identifies distinct pathways mediating injury responses and reveals an RTK-dependent activation mode for Src kinases and their central functions during epidermal wound healing in vivo.

  12. The Discovery of a Reciprocal Relationship between Tyrosine-Kinase Signaling and Cullin Neddylation

    PubMed Central

    Friend, Samantha F.; Peterson, Lisa K.; Treacy, Eric; Stefanski, Adrianne L.; Sosinowski, Tomasz; Pennock, Nathan D.; Berger, Allison J.; Winn, Virginia D.; Dragone, Leonard L.

    2013-01-01

    While neddylation is known to activate cullin (CUL)-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs), its role in regulating T cell signaling is poorly understood. Using the investigational NEDD8 activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitor, MLN4924, we found that neddylation negatively regulates T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, as its inhibition increases IL-2 production, T cell proliferation and Treg development in vitro. We also discovered that loss of CUL neddylation occurs upon TCR signaling, and CRLs negatively regulate IL-2 production. Additionally, we found that tyrosine kinase signaling leads to CUL deneddylation in multiple cell types. These studies indicate that CUL neddylation is a global regulatory mechanism for tyrosine kinase signaling. PMID:24124476

  13. PAR2 exerts local protection against acute pancreatitis via modulation of MAP kinase and MAP kinase phosphatase signaling.

    PubMed

    Namkung, Wan; Yoon, Jae Seok; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Min Goo

    2008-11-01

    During acute pancreatitis, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) can be activated by interstitially released trypsin. In the mild form of pancreatitis, PAR2 activation exerts local protection against intrapancreatic damage, whereas, in the severe form of pancreatitis, PAR2 activation mediates some systemic complications. This study aimed to identify the molecular mechanisms of PAR2-mediated protective effects against intrapancreatic damage. A mild form of acute pancreatitis was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of caerulein (40 microg/kg) in rats. Effects of PAR2 activation on intrapancreatic damage and on mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling were assessed. Caerulein treatment activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) within 15 min and maintained phosphorylation of ERK and JNK for 2 h in the rat pancreas. Although PAR2 activation by the pretreatment with PAR2-activating peptide (AP) itself increased ERK phosphorylation in rat pancreas, the same treatment remarkably decreased caerulein-induced activation of ERK and JNK principally by accelerating their dephosphorylation. Inhibition of ERK and JNK phosphorylation by the pretreatment with MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) or JNK inhibitors decreased caerulein-induced pancreatic damage that was similar to the effect induced by PAR2-AP. Notably, in caerulein-treated rats, PAR2-AP cotreatment highly increased the expression of a group of MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs) that deactivate ERK and JNK. The above results imply that downregulation of MAP kinase signaling by MKP induction is a key mechanism involved in the protective effects of PAR2 activation on caerulein-induced intrapancreatic damage.

  14. Expressional Analysis and Role of Calcium Regulated Kinases in Abiotic Stress Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ritika; Pandey, Girdhar K

    2010-01-01

    Perception of stimuli and activation of a signaling cascade is an intrinsic characteristic feature of all living organisms. Till date, several signaling pathways have been elucidated that are involved in multiple facets of growth and development of an organism. Exposure to unfavorable stimuli or stress condition activates different signaling cascades in both plants and animal. Being sessile, plants cannot move away from an unfavorable condition, and hence activate the molecular machinery to cope up or adjust against that particular stress condition. In plants, role of calcium as second messenger has been studied in detail in both abiotic and biotic stress signaling. Several calcium sensor proteins such as calmodulin (CaM), calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPK) and calcinuerin B-like (CBL) were discovered to play a crucial role in abiotic stress signaling in plants. Unlike CDPK, CBL and CaM are calcium-binding proteins, which do not have any protein kinase enzyme activity and interact with a target protein kinase termed as CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) and CaM kinases respectively. Genome sequence analysis of Arabidopsis and rice has led to the identification of multigene familes of these calcium signaling protein kinases. Individual and global gene expression analysis of these protein kinase family members has been analyzed under several developmental and different abiotic stress conditions. In this review, we are trying to overview and emphasize the expressional analysis of calcium signaling protein kinases under different abiotic stress and developmental stages, and linking the expression to possible function for these kinases. PMID:20808518

  15. The Drosophila rolled locus encodes a MAP kinase required in the sevenless signal transduction pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, W H; Zavitz, K H; Dickson, B; van der Straten, A; Brunner, D; Hafen, E; Zipursky, S L

    1994-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases have been proposed to play a critical role in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated signal transduction pathways. Although genetic and biochemical studies of RTK pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and mammals have revealed remarkable similarities, a genetic requirement for MAP kinases in RTK signaling has not been established. During retinal development in Drosophila, the sevenless (Sev) RTK is required for development of the R7 photoreceptor cell. Components of the signal transduction pathway activated by Sev in the R7 precursor include proteins encoded by the gap1, drk, Sos, ras1 and raf loci. In this report we present evidence that a Drosophila MAP kinase, ERK-A, is encoded by the rolled locus and is required downstream of raf in the Sev signal transduction pathway. Images PMID:8157002

  16. Receptor kinase signalling in plants and animals: distinct molecular systems with mechanistic similarities.

    PubMed

    Cock, J Mark; Vanoosthuyse, Vincent; Gaude, Thierry

    2002-04-01

    Plant genomes encode large numbers of receptor kinases that are structurally related to the tyrosine and serine/threonine families of receptor kinase found in animals. Here, we describe recent advances in the characterisation of several of these plant receptor kinases at the molecular level, including the identification of receptor complexes, small polypeptide ligands and cytosolic proteins involved in signal transduction and receptor downregulation. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that plant receptor kinases have evolved independently of the receptor kinase families found in animals. This hypothesis is supported by functional studies that have revealed differences between receptor kinase signalling in plants and animals, particularly concerning their interactions with cytosolic proteins. Despite these dissimilarities, however, plant and animal receptor kinases share many common features, such as their single membrane-pass structure, their inclusion in membrane-associated complexes, the involvement of dimerisation and trans autophosphorylation in receptor activation, and the existence of inhibitors and phosphatases that downregulate receptor activity. These points of convergence may represent features that are essential for a functional receptor-kinase signalling system.

  17. STRUBBELIG defines a receptor kinase-mediated signaling pathway regulating organ development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, David; Batoux, Martine; Fulton, Lynette; Pfister, Karen; Yadav, Ram Kishor; Schellenberg, Maja; Schneitz, Kay

    2005-01-01

    An open question remains as to what coordinates cell behavior during organogenesis, permitting organs to reach their appropriate size and shape. The Arabidopsis gene STRUBBELIG (SUB) defines a receptor-mediated signaling pathway in plants. SUB encodes a putative leucine-rich repeat transmembrane receptor-like kinase. The mutant sub phenotype suggests that SUB affects the formation and shape of several organs by influencing cell morphogenesis, the orientation of the division plane, and cell proliferation. Mutational analysis suggests that the kinase domain is important for SUB function. Biochemical assays using bacterially expressed fusion proteins indicate that the SUB kinase domain lacks enzymatic phosphotransfer activity. Furthermore, transgenes encoding WT and different mutant variants of SUB were tested for their ability to rescue the mutant sub phenotype. These genetic data also indicate that SUB carries a catalytically inactive kinase domain. The SUB receptor-like kinase may therefore signal in an atypical fashion. PMID:15951420

  18. Protein Kinase N2 Regulates AMP-Kinase Signaling and Insulin Responsiveness of Glucose Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Maxwell A; Riedl, Isabelle; Massart, Julie; Åhlin, Marcus; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-07-18

    Insulin resistance is central to the development of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders. As skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of whole body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, regulation of glucose metabolism in this tissue is of particular importance. While Rho GTPases and many of their affecters influence skeletal muscle metabolism, there is a paucity of information on the protein kinase N (PKN) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. We investigated the impact of PKN2 on insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in primary human skeletal muscle cells in vitro and mouse tibialis anterior muscle in vivo. PKN2 knockdown in vitro decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, incorporation into glycogen, and oxidation. PKN2 siRNA increased 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, while stimulating fatty acid oxidation and incorporation into triglycerides, and decreasing protein synthesis. At the transcriptional level, PKN2 knockdown increased expression of PGC1α and SREBP1c and their target genes. In mature skeletal muscle, in vivo PKN2 knockdown decreased glucose uptake and increased AMPK phosphorylation. Thus, PKN2 alters key signaling pathways and transcriptional networks to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Identification of PKN2 as a novel regulator of insulin and AMPK signaling may provide an avenue for manipulation of skeletal muscle metabolism. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism.

  19. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in the vertebrate retina

    PubMed Central

    Rajala, Raju V. S.

    2010-01-01

    The phosphoinositide (PI) cycle, discovered over 50 years ago by Mabel and Lowell Hokin, describes a series of biochemical reactions that occur on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane of cells in response to receptor activation by extracellular stimuli. Studies from our laboratory have shown that the retina and rod outer segments (ROSs) have active PI metabolism. Biochemical studies revealed that the ROSs contain the enzymes necessary for phosphorylation of phosphoinositides. We showed that light stimulates various components of the PI cycle in the vertebrate ROS, including diacylglycerol kinase, PI synthetase, phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase, phospholipase C, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). This article describes recent studies on the PI3K-generated PI lipid second messengers in the control and regulation of PI-binding proteins in the vertebrate retina. PMID:19638643

  20. Endothelial thrombomodulin induces Ca2+ signals and nitric oxide synthesis through epidermal growth factor receptor kinase and calmodulin kinase II.

    PubMed

    David-Dufilho, Monique; Millanvoye-Van Brussel, Elisabeth; Topal, Gokce; Walch, Laurence; Brunet, Annie; Rendu, Francine

    2005-10-28

    Endothelial membrane-bound thrombomodulin is a high affinity receptor for thrombin to inhibit coagulation. We previously demonstrated that the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex restrains cell proliferation mediated through protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1. We have now tested the hypothesis that thrombomodulin transduces a signal to activate the endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (NOS3) and to modulate G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells were stimulated with thrombin or a mutant of thrombin that binds to thrombomodulin and has no catalytic activity on PAR-1. Thrombin and its mutant dose dependently activated NO release at cell surface. Pretreatment with anti-thrombomodulin antibody suppressed NO response to the mutant and to low thrombin concentration and reduced by half response to high concentration. Thrombin receptor-activating peptide that only activates PAR-1 and high thrombin concentration induced marked biphasic Ca2+ signals with rapid phosphorylation of PLC(beta3) and NOS3 at both serine 1177 and threonine 495. The mutant thrombin evoked a Ca2+ spark and progressive phosphorylation of Src family kinases at tyrosine 416 and NOS3 only at threonine 495. It activated rapid phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-dependent NO synthesis and phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and calmodulin kinase II. Complete epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition only partly reduced the activation of phospholipase Cgamma1 and NOS3. Prestimulation of thrombomodulin did not affect NO release but reduced Ca2+ responses to thrombin and histamine, suggesting cross-talks between thrombomodulin and G protein-coupled receptors. This is the first demonstration of an outside-in signal mediated by the cell surface thrombomodulin receptor to activate NOS3 through tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway. This signaling may contribute to thrombomodulin function in thrombosis, inflammation, and atherosclerosis.

  1. A Requirement for ZAK Kinase Activity in Canonical TGF-β Signaling.

    PubMed

    Nyati, Shyam; Chator, Areeb; Schinske, Katerina; Gregg, Brandon S; Ross, Brian Dale; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2016-12-01

    The sterile alpha motif and leucine zipper containing kinase ZAK (AZK, MLT, MLK7), is a MAPK-kinase kinase (MKKK). Like most MAPKKKs which are known to activate the c-Jun. amino-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, ZAK has been shown to participate in the transduction of Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-mediated non-canonical signaling. A role for ZAK in SMAD-dependent, canonical TGF-β signaling has not been previously appreciated. Using a combination of functional genomics and biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that ZAK regulates canonical TGFβRI/II signaling in lung and breast cancer cell lines and may serve as a key node in the regulation of TGFBR kinase activity. Remarkably, we demonstrate that siRNA mediated depletion of ZAK strongly inhibited TGF-β dependent SMAD2/3 activation and subsequent promoter activation (SMAD binding element driven luciferase expression; SBE4-Luc). A ZAK specific inhibitor (DHP-2), dose-dependently activated the bioluminescent TGFBR-kinase activity reporter (BTR), blocked TGF-β induced SMAD2/3 phosphorylation and SBE4-Luc activation and cancer cell-invasion. In aggregate, these findings identify a novel role for the ZAK kinase in canonical TGF-β signaling and an invasive cancer cell phenotype thus providing a novel target for TGF-β inhibition.

  2. Glucagon receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 via cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Youwei; Cypess, Aaron M.; Muse, Evan D.; Wu, Cui-Rong; Unson, Cecilia G.; Merrifield, R. B.; Sakmar, Thomas P.

    2001-01-01

    We prepared a stable cell line expressing the glucagon receptor to characterize the effect of Gs-coupled receptor stimulation on extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity. Glucagon treatment of the cell line caused a dose-dependent increase in cAMP concentration, activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and transient release of intracellular calcium. Glucagon treatment also caused rapid dose-dependent phosphorylation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK kinase (MEK1/2) and ERK1/2. Inhibition of either PKA or MEK1/2 blocked ERK1/2 activation by glucagon. However, no significant activation of several upstream activators of MEK, including Ras, Rap1, and Raf, was observed in response to glucagon treatment. In addition, chelation of intracellular calcium reduced glucagon-mediated ERK1/2 activation. In transient transfection experiments, glucagon receptor mutants that bound glucagon but failed to increase intracellular cAMP and calcium concentrations showed no glucagon-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation. We conclude that glucagon-induced MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation is mediated by PKA and that an increase in intracellular calcium concentration is required for maximal ERK activation. PMID:11517300

  3. Protein kinase CK2 triggers cytosolic zinc signaling pathways by phosphorylation of zinc channel ZIP7.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kathryn M; Hiscox, Stephen; Nicholson, Robert I; Hogstrand, Christer; Kille, Peter

    2012-02-07

    The transition element zinc, which has recently been identified as an intracellular second messenger, has been implicated in various signaling pathways, including those leading to cell proliferation. Zinc channels of the ZIP (ZRT1- and IRT1-like protein) family [also known as solute carrier family 39A (SLC39A)] transiently increase the cytosolic free zinc (Zn(2+)) concentration in response to extracellular signals. We show that phosphorylation of evolutionarily conserved residues in endoplasmic reticulum zinc channel ZIP7 is associated with the gated release of Zn(2+) from intracellular stores, leading to activation of tyrosine kinases and the phosphorylation of AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. Through pharmacological manipulation, proximity ligation assay, and mutagenesis, we identified protein kinase CK2 as the kinase responsible for ZIP7 activation. Together, the present results show that transition element channels in eukaryotes can be activated posttranslationally by phosphorylation, as part of a cell signaling cascade. Our study links the regulated release of zinc from intracellular stores to phosphorylation of kinases involved in proliferative responses and cell migration, suggesting a functional role for ZIP7 and zinc signals in these events. The connection with proliferation and migration, as well as the activation of ZIP7 by CK2, a kinase that is antiapoptotic and promotes cell division, suggests that ZIP7 may provide a target for anticancer drug development.

  4. The mobility of two kinase domains in the Escherichia coli chemoreceptor array varies with signaling state

    PubMed Central

    Briegel, Ariane; Ames, Peter; Gumbart, James C.; Oikonomou, Catherine M.; Parkinson, John S.; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Motile bacteria sense their physical and chemical environment through highly cooperative, ordered arrays of chemoreceptors. These signaling complexes phosphorylate a response regulator which in turn governs flagellar motor reversals, driving cells towards favorable environments. The structural changes that translate chemoeffector binding into the appropriate kinase output are not known. Here, we apply high-resolution electron cryotomography to visualize mutant chemoreceptor signaling arrays in well-defined kinase activity states. The arrays were well ordered in all signaling states, with no discernible differences in receptor conformation at 2-3 nm resolution. Differences were observed, however, in a keel-like density that we identify here as CheA kinase domains P1 and P2, which are the phosphorylation site domain and the binding domain for response regulator target proteins, respectively. Mutant receptor arrays with high kinase activities all exhibited small keels and high proteolysis susceptibility, indicative of mobile P1 and P2 domains. In contrast, arrays in kinase-off signaling states exhibited a range of keel sizes. These findings confirm that chemoreceptor arrays do not undergo large structural changes during signaling, and suggest instead that kinase activity is modulated at least in part by changes in the mobility of key domains. PMID:23802570

  5. Viral Phosphodiesterases That Antagonize Double-Stranded RNA Signaling to RNase L by Degrading 2-5A

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The host interferon (IFN) antiviral response involves a myriad of diverse biochemical pathways that disrupt virus replication cycles at many different levels. As a result, viruses have acquired and evolved genes that antagonize the host antiviral proteins. IFNs inhibit viral infections in part through the 2′,5′-oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetase (OAS)/RNase L pathway. OAS proteins are pathogen recognition receptors that exist at different basal levels in different cell types and that are IFN inducible. Upon activation by the pathogen-associated molecular pattern viral double-stranded RNA, certain OAS proteins synthesize 2-5A from ATP. 2-5A binds to the antiviral enzyme RNase L causing its dimerization and activation. Recently, disparate RNA viruses, group 2a betacoronaviruses, and group A rotaviruses, have been shown to produce proteins with 2′,5′-phosphodiesterase (PDE) activities that eliminate 2-5A thereby evading the antiviral activity of the OAS/RNase L pathway. These viral proteins are members of the eukaryotic-viral LigT-like group of 2H phosphoesterases, so named for the presence of 2 conserved catalytic histidine residues. Here, we will review the biochemistry, biology, and implications of viral and cellular 2′,5′-PDEs that degrade 2-5A. In addition, we discuss alternative viral and cellular strategies for limiting the activity of OAS/RNase L. PMID:24905202

  6. 14-3-3 antagonizes Ras-mediated Raf-1 recruitment to the plasma membrane to maintain signaling fidelity.

    PubMed

    Light, Yvonne; Paterson, Hugh; Marais, Richard

    2002-07-01

    We have investigated the role that S259 phosphorylation, S621 phosphorylation, and 14-3-3 binding play in regulating Raf-1 activity. We show that 14-3-3 binding, rather than Raf-1 phosphorylation, is required for the correct regulation of kinase activity. Phosphorylation of S621 is not required for activity, but 14-3-3 binding is essential. When 14-3-3 binding to conserved region 2 (CR2) was disrupted, Raf-1 basal kinase activity was elevated and it could be further activated by (V12,G37)Ras, (V23)TC21, and (V38)R-Ras. Disruption of 14-3-3 binding at CR2 did not recover binding of Raf-1 to (V12,G37)Ras but allowed more efficient recruitment of Raf-1 to the plasma membrane and stimulated its phosphorylation on S338. Finally, (V12)Ras, but not (V12,G37)Ras, displaced 14-3-3 from full-length Raf-1 and the Raf-1 bound to Ras. GTP was still phosphorylated on S259. Our data suggest that stable association of Raf-1 with the plasma membrane requires Ras-mediated displacement of 14-3-3 from CR2. Small G proteins that cannot displace 14-3-3 fail to recruit Raf-1 to the membrane efficiently and so fail to stimulate kinase activity.

  7. Structural basis of autoregulatory scaffolding by apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1

    PubMed Central

    Weijman, Johannes F.; Kumar, Abhishek; Jamieson, Sam A.; King, Chontelle M.; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Ledgerwood, Elizabeth C.; Murphy, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinases (ASK1–3) are apical kinases of the p38 and JNK MAP kinase pathways. They are activated by diverse stress stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, cytokines, and osmotic stress; however, a molecular understanding of how ASK proteins are controlled remains obscure. Here, we report a biochemical analysis of the ASK1 kinase domain in conjunction with its N-terminal thioredoxin-binding domain, along with a central regulatory region that links the two. We show that in solution the central regulatory region mediates a compact arrangement of the kinase and thioredoxin-binding domains and the central regulatory region actively primes MKK6, a key ASK1 substrate, for phosphorylation. The crystal structure of the central regulatory region reveals an unusually compact tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) region capped by a cryptic pleckstrin homology domain. Biochemical assays show that both a conserved surface on the pleckstrin homology domain and an intact TPR region are required for ASK1 activity. We propose a model in which the central regulatory region promotes ASK1 activity via its pleckstrin homology domain but also facilitates ASK1 autoinhibition by bringing the thioredoxin-binding and kinase domains into close proximity. Such an architecture provides a mechanism for control of ASK-type kinases by diverse activators and inhibitors and demonstrates an unexpected level of autoregulatory scaffolding in mammalian stress-activated MAP kinase signaling. PMID:28242696

  8. Focal adhesion kinase: targeting adhesion signaling pathways for therapeutic intervention.

    PubMed

    Parsons, J Thomas; Slack-Davis, Jill; Tilghman, Robert; Roberts, W Gregory

    2008-02-01

    The tumor microenvironment plays a central role in cancer progression and metastasis. Within this environment, cancer cells respond to a host of signals including growth factors and chemotactic factors, as well as signals from adjacent cells, cells in the surrounding stroma, and signals from the extracellular matrix. Targeting the pathways that mediate many of these signals has been a major goal in the effort to develop therapeutics.

  9. Phosphoinositide-3-kinase and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathways mediate acute NGF sensitization of TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Weiguo; Oxford, Gerry S.

    2009-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces an acute sensitization of nociceptive DRG neurons, in part, through sensitization of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 via the high affinity trkA receptor. The mechanisms linking trkA and TRPV1 remain controversial with several candidate signaling pathways proposed. Utilizing adult rat and mouse DRG neurons and CHO cells coexpressing trkA and TRPV1, we have investigated the signaling events underlying acute TRPV1 sensitization by NGF combining biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, mutational and genetic knockout approaches. Pharmacological interference with p42/p44 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) or phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), but not PLC abrogated sensitization of capsaicin responses. Co-expression of TRPV1 with wildtype or Y785F (PLC signal deficient) mutant human trkA reconstituted NGF sensitization. In contrast, TRPV1 coexpressed with MAPK signaling deficient Y490A or PI3K signaling deficient Y751F trkA mutants exhibited weaker sensitization. Biochemical analysis of p42/p44 and Akt phosphorylation confirmed the specificity of pharmacological agents and trkA mutants. Finally, NGF sensitization of capsaicin responses was greatly reduced in neurons from p85α (regulatory subunit of PI3K) null mice. These data strongly suggest that PI3K and MAPK pathways, but not the PLC pathway underlie the acute sensitization of TRPV1 by NGF. PMID:17324588

  10. Phosphoinositide-3-kinase and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathways mediate acute NGF sensitization of TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weiguo; Oxford, Gerry S

    2007-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces an acute sensitization of nociceptive DRG neurons, in part, through sensitization of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 via the high affinity trkA receptor. The mechanisms linking trkA and TRPV1 remain controversial with several candidate signaling pathways proposed. Utilizing adult rat and mouse DRG neurons and CHO cells co-expressing trkA and TRPV1, we have investigated the signaling events underlying acute TRPV1 sensitization by NGF combining biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, mutational and genetic knockout approaches. Pharmacological interference with p42/p44 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) or phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), but not PLC abrogated sensitization of capsaicin responses. Co-expression of TRPV1 with wild-type or Y785F (PLC signal deficient) mutant human trkA reconstituted NGF sensitization. In contrast, TRPV1 co-expressed with MAPK signaling deficient Y490A or PI3K signaling deficient Y751F trkA mutants exhibited weaker sensitization. Biochemical analysis of p42/p44 and Akt phosphorylation confirmed the specificity of pharmacological agents and trkA mutants. Finally, NGF sensitization of capsaicin responses was greatly reduced in neurons from p85alpha (regulatory subunit of PI3K) null mice. These data strongly suggest that PI3K and MAPK pathways, but not the PLC pathway underlie the acute sensitization of TRPV1 by NGF.

  11. NMDA receptor subunits and associated signaling molecules mediating antidepressant-related effects of NMDA-GluN2B antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Kiselycznyk, Carly; Jury, Nicholas; Halladay, Lindsay; Nakazawa, Kazu; Mishina, Masayoshi; Sprengel, Rolf; Grant, Seth G.N.; Svenningsson, Per; Holmes, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Drugs targeting the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) may be efficacious for treating mood disorders, as exemplified by the rapid antidepressant effects produced by single administration of the NMDAR antagonist ketamine. Though the precise mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-related effects of NMDAR antagonism remain unclear, recent studies implicate specific NMDAR subunits, including GluN2A and GluN2B, as well as the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunit glutamate receptor interacting molecule, PSD-95. Here, integrating mutant and pharmacological in mice, we investigated the contribution of these subunits and molecules to antidepressant-related behaviors and the antidepressant-related effects of the GluN2B blocker, Ro 25-6981. We found that global deletion of GluA1 or PSD-95 reduced forced swim test (FST) immobility, mimicking the antidepressant-related effect produced by systemically administered Ro 25-6981 in C57BL/6J mice. Moreover, the FST antidepressant-like effects of systemic Ro 25-6981 were intact in mutants with global GluA1 deletion or GluN1 deletion in forebrain interneurons, but were absent in mutants constitutively lacking GluN2A or PSD-95. Next, we found that microinfusing Ro 25-6981 into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but not basolateral amygdala, of C57BL/6J mice was sufficient to produce an antidepressant-like effect. Together, these findings extend and refine current understanding of the mechanisms mediating antidepressant-like effects produced by NMDAR-GluN2B antagonists, and may inform the development of a novel class of medications for treating depression that target the GluN2B subtype of NMDAR. PMID:25800971

  12. Treponema denticola activates mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathways through Toll-like receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Ruby, John; Rehani, Kunal; Martin, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Treponema denticola, a spirochete indigenous to the oral cavity, is associated with host inflammatory responses to anaerobic polymicrobial infections of the root canal, periodontium, and alveolar bone. However, the cellular mechanisms responsible for the recognition of T. denticola by the innate immune system and the underlying cell signaling pathways that regulate the inflammatory response to T. denticola are currently unresolved. In this study, we demonstrate that T. denticola induces innate immune responses via the utilization of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) but not TLR4. Assessment of TLR2/1 and TLR2/6 heterodimers revealed that T. denticola predominantly utilizes TLR2/6 for the induction of cellular responses. Analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in T. denticola-stimulated monocytes identified a prolonged up-regulation of the MAPK extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38, while no discernible increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) levels was observed. With the aid of pharmacological inhibitors selectively targeting ERK1/2 via the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 kinase and p38, we further demonstrate that ERK1/2 and p38 play a major role in T. denticola-mediated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production.

  13. Signal Transduction by BvgS Sensor Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Dupré, Elian; Lesne, Elodie; Guérin, Jérémy; Lensink, Marc F.; Verger, Alexis; de Ruyck, Jérôme; Brysbaert, Guillaume; Vezin, Hervé; Locht, Camille; Antoine, Rudy; Jacob-Dubuisson, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    The two-component sensory transduction system BvgAS controls the virulence regulon of the whooping-cough agent Bordetella pertussis. The periplasmic moiety of the homodimeric sensor kinase BvgS is composed of four bilobed Venus flytrap (VFT) perception domains followed by α helices that extend into the cytoplasmic membrane. In the virulent phase, the default state of B. pertussis, the cytoplasmic enzymatic moiety of BvgS acts as kinase by autophosphorylating and transferring the phosphoryl group to the response regulator BvgA. Under laboratory conditions, BvgS shifts to phosphatase activity in response to modulators, notably nicotinate ions. Here we characterized the effects of nicotinate and related modulators on the BvgS periplasmic moiety by using site-directed mutagenesis and in silico and biophysical approaches. Modulators bind with low affinity to BvgS in the VFT2 cavity. Electron paramagnetic resonance shows that their binding globally affects the conformation and dynamics of the periplasmic moiety. Specific amino acid substitutions designed to slacken interactions within and between the VFT lobes prevent BvgS from responding to nicotinate, showing that BvgS shifts from kinase to phosphatase activity in response to this modulator via a tense transition state that involves a large periplasmic structural block. We propose that this transition enables the transmembrane helices to adopt a distinct conformation that sets the cytoplasmic enzymatic moiety in the phosphatase mode. The bona fide, in vivo VFT ligands that remain to be identified are likely to trigger similar effects on the transmembrane and cytoplasmic moieties. This mechanism may be relevant to the other VFT-containing sensor kinases homologous to BvgS. PMID:26203186

  14. SIRT3 overexpression antagonizes high glucose accelerated cellular senescence in human diploid fibroblasts via the SIRT3-FOXO1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Cui, Shaoyuan; Bai, Xueyuan; Zhuo, Li; Sun, Xuefeng; Hong, Quan; Fu, Bo; Wang, Jianzhong; Chen, Xiangmei; Cai, Guangyan

    2013-12-01

    Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is one of the seven mammalian sirtuins, which are homologs of the yeast Sir2 gene. SIRT3 is the only sirtuin reported to be associated with human life span. Many recent studies have indicated that SIRT3 levels are elevated by exercise and caloric restriction, but whether SIRT3 influences cell senescence under stressed conditions in human diploid fibroblasts has not been established. Our data showed that expression of SIRT3 is elevated in human diploid fibroblasts under low glucose (3.3 mM glucose) growth conditions and decreased under high glucose (25 mM glucose) growth conditions. We have demonstrated that SIRT3 interacts with forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1). High glucose levels also increased aging phenotypes and FOXO1 acetylation level. We have demonstrated that overexpression of SIRT3 under high glucose conditions reduces FOXO1 acetylation, suggesting that deacetylation of FOXO1 by SIRT3 elevates the expression of the FOXO1 target genes, catalase, and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) while decreasing senescence phenotypes. We studied the effects of SIRT3 protein knockdown by shRNA under low glucose conditions. The data showed that shRNA-SIRT3 accelerated senescence phenotypes and acetylation of FOXO1; the expression level of catalase and MnSOD decreased compared with the control group. As a consequence, SIRT3 antagonized cellular senescence with the characteristic features of delayed SA-β-gal staining, senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) formation, and p16(INK4A) expression. These results demonstrate for the first time that SIRT3 overexpression antagonizes high glucose-induced cellular senescence in human diploid fibroblasts via the SIRT3-FOXO1 signaling pathway.

  15. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase: signalling in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Ruth H.; Vernersson, Emma; Grabbe, Caroline; Hallberg, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    RTKs (receptor tyrosine kinases) play important roles in cellular proliferation and differentiation. In addition, RTKs reveal oncogenic potential when their kinase activities are constitutively enhanced by point mutation, amplification or rearrangement of the corresponding genes. The ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) RTK was originally identified as a member of the insulin receptor subfamily of RTKs that acquires transforming capability when truncated and fused to NPM (nucleophosmin) in the t(2;5) chromosomal rearrangement associated with ALCL (anaplastic large cell lymphoma). To date, many chromosomal rearrangements leading to enhanced ALK activity have been described and are implicated in a number of cancer types. Recent reports of the EML4 (echinoderm microtubule-associated protein like 4)–ALK oncoprotein in NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer), together with the identification of activating point mutations in neuroblastoma, have highlighted ALK as a significant player and target for drug development in cancer. In the present review we address the role of ALK in development and disease and discuss implications for the future. PMID:19459784

  16. Spatially coordinated kinase signaling regulates local axon degeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mark; Maloney, Janice A; Kallop, Dara Y; Atwal, Jasvinder K; Tam, Stephen J; Baer, Kristin; Kissel, Holger; Kaminker, Joshua S; Lewcock, Joseph W; Weimer, Robby M; Watts, Ryan J

    2012-09-26

    In addition to being a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease, axon degeneration is used during development of the nervous system to prune unwanted connections. In development, axon degeneration is tightly regulated both temporally and spatially. Here, we provide evidence that degeneration cues are transduced through various kinase pathways functioning in spatially distinct compartments to regulate axon degeneration. Intriguingly, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) acts centrally, likely modulating gene expression in the cell body to regulate distally restricted axon degeneration. Through a combination of genetic and pharmacological manipulations, including the generation of an analog-sensitive kinase allele mutant mouse for GSK3β, we show that the β isoform of GSK3, not the α isoform, is essential for developmental axon pruning in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, we identify the dleu2/mir15a/16-1 cluster, previously characterized as a regulator of B-cell proliferation, and the transcription factor tbx6, as likely downstream effectors of GSK3β in axon degeneration.

  17. The Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Signaling Pathway as a Discovery Target in Stroke.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Nan, Guangxian

    2016-05-01

    Protein kinases are critical modulators of a variety of intracellular and extracellular signal transduction pathways, and abnormal phosphorylation events can contribute to disease progression in a variety of diseases. As a result, protein kinases have emerged as important new drug targets for small molecule therapeutics. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway transmits signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus in response to a variety of different stimuli. Because this pathway controls a broad spectrum of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and stress responses, it is accepted as a therapeutic target for cancer and peripheral inflammatory disorders. There is also increasing evidence that MAPK is an important regulator of ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebral vascular disease, raising the possibility that it might be a drug discovery target for stroke. In this review, we discuss the MAPK signaling pathway in association with its activation in stroke-induced brain injury.

  18. The Arabidopsis MAP kinase kinase 7: A crosstalk point between Auxin signaling and defense responses?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant-pathogen interaction induces a complex host response that coordinates various signaling pathways through multiple signal molecules. Besides the well-documented signal molecules salicylic acid (SA), ethylene and jasmonic acid, auxin is emerging as an important player in this response. We recent...

  19. Molecular mimicry regulates ABA signaling by SnRK2 kinases and PP2C phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X Edward; West, Graham M; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M H Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

    2012-01-06

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  20. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M. H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites. PMID:22116026

  1. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M.H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  2. Venus Kinase Receptors: Prospects in Signaling and Biological Functions of These Invertebrate Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel. PMID:24860549

  3. Venus kinase receptors: prospects in signaling and biological functions of these invertebrate kinases.

    PubMed

    Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel.

  4. Distinct and Overlapping Functions of TEC Kinase and BTK in B Cell Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Marjolein J W; Rip, Jasper; van der Ploeg, Esmee K; van Greuningen, Lars W; Ta, Van T B; Kil, Laurens P; Langerak, Anton W; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Ellmeier, Wilfried; Hendriks, Rudi W; Corneth, Odilia B J

    2017-04-15

    The Tec tyrosine kinase is expressed in many cell types, including hematopoietic cells, and is a member of the Tec kinase family that also includes Btk. Although the role of Btk in B cells has been extensively studied, the role of Tec kinase in B cells remains largely unclear. It was previously shown that Tec kinase has the ability to partly compensate for loss of Btk activity in B cell differentiation, although the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we confirm that Tec kinase is not essential for normal B cell development when Btk is present, but we also found that Tec-deficient mature B cells showed increased activation, proliferation, and survival upon BCR stimulation, even in the presence of Btk. Whereas Tec deficiency did not affect phosphorylation of phospholipase Cγ or Ca(2+) influx, it was associated with significantly increased activation of the intracellular Akt/S6 kinase signaling pathway upon BCR and CD40 stimulation. The increased S6 kinase phosphorylation in Tec-deficient B cells was dependent on Btk kinase activity, as ibrutinib treatment restored pS6 to wild-type levels, although Btk protein and phosphorylation levels were comparable to controls. In Tec-deficient mice in vivo, B cell responses to model Ags and humoral immunity upon influenza infection were enhanced. Moreover, aged mice lacking Tec kinase developed a mild autoimmune phenotype. Taken together, these data indicate that in mature B cells, Tec and Btk may compete for activation of the Akt signaling pathway, whereby the activating capacity of Btk is limited by the presence of Tec kinase.

  5. Protein kinase CK2 triggers cytosolic zinc signaling pathways by phosphorylation of zinc channel ZIP7

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Kathryn M.; Hiscox, Stephen; Nicholson, Robert I.; Hogstrand, Christer; Kille, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The transition element zinc, which has recently been identified as an intracellular second messenger, has been implicated in various signaling pathways, including those leading to cell proliferation. Zinc channels of the ZIP protein family (Solute Carrier Family 39A, SLC39A) transiently increase the cytosolic free zinc (Zn2+) concentration in response to extracellular signals. Here, we show that phosphorylation of evolutionarily conserved residues in zinc transporter ZIP7 is associated with the gated release of Zn2+ from intracellular stores, leading to activation of tyrosine kinases and the phosphorylation of AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Through pharmacological manipulation, proximity assay, and mutagenesis, we identified CK2 as the kinase responsible for ZIP7 activation. Together, the present results show that eukaryotic transition element channels can be activated post-translationally by phosphorylation eliciting a cell signaling cascade. Our study links the regulated release of zinc from intracellular stores to phosphorylation of kinases involved in proliferative responses and cell migration, suggesting a functional role for ZIP7 and zinc signals for these events which are characteristic of cancerous cells. Furthermore, the interaction of ZIP7 with CK2, a kinase that is antiapoptotoc and promotes cell division, highlights the potential for ZIP7 as a target for anti-cancer drug development. PMID:22317921

  6. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) Signaling via Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (Gsk-3) Regulates DNA Methylation of Imprinted Loci*

    PubMed Central

    Popkie, Anthony P.; Zeidner, Leigh C.; Albrecht, Ashley M.; D'Ippolito, Anthony; Eckardt, Sigrid; Newsom, David E.; Groden, Joanna; Doble, Bradley W.; Aronow, Bruce; McLaughlin, K. John; White, Peter; Phiel, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (Gsk-3) isoforms, Gsk-3α and Gsk-3β, are constitutively active, largely inhibitory kinases involved in signal transduction. Underscoring their biological significance, altered Gsk-3 activity has been implicated in diabetes, Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of both Gsk-3α and Gsk-3β in mouse embryonic stem cells results in reduced expression of the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a2, causing misexpression of the imprinted genes Igf2, H19, and Igf2r and hypomethylation of their corresponding imprinted control regions. Treatment of wild-type embryonic stem cells and neural stem cells with the Gsk-3 inhibitor, lithium, phenocopies the DNA hypomethylation at these imprinted loci. We show that inhibition of Gsk-3 by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated activation of Akt also results in reduced DNA methylation at these imprinted loci. Finally, we find that N-Myc is a potent Gsk-3-dependent regulator of Dnmt3a2 expression. In summary, we have identified a signal transduction pathway that is capable of altering the DNA methylation of imprinted loci. PMID:21047779

  7. Regulation of N-Formyl Peptide Receptor Signaling and Trafficking by Arrestin-Src Kinase Interaction.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Brant M; Marjon, Nicole A; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    Arrestins were originally described as proteins recruited to ligand-activated, phosphorylated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to attenuate G protein-mediated signaling. It was later revealed that arrestins also mediate GPCR internalization and recruit a number of signaling proteins including, but not limited to, Src family kinases, ERK1/2, and JNK3. GPCR-arrestin binding and trafficking control the spatial and temporal activity of these multi-protein complexes. In previous reports, we concluded that N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR)-mediated apoptosis, which occurs upon receptor stimulation in the absence of arrestins, is associated with FPR accumulation in perinuclear recycling endosomes. Under these conditions, inhibition of Src kinase and ERK1/2 prevented FPR-mediated apoptosis. To better understand the role of Src kinase in this process, in the current study we employed a previously described arrestin-2 (arr2) mutant deficient in Src kinase binding (arr2-P91G/P121E). Unlike wild type arrestin, arr2-P91G/P121E did not inhibit FPR-mediated apoptosis, suggesting that Src binding to arrestin-2 prevents apoptotic signaling. However, in cells expressing this mutant, FPR-mediated apoptosis was still blocked by inhibition of Src kinase activity, suggesting that activation of Src independent of arrestin-2 binding is involved in FPR-mediated apoptosis. Finally, while Src kinase inhibition prevented FPR-mediated-apoptosis in the presence of arr2-P91G/P121E, it did not prevent FPR-arr2-P91G/P121E accumulation in the perinuclear recycling endosome. On the contrary, inhibition of Src kinase activity mediated the accumulation of activated FPR-wild type arrestin-2 in recycling endosomes without initiating FPR-mediated apoptosis. Based on these observations, we conclude that Src kinase has two independent roles following FPR activation that regulate both FPR-arrestin-2 signaling and trafficking.

  8. Protein kinase C in the immune system: from signalling to chromatin regulation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Pek Siew; Sutton, Christopher Ray; Rao, Sudha

    2015-12-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) form a key family of enzymes involved in signalling pathways that specifically phosphorylates substrates at serine/threonine residues. Phosphorylation by PKC is important in regulating a variety of cellular events such as cell proliferation and the regulation of gene expression. In the immune system, PKCs are involved in regulating signal transduction pathways important for both innate and adaptive immunity, ultimately resulting in the expression of key immune genes. PKCs act as mediators during immune cell signalling through the immunological synapse. PKCs are traditionally known to be cytoplasmic signal transducers and are well embedded in the signalling pathways of cells to mediate the cells' response to a stimulus from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. PKCs are also found to transduce signals within the nucleus, a process that is distinct from the cytoplasmic signalling pathway. There is now growing evidence suggesting that PKC can directly regulate gene expression programmes through a non-traditional role as nuclear kinases. In this review, we will focus on the role of PKCs as key cytoplasmic signal transducers in immune cell signalling, as well as its role in nuclear signal transduction. We will also highlight recent evidence for its newly discovered regulatory role in the nucleus as a chromatin-associated kinase.

  9. Microbial Degradation of Cellular Kinases Impairs Innate Immune Signaling and Paracrine TNFα Responses

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Kenneth; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2016-01-01

    The NFκB and MAPK signaling pathways are critical components of innate immunity that orchestrate appropriate immune responses to control and eradicate pathogens. Their activation results in the induction of proinflammatory mediators, such as TNFα a potent bioactive molecule commonly secreted by recruited inflammatory cells, allowing for paracrine signaling at the site of an infection. In this study we identified a novel mechanism by which the opportunistic pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis dampens innate immune responses by disruption of kinase signaling and degradation of inflammatory mediators. The intracellular immune kinases RIPK1, TAK1, and AKT were selectively degraded by the P. gingivalis lysine-specific gingipain (Kgp) in human endothelial cells, which correlated with dysregulated innate immune signaling. Kgp was also observed to attenuate endothelial responsiveness to TNFα, resulting in a reduction in signal flux through AKT, ERK and NFκB pathways, as well as a decrease in downstream proinflammatory mRNA induction of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. A deficiency in Kgp activity negated decreases to host cell kinase protein levels and responsiveness to TNFα. Given the essential role of kinase signaling in immune responses, these findings highlight a unique mechanism of pathogen-induced immune dysregulation through inhibition of cell activation, paracrine signaling, and dampened cellular proinflammatory responses. PMID:27698456

  10. Microbial Degradation of Cellular Kinases Impairs Innate Immune Signaling and Paracrine TNFα Responses.

    PubMed

    Barth, Kenneth; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2016-10-04

    The NFκB and MAPK signaling pathways are critical components of innate immunity that orchestrate appropriate immune responses to control and eradicate pathogens. Their activation results in the induction of proinflammatory mediators, such as TNFα a potent bioactive molecule commonly secreted by recruited inflammatory cells, allowing for paracrine signaling at the site of an infection. In this study we identified a novel mechanism by which the opportunistic pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis dampens innate immune responses by disruption of kinase signaling and degradation of inflammatory mediators. The intracellular immune kinases RIPK1, TAK1, and AKT were selectively degraded by the P. gingivalis lysine-specific gingipain (Kgp) in human endothelial cells, which correlated with dysregulated innate immune signaling. Kgp was also observed to attenuate endothelial responsiveness to TNFα, resulting in a reduction in signal flux through AKT, ERK and NFκB pathways, as well as a decrease in downstream proinflammatory mRNA induction of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. A deficiency in Kgp activity negated decreases to host cell kinase protein levels and responsiveness to TNFα. Given the essential role of kinase signaling in immune responses, these findings highlight a unique mechanism of pathogen-induced immune dysregulation through inhibition of cell activation, paracrine signaling, and dampened cellular proinflammatory responses.

  11. Fusion tyrosine kinase mediated signalling pathways in the transformation of haematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Turner, S D; Alexander, D R

    2006-04-01

    The fusion tyrosine kinases (FTKs) are generated by chromosomal translocations creating bipartite proteins in which the kinase is hyperactivated by an adjoining oligomerization domain. Autophosphorylation of the FTK generates a 'signalosome', an ensemble of signalling proteins that transduce signals to downstream pathways. At the earliest stages of oncogenesis, FTKs can mimic mitogenic cytokine signalling pathways involving the GAB-2 adaptor protein and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) factors, generating replicative stress and thereby promoting a mutator phenotype. In parallel, FTKs couple to survival pathways that upregulate prosurvival proteins such as Bcl-xL, so preventing DNA-damage-induced apoptosis. Following transformation, FTKs induce resistance to genotoxic attack by upregulating DNA repair mechanisms such as STAT5-dependent RAD51 transcription. The phenomenon of 'oncogene addiction' reflects the continued requirement of an active FTK 'signalosome' to mediate survival and mitogenic signals involving the PI 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein stress-activated protein kinase pathways, and the nuclear factor-kappa B, activator protein 1 and STAT transcription factors. The available data so far suggest that FTKs, with some possible exceptions, induce and maintain the transformed state using similar panoplies of signals, a finding with important therapeutic implications. The FTK signalling field has matured to an exciting phase in which rapid advances are facilitating rational drug design.

  12. Screening of cell cycle fusion proteins to identify kinase signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Trojanowsky, Michelle; Vidovic, Dusica; Simanski, Scott; Penas, Clara; Schurer, Stephan; Ayad, Nagi G

    2015-01-01

    Kinase signaling networks are well-established mediators of cell cycle transitions. However, how kinases interact with the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) to elicit protein turnover is not fully understood. We sought a means of identifying kinase-substrate interactions to better understand signaling pathways controlling protein degradation. Our prior studies used a luciferase fusion protein to uncover kinase networks controlling protein turnover. In this study, we utilized a similar approach to identify pathways controlling the cell cycle protein p27(Kip1). We generated a p27(Kip1)-luciferase fusion and expressed it in cells incubated with compounds from a library of pharmacologically active compounds. We then compared the relative effects of the compounds on p27(Kip1)-luciferase fusion stabilization. This was combined with in silico kinome profiling to identify potential kinases inhibited by each compound. This approach effectively uncovered known kinases regulating p27(Kip1) turnover. Collectively, our studies suggest that this parallel screening approach is robust and can be applied to fully understand kinase-ubiquitin pathway interactions.

  13. Antagonizing amyloid-β/calcium-sensing receptor signaling in human astrocytes and neurons: a key to halt Alzheimer's disease progression?

    PubMed Central

    Dal Prà, Ilaria; Chiarini, Anna; Armato, Ubaldo

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes’ roles in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) promotion are important, since they survive soluble or fibrillar amyloid-β peptides (Aβs) neurotoxic effects, undergo alterations of intracellular and intercellular Ca2+ signaling and gliotransmitters release via the Aβ/α7-nAChR (α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor) signaling, and overproduce/oversecrete newly synthesized Aβ42 oligomers, NO, and VEGF-A via the Aβ/CaSR (calcium-sensing receptor) signaling. Recently, it was suggested that the NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) inhibitor nitromemantine would block the synapse-destroying effects of Aβ/α7-nAChR signaling. Yet, this and the progressive extracellular accrual and spreading of Aβ42 oligomers would be stopped well upstream by NPS 2143, an allosteric CaSR antagonist (calcilytic). PMID:25883618

  14. Antagonism of EGFR and notch signalling in the reiterative recruitment of Drosophila adult chordotonal sense organ precursors.

    PubMed

    zur Lage, P; Jarman, A P

    1999-06-01

    The selection of Drosophila melanogaster sense organ precursors (SOPs) for sensory bristles is a progressive process: each neural equivalence group is transiently defined by the expression of proneural genes (proneural cluster), and neural fate is refined to single cells by Notch-Delta lateral inhibitory signalling between the cells. Unlike sensory bristles, SOPs of chordotonal (stretch receptor) sense organs are tightly clustered. Here we show that for one large adult chordotonal SOP array, clustering results from the progressive accumulation of a large number of SOPs from a persistent proneural cluster. This is achieved by a novel interplay of inductive epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGFR) and competitive Notch signals. EGFR acts in opposition to Notch signalling in two ways: it promotes continuous SOP recruitment despite lateral inhibition, and it attenuates the effect of lateral inhibition on the proneural cluster equivalence group, thus maintaining the persistent proneural cluster. SOP recruitment is reiterative because the inductive signal comes from previously recruited SOPs.

  15. Spatio-temporal regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling by protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, M; Mandl, M; Keyse, S M

    2006-11-01

    ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) is a MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), which regulates diverse physiological functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, transformation and survival. It is now clear that in addition to the duration and magnitude of signalling through this MAPK pathway, the spatial restriction of MAPK activity plays a key role in determining the physiological outcome of signalling. Recent work has led to the discovery of MAPK-binding proteins, which contain either nuclear localization signals or nuclear export signals. These include MAPK activators and specific protein phosphatases, which may act to both regulate MAPK activity and the subcellular localization of their substrate. This represents a mechanism by which signalling in response to extracellular stimuli may be modulated in terms of both magnitude/duration and spatial restriction thus allowing differential access of the activated MAPK to target proteins and the interpretation of this information by cells to determine an appropriate physiological response.

  16. How do pleiotropic kinase hubs mediate specific signaling by TNFR superfamily members?

    PubMed Central

    Schröfelbauer, Bärbel; Hoffmann, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Summary Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily members mediate the cellular response to a wide variety of biological inputs. The responses range from cell death, survival, differentiation, proliferation, to the regulation of immunity. All these physiological responses are regulated by a limited number of highly pleiotropic kinases. The fact that the same signaling molecules are involved in transducing signals from TNFR superfamily members that regulate different and even opposing processes raises the question of how their specificity is determined. Regulatory strategies that can contribute to signaling specificity include scaffolding to control kinase specificity, combinatorial use of several signal transducers, and temporal control of signaling. In this review, we discuss these strategies in the context of TNFR superfamily member signaling. PMID:22017429

  17. Recent Progress on Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1): Expression, Regulation, Downstream Signaling and Cancer Suppressive Function

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Ren-You; Li, Hua-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Liver kinase B1 (LKB1), known as a serine/threonine kinase, has been identified as a critical cancer suppressor in many cancer cells. It is a master upstream kinase of 13 AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related protein kinases, and possesses versatile biological functions. LKB1 gene is mutated in many cancers, and its protein can form different protein complexes with different cellular localizations in various cell types. The expression of LKB1 can be regulated through epigenetic modification, transcriptional regulation and post-translational modification. LKB1 dowcnstream pathways mainly include AMPK, microtubule affinity regulating kinase (MARK), salt-inducible kinase (SIK), sucrose non-fermenting protein-related kinase (SNRK) and brain selective kinase (BRSK) signalings, etc. This review, therefore, mainly discusses recent studies about the expression, regulation, downstream signaling and cancer suppressive function of LKB1, which can be helpful for better understanding of this molecular and its significance in cancers. PMID:25244018

  18. Protein Kinase PKN1 Represses Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Human Melanoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    James, Richard G.; Bosch, Katherine A.; Kulikauskas, Rima M.; Yang, Peitzu T.; Robin, Nick C.; Toroni, Rachel A.; Biechele, Travis L.; Berndt, Jason D.; von Haller, Priska D.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Chien, Andy J.; Moon, Randall T.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in phosphoproteomics have made it possible to monitor changes in protein phosphorylation that occur at different steps in signal transduction and have aided the identification of new pathway components. In the present study, we applied this technology to advance our understanding of the responses of melanoma cells to signaling initiated by the secreted ligand WNT3A. We started by comparing the phosphopeptide patterns of cells treated with WNT3A for different periods of time. Next, we integrated these data sets with the results from a siRNA screen that targeted protein kinases. This integration of siRNA screening and proteomics enabled us to identify four kinases that exhibit altered phosphorylation in response to WNT3A and that regulate a luciferase reporter of β-catenin-responsive transcription (β-catenin-activated reporter). We focused on one of these kinases, an atypical PKC kinase, protein kinase N1 (PKN1). Reducing the levels of PKN1 with siRNAs significantly enhances activation of β-catenin-activated reporter and increases apoptosis in melanoma cell lines. Using affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry, we then found that PKN1 is present in a protein complex with a WNT3A receptor, Frizzled 7, as well as with proteins that co-purify with Frizzled 7. These data establish that the protein kinase PKN1 inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and sensitizes melanoma cells to cell death stimulated by WNT3A. PMID:24114839

  19. Protein kinase PKN1 represses Wnt/β-catenin signaling in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    James, Richard G; Bosch, Katherine A; Kulikauskas, Rima M; Yang, Peitzu T; Robin, Nick C; Toroni, Rachel A; Biechele, Travis L; Berndt, Jason D; von Haller, Priska D; Eng, Jimmy K; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Chien, Andy J; Moon, Randall T

    2013-11-29

    Advances in phosphoproteomics have made it possible to monitor changes in protein phosphorylation that occur at different steps in signal transduction and have aided the identification of new pathway components. In the present study, we applied this technology to advance our understanding of the responses of melanoma cells to signaling initiated by the secreted ligand WNT3A. We started by comparing the phosphopeptide patterns of cells treated with WNT3A for different periods of time. Next, we integrated these data sets with the results from a siRNA screen that targeted protein kinases. This integration of siRNA screening and proteomics enabled us to identify four kinases that exhibit altered phosphorylation in response to WNT3A and that regulate a luciferase reporter of β-catenin-responsive transcription (β-catenin-activated reporter). We focused on one of these kinases, an atypical PKC kinase, protein kinase N1 (PKN1). Reducing the levels of PKN1 with siRNAs significantly enhances activation of β-catenin-activated reporter and increases apoptosis in melanoma cell lines. Using affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry, we then found that PKN1 is present in a protein complex with a WNT3A receptor, Frizzled 7, as well as with proteins that co-purify with Frizzled 7. These data establish that the protein kinase PKN1 inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and sensitizes melanoma cells to cell death stimulated by WNT3A.

  20. Herpes simplex virus-1 infection causes the secretion of a type I interferon-antagonizing protein and inhibits signaling at or before Jak-1 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Karen E.; Knipe, David M.

    2010-01-05

    Host cells respond to viral infection by the production of type I interferons (IFNs), which induce the expression of antiviral genes. Herpes simplex virus I (HSV-1) encodes many mechanisms that inhibit the type I IFN response, including the ICP27-dependent inhibition of type I IFN signaling. Here we show inhibition of Stat-1 nuclear accumulation in cells that express ICP27. ICP27 expression also induces the secretion of a small, heat-stable type I IFN antagonizing protein that inhibits Stat-1 nuclear accumulation. We show that the inhibition of IFN-induced Stat-1 phosphorylation occurs at or upstream of Jak-1 phosphorylation. Finally, we show that ISG15 expression is induced after IFNalpha treatment in mock-infected cells, but not cells infected with WT HSV-1 or ICP27{sup -} HSV-1. These data suggest that HSV-1 has evolved multiple mechanisms to inhibit IFN signaling not only in infected cells, but also in neighboring cells, thereby allowing for increased viral replication and spread.

  1. Biochanin-A antagonizes the interleukin-1β-induced catabolic inflammation through the modulation of NFκB cellular signaling in primary rat chondrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Ji-Su; Cho, In-A; Kang, Kyeong-Rok; You, Jae-Seek; Yu, Sang-Joun; Lee, Gyeong-Je; Seo, Yo-Seob; Kim, Chun Sung; Kim, Do Kyung; Kim, Su-Gwan; Seo, Young-Woo; Im, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Sung

    2016-09-02

    Biochanin-A, a phytoestrogen derived from herbal plants, protected from the IL-1β-induced loss of proteoglycans through the suppression of matrix degrading enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, MMP-3, MMP-1, and ADAMTS-5 in primary rat chondrocytes and the knee articular cartilage. It also suppressed the expression of IL-1β-induced catabolic factors such as nitric oxide synthase 2, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E{sub 2}, and inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, biochanin-A suppressed the IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of NFκB, and inhibited its nuclear translocation in primary rat chondrocytes. These results indicate that biochanin-A antagonizes the IL-1β-induced catabolic effects through its anti-inflammatory activity that involves the modulation of NFκB signaling. - Highlights: • Biochanin-A is a phytoestrogen derived from medicinal plants. • It suppressed the IL-1β-induced matrix degrading enzymes and catabolic factors. • It inhibited IL-1β-induced proteoglycan loss in chondrocytes and cartilage tissues. • Its anti-catabolic effects were mediated by modulation of NFκB signaling. • It may be used as a potential anti-catabolic biomaterial for osteoarthritis.

  2. Herbivory-induced jasmonates constrain plant sugar accumulation and growth by antagonizing gibberellin signaling and not by promoting secondary metabolite production.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ricardo A R; Baldwin, Ian T; Erb, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    Plants respond to herbivory by reconfiguring hormonal networks, increasing secondary metabolite production and decreasing growth. Furthermore, some plants display a decrease in leaf energy reserves in the form of soluble sugars and starch, leading to the hypothesis that herbivory-induced secondary metabolite production and growth reduction may be linked through a carbohydrate-based resource trade-off. In order to test the above hypothesis, we measured leaf carbohydrates and plant growth in seven genetically engineered Nicotiana attenuata genotypes that are deficient in one or several major herbivore-induced, jasmonate-dependent defensive secondary metabolites and proteins. Furthermore, we manipulated gibberellin and jasmonate signaling, and quantified the impact of these phytohormones on secondary metabolite production, sugar accumulation and growth. Simulated herbivore attack by Manduca sexta specifically reduced leaf sugar concentrations and growth in a jasmonate-dependent manner. These effects were similar or even stronger in defenseless genotypes with intact jasmonate signaling. Gibberellin complementation rescued carbohydrate accumulation and growth in induced plants without impairing the induction of defensive secondary metabolites. These results are consistent with a hormonal antagonism model rather than a resource-cost model to explain the negative relationship between herbivory-induced defenses, leaf energy reserves and growth. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Disruption of Cell-to-Cell Signaling Does Not Abolish the Antagonism of Phaeobacter gallaeciensis toward the Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum in Algal Systems

    PubMed Central

    Prol García, M. J.; D'Alvise, P. W.

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) regulates Phaeobacter gallaeciensis antagonism in broth systems; however, we demonstrate here that QS is not important for antagonism in algal cultures. QS mutants reduced Vibrio anguillarum to the same extent as the wild type. Consequently, a combination of probiotic Phaeobacter and QS inhibitors is a feasible strategy for aquaculture disease control. PMID:23811510

  4. Disruption of cell-to-cell signaling does not abolish the antagonism of Phaeobacter gallaeciensis toward the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum in algal systems.

    PubMed

    Prol García, M J; D'Alvise, P W; Gram, L

    2013-09-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) regulates Phaeobacter gallaeciensis antagonism in broth systems; however, we demonstrate here that QS is not important for antagonism in algal cultures. QS mutants reduced Vibrio anguillarum to the same extent as the wild type. Consequently, a combination of probiotic Phaeobacter and QS inhibitors is a feasible strategy for aquaculture disease control.

  5. Role of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling in Renal Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Zhuang, Shougang

    2016-01-01

    Renal fibrosis can be induced in different renal diseases, but ultimately progresses to end stage renal disease. Although the pathophysiologic process of renal fibrosis have not been fully elucidated, it is characterized by glomerulosclerosis and/or tubular interstitial fibrosis, and is believed to be caused by the proliferation of renal inherent cells, including glomerular epithelial cells, mesangial cells, and endothelial cells, along with defective kidney repair, renal interstitial fibroblasts activation, and extracellular matrix deposition. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulate a variety of cell physiological processes, including metabolism, growth, differentiation, and survival. Many studies from in vitro and animal models have provided evidence that RTKs play important roles in the pathogenic process of renal fibrosis. It is also showed that tyrosine kinases inhibitors (TKIs) have anti-fibrotic effects in basic research and clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the evidence for involvement of specific RTKs in renal fibrosis process and the employment of TKIs as a therapeutic approach for renal fibrosis. PMID:27331812

  6. Inhibition of a signaling pathway in cardiac muscle cells by active mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, J; Carlson, M; Mansour, S J; Chien, K R; Ahn, N G; Thorburn, A

    1995-01-01

    Signaling via the Ras pathway involves sequential activation of Ras, Raf-1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK), and the extracellular signal-regulated (ERK) group of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Expression from the c-Fos, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), and myosin light chain-2 (MLC-2) promoters during phenylephrine-induced cardiac muscle cell hypertrophy requires activation of this pathway. Furthermore, constitutively active Ras or Raf-1 can mimic the action of phenylephrine in inducing expression from these promoters. In this study, we tested whether constitutively active MKK, the molecule immediately downstream of Raf, was sufficient to induce expression. Expression of constitutively active MKK induce ERK2 kinase activity and caused expression from the c-Fos promoter, but did not significantly activate expression of reporter genes under the control of either the ANF or MLC-2 promoters. Expression of CL100, a phosphatase that inactivates ERKs, prevented expression from all of the promoters. Taken together, these data suggest that ERK activation is required for expression from the Fos, ANF, and MLC-2 promoters but MKK and ERK activation is sufficient for expression only from the Fos promoter. Constitutively active MKK synergized with phenylephrine to increase expression from a c-Fos- or an AP1-driven reporter. However, active MKK inhibited phenylephrine- and Raf-1-induced expression from the ANF and MLC-2 promoters. A DNA sequence in the MLC-2 promoter that is a target for inhibition by active MKK, but not CL100, was mapped to a previously characterized DNA element (HF1) that is responsible for cardiac specificity. Thus, activation of cardiac gene expression during phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy requires ERK activation but constitutive activation by MKK can inhibit expression by targeting a DNA element that controls the cardiac specificity of gene expression. PMID:8589450

  7. Regulation of Hippo signaling by Jun kinase signaling during compensatory cell proliferation and regeneration, and in neoplastic tumors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gongping; Irvine, Kenneth D

    2011-02-01

    When cells undergo apoptosis, they can stimulate the proliferation of nearby cells, a process referred to as compensatory cell proliferation. The stimulation of proliferation in response to tissue damage or removal is also central to epimorphic regeneration. The Hippo signaling pathway has emerged as an important regulator of growth during normal development and oncogenesis from Drosophila to humans. Here we show that induction of apoptosis in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc stimulates activation of the Hippo pathway transcription factor Yorkie in surviving and nearby cells, and that Yorkie is required for the ability of the wing to regenerate after genetic ablation of the wing primordia. Induction of apoptosis activates Yorkie through the Jun kinase pathway, and direct activation of Jun kinase signaling also promotes Yorkie activation in the wing disc. We also show that depletion of neoplastic tumor suppressor genes, including lethal giant larvae and discs large, or activation of aPKC, activates Yorkie through Jun kinase signaling, and that Jun kinase activation is necessary, but not sufficient, for the disruption of apical-basal polarity associated with loss of lethal giant larvae. Our observations identify Jnk signaling as a modulator of Hippo pathway activity in wing imaginal discs, and implicate Yorkie activation in compensatory cell proliferation and disc regeneration.

  8. Signaling, Regulation, and Specificity of the Type II p21-activated Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Byung Hak; Morse, Elizabeth M.; Turk, Benjamin E.; Boggon, Titus J.

    2015-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of six serine/threonine kinases that act as key effectors of RHO family GTPases in mammalian cells. PAKs are subdivided into two groups: type I PAKs (PAK1, PAK2, and PAK3) and type II PAKs (PAK4, PAK5, and PAK6). Although these groups are involved in common signaling pathways, recent work indicates that the two groups have distinct modes of regulation and have both unique and common substrates. Here, we review recent insights into the molecular level details that govern regulation of type II PAK signaling. We also consider mechanisms by which signal transduction is regulated at the level of substrate specificity. Finally, we discuss the implications of these studies for clinical targeting of these kinases. PMID:25855792

  9. Tyrosine kinase signalling in breast cancer: ErbB family receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Stern, David F

    2000-01-01

    ERBB family receptor tyrosine kinases are overexpressed in a significant subset of breast cancers. One of these receptors, HER2/neu, or ErbB-2, is the target for a new rational therapeutic antibody, Herceptin. Other inhibitors that target this receptor, and another family member, the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, are moving into clinical trials. Both of these receptors are sometimes overexpressed in breast cancer, and still subject to regulation by hormones and other physiological regulators. Optimal use of therapeutics targeting these receptors will require consideration of the several modes of regulation of these receptors and their interactions with steroid receptors. PMID:11250707

  10. Ceramide and glucosamine antagonism of alternate signaling pathways regulating insulin- and osmotic shock-induced glucose transporter 4 translocation.

    PubMed

    Kralik, Steve F; Liu, Ping; Leffler, Brian J; Elmendorf, Jeffrey S

    2002-01-01

    In addition to insulin, hyperosmolarity induces glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. However, in contrast to insulin this stimulation is independent of PI3K/Akt. In this study we assessed whether ceramide and/or glucosamine, two known insulin-signaling antagonists, also affected the PI3K/Akt-independent signal. Insulin, but not hyperosmolarity, clearly increased the activities of PI3K and Akt. C2-ceramide did not alter insulin-stimulated PI3K activity, but did decrease the ability of insulin to activate Akt and GLUT4 translocation. Consistent with osmotic shock-mediated GLUT4 translocation being independent of PI3K/Akt, GLUT4 translocation induced by hyperosmolarity was not altered by C2-ceramide. In contrast to the specific C2-ceramide-induced attenuation of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, overexpression of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, and/or pretreatment of cells with glucosamine, a precursor of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, inhibited both insulin- and hyperosmolarity-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. Glucosamine did not alter any of the known proximal insulin signal transduction events. These data suggest that although the hyperosmolarity-induced signal bypasses the initial insulin signal transduction steps, it is likely to induce GLUT4 translocation through activation of a common convergent signal transduction step, targeted by UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, downstream of and/or in parallel to PI3K/Akt.

  11. p70S6 kinase is a critical node that integrates HER-family and PI3 kinase signaling networks

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Mark J.; Gordon, Vicki; Mendez, Rolando E.; Leimgruber, Stephanie S.; Conaway, Mark R.; Sharlow, Elizabeth R.; Jameson, MarkJ.; Gioeli, Daniel G.; Weber, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Therapies targeting oncogenic drivers rapidly induce compensatory adaptive responses that blunt drug effectiveness, contributing to therapeutic resistance. Adaptive responses are characteristic of robust cell signaling networks, and thus there is increasing interest in drug combinations that co-target the driver and the adaptive response. An alternative approach to co-inhibiting oncogenic and adaptive targets is to identify a critical node where the activities of these targets converge. Nodes of convergence between signaling modules represent potential therapeutic vulnerabilities because their inhibition could result in collapse of the network, leading to enhanced cytotoxicity. In this report we demonstrate that p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) can function as a critical node linking HER-family and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway signaling. We used high-throughput combinatorial drug screening to identify adaptive survival responses to targeted therapies, and found that HER-family and PI3K represented compensatory signaling pathways. Co-targeting these pathways with drug combinations caused synergistic cytotoxicity in cases where inhibition of neither target was effective as a monotherapy. We utilized Reverse Phase Protein Arrays and determined that phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 was synergistically down-regulated upon HER-family and PI3K/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) co-inhibition. Expression of constitutively active p70S6K protected against apoptosis induced by combined HER-family and PI3K/mTOR inhibition. Direct inhibition of p70S6K with small molecule inhibitors phenocopied HER-family and PI3K/mTOR co-inhibition. These data implicate p70S6K as a critical node in the HER-family/PI3K signaling network. The ability of direct inhibitors of p70S6K to phenocopy co-inhibition of two upstream signaling targets indicates that identification and targeting of critical nodes can overcome adaptive resistance to targeted therapies. PMID:24662264

  12. Calcium-Oxidant Signaling Network Regulates AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation upon Matrix Deprivation*

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaman, Ananthalakshmy; Amirtham, Usha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has recently been implicated in anoikis resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms that activate AMPK upon matrix detachment remain unexplored. In this study, we show that AMPK activation is a rapid and sustained phenomenon upon matrix deprivation, whereas re-attachment to the matrix leads to its dephosphorylation and inactivation. Because matrix detachment leads to loss of integrin signaling, we investigated whether integrin signaling negatively regulates AMPK activation. However, modulation of focal adhesion kinase or Src, the major downstream components of integrin signaling, failed to cause a corresponding change in AMPK signaling. Further investigations revealed that the upstream AMPK kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) contribute to AMPK activation upon detachment. In LKB1-deficient cells, we found AMPK activation to be predominantly dependent on CaMKKβ. We observed no change in ATP levels under detached conditions at early time points suggesting that rapid AMPK activation upon detachment was not triggered by energy stress. We demonstrate that matrix deprivation leads to a spike in intracellular calcium as well as oxidant signaling, and both these intracellular messengers contribute to rapid AMPK activation upon detachment. We further show that endoplasmic reticulum calcium release-induced store-operated calcium entry contributes to intracellular calcium increase, leading to reactive oxygen species production, and AMPK activation. We additionally show that the LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK axis and intracellular calcium levels play a critical role in anchorage-independent cancer sphere formation. Thus, the Ca2+/reactive oxygen species-triggered LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK signaling cascade may provide a quick, adaptable switch to promote survival of metastasizing cancer cells. PMID:27226623

  13. Antagonism between phytohormone signalling underlies the variation in disease susceptibility of tomato plants under elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuai; Li, Xin; Sun, Zenghui; Shao, Shujun; Hu, Lingfei; Ye, Meng; Zhou, Yanhong; Xia, Xiaojian; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Increasing CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) have the potential to disrupt plant–pathogen interactions in natural and agricultural ecosystems, but the research in this area has often produced conflicting results. Variations in phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling could be associated with variations in the responses of pathogens to plants grown under elevated [CO2]. In this study, interactions between tomato plants and three pathogens with different infection strategies were compared. Elevated [CO2] generally favoured SA biosynthesis and signalling but repressed the JA pathway. The exposure of plants to elevated [CO2] revealed a lower incidence and severity of disease caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and by Pseudomonas syringae, whereas plant susceptibility to necrotrophic Botrytis cinerea increased. The elevated [CO2]-induced and basal resistance to TMV and P. syringae were completely abolished in plants in which the SA signalling pathway nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) had been silenced or in transgenic plants defective in SA biosynthesis. In contrast, under both ambient and elevated [CO2], the susceptibility to B. cinerea highly increased in plants in which the JA signalling pathway proteinase inhibitors (PI) gene had been silenced or in a mutant affected in JA biosynthesis. However, plants affected in SA signalling remained less susceptible to this disease. These findings highlight the modulated antagonistic relationship between SA and JA that contributes to the variation in disease susceptibility under elevated [CO2]. This information will be critical for investigating how elevated CO2 may affect plant defence and the dynamics between plants and pathogens in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. PMID:25657213

  14. Antagonism between phytohormone signalling underlies the variation in disease susceptibility of tomato plants under elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Li, Xin; Sun, Zenghui; Shao, Shujun; Hu, Lingfei; Ye, Meng; Zhou, Yanhong; Xia, Xiaojian; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Increasing CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) have the potential to disrupt plant-pathogen interactions in natural and agricultural ecosystems, but the research in this area has often produced conflicting results. Variations in phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling could be associated with variations in the responses of pathogens to plants grown under elevated [CO2]. In this study, interactions between tomato plants and three pathogens with different infection strategies were compared. Elevated [CO2] generally favoured SA biosynthesis and signalling but repressed the JA pathway. The exposure of plants to elevated [CO2] revealed a lower incidence and severity of disease caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and by Pseudomonas syringae, whereas plant susceptibility to necrotrophic Botrytis cinerea increased. The elevated [CO2]-induced and basal resistance to TMV and P. syringae were completely abolished in plants in which the SA signalling pathway nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) had been silenced or in transgenic plants defective in SA biosynthesis. In contrast, under both ambient and elevated [CO2], the susceptibility to B. cinerea highly increased in plants in which the JA signalling pathway proteinase inhibitors (PI) gene had been silenced or in a mutant affected in JA biosynthesis. However, plants affected in SA signalling remained less susceptible to this disease. These findings highlight the modulated antagonistic relationship between SA and JA that contributes to the variation in disease susceptibility under elevated [CO2]. This information will be critical for investigating how elevated CO2 may affect plant defence and the dynamics between plants and pathogens in both agricultural and natural ecosystems.

  15. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Promote Wound Healing through Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAP Kinases) Signaling Pathway in Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Hee; Yang, Dong Joo; Kulkarni, Atul; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ki Woo

    2015-11-26

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are secondary metabolites found in diverse marine, freshwater, and terrestrial organisms. Evidence suggests that MAAs have several beneficial effects on skin homeostasis such as protection against UV radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, MAAs are also involved in the modulation of skin fibroblasts proliferation. However, the regulatory function of MAAs on wound repair in human skin is not yet clearly elucidated. To investigate the roles of MAAs on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes, three MAAs, Shinorine (SH), Mycosporine-glycine (M-Gly), and Porphyra (P334) were purified from Chlamydomonas hedlyei and Porphyra yezoensis. We found that SH, M-Gly, and P334 have significant effects on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes and these effects were mediated by activation of focal adhesion kinases (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK). These results suggest that MAAs accelerate wound repair by activating the FAK-MAPK signaling pathways. This study also indicates that MAAs can act as a new wound healing agent and further suggests that MAAs might be a novel biomaterial for wound healing therapies.

  16. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Promote Wound Healing through Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAP Kinases) Signaling Pathway in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Hee; Yang, Dong Joo; Kulkarni, Atul; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ki Woo

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are secondary metabolites found in diverse marine, freshwater, and terrestrial organisms. Evidence suggests that MAAs have several beneficial effects on skin homeostasis such as protection against UV radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, MAAs are also involved in the modulation of skin fibroblasts proliferation. However, the regulatory function of MAAs on wound repair in human skin is not yet clearly elucidated. To investigate the roles of MAAs on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes, three MAAs, Shinorine (SH), Mycosporine-glycine (M-Gly), and Porphyra (P334) were purified from Chlamydomonas hedlyei and Porphyra yezoensis. We found that SH, M-Gly, and P334 have significant effects on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes and these effects were mediated by activation of focal adhesion kinases (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK). These results suggest that MAAs accelerate wound repair by activating the FAK-MAPK signaling pathways. This study also indicates that MAAs can act as a new wound healing agent and further suggests that MAAs might be a novel biomaterial for wound healing therapies. PMID:26703626

  17. Cleft lip and palate results from Hedgehog signaling antagonism in the mouse: Phenotypic characterization and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Lipinski, Robert J; Song, Chihwa; Sulik, Kathleen K; Everson, Joshua L; Gipp, Jerry J; Yan, Dong; Bushman, Wade; Rowland, Ian J

    2010-04-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway provides inductive signals critical for developmental patterning of the brain and face. In humans and in animal models interference with this pathway yields birth defects, among the most well-studied of which fall within the holoprosencephaly (HPE) spectrum. Timed-pregnant C57Bl/6J mice were treated with the natural Hh signaling antagonist cyclopamine by subcutaneous infusion from gestational day (GD) 8.25 to 9.5, or with a potent cyclopamine analog, AZ75, administered by oral gavage at GD 8.5. Subsequent embryonic morphogenesis and fetal central nervous system (CNS) phenotype were respectively investigated by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In utero Hh signaling antagonist exposure induced a spectrum of craniofacial and brain malformations. Cyclopamine exposure caused lateral cleft lip and palate (CLP) defects attributable to embryonic deficiency of midline and lower medial nasal prominence tissue. The CLP phenotype was accompanied by olfactory bulb hypoplasia and anterior pituitary aplasia, but otherwise grossly normal brain morphology. AZ75 exposure caused alobar and semilobar HPE with associated median facial deficiencies. An intermediate phenotype of median CLP was produced infrequently by both drug administration regimens. The results of this study suggest that interference with Hh signaling should be considered in the CLP differential and highlight the occurrence of CNS defects that are expected to be present in a cohort of patients having CLP. This work also illustrates the utility of fetal MRI-based analyses and establishes a novel mouse model for teratogen-induced CLP. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Antagonism of the Met5-enkephalin-opioid growth factor receptor-signaling axis promotes MSC to differentiate into osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Nikhil A; DeBoyace, Sean D; Margulies, Bryan S

    2016-07-01

    Chronic opioid therapy is associated with bone loss. This led us to hypothesize that the opioid antagonists, that include naloxone, would stimulate bone formation by regulating MSC differentiation. The opioid growth factor receptor (OGFR) is a non-canonical opioid receptor that binds naloxone with high affinity whereas the native opioid growth factor, met5-enkephalin (met5), binds both the OGFR and the canonical delta opioid receptor (OPRD). Naloxone and an shRNA OGFR lentivirus were employed to disrupt the OGFR-signaling axis in cultured MSC. In parallel, naloxone was administered to bone marrow using a mouse unicortical defect model. OPRD, OGFR, and the met5-ligand were highly expressed in MSC and osteoblasts. A pulse-dose of naloxone increased mineral formation in MSC cultures in contrast to MSC treated with continuous naloxone or OGFR deficient MSC. Importantly, SMAD1 and SMAD8/9 expression increased after a pulse dose of naloxone whereas SMAD1, SMAD7, and ID1 were increased in the OGFR deficient MSC. Inhibited OGFR signaling decreased proliferation and increased p21 expression. The addition of naloxone to the unicortical defect resulted in increased bone formation within the defect. Our data suggest that novel mechanism through which signaling through the OGFR regulates osteogenesis via negative regulation of SMAD1 and p21. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1195-1205, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A peptide targeting an interaction interface disrupts the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer to block signaling and function in vitro and in vivo: effective selective antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Hasbi, Ahmed; Perreault, Melissa L.; Shen, Maurice Y. F.; Zhang, Lucia; To, Ryan; Fan, Theresa; Nguyen, Tuan; Ji, Xiaodong; O'Dowd, Brian F.; George, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Although the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer has emerging physiological relevance and a postulated role in different neuropsychiatric disorders, such as drug addiction, depression, and schizophrenia, there is a need for pharmacological tools that selectively target such receptor complexes in order to analyze their biological and pathophysiological functions. Since no selective antagonists for the D1-D2 heteromer are available, serial deletions and point mutations were used to precisely identify the amino acids involved in an interaction interface between the receptors, residing within the carboxyl tail of the D1 receptor that interacted with the D2 receptor to form the D1-D2 receptor heteromer. It was determined that D1 receptor carboxyl tail residues 404Glu and 405Glu were critical in mediating the interaction with the D2 receptor. Isolated mutation of these residues in the D1 receptor resulted in the loss of agonist activation of the calcium signaling pathway mediated through the D1-D2 receptor heteromer. The physical interaction between the D1 and D2 receptor could be disrupted, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation and BRET analysis, by a small peptide generated from the D1 receptor sequence that contained these amino acids, leading to a switch in G-protein affinities and loss of calcium signaling, resulting in the inhibition of D1-D2 heteromer function. The use of the D1-D2 heteromer-disrupting peptide in vivo revealed a pathophysiological role for the D1-D2 heteromer in the modulation of behavioral despair. This peptide may represent a novel pharmacological tool with potential therapeutic benefits in depression treatment.—Hasbi, A., Perreault, M. L., Shen, M. Y. F., Zhang, L., To, R., Fan, T., Nguyen, T., Ji, X., O'Dowd, B. F., George, S. R. A peptide targeting an interaction interface disrupts the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer to block signaling and function in vitro and in vivo: effective selective antagonism. PMID:25063849

  20. Oncogenic signaling by Kit tyrosine kinase occurs selectively on the Golgi apparatus in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Obata, Y; Horikawa, K; Takahashi, T; Akieda, Y; Tsujimoto, M; Fletcher, J A; Esumi, H; Nishida, T; Abe, R

    2017-02-13

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are caused by gain-of-function mutations in the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase. Most primary GIST patients respond to the Kit inhibitor imatinib, but this drug often becomes ineffective because of secondary mutations in the Kit kinase domain. The characteristic intracellular accumulation of imatinib-sensitive and -resistant Kit protein is well documented, but its relationship to oncogenic signaling remains unknown. Here, we show that in cancer tissue from primary GIST patients as well as in cell lines, mutant Kit accumulates on the Golgi apparatus, whereas normal Kit localizes to the plasma membrane (PM). In imatinib-resistant GIST with a secondary Kit mutation, Kit localizes predominantly on the Golgi apparatus. Both imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant Kit (Kit(mut)) become fully auto-phosphorylated only on the Golgi and only if in a complex-glycosylated form. Kit(mut) accumulates on the Golgi during the early secretory pathway, but not after endocytosis. The aberrant kinase activity of Kit(mut) prevents its export from the Golgi to the PM. Furthermore, Kit(mut) on the Golgi signals and activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K-Akt) pathway, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), and the Mek-Erk pathway. Blocking the biosynthetic transport of Kit(mut) to the Golgi from the endoplasmic reticulum inhibits oncogenic signaling. PM localization of Kit(mut) is not required for its signaling. Activation of Src-family tyrosine kinases on the Golgi is essential for oncogenic Kit signaling. These results suggest that the Golgi apparatus serves as a platform for oncogenic Kit signaling. Our study demonstrates that Kit(mut)'s pathogenicity is related to its mis-localization, and may offer a new strategy for treating imatinib-resistant GISTs.Oncogene advance online publication, 13 February 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.519.

  1. Janus kinases and signal transducers and activators of transcription: their roles in cytokine signaling, development and immunoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Ortmann, Robert A; Cheng, Tammy; Visconti, Roberta; Frucht , David M; O'Shea, John J

    2000-01-01

    Cytokines play a critical role in the normal development and function of the immune system. On the other hand, many rheumatologic diseases are characterized by poorly controlled responses to or dysregulated production of these mediators. Over the past decade tremendous strides have been made in clarifying how cytokines transmit signals via pathways using the Janus kinase (Jak) protein tyrosine kinases and the Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) proteins. More recently, research has focused on several distinct proteins responsible for inhibiting these pathways. It is hoped that further elucidation of cytokine signaling through these pathways will not only allow for a better comprehension of the etiopathogenesis of rheumatologic illnesses, but may also direct future treatment options. PMID:11094415

  2. Beta-parvin inhibits integrin-linked kinase signaling and is downregulated in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mongroo, Perry S; Johnstone, Cameron N; Naruszewicz, Izabela; Leung-Hagesteijn, Chungyee; Sung, Raphael K; Carnio, Leanne; Rustgi, Anil K; Hannigan, Gregory E

    2004-11-25

    We analysed breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines for the expression of beta-parvin (ParvB), an adaptor protein that binds to the integrin-linked kinase (ILK). Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that ParvB mRNA was downregulated, by at least 60%, in four of nine breast tumors, relative to patient-matched normal mammary gland tissue. We also found that ParvB protein levels were reduced by > or =90% in five of seven advanced tumors, relative to matched normal breast tissue. Conversely, ILK protein and kinase activity levels were elevated in these tumors, suggesting that downregulation of ParvB stimulates ILK signaling. Western blot analyses indicated very low levels of ParvB protein in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 breast cancer cells, facilitating functional studies of the effects of ParvB on ILK signaling. Expression of ParvB in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells increased cell adhesion to collagen. ParvB inhibited ILK kinase activity, anchorage-independent cell growth and in vitro matrigel invasion by MDA-MB-231 cells. EGF-induced phosphorylation of two ILK targets, PKB (Ser473) and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (Ser9), was also inhibited by ParvB. These results indicated that ParvB inhibits ILK signaling downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases. Our results suggest that loss of ParvB expression is a novel mechanism for upregulating ILK activity in tumors.

  3. PI-3 kinase-PTEN signaling node: an intercept point for the control of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Castellino, R C; Muh, C R; Durden, D L

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis is tightly regulated by opposing mechanisms in mammalian cells and is controlled by the angiogenic switch. Other review articles have described a central role for the PTEN/PI-3 kinase/AKT signaling node in the coordinate control of cell division, tumor growth, apoptosis, invasion and cellular metabolism [1, 2]. In this review, we focus on literature that supports the PTEN/PI-3 kinase/AKT signaling node as a major control point for the angiogenic switch in both the on and off positions. We also discuss the rationale for designing small molecule drugs that target the PTEN/PI-3 kinase/AKT signaling node for therapeutic intervention. Our hypothesis is that, instead of inhibiting one cell surface receptor, such as VEGFR2 with bevacizumab (Avastin), thereby leaving a significant number of receptors free to pulse angiogenic signals, a more effective strategy may be to regulate signaling through an intercept node where redundant cell surface receptor signals converge to transmit important signaling events within the cell. This therapeutic configuration brings coordinate control over multiple cell surface receptors in concert with a physiologic response which may combine arrest of cell cycle progression with growth inhibition and the induction of genes involved in specialized functions such as movement, which are all required for the complex process of angiogenesis to occur in a temporal-spatial paradigm.

  4. β-Adrenergic stimulation activates protein kinase Cε and induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Cai, Hongyan; Liu, Hua; Guo, Tao

    2015-06-01

    The cardiac adrenergic signaling pathway is important in the induction of cardiac hypertrophy. The cardiac adrenergic pathway involves two main branches, phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) and the adenylate cyclase (cAMPase)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways. It is hypothesized that PLC/PKC and cAMPase/PKA are activated by the α‑adrenergic receptor (αAR) and the β‑adrenergic receptor (βAR), respectively. Previous studies have demonstrated that exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), a guanine exchange factor, activates phospholipase Cε. It is possible that there are βAR‑activated PKC pathways mediated by Epac and PLC. In the present study, the role of Epac and PLC in βAR activated PKC pathways in cardiomyocytes was investigated. It was found that PKCε activation and translocation were induced by the βAR agonist, isoproterenol (Iso). Epac agonist 8‑CPT‑2'OMe‑cAMP also enhanced PKCε activation. βAR stimulation activated PKCε in the cardiomyocytes and was regulated by Epac. Iso‑induced change in PKCε was not affected in the cardiomyocytes, which were infected with adenovirus coding rabbit muscle cAMP‑dependent protein kinase inhibitor. However, Iso‑induced PKCε activation was inhibited by the PLC inhibitor, U73122. The results suggested that Iso‑induced PKCε activation was independent of PKA, but was regulated by PLC. To further investigate the downstream signal target of PKCε activation, the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (pERK)1/2 and the levels of ERK phosphorylation was analyzed. The results revealed that Iso‑induced PKCε activation led to an increase in the expression of pERK1/2. ERK phosphorylation was inhibited by the PKCε inhibitor peptide. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the βAR is able to activate PKCε dependent on Epac and PLC, but independent of PKA.

  5. A computationally identified compound antagonizes excess FGF-23 signaling in renal tubules and a mouse model of hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhousheng; Riccardi, Demian; Velazquez, Hector A; Chin, Ai L; Yates, Charles R; Carrick, Jesse D; Smith, Jeremy C; Baudry, Jerome; Quarles, L Darryl

    2016-11-22

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) interacts with a binary receptor complex composed of α-Klotho (α-KL) and FGF receptors (FGFRs) to regulate phosphate and vitamin D metabolism in the kidney. Excess FGF-23 production, which causes hypophosphatemia, is genetically inherited or occurs with chronic kidney disease. Among other symptoms, hypophosphatemia causes vitamin D deficiency and the bone-softening disorder rickets. Current therapeutics that target the receptor complex have limited utility clinically. Using a computationally driven, structure-based, ensemble docking and virtual high-throughput screening approach, we identified four novel compounds predicted to selectively inhibit FGF-23-induced activation of the FGFR/α-KL complex. Additional modeling and functional analysis found that Zinc13407541 bound to FGF-23 and disrupted its interaction with the FGFR1/α-KL complex; experiments in a heterologous cell expression system showed that Zinc13407541 selectivity inhibited α-KL-dependent FGF-23 signaling. Zinc13407541 also inhibited FGF-23 signaling in isolated renal tubules ex vivo and partially reversed the hypophosphatemic effects of excess FGF-23 in a mouse model. These chemical probes provide a platform to develop lead compounds to treat disorders caused by excess FGF-23.

  6. A computationally identified compound antagonizes excess FGF-23 signaling in renal tubules and a mouse model of hypophosphatemia

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Zhousheng; Riccardi, Demian; Velazquez, Hector A.; ...

    2016-11-22

    Fibroblast growth factor–23 (FGF-23) interacts with a binary receptor complex composed of α-Klotho (α-KL) and FGF receptors (FGFRs) to regulate phosphate and vitamin D metabolism in the kidney. Excess FGF-23 production, which causes hypophosphatemia, is genetically inherited or occurs with chronic kidney disease. Among other symptoms, hypophosphatemia causes vitamin D deficiency and the bone-softening disorder rickets. Current therapeutics that target the receptor complex have limited utility clinically. In this paper, using a computationally driven, structure-based, ensemble docking and virtual high-throughput screening approach, we identified four novel compounds predicted to selectively inhibit FGF-23–induced activation of the FGFR/α-KL complex. Additional modeling andmore » functional analysis found that Zinc13407541 bound to FGF-23 and disrupted its interaction with the FGFR1/α-KL complex; experiments in a heterologous cell expression system showed that Zinc13407541 selectivity inhibited α-KL–dependent FGF-23 signaling. Zinc13407541 also inhibited FGF-23 signaling in isolated renal tubules ex vivo and partially reversed the hypophosphatemic effects of excess FGF-23 in a mouse model. Finally, these chemical probes provide a platform to develop lead compounds to treat disorders caused by excess FGF-23.« less

  7. A computationally identified compound antagonizes excess FGF-23 signaling in renal tubules and a mouse model of hypophosphatemia

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Zhousheng; Riccardi, Demian; Velazquez, Hector A.; Chin, Ai L.; Yates, Charles R.; Carrick, Jesse D.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Baudry, Jerome; Quarles, L. Darryl

    2016-11-22

    Fibroblast growth factor–23 (FGF-23) interacts with a binary receptor complex composed of α-Klotho (α-KL) and FGF receptors (FGFRs) to regulate phosphate and vitamin D metabolism in the kidney. Excess FGF-23 production, which causes hypophosphatemia, is genetically inherited or occurs with chronic kidney disease. Among other symptoms, hypophosphatemia causes vitamin D deficiency and the bone-softening disorder rickets. Current therapeutics that target the receptor complex have limited utility clinically. In this paper, using a computationally driven, structure-based, ensemble docking and virtual high-throughput screening approach, we identified four novel compounds predicted to selectively inhibit FGF-23–induced activation of the FGFR/α-KL complex. Additional modeling and functional analysis found that Zinc13407541 bound to FGF-23 and disrupted its interaction with the FGFR1/α-KL complex; experiments in a heterologous cell expression system showed that Zinc13407541 selectivity inhibited α-KL–dependent FGF-23 signaling. Zinc13407541 also inhibited FGF-23 signaling in isolated renal tubules ex vivo and partially reversed the hypophosphatemic effects of excess FGF-23 in a mouse model. Finally, these chemical probes provide a platform to develop lead compounds to treat disorders caused by excess FGF-23.

  8. The c-Yes tyrosine kinase is a potent suppressor of ES cell differentiation and antagonizes the actions of its closest phylogenetic relative, c-Src

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiong; Meyn, Malcolm A.; Smithgall, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage embryo and are characterized by self-renewal and pluripotency. Previous work has shown that Src-family tyrosine kinases display dynamic expression and activity changes during ES cell differentiation, suggesting distinct functions in the control of developmental fate. Here we used ES cells to test the hypothesis that c-Src and its closest phylogenetic relative, c-Yes, act in biological opposition despite their strong homology. Unlike c-Src, enforced expression of active c-Yes blocked ES cell differentiation to embryoid bodies by maintaining pluripotency gene expression. To explore the interplay of c-Src and c-Yes in ES cell differentiation, we engineered c-Src and c-Yes mutants that are resistant to A-419259, a potent pyrrolopyrimidine inhibitor of the Src kinase family. Previous studies have shown that A-419259 treatment blocks all Src-family kinase activity in ES cells, preventing differentiation while maintaining pluripotency. Expression of inhibitor-resistant c-Src but not c-Yes rescued the A-419259 differentiation block, resulting in a cell population with properties of both primitive ectoderm and endoderm. Remarkably, when inhibitor-resistant c-Src and c-Yes were expressed together in ES cells, c-Yes activity suppressed c-Src mediated differentiation. These studies show that even closely related kinases such as c-Src and c-Yes have unique and opposing functions in the same cell type. Selective agonists or inhibitors of c-Src vs. c-Yes activity may allow more precise pharmacological manipulation of ES cell fate and have broader applications in other biological systems which express multiple Src family members such as tumor cells. PMID:23895624

  9. c-Yes tyrosine kinase is a potent suppressor of ES cell differentiation and antagonizes the actions of its closest phylogenetic relative, c-Src.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiong; Meyn, Malcolm A; Smithgall, Thomas E

    2014-01-17

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage embryo and are characterized by self-renewal and pluripotency. Previous work has shown that Src-family tyrosine kinases display dynamic expression and activity changes during ES cell differentiation, suggesting distinct functions in the control of developmental fate. Here we used ES cells to test the hypothesis that c-Src and its closest phylogenetic relative, c-Yes, act in biological opposition despite their strong homology. Unlike c-Src, enforced expression of active c-Yes blocked ES cell differentiation to embryoid bodies by maintaining pluripotency gene expression. To explore the interplay of c-Src and c-Yes in ES cell differentiation, we engineered c-Src and c-Yes mutants that are resistant to A-419259, a potent pyrrolopyrimidine inhibitor of the Src kinase family. Previous studies have shown that A-419259 treatment blocks all Src-family kinase activity in ES cells, preventing differentiation while maintaining pluripotency. Expression of inhibitor-resistant c-Src but not c-Yes rescued the A-419259 differentiation block, resulting in a cell population with properties of both primitive ectoderm and endoderm. Remarkably, when inhibitor-resistant c-Src and c-Yes were expressed together in ES cells, c-Yes activity suppressed c-Src-mediated differentiation. These studies show that even closely related kinases such as c-Src and c-Yes have unique and opposing functions in the same cell type. Selective agonists or inhibitors of c-Src versus c-Yes activity may allow more precise pharmacological manipulation of ES cell fate and have broader applications in other biological systems that express multiple Src family members such as tumor cells.

  10. Production of recombinant human apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Volynets, Galyna P; Gorbatiuk, Oksana B; Kukharenko, Oleksandr P; Usenko, Mariya O; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M

    2016-10-01

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mediator of the MAPK signaling cascade, which regulates different cellular processes including apoptosis, cell survival, and differentiation. The increased activity of ASK1 is associated with a number of human diseases and this protein kinase is considered as promising therapeutic target. In the present study, the kinase domain of human ASK1 was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) in soluble form. The expression level of ASK1 was around 0.3-0.47 g per 1 L after using auto-induction protocol or IPTG induction. A one-step on column method for the efficient purification of recombinant ASK1 was performed. Our approach yields sufficient amount of recombinant ASK1, which can be used for inhibitor screening assays and different crystallographic studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Receptor kinase complex transmits RALF peptide signal to inhibit root growth in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Changqing; Li, Xiushan; Chen, Jia; Chen, Weijun; Li, Bin; Li, Chiyu; Wang, Long; Li, Jianglin; Zhao, Xiaoying; Lin, Jianzhong; Liu, Xuanming; Luan, Sheng; Yu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A number of hormones work together to control plant cell growth. Rapid Alkalinization Factor 1 (RALF1), a plant-derived small regulatory peptide, inhibits cell elongation through suppression of rhizosphere acidification in plants. Although a receptor-like kinase, FERONIA (FER), has been shown to act as a receptor for RALF1, the signaling mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we identified a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase (RPM1-induced protein kinase, RIPK), a plasma membrane-associated member of the RLCK-VII subfamily, that is recruited to the receptor complex through interacting with FER in response to RALF1. RALF1 triggers the phosphorylation of both FER and RIPK in a mutually dependent manner. Genetic analysis of the fer-4 and ripk mutants reveals RIPK, as well as FER, to be required for RALF1 response in roots. The RALF1–FER–RIPK interactions may thus represent a mechanism for peptide signaling in plants. PMID:27930296

  12. The secret life of kinases: insights into non-catalytic signalling functions from pseudokinases.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Annette V; Murphy, James M

    2017-06-15

    Over the past decade, our understanding of the mechanisms by which pseudokinases, which comprise ∼10% of the human and mouse kinomes, mediate signal transduction has advanced rapidly with increasing structural, biochemical, cellular and genetic studies. Pseudokinases are the catalytically defective counterparts of conventional, active protein kinases and have been attributed functions as protein interaction domains acting variously as allosteric modulators of conventional protein kinases and other enzymes, as regulators of protein trafficking or localisation, as hubs to nucleate assembly of signalling complexes, and as transmembrane effectors of such functions. Here, by categorising mammalian pseudokinases based on their known functions, we illustrate the mechanistic diversity among these proteins, which can be viewed as a window into understanding the non-catalytic functions that can be exerted by conventional protein kinases. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  13. Emerging roles of protein kinase CK2 in abscisic acid signaling

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Belmiro; Pagès, Montserrat; Riera, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many aspects of plant growth and development as well as responses to multiple stresses. Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation or ubiquitination have pivotal roles in the regulation of ABA signaling. In addition to the positive regulator sucrose non-fermenting-1 related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2), the relevance of the role of other protein kinases, such as CK2, has been recently highlighted. We have recently established that CK2 phosphorylates the maize ortholog of open stomata 1 OST1, ZmOST1, suggesting a role of CK2 phosphorylation in the control of ZmOST1 protein degradation (Vilela et al., 2015). CK2 is a pleiotropic enzyme involved in multiple developmental and stress-responsive pathways. This review summarizes recent advances that taken together suggest a prominent role of protein kinase CK2 in ABA signaling and related processes. PMID:26579189

  14. Crosstalk and Signaling Switches in Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Fey, Dirk; Croucher, David R.; Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2012-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades control cell fate decisions, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis by integrating and processing intra- and extracellular cues. However, similar MAPK kinetic profiles can be associated with opposing cellular decisions depending on cell type, signal strength, and dynamics. This implies that signaling by each individual MAPK cascade has to be considered in the context of the entire MAPK network. Here, we develop a dynamic model of feedback and crosstalk for the three major MAPK cascades; extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and also include input from protein kinase B (AKT) signaling. Focusing on the bistable activation characteristics of the JNK pathway, this model explains how pathway crosstalk harmonizes different MAPK responses resulting in pivotal cell fate decisions. We show that JNK can switch from a transient to sustained activity due to multiple positive feedback loops. Once activated, positive feedback locks JNK in a highly active state and promotes cell death. The switch is modulated by the ERK, p38, and AKT pathways. ERK activation enhances the dual specificity phosphatase (DUSP) mediated dephosphorylation of JNK and shifts the threshold of the apoptotic switch to higher inputs. Activation of p38 restores the threshold by inhibiting ERK activity via the PP1 or PP2A phosphatases. Finally, AKT activation inhibits the JNK positive feedback, thus abrogating the apoptotic switch and allowing only proliferative signaling. Our model facilitates understanding of how cancerous deregulations disturb MAPK signal processing and provides explanations for certain drug resistances. We highlight a critical role of DUSP1 and DUSP2 expression patterns in facilitating the switching of JNK activity and show how oncogene induced ERK hyperactivity prevents the normal apoptotic switch explaining the failure of certain drugs to

  15. Emergency Spatiotemporal Shift: The Response of Protein Kinase D to Stress Signals in the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Wood, Brent M; Bossuyt, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Protein Kinase D isoforms (PKD 1-3) are key mediators of neurohormonal, oxidative, and metabolic stress signals. PKDs impact a wide variety of signaling pathways and cellular functions including actin dynamics, vesicle trafficking, cell motility, survival, contractility, energy substrate utilization, and gene transcription. PKD activity is also increasingly linked to cancer, immune regulation, pain modulation, memory, angiogenesis, and cardiovascular disease. This increasing complexity and diversity of PKD function, highlights the importance of tight spatiotemporal control of the kinase via protein-protein interactions, post-translational modifications or targeting via scaffolding proteins. In this review, we focus on the spatiotemporal regulation and effects of PKD signaling in response to neurohormonal, oxidant and metabolic signals that have implications for myocardial disease. Precise targeting of these mechanisms will be crucial in the design of PKD-based therapeutic strategies.

  16. Emergency Spatiotemporal Shift: The Response of Protein Kinase D to Stress Signals in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Brent M.; Bossuyt, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Protein Kinase D isoforms (PKD 1-3) are key mediators of neurohormonal, oxidative, and metabolic stress signals. PKDs impact a wide variety of signaling pathways and cellular functions including actin dynamics, vesicle trafficking, cell motility, survival, contractility, energy substrate utilization, and gene transcription. PKD activity is also increasingly linked to cancer, immune regulation, pain modulation, memory, angiogenesis, and cardiovascular disease. This increasing complexity and diversity of PKD function, highlights the importance of tight spatiotemporal control of the kinase via protein–protein interactions, post-translational modifications or targeting via scaffolding proteins. In this review, we focus on the spatiotemporal regulation and effects of PKD signaling in response to neurohormonal, oxidant and metabolic signals that have implications for myocardial disease. Precise targeting of these mechanisms will be crucial in the design of PKD-based therapeutic strategies. PMID:28174535

  17. Phosphoinositide lipid phosphatases: natural regulators of phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Harris, Stephanie J; Parry, Richard V; Westwick, John; Ward, Stephen G

    2008-02-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway has been implicated in a range of T lymphocyte cellular functions, particularly growth, proliferation, cytokine secretion, and survival. Dysregulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent signaling and function in leukocytes, including B and T lymphocytes, has been implicated in many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. As befits a pivotal signaling cascade, several mechanisms exist to ensure that the pathway is tightly regulated. This minireview focuses on two lipid phosphatases, viz. the 3'-phosphatase PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and SHIP (Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase). We discuss their role in regulating T lymphocyte signaling as well their potential as future therapeutic targets.

  18. Haloperidol and Clozapine Differentially Affect the Expression of Arrestins, Receptor Kinases, and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mohamed Rafiuddin; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.; Dalby, Kevin N.; Benovic, Jeffrey L.; Gurevich, Eugenia V.

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine and other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the major target of antipsychotic drugs. GPCRs undergo desensitization via activation-dependent phosphorylation by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) followed by arrestin binding. Arrestins and GRKs are major regulators of GPCR signaling. We elucidated changes in expression of two arrestins and four GRKs following chronic (21 days) treatment with haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) or clozapine (20 mg/kg i.p.) 2 or 24 h after the last injection in 11 brain regions. Haloperidol decreased GRK3 in ventrolateral caudate-putamen and transiently down-regulated GRK5 in globus pallidus and caudal caudate-putamen. Clozapine also caused a short-term suppression of the GRK5 expression in the caudal caudate-putamen and globus pallidus, but, unlike haloperidol, elevated GRK5 in the caudal caudate-putamen after 24 h. Unlike haloperidol, clozapine decreased arrestin2 and GRK3 in hippocampus and GRK3 in globus pallidus but increased arrestin2 in the core of nucleus accumbens and ventrolateral caudate-putamen and GRK2 in prefrontal cortex. Clozapine, but not haloperidol, induced long-term activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 2 in ventrolateral caudate-putamen and transient in prefrontal cortex. The data demonstrate that haloperidol and clozapine differentially affect the expression of arrestins and GRKs and ERK activity, which may play a role in determining their clinical profile. PMID:18178904

  19. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling – A Proteomic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Biarc, Jordane; Chalkley, Robert J.; Burlingame, A. L.; Bradshaw, Ralph A.

    2011-01-01

    The stimulation of various cellular processes through extracellular signals is of paramount importance in biological systems and is a central focus in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. The information transfer is accomplished in a variety of ways by the interaction of soluble, matrix-associated and cell bound ligands that either bind specifically to plasma membrane-associated proteins that act as receptors, or penetrate to the cytoplasmic/nuclear compartments to bind and activate receptors located there. The former class of entities generates intracellular signals that are transmitted and amplified by chemical modifications that are manifested as protein post-translational modifications (PTMs). These are both reversible and irreversible and range from phosphorylation of tyrosine, threonine and serine residues to endoproteolytic cleavages. Although the PTMs alter the activity and functions of many of the proteins in these cascades, the major outcomes of most of the signaling pathways are the activation/deactivation of transcriptional regulators with the concomitant changes in gene expression that generally underlie biological responses. PMID:21056590

  20. TEC protein tyrosine kinase is involved in the Erk signaling pathway induced by HGF

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Feifei; Jiang, Yinan; Zheng, Qiping; Yang, Xiaoming; Wang, Siying

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} TEC is rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated and activated by HGF-stimulation in vivo or after partial hepatectomy in mice. {yields} TEC enhances the activity of Elk and serum response element (SRE) in HGF signaling pathway in hepatocyte. {yields} TEC promotes hepatocyte proliferation through the Erk-MAPK pathway. -- Abstract: Background/aims: TEC, a member of the TEC family of non-receptor type protein tyrosine kinases, has recently been suggested to play a role in hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration. This study aims to investigate the putative mechanisms of TEC kinase regulation of hepatocyte differentiation, i.e. to explore which signaling pathway TEC is involved in, and how TEC is activated in hepatocyte after hepatectomy and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulation. Methods: We performed immunoprecipitation (IP) and immunoblotting (IB) to examine TEC tyrosine phosphorylation after partial hepatectomy in mice and HGF stimulation in WB F-344 hepatic cells. The TEC kinase activity was determined by in vitro kinase assay. Reporter gene assay, antisense oligonucleotide and TEC dominant negative mutant (TEC{sup KM}) were used to examine the possible signaling pathways in which TEC is involved. The cell proliferation rate was evaluated by {sup 3}H-TdR incorporation. Results: TEC phosphorylation and kinase activity were increased in 1 h after hepatectomy or HGF treatment. TEC enhanced the activity of Elk and serum response element (SRE). Inhibition of MEK1 suppressed TEC phosphorylation. Blocking TEC activity dramatically decreased the activation of Erk. Reduced TEC kinase activity also suppressed the proliferation of WB F-344 cells. These results suggest TEC is involved in the Ras-MAPK pathway and acts between MEK1 and Erk. Conclusions: TEC promotes hepatocyte proliferation and regeneration and is involved in HGF-induced Erk signaling pathway.

  1. ACK1/TNK2 Tyrosine Kinase: Molecular Signaling and Evolving Role in Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Kiran; Mahajan, Nupam P.

    2014-01-01

    Deregulated tyrosine kinase signaling alters cellular homeostasis to drive cancer progression. The emergence of a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, ACK1 as an oncogenic kinase, has uncovered novel mechanisms by which tyrosine kinase signaling promotes cancer progression. While early studies focused on ACK1 (also known as activated Cdc42-associated kinase 1 or TNK2) as a cytosolic effecter of activated transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), wherein it shuttles between the cytosol and the nucleus to rapidly transduce extracellular signals from the RTKs to the intracellular effectors, recent data unfold a new aspect of its functionality as an epigenetic regulator. ACK1 interacts with the Estrogen Receptor (ER)/histone demethylase KDM3A (JHDM2a) complex, modifies KDM3A by tyrosine phosphorylation to regulate transcriptional outcome at HOXA1 locus to promote the growth of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer. It is also well established that ACK1 regulates the activity of Androgen Receptor (AR) by tyrosine phosphorylation to fuel the growth of hormone-refractory prostate cancers. Further, recent explosion in genomic sequencing has revealed recurrent ACK1 gene amplification and somatic mutations in a variety of human malignancies, providing a molecular basis for its role in neoplastic transformation. In this review, we will discuss the various facets of ACK1 signaling, including its newly uncovered epigenetic regulator function, which enables cells to bypass the blockade to major survival pathways to promote resistance to standard cancer treatments. Not surprisingly, cancer cells appear to acquire an `addiction’ to ACK1 mediated survival, particularly under stress conditions, such as growth factor deprivation or genotoxic insults or hormone deprivation. With the accelerated development of potent and selective ACK1 inhibitors, targeted treatment for cancers harboring aberrant ACK1 activity may soon become a clinical reality. PMID:25347744

  2. Cellular context–mediated Akt dynamics regulates MAP kinase signaling thresholds during angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hellesøy, Monica; Lorens, James B.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of new blood vessels by sprouting angiogenesis is tightly regulated by contextual cues that affect angiogeneic growth factor signaling. Both constitutive activation and loss of Akt kinase activity in endothelial cells impair angiogenesis, suggesting that Akt dynamics mediates contextual microenvironmental regulation. We explored the temporal regulation of Akt in endothelial cells during formation of capillary-like networks induced by cell–cell contact with vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and vSMC-associated VEGF. Expression of constitutively active Akt1 strongly inhibited network formation, whereas hemiphosphorylated Akt1 epi-alleles with reduced kinase activity had an intermediate inhibitory effect. Conversely, inhibition of Akt signaling did not affect endothelial cell migration or morphogenesis in vSMC cocultures that generate capillary-like structures. We found that endothelial Akt activity is transiently blocked by proteasomal degradation in the presence of SMCs during the initial phase of capillary-like structure formation. Suppressed Akt activity corresponded to the increased endothelial MAP kinase signaling that was required for angiogenic endothelial morphogenesis. These results reveal a regulatory principle by which cellular context regulates Akt protein dynamics, which determines MAP kinase signaling thresholds necessary drive a morphogenetic program during angiogenesis. PMID:26023089

  3. Identification of Novel Focal Adhesion Kinase Substrates: Role for FAK in NFκB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Sheila Figel; Gao, Lingqiu; Gelman, Irwin H.

    2015-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a major signaling molecule which functions downstream of integrins or in conjunction with mitogenic signaling pathways. FAK is overexpressed and/or activated in many types of human tumors, in which it promotes cell adhesion, survival, migration and invasion. In addition to FAK's ability to regulate signaling through its scaffolding activities, FAK encodes an intrinsic kinase activity. Although some FAK substrates have been identified, a more comprehensive analysis of substrates is lacking. In this study, we use a protein microarray to screen the human proteome for FAK substrates. We confirm that several of the proteins identified are bona fide in vitro FAK substrates, including several factors which are known to regulate the NFκB pathway. Finally, we identify a role for FAK's kinase activity in both canonical and non-canonical NFκB signaling. Our screen therefore represents the first high throughput screen for FAK substrates and provides the basis for future in-depth analysis of the role of FAK's kinase activity in the processes of tumorigenesis. PMID:25798060

  4. Electrochemical detection of protein kinase activity based on carboxypeptidase Y digestion triggered signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huanshun; Wang, Xinxu; Guo, Yunlong; Zhou, Yunlei; Ai, Shiyun

    2015-04-15

    An effective assay method for monitoring protein kinase activity and screening inhibitors is greatly beneficial to kinase-related drug discovery, early diagnosis of diseases, and therapeutic effect evaluation. Herein, we develop a simple electrochemical method for detecting the activity of casein kinase II (CK2) based on phosphorylation against carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) digestion triggered signal amplification, where CK2 catalyzed phosphorylation event protects the substrate peptide from the digestion of CPY, maintains the repulsive force of the substrate peptide towards the redox probe, and results in a weak electrochemical signal. Whereas, without phosphorylation, the substrate peptide is digested by CPY and a strong electrochemical signal is obtained. The detection feasibility is demonstrated for the assay of CK2 activity with low detection limit of 0.047unit/mL. Moreover, the biosensor was used for the analysis of kinase inhibition. Based on the electrochemical signal dependent inhibitor concentration, the IC50 value of ellagic acid was estimated to be 39.77nM. The proposed method is also successfully applied to analyze CK2 activity in cell lysates, proving the applicability in complex biological samples.

  5. Relationship Between Pak-Mediated Cell Death and Stress-Activated Kinase Signaling in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-01

    part of the cell death execution machinery. Here we show that a correlation exists in breast cancer cells between caspase- dependent cleavage of the...inhibits its activity might allow us to specifically inhibit signaling pathways downstream of Pak and evaluate how the cell death process is affected. In...a biochemical approach screening for substrates and possible mediators of cell death signaling components via Pak kinases we identified a guanine

  6. Receptor tyrosine kinase signaling regulates replication of the peste des petits ruminants virus.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, K; Chaubey, K K; Singh, S V; Kumar, N

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we found out that blocking the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling in Vero cells by tryphostin AG879 impairs the in vitro replication of the peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). A reduced virus replication in Trk1-knockdown (siRNA) Vero cells confirmed the essential role of RTK in the virus replication, in particular a specific regulation of viral RNA synthesis. These data represent the first evidence that the RTK signaling regulates replication of a morbillivirus.

  7. NUMB negatively regulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of triple-negative breast cancer by antagonizing Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianchao; Shao, Ximing; Sun, Haiyan; Liu, Ke; Ding, Zhihao; Chen, Juntao; Fang, Lijing; Su, Wu; Hong, Yang; Li, Huashun; Li, Hongchang

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with higher rates of early relapse and metastasis, is frequently associated with aberrant activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Nonetheless, how EMT is initiated and regulated during TNBC progression is not well understood. Here, we report that NUMB is a negative regulator of EMT in both human mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells. Reduced NUMB expression was significantly associated with elevated EMT in TNBC. Conversely, overexpression of NUMB strongly attenuated the EMT program and metastasis of TNBC cell lines. Interestingly, we showed that NUMB employs different molecular mechanisms to regulate EMT. In normal mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells expressing wild-type p53, NUMB suppressed EMT by stabilizing p53. However, in TNBC cells, loss of NUMB facilitated the EMT program by activating Notch signaling. Consistent with these findings, low NUMB expression and high Notch activity were significantly correlated with the TNBC subtype in patients. Collectively, these findings reveal novel molecular mechanisms of NUMB in the regulation of breast tumor EMT, especially in TNBC. PMID:27506933

  8. Mechanisms regulating phosphoinositide 3-kinase signalling in insulin-sensitive tissues.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, P R

    2005-01-01

    A great deal of evidence has accumulated indicating that the activity of PI 3-kinase is necessary, and in some cases sufficient, for a wide range of insulin's actions in the cell. Most biochemical, genetic and pharmacological studies have focused on identifying potential roles for the class-Ia PI 3-kinases which are rapidly activated following insulin stimulation. However, recent evidence indicates the alpha isoform of class-II PI 3-kinase (PI3K-C2alpha) may also play a role as insulin causes a very rapid activation of this as well. The basic mechanisms by which insulin activates the various members of the PI 3-kinase family are increasingly well understood and these studies reveal multiple mechanisms for modulating the activity and functionality of PI 3-kinase and for down regulating the signals they generate. These include inhibitory phosphorylation events, lipid phosphatases such as PTEN and SHIP2 and inhibitor proteins of the suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) family. The current review will focus on these mechanisms and how defects in these might contribute to the development of insulin resistance.

  9. RAS signalling through PI3-Kinase controls cell migration via modulation of Reelin expression

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Esther; Molina-Arcas, Miriam; Krygowska, Agata Adelajda; East, Philip; Warne, Patricia; Nicol, Alastair; Downward, Julian

    2016-01-01

    RAS signalling through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-Kinase) has been shown to have an essential role in tumour initiation and maintenance. RAS also regulates cell motility and tumour invasiveness, but the role of direct RAS binding to PI3-Kinase in this remains uncertain. Here, we provide evidence that disruption of RAS interaction with PI3-Kinase p110α decreases cell motility and prevents activation of Rac GTPase. Analysis of gene expression in cells lacking RAS interaction with p110α reveals increased levels of the extracellular matrix glycoprotein Reelin and activation of its downstream pathway resulting in upregulation of E-cadherin expression. Induction of the Reelin/E-cadherin axis is also observed in Kras mutant lung tumours that are regressing due to blockade of RAS interaction with PI3-Kinase. Furthermore, loss of Reelin correlates with decreased survival of lung and breast cancer patients. Reelin thus plays a role in restraining RAS and PI3-kinase promotion of cell motility and potentially tumour metastasis. PMID:27071537

  10. Designed inhibitor for nuclear localization signal of polo-like kinase 1 induces mitotic arrest.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangjin; Zhuo, Xiaolong; Qin, Tan; Guo, Xiao; Zhang, Chuanmao; Lai, Luhua

    2016-11-24

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a member of polo-like kinase family, regulates multiple essential steps of the cell cycle progression. Plk1 is overexpressed in multiple cancer cell lines and considered to be a prime anticancer target. Plk1 accumulates in the nucleus during S and G2 phases by its bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence, which is crucial for Plk1 regulation during normal cell cycle progression. Here, through combined computational and experimental studies, we identified compound D110, which inhibits Plk1 kinase activity with an IC50 of 85 nm and blocks the nuclear localization of Plk1 during S and G2 phases. D110-treated cancer cells were arrested at mitosis with monopolar spindle, indicating the inhibition of the Plk1 kinase activity in cell. As D110 interacts with both the ATP site and the NLS in Plk1, it demonstrates good selectivity toward Plk2 and Plk3. The strategy of simultaneously inhibiting kinase activity and its subcellular translocations offers a novel approach for selective kinase inhibitor design.

  11. Oncogenic signaling by Kit tyrosine kinase occurs selectively on the Golgi apparatus in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Obata, Y; Horikawa, K; Takahashi, T; Akieda, Y; Tsujimoto, M; Fletcher, J A; Esumi, H; Nishida, T; Abe, R

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are caused by gain-of-function mutations in the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase. Most primary GIST patients respond to the Kit inhibitor imatinib, but this drug often becomes ineffective because of secondary mutations in the Kit kinase domain. The characteristic intracellular accumulation of imatinib-sensitive and -resistant Kit protein is well documented, but its relationship to oncogenic signaling remains unknown. Here, we show that in cancer tissue from primary GIST patients as well as in cell lines, mutant Kit accumulates on the Golgi apparatus, whereas normal Kit localizes to the plasma membrane (PM). In imatinib-resistant GIST with a secondary Kit mutation, Kit localizes predominantly on the Golgi apparatus. Both imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant Kit (Kit(mut)) become fully auto-phosphorylated only on the Golgi and only if in a complex-glycosylated form. Kit(mut) accumulates on the Golgi during the early secretory pathway, but not after endocytosis. The aberrant kinase activity of Kit(mut) prevents its export from the Golgi to the PM. Furthermore, Kit(mut) on the Golgi signals and activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–Akt (PI3K–Akt) pathway, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), and the Mek–Erk pathway. Blocking the biosynthetic transport of Kit(mut) to the Golgi from the endoplasmic reticulum inhibits oncogenic signaling. PM localization of Kit(mut) is not required for its signaling. Activation of Src-family tyrosine kinases on the Golgi is essential for oncogenic Kit signaling. These results suggest that the Golgi apparatus serves as a platform for oncogenic Kit signaling. Our study demonstrates that Kit(mut)’s pathogenicity is related to its mis-localization, and may offer a new strategy for treating imatinib-resistant GISTs. PMID:28192400

  12. Role of Rho kinase signalling in healthy and varicose human saphenous veins

    PubMed Central

    Cario-Toumaniantz, Chrystelle; Evellin, Sandrine; Maury, Séverine; Baron, Olivier; Pacaud, Pierre; Loirand, Gervaise

    2002-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the role of Rho-Rho kinase signalling pathway in smooth muscle cells from both healthy and varicose human saphenous vein. The Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 inhibited the noradrenaline (NA)-induced contraction in human saphenous veins with IC50 corresponding to 0.5 μM and 10.9 μM in control and varicose veins, respectively. The maximal amplitude of the NA-induced contraction was smaller in varicose vein compared to control (1263±172 mg versus 1974±245 mg, P<0.05). In β-escin permeabilized strips, GTPγS induced a rise in tension that was inhibited by Y-27632. The amplitude of the GTPγS-induced contraction was smaller in varicose compared to control veins (23.1±2.4% versus 41.3±2.2%, P<0.002). In smooth muscle cells, Y-27632 induced disassembly of both actin cytoskeleton and extracellular fibronectin matrix. In comparison to control cells, varicose vein smooth muscle cells show decreased actin cytoskeleton organization and reduction of fibronectin matrix deposition. The Rho proteins Rnd1 and RhoA, and Rho kinase 1 are expressed in human saphenous veins. A 2.6 fold reduction of Rho kinase expression was found in varicose veins. These results indicate that RhoA-Rho kinase mediated Ca2+ sensitization of the contraction and regulated actin cytoskeleton and extracellular fibronectin matrix assembly in human saphenous smooth muscle. The decrease of Rho kinase expression and Rho kinase-dependent functions detected in smooth muscle from varicose veins supports a role of this signalling pathway in the functional alterations of the vein wall occurring in the course of the disease. PMID:12208777

  13. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling in tumor cells by small molecule Src family kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bartscht, Tobias; Rosien, Benjamin; Rades, Dirk; Kaufmann, Roland; Biersack, Harald; Lehnerta, Hendrik; Ungefroren, Hendrik

    2017-01-02

    In a series of studies carried out over the last couple of years in various cell types, it was observed that the experimentally used Src family kinase inhibitors PP1 and PP2 and the clinically used Src/Abl inhibitors AZM475271 and dasatinib are potent inhibitors of TGF-β mediated cellular responses such as Smad and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, Smad-dependent transcriptional activation, growth inhibition, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cell motility. While for PP1/PP2 it was demonstrated shown that these agents directly inhibit the kinase activity of the TGF-β type I receptor activin receptor-like kinase 5, the mechanism of the anti-TGF-β effect of AZM475271 and dasatinib is less clear. In contrast, the anti-TGF-β effect of yet another Src/Abl inhibitor, bosutinib, is more variable with respect to the type of the TGF-β response and the cell type affected, and lacks a clear dose-dependency. In the light of their strong anti-activin receptor-like kinase 5 kinase effect, PP1 and PP2 should not be used when studying the role of c-Src as downstream mediators in TGF-β/activin receptor-like kinase 5 signaling. On the other hand, based upon in vitro findings, it is conceivable that part of the therapeutic effects of AZM475271 and dasatinib seen in preclinical and clinical studies with solid tumors was caused by inhibition of prometastatic TGF-β rather than Src signaling. If AZM475271 and dasatinib can indeed act as dual Src / TGF-β inhibitors in vivo, this may be beneficial for prevention of metastatic disease in more advanced tumor stages.

  14. Large-Scale Analysis of Kinase Signaling in Yeast Pseudohyphal Development Identifies Regulation of Ribonucleoprotein Granules.

    PubMed

    Shively, Christian A; Kweon, Hye Kyong; Norman, Kaitlyn L; Mellacheruvu, Dattatreya; Xu, Tao; Sheidy, Daniel T; Dobry, Craig J; Sabath, Ivan; Cosky, Eric E P; Tran, Elizabeth J; Nesvizhskii, Alexey; Andrews, Philip C; Kumar, Anuj

    2015-10-01

    Yeast pseudohyphal filamentation is a stress-responsive growth transition relevant to processes required for virulence in pathogenic fungi. Pseudohyphal growth is controlled through a regulatory network encompassing conserved MAPK (Ste20p, Ste11p, Ste7p, Kss1p, and Fus3p), protein kinase A (Tpk2p), Elm1p, and Snf1p kinase pathways; however, the scope of these pathways is not fully understood. Here, we implemented quantitative phosphoproteomics to identify each of these signaling networks, generating a kinase-dead mutant in filamentous S. cerevisiae and surveying for differential phosphorylation. By this approach, we identified 439 phosphoproteins dependent upon pseudohyphal growth kinases. We report novel phosphorylation sites in 543 peptides, including phosphorylated residues in Ras2p and Flo8p required for wild-type filamentous growth. Phosphoproteins in these kinase signaling networks were enriched for ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granule components, and we observe co-localization of Kss1p, Fus3p, Ste20p, and Tpk2p with the RNP component Igo1p. These kinases localize in puncta with GFP-visualized mRNA, and KSS1 is required for wild-type levels of mRNA localization in RNPs. Kss1p pathway activity is reduced in lsm1Δ/Δ and pat1Δ/Δ strains, and these genes encoding P-body proteins are epistatic to STE7. The P-body protein Dhh1p is also required for hyphal development in Candida albicans. Collectively, this study presents a wealth of data identifying the yeast phosphoproteome in pseudohyphal growth and regulatory interrelationships between pseudohyphal growth kinases and RNPs.

  15. Antagonizing miR-218-5p attenuates Wnt signaling and reduces metastatic bone disease of triple negative breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Taipaleenmäki, Hanna; Farina, Nicholas H.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Stein, Janet L.

    2016-01-01

    Wnt signaling is implicated in bone formation and activated in breast cancer cells promoting primary and metastatic tumor growth. A compelling question is whether osteogenic miRNAs that increase Wnt activity for bone formation are aberrantly expressed in breast tumor cells to support metastatic bone disease. Here we report that miR-218-5p is highly expressed in bone metastases from breast cancer patients, but is not detected in normal mammary epithelial cells. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-218-5p impaired the growth of bone metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells in the bone microenvironment in vivo. These findings indicate a positive role for miR-218-5p in bone metastasis. Bioinformatic and biochemical analyses revealed a positive correlation between aberrant miR-218-5p expression and activation of Wnt signaling in breast cancer cells. Mechanistically, miR-218-5p targets the Wnt inhibitors Sclerostin (SOST) and sFRP-2, which highly enhances Wnt signaling. In contrast, delivery of antimiR-218-5p decreased Wnt activity and the expression of metastasis-related genes, including bone sialoprotein (BSP/IBSP), osteopontin (OPN/SPP1) and CXCR-4, implicating a Wnt/miR-218-5p regulatory network in bone metastatic breast cancer. Furthermore, miR-218-5p also mediates the Wnt-dependent up-regulation of PTHrP, a key cytokine promoting cancer-induced osteolysis. Antagonizing miR-218-5p reduced the expression of PTHrP and Rankl, inhibited osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo, and prevented the development of osteolytic lesions in a preclinical metastasis model. We conclude that pathological elevation of miR-218-5p in breast cancer cells activates Wnt signaling to enhance metastatic properties of breast cancer cells and cancer-induced osteolytic disease, suggesting that miR-218-5p could be an attractive therapeutic target for preventing disease progression. PMID:27738322

  16. Protein Kinase Cι Expression and Oncogenic Signaling Mechanisms in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Nicole R.; Kalari, Krishna R.; Fields, Alan P.

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence demonstrates that PKCι is an oncogene and prognostic marker that is frequently targeted for genetic alteration in many major forms of human cancer. Functional data demonstrate that PKCι is required for the transformed phenotype of NSCLC, pancreatic, ovarian, prostate, colon and brain cancer cells. Future studies will be required to determine whether PKCι is also an oncogene in the many other cancer types that also overexpress PKCι. Studies of PKCι using genetically defined models of tumorigenesis have revealed a critical role for PKCι in multiple stages of tumorigenesis, including tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. Recent studies in a genetic model of lung adenocarcinoma suggest a role for PKCι in transformation of lung cancer stem cells. These studies have important implications for the therapeutic use of aurothiomalate (ATM), a highly selective PKCι signaling inhibitor currently undergoing clinical evaluation. Significant progress has been made in determining the molecular mechanisms by which PKCι drives the transformed phenotype, particularly the central role played by the oncogenic PKCι-Par6 complex in transformed growth and invasion, and of several PKCι-dependent survival pathways in chemo-resistance. Future studies will be required to determine the composition and dynamics of the PKCι-Par6 complex, and the mechanisms by which oncogenic signaling through this complex is regulated. Likewise, a better understanding of the critical downstream effectors of PKCι in various human tumor types holds promise for identifying novel prognostic and surrogate markers of oncogenic PKCι activity that may be clinically useful in ongoing clinical trials of ATM. PMID:20945390

  17. Heartland virus NSs protein disrupts host defenses by blocking the TBK1 kinase-IRF3 transcription factor interaction and signaling required for interferon induction.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yun-Jia; Feng, Kuan; Min, Yuan-Qin; Deng, Fei; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hualin

    2017-10-06

    Heartland virus (HRTV) is a pathogenic phlebovirus related to the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), another phlebovirus causing life-threatening disease in humans. Previous findings have suggested that SFTSV can antagonize the host interferon (IFN) system via viral nonstructural protein (NSs)-mediated sequestration of antiviral signaling proteins into NSs-induced inclusion bodies. However, whether and how HRTV counteracts the host innate immunity is unknown. Here, we report that HRTV NSs (HNSs) also antagonizes IFN and cytokine induction and bolsters viral replication, although no noticeable inclusion body formation was observed in HNSs-expressing cells. Furthermore, HNSs inhibited the virus-triggered activation of IFN-β promoter by specifically targeting the IFN-stimulated response element but not the NF-κB response element. Consistently, HNSs blocked the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3, an IFN-stimulated response element-activating transcription factor). Reporter gene assays next showed that HNSs blockades the antiviral signaling mediated by RIG-I-like receptors likely at the level of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). Indeed, HNSs strongly interacts with TBK1 as indicated by confocal microscopy and pulldown analyses, and we also noted that the scaffold dimerization domain of TBK1 is required for the TBK1-HNSs interaction. Finally, pulldown assays demonstrated that HNSs expression dose-dependently diminishes a TBK1-IRF3 interaction, further explaining the mechanism for HNSs function. Collectively, these data suggest that HNSs, an antagonist of host innate immunity, interacts with TBK1 and thereby hinders the association of TBK1 with its substrate IRF3, thus blocking IRF3 activation and transcriptional induction of the cellular antiviral responses. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Targeting the interaction of Aurora kinases and SIRT1 mediated by Wnt signaling pathway in colorectal cancer: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Subramaniyan, Boopathi; Jagadeesan, Kaviya; Ramakrishnan, Sabitha; Mathan, Ganeshan

    2016-08-01

    The Aurora kinases belong to the family of serine/threonine kinase, a central regulator of mitosis and their expression increased during G2/M phase. It is classified into Aurora A, B and C, each has distinct roles in cellular processes, which includes regulation of spindle assembly, function of centrosomes, cytoskeleton and cytokinesis. During cancer growth, their rapid increase makes most attractive marker for cancer treatment at present. However Aurora A kinase is known to be a marker for cancer therapy, the most important serine/threonine kinase of Aurora B kinase involvement in cancer is still inadequate. Subsequently, the recent findings revealed that the class III histone deacetylase of SIRT1 is a key regulator to activate Aurora kinases from S phase damaged DNA through Wnt signaling pathway. Even if both Aurora A kinase and SIRT1 serve as a marker for cancer therapy, the present review reveals it is interaction in Wnt signaling pathway that solely for colorectal cancer.

  19. Role of STATs as downstream signal transducers in Src family kinase-mediated tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Corinne M

    2004-10-18

    The signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) were originally identified in the signaling pathway activated by the nontyrosine kinase containing cytokine receptors. The role of these STATs in hematopoietic cell signaling has been well described. In the case of cytokine receptors, activation of STAT tyrosine phosphorylation occurs through ligand-induced recruitment, and activation of the intracellular JAK kinases. However, STATs can also be activated by growth factor receptors, particularly the EGFR; as well as by members of the Src Family of Kinases (SFKs), particularly c-Src. In many cases, there is a differential activation of the STATs by these tyrosine kinases as compared to activation by the cytokine receptors. This difference provides for the potential of unique actions of STATs in response to growth factor receptor and SFK activation. Since there are many cancers in which SFKs and c-Src in particular, are co-overexpressed with growth factor receptors, it is not surprising that STATs play an important role in the tumorigenesis process induced by c-Src. The activation paradigm and role of STATs in these cancers, with particular emphasis on breast cancer models, is discussed.

  20. Lovastatin inhibits the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase pathway in immortalized rat brain neuroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cerezo-Guisado, Maria Isabel; GarcíA-Román, Natalia; García-MaríN, Luis Jesús; Álvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Bragado, Maria Julia; Lorenzo, Maria Jesús

    2006-01-01

    We have shown previously that lovastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methyl- glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, induces apoptosis in spontaneously immortalized rat brain neuroblasts. In the present study, we analysed the intracellular signal transduction pathways by which lovastatin induces neuroblast apoptosis. We showed that lovastatin efficiently inhibited Ras activation, which was associ-ated with a significant decrease in ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) phosphorylation. Lovastatin also decreased CREB phosphorylation and CREB-mediated gene expression. The effects of lovastatin on the Ras/ERK1/2/CREB pathway were time- and concentration-dependent and fully prevented by meva-lonate. In addition, we showed that two MEK [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK kinase] inhibitors, PD98059 and PD184352, were poor inducers of apoptosis in serum-treated neuroblasts. However, these inhibitors significantly increased apop-tosis induced by lovastatin treatment. Furthermore, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of both MEK and phosphoinos-itide 3-kinase activities was able to induce neuroblast apoptosis with similar efficacy as lovastatin. Our results suggest that lovast-atin triggers neuroblast apoptosis by regulating several signalling pathways, including the Ras/ERK1/2 pathway. These findings might also contribute to elucidate the intracellular mechanisms involved in the central nervous system side effects associated with statin therapy. PMID:16952276

  1. The receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit controls IL-33 receptor signaling in mast cells.

    PubMed

    Drube, Sebastian; Heink, Sylvia; Walter, Sabine; Löhn, Tobias; Grusser, Mandy; Gerbaulet, Alexander; Berod, Luciana; Schons, Julia; Dudeck, Anne; Freitag, Jenny; Grotha, Stefan; Reich, Daniela; Rudeschko, Olga; Norgauer, Johannes; Hartmann, Karin; Roers, Axel; Kamradt, Thomas

    2010-05-13

    Members of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) family are of importance for host defense and inflammation. Here we report that the TIR-family member interleukin-33R (IL-33R) cross-activates the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit in human and murine mast cells. The IL-33R-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2), protein kinase B (PKB), and Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) depends on c-Kit and is required to elicit optimal effector functions. Costimulation with the c-Kit ligand stem cell factor (SCF) is necessary for IL-33-induced cytokine production in primary mast cells. The structural basis for this cross-activation is the complex formation between c-Kit, IL-33R, and IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP). We found that c-Kit and IL-1RAcP interact constitutively and that IL-33R joins this complex upon ligand binding. Our findings support a model in which signals from seemingly disparate receptors are integrated for full cellular responses.

  2. Cytokine signaling through the novel tyrosine kinase RAFTK in Kaposi's sarcoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Z Y; Ganju, R K; Wang, J F; Ona, M A; Hatch, W C; Zheng, T; Avraham, S; Gill, P; Groopman, J E

    1997-01-01

    A number of cytokines, including basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), oncostatin M (OSM), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), have been postulated to have a role in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The proliferative effects of bFGF and OSM may be via their reported activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in KS cells. We now report that KS cells express a recently identified focal adhesion kinase termed RAFTK which appears in other cell systems to coordinate surface signals between cytokine and integrin receptors and the cytoskeleton as well as act downstream to modulate JNK activation. We also report that the tyrosine kinase receptor FLT-4, present on normal lymphatic endothelium, is robustly expressed in KS cells. Treatment of KS cells with VEGF-related protein (VRP), the ligand for the FLT-4 receptor, as well as with the cytokines bFGF, OSM, IL-6, VEGF, or TNF-alpha resulted in phosphorylation and activation of RAFTK. Following its activation, there was an enhanced association of RAFTK with the cytoskeletal protein paxillin. This association was mediated by the hydrophobic COOH-terminal domain of the kinase. Furthermore, JNK activity was increased in KS cells after VEGF or VRP stimulation. We postulate that in these tumor cells RAFTK may be activated by a diverse group of stimulatory cytokines and facilitate signal transduction to the cytoskeleton and downstream to the growth promoting JNK pathway. PMID:9120025

  3. GTP binding to the ROC domain of DAP-kinase regulates its function through intramolecular signalling.

    PubMed

    Carlessi, Rodrigo; Levin-Salomon, Vered; Ciprut, Sara; Bialik, Shani; Berissi, Hanna; Albeck, Shira; Peleg, Yoav; Kimchi, Adi

    2011-09-01

    Death-associated protein kinase (DAPk) was recently suggested by sequence homology to be a member of the ROCO family of proteins. Here, we show that DAPk has a functional ROC (Ras of complex proteins) domain that mediates homo-oligomerization and GTP binding through a defined P-loop motif. Upon binding to GTP, the ROC domain negatively regulates the catalytic activity of DAPk and its cellular effects. Mechanistically, GTP binding enhances an inhibitory autophosphorylation at a distal site that suppresses kinase activity. This study presents a new mechanism of intramolecular signal transduction, by which GTP binding operates in cis to affect the catalytic activity of a distal domain in the protein.

  4. Functions and Mechanisms of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Torso Signaling: Lessons From Drosophila Embryonic Terminal Development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Willis X.

    2011-01-01

    The Torso receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) is required for cell fate specification in the terminal regions (head and tail) of the early Drosophila embryo. Torso contains a split tyrosine kinase domain and belongs to the type III subgroup of the RTK superfamily that also includes the platelet-derived growth factor receptors, stem cell or steel factor receptor c-Kit proto-oncoprotein, colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. The Torso pathway has been a model system for studying RTK signal transduction. Genetic and biochemical studies of Torso signaling have provided valuable insights into the biological functions and mechanisms of RTK signaling during early Drosophila embryogenesis. PMID:15704136

  5. Methylglyoxal Activates the Target of Rapamycin Complex 2-Protein Kinase C Signaling Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Methylglyoxal is a typical 2-oxoaldehyde derived from glycolysis. We show here that methylglyoxal activates the Pkc1-Mpk1 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade in a target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2)-dependent manner in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that TORC2 phosphorylates Pkc1 at Thr1125 and Ser1143. Methylglyoxal enhanced the phosphorylation of Pkc1 at Ser1143, which transmitted the signal to the downstream Mpk1 MAP kinase cascade. We found that the phosphorylation status of Pkc1T1125 affected the phosphorylation of Pkc1 at Ser1143, in addition to its protein levels. Methylglyoxal activated mammalian TORC2 signaling, which, in turn, phosphorylated Akt at Ser473. Our results suggest that methylglyoxal is a conserved initiator of TORC2 signaling among eukaryotes. PMID:25624345

  6. Mitochondria: a kinase anchoring protein 1, a signaling platform for mitochondrial form and function.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Ronald A; Strack, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Mitochondria are best known for their role as cellular power plants, but they also serve as signaling hubs, regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival. A kinase anchoring protein 1 (AKAP1) is a scaffold protein that recruits protein kinase A (PKA) and other signaling proteins, as well as RNA, to the outer mitochondrial membrane. AKAP1 thereby integrates several second messenger cascades to modulate mitochondrial function and associated physiological and pathophysiological outcomes. Here, we review what is currently known about AKAP1's macromolecular interactions in health and disease states, including obesity. We also discuss dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), the enzyme that catalyzes mitochondrial fission, as one of the key substrates of the PKA/AKAP1 signaling complex in neurons. Recent evidence suggests that AKAP1 has critical roles in neuronal development and survival, which are mediated by inhibitory phosphorylation of Drp1 and maintenance of mitochondrial integrity.

  7. Methylglyoxal activates the target of rapamycin complex 2-protein kinase C signaling pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Wataru; Inoue, Yoshiharu

    2015-04-01

    Methylglyoxal is a typical 2-oxoaldehyde derived from glycolysis. We show here that methylglyoxal activates the Pkc1-Mpk1 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade in a target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2)-dependent manner in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that TORC2 phosphorylates Pkc1 at Thr(1125) and Ser(1143). Methylglyoxal enhanced the phosphorylation of Pkc1 at Ser(1143), which transmitted the signal to the downstream Mpk1 MAP kinase cascade. We found that the phosphorylation status of Pkc1(T1125) affected the phosphorylation of Pkc1 at Ser(1143), in addition to its protein levels. Methylglyoxal activated mammalian TORC2 signaling, which, in turn, phosphorylated Akt at Ser(473). Our results suggest that methylglyoxal is a conserved initiator of TORC2 signaling among eukaryotes.

  8. Ethanol activates midkine and anaplastic lymphoma kinase signaling in neuroblastoma cells and in the brain.

    PubMed

    He, Donghong; Chen, Hu; Muramatsu, Hisako; Lasek, Amy W

    2015-11-01

    Alcohol engages signaling pathways in the brain. Midkine (MDK) is a neurotrophic factor that is over-expressed in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics. MDK and one of its receptors, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), also regulate behavioral responses to ethanol in mice. The goal of this study was to determine whether MDK and ALK expression and signaling are activated by ethanol. We found that ethanol treatment of neuroblastoma cells increased MDK and ALK expression. We also assessed activation of ALK by ethanol in cells and found that ALK and ALK-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation increased rapidly with ethanol exposure. Similarly, treatment of cells with recombinant MDK protein increased ALK, ERK and STAT3 phosphorylation, suggesting that ethanol may utilize MDK to activate ALK signaling. In support of this, transfection of cells with MDK siRNAs attenuated ALK signaling in response to ethanol. Ethanol also activates ERK signaling in the brain. We found that inhibition of ALK or knockout of MDK attenuated ethanol-induced ERK phosphorylation in mouse amygdala. These results demonstrate that ethanol engages MDK and ALK signaling, which has important consequences for alcohol-induced neurotoxicity and the regulation of behaviors related to alcohol abuse.

  9. The forced swimming-induced behavioural immobility response involves histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction in dentate gyrus granule neurons via activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen- and stress-activated kinase signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chandramohan, Yalini; Droste, Susanne K; Arthur, J Simon C; Reul, Johannes M H M

    2008-05-01

    The hippocampus is involved in learning and memory. Previously, we have shown that the acquisition of the behavioural immobility response after a forced swim experience is associated with chromatin modifications and transcriptional induction in dentate gyrus granule neurons. Given that both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 signalling pathway are involved in neuroplasticity processes underlying learning and memory, we investigated in rats and mice whether these signalling pathways regulate chromatin modifications and transcriptional events participating in the acquisition of the immobility response. We found that: (i) forced swimming evoked a transient increase in the number of phospho-acetylated histone H3-positive [P(Ser10)-Ac(Lys14)-H3(+)] neurons specifically in the middle and superficial aspects of the dentate gyrus granule cell layer; (ii) antagonism of NMDA receptors and inhibition of ERK1/2 signalling blocked forced swimming-induced histone H3 phospho-acetylation and the acquisition of the behavioural immobility response; (iii) double knockout (DKO) of the histone H3 kinase mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK) 1/2 in mice completely abolished the forced swimming-induced increases in histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction in dentate granule neurons and the behavioural immobility response; (iv) blocking mineralocorticoid receptors, known not to be involved in behavioural immobility in the forced swim test, did not affect forced swimming-evoked histone H3 phospho-acetylation in dentate neurons; and (v) the pharmacological manipulations and gene deletions did not affect behaviour in the initial forced swim test. We conclude that the forced swimming-induced behavioural immobility response requires histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction in distinct dentate granule neurons through recruitment of the NMDA/ERK/MSK 1/2 pathway.

  10. Isoform-selective phosphoinositide 3'-kinase inhibitors inhibit CXCR4 signaling and overcome stromal cell-mediated drug resistance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a novel therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Niedermeier, Matthias; Hennessy, Bryan T; Knight, Zachary A; Henneberg, Marina; Hu, Jianhua; Kurtova, Antonina V; Wierda, William G; Keating, Michael J; Shokat, Kevan M; Burger, Jan A

    2009-05-28

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are among the most frequently activated signaling pathways in cancer. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), signals from the microenvironment are critical for expansion of the malignant B cells, and cause constitutive activation of PI3Ks. CXCR4 is a key receptor for CLL cell migration and adhesion to marrow stromal cells (MSCs). Because of the importance of CXCR4 and PI3Ks for CLL-microenvironment cross-talk, we investigated the activity of novel, isoform-selective PI3K inhibitors that target different isoforms of the p110-kDa subunit. Inhibition with p110alpha inhibitors (PIK-90 and PI-103) resulted in a significant reduction of chemotaxis and actin polymerization to CXCL12 and reduced migration beneath MSC (pseudoemperipolesis). Western blot and reverse phase protein array analyses consistently demonstrated that PIK-90 and PI-103 inhibited phosphorylation of Akt and S6, whereas p110delta or p110beta/p110delta inhibitors were less effective. In suspension and MSC cocultures, PI-103 and PIK-90 were potent inducers of CLL cell apoptosis. Moreover, these p110alpha inhibitors enhanced the cytotoxicity of fludarabine and reversed the protective effect of MSC on fludarabine-induced apoptosis. Collectively, our data demonstrate that p110alpha inhibitors antagonize stromal cell-derived migration, survival, and drug-resistance signals and therefore provide a rational to explore the therapeutic activity of these promising agents in CLL.

  11. Nucleostemin Rejuvenates Cardiac Progenitor Cells and Antagonizes Myocardial Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hariharan, Nirmala; Quijada, Pearl; Mohsin, Sadia; Joyo, Anya; Samse, Kaitlen; Monsanto, Megan; De La Torre, Andrea; Avitabile, Daniele; Ormachea, Lucia; McGregor, Michael J.; Tsai, Emily J; Sussman, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Functional decline in stem cell-mediated regeneration contributes to aging associated with cellular senescence in c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). Clinical implementation of CPC-based therapy with elderly patients would benefit tremendously from understanding molecular characteristics of senescence to antagonize aging. Nucleostemin (NS) is a nucleolar protein regulating stem cell proliferation and pluripotency. OBJECTIVES The goal is to demonstrate that NS preserves characteristics associated with “stemness” in CPCs and antagonizes myocardial senescence and aging. METHODS CPCs isolated from human fetal (FhCPC) and adult failing (AhCPC) hearts, as well as young (YCPC) and old mice (OCPC), were studied for senescence characteristics and NS expression. Heterozygous knockout mice with one functional allele of NS (NS+/−) were used to demonstrate that NS preserves myocardial structure and function and slows characteristics of aging. RESULTS NS expression is decreased in AhCPCs relative to FhCPC, correlating with lowered proliferation potential and shortened telomere length. AhCPC characteristics resemble OCPCs, which have a phenotype induced by NS silencing, resulting in cell flattening, senescence, multinucleated cells, decreased S phase progression, diminished expression of stemness markers and up-regulation of p53 and p16. CPC senescence resulting from NS loss is partially p53 dependent and is rescued by concurrent silencing of p53. Mechanistically, NS induction correlates with Pim-1 kinase-mediated stabilization of c-Myc. Engineering OCPCs and AhCPCs to overexpress NS decreases senescent and multinucleated cells, restores morphology, and antagonizes senescence, thereby preserving phenotypic properties of “stemness.” Early cardiac aging with decline in cardiac function, increase in senescence markers p53 and p16, telomere attrition, and accompanied CPC exhaustion is evident in NS+/− mice. CONCLUSIONS Youthful properties and antagonism of

  12. The Antiviral Alkaloid Berberine Reduces Chikungunya Virus-Induced Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Finny S; Thaa, Bastian; Amrun, Siti Naqiah; Simarmata, Diane; Rausalu, Kai; Nyman, Tuula A; Merits, Andres; McInerney, Gerald M; Ng, Lisa F P; Ahola, Tero

    2016-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has infected millions of people in the tropical and subtropical regions since its reemergence in the last decade. We recently identified the nontoxic plant alkaloid berberine as an antiviral substance against CHIKV in a high-throughput screen. Here, we show that berberine is effective in multiple cell types against a variety of CHIKV strains, also at a high multiplicity of infection, consolidating the potential of berberine as an antiviral drug. We excluded any effect of this compound on virus entry or on the activity of the viral replicase. A human phosphokinase array revealed that CHIKV infection specifically activated the major mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Upon treatment with berberine, this virus-induced MAPK activation was markedly reduced. Subsequent analyses with specific inhibitors of these kinases indicated that the ERK and JNK signaling cascades are important for the generation of progeny virions. In contrast to specific MAPK inhibitors, berberine lowered virus-induced activation of all major MAPK pathways and resulted in a stronger reduction in viral titers. Further, we assessed the in vivo efficacy of berberine in a mouse model and measured a significant reduction of CHIKV-induced inflammatory disease. In summary, we demonstrate the efficacy of berberine as a drug against CHIKV and highlight the importance of the MAPK signaling pathways in the alphavirus infectious cycle. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that causes severe and persistent muscle and joint pain and has recently spread to the Americas. No licensed drug exists to counter this virus. In this study, we report that the alkaloid berberine is antiviral against different CHIKV strains and in multiple human cell lines. We demonstrate that berberine collectively reduced the virus-induced activation of cellular mitogen-activated protein kinase

  13. Regulation and function of syk tyrosine kinase in mast cell signaling and beyond.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Rodrigo Orlandini

    2011-01-01

    The protein tyrosine kinase Syk plays a critical role in FcεRI signaling in mast cells. Binding of Syk to phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (p-ITAM) of the receptor subunits results in conformational changes and tyrosine phosphorylation at multiple sites that leads to activation of Syk. The phosphorylated tyrosines throughout the molecule play an important role in the regulation of Syk-mediated signaling. Reconstitution of receptor-mediated signaling in Syk(-/-) cells by wild-type Syk or mutants which have substitution of these tyrosines with phenylalanine together with in vitro assays has been useful strategies to understand the regulation and function of Syk.

  14. Cytoplasmic signalling by the c-Abl tyrosine kinase in normal and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sirvent, Audrey; Benistant, Christine; Roche, Serge

    2008-11-01

    c-Abl is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase which is localized both in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and is involved in the regulation of cell growth, survival and morphogenesis. Although c-Abl nuclear function has been extensively studied, recent data also indicate an important role in cytoplasmic signalling through mitogenic and adhesive receptors. Here, we review the mechanisms by which growth factors promote cytoplasmic c-Abl activation and signalling and its function in the induction of DNA synthesis, changes in cell morphology and receptor endocytosis. The importance of de-regulated c-Abl cytoplasmic signalling in solid tumours is also discussed.

  15. The Potential for Signal Integration and Processing in Interacting Map Kinase Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Schwacke, John H.; Voit, Eberhard O.

    2009-01-01

    The cellular response to environmental stimuli requires biochemical information processing through which sensory inputs and cellular status are integrated and translated into appropriate responses by way of interacting networks of enzymes. One such network, the Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) kinase cascade is a highly conserved signal transduction module that propagates signals from cell surface receptors to various cytosolic and nuclear targets by way of a phosphorylation cascade. We have investigated the potential for signal processing within a network of interacting feed-forward kinase cascades typified by the MAP kinase cascade. A genetic algorithm was used to search for sets of kinetic parameters demonstrating representative key input-output patterns of interest. We discuss two of the networks identified in our study, one implementing the exclusive-or function (XOR) and another implementing what we refer to as an in-band detector (IBD) or two-sided threshold. These examples confirm the potential for logic and amplitude-dependent signal processing in interacting MAP kinase cascades demonstrating limited cross-talk. Specifically, the XOR function allows the network to respond to either one, but not both signals simultaneously, while the IBD permits the network to respond exclusively to signals within a given range of strength, and to suppress signals below as well as above this range. The solution to the XOR problem is interesting in that it requires only two interacting pathways, crosstalk at only one layer, and no feedback or explicit inhibition. These types of responses are not only biologically relevant but constitute signal processing modules that can be combined to create other logical functions and that, in contrast to amplification, cannot be achieved with a single cascade or with two non-interacting cascades. Our computational results revealed surprising similarities between experimental data describing the JNK/MKK4/MKK7 pathway and the solution for

  16. Kinase signalling pathways in endometriosis: potential targets for non-hormonal therapeutics.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Brett D; Kocbek, Vida; Nirgianakis, Kostantinos; Bersinger, Nick A; Mueller, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Endometriosis, the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, is associated with chronic pelvic pain, subfertility and an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Current treatments include the surgical removal of the lesions or the induction of a hypoestrogenic state. However, a reappearance of the lesion after surgery is common and a hypoestrogenic state is less than optimal for women of reproductive age. Additional approaches are required. Endometriosis lesions exist in a unique microenvironment characterized by increased concentrations of hormones, inflammation, oxidative stress and iron. This environment influences cell survival through the binding of membrane receptors and a subsequent cascading activation of intracellular kinases that stimulate a cellular response. Many of these kinase signalling pathways are constitutively activated in endometriosis. These pathways are being investigated as therapeutic targets in other diseases and thus may also represent a target for endometriosis treatment. To identify relevant English language studies published up to 2015 on kinase signalling pathways in endometriosis, we searched the Pubmed database using the following search terms in various combinations; 'endometriosis', 'inflammation', 'oxidative stress', 'iron', 'kinase', 'NF kappa', 'mTOR', 'MAPK' 'p38', 'JNK', 'ERK' 'estrogen' and progesterone'. Further citing references were identified using the Scopus database and finally current clinical trials were searched on the clinicaltrials.gov trial registry. The current literature on intracellular kinases activated by the endometriotic environment can be summarized into three main pathways that could be targeted for treatments: the canonical IKKβ/NFκB pathway, the MAPK pathways (ERK1/2, p38 and JNK) and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. A number of pharmaceutical compounds that target these pathways have been successfully trialled in in vitro and animal models of endometriosis, although they have not yet proceeded to

  17. Targeting of a novel Ca+2/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is essential for extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated signaling in differentiated smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Marganski, William A; Gangopadhyay, Samudra S; Je, Hyun-Dong; Gallant, Cynthia; Morgan, Kathleen G

    2005-09-16

    Subcellular targeting of kinases controls their activation and access to substrates. Although Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is known to regulate differentiated smooth muscle cell (dSMC) contractility, the importance of targeting in this regulation is not clear. The present study investigated the function in dSMCs of a novel variant of the gamma isoform of CaMKII that contains a potential targeting sequence in its association domain (CaMKIIgamma G-2). Antisense knockdown of CaMKIIgamma G-2 inhibited extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) activation, myosin phosphorylation, and contractile force in dSMCs. Confocal colocalization analysis revealed that in unstimulated dSMCs CaMKIIgamma G-2 is bound to a cytoskeletal scaffold consisting of interconnected vimentin intermediate filaments and cytosolic dense bodies. On activation with a depolarizing stimulus, CaMKIIgamma G-2 is released into the cytosol and subsequently targeted to cortical dense plaques. Comparison of phosphorylation and translocation time courses indicates that, after CaMKIIgamma G-2 activation, and before CaMKIIgamma G-2 translocation, vimentin is phosphorylated at a CaMKII-specific site. Differential centrifugation demonstrated that phosphorylation of vimentin in dSMCs is not sufficient to cause its disassembly, in contrast to results in cultured cells. Loading dSMCs with a decoy peptide containing the polyproline sequence within the association domain of CaMKIIgamma G-2 inhibited targeting. Furthermore, prevention of CaMKIIgamma G-2 targeting led to significant inhibition of ERK activation as well as contractility. Thus, for the first time, this study demonstrates the importance of CaMKII targeting in dSMC signaling and identifies a novel targeting function for the association domain in addition to its known role in oligomerization.

  18. Phenotypic spandrel: absolute discrimination and ligand antagonism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, Paul; Hemery, Mathieu; Johnson, Kyle A.; Saunders, Laura N.

    2016-12-01

    We consider the general problem of sensitive and specific discrimination between biochemical species. An important instance is immune discrimination between self and not-self, where it is also observed experimentally that ligands just below the discrimination threshold negatively impact response, a phenomenon called antagonism. We characterize mathematically the generic properties of such discrimination, first relating it to biochemical adaptation. Then, based on basic biochemical rules, we establish that, surprisingly, antagonism is a generic consequence of any strictly specific discrimination made independently from ligand concentration. Thus antagonism constitutes a ‘phenotypic spandrel’: a phenotype existing as a necessary by-product of another phenotype. We exhibit a simple analytic model of discrimination displaying antagonism, where antagonism strength is linear in distance from the detection threshold. This contrasts with traditional proofreading based models where antagonism vanishes far from threshold and thus displays an inverted hierarchy of antagonism compared to simpler models. The phenotypic spandrel studied here is expected to structure many decision pathways such as immune detection mediated by TCRs and FCɛRIs, as well as endocrine signalling/disruption.

  19. The tomato kinome and the tomato kinase library ORFeome: novel resources for the study of kinases and signal transduction in tomato and solanaceae species.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra K; Calviño, Mauricio; Brauer, Elizabeth K; Fernandez-Pozo, Noe; Strickler, Susan; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aoki, Koh; Shibata, Daisuke; Stratmann, Johannes W; Popescu, George V; Mueller, Lukas A; Popescu, Sorina C

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase-driven phosphorylation constitutes the core of cellular signaling. Kinase components of signal transduction pathways are often targeted for inactivation by pathogens. The study of kinases and immune signal transduction in the model crop tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) would benefit from the availability of community-wide resources for large scale and systems-level experimentation. Here, we defined the tomato kinome and performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of the tomato kinome and 15 other plant species. We constructed a tomato kinase library (TOKN 1.0) of over 300 full-length open reading frames (ORF) cloned into a recombination-based vector. We developed a high-throughput pipeline to isolate and transform tomato protoplasts. A subset of the TOKN 1.0 library kinases were expressed in planta, were purified, and were used to generate a functional tomato protein microarray. All resources created were utilized to test known and novel associations between tomato kinases and Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 effectors in a large-scale format. Bsk7 was identified as a component of the plant immune response and a candidate effector target. These resources will enable comprehensive investigations of signaling pathways and host-pathogen interactions in tomato and other Solanaceae spp.

  20. Nobiletin induces inhibitions of Ras activity and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling to suppress cell proliferation in C6 rat glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Koichi; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Fukunaga, Kohji; Yamakuni, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    Ras, a small G-protein, physiologically directs cell proliferation and cell cycle via regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade. Dysregulation of Ras/MEK/ERK signaling has been reported to cause tumorigenesis and gliomas. Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid, has been shown to have anti-tumor cells action. However, it remains elusive whether nobiletin could affect Ras activity. In this study, we provide the first evidence that nobiletin suppresses the proliferation by inhibiting Ras activity in C6 glioma cells, a rat glioma cell line. First, Ras pull-down assay showed that nobiletin inhibits Ras activity in a concentration-dependent manner in C6 cells. Second, farnesyltransferase inhibitor I, a Ras inhibitor, and U0126, a MEK inhibitor, induced an inhibition of the cell proliferation in C6 cells, while the cell proliferation was inhibited by nobiletin as well. Third, western blotting revealed that nobiletin showed inhibitory effects on MEK and ERK phopsphorylation levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Finally, such an inhibitory effect on the level of ERK phosphorylation by nobiletin was appreciably prevented by Gö6976, a selective inhibitor of conventional protein kinase Cs (PKCs) showing Ca(2+)-sensitivity, while GF109203X, a general inhibitor for PKCs, and BAPTA, a cell-permeable Ca(2+) chelator, to a lesser extent, suppressed a reduction of the phosphorylation. These findings suggest that the proliferation of C6 cells is Ras- and MEK/ERK signaling-dependent, and that nobiletin suppresses the cell proliferation by inhibiting Ras activity and MEK/ERK signaling cascade probably via a Ca(2+)-sensitive PKC-dependent mechanism. Thus, the natural compound has potential to be a therapeutic agent for glioma.

  1. The assembly of a GTPase–kinase signalling complex by a bacterial catalytic scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Selyunin, Andrey S.; Sutton, Sarah E.; Weigele, Bethany A.; Reddick, L. Evan; Orchard, Robert C.; Bresson, Stefan M.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Alto, Neal M.

    2011-01-01

    The fidelity and specificity of information flow within a cell is controlled by scaffolding proteins that assemble and link enzymes into signalling circuits1,2. These circuits can be inhibited by bacterial effector proteins that post-translationally modify individual pathway components3–6. However, there is emerging evidence that pathogens directly organize higher-order signalling networks through enzyme scaffolding7,8, and the identity of the effectors and their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Here we identify the enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 type III effector EspG as a regulator of endomembrane trafficking using a functional screen, and report ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases and p21-activated kinases (PAKs) as its relevant host substrates. The 2.5 Å crystal structure of EspG in complex with ARF6 shows how EspG blocks GTPase-activating-protein-assisted GTP hydrolysis, revealing a potent mechanism of GTPase signalling inhibition at organelle membranes. In addition, the 2.8 Å crystal structure of EspG in complex with the autoinhibitory Iα3-helix of PAK2 defines a previously unknown catalytic site in EspG and provides an allosteric mechanism of kinase activation by a bacterial effector. Unexpectedly, ARF and PAKs are organized on adjacent surfaces of EspG, indicating its role as a ‘catalytic scaffold’ that effectively reprograms cellular events through the functional assembly of GTPase-kinase signalling complex. PMID:21170023

  2. Signaling pathway adaptations and novel protein kinase A substrates related to behavioral sensitization to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Amy C; Ferrario, Carrie R; Glucksman, Marc J; Wolf, Marina E

    2009-07-01

    Behavioral sensitization is an animal model for aspects of cocaine addiction. Cocaine-sensitized rats exhibit increased AMPA receptor (AMPAR) surface expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) which may in turn enhance drug seeking. To identify signaling pathways contributing to AMPAR up-regulation, we measured AMPAR surface expression and signaling pathway activation in the NAc of cocaine-sensitized rats, cocaine-exposed rats that failed to sensitize and saline controls on withdrawal days (WD) 1, 7, and 21. We focused on calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), and protein kinase A (PKA). In sensitized rats, AMPAR surface expression was elevated on WD7 and WD21 but not WD1. ERK2 activation followed a parallel time-course, suggesting a role in AMPAR up-regulation. Both sensitized and non-sensitized rats exhibited CaMKII activation on WD7, suggesting that CaMKII activation is not sufficient for AMPAR up-regulation. PKA phosphorylation, measured using an antibody recognizing phosphorylated PKA substrates, increased gradually over withdrawal in sensitized rats, from below control levels on WD1 to significantly greater than controls on WD21. Using proteomics, novel sensitization-related PKA substrates were identified, including two structural proteins (CRMP-2 and alpha-tubulin) that we speculate may link PKA signaling to previously reported dendritic remodeling in NAc neurons of cocaine-sensitized rats.

  3. The lipid kinase PIP5K1C regulates pain signaling and sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Brittany D.; Loo, Lipin; Street, Sarah E.; Ma, Anqi; Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Stashko, Michael A.; Jin, Jian; Janzen, William P.; Frye, Stephen V.; Zylka, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Numerous pain-producing (pronociceptive) receptors signal via phosphatidylinositol 4,5- bisphosphate (PIP2) hydrolysis. However, it is currently unknown which lipid kinases generate PIP2 in nociceptive dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and if these kinases regulate pronociceptive receptor signaling. Here, we found that phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5 kinase type 1C (PIP5K1C) is expressed at higher levels than any other PIP5K and, based on experiments with Pip5k1c+/− mice, generates at least half of all PIP2 in DRG neurons. Additionally, Pip5k1c haploinsufficiency reduces pronociceptive receptor signaling and TRPV1 sensitization in DRG neurons as well as thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in mouse models of chronic pain. We identified a novel small molecule inhibitor of PIP5K1C (UNC3230) in a high-throughput screen. UNC3230 lowered PIP2 levels in DRG neurons and attenuated hypersensitivity when administered intrathecally or into the hindpaw. Our studies reveal that PIP5K1C regulates PIP2- dependent nociceptive signaling and suggest that PIP5K1C is a novel therapeutic target for chronic pain. PMID:24853942

  4. Kinase suppressor of Ras1 compartmentalizes hippocampal signal transduction and subserves synaptic plasticity and memory formation.

    PubMed

    Shalin, Sara C; Hernandez, Caterina M; Dougherty, Michele K; Morrison, Deborah K; Sweatt, J David

    2006-06-01

    The ERK/MAP kinase cascade is important for long-term memory formation and synaptic plasticity, with a myriad of upstream signals converging upon ERK activation. Despite this convergence of signaling, neurons routinely activate appropriate biological responses to different stimuli. Scaffolding proteins represent a mechanism to achieve compartmentalization of signaling and the appropriate targeting of ERK-dependent processes. We report that kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR1) functions biochemically in the hippocampus to scaffold the components of the ERK cascade, specifically regulating the cascade when a membrane fraction of ERK is activated via a PKC-dependent pathway but not via a cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway. Specificity of KSR1-dependent signaling also extends to specific downstream targets of ERK. Behaviorally and physiologically, we found that the absence of KSR1 leads to deficits in associative learning and theta burst stimulation-induced LTP. Our report provides novel insight into the endogenous scaffolding role of KSR1 in controlling kinase activation within the nervous system.

  5. Emdogain-regulated gene expression in palatal fibroblasts requires TGF-βRI kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Stähli, Alexandra; Bosshardt, Dieter; Sculean, Anton; Gruber, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide microarrays have suggested that Emdogain regulates TGF-β target genes in gingival and palatal fibroblasts. However, definitive support for this contention and the extent to which TGF-β signaling contributes to the effects of Emdogain has remained elusive. We therefore studied the role of the TGF-β receptor I (TGF-βRI) kinase to mediate the effect of Emdogain on palatal fibroblasts. Palatal fibroblasts were exposed to Emdogain with and without the inhibitor for TGF-βRI kinase, SB431542. Emdogain caused 39 coding genes to be differentially expressed in palatal fibroblasts by microarray analysis (p<0.05; >10-fold). Importantly, in the presence of the TGF-βRI kinase inhibitor SB431542, Emdogain failed to cause any significant changes in gene expression. Consistent with this mechanism, three independent TGF-βRI kinase inhibitors and a TGF-β neutralizing antibody abrogated the increased expression of IL-11, a selected Emdogain target gene. The MAPK inhibitors SB203580 and U0126 lowered the impact of Emdogain on IL-11 expression. The data support that TGF-βRI kinase activity is necessary to mediate the effects of Emdogain on gene expression in vitro.

  6. Expression and activation of platelet-derived growth factor β receptor, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Altamura, Gennaro; Uberti, Barbara Degli; Galiero, Giorgio; Martano, Manuela; Pirro, Antonella; Russo, Marco; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    Canine mammary tumours are frequent neoplasms mostly affecting intact female dogs, for which no 100% efficient therapy is available. Platelet derived growth factor β receptor (PDGFβR) is a tyrosine kinase receptor (TKR) with a potential role in human breast cancer and a series of canine tumours. In this study we demonstrated, for the first time, expression of PDGFβR and its downstream transduction molecules, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), as well as their activated forms in canine mammary tumours by both biochemical analysis and immunohistochemistry. PDGFβR was expressed and hyperphosphorylated in the majority of tumour samples and tumour derived cell lines. Additionally, both MEK and ERK were expressed and activated in cell lines as well as biopsies. TKR inhibitors (TKRi) are currently under investigation as possible therapy in human breast and several canine tumours, thus our in vivo and in vitro findings pave the way for future studies aimed at establishing a potential therapeutic employment of TKRi for the treatment of canine mammary cancer.

  7. CNK and HYP form a discrete dimer by their SAM domains to mediate RAF kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Rajakulendran, Thanashan; Sahmi, Malha; Kurinov, Igor; Tyers, Mike; Therrien, Marc; Sicheri, Frank

    2008-02-26

    RAF kinase functions in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway to transmit growth signals to the downstream kinases MEK and ERK. Activation of RAF catalytic activity is facilitated by a regulatory complex comprising the proteins CNK (Connector enhancer of KSR), HYP (Hyphen), and KSR (Kinase Suppressor of Ras). The sterile alpha-motif (SAM) domain found in both CNK and HYP plays an essential role in complex formation. Here, we have determined the x-ray crystal structure of the SAM domain of CNK in complex with the SAM domain of HYP. The structure reveals a single-junction SAM domain dimer of 1:1 stoichiometry in which the binding mode is a variation of polymeric SAM domain interactions. Through in vitro and in vivo mutational analyses, we show that the specific mode of dimerization revealed by the crystal structure is essential for RAF signaling and facilitates the recruitment of KSR to form the CNK/HYP/KSR regulatory complex. We present two docking-site models to account for how SAM domain dimerization might influence the formation of a higher-order CNK/HYP/KSR complex.

  8. Interactions and phosphorylation of postsynaptic density 93 (PSD-93) by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK).

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming-Lei; Xue, Bing; Jin, Dao-Zhong; Mao, Li-Min; Wang, John Q

    2012-07-17

    Postsynaptic density 93 (PSD-93) is a protein enriched at postsynaptic sites. As a key scaffolding protein, PSD-93 forms complexes with the clustering of various synaptic proteins to construct postsynaptic signaling networks and control synaptic transmission. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is a prototypic member of a serine/threonine protein kinase family known as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). This kinase, especially ERK2 isoform, noticeably resides in peripheral structures of neurons, such as dendritic spines and postsynaptic density areas, in addition to its distribution in the cytoplasm and nucleus, although little is known about specific substrates of ERK at synaptic sites. In this study, we found that synaptic PSD-93 is a direct target of ERK. This was demonstrated by direct protein-protein interactions between purified ERK2 and PSD-93 in vitro. The accurate ERK2-binding region seems to locate at an N-terminal region of PSD-93. In adult rat striatal neurons in vivo, native ERK from synaptosomal fractions also associated with PSD-93. In phosphorylation assays, active ERK2 phosphorylated PSD-93. An accurate phosphorylation site was identified at a serine site (S323). In striatal neurons, immunoprecipitated PSD-93 showed basal phosphorylation at an ERK-sensitive site. Our data provide evidence supporting PSD-93 as a new substrate of the synaptic species of ERK. ERK2 possesses the ability to interact with PSD-93 and phosphorylate PSD-93 at a specific site. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Human CD180 Transmits Signals via the PIM-1L Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Egli, Nicole; Zajonz, Alexandra; Burger, Matthew T.; Schweighoffer, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important sensors of the innate immune system that recognize conserved structural motifs and activate cells via a downstream signaling cascade. The CD180/MD1 molecular complex is an unusual member of the TLR family, since it lacks the components that are normally required for signal transduction by other TLRs. Therefore the CD180/MD 1 complex has been considered of being incapable of independently initiating cellular signals. Using chemogenetic approaches we identified specifically the membrane bound long form of PIM-1 kinase, PIM-1L as the mediator of CD180-dependent signaling. A dominant negative isoform of PIM-1L, but not of other PIM kinases, inhibited signaling elicited by cross-linking of CD180, and this effect was phenocopied by PIM inhibitors. PIM-1L was directed to the cell membrane by its N-terminal extension, where it colocalized and physically associated with CD180. Triggering CD180 also induced increased phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein BAD in a PIM kinase-dependent fashion. Also in primary human B cells, which are the main cells expressing CD180 in man, cross-linking of CD180 by monoclonal antibodies stimulated cell survival and proliferation that was abrogated by specific inhibitors. By associating with PIM-1L, CD180 can thus obtain autonomous signaling capabilities, and this complex is then channeling inflammatory signals into B cell survival programs. Pharmacological inhibition of PIM-1 should therefore provide novel therapeutic options in diseases that respond to innate immune stimulation with subsequently increased B cell activity, such as lupus erythematosus or myasthenia gravis. PMID:26555723

  10. Clarifying binding difference of ATP and ADP to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 by using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianzhong

    2017-04-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 is a promising target for designs and development of anticancer drugs. Molecular dynamics simulations and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann method were applied to study binding difference of ADP and ATP to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2. The results prove that the binding ability of ATP to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 is stronger than that of ADP. Principal component analysis performed by using molecular dynamics trajectories suggests that binding of ADP and ATP to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 change motion directions of two helices α1 and α2. Residue-based free energy decomposition method was adopted to calculate contributions of separate residues to associations of ADP and ATP with extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2. The results show that ADP and ATP produce strong CH-π interactions with five residues Ile29, Val37, Ala50, Leu105, and Leu154. In addition, five hydrogen bonding interactions of ADP and ATP with residues Lys52, Gln103, Asp104, and Met106 also stabilize bindings of ADP and ATP to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2. Overall, the CH-π interactions of ATP with five residues Ile29, Val37, Ala50, Leu105, and Leu154 are stronger than ADP. This study is expected to contribute a significant theoretical hint for designs of anticancer drugs targeting extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. [Effect of felyanning granule in antagonizing Lewis lung cancer cell proliferation through cell cycle G1/S checkpoint dominating signaling intervention].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhan; Wang, Ju-yong; Xu, Zhen-ye

    2009-11-01

    To observe the effect of Feiyanning Granule (FYN) on tumor growth and cell cycle distribution in mice with Lewis lung cancer, as well as its influence on G1/S cell cycle checkpoint dominating signaling RB-E2F1 bio-axis. Modeled C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 6 groups: the model group (A), the DDP treated group (B) peritoneally injected with cisplatin 0.1 mg on d1, d3 and d5 after modeling, and the 4 FYN treated groups (C-F), administered via gastrogavage with FYN Decoction, and FYN Granule in small-, median- and high- dose respectively for 14 days. The tumour inhibiting rate, tumour weight, and body weight of mice were observed after treatment; cell cycle distribution was detected by flow cytometry (FCM), RB-E2F1mRNA expressions in tumour tissue were analyzed by RT-PCR, and their protein expressions by Western blot. Tumour weight in the 5 treated groups was lower than that in the model group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Body weight in group E was significantly higher than that in group A and B (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). FCM analysis showed the proportion of G0/G1 phase was higher in group E than in group A, B and C (P < 0.01), and cancer cell proliferation index (PI) in group E was lower than in group B (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). RT-PCR showed mRNA level of E2F1 was lower, but that of RB was significantly higher in group E than those in group A, B and C respectively (P < 0.01). Westem blot analysis showed the protein expression of E2F1 was lower in group E and B than that in group A (P < 0.05), while the protein expression of Rb in group E was higher than that in group A, B and C (P < 0.05). The effect of FYN in inhibiting Lewis lung cancer growth was related to its intervention on cancer cell cycle distribution which blocks most tumor cells in G0/G1 phase. Moreover, FYN can reduce MDM2 expression, enhance P53 expression to influence cell cycle G1/S checkpoint dominating signaling, so as to achieve the effect of antagonizing lung cancer cell proliferation.

  12. Early redox, Src family kinase, and calcium signaling integrate wound responses and tissue regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sa Kan; Freisinger, Christina M; LeBert, Danny C; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2012-10-15

    Tissue injury can lead to scar formation or tissue regeneration. How regenerative animals sense initial tissue injury and transform wound signals into regenerative growth is an unresolved question. Previously, we found that the Src family kinase (SFK) Lyn functions as a redox sensor in leukocytes that detects H(2)O(2) at wounds in zebrafish larvae. In this paper, using zebrafish larval tail fins as a model, we find that wounding rapidly activated SFK and calcium signaling in epithelia. The immediate SFK and calcium signaling in epithelia was important for late epimorphic regeneration of amputated fins. Wound-induced activation of SFKs in epithelia was dependent on injury-generated H(2)O(2). A SFK member, Fynb, was responsible for fin regeneration. This work provides a new link between early wound responses and late regeneration and suggests that redox, SFK, and calcium signaling are immediate "wound signals" that integrate early wound responses and late epimorphic regeneration.

  13. Other kinases can substitute for Jak2 in signal transduction by interferon-gamma.

    PubMed

    Kotenko, S V; Izotova, L S; Pollack, B P; Muthukumaran, G; Paukku, K; Silvennoinen, O; Ihle, J N; Pestka, S

    1996-07-19

    Each cytokine which utilizes the Jak-Stat signal transduction pathway activates a distinct combination of members of the Jak and Stat families. Thus, either the Jaks, the Stats, or both could contribute to the specificity of ligand action. With the use of chimeric receptors involving the interferon gamma receptor (IFN-gammaR) complex as a model system, we demonstrate that Jak2 activation is not an absolute requirement for IFN-gamma signaling. Other members of the Jak family can functionally substitute for Jak2. IFN-gamma can signal through the activation of Jak family members other than Jak2 as measured by Statlalpha homodimerization and major histocompatibility complex class I antigen expression. This indicates that Jaks are interchangeable and indiscriminative in the Jak-Stat signal transduction pathway. The necessity for the activation of one particular kinase during signaling can be overcome by recruiting another kinase to the receptor complex. The results may suggest that the Jaks do not contribute to the specificity of signal transduction in the Jak-Stat pathway to the same degree as Stats.

  14. Catalytic mechanism and kinase interactions of ABA-signaling PP2C phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X Edward; Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H Eric; Melcher, Karsten

    2012-05-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that controls plant growth, development and responses to abiotic stresses. ABA signaling is mediated by type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), including HAB1 and ABI2, which inhibit stress-activated SnRK2 kinases and whose activity is regulated by ABA and ABA receptors. Based on biochemical data and our previously determined crystal structures of ABI2 and the SnRK2.6-HAB1 complex, we present the catalytic mechanism of PP2C and provide new insight into PP2C-SnRK2 interactions and possible roles of other SnRK2 kinases in ABA signaling.

  15. Decoding Polo-like kinase 1 signaling along the kinetochore-centromere axis

    PubMed Central

    Lera, Robert F.; Potts, Gregory K.; Suzuki, Aussie; Johnson, James M.; Salmon, Edward D.; Coon, Joshua J.; Burkard, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase signaling along the kinetochore-centromere axis is crucial to assure mitotic fidelity, yet its spatial coordination is obscure. Here, we examined how pools of human Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) within this axis control signaling events to elicit mitotic functions. To do this, we restricted active Plk1 to discrete subcompartments within the kinetochore-centromere axis using chemical genetics and decoded functional and phosphoproteomic signatures of each. We observe distinct phosphoproteomic and functional roles, suggesting that Plk1 exists and functions in discrete pools along this axis. Deep within the centromere, Plk1 operates to assure proper chromosome alignment and segregation. Thus, Plk1 at the kinetochore is a conglomerate of an observable bulk pool coupled with additional functional pools below the threshold of microscopic detection/resolution. Although complex, this multiplicity of locales provides an opportunity to decouple functional and phosphoproteomic signatures for a comprehensive understanding of Plk1’s kinetochore functions. PMID:27043190

  16. Aurora kinase A interacts with H-Ras and potentiates Ras-MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Umstead, MaKendra; Xiong, Jinglin; Qi, Qi; Du, Yuhong; Fu, Haian

    2017-02-03

    In cancer, upregulated Ras promotes cellular transformation and proliferation in part through activation of oncogenic Ras-MAPK signaling. While directly inhibiting Ras has proven challenging, new insights into Ras regulation through protein-protein interactions may offer unique opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Here we report the identification and validation of Aurora kinase A (Aurora A) as a novel Ras binding protein. We demonstrate that the kinase domain of Aurora A mediates the interaction with the N-terminal domain of H-Ras. Further more, the interaction of Aurora A and H-Ras exists in a protein complex with Raf-1. We show that binding of H-Ras to Raf-1 and subsequent MAPK signaling is enhanced by Aurora A, and requires active H-Ras. Thus, the functional linkage between Aurora A and the H-Ras/Raf-1 protein complex may provide a mechanism for Aurora A's oncogenic activity through direct activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway.

  17. Recently emerging signaling landscape of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Attar, Rukset; Arslan, Belkis Atasever; Romero, Mirna Azalea; ul Haq, Muhammad Fahim; Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2014-01-01

    Research over the years has progressively and sequentially provided near complete resolution of regulators of the DNA repair pathways which are so important for cancer prevention. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM), a high-molecular-weight PI3K-family kinase has emerged as a master regulator of DNA damage signaling and extensive cross-talk between ATM and downstream proteins forms an interlaced signaling network. There is rapidly growing scientific evidence emphasizing newly emerging paradigms in ATM biology. In this review, we provide latest information regarding how oxidative stress induced activation of ATM can be utilized as a therapeutic target in different cancer cell lines and in xenografted mice. Moreover, crosstalk between autophagy and ATM is also discussed with focus on how autophagy inhibition induces apoptosis in cancer cells.

  18. Protein kinase C Theta inhibits insulin signaling by phosphorylating IRS1 at Ser(1101).

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Soos, Timothy J; Li, Xinghai; Wu, Jiong; Degennaro, Matthew; Sun, Xiaojian; Littman, Dan R; Birnbaum, Morris J; Polakiewicz, Roberto D

    2004-10-29

    Obesity and stress inhibit insulin action by activating protein kinases that enhance serine phosphorylation of IRS1 and have been thus associated to insulin resistance and the development of type II diabetes. The protein kinase C (PKC) is activated by free-fatty acids, and its activity is higher in muscle from obese diabetic patients. However, a molecular link between PKC and insulin resistance has not been defined yet. Here we show that PKC phosphorylates IRS1 at serine 1101 blocking IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation and downstream activation of the Akt pathway. Mutation of Ser(1101) to alanine makes IRS1 insensitive to the effect of PKC and restores insulin signaling in culture cells. These results provide a novel mechanism linking the activation of PKC to the inhibition of insulin signaling.

  19. Protein tyrosine kinase 7 has a conserved role in Wnt/β-catenin canonical signalling

    PubMed Central

    Puppo, Francesca; Thomé, Virginie; Lhoumeau, Anne-Catherine; Cibois, Marie; Gangar, Akanksha; Lembo, Frédérique; Belotti, Edwige; Marchetto, Sylvie; Lécine, Patrick; Prébet, Thomas; Sebbagh, Michael; Shin, Won-Sik; Lee, Seung-Taek; Kodjabachian, Laurent; Borg, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    The receptor protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) was recently shown to participate in noncanonical Wnt/planar cell polarity signalling during mouse and frog embryonic development. In this study, we report that PTK7 interacts with β-catenin in a yeast two-hybrid assay and mammalian cells. PTK7-deficient cells exhibit weakened β-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity on Wnt3a stimulation. Furthermore, Xenopus PTK7 is required for the formation of Spemann's organizer and for Siamois promoter activation, events that require β-catenin transcriptional activity. Using epistatic assays, we demonstrate that PTK7 functions upstream from glycogen synthase kinase 3. Taken together, our data reveal a new and conserved role for PTK7 in the Wnt canonical signalling pathway. PMID:21132015

  20. Human pre-B cell receptor signal transduction: evidence for distinct roles of PI3kinase and MAP-kinase signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Anbazhagan, Kolandaswamy; Rabbind Singh, Amrathlal; Isabelle, Piec; Stella, Ibata; Céline, Alleaume-De Martel; Bissac, Eliane; Bertrand, Brassart; Rémy, Nyga; Naomi, Taylor; Vincent, Fuentes; Rochette, Jacques; Lassoued, Kaïss

    2013-01-01

    Pre-BCR acts as a critical checkpoint in B cell development. However, its signalling cascade still remains indistinctly characterised in human. We investigated pre-BCR signalling pathway to examine its regulation in normal primary pre-B lymphocytes and pre-B cell lines. In cell lines, early signalling events occurring after pre-BCR stimulation include phosphorylation of Lyn, Blk and Syk together with ZAP70, Btk, Vav, PLC-γ2 and various adaptor proteins, such as BLNK, LAB, LAT and SLP-76. Further downstream, these molecules induced activation of the PI3K/AKT and MAP-kinase resulting in an augmentation of canonical NF-κB pathways and cFos/AP1 activation. PI3K and MAPK exerted opposing effects on the pre-BCR-induced activation of the canonical NF-κB and c-Fos/AP1 pathways. Immediate nuclear export of FoxO3A and delayed import of IRF4 were additional events observed after pre-BCR crosslinking in primary cells. Pre-BCR-induced down-regulation of Rag1, Rag2, E2A and Pax5 transcripts occurred in a PI3K-dependent manner. Finally we bring evidence that pre-BCR stimulation or co stimulation with CD19 enhances cell cycle signal. PMID:25400915

  1. Human pre-B cell receptor signal transduction: evidence for distinct roles of PI3kinase and MAP-kinase signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Anbazhagan, Kolandaswamy; Rabbind Singh, Amrathlal; Isabelle, Piec; Stella, Ibata; Céline, Alleaume-De Martel; Bissac, Eliane; Bertrand, Brassart; Rémy, Nyga; Naomi, Taylor; Vincent, Fuentes; Rochette, Jacques; Lassoued, Kaïss

    2013-10-01

    Pre-BCR acts as a critical checkpoint in B cell development. However, its signalling cascade still remains indistinctly characterised in human. We investigated pre-BCR signalling pathway to examine its regulation in normal primary pre-B lymphocytes and pre-B cell lines. In cell lines, early signalling events occurring after pre-BCR stimulation include phosphorylation of Lyn, Blk and Syk together with ZAP70, Btk, Vav, PLC-γ2 and various adaptor proteins, such as BLNK, LAB, LAT and SLP-76. Further downstream, these molecules induced activation of the PI3K/AKT and MAP-kinase resulting in an augmentation of canonical NF-κB pathways and cFos/AP1 activation. PI3K and MAPK exerted opposing effects on the pre-BCR-induced activation of the canonical NF-κB and c-Fos/AP1 pathways. Immediate nuclear export of FoxO3A and delayed import of IRF4 were additional events observed after pre-BCR crosslinking in primary cells. Pre-BCR-induced down-regulation of Rag1, Rag2, E2A and Pax5 transcripts occurred in a PI3K-dependent manner. Finally we bring evidence that pre-BCR stimulation or co stimulation with CD19 enhances cell cycle signal.

  2. Synaptic generation of an intracellular retrograde signal requires activation of the tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascades in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Stough, Shara; Kopec, Ashley M; Carew, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Cellular changes underlying memory formation can be generated in an activity-dependent manner at specific synapses. Thus an important question concerns the mechanisms by which synaptic signals communicate with the cell body to mediate these cellular changes. A monosynaptic circuit that is enhanced by sensitization in Aplysia is well-suited to study this question because three different subcellular compartments: (i) the sensorimotor SN-MN synapses, (ii) the SN projections to MNs via axonal connections, (iii) the SN cell bodies, can all be manipulated and studied independently. Here, we report that activity-dependent (AD) training in either the entire SN-MN circuit or in only the synaptic compartment, activates MAPK in a temporally and spatially specific pattern. Specifically, we find (i) MAPK activation is first transiently generated at SN-MN synapses during training, (ii) immediately after training MAPK is transiently activated in SN-MN axonal connections and persistently activated in SN cell bodies, and finally, (iii) MAPK is activated in SN cell bodies and SN-MN synapses 1h after training. These data suggest that there is an intracellularly transported retrograde signal generated at the synapse which is later responsible for delayed MAPK activation at SN somata. Finally, we find that this retrograde signal requires activation of tyrosine kinase (TK) and MEK signaling cascades at the synapses.

  3. IκB Kinase 2 Regulates TPL-2 Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases 1 and 2 by Direct Phosphorylation of TPL-2 Serine 400

    PubMed Central

    Roget, Karine; Ben-Addi, Abduelhakem; Mambole-Dema, Agnes; Gantke, Thorsten; Yang, Huei-Ting; Janzen, Julia; Morrice, Nick; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL-2) functions as a MEK-1/2 kinase, which is essential for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK-1/2) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and for inducing the production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1β. In unstimulated cells, association of TPL-2 with NF-κB1 p105 prevents TPL-2 phosphorylation of MEK-1/2. LPS stimulation of TPL-2 MEK-1/2 kinase activity requires TPL-2 release from p105. This is triggered by IκB kinase 2 (IKK-2) phosphorylation of the p105 PEST region, which promotes p105 ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. LPS activation of ERK-1/2 additionally requires transphosphorylation of TPL-2 on serine 400 in its C terminus, which controls TPL-2 signaling to ERK-1/2 independently of p105. However, the identity of the protein kinase responsible for TPL-2 serine 400 phosphorylation remained unknown. In the present study, we show that TPL-2 serine 400 phosphorylation is mediated by IKK2. The IKK complex therefore regulates two of the key regulatory steps required for TPL-2 activation of ERK-1/2, underlining the close linkage of ERK-1/2 MAP kinase activation to upregulation of NF-κB-dependent transcription. PMID:22988300

  4. Src-family-tyrosine kinase Lyn is critical for TLR2-mediated NF-κB activation through the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Toubiana, Julie; Rossi, Anne-Lise; Belaidouni, Nadia; Grimaldi, David; Pene, Frederic; Chafey, Philippe; Comba, Béatrice; Camoin, Luc; Bismuth, Georges; Claessens, Yann-Erick; Mira, Jean-Paul; Chiche, Jean-Daniel

    2015-10-01

    TLR2 has a prominent role in host defense against a wide variety of pathogens. Stimulation of TLR2 triggers MyD88-dependent signaling to induce NF-κB translocation, and activates a Rac1-PI 3-kinase dependent pathway that leads to transactivation of NF-κB through phosphorylation of the P65 NF-κB subunit. This transactivation pathway involves tyrosine phosphorylations. The role of the tyrosine kinases in TLR signaling is controversial, with discrepancies between studies using only chemical inhibitors and knockout mice. Here, we show the involvement of the tyrosine-kinase Lyn in TLR2-dependent activation of NF-κB in human cellular models, by using complementary inhibition strategies. Stimulation of TLR2 induces the formation of an activation cluster involving TLR2, CD14, PI 3-kinase and Lyn, and leads to the activation of AKT. Lyn-dependent phosphorylation of the p110 catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase is essential to the control of PI 3-kinase biological activity upstream of AKT and thereby to the transactivation of NF-κB. Thus, Lyn kinase activity is crucial in TLR2-mediated activation of the innate immune response in human mononuclear cells.

  5. Extracellular signals and receptor-like kinases regulating ROP GTPases in plants

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, Kaori N.; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2014-01-01

    Rho-like GTPase from plants (ROPs) function as signaling switches that control a wide variety of cellular functions and behaviors including cell morphogenesis, cell division and cell differentiation. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 11 ROPs that form a distinct single subfamily contrarily to animal or fungal counterparts where multiple subfamilies of Rho GTPases exist. Since Rho proteins bind to their downstream effector proteins only in their GTP-bound “active” state, the activation of ROPs by upstream factor(s) is a critical step in the regulation of ROP signaling. Therefore, it is critical to examine the input signals that lead to the activation of ROPs. Recent findings showed that the plant hormone auxin is an important signal for the activation of ROPs during pavement cell morphogenesis as well as for other developmental processes. In contrast to auxin, another plant hormone, abscisic acid, negatively regulates ROP signaling. Calcium is another emerging signal in the regulation of ROP signaling. Several lines of evidence indicate that plasma membrane localized-receptor like kinases play a critical role in the transmission of the extracellular signals to intracellular ROP signaling pathways. This review focuses on how these signals impinge upon various direct regulators of ROPs to modulate various plant processes. PMID:25295042

  6. Extracellular signals and receptor-like kinases regulating ROP GTPases in plants.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Kaori N; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2014-01-01

    Rho-like GTPase from plants (ROPs) function as signaling switches that control a wide variety of cellular functions and behaviors including cell morphogenesis, cell division and cell differentiation. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 11 ROPs that form a distinct single subfamily contrarily to animal or fungal counterparts where multiple subfamilies of Rho GTPases exist. Since Rho proteins bind to their downstream effector proteins only in their GTP-bound "active" state, the activation of ROPs by upstream factor(s) is a critical step in the regulation of ROP signaling. Therefore, it is critical to examine the input signals that lead to the activation of ROPs. Recent findings showed that the plant hormone auxin is an important signal for the activation of ROPs during pavement cell morphogenesis as well as for other developmental processes. In contrast to auxin, another plant hormone, abscisic acid, negatively regulates ROP signaling. Calcium is another emerging signal in the regulation of ROP signaling. Several lines of evidence indicate that plasma membrane localized-receptor like kinases play a critical role in the transmission of the extracellular signals to intracellular ROP signaling pathways. This review focuses on how these signals impinge upon various direct regulators of ROPs to modulate various plant processes.

  7. The signalling mucin Msb2 regulates surface sensing and host penetration via BMP1 MAP kinase signalling in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Leroch, Michaela; Mueller, Nathalie; Hinsenkamp, Isabel; Hahn, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungus that infects a wide range of fruit, vegetable and flower crops. Penetration of the host cuticle occurs via infection structures that are formed in response to appropriate plant surface signals. The differentiation of these structures requires a highly conserved mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade including the MAP kinase BMP1. In yeast and several plant-pathogenic fungi, the signalling mucin Msb2 has been shown to be involved in surface recognition and MAP kinase activation. In this study, a B. cinerea msb2 mutant was generated and characterized. The mutant showed normal growth, sporulation, sclerotia formation and stress resistance. In the absence of nutrients, abnormal germination with multiple germ tubes was observed. In the presence of sugars, normal germination occurred, but msb2 germlings were almost unable to form appressoria or infection cushions on hard surfaces. Nevertheless, the msb2 mutant showed only a moderate delay in lesion formation on different host plants, and formed expanding lesions similar to the wild-type. Although the wild-type showed increasing BMP1 phosphorylation during the first hours of germination on hard surfaces, the phosphorylation levels in the msb2 mutant were strongly reduced. Several genes encoding secreted proteins were found to be co-regulated by BMP1 and Msb2 during germination. Taken together, B. cinerea Msb2 is likely to represent a hard surface sensor of germlings and hyphae that triggers infection structure formation via the activation of the BMP1 MAP kinase pathway. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  8. Differential Phosphoproteomics of Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling: Identification of Src Family Kinase-Mediated Phosphorylation Events

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Activation of signal transduction by the receptor tyrosine kinase, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), results in a cascade of protein−protein interactions that rely on the occurrence of specific tyrosine phosphorylation events. One such protein recruited to the activated receptor complex is the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, Src, which is involved in both initiation and termination of further signaling events. To gain a further understanding of the tyrosine phosphorylation events that occur during FGF signaling, with a specific focus on those that are dependent on Src family kinase (SFK) activity, we have applied SILAC combined with chemical inhibition of SFK activity to search for phosphorylation events that are dependent on SFK activity in FGF stimulated cells. In addition, we used a more targeted approach to carry out high coverage phosphopeptide mapping of one Src substrate protein, the multifunctional adaptor Dok1, and to identify SFK-dependent Dok1 binding partners. From these analyses we identify 80 SFK-dependent phosphorylation events on 40 proteins. We further identify 18 SFK-dependent Dok1 interactions and 9 SFK-dependent Dok1 phosphorylation sites, 6 of which had not previously been known to be SFK-dependent. PMID:20225815

  9. Multiple signals modulate the activity of the complex sensor kinase TodS

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Jiménez, Hortencia; Ortega, Álvaro; García-Fontana, Cristina; Ramos, Juan Luis; Krell, Tino

    2015-01-01

    The reason for the existence of complex sensor kinases is little understood but thought to lie in the capacity to respond to multiple signals. The complex, seven-domain sensor kinase TodS controls in concert with the TodT response regulator the expression of the toluene dioxygenase pathway in Pseudomonas putida F1 and DOT-T1E. We have previously shown that some aromatic hydrocarbons stimulate TodS activity whereas others behave as antagonists. We show here that TodS responds in addition to the oxidative agent menadione. Menadione but no other oxidative agent tested inhibited TodS activity in vitro and reduced PtodX expression in vivo. The menadione signal is incorporated by a cysteine-dependent mechanism. The mutation of the sole conserved cysteine of TodS (C320) rendered the protein insensitive to menadione. We evaluated the mutual opposing effects of toluene and menadione on TodS autophosphorylation. In the presence of toluene, menadione reduced TodS activity whereas toluene did not stimulate activity in the presence of menadione. It was shown by others that menadione increases expression of glucose metabolism genes. The opposing effects of menadione on glucose and toluene metabolism may be partially responsible for the interwoven regulation of both catabolic pathways. This work provides mechanistic detail on how complex sensor kinases integrate different types of signal molecules. PMID:24986263

  10. Dermatophytes Activate Skin Keratinocytes via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling and Induce Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Achterman, Rebecca R.; Moyes, David L.; Thavaraj, Selvam; Smith, Adam R.; Blair, Kris M.

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes cause superficial and cutaneous fungal infections in immunocompetent hosts and invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. However, the host mechanisms that regulate innate immune responses against these fungi are largely unknown. Here, we utilized commercially available epidermal tissues and primary keratinocytes to assess (i) damage induction by anthropophilic, geophilic, and zoophilic dermatophyte strains and (ii) the keratinocyte signaling pathways, transcription factors, and proinflammatory responses induced by a representative dermatophyte, Trichophyton equinum. Initially, five dermatophyte species were tested for their ability to invade, cause tissue damage, and induce cytokines, with Microsporum gypseum inducing the greatest level of damage and cytokine release. Using T. equinum as a representative dermatophyte, we found that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were predominantly affected, with increased levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) but decreased levels of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Notably, the NF-κB and PI3K pathways were largely unaffected. T. equinum also significantly increased expression of the AP-1-associated transcription factor, c-Fos, and the MAPK regulatory phosphatase, MKP1. Importantly, the ability of T. equinum to invade, cause tissue damage, activate signaling and transcription factors, and induce proinflammatory responses correlated with germination, indicating that germination may be important for dermatophyte virulence and host immune activation. PMID:25667269

  11. Dermatophytes activate skin keratinocytes via mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and induce immune responses.

    PubMed

    Achterman, Rebecca R; Moyes, David L; Thavaraj, Selvam; Smith, Adam R; Blair, Kris M; White, Theodore C; Naglik, Julian R

    2015-04-01

    Dermatophytes cause superficial and cutaneous fungal infections in immunocompetent hosts and invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. However, the host mechanisms that regulate innate immune responses against these fungi are largely unknown. Here, we utilized commercially available epidermal tissues and primary keratinocytes to assess (i) damage induction by anthropophilic, geophilic, and zoophilic dermatophyte strains and (ii) the keratinocyte signaling pathways, transcription factors, and proinflammatory responses induced by a representative dermatophyte, Trichophyton equinum. Initially, five dermatophyte species were tested for their ability to invade, cause tissue damage, and induce cytokines, with Microsporum gypseum inducing the greatest level of damage and cytokine release. Using T. equinum as a representative dermatophyte, we found that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were predominantly affected, with increased levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) but decreased levels of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Notably, the NF-κB and PI3K pathways were largely unaffected. T. equinum also significantly increased expression of the AP-1-associated transcription factor, c-Fos, and the MAPK regulatory phosphatase, MKP1. Importantly, the ability of T. equinum to invade, cause tissue damage, activate signaling and transcription factors, and induce proinflammatory responses correlated with germination, indicating that germination may be important for dermatophyte virulence and host immune activation. Copyright © 2015, Achterman et al.

  12. Biglycan- and Sphingosine Kinase-1 Signaling Crosstalk Regulates the Synthesis of Macrophage Chemoattractants

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Louise Tzung-Harn; Nastase, Madalina-Viviana; Roedig, Heiko; Zeng-Brouwers, Jinyang; Poluzzi, Chiara; Schwalm, Stephanie; Fork, Christian; Tredup, Claudia; Brandes, Ralf P.; Wygrecka, Malgorzata; Huwiler, Andrea; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Schaefer, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    In its soluble form, the extracellular matrix proteoglycan biglycan triggers the synthesis of the macrophage chemoattractants, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand CCL2 and CCL5 through selective utilization of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their adaptor molecules. However, the respective downstream signaling events resulting in biglycan-induced CCL2 and CCL5 production have not yet been defined. Here, we show that biglycan stimulates the production and activation of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) in a TLR4- and Toll/interleukin (IL)-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon (IFN)-β (TRIF)-dependent manner in murine primary macrophages. We provide genetic and pharmacological proof that SphK1 is a crucial downstream mediator of biglycan-triggered CCL2 and CCL5 mRNA and protein expression. This is selectively driven by biglycan/SphK1-dependent phosphorylation of the nuclear factor NF-κB p65 subunit, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Importantly, in vivo overexpression of soluble biglycan causes Sphk1-dependent enhancement of renal CCL2 and CCL5 and macrophage recruitment into the kidney. Our findings describe the crosstalk between biglycan- and SphK1-driven extracellular matrix- and lipid-signaling. Thus, SphK1 may represent a new target for therapeutic intervention in biglycan-evoked inflammatory conditions. PMID:28282921

  13. Polo-Like Kinase 2 Is a Mediator of Hedgehog Survival Signaling in Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fingas, Christian D.; Mertens, Joachim C.; Razumilava, Nataliya; Sydor, Svenja; Bronk, Steven F.; Christensen, John D.; Rizvi, Sumera H.; Canbay, Ali; Treckmann, Jürgen W.; Paul, Andreas; Sirica, Alphonse E.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells paradoxically express the death ligand tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and thus rely on potent survival signals to circumvent cell death by TRAIL. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is an important survival pathway in CCA. Herein, we further examine the mechanisms whereby Hh signaling mediates apoptosis resistance in CCA, revealing a pivotal role for the cell division regulating serine/threonine kinase polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2). We employed 50 human CCA samples (25 intrahepatic and 25 extrahepatic CCA) as well as human KMCH-1, Mz-CHA-1, and HUCCT-1 CCA cells for these studies. In vivo experiments were conducted using a syngeneic rat orthotopic CCA model. In human samples, polo-like kinase (PLK)1/2/3-immunoreactive cancer cells were present in the preponderance of intra- and extrahepatic CCA specimens. Inhibition of Hh signaling by cyclopamine reduced PLK2, but not PLK1 or PLK3, messenger RNA and protein expression in vehicle-treated and sonic Hh–treated CCA cells, confirming our previous microarray study. PLK2 regulation by Hh signaling appears to be direct, because the Hh transcription factors, glioma-associated oncogene 1 and 2, bind to the PLK2 promotor. Moreover, inhibition of PLK2 by the PLK inhibitor, BI 6727 (volasertib), or PLK2 knockdown was proapoptotic in CCA cells. BI 6727 administration or PLK2 knockdown decreased cellular protein levels of antiapoptotic myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), an effect reversed by the proteasome inhibitor, MG-132. Finally, BI 6727 administration reduced Mcl-1 protein expression in CCA cells, resulting in CCA cell apoptosis and tumor suppression in vivo. Conclusion PLK2 appears to be an important mediator of Hh survival signaling. These results suggest PLK inhibitors to be of therapeutic value for treatment of human CCA. PMID:23703673

  14. Involvement of the mannose receptor and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway of the microdomain of the integral membrane protein after enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihua; Ma, Yanlei; Moyer, Mary Pat; Zhang, Peng; Shi, Chenzhang; Qin, Huanlong

    2012-04-01

    The microdomain of the integral membrane protein (MIMP) has been shown to adhere to mucin and to antagonize the adhesion of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) to epithelial cells; however, the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we further identified the receptor of MIMP on NCM460 cells and investigated the mechanism (the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK] pathway) following the interaction of MIMP and its corresponding receptor, mannose receptor. We first identified the target receptor of MIMP on the surfaces of NCM460 cells using immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry technology. We also verified the mannose receptor and examined the degradation and activation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. The results indicated that MIMP adhered to NCM460 cells by binding to the mannose receptor and inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK stimulated after EPEC infection via inhibition of the Toll-like receptor 5 pathway. These findings indicated that MIMPs relieve the injury of NCM460 cells after enteropathogenic E. coli infection through the mannose receptor and inhibition of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, both of which may therefore be potential therapeutic targets for intestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease.

  15. Different designs of kinase-phosphatase interactions and phosphatase sequestration shapes the robustness and signal flow in the MAPK cascade

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The three layer mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade exhibits different designs of interactions between its kinases and phosphatases. While the sequential interactions between the three kinases of the cascade are tightly preserved, the phosphatases of the cascade, such as MKP3 and PP2A, exhibit relatively diverse interactions with their substrate kinases. Additionally, the kinases of the MAPK cascade can also sequester their phosphatases. Thus, each topologically distinct interaction design of kinases and phosphatases could exhibit unique signal processing characteristics, and the presence of phosphatase sequestration may lead to further fine tuning of the propagated signal. Results We have built four architecturally distinct types of models of the MAPK cascade, each model with identical kinase-kinase interactions but unique kinases-phosphatases interactions. Our simulations unravelled that MAPK cascade’s robustness to external perturbations is a function of nature of interaction between its kinases and phosphatases. The cascade’s output robustness was enhanced when phosphatases were sequestrated by their target kinases. We uncovered a novel implicit/hidden negative feedback loop from the phosphatase MKP3 to its upstream kinase Raf-1, in a cascade resembling the B cell MAPK cascade. Notably, strength of the feedback loop was reciprocal to the strength of phosphatases’ sequestration and stronger sequestration abolished the feedback loop completely. An experimental method to verify the presence of the feedback loop is also proposed. We further showed, when the models were activated by transient signal, memory (total time taken by the cascade output to reach its unstimulated level after removal of signal) of a cascade was determined by the specific designs of interaction among its kinases and phosphatases. Conclusions Differences in interaction designs among the kinases and phosphatases can differentially shape the robustness and

  16. Protein tyrosine kinase signaling in the mouse oocyte cortex during sperm-egg interactions and anaphase resumption.

    PubMed

    McGinnis, Lynda K; Luo, Jinping; Kinsey, William H

    2013-04-01

    Fertilization triggers activation of a series of pre-programmed signal transduction pathways in the oocyte that establish a block to polyspermy, induce meiotic resumption, and initiate zygotic development. Fusion between sperm and oocyte results in rapid changes in oocyte intracellular free-calcium levels, which in turn activate multiple protein kinase cascades in the ooplasm. The present study examined the possibility that sperm-oocyte interaction involves localized activation of oocyte protein tyrosine kinases, which could provide an alternative signaling mechanism to that triggered by the fertilizing sperm. Confocal immunofluorescence analysis with antibodies to phosphotyrosine and phosphorylated protein tyrosine kinases allowed detection of minute signaling events localized to the site of sperm-oocyte interaction that were not amenable to biochemical analysis. The results provide evidence for localized accumulation of phosphotyrosine at the site of sperm contact, binding, or fusion, which suggests active protein tyrosine kinase signaling prior to and during sperm incorporation. The PYK2 kinase was found to be concentrated and activated at the site of sperm-oocyte interaction, and likely participates in this response. Widespread activation of PYK2 and FAK kinases was subsequently observed within the oocyte cortex, indicating that sperm incorporation is followed by more global signaling via these kinases during meiotic resumption. The results demonstrate an alternate signaling pathway triggered in mammalian oocytes by sperm contact, binding, or fusion with the oocyte.

  17. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in postgermination arrest of development by abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Lu, C; Han, M-H; Guevara-Garcia, A; Fedoroff, N V

    2002-11-26

    Abscisic acid (ABA) mediates plant responses to environmental stress, particularly to water status. During germination, the embryo emerges from dormancy as the ABA concentration declines. Exposure to exogenous ABA during germination arrests development rapidly, but reversibly, enabling seedlings to withstand early water stress without loss of viability. Postgermination proteolytic degradation of the essential ABI5 transcription factor is interrupted by perception of an increase in ABA concentration, leading to ABI5 accumulation and reactivation of embryonic genes. Making use of the ABA-hypersensitive hyl1 mutant of Arabidopsis, we show that the ABA signal is transmitted to the transcriptional apparatus through mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling.

  18. Extract of Reishi polysaccharides induces cytokine expression via TLR4-modulated protein kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsien-Yeh; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Lin, Chun-Hung; Hsu, Jason; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2004-11-15

    We have demonstrated that an extract of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Ling-Zhi) polysaccharides (EORP) exerts immunomodulating activities by stimulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines from mouse spleen cells. Interestingly, via responding to LPS in genetic variation of murine macrophage HeNC2 and GG2EE cell lines, and using TLR4 Ab blockage in human blood-derived monocytic macrophages, we have found that the TLR4, but not complement receptor type 3, is a putative receptor of EORP, mediating the consequent immunomodulating events associated with IL-1 gene expression. Based on our studies of reactive oxygen species production, polymyxin B inhibition, and protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity, we ruled out the possibility of LPS contamination in EORP. We have found that EORP differentially modulates the protein kinase (PK)-mediated signal transduction pathways associated with inflammatory cytokine IL-1. In human macrophages and murine macrophage J774A.1 cells, EORP was found to up-regulate IL-1 secretion and pro-IL-1 (precursor of IL-1) as well as IL-1-converting enzyme expression. Specifically, EORP rapidly stimulates PTK-mediated phosphorylation, followed by induction of PKs and activation of MAPKs: ERK, JNK, and p38. Using PK inhibitors in the kinase activity assays, Western blot analyses and IL-1 ELISA, we have extensively examined and dissected the role of individual PK in the regulation of pro-IL-1/IL-1. Our findings establish that EORP-mediated signaling pathways are involved in the pro-IL-1/IL-1 regulation: PTK/protein kinase C/MEK1/ERK and PTK/Rac1/p21-activated kinase/p38.

  19. Inhibition of Apoptosis-Regulated Signaling Kinase-1 and Prevention of Congestive Heart Failure by Estrogen

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Minoru; Matter, Christian M.; Ogita, Hisakazu; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Wang, Chao-Yung; Dorn, Gerald W.; Liao, James K.

    2008-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have shown gender differences in the incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF); however, the role of estrogen in CHF is not known. We hypothesize that estrogen prevents cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the development of CHF. Methods and Results 17β-Estradiol (E2, 0.5 mg/60-day release) or placebo pellet was implanted subcutaneously into male Gαq transgenic (Gq) mice. After 8 weeks, E2 treatment decreased the extent of cardiac hypertrophy and dilation and improved contractility in Gq mice. E2 treatment also attenuated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity and superoxide anion production via downregulation of Rac1. This correlated with reduced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes of Gq mice. The antioxidative properties of E2 were also associated with increased expression of thioredoxin (Trx), Trx reductases, and Trx reductase activity in the hearts of Gq mice. Furthermore, the activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 and its downstream effectors, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, in the hearts of Gq mice was reduced by long-term E2 treatment. Indeed, E2 (10 nmol/L)-treated cardiomyocytes were much more resistant to angiotensin II–induced apoptosis. These antiapoptotic and cardioprotective effects of E2 were blocked by an estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI 182,780) and by a Trx reductase inhibitor (azelaic acid). Conclusions These findings indicate that long-term E2 treatment improves CHF by antioxidative mechanisms that involve the upregulation of Trx and inhibition of Rac1-mediated attenuated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 /c-Jun N-terminal kinase/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase–mediated apoptosis. These results suggest that estrogen may be a useful adjunctive therapy for patients with CHF. PMID:17562954

  20. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 activation in endothelial cells exposed to cyclic strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, M.; Takei, T.; Mills, I.; Kito, H.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/ERK2) are activated and might play a role in enhanced proliferation and morphological change induced by strain. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were subjected to an average of 6 or 10% strain at a rate of 60 cycles/min for up to 4 h. Cyclic strain caused strain- and time-dependent phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2. Peak phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2 induced by 10% strain were at 10 min. A specific ERK1/ERK2 kinase inhibitor, PD-98059, inhibited phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2 but did not inhibit the increased cell proliferation and cell alignment induced by strain. Treatment of BAEC with 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1, 4-benzohydroquinone, to deplete inositol trisphosphate-sensitive calcium storage, and gadolinium chloride, a Ca2+ channel blocker, did not inhibit the activation of ERK1/ERK2. Strain-induced ERK1/ERK2 activation was partly inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin C and completely inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. These data suggest that 1) ERK1/ERK2 are not critically involved in the strain-induced cell proliferation and orientation, 2) strain-dependent activation of ERK1/ERK2 is independent of intracellular and extracellular calcium mobilization, and 3) protein kinase C activation and tyrosine kinase regulate strain-induced activation of ERK1/ERK2.

  1. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 activation in endothelial cells exposed to cyclic strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, M.; Takei, T.; Mills, I.; Kito, H.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/ERK2) are activated and might play a role in enhanced proliferation and morphological change induced by strain. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were subjected to an average of 6 or 10% strain at a rate of 60 cycles/min for up to 4 h. Cyclic strain caused strain- and time-dependent phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2. Peak phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2 induced by 10% strain were at 10 min. A specific ERK1/ERK2 kinase inhibitor, PD-98059, inhibited phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2 but did not inhibit the increased cell proliferation and cell alignment induced by strain. Treatment of BAEC with 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1, 4-benzohydroquinone, to deplete inositol trisphosphate-sensitive calcium storage, and gadolinium chloride, a Ca2+ channel blocker, did not inhibit the activation of ERK1/ERK2. Strain-induced ERK1/ERK2 activation was partly inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin C and completely inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. These data suggest that 1) ERK1/ERK2 are not critically involved in the strain-induced cell proliferation and orientation, 2) strain-dependent activation of ERK1/ERK2 is independent of intracellular and extracellular calcium mobilization, and 3) protein kinase C activation and tyrosine kinase regulate strain-induced activation of ERK1/ERK2.

  2. HCMV pUS28 initiates pro-migratory signaling via activation of Pyk2 kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Vomaske, Jennifer; Varnum, Susan M.; Melnychuk, Ryan; Smith, Patricia; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Streblow, Daniel N.

    2010-12-10

    The HCMV-encoded chemokine receptor US28 mediates smooth muscle cell (SMC) and macrophage motility and this activity has been implicated in the acceleration of vascular disease. US28 induced SMC migration involves the activation of the protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) Src and Focal adhesion kinase as well as the small GTPase RhoA. In the current study, we examined the involvement of the PTK Pyk2 in US28-induced cellular motility. Expression of a Pyk2 lacking the autophosphorylation site (Tyr-402) blocks US28-mediated SMC migration in response to RANTES, while the kinase-inactive mutant failed to elicit the same negative effect on migration. US28 stimulation with RANTES results in ligand-dependent and calcium-dependent phosphorylation of Pyk2 Tyr-402 and induced the formation of an active Pyk2 kinase complex containing several novel Pyk2 binding proteins. Interestingly, expression of the autophosphorylation site mutant Pyk2 F402Y did not abrogate the formation of an active Pyk2 kinase complex, but instead prevented US28-mediated activation of RhoA. These findings represent the first demonstration that US28 signals through Pyk2 and that this PTK participates in US28-mediated cellular motility via activation of RhoA. Additionally, US28 activated RhoA via Pyk2 in the U373 glioblastoma cells. Interestingly, the Pyk2 kinase complex in U373 contained several proteins known to participate in glioma tumorigenesis. These results provide a potential mechanistic link between HCMV-US28 and glioblastoma cell activation and motility.

  3. Signal transduction in neurons: effects of cellular prion protein on fyn kinase and ERK1/2 kinase.

    PubMed

    Tomasi, Vittorio

    2010-12-16

    It has been reported that cellular prion protein (PrPc) co-localizes with caveolin-1 and participates to signal transduction events by recruiting Fyn kinase. As PrPc is a secreted protein anchored to the outer surface membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor (secPrP) and caveolin-1 is located in the inner leaflet of plasma membrane, there is a problem of how the two proteins can physically interact each other and transduce signals. By using the GST-fusion proteins system we observed that PrPc strongly interacts with caveolin-1 scaffolding domain and with a caveolin-1 hydrophilic C-terminal region, but not with the caveolin-1 N-terminal region. In vitro binding experiments were also performed to define the site(s) of PrPc interacting with cav-1. The results are consistent with a participation of PrPc octapeptide repeats motif in the binding to caveolin-1 scaffolding domain. The caveolar localization of PrPc was ascertained by co-immunoprecipitation, by co-localization after flotation in density gradients and by confocal microscopy analysis of PrPc and caveolin-1 distributions in a neuronal cell line (GN11) expressing caveolin-1 at high levels. We observed that, after antibody-mediated cross-linking or copper treatment, PrPc was internalized probably into caveolae. We propose that following translocation from rafts to caveolae or caveolae-like domains, secPrP could interact with caveolin-1 and induce signal transduction events.

  4. Mechanisms of cell signaling by nitric oxide and peroxynitrite: from mitochondria to MAP kinases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levonen, A. L.; Patel, R. P.; Brookes, P.; Go, Y. M.; Jo, H.; Parthasarathy, S.; Anderson, P. G.; Darley-Usmar, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    Many of the biological and pathological effects of nitric oxide (NO) are mediated through cell signaling pathways that are initiated by NO reacting with metalloproteins. More recently, it has been recognized that the reaction of NO with free radicals such as superoxide and the lipid peroxyl radical also has the potential to modulate redox signaling. Although it is clear that NO can exert both cytotoxic and cytoprotective actions, the focus of this overview are those reactions that could lead to protection of the cell against oxidative stress in the vasculature. This will include the induction of antioxidant defenses such as glutathione, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in response to blood flow, and modulation of mitochondrial function and its impact on apoptosis. Models are presented that show the increased synthesis of glutathione in response to shear stress and inhibition of cytochrome c release from mitochondria. It appears that in the vasculature NO-dependent signaling pathways are of three types: (i) those involving NO itself, leading to modulation of mitochondrial respiration and soluble guanylate cyclase; (ii) those that involve S-nitrosation, including inhibition of caspases; and (iii) autocrine signaling that involves the intracellular formation of peroxynitrite and the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases. Taken together, NO plays a major role in the modulation of redox cell signaling through a number of distinct pathways in a cellular setting.

  5. Hydrogen peroxide sensing and signaling by protein kinases in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Burgoyne, Joseph R; Oka, Shin-ichi; Ale-Agha, Niloofar; Eaton, Philip

    2013-03-20

    Oxidants were once principally considered perpetrators of injury and disease. However, this has become an antiquated view, with cumulative evidence showing that the oxidant hydrogen peroxide serves as a signaling molecule. Hydrogen peroxide carries vital information about the redox state of the cell and is crucial for homeostatic regulation during health and adaptation to stress. In this review, we examine the contemporary concepts for how hydrogen peroxide is sensed and transduced into a biological response by introducing post-translational oxidative modifications on select proteins. Oxidant sensing and signaling by kinases are of particular importance as they integrate oxidant signals into phospho-regulated pathways. We focus on CAMKII, PKA, and PKG, kinases whose redox regulation has notable impact on cardiovascular function. In addition, we examine the mechanism for regulating intracellular hydrogen peroxide, considering the net concentrations that may accumulate. The effects of endogenously generated oxidants are often modeled by applying exogenous hydrogen peroxide to cells or tissues. Here we consider whether model systems exposed to exogenous hydrogen peroxide have relevance to systems where the oxidant is generated endogenously, and if so, what concentration can be justified in terms of relevance to health and disease. Improving our understanding of hydrogen peroxide signaling and the sensor proteins that it can modify will help us develop new strategies to regulate intracellular signaling to prevent disease.

  6. Kinase-Independent Small-Molecule Inhibition of JAK-STAT Signaling.

    PubMed

    Chou, Danny Hung-Chieh; Vetere, Amedeo; Choudhary, Amit; Scully, Stephen S; Schenone, Monica; Tang, Alicia; Gomez, Rachel; Burns, Sean M; Lundh, Morten; Vital, Tamara; Comer, Eamon; Faloon, Patrick W; Dančík, Vlado; Ciarlo, Christie; Paulk, Joshiawa; Dai, Mingji; Reddy, Clark; Sun, Hanshi; Young, Matthew; Donato, Nicholas; Jaffe, Jacob; Clemons, Paul A; Palmer, Michelle; Carr, Steven A; Schreiber, Stuart L; Wagner, Bridget K

    2015-06-24

    Phenotypic cell-based screening is a powerful approach to small-molecule discovery, but a major challenge of this strategy lies in determining the intracellular target and mechanism of action (MoA) for validated hits. Here, we show that the small-molecule BRD0476, a novel suppressor of pancreatic β-cell apoptosis, inhibits interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-induced Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducer and activation of transcription 1 (STAT1) signaling to promote β-cell survival. However, unlike common JAK-STAT pathway inhibitors, BRD0476 inhibits JAK-STAT signaling without suppressing the kinase activity of any JAK. Rather, we identified the deubiquitinase ubiquitin-specific peptidase 9X (USP9X) as an intracellular target, using a quantitative proteomic analysis in rat β cells. RNAi-mediated and CRISPR/Cas9 knockdown mimicked the effects of BRD0476, and reverse chemical genetics using a known inhibitor of USP9X blocked JAK-STAT signaling without suppressing JAK activity. Site-directed mutagenesis of a putative ubiquitination site on JAK2 mitigated BRD0476 activity, suggesting a competition between phosphorylation and ubiquitination to explain small-molecule MoA. These results demonstrate that phenotypic screening, followed by comprehensive MoA efforts, can provide novel mechanistic insights into ostensibly well-understood cell signaling pathways. Furthermore, these results uncover USP9X as a potential target for regulating JAK2 activity in cellular inflammation.

  7. SAP-MEDIATED INHIBITION OF DIACYLGLYCEROL KINASE ALPHA REGULATES TCR-INDUCED DIACYLGLYCEROL SIGNALING

    PubMed Central

    Baldanzi, Gianluca; Pighini, Andrea; Bettio, Valentina; Rainero, Elena; Traini, Sara; Chianale, Federica; Porporato, Paolo; Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Mesturini, Riccardo; Song, Shuping; Schweighoffer, Tamas; Patrussi, Laura; Baldari, Cosima Tatiana; Zhong, Xiao-Ping; van Blitterswijk, Wim J.; Sinigaglia, Fabiola; Nichols, Kim E.; Rubio, Ignacio; Parolini, Ornella; Graziani, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) metabolize diacylglycerol (DAG) to phosphatidic acid (PA). In T lymphocytes, DGKα acts as a negative regulator of TCR signaling by decreasing diacylglycerol levels and inducing anergy. Here, we show that upon co-stimulation of the TCR with CD28 or SLAM, DGKα, but not DGKζ, exit from the nucleus and undergoes rapid negative regulation of its enzymatic activity. Inhibition of DGKα is dependent on the expression of SAP, an adaptor protein mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), which is essential for SLAM-mediated signaling and contributes to TCR/CD28-induced signaling and T cell activation. Accordingly, over-expression of SAP is sufficient to inhibit DGKα, while SAP mutants unable to bind either phospho-tyrosine residues or SH3 domain are ineffective. Moreover phospholipase C activity and calcium, but not Src-family tyrosine kinases, are also required for negative regulation of DGKα. Finally, inhibition of DGKα in SAP-deficient cells partially rescues defective TCR/CD28 signaling, including Ras and ERK-1/2 activation, PKCθ membrane recruitment, induction of NF-AT transcriptional activity and IL-2 production. Thus SAP-mediated inhibition of DGKα sustains diacylglycerol signaling, thereby regulating T cell activation and may represent a novel pharmacological strategy for XLP treatment. PMID:22048771

  8. Mechanisms of cell signaling by nitric oxide and peroxynitrite: from mitochondria to MAP kinases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levonen, A. L.; Patel, R. P.; Brookes, P.; Go, Y. M.; Jo, H.; Parthasarathy, S.; Anderson, P. G.; Darley-Usmar, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    Many of the biological and pathological effects of nitric oxide (NO) are mediated through cell signaling pathways that are initiated by NO reacting with metalloproteins. More recently, it has been recognized that the reaction of NO with free radicals such as superoxide and the lipid peroxyl radical also has the potential to modulate redox signaling. Although it is clear that NO can exert both cytotoxic and cytoprotective actions, the focus of this overview are those reactions that could lead to protection of the cell against oxidative stress in the vasculature. This will include the induction of antioxidant defenses such as glutathione, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in response to blood flow, and modulation of mitochondrial function and its impact on apoptosis. Models are presented that show the increased synthesis of glutathione in response to shear stress and inhibition of cytochrome c release from mitochondria. It appears that in the vasculature NO-dependent signaling pathways are of three types: (i) those involving NO itself, leading to modulation of mitochondrial respiration and soluble guanylate cyclase; (ii) those that involve S-nitrosation, including inhibition of caspases; and (iii) autocrine signaling that involves the intracellular formation of peroxynitrite and the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases. Taken together, NO plays a major role in the modulation of redox cell signaling through a number of distinct pathways in a cellular setting.

  9. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (MKK5)-mediated signalling cascade regulates expression of iron superoxide dismutase gene in Arabidopsis under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yu; Chen, Wei-hua; Jia, Wensuo; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-09-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are involved in plant adaptive responses to biotic and abiotic stresses but the upstream signalling process that modulates their expression is not clear. Expression of two iron SODs, FSD2 and FSD3, was significantly increased in Arabidopsis in response to NaCl treatment but blocked in transgenic MKK5-RNAi plant, mkk5. Using an assay system for transient expression in protoplasts, it was found that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (MKK5) was also activated in response to salt stress. Overexpression of MKK5 in wild-type plants enhanced their tolerance to salt treatments, while mkk5 mutant exhibited hypersensitivity to salt stress in germination on salt-containing media. Moreover, another kinase, MPK6, was also involved in the MKK5-mediated iron superoxide dismutase (FSD) signalling pathway in salt stress. The kinase activity of MPK6 was totally turned off in mkk5, whereas the activity of MPK3 was only partially blocked. MKK5 interacted with the MEKK1 protein that was also involved in the salt-induced FSD signalling pathway. These data suggest that salt-induced FSD2 and FSD3 expressions are influenced by MEKK1 via MKK5-MPK6-coupled signalling. This MAP kinase cascade (MEKK1, MKK5, and MPK6) mediates the salt-induced expression of iron superoxide dismutases.

  10. Functional insights of plant GSK3-like kinases: multi-taskers in diverse cellular signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Youn, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Wuk

    2015-04-01

    The physiological importance of GSK3-like kinases in plants emerged when the functional role of plant GSK3-like kinases represented by BIN2 was first elucidated in the brassinosteroid (BR)-regulated signal transduction pathway. While early studies focused more on understanding how GSK3-like kinases regulate BR signaling, recent studies have implicated many novel substrates of GSK3-like kinases that are involved in a variety of cellular processes as well as BR signaling. Plant GSK3-like kinases play diverse roles in physiological and developmental processes such as cell growth, root and stomatal cell development, flower development, xylem differentiation, light response, and stress responses. Here, we review the progress made in recent years in understanding the versatile functions of plant GSK3-like kinases. Based on the relationship between GSK3-like kinases and their newly identified substrates, we discuss the physiological and biochemical relevance of various cellular signaling mediated by GSK3-like kinases in plants. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Change or Die: Targeting Adaptive Signaling to Kinase Inhibition in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rebecca, Vito W.; Smalley, Keiran S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Small molecule kinase inhibitors have proven enormously successful at delivering impressive responses in patients with cancers as diverse as chronic myeloid-leukemia, melanoma, breast cancer and small cell lung cancer. Despite this, resistance is commonplace and most patients ultimately fail therapy. One emerging observation is the rapid rewiring of signaling that occurs across multiple cancer types when driver oncogene function is inhibited. These adaptive signaling changes, seem critical in delivering some of the earliest survival signals that allow small numbers of cells to evade therapy. In this commentary we review the mechanisms that contribute to the robustness of signaling networks within cancer cells and suggest new therapeutic strategies to limit treatment failure. PMID:25107706

  12. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 Antagonizes Myocardial Fibrosis Induced by Atrial Fibrillation by Restraining Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β)/Smads Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinjun; Xu, Jing; Jiang, Baozhou; Liu, Danping

    2016-01-01

    Background This aim of this study was to investigate the expression of BMP-7 in atrial fibrillation and illuminate the role of BMP-7 and TGF-β/Smads signaling in myocardial fibrosis. Material/Methods Fibrosis of myocardial fibroblasts was induced by TGF-β1 and the optimal condition was determined by the MTT assay. Cells with TGF-β1 treatment were sub-divided into 4 groups: TGF-β1 group, TGF-β1 + Smad3 siRNA group, TGF-β1 + BMP-7 group, and TGF-β1 + BMP-7 + Smad1/5 siRNA group. Cells were then analyzed by detecting the expression of epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), collagen I, alpha smooth muscle cell actin (α-SMA), and activated Smads using Western blot. Mice were injected daily with Ach-CaCl2 with or without the addition of BMP-7 and Smad1/5 siRNA over a period of 4 weeks. Cardiac functions were tested by echocardiogram assay and fibrosis was diagnosed by histopathological examination. Finally, molecule biomarkers were detected using standard procedures. Results TGF-β1 treatment significantly down-regulated E-cadherin expression and up-regulated expressions of Collagen I, α-SMA, and pSmad3 (P<0.05). The effects of TGF-β1 treatment can be significantly suppressed by Smad3 siRNA (P<0.05). Cells in the BMP-7 group exhibited significantly higher expression levels of E-cadherin and pSmad1/5 together with lower expression levels of pSmad3, collagen I, and α-SMA (P<0.05). Moreover, Smad1/5 siRNA can substantially repress the effects of BMP-7 (P<0.05) and results from the mice model coincided with those in myocardial fibroblasts. Conclusions BMP-7 can regulate TGF-β1/Smad3 by targeting Smad1/5 to antagonize fibrosis in myocardial fibroblasts resulting from atrial fibrillation. PMID:27677228

  13. Suppression of Mitochondrial Biogenesis through Toll-Like Receptor 4–Dependent Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling in Endotoxin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joshua A.; Stallons, L. Jay; Collier, Justin B.; Chavin, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Although disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis and biogenesis (MB) is a widely accepted pathophysiologic feature of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), the molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are unknown. In this study, we examined the signaling pathways responsible for the suppression of MB in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI. Downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of MB, was noted at the mRNA level at 3 hours and protein level at 18 hours in the renal cortex, and was associated with loss of renal function after LPS treatment. LPS-mediated suppression of PGC-1α led to reduced expression of downstream regulators of MB and electron transport chain proteins along with a reduction in renal cortical mitochondrial DNA content. Mechanistically, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) knockout mice were protected from renal injury and disruption of MB after LPS exposure. Immunoblot analysis revealed activation of tumor progression locus 2/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (TPL-2/MEK/ERK) signaling in the renal cortex by LPS. Pharmacologic inhibition of MEK/ERK signaling attenuated renal dysfunction and loss of PGC-1α, and was associated with a reduction in proinflammatory cytokine (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin-1β) expression at 3 hours after LPS exposure. Neutralization of TNF-α also blocked PGC-1α suppression, but not renal dysfunction, after LPS-induced AKI. Finally, systemic administration of recombinant tumor necrosis factor-α alone was sufficient to produce AKI and disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis. These findings indicate an important role for the TLR4/MEK/ERK pathway in both LPS-induced renal dysfunction and suppression of MB. TLR4/MEK/ERK/TNF-α signaling may represent a novel therapeutic target to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and AKI produced by sepsis. PMID:25503387

  14. Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 2 Kinase Activity Is Controlled by Multiple Inputs from Oncogenic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuemin; Regufe da Mota, Sergio; Liu, Rui; Moore, Claire E.; Xie, Jianling; Lanucara, Francesco; Agarwala, Usha; Pyr dit Ruys, Sébastien; Vertommen, Didier; Rider, Mark H.; Eyers, Claire E.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K), an atypical calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, phosphorylates and inhibits eEF2, slowing down translation elongation. eEF2K contains an N-terminal catalytic domain, a C-terminal α-helical region and a linker containing several regulatory phosphorylation sites. eEF2K is expressed at high levels in certain cancers, where it may act to help cell survival, e.g., during nutrient starvation. However, it is a negative regulator of protein synthesis and thus cell growth, suggesting that cancer cells may possess mechanisms to inhibit eEF2K under good growth conditions, to allow protein synthesis to proceed. We show here that the mTORC1 pathway and the oncogenic Ras/Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway cooperate to restrict eEF2K activity. We identify multiple sites in eEF2K whose phosphorylation is regulated by mTORC1 and/or ERK, including new ones in the linker region. We demonstrate that certain sites are phosphorylated directly by mTOR or ERK. Our data reveal that glycogen synthase kinase 3 signaling also regulates eEF2 phosphorylation. In addition, we show that phosphorylation sites remote from the N-terminal calmodulin-binding motif regulate the phosphorylation of N-terminal sites that control CaM binding. Mutations in the former sites, which occur in cancer cells, cause the activation of eEF2K. eEF2K is thus regulated by a network of oncogenic signaling pathways. PMID:25182533

  15. Sphingosine Kinases and Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptors: Signaling and Actions in the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Cannavo, Alessandro; Liccardo, Daniela; Komici, Klara; Corbi, Graziamaria; de Lucia, Claudio; Femminella, Grazia D; Elia, Andrea; Bencivenga, Leonardo; Ferrara, Nicola; Koch, Walter J; Paolocci, Nazareno; Rengo, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (SphK1 and 2) catalyze the phosphorylation of the lipid, sphingosine, generating the signal transmitter, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). The activation of such kinases and the subsequent S1P generation and secretion in the blood serum of mammals represent a major checkpoint in many cellular signaling cascades. In fact, activating the SphK/S1P system is critical for cell motility and proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, cell growth, survival, and response to stress. In the cardiovascular system, the physiological effects of S1P intervene through the binding and activation of a family of five highly selective G protein-coupled receptors, called S1PR1-5. Importantly, SphK/S1P signal is present on both vascular and myocardial cells. S1P is a well-recognized survival factor in many tissues. Therefore, it is not surprising that the last two decades have seen a flourishing of interest and investigative efforts directed to obtain additional mechanistic insights into the signaling, as well as the biological activity of this phospholipid, and of its receptors, especially in the cardiovascular system. Here, we will provide an up-to-date account on the structure and function of sphingosine kinases, discussing the generation, release, and function of S1P. Keeping the bull's eye on the cardiovascular system, we will review the structure and signaling cascades and biological actions emanating from the stimulation of different S1P receptors. We will end this article with a summary of the most recent, experimental and clinical observations targeting S1PRs and SphKs as possible new therapeutic avenues for cardiovascular disorders, such as heart failure.

  16. Phylogenomics of phosphoinositide lipid kinases: perspectives on the evolution of second messenger signaling and drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Phosphoinositide lipid kinases (PIKs) generate specific phosphorylated variants of phosatidylinositols (PtdIns) that are critical for second messenger signaling and cellular membrane remodeling. Mammals have 19 PIK isoforms spread across three major families: the PtIns 3-kinases (PI3Ks), PtdIns 4-kinases (PI4Ks), and PtdIns-P (PIP) kinases (PIPKs). Other eukaryotes have fewer yet varying PIK complements. PIKs are also an important, emerging class of drug targets for many therapeutic areas including cancer, inflammatory and metabolic diseases and host-pathogen interactions. Here, we report the genomic occurrences and evolutionary relationships or phylogenomics of all three PIK families across major eukaryotic groups and suggest potential ramifications for drug discovery. Results Our analyses reveal four core eukaryotic PIKs which are type III PIK4A and PIK4B, and at least one homolog each from PI3K (possibly PIK3C3 as the ancestor) and PIP5K families. We also applied evolutionary analyses to PIK disease ontology and drug discovery. Mutated PIK3CA are known to be oncogenic and several inhibitors are in anti-cancer clinical trials. We found conservation of activating mutations of PIK3CA in paralogous isoforms suggesting specific functional constraints on these residues. By mapping published compound inhibition data (IC50s) onto a phylogeny of PI3Ks, type II PI4Ks and distantly related, MTOR, ATM, ATR and PRKDC kinases, we also show that compound polypharmacology corresponds to kinase evolutionary relationships. Finally, we extended the rationale for drugs targeting PIKs of malarial Plasmodium falciparum, and the parasites, Leishmania sp. and Trypanosoma sp. by identifying those PIKs highly divergent from human homologs. Conclusion Our phylogenomic analysis of PIKs provides new insights into the evolution of second messenger signaling. We postulate two waves of PIK diversification, the first in metazoans with a subsequent expansion in cold

  17. Induction of Central Host Signaling Kinases during Pneumococcal Infection of Human THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Thomas P.; Scholz, Annemarie; Kiachludis, Delia; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a widespread colonizer of the mucosal epithelia of the upper respiratory tract of human. However, pneumococci are also responsible for numerous local as well as severe systemic infections, especially in children under the age of five and the elderly. Under certain conditions, pneumococci are able to conquer the epithelial barrier, which can lead to a dissemination of the bacteria into underlying tissues and the bloodstream. Here, specialized macrophages represent an essential part of the innate immune system against bacterial intruders. Recognition of the bacteria through different receptors on the surface of macrophages leads thereby to an uptake and elimination of bacteria. Accompanied cytokine release triggers the migration of leukocytes from peripheral blood to the site of infection, where monocytes differentiate into mature macrophages. The rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton during phagocytosis, resulting in the engulfment of bacteria, is thereby tightly regulated by receptor-mediated phosphorylation cascades of different protein kinases. The molecular cellular processes including the modulation of central protein kinases are only partially solved. In this study, the human monocytic THP-1 cell line was used as a model system to examine the activation of Fcγ and complement receptor-independent signal cascades during infection with S. pneumoniae. Pneumococci cultured either in chemically defined or complex medium showed no significant differences in pneumococcal phagocytosis by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) differentiated THP-1 cells. Double immuno-fluorescence microscopy and antibiotic protection assays demonstrated a time-dependent uptake and killing of S. pneumoniae 35A inside of macrophages. Infections of THP-1 cells in the presence of specific pharmacological inhibitors revealed a crucial role of actin polymerization and importance of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Protein kinase B (Akt) as well during

  18. Functional domains of Pho81p, an inhibitor of Pho85p protein kinase, in the transduction pathway of Pi signals in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, N; Noguchi, K; Sawai, H; Yamashita, Y; Yompakdee, C; Oshima, Y

    1995-01-01

    The PHO81 gene is thought to encode an inhibitor of the negative regulators (Pho80p and Pho85p) in the phosphatase (PHO) regulon. Transcription of PHO81 is regulated by Pi signals through the same PHO regulatory system. Elimination of the PHO81 promoter or its substitution by the GAL1 promoter revealed that stimulation of the PHO regulatory system requires both increased transcription of PHO81 and a Pi starvation signal. The predicted Pho81p protein contains 1,179 amino acids (aa) and has six repeats of an ankyrin-like sequence in its central region. The minimum amino acid sequence required for Pho81p function was narrowed down to a 141-aa segment (aa 584 to 724), which contains the fifth and sixth repeats of the ankyrin-like motif. The third to sixth repeats of the ankyrin-like motif of Pho81p have significant similarities to that of p16INK4, which inhibits activity of the human cyclin D-CDK4 kinase complex. Deletion analyses revealed that the N- and C-terminal regions of Pho81p behave as negative and positive regulatory domains, respectively, for the minimal 141-aa region. The negative regulatory activity of the N-terminal domain was antagonized by a C-terminal segment of Pho81p supplied in trans. All four known classes of PHO81c mutations that show repressible acid phosphatase activity in high-Pi medium affect the N-terminal half of Pho81p. An in vitro assay showed that a glutathione S-transferase-Pho81p fusion protein inhibits the Pho85p protein kinase. Association of Pho81p with Pho85p or with the Pho80p-Pho85p complex was demonstrated by the two-hybrid system. PMID:7823964

  19. Eupafolin suppresses prostate cancer by targeting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-mediated Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kangdong; Park, Chanmi; Chen, Hanyong; Hwang, Joonsung; Thimmegowda, N R; Bae, Eun Young; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Hong-Gyum; Liu, Haidan; Soung, Nak Kyun; Peng, Cong; Jang, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Ahn, Jong Seog; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Ziming; Kim, Bo Yeon; Dong, Zigang

    2015-09-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss or mutation consistently activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt signaling pathway, which contributes to the progression and invasiveness of prostate cancer. Furthermore, the PTEN/PI3-K/Akt and Ras/MAPK pathways cooperate to promote the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis initiated from prostate stem/progenitor cells. For these reasons, the PTEN/PI3-K/Akt pathway is considered as an attractive target for both chemoprevention and chemotherapy. Herein we report that eupafolin, a natural compound found in common sage, inhibited proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Protein content analysis indicated that phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream kinases was inhibited by eupafolin treatment. Pull-down assay and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that eupafolin could bind with PI3-K and attenuate its kinase activity. Eupafolin also exhibited tumor suppressive effects in vivo in an athymic nude mouse model. Overall, these results suggested that eupafolin exerts antitumor effects by targeting PI3-K. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Eupafolin suppresses prostate cancer by targeting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-mediated Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kangdong; Park, Chanmi; Chen, Hanyong; Hwang, Joonsung; Thimmegowda, N.R.; Bae, Eun Young; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Hong-Gyum; Liu, Haidan; Soung, Nak Kyun; Peng, Cong; Jang, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Ahn, Jong Seog; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Ziming; Kim, Bo Yeon; Dong, Zigang

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss or mutation consistently activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt signaling pathway, which contributes to the progression and invasiveness of prostate cancer. Furthermore, the PTEN/PI3-K/Akt and Ras/MAPK pathways cooperate to promote the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis initiated from prostate stem/progenitor cells. For these reasons, the PTEN/PI3-K/Akt pathway is considered as an attractive target for both chemoprevention and chemotherapy. Herein we report that eupafolin, a natural compound found in common sage, inhibited proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Protein content analysis indicated that phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream kinases was inhibited by eupafolin treatment. Pull-down assay and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that eupafolin could bind with PI3-K and attenuate its kinase activity. Eupafolin also exhibited tumor suppressive effects in vivo in an athymic nude mouse model. Overall, these results suggested that eupafolin exerts antitumor effects by targeting PI3-K. PMID:24700667

  1. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 exhibits oncogenic activity in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ziwei; Yang, Yang; Xie, Songbo; Li, Dengwen; Liu, Min; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has an extremely grim prognosis, with an overall 5-year survival rate less than 5%, as a result of its rapid metastasis and late diagnosis. To combat this disease, it is crucial to better understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to its pathogenesis. Herein, we report that apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer tissues and that its expression correlates with the histological grade of pancreatic cancer. The expression of ASK1 is also elevated in pancreatic cancer cell lines at both protein and mRNA levels. In addition, ASK1 promotes the proliferation and stimulates the tumorigenic capacity of pancreatic cancer cells. These functions of ASK1 are abrogated by pharmacological inhibition of its kinase activity or by introduction of a kinase-dead mutation, suggesting that the kinase activity of ASK1 is required for its role in pancreatic cancer. However, the alteration of ASK1 expression or activity does not significantly affect the migration or invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. Collectively, these findings reveal a critical role for ASK1 in the development of pancreatic cancer and have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of this malignancy. PMID:27655673

  2. Activation of MAP kinase signaling pathway in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as biomarker of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Châtel, A; Hamer, B; Talarmin, H; Dorange, G; Schröder, H C; Müller, W E G

    2010-03-01

    Stimulation of MAP kinase signal transduction pathway by various stressful stimuli was investigated in the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Analyses were performed in animals exposed in laboratory to selected pollutants and in mussels collected in winter and summer along the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia). Effects of oxidative stress, induced by tributyltin, hydrogen peroxide and water soluble fraction of diesel fuel on the activation/phosphorylation of the three Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) p38, JNK and ERK using a newly developed ELISA procedure were evaluated. MAP kinase activation was analyzed 1h after exposure of mussels to chemical agents, and after recovery periods of 6 and 24h. Our results clearly indicated that pollutants generated different patterns of induction of the MAPK phosphorylation. Indeed, only pp38 and pJNK were activated with 11, 33 and 100 microg/L TBT, reaching a maximum activation after 6h in seawater following treatment of mussels with 11 microg/L TBT. Treatment with 0.074 and 0.222 mM H2O2 enhanced activation of both p38 and ERK. These two kinases were activated after 1h exposure, followed by a diminution after 6h of recovery in seawater and a reactivation after 24h. The levels of phosphorylated P38 and JNK were increased after mussel exposure with 7.5, 15 and 30% of water soluble fraction of diesel oil. P38 was activated concentration dependently at 1h exposure. Additionally, field study pointed out seasonal differences in MAP kinases activation as mussels collected during summer had a higher enzyme activation state than in winter, as well as sampling site differences which could be correlated to the industrial/tourism activity and environmental stresses (salinity). All the results converge towards MAP kinase signaling pathway being induced by various pollutants in M. galloprovincialis. This signaling cascade should be considered as a possible biomarker of environmental stress and pollution. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All

  3. Erythropoietin inhibits osmotic swelling of retinal glial cells by Janus kinase- and extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2-mediated release of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Krügel, K; Wurm, A; Linnertz, R; Pannicke, T; Wiedemann, P; Reichenbach, A; Bringmann, A

    2010-02-17

    The volume homeostasis of retinal glial cells is mediated by an autocrine purinergic mechanism of ion channel opening which is activated in response to a decrease in the extracellular osmolarity. Here, we show that erythropoietin (EPO) prevents the osmotic swelling of glial somata in retinal slices and of isolated glial cells from control and diabetic rats, with a half-maximal effect at approximately 0.01 nM. The downstream signaling evoked by EPO includes a release of vascular endothelial growth factor from the cells which was blocked by Janus kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 inhibitors. Transactivation of kinase insert domain-containing receptor/fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (KDR/flk-1) evokes a calcium-dependent, exocytotic release of glutamate, followed by activation of group I/II metabotropic glutamate receptors which results in calcium-independent release of ATP and adenosine from the cells. The final step in this cascade is the activation of adenosine A(1) receptors which results in protein kinase A- and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated opening of potassium and chloride channels. EPO receptor protein was immunohistochemically localized to the inner retina and photoreceptor inner segments. In isolated glial cells, EPO receptor protein is selectively localized to fibers which traverse the inner nuclear layer in situ. Inhibition of glial swelling might contribute to the neuroprotective action of EPO in the retina under pathological conditions.

  4. MicroRNAs: Non-coding fine tuners of receptor tyrosine kinase signalling in cancer.

    PubMed

    Donzelli, Sara; Cioce, Mario; Muti, Paola; Strano, Sabrina; Yarden, Yosef; Blandino, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Emerging evidence point to a crucial role for non-coding RNAs in modulating homeostatic signaling under physiological and pathological conditions. MicroRNAs, the best-characterized non-coding RNAs to date, can exquisitely integrate spatial and temporal signals in complex networks, thereby confer specificity and sensitivity to tissue response to changes in the microenvironment. MicroRNAs appear as preferential partners for Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) in mediating signaling under stress conditions. Stress signaling can be especially relevant to disease. Here we focus on the ability of microRNAs to mediate RTK signaling in cancer, by acting as both tumor suppressors and oncogenes. We will provide a few general examples of microRNAs modulating specific tumorigenic functions downstream of RTK signaling and integrate oncogenic signals from multiple RTKs. A special focus will be devoted to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, a system offering relatively rich information. We will explore the role of selected microRNAs as bidirectional modulators of EGFR functions in cancer cells. In addition, we will present the emerging evidence for microRNAs being specifically modulated by oncogenic EGFR mutants and we will discuss how this impinges on EGFRmut driven chemoresistance, which fits into the tumor heterogeneity-driven cancer progression. Finally, we discuss how other non-coding RNA species are emerging as important modulators of cancer progression and why the scenario depicted herein is destined to become increasingly complex in the future.

  5. T Cell Receptor-Independent Basal Signaling via Erk and Abl Kinases Suppresses RAG Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Roose, Jeroen P; Diehn, Maximilian; Tomlinson, Michael G; Lin, Joseph; Alizadeh, Ash A; Botstein, David; Brown, Patrick O

    2003-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways guided by cellular receptors commonly exhibit low-level constitutive signaling in a continuous, ligand-independent manner. The dynamic equilibrium of positive and negative regulators establishes such a tonic signal. Ligand-independent signaling by the precursors of mature antigen receptors regulates development of B and T lymphocytes. Here we describe a basal signal that controls gene expression profiles in the Jurkat T cell line and mouse thymocytes. Using DNA microarrays and Northern blots to analyze unstimulated cells, we demonstrate that expression of a cluster of genes, including RAG-1 and RAG-2, is repressed by constitutive signals requiring the adapter molecules LAT and SLP-76. This TCR-like pathway results in constitutive low-level activity of Erk and Abl kinases. Inhibition of Abl by the drug STI-571 or inhibition of signaling events upstream of Erk increases RAG-1 expression. Our data suggest that physiologic gene expression programs depend upon tonic activity of signaling pathways independent of receptor ligation. PMID:14624253

  6. Protein Kinase C alpha (PKCα) dependent signaling mediates endometrial cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Haughian, James M.; Reno, Elaine M.; Thorne, Alicia M.; Bradford, Andrew P.

    2009-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common invasive gynecologic malignancy, yet molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways underlying its etiology and pathophysiology remain poorly characterized. We sought to define a functional role for the protein kinase C (PKC) isoform, PKCα, in an established cell model of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Ishikawa cells depleted of PKCα protein grew slower, formed fewer colonies in anchorage-independent growth assays and exhibited impaired xenograft tumor formation in nude mice. Consistent with impaired growth, PKCα knockdown increased levels of the cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21Cip1/WAF1 (p21) and p27Kip1 (p27). Despite the absence of functional phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) protein in Ishikawa cells, PKCα knockdown reduced Akt phosphorylation at serine 473 and concomitantly inhibited phosphorylation of the Akt target, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). PKCα knockdown also resulted in decreased basal ERK phosphorylation and attenuated ERK activation following EGF stimulation. p21 and p27 expression was not increased by treatment of Ishikawa cells with ERK and Akt inhibitors, suggesting PKCα regulates CDK expression independently of Akt and ERK. Immunohistochemical analysis of grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma revealed aberrant PKCα expression, with foci of elevated PKCα staining, not observed in normal endometrium. These studies demonstrate a critical role for PKCα signaling in endometrial tumorigenesis by regulating expression of CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 and activation of Akt and ERK dependent proliferative pathways. Thus, targeting PKCα may provide novel therapeutic options in endometrial tumors. PMID:19672862

  7. Science Signaling Podcast for 15 November 2016: A new type of kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit; VanHook, Annalisa M

    2016-11-15

    This Podcast features an interview with Hagit Eldar-Finkelman, author of a Research Article that appears in the 15 November 2016 issue of Science Signaling, about a newly developed inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). GSK-3 participates in several signaling networks and has been implicated in various pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases, cognitive impairments, and cancer. Licht-Murava et al developed L807mts, a substrate-competitive peptide inhibitor that blocks GSK-3 activity through an unusual mechanism. L807mts not only bound to the substrate recognition domain of GSK-3, it was also phosphorylated by the kinase. This phosphorylated form of L807mts remained associated with GSK-3 and inhibited GSK-3 activity. L807mts treatment reduced cellular, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. L807mts is an advance in kinase inhibitor development because it is both highly specific and very potent.Listen to Podcast. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Raf kinase inhibitory protein suppresses a metastasis signalling cascade involving LIN28 and let-7

    PubMed Central

    Dangi-Garimella, Surabhi; Yun, Jieun; Eves, Eva M; Newman, Martin; Erkeland, Stefan J; Hammond, Scott M; Minn, Andy J; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2009-01-01

    Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) negatively regulates the MAP kinase (MAPK), G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2, and NF-κB signalling cascades. RKIP has been implicated as a metastasis suppressor for prostate cancer, but the mechanism is not known. Here, we show that RKIP inhibits invasion by metastatic breast cancer cells and represses breast tumour cell intravasation and bone metastasis in an orthotopic murine model. The mechanism involves inhibition of MAPK, leading to decreased transcription of LIN28 by Myc. Suppression of LIN28 enables enhanced let-7 processing in breast cancer cells. Elevated let-7 expression inhibits HMGA2, a chromatin remodelling protein that activates pro-invasive and pro-metastatic genes, including Snail. LIN28 depletion and let-7 expression suppress bone metastasis, and LIN28 restores bone metastasis in mice bearing RKIP-expressing breast tumour cells. These results indicate that RKIP suppresses invasion and metastasis in part through a signalling cascade involving MAPK, Myc, LIN28, let-7, and downstream let-7 targets. RKIP regulation of two pluripotent stem cell genes, Myc and LIN28, highlights the importance of RKIP as a key metastasis suppressor and potential therapeutic agent. PMID:19153603

  9. Protein kinase A activation of glucocorticoid-mediated signaling in the developing retina.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H; Li, Y C; Young, A P

    1993-01-01

    This report establishes that increasing the activity of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A; PKA) potentiates glucocorticoid-mediated signaling in embryonic day 5.5 (E5.5) chicken retina. Expression of a glutamine synthetase-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion gene is not induced by treatment with glucocorticoid hormone in transfected E5.5 retina. However, treatment of the retina with forskolin, an activator of adenyl cyclase, or cotransfection with an expression vector encoding PKA is sufficient to render the fusion gene hormonally responsive. Similar results are obtained after forskolin treatment of E5.5 retina that have been transfected with a plasmid that contains the CAT reporter gene under transcriptional control by the thymidine kinase promoter and a 46-nucleotide enhancer with two glucocorticoid response elements (GREs). In contrast, forskolin augments but is not required to achieve glucocorticoid-inducible CAT gene expression in E5.5 retina transfected with a plasmid that contains the reporter driven by a minimal promoter with six juxtaposed GREs. Based on these results, we postulate that E5.5 retina contain glucocorticoid receptors whose signal transduction properties are enhanced by PKA. Unlike the transiently expressed glutamine synthetase fusion gene, however, activation of PKA does not render the endogenous glutamine synthetase gene glucocorticoid-inducible. Thus, its expression appears to be subject to an additional level of control in the developing retina. PMID:8097880

  10. CERK1, a LysM receptor kinase, is essential for chitin elicitor signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Miya, Ayako; Albert, Premkumar; Shinya, Tomonori; Desaki, Yoshitake; Ichimura, Kazuya; Shirasu, Ken; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Kawakami, Naoto; Kaku, Hanae; Shibuya, Naoto

    2007-12-04

    Chitin is a major component of fungal cell walls and serves as a microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) for the detection of various potential pathogens in innate immune systems of both plants and animals. We recently showed that chitin elicitor-binding protein (CEBiP), plasma membrane glycoprotein with LysM motifs, functions as a cell surface receptor for chitin elicitor in rice. The predicted structure of CEBiP does not contain any intracellular domains, suggesting that an additional component(s) is required for signaling through the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm. Here, we identified a receptor-like kinase, designated CERK1, which is essential for chitin elicitor signaling in Arabidopsis. The KO mutants for CERK1 completely lost the ability to respond to the chitin elicitor, including MAPK activation, reactive oxygen species generation, and gene expression. Disease resistance of the KO mutant against an incompatible fungus, Alternaria brassicicola, was partly impaired. Complementation with the WT CERK1 gene showed cerk1 mutations were responsible for the mutant phenotypes. CERK1 is a plasma membrane protein containing three LysM motifs in the extracellular domain and an intracellular Ser/Thr kinase domain with autophosphorylation/myelin basic protein kinase activity, suggesting that CERK1 plays a critical role in fungal MAMP perception in plants.

  11. Interaction between G proteins and tyrosine kinases upon T cell receptor.CD3-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Stanners, J; Kabouridis, P S; McGuire, K L; Tsoukas, C D

    1995-12-22

    Engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR).CD3 complex results in the induction of multiple intracellular events, with protein tyrosine kinases playing a pivotal role in their initiation. Biochemical studies also exist suggesting the involvement of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins); however, the functional consequence of this participation in TCR.CD3-mediated signaling is unresolved. Here, we report TCR.CD3-mediated guanine nucleotide exchange among the 42-kDa G protein alpha subunits of the G alpha q/11 family, their physical association with CD3 epsilon, and the G alpha 11-dependent activation of phospholipase C beta. Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, however, abrogate TCR.CD3-mediated G protein activation. Quite interesting is the observation that cells transfected with a function-deficient mutant of G alpha 11 display diminished tyrosine phosphorylation of TCR.CD3 zeta and epsilon chains, as well as ZAP-70, upon anti-CD3 antibody triggering. These data indicate the involvement of the G alpha q/11 family in TCR.CD3 signaling at a step proximal to the receptor and suggest a reciprocal regulation between tyrosine kinases and G proteins in T cells.

  12. Irisin promotes osteoblast proliferation and differentiation via activating the MAP kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yong Qiao, Xiao; Nie, Ying; Xian Ma, Ya; Chen, Yan; Cheng, Ran; Yao Yinrg, Wei; Hu, Ying; Ming Xu, Wen; Zhi Xu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise is able to improve skeletal health. However, the mechanisms are poorly known. Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, secreted by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, have been shown to mediate beneficial effects of exercise in many disorders. In the current study, we demonstrated that irisin promotes osteoblast proliferation, and increases the expression of osteoblastic transcription regulators, such as Runt-related transcription factor-2, osterix/sp7; and osteoblast differentiation markers, including alkaline phosphatase, collagen type 1 alpha-1, osteocalcin, and osteopontin in vitro. Irisin also increase ALP activity and calcium deposition in cultured osteoblast. These osteogenic effects were mediated by activating the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB023580 or pERK by U0126 abolished the proliferation and up-regulatory effects of irisin on Runx2 expression and ALP activity. Together our observation suggest that irisin directly targets osteoblast, promoting osteoblast proliferation and differentiation via activating P38/ERK MAP kinase signaling cascades in vitro. Whether irisin can be utilized as the therapeutic agents for osteopenia and osteoporosis is worth to be further pursued. PMID:26738434

  13. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling to Akt promotes keratinocyte differentiation versus death.

    PubMed

    Calautti, Enzo; Li, Jian; Saoncella, Stefania; Brissette, Janice L; Goetinck, Paul F

    2005-09-23

    Signaling pathways regulating the differentiation program of epidermal cells overlap widely with those activated during apoptosis. How differentiating cells remain protected from premature death, however, is still poorly defined. We show here that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is activated at early stages of mouse keratinocyte differentiation both in culture and in the intact epidermis in vivo. Expression of active Akt in keratinocytes promotes growth arrest and differentiation, whereas pharmacological blockade of PI3K inhibits the expression of "late" differentiation markers and leads to death of cells that would otherwise differentiate. Mechanistically, the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway in keratinocyte differentiation depends on the activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor and Src families of tyrosine kinases and the engagement of E-cadherin-mediated adhesion. During this process, PI3K associates increasingly with cadherin-catenin protein complexes bearing tyrosine phosphorylated YXXM motifs. Thus, the PI3K signaling pathway regulates the choice between epidermal cell differentiation and death at the cross-talk between tyrosine kinases and cadherin-associated catenins.

  14. Redundant Canonical and Noncanonical Caenorhabditis elegans p21-Activated Kinase Signaling Governs Distal Tip Cell Migrations

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Eldon C.; Gossett, Andrea J.; Goldstein, Bob; Der, Channing J.; Reiner, David J.

    2013-01-01

    p21-activated kinases (Paks) are prominent mediators of Rac/Cdc42-dependent and -independent signaling and regulate signal transduction and cytoskeletal-based cell movements. We used the reproducible migrations of the Caenorhabditis elegans gonadal distal tip cells to show that two of the three nematode Pak proteins, MAX-2 and PAK-1, function redundantly in regulation of cell migration but are regulated by very different mechanisms. First, we suggest that MAX-2 requires CED-10/Rac function and thus functions canonically. Second, PIX-1 and GIT-1 function in the same role as PAK-1, and PAK-1 interaction with PIX-1 is required for PAK-1 activity; thus, PAK-1 functions noncanonically. The human Pak-Pix-Git complex is central to noncanonical Pak signaling and requires only modest Rac/CDC-42 input. Unlike the human complex, our results suggest that the C. elegans Pak-Pix-Git complex requires PAK-1 kinase domain activity. This study delineates signaling network relationships in this cell migration model, thus providing potential further mechanistic insights and an assessment of total Pak contribution to cell migration events. PMID:23390595

  15. IκB Kinase α Phosphorylation of TRAF4 Downregulates Innate Immune Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Marinis, Jill M.; Hutti, Jessica E.; Homer, Craig R.; Cobb, Brian A.; Cantley, Lewis C.; McDonald, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Despite their homology, IκB kinase α (IKKα) and IKKβ have divergent roles in NF-κB signaling. IKKβ strongly activates NF-κB while IKKα can downregulate NF-κB under certain circumstances. Given this, identifying independent substrates for these kinases could help delineate their divergent roles. Peptide substrate array technology followed by bioinformatic screening identified TRAF4 as a substrate for IKKα. Like IKKα, TRAF4 is atypical within its family because it is the only TRAF family member to negatively regulate innate immune signaling. IKKα's phosphorylation of serine-426 on TRAF4 was required for this negative regulation. Binding to the Crohn's disease susceptibility protein, NOD2, is required for TRAF4 phosphorylation and subsequent inhibition of NOD2 signaling. Structurally, serine-426 resides within an exaggerated β-bulge in TRAF4 that is not present in the other TRAF proteins, and phosphorylation of this site provides a structural basis for the atypical function of TRAF4 and its atypical role in NOD2 signaling. PMID:22547678

  16. Activation of oncogenic tyrosine kinase signaling promotes insulin receptor-mediated cone photoreceptor survival

    PubMed Central

    Rajala, Ammaji; Wang, Yuhong; Rajala, Raju V.S.

    2016-01-01

    In humans, daylight vision is primarily mediated by cone photoreceptors. These cells die in age-related retinal degenerations. Prolonging the life of cones for even one decade would have an enormous beneficial effect on usable vision in an aging population. Photoreceptors are postmitotic, but shed 10% of their outer segments daily, and must synthesize the membrane and protein equivalent of a proliferating cell each day. Although activation of oncogenic tyrosine kinase and inhibition of tyrosine phosphatase signaling is known to be essential for tumor progression, the cellular regulation of this signaling in postmitotic photoreceptor cells has not been studied. In the present study, we report that a novel G-protein coupled receptor–mediated insulin receptor (IR) signaling pathway is regulated by non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src through the inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase IB (PTP1B). We demonstrated the functional significance of this pathway through conditional deletion of IR and PTP1B in cones, in addition to delaying the death of cones in a mouse model of cone degeneration by activating the Src. This is the first study demonstrating the molecular mechanism of a novel signaling pathway in photoreceptor cells, which provides a window of opportunity to save the dying cones in retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27391439

  17. The yeast Sks1p kinase signaling network regulates pseudohyphal growth and glucose response.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cole; Kweon, Hye Kyong; Sheidy, Daniel; Shively, Christian A; Mellacheruvu, Dattatreya; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I; Andrews, Philip C; Kumar, Anuj

    2014-03-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes a dramatic growth transition from its unicellular form to a filamentous state, marked by the formation of pseudohyphal filaments of elongated and connected cells. Yeast pseudohyphal growth is regulated by signaling pathways responsive to reductions in the availability of nitrogen and glucose, but the molecular link between pseudohyphal filamentation and glucose signaling is not fully understood. Here, we identify the glucose-responsive Sks1p kinase as a signaling protein required for pseudohyphal growth induced by nitrogen limitation and coupled nitrogen/glucose limitation. To identify the Sks1p signaling network, we applied mass spectrometry-based quantitative phosphoproteomics, profiling over 900 phosphosites for phosphorylation changes dependent upon Sks1p kinase activity. From this analysis, we report a set of novel phosphorylation sites and highlight Sks1p-dependent phosphorylation in Bud6p, Itr1p, Lrg1p, Npr3p, and Pda1p. In particular, we analyzed the Y309 and S313 phosphosites in the pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit Pda1p; these residues are required for pseudohyphal growth, and Y309A mutants exhibit phenotypes indicative of impaired aerobic respiration and decreased mitochondrial number. Epistasis studies place SKS1 downstream of the G-protein coupled receptor GPR1 and the G-protein RAS2 but upstream of or at the level of cAMP-dependent PKA. The pseudohyphal growth and glucose signaling transcription factors Flo8p, Mss11p, and Rgt1p are required to achieve wild-type SKS1 transcript levels. SKS1 is conserved, and deletion of the SKS1 ortholog SHA3 in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans results in abnormal colony morphology. Collectively, these results identify Sks1p as an important regulator of filamentation and glucose signaling, with additional relevance towards understanding stress-responsive signaling in C. albicans.

  18. Kinase Cascades and Ligand-Directed Signaling at the Kappa Opioid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bruchas, Michael R.; Chavkin, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Background and Rationale The dynorphin / kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) system has been implicated as a critical component of the stress response. Stress-induced activation of dynorphin-KOR is well-known to produce analgesia, and more recently it has been implicated as a mediator of stress-induced responses including anxiety, depression, and reinstatement of drug seeking. Objective Drugs selectively targeting specific KOR signaling pathways may prove potentially useful as therapeutic treatments for mood and addiction disorders. Results KOR is a member of the seven transmembrane spanning (7TM) G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. KOR activation of pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins leads to Gαi/o inhibition of adenylyl cyclase production of cAMP and releases Gβγ, which modulates the conductances of Ca+2 and K+ channels. In addition, KOR agonists activate kinase cascades including G-protein coupled Receptor Kinases (GRK) and members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family: ERK1/2, p38 and JNK. Recent pharmacological data suggests that GPCRs exist as dynamic, multi-conformational protein complexes that can be directed by specific ligands towards distinct signaling pathways. Ligand-induced conformations of KOR that evoke β–arrestin-dependent p38 MAPK activation result in aversion; whereas ligand-induced conformations that activate JNK without activating arrestin produce long-lasting inactivation of KOR signaling. Conclusions In this review, we discuss the current status of KOR signal transduction research and the data that support two novel hypotheses: 1) KOR selective partial agonists that do not efficiently activate p38 MAPK may be useful analgesics without producing the dysphoric or hallucinogenic effects of selective, highly efficacious KOR agonists and 2) KOR antagonists that do not activate JNK may be effective short-acting drugs that may promote stress-resilience. PMID:20401607

  19. Scaffold State Switching Amplifies, Accelerates, and Insulates Protein Kinase C Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Eric C.; Redden, John M.; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly L.; Saucerman, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Scaffold proteins localize two or more signaling enzymes in close proximity to their downstream effectors. A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are a canonical family of scaffold proteins known to bind protein kinase A (PKA) and other enzymes. Several AKAPs have been shown to accelerate, amplify, and specify signal transduction to dynamically regulate numerous cellular processes. However, there is little theory available to mechanistically explain how signaling on protein scaffolds differs from solution biochemistry. In our present study, we propose a novel kinetic mechanism for enzymatic reactions on protein scaffolds to explain these phenomena, wherein the enzyme-substrate-scaffold complex undergoes stochastic state switching to reach an active state. This model predicted anchored enzymatic reactions to be accelerated, amplified, and insulated from inhibition compared with those occurring in solution. We exploited a direct interaction between protein kinase C (PKC) and AKAP7α as a model to validate these predictions experimentally. Using a genetically encoded PKC activity reporter, we found that both the strength and speed of substrate phosphorylation were enhanced by AKAP7α. PKC tethered to AKAP7α was less susceptible to inhibition from the ATP-competitive inhibitor Gö6976 and the substrate-competitive inhibitor PKC 20-28, but not the activation-competitive inhibitor calphostin C. Model predictions and experimental validation demonstrated that insulation is a general property of scaffold tethering. Sensitivity analysis indicated that these findings may be applicable to many other scaffolds as well. Collectively, our findings provide theoretical and experimental evidence that scaffold proteins can amplify, accelerate, and insulate signal transduction. PMID:24302730

  20. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in signaling plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Zhang, Shuqun

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are ubiquitous signaling modules in eukaryotes. Early research of plant MAPKs has been focused on their functions in immunity and stress responses. Recent studies reveal that they also play essential roles in plant growth and development downstream of receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs). With only a limited number of MAPK components, multiple functional pathways initiated from different receptors often share the same MAPK components or even a complete MAPK cascade. In this review, we discuss how MAPK cascades function as molecular switches in response to spatiotemporal-specific ligand-receptor interactions and the availability of downstream substrates. In addition, we discuss other possible mechanisms governing the functional specificity of plant MAPK cascades, a question central to our understanding of MAPK functions.

  1. Phospho-kinase profile of triple negative breast cancer and androgen receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in the oncogenesis of different tumors, as is the case in prostate cancer. In triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) a gene expression classification has described different subgroups including a luminal androgen subtype. The AR can be controlled by several mechanisms like the activation of membrane tyrosine kinases and downstream signaling pathways. However little is known in TNBC about how the AR is modulated by these mechanisms and the potential therapeutic strategists to inhibit its expression. Methods We used human samples to evaluate the expression of AR by western-blot and phospho-proteomic kinase arrays that recognize membrane tyrosine kinase receptors and downstream mediators. Western-blots in human cell lines were carried out to analyze the expression and activation of individual proteins. Drugs against these kinases in different conditions were used to measure the expression of the androgen receptor. PCR experiments were performed to assess changes in the AR gene after therapeutic modulation of these pathways. Results AR is present in a subset of TNBC and its expression correlates with activated membrane receptor kinases-EGFR and PDGFRβ in human samples and cell lines. Inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR pathway in TNBC cell lines decreased notably the expression of the AR. Concomitant administration of the anti-androgen bicalutamide with the EGFR, PDGFRβ and Erk1/2 inhibitors, decreased the amount of AR compared to each agent given alone, and had an additive anti-proliferative effect. Administration of dihydrotestosterone augmented the expression of AR that was not modified by the inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR or Erk1/2 pathways. AR expression was posttranscriptionally regulated by PI3K or Erk1/2 inhibition. Conclusion Our results describe the expression of the AR in TNBC as a druggable target and further suggest the combination of bicalutamide with inhibitors of EGFR, PDGFRβ or Erk1/2 for future

  2. Casein kinase 1 gamma couples Wnt receptor activation to cytoplasmic signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Gary; Wu, Wei; Shen, Jinlong; Bilic, Josipa; Fenger, Ursula; Stannek, Peter; Glinka, Andrei; Niehrs, Christof

    2005-12-08

    Signalling by Wnt proteins (Wingless in Drosophila) has diverse roles during embryonic development and in adults, and is implicated in human diseases, including cancer. LDL-receptor-related proteins 5 and 6 (LRP5 and LRP6; Arrow in Drosophila) are key receptors required for transmission of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling in metazoa. Although the role of these receptors in Wnt signalling is well established, their coupling with the cytoplasmic signalling apparatus remains poorly defined. Using a protein modification screen for regulators of LRP6, we describe the identification of Xenopus Casein kinase 1 gamma (CK1gamma), a membrane-bound member of the CK1 family. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments show that CK1gamma is both necessary and sufficient to transduce LRP6 signalling in vertebrates and Drosophila cells. In Xenopus embryos, CK1gamma is required during anterio-posterior patterning to promote posteriorizing Wnt/beta-catenin signalling. CK1gamma is associated with LRP6, which has multiple, modular CK1 phosphorylation sites. Wnt treatment induces the rapid CK1gamma-mediated phosphorylation of these sites within LRP6, which, in turn, promotes the recruitment of the scaffold protein Axin. Our results reveal an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that couples Wnt receptor activation to the cytoplasmic signal transduction apparatus.

  3. [Acupuncture-moxibustion and mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways].

    PubMed

    Tiano, Shen; Zhong-Ren, Li

    2012-03-01

    The Literatures on mechanism of acupuncture from the aspect of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathways are analyzed in this paper. And the result shows that many acupuncture effects are closely related with the regulation of MAPK signal transduction pathway. However, the current studies only cover limited aspects, and there problems still existed in the experiment designation. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture are often adopted for the treatment group, while moxibustion is not applied for most of them. There are not unified wave model, frequency and stimulation period for electroacupuncture. And the studies still remain in simple confirmation and proper inference. In the future, the domain of researches should be further wid ened and the experiment designation further perfected. Therefore, the therapeutic effect of acupuncture in clinic will be greatly improved through researches on MAPK signal transduction pathway and the production mechanism of acupuncture effect.

  4. Brassinosteroid signal transduction: from receptor kinase activation to transcriptional networks regulating plant development.

    PubMed

    Clouse, Steven D

    2011-04-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) signal transduction research has progressed rapidly from the initial discovery of the BR receptor to a complete definition of the basic molecular components required to relay the BR signal from perception by receptor kinases at the cell surface to activation of a small family of transcription factors that regulate the expression of more than a thousand genes in a BR-dependent manner. These mechanistic advances have helped answer the intriguing question of how a single molecule, such as a hormone, can have dramatic pleiotropic effects on a broad range of diverse developmental pathways and have shed light on how BRs interact with other plant hormones and environmental cues to shape the growth of the whole plant. This review summarizes the current state of BR signal transduction research and then examines recent articles uncovering gene regulatory networks through which BR influences both vegetative and reproductive development.

  5. Brassinosteroid Signal Transduction: From Receptor Kinase Activation to Transcriptional Networks Regulating Plant Development REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Clouse, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) signal transduction research has progressed rapidly from the initial discovery of the BR receptor to a complete definition of the basic molecular components required to relay the BR signal from perception by receptor kinases at the cell surface to activation of a small family of transcription factors that regulate the expression of more than a thousand genes in a BR-dependent manner. These mechanistic advances have helped answer the intriguing question of how a single molecule, such as a hormone, can have dramatic pleiotropic effects on a broad range of diverse developmental pathways and have shed light on how BRs interact with other plant hormones and environmental cues to shape the growth of the whole plant. This review summarizes the current state of BR signal transduction research and then examines recent articles uncovering gene regulatory networks through which BR influences both vegetative and reproductive development. PMID:21505068

  6. Human cervical cancer cells use Ca2+ signalling, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and MAP kinase in regulatory volume decrease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Meng-Ru; Chou, Cheng-Yang; Browning, Joseph A; Wilkins, Robert J; Ellory, J Clive

    2001-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying the signalling pathways involved in the activation of volume-regulatory mechanisms of human cervical cancer cells. Osmotic swelling of human cervical cancer cells induced a substantial increase in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) by the activation of Ca2+ entry across the cell membrane, as well as Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. This Ca2+ signalling was critical for the normal regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response. The activation of swelling-activated ion and taurine transport was significantly inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein and tyrphostin AG 1478) and potentiated by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor Na3VO4. However, the Src family of tyrosine kinases was not involved in regulation of the swelling-activated Cl− channel. Cell swelling triggered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades leading to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/ERK2) and p38 kinase. The volume-responsive ERK1/ERK2 signalling pathway linked with the activation of K+ and Cl− channels, and taurine transport. However, the volume-regulatory mechanism was independent of the activation of p38 MAP kinase. The phosphorylated ERK1/ERK2 expression following a hypotonic shock was up-regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and down-regulated by PKC inhibitor staurosporine. The response of ERK activation to hypotonicity also required Ca2+ entry and depended on tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated/ERK-activating kinase (MEK) activity. Considering the results overall, osmotic swelling promotes the activation of tyrosine kinase and ERK1/ERK2 and raises intracellular Ca2+, all of which play a crucial role in the volume-regulatory mechanism of human cervical cancer cells. PMID:11731569

  7. Human cervical cancer cells use Ca2+ signalling, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and MAP kinase in regulatory volume decrease.

    PubMed

    Shen, M R; Chou, C Y; Browning, J A; Wilkins, R J; Ellory, J C

    2001-12-01

    1. This study was aimed at identifying the signalling pathways involved in the activation of volume-regulatory mechanisms of human cervical cancer cells. 2. Osmotic swelling of human cervical cancer cells induced a substantial increase in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) by the activation of Ca2+ entry across the cell membrane, as well as Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. This Ca2+ signalling was critical for the normal regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response. 3. The activation of swelling-activated ion and taurine transport was significantly inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein and tyrphostin AG 1478) and potentiated by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor Na3VO4. However, the Src family of tyrosine kinases was not involved in regulation of the swelling-activated Cl- channel. 4. Cell swelling triggered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades leading to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/ERK2) and p38 kinase. The volume-responsive ERK1/ERK2 signalling pathway linked with the activation of K+ and Cl- channels, and taurine transport. However, the volume-regulatory mechanism was independent of the activation of p38 MAP kinase. 5. The phosphorylated ERK1/ERK2 expression following a hypotonic shock was up-regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and down-regulated by PKC inhibitor staurosporine. The response of ERK activation to hypotonicity also required Ca2+ entry and depended on tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated/ERK-activating kinase (MEK) activity. 6. Considering the results overall, osmotic swelling promotes the activation of tyrosine kinase and ERK1/ERK2 and raises intracellular Ca2+, all of which play a crucial role in the volume-regulatory mechanism of human cervical cancer cells.

  8. Reciprocal regulation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 and mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-3

    SciTech Connect

    Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Mauro, Laura J.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2008-11-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-3 (MKP-3) is a putative tumor suppressor. When transiently overexpressed, MKP-3 dephosphorylates and inactivates extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Little is known about the roles of endogenous MKP-3, however. We previously showed that MKP-3 is upregulated in cell lines that express oncogenic Ras. Here we tested the roles of endogenous MKP-3 in modulating ERK1/2 under conditions of chronic stimulation of the Ras/Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 pathway by expression of oncogenic Ras. We used two cell lines: H-ras MCF10A, breast epithelial cells engineered to express H-Ras, and DLD-1, colon cancer cells that express endogenous Ki-Ras. First, we found that MKP-3 acts in a negative feedback loop to suppress basal ERK1/2 when oncogenic Ras stimulates the Ras/Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 cascade. ERK1/2 was required to maintain elevated MKP-3, indicative of a negative feedback loop. Accordingly, knockdown of MKP-3, via siRNA, increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Second, by using siRNA, we found that MKP-3 helps establish the sensitivity of ERK1/2 to extracellular activators by limiting the duration of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Third, we found that the regulation of ERK1/2 by MKP-3 is countered by the complex regulation of MKP-3 by ERK1/2. Potent ERK1/2 activators stimulated the loss of MKP-3 within 30 min due to an ERK1/2-dependent decrease in MKP-3 protein stability. MKP-3 levels recovered within 120 min due to ERK1/2-dependent resynthesis. Preventing MKP-3 resynthesis, via siRNA, prolonged ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Altogether, these results suggest that under the pressure of oncogenic Ras expression, MKP-3 reins in ERK1/2 by serving in ERK1/2-dependent negative feedback pathways.

  9. Differential regulation of protein tyrosine kinase signalling by Dock and the PTP61F variants.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Lee F; Manent, Jan; Allan, Kirsten; Lee, Han; Portela, Marta; Wiede, Florian; Warr, Coral; Meng, Tzu-Ching; Tiganis, Tony; Richardson, Helena E

    2017-07-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent signalling is coordinated by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). There is a growing list of adaptor proteins that interact with PTPs and facilitate the dephosphorylation of substrates. The extent to which any given adaptor confers selectivity for any given substrate in vivo remains unclear. Here we have taken advantage of Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism to explore the influence of the SH3/SH2 adaptor protein Dock on the abilities of the membrane (PTP61Fm)- and nuclear (PTP61Fn)-targeted variants of PTP61F (the Drosophila othologue of the mammalian enzymes PTP1B and TCPTP respectively) to repress PTK signalling pathways in vivo. PTP61Fn effectively repressed the eye overgrowth associated with activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), PTK, or the expression of the platelet-derived growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (PVR) or insulin receptor (InR) PTKs. PTP61Fn repressed EGFR and PVR-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling and attenuated PVR-induced STAT92E signalling. By contrast, PTP61Fm effectively repressed EGFR- and PVR-, but not InR-induced tissue overgrowth. Importantly, coexpression of Dock with PTP61F allowed for the efficient repression of the InR-induced eye overgrowth, but did not enhance the PTP61Fm-mediated inhibition of EGFR and PVR-induced signalling. Instead, Dock expression increased, and PTP61Fm coexpression further exacerbated the PVR-induced eye overgrowth. These results demonstrate that Dock selectively enhances the PTP61Fm-mediated attenuation of InR signalling and underscores the specificity of PTPs and the importance of adaptor proteins in regulating PTP function in vivo. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  10. SUCROSE NON-FERMENTING 1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE 2 (SNRK2): A FAMILY OF PROTEIN KINASES INVOLVED IN HYPEROSMOTIC STRESS SIGNALING

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our understanding of plant adaptation to abiotic stresses, which include drought, salinity, non-optimal temperatures and poor soil nutrition, is still limiting although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the gene players and signaling partners. Several protein kinases get acti...

  11. Imipramine protects retinal ganglion cells from oxidative stress through the tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ming-lei; Liu, Guo-hua; Guo, Jin; Yu, Shu-juan; Huang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration is irreversible in glaucoma and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB)-associated signaling pathways have been implicated in the process. In this study, we attempted to examine whether imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, may protect hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced RGC degeneration through the activation of the TrkB pathway in RGC-5 cell lines. RGC-5 cell lines were pre-treated with imipramine 30 minutes before exposure to H2O2. Western blot assay showed that in H2O2 -damaged RGC-5 cells, imipramine activated TrkB pathways through extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase/TrkB phosphorylation. TUNEL staining assay also demonstrated that imipramine ameliorated H2O2 -induced apoptosis in RGC-5 cells. Finally, TrkB-IgG intervention was able to reverse the protective effect of imipramine on H2O2 -induced RGC-5 apoptosis. Imipramine therefore protects RGCs from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through the TrkB signaling pathway. PMID:27127489

  12. A chemical proteomics approach to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Christian; Bertschy-Meier, Dominique; Chabert, Christian; Curchod, Marie-Laure; Arod, Christian; Booth, Randy; Mechtler, Karl; Vilbois, Francis; Xenarios, Ioannis; Ferguson, Colin G; Prestwich, Glenn D; Camps, Montserrat; Rommel, Christian

    2007-11-01

    Prior work using lipid-based affinity matrices has been done to investigate distinct sets of lipid-binding proteins, and one series of experiments has proven successful in mammalian cells for the proteome-wide identification of lipid-binding proteins. However, most lipid-based proteomics screens require scaled up sample preparation, are often composed of multiple cell types, and are not adapted for simultaneous signal transduction studies. Herein we provide a chemical proteomics strategy that uses cleavable lipid "baits" with broad applicability to diverse biological samples. The novel baits were designed to avoid preparative steps to allow functional proteomics studies when the biological source is a limiting factor. Validation of the chemical baits was first confirmed by the selective isolation of several known endogenous phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling proteins using primary bone marrow-derived macrophages. The use of this technique for cellular proteomics and MS/MS analysis was then demonstrated by the identification of known and potential novel lipid-binding proteins that was confirmed in vitro for several proteins by direct lipid-protein interactions. Further to the identification, the method is also compatible with subsequent signal transduction studies, notably for protein kinase profiling of the isolated lipid-bound protein complexes. Taken together, this integration of minimal scale proteomics, lipid chemistry, and activity-based readouts provides a significant advancement in the ability to identify and study the lipid proteome of single, relevant cell types.

  13. Measurement of the formation of complexes in tyrosine kinase-mediated signal transduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ladbury, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) provides a full thermodynamic characterization of an interaction in one experiment. The determination of the affinity is an important value; however, the additional layer of information provided by the change in enthalpy and entropy can help in understanding the biology. This is demonstrated with respect to tyrosine kinase-mediated signal transduction. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) provides highly complementary data to high-resolution structural detail. An overview of the methodology of the technique is provided. Ultimately, the correlation of the thermodynamic parameters determined by ITC with structural perturbation observed on going from the free to the bound state should be possible at an atomic level. Currently, thermodynamic data provide some insight as to potential changes occurring on complex formation. Here, this is demonstrated in the context of in vitro quantification of intracellular tyrosine kinase-mediated signal transduction and the issue of specificity of the important interactions. The apparent lack of specificity in the interactions of domains of proteins involved in early signalling from membrane-bound receptors is demonstrated using data from ITC.

  14. Isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in breast cancer via Akt and mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shan; Huang, Liming; Meng, Liwei; Sun, He; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yingchun

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of female cancer-associated mortality. Although treatment options, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have led to a decline in the mortality rates associated with breast cancer, drug resistance remains one of the predominant causes for poor prognosis and high recurrence rates. The present study investigated the potential effects of the natural product, isorhamnetin on breast cancer, and examined the effects of isorhamnetin on the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK kinase (MEK) signaling cascades, which are two important signaling pathways for endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer. The results of the present study indicate that isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis. In addition, isorhamnetin was observed to inhibit the Akt/mTOR and the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation cascades. The inhibition of these two signaling pathways was attenuated by the two Akt and MEK1 inhibitors, but not by the nuclear factor-κB inhibitor. Furthermore, epidermal growth factor inhibited the effects of isorhamnetin via activation of the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. These results indicate that isorhamnetin exhibits antitumor effects in breast cancer, which are mediated by the Akt and MEK signaling pathways.

  15. Isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in breast cancer via Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    HU, SHAN; HUANG, LIMING; MENG, LIWEI; SUN, HE; ZHANG, WEI; XU, YINGCHUN

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of female cancer-associated mortality. Although treatment options, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have led to a decline in the mortality rates associated with breast cancer, drug resistance remains one of the predominant causes for poor prognosis and high recurrence rates. The present study investigated the potential effects of the natural product, isorhamnetin on breast cancer, and examined the effects of isorhamnetin on the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK kinase (MEK) signaling cascades, which are two important signaling pathways for endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer. The results of the present study indicate that isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis. In addition, isorhamnetin was observed to inhibit the Akt/mTOR and the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation cascades. The inhibition of these two signaling pathways was attenuated by the two Akt and MEK1 inhibitors, but not by the nuclear factor-κB inhibitor. Furthermore, epidermal growth factor inhibited the effects of isorhamnetin via activation of the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. These results indicate that isorhamnetin exhibits antitumor effects in breast cancer, which are mediated by the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. PMID:26502751

  16. Caveolin-1 regulates shear stress-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, H.; Go, Y. M.; Darji, R.; Choi, J. W.; Lisanti, M. P.; Maland, M. C.; Jo, H.

    2000-01-01

    Fluid shear stress activates a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), by mechanisms dependent on cholesterol in the plasma membrane in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Caveolae are microdomains of the plasma membrane that are enriched with cholesterol, caveolin, and signaling molecules. We hypothesized that caveolin-1 regulates shear activation of ERK. Because caveolin-1 is not exposed to the outside, cells were minimally permeabilized by Triton X-100 (0.01%) to deliver a neutralizing, polyclonal caveolin-1 antibody (pCav-1) inside the cells. pCav-1 then bound to caveolin-1 and inhibited shear activation of ERK but not c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Epitope mapping studies showed that pCav-1 binds to caveolin-1 at two regions (residues 1-21 and 61-101). When the recombinant proteins containing the epitopes fused to glutathione-S-transferase (GST-Cav(1-21) or GST-Cav(61-101)) were preincubated with pCav-1, only GST-Cav(61-101) reversed the inhibitory effect of the antibody on shear activation of ERK. Other antibodies, including m2234, which binds to caveolin-1 residues 1-21, had no effect on shear activation of ERK. Caveolin-1 residues 61-101 contain the scaffolding and oligomerization domains, suggesting that binding of pCav-1 to these regions likely disrupts the clustering of caveolin-1 or its interaction with signaling molecules involved in the shear-sensitive ERK pathway. We suggest that caveolae-like domains play a critical role in the mechanosensing and/or mechanosignal transduction of the ERK pathway.

  17. Caveolin-1 regulates shear stress-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, H.; Go, Y. M.; Darji, R.; Choi, J. W.; Lisanti, M. P.; Maland, M. C.; Jo, H.

    2000-01-01

    Fluid shear stress activates a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), by mechanisms dependent on cholesterol in the plasma membrane in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Caveolae are microdomains of the plasma membrane that are enriched with cholesterol, caveolin, and signaling molecules. We hypothesized that caveolin-1 regulates shear activation of ERK. Because caveolin-1 is not exposed to the outside, cells were minimally permeabilized by Triton X-100 (0.01%) to deliver a neutralizing, polyclonal caveolin-1 antibody (pCav-1) inside the cells. pCav-1 then bound to caveolin-1 and inhibited shear activation of ERK but not c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Epitope mapping studies showed that pCav-1 binds to caveolin-1 at two regions (residues 1-21 and 61-101). When the recombinant proteins containing the epitopes fused to glutathione-S-transferase (GST-Cav(1-21) or GST-Cav(61-101)) were preincubated with pCav-1, only GST-Cav(61-101) reversed the inhibitory effect of the antibody on shear activation of ERK. Other antibodies, including m2234, which binds to caveolin-1 residues 1-21, had no effect on shear activation of ERK. Caveolin-1 residues 61-101 contain the scaffolding and oligomerization domains, suggesting that binding of pCav-1 to these regions likely disrupts the clustering of caveolin-1 or its interaction with signaling molecules involved in the shear-sensitive ERK pathway. We suggest that caveolae-like domains play a critical role in the mechanosensing and/or mechanosignal transduction of the ERK pathway.

  18. Drug-induced alterations in the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway: implications for reinforcement and reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haifeng; Li, Yanqin; Wang, Xi; Lu, Lin

    2008-02-01

    Drug addiction, characterized by high rates of relapse, is recognized as a kind of neuroadaptive disorder. Since the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is critical to neuroplasticity in the adult brain, understanding the role this pathway plays is important for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying drug addiction and relapse. Here, we review previous literatures that focus on the effects of exposure to cocaine, amphetamine, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), nicotine, morphine, and alcohol on ERK signaling in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system; these alterations of ERK signaling have been thought to contribute to the drug's rewarding effects and to the long-term maladaptation induced by drug abuse. We then discuss the possible upstreams of the ERK signaling pathway activated by exposure of drugs of abuse and the environmental cues previously paired with drugs. Finally, we argue that since ERK activation is a key molecular process in reinstatement of conditioned place preference and drug self-administration, the pharmacological manipulation of the ERK pathway is a potential treatment strategy for drug addiction.

  19. Heparanase Enhances the Insulin Receptor Signaling Pathway to Activate Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase in Multiple Myeloma*

    PubMed Central

    Purushothaman, Anurag; Babitz, Stephen K.; Sanderson, Ralph D.

    2012-01-01

    ERK signaling regulates proliferation, survival, drug resistance, and angiogenesis in cancer. Although the mechanisms regulating ERK activation are not fully understood, we previously demonstrated that ERK phosphorylation is elevated by heparanase, an enzyme associated with aggressive behavior of many cancers. In the present study, myeloma cell lines expressing either high or low levels of heparanase were utilized to determine how heparanase stimulates ERK signaling. We discovered that the insulin receptor was abundant on cells expressing either high or low levels of heparanase, but the receptor was highly phosphorylated in heparanase-high cells compared with heparanase-low cells. In addition, protein kinase C activity was elevated in heparanase-high cells, and this enhanced expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), the principle intracellular substrate for phosphorylation by the insulin receptor. Blocking insulin receptor function with antibody or a small molecule inhibitor or knockdown of IRS-1 expression using shRNA diminished heparanase-mediated ERK activation in the tumor cells. In addition, up-regulation of the insulin signaling pathway by heparanase and the resulting ERK activation were dependent on heparanase retaining its enzyme activity. These results reveal a novel mechanism whereby heparanase enhances activation of the insulin receptor signaling pathway leading to ERK activation and modulation of myeloma behavior. PMID:23048032

  20. The noble gas argon modifies extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling in neurons and glial cells.

    PubMed

    Fahlenkamp, Astrid V; Rossaint, Rolf; Haase, Hajo; Al Kassam, Hussam; Ryang, Yu-Mi; Beyer, Cordian; Coburn, Mark

    2012-01-15

    Recently, the noble gas argon has been identified as a potent neuroprotective agent, but little is known about its cellular effects. In this in vitro study, we investigated argon's influence on the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, a ubiquitous enzyme with numerous functions in cell proliferation and survival. Primary neuronal and astroglial cell cultures and the microglial cell line BV-2 were exposed to 50 vol.% argon. Further possible effects were studied following stimulation of microglia with 50 ng/ml LPS. ERK 1/2 activation was assessed by phosphorylation state-specific western blotting, cytokine levels by real-time PCR and western blotting. Total phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity was examined with p-nitrophenylphosphate. After 30 min exposure, argon significantly activated ERK 1/2 signaling in microglia. Enhanced phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 was also found in astrocytes and neurons following argon exposure, but it lacked statistical significance. In microglia, argon did not substantially interfere with LPS-induced ERK1/2 activation and inflammatory cytokine induction. Addition of the MEK-Inhibitor U0126 abolished the induced ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. Cellular phosphatase activity and the inactivation of phosphorylated ERK 1/2 were not altered by argon. In conclusion, argon enhanced ERK 1/2 activity in microglia via the upstream kinase MEK, probably through a direct mode of activation. ERK 1/2 signaling in astrocytes and neurons in vitro was also influenced, although not with statistical significance. Whether ERK 1/2 activation by argon affects cellular functions like differentiation and survival in the brain in vivo will have to be determined in future experiments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Amyloid-β induced signaling by cellular prion protein and Fyn kinase in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Um, Ji Won; Strittmatter, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia. Amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers are potent synaptotoxins thought to mediate AD-related phenotypes. Cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) has been identified as a high-affinity receptor for Aβ oligomers. Herein, we review the functional consequences of Aβ oligomer binding to PrP(C) on the neuronal surface. We highlight recent evidence that Fyn kinase mediates signal transduction downstream of the PrP(C)-Aβ oligomer complex. These studies suggest that PrP(C) has a central role in AD pathogenesis and may provide a target for therapeutic intervention in AD.

  2. The receptor kinase CERK1 has dual functions in symbiosis and immunity signalling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Dong, Wentao; Sun, Jongho; Feng, Feng; Deng, Yiwen; He, Zuhua; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Wang, Ertao

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of symbiotic interactions between mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobial bacteria and their legume hosts involves a common symbiosis signalling pathway. This signalling pathway is activated by Nod factors produced by rhizobia and these are recognised by the Nod factor receptors NFR1/LYK3 and NFR5/NFP. Mycorrhizal fungi produce lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs) similar to Nod factors, as well as short-chain chitin oligomers (CO4/5), implying commonalities in signalling during mycorrhizal and rhizobial associations. Here we show that NFR1/LYK3, but not NFR5/NFP, is required for the establishment of the mycorrhizal interaction in legumes. NFR1/LYK3 is necessary for the recognition of mycorrhizal fungi and the activation of the symbiosis signalling pathway leading to induction of calcium oscillations and gene expression. Chitin oligosaccharides also act as microbe associated molecular patterns that promote plant immunity via similar LysM receptor-like kinases. CERK1 in rice has the highest homology to NFR1 and we show that this gene is also necessary for the establishment of the mycorrhizal interaction as well as for resistance to the rice blast fungus. Our results demonstrate that NFR1/LYK3/OsCERK1 represents a common receptor for chitooligosaccharide-based signals produced by mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobial bacteria (in legumes) and fungal pathogens. It would appear that mycorrhizal recognition has been conserved in multiple receptors across plant species, but additional diversification in certain plant species has defined other signals that this class of receptors can perceive.

  3. Inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 enhances endochondral bone formation by increasing chondrocyte survival.

    PubMed

    Eaton, G J; Zhang, Q-S; Diallo, C; Matsuzawa, A; Ichijo, H; Steinbeck, M J; Freeman, T A

    2014-11-13

    Endochondral ossification is the result of chondrocyte differentiation, hypertrophy, death and replacement by bone. The careful timing and progression of this process is important for normal skeletal bone growth and development, as well as fracture repair. Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is activated by reactive oxygen species and other cellular stress events. Activation of ASK1 initiates a signaling cascade known to regulate diverse cellular events including cytokine and growth factor signaling, cell cycle regulation, cellular differentiation, hypertrophy, survival and apoptosis. ASK1 is highly expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes, but the role of ASK1 in skeletal tissues has not been investigated. Herein, we report that ASK1 knockout (KO) mice display alterations in normal growth plate morphology, which include a shorter proliferative zone and a lengthened hypertrophic zone. These changes in growth plate dynamics result in accelerated long bone mineralization and an increased formation of trabecular bone, which can be attributed to an increased resistance of terminally differentiated chondrocytes to undergo cell death. Interestingly, under normal cell culture conditions, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from ASK1 KO mice show no differences in either MAPK signaling or osteogenic or chondrogenic differentiation when compared with wild-type (WT) MEFs. However, when cultured with stress activators, H2O2 or staurosporine, the KO cells show enhanced survival, an associated decrease in the activation of proteins involved in death signaling pathways and a reduction in markers of terminal differentiation. Furthermore, in both WT mice treated with the ASK1 inhibitor, NQDI-1, and ASK1 KO mice endochondral bone formation was increased in an ectopic ossification model. These findings highlight a previously unrealized role for ASK1 in regulating endochondral bone formation. Inhibition of ASK1 has

  4. Inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 enhances endochondral bone formation by increasing chondrocyte survival

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, G J; Zhang, Q-S; Diallo, C; Matsuzawa, A; Ichijo, H; Steinbeck, M J; Freeman, T A

    2014-01-01

    Endochondral ossification is the result of chondrocyte differentiation, hypertrophy, death and replacement by bone. The careful timing and progression of this process is important for normal skeletal bone growth and development, as well as fracture repair. Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is activated by reactive oxygen species and other cellular stress events. Activation of ASK1 initiates a signaling cascade known to regulate diverse cellular events including cytokine and growth factor signaling, cell cycle regulation, cellular differentiation, hypertrophy, survival and apoptosis. ASK1 is highly expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes, but the role of ASK1 in skeletal tissues has not been investigated. Herein, we report that ASK1 knockout (KO) mice display alterations in normal growth plate morphology, which include a shorter proliferative zone and a lengthened hypertrophic zone. These changes in growth plate dynamics result in accelerated long bone mineralization and an increased formation of trabecular bone, which can be attributed to an increased resistance of terminally differentiated chondrocytes to undergo cell death. Interestingly, under normal cell culture conditions, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from ASK1 KO mice show no differences in either MAPK signaling or osteogenic or chondrogenic differentiation when compared with wild-type (WT) MEFs. However, when cultured with stress activators, H2O2 or staurosporine, the KO cells show enhanced survival, an associated decrease in the activation of proteins involved in death signaling pathways and a reduction in markers of terminal differentiation. Furthermore, in both WT mice treated with the ASK1 inhibitor, NQDI-1, and ASK1 KO mice endochondral bone formation was increased in an ectopic ossification model. These findings highlight a previously unrealized role for ASK1 in regulating endochondral bone formation. Inhibition of ASK1 has

  5. Inhibition of Janus kinase signaling during controlled mechanical ventilation prevents ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ira J; Godinez, Guillermo L; Singh, Baljit K; McCaughey, Kelly M; Alcantara, Raniel R; Gururaja, Tarikere; Ho, Melissa S; Nguyen, Henry N; Friera, Annabelle M; White, Kathy A; McLaughlin, John R; Hansen, Derek; Romero, Jason M; Baltgalvis, Kristen A; Claypool, Mark D; Li, Wei; Lang, Wayne; Yam, George C; Gelman, Marina S; Ding, Rongxian; Yung, Stephanie L; Creger, Daniel P; Chen, Yan; Singh, Rajinder; Smuder, Ashley J; Wiggs, Michael P; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Sollanek, Kurt J; Powers, Scott K; Masuda, Esteban S; Taylor, Vanessa C; Payan, Donald G; Kinoshita, Taisei; Kinsella, Todd M

    2014-07-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is associated with the development of diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction, and respiratory muscle weakness is thought to contribute significantly to delayed weaning of patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies for preventing these processes may have clinical benefit. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in CMV-mediated diaphragm wasting and weakness in rats. CMV-induced diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction coincided with marked increases in STAT3 phosphorylation on both tyrosine 705 (Tyr705) and serine 727 (Ser727). STAT3 activation was accompanied by its translocation into mitochondria within diaphragm muscle and mitochondrial dysfunction. Inhibition of JAK signaling during CMV prevented phosphorylation of both target sites on STAT3, eliminated the accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3 within the mitochondria, and reversed the pathologic alterations in mitochondrial function, reduced oxidative stress in the diaphragm, and maintained normal diaphragm contractility. In addition, JAK inhibition during CMV blunted the activation of key proteolytic pathways in the diaphragm, as well as diaphragm atrophy. These findings implicate JAK/STAT3 signaling in the development of diaphragm muscle atrophy and dysfunction during CMV and suggest that the delayed extubation times associated with CMV can be prevented by inhibition of Janus kinase signaling.-Smith, I. J., Godinez, G. L., Singh, B. K., McCaughey, K. M., Alcantara, R. R., Gururaja, T., Ho, M. S., Nguyen, H. N., Friera, A. M., White, K. A., McLaughlin, J. R., Hansen, D., Romero, J. M., Baltgalvis, K. A., Claypool, M. D., Li, W., Lang, W., Yam, G. C., Gelman, M. S., Ding, R., Yung, S. L., Creger, D. P., Chen, Y., Singh, R., Smuder, A. J., Wiggs, M. P., Kwon, O.-S., Sollanek, K. J., Powers, S. K., Masuda, E. S., Taylor, V. C., Payan, D. G

  6. Inhibition of Janus kinase signaling during controlled mechanical ventilation prevents ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ira J.; Godinez, Guillermo L.; Singh, Baljit K.; McCaughey, Kelly M.; Alcantara, Raniel R.; Gururaja, Tarikere; Ho, Melissa S.; Nguyen, Henry N.; Friera, Annabelle M.; White, Kathy A.; McLaughlin, John R.; Hansen, Derek; Romero, Jason M.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Claypool, Mark D.; Li, Wei; Lang, Wayne; Yam, George C.; Gelman, Marina S.; Ding, Rongxian; Yung, Stephanie L.; Creger, Daniel P.; Chen, Yan; Singh, Rajinder; Smuder, Ashley J.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Sollanek, Kurt J.; Powers, Scott K.; Masuda, Esteban S.; Taylor, Vanessa C.; Payan, Donald G.; Kinoshita, Taisei; Kinsella, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is associated with the development of diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction, and respiratory muscle weakness is thought to contribute significantly to delayed weaning of patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies for preventing these processes may have clinical benefit. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in CMV-mediated diaphragm wasting and weakness in rats. CMV-induced diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction coincided with marked increases in STAT3 phosphorylation on both tyrosine 705 (Tyr705) and serine 727 (Ser727). STAT3 activation was accompanied by its translocation into mitochondria within diaphragm muscle and mitochondrial dysfunction. Inhibition of JAK signaling during CMV prevented phosphorylation of both target sites on STAT3, eliminated the accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3 within the mitochondria, and reversed the pathologic alterations in mitochondrial function, reduced oxidative stress in the diaphragm, and maintained normal diaphragm contractility. In addition, JAK inhibition during CMV blunted the activation of key proteolytic pathways in the diaphragm, as well as diaphragm atrophy. These findings implicate JAK/STAT3 signaling in the development of diaphragm muscle atrophy and dysfunction during CMV and suggest that the delayed extubation times associated with CMV can be prevented by inhibition of Janus kinase signaling.—Smith, I. J., Godinez, G. L., Singh, B. K., McCaughey, K. M., Alcantara, R. R., Gururaja, T., Ho, M. S., Nguyen, H. N., Friera, A. M., White, K. A., McLaughlin, J. R., Hansen, D., Romero, J. M., Baltgalvis, K. A., Claypool, M. D., Li, W., Lang, W., Yam, G. C., Gelman, M. S., Ding, R., Yung, S. L., Creger, D. P., Chen, Y., Singh, R., Smuder, A. J., Wiggs, M. P., Kwon, O.-S., Sollanek, K. J., Powers, S. K., Masuda, E. S., Taylor, V. C., Payan, D. G

  7. Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection modulates expression of megakaryocyte cell cycle genes through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Supreet; Sultana, Hameeda; Catravas, John D; Carlyon, Jason A; Neelakanta, Girish

    2017-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis infects neutrophils and other cells from hematopoietic origin. Using human megakaryocytic cell line, MEG-01, we show that expression of cell cycle genes in these cells are altered upon A. phagocytophilum infection. Expression of several cell cycle genes in MEG-01 cells was significantly up regulated at early and then down regulated at later stages of A. phagocytophilum infection. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays revealed reduced cellular cytotoxicity in MEG-01 cells upon A. phagocytophilum infection. The levels of both PI3KCA (p110 alpha, catalytic subunit) and PI3KR1 (p85, regulatory subunit) of Class I PI3 kinases and phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) and inhibitory kappa B (IκB) were elevated at both early and late stages of A. phagocytophilum infection. Inhibition of PI3 kinases with LY294002 treatment resulted in significant reduction in the expression of tested cell cycle genes, A. phagocytophilum burden and phosphorylated Akt levels in these MEG-01 cells. Collectively, these results suggest a role for PI3K-Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway in the modulation of megakaryocyte cell cycle genes upon A. phagocytophilum infection.

  8. SH2B1beta adaptor is a key enhancer of RET tyrosine kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Donatello, S; Fiorino, A; Degl'Innocenti, D; Alberti, L; Miranda, C; Gorla, L; Bongarzone, I; Rizzetti, M G; Pierotti, M A; Borrello, M G

    2007-10-04

    The RET gene encodes two main isoforms of a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) implicated in various human diseases. Activating germ-line point mutations are responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2-associated medullary thyroid carcinomas, inactivating germ-line mutations for Hirschsprung's disease, while somatic rearrangements (RET/PTCs) are specific to papillary thyroid carcinomas. SH2B1beta, a member of the SH2B adaptors family, and binding partner for several RTKs, has been recently described to interact with proto-RET. Here, we show that both RET isoforms and its oncogenic derivatives bind to SH2B1beta through the SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain and a kinase activity-dependent mechanism. As a result, RET phosphorylates SH2B1beta, which in turn enhances its autophosphorylation, kinase activity, and downstream signaling. RET tyrosine residues 905 and 981 are important determinants for functional binding of the adaptor, as removal of both autophosphorylation sites displaces its recruitment. Binding of SH2B1beta appears to protect RET from dephosphorylation by protein tyrosine phosphatases, and might represent a likely mechanism contributing to its upregulation. Thus, overexpression of SH2B1beta, by enhancing phosphorylation/activation of RET transducers, potentiates the cellular differentiation and the neoplastic transformation thereby induced, and counteracts the action of RET inhibitors. Overall, our results identify SH2B1beta as a key enhancer of RET physiologic and pathologic activities.

  9. Expression of HopAI interferes with MAP kinase signalling in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Liu, Wende; Li, Yang; Li, Guotian; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2017-08-11

    The Pmk1 and Mps1 MAP kinases are essential for appressorium formation and plant infection in Magnaporthe oryzae. However, their exact roles during invasive growth are not clear because pmk1 and mps1 mutants are defective in penetration. To further characterize their functions after penetration, in this study we expressed the Pseudomonas syringae effector HopAI known to inactivate plant MAP kinases in M. oryzae. Constitutive expression of HopAI with the RP27 or TrpC promoter resulted in defects in hyphal growth, conidiation, appressorium penetration and pathogenicity, which is similar to the phenotype of the mps1 mutant. HopAI interacted strongly with Mps1 in vivo and expression of dominant active MKK2 partially suppressed the defects of PRP27 -HopAI transformants, which were significantly reduced in Mps1 phosphorylation. When the infection-specific MIR1 (Magnaporthe-infection-related gene-1) promoter was used to express HopAI, PMIR1 -HopAI transformants were defective in the spreading of invasive hyphae and elicited strong defense responses in penetrated plant cells. Expression of HopAI in Fusarium graminearum also mainly affected the activation of Mgv1, an Mps1 orthologue. Taken together, our results showed that Mps1 is the major intracellular target of HopAI when it is overexpressed, and MAP kinase signalling is important for cell-to-cell movement of invasive hyphae in M. oryzae. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Phosphorylation of the TAL1 oncoprotein by the extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase ERK1.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, J T; Cobb, M H; Baer, R

    1993-01-01

    Alteration of the TAL1 gene is the most common genetic lesion found in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. TAL1 encodes phosphoproteins, pp42TAL1 and pp22TAL1, that represent phosphorylated versions of the full-length (residues 1 to 331) and truncated (residues 176 to 331) TAL1 gene products, respectively. Both proteins contain the basic helix-loop-helix motif, a DNA-binding and protein dimerization motif common to several known transcriptional regulatory factors. We now report that serine residue 122 (S122) is a major phosphorylation site of pp42TAL1 in leukemic cell lines and transfected COS1 cells. In vivo phosphorylation of S122 is induced by epidermal growth factor with a rapid time course that parallels activation of the ERK/MAP2 protein kinases. Moreover, S122 is readily phosphorylated in vitro by the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase ERK1. These data suggest that TAL1 residue S122 serves as an in vivo substrate for ERK/MAP2 kinases such as ERK1. Therefore, S122 phosphorylation may provide a mechanism whereby the properties of TAL1 polypeptides can be modulated by extracellular stimuli. Images PMID:8423803

  11. Positioning atypical protein kinase C isoforms in the UV-induced apoptotic signaling cascade.

    PubMed Central

    Berra, E; Municio, M M; Sanz, L; Frutos, S; Diaz-Meco, M T; Moscat, J

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have documented the involvement of the atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms in important cellular functions such as cell proliferation and survival. Exposure of cells to a genotoxic stimulus that induces apoptosis, such as UV irradiation, leads to a profound inhibition of the atypical PKC activity in vivo. In this study, we addressed the relationship between this phenomenon and different proteins involved in the apoptotic response. We show that (i) the inhibition of the aPKC activity precedes UV-induced apoptosis; (ii) UV-induced aPKC inhibition and apoptosis are independent of p53; (iii) Bcl-2 proteins are potent modulators of aPKC activity; and (iv) the aPKCs are located upstream of the interleukin-converting enzyme-like protease system, which is required for the induction of apoptosis by both Par-4 (a selective aPKC inhibitor) and UV irradiation. We also demonstrate here that inhibition of aPKC activity leads to a decrease in mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity and simultaneously an increase in p38 activity. Both effects are critical for the induction of apoptosis in response to Par-4 expression and UV irradiation. Collectively, these results clarify the position of the aPKCs in the UV-induced apoptotic pathway and strongly suggest that MAP kinases play a role in this signaling cascade. PMID:9234692

  12. Roles of tyrosine kinase-, 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-, and mitogen-activated protein kinase-signaling pathways in ethanol-induced contractions of rat aortic smooth muscle: possible relation to alcohol-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-wei; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Tao; Altura, Bella T; Altura, Burton M

    2002-08-01

    Insights into the relations between and among ethanol-induced contractions in rat aorta, tyrosine kinases (including src family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases), 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI-3Ks), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and regulation of intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) were investigated in the present study. Ethanol-induced concentration-dependent contractions in isolated rat aortic rings were attenuated greatly by pretreatment of the arteries with low concentrations of an antagonist of protein tyrosine kinases (genistein), an src homology domain 2 (SH2) inhibitor peptide, a highly specific antagonist of p38 MAPK (SB-203580), a potent, selective antagonist of two specific MAPK kinases-MEK1/MEK2 (U0126)-and a selective antagonist of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) (PD-98059), as well as by treatment with wortmannin or LY-294002 (both are selective antagonists of PI-3Ks). Inhibitory concentration 50 (IC(50)) levels obtained for these seven antagonists were consistent with reported inhibition constant (Ki) values for these tyrosine kinase, MAPK, and MAPKK antagonists. Ethanol-induced transient and sustained increases in [Ca(2+)](i) in primary single smooth muscle cells from rat aorta were markedly attenuated in the presence of genistein, an SH2 domain inhibitor peptide, SB-203580, U0126, PD-98059, wortmannin, and LY-294002. A variety of specific antagonists of known endogenously formed vasoconstrictors did not inhibit or attenuate either the ethanol-induced contractions or the elevations of [Ca(2+)](i). Results of the present study support the suggestion that activation of tyrosine kinases (including the src family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases), PI-3Ks, and MAPK seems to play an important role in ethanol-induced contractions and the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) in smooth muscle cells from rat aorta. These signaling pathways thus may be important in hypertension in human beings associated with chronic alcohol

  13. Systematically Studying Kinase Inhibitor Induced Signaling Network Signatures by Integrating Both Therapeutic and Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Hongwei; Peng, Tao; Ji, Zhiwei; Su, Jing; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    Substantial effort in recent years has been devoted to analyzing data based large-scale biological networks, which provide valuable insight into the topologies of complex biological networks but are rarely context specific and cannot be used to predict the responses of cell signaling proteins to specific ligands or compounds. In this work, we proposed a novel strategy to investigate kinase inhibitor induced pathway signatures by integrating multiplex data in Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS), e.g. KINOMEscan data and cell proliferation/mitosis imaging data. Using this strategy, we first established a PC9 cell line specific pathway model to investigate the pathway signatures in PC9 cell line when perturbed by a small molecule kinase inhibitor GW843682. This specific pathway revealed the role of PI3K/AKT in modulating the cell proliferation process and the absence of two anti-proliferation links, which indicated a potential mechanism of abnormal expansion in PC9 cell number. Incorporating the pathway model for side effects on primary human hepatocytes, it was used to screen 27 kinase inhibitors in LINCS database and PF02341066, known as Crizotinib, was finally suggested with an optimal concentration 4.6 uM to suppress PC9 cancer cell expansion while avoiding severe damage to primary human hepatocytes. Drug combination analysis revealed that the synergistic effect region can be predicted straightforwardly based on a threshold which is an inherent property of each kinase inhibitor. Furthermore, this integration strategy can be easily extended to other specific cell lines to be a powerful tool for drug screen before clinical trials. PMID:24339888

  14. dsRNA-Dependent Protein Kinase PKR and its Role in Stress, Signaling and HCV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dabo, Stéphanie; Meurs, Eliane F.

    2012-01-01

    The double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR plays multiple roles in cells, in response to different stress situations. As a member of the interferon (IFN)‑Stimulated Genes, PKR was initially recognized as an actor in the antiviral action of IFN, due to its ability to control translation, through phosphorylation, of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). As such, PKR participates in the generation of stress granules, or autophagy and a number of viruses have designed strategies to inhibit its action. However, PKR deficient mice resist most viral infections, indicating that PKR may play other roles in the cell other than just acting as an antiviral agent. Indeed, PKR regulates several signaling pathways, either as an adapter protein and/or using its kinase activity. Here we review the role of PKR as an eIF2α kinase, its participation in the regulation of the NF-κB, p38MAPK and insulin pathways, and we focus on its role during infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). PKR binds the HCV IRES RNA, cooperates with some functions of the HCV core protein and may represent a target for NS5A or E2. Novel data points out for a role of PKR as a pro-HCV agent, both as an adapter protein and as an eIF2α-kinase, and in cooperation with the di-ubiquitin-like protein ISG15. Developing pharmaceutical inhibitors of PKR may help in resolving some viral infections as well as stress-related damages. PMID:23202496

  15. PfIRR Interacts with HrIGF-I and Activates the MAP-kinase and PI3-kinase Signaling Pathways to Regulate Glycogen Metabolism in Pinctada fucata

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yu; He, Mao-xian

    2016-01-01

    The insulin-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways are major intracellular signaling modules and conserved among eukaryotes that are known to regulate diverse cellular processes. However, they have not been investigated in the mollusk species Pinctada fucata. Here, we demonstrate that insulin-related peptide receptor of P. fucata (pfIRR) interacts with human recombinant insulin-like growth factor I (hrIGF-I), and stimulates the MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways in P. fucata oocytes. We also show that inhibition of pfIRR by the inhibitor PQ401 significantly attenuates the basal and hrIGF-I-induced phosphorylation of MAPK and PI3K/Akt at amino acid residues threonine 308 and serine 473. Furthermore, our experiments show that there is cross-talk between the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways, in which MAPK kinase positively regulates the PI3K pathway, and PI3K positively regulates the MAPK cascade. Intramuscular injection of hrIGF-I stimulates the PI3K and MAPK pathways to increase the expression of pfirr, protein phosphatase 1, glucokinase, and the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase, decreases the mRNA expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, decreases glucose levels in hemocytes, and increases glycogen levels in digestive glands. These results suggest that the MAPK and PI3K pathways in P. fucata transmit the hrIGF-I signal to regulate glycogen metabolism. PMID:26911653

  16. Roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3'-kinase in ErbB2/ErbB3 coreceptor-mediated heregulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Vijapurkar, Ulka; Kim, Myong-Soo; Koland, John G

    2003-04-01

    ErbB2/HER2 and ErbB3/HER3, two members of the ErbB/HER family, together constitute a heregulin coreceptor complex that elicits a potent mitogenic and transforming signal. Among known intracellular effectors of the ErbB2/ErbB3 heregulin coreceptor are mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase. Activation of the distinct MAPK and PI 3-kinase signaling pathways by the ErbB2/ErbB3 coreceptor in response to heregulin and their relative contributions to the mitogenic and transformation potentials of the activated coreceptor were investigated here. To this end, cDNAs encoding the wild-type ErbB3 protein (ErbB3-WT) and ErbB3 proteins with amino acid substitutions in either the Shc-binding site (ErbB3-Y1325F), the six putative PI 3-kinase-binding sites (ErbB3-6F), or both (ErbB3-7F) were generated and expressed in NIH-3T3 cells to form functional ErbB2/ErbB3 heregulin coreceptors. While the coreceptor incorporating ErbB3-WT activated both the MAPK and the PI 3-kinase signaling pathways, those incorporating ErbB3-Y1325F or ErbB3-6F activated either PI 3-kinase or MAPK, respectively. The ErbB2/ErbB3-7F coreceptor activated neither. Elimination of either signaling pathway lowered basal and eliminated heregulin-dependent expression of cyclin D1, which was in each case accompanied by an attenuated mitogenic response. Selective elimination of the PI 3-kinase pathway severely impaired the ability of heregulin to transform cells expressing the coreceptor, whereas attenuation of the MAPK pathway had a lesser effect. Thus, while both pathways contributed in a roughly additive manner to the mitogenic response elicited by the activated ErbB2/ErbB3 coreceptor, the PI 3-kinase pathway predominated in the induction of cellular transformation.

  17. Mechanisms of extracellular signal-regulated kinase/cAMP response element-binding protein/brain-derived neurotrophic factor signal transduction pathway in depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyan; Zhang, Yingquan; Qiao, Mingqi

    2013-03-25

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase/cAMP response element-binding protein/brain-derived neurotrophic factor signal transduction pathway plays an important role in the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs and has dominated recent studies on the pathogenesis of depression. In the present review we summarize the known roles of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, cAMP response element-binding protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the pathogenesis of depression and in the mechanism of action of antidepressant medicines. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase/cAMP response element-binding protein/brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway has potential to be used as a biological index to help diagnose depression, and as such it is considered as an important new target in the treatment of depression.

  18. Xanthohumol inhibits the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway and suppresses cell growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sławińska-Brych, Adrianna; Zdzisińska, Barbara; Dmoszyńska-Graniczka, Magdalena; Jeleniewicz, Witold; Kurzepa, Jacek; Gagoś, Mariusz; Stepulak, Andrzej

    2016-05-16

    Aberrant activation of the Ras/MEK/ERK signaling pathway has been frequently observed in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and its important role in cancer progression and malignant transformation has been documented. Hence, the ERK1/2 kinase cascade becomes a potential molecular target in cancer treatment. Xanthohumol (XN, a prenylated chalcone derived from hope cones) is known to possess a broad spectrum of chemopreventive and anticancer activities. In our studies, the MTT and BrdU assays revealed that XN demonstrated greater antiproliferative activity against A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells than against the lung adenocarcinoma H1563 cell line. We observed that XN was able to suppress the activities of ERK1/2 and p90RSK kinases, followed by inhibition of phosphorylation and activation of the CREB protein. Additionally, the XN treatment of the cancer cells caused upregulation of key cell cycle regulators p53 and p21 as well as downregulation of cyclin D1. As a result, the cytotoxic effect of XN was attributed to the cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and induction of apoptosis indicated by increased caspase-3 activity. Thus, XN might be a promising anticancer drug candidate against lung carcinomas.

  19. Topical androgen antagonism promotes cutaneous wound healing without systemic androgen deprivation by blocking β-catenin nuclear translocation and cross-talk with TGF-β signaling in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Toraldo, Gianluca; Bhasin, Shalender; Bakhit, Mena; Guo, Wen; Serra, Carlo; Safer, Joshua D; Bhawan, Jag; Jasuja, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Orchidectomy in rodents and lower testosterone levels in men are associated with improved cutaneous wound healing. However, due to the adverse effects on skeletal and sexual tissues, systemic androgen blockade is not a viable therapeutic intervention. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that topical application of an androgen antagonist would elicit accelerated wound healing without systemic androgen antagonism. Full-thickness cutaneous wounds were created on adult C57BL6/J mice. Daily topical application of androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, resulted in improved gap closure similar to orchiectomized controls and faster than orchidectomized mice treated with topical testosterone. In vivo data showed that the effects of androgen antagonism on wound closure primarily accelerate keratinocytes migration without effecting wound contraction. Consequently, mechanisms of testosterone action on reepithelialization were investigated in vitro by scratch wounding assays in confluent keratinocytes. Testosterone inhibited keratinocyte migration and this effect was in part mediated through promotion of nuclear translocation of β-catenin and by attenuating transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling through β-catenin. The link between Wnt and TGF beta signaling was confirmed by blocking β-catenin and by following TGF-β-induced transcription of a luciferase reporter gene. Together, these data show that blockade of β-catenin can, as a potential target for novel therapeutic interventions, accelerate cutaneous wound healing.

  20. The c-Jun kinase signaling cascade promotes glial engulfment activity through activation of draper and phagocytic function.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, J M; Doherty, J; Hackett, R; Freeman, M R

    2013-09-01

    After neuronal injury or death glial cells become reactive, exhibiting dramatic changes in morphology and patterns of gene expression and ultimately engulfing neuronal debris. Rapid clearance of degenerating neuronal material is thought to be crucial for suppression of inflammation and promotion of functional recovery. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila c-Jun N-terminal kinase (dJNK) signaling is a critical in vivo mediator of glial engulfment activity. In response to axotomy, we find glial dJNK signals through a cascade involving the upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases Slipper and Tak1, the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase MKK4, and ultimately the Drosophila activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcriptional complex composed of Jra and Kayak to initiate glial phagocytosis of degenerating axons. Interestingly, loss of dJNK also blocked injury-induced upregulation of Draper levels in glia, and glial-specific overexpression of Draper was sufficient to rescue engulfment defects associated with loss of dJNK signaling. This work identifies that the dJNK pathway is a novel mediator of glial engulfment activity and a primary role for the glial Slipper/Tak1 →MKK4 →dJNK →dAP-1 signaling cascade appears to be activation of draper expression after axon injury.

  1. The c-Jun kinase signaling cascade promotes glial engulfment activity through activation of draper and phagocytic function

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, J M; Doherty, J; Hackett, R; Freeman, M R

    2013-01-01

    After neuronal injury or death glial cells become reactive, exhibiting dramatic changes in morphology and patterns of gene expression and ultimately engulfing neuronal debris. Rapid clearance of degenerating neuronal material is thought to be crucial for suppression of inflammation and promotion of functional recovery. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila c-Jun N-terminal kinase (dJNK) signaling is a critical in vivo mediator of glial engulfment activity. In response to axotomy, we find glial dJNK signals through a cascade involving the upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases Slipper and Tak1, the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase MKK4, and ultimately the Drosophila activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcriptional complex composed of Jra and Kayak to initiate glial phagocytosis of degenerating axons. Interestingly, loss of dJNK also blocked injury-induced upregulation of Draper levels in glia, and glial-specific overexpression of Draper was sufficient to rescue engulfment defects associated with loss of dJNK signaling. This work identifies that the dJNK pathway is a novel mediator of glial engulfment activity and a primary role for the glial Slipper/Tak1→MKK4→dJNK→dAP-1 signaling cascade appears to be activation of draper expression after axon injury. PMID:23618811

  2. Interferon-gamma expression by Th1 effector T cells mediated by the p38 MAP kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Rincón, M; Enslen, H; Raingeaud, J; Recht, M; Zapton, T; Su, M S; Penix, L A; Davis, R J; Flavell, R A

    1998-01-01

    Signal transduction via MAP kinase pathways plays a key role in a variety of cellular responses, including growth factor-induced proliferation, differentiation and cell death. In mammalian cells, p38 MAP kinase can be activated by multiple stimuli, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress. Although p38 MAP kinase is implicated in the control of inflammatory responses, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Upon activation, CD4+ T cells differentiate into Th2 cells, which potentiate the humoral immune response or pro-inflammatory Th1 cells. Here, we show that pyridinyl imidazole compounds (specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase) block the production of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) by Th1 cells without affecting IL-4 production by Th2 cells. These drugs also inhibit transcription driven by the IFNgamma promoter. In transgenic mice, inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase pathway by the expression of dominant-negative p38 MAP kinase results in selective impairment of Th1 responses. In contrast, activation of the p38 MAP kinase pathway by the expression of constitutivelyactivated MAP kinase kinase 6 in transgenic mice caused increased production of IFNgamma during the differentiation and activation of Th1 cells. Together, these data demonstrate that the p38 MAP kinase is relevant for Th1 cells, not Th2 cells, and that inhibition of p38 MAP kinase represents a possible site of therapeutic intervention in diseases where a predominant Th1 immune response leads to a pathological outcome. Moreover, our study provides an additional mechanism by which the p38 MAP kinase pathway controls inflammatory responses. PMID:9582275

  3. Rho-kinase regulates energy balance by targeting hypothalamic leptin receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hu; Kong, Dong; Byun, Kyung Hee; Ye, Chianping; Koda, Shuichi; Lee, Dae Ho; Oh, Byung-Chul; Lee, Sam W; Lee, Bonghee; Zabolotny, Janice M; Kim, Min Seon; Bjørbæk, Christian; Lowell, Bradford B; Kim, Young-Bum

    2012-10-01

    Leptin regulates energy balance. However, knowledge of the critical intracellular transducers of leptin signaling remains incomplete. We found that Rho-kinase 1 (ROCK1) regulates leptin action on body weight homeostasis by activating JAK2, an initial trigger of leptin receptor signaling. Leptin promoted the physical interaction of JAK2 and ROCK1, thereby increasing phosphorylation of JAK2 and downstream activation of Stat3 and FOXO1. Mice lacking ROCK1 in either pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) or agouti-related protein neurons, mediators of leptin action, displayed obesity and impaired leptin sensitivity. In addition, deletion of ROCK1 in the arcuate nucleus markedly enhanced food intake, resulting in severe obesity. Notably, ROCK1 was a specific mediator of leptin, but not insulin, regulation of POMC neuronal activity. Our data identify ROCK1 as a key regulator of leptin action on energy homeostasis.

  4. EGFR oligomerization organizes kinase-active dimers into competent signalling platforms.

    PubMed

    Needham, Sarah R; Roberts, Selene K; Arkhipov, Anton; Mysore, Venkatesh P; Tynan, Christopher J; Zanetti-Domingues, Laura C; Kim, Eric T; Losasso, Valeria; Korovesis, Dimitrios; Hirsch, Michael; Rolfe, Daniel J; Clarke, David T; Winn, Martyn D; Lajevardipour, Alireza; Clayton, Andrew H A; Pike, Linda J; Perani, Michela; Parker, Peter J; Shan, Yibing; Shaw, David E; Martin-Fernandez, Marisa L

    2016-10-31

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling is activated by ligand-induced receptor dimerization. Notably, ligand binding also induces EGFR oligomerization, but the structures and functions of the oligomers are poorly understood. Here, we use fluorophore localization imaging with photobleaching to probe the structure of EGFR oligomers. We find that at physiological epidermal growth factor (EGF) concentrations, EGFR assembles into oligomers, as indicated by pairwise distances of receptor-bound fluorophore-conjugated EGF ligands. The pairwise ligand distances correspond well with the predictions of our structural model of the oligomers constructed from molecular dynamics simulations. The model suggests that oligomerization is mediated extracellularly by unoccupied ligand-binding sites and that oligomerization organizes kinase-active dimers in ways optimal for auto-phosphorylation in trans between neighbouring dimers. We argue that ligand-induced oligomerization is essential to the regulation of EGFR signalling.

  5. Rho-kinase Regulates Energy Balance by Targeting Hypothalamic Leptin Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hu; Kong, Dong; Byun, Kyung Hee; Ye, Chianping; Koda, Shuichi; Lee, Dae Ho; Oh, Byung-Chul; Lee, Sam W; Lee, Bonghee; Zabolotny, Janice M; Kim, Min Seon; Bjørbæk, Christian; Lowell, Bradford B; Kim, Young-Bum

    2012-01-01

    Leptin regulates energy balance. However, knowledge of the critical intracellular transducers of leptin signaling remains incomplete. Here we report that Rho-kinase 1 (ROCK1) regulates leptin action on body weight homeostasis by activating JAK2, an initial trigger of leptin receptor signaling. Leptin promotes the physical interaction of JAK2 and ROCK1, thereby increasing phosphorylation of JAK2 and downstream activation of Stat3 and FOXO1. Mice lacking ROCK1 in either POMC or AgRP neurons, mediators of leptin action, display obesity and impaired leptin sensitivity. In addition, deletion of ROCK1 in the arcuate nucleus markedly enhances food intake, resulting in severe obesity. Of note, ROCK1 is a specific mediator of leptin, but not insulin, regulation of POMC neuronal activity. Our data identify ROCK1 as a key regulator of leptin action on energy homeostasis. PMID:22941110

  6. Constitutively active Lck kinase in T cells drives antigen receptor signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Nika, Konstantina; Soldani, Cristiana; Salek, Mogjiborahman; Paster, Wolfgang; Gray, Adrian; Etzensperger, Ruth; Fugger, Lars; Polzella, Paolo; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Dushek, Omer; Höfer, Thomas; Viola, Antonella; Acuto, Oreste

    2010-06-25

    T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and coreceptor ligation is thought to initiate signal transduction by inducing activation of the kinase Lck. Here we showed that catalytically active Lck was present in unstimulated naive T cells and thymocytes and was readily detectable in these cells in lymphoid organs. In naive T cells up to approximately 40% of total Lck was constitutively activated, part of which was also phosphorylated on the C-terminal inhibitory site. Formation of activated Lck was independent of TCR and coreceptors but required Lck catalytic activity and its maintenance relied on monitoring by the HSP90-CDC37 chaperone complex to avoid degradation. The amount of activated Lck did not change after TCR and coreceptor engagement; however it determined the extent of TCR-zeta phosphorylation. Our findings suggest a dynamic regulation of Lck activity that can be promptly utilized to initiate T cell activation and have implications for signaling by other immune receptors.

  7. Role of integrin signalling through integrin-linked kinase in skin physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Eckes, Beate; Krieg, Thomas; Wickström, Sara A

    2014-07-01

    Cell-matrix adhesions provide structural stability to the tissue and regulate intracellular signalling pathways that are important for cell fate decisions of the different cell populations within the skin. As a consequence of these central functions, genetic or functional impairment of various key protein components of matrix adhesions plays a causative role in the aetiology or pathophysiology in a large variety of skin disorders. Research towards understanding the molecular composition of these adhesions as well as the mechanisms by which they transmit signals is therefore of obvious importance. In this essay, we discuss the roles of integrin-linked kinase, a key component of cell-matrix adhesions, in the (patho)physiology of skin and in particular highlight its role in regulating mechanical tension and matrix remodelling both in the epidermis and in the dermis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. EGFR oligomerization organizes kinase-active dimers into competent signalling platforms

    PubMed Central

    Needham, Sarah R.; Roberts, Selene K.; Arkhipov, Anton; Mysore, Venkatesh P.; Tynan, Christopher J.; Zanetti-Domingues, Laura C.; Kim, Eric T.; Losasso, Valeria; Korovesis, Dimitrios; Hirsch, Michael; Rolfe, Daniel J.; Clarke, David T.; Winn, Martyn D.; Lajevardipour, Alireza; Clayton, Andrew H. A.; Pike, Linda J.; Perani, Michela; Parker, Peter J.; Shan, Yibing; Shaw, David E.; Martin-Fernandez, Marisa L.

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling is activated by ligand-induced receptor dimerization. Notably, ligand binding also induces EGFR oligomerization, but the structures and functions of the oligomers are poorly understood. Here, we use fluorophore localization imaging with photobleaching to probe the structure of EGFR oligomers. We find that at physiological epidermal growth factor (EGF) concentrations, EGFR assembles into oligomers, as indicated by pairwise distances of receptor-bound fluorophore-conjugated EGF ligands. The pairwise ligand distances correspond well with the predictions of our structural model of the oligomers constructed from molecular dynamics simulations. The model suggests that oligomerization is mediated extracellularly by unoccupied ligand-binding sites and that oligomerization organizes kinase-active dimers in ways optimal for auto-phosphorylation in trans between neighbouring dimers. We argue that ligand-induced oligomerization is essential to the regulation of EGFR signalling. PMID:27796308

  9. A putative leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase involved in brassinosteroid signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Chory, J

    1997-09-05

    Brassinosteroids are a class of growth-promoting regulators that play a key role throughout plant development. Despite their importance, nothing is known of the mechanism of action of these steroid hormones. We describe the identification of 18 Arabidopsis dwarf mutants that are unable to respond to exogenously added brassinosteroid, a phenotype that might be expected for brassinosteroid signaling mutants. All 18 mutations define alleles of a single previously described gene, BRI1. We cloned BRI1 and examined its expression pattern. It encodes a ubiquitously expressed putative receptor kinase. The extracellular domain contains 25 tandem leucine-rich repeats that resemble repeats found in animal hormone receptors, plant disease resistance genes, and genes involved in unknown signaling pathways controlling plant development.

  10. Protein kinase C and phospholipase D: intimate interactions in intracellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Becker, K P; Hannun, Y A

    2005-07-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) was discovered as a potent lipid second messenger with protein kinase C (PKC) as its major cellular target more than 25 years ago. There is increasing evidence of significant complexity within lipid signaling, and the classical DAG-PKC model no longer stands alone but is part of a larger bioactive lipid universe involving glycerolipids and sphingolipids. Multiple layers of regulation exist among PKC- and DAG-metabolizing enzymes such as phosphatidylcholine (PC)-specific phospholipase D, and cross-talk exists between the glycerolipid and sphingolipid pathways, with PKC at the center. Currently, there is intense interest in the question of whether DAG derived from PC can function as a lipid second messenger and regulate PKC analogous to DAG derived from phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). To address these issues and incorporate DAG-PKC and other signaling pathways into an expanded view of cell biology, it will be necessary to go beyond the classical approaches and concepts.

  11. The protein kinase LKB1 negatively regulates bone morphogenetic protein receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Erna; Edlund, Karolina; Kahata, Kaoru; Zieba, Agata; Morén, Anita; Watanabe, Yukihide; Voytyuk, Iryna; Botling, Johan; Söderberg, Ola; Micke, Patrick; Pyrowolakis, George; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2016-01-01

    The protein kinase LKB1 regulates cell metabolism and growth and is implicated in intestinal and lung cancer. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates cell differentiation during development and tissue homeostasis. We demonstrate that LKB1 physically interacts with BMP type I receptors and requires Smad7 to promote downregulation of the receptor. Accordingly, LKB1 suppresses BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation and affects BMP signaling in Drosophila wing longitudinal vein morphogenesis. LKB1 protein expression and Smad1 phosphorylation analysis in a cohort of non-small cell lung cancer patients demonstrated a negative correlation predominantly in a subset enriched in adenocarcinomas. Lung cancer patient data analysis indicated strong correlation between LKB1 loss-of-function mutations and high BMP2 expression, and these two events further correlated with expression of a gene subset functionally linked to apoptosis and migration. This new mechanism of BMP receptor regulation by LKB1 has ramifications in physiological organogenesis and disease. PMID:26701726

  12. Lyn tyrosine kinase promotes silencing of ATM-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumoto, Yasunori Kuki, Kazumasa; Morii, Mariko; Miura, Takahito; Honda, Takuya; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Hitomi; Kubota, Sho; Ide, Yudai; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Inhibition of Src family kinases decreased γ-H2AX signal. • Inhibition of Src family increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. • shRNA-mediated knockdown of Lyn increased phosphorylation of Kap1 by ATM. • Ectopic expression of Src family kinase suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. • Src is involved in upstream signaling for inactivation of ATM signaling. - Abstract: DNA damage activates the DNA damage checkpoint and the DNA repair machinery. After initial activation of DNA damage responses, cells recover to their original states through completion of DNA repair and termination of checkpoint signaling. Currently, little is known about the process by which cells recover from the DNA damage checkpoint, a process called checkpoint recovery. Here, we show that Src family kinases promote inactivation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks. Inhibition of Src activity increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. Src inhibition increased ATM signaling both in G2 phase and during asynchronous growth. shRNA knockdown of Lyn increased ATM signaling. Src-dependent nuclear tyrosine phosphorylation suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. These results suggest that Src family kinases are involved in upstream signaling that leads to inactivation of the ATM-dependent DNA damage checkpoint.

  13. Synergism between inositol polyphosphates and TOR kinase signaling in nutrient sensing, growth control, and lipid metabolism in Chlamydomonas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The networks that govern carbon metabolism and control intracellular carbon partitioning in photosynthetic cells are poorly understood. Target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is a conserved growth regulator that integrates nutrient signals and modulates cell growth in eukaryotes, though the TOR signaling ...

  14. Reprogramming of G protein-coupled receptor recycling and signaling by a kinase switch

    PubMed Central

    Vistein, Rachel; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A.

    2013-01-01

    The postendocytic recycling of signaling receptors is subject to multiple requirements. Why this is so, considering that many other proteins can recycle without apparent requirements, is a fundamental question. Here we show that cells can leverage these requirements to switch the recycling of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (B2AR), a prototypic signaling receptor, between sequence-dependent and bulk recycling pathways, based on extracellular signals. This switch is determined by protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of B2AR on the cytoplasmic tail. The phosphorylation state of B2AR dictates its partitioning into spatially and functionally distinct endosomal microdomains mediating bulk and sequence-dependent recycling, and also regulates the rate of B2AR recycling and resensitization. Our results demonstrate that G protein-coupled receptor recycling is not always restricted to the sequence-dependent pathway, but may be reprogrammed as needed by physiological signals. Such flexible reprogramming might provide a versatile method for rapidly modulating cellular responses to extracellular signaling. PMID:24003153

  15. Inhibition of interleukin-1 signaling enhances elimination of tyrosine kinase inhibitor–treated CML stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Chu, Su; Agarwal, Puneet; Campbell, Victoria L.; Hopcroft, Lisa; Jørgensen, Heather G.; Lin, Allen; Gaal, Karl; Holyoake, Tessa L.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) with BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) fails to eliminate leukemia stem cells (LSC). Patients remain at risk for relapse, and additional approaches to deplete CML LSC are needed to enhance the possibility of discontinuing TKI treatment. We have previously reported that expression of the pivotal proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is increased in CML bone marrow. We show here that CML LSC demonstrated increased expression of the IL-1 receptors, IL-1 receptor accessory protein and IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1), and enhanced sensitivity to IL-1-induced NF-κB signaling compared with normal stem cells. Treatment with recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) inhibited IL-1 signaling in CML LSC and inhibited growth of CML LSC. Importantly, the combination of IL-1RA with TKI resulted in significantly greater inhibition of CML LSC compared with TKI alone. Our studies also suggest that IL-1 signaling contributes to overexpression of inflammatory mediators in CML LSC, suggesting that blocking IL-1 signaling could modulate the inflammatory milieu. We conclude that IL-1 signaling contributes to maintenance of CML LSC following TKI treatment and that IL-1 blockade with IL-1RA enhances elimination of TKI-treated CML LSC. These results provide a strong rationale for further exploration of anti-IL-1 strategies to enhance LSC elimination in CML. PMID:27621307

  16. Cellular Notch responsiveness is defined by phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent signals

    PubMed Central

    Mckenzie, Grahame; Ward, George; Stallwood, Yvette; Briend, Emmanuel; Papadia, Sofia; Lennard, Andrew; Turner, Martin; Champion, Brian; Hardingham, Giles E

    2006-01-01

    Background Notch plays a wide-ranging role in controlling cell fate, differentiation and development. The PI3K-Akt pathway is a similarly conserved signalling pathway which regulates processes such as differentiation, proliferation and survival. Mice with disrupted Notch and PI3K signalling show phenotypic similarities during haematopoietic cell development, suggesting functional interaction between these pathways. Results We show that cellular responsiveness to Notch signals depends on the activity of the PI3K-Akt pathway in cells as diverse as CHO cells, primary T-cells and hippocampal neurons. Induction of the endogenous PI3K-Akt pathway in CHO cells (by the insulin pathway), in T-cells (via TCR activation) or in neurons (via TrKB activation) potentiates Notch-dependent responses. We propose that the PI3K-Akt pathway exerts its influence on Notch primarily via inhibition of GSK3-beta, a kinase known to phosphorylate and regulate Notch signals. Conclusion The PI3K-Akt pathway acts as a "gain control" for Notch signal responses. Since physiological levels of intracellular Notch are often low, coincidence with PI3K-activation may be crucial for induction of Notch-dependent responses. PMID:16507111

  17. Inhibition of interleukin-1 signaling enhances elimination of tyrosine kinase inhibitor-treated CML stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Chu, Su; Agarwal, Puneet; Campbell, Victoria L; Hopcroft, Lisa; Jørgensen, Heather G; Lin, Allen; Gaal, Karl; Holyoake, Tessa L; Bhatia, Ravi

    2016-12-08

    Treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) with BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) fails to eliminate leukemia stem cells (LSC). Patients remain at risk for relapse, and additional approaches to deplete CML LSC are needed to enhance the possibility of discontinuing TKI treatment. We have previously reported that expression of the pivotal proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is increased in CML bone marrow. We show here that CML LSC demonstrated increased expression of the IL-1 receptors, IL-1 receptor accessory protein and IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1), and enhanced sensitivity to IL-1-induced NF-κB signaling compared with normal stem cells. Treatment with recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) inhibited IL-1 signaling in CML LSC and inhibited growth of CML LSC. Importantly, the combination of IL-1RA with TKI resulted in significantly greater inhibition of CML LSC compared with TKI alone. Our studies also suggest that IL-1 signaling contributes to overexpression of inflammatory mediators in CML LSC, suggesting that blocking IL-1 signaling could modulate the inflammatory milieu. We conclude that IL-1 signaling contributes to maintenance of CML LSC following TKI treatment and that IL-1 blockade with IL-1RA enhances elimination of TKI-treated CML LSC. These results provide a strong rationale for further exploration of anti-IL-1 strategies to enhance LSC elimination in CML. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. A Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Protein Kinase B-independent Activation of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Is Sufficient to Induce Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Craig A.; Miu, Man Hing; Frey, John W.; Mabrey, Danielle M.; Lincoln, Hannah C.; Ge, Yejing; Chen, Jie

    2010-01-01

    It has been widely proposed that signaling by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is both necessary and sufficient for the induction of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Evidence for this hypothesis is largely based on studies that used stimuli that activate mTOR via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB)-dependent mechanism. However, the stimulation of signaling by PI3K/PKB also can activate several mTOR-independent growth-promoting events; thus, it is not clear whether signaling by mTOR is permissive, or sufficient, for the induction of hypertrophy. Furthermore, the presumed role of mTOR in hypertrophy is derived from studies that used rapamycin to inhibit mTOR; yet, there is very little direct evidence that mTOR is the rapamycin-sensitive element that confers the hypertrophic response. In this study, we determined that, in skeletal muscle, overexpression of Rheb stimulates a PI3K/PKB-independent activation of mTOR signaling, and this is sufficient for the induction of a rapamycin-sensitive hypertrophic response. Transgenic mice with muscle specific expression of various mTOR mutants also were used to demonstrate that mTOR is the rapamycin-sensitive element that conferred the hypertrophic response and that the kinase activity of mTOR is necessary for this event. Combined, these results provide direct genetic evidence that a PI3K/PKB-independent activation of mTOR signaling is sufficient to induce hypertrophy. In summary, overexpression of Rheb activates mTOR signaling via a PI3K/PKB-independent mechanism and is sufficient to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The hypertrophic effects of Rheb are driven through a rapamycin-sensitive (RS) mechanism, mTOR is the RS element that confers the hypertrophy, and the kinase activity of mTOR is necessary for this event. PMID:20668162

  19. A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B-independent activation of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling is sufficient to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Craig A; Miu, Man Hing; Frey, John W; Mabrey, Danielle M; Lincoln, Hannah C; Ge, Yejing; Chen, Jie; Hornberger, Troy A

    2010-09-15

    It has been widely proposed that signaling by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is both necessary and sufficient for the induction of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Evidence for this hypothesis is largely based on studies that used stimuli that activate mTOR via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB)-dependent mechanism. However, the stimulation of signaling by PI3K/PKB also can activate several mTOR-independent growth-promoting events; thus, it is not clear whether signaling by mTOR is permissive, or sufficient, for the induction of hypertrophy. Furthermore, the presumed role of mTOR in hypertrophy is derived from studies that used rapamycin to inhibit mTOR; yet, there is very little direct evidence that mTOR is the rapamycin-sensitive element that confers the hypertrophic response. In this study, we determined that, in skeletal muscle, overexpression of Rheb stimulates a PI3K/PKB-independent activation of mTOR signaling, and this is sufficient for the induction of a rapamycin-sensitive hypertrophic response. Transgenic mice with muscle specific expression of various mTOR mutants also were used to demonstrate that mTOR is the rapamycin-sensitive element that conferred the hypertrophic response and that the kinase activity of mTOR is necessary for this event. Combined, these results provide direct genetic evidence that a PI3K/PKB-independent activation of mTOR signaling is sufficient to induce hypertrophy. In summary, overexpression of Rheb activates mTOR signaling via a PI3K/PKB-independent mechanism and is sufficient to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The hypertrophic effects of Rheb are driven through a rapamycin-sensitive (RS) mechanism, mTOR is the RS element that confers the hypertrophy, and the kinase activity of mTOR is necessary for this event.

  20. The RWP-RK factor GROUNDED promotes embryonic polarity by facilitating YODA MAP kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sangho; Palmer, Travis M; Lukowitz, Wolfgang

    2011-08-09

    The division of plant zygotes is typically asymmetric, generating daughter cells with different developmental fates. In Arabidopsis, the apical daughter cell produces the proembryo, whereas the basal daughter cell forms the mostly extraembryonic suspensor. Establishment of apical and basal fates is known to depend on the YODA (YDA) mitogen-associated protein (MAP) kinase cascade and WUSCHEL-LIKE HOMEOBOX (WOX) homeodomain transcription factors. Mutations in GROUNDED (GRD) cause anatomical defects implying a partial loss of developmental asymmetry in the first division. Subsequently, suspensor-specific WOX8 expression disappears while proembryo-specific ZLL expression expands in the mutants, revealing that basal fates are confounded. GRD encodes a small nuclear protein of the RWP-RK family and is broadly transcribed in the early embryo. Loss of GRD eliminates the dominant effects of hyperactive YDA variants, indicating that GRD is required for YDA-dependent signaling in the embryo. However, GRD function is not regulated via direct phosphorylation by MAP kinases, and forced expression of GRD does not suppress the effect of yda mutations. In a strong synthetic interaction, grd;wox8;wox9 triple mutants arrest as zygotes or one-cell embryos lacking apparent polarity. The predicted transcription factor GRD acts cooperatively with WOX homeodomain proteins to establish embryonic polarity in the first division. Like YDA, GRD promotes zygote elongation and basal cell fates. GRD function is required for YDA-dependent signaling but apparently not regulated by the YDA MAP kinase cascade. Similarity of GRD to Chlamydomonas MID suggests a conserved role for small RWP-RK proteins in regulating the transcriptional programs of generative cells and the zygote. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Raf Kinase Inhibitor Sorafenib Inhibits JAK-STAT Signal Transduction in Human Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    del Campo, Sara E. Martin; Levine, Kala M.; Mundy-Bosse, Bethany L.; Grignol, Valerie P.; Fairchild, Ene T.; Campbell, Amanda R.; Trikha, Prashant; Mace, Thomas A.; Paul, Bonnie K.; Jaime-Ramirez, Alena Cristina; Markowitz, Joseph; Kondadasula, Sri Vidya; Guenterberg, Kristan D.; McClory, Susan; Karpa, Volodymyr I.; Pan, Xueliang; Olencki, Thomas E.; Monk, J. Paul; Mortazavi, Amir; Tridandapani, Susheela; Lesinski, Gregory B.; Byrd, John C.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Shah, Manisha H.; Carson, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor that was originally developed as a Raf kinase inhibitor. We hypothesized that sorafenib would also have inhibitory effects upon cytokine signaling pathways in immune cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from normal donors were treated with varying concentrations of sorafenib, and stimulated with IFN-α or IL-2. Phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT5 was measured by flow cytometry and confirmed by immunoblot analysis. Changes in IFN-α- and IL-2 stimulated gene expression were measured by qPCR, and changes in cytokine production were evaluated by ELISA. Cryopreserved PBMCs were obtained from cancer patients before and after receiving 400 mg of sorafenib twice daily. Patient PBMCs were thawed, stimulated with IL-2 or IFN-α, and evaluated for phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT5. Pre-treatment of PBMCs with 10 μM sorafenib decreased STAT1 and STAT5 phosphorylation after treatment with IFN-α or IL-2. This inhibitory effect was observed in PBMCs from healthy donors over a range of concentrations of sorafenib (5-20 μM), IL-2 (2-24 nM), and IFN-α (101- 106 U/mL). This effect was observed in immune cell subsets including T cells, B cells, NK cells, regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Pre-treatment with sorafenib also inhibited PBMC expression of IFN-α- and IL-2-regulated genes and inhibited NK cell production of IFN-γ, RANTES, MIP1-α, and MIG in response to IFN-α stimulation. PBMCs from patients receiving sorafenib therapy showed decreased responsiveness to IL-2 and IFN-α treatment. Sorafenib is a Raf kinase inhibitor that could have off-target effects on cytokine-induced signal transduction in immune effector cells. PMID:26238487

  2. Porcine circovirus type 2 replication is impaired by inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Li; Liu Jue

    2009-03-30

    Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, which is primarily caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), is an emerging and important swine disease. We have recently shown that PCV2 induces nuclear factor kappa B activation and its activation is required for active replication, but the other cellular factors involved in PCV2 replication are not well defined. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) which served as an important component of cellular signal transduction pathways has been shown to regulate many viral infections. In this report, we show that PCV2 activates ERK1/2 in PCV2-infected PK15 cells dependent on viral replication. The PCV2-induced ERK1/2 leads to phosphorylation of the ternary complex factor Elk-1, which kinetically paralleled ERK1/2 activation. Inhibition of ERK activation with U0126, a specific MEK1/2 inhibitor, significantly reduced viral progeny release. Investigations into the mechanism of ERK1/2 regulation revealed that inhibition of ERK activation leads to decreased viral transcription and lower virus protein expression. These data indicate that the ERK signaling pathway is involved in PCV2 infection and beneficial to PCV2 replication in the cultured cells.

  3. A-kinase anchoring protein BIG3 coordinates oestrogen signalling in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimaru, Tetsuro; Ono, Masaya; Bando, Yoshimi; Chen, Yi-An; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Shima, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Masato; Imoto, Issei; Izumi, Keisuke; Honda, Junko; Miyoshi, Yasuo; Sasa, Mitsunori; Katagiri, Toyomasa

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 70% of breast cancer cells express oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Previous studies have shown that the Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 3–prohibitin 2 (BIG3-PHB2) complex has a crucial role in these cells. However, it remains unclear how BIG3 regulates the suppressive activity of PHB2. Here we demonstrate that BIG3 functions as an A-kinase anchoring protein that binds protein kinase A (PKA) and the α isoform of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1Cα), thereby dephosphorylating and inactivating PHB2. E2-induced PKA-mediated phosphorylation of